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Sample records for progressive application decommissioning

  1. Assessment of foreign decommissioning technology with potential application to US decommissioning needs

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.P.; Konzek, G.J.; Schneider, K.J.; Smith, R.I.

    1987-09-01

    This study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to identify and technically assess foreign decommissioning technology developments that may represent significant improvements over decommissioning technology currently available or under development in the United States. Technology need areas for nuclear power reactor decommissioning operations were identified and prioritized using the results of past light water reactor (LWR) decommissioning studies to quantitatively evaluate the potential for reducing cost and decommissioning worker radiation dose for each major decommissioning activity. Based on these identified needs, current foreign decommissioning technologies of potential interest to the US were identified through personal contacts and the collection and review of an extensive body of decommissioning literature. These technologies were then assessed qualitatively to evaluate their uniqueness, potential for a significant reduction in decommissioning costs and/or worker radiation dose, development status, and other factors affecting their value and applicability to US needs.

  2. Progress in Decommissioning of Ignalina NPP Unit 1

    SciTech Connect

    Ancius, Darius; Krenevicius, Rimantas; Kutas, Saulius; Chouha, Michel

    2002-07-01

    The aim of the paper is to present the Lithuanian legal framework regarding the nuclear safety in Decommissioning and Waste Management, and the progress in the Decommissioning Programme of the unit 1 of Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP). INPP is the only nuclear plant in Lithuania. It comprises two RBMK-1500 reactors. After Lithuania has restored its independence, responsibility for Ignalina NPP was transferred to the Republic of Lithuania. To ensure the control of the Nuclear Safety in Lithuania, The State Nuclear Power Safety Inspectorate (VATESI) was created on 18 October 1991, by a resolution of the Lithuanian Government. Significant work has been performed over the last decade, aiming at upgrading the safety level of the Ignalina NPP with reference to the International standards. On 5 October 1999 the Seimas (Parliament) adopted the National Energy Strategy: It has been decided that unit 1 of Ignalina NPP will be closed down before 2005, The conditions and precise final date of the decommissioning of Unit 2 will be stated in the updated National Energy strategy in 2004. On 20-21 June 2000, the International Donors' Conference for the Decommissioning of Ignalina NPP took place in Vilnius. More than 200 Millions Euro were pledged of which 165 M funded directly from the European Union's budget, as financial support to the Decommissioning projects. The Decommissioning Program encompasses legal, organizational, financial and technical means including the social and economical impacts in the region of Ignalina. The Program is financed from International Support Fund, State budget, National Decommissioning Fund of Ignalina NPP and other funds. Decommissioning of Ignalina NPP is subject to VATESI license according to the Law on Nuclear Energy. The Government established the licensing procedure in the so-called 'Procedure for licensing of Nuclear Activities'; and the document 'General Requirements for Decommissioning of the Ignalina NPP' has been issued by VATESI. A

  3. Progress on the decommissioning of Zion nuclear generating station

    SciTech Connect

    Moloney, B. P.; Hess, J.

    2013-07-01

    The decommissioning of the twin 1040 MWe PWRs at Zion, near Chicago USA is a ground breaking programme. The original owner, Exelon Nuclear Corporation, transferred the full responsibility for reactor dismantling and site license termination to a subsidiary of EnergySolutions. The target end state of the Zion site for return to Exelon will be a green field with the exception of the dry fuel storage pad. In return, ZionSolutions has access to the full value of the decommissioning trust fund. There are two potential attractions of this model: lower overall cost and significant schedule acceleration. The Zion programme which commenced in September 2010 is designed to return the cleared site with an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) pad in 2020, 12 years earlier than planned by Exelon. The overall cost, at $500 M per full size power reactor is significantly below the long run trend of $750 M+ per PWR. Implementation of the accelerated programme has been underway for nearly three years and is making good progress. The programme is characterised by numerous projects proceeding in parallel. The critical path is defined by the inspection and removal of fuel from the pond and transfer into dry fuel storage casks on the ISFSI pad and completion of RPV segmentation. Fuel loading is expected to commence in mid- 2013 with completion in late 2014. In parallel, ZionSolutions is proceeding with the segmentation of the Reactor Vessel (RV) and internals in both Units. Removal of large components from Unit 1 is underway. Numerous other projects are underway or have been completed to date. They include access openings into both containments, installation of heavy lift crane capacity, rail upgrades to support waste removal from the site, radiological characterization of facilities and equipment and numerous related tasks. As at February 2013, the programme is just ahead of schedule and within the latest budget. The paper will provide a fuller update. The first two

  4. Progress in Decommissioning the Humboldt Bay Power Plant - 13604

    SciTech Connect

    Rod, Kerry; Shelanskey, Steven K.; Kristofzski, John

    2013-07-01

    Decommissioning of the Pacific Gas and Electric (PG and E) Company Humboldt Bay Power Plant (HBPP) Unit 3 nuclear facility has now, after more than three decades of SAFSTOR and initial decommissioning work, transitioned to full-scale decommissioning. Decommissioning activities to date have been well orchestrated and executed in spite of an extremely small work site with space constricted even more by other concurrent on-site major construction projects including the demolition of four fossil units, construction of a new generating station and 60 KV switchyard upgrade. Full-scale decommissioning activities - now transitioning from Plant Systems Removal (PG and E self-perform) to Civil Works Projects (contractor performed) - are proceeding in a safe, timely, and cost effective manner. As a result of the successful decommissioning work to date (approximately fifty percent completed) and the intense planning and preparations for the remaining work, there is a high level of confidence for completion of all HBPP Unit 3 decommissions activities in 2018. Strategic planning and preparations to transition into full-scale decommissioning was carried out in 2008 by a small, highly focused project team. This planning was conducted concurrent with other critical planning requirements such as the loading of spent nuclear fuel into dry storage at the Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) finishing December 2008. Over the past four years, 2009 through 2012, the majority of decommissioning work has been installation of site infrastructure and removal of systems and components, known as the Plant System Removal Phase, where work scope was dynamic with significant uncertainty, and it was self-performed by PG and E. As HBPP Decommissioning transitions from the Plant System Removal Phase to the Civil Works Projects Phase, where work scope is well defined, a contracting plan similar to that used for Fossil Decommissioning will be implemented. Award of five major work scopes

  5. Windscale pile reactors - Decommissioning progress on a fifty year legacy

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, Richard J.

    2007-07-01

    The decommissioning of the Windscale Pile 1 reactor, fifty years after the 1957 fire, is one of the most technically challenging decommissioning projects in the UK, if not the world. This paper presents a summary of the 1957 Windscale Pile 1 accident, its unique challenges and a new technical approach developed to safely and efficiently decommission the two Windscale Pile Reactors. The reactors will be decommissioned using a top down approach that employs an array of light weight, carbon fiber, high payload robotic arms to remove the damaged fuel, the graphite core, activated metals and concrete. This relatively conventional decommissioning approach has been made possible by a recently completed technical assessment of reactor core fire and criticality risk which concluded that these types of events are not credible if relatively simple controls are applied. This paper presents an overview of the design, manufacture and testing of equipment to remove the estimated 15 tons of fire damaged fuel and isotopes from the Pile 1 reactor. The paper also discusses recently conducted characterization activities which have allowed for a refined waste estimate and conditioning strategy. These data and an innovative approach have resulted in a significant reduction in the estimated project cost and schedule. (authors)

  6. Remote machine engineering applications for nuclear facilities decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Toto, G.; Wyle, H.R.

    1983-01-01

    Decontamination and decommissioning of a nuclear facility require the application of techniques that protect the worker and the enviroment from radiological contamination and radiation. Remotely operated portable robotic arms, machines, and devices can be applied. The use of advanced systems should enhance the productivity, safety, and cost facets of the efforts; remote automatic tooling and systems may be used on any job where job hazard and other factors justify application. Many problems based on costs, enviromental impact, health, waste generation, and political issues may be mitigated by use of remotely operated machines. The work that man can not do or should not do will have to be done by machines.

  7. Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Progress in Iraq - 13216

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Musawi, Fouad; Shamsaldin, Emad S.; Jasim, Hadi; Cochran, John R.

    2013-07-01

    Management of Iraq's radioactive wastes and decommissioning of Iraq's former nuclear facilities are the responsibility of Iraq's Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST). The majority of Iraq's former nuclear facilities are in the Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center located a few kilometers from the edge of Baghdad. These facilities include bombed and partially destroyed research reactors, a fuel fabrication facility and radioisotope production facilities. Within these facilities are large numbers of silos, approximately 30 process or waste storage tanks and thousands of drums of uncharacterised radioactive waste. There are also former nuclear facilities/sites that are outside of Al-Tuwaitha and these include the former uranium processing and waste storage facility at Jesira, the dump site near Adaya, the former centrifuge facility at Rashdiya and the former enrichment plant at Tarmiya. In 2005, Iraq lacked the infrastructure needed to decommission its nuclear facilities and manage its radioactive wastes. The lack of infrastructure included: (1) the lack of an organization responsible for decommissioning and radioactive waste management, (2) the lack of a storage facility for radioactive wastes, (3) the lack of professionals with experience in decommissioning and modern waste management practices, (4) the lack of laws and regulations governing decommissioning or radioactive waste management, (5) ongoing security concerns, and (6) limited availability of electricity and internet. Since its creation eight years ago, the MoST has worked with the international community and developed an organizational structure, trained staff, and made great progress in managing radioactive wastes and decommissioning Iraq's former nuclear facilities. This progress has been made, despite the very difficult implementing conditions in Iraq. Within MoST, the Radioactive Waste Treatment and Management Directorate (RWTMD) is responsible for waste management and the Iraqi Decommissioning

  8. 30 CFR 585.907 - How will BOEM process my decommissioning application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... decommissioning application with the decommissioning general concept in your approved SAP, COP, or GAP to determine what technical and environmental reviews are needed. (b) You will likely have to revise your SAP... change in the impacts previously identified and evaluated in your SAP, COP, or GAP; (2) Require...

  9. 30 CFR 285.907 - How will MMS process my decommissioning application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... compare your decommissioning application with the decommissioning general concept in your approved SAP... to revise your SAP, COP, or GAP, and MMS will begin the appropriate NEPA analysis and other... a significant change in the impacts previously identified and evaluated in your SAP, COP, or GAP;...

  10. 30 CFR 585.907 - How will BOEM process my decommissioning application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... decommissioning application with the decommissioning general concept in your approved SAP, COP, or GAP to determine what technical and environmental reviews are needed. (b) You will likely have to revise your SAP... change in the impacts previously identified and evaluated in your SAP, COP, or GAP; (2) Require...

  11. 30 CFR 585.907 - How will BOEM process my decommissioning application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Environmental and Safety Management, Inspections, and Facility Assessments for Activities Conducted Under SAPs... your decommissioning application with the decommissioning general concept in your approved SAP, COP, or... revise your SAP, COP, or GAP, and BOEM will begin the appropriate NEPA analysis and other...

  12. Application of Robotics in Decommissioning and Decontamination - 12536

    SciTech Connect

    Banford, Anthony; Kuo, Jeffrey A.; Bowen, R.A.; Szilagyi, Andrew; Kirk, Paula

    2012-07-01

    Decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear facilities is a significant challenge worldwide and one which is growing in size as more plants reach the end of their operational lives. The strategy chosen for individual projects varies from the hands-on approach with significant manual intervention using traditional demolition equipment at one extreme to bespoke highly engineered robotic solutions at the other. The degree of manual intervention is limited by the hazards and risks involved, and in some plants are unacceptable. Robotic remote engineering is often viewed as more expensive and less reliable than manual approaches, with significant lead times and capital expenditure. However, advances in robotics and automation in other industries offer potential benefits for future decommissioning activities, with the high probability of reducing worker exposure and other safety risks as well as reducing the schedule and costs required to complete these activities. Some nuclear decommissioning tasks and facility environments are so hazardous that they can only be accomplished by exclusive use of robotic and remote intervention. Less hazardous tasks can be accomplished by manual intervention and the use of PPE. However, PPE greatly decreases worker productivity and still exposes the worker to both risk and dose making remote operation preferable to achieve ALARP. Before remote operations can be widely accepted and deployed, there are some economic and technological challenges that must be addressed. These challenges will require long term investment commitments in order for technology to be: - Specifically developed for nuclear applications; - At a sufficient TRL for practical deployment; - Readily available as a COTS. Tremendous opportunities exist to reduce cost and schedule and improve safety in D and D activities through the use of robotic and/or tele-operated systems. - Increasing the level of remote intervention reduces the risk and dose to an operator. Better

  13. Decommissioning handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Manion, W.J.; LaGuardia, T.S.

    1980-11-01

    This document is a compilation of information pertinent to the decommissioning of surplus nuclear facilities. This handbook is intended to describe all stages of the decommissioning process including selection of the end product, estimation of the radioactive inventory, estimation of occupational exposures, description of the state-of-the-art in re decontamination, remote csposition of wastes, and estimation of program costs. Presentation of state-of-the-art technology and data related to decommissioning will aid in consistent and efficient program planning and performance. Particular attention is focused on available technology applicable to those decommissioning activities that have not been accomplished before, such as remote segmenting and handling of highly activated 1100 MW(e) light water reactor vessel internals and thick-walled reactor vessels. A summary of available information associated with the planning and estimating of a decommissioning program is also presented. Summarized in particular are the methodologies associated with the calculation and measurement of activated material inventory, distribution, and surface dose level, system contamination inventory and distribution, and work area dose levels. Cost estimating techniques are also presented and the manner in which to account for variations in labor costs as impacting labor-intensive work activities is explained.

  14. 30 CFR 285.906 - What must my decommissioning application include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must my decommissioning application include? 285.906 Section 285.906 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL...

  15. 30 CFR 285.907 - How will MMS process my decommissioning application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will MMS process my decommissioning application? 285.907 Section 285.907 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL...

  16. 30 CFR 285.905 - When must I submit my decommissioning application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When must I submit my decommissioning application? 285.905 Section 285.905 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL...

  17. INTERNATIONAL DECOMMISSIONING SYMPOSIUM 2000

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of IDS 2000 was to deliver a world-class conference on applicable global environmental issues. The objective of this conference was to publicize environmental progress of individual countries, to provide a forum for technology developer and problem-holder interaction, to facilitate environmental and technology discussions between the commercial and financial communities, and to accommodate information and education exchange between governments, industries, universities, and scientists. The scope of this project included the planning and execution of an international conference on the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, and the providing of a business forum for vendors and participants sufficient to attract service providers, technology developers, and the business and financial communities. These groups, when working together with attendees from regulatory organizations and government decision-maker groups, provide an opportunity to more effectively and efficiently expedite the decommissioning projects.

  18. Estimating decommissioning costs: The 1994 YNPS decommissioning cost study

    SciTech Connect

    Szymczak, W.J.

    1994-12-31

    Early this year, Yankee Atomic Electric Company began developing a revised decommissioning cost estimate for the Yankee Nuclear Power Station (YNPS) to provide a basis for detailed decommissioning planning and to reflect slow progress in siting low-level waste (LLW) and spent-nuclear-fuel disposal facilities. The revision also reflects the need to change from a cost estimate that focuses on overall costs to a cost estimate that is sufficiently detailed to implement decommissioning and identify the final cost of decommissioning.

  19. Advanced sensing and control techniques to facilitate semi-autonomous decommissioning. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Schalkoff, R.J.; Geist, R.M.; Dawson, D.M.

    1998-06-01

    'This research is intended to advance the technology of semi-autonomous teleoperated robotics as applied to Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) tasks. Specifically, research leading to a prototype dual-manipulator mobile work cell is underway. This cell is supported and enhanced by computer vision, virtual reality and advanced robotics technology. This report summarizes work after approximately 1.5 years of a 3-year project. The autonomous, non-contact creation of a virtual environment from an existing, real environment (virtualization) is an integral part of the workcell functionality. This requires that the virtual world be geometrically correct. To this end, the authors have encountered severe sensitivity in quadric estimation. As a result, alternative procedures for geometric rendering, iterative correction approaches, new calibration methods and associated hardware, and calibration quality examination software have been developed. Following geometric rendering, the authors have focused on improving the color and texture recognition components of the system. In particular, the authors have moved beyond first-order illumination modeling to include higher order diffuse effects. This allows us to combine the surface geometric information, obtained from the laser projection and surface recognition components of the system, with a stereo camera image. Low-level controllers for Puma 560 robotic arms were designed and implemented using QNX. The resulting QNX/PC based low-level robot control system is called QRobot. A high-level trajectory generator and application programming interface (API) as well as a new, flexible robot control API was required. Force/torque sensors and interface hardware have been identified and ordered. A simple 3-D OpenGL-based graphical Puma 560 robot simulator was developed and interfaced with ARCL and RCCL to assist in the development of robot motion programs.'

  20. Decommissioning at AWE

    SciTech Connect

    Biles, K.; Hedges, M.; Campbell, C

    2008-07-01

    AWE (A) has been at the heart of the UK Nuclear deterrent since it was established in the early 1950's. It is a nuclear licensed site and is governed by the United Kingdoms Nuclear Installation Inspectorate (NII). AWE plc on behalf of the Ministry of Defence (MOD) manages the AWE (A) site and all undertakings including decommissioning. Therefore under NII license condition 35 'Decommissioning', AWE plc is accountable to make and implement adequate arrangements for the decommissioning of any plant or process, which may affect safety. The majority of decommissioning projects currently being undertaken are to do with Hazard category 3, 4 or 5 facilities, systems or plant that have reached the end of their operational span and have undergone Post-Operational Clean-Out (POCO). They were either built for the production of fissile components, for supporting the early reactor fuels programmes or for processing facility waste arisings. They either contain redundant contaminated gloveboxes associated process areas, process plant or systems or a combination of all. In parallel with decommissioning project AWE (A) are undertaking investigation into new technologies to aid decommissioning projects; to remove the operative from hands on operations; to develop and implement modifications to existing process and techniques used. AWE (A) is currently going thorough a sustained phase of upgrading its facilities to enhance its scientific capability, with older facilities, systems and plant being replaced, making decommissioning a growth area. It is therefore important to the company to reduce these hazards progressively and safety over the coming years, making decommissioning an important feature of the overall legacy management aspects of AWE PLC's business. This paper outlines the current undertakings and progress of Nuclear decommissioning on the AWE (A) site. (authors)

  1. Task 21 - Development of Systems Engineering Applications for Decontamination and Decommissioning Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, T.A.

    1998-11-01

    The objectives of this task are to: Develop a model (paper) to estimate the cost and waste generation of cleanup within the Environmental Management (EM) complex; Identify technologies applicable to decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) operations within the EM complex; Develop a database of facility information as linked to project baseline summaries (PBSs). The above objectives are carried out through the following four subtasks: Subtask 1--D and D Model Development, Subtask 2--Technology List; Subtask 3--Facility Database, and Subtask 4--Incorporation into a User Model.

  2. Decommissioning Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The Decommissioning Handbook is a technical guide for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The decommissioning of a nuclear facility involves the removal of the radioactive and, for practical reasons, hazardous materials to enable the facility to be released and not represent a further risk to human health and the environment. This handbook identifies and technologies and techniques that will accomplish these objectives. The emphasis in this handbook is on characterization; waste treatment; decontamination; dismantling, segmenting, demolition; and remote technologies. Other aspects that are discussed in some detail include the regulations governing decommissioning, worker and environmental protection, and packaging and transportation of the waste materials. The handbook describes in general terms the overall decommissioning project, including planning, cost estimating, and operating practices that would ease preparation of the Decommissioning Plan and the decommissioning itself. The reader is referred to other documents for more detailed information. This Decommissioning Handbook has been prepared by Enserch Environmental Corporation for the US Department of Energy and is a complete restructuring of the original handbook developed in 1980 by Nuclear Energy Services. The significant changes between the two documents are the addition of current and the deletion of obsolete technologies and the addition of chapters on project planning and the Decommissioning Plan, regulatory requirements, characterization, remote technology, and packaging and transportation of the waste materials.

  3. Progress report on decommissioning activities at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) site

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), is located about 18 miles northwest of Cincinnati, Ohio. Between 1953 and 1989, the facility, then called the Feed Material Production Center or FMPC, produced uranium metal products used in the eventual production of weapons grade material for use by other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. In 1989, FMPC`s production was suspended by the federal government in order to focus resources on environmental restoration versus defense production. In 1992, Fluor Daniel Fernald assumed responsibility for managing all cleanup activities at the FEMP under contract to the DOE. In 1990, as part of the remediation effort, the site was divided into five operable units based on physical proximity of contaminated areas, similar amounts of types of contamination, or the potential for a similar technology to be used in cleanup activities. This report continues the outline of the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities at the FEMP site Operable Unit 3 (OU3) and provides an update on the status of the decommissioning activities. OU3, the Facilities Closure and Demolition Project, involves the remediation of more than 200 uranium processing facilities. The mission of the project is to remove nuclear materials stored in these buildings, then perform the clean out of the buildings and equipment, and decontaminate and dismantle the facilities.

  4. Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1 Accident Progression Uncertainty Analysis and Implications for Decommissioning of Fukushima Reactors - Volume I.

    SciTech Connect

    Gauntt, Randall O.; Mattie, Patrick D.

    2016-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has conducted an uncertainty analysis (UA) on the Fukushima Daiichi unit (1F1) accident progression with the MELCOR code. The model used was developed for a previous accident reconstruction investigation jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). That study focused on reconstructing the accident progressions, as postulated by the limited plant data. This work was focused evaluation of uncertainty in core damage progression behavior and its effect on key figures-of-merit (e.g., hydrogen production, reactor damage state, fraction of intact fuel, vessel lower head failure). The primary intent of this study was to characterize the range of predicted damage states in the 1F1 reactor considering state of knowledge uncertainties associated with MELCOR modeling of core damage progression and to generate information that may be useful in informing the decommissioning activities that will be employed to defuel the damaged reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Additionally, core damage progression variability inherent in MELCOR modeling numerics is investigated.

  5. REVIEW OF INDUSTRIES AND GOVERNMENT AGENCIES FOR TECHNOLOGIES APPLICABLE TO DEACTIVATION AND DECOMMISSIONING OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Reilkoff, T. E.; Hetland, M. D.; O'Leary, E. M.

    2002-02-25

    The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area's (DDFA's) mission is to develop, demonstrate, and deploy improved deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) technologies. This mission requires that emphasis be continually placed on identifying technologies currently employed or under development in other nuclear as well as nonnuclear industries and government agencies. In support of DDFA efforts to clean up the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) radiologically contaminated surplus facilities using technologies that improve worker safety, reduce costs, and accelerate cleanup schedules, a study was conducted to identify innovative technologies developed for use in nonnuclear arenas that are appropriate for D&D applications.

  6. Geophysics: Building E5375 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Interim progress report

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.

    1992-08-01

    Building E5375 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek area of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR), were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. Several anomalies wear, noted: (1) An underground storage tank located 25 ft east of Building E5375 was identified with magnetic, resistivity, and GPR profiling. (2) A three-point resistivity anomaly, 12 ft east of the northeast comer of Building E5374 (which borders Building E5375) and 5 ft south of the area surveyed with the magnetometer, may be caused by another underground storage tank. (3) A 2,500-gamma magnetic anomaly near the northeast corner of the site has no equivalent resistivity anomaly, although disruption in GPR reflectors was observed. (4) A one-point magnetic anomaly was located at the northeast comer, but its source cannot be resolved. A chaotic reflective zone to the east represents the radar signature of Building E5375 construction fill.

  7. Environmental geophysics: Building E3640 Decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Interim progress report

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Borden, H.M.; Benson, M.A.; Thompson, M.D.; Padar, C.A.; Daudt, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    Building E3640 is a potentially contaminated site in the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground. Noninvasive geophysical survey techniques, including magnetics, EM-31, EM-61, and ground-penetrating radar, were used as part of a sampling and monitoring program prior to decommissioning and dismantling of the building. Complex and large-amplitude anomalies caused by aboveground metal in this area obscure many smaller features produced by subsurface sources. No underground storage tanks were found in the areas surveyed. Major anomalies produced by subsurface sources include the following: EM-61 and EM-31 lineaments caused by a water line extending north from the south fence; a broad positive magnetic anomaly caused by magnetic fill north of the material and drum storage area and northeast of E3640; a 30-ft-wide band of EM-31 anomalies extending from the front gate to the southeast comer of E3640 and a coincident EM-61 anomaly produced by buried utilities; ground-penetrating radar images along three lines extending from a sump at the northeast comer of E3640 to the eastern fence; and EM-61, EM-31, and magnetic anomalies caused by overhead and underground pipes extending south from the north fence. Smaller, unidentified, localized anomalies observed throughout the survey area are also described in this report.

  8. Geophysics: Building E5282 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Interim progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.

    1992-08-01

    This report discusses Building E5282 which was one of 10 potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek area of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR), were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. Magnetic surveys identified small, complicated, multiple anomalies west, north, and northeast of the building that may be caused by construction fill. Two underground storage tanks, at the northeast and southeast corners, were identified. A large magnetic anomaly complex east of the building was caused by aboveground pipes and unexploded ordnance fragments scattered at the surface. Electrical resistivity profiling showed a broad, conductive terrain superimposed over magnetic anomalies on the north and west. A broad, high-resistivity, nonmagnetic area centered 25 ft east of the building has an unknown origin, but it may be due to nonconductive organic liquids, construction fill, or a buried concrete slab; GPR imaging showed this area as a highly reflective zone at a depth of about 5 ft. The GPR data also showed a small-diameter pipe oriented north-south located east of the building.

  9. Geophysics: Building E5190 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Interim progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1992-07-01

    Building E5190 is one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek area of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May 1992. A noninvasive geophysical survey, including the complementary technologies of magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, was conducted around the perimeter as a guide to developing a sampling and monitoring program prior to decommissioning and dismantling the building. The magnetics surveys indicated that multistation, positive magnetic sources are randomly distributed north and west of the building. Two linear trends were noted: one that may outline buried utility lines and another that is produced by a steel-covered trench. The resistivity profiling indicated three conductive zones: one due to increased moisture in a ditch, one associated with buried utility lines, and a third zone associated with the steel-covered trench. Ground-penetrating radar imaging detected two significant anomalies, which were correlated with small-amplitude magnetic anomalies. The objectives of the study -- to detect and locate objects and to characterize a located object were achieved.

  10. Geophysics: Building E5481 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Interim progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.

    1992-11-01

    Building E5481 is one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The building is located on the northern margin of a landfill that was sited in a wetland. The large number of magnetic sources surrounding the building are believed to be contained in construction fill that had been used to raise the grade. The smaller anomalies, for the most part, are not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. A conductive zone trending northwest to southeast across the site is spatially related to an old roadbed. Higher resistivity areas in the northeast and east are probably representive of background values. Three high-amplitude, positive, rectangular magnetic anomalies have unknown sources. The features do not have equivalent electrical signatures, nor are they seen with radar imaging.

  11. Geophysics: Building E5440 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Interim progress report

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.

    1992-11-01

    Building E5440 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR), were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The results show several complex geophysical signatures. Isolated, one-point, magnetic anomalies surrounding the building may be associated with construction fill. A 10-ft-wide band of strongly magnetic positive anomalies bordering the north side of the building obliterates small magnetic sources that might otherwise be seen. A prominent magnetic ``nose`` extending northward from this band toward a standpipe at 100N,63E may be connected to an underground tank. The southeast corner of the site is underlain by a rectangular, magnetized source associated with strong radar images. A magnetic lineament extending south from the anomaly may be caused by a buried pipe; the anomaly itself may be caused by subsurface equipment associated with a manhole or utility access pit. A 2,500-gamma, positive magnetic anomaly centered at 0N,20E, which is also the location of a 12 {Omega}-m resistivity minimum, may be caused by a buried vault. It appears on radar imaging as a strong reflector.

  12. Interim progress report -- geophysics: Decommissioning of Buildings E5974 and E5978, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.

    1992-11-01

    Buildings E5974 and E5978, located near the mouth of Canal Creek, were among 10 potentially contaminated sites in the Westwood and Canal Creek areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including the complementary technologies of magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeters of the buildings to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The magnetic anomalies and the electrically conductive areas around these buildings have a spatial relationship similar to that observed in low-lying sites in the Canal Creek area; they are probably associated with construction fill. Electrically conductive terrain is dominant on the eastern side of the site, and resistive terrain predominates on the west. The smaller magnetic anomalies are not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. The high resistivities in the northwest quadrant are believed to be caused by a natural sand lens. The causes of three magnetic anomalies in the high-resistivity area are unidentified, but they are probably anthropogenic.

  13. Site decommissioning management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fauver, D.N.; Austin, J.H.; Johnson, T.C.; Weber, M.F.; Cardile, F.P.; Martin, D.E.; Caniano, R.J.; Kinneman, J.D.

    1993-10-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has identified 48 sites contaminated with radioactive material that require special attention to ensure timely decommissioning. While none of these sites represent an immediate threat to public health and safety they have contamination that exceeds existing NRC criteria for unrestricted use. All of these sites require some degree of remediation, and several involve regulatory issues that must be addressed by the Commission before they can be released for unrestricted use and the applicable licenses terminated. This report contains the NRC staff`s strategy for addressing the technical, legal, and policy issues affecting the timely decommissioning of the 48 sites and describes the status of decommissioning activities at the sites.

  14. 30 CFR 585.906 - What must my decommissioning application include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... propose to leave in place, as provided in § 585.909. (c) A proposed decommissioning schedule for your... conducted in the vicinity of the structure and recent observations of turtles or marine mammals at the structure site. (i) Mitigation measures you will use to protect archaeological and sensitive...

  15. 30 CFR 585.906 - What must my decommissioning application include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to remove or propose to leave in place, as provided in § 585.909. (c) A proposed decommissioning... conducted in the vicinity of the structure and recent observations of turtles or marine mammals at the structure site. (i) Mitigation measures you will use to protect archaeological and sensitive...

  16. 30 CFR 585.906 - What must my decommissioning application include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... propose to leave in place, as provided in § 585.909. (c) A proposed decommissioning schedule for your... conducted in the vicinity of the structure and recent observations of turtles or marine mammals at the structure site. (i) Mitigation measures you will use to protect archaeological and sensitive...

  17. Recent achievements for In-situ measurement: applications to an actual decommissioning project

    SciTech Connect

    Lamadie, F.; Girones, P.; Le Goaller, C.; Mahe, C.; Kohler, J.Y.; Risser, M.A.

    2007-07-01

    Decommissioning a nuclear facility implies a policy of limiting the waste volume and its chemical - and especially radiological - toxicity. It is therefore important to determine the activity level contained in each component that will be dismantled. A variety of methods and analysis techniques are used for this purpose, ranging from simple dose rate measurements to {gamma} spectrometry and {gamma} imaging. The results of several measurement campaigns in a reactor currently in operation but for which decommissioning studies have now been undertaken are discussed. The measurements provide additional radiological data for the waste inventory, which is one of the first issues to be examined. This discussion focuses on the methods used ({gamma} imaging, in situ {gamma} spectrometry, etc.), the results obtained, and their implications for the project, as well as the technological and methodological innovations implemented during these campaigns. (authors)

  18. Assessment, evaluation, and testing of technologies for environmental restoration, decontamination, and decommissioning and high level waste management. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Uzochukwu, G.A.

    1997-12-31

    Nuclear and commercial non-nuclear technologies that have the potential of meeting the environmental restoration, decontamination and decommissioning, and high-level waste management objectives are being assessed and evaluated. A detailed comparison of innovative technologies available will be performed to determine the safest and most economical technology for meeting these objectives. Information derived from this effort will be matched with the multi-objectives of the environmental restoration, decontamination and decommissioning, and high-level waste management effort to ensure that the best, most economical, and the safest technologies are used in decision making at USDOE-SRS. Technology-related variables will be developed and the resulting data formatted and computerized for multimedia systems. The multimedia system will be made available to technology developers and evaluators to ensure that the best, most economical, and the safest technologies are used in decision making at USDOE-SRS. Technology-related variables will be developed and the resulting data formatted and computerized for multimedia systems. The multimedia system will be made available to technology developers and evaluators to ensure that the safest and most economical technologies are developed for use at SRS and other DOE sites.

  19. 76 FR 3837 - Nuclear Decommissioning Funds; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BF08 Nuclear Decommissioning Funds; Correction AGENCY... decommissioning nuclear power plants. DATES: This correction is effective on January 21, 2011, and is applicable... interest in a nuclear power plant. * * * * * (e) * * * (3) * * * Example 2. * * * Pursuant to paragraph...

  20. Sellafield Decommissioning Programme - Update and Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Lutwyche, P. R.; Challinor, S. F.

    2003-02-24

    The Sellafield site in North West England has over 240 active facilities covering the full nuclear cycle from fuel manufacture through generation, reprocessing and waste treatment. The Sellafield decommissioning programme was formally initiated in the mid 1980s though several plants had been decommissioned prior to this primarily to create space for other plants. Since the initiation of the programme 7 plants have been completely decommissioned, significant progress has been made in a further 16 and a total of 56 major project phases have been completed. This programme update will explain the decommissioning arrangements and strategies and illustrate the progress made on a number of the plants including the Windscale Pile Chimneys, the first reprocessing plan and plutonium plants. These present a range of different challenges and requiring approaches from fully hands on to fully remote. Some of the key lessons learned will be highlighted.

  1. Modelling of nuclear power plant decommissioning financing.

    PubMed

    Bemš, J; Knápek, J; Králík, T; Hejhal, M; Kubančák, J; Vašíček, J

    2015-06-01

    Costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear power plants create a significant financial burden for nuclear power plant operators. This article discusses the various methodologies employed by selected European countries for financing of the liabilities related to the nuclear power plant decommissioning. The article also presents methodology of allocation of future decommissioning costs to the running costs of nuclear power plant in the form of fee imposed on each megawatt hour generated. The application of the methodology is presented in the form of a case study on a new nuclear power plant with installed capacity 1000 MW.

  2. 76 FR 35511 - Decommissioning Planning

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission) is amending its regulations to improve decommissioning planning... financial assurance requirements. The amended regulations require decommissioning power reactor licensees to... with respect to permanently shutdown reactor decommissioning fund status and spent fuel management...

  3. NMSS handbook for decommissioning fuel cycle and materials licensees

    SciTech Connect

    Orlando, D.A.; Hogg, R.C.; Ramsey, K.M.

    1997-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission amended its regulations to set forth the technical and financial criteria for decommissioning licensed nuclear facilities. These regulations were further amended to establish additional recordkeeping requirements for decommissioning; to establish timeframes and schedules for the decommissioning; and to clarify that financial assurance requirements must be in place during operations and updated when licensed operations cease. Reviews of the Site Decommissioning Management Plan (SDMP) program found that, while the NRC staff was overseeing the decommissioning program at nuclear facilities in a manner that was protective of public health and safety, progress in decommissioning many sites was slow. As a result NRC determined that formal written procedures should be developed to facilitate the timely decommissioning of licensed nuclear facilities. This handbook was developed to aid NRC staff in achieving this goal. It is intended to be used as a reference document to, and in conjunction with, NRC Inspection Manual Chapter (IMC) 2605, ``Decommissioning Inspection Program for Fuel Cycle and Materials Licensees.`` The policies and procedures discussed in this handbook should be used by NRC staff overseeing the decommissioning program at licensed fuel cycle and materials sites; formerly licensed sites for which the licenses were terminated; sites involving source, special nuclear, or byproduct material subject to NRC regulation for which a license was never issued; and sites in the NRC`s SDMP program. NRC staff overseeing the decommissioning program at nuclear reactor facilities subject to regulation under 10 CFR Part 50 are not required to use the procedures discussed in this handbook.

  4. Pipeline Decommissioning Trial AWE Berkshire UK - 13619

    SciTech Connect

    Agnew, Kieran

    2013-07-01

    of breaching the pipe while maintaining containment to remove residual liquids, - Crimp and shear - remote crimping, cutting and handling of pipe using the excavator - Pipe jacking - a way of removing pipes avoiding excavations and causing minimal disturbance and disruption. The details of the decommissioning trial design, the techniques employed, their application and effectiveness are discussed and evaluated here in. (authors)

  5. Development of probabilistic RESRAD computer codes for NRC decommissioning and license termination applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S. Y.; Yu, C.; Mo. T.; Trottier, C.

    2000-10-17

    In 1999, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) tasked Argonne National Laboratory to modify the existing RESRAD and RESRAD-BUILD codes to perform probabilistic, site-specific dose analysis for use with the NRC's Standard Review Plan for demonstrating compliance with the license termination rule. The RESRAD codes have been developed by Argonne to support the US Department of Energy's (DOEs) cleanup efforts. Through more than a decade of application, the codes already have established a large user base in the nation and a rigorous QA support. The primary objectives of the NRC task are to: (1) extend the codes' capabilities to include probabilistic analysis, and (2) develop parameter distribution functions and perform probabilistic analysis with the codes. The new codes also contain user-friendly features specially designed with graphic-user interface. In October 2000, the revised RESRAD (version 6.0) and RESRAD-BUILD (version 3.0), together with the user's guide and relevant parameter information, have been developed and are made available to the general public via the Internet for use.

  6. SOME RECENT TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENTS FROM THE UK'S NATIONAL NUCLEAR LABORATORY TO ENABLE HAZARD CHARACTERISATION FOR NUCLEAR DECOMMISSIONING APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.; Foley, T.

    2010-02-11

    Under its programme of self investment Internal Research and Development (IR&D), the UK's National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) is addressing the requirement for development in technology to enable hazard characterisation for nuclear decommissioning applications. Three such examples are described here: (1) RadBall developed by the NNL (patent pending) is a deployable baseball-sized radiation mapping device which can, from a single location, locate and quantify radiation hazards. RadBall offers a means to collect information regarding the magnitude and distribution of radiation in a given cell, glovebox or room to support the development of a safe, cost effective decontamination strategy. RadBall requires no electrical supplies and is relatively small, making it easy to be deployed and used to map radiation hazards in hard to reach areas. Recent work conducted in partnership with the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is presented. (2) HiRAD (patent pending) has been developed by the NNL in partnership with Tracerco Ltd (UK). HiRAD is a real-time, remotely deployed, radiation detection device designed to operate in elevated levels of radiation (i.e. thousands and tens of thousands of Gray) as seen in parts of the nuclear industry. Like the RadBall technology, the HiRAD system does not require any electrical components, the small dimensions and flexibility of the device allow it to be positioned in difficult to access areas (such as pipe work). HiRAD can be deployed as a single detector, a chain, or as an array giving the ability to monitor large process areas. Results during the development and deployment of the technology are presented. (3) Wireless Sensor Network is a NNL supported development project led by the University of Manchester (UK) in partnership with Oxford University (UK). The project is concerned with the development of wireless sensor network technology to enable the underwater deployment and communication of miniaturised probes allowing pond

  7. University of Virginia Reactor Facility Decommissioning Results

    SciTech Connect

    Ervin, P. F.; Lundberg, L. A.; Benneche, P. E.; Mulder, R. U.; Steva, D. P.

    2003-02-24

    The University of Virginia Reactor Facility started accelerated decommissioning in 2002. The facility consists of two licensed reactors, the CAVALIER and the UVAR. This paper will describe the progress in 2002, remaining efforts and the unique organizational structure of the project team.

  8. Rancho Seco--Decommissioning Update

    SciTech Connect

    Newey, J. M.; Ronningen, E. T.; Snyder, M. W.

    2003-02-26

    The Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station ceased operation in June of 1989 and entered an extended period of SAFSTOR to allow funds to accumulate for dismantlement. Incremental dismantlement was begun in 1997 of steam systems and based on the successful completion of work, the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) board of directors approved full decommissioning in July 1999. A schedule has been developed for completion of decommissioning by 2008, allowing decommissioning funds to accumulate until they are needed. Systems removal began in the Auxiliary Building in October of 1999 and in the Reactor Building in January of 2000. Systems dismantlement continues in the Reactor Building and should be completed by the end of 2003. System removal is near completion in the Auxiliary Building with removal of the final liquid waste tanks in progress. The spent fuel has been moved to dry storage in an onsite ISFSI, with completion on August 21, 2002. The spent fuel racks are currently being removed from the pool, packaged and shipped, and then the pool will be cleaned. Also in the last year the reactor coolant pumps and primary piping were removed and shipped. Characterization and planning work for the reactor vessel and internals is also in progress with various cut-up and/or disposal options being evaluated. In the year ahead the remaining systems in the Reactor Building will be removed, packaged and sent for disposal, including the pressurizer. Work will be started on embedded and underground piping and the large outdoor tanks. Building survey and decontamination will begin. RFP's for removal of the vessel and internals and the steam generators are planned to fix the cost of those components. If the costs are consistent with current estimates the work will go forward. If they are not, hardened SAFSTOR/entombment may be considered.

  9. Factors Impacting Decommissioning Costs - 13576

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Karen; McGrath, Richard

    2013-07-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studied United States experience with decommissioning cost estimates and the factors that impact the actual cost of decommissioning projects. This study gathered available estimated and actual decommissioning costs from eight nuclear power plants in the United States to understand the major components of decommissioning costs. Major costs categories for decommissioning a nuclear power plant are removal costs, radioactive waste costs, staffing costs, and other costs. The technical factors that impact the costs were analyzed based on the plants' decommissioning experiences. Detailed cost breakdowns by major projects and other cost categories from actual power plant decommissioning experiences will be presented. Such information will be useful in planning future decommissioning and designing new plants. (authors)

  10. STANDARD OPERATING PROTOCOLS FOR DECOMMISSIONING

    SciTech Connect

    Foss, D. L.; Stevens, J. L.; Gerdeman, F. W.

    2002-02-25

    Decommissioning projects at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites are conducted under project-specific decision documents, which involve extensive preparation time, public comment periods, and regulatory approvals. Often, the decision documents must be initiated at least one year before commencing the decommissioning project, and they are expensive and time consuming to prepare. The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) is a former nuclear weapons production plant at which hazardous substances and wastes were released or disposed during operations. As a result of the releases, RFETS was placed on the National Priorities List in 1989, and is conducting cleanup activities under a federal facilities compliance agreement. Working closely with interested stakeholders and state and federal regulatory agencies, RFETS has developed and implemented an improved process for obtaining the approvals. The key to streamlining the approval process has been the development of sitewide decision documents called Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement Standard Operating Protocols or ''RSOPs.'' RSOPs have broad applicability, and could be used instead of project-specific documents. Although no two decommissioning projects are exactly the same and they may vary widely in contamination and other hazards, the basic steps taken for cleanup are usually similar. Because of this, using RSOPs is more efficient than preparing a separate project-specific decision documents for each cleanup action. Over the Rocky Flats cleanup life cycle, using RSOPs has the potential to: (1) Save over 5 million dollars and 6 months on the site closure schedule; (2) Eliminate preparing one hundred and twenty project-specific decision documents; and (3) Eliminate writing seventy-five closure description documents for hazardous waste unit closure and corrective actions.

  11. Decommissioning the UHTREX Reactor Facility at Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, M.; Elder, J.

    1992-08-01

    The Ultra-High Temperature Reactor Experiment (UHTREX) facility was constructed in the late 1960s to advance high-temperature and gas-cooled reactor technology. The 3-MW reactor was graphite moderated and helium cooled and used 93% enriched uranium as its fuel. The reactor was run for approximately one year and was shut down in February 1970. The decommissioning of the facility involved removing the reactor and its associated components. This document details planning for the decommissioning operations which included characterizing the facility, estimating the costs of decommissioning, preparing environmental documentation, establishing a system to track costs and work progress, and preplanning to correct health and safety concerns in the facility. Work to decommission the facility began in 1988 and was completed in September 1990 at a cost of $2.9 million. The facility was released to Department of Energy for other uses in its Los Alamos program.

  12. Three-dimensional sensing, graphics, and interactive control in a human-machine system for decontamination and decommissioning applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thayer, Scott M.; Gourley, Christopher S.; Butler, Philip L.; Costello, Hugh; Trivedi, Mohan M.; Chen, ChuXin; Marapane, Suresh B.

    1992-11-01

    Decontamination and Decommissioning (D important requirement of the U.S. Department of Energy''s Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) program. Means need to be devised to minimize radiation exposure to humans involved in the D research presented in this paper describes a human-machine system which can be employed for performing radiation scan and pipe cutting operations in a typical D Advanced Servomanipulator (ASM) from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), we have designed a hybrid telerobotic pipe-cutting module. The module, when fully integrated, will allow users of the ASM to exploit the original functionality of the telerobot when our pipe cutting system is not in use. Comprising the pipe-cutting system are interactive three- dimensional object localization, graphical task modeler, arm control, human-machine interface, radiation sensor, and cut-tool sub-systems. Only the task modeler and interactive object localization modules are discussed in this paper. The goal of these modules is to interactively localize an object, usually a pipe, and display it in a three-dimensional rendering of the work space. Through interaction with these modules, the supervisor coordinates a task- specific sequence of actions that the lower-level sub-systems will perform.

  13. 30 CFR 585.902 - What are the general requirements for decommissioning for facilities authorized under my SAP, COP...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... decommissioning for facilities authorized under my SAP, COP, or GAP? 585.902 Section 585.902 Mineral Resources... authorized under my SAP, COP, or GAP? (a) Except as otherwise authorized by BOEM under § 585.909, within 2... decommissioning the facilities under your SAP, COP, or GAP, you must submit a decommissioning application...

  14. 30 CFR 585.902 - What are the general requirements for decommissioning for facilities authorized under my SAP, COP...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... decommissioning for facilities authorized under my SAP, COP, or GAP? 585.902 Section 585.902 Mineral Resources... authorized under my SAP, COP, or GAP? (a) Except as otherwise authorized by BOEM under § 585.909, within 2... decommissioning the facilities under your SAP, COP, or GAP, you must submit a decommissioning application...

  15. In Situ Decommissioning (ISD) Concepts and Approaches for Excess Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning End State - 13367

    SciTech Connect

    Serrato, Michael G.; Musall, John C.; Bergren, Christopher L.

    2013-07-01

    government and private industry decommissioning applications. SRS offers critical services based upon the SRS experience in decommissioning and reactor entombment technology (e.g., grout formulations for varying conditions, structural and material sciences). The SRS ISD approach follows a systems engineering framework to achieve a regulatory acceptable end state based on established protocols, attains the final end state with minimal long stewardship requirements, protects industrial workers, and protects groundwater and the environment. The ISD systems engineering framework addresses key areas of the remedial process planning, technology development and deployment, and assessment to attain the ultimate goal of natural resource stewardship and protecting the public. The development and deployment of the SRS ISD approach has established a path for ISD of other large nuclear facilities in the United States and around the globe as an acceptable remedial alternative for decommissioning nuclear facilities. (authors)

  16. Decontamination and Decommissioning Experience at a Sellafield Uranium Purification Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Prosser, J.L.

    2006-07-01

    Built in the 1950's, this plant was originally designed to purify depleted uranyl nitrate solution arising from reprocessing operations at the Primary Separation and Head End Plant (Fig. 1). The facility was used for various purposes throughout its life cycle such as research, development and trial based processes. Test rigs were operated in the building from the 1970's until 1984 to support development of the process and equipment now used at Sellafield's Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP). The extensive decommissioning program for this facility began over 15 years ago. Many challenges have been overcome throughout this program such as decommissioning the four main process cells, which were very highly alpha contaminated. The cells contained vessels and pipeline systems that were contaminated to such levels that workers had to use pressurized suits to enter the cells. Since decommissioning at Sellafield was in its infancy, this project has trialed various decontamination/decommissioning methods and techniques in order to progress the project, and this has provided valuable learning for other decommissioning projects. The project has included characterization, decontamination, dismantling, waste handling, and is now ready for demolition during late 2005, early 2006. This will be the first major facility within the historic Separation Area at Sellafield to be demolished down to base slab level. The lessons learnt from this project will directly benefit numerous decommissioning projects as the cleanup at Sellafield continues. (authors)

  17. ORNL decontamination and decommissioning program

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, J. P.

    1980-01-01

    A program has been initiated at ORNL to decontaminate and decommission surplus or abandoned nuclear facilities. Program planning and technical studies have been performed by UCC-ND Engineering. A feasibility study for decommissioning the Metal Recovery Facility, a fuel reprocessing pilot plant, has been completed.

  18. Lessons Learned from the Application of Bulk Characterization to Individual Containers on the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor Decommissioning Project at Brookhaven National Laboratory - 12056

    SciTech Connect

    Kneitel, Terri; Rocco, Diane

    2012-07-01

    When conducting environmental cleanup or decommissioning projects, characterization of the material to be removed is often performed when the material is in-situ. The actual demolition or excavation and removal of the material can result in individual containers that vary significantly from the original bulk characterization profile. This variance, if not detected, can result in individual containers exceeding Department of Transportation regulations or waste disposal site acceptance criteria. Bulk waste characterization processes were performed to initially characterize the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor (BGRR) graphite pile and this information was utilized to characterize all of the containers of graphite. When the last waste container was generated containing graphite dust from the bottom of the pile, but no solid graphite blocks, the material contents were significantly different in composition from the bulk waste characterization. This error resulted in exceedance of the disposal site waste acceptance criteria. Brookhaven Science Associates initiated an in-depth investigation to identify the root causes of this failure and to develop appropriate corrective actions. The lessons learned at BNL have applicability to other cleanup and demolition projects which characterize their wastes in bulk or in-situ and then extend that characterization to individual containers. (authors)

  19. Use of InSpector{sup TM} 1 1000 Instrument with LaBr{sub 3} for Nuclear Criticality Safety (NCS) Applications at the Westinghouse Hematite Decommissioning Project (HDP) - 13132

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchard, Megan; Guido, Joe

    2013-07-01

    The Westinghouse Hematite Decommissioning Project (HDP) is a former nuclear fuel cycle facility that is currently undergoing decommissioning. One aspect of the decommissioning scope is remediation of buried nuclear waste in unlined burial pits. The current Nuclear Criticality Safety program relies on application of criticality controls based on radiological setpoints from a 2 x 2 Sodium Iodide (NaI) detector. Because of the nature of the material buried (Low Enriched Uranium (LEU), depleted uranium, thorium, and radium) and the stringent threshold for application of criticality controls based on waste management (0.1 g {sup 235}U/L), a better method for {sup 235}U identification and quantification has been developed. This paper outlines the early stages of a quick, in-field nuclear material assay and {sup 235}U mass estimation process currently being deployed at HDP. Nuclear material initially classified such that NCS controls are necessary can be demonstrated not to require such controls and dispositioned as desired by project operations. Using Monte Carlo techniques and a high resolution Lanthanum Bromide (LaBr) detector with portable Multi-Channel Analyzer (MCA), a bounding {sup 235}U mass is assigned to basic geometries of nuclear material as it is excavated. The deployment of these methods and techniques has saved large amounts of time and money in the nuclear material remediation process. (authors)

  20. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  1. Decommissioning Cost Estimating -The ''Price'' Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Manning, R.; Gilmour, J.

    2002-02-26

    Over the past 9 years UKAEA has developed a formalized approach to decommissioning cost estimating. The estimating methodology and computer-based application are known collectively as the PRICE system. At the heart of the system is a database (the knowledge base) which holds resource demand data on a comprehensive range of decommissioning activities. This data is used in conjunction with project specific information (the quantities of specific components) to produce decommissioning cost estimates. PRICE is a dynamic cost-estimating tool, which can satisfy both strategic planning and project management needs. With a relatively limited analysis a basic PRICE estimate can be produced and used for the purposes of strategic planning. This same estimate can be enhanced and improved, primarily by the improvement of detail, to support sanction expenditure proposals, and also as a tender assessment and project management tool. The paper will: describe the principles of the PRICE estimating system; report on the experiences of applying the system to a wide range of projects from contaminated car parks to nuclear reactors; provide information on the performance of the system in relation to historic estimates, tender bids, and outturn costs.

  2. The shielding design process--new plants to decommissioning.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, Graham; Cooper, Andrew; Hobson, John

    2005-01-01

    BNFL have over 25 years experience of designing nuclear plant for the whole-fuel cycle. In the UK, a Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) is to be set up to ensure that Britain's nuclear legacy is cleaned up safely, securely and cost effectively. The resulting challenges and opportunities for shielding design will be substantial as the shielding design process was originally devised for the design of new plants. Although its underlying principles are equally applicable to decommissioning and remediation of old plants, there are many aspects of detailed application that need to adapt to this radically different operating environment. The paper describes both the common issues and the different challenges of shielding design at different operational phases. Sample applications will be presented of both new plant and decommissioning projects that illustrate not only the robust nature of the processes being used, but also how they lead to cost-effective solutions making a substantive and appropriate contribution to radiological protection goals.

  3. 76 FR 65541 - Assuring the Availability of Funds for Decommissioning Nuclear Reactors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... COMMISSION Assuring the Availability of Funds for Decommissioning Nuclear Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Decommissioning Nuclear Reactors.'' This guide provides guidance to applicants and licensees of nuclear power, research, and test reactors concerning methods acceptable to the staff of the U.S. Nuclear...

  4. 26 CFR 1.468A-0 - Nuclear decommissioning costs; table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nuclear decommissioning costs; table of contents...-0 Nuclear decommissioning costs; table of contents. This section lists the paragraphs contained in.... (b) Definitions. (c) Special rules applicable to certain experimental nuclear facilities. §...

  5. 26 CFR 1.468A-0 - Nuclear decommissioning costs; table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nuclear decommissioning costs; table of contents...-0 Nuclear decommissioning costs; table of contents. This section lists the paragraphs contained in.... (b) Definitions. (c) Special rules applicable to certain experimental nuclear facilities. §...

  6. 26 CFR 1.468A-0 - Nuclear decommissioning costs; table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nuclear decommissioning costs; table of contents...-0 Nuclear decommissioning costs; table of contents. This section lists the paragraphs contained in.... (b) Definitions. (c) Special rules applicable to certain experimental nuclear facilities. §...

  7. 26 CFR 1.468A-0 - Nuclear decommissioning costs; table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nuclear decommissioning costs; table of contents...-0 Nuclear decommissioning costs; table of contents. This section lists the paragraphs contained in.... (b) Definitions. (c) Special rules applicable to certain experimental nuclear facilities. §...

  8. Regulatory process for decommissioning nuclear power reactors. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    This report provides regulatory guidance for utilities consistent with the changes in the decommissioning rule, 10 CFR50.82 as revised in July 1996. The purpose of this report is to explain the new rule in the context of related industry experience and to provide practical guidance to licensees contemplating or implementing a shutdown. Because the regulatory process is still rapidly evolving, this report reflects only a current status of the acceptable methods and practices derived from a review of the current regulations, guidance documents and industry experience for decommissioning a nuclear power reactor. EPRI anticipates periodic updates of this document to incorporate various utility experiences with decommissioning, and also to reflect any regulatory changes. The report provides a summary of ongoing federal agency and industry activities and the regulatory requirements that are currently applicable, or no longer applicable, to nuclear power plants at the time of permanent shutdown through the early decommissioning stage. The report describes the major components of a typical decommissioning action plan, providing industry experience and guidance for licensees considering or implementing permanent shutdown.

  9. Recent Progress of Microfluidics in Translational Applications

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zongbin; Han, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidics, featuring microfabricated structures, is a technology for manipulating fluids at the micrometer scale. The small dimension and flexibility of microfluidic systems are ideal for mimicking molecular and cellular microenvironment, and show great potential in translational research and development. Here, the recent progress of microfluidics in biological and biomedical applications, including molecular analysis, cellular analysis, and chip-based material delivery and biomimetic design is presented. The potential future developments in the translational microfluidics field are also discussed. PMID:27091777

  10. Recent Progress of Microfluidics in Translational Applications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zongbin; Han, Xin; Qin, Lidong

    2016-04-20

    Microfluidics, featuring microfabricated structures, is a technology for manipulating fluids at the micrometer scale. The small dimension and flexibility of microfluidic systems are ideal for mimicking molecular and cellular microenvironment, and show great potential in translational research and development. Here, the recent progress of microfluidics in biological and biomedical applications, including molecular analysis, cellular analysis, and chip-based material delivery and biomimetic design is presented. The potential future developments in the translational microfluidics field are also discussed.

  11. 77 FR 41107 - Decommissioning Planning During Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ...; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 20, 30, 40, 50, 70, and 72 Decommissioning Planning During... on revised draft regulatory guide (DG) 4014, ``Decommissioning Planning During Operations.'' This... Decommissioning Planning Rule. The NRC will hold a public meeting and concurrent Webinar to facilitate the...

  12. DEACTIVATION AND DECOMMISSIONING PLANNING AND ANALYSIS WITH GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, J; William Austin, W; Larry Koffman, L

    2007-09-17

    From the mid-1950's through the 1980's, the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site produced nuclear materials for the weapons stockpile, for medical and industrial applications, and for space exploration. Although SRS has a continuing defense-related mission, the overall site mission is now oriented toward environmental restoration and management of legacy chemical and nuclear waste. With the change in mission, SRS no longer has a need for much of the infrastructure developed to support the weapons program. This excess infrastructure, which includes over 1000 facilities, will be decommissioned and demolished over the forthcoming years. Dispositioning facilities for decommissioning and deactivation requires significant resources to determine hazards, structure type, and a rough-order-of-magnitude estimate for the decommissioning and demolition cost. Geographic information systems (GIS) technology was used to help manage the process of dispositioning infrastructure and for reporting the future status of impacted facilities.

  13. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Ferguson, S.D.; Fielden, J.M.; Schumann, P.L.

    1989-09-01

    The 576 abstracted references on nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the tenth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types--technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions--have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) General Remedial Action Program Studies. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication description. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title work, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords.

  14. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, N.P.; Webb, J.R.; Ferguson, S.D.; Goins, L.F.; Owen, P.T.

    1990-09-01

    The 394 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the eleventh in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types -- technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions -- have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Programs, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program, (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (8) Technical Measurements Center, (9) Remedial Action Program, and (10) Environmental Restoration Program. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects and analyzes information on remedial actions and relevant radioactive waste management technologies.

  15. Management of the decommissioning of the Thetis reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ooms, Luc; Maris, Patrick; Noynaert, Luc

    2013-07-01

    gained the decommissioning license in May 2012. We also prepared the software tool allowing managing the decommissioning project by updating the inventory and recording the progress, the characterization measurements and the material and waste production. This software allows also to trace all the material streams and to report to the Authorities. This software is a simplified release of the ones developed by SCK-CEN in the framework of other decommissioning projects like BR3 and Belgonucleaire. The dismantling of the reactor i.e. reactor pool, circuits and rabbit system, will be performed in 2013. In 2014, it is planned to map all the surfaces of the infrastructure to highlight residual contamination of floor, walls and ceiling. The contaminated surfaces will be decontaminated and controlled. The objective is to reach the free release of the reactor building and laboratories by the end of 2014. (authors)

  16. Identification and evaluation of facilitation techniques for decommissioning light water power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    LaGuardia, T.S.; Risley, J.F.

    1986-06-01

    This report describes a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to identify practical techniques to facilitate the decommissioning of nuclear power generating facilities. The objective of these ''facilitation techniques'' is to reduce the radioactive exposures and/or volumes of waste generated during the decommissioning process. The report presents the possible facilitation techniques identified during the study and discusses the corresponding facilitation of the decommissioning process. Techniques are categorized by their applicability of being implemented during the three stages of power reactor life: design/construction, operation, or decommissioning. Detailed cost-benefit analyses were performed for each technique to determine the anticipated exposure and/or radioactive waste reduction; the estimated costs for implementing each technique were then calculated. Finally, these techniques were ranked by their effectiveness in facilitating the decommissioning process. This study is a part of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's evaluation of decommissioning policy and its modification of regulations pertaining to the decommissioning process. The findings can be used by the utilities in the planning and establishment of activities to ensure that all objectives of decommissioning will be achieved.

  17. Progress in cryocooler technology and energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Paulson, D.N.; Sager, R.E.

    1983-06-01

    Although some superconducting devices are now used commercially, the major obstacle to the widespread use of superconducting technology is the requirement for expensive and inconvenient refrigeration systems. The authors have made significant progress toward the development of a small, low-power, Stirling-cycle cryocooler capable of cooling small devices to superconducting temperatures. The primary limitation on the low temperature performance of Stirling cycle cryocoolers is the lack of proper regeneration of the working fluid at low temperatures. The authors have experimented with several innovative techniques for improving the low-temperature regeneration of their cooler, and the results of those experiments are discussed. Unprecedented temperatures less than 6K in a magnetically clean system have been achieved, well within the required operating range for SQUID devices. The authors expect that the availability of convenient, low-cost cryocoolers will rapidly introduce superconducting technology into a wide range of scientific and commercial applications. Some of these potential applications are discussed.

  18. Uranium enrichment decontamination and decommissioning fund

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    One of the most challenging issues facing the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management is the cleanup of the three gaseous diffusion plants. In October 1992, Congress passed the Energy Policy Act of 1992 and established the Uranium Enrichment Decontamination and Decommissioning Fund to accomplish this task. This mission is being undertaken in an environmentally and financially responsible way by: devising cost-effective technical solutions; producing realistic life-cycle cost estimates, based on practical assumptions and thorough analysis; generating coherent long-term plans which are based on risk assessments, land use, and input from stakeholders; and, showing near-term progress in the cleanup of the gaseous diffusion facilities at Oak Ridge.

  19. Accelerating the Whiteshell Laboratories Decommissioning Through the Implementation of a Projectized and Delivery-Focused Organization - 13074

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, Brian; Mellor, Russ; Michaluk, Craig

    2013-07-01

    Whiteshell Laboratories (WL) is a nuclear research site in Canada that was commissioned in 1964 by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. It covers a total area of approximately 4,375 hectares (10,800 acres) and includes the main campus site, the Waste Management Area (WMA) and outer areas of land identified as not used for or impacted by nuclear development or operations. The WL site employed up to 1100 staff. Site activities included the successful operation of a 60 MW organic liquid-cooled research reactor from 1965 to 1985, and various research programs including reactor safety research, small reactor development, fuel development, biophysics and radiation applications, as well as work under the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. In 1997, AECL made a business decision to discontinue research programs and operations at WL, and obtained government concurrence in 1998. The Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program (NLLP) was established in 2006 by the Canadian Government to remediate nuclear legacy liabilities in a safe and cost effective manner, including the WL site. The NLLP is being implemented by AECL under the governance of a Natural Resources Canada (NRCan)/AECL Joint Oversight Committee (JOC). Significant progress has since been made, and the WL site currently holds the only Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) nuclear research site decommissioning license in Canada. The current decommissioning license is in place until the end of 2018. The present schedule planned for main campus decommissioning is 30 years (to 2037), followed by institutional control of the WMA until a National plan is implemented for the long-term management of nuclear waste. There is an impetus to advance work and complete decommissioning sooner. To accomplish this, AECL has added significant resources, reorganized and moved to a projectized environment. This presentation outlines changes made to the organization, the tools implemented to foster projectization, and the benefits

  20. Decommissioning of the BR3 reactor: status and perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Noynaert, L.; Verstraeten, I.

    2007-07-01

    The BR3 plant at Mol in Belgium built at the end of the fifties was the first PWR plant built outside the USA. The reactor had a small net power output (10 MWe) but comprised all the loops and features of a commercial PWR plant. The BR3 plant was operated with the main objective of testing advanced PWR fuels under irradiation conditions similar to those encountered in large commercial PWR plants. The reactor was started in 1962 and shut down in 1987 after 25 years of continuous operation. Since 1989, SCK.CEN is decommissioning the BR3 PWR research reactor. The dismantling of the metallic components including reactor pressure vessel and internals is completed and extensively reported in the literature. The dismantling of auxiliary components and the decontamination of parts of the infrastructure are now going on. The decommissioning progress is continuously monitored and costs and strategy are regularly reassessed. The first part of the paper describes the main results and lessons learned from the reassessment exercises performed in 1994, 1999, 2004 and 2007. Impacts of changes in legal framework on the decommissioning costs will be addressed. These changes concern e.g. licensing aspects, clearance levels, waste management... The middle part of the paper discusses the management of activated and/or contaminated concrete. The costing exercise performed in 1995 highlighted that the management of activated and contaminated concrete is the second main cost item after the dismantling of the reactor pressure vessel and internals. Different possible solutions were studied. These are evacuation as radioactive waste with or without supercompaction, recycling this 'radioactive' grout or concrete for conditioning of radioactive waste e.g. conditioning of metallic waste. The paper will give the results of the cost-benefit analysis made to select the solution retained. The last part of the paper will discuss the end goal of the decommissioning of the BR3. In the final

  1. [Progress on epigenetics applications in forensic science].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ya-ran; Wang, Peng-xiang; Fang, Xiang-dong; Yan, Jiang-wei

    2012-10-01

    Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence. Such changes include DNA methylation, histone modification, chromatin remodeling, genomic imprinting, X chromosome inactivation and non-coding RNA regulation. Recent progresses on epigenetics open new possibilities in tackling these challenging problems in forensic science, including identification of fetal paternity testing in embryonic period, determination of the necessary allele in paternity testing, discrimination of identical twins, origination analysis of micro tissue, verification of forged DNA. This review focuses on epigenetics concept and its latest application in the field of paternity testing, age estimation, discrimination between the twins, identification of tissue of origin, and estimation of postmortem interval.

  2. 30 CFR 285.902 - What are the general requirements for decommissioning for facilities authorized under my SAP, COP...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... decommissioning for facilities authorized under my SAP, COP, or GAP? 285.902 Section 285.902 Mineral Resources... SAP, COP, or GAP? (a) Except as otherwise authorized by MMS under § 285.909, within 2 years following... under your SAP, COP, or GAP, you must submit a decommissioning application and receive approval from...

  3. Sensor Network Demonstration for In Situ Decommissioning - 13332

    SciTech Connect

    Lagos, L.; Varona, J.; Awwad, A.; Rivera, J.; McGill, J.

    2013-07-01

    data network to capture, log and analyze sensor system data in near real time from a single interface. FIU personnel and DOE Fellows monitored the progress and condition of the sensors for a period of six months. During this time, the sensors recorded data pertaining to strain, compression, temperature, crack detection, moisture presence, fluid mobility, shock resistance, monolith movement, and electrical resistivity. In addition, FIU regularly observed the curing process of the grout and documented the cube condition via the nine racks of sensors. The sensors held up throughout the curing process, withstood the natural elements for six months, and monitored the integrity of the grout. The large scale experiment and demonstration conducted at FIU was the first of its kind to demonstrate the feasibility of state of the art sensors for in situ decommissioning applications. These efforts successfully measured the durability, performance, and precision of the sensors in question as well as monitored and recorded the curing process of the selected grout material under natural environmental conditions. The current energy analysis work is resulting in data on the constraints placed by some of the sensor systems on a power network that requires high reliability and low losses. In addition, a sensor system demonstration has determined that it is feasible to develop an integrated data network where data can be accessed in near real-time from all systems, thereby allowing for larger-scale integrated system testing to be performed. Information collected during the execution of this research project will aid decision makers in the identification of sensors to be used in nuclear facilities selected for in situ decommissioning. (authors)

  4. Korea Research Reactor -1 & 2 Decommissioning Project in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S. K.; Chung, U. S.; Jung, K. J.; Park, J. H.

    2003-02-24

    Korea Research Reactor 1 (KRR-1), the first research reactor in Korea, has been operated since 1962, and the second one, Korea Research Reactor 2 (KRR-2) since 1972. The operation of both of them was phased out in 1995 due to their lifetime and operation of the new and more powerful research reactor, HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor; 30MW). Both are TRIGA Pool type reactors in which the cores are small self-contained units sitting in tanks filled with cooling water. The KRR-1 is a TRIGA Mark II, which could operate at a level of up to 250 kW. The second one, the KRR-2 is a TRIGA Mark III, which could operate at a level of up 2,000 kW. The decontamination and decommissioning (D & D) project of these two research reactors, the first D & D project in Korea, was started in January 1997 and will be completed to stage 3 by 2008. The aim of this decommissioning program is to decommission the KRR-1 & 2 reactors and to decontaminate the residual building structure s and the site to release them as unrestricted areas. KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) submitted the decommissioning plan and the environmental impact assessment reports to the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) for the license in December 1998, and was approved in November 2000.

  5. DASAO: software tool for the management of safeguards, waste and decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Noynaert, Luc; Verwaest, Isi; Libon, Henri; Cuchet, Jean-Marie

    2013-07-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear facilities is a complex process involving operations such as detailed surveys, decontamination and dismantling of equipment's, demolition of buildings and management of resulting waste and nuclear materials if any. This process takes place in a well-developed legal framework and is controlled and followed-up by stakeholders like the Safety Authority, the Radwaste management Agency and the Safeguards Organism. In the framework of its nuclear waste and decommissioning program and more specifically the decommissioning of the BR3 reactor, SCK-CEN has developed different software tools to secure the waste and material traceability, to support the sound management of the decommissioning project and to facilitate the control and the follow-up by the stakeholders. In the case of Belgium, it concerns the Federal Agency for Nuclear Control, the National Agency for radioactive waste management and fissile material and EURATOM and IAEA. In 2005, Belgonucleaire decided to shutdown her Dessel MOX fuel fabrication plant and the production stopped in 2006. According to the final decommissioning plan ('PDF') approved by NIRAS, the decommissioning works should start in 2008 at the earliest. In 2006, the management of Belgonucleaire identified the need for an integrated database and decided to entrust SCK-CEN with its development, because SCK-CEN relies on previous experience in comparable applications namely already approved by authorities such as NIRAS, FANC and EURATOM. The main objectives of this integrated software tool are: - simplified and updated safeguards; - waste and material traceability; - computerized documentation; - support to project management; - periodic and final reporting to waste and safety authorities. The software called DASAO (Database for Safeguards, Waste and Decommissioning) was successfully commissioned in 2008 and extensively used from 2009 to the satisfaction of Belgonucleaire and the stakeholders. SCK-CEN is now implementing

  6. Asset Decommissioning Risk Metrics for Floating Structures in the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Mark J

    2015-08-01

    Public companies in the United States are required to report standardized values of their proved reserves and asset retirement obligations on an annual basis. When compared, these two measures provide an aggregate indicator of corporate decommissioning risk but, because of their consolidated nature, cannot readily be decomposed at a more granular level. The purpose of this article is to introduce a decommissioning risk metric defined in terms of the ratio of the expected value of an asset's reserves to its expected cost of decommissioning. Asset decommissioning risk (ADR) is more difficult to compute than a consolidated corporate risk measure, but can be used to quantify the decommissioning risk of structures and to perform regional comparisons, and also provides market signals of future decommissioning activity. We formalize two risk metrics for decommissioning and apply the ADR metric to the deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GOM) floater inventory. Deepwater oil and gas structures are expensive to construct, and at the end of their useful life, will be expensive to decommission. The value of proved reserves for the 42 floating structures in the GOM circa January 2013 is estimated to range between $37 and $80 billion for future oil prices between 60 and 120 $/bbl, which is about 10 to 20 times greater than the estimated $4.3 billion to decommission the inventory. Eni's Allegheny and MC Offshore's Jolliet tension leg platforms have ADR metrics less than one and are approaching the end of their useful life. Application of the proposed metrics in the regulatory review of supplemental bonding requirements in the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf is suggested to complement the current suite of financial metrics employed.

  7. Decommissioning of U.S. uranium production facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    From 1980 to 1993, the domestic production of uranium declined from almost 44 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8} to about 3 million pounds. This retrenchment of the U.S. uranium industry resulted in the permanent closing of many uranium-producing facilities. Current low uranium prices, excess world supply, and low expectations for future uranium demand indicate that it is unlikely existing plants will be reopened. Because of this situation, these facilities eventually will have to be decommissioned. The Uranium Mill Tailings and Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA) vests the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) with overall responsibility for establishing environmental standards for decommissioning of uranium production facilities. UMTRCA also gave the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) the responsibility for licensing and regulating uranium production and related activities, including decommissioning. Because there are many issues associated with decommissioning-environmental, political, and financial-this report will concentrate on the answers to three questions: (1) What is required? (2) How is the process implemented? (3) What are the costs? Regulatory control is exercised principally through the NRC licensing process. Before receiving a license to construct and operate an uranium producing facility, the applicant is required to present a decommissioning plan to the NRC. Once the plan is approved, the licensee must post a surety to guarantee that funds will be available to execute the plan and reclaim the site. This report by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) represents the most comprehensive study on this topic by analyzing data on 33 (out of 43) uranium production facilities located in Colorado, Nebraska, New Mexico, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, and Washington.

  8. Progress of OCT and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmi, Masato; Haruna, Masamitsu

    2009-11-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is the cross-sectional imaging of biological tissue based on the low-coherence interferometry, where the image resolution is around 10 ım with the imaging depth of 1 to 2 mm. Since its first demonstration, OCT has been developed intensively for clinical diagnoses of ophthalmology and arteriosclerosis. Beside the clinical applications, OCT is used for analysis of physiological functions underneath the human skin surface. Recently, we proposed and demonstrated the dynamic OCT for in vivo observation of physiological functions of small organs underneath the skin surface. In the dynamic OCT, tomographic images are obtained time-sequentially for tracking of the dynamics of eccrin sweat glands and peripheral vessels. In the last three years, the dynamic skin physiology has been analyzed using both time-domain (TD) OCT and swept source (SS) OCT. In this paper, we present progress of OCT as well as the dynamic analysis of mental sweating and pulsation of a small artery in synchronization with the heartbeat using SS-OCT.

  9. Waste minimization value engineering workshop for the Los Alamos National Laboratory Omega West Reactor Decommissioning Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hartnett, S.; Seguin, N.; Burns, M.

    1995-12-31

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Pollution Prevention Program Office sponsored a Value Engineering (VE) Workshop to evaluate recycling options and other pollution prevention and waste minimization (PP/WMin) practices to incorporate into the decommissioning of the Omega West Reactor (OWR) at the laboratory. The VE process is an organized, systematic approach for evaluating a process or design to identify cost saving opportunities, or in this application, waste reduction opportunities. This VE Workshop was a facilitated process that included a team of specialists in the areas of decontamination, decommissioning, PP/WMin, cost estimating, construction, waste management, recycling, Department of Energy representatives, and others. The uniqueness of this VE Workshop was that it used an interdisciplinary approach to focus on PP/WMin practices that could be included in the OWR Decommissioning Project Plans and specifications to provide waste reduction. This report discusses the VE workshop objectives, summarizes the OWR decommissioning project, and describes the VE workshop activities, results, and lessons learned.

  10. Applying and adapting the Swedish regulatory system for decommissioning to nuclear power reactors - The regulator's perspective.

    PubMed

    Amft, Martin; Leisvik, Mathias; Carroll, Simon

    2017-03-16

    Half of the original 13 Swedish nuclear power reactors will be shut down by 2020. The decommissioning of these reactors is a challenge for all parties involved, including the licensees, the waste management system, the financing system, and the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM). This paper presents an overview of the Swedish regulations for decommissioning of nuclear facilities. It describes some of the experiences that SSM has gained from the application of these regulations. The focus of the present paper is on administrative aspects of decommissioning, such as SSM's guidelines, the definition of fundamental concepts in the regulatory framework, and a proposed revision of the licensing process according to the Environmental Act. These improvements will help to streamline the administration of the commercial nuclear power plant decommissioning projects that are anticipated to commence in Sweden in the near future.

  11. Radiochemistry Lab Decommissioning and Dismantlement. AECL, Chalk River Labs, Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Kenny, Stephen

    2008-01-15

    Atomic Energy of Canada (AECL) was originally founded in the mid 1940's to perform research in radiation and nuclear areas under the Canadian Defense Department. In the mid 50's The Canadian government embarked on several research and development programs for the development of the Candu Reactor. AECL was initially built as a temporary site and is now faced with many redundant buildings. Prior to 2004 small amounts of Decommissioning work was in progress. Many reasons for deferring decommissioning activities were used with the predominant ones being: 1. Reduction in radiation doses to workers during the final dismantlement, 2. Development of a long-term solution for the management of radioactive wastes in Canada, 3. Financial constraints presented by the number of facilities shutdown that would require decommissioning funds and the absence of an approved funding strategy. This has led to the development of a comprehensive decommissioning plan that is all inclusive of AECL's current and legacy liabilities. Canada does not have a long-term disposal site; therefore waste minimization becomes the driving factor behind decontamination for decommissioning before and during dismantlement. This decommissioning job was a great learning experience for decommissioning and the associated contractors who worked on this project. Throughout the life of the project there was a constant focus on waste minimization. This focus was constantly in conflict with regulatory compliance primarily with respect to fire regulations and protecting the facility along with adjacent facilities during the decommissioning activities. Discrepancies in historical documents forced the project to treat every space as a contaminated space until proven differently. Decommissioning and dismantlement within an operating site adds to the complexity of the tasks especially when it is being conducted in the heart of the plant. This project was very successful with no lost time accidents in over one hundred

  12. Decontamination and decommissioning of the Mayaguez (Puerto Rico) facility

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, P.K.; Freemerman, R.L.

    1989-11-01

    On February 6, 1987 the US Department of Energy (DOE) awarded the final phase of the decontamination and decommissioning of the nuclear and reactor facilities at the Center for Energy and Environmental Research (CEER), in Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. Bechtel National, Inc., was made the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) contractor. The goal of the project was to enable DOE to proceed with release of the CEER facility for use by the University of Puerto Rico, who was the operator. This presentation describes that project and lesson learned during its progress. The CEER facility was established in 1957 as the Puerto Rico Nuclear Center, a part of the Atoms for Peace Program. It was a nuclear training and research institution with emphasis on the needs of Latin America. It originally consisted of a 1-megawatt Materials Testing Reactor (MTR), support facilities and research laboratories. After eleven years of operation the MTR was shutdown and defueled. A 2-megawatt TRIGA reactor was installed in 1972 and operated until 1976, when it woo was shutdown. Other radioactive facilities at the center included a 10-watt homogeneous L-77 training reactor, a natural uranium graphite-moderated subcritical assembly, a 200KV particle accelerator, and a 15,000 Ci Co-60 irradiation facility. Support facilities included radiochemistry laboratories, counting rooms and two hot cells. As the emphasis shifted to non-nuclear energy technology a name change resulted in the CEER designation, and plans were started for the decontamination and decommissioning effort.

  13. DECOMMISSIONING OF THE NUCLEAR FACILITIES OF VKTA AT THE ROSSENDORF RESEARCH SITE

    SciTech Connect

    U. Helwig, W. Boessert

    2003-02-27

    VKTA decommissioned the old nuclear facilities of former GDR's (German Democratic Republic) Central Institute of Nuclear Research which was closed end of 1991. VKTA is responsible for fissile material and waste management, environmental and radiation protection and runs an accredited laboratory for environmental and radionuclide analytics. The Rossendorf research site is located east of the city of Dresden. The period from 1982 to about 1997 was mainly characterized by obtaining the necessary licenses for decommissioning and developing a new infrastructure (i.e. waste treatment facility, interim storages for fissile material and waste, clearance monitoring facility). The decommissioning work has been in progress since that time. The decommissioning projects are concentrated on three complexes: (1) the reactors and a fuel development and testing facility, (2) the radioisotope production facilities, and (3) the former liquid and solid waste storage facilities. The status of decommissioning progress and treatment of the residues will be demonstrated. Finally an outlook will be given on the future tasks of VKTA based on the ''Conception VKTA 2000 plus'', which was confirmed by the Saxonian government last year.

  14. Russian nuclear-powered submarine decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Bukharin, O.; Handler, J.

    1995-11-01

    Russia is facing technical, economic and organizational difficulties in dismantling its oversized and unsafe fleet of nuclear powered submarines. The inability of Russia to deal effectively with the submarine decommissioning crisis increases the risk of environmental disaster and may hamper the implementation of the START I and START II treaties. This paper discusses the nuclear fleet support infrastructure, the problems of submarine decommissioning, and recommends international cooperation in addressing these problems.

  15. Trip report: European Communities 1989 International Conference on Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations, Brussels, Belgium, October 24-27, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, W.N.

    1989-01-01

    The European community is conducting research on the decommissioning of nuclear installations. The prime objective is to develop effective techniques to ensure the protection of man and his environment against the potential hazards of nuclear installations that have been shut down. The results of the 1979--1983 research program were presented in a conference held in Luxembourg. This program was primarily concerned with decommissioning nuclear power plants. The 1984--1988 program was extended to all types of nuclear installations. Fuel fabrication, enrichment and reprocessing plants, and research and development facilities having fulfilled their useful purposes are also awaiting decommissioning. This Program has produced numerous scientific and technical achievements. Great progress has in particular been achieved in the reduction of metal waste arising from decommissioning, due to advances in areas such as the development of aggressive decontamination procedures and of techniques for melting and recycling low-level radioactive waste metal.

  16. Waste management strategy for cost effective and environmentally friendly NPP decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Per Lidar; Arne Larsson; Niklas Bergh; Gunnar Hedin

    2013-07-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants generates large volumes of radioactive or potentially radioactive waste. The proper management of the dismantling waste plays an important role for the time needed for the dismantling phase and thus is critical to the decommissioning cost. An efficient and thorough process for inventorying, characterization and categorization of the waste provides a sound basis for the planning process. As part of comprehensive decommissioning studies for Nordic NPPs, Westinghouse has developed the decommissioning inventories that have been used for estimations of the duration of specific work packages and the corresponding costs. As part of creating the design basis for a national repository for decommissioning waste, the total production of different categories of waste packages has also been predicted. Studsvik has developed a risk based concept for categorization and handling of the generated waste using six different categories with a span from extremely small risk for radiological contamination to high level waste. The two companies have recently joined their skills in the area of decommissioning on selected market in a consortium named ndcon to further strengthen the proposed process. Depending on the risk for radiological contamination or the radiological properties and other properties of importance for waste management, treatment routes are proposed with well-defined and proven methods for on-site or off-site treatment, activity determination and conditioning. The system is based on a graded approach philosophy aiming for high confidence and sustainability, aiming for re-use and recycling where found applicable. The objective is to establish a process where all dismantled material has a pre-determined treatment route. These routes should through measurements, categorization, treatment, conditioning, intermediate storage and final disposal be designed to provide a steady, un-disturbed flow of material to avoid interruptions. Bottle

  17. Waste Management Strategy for Dismantling Waste to Reduce Costs for Power Plant Decommissioning - 13543

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, Arne; Lidar, Per; Bergh, Niklas; Hedin, Gunnar

    2013-07-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants generates large volumes of radioactive or potentially radioactive waste. The proper management of the dismantling waste plays an important role for the time needed for the dismantling phase and thus is critical to the decommissioning cost. An efficient and thorough process for inventorying, characterization and categorization of the waste provides a sound basis for the planning process. As part of comprehensive decommissioning studies for Nordic NPPs, Westinghouse has developed the decommissioning inventories that have been used for estimations of the duration of specific work packages and the corresponding costs. As part of creating the design basis for a national repository for decommissioning waste, the total production of different categories of waste packages has also been predicted. Studsvik has developed a risk based concept for categorization and handling of the generated waste using six different categories with a span from extremely small risk for radiological contamination to high level waste. The two companies have recently joined their skills in the area of decommissioning on selected market in a consortium named 'ndcon' to further strengthen the proposed process. Depending on the risk for radiological contamination or the radiological properties and other properties of importance for waste management, treatment routes are proposed with well-defined and proven methods for on-site or off-site treatment, activity determination and conditioning. The system is based on a graded approach philosophy aiming for high confidence and sustainability, aiming for re-use and recycling where found applicable. The objective is to establish a process where all dismantled material has a pre-determined treatment route. These routes should through measurements, categorization, treatment, conditioning, intermediate storage and final disposal be designed to provide a steady, un-disturbed flow of material to avoid interruptions. Bottle

  18. Radon applications in geosciences - Progress & perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, S. M.; Donner, R. V.; Steinitz, G.

    2015-05-01

    During the last decades, the radioactive noble gas radon has found a variety of geoscientific applications, ranging from its utilization as a potential earthquake precursor and proxy of tectonic stress over its specific role in volcanic environments to a wide range of applications as a tracer in marine and hydrological settings. This topical issue summarizes the current state of research as exemplified by some original research articles covering the aforementioned as well as other closely related aspects and points to some important future directions of radon application in geosciences. This editorial provides a more detailed overview of the contents of this volume, a brief summary of the rationale underlying the diverse applications, and outlines some important perspectives.

  19. 77 FR 14047 - Guidance for Decommissioning Planning During Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Guidance for Decommissioning Planning During Operations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... public comment period for Draft Regulatory Guide (DG)-4014, ``Decommissioning Planning During...

  20. Decommissioning and dismantling strategies in the Federal Republic of Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Brennecke, P.; Berg, H.P.; Weil, L.

    1993-12-31

    This report discusses the following aspects of decommissioning and dismantling strategies in the federal republic of germany: legal requirements, nuclear installations to be decommissioned, reactor dismantling techniques, and radioactive waste management.

  1. Progress in direct heat applications projects

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, F.W.; Jones, K.W.; Nelson, L.B.; Strawn, J.A.; Tucker, M.K.

    1980-09-09

    The development of hydrothermal energy for direct heat applications is being aided by twenty-two demonstration projects that are funded on a cost-sharing basis by the US Department of Energy, Division of Geothermal Energy. These projects are designed to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of the direct use of geothermal heat in the United States. Twelve of these projects are administered by the DOE-Idaho Operations Office with technical support from EG and G Idaho, Inc. Engineering and economic data for these projects are summarized in this paper. The data and experience being generated by these projects will be an important basis for future geothermal direct use projects.

  2. Progress in noise thermometry for nuclear applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, A. L.; Villard, J. F.

    2011-07-01

    The effects of nuclear radiations on conventional thermocouples (type K, C and N) mainly used in irradiation experiments may create significant drifts of the signals. In order to solve these difficulties, the CEA (French Nuclear Energy Commission) has developed and qualified in laboratory conditions miniature devices, which combine a noise thermometer and intrinsic thermocouples (NT-TC), for future application in a research reactor. In this paper, a particular approach of combined NT-TC sensors is described. Present measurements, based on a correlation and a comparison technique, have been performed in a typical laboratory environment between 200 and 400 deg. C which are typical temperatures in materials irradiation experiments. (authors)

  3. Progress in the application of DNA microarrays.

    PubMed Central

    Lobenhofer, E K; Bushel, P R; Afshari, C A; Hamadeh, H K

    2001-01-01

    Microarray technology has been applied to a variety of different fields to address fundamental research questions. The use of microarrays, or DNA chips, to study the gene expression profiles of biologic samples began in 1995. Since that time, the fundamental concepts behind the chip, the technology required for making and using these chips, and the multitude of statistical tools for analyzing the data have been extensively reviewed. For this reason, the focus of this review will be not on the technology itself but on the application of microarrays as a research tool and the future challenges of the field. PMID:11673116

  4. 26 CFR 1.88-1 - Nuclear decommissioning costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nuclear decommissioning costs. 1.88-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Included in Gross Income § 1.88-1 Nuclear decommissioning costs. (a) In general. Section 88 provides that the amount of nuclear decommissioning...

  5. 78 FR 64028 - Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Reactors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... regulatory guide (RG) 1.184 ``Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Reactors.'' This guide describes a method NRC... decommissioning process for nuclear power reactors. The revision takes advantage of the 13 years...

  6. 26 CFR 1.88-1 - Nuclear decommissioning costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nuclear decommissioning costs. 1.88-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Included in Gross Income § 1.88-1 Nuclear decommissioning costs. (a) In general. Section 88 provides that the amount of nuclear decommissioning...

  7. 26 CFR 1.88-1 - Nuclear decommissioning costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nuclear decommissioning costs. 1.88-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Included in Gross Income § 1.88-1 Nuclear decommissioning costs. (a) In general. Section 88 provides that the amount of nuclear decommissioning...

  8. 26 CFR 1.88-1 - Nuclear decommissioning costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nuclear decommissioning costs. 1.88-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Included in Gross Income § 1.88-1 Nuclear decommissioning costs. (a) In general. Section 88 provides that the amount of nuclear decommissioning...

  9. 26 CFR 1.88-1 - Nuclear decommissioning costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nuclear decommissioning costs. 1.88-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Included in Gross Income § 1.88-1 Nuclear decommissioning costs. (a) In general. Section 88 provides that the amount of nuclear decommissioning...

  10. Decision framework for platform decommissioning in California.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Brock B

    2015-10-01

    This article describes the overall decision framework for eventual decisions about decommissioning the 27 operating oil and gas platforms offshore southern California. These platforms will eventually reach the end of their useful lifetimes (estimated between 2015 and 2030, although specific dates have not been determined). Current law and regulations allow for alternative uses in lieu of the complete removal required in existing leases. To prepare for eventual decommissioning, the California Natural Resources Agency initiated an in-depth process to identify and investigate issues surrounding possible decommissioning alternatives. The detailed evaluation of alternatives focused on 2-complete removal and artificial reefing that included partial removal to 85 feet below the waterline. These were selected after a comparison of the technical and economic feasibility of several potential alternatives, availability of a legal framework for implementation, degree of interest from proponents, and relative acceptance by state and federal decision makers. Despite California's history of offshore oil and gas production, only 7 decommissioning projects have been completed and these were all relatively small and close to shore. In contrast, nearly 30% of the California platforms are in water depths (as much as 1200 feet) that exceed any decommissioning project anywhere in the world. Most earlier projects considered an artificial reefing alternative but none were implemented and all platforms were completely removed. Future decisions about decommissioning must grapple with a more complex decision context involving greater technological and logistical challenges and cost, a wider range of viable options, tradeoffs among environmental impacts and benefits, and an intricate maze of laws, regulations, and authorities. The specific engineering differences between complete and partial removal provide an explicit basis for a thorough evaluation of their respective impacts.

  11. Progress in material design for biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Tibbitt, Mark W.; Rodell, Christopher B.; Burdick, Jason A.; Anseth, Kristi S.

    2015-01-01

    Biomaterials that interface with biological systems are used to deliver drugs safely and efficiently; to prevent, detect, and treat disease; to assist the body as it heals; and to engineer functional tissues outside of the body for organ replacement. The field has evolved beyond selecting materials that were originally designed for other applications with a primary focus on properties that enabled restoration of function and mitigation of acute pathology. Biomaterials are now designed rationally with controlled structure and dynamic functionality to integrate with biological complexity and perform tailored, high-level functions in the body. The transition has been from permissive to promoting biomaterials that are no longer bioinert but bioactive. This perspective surveys recent developments in the field of polymeric and soft biomaterials with a specific emphasis on advances in nano- to macroscale control, static to dynamic functionality, and biocomplex materials. PMID:26598696

  12. Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorial issue, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2006-07-15

    The focus of the July-August issue is on Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorials. Major articles/reports in this issue include: NPP Krsko revised decommissioning program, by Vladimir Lokner and Ivica Levanat, APO d.o.o., Croatia, and Nadja Zeleznik and Irena Mele, ARAO, Slovenia; Supporting the renaissance, by Marilyn C. Kray, Exelon Nuclear; Outage world an engineer's delight, by Tom Chrisopher, Areva, NP Inc.; Optimizing refueling outages with R and D, by Ross Marcoot, GE Energy; and, A successful project, by Jim Lash, FirstEnergy.

  13. The environmental issues of platform decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Susani, L.

    1996-12-31

    This paper provides a review of the environmental impacts of offshore platform disposal, based on past activities and technical and research studies. Environmental impacts are considered in relation to four main decommissioning options. The most significant effects stem from explosive cutting, sediment resuspension and release of contamination during initial production shut-down, well purging and removal of the jacket structure from the seabed. Any decommissioning option that minimizes movement of structures and avoids explosive cutting must therefore be viewed as preferable from an ecological viewpoint. Complete removal is preferred on the grounds of energy conservation, fisheries and navigational safety, and controlled disposal of potential contaminants.

  14. Activities ONDRAF/NIRAS related to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Cantarella, J.; Simenon, R.; Braeckeveldt, M.

    2013-07-01

    Since 1980, the Agency is responsible by law for the safe management of all radioactive waste produced in Belgium, including decommissioning wastes. By the law of 11 January 1991 and the implementing Royal Decree of 16/10/1991, ONDRAF/NIRAS has been entrusted with a mission concerning the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. This mission involves the collection and assessment of data concerning decommissioning forecasts for nuclear facilities, the approval of facilities' decommissioning programmes, the establishment - in consultation with operators - of financing conditions for decommissioning, as well as the implementation of these programmes on request by the operator, or in the case of its failure to do so. This is the case for the company Best Medical Belgium SA located at Fleurus (MDS Nordion SA, till April 2011), which produced radioisotopes for medical applications and went bankrupt in 2012. These installations have been entrusted to ONDRAF/NIRAS. A plan of action was developed for taking over the operations in the framework of remediation and decommissioning. Steps have been taken to integrate his new role as a nuclear operator. The installations of Best Medical Belgium SA are now referred to as the 'O/N - Site Fleurus.' Nuclear facility operators, or any person requesting to operate a nuclear facility, are obliged to provide ONDRAF/NIRAS, under their responsibility and in due time, with all the necessary information concerning these facilities' decommissioning forecasts, the nature, quantities and dates of transfer of the resulting waste, and the financing conditions for these facilities' decommissioning. In order to make the necessary funds available for decommissioning a nuclear facility when it will be shut down, operators are obliged to establish provisions during the facility's active life. These provisions are calculated in such a way that the total amount established at the time of the final shutdown covers all costs resulting from the facility

  15. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: a selected bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Fielden, J.M.; Johnson, C.A.

    1982-09-01

    This bibliography contains 693 references with abstracts on the subject of nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions. Foreign, as well as domestic, literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, conference papers, symposium proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - has been included in this publication. The bibliography contains scientific (basic research as well as applied technology), economic, regulatory, and legal literature pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Program. Major chapters are Surplus Facilities Management Program, Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, Grand Junction Remedial Action Program, and Uranium Mill Tailings Management. Chapter sections for chapters 1 and 2 include: Design, Planning, and Regulations; Site Surveys; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Land Decontamination and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; and General Studies. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author. References having no individual author are arranged by corporate author or by title. Indexes are provided for (1) author; (2) corporate affiliation; (3) title; (4) publication description; (5) geographic location; and (6) keywords. An appendix of 202 bibliographic references without abstracts or indexes has been included in this bibliography. This appendix represents literature identified but not abstracted due to time constraints.

  16. Progress on PRONGHORN Application to NGNP Related Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Dana A. Knoll

    2009-08-01

    We are developing a multiphysics simulation tool for Very High-Temperature gascooled Reactors (VHTR). The simulation tool, PRONGHORN, takes advantages of the Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation library, and is capable of solving multidimensional thermal-fluid and neutronics problems implicitly in parallel. Expensive Jacobian matrix formation is alleviated by the Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov method, and physics-based preconditioning is applied to improve the convergence. The initial development of PRONGHORN has been focused on the pebble bed corec concept. However, extensions required to simulate prismatic cores are underway. In this progress report we highlight progress on application of PRONGHORN to PBMR400 benchmark problems, extension and application of PRONGHORN to prismatic core reactors, and progress on simulations of 3-D transients.

  17. Recent progress on the applications of multifunctional glyconanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Gangliang; Cheng, Fei; Chen, Xin; Peng, Daquan; Hu, Xiancheng; Liang, Guoming

    2013-01-01

    Glyconanoparticles are very useful tools for proteomic and glycomics research. They mainly contain glycosylated gold nanoparticles, glycosylated quantum dots, and magnetic glyconanoparticles. This review summarized the glyconanoparticle progress on biolabeling, in vitro or in vivo imaging, biosensing, targeted drug delivery, and other biomedical applications in recent years. The core of glyconanoparticle applications is to study the carbohydrate-mediated interactions, which opens the new field in glycobiology.

  18. [Application and progress of RNA in forensic science].

    PubMed

    Gao, Lin-Lin; Li, You-Ying; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Liu, Ya-Cheng

    2011-12-01

    With the development of molecular biology, the evidences of genetics has been used widely in forensic sciences. DNA technology has played an important role in individual identification and paternity testing, RNA technology is showing more and more wide application in prospect. This article reviews the application and progress of RNA in forensic science including estimation of postmortem interval, bloodstain age, wound age, as well as determination of cause of death and the source of body fluids.

  19. [Research Progress of Application of Microfluidics Techniques in Cryopreservation].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Nanfeng; Yang, Yun; Zhou, Xinli

    2015-06-01

    Microfluidics technology may be an effective method to solve some problems in cryopreservation. This review presents the research progress of microfluidics technology in the field of cell membrane transport properties, cryoprotectant addition and washout and the vitrification for cryopreservation of biological materials. Existing problems of microfluidics technology in the application of cryopreservation are summarized and future research directions are indicated as well.

  20. 26 CFR 1.468A-0T - Nuclear decommissioning costs; table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nuclear decommissioning costs; table of contents... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Taxable Year for Which Deductions Taken § 1.468A-0T Nuclear...) Definitions. (c) Special rules applicable to certain experimental nuclear facilities. § 1.468A-2TTreatment...

  1. 30 CFR 250.1751 - How do I decommission a pipeline in place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... payment of the service fee listed in § 250.125. Your application must include the following information... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I decommission a pipeline in place? 250.1751 Section 250.1751 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT...

  2. 30 CFR 250.1751 - How do I decommission a pipeline in place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... payment of the service fee listed in § 250.125. Your application must include the following information... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I decommission a pipeline in place? 250.1751 Section 250.1751 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT...

  3. 75 FR 8147 - Notice of Consideration of Amendment Request for Decommissioning of Analytical Bio-Chemistry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Notice of Consideration of Amendment Request for Decommissioning of Analytical Bio-Chemistry...-Chemistry Laboratories, Inc. (the Licensee) pursuant to 10 CFR part 30. By application dated October...

  4. 75 FR 80697 - Nuclear Decommissioning Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ...This document contains final regulations under section 468A of the Internal Revenue Code relating to deductions for contributions to trusts maintained for decommissioning nuclear power plants. These final regulations affect taxpayers that own an interest in a nuclear power plant and reflect recent statutory changes. The corresponding temporary regulations are...

  5. Decontamination and decommissioning of Shippingport commercial reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, J.

    1989-11-01

    To a certain degree, the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the Shippingport reactor was a joint venture with Duquesne Light Company. The structures that were to be decommissioned were to be removed to at least three feet below grade. Since the land had been leased from Duquesne Light, there was an agreement with them to return the land to them in a radiologically safe condition. The total enclosure volume for the steam and nuclear containment systems was about 1.3 million cubic feet, more than 80% of which was below ground. Engineering plans for the project were started in July of 1980 and the final environmental impact statement (EIS) was published in May of 1982. The plant itself was shut down in October of 1982 for end-of-life testing and defueling. The engineering services portion of the decommissioning plans was completed in September of 1983. DOE moved onto the site and took over from the Navy in September of 1984. Actual physical decommissioning began after about a year of preparation and was completed about 44 months later in July of 1989. This paper describes the main parts of D and D.

  6. Sodium Reactor Experiment decommissioning. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, J.W.; Conners, C.C.; Harris, J.M.; Marzec, J.M.; Ureda, B.F.

    1983-08-15

    The Sodium Reactor Experiment (SRE) located at the Rockwell International Field Laboratories northwest of Los Angeles was developed to demonstrate a sodium-cooled, graphite-moderated reactor for civilian use. The reactor reached full power in May 1958 and provided 37 GWh to the Southern California Edison Company grid before it was shut down in 1967. Decommissioning of the SRE began in 1974 with the objective of removing all significant radioactivity from the site and releasing the facility for unrestricted use. Planning documentation was prepared to describe in detail the equipment and techniques development and the decommissioning work scope. A plasma-arc manipulator was developed for remotely dissecting the highly radioactive reactor vessels. Other important developments included techniques for using explosives to cut reactor vessel internal piping, clamps, and brackets; decontaminating porous concrete surfaces; and disposing of massive equipment and structures. The documentation defined the decommissioning in an SRE dismantling plan, in activity requirements for elements of the decommissioning work scope, and in detailed procedures for each major task.

  7. 76 FR 77431 - Decommissioning Planning During Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ...; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 20, 30, 40, 50, 70, and 72 RIN 3150-AI55 Decommissioning Planning During Operations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft regulatory guide; request for comment. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing for public comment...

  8. 78 FR 663 - Decommissioning Planning During Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    ..., Regulatory Guide Development Branch, Division of Engineering, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. BILLING... / Friday, January 4, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 20, 30, 40, 50, 70, and 72 RIN 3150-AI55 Decommissioning Planning During Operations AGENCY:...

  9. Decontamination and decommissioning focus area. Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This report presents details of the facility deactivation, decommissioning, and material disposition research for development of new technologies sponsored by the Department of Energy. Topics discussed include; occupational safety, radiation protection, decontamination, remote operated equipment, mixed waste processing, recycling contaminated metals, and business opportunities.

  10. The Windscale Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor (WAGR) Decommissioning Project A Close Out Report for WAGR Decommissioning Campaigns 1 to 10 - 12474

    SciTech Connect

    Halliwell, Chris

    2012-07-01

    the various decommissioning campaigns. The use of low force compaction for insulation and soft wastes provided a simple, robust and cost effective solution as did the direct encapsulation of LLW steel components in the later stages of reactor decommissioning. Progress through early campaigns was good, often bettering the baseline schedule, especially when undertaking the repetitive tasks seen during Neutron Shield and Graphite Core decommissioning, once the operators had become experienced with the equipment, though delays became more pronounced, mainly as a result of increased failures due to the age and maintainability of the RDM and associated equipment. Extensive delays came about as a result of the unsupported insulation falling away from the pressure vessel during removal and the inability of the ventilation system to manage the sub micron particulate generated during IPOPI cutting operations, though the in house development of revised and new methodologies ultimately led to the successful completion of PV and I removal. In a programme spanning over 12 years, the decommissioning of the reactor pressure vessel and core led to the production 110 ILW and 75 LLW WAGR boxes, with 20 LLW ISO freight containers of primary reactor wastes, resulting in an overall packaged volume of approximately 2500 cubic metres containing the estimated 460 cubic metres of the reactor structure. (authors)

  11. An Application of a State of the Art 3D-CAD-Modeling and Simulation System for the Decommissioning of Nuclear Capital Equipment in Respect of German Prototype Spent Fuel Reprocessing Plant Karlsruhe

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, M.; Boese, U.; Doering, K.

    2002-02-25

    Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH is engaged in the optimization of decommissioning processes for several years. With respect of the complexity of the projects, the time frame and the budget it is necessary to find more effective ways to handle those tasks in the near future. The decommissioning and dismantling will be achieved in six steps taking into account that some processing equipment can be dismantled before and the rest only after the High Active Liquid Waste Concentrate (HAWC) has been vitrified approximately by mid of 2005. After the successful beginning of the remote dismantling of the main process cells from March 2000, the next remote dismantling project at the WAK was initiated April 2000.

  12. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE R REACTOR DISASSEMBLY BASIN IN SITU DECOMMISSIONING

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.; Blankenship, J.; Griffin, W.; Serrato, M.

    2009-12-03

    and testing, and fill placement strategy. This information is applicable to decommissioning both the 105-P and 105-R facilities. The ISD process for the entire 105-P and 105-R reactor facilities will require approximately 250,000 cubic yards (191,140 cubic meters) of grout and 2,400 cubic yards (1,840 cubic meters) of structural concrete which will be placed over a twelve month period to meet the accelerated schedule ISD schedule. The status and lessons learned in the SRS Reactor Facility ISD process will be described.

  13. 30 CFR 250.1753 - After I decommission a pipeline, what information must I submit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false After I decommission a pipeline, what... SHELF Decommissioning Activities Pipeline Decommissioning § 250.1753 After I decommission a pipeline, what information must I submit? Within 30 days after you decommission a pipeline, you must submit...

  14. 30 CFR 250.1754 - When must I remove a pipeline decommissioned in place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false When must I remove a pipeline decommissioned in... Decommissioning Activities Pipeline Decommissioning § 250.1754 When must I remove a pipeline decommissioned in place? You must remove a pipeline decommissioned in place if the Regional Supervisor determines that...

  15. 30 CFR 250.1750 - When may I decommission a pipeline in place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When may I decommission a pipeline in place... Decommissioning Activities Pipeline Decommissioning § 250.1750 When may I decommission a pipeline in place? You may decommission a pipeline in place when the Regional Supervisor determines that the pipeline...

  16. 30 CFR 250.1754 - When must I remove a pipeline decommissioned in place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When must I remove a pipeline decommissioned in... Decommissioning Activities Pipeline Decommissioning § 250.1754 When must I remove a pipeline decommissioned in place? You must remove a pipeline decommissioned in place if the Regional Supervisor determines that...

  17. 30 CFR 250.1754 - When must I remove a pipeline decommissioned in place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When must I remove a pipeline decommissioned in... SHELF Decommissioning Activities Pipeline Decommissioning § 250.1754 When must I remove a pipeline decommissioned in place? You must remove a pipeline decommissioned in place if the Regional Supervisor...

  18. 30 CFR 250.1753 - After I decommission a pipeline, what information must I submit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false After I decommission a pipeline, what... Decommissioning Activities Pipeline Decommissioning § 250.1753 After I decommission a pipeline, what information must I submit? Within 30 days after you decommission a pipeline, you must submit a written report...

  19. 30 CFR 250.1754 - When must I remove a pipeline decommissioned in place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When must I remove a pipeline decommissioned in... Decommissioning Activities Pipeline Decommissioning § 250.1754 When must I remove a pipeline decommissioned in place? You must remove a pipeline decommissioned in place if the Regional Supervisor determines that...

  20. 30 CFR 250.1753 - After I decommission a pipeline, what information must I submit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false After I decommission a pipeline, what... SHELF Decommissioning Activities Pipeline Decommissioning § 250.1753 After I decommission a pipeline, what information must I submit? Within 30 days after you decommission a pipeline, you must submit...

  1. 30 CFR 250.1750 - When may I decommission a pipeline in place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When may I decommission a pipeline in place... SHELF Decommissioning Activities Pipeline Decommissioning § 250.1750 When may I decommission a pipeline in place? You may decommission a pipeline in place when the Regional Supervisor determines that...

  2. 30 CFR 250.1750 - When may I decommission a pipeline in place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When may I decommission a pipeline in place... Decommissioning Activities Pipeline Decommissioning § 250.1750 When may I decommission a pipeline in place? You may decommission a pipeline in place when the Regional Supervisor determines that the pipeline...

  3. 30 CFR 250.1751 - How do I decommission a pipeline in place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I decommission a pipeline in place? 250... Decommissioning Activities Pipeline Decommissioning § 250.1751 How do I decommission a pipeline in place? You must do the following to decommission a pipeline in place: (a) Submit a pipeline...

  4. 30 CFR 250.1750 - When may I decommission a pipeline in place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false When may I decommission a pipeline in place... Decommissioning Activities Pipeline Decommissioning § 250.1750 When may I decommission a pipeline in place? You may decommission a pipeline in place when the Regional Supervisor determines that the pipeline...

  5. 30 CFR 250.1753 - After I decommission a pipeline, what information must I submit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false After I decommission a pipeline, what... SHELF Decommissioning Activities Pipeline Decommissioning § 250.1753 After I decommission a pipeline, what information must I submit? Within 30 days after you decommission a pipeline, you must submit...

  6. 30 CFR 250.1753 - After I decommission a pipeline, what information must I submit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false After I decommission a pipeline, what... OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Decommissioning Activities Pipeline Decommissioning § 250.1753 After I decommission a pipeline, what information must I submit? Within 30 days after you decommission a pipeline,...

  7. Decommissioning of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    E. Perry; J. Chrzanowski; C. Gentile; R. Parsells; K. Rule; R. Strykowsky; M. Viola

    2003-10-28

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory was operated from 1982 until 1997. The last several years included operations with mixtures of deuterium and tritium. In September 2002, the three year Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Project for TFTR was successfully completed. The need to deal with tritium contamination as well as activated materials led to the adaptation of many techniques from the maintenance work during TFTR operations to the D&D effort. In addition, techniques from the decommissioning of fission reactors were adapted to the D&D of TFTR and several new technologies, most notably the development of a diamond wire cutting process for complex metal structures, were developed. These techniques, along with a project management system that closely linked the field crews to the engineering staff who developed the techniques and procedures via a Work Control Center, resulted in a project that was completed safely, on time, and well below budget.

  8. Yankee Nuclear Power Station - analysis of decommissioning costs

    SciTech Connect

    Lessard, L.P.

    1996-12-31

    The preparation of decommissioning cost estimates for nuclear power generating stations has received a great deal of interest in the last few years. Owners are required by regulation to ensure that adequate funds are collected for the timely decommissioning of their facilities. The unexpected premature shutdown of several facilities and uncertainties associated with radioactive waste disposal and long-term spent-fuel storage, when viewed in the light of a deregulated electric utility industry, has caused many companies to reevaluate their decommissioning cost estimates. The decommissioning of the Yankee Nuclear Power Station represents the first large-scale project involving the complete decontamination and dismantlement of a commercial light water nuclear power generation facility in the United States. Since this pressurized water reactor operated for 32 yr at a respectable 74% lifetime capacity factor, the actual costs and resources required to decommission the plant, when compared with decommissioning estimates, will yield valuable benchmarking data.

  9. HEAVY WATER COMPONENTS TEST REACTOR DECOMMISSIONING

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, W.; Brinkley, D.

    2011-10-13

    The Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) Decommissioning Project was initiated in 2009 as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Removal Action with funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). This paper summarizes the history prior to 2009, the major D&D activities, and final end state of the facility at completion of decommissioning in June 2011. The HWCTR facility was built in 1961, operated from 1962 to 1964, and is located in the northwest quadrant of the Savannah River Site (SRS) approximately three miles from the site boundary. The HWCTR was a pressurized heavy water test reactor used to develop candidate fuel designs for heavy water power reactors. In December of 1964, operations were terminated and the facility was placed in a standby condition as a result of the decision by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission to redirect research and development work on heavy water power reactors to reactors cooled with organic materials. For about one year, site personnel maintained the facility in a standby status, and then retired the reactor in place. In the early 1990s, DOE began planning to decommission HWCTR. Yet, in the face of new budget constraints, DOE deferred dismantlement and placed HWCTR in an extended surveillance and maintenance mode. The doors of the reactor facility were welded shut to protect workers and discourage intruders. In 2009 the $1.6 billion allocation from the ARRA to SRS for site footprint reduction at SRS reopened the doors to HWCTR - this time for final decommissioning. Alternative studies concluded that the most environmentally safe, cost effective option for final decommissioning was to remove the reactor vessel, both steam generators, and all equipment above grade including the dome. The transfer coffin, originally above grade, was to be placed in the cavity vacated by the reactor vessel and the remaining below grade spaces would be grouted. Once all above equipment

  10. Reactor Design and Decommissioning - An Overview of International Activities in Post Fukushima Era1 - 12396

    SciTech Connect

    Devgun, Jas S.; Laraia, Michele; Dinner, Paul

    2012-07-01

    perspective in the post Fukushima -accident era. Accidents at the Fukushima Daiichi reactors in the aftermath of the devastating earthquake and tsunami of March 11, 2011 have slowed down the nuclear renaissance world-wide and may have accelerated decommissioning either because some countries have decided to halt or reduce nuclear, or because the new safety requirements may reduce life-time extensions. Even in countries such as the UK and France that favor nuclear energy production existing nuclear sites are more likely to be chosen as sites for future NPPs. Even as the site recovery efforts continue at Fukushima and any decommissioning decisions are farther into the future, the accidents have focused attention on the reactor designs in general and specifically on the Fukushima type BWRs. The regulatory authorities in many countries have initiated a re-examination of the design of the systems, structures and components and considerations of the capability of the station to cope with beyond-design basis events. Enhancements to SSCs and site features for the existing reactors and the reactors that will be built will also impact the decommissioning phase activities. The newer reactor designs of today not only have enhanced safety features but also take into consideration the features that will facilitate future decommissioning. Lessons learned from past management and operation of reactors as well as the lessons from decommissioning are incorporated into the new designs. However, in the post-Fukushima era, the emphasis on beyond-design-basis capability may lead to significant changes in SSCs, which eventually will also have impact on the decommissioning phase. Additionally, where some countries decide to phase out the nuclear power, many reactors may enter the decommissioning phase in the coming decade. While the formal updating and expanding of existing guidance documents for accident cleanup and decommissioning would benefit by waiting until the Fukushima project has progressed

  11. Progress on the application of aquaporins in Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xing; Mao, Wei; Liu, Xu-Sheng

    2013-07-01

    Aquaporins are a group of membrane proteins, which are known as the passages of water molecules transforming through the biological membrane lipid bilayer and distributing in almost all of the organs and tissues of living creatures. Aquaporins play important roles in maintaining water balance and internal environment stability. As a new entry point, aquaporins are involved in the researches on water metabolism, physiological regulation and pathological essence in viscera-state more and more widely in recent years. The literature on traditional Chinese medical studies, which related to aquaporins and were published in the last decade, was reviewed and the progress on application of aquaporin in Chinese medicine was summarized in this paper.

  12. Progress in applications of magnetic nanoparticles in biomedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankhurst, Q. A.; Thanh, N. T. K.; Jones, S. K.; Dobson, J.

    2009-11-01

    A progress report is presented on a selection of scientific, technological and commercial advances in the biomedical applications of magnetic nanoparticles since 2003. Particular attention is paid to (i) magnetic actuation for in vitro non-viral transfection and tissue engineering and in vivo drug delivery and gene therapy, (ii) recent clinical results for magnetic hyperthermia treatments of brain and prostate cancer via direct injection, and continuing efforts to develop new agents suitable for targeted hyperthermia following intravenous injection and (iii) developments in medical sensing technologies involving a new generation of magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents, and the invention of magnetic particle imaging as a new modality. Ongoing prospects are also discussed.

  13. Decommissioning: Nuclear Power's Missing Link. Worldwatch Paper 69.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Cynthia

    The processes and associated dilemmas of nuclear power plant decommissioning are reviewed in this publication. Decommissioning involves the clearing up and disposal of a retired nuclear plant and its equipment of such a way as to safeguard the public from the dangers of radioactivity. Related problem areas are identified and include: (1) closure…

  14. Optimising waste management performance - The key to successful decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Keep, Matthew

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: On the 1. of April 2005 the United Kingdom's Nuclear Decommissioning Authority became responsible for the enormous task of decommissioning the UK's civilian nuclear liabilities. The success of the NDA in delivering its key objectives of safer, cheaper and faster decommissioning depends on a wide range factors. It is self-evident, however, that the development of robust waste management practices by those charged with decommissioning liability will be at the heart of the NDA's business. In addition, the implementation of rigorous waste minimisation techniques throughout decommissioning will deliver tangible environmental benefits as well as better value for money and release funds to accelerate the decommissioning program. There are mixed views as to whether waste minimisation can be achieved during decommissioning. There are those that argue that the radioactive inventory already exists, that the amount of radioactivity cannot be minimised and that the focus of activities should be focused on waste management rather than waste minimisation. Others argue that the management and decommissioning of the UK's civilian nuclear liability will generate significant volumes of additional radioactive waste and it is in this area where the opportunities for waste minimisation can be realised. (author)

  15. Decommissioning considerations at a time of nuclear renaissance

    SciTech Connect

    Devgun, Jas S.

    2007-07-01

    At a time of renaissance in the nuclear power industry, when it is estimated that anywhere between 60 to 130 new power reactors may be built worldwide over the next 15 years, why should we focus on decommissioning? Yet it is precisely the time to examine what decommissioning considerations should be taken into account as the industry proceeds with developing final designs for new reactors and the construction on the new build begins. One of the lessons learned from decommissioning of existing reactors has been that decommissioning was not given much thought when these reactors were designed three or four decades ago. Even though decommissioning may be sixty years down the road from the time they go on line, eventually all reactors will be decommissioned. It is only prudent that new designs be optimized for eventual decommissioning, along with the other major considerations. The overall objective in this regard is that when the time comes for decommissioning, it can be completed in shorter time frames, with minimum generation of radioactive waste, and with better radiological safety. This will ensure that the tail end costs of the power reactors are manageable and that the public confidence in the nuclear power is sustained through the renaissance and beyond. (author)

  16. A review of decommissioning considerations for new reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Devgun, J.S.Ph.D.

    2008-07-01

    At a time of 'nuclear renaissance' when the focus is on advanced reactor designs and construction, it is easy to overlook the decommissioning considerations because such a stage in the life of the new reactors will be some sixty years down the road. Yet, one of the lessons learned from major decommissioning projects has been that decommissioning was not given much thought when these reactors were designed three or four decades ago. Hence, the time to examine what decommissioning considerations should be taken into account is right from the design stage with regular updates of the decommissioning strategy and plans throughout the life cycle of the reactor. Designing D and D into the new reactor designs is necessary to ensure that the tail end costs of the nuclear power are manageable. Such considerations during the design stage will facilitate a more cost-effective, safe and timely decommissioning of the facility when a reactor is eventually retired. This paper examines the current regulatory and industry design guidance for the new reactors with respect to the decommissioning issues and provides a review of the design considerations that can help optimize the reactor designs for the eventual decommissioning. (authors)

  17. Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorial issue, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2007-07-15

    The focus of the July-August issue is on Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorials. Major articles/reports in this issue include: An interesting year ahead of us, by Tom Christopher, AREVA NP Inc.; U.S.-India Civil Nuclear Cooperation; Decontamination and recycling of retired components, by Sean P. Brushart, Electric Power Research Institute; and, ANO is 33 and going strong, by Tyler Lamberts, Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. The industry innovation article is: Continuous improvement process, by ReNae Kowalewski, Arkansas Nuclear One.

  18. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Process of V1 NPP Decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Matejovic, Igor; Polak, Vincent

    2007-07-01

    Through the adoption of Governmental Resolution No. 801/99 the Slovak Republic undertook a commitment to shutdown units 1 and 2 of Jaslovske Bohunice V 1 NPP (WWER 230 reactor type) in 2006 and 2008 respectively. Therefore the more intensive preparation of a decommissioning documentation has been commenced. Namely, the VI NPP Conceptual Decommissioning Plan and subsequently the Environmental Impact Assessment Report of VI NPP Decommissioning were developed. Thus, the standard environmental impact assessment process was performed and the most suitable alternative of V1 NPP decommissioning was selected as a basis for development of further decommissioning documents. The status and main results of the environmental impact assessment process and EIA report are discussed in more detail in this paper. (authors)

  19. Progress on EUV-source development, tool integration and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebert, Rainer; Jagle, Bernhard; Wies, Christian; Stamm, Uwe; Kleinschmidt, Juergen; Gaebel, Kai; Schriever, Guido; Pankert, Joseph; Bergmann, Klaus; Neff, Willi; Egbert, Andre

    2005-06-01

    In EUV lithography, extreme ultraviolet radiation of 13.5 nm wavelength is used to print feature with resolutions consis-tent with the requirements of the 45 nm technology node or below. EUV is produced by heating xenon, tin, or other ele-ments to a plasma state, using either magnetic compression or laser irradiation. The key concerns-identified at the third EUV-Symposium-are the ability to supply defect-free masks and to increase source component lifetimes to meet the wafer throughput requirements for high volume manufacturing. Source availability and performance, however, made steady progress within the last years on two lines of actions: High power sources for high volume production and medium and low power sources for allowing in-house metrology and performance studies on EUV-mask-blanks, EUV-Masks, photoresists and optical elements. For "volume production sources" 50 W of collected EUV powers are already available by various suppliers. Compact discharge sources of medium power in the range of 10-100 mW / sr / 2% bandwidth and low power EUV-tubes of low-est cost of ownership and superior stability are ideal for peripheral metrology on components for EUV-Lithography. These low power sources supplement beamlines at storage rings by transferring EUV-applications to individual R&D labs. Proceeding integration of those EUV sources into tools for technology development like open frame and micro-exposers, and in tools for actinic metrology is the best proof of the progress. As of today, the first EUV sources and measurement equipment are available to be used for EUV system, mask, optics and component as well as lithography process development. With the commercial availability of EUV-plasma sources other applications using short wave-length, XUV-radiation will be feasible in a laboratory environment. Some examples of XUV applications are discussed.

  20. Decommissioning of the secondary containment of the steam generating heavy water reactor at UKAEA Winfrith

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, K.D.; Cornell, R.M.; Parkinson, S.J.; McIntyre, K.; Staples, A.

    2007-07-01

    The Winfrith SGHWR was a prototype nuclear power plant operated for 23 years by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) until 1990 when it was shut down permanently. The current Stage 1 decommissioning contract is part of a multi-stage strategy. It involves the removal of all the ancillary plant and equipment in the secondary containment and non-containment areas ahead of a series of contracts for the decommissioning of the primary containment, the reactor core and demolition of the building and ail remaining facilities. As an outcome of a competitive tending process, the Stage 1 decommissioning contract was awarded to NUKEM with operations commencing in April 2005. The decommissioning processes involved with these plant items will be described with some emphasis of the establishment of multiple work-fronts for the production, recovery, treatment and disposal of mainly tritium-contaminated waste arising from its contact with the direct cycle reactor coolant. The means of size reduction of a variety of large, heavy and complex items of plant made from a range of materials will also be described with some emphasis on the control of fumes during hot cutting operations and establishing effective containments within a larger secondary containment structure. Disposal of these wastes in a timely and cost-effective manner is a major challenge facing the decommissioning team and has required the development of a highly efficient means of packing the resultant materials into mainly one-third height IS0 containers for disposal as LLW. Details of the quantities of LLW and exempt wastes handled during this process will be given with a commentary about the difficulty in segregating these two waste streams efficiently. The paper sets out to demonstrate the considerable progress that has been made with these challenging decommissioning operations at the SGHWR plant and to highlight some of the techniques and processes that have contributed to the overall success of the

  1. Pre-decommissioning radiological characterization of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Boden, Sven; Cantrel, Eric

    2007-07-01

    The decommissioning of the BR3 (Belgian Reactor 3) approaches its final phase, in which the building structures are being decontaminated and either denuclearized for possible reuse or demolished. Apart from the presence of naturally occurring radionuclides in building materials, other radionuclides might be present due to contamination or activation. The overall process of the BR3 building structure D and D (Decontamination and Decommissioning) consists of the following steps: - make a complete inventory and preliminary categorize all elements based on historical data; characterize and determine the contamination or activation depth; - determine the decontamination method; - perform the decontamination and clean up; - a possible intermediate characterization followed by an additional decontamination step; and characterize for clearance. A good knowledge of the contamination and activation depth (second step) is fundamental in view of cost minimization. Currently, the method commonly used for the determination of the depth is based on core drilling and destructive analysis. Recently, we have introduced a complementary non destructive assay based on in-situ gamma spectroscopy. Field tests at BR3, both for contamination and activation, showed promising results. (authors)

  2. Lessons learnt from Ignalina NPP decommissioning project

    SciTech Connect

    NAISSE, Jean-Claude

    2007-07-01

    The Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) is located in Lithuania, 130 km north of Vilnius, and consists of two 1500 MWe RBMK type units, commissioned respectively in December 1983 and August 1987. On the 1. of May 2004, the Republic of Lithuania became a member of the European Union. With the protocol on the Ignalina Nuclear Power in Lithuania which is annexed to the Accession Treaty, the Contracting Parties have agreed: - On Lithuanian side, to commit closure of unit 1 of INPP before 2005 and of Unit 2 by 31 December 2009; - On European Union side, to provide adequate additional Community assistance to the efforts of Lithuania to decommission INPP. The paper is divided in two parts. The first part describes how, starting from this agreement, the project was launched and organized, what is its present status and which activities are planned to reach the final ambitious objective of a green field. To give a global picture, the content of the different projects that were defined and the licensing process will also be presented. In the second part, the paper will focus on the lessons learnt. It will explain the difficulties encountered to define the decommissioning strategy, considering both immediate or differed dismantling options and why the first option was finally selected. The paper will mention other challenges and problems that the different actors of the project faced and how they were managed and solved. The paper will be written by representatives of the Ignalina NPP and of the Project Management Unit. (author)

  3. Progresses on the theory and application of quartz crystal microbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Xiaoxi; Zhang, Xiangjun; Tian, Yu; Meng, Yonggang

    2016-09-01

    Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is a nondestructive technique in investigating the physical properties of solid-liquid interfacial layer in situ. It has the capability of quantifying the extremely tiny force change occurring on the interface by measuring the frequency shift Δ f and the energy dissipation change Δ D (or the half-bandwidth variation Δ Γ ). The quantitative analysis of QCM results greatly depends on the theoretical models, whose development could generally expand the comprehension of the properties at the interfaces and the application of QCM. In the paper, the progresses on the theory and applications of QCM are reviewed. The commonly used theoretical models for a single layer in the gas/liquid phase are essential for QCM in the fields of biosensor application, surface chemistry study, and interfacial rheology, such as the adsorption of proteins, the polymer and surfactants, and the viscoelastic properties of the interfacial liquid layer. The advanced models, incorporating the effects of boundary slip, surface roughness, microstructure, and micro/nanoscale confinement, are helpful for a better understanding and description of how these factors influence the various interfacial processes occurring on the solid-liquid interface, e.g., interfacial rheology and adsorption. The establishments of nanocell and the corresponding theoretical model make QCM a potential technique in studying the dynamic behavior of micro/nanoscale flow coupling with various surface effects by connecting a micro/nanofluidic channel to the nanocell.

  4. [Progress and potential applications of induced pluripotent stem cell technology].

    PubMed

    Wu, Cui-Ling; Zhang, Yu-Ming

    2014-08-01

    Differentiated somatic cells can be reprogrammed to a pluripotent state through ectopic expression of specific transcription factors. These reprogrammed cells, which were designated as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, are detected to exhibit unlimited self-renewal capacity and pluripotency. This breakthrough in stem cell research provides a powerful and novel tool for the studies on pathogenesis of diseases, reprogramming mechanism and development of new therapies. For this reason, the iPSC technology has currently become one of the hot topics in stem cells research. Recently, major progress in this field has been achieved: initially, researchers succeeded in inducing the reprogramming of mouse fibroblasts by retroviral transduction of four specific transcription factors; in succession, the accelerated development of iPSC technology by employing non-integrating viral vectors, non-viral vectors or removing the introduced foreign genes via gene knock-out has ensured the yields of much safer iPSC; meanwhile, some researches discovered the proofs that a number of micro molecular compounds were potent in accelerating the cellular reprogramming. For a prospect, iPSC are highly promising for regenerative medicine, disease modeling and drug screening. In this review, the recent progress in the generation of iPSC, prospects of their possible clinical applications and problems in the iPSC research are summarized and discussed.

  5. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 12. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The 664 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the twelfth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types -- technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions -- have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Decontamination and Decommissioning Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) Environmental Restoration Program. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and key word. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects, analyzes, and disseminates information on environmental restoration and remedial actions. RAPIC staff and resources are available to meet a variety of information needs. Contact the center at FTS 624-7764 or (615) 574-7764.

  6. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 12

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, P. T.; Webb, J. R.; Knox, N. P.; Goins, L. F.; Harrell, R. E.; Mallory, P. K.; Cravens, C. D.

    1991-09-01

    The 664 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the twelfth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types -- technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions -- have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Decontamination and Decommissioning Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) Environmental Restoration Program. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and key word. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects, analyzes, and disseminates information on environmental restoration and remedial actions. RAPIC staff and resources are available to meet a variety of information needs. Contact the center at FTS 624-7764 or (615) 574-7764.

  7. Environmental Problems Associated With Decommissioning The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E. B.; Jannik, G. T.; Marra, J. C.; Oskolkov, B. Ya.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Gaschak, S. P.; Maksymenko, A. M.; Maksymenko, V. M.; Martynenko, V. I.

    2009-11-09

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning.

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH DECOMMISSIONING THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT COOLING POND

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.

    2009-09-30

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning.

  9. Decontamination and decommissioning of the uranium mill and processing plant at Seelingstaedt, Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Barnekow, Ulf; Bauroth, Matthias; Paul, Michael

    2007-07-01

    In Eastern Germany uranium mining lasted from 1946 till 1990 including a production of in total 220,000 t of uranium. The Seelingstaedt Uranium Mill and Processing Plant, located in Thuringia, Germany, was one of two large uranium mills owned by Wismut. The mill was erected by 1960 and covered an area of 93 ha. From 1961 till 1991 a total of about 110 million t of different types of uranium ores were milled and processed at the Seelingstaedt mill. The mill produced ca. 110,000 t of uranium (in yellow cake). Demolition of the buildings and industrial facilities of the Seelingstaedt mill and processing plant site are nearly completed. The site is being decommissioned with respect to after-use aiming at afforestation and grasslands allowing for a stable plant succession. Decommissioning includes excavation and relocation of contaminated materials, reshaping of the site and construction of ditches for granting a stable surface runoff as well construction of access and maintenance roads. About 85% of the demolition and relocation works have been completed till to date. Last decommissioning works shall be completed by 2015. The present paper presents experiences made and progress achieved till to date. (authors)

  10. 26 CFR 1.468A-4T - Treatment of nuclear decommissioning fund (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Treatment of nuclear decommissioning fund...-4T Treatment of nuclear decommissioning fund (temporary). (a) In general. A nuclear decommissioning... income earned by the assets of the nuclear decommissioning fund. (b) Modified gross income. For...

  11. 26 CFR 1.468A-4 - Treatment of nuclear decommissioning fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Treatment of nuclear decommissioning fund. 1...-4 Treatment of nuclear decommissioning fund. (a) In general. A nuclear decommissioning fund is... by the assets of the nuclear decommissioning fund. (b) Modified gross income. For purposes of...

  12. 26 CFR 1.468A-4 - Treatment of nuclear decommissioning fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Treatment of nuclear decommissioning fund. 1...-4 Treatment of nuclear decommissioning fund. (a) In general. A nuclear decommissioning fund is... by the assets of the nuclear decommissioning fund. (b) Modified gross income. For purposes of...

  13. 26 CFR 1.468A-4 - Treatment of nuclear decommissioning fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Treatment of nuclear decommissioning fund. 1...-4 Treatment of nuclear decommissioning fund. (a) In general. A nuclear decommissioning fund is... by the assets of the nuclear decommissioning fund. (b) Modified gross income. For purposes of...

  14. 26 CFR 1.468A-4 - Treatment of nuclear decommissioning fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Treatment of nuclear decommissioning fund. 1...-4 Treatment of nuclear decommissioning fund. (a) In general. A nuclear decommissioning fund is... by the assets of the nuclear decommissioning fund. (b) Modified gross income. For purposes of...

  15. 30 CFR 250.1750 - When may I decommission a pipeline in place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When may I decommission a pipeline in place... Pipeline Decommissioning § 250.1750 When may I decommission a pipeline in place? You may decommission a pipeline in place when the Regional Supervisor determines that the pipeline does not constitute a...

  16. 30 CFR 250.1754 - When must I remove a pipeline decommissioned in place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When must I remove a pipeline decommissioned in... Activities Pipeline Decommissioning § 250.1754 When must I remove a pipeline decommissioned in place? You must remove a pipeline decommissioned in place if the Regional Supervisor determines that the...

  17. EDITORIAL: Progress in applications of magnetic nanoparticles in biomedicine Progress in applications of magnetic nanoparticles in biomedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Grady, Kevin

    2009-11-01

    In 2003 Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics published three sequential review articles on the subject of biomedical applications of magnetic nanoparticles. At that time there was growing interest in basic research on the potential of magnetic nanoparticles in biomedicine, including the appropriate methods to synthesize the particles and how to functionalize them. Following that initial publication the field has burgeoned and is now of a scale that could never have been envisaged in 2003. In the original review articles the authors anticipated applications in three specific technical areas of drug delivery and cell separation, MRI contrast enhancement and hyperthermic heating of biological materials, either for cell destruction or to increase the efficacy of other associated treatments such as chemotherapy. Six years later, significant progress has been made in all three areas, with applications already having been realized. More significantly, in vivo applications of both MRI contrast and hyperthermic cell heating have been achieved in human patients. This rapid progress in such a complex field is due to the need for non-invasive therapies and more effective management of serious conditions than is possible by the simple use of drugs alone. Imaging techniques such as MRI have also improved beyond all expectation and hence the possibility of improved contrast is particularly appealing. However, none of these applications could have been realized without dramatic progress beyond the state of the art in 2003 in the areas of particle synthesis and functionalization. Hence, remarkable progress has been made in all areas of the physics, chemistry and biochemistry of this subject, leading to many publications and perhaps a ten-fold increase in the number of those actively involved in research in this area. In 2003 we were most fortunate to have several expert authors review the subject. Quentin Pankhurst, Puerto Morales and Catherine Berry are now recognized as leaders

  18. DECOMMISSIONING OF A CAESIUM-137 SEALED SOURCE PRODUCTION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, A.; Abbott, H.

    2003-02-27

    Amersham owns a former Caesium-137 sealed source production facility. They commissioned RWE NUKEM to carry out an Option Study to determine a strategy for the management of this facility and then the subsequent decommissioning of it. The decommissioning was carried out in two sequential phases. Firstly robotic decommissioning followed by a phase of manual decommissioning. This paper describes the remote equipment designed built and operated, the robotic and manual decommissioning operations performed, the Safety Management arrangements and summarizes the lessons learned. Using the equipment described the facility was dismantled and decontaminated robotically. Some 2300kg of Intermediate Level Waste containing in the order of 4000Ci were removed robotically from the facility. Ambient dose rates were reduced from 100's of R per hour {gamma} to 100's of mR per hour {gamma}. The Telerobotic System was then removed to allow man access to complete the decommissioning. Manual decommissioning reduced ambient dose rates further to less than 1mR per hour {gamma} and loose contamination levels to less than 0.25Bq/cm2. This allowed access to the facility without respiratory protection.

  19. Decommissioning planning for the Joint European Torus Fusion Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, K.A.; Stevens, K.

    2007-07-01

    The Joint European Torus (JET) machine is an experimental nuclear fusion device built in the United Kingdom by a European consortium. Tritium was first introduced into the Torus as a fuel in 1991 and it is estimated that at the end of operations and following a period of tritium recovery there will be 2 grams of tritium in the vacuum circuit. All in-vessel items are also contaminated with beryllium and the structure of the machine is neutron activated. Decommissioning of the facility will commence immediately JET operations cease and the UKAEA's plan is to remove all the facilities and to landscape the site within 10 years. The decommissioning plan has been through a number of revisions since 1995 that have refined the detail, timescales and costs. The latest 2005 revision of the decommissioning plan highlighted the need to clarify the size reduction and packaging requirements for the ILW and LLW. Following a competitive tender exercise, a contract was placed by UKAEA with NUKEM Limited to undertake a review of the waste estimates and to produce a concept design for the planned size reduction and packaging facilities. The study demonstrated the benefit of refining decommissioning planning by increasing the detail as the decommissioning date approaches. It also showed how a review of decommissioning plans by independent personnel can explore alternative strategies and result in improved methodologies and estimates of cost and time. This paper aims to describe this part of the decommissioning planning process and draw technical and procedural conclusions. (authors)

  20. When a plant shuts down: The psychology of decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, J.; Crawford, A.C. )

    1993-07-01

    Within the next decade, 10 to 25 nuclear plants in the United States may be taken off line. Many will have reached the end of their 40-year life cycles, but others will be retired because the cost of operating them has begun to outweigh their economic benefit. Such was the case at Fort St. Vrain, the first decommissioning of a US commercial plant under new Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. Two major problems associated with decommissioning plants have been obvious: (1) the technical challenges and costs of decommissioning, and (2) the cost of maintaining and finally decommissioning a plant after a safe storage (SAFSTOR) period of approximately 60 years. What has received little attention is the challenge that affects not only the people who make a plant work, but the quality of the solutions to these problems: how to maintain effective organizational performance during the process of downsizing and decommissioning and/or SAFSTOR. The quality of technical solutions for closing a plant, as well as how successfully the decommissioning process is held within or below budget, will depend largely on how effectively the nuclear organization functions as a social unit. Technical and people issues are bound together. The difficulty is how to operate a plant effectively when plant personnel have no sense of long-term security. As the nuclear power industry matures and the pace for closing operating plants accelerates, the time has come to prepare for the widespread decommissioning of plants. The industry would be well served by conducting a selective, industry-wide evaluation of plants to assess its overall readiness for the decommissioning process. A decommissioning is not likely to be trouble free, but with a healthy appreciation for the human side of the process, it will undoubtedly go more smoothly than if approached as a matter of dismantling a machine.

  1. Safety Oversight of Decommissioning Activities at DOE Nuclear Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Zull, Lawrence M.; Yeniscavich, William

    2008-01-15

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (Board) is an independent federal agency established by Congress in 1988 to provide nuclear safety oversight of activities at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) defense nuclear facilities. The activities under the Board's jurisdiction include the design, construction, startup, operation, and decommissioning of defense nuclear facilities at DOE sites. This paper reviews the Board's safety oversight of decommissioning activities at DOE sites, identifies the safety problems observed, and discusses Board initiatives to improve the safety of decommissioning activities at DOE sites. The decommissioning of former defense nuclear facilities has reduced the risk of radioactive material contamination and exposure to the public and site workers. In general, efforts to perform decommissioning work at DOE defense nuclear sites have been successful, and contractors performing decommissioning work have a good safety record. Decommissioning activities have recently been completed at sites identified for closure, including the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, the Fernald Closure Project, and the Miamisburg Closure Project (the Mound site). The Rocky Flats and Fernald sites, which produced plutonium parts and uranium materials for defense needs (respectively), have been turned into wildlife refuges. The Mound site, which performed R and D activities on nuclear materials, has been converted into an industrial and technology park called the Mound Advanced Technology Center. The DOE Office of Legacy Management is responsible for the long term stewardship of these former EM sites. The Board has reviewed many decommissioning activities, and noted that there are valuable lessons learned that can benefit both DOE and the contractor. As part of its ongoing safety oversight responsibilities, the Board and its staff will continue to review the safety of DOE and contractor decommissioning activities at DOE defense nuclear sites.

  2. Prospects and progress of high Tc superconductivity for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, Robert R.; Sokoloski, Marty M.

    1991-01-01

    Current research in the area of high temperature superconductivity is organized around four key areas: communications and data, sensors and cryogenics, propulsion and power, and space materials technology. Recently, laser ablated YBa2Cu3O(7-x) films on LaAlO3 produced far superior RF characteristics when compared to metallic films on the same substrate. The achievement has enabled a number of unique microwave device applications, such as low insertion loss phase shifters and high-Q filters. Melt texturing and melt-quenched techniques are being used to produce bulk material with optimized magnetic properties. These yttrium-enriched materials possess enhanced flux pinning characteristics and could lead to prototype cryocooler bearings. Significant progress has also occurred in bolometer and current lead technology. Studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of high temperature superconducting materials on the performance and life of high power magnetoplasma-dynamic thrusters. Extended studies were also performed to evaluate the benefit of superconducting magnetic energy storage for LEO space station, lunar, and Mars mission applications.

  3. Progress towards biocompatible intracortical microelectrodes for neural interfacing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorfi, Mehdi; Skousen, John L.; Weder, Christoph; Capadona, Jeffrey R.

    2015-02-01

    To ensure long-term consistent neural recordings, next-generation intracortical microelectrodes are being developed with an increased emphasis on reducing the neuro-inflammatory response. The increased emphasis stems from the improved understanding of the multifaceted role that inflammation may play in disrupting both biologic and abiologic components of the overall neural interface circuit. To combat neuro-inflammation and improve recording quality, the field is actively progressing from traditional inorganic materials towards approaches that either minimizes the microelectrode footprint or that incorporate compliant materials, bioactive molecules, conducting polymers or nanomaterials. However, the immune-privileged cortical tissue introduces an added complexity compared to other biomedical applications that remains to be fully understood. This review provides a comprehensive reflection on the current understanding of the key failure modes that may impact intracortical microelectrode performance. In addition, a detailed overview of the current status of various materials-based approaches that have gained interest for neural interfacing applications is presented, and key challenges that remain to be overcome are discussed. Finally, we present our vision on the future directions of materials-based treatments to improve intracortical microelectrodes for neural interfacing.

  4. Progress for the Industry Application External Hazard Analyses Early Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Curtis L.; Prescott, Steven; Coleman, Justin; Ryan, Emerald; Bhandari, Bishwo; Sludern, Daniel; Pope, Chad; Sampath, Ram

    2015-09-01

    This report describes the current progress and status related to the Industry Application #2 focusing on External Hazards. For this industry application within the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) R&D Pathway, we will create the Risk-Informed Margin Management (RIMM) approach to represent meaningful (i.e., realistic facility representation) event scenarios and consequences by using an advanced 3D facility representation that will evaluate external hazards such as flooding and earthquakes in order to identify, model and analyze the appropriate physics that needs to be included to determine plant vulnerabilities related to external events; manage the communication and interactions between different physics modeling and analysis technologies; and develop the computational infrastructure through tools related to plant representation, scenario depiction, and physics prediction. One of the unique aspects of the RISMC approach is how it couples probabilistic approaches (the scenario) with mechanistic phenomena representation (the physics) through simulation. This simulation-based modeling allows decision makers to focus on a variety of safety, performance, or economic metrics. In this report, we describe the evaluation of various physics toolkits related to flooding representation. Ultimately, we will be coupling the flooding representation with other events such as earthquakes in order to provide coupled physics analysis for scenarios where interactions exist.

  5. [Progress of epigenetics and its therapeutic application in hepatocellular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Lingyun, Sun; Xingyu, Li; Zhiwei, Sun

    2015-06-01

    Liver cancer is a severe harmful disease. It is the fifth most frequently diagnosed cancer and second most frequent cause of cancer deaths worldwide. As the most popular histologic subtype of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), primary HCC is a heterogeneous disease whose management requires a multidisciplinary approach combining genetics, genomics and environmental toxicology. Although many molecular targeted therapies such as sorafenib have entered clinical application and proven effective, the cytotoxicity and other negative effects cannot be ignored. There is an urgent need to identify new therapeutic targets and drugs, which can kill HCC cells with high efficiency and specificity. Plenty of evidence suggests that occurrence and development of HCC is closely related with epigenetics. DNA methylation, histone modification, aberrant expression of miRNAs and dysregulated expression of many epigenetic regulatory genes are significantly altered in HCC. Epigenetic therapeutic drugs may reverse abnormal gene expression, thus controlling the occurrence and development of HCC. In this review, we summarize the latest research progresses in epigenetics and its therapeutic application in HCC,and the potential treatments to be used in the future.

  6. Progress Towards Biocompatible Intracortical Microelectrodes for Neural Interfacing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Jorfi, Mehdi; Skousen, John L.; Weder, Christoph; Capadona, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    To ensure long-term consistent neural recordings, next-generation intracortical microelectrodes are being developed with an increased emphasis on reducing the neuro-inflammatory response. The increased emphasis stems from the improved understanding of the multifaceted role that inflammation may play in disrupting both biologic and abiologic components of the overall neural interface circuit. To combat neuro-inflammation and improve recording quality, the field is actively progressing from traditional inorganic materials towards approaches that either minimizes the microelectrode footprint or that incorporate compliant materials, bioactive molecules, conducting polymers or nanomaterials. However, the immune-privileged cortical tissue introduces an added complexity compared to other biomedical applications that remains to be fully understood. This review provides a comprehensive reflection on the current understanding of the key failure modes that may impact intracortical microelectrode performance. In addition, a detailed overview of the current status of various materials-based approaches that have gained interest for neural interfacing applications is presented, and key challenges that remain to be overcome are discussed. Finally, we present our vision on the future directions of materials-based treatments to improve intracortical microelectrodes for neural interfacing. PMID:25460808

  7. Constructing Predictive Estimates for Worker Exposure to Radioactivity During Decommissioning: Analysis of Completed Decommissioning Projects - Master Thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Dettmers, Dana Lee; Eide, Steven Arvid

    2002-10-01

    An analysis of completed decommissioning projects is used to construct predictive estimates for worker exposure to radioactivity during decommissioning activities. The preferred organizational method for the completed decommissioning project data is to divide the data by type of facility, whether decommissioning was performed on part of the facility or the complete facility, and the level of radiation within the facility prior to decommissioning (low, medium, or high). Additional data analysis shows that there is not a downward trend in worker exposure data over time. Also, the use of a standard estimate for worker exposure to radioactivity may be a best estimate for low complete storage, high partial storage, and medium reactor facilities; a conservative estimate for some low level of facility radiation facilities (reactor complete, research complete, pits/ponds, other), medium partial process facilities, and high complete research facilities; and an underestimate for the remaining facilities. Limited data are available to compare different decommissioning alternatives, so the available data are reported and no conclusions can been drawn. It is recommended that all DOE sites and the NRC use a similar method to document worker hours, worker exposure to radiation (person-rem), and standard industrial accidents, injuries, and deaths for all completed decommissioning activities.

  8. Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorial issue, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2008-07-15

    The focus of the July-August issue is on Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorials. Articles and reports in this issue include: D and D technical paper summaries; The role of nuclear power in turbulent times, by Tom Chrisopher, AREVA, NP, Inc.; Enthusiastic about new technologies, by Jack Fuller, GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy; It's important to be good citizens, by Steve Rus, Black and Veatch Corporation; Creating Jobs in the U.S., by Guy E. Chardon, ALSTOM Power; and, and, An enviroment and a community champion, by Tyler Lamberts, Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. The Industry Innovations article is titled Best of the best TIP achievement 2008, by Edward Conaway, STP Nuclear Operating Company.

  9. Lessons Learned from the NASA Plum Brook Reactor Facility Decommissioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    NASA has been conducting decommissioning activities at its PBRF for the last decade. As a result of all this work there have been several lessons learned both good and bad. This paper presents some of the more exportable lessons.

  10. RNA Interference in Moths: Mechanisms, Applications, and Progress

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jin; Wang, Xia-Fei; Chen, Peng; Liu, Fang-Tao; Zheng, Shuai-Chao; Ye, Hui; Mo, Ming-He

    2016-01-01

    The vast majority of lepidopterans, about 90%, are moths. Some moths, particularly their caterpillars, are major agricultural and forestry pests in many parts of the world. However, some other members of moths, such as the silkworm Bombyx mori, are famous for their economic value. Fire et al. in 1998 initially found that exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) can silence the homolog endogenous mRNA in organisms, which is called RNA interference (RNAi). Soon after, the RNAi technique proved to be very promising not only in gene function determination but also in pest control. However, later studies demonstrate that performing RNAi in moths is not as straightforward as shown in other insect taxa. Nevertheless, since 2007, especially after 2010, an increasing number of reports have been published that describe successful RNAi experiments in different moth species either on gene function analysis or on pest management exploration. So far, more than 100 peer-reviewed papers have reported successful RNAi experiments in moths, covering 10 families and 25 species. By using classic and novel dsRNA delivery methods, these studies effectively silence the expression of various target genes and determine their function in larval development, reproduction, immunology, resistance against chemicals, and other biological processes. In addition, a number of laboratory and field trials have demonstrated that RNAi is also a potential strategy for moth pest management. In this review, therefore, we summarize and discuss the mechanisms and applications of the RNAi technique in moths by focusing on recent progresses. PMID:27775569

  11. Technology development, evaluation, and application (TDEA) FY 1997 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, L.G.

    1998-05-01

    The public expects that the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) will operate in a manner that prevents negative impacts to the environment and protects the safety and health of its employees and the public. To achieve this goal within budget, the Department of Energy (DOE) and LANL must develop new and improved environment, safety, and health (ES and H) technologies and implement innovative, more cost-effective ES and H approaches to operations. In FY95, the Environment, Safety, and Health (ESH) Division initiated a Technology Development, Evaluation, and Application (TDEA) program. The purpose of this unique program is to test and develop technologies that solve LANL ES and H problems and improve the safety of LANL operations. This progress report presents the results of 10 projects funded in FY97 by the TDEA Committee of the Environment, Safety, and Health Division. Products generated from the projects funded in FY97 included implementation of radiation worker dosimetric monitoring systems (two); evaluation and validation of cost-effective animal-tracking systems for environmental studies (two); evaluation of personal protective equipment (two); and development of a method for optimal placement of continuous air monitors in the workplace.

  12. The Decommissioning of the Trino Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Brusa, L.; DeSantis, R.; Nurden, P. L.; Walkden, P.; Watson, B.

    2002-02-27

    Following a referendum in Italy in 1987, the four Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) owned and operated by the state utility ENEL were closed. After closing the NPPs, ENEL selected a ''safestore'' decommissioning strategy; anticipating a safestore period of some 40-50 years. This approach was consistent with the funds collected during plant operation, and was reinforced by the lack of both a waste repository and a set of national free release limits for contaminated materials in Italy. During 1999, twin decisions were made to privatize ENEL and to transform the nuclear division into a separate subsidiary of the ENEL group. This group was renamed Sogin and during the following year, ownership of the company was transferred to the Italian Treasury. On formation, Sogin was asked by the Italian government to review the national decommissioning strategy. The objective of the review was to move from a safestore strategy to a prompt decommissioning strategy, with the target of releasing all of the nuclear sites by 2020. It was recognized that this target was conditional upon the availability of a national LLW repository together with interim stores for both spent fuel and HLW by 2009. The government also agreed that additional costs caused by the acceleration of the decommissioning program would be considered as stranded costs. These costs will be recovered by a levy on the kWh price of electricity, a process established and controlled by the Regulator of the Italian energy sector. Building on the successful collaboration to develop a prompt decommissioning strategy for the Latina Magnox reactor (1), BNFL and Sogin agreed to collaborate on an in depth study for the prompt decommissioning of the Sogin PWR at Trino. BNFL is currently decommissioning six NPPs and is at an advanced stage of planning for two further units, having completed a full and rigorous exercise to develop Baseline Decommissioning Plans (BDP's) for these stations. The BDP exercise utilizes the full range of

  13. Radioactive waste management and decommissioning of accelerator facilities.

    PubMed

    Ulrici, Luisa; Magistris, Matteo

    2009-11-01

    During the operation of high-energy accelerators, the interaction of radiation with matter can lead to the activation of the machine components and of the surrounding infrastructures. As a result of maintenance operation and during decommissioning of the installation, considerable amounts of radioactive waste are evacuated and shall be managed according to the radiation-protection legislation. This paper gives an overview of the current practices in radioactive waste management and decommissioning of accelerators.

  14. Release and disposal of materials during decommissioning of Siemens MOX fuel fabrication plant at Hanau, Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, Werner; Baumann, Roland

    2007-07-01

    In September 2006, decommissioning and dismantling of the Siemens MOX Fuel Fabrication Plant in Hanau were completed. The process equipment and the fabrication buildings were completely decommissioned and dismantled. The other buildings were emptied in whole or in part, although they were not demolished. Overall, the decommissioning process produced approximately 8500 Mg of radioactive waste (including inactive matrix material); clearance measurements were also performed for approximately 5400 Mg of material covering a wide range of types. All the equipment in which nuclear fuels had been handled was disposed of as radioactive waste. The radioactive waste was conditioned on the basis of the requirements specified for the projected German final disposal site 'Schachtanlage Konrad'. During the pre-conditioning, familiar processes such as incineration, compacting and melting were used. It has been shown that on account of consistently applied activity containment (barrier concept) during operation and dismantling, there has been no significant unexpected contamination of the plant. Therefore almost all the materials that were not a priori destined for radioactive waste were released without restriction on the basis of the applicable legal regulations (chap. 29 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance), along with the buildings and the plant site. (authors)

  15. DEACTIVATION AND DECOMMISSIONING ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY FOR THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT COMPLEX, HANFORD NUCLEAR RESERVATION

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, A.M.; Heineman, R.; Norton, S.; Miller, M.; Oates, L.

    2003-02-27

    Maintaining compliance with environmental regulatory requirements is a significant priority in successful completion of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Nuclear Material Stabilization (NMS) Project. To ensure regulatory compliance throughout the deactivation and decommissioning of the PFP complex, an environmental regulatory strategy was developed. The overall goal of this strategy is to comply with all applicable environmental laws and regulations and/or compliance agreements during PFP stabilization, deactivation, and eventual dismantlement. Significant environmental drivers for the PFP Nuclear Material Stabilization Project include the Tri-Party Agreement; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA); the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA); the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA); the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA); the Clean Air Act (CAA), and the Clean Water Act (CWA). Recent TPA negotiation s with Ecology and EPA have resulted in milestones that support the use of CERCLA as the primary statutory framework for decommissioning PFP. Milestones have been negotiated to support the preparation of Engineering Evaluations/Cost Analyses for decommissioning major PFP buildings. Specifically, CERCLA EE/CA(s) are anticipated for the following scopes of work: Settling Tank 241-Z-361, the 232-Z Incinerator, , the process facilities (eg, 234-5Z, 242, 236) and the process facility support buildings. These CERCLA EE/CA(s) are for the purpose of analyzing the appropriateness of the slab-on-grade endpoint Additionally, agreement was reached on performing an evaluation of actions necessary to address below-grade structures or other structures remaining after completion of the decommissioning of PFP. Remaining CERCLA actions will be integrated with other Central Plateau activities at the Hanford site.

  16. Suspended-sediment concentrations during dam decommissioning in the Elwha River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curran, Christopher A.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Duda, Jeffrey J.

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, the National Park Service commenced the incremental removal of two century-old dams along the Elwha River, Washington, in order to restore ecological and sediment-delivery processes (U.S. Department of the Interior, 1996; Duda and others, 2008, 2011; Curran and others, 2009). Elwha Dam (32-m high; 8 km from the Strait of Juan de Fuca) was completed in 1913, and Glines Canyon Dam (64-m high; 22 km from the Strait of Juan de Fuca) was completed in 1927 (fig. 1). Elwha Dam formed Lake Aldwell and Glines Canyon Dam formed Lake Mills. During the decommissioning period, each dam was notched from the top down in progressive steps to allow a metered release of sediment to downstream river reaches (Randle and others, 1996; Randle and Bountry, 2010; Czuba and others, 2011). Throughout the project, decommissioning was periodically ceased (termed “deconstruction hold periods”) to reduce effects of increased sediment concentration on migrating fish or to accomplish sediment-transport management targets (U.S. Department of the Interior, 1996; Czuba and others, 2011). Dam decommissioning started in September 2011 with both dams. Elwha Dam was completely removed by April 2012, which permitted unregulated release of sediment trapped in Lake Aldwell. Lake Mills Reservoir ceased to exist in autumn 2012 as the prograding delta of sediment in the reservoir finally abutted the lowered Glines Canyon Dam structure. In cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the National Park Service, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was asked to measure turbidity and calculate suspended-sediment concentrations in the lower Elwha River during the dam-decommissioning and river-restoration project. During the project, USGS operated a turbidity sensor at a water-quality monitoring station in the lower Elwha River (fig. 1), which collected data at 15-min increments. The USGS also collected suspended-sediment samples from the lower Elwha River about 380 m downstream of the

  17. DEACTIVATION AND DECOMMISSIONING (D AND D) TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the ongoing task of making Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D) operations more efficient, this subtask has addressed the need to integrate existing characterization technologies with decontamination technologies in order to provide real-time data on the progress of contamination removal. Specifically, technologies associated with concrete decontamination and/or removal have been examined with the goal of integrating existing technologies and commercializing the resulting hybrid. The Department of Energy (DOE) has estimated that 23 million cubic meters of concrete will require disposition as 1200 buildings undergo the D&D process. All concrete removal to be performed will also necessitate extensive use of characterization techniques. The in-process characterization presents the most potential for improvement and cost-savings as compared to other types. Current methods for in-process characterization usually require cessation of work to allow for radiation surveys to assess the rate of decontamination. Combining together decontamination and characterization technologies would allow for in-process evaluation of decontamination efforts. Since the present methods do not use in-process evaluations for the progress of decontamination, they may allow for ''overremoval'' of materials (removal of contaminated along with non-contaminated materials). Overremoval increases the volume of waste and therefore the costs associated with disposal. Integrating technologies would facilitate the removal of only contaminated concrete and reduce the total volume of radioactive waste, which would be disposed of. This would eventually ensure better productivity and time savings. This project presents a general procedure to integrate the above-mentioned technologies in the form of the Technology Integration Module (TIM) along with combination lists of commercially available decontamination and characterization technologies. The scope of the project has also been expanded by FIU

  18. The unit cost factors and calculation methods for decommissioning - Cost estimation of nuclear research facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan-Seong Jeong; Dong-Gyu Lee; Chong-Hun Jung; Kune-Woo Lee

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The uncertainties of decommissioning costs increase high due to several conditions. Decommissioning cost estimation depends on the complexity of nuclear installations, its site-specific physical and radiological inventories. Therefore, the decommissioning costs of nuclear research facilities must be estimated in accordance with the detailed sub-tasks and resources by the tasks of decommissioning activities. By selecting the classified activities and resources, costs are calculated by the items and then the total costs of all decommissioning activities are reshuffled to match with its usage and objectives. And the decommissioning cost of nuclear research facilities is calculated by applying a unit cost factor method on which classification of decommissioning works fitted with the features and specifications of decommissioning objects and establishment of composition factors are based. Decommissioning costs of nuclear research facilities are composed of labor cost, equipment and materials cost. Of these three categorical costs, the calculation of labor costs are very important because decommissioning activities mainly depend on labor force. Labor costs in decommissioning activities are calculated on the basis of working time consumed in decommissioning objects and works. The working times are figured out of unit cost factors and work difficulty factors. Finally, labor costs are figured out by using these factors as parameters of calculation. The accuracy of decommissioning cost estimation results is much higher compared to the real decommissioning works. (authors)

  19. Revised Analyses of Decommissioning Reference Non-Fuel-Cycle Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    MC Bierschbach; DR Haffner; KJ Schneider; SM Short

    2002-12-01

    Cost information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of non-fuel-cycle nuclear facilities that represent a significant decommissioning task in terms of decontamination and disposal activities. This study is a re-evaluation of the original study (NUREG/CR-1754 and NUREG/CR-1754, Addendum 1). The reference facilities examined in this study are the same as in the original study and include: a laboratory for the manufacture of {sup 3}H-labeled compounds; a laboratory for the manufacture of {sup 14}C-labeled compounds; a laboratory for the manufacture of {sup 123}I-labeled compounds; a laboratory for the manufacture of {sup 137}Cs sealed sources; a laboratory for the manufacture of {sup 241}Am sealed sources; and an institutional user laboratory. In addition to the laboratories, three reference sites that require some decommissioning effort were also examined. These sites are: (1) a site with a contaminated drain line and hold-up tank; (2) a site with a contaminated ground surface; and (3) a tailings pile containing uranium and thorium residues. Decommissioning of these reference facilities and sites can be accomplished using techniques and equipment that are in common industrial use. Essentially the same technology assumed in the original study is used in this study. For the reference laboratory-type facilities, the study approach is to first evaluate the decommissioning of individual components (e.g., fume hoods, glove boxes, and building surfaces) that are common to many laboratory facilities. The information obtained from analyzing the individual components of each facility are then used to determine the cost, manpower requirements and dose information for the decommissioning of the entire facility. DECON, the objective of the 1988 Rulemaking for materials facilities, is the decommissioning alternative evaluated for the reference laboratories because it results in the release of the facility for restricted or unrestricted use as soon as possible. For a

  20. Deactivation and Decommissioning Planning and Analysis with Geographic Information Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, James S.; Koffman, Larry D.; Austin, William E.

    2008-01-15

    From the mid-1950's through the 1980's, the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site produced nuclear materials for the weapons stockpile, for medical and industrial applications, and for space exploration. Although SRS has a continuing defense-related mission, the overall site mission is now oriented toward environmental restoration and management of legacy chemical and nuclear waste. With the change in mission, SRS no longer has a need for much of the infrastructure developed to support the weapons program. This excess infrastructure, which includes over 1000 facilities, will be decommissioned and demolished over the forthcoming years. Dis-positioning facilities for decommissioning and deactivation requires significant resources to determine hazards, structure type, and a rough-order-of-magnitude estimate for the decommissioning and demolition cost. Geographic information systems (GIS) technology was used to help manage the process of dis-positioning infrastructure and for reporting the future status of impacted facilities. Several thousand facilities of various ages and conditions are present at SRS. Many of these facilities, built to support previous defense-related missions, now represent a potential hazard and cost for maintenance and surveillance. To reduce costs and the hazards associated with this excess infrastructure, SRS has developed an ambitious plan to decommission and demolish unneeded facilities in a systematic fashion. GIS technology was used to assist development of this plan by: providing locational information for remote facilities, identifying the location of known waste units adjacent to buildings slated for demolition, and for providing a powerful visual representation of the impact of the overall plan. Several steps were required for the development of the infrastructure GIS model. The first step involved creating an accurate and current GIS representation of the infrastructure data. This data is maintained in a Computer Aided Design

  1. Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects. Project summary report, Elk River Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.L.; Adams, J.A.

    1982-12-01

    This report summarizes information concerning the decommissioning of the Elk River Reactor. Decommissioning data from available documents were input into a computerized data-handling system in a manner that permits specific information to be readily retrieved. The information is in a form that assists the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in its assessment of decommissioning alternatives and ALARA methods for future decommissionings projects. Samples of computer reports are included in the report. Decommissioning of other reactors, including NRC reference decommissioning studies, will be described in similar reports.

  2. An overview of U.S. decommissioning experience -- A basic introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Boing, L.E.

    1998-03-09

    This paper presents an overview of the US experiences in the decommissioning technical area. Sections included are: (1) an overview of the magnitude of the problem, (2) a review of the US decommissioning process, (3) regulation of decommissioning, (4) regulatory and funding requirements for decommissioning, and (5) a general overview of all on-going and completed decommissioning projects to date in the US. The final section presents a review of some issues in the decommissioning area currently being debated in the technical specialists community.

  3. Cost Savings through Innovation in Decontamination, Decommissioning, and Dismantlement

    SciTech Connect

    Neal A. Yancey

    2003-02-27

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost effective technologies for the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsored large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs) to help bring new technologies into the D&D programs. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) LSDDP generated a list of needs defining specific problems where improved technologies could be incorporated into ongoing D&D tasks. The needs fell into 5 major categories--characterization, dismantlement, safety, material dispositioning, and decontamination. Technologies were carefully selected that provide a large benefit for a small investment. The technologies must provide significant improvements in cost, safety, radiation exposure, waste volume reduction, or schedule savings and widely applicable throughout the DOE complex. The LSDDP project provided training for the new technologies and worked with technology suppliers to resolve any questions that arose. Since 1998, 26 technologies have been demonstrated or deployed through the LSDDP for the D&D program at the INEEL. Of the 26 demonstrated and deployed technologies, 14 were in characterization, 3 were in decontamination, 4 were in dismantlement, 3 were in safety, and 2 were in material dispositioning. To promote the use of these technologies at other sites within the DOE complex, the LSDDP team published fact sheets, videos, technology summary reports, articles in INEEL star newspaper, posters, and maintained an internet home page on the project. As a result, additional deployments have taken place at the Hanford, Mound, Fernald, Oak Ridge, Ashtabula, and West Valley. Eight of the 26 technologies evaluated were developed in foreign countries. The technologies demonstrated have been shown to be faster, less expensive, and/or safer. The

  4. Mobile workstation for decontamination and decommissioning operations

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, W.L.; Osborn, J.F.; Thompson, B.R.

    1993-10-01

    This project is an interdisciplinary effort to develop effective mobile worksystems for decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of facilities within the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex. These mobile worksystems will be configured to operate within the environmental and logistical constraints of such facilities and to perform a number of work tasks. Our program is designed to produce a mobile worksystem with capabilities and features that are matched to the particular needs of D&D work by evolving the design through a series of technological developments, performance tests and evaluations. The project has three phases. In this the first phase, an existing teleoperated worksystem, the Remote Work Vehicle (developed for use in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building basement), was enhanced for telerobotic performance of several D&D operations. Its ability to perform these operations was then assessed through a series of tests in a mockup facility that contained generic structures and equipment similar to those that D&D work machines will encounter in DOE facilities. Building upon the knowledge gained through those tests and evaluations, a next generation mobile worksystem, the RWV II, and a more advanced controller will be designed, integrated and tested in the second phase, which is scheduled for completion in January 1995. The third phase of the project will involve testing of the RWV II in the real DOE facility.

  5. Successful decommissioning and demolition at Weldon Spring

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.L.

    1994-12-31

    B&W Nuclear Environmental Services, Inc. (B&W NESI) and OHM Corporation (OHM) formed a joint venture company, B&W/OHM Weldon Spring, Inc. (B&W/OHM WSI) to perform work at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). This joint venture company combines the hazardous and toxic waste remediation experience of OHM with the radiological decontamination and decommissioning experience of B&W NESI. Together, the two companies have over 60 yr of relevant experience and a strong record of performance in resolving problems associated with nuclear and hazardous materials contamination. The B&W/OHM WSI is under contract to MK-Ferguson, DOE`s project management contractor (PMC), at WSSRAP to provide supervision, tools, labor, and equipment to decontaminate and dismantle 11 buildings at the chemical plant site. The Weldon Spring site, located in St. Charles, Missouri, was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission from 1957 through 1966 as a feed material production site to process uranium and thorium ore concentrates. Since the cessation of production activity at this site, the buildings and structures contained in the chemical plant have badly deteriorated, posing an immediate potential threat to workers, the general public, and the environment, prompting the DOE to initiate an Expedited Response Action to decontaminate, empty, and dismantle all the buildings and structures.

  6. Decommissioning of Active Ventilation Systems in a Nuclear R and D Facility to Prepare for Building Demolition (Whiteshell Laboratories Decommissioning Project, Canada) - 13073

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, Brian; May, Doug; Howlett, Don; Bilinsky, Dennis

    2013-07-01

    Whiteshell Laboratories (WL) is a nuclear research establishment owned by the Canadian government and operated by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) since the early 1960's. WL is currently under a decommissioning license and the mandate is to remediate the nuclear legacy liabilities in a safe and cost effective manner. The WL Project is the first major nuclear decommissioning project in Canada. A major initiative underway is to decommission and demolish the main R and D Laboratory complex. The Building 300 R and D complex was constructed to accommodate laboratories and offices which were mainly used for research and development associated with organic-cooled reactors, nuclear fuel waste management, reactor safety, advanced fuel cycles and other applications of nuclear energy. Building 300 is a three storey structure of approximately 16,000 m{sup 2}. In order to proceed with building demolition, the contaminated systems inside the building have to be characterized, removed, and the waste managed. There is a significant focus on volume reduction of radioactive waste for the WL project. The active ventilation system is one of the significant contaminated systems in Building 300 that requires decommissioning and removal. The active ventilation system was designed to manage hazardous fumes and radioactivity from ventilation devices (e.g., fume hoods, snorkels and glove boxes) and to prevent the escape of airborne hazardous material outside of the laboratory boundary in the event of an upset condition. The system includes over 200 ventilation devices and 32 active exhaust fan units and high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. The strategy to remove the ventilation system was to work from the laboratory end back to the fan/filter system. Each ventilation duct was radiologically characterized. Fogging was used to minimize loose contamination. Sections of the duct were removed by various cutting methods and bagged for temporary storage prior to disposition

  7. The Chernobyl NPP decommissioning: Current status and alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Mikolaitchouk, H.; Steinberg, N.

    1996-08-01

    After the Chernobyl accident of April 26, 1986, many contradictory decisions were taken concerning the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) future. The principal source of contradictions was a deadline for a final shutdown of the Chernobyl NPP units. Alterations in a political and socioeconomic environment resulted in the latest decision of the Ukrainian Authorities about 2000 as a deadline for a beginning of the Chernobyl NPP decommissioning. The date seems a sound compromise among the parties concerned. However, in order to meet the data a lot of work should be done. First of all, a decommissioning strategy has to be established. The problem is complicated due to both site-specific aspects and an absence of proven solutions for the RBMK-type reactor decommissioning. In the paper the problem of decommissioning option selection is considered taking into account an influence of the following factors: relevant legislative and regulatory requirements; resources required to carry out decommissioning (man-power, equipment, technologies, waste management infrastructure, etc.); radiological and physical status of the plant, including structural integrity and predictable age and weather effects; impact of planned activities at the destroyed unit 4 and within the 30-km exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP; planed use of the site; socio-economic considerations.

  8. PROGRESS REPORT ON THE DSSTOX DATABASE NETWORK: NEWLY LAUNCHED WEBSITE, APPLICATIONS, FUTURE PLANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Progress Report on the DSSTox Database Network: Newly Launched Website, Applications, Future Plans

    Progress will be reported on development of the Distributed Structure-Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) Database Network and the newly launched public website that coordinates and...

  9. [Progress of research on preparation and application of praziquantel].

    PubMed

    Wu, De-Zhi; Ma, Zheng; Liu, Yun-Feng; Zhu, Wei-Feng; Ning, An

    2013-04-01

    Praziquantel remains the drug of choice for schistosomiasis, but it has the low bioavailability and single dosage form. This paper reviews the properties of praziquantel in vivo and in vitro, the pathogenic characteristics of schistosomiasis, and the progress of research on the formation of praziquantel, so as to enhance the efficiency of praziquantel against schistosomiasis and provide consults for relevant drug researches.

  10. Beneficial Re-use of Decommissioned Former Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Boing, L.E.

    1997-06-01

    With the decision to decommission a nuclear facility, it is necessary to evaluate whether to fully demolish a facility or to re-use the facility in some capacity. This evaluation is often primarily driven by both the past mission of the site and the facility and the site's perceived future mission. In the case where the facility to be decommissioned is located within a large research or industrial complex and represents a significant resource to the site's future mission, it may be a perfect candidate to be re-used in some fashion. However, if the site is a rather remote older facility with little chance of being modified to today's standards for its re-use, the chances for its re-use will be substantially reduced. In this presentation, some specific cases of former nuclear facilities being decommissioned and re-used will be reviewed and some factors required to be considered in making this decision will be reviewed.

  11. Completion of decommissioning: Monitoring for site release and license termination

    SciTech Connect

    Boing, L.E.

    1997-08-01

    To request termination of a license upon completion of dismantling or decommissioning activities, documenting any residual radioactivity to show that the levels are environmentally acceptable will be necessary. When the regulators approve the decommissioning plan, they establish what the release criteria for the decommissioned site will be at the time of the site release and license termination. The criteria are numeric guidelines for direct radiation in soils and on surfaces. If the regulatory body finds that the measured on-site values are below the guidelines, the site will be acceptable for unrestricted release (no radiological controls or future use). If areas are found above those values, more decontamination or cleanup of these areas may be required unless the regulatory body grants an exemption.

  12. Extracellular photosensitization reaction progress and effect on myocardial cell necrosis for arrhythmia treatment application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Emiyu; Takahashi, Mei; Ito, Arisa; Arai, Tsunenori

    2013-06-01

    We investigated detailed extracellular photosensitization reaction effect on rat myocardial cells and the photosensitization reaction progress in a well to study a new application of photodynamic therapy for arrhythmia therapy.

  13. 76 FR 28016 - Progress Energy Carolinas, Inc.; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... 29, 2011. d. Applicant: Progress Energy Carolinas, Inc. e. Name of Project: Yadkin-Pee Dee Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: The Pee Dee River in Stanly County, North Carolina. g. Filed Pursuant...

  14. 26 CFR 1.468A-1T - Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules...-1T Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules (temporary). (a) Introduction. Section 468A provides an elective method for taking into account nuclear decommissioning costs for Federal income...

  15. 30 CFR 585.1019 - What are the decommissioning requirements for an Alternate Use RUE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... an Alternate Use RUE? 585.1019 Section 585.1019 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... Facilities Decommissioning An Alternate Use Rue § 585.1019 What are the decommissioning requirements for an Alternate Use RUE? (a) Decommissioning requirements will be determined by BOEM on a case-by-case basis,...

  16. 30 CFR 285.1019 - What are the decommissioning requirements for an Alternate Use RUE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... an Alternate Use RUE? 285.1019 Section 285.1019 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... Facilities Decommissioning An Alternate Use Rue § 285.1019 What are the decommissioning requirements for an Alternate Use RUE? (a) Decommissioning requirements will be determined by MMS on a case-by-case basis,...

  17. 30 CFR 585.1019 - What are the decommissioning requirements for an Alternate Use RUE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... an Alternate Use RUE? 585.1019 Section 585.1019 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... Facilities Decommissioning An Alternate Use Rue § 585.1019 What are the decommissioning requirements for an Alternate Use RUE? (a) Decommissioning requirements will be determined by BOEM on a case-by-case basis,...

  18. 30 CFR 285.1019 - What are the decommissioning requirements for an Alternate Use RUE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... an Alternate Use RUE? 285.1019 Section 285.1019 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... Activities Using Existing OCS Facilities Decommissioning An Alternate Use Rue § 285.1019 What are the decommissioning requirements for an Alternate Use RUE? (a) Decommissioning requirements will be determined by...

  19. 30 CFR 585.1019 - What are the decommissioning requirements for an Alternate Use RUE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... an Alternate Use RUE? 585.1019 Section 585.1019 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... Facilities Decommissioning An Alternate Use Rue § 585.1019 What are the decommissioning requirements for an Alternate Use RUE? (a) Decommissioning requirements will be determined by BOEM on a case-by-case basis,...

  20. 26 CFR 1.468A-1 - Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules. 1...-1 Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules. (a) Introduction. Section 468A provides an elective method for taking into account nuclear decommissioning costs for Federal income tax purposes. In...

  1. 26 CFR 1.468A-1 - Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules. 1...-1 Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules. (a) Introduction. Section 468A provides an elective method for taking into account nuclear decommissioning costs for Federal income tax purposes. In...

  2. 26 CFR 1.468A-1 - Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules. 1...-1 Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules. (a) Introduction. Section 468A provides an elective method for taking into account nuclear decommissioning costs for Federal income tax purposes. In...

  3. 26 CFR 1.468A-1 - Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules. 1...-1 Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules. (a) Introduction. Section 468A provides an elective method for taking into account nuclear decommissioning costs for Federal income tax purposes. In...

  4. 77 FR 8902 - Draft Regulatory Guide: Issuance, Availability Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Reactors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... COMMISSION Draft Regulatory Guide: Issuance, Availability Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Reactors AGENCY... ``Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Reactors.'' This guide describes a method NRC considers acceptable for use in decommissioning power reactors. DATES: Submit comments by April 16, 2012. Comments received after this date...

  5. 77 FR 75198 - Standard Format and Content for Post-Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... COMMISSION Standard Format and Content for Post-Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report AGENCY: Nuclear... Format and Content for Post-shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report.'' This guide describes a method...) 1.185, ``Standard Format and Content for Post-shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report,''...

  6. A costing model for offshore decommissioning in California.

    PubMed

    Bressler, Andrew; Bernstein, Brock B

    2015-10-01

    California's 27 offshore oil and gas platforms will reach the end of their useful lifetimes sometime in the near future and will require decommissioning. Although existing leases require complete removal of all platforms and associated infrastructure, the underlying laws and regulations have changed in recent years to allow a number of alternative uses after decommissioning. In particular, AB 2503, signed into law in September 2010, provides for a rigs-to-reefs program that allows the state to accept ownership of decommissioned platforms in federal waters. Decisions about whether to remove platforms completely or leave them in place as artificial reefs will depend in part on the relative cost of the 2 options. In this study, we describe the design and use of a mathematical decision model that provides detailed cost estimates of complete and partial removal (to 85 feet below the water line) for California's offshore platforms. The model, PLATFORM, is loaded with Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE) and Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) costs for complete removal, along with costs for partial removal calculated for this study and estimates of the uncertainty associated with decommissioning cost estimates. PLATFORM allows users to define a wide range of decommissioning and costing scenarios (e.g., number of platforms, choice of heavy lift vessel, shell mound removal, reef enhancement). As a benchmark cost, complete removal of all 27 offshore platforms, grouped into the 7 decommissioning projects defined by the most recent federal cost estimates produced in 2010, would cost an estimated $1.09 billion, whereas partial removal of these platforms, grouped into the same set of projects, would cost $478 million, with avoided costs of $616 million (with minor rounding).

  7. The involvement of SCK-CEN in decommissioning projects

    SciTech Connect

    Noynaert, Luc; Cornelissen, Rene; Dadoumont, Jerome; Van den Dungen, Kurt

    2013-07-01

    SCK-CEN is the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre. Founded in the mid-fifties, it has accumulated experience and know-how in all fields of the nuclear power production: in the neutronics calculation, radiation protection, waste management, fuel performance and analysis, nuclear measurements, radiochemistry, reactor technology, etc. Since 1989, SCK-CEN has launched Decommissioning activities to deal with the Technical Liabilities created by 40 years of operation. The main projects started were: - the dismantling of the BR3 PWR reactor; - the dismantling of active laboratories and the decontamination of buildings for unrestricted reuse; - the management of the waste arising from the refurbishment activities of the BR2, especially the management of the high active beryllium matrix. In 1989, the BR3 reactor, a Pressurized Water Reactor, was selected by the European Commission as one of the four pilot dismantling projects in the framework of the EC five year RTD program on dismantling nuclear installations. Through this project, SCK-CEN has built up a broad know-how in dismantling and decommissioning operations. This know how concerns the decontamination for dose rate reduction and/or free release of materials, tele-operated techniques for cutting highly activated components of a reactor, concrete decontamination techniques, characterization techniques of radioactive waste or for free release of components and development of decommissioning management and record-keeping of material streams and of nuclear material accountancy. SCK-CEN is now actively involved in other decommissioning projects in Belgium and in expertise abroad. After giving an overview of the main achievements and the perspectives of the decommissioning of the BR3 reactor, the paper intends to present the involvement of SCK-CEN in the other decommissioning projects and to give an overview of our activities and capacities. (authors)

  8. Technology demonstrations in the Decontamination and Decommissioning Focus Area

    SciTech Connect

    Bossart, S.J.

    1996-02-01

    This paper describes three large-scale demonstration projects sponsored jointly by the Decontamination and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA), and the three US Department of Energy (DOE) Operations Offices that successfully offered to deactivate or decommission (D&D) one of its facilities using a combination of innovative and commercial D&D technologies. The paper also includes discussions on recent technology demonstrations for an Advanced Worker Protection System, an Electrohydraulic Scabbling System, and a Pipe Explorer{trademark}. The references at the conclusion of this paper should be consulted for more detailed information about the large-scale demonstration projects and recent technology demonstrations sponsored by the DDFA.

  9. Regulatory Reform and License Termination Planning in Decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. Meisner

    2000-06-04

    Decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) must be safe and cost-effective and consider the needs of a wide range of stakeholders. The creative tension among these objectives has provided opportunities to reform the way these plants are regulated and managed in decommissioning. Enlightened and visionary leaders from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and industry are seizing these opportunities to create new paradigms for risk-informed regulation; creative stakeholder involvement; and effective, end-state focused, license termination planning.

  10. Progressive learning and its application to robot impedance learning.

    PubMed

    Yang, B H; Asada, H

    1996-01-01

    An approach to learning control using an excitation scheduling technique is developed and applied to an impedance learning problem for fast robotic assembly. Traditional adaptive and learning controls incur instability depending on the reference inputs provided to the system. This technique avoids instability by progressively increasing the level of system excitation. Called progressive learning, it uses scheduled excitation inputs that allow the system to learn quasistatic parameters associated with slow input commands first, followed by the learning of dynamic parameters excited by fast input commands. As learning progresses, the system is exposed to a broader range of input excitation, which nonetheless does not incur instability and unwanted erratic responses. In robotic assembly, learning starts with a slow, quasistatic motion and goes to a fast, dynamic motion. During this process, the stiffness terms involved in the impedance controller are learned first, then the damping terms and finally by the inertial terms. The impedance learning problem is formulated as a model-based, gradient following reinforcement learning. The method allows the suppression of excessive parameter changes and thereby stabilizes learning. By gradually increasing the motion speed command, the internal model as well as the control parameters can be learned effectively within a focused, local area in the large parameter space, which is then gradually expanded as speed increases. Several strategies for motion speed scheduling are also addressed.

  11. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: a selected bibliography. Volume 5

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Chilton, B.D.; Baldauf, M.F.

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography of 756 references with abstracts on the subject of nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions is the fifth in a series of annual reports prepared for the US Department of Energy, Division of Remedial Action Projects. Foreign as well as domestic literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, conference papers, symposium proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - has been included in this publication. The bibliography contains scientific (basic research as well as applied technology), economic, regulatory, and legal literature pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Program. Major chapters are: (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program; (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program; (4) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program; (5) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program; (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; and (7) Technical Measurements Center. Chapter sections for chapters 1, 2, 4, and 6 include Design, Planning, and Regulations; Environmental Studies and Site Surveys; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Site Stabilization and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; Remedial Action Experience; and General Studies. The references within each chapter or section are arranged alphabetically by leading author. References having no individual author are arranged by corporate author or by title. Indexes are provided for the categories of author, corporate affiliation, title, publication description, geographic location, and keywords. The Appendix contains a list of frequently used acronyms.

  12. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions. Volume 6. A selected bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, P.T.; Michelson, D.C.; Knox, N.P.

    1985-09-01

    This bibliography of 683 references with abstracts on the subject of nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions is the sixth in a series of annual reports prepared for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Foreign as well as domestic literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, conference papers, symposium proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - has been included. The bibliography contains scientific (basic research as well as applied technology), economic, regulatory, and legal literature pertinent to the US Department of Energy's remedial action program. Major chapters are: (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program; (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program; (4) Facilities Contaminated with Natural Radioactivity; (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program; (6) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program; (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; (8) Technical Measurements Center; and (9) General Remedial Action Program Studies. Chapter sections for chapters 1, 2, 5, and 7 include Design, Planning, and Regulations; Environmental Studies and Site Surveys; Health, Safety, and Biomedical Studies; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Site Stabilization and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; Remedial Action Experience; and General Studies. The references within each chapter or section are arranged alphabetically by leading author. References having no individual author are arranged by corporate affiliation or by publication description.

  13. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography: Volume 8

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, P.T.; Michelson, D.C.; Knox, N.P.

    1987-09-01

    The 553 abstracted references on nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the eighth in a series of reports. Foreign and domestic literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - has been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of energy's remedial action program. Major chapters are Surplus Facilities Management Program, Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, Uranium Mill Tailings Management, Technical Measurements Center, and General Remedial Action Program Studies. Chapter sections for chapters 1, 2, 5, and 6 include Design, Planning, and Regulations; Environmental Studies and Site Surveys; Health, Safety, and Biomedical Studies; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Site Stabilization and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; Remedial Action Experience; and General Studies. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication description. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, and keywords. The appendix contains a list of frequently used acronyms and abbreviations.

  14. USE OF CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS FOR SRS REACTOR FACILITY IN-SITU DECOMMISSIONING - 11620

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.; Stefanko, D.; Serrato, M.; Blankenship, J.; Griffin, W.; Waymer, J.; Matheny, D.; Singh, D.

    2010-12-07

    The United States Department of Energy (US DOE) concept for facility in-situ decommissioning (ISD) is to physically stabilize and isolate in tact, structurally sound facilities that are no longer needed for their original purpose of, i.e., producing (reactor facilities), processing (isotope separation facilities) or storing radioactive materials. The Savannah River Site 105-P and 105-R Reactor Facility ISD requires about 250,000 cubic yards of grout to fill the below grade structure. The fills are designed to prevent subsidence, reduce water infiltration, and isolate contaminated materials. This work is being performed as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensations and Liability Act (CERCLA) action and is part of the overall soil and groundwater completion projects for P- and R-Areas. Cementitious materials were designed for the following applications: (1) Below grade massive voids/rooms: Portland cement-based structural flowable fills for - Bulk filling, Restricted placement and Underwater placement. (2) Special below grade applications for reduced load bearing capacity needs: Cellular portland cement lightweight fill (3) Reactor vessel fills that are compatible with reactive metal (aluminum metal) components in the reactor vessels: Calcium sulfoaluminate flowable fill, and Magnesium potassium phosphate flowable fill. (4) Caps to prevent water infiltration and intrusion into areas with the highest levels of radionuclides: Portland cement based shrinkage compensating concrete. A system engineering approach was used to identify functions and requirements of the fill and capping materials. Laboratory testing was performed to identify candidate formulations and develop final design mixes. Scale-up testing was performed to verify material production and placement as well as fresh and cured properties. The 105-P and 105-R ISD projects are currently in progress and are expected to be complete in 2012. The focus of this paper is to describe the (1) grout mixes

  15. Jose Cabrera dismantling and decommissioning project

    SciTech Connect

    Ondaro, Manuel

    2013-07-01

    The Jose Cabrera Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) was the first commercial power reactor (Westinghouse 1 loop PWR 510 MWth, 160 MWe) commissioned in Spain and provided the base for future development and training. The reactor construction started in 1963 and it was officially on-line by 1969. The NPP operated from 1969 until 2006 when it became the first reactor to be shut down after completing its operational period. The containment is reinforced concrete with a stainless steel head. In 2010 responsibility for D and D was transferred to Enresa to achieve IAEA level 3 (a green field site available for unrestricted re-uses) by 2017. Of the total of more than 104,000 tons of materials that will be generated during dismantling, it is estimated that only ∼4,000 tons will be radioactive waste, some of which, 40 t are considered as intermediate level long-lived wastes and the rest (3,960 t) will be categorized as VLLW and ILLW. The Project is divided into five phases: Phase 0 - Removal of fuel and preliminary work.. Phase 1 - Preparatory Activities for D and D. complete. Phase 2 - Dismantling of Major Components. Phase 3 - Removal of Auxiliary Installations, Decontamination and Demolition. Phase 4 - Environmental Restoration. Phase 2, is currently ongoing (50% completed). To manage the diverse aspects of decommissioning operations, Enresa uses an internally developed computerized project management tool. The tool, based on knowledge gathered from other Enresa projects, can process operations management, maintenance operations, materials, waste, storage areas, procedures, work permits, operator dose management and records. Enresa considers that communication is important for both internal and external stakeholder relations and can be used to inform, to neutralize negative opinions and attitudes, to remove false expectations and for training. Enresa has created a new multi-purpose area (exhibition/visitor centre) and encourages visits from the public, local schools, local and

  16. Decommissioning Project of Bohunice A1 NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Stubna, M.; Pekar, A.; Moravek, J.; Spirko, M.

    2002-02-26

    1977 to terminate plant operation. The decision on the A1 plant decommissioning was issued in 1979.

  17. Concrete crushing and sampling, a methodology and technology for the unconditional release of concrete material from decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Gills, R.; Lewandowski, P.; Ooms, B.; Reusen, N.; Van Laer, W.; Walthery, R.

    2007-07-01

    Belgoprocess started the industrial decommissioning of the main process building of the former Eurochemic reprocessing plant in 1990, after completion of a pilot project. Two small storage buildings for final products from reprocessing were dismantled to verify the assumptions made in a previous paper study on decommissioning, to demonstrate and develop dismantling techniques and to train personnel. Both buildings were emptied and decontaminated to background levels. They were demolished and the remaining concrete debris was disposed of as industrial waste and green field conditions restored. Currently, the decommissioning operations carried out at the main building have made substantial progress. They are executed on an industrial scale. In view of the final demolition of the building, foreseen to start in the middle of 2008, a clearance methodology for the concrete from the cells into the Eurochemic building has been developed. It considers at least one complete measurement of all concrete structures and the removal of all detected residual radionuclides. This monitoring sequence is followed by a controlled demolition of the concrete structures and crushing of the resulting concrete parts to smaller particles. During the crushing operations, metal parts are separated from the concrete and representative concrete samples are taken. The frequency of sampling meets the prevailing standards. In a further step, the concrete samples are milled, homogenised, and a smaller fraction is sent to the laboratory for analyses. The paper describes the developed concrete crushing and sampling methodology. (authors)

  18. Management of radiological safety--lessons learnt and issues arising from the decommissioning of Berkeley power station.

    PubMed

    Spooner, K

    1999-06-01

    Berkeley Power Station was a world leader when in June 1962 it became the UK's first commercial nuclear power station to produce electricity for the National Grid. Berkeley then stood at the leading edge of nuclear technology. After 27 years of successful operation and the supply of nearly 40 billion units of electricity, Berkeley ceased generation in March 1989. Just as it was at start-up, Berkeley is continuing to lead the way as the UK's first commercial nuclear power station to be decommissioned. A three-stage decommissioning process is under way to safely dismantle the plant and eventually return the site to its original 'green field' state. Stage 1 of this process is well advanced. To set the scene, and for general interest, this paper first provides some background to the development of the decommissioning strategy and a brief summary of the progress to date. Recognising the specific interest of the reader, the paper then focuses on the radiological aspects of the work carried out, specifically the hazards, the risk assessment process and the ALARP performance. Finally, and in some detail, the paper reports on the important lessons learnt and discusses one of the issues arising.

  19. 26 CFR 1.468A-5 - Nuclear decommissioning fund qualification requirements; prohibitions against self-dealing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... taxpayer for decommissioning costs of the nuclear power plant to which the nuclear decommissioning fund... premiums on a policy to pay for the nuclear decommissioning costs of a nuclear power plant. Such term also... decommissioning costs of the nuclear power plant to which the nuclear......

  20. 26 CFR 1.468A-5 - Nuclear decommissioning fund qualification requirements; prohibitions against self-dealing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... taxpayer for decommissioning costs of the nuclear power plant to which the nuclear decommissioning fund... premiums on a policy to pay for the nuclear decommissioning costs of a nuclear power plant. Such term also... decommissioning costs of the nuclear power plant to which the nuclear......

  1. 26 CFR 1.468A-5 - Nuclear decommissioning fund qualification requirements; prohibitions against self-dealing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... taxpayer for decommissioning costs of the nuclear power plant to which the nuclear decommissioning fund... premiums on a policy to pay for the nuclear decommissioning costs of a nuclear power plant. Such term also... decommissioning costs of the nuclear power plant to which the nuclear......

  2. 26 CFR 1.468A-5 - Nuclear decommissioning fund qualification requirements; prohibitions against self-dealing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... taxpayer for decommissioning costs of the nuclear power plant to which the nuclear decommissioning fund... premiums on a policy to pay for the nuclear decommissioning costs of a nuclear power plant. Such term also... decommissioning costs of the nuclear power plant to which the nuclear......

  3. Emerging nanomedicine applications and manufacturing: progress and challenges.

    PubMed

    Sartain, Felicity; Greco, Francesca; Hill, Kathryn; Rannard, Steve; Owen, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    APS 6th International PharmSci Conference 2015 7-9 September 2015 East Midlands Conference Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK As part of the 6th APS International PharmSci Conference, a nanomedicine session was organised to address challenges and share experiences in this field. Topics ranged from the reporting on latest results and advances in the development of targeted therapeutics to the needs that the community faces in how to progress these exciting proof of concept results into products. Here we provide an overview of the discussion and highlight some of the initiatives that have recently been established to support the translation of nanomedicines into the clinic.

  4. [Progress in charge-coupled device and its applications].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; Liu, H; He, J

    2000-04-01

    Charge-coupled device (CCD) is a photosensitive element based on the metal-oxidesemiconductor technology. Currently, it has a number of benefits; broad spectral range response, low detection limit, wide dynamic range, minimal dark current and readout noise as well as abilities of signal integration, simultaneous multichannel detection and real-time detection. In this paper, the operational principle, features and performance characterization of CCD are introduced and its applicaton in spectral detection and spectral imaging are veiwed. The development of CCD technique has brought a revolutionary progress in the spectroscopic areas. Its future developments are also outlooked.

  5. Decommissioning and PIE of the MEGAPIE spallation target

    SciTech Connect

    Latge, C.; Henry, J.; Wohlmuther, M.; Dai, Y.; Gavillet, D.; Hammer, B.; Heinitz, S.; Neuhausen, J.; Schumann, D.; Thomsen, K.; Tuerler, A.; Wagner, W.; Gessi, A.; Guertin, A.; Konstantinovic, M.; Lindau, R.; Maloy, S.; Saito, S.

    2013-07-01

    A key experiment in the Accelerated Driven Systems roadmap, the MEGAwatt PIlot Experiment (MEGAPIE) (1 MW) was initiated in 1999 in order to design and build a liquid lead-bismuth spallation target, then to operate it into the Swiss spallation neutron facility SINQ at Paul Scherrer Institute. The target has been designed, manufactured, and tested during integral tests, before irradiation carried out end of 2006. During irradiation, neutron and thermo hydraulic measurements were performed allowing deep interpretation of the experiment and validation of the models used during design phase. The decommissioning, Post Irradiation Examinations and waste management phases were defined properly. The phases dedicated to cutting, sampling, cleaning, waste management, samples preparation and shipping to various laboratories were performed by PSI teams: all these phases constitute a huge work, which allows now to perform post-irradiation examination (PIE) of structural material, irradiated in relevant conditions. Preliminary results are presented in the paper, they concern chemical characterization. The following radio-nuclides have been identified by γ-spectrometry: {sup 60}Co, {sup 101}Rh, {sup 102}Rh, {sup 108m}Ag, {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 172}Hf/Lu, {sup 173}Lu, {sup 194}Hg/Au, {sup 195}Au, {sup 207}Bi. For some of these nuclides the activities can be easily evaluated from γ-spectrometry results ({sup 207}Bi, {sup 194}Hg/Au), while other nuclides can only be determined after chemical separations ({sup 108m}Ag, {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 195}Au, {sup 129}I, {sup 36}Cl and α-emitting {sup 208-210}Po). The concentration of {sup 129}I is lower than expected. The chemical analysis already performed on spallation and corrosion products in the lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) are very relevant for further applications of LBE as a spallation media and more generally as a coolant.

  6. Integration of improved decontamination and characterization technologies in the decommissioning of the CP-5 research reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, S. K.; Boing, L. E.

    2000-02-17

    The aging of research reactors worldwide has resulted in a heightened awareness in the international technical decommissioning community of the timeliness to review and address the needs of these research institutes in planning for and eventually performing the decommissioning of these facilities. By using the reactors already undergoing decommissioning as test beds for evaluating enhanced or new/innovative technologies for decommissioning, it is possible that new techniques could be made available for those future research reactor decommissioning projects. Potentially, the new technologies will result in: reduced radiation doses to the work force, larger safety margins in performing decommissioning and cost and schedule savings to the research institutes in performing the decommissioning of these facilities. Testing of these enhanced technologies for decontamination, dismantling, characterization, remote operations and worker protection are critical to furthering advancements in the technical specialty of decommissioning. Furthermore, regulatory acceptance and routine utilization for future research reactor decommissioning will be assured by testing and developing these technologies in realistically contaminated environments prior to use in the research reactors. The decommissioning of the CP-5 Research Reactor is currently in the final phase of dismantlement. In this paper the authors present results of work performed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in the development, testing and deployment of innovative and/or enhanced technologies for the decommissioning of research reactors.

  7. 10 CFR 72.130 - Criteria for decommissioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria for decommissioning. 72.130 Section 72.130 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE General...

  8. 77 FR 8751 - Guidance for Decommissioning Planning During Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... Planning During Operations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft regulatory guide; re... Commission (NRC) re-issued Draft Regulatory Guide, DG-4014, ``Decommissioning Planning During Operations'' in... Planning Rule. DATES: Submit comments by March 30, 2012. Comments received after this date will...

  9. 18 CFR 2.24 - Project decommissioning at relicensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Project decommissioning at relicensing. 2.24 Section 2.24 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL POLICY AND INTERPRETATIONS Statements of...

  10. 18 CFR 2.24 - Project decommissioning at relicensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Project decommissioning at relicensing. 2.24 Section 2.24 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL POLICY AND INTERPRETATIONS Statements of...

  11. 18 CFR 2.24 - Project decommissioning at relicensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Project decommissioning at relicensing. 2.24 Section 2.24 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL POLICY AND INTERPRETATIONS Statements of...

  12. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning a reference large irradiator and reference sealed sources

    SciTech Connect

    Haffner, D.R.; Villelgas, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    This report contains the results of a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to examine the decommissioning of large radioactive irradiators and their respective facilities, and a broad spectrum of sealed radioactive sources and their respective devices. Conceptual decommissioning activities are identified, and the technology, safety, and costs (in early 1993 dollars) associated with decommissioning the reference large irradiator and sealed source facilities are evaluated. The study provides bases and background data for possible future NRC rulemaking regarding decommissioning, for evaluation of the reasonableness of planned decommissioning actions, and for determining if adequate funds are reserved by the licensees for decommissioning of their large irradiator or sealed source facilities. Another purpose of this study is to provide background and information to assist licensees in planning and carrying out the decommissioning of their sealed radioactive sources and respective facilities.

  13. 76 FR 55868 - Notice of Funding Availability: Inviting Applications for the Food for Progress Program; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Notice of Funding Availability: Inviting Applications for the Food for...) published a notice in the Federal Register on July 28, 2011, inviting proposals for the Food for Progress... to the application and review process, and provides updates to web links for helpful documents....

  14. UNIQUE RADIOANALYTICAL PROTOCOLS FOR CHARACTERIZATION AND VERIFICATION DURING DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING

    SciTech Connect

    Diprete, C; David Diprete, D; Wooten Simpson, W

    2007-01-05

    In order to successfully decontaminate, deactivate and decommission surplus Department of Energy (DOE) facilities throughout the Savannah River Site (SRS), a variety of characterizations must be completed to sufficiently identify and quantify potential contaminants of concern. The ultimate goal is to rapidly and efficiently characterize, decontaminate (if necessary), and verify that the remnants meet specified limits established by either an industrial worker model or a groundwater model. To meet this end, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed a series of radioanalytical strategies and methodologies which can be used to characterize targeted facilities and prove that decontamination has been sufficient. To our knowledge, this is the first application of this novel methodology within the DOE complex. This methodology has been successfully utilized with nearly 1000 samples from over a dozen facilities. The application of this approach to just a single facility shortened the schedule by 30 days and resulted in non-labor dollar savings of over $60K. Cost savings for a second facility was determined to be $375K. Based on the success of this methodology at SRS, this approach will be valuable to other nuclear facilities in the USA and abroad involved with the decontamination and decommissioning process.

  15. Recent progress of obliquely deposited thin films for industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Motofumi; Itoh, Tadayoshi; Taga, Yasunori

    1999-06-01

    More than 10 years ago, birefringent films of metal oxides were formed by oblique vapor deposition and investigated with a view of their application to optical retardation plates. The retardation function of the films was explained in terms of the birefringence caused by the characteristic anisotropic nanostructure inside the films. These films are now classified in the genre of the so-called sculptured thin films. However, the birefringent films thus prepared are not yet industrialized even now due to the crucial lack of the durability and the yield of products. In this review paper, we describe the present status of application process of the retardation films to the information systems such as compact disc and digital versatile disc devices with a special emphasis on the uniformity of retardation properties in a large area and the stability of the optical properties of the obliquely deposited thin films. Finally, further challenges for wide application of the obliquely deposited thin films are also discussed.

  16. Endometriosis research using capture microdissection techniques: Progress and future applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Luyang; Gu, Chenglei; Huang, Ke; Han, Weidong; Fu, Meng; Meng, Yuanguang

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is a common gynecological disease with high prevalence, while its etiology and pathophysiology have remained to be fully elucidated. Previous evidence suggested that this disorder may be in part or completely of somatic origin. However, traditional endometrial samples may not be ideal for investigation, as target cells, including epithelial and stromal cells, in endometriotic lesions are too sparse to be analyzed. Recently, capture microdissection techniques have been used to overcome these limitations and eliminate tissue heterogeneity in endometriosis research. Therefore, the present review summarized the alterations in epithelial and stromal cells in endometriosis tissues isolated through capture microdissection, outlined recent progress and provided directions for future investigation of the pathogenesis of endometriosis. PMID:27882213

  17. Recent Progress in Engine Noise Reduction for Commercial Aircraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2003-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made over the past ten years developing technologies for reducing aircraft noise. Engine noise continues to be a dominate source, particularly for aircraft departing from airports. Research efforts have concentrated on developing noise prediction methods, experimental validation, and developing noise reduction concepts that have been verified through model scale and static engine tests. Most of the work has concentrated on fan and jet components for commercial turbofan engines. In this seminar, an overview of the engine noise reduction work that was sponsored by NASA s Advanced Subsonic Technology Noise Reduction Program will be given, along with background information on turbofan noise sources and certification procedures. Concepts like "chevron" nozzles for jet noise reduction and swept stators for fan noise reduction will be highlighted. A preliminary assessment on how the new technologies will impact future engines will be given.

  18. Progress of Mimetic Enzymes and Their Applications in Chemical Sensors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Li, Jianping; Deng, Huan; Zhang, Lianming

    2016-11-01

    The need to develop innovative and reformative approaches to synthesize chemical sensors has increased in recent years because of demands for selectivity, stability, and reproducibility. Mimetic enzymes provide an efficient and convenient method for chemical sensors. This review summarizes the application of mimetic enzymes in chemical sensors. Mimetic enzymes can be classified into five categories: hydrolases, oxidoreductases, transferases, isomerases, and induced enzymes. Potential and recent applications of mimetic enzymes in chemical sensors are reviewed in detail, and the outlook of profound development has been illustrated.

  19. [Progress in synthesis technologies and application of aviation biofuels].

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoying; Liu, Xiang; Zhao, Xuebing; Yang, Ming; Liu, Dehua

    2013-03-01

    Development of aviation biofuels has attracted great attention worldwide because that the shortage of fossil resources has become more and more serious. In the present paper, the development background, synthesis technologies, current application status and existing problems of aviation biofuels were reviewed. Several preparation routes of aviation biofuels were described, including Fischer-Tropsch process, catalytic hydrogenation and catalytic cracking of bio-oil. The status of flight tests and commercial operation were also introduced. Finally the problems for development and application of aviation biofuels were stated, and some accommodation were proposed.

  20. Atmospheric discharges from nuclear facilities during decommissioning: German experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, H.; Goertz, R.; Weil, L.

    1997-08-01

    In Germany, a substantial amount of experience is available with planning, licensing and realization of decommissioning projects. In total, a number of 18 nuclear power plants including prototype facilities as well as 6 research reactors and 3 fuel cycle facilities have been shut down finally and are at different stages of decommissioning. Only recently the final {open_quotes}green field{close_quotes} stage of the Niederaichbach Nuclear Power Plant total dismantlement project has been achieved. From the regulatory point of view, a survey of the decommissioning experience in Germany is presented highlighting the aspects of production and retention of airborne radioactivity. Nuclear air cleaning technology, discharge limits prescribed in licences and actual discharges are presented. As compared to operation, the composition of the discharged radioactivity is different as well as the off-gas discharge rate. In practically all cases, there is no significant amount of short-lived radionuclides. The discussion further includes lessons learned, for example inadvertent discharges of radionuclides expected not to be in the plants inventory. It is demonstrated that, as for operation of nuclear power plants, the limits prescribed in the Ordinance on Radiological Protection can be met using existing air cleaning technology, Optimization of protection results in public exposures substantially below the limits. In the frame of the regulatory investigation programme a study has been conducted to assess the airborne radioactivity created during certain decommissioning activities like decontamination, segmentation and handling of contaminated or activated parts. The essential results of this study are presented, which are supposed to support planning for decommissioning, for LWRs, Co-60 and Cs-137 are expected to be the dominant radionuclides in airborne discharges. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA) for Decommissioning of TAN-607 Hot Shop Area

    SciTech Connect

    J. P. Floerke

    2007-02-05

    will be protective of human health and the environment. Decommissioning the TAN-607 Hot Shop Area is consistent with the joint DOE and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Policy on Decommissioning of Department of Energy Facilities Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, which establishes the CERCLA NTCRA process as the preferred approach for decommissioning surplus DOE facilities. Under this policy, a NTCRA may be taken when DOE determines that the action will prevent, minimize, stabilize, or eliminate a risk to human health and/or the environment. When DOE determines that a CERCLA NTCRA is necessary, DOE is authorized to evaluate, select, and implement the removal action that DOE determines is most appropriate to address the potential risk posed by the release or threat of release. This action is taken in accordance with applicable authorities and in conjunction with EPA and the State of Idaho pursuant to Section 5.3 of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. In keeping with the joint policy, this engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) was developed in accordance with CERCLA as amended by the ''Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986'' and in accordance with the ''National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan.'' This EE/CA is consistent with the remedial action objectives (RAOs) of the Final Record of Decision, Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-10 and supports the overall remediation goals established through the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order for Waste Area Group 1. Waste Area Group 1 is located at TAN.

  2. Genome editing: progress and challenges for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Dana

    2016-11-15

    The development of the CRISPR-Cas platform for genome editing has greatly simplified the process of making targeted genetic modifications. Applications of genome editing are expected to have a substantial impact on human therapies through the development of better animal models, new target discovery, and direct therapeutic intervention.

  3. [Progress in myofibroblast and its application in forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Yu, Tian-Shui; Ling, Yue; Guan, Da-Wei

    2013-04-01

    The myofibroblasts have dual characteristics of smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts. In repairing tissular wound, myofibroblasts are involved in fibrogenesis and remodeling the extracellular matrix of the fibrotic cascades reaction. The review describes the morphological characteristics and biological behaviors of myofibroblasts and the application of skin wound age determination, which may provide reference for research in forensic medicine.

  4. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE R-REACTOR DISASSEMBLY BASIN IN-SITU DECOMMISSIONING -10499

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.; Serrato, M.; Blankenship, J.; Griffin, W.

    2010-01-04

    designs and testing, and fill placement strategy. This information is applicable to decommissioning both the 105-P and 105-R facilities. The ISD process for the entire 105-P and 105-R reactor facilities will require approximately 250,000 cubic yards (191,140 cubic meters) of grout and approximately 3,900 cubic yards (2,989 cubic meters) of structural concrete which will be placed over about an eighteen month period to meet the accelerated schedule ISD schedule. The status and lessons learned in the SRS Reactor Facility ISD process will be described.

  5. Current Progress in Nanotechnology Applications for Diagnosis and Treatment of Kidney Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sue Hyun; Lee, Jung Bok; Bae, Min Soo; Balikov, Daniel A.; Hwang, Amy; Boire, Timothy C.; Kwon, Il Keun; Sung, Hak-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in nanomedicine, primarily in the form of nanoparticles, for theranostic applications to various diseases. A variety of materials, both organic and inorganic, have been used to develop nanoparticles with promise to achieve improved efficacy in medical applications as well as reduced systemic side effects compared to current standard of care medical practices. In particular, this article highlights the recent development and application of nanoparticles for diagnosing and treating nephropathologies. PMID:26121684

  6. Current progress in nanotechnology applications for diagnosis and treatment of kidney diseases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sue Hyun; Lee, Jung Bok; Bae, Min Soo; Balikov, Daniel A; Hwang, Amy; Boire, Timothy C; Kwon, Il Keun; Sung, Hak-Joon; Yang, Jae Won

    2015-09-16

    Significant progress has been made in nanomedicine, primarily in the form of nanoparticles, for theranostic applications to various diseases. A variety of materials, both organic and inorganic, have been used to develop nanoparticles with promise to achieve improved efficacy in medical applications as well as reduced systemic side effects compared to current standard of care medical practices. In particular, this article highlights the recent development and application of nanoparticles for diagnosing and treating nephropathologies.

  7. [Current progress and application prospects of induced pluripotent stem cells].

    PubMed

    Qin, Tong; Miao, Xiang-Yang

    2010-12-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be directly generated from somatic cells by transduction of a few defined transcription factors. This technique avoids immunological rejection and ethical difficulties, which is a great revolution in life sciences. Like embryonic stem (ES) cells, iPS cells have the ability to self-renew through mitotic cell division and thus remain in its undifferentiated state and the ability to differentiate into not only all derivatives of the three primary germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm, but also many mature cells in vitro. Therefore, iPS cells are important for theoretic study and therapeutic application. Here, we discuss recent advances in generating induced pluripotent stem cells, different reprogramming methods, and clinical applications of iPS cells. Finally, current problems of iPS cells and its prospects in transgenic animals are also discussed. This article is a summary of current research advances in reprogramming cells into induced pluripotent stem cells.

  8. Progress on conformal microwave array applicators for heating chestwall disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, P. R.; Maccarini, P. F.; Juang, T.; Jacobsen, S. K.; Gaeta, C. J.; Schlorff, J. L.; Milligan, A. J.

    2007-02-01

    Previous studies have reported the computer modeling, CAD design, and theoretical performance of single and multiple antenna arrays of Dual Concentric Conductor (DCC) square slot radiators driven at 915 and 433 MHz. Subsequently, practical CAD designs of microstrip antenna arrays constructed on thin and flexible printed circuit board (PCB) material were reported which evolved into large Conformal Microwave Array (CMA) sheets that could wrap around the surface of the human torso for delivering microwave energy to large areas of superficial tissue. Although uniform and adjustable radiation patterns have been demonstrated from multiple element applicators radiating into simple homogeneous phantom loads, the contoured and heterogeneous tissue loads typical of chestwall recurrent breast cancer have required additional design efforts to achieve good coupling and efficient heating from the increasingly larger conformal array applicators used to treat large area contoured patient anatomy. Thus recent work has extended the theoretical optimization of DCC antennas to improve radiation efficiency of each individual aperture and reduce mismatch reflections, radiation losses, noise, and cross coupling of the feedline distribution network of large array configurations. Design improvements have also been incorporated into the supporting bolus structure to maintain effective coupling of DCC antennas into contoured anatomy and to monitor and control surface temperatures under the entire array. New approaches for non-invasive monitoring of surface and sub-surface tissue temperatures under each independent heat source are described that make use of microwave radiometry and flexible sheet grid arrays of thermal sensors. Efforts to optimize the clinical patient interface and move from planar rectangular shapes to contoured vest applicators that accommodate entire disease in a larger number of patients are summarized. By applying heat more uniformly to large areas of contoured anatomy

  9. Progress in Genome Editing Technology and Its Application in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kai; Raboanatahiry, Nadia; Zhu, Bin; Li, Maoteng

    2017-01-01

    Genome editing technology (GET) is a versatile approach that has progressed rapidly as a mechanism to alter the genotype and phenotype of organisms. However, conventional genome modification using GET cannot satisfy current demand for high-efficiency and site-directed mutagenesis, retrofitting of artificial nucleases has developed into a new avenue within this field. Based on mechanisms to recognize target genes, newly-developed GETs can generally be subdivided into three cleavage systems, protein-dependent DNA cleavage systems (i.e., zinc-finger nucleases, ZFN, and transcription activator-like effector nucleases, TALEN), RNA-dependent DNA cleavage systems (i.e., clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR associated proteins, CRISPR-Cas9, CRISPR-Cpf1, and CRISPR-C2c1), and RNA-dependent RNA cleavage systems (i.e., RNA interference, RNAi, and CRISPR-C2c2). All these techniques can lead to double-stranded (DSB) or single-stranded breaks (SSB), and result in either random mutations via non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) or targeted mutation via homologous recombination (HR). Thus, site-directed mutagenesis can be induced via targeted gene knock-out, knock-in, or replacement to modify specific characteristics including morphology-modification, resistance-enhancement, and physiological mechanism-improvement along with plant growth and development. In this paper, an non-comprehensive review on the development of different GETs as applied to plants is presented. PMID:28261237

  10. Progress in Genome Editing Technology and Its Application in Plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Raboanatahiry, Nadia; Zhu, Bin; Li, Maoteng

    2017-01-01

    Genome editing technology (GET) is a versatile approach that has progressed rapidly as a mechanism to alter the genotype and phenotype of organisms. However, conventional genome modification using GET cannot satisfy current demand for high-efficiency and site-directed mutagenesis, retrofitting of artificial nucleases has developed into a new avenue within this field. Based on mechanisms to recognize target genes, newly-developed GETs can generally be subdivided into three cleavage systems, protein-dependent DNA cleavage systems (i.e., zinc-finger nucleases, ZFN, and transcription activator-like effector nucleases, TALEN), RNA-dependent DNA cleavage systems (i.e., clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR associated proteins, CRISPR-Cas9, CRISPR-Cpf1, and CRISPR-C2c1), and RNA-dependent RNA cleavage systems (i.e., RNA interference, RNAi, and CRISPR-C2c2). All these techniques can lead to double-stranded (DSB) or single-stranded breaks (SSB), and result in either random mutations via non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) or targeted mutation via homologous recombination (HR). Thus, site-directed mutagenesis can be induced via targeted gene knock-out, knock-in, or replacement to modify specific characteristics including morphology-modification, resistance-enhancement, and physiological mechanism-improvement along with plant growth and development. In this paper, an non-comprehensive review on the development of different GETs as applied to plants is presented.

  11. Progress in the application of molecular biomarkers in gliomas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Su, Hong-kai; Zhao, Hua-fu; Chen, Zhong-ping; To, Shing-shun Tony

    2015-09-11

    Gliomas are a common adult central nervous system tumor, and glioblastoma (GBM), which has a poor prognosis, is the most lethal of all gliomas. The overall survival of GBM patients is only 12-14 months after diagnosis. With progress in the precision of personal medication, therapeutic options for various tumors have become gradually dependent on the molecular profiles of patients. GBM is one of the tumors in which treatment response relies largely on the molecular characteristics of the tumor. Therefore, awareness of the genetic background of each patient will help decision-making regarding the best treatment strategy to use. In this review, a novel molecular classification of gliomas based on recent findings of their genetic characteristics is introduced. Representative molecular markers, such as IDH1 mutation, 1p19q co-deletion, MGMT promoter methylation and EGFRvIII amplification, are described. Furthermore, the development of non-coding RNAs and omics studies of GBM are briefly discussed. Finally, a novel concept for non-invasive detection that could facilitate both diagnosis and treatment monitoring is presented. There is no doubt that the use of molecular profiling by biomarkers will indeed improve the overall survival and quality of life of GBM patients.

  12. Extensions to the modeling of initiation and progression: applications to substance use and abuse.

    PubMed

    Neale, Michael C; Harvey, Eric; Maes, Hermine H M; Sullivan, Patrick F; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2006-07-01

    Twin data can provide valuable insight into the relationship between the stages of phenomena such as disease or substance abuse. Initiation of substance use may be caused by factors that are the same as, partially shared with, or completely independent of those that cause progression from use to abuse. Comparison of rates of progression among the cotwins of twins who do vs. do not initiate provides indirect information about the relationship between initiation and progression. Existing models for this relationship have been difficult to extend because they are usually expressed in terms of explicit integrals. In this paper, the problem is overcome by regarding the analysis of twin data on initiation and progression as a special case of missing data, in which individuals who do not initiate are regarded as having missing data on progression measures. Using the general framework for the analysis of ordinal data with missing values available in Mx makes extensions that include other variables much easier. The effects of continuous covariates such as age on initiation and progression becomes simple. Also facilitated are the examination of initiation and progression in two or more substances, and transition models with two or more steps. The methods are illustrated with data on the effects of cohort on liability to cannabis use and abuse, bivariate analysis of tobacco use and dependence and cannabis use and abuse, and the relationships between initiation of smoking, regular smoking and nicotine dependence. Other suitable applications include the relationship between symptoms and diagnosis, such as fears and the progression to phobia.

  13. Photoacoustic cavitation for theranostics: mechanism, current progress and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Y.; Qin, D.; Wan, M.

    2015-12-01

    As an emerging cavitation technology, photoacoustic cavitation (PAC) means the formation of bubbles in liquids using focused laser and pre-established ultrasound synchronously. Its significant advantages include the decreased threshold of each modality and the precise location of cavitation determined by the focused laser. In this paper, a brief review of PAC is presented, including the physical mechanism description, the classic experimental technology, the representative results in variety of media, and its applications in biomedical imaging and therapy. Moreover, some preliminary results of PAC in perfluoropentane (PFP) liquid and PFP droplets investigated by passive cavitation detection (PCD) in our group are also presented.

  14. Application of Passive Samplers to Monitor Remediation Progress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-30

    earthworms from soil ( F a g e r v o l d e t a l . , E S & T 2 0 1 0 ) 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20...Application 1: Dioxins and furans bioaccumulation in earthworms from soil ( F a g e r v o l d e t a l . , E S & T 2 0 1 0 ) 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1...equilibrium studies with POM: Dioxins and furans in soil Earthworm and equilibrium aqueous phase concentration in 2 soils before and

  15. Adaptive coded aperture imaging: progress and potential future applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottesman, Stephen R.; Isser, Abraham; Gigioli, George W., Jr.

    2011-09-01

    Interest in Adaptive Coded Aperture Imaging (ACAI) continues to grow as the optical and systems engineering community becomes increasingly aware of ACAI's potential benefits in the design and performance of both imaging and non-imaging systems , such as good angular resolution (IFOV), wide distortion-free field of view (FOV), excellent image quality, and light weight construct. In this presentation we first review the accomplishments made over the past five years, then expand on previously published work to show how replacement of conventional imaging optics with coded apertures can lead to a reduction in system size and weight. We also present a trade space analysis of key design parameters of coded apertures and review potential applications as replacement for traditional imaging optics. Results will be presented, based on last year's work of our investigation into the trade space of IFOV, resolution, effective focal length, and wavelength of incident radiation for coded aperture architectures. Finally we discuss the potential application of coded apertures for replacing objective lenses of night vision goggles (NVGs).

  16. Somatic cell nuclear transfer in mammals: progress and applications.

    PubMed

    Colman, A

    Somatic nuclear transfer has been performed with frogs since the early 1960s, yet it has proved impossible to generate an adult frog using an adult cell as nuclear donor. After some initial skepticism, the birth of sheep, cows, goats, and mice using this technique with fetal or adult cell donors is now established fact. The success with adult mammalian cell donors extends the historic work in frogs by attesting to the totipotency of nuclei in at least some adult, differentiated cell types. Because the technique offers a developmental read out of the totality of genetic and molecular lifetime changes accumulated by the nucleus of a single somatic cell, basic research applications are seen in the fields of ageing, cancer, X chromosome inactivation, and imprinting. The prospect of a method for gene targeting in livestock holds particular promise for commercial applications; whilst for humans, the use of nuclear transfer to provide diverse populations of customized stem cells for therapeutic purposes presents a tantalizing future goal.

  17. How utilities can achieve more accurate decommissioning cost estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.

    1999-07-01

    The number of commercial nuclear power plants that are undergoing decommissioning coupled with the economic pressure of deregulation has increased the focus on adequate funding for decommissioning. The introduction of spent-fuel storage and disposal of low-level radioactive waste into the cost analysis places even greater concern as to the accuracy of the fund calculation basis. The size and adequacy of the decommissioning fund have also played a major part in the negotiations for transfer of plant ownership. For all of these reasons, it is important that the operating plant owner reduce the margin of error in the preparation of decommissioning cost estimates. To data, all of these estimates have been prepared via the building block method. That is, numerous individual calculations defining the planning, engineering, removal, and disposal of plant systems and structures are performed. These activity costs are supplemented by the period-dependent costs reflecting the administration, control, licensing, and permitting of the program. This method will continue to be used in the foreseeable future until adequate performance data are available. The accuracy of the activity cost calculation is directly related to the accuracy of the inventory of plant system component, piping and equipment, and plant structural composition. Typically, it is left up to the cost-estimating contractor to develop this plant inventory. The data are generated by searching and analyzing property asset records, plant databases, piping and instrumentation drawings, piping system isometric drawings, and component assembly drawings. However, experience has shown that these sources may not be up to date, discrepancies may exist, there may be missing data, and the level of detail may not be sufficient. Again, typically, the time constraints associated with the development of the cost estimate preclude perfect resolution of the inventory questions. Another problem area in achieving accurate cost

  18. Recent progress in the preparation and application of carbon nanocapsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Kuo Chu

    2010-09-01

    In this review paper, the processes for the fabrication of carbon nanoparticles, carbon nanospheres, carbon onions, onion-like carbons and metal-filled carbon nanocapsules are reviewed. These processes include carbon arc discharge, metal catalysed chemical vapour deposition, thermal pyrolysis of organometallics and nanodiamonds, electric arc in liquid (e.g. liquid N2, H2O and organic solvents), and microwave arcing. The applications of both hollow and metal-filled carbon nanocapsules/nanoparticles as x-ray target materials, nanolubricants, broadband electromagnetic wave absorbers, catalysts for organic reactions, electrode materials for batteries and electrochemical immunoassays, biomedical gene/drug transporters, etc are also reviewed. The future prospects are also discussed.

  19. Data management tools for genomic applications: A progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Markowitz, V.M.; Chen, I-Min A.

    1993-09-01

    We report in this paper on the development of data management tools that allow scientist to construct and manipulate genomic data bases in terms of application-specific objects and protocols. We are developing tools for specifying genomic database structures, as well as for entering, changing, maintaining, browsing and querying data in genomic data bases. These tools are based on the Object-protocol Model (OPM) developed by us and target commercial relational database management systems which are widely used in molecular biology laboratories. OPM allows scientists to interact with genomic databases in terms of their own frame or reference, namely genomic objects and protocols. Databases developed using the data management tools are easier to use, manage, and adapt.

  20. Applications and Progress of Dust Injection to Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zhehui; Wurden, Glen A.; Mansfield, Dennis K.; Roquemore, Lane A.; Ticos, Catalin M.

    2008-09-07

    Three regimes of dust injection are proposed for different applications to fusion energy. In the 'low-speed' regime (<5 km/s), basic dust transport study, edge plasma diagnostics, edge-localized-mode (ELM) pacing in magnetic fusion devices can be realized by injecting dust of known properties into today's fusion experiments. ELM pacing, as an alternative to mini-pellet injection, is a promising scheme to prevent disruptions and type I ELM's that can cause catastrophic damage to fusion devices. Different schemes are available to inject dust. In the 'intermediate-speed' regime (10-200 km/s), possible applications of dust injection include fueling of the next-step fusion devices, core-diagnostics of the next-step fusion devices, and compression of plasma and solid targets to aid fusion energy production. Promising laboratory results of dust moving at 10-50 km/s do exist. Significant advance in this regime may be expected in the near term to achieve higher dust speeds. In the 'high-speed' regime (>500 km/s), dust injection can potentially be used to directly produce fusion energy through impact. Ideas on how to achieve these extremely high speeds are mostly on paper. No plan exists today to realize them in laboratory. Some experimental results, including electrostatic, electromagnetic, gas-dragged, plasma-dragged, and laser-ablation-based acceleration, are summarized and compared. Some features and limitations of the different acceleration methods will be discussed. A necessary component of all dust injectors is the dust dropper (also known as dust dispenser). A computer-controlled piezoelectric crystals has been developed to dropped dust in a systematic and reproducible manner. Particle fluxes ranges from a few tens of particles per second up to thousands of particles per second by this simple device.

  1. Using probabilistic criteria in an assessment of the potential radiological consequences of the decommissioning of a nuclear research reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Wallner, Christian; Rall, Anna-Maria; Thummerer, Severin

    2013-07-01

    In order to assess the risk of radiological consequences of incidents and accidents in nuclear facilities it is important to contemplate their frequency of occurrence. It has to be shown that incidents and accidents occur sufficiently seldom according to their radiological consequences i. e. the occurrence frequency of radiological doses has to be limited. This is even demanded by the German radiation protection ordinance (StrlSchV), which says that in nuclear facilities other than nuclear power plants (NPP) in operation and for decommissioning, the occurrence frequency of incidents and accidents shall be contemplated in order to prove the design of safety measures and safety installations. Based on the ideas of the ICRP64, we developed a risk based assessment concept for nuclear facilities, which fulfils the requirements of the German regulations concerning dose limits in normal operation and design basis accidents. The general use of the concept is dedicated to nuclear facilities other than nuclear power plants (NPP) in operation and for decommissioning, where the regulation of risk assessment is less sophisticated. The concept specifies occurrence frequency limits for radiation exposure dose ranges, i. e. the occurrence frequency of incidents and accidents has to be limited according to their radiological effects. To apply this concept, scenarios of incidents and accidents are grouped in exposition classes according to their resulting potential effective dose to members of the general public. The occurrence frequencies of the incidents and accidents are summarized in each exposition class whereas the sum must not exceed the frequency limits mentioned above. In the following we introduce the application of this concept in the assessment of the potential radiological consequences of the decommissioning of a nuclear research reactor. We carried out this assessment for the licensing process of the decommissioning on behalf of German authorities. (authors)

  2. [Progress and application prospects of glutamine synthase in plants].

    PubMed

    Feng, Wanjun; Xing, Guofang; Niu, Xulong; Dou, Chen; Han, Yuanhuai

    2015-09-01

    Nitrogen is one of the most important nutrient elements for plants and a major limiting factor in plant growth and crop productivity. Glutamine synthase (GS) is a key enzyme involved in the nitrogen assimilation and recycling in plants. So far, members of the glutamine synthase gene family have been characterized in many plants such as Arabidopsis, rice, wheat, and maize. Reports show that GS are involved in the growth and development of plants, in particular its role in seed production. However, the outcome has generally been inconsistent, which are probably derived from the transcriptional and post-translational regulation of GS genes. In this review, we outlined studies on GS gene classification, QTL mapping, the relationship between GS genes and plant growth with nitrogen and the distribution characters, the biological functions of GS genes, as well as expression control at different regulation levels. In addition, we summarized the application prospects of glutamine synthetase genes in enhancing plant growth and yield by improving the nitrogen use efficiency. The prospects were presented on the improvement of nitrogen utility efficiency in crops and plant nitrogen status diagnosis on the basis of glutamine synthase gene regulation.

  3. Updated progress in theories and applications of spaceborne SAR interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan-Ling; Huang, Cheng; Ding, Xiao-Li; Li, Zhi-Wei

    2006-12-01

    InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) and D-InSAR (Differential InSAR) are rapidly developed new technologies of space geodesy during the late 20th century, and now obviously become hot research topics in the field of microwave remote sensing. Compared with the other sensors, InSAR possesses many incomparable advantages such as the capability to work at all-time and under all weather, very high spatial resolution and strong penetrability through the ground surface. This paper introduces general status of SAR, InSAR, D-InSAR technology, and the principles of InSAR and D-InSAR. New theories and the potential problems of (D-)InSAR technology are largely discussed, including multi-baseline interferometry, Pol-InSAR technique, the correction of atmospheric effects, permanent Scatterers method, the synthesization technique between InSAR and GPS, LIDAR etc., and the InSAR parallel algorithm. Then the new applications of InSAR and D-InSAR are described in detail including 3D topographic mapping, deformation monitoring (including surface subsidence, landside monitoring and ITRF's foundation and maintenance, etc.), thematic mapping (including agriculture and forestry, oceanic surveying and flood monitoring, etc.) and meteorology etc.. Finally, the prospect and future trends in InSAR development are summarized.

  4. Update on melanocortin interventions for cachexia: progress toward clinical application.

    PubMed

    DeBoer, Mark Daniel

    2010-02-01

    Cachexia is a devastating syndrome of body wasting that is associated with multiple common chronic diseases including cancer, chronic kidney disease, and chronic heart failure. These underlying diseases are associated with increased levels of inflammatory cytokines and result in anorexia, increased resting energy expenditure, and loss of fat and lean body mass. Prior experiments have implicated the central melanocortin system in the hypothalamus with the propagation of these symptoms of cachexia. Pharmacologic blockade of this system using melanocortin antagonists causes attenuation of the signs of cachexia in laboratory models. Recent advances in our knowledge of this disease process have involved further elucidation of the pathophysiology of melanocortin activation and demonstration of the efficacy of melanocortin antagonists in new models of cachexia, including cardiac cachexia. In addition, small molecule antagonists of the melanocortin-4 receptor continue to be introduced, including ones with oral bioavailability. These developments generate optimism that melanocortin antagonism will be used to treat humans with disease-associated cachexia. However, to date, human application has remained elusive and it is unclear when we will know whether humans with cachexia would benefit from treatment with these compounds.

  5. [Application of lysosomal detection in marine pollution monitoring: research progress].

    PubMed

    Weng, You-Zhu; Fang, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Yu-Sheng

    2013-11-01

    Lysosome is an important organelle existing in eukaryotic cells. With the development of the study on the structure and function of lysosome in recent years, lysosome is considered as a target of toxic substances on subcellular level, and has been widely applied abroad in marine pollution monitoring. This paper summarized the biological characteristics of lysosomal marker enzyme, lysosome-autophagy system, and lysosomal membrane, and introduced the principles and methods of applying lysosomal detection in marine pollution monitoring. Bivalve shellfish digestive gland and fish liver are the most sensitive organs for lysosomal detection. By adopting the lysosomal detection techniques such as lysosomal membrane stability (LMS) test, neutral red retention time (NRRT) assay, morphological measurement (MM) of lysosome, immunohistochemical (Ih) assay of lysosomal marker enzyme, and electron microscopy (EM), the status of marine pollution can be evaluated. It was suggested that the lysosome could be used as a biomarker for monitoring marine environmental pollution. The advantages and disadvantages of lysosomal detection and some problems worthy of attention were analyzed, and the application prospects of lysosomal detection were discussed.

  6. Carbon-14 bioassay for decommissioning of Hanford reactors.

    PubMed

    Carbaugh, Eugene H; Watson, David J

    2012-05-01

    The production reactors at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site used large graphite piles as the moderator. As part of long-term decommissioning plans, the potential need for ¹⁴C radiobioassay of workers was identified. Technical issues associated with ¹⁴C bioassay and worker monitoring were investigated, including anticipated graphite characterization, potential intake scenarios, and the bioassay capabilities that may be required to support the decommissioning of the graphite piles. A combination of urine and feces sampling would likely be required for the absorption type S ¹⁴C anticipated to be encountered. However, the concentrations in the graphite piles appear to be sufficiently low that dosimetrically significant intakes of ¹⁴C are not credible, thus rendering moot the need for such bioassay.

  7. Decontamination and Decommissioning activities photobriefing book FY 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) Program at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) is dedicated to the safe and cost effective D{ampersand}D of surplus nuclear facilities. There is currently a backlog of more than 7,000 contaminated US Department of Energy facilities nationwide. Added to this are 110 licensed commercial nuclear power reactors operated by utilities learning to cope with deregulation and an aging infrastructure that supports the commercial nuclear power industry, as well as medical and other uses of radioactive materials. With this volume it becomes easy to understand the importance of addressing the unique issues and objectives associated with the D{ampersand}D of surplus nuclear facilities. This photobriefing book summarizes the decontamination and decommissioning projects and activities either completed or continuing at the ANL-E site during the year.

  8. Carbon-14 Bioassay for Decommissioning of Hanford Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Carbaugh, Eugene H.; Watson, David J.

    2012-05-01

    The old production reactors at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site used large graphite piles as the moderator. As part of long-term decommissioning plans, the potential need for 14C radiobioassay of workers was identified. Technical issues associated with 14C bioassay and worker monitoring were investigated, including anticipated graphite characterization, potential intake scenarios, and the bioassay capabilities that may be required to support the decommissioning of the graphite piles. A combination of urine and feces sampling would likely be required for the absorption type S 14C anticipated to be encountered. However the concentrations in the graphite piles appear to be sufficiently low that dosimetrically significant intakes of 14C are not credible, thus rendering moot the need for such bioassay.

  9. Magnetic nanoparticles for medical applications: Progress and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doaga, A.; Cojocariu, A. M.; Constantin, C. P.; Hempelmann, R.; Caltun, O. F.

    2013-11-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles present unique properties that make them suitable for applications in biomedical field such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), hyperthermia and drug delivery systems. Magnetic hyperthermia involves heating the cancer cells by using magnetic particles exposed to an alternating magnetic field. The cell temperature increases due to the thermal propagation of the heat induced by the nanoparticles into the affected region. In order to increase the effectiveness of the treatment hyperthermia can be combined with drug delivery techniques. As a spectroscopic technique MRI is used in medicine for the imaging of tissues especially the soft ones and diagnosing malignant or benign tumors. For this purpose ZnxCo1-xFe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles with x between 0 and 1 have been prepared by co-precipitation method. The cristallite size was determined by X-ray diffraction, while the transmission electron microscopy illustrates the spherical shape of the nanoparticles. Magnetic characterizations of the nanoparticles were carried out at room temperature by using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The specific absorption rate (SAR) was measured by calorimetric method at different frequencies and it has been observed that this value depends on the chemical formula, the applied magnetic fields and the frequency. The study consists of evaluating the images, obtained from an MRI facility, when the nanoparticles are dispersed in agar phantoms compared with the enhanced ones when Omniscan was used as contrast agent. Layer-by-layer technique was used to achieve the necessary requirement of biocompatibility. The surface of the magnetic nanoparticles was modified by coating it with oppositely charged polyelectrolites, making it possible for the binding of a specific drug.

  10. Magnetic nanoparticles for medical applications: Progress and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Doaga, A.; Cojocariu, A. M.; Constantin, C. P.; Caltun, O. F.; Hempelmann, R.

    2013-11-13

    Magnetic nanoparticles present unique properties that make them suitable for applications in biomedical field such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), hyperthermia and drug delivery systems. Magnetic hyperthermia involves heating the cancer cells by using magnetic particles exposed to an alternating magnetic field. The cell temperature increases due to the thermal propagation of the heat induced by the nanoparticles into the affected region. In order to increase the effectiveness of the treatment hyperthermia can be combined with drug delivery techniques. As a spectroscopic technique MRI is used in medicine for the imaging of tissues especially the soft ones and diagnosing malignant or benign tumors. For this purpose Zn{sub x}Co{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite nanoparticles with x between 0 and 1 have been prepared by co-precipitation method. The cristallite size was determined by X-ray diffraction, while the transmission electron microscopy illustrates the spherical shape of the nanoparticles. Magnetic characterizations of the nanoparticles were carried out at room temperature by using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The specific absorption rate (SAR) was measured by calorimetric method at different frequencies and it has been observed that this value depends on the chemical formula, the applied magnetic fields and the frequency. The study consists of evaluating the images, obtained from an MRI facility, when the nanoparticles are dispersed in agar phantoms compared with the enhanced ones when Omniscan was used as contrast agent. Layer-by-layer technique was used to achieve the necessary requirement of biocompatibility. The surface of the magnetic nanoparticles was modified by coating it with oppositely charged polyelectrolites, making it possible for the binding of a specific drug.

  11. Recent progress in preparation and application of microfluidic chip electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Hailin; Xu, Xiaodan; Yu, Bing; Yuan, Hua; Peng, Qiaohong; Tian, Chao

    2015-05-01

    Since its discovery in 1990, microfluidic chip electrophoresis (MCE) has allowed the development of applications with small size, fast analysis, low cost, high integration density and automatic level, which are easy to carry and have made commercialization efficient. MCE has been widely used in the areas of environmental protection, biochemistry, medicine and health, clinical testing, judicial expertise, food sanitation, pharmaceutical checking, drug testing, agrochemistry, biomedical engineering and life science. As one of the foremost fields in the research of capillary electrophoresis, MCE is the ultimate frontier to develop the miniaturized, integrated, automated all-in-one instruments needed in modern analytical chemistry. By adopting the advanced technologies of micro-machining, lasers and microelectronics, and the latest research achievements in analytical chemistry and biochemistry, the sampling, separation and detection systems of commonly used capillary electrophoresis are integrated with high densities onto glass, quartz, silicon or polymer wafers to form the MCE, which can finish the analysis of multi-step operations such as injection, enrichment, reaction, derivatization, separation, and collection of samples in a portable, efficient and super high speed manner. With reference to the different technological achievements in this area, the latest developments in MCE are reviewed in this article. The preparation mechanisms, surface modifications, and properties of different materials in MCE are compared, and the different sampling, separation and detection systems in MCE are summarized. The performance of MCE in analysis of fluorescent substance, metallic ion, sugar, medicine, nucleic acid, DNA, amino acid, polypeptide and protein is discussed, and the future direction of development is forecast.

  12. Messenger RNA-based vaccines: progress, challenges, applications.

    PubMed

    Kramps, Thomas; Probst, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Twenty years after the demonstration that messenger RNA (mRNA) was expressed and immunogenic upon direct injection in mice, the first successful proof-of-concept of specific protection against viral infection in small and large animals was reported. These data indicate wider applicability to infectious disease and should encourage continued translation of mRNA-based prophylactic vaccines into human clinical trials. At the conceptual level, mRNA-based vaccines-more than other genetic vectors-combine the simplicity, safety, and focused immunogenicity of subunit vaccines with favorable immunological properties of live viral vaccines: (1) mRNA vaccines are molecularly defined and carry no excess information. In the environment and upon physical contact, RNA is rapidly degraded by ubiquitous RNases and cannot persist. These characteristics also guarantee tight control over their immunogenic profile (including avoidance of vector-specific immune responses that could interfere with repeated administration), pharmacokinetics, and dosing. (2) mRNA vaccines are synthetically produced by an enzymatic process, just requiring information about the nucleic acid sequence of the desired antigen. This greatly reduces general complications associated with biological vaccine production, such as handling of infectious agents, genetic variability, environmental risks, or restrictions to vaccine distribution. (3) RNA can be tailored to provide potent adjuvant stimuli to the innate immune system by direct activation of RNA-specific receptors; this may reduce the need for additional adjuvants. The formation of native antigen in situ affords great versatility, including intracellular localization, membrane association, posttranslational modification, supra-molecular assembly, or targeted structural optimization of delivered antigen. Messenger RNA vaccines induce balanced immune responses including B cells, helper T cells, and cytotoxic T lymphocytes, rendering them an extremely adaptable

  13. Nuclear reactor decommissioning: an analysis of the regulatory environments

    SciTech Connect

    Cantor, R.

    1986-08-01

    In the next several decades, the electric utility industry will be faced withthe retirement of 50,000 megawatts (mW) of nuclear capacity. Responsibility for the financial and technical burdens this activity entails has been delegated to the utilities operating the reactors. However, the operators will have to perform the tasks of reactor decommissioning within the regulatory environment dictated by federal, state and local regulations. The purpose of this study was to highlight some of the current and likely trends in regulations and regulatory practices that will significantly affect the costs, technical alternatives and financing schemes encountered by the electric utilities and their customers. To identify significant trends and practices among regulatory bodies and utilities, a reviw of these factors was undertaken at various levels in the regulatory hierarchy. The technical policies were examined in reference to their treatment of allowed technical modes, restoration of the plant site including any specific recognition of the residual radioactivity levels, and planning requirements. The financial policies were examined for specification of acceptable financing arrangements, mechanisms which adjust for changes in the important parameters used to establish the fund, tax and rate-base treatments of the payments to and earnings on the fund, and whether or not escalation and/or discounting were considered in the estimates of decommissioning costs. The attitudes of regulators toward financial risk, the tax treatment of the decommissioning fund, and the time distribution of the technical mode were found to have the greatest effect on the discounted revenue requirements. Under plausible assumptions, the cost of a highly restricted environment is about seven times that of the minimum revenue requirement environment for the plants that must be decommissioned in the next three decades.

  14. Reducing environmental risk associated with laboratory decommissioning and property transfer.

    PubMed

    Dufault, R; Abelquist, E; Crooks, S; Demers, D; DiBerardinis, L; Franklin, T; Horowitz, M; Petullo, C; Sturchio, G

    2000-12-01

    The need for more or less space is a common laboratory problem. Solutions may include renovating existing space, leaving or demolishing old space, or acquiring new space or property for building. All of these options carry potential environmental risk. Such risk can be the result of activities related to the laboratory facility or property (e.g., asbestos, underground storage tanks, lead paint), or the research associated with it (e.g., radioactive, microbiological, and chemical contamination). Regardless of the option chosen to solve the space problem, the potential environmental risk must be mitigated and the laboratory space and/or property must be decommissioned or rendered safe prior to any renovation, demolition, or property transfer activities. Not mitigating the environmental risk through a decommissioning process can incur significant financial liability for any costs associated with future decommissioning cleanup activities. Out of necessity, a functioning system, environmental due diligence auditing, has evolved over time to assess environmental risk and reduce associated financial liability. This system involves a 4-phase approach to identify, document, manage, and clean up areas of environmental concern or liability, including contamination. Environmental due diligence auditing includes a) historical site assessment, b) characterization assessment, c) remedial effort and d) final status survey. General practice standards from the American Society for Testing and Materials are available for conducting the first two phases. However, standards have not yet been developed for conducting the third and final phases of the environmental due diligence auditing process. Individuals involved in laboratory decommissioning work in the biomedical research industry consider this a key weakness.

  15. TECHNOLOGY REQUIREMENTS FOR IN SITU DECOMMISSIONING WORKSHOP REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Jannik, T.; Lee, P.; Gladden, J.; Langton, C.; Serrato, M.; Urland, C.; Reynolds, E.

    2009-06-30

    In recognition of the increasing attention being focused on In Situ Decommissioning (ISD or entombment) as an acceptable and beneficial decommissioning end state, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) is developing guidance for the implementation of ISD of excess facilities within the DOE complex. Consistent with the overarching DOE goals for increased personnel and environmental safety, reduced technical uncertainties and risks, and overall gains in efficiencies and effectiveness, EM's Office of Deactivation and Decommissioning and Facility Engineering (EM-23) initiated efforts to identify the technical barriers and technology development needs for the optimal implementation of ISD. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), as the EM Corporate Laboratory, conducted an ISD Technology Needs Workshop to identify the technology needs at DOE sites. The overall goal of the workshop was to gain a full understanding of the specific ISD technical challenges, the technologies available, and those needing development. The ISD Workshop was held December 9-10, 2008 in Aiken, SC. Experienced decommissioning operations personnel from Richland Operations Office (RL), Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and Savannah River Site (SRS) along with scientists and engineers specific expertise were assembled to identify incremental and 'game changing' solutions to ISD technology challenges. The workshop and follow-up activities yielded 14 technology needs statements and the recommendation that EM-23 prioritize and pursue the following specific technology development and deployment actions. For each action, the recommended technology acquisition mechanisms (competitive solicitation (CS) or direct funding (TCR)) are provided. Activities that are time critical for ISD projects, or require unique capabilities that reside in the DOE Laboratory system will be funded directly to those institutions. Activities that have longer lead times and where the private

  16. Reducing environmental risk associated with laboratory decommissioning and property transfer.

    PubMed Central

    Dufault, R; Abelquist, E; Crooks, S; Demers, D; DiBerardinis, L; Franklin, T; Horowitz, M; Petullo, C; Sturchio, G

    2000-01-01

    The need for more or less space is a common laboratory problem. Solutions may include renovating existing space, leaving or demolishing old space, or acquiring new space or property for building. All of these options carry potential environmental risk. Such risk can be the result of activities related to the laboratory facility or property (e.g., asbestos, underground storage tanks, lead paint), or the research associated with it (e.g., radioactive, microbiological, and chemical contamination). Regardless of the option chosen to solve the space problem, the potential environmental risk must be mitigated and the laboratory space and/or property must be decommissioned or rendered safe prior to any renovation, demolition, or property transfer activities. Not mitigating the environmental risk through a decommissioning process can incur significant financial liability for any costs associated with future decommissioning cleanup activities. Out of necessity, a functioning system, environmental due diligence auditing, has evolved over time to assess environmental risk and reduce associated financial liability. This system involves a 4-phase approach to identify, document, manage, and clean up areas of environmental concern or liability, including contamination. Environmental due diligence auditing includes a) historical site assessment, b) characterization assessment, c) remedial effort and d) final status survey. General practice standards from the American Society for Testing and Materials are available for conducting the first two phases. However, standards have not yet been developed for conducting the third and final phases of the environmental due diligence auditing process. Individuals involved in laboratory decommissioning work in the biomedical research industry consider this a key weakness. PMID:11121365

  17. Covariant Density Functional Theory--highlights on recent progress and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, J.; Li, J.; Zhao, P. W.; Liang, H. Z.; Yao, J. M.

    2011-05-06

    The density functional theory with a few number of parameters allows a very successful phenomenological description of ground state properties of nuclei all over the nuclear chart. The recent progress on the application of the covariant density functional theory (CDFT) for nuclear structure and astrophysics as well as its extensions by the group in Beijing is summarized. In particular, its application to magnetic moments is discussed in details.

  18. Recent progress in patterned silicon nanowire arrays: fabrication, properties and applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Qiu, Teng; Zhang, Wenjun; Chu, Paul K

    2011-01-01

    Currently there is great interest in patterned silicon nanowire arrays and applications. The accurately controlled fabrication of patterned silicon nanowire arrays with the desirable axial crystallographic orientation using simpler and quicker ways is very desirable and of great importance to material synthesis and future nanoscale optoelectronic devices that employ silicon. The recent advances in manipulating patterned silicon nanowire arrays and patents are reviewed with a focus on the progress of nanowire fabrication and applications.

  19. Decommissioning and Dismantling of the Floating Maintenance Base 'Lepse' - 13316

    SciTech Connect

    Field, D.; Mizen, K.

    2013-07-01

    The Lepse was built in Russia in 1934 and commissioned as a dry cargo ship. In 1961 she was re-equipped for use as a nuclear service ship (NSS), specifically a floating maintenance base (FMB), to support the operation of the civilian nuclear fleet (ice-breakers) of the USSR. In 1988 Lepse was taken out of service and in 1990 she was re-classified as a 'berth connected ship', located at a berth near the port of Murmansk under the ownership of Federal State Unitary Enterprise (FSUE) Atomflot. Lepse has special storage facilities for spent nuclear fuel assemblies (SFA) that have been used to store several hundred SFAs for nearly 40 years. High and intermediate-level liquid radioactive waste (LRW) is also present in the spent nuclear fuel assembly storage channels, in special tanks and also in the SFA cooling circuit. Many of the SFAs stored in Lepse are classified as damaged and cannot be removed using standard procedures. The removal of the SFA and LRW from the Lepse storage facilities is a hazardous task and requires specially designed tools, equipment and an infrastructure in which these can be deployed safely. Lepse is a significant environmental hazard in the North West of Russia. Storing spent nuclear fuel and high-level liquid radioactive waste on board Lepse in the current conditions is not acceptable with respect to Russian Federation health, safety and environmental standards and with international best practice. The approved concept design for the removal of the SFA and LRW and dismantling of Lepse requires that the ship be transported to Nerpa shipyard where specialist infrastructure will be constructed and equipment installed. One of the main complexities of the Project lies within the number of interested stakeholders involved in the Project. The Lepse project has been high focus on the international stage for many years with previous international efforts failing to make significant progress towards the objective of decommissioning Lepse. The Northern

  20. A NOVEL APPROACH TO SPENT FUEL POOL DECOMMISSIONING

    SciTech Connect

    R. L. Demmer

    2011-04-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been at the forefront of developing methods to reduce the cost and schedule of deactivating spent fuel pools (SFP). Several pools have been deactivated at the INL using an underwater approach with divers. These projects provided a basis for the INL cooperation with the Dresden Nuclear Power Station Unit 1 SFP (Exelon Generation Company) deactivation. It represents the first time that a commercial nuclear power plant (NPP) SFP was decommissioned using this underwater coating process. This approach has advantages in many aspects, particularly in reducing airborne contamination and allowing safer, more cost effective deactivation. The INL pioneered underwater coating process was used to decommission three SFPs with a total combined pool volume of over 900,000 gallons. INL provided engineering support and shared project plans to successfully initiate the Dresden project. This report outlines the steps taken by INL and Exelon to decommission SFPs using the underwater coating process. The rationale used to select the underwater coating process and the advantages and disadvantages are described. Special circumstances are also discussed, such as the use of a remotely-operated underwater vehicle to visually and radiologically map the pool areas that were not readily accessible. A larger project, the INTEC-603 SFP in-situ (grouting) deactivation, is reviewed. Several specific areas where special equipment was employed are discussed and a Lessons Learned evaluation is included.

  1. Evaluating alternatives for decommissioning California's offshore oil and gas platforms.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Brock B

    2015-10-01

    This paper introduces a series of 6 additional papers in this issue that describe an in-depth analysis of options for decommissioning oil and gas platforms offshore southern California. Although current leases require lessees in both state and federal waters to completely remove all production facilities and restore the seafloor to its pre-platform condition, other options have emerged since these leases were signed. Laws and regulations in other jurisdictions (particularly in federal waters) have evolved to allow a number of other uses such as aquaculture, alternative energy production, and artificial reefing. In response, the California Natural Resources Agency initiated an effort to investigate the issues associated with these and other decommissioning alternatives. The papers in this series are the result of the second phase in this process, a broad investigation of the engineering, economic, and environmental costs and benefits of the most feasible and likely options. In addition to the project's final report, the authors produced an interactive mathematical decision model, PLATFORM, that enables users to explore the implications of different decommissioning projects and options, as well as the effects of different approaches to valuing the associated costs and benefits.

  2. Aroma potential of oak battens prepared from decommissioned oak barrels.

    PubMed

    Li, Sijing; Crump, Anna M; Grbin, Paul R; Cozzolino, Daniel; Warren, Peter; Hayasaka, Yoji; Wilkinson, Kerry L

    2015-04-08

    During barrel maturation, volatile compounds are extracted from oak wood and impart aroma and flavor to wine, enhancing its character and complexity. However, barrels contain a finite pool of extractable material, which diminishes with time. As a consequence, most barrels are decommissioned after 5 or 6 years. This study investigated whether or not decommissioned barrels can be "reclaimed" and utilized as a previously untapped source of quality oak for wine maturation. Oak battens were prepared from staves of decommissioned French and American oak barrels, and their composition analyzed before and after toasting. The oak lactone glycoconjugate content of untoasted reclaimed oak was determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, while the concentrations of cis- and trans-oak lactone, guaiacol, 4-methlyguaiacol, vanillin, eugenol, furfural, and 5-methylfurfural present in toasted reclaimed oak were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Aroma potential was then evaluated by comparing the composition of reclaimed oak with that of new oak. Comparable levels of oak lactone glycoconjugates and oak volatiles were observed, demonstrating the aroma potential of reclaimed oak and therefore its suitability as a raw material for alternative oak products, i.e., chips or battens, for the maturation of wine. The temperature profiles achieved during toasting were also measured to evaluate the viability of any yeast or bacteria present in reclaimed oak.

  3. Decontamination and decommissioning surveillance and maintenance report for FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Gunter, David B.; Burwinkle, T. W.; Cannon, T. R.; Ford, M. K.; Holder, Jr., L.; Clotfelter, O. K.; Faulkner, R. L.; Smith, D. L.; Wooten, H. O.

    1991-12-01

    The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D D) Program has three distinct phases: (1) surveillance and maintenance (S M); (2) decontamination and removal of hazardous materials and equipment (which DOE Headquarters in Washington, D.C., calls Phase I of remediation); and (3) decommissioning and ultimate disposal, regulatory compliance monitoring, and property transfer (which DOE Headquarters calls Phase II of remediation). A large part of D D is devoted to S M at each of the sites. Our S M activities, which are performed on facilities awaiting decommissioning, are designed to minimize potential hazards to human health and the environment by: ensuring adequate containment of residual radioactive and hazardous materials; and, providing physical safety and security controls to minimize potential hazards to on-site personnel and the general public. Typically, we classify maintenance activities as either routine or special (major repairs). Routine maintenance includes such activities as painting, cleaning, vegetation control, minor structural repairs, filter changes, and building system(s) checks. Special maintenance includes Occupational Safety and Health Act facility upgrades, roof repairs, and equipment overhaul. Surveillance activities include inspections, radiological measurements, reporting, records maintenance, and security (as required) for controlling and monitoring access to facilities. This report summarizes out FY 1991 S M activities for the Tennessee plant sites, which include the K-25 Site, the Gas Centrifuge facilities, ORNL, and the Y-12 Plant.

  4. 76 FR 78702 - Progress Energy Florida, Inc. (Combined License Application for Levy County Nuclear Power Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Progress Energy Florida, Inc. (Combined License Application for Levy County Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2) Notice of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Reconstitution Pursuant to 10 CFR...

  5. 77 FR 10491 - Progress Energy Carolinas, Inc.; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    .... Application Type: Updated shoreline management plan. b. Project No: 2206-021. c. Date Filed: December 19, 2011...: Progress Energy Carolinas, Inc. (licensee) filed an updated shoreline management plan (SMP) for Lake... shoreline habitat survey and a reduction in the number of shoreline classifications. l. Locations of...

  6. Applications of computer modeling to fusion research. Progress report, 1988--1989

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, J.M.

    1989-12-31

    Progress achieved during this report period is presented on the following topics: Development and application of gyrokinetic particle codes to tokamak transport, development of techniques to take advantage of parallel computers; model dynamo and bootstrap current drive; and in general maintain our broad-based program in basic plasma physics and computer modeling.

  7. Radioactive waste from decommissioning of fast reactors (through the example of BN-800)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybin, A. A.; Momot, O. A.

    2017-01-01

    Estimation of volume of radioactive waste from operating and decommissioning of fast reactors is introduced. Preliminary estimation has shown that the volume of RW from decommissioning of BN-800 is amounted to 63,000 cu. m. Comparison of the amount of liquid radioactive waste derived from operation of different reactor types is performed. Approximate costs of all wastes disposal for complete decommissioning of BN-800 reactor are estimated amounting up to approx. 145 million.

  8. The Regulatory Challenges of Decommissioning Nuclear Power Plants in Korea - 13101

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jungjoon; Ahn, Sangmyeon; Choi, Kyungwoo; Kim, Juyoul; Kim, Juyub

    2013-07-01

    As of 2012, 23 units of nuclear power plants are in operation, but there is no experience of permanent shutdown and decommissioning of nuclear power plant in Korea. It is realized that, since late 1990's, improvement of the regulatory framework for decommissioning has been emphasized constantly from the point of view of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)'s safety standards. And it is known that now IAEA prepare the safety requirement on decommissioning of facilities, its title is the Safe Decommissioning of Facilities, General Safety Requirement Part 6. According to the result of IAEA's Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission to Korea in 2011, it was recommended that the regulatory framework for decommissioning should require decommissioning plans for nuclear installations to be constructed and operated and these plans should be updated periodically. In addition, after the Fukushima nuclear disaster in Japan in March of 2011, preparedness for early decommissioning caused by an unexpected severe accident became also important issues and concerns. In this respect, it is acknowledged that the regulatory framework for decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Korea need to be improved. First of all, we identify the current status and relevant issues of regulatory framework for decommissioning of nuclear power plants compared to the IAEA's safety standards in order to achieve our goal. And then the plan is to be established for improvement of regulatory framework for decommissioning of nuclear power plants in Korea. After dealing with it, it is expected that the revised regulatory framework for decommissioning could enhance the safety regime on the decommissioning of nuclear power plants in Korea in light of international standards. (authors)

  9. The regulatory framework for safe decommissioning of nuclear power plants in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Sangmyeon Ahn; Jungjoon Lee; Chanwoo Jeong; Kyungwoo Choi

    2013-07-01

    We are having 23 units of nuclear power plants in operation and 5 units of nuclear power plants under construction in Korea as of September 2012. However, we don't have any experience on shutdown permanently and decommissioning of nuclear power plants. There are only two research reactors being decommissioned since 1997. It is realized that improvement of the regulatory framework for decommissioning of nuclear facilities has been emphasized constantly from the point of view of IAEA's safety standards. It is also known that IAEA will prepare the safety requirement on decommissioning of facilities; its title is the Safe Decommissioning of Facilities, General Safety Requirement Part 6. According to the result of IAEA's Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission to Korea in 2011, it was recommended that the regulatory framework should require decommissioning plans for nuclear installations to be constructed and operated and these plans should be updated periodically. In addition, after the Fukushima nuclear disaster in Japan in March of 2011, preparedness for early decommissioning caused by an unexpected severe accident became important issues and concerns. In this respect, it is acknowledged that the regulatory framework for decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Korea need to be improved. First of all, we focus on identifying the current status and relevant issues of regulatory framework for decommissioning of nuclear power plants compared to the IAEA's safety standards in order to achieve our goal. And then the plan is established for improvement of regulatory framework for decommissioning of nuclear power plants in Korea. It is expected that if the things will go forward as planned, the revised regulatory framework for decommissioning could enhance the safety regime on the decommissioning of nuclear power plants in Korea in light of international standards. (authors)

  10. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference boiling water reactor power station. Appendices. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Oak, H.D.; Holter, G.M.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Konzek, G.J.

    1980-06-01

    Appendices are presented concerning the evaluations of decommissioning financing alternatives; reference site description; reference BWR facility description; radiation dose rate and concrete surface contamination data; radionuclide inventories; public radiation dose models and calculated maximum annual doses; decommissioning methods; generic decommissioning information; immediate dismantlement details; passive safe storage, continuing care, and deferred dismantlement details; entombment details; demolition and site restoration details; cost estimating bases; public radiological safety assessment details; and details of alternate study bases.

  11. Annual summary report on the Decontamination and Decommissioning Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for the period ending September 30, 1992. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The Y-12 Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program provides for the ultimate disposition of plant process buildings and their supporting facilities. The overall objective is to enable the Y-12 Plant to meet applicable environmental regulations and Department of Energy (DOE) orders to protect human health and the environment from contaminated facilities through decommissioning activities. This objective is met by providing for the surveillance and maintenance (S&M) of accepted standby or shutdown facilities awaiting decommissioning; planning for decommissioning of these facilities; and implementing a program to accomplish the safe, cost-effective, and orderly disposition of contaminated facilities. The Y-12 D&D Program was organized during FY 1992 to encompass the needs of surplus facilities at the Y-12 Plant. The need existed for a program which would include Weapons Program facilities as well as other facilities used by several programs within the Y-12 Plant. Building 9201-4 (Alpha 4) is the only facility that is formally in the D&D Program. Funding for the work completed in FY 1992 was shared by the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program (EW-20) and Weapons Operations (GB-92). This report summarizes the FY 1992 D&D activities associated with Building 9201-4. A section is provided for each task; the tasks include surveillance, routine and special maintenance, safety, and D&D planning.

  12. A Plutonium Finishing Plant Model for the Cercla Removal Action and Decommissioning Construction Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, A.

    2008-07-01

    The joint policy between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for decommissioning buildings at DOE facilities documents an agreement between the agencies to perform decommissioning activities including demolition under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). The use of removal actions for decommissioning integrates EPA oversight authority, DOE lead agency responsibility, and state authority for decommissioning activities. Once removal actions have been performed under CERCLA, a construction completion report is required to document the completion of the required action. Additionally, a decommissioning report is required under DOE guidance. No direct guidance was found for documenting completion of decommissioning activities and preparing a final report that satisfies the CERCLA requirements and the DOE requirements for decommissioning. Additional guidance was needed for the documentation of construction completion under CERCLA for D and D projects undertaken under the joint policy that addresses the requirements of both agencies. A model for the construction completion report was developed to document construction completion for CERCLA D and D activities performed under the joint EPA/DOE policy at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The model documentation report developed at PFP integrates the DOE requirements for establishing decommissioning end-points, documenting end-point completion and preparing a final decommissioning report with the CERCLA requirements to document completion of the action identified in the Action Memorandum (AM). The model includes the required information on health and safety, data management, cost and schedule and end-points completion. (authors)

  13. Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects: summary report. Plum Brook Reactor Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Doerge, D.H.; Miller, R.L.

    1984-02-01

    This document summarizes information concerning the decommissioning of the Plum Brook Reactor Facility, which was placed in a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approved safe storage configuration. The data were placed in a computerized information retrieval/manipulation system which permits future utilization of this information in decommissioning of similar facilities. The information is presented both in computer output form and a manually assembled summarization. Complete cost data were not readily available and decommissioning activities did not in all cases conform with current criteria for the SAFSTOR decommissioning mode, therefore no cost comparisons were made.

  14. DECOMMISSIONING THE PHYSICS LABORATORY, BUILDING 777-10A, AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE (SRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Musall, J; Cathy Sizemore, C

    2007-01-17

    SRS recently completed a four-year mission to decommission {approx}250 excess facilities. As part of that effort, SRS decommissioned a 48,000 ft{sup 2} laboratory that housed four low-power test reactors, formerly used by SRS to determine reactor physics. This paper describes and reviews the decommissioning, with a focus on component segmentation and handling (i.e. hazardous material removal, demolition, and waste handling). The paper is intended to be a resource for engineers, planners, and project managers who face similar decommissioning challenges.

  15. Packaging, Transportation, and Disposal Logistics for Large Radioactively Contaminated Reactor Decommissioning Components

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Mark S.

    2008-01-15

    The packaging, transportation and disposal of large, retired reactor components from operating or decommissioning nuclear plants pose unique challenges from a technical as well as regulatory compliance standpoint. In addition to the routine considerations associated with any radioactive waste disposition activity, such as characterization, ALARA, and manifesting, the technical challenges for large radioactively contaminated components, such as access, segmentation, removal, packaging, rigging, lifting, mode of transportation, conveyance compatibility, and load securing require significant planning and execution. In addition, the current regulatory framework, domestically in Titles 49 and 10 and internationally in TS-R-1, does not lend itself to the transport of these large radioactively contaminated components, such as reactor vessels, steam generators, reactor pressure vessel heads, and pressurizers, without application for a special permit or arrangement. This paper addresses the methods of overcoming the technical and regulatory challenges. The challenges and disposition decisions do differ during decommissioning versus component replacement during an outage at an operating plant. During decommissioning, there is less concern about critical path for restart and more concern about volume reduction and waste minimization. Segmentation on-site is an available option during decommissioning, since labor and equipment will be readily available and decontamination activities are routine. The reactor building removal path is also of less concern and there are more rigging/lifting options available. Radionuclide assessment is necessary for transportation and disposal characterization. Characterization will dictate the packaging methodology, transportation mode, need for intermediate processing, and the disposal location or availability. Characterization will also assist in determining if the large component can be transported in full compliance with the transportation

  16. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference pressurized water reactor power station. Classification of decommissioning wastes. Addendum 3

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, E.S.

    1984-09-01

    The radioactive wastes expected to result from decommissioning of the reference pressurized water reactor power station are reviewed and classified in accordance with 10 CFR 61. The 17,885 cubic meters of waste from DECON are classified as follows: Class A, 98.0%; Class B, 1.2%; Class C, 0.1%. About 0.7% (133 cubic meters) of the waste would be generally unacceptable for disposal using near-surface disposal methods.

  17. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference boiling water reactor power station. Classification of decommissioning wastes. Addendum 2

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, E.S.

    1984-09-01

    The radioactive wastes expected to result from decommissioning of the reference boiling water reactor power station are reviewed and classified in accordance with 10 CFR 61. The 18,949 cubic meters of waste from DECON are classified as follows: Class A, 97.5%; Class B, 2.0%; Class C, 0.3%. About 0.2% (47 cubic meters) of the waste would be generally unacceptable for disposal using near-surface disposal methods.

  18. Progress and challenges in cleaning up Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Wagoner, J.D.

    1997-08-01

    This paper presents captioned viewgraphs which briefly summarize cleanup efforts at the Hanford Site. Underground waste tank and spent nuclear fuel issues are described. Progress is reported for the Plutonium Finishing Plant, PUREX plant, B-Plant/Waste Encapsulation Storage Facility, and Fast Flux Test Facility. A very brief overview of costs and number of sites remediated and/or decommissioned is given.

  19. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Vol. 18. Part 2. Indexes

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This bibliography contains 3638 citations with abstracts of documents relevant to environmental restoration, nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions. This report is the eighteenth in a series of bibliographies prepared annually for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - have been included in Part 1 of the report. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, financial, and regulatory information that pertains to DOE environmental restoration programs. The citations are separated by topic into 16 sections, including (1) DOE Environmental Restoration Program; (2) DOE D&D Program; (3) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (4) DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Programs; (5) NORM-Contaminated Site Restoration; (6) DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project; (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; (8) DOE Site-Wide Remedial Actions; (9) DOE Onsite Remedial Action Projects; (10) Contaminated Site Remedial Actions; (11) DOE Underground Storage Tank Remediation; (12) DOE Technology Development, Demonstration, and Evaluations; (13) Soil Remediation; (14) Groundwater Remediation; (15) Environmental Measurements, Analysis, and Decision-Making; and (16) Environmental Management Issues. Within the 16 sections, the citations are sorted by geographic location. If a geographic location is not specified, the citations are sorted according to the document title. In Part 2 of the report, indexes are provided for author, author affiliation, selected title phrase, selected title word, publication description, geographic location, and keyword.

  20. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, volume 9

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Michelson, D.C.; Turmer, G.S.

    1988-09-01

    The 604 abstracted references on nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the ninth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Foreign and domestic literature of all types--technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions--has been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's remedial action programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) General Remedial Action Program Studies. Subsections for sections 1, 2, 5, and 6 include: Design, Planning, and Regulations; Environmental Studies and Site Surveys; Health, Safety, and Biomedical Studies; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Site Stabilization and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; Remedial Action Experience; and General Studies. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication description. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, and keywords. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects and analyzes information on remedial actions and relevant radioactive waste management technologies. RAPIC staff and resources are available to meet a variety of information needs. Contact the center at (615) 576-0568 or FTS 626-0568.

  1. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: a selected bibliography. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Fielden, J.M.; Faust, R.A.

    1983-09-01

    This bibliography of 657 references with abstracts on the subject of nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions is the fourth in a series of annual reports prepared for the US Department of Energy, Division of Remedial Action Projects. Foreign as well as domestic documents of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, conference papers, symposium proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - have been references in this publication. The bibliography contains scientific (basic research as well as applied technology), economic, regulatory, and legal literature pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Program. Major chapters are: (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program; (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program; (4) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program; (5) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program; and (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management. Chapter sections for chapters 1 and 2 include: Design, Planning, and Regulations; Site Surveys; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Land Decontamination and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; and General studies. The references within each chapter or section are arranged alphabetically by leading author. References having no individual author are arranged by corporate author, or by title. Indexes are provided for the categories of author, corporate affiliation, title, publication description, geographic location, and keywords. Appendix A lists 264 bibliographic references to literature identified during this reporting period but not abstracted due to time constraints. Title and publication description indexes are given for this appendix. Appendix B defines frequently used acronyms, and Appendix C lists the recipients of this report according to their corporate affiliation.

  2. Completion of the decommissioning of a former active handling building at UKAEA Winfrith

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.; Parkinson, S.J.; Cornell, R.M.; Staples, A.T.

    2007-07-01

    Since July 2000, NUKEM Limited has been carrying out the full decommissioning of a former Active Handling Building A59 at Winfrith in Dorset under contract from the nuclear site licence holder, UKAEA. Work has generally centred upon clearance and decontamination of the two heavily shielded suites of caves originally used to carry out remote examination of irradiated nuclear fuel elements although a number of other supporting facilities are also involved. This work has proceeded successfully to completion following extensive decontamination of the caves and associated facilities and has been followed by the recent demolition of the main containment building structure. This has permitted a start to be made on the demolition of the two heavily shielded suites of caves which is to be followed by removal of the building slab and restoration of the site. This paper reviews some of the significant tasks undertaken during the past year in preparation for the building and cave line demolition operations. It also reviews the building structure removal and recent progress made with the demolition of the two heavily reinforced concrete cave lines. The procedure used for monitoring the concrete debris from the cave lines has had to be revised during these operations and the reasons for this and a temporary delay in the cave line demolition will be discussed in the context of the remaining sections of the programme. This decommissioning programme has been achieved throughout by the employment of a non-adversarial team working approach between client and contractor. This has been instrumental in developing cost-effective and safe solutions to a range of problems during the programme, demonstrating the worth of adopting this co-operative approach for mutual benefit. (authors)

  3. Recent progress in application of carbon nanomaterials in laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Qian; Liang, Yong; Jiang, Guibin

    2016-04-01

    Carbon nanomaterials have attracted great interest over past decades owing to their unique physical properties, versatile functionalization chemistry, and biological compatibility. In this article, we review recent progress in application of carbon nanomaterials in laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI MS). Various types of carbon nanomaterials, including fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, graphene, carbon nanodots, nanodiamond, nanofibers, nanohorns, and their derivative forms, are involved. The applications of these materials as new matrices or probes in matrix-assisted or surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI or SELDI MS) are discussed. Finally, we summarize current challenges and give our perspectives on the future of applications of carbon nanomaterials in LDI MS.

  4. Priority-progress CPU adaptation for elastic real-time applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasic, Charles; Sinha, Anirban; Kirsh, Lowell

    2007-01-01

    As multimedia-capable, network-enabled devices become ever more abundant, device heterogeneity and resource sharing dynamics remain difficult challenges in networked continuous media applications. These challenges often cause the applications to exhibit very brittle real-time performance. Due to heterogeneity, minor variations in encoding can mean a continuous media item performs well on some devices but very poorly on others. Resource sharing can mean that content can work for some of the time, but real-time delivery is frequently interrupted due to competition for resources. Quality-adaptive approaches seek to preserve real-time performance, by evaluating and executing trade-offs between the quality of application results and the resources required and available to produce them. Since the approach requires the applications to adapt the results they produce, we refer to them as elastic real-time applications. In this paper, we use video as a specific example of an elastic real-time application. We describe a general strategy for CPU adaptation called Priority-Progress adaptation, which compliments and extends previous work on adaptation for network bandwidth. The basic idea of Priority-Progress is to utilize priority and timestamp attributes of the media to reorder execution steps, so that low priority work can be skipped in the event that the CPU is too constrained to otherwise maintain real-time progress. We have implemented this approach in a prototype video application. We will present benchmark results that demonstrate the advantages of Priority-Progress adaptation in comparison to techniques employed in current popular video players. These advantages include better timeliness as CPU utilization approaches saturation, and more user-centric control over quality-adapation (for example to boost the video quality of selected video in a multi-video scenario). Although we focus on video in this paper, we believe that the Priority-Progress technique is applicable to

  5. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning reference nuclear research and test reactors: sensitivity of decommissioning radiation exposure and costs to selected parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Konzek, G.J.

    1983-07-01

    Additional analyses of decommissioning at the reference research and test (R and T) reactors and analyses of five recent reactor decommissionings are made that examine some parameters not covered in the initial study report (NUREG/CR-1756). The parameters examined for decommissioning are: (1) the effect on costs and radiation exposure of plant size and/or type; (2) the effects on costs of increasing disposal charges and of unavailability of waste disposal capacity at licensed waste disposal facilities; and (3) the costs of and the available alternatives for the disposal of nuclear R and T reactor fuel assemblies.

  6. Available decontamination and decommissioning capabilities at the Savannah River Technology Center

    SciTech Connect

    Polizzi, L.M.; Norkus, J.K.; Paik, I.K.; Wooten, L.A.

    1992-08-19

    The Safety Analysis and Engineering Services Group has performed a survey of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) technical capabilities, skills, and experience in Decontamination and Decommissioning (D D) activities. The goal of this survey is to enhance the integration of the SRTC capabilities with the technical needs of the Environmental Restoration Department D D program and the DOE Office of Technology Development through the Integrated Demonstration Program. This survey has identified technical capabilities, skills, and experience in the following D D areas: Characterization, Decontamination, Dismantlement, Material Disposal, Remote Systems, and support on Safety Technology for D D. This review demonstrates the depth and wealth of technical capability resident in the SRTC in relation to these activities, and the unique qualifications of the SRTC to supply technical support in the area of DOE facility D D. Additional details on specific technologies and applications to D D will be made available on request.

  7. Available decontamination and decommissioning capabilities at the Savannah River Technology Center

    SciTech Connect

    Polizzi, L.M.; Norkus, J.K.; Paik, I.K.; Wooten, L.A.

    1992-08-19

    The Safety Analysis and Engineering Services Group has performed a survey of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) technical capabilities, skills, and experience in Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) activities. The goal of this survey is to enhance the integration of the SRTC capabilities with the technical needs of the Environmental Restoration Department D&D program and the DOE Office of Technology Development through the Integrated Demonstration Program. This survey has identified technical capabilities, skills, and experience in the following D&D areas: Characterization, Decontamination, Dismantlement, Material Disposal, Remote Systems, and support on Safety Technology for D&D. This review demonstrates the depth and wealth of technical capability resident in the SRTC in relation to these activities, and the unique qualifications of the SRTC to supply technical support in the area of DOE facility D&D. Additional details on specific technologies and applications to D&D will be made available on request.

  8. HANFORD DECOMMISSIONING UPDATE 09/2007

    SciTech Connect

    GERBER, M.S.

    2007-08-20

    Fluor Hanford's K Basins Closure (KBC) Project tallied three major accomplishments at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in Southeastern Washington State this past summer. The Project finished emptying the aging K East Basin of both sludge and the last pieces of scrap spent nuclear fuel. It also Completed vacuuming the bulk of the sludge in the K West Basin into underwater containers. The 54-year-old concrete basins once held more than four million pounds of spent nuclear fuel and sit less than 400 yards from the Columbia River. Each basin holds more than a million gallons of radioactive water. In 2004, Fluor finished removing all the spent nuclear fuel from the K Basins. Nearly 50 cubic meters of sludge remained--a combination of dirt, sand, small pieces of corroded uranium fuel and fuel cladding, corrosion products from racks and canisters, ion-exchange resin beads, polychlorinated biphenyls, and fission products that had formed during the decades that the spent nuclear fuel was stored underwater. Capturing the sludge into underwater containers in the K East Basin took more than two years, and vacuuming the much smaller volume of sludge into containers in the K West Basin required seven months. Workers stood on grating above the basin water and vacuumed the sludge through long, heavy hoses. The work was complicated by murky water and contaminated solid waste (debris). Pumping was paused several times to safely remove and package debris that totaled more than 370 tons. In October 2006, Fluor Hanford workers began pumping the sludge captured in the K East Basin containers out through a specially designed pipeline to underwater containers in the K West Basin, about a half mile away. They used a heavy but flexible, double-walled ''hose-in-hose'' system. Pumping work progressed slowly at first, but ramped up in spring 2007 and was completed on May 31. Just a week before sludge transfers finished, the KBC Project removed the last few small pieces of

  9. Site Characterization Plan for decontamination and decommissioning of Buildings 3506 and 3515 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Buildings 3506, the Waste Evaporator Facility, and 3515, the Fission Product Pilot Plant, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), are scheduled for decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). This Site Characterization Plan (SCP) presents the strategy and techniques to be used to characterize Buildings 3506/3515 for the purpose of planning D&D activities. The elements of the site characterization for Buildings 3506/3515 are planning and preparation, field investigation, and characterization reporting. Other level of effort activities will include management and oversight, project controls, meetings, and progress reporting. The objective of the site characterization is to determine the nature and extent of radioactive and hazardous materials and other industrial hazards in and around the buildings. This information will be used in subsequent planning to develop a detailed approach for final decommissioning of the facilities: (1) to evaluate decommissioning alternatives and design the most cost-effective D&D approach; (2) to determine the level and type of protection necessary for D&D workers; and (3) to estimate the types and volumes of wastes generated during D&D activities. The current D&D characterization scope includes the entire building, including the foundation and equipment or materials within the building. To estimate potential worker exposure from the soil during D&D, some subfoundation soil sample collection is planned. Buildings 3506/3515 are located in the ORNL main plant area, to the west and east, respectively, of the South Tank Farm. Building 3506 was built in 1949 to house a liquid waste evaporator and was subsequently used for an incinerator experiment. Partial D&D was done prior to abandonment, and most equipment has been removed. Building 3515 was built in 1948 to house fission product separation equipment. In about 1960, all entrances were sealed with concrete block and mortar. Building 3515 is expected to be highly contaminated.

  10. Heavy Water Components Test Reactor Decommissioning - Major Component Removal

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, W.; Brinkley, D.

    2010-05-05

    The Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) facility (Figure 1) was built in 1961, operated from 1962 to 1964, and is located in the northwest quadrant of the Savannah River Site (SRS) approximately three miles from the site boundary. The HWCTR facility is on high, well-drained ground, about 30 meters above the water table. The HWCTR was a pressurized heavy water test reactor used to develop candidate fuel designs for heavy water power reactors. It was not a defense-related facility like the materials production reactors at SRS. The reactor was moderated with heavy water and was rated at 50 megawatts thermal power. In December of 1964, operations were terminated and the facility was placed in a standby condition as a result of the decision by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission to redirect research and development work on heavy water power reactors to reactors cooled with organic materials. For about one year, site personnel maintained the facility in a standby status, and then retired the reactor in place. In 1965, fuel assemblies were removed, systems that contained heavy water were drained, fluid piping systems were drained, deenergized and disconnected and the spent fuel basin was drained and dried. The doors of the reactor facility were shut and it wasn't until 10 years later that decommissioning plans were considered and ultimately postponed due to budget constraints. In the early 1990s, DOE began planning to decommission HWCTR again. Yet, in the face of new budget constraints, DOE deferred dismantlement and placed HWCTR in an extended surveillance and maintenance mode. The doors of the reactor facility were welded shut to protect workers and discourage intruders. The $1.6 billion allocation from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to SRS for site clean up at SRS has opened the doors to the HWCTR again - this time for final decommissioning. During the lifetime of HWCTR, 36 different fuel assemblies were tested in the facility. Ten of these

  11. 76 FR 3540 - Proposed Generic Communications Reporting for Decommissioning Funding Status Reports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... Funding Status Reports AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Proposed generic communication... information that they should use and present to the NRC in the Decommissioning Funding Status reports to... . The Draft Regulatory Issue Summary 2010-XXX, ``10 CFR 50-75, Reporting for Decommissioning...

  12. 10 CFR 72.30 - Financial assurance and recordkeeping for decommissioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the decontamination and decommissioning of the ISFSI or MRS at the end of its useful life will provide... design features of the ISFSI or MRS that facilitate its decontamination and decommissioning at the end of... plan containing information on how reasonable assurance will be provided that funds will be...

  13. 10 CFR 50.75 - Reporting and recordkeeping for decommissioning planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... funds accumulated to the end of the calendar year preceding the date of the report; a schedule of the... of decommissioning funds accumulated to the end of the calendar year preceding the date of the report... provide reasonable assurance that funds will be available for the decommissioning process. For...

  14. 30 CFR 550.255 - What decommissioning information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What decommissioning information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 550.255 Section 550.255 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... brief description of how you intend to decommission your wells, platforms, pipelines, and...

  15. 30 CFR 550.255 - What decommissioning information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What decommissioning information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 550.255 Section 550.255 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... brief description of how you intend to decommission your wells, platforms, pipelines, and...

  16. 30 CFR 550.255 - What decommissioning information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What decommissioning information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 550.255 Section 550.255 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... brief description of how you intend to decommission your wells, platforms, pipelines, and...

  17. Pulse combustion technology for heating applications. Quarterly progress report, January 1-March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Blomquist, C.A.; Clinch, J.M.; Ahrens, F.W.

    1980-04-01

    The primary purpose of the research program described in this progress report is to develop and expand the technology base for fossil-fuel-fired pulse combustion heating systems. A major goal of the program is to develop design data and design procedures for pulse combustion burners. This design capability will contribute to the accelerated industrial development of cost-effective, high-efficiency systems for a variety of heating applications.

  18. HLRW management during MR reactor decommissioning in NRC 'Kurchatov Institute'

    SciTech Connect

    Chesnokov, Alexander; Ivanov, Oleg; Kolyadin, Vyacheslav; Lemus, Alexey; Pavlenko, Vitaly; Semenov, Sergey; Stepanov, Vyacheslav; Smirnov, Sergey; Potapov, Victor; Fadin, Sergey; Volkov, Victor; Shisha, Anatoly

    2013-07-01

    A program of decommissioning of MR research reactor in the Kurchatov institute started in 2008. The decommissioning work presumed a preliminary stage, which included: removal of spent fuel from near reactor storage; removal of spent fuel assemble of metal liquid loop channel from a core; identification, sorting and disposal of radioactive objects from gateway of the reactor; identification, sorting and disposal of radioactive objects from cells of HLRW storage of the Kurchatov institute for radwaste creating form the decommissioning of MR. All these works were performed by a remote controlled means with use of a remote identification methods of high radioactive objects. A distribution of activity along high radiated objects was measured by a collimated radiometer installed on the robot Brokk-90, a gamma image of the object was registered by gamma-visor. Spectrum of gamma radiation was measured by a gamma locator and semiconductor detector system. For identification of a presence of uranium isotopes in the HLRW a technique, based on the registration of characteristic radiation of U, was developed. For fragmentation of high radiated objects was used a cold cutting technique and dust suppression system was applied for reduction of volume activity of aerosols in air. The management of HLRW was performed by remote controlled robots Brokk-180 and Brokk-330. They executed sorting, cutting and parking of high radiated part of contaminated equipment. The use of these techniques allowed to reduce individual and collective doses of personal performed the decommissioning. The average individual dose of the personnel was 1,9 mSv/year in 2011, and the collective dose is estimated by 0,0605 man x Sv/year. Use of the remote control machines enables reducing the number of working personal (20 men) and doses. X-ray spectrometric methods enable determination of a presence of the U in high radiated objects and special cans and separation of them for further spent fuel inspection. The

  19. Waste management for Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project: Extended summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mullee, G.R.; Schulmeister, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Shippingport Station (SSDP) is demonstrating that the techniques and methodologies of waste management, which are currently employed by the nuclear industry, provide adequate management and control of waste activities for the decommissioning of a large scale nuclear plant. The SSDP has some unique aspects in that as part of the objective to promote technology transfer, multiple subcontractors are being utilized in the project. The interfaces resulting from multiple subcontractors require additional controls. Effective control has been accomplished by the use of a process control and inventory system, coupled with personnel training in waste management activities. This report summarizes the waste management plan and provides a status of waste management activities for SSDP.

  20. ANSYS analyses on the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project

    SciTech Connect

    DeSantis, P.V.; McNamee, H.G.

    1987-01-01

    The nuclear reactor vessel from the Shippingport Station, located in Shippingport, Pennsylvania, will be removed as part of the overall Decommissioning Project. The reactor vessel along with a specially designed lifting beam and skirt were modelled to examine the stresses and behavior of the combined structure. Both the PC/Linear Version of ANSYS and the Cray Version were used in the two phases of the analysis. This paper describes the modelling and analytical techniques used to evaluate the design of this one-of-a-kind structure. The combination of the two versions of ANSYS provided the design team with excellent results in a timely and cost effective manner.

  1. Shutdown plus 3 - a look at Yankee decommissioning experience

    SciTech Connect

    Szymczak, W.J.

    1995-12-31

    In three years, the Yankee Nuclear Power Station has not only made the transition from a facility with a full power operating license to a shut down facility but to a facility with a mature and experienced organization poised to effectively and efficiently decommission the remainder of the plant. Opportunities were acted upon to reduce the cost of running and dismantling a shut-down facility. This paper describes some of those opportunities and Yankee`s future strategy for dismantling in an environment with limited waste disposal availability.

  2. Progress in compact soft x-ray lasers and their applications

    SciTech Connect

    Suckewer, S.; Skinner, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    The ultra-high brightness and short pulse duration of soft x-ray lasers provide unique advantages for novel applications. A crucial factor in the availability of these devices is their scale and cost. Recent breakthroughs in this field has brought closer the advent of table-top devices, suitable for applications to fields such as x-ray microscopy, chemistry, material science, plasma diagnostics, and lithography. In this article we review recent progress in the development of compact (table-top) soft x-ray lasers.

  3. Recent research progress on preparation and application of N, N, N-trimethyl chitosan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Meiyan; Long, Zhu; Xiao, Huining; Dong, Cuihua

    2016-11-03

    N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) is a quaternized chitosan derivative with excellent solubility in aqueous solutions. It has been extensively studied as an absorption enhancer, antibacterial agent and gene vector due to its ability to form complexes with anionic gels or macromoleculars. However, the research which describes the process of TMC preparation and its new applications has not been fully reviewed. In this paper, recent progress regarding different TMC preparation methods and its characterization and application in different fields is presented. Key findings are compared and summarized and some topics for further study are suggested.

  4. Review on the progress in synthesis and application of magnetic carbon nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Maiyong; Diao, Guowang

    2011-07-01

    This review focuses on the synthesis and application of nanostructured composites containing magnetic nanostructures and carbon-based materials. Great progress in fabrication of magnetic carbon nanocomposites has been made by developing methods including filling process, template-based synthesis, chemical vapor deposition, hydrothermal/solvothermal method, pyrolysis procedure, sol-gel process, detonation induced reaction, self-assembly method, etc. The applications of magnetic carbon nanocomposites expanded to a wide range of fields such as environmental treatment, microwave absorption, magnetic recording media, electrochemical sensor, catalysis, separation/recognization of biomolecules and drug delivery are discussed. Finally, some future trends and perspectives in this research area are outlined.

  5. Progress in biocatalysis with immobilized viable whole cells: systems development, reaction engineering and applications.

    PubMed

    Polakovič, Milan; Švitel, Juraj; Bučko, Marek; Filip, Jaroslav; Neděla, Vilém; Ansorge-Schumacher, Marion B; Gemeiner, Peter

    2017-02-08

    Viable microbial cells are important biocatalysts in the production of fine chemicals and biofuels, in environmental applications and also in emerging applications such as biosensors or medicine. Their increasing significance is driven mainly by the intensive development of high performance recombinant strains supplying multienzyme cascade reaction pathways, and by advances in preservation of the native state and stability of whole-cell biocatalysts throughout their application. In many cases, the stability and performance of whole-cell biocatalysts can be highly improved by controlled immobilization techniques. This review summarizes the current progress in the development of immobilized whole-cell biocatalysts, the immobilization methods as well as in the bioreaction engineering aspects and economical aspects of their biocatalytic applications.

  6. French Atomic Energy Commission Decommissioning Programme and Feedback Experience - 12230

    SciTech Connect

    Guiberteau, Ph.; Nokhamzon, J.G.

    2012-07-01

    Since the French Atomic and Alternatives Energy Commission (CEA) was founded in 1945 to carry out research programmes on use of nuclear, and its application France has set up and run various types of installations: research or prototypes reactors, process study or examination laboratories, pilot installations, accelerators, nuclear power plants and processing facilities. Some of these are currently being dismantled or must be dismantled soon so that the DEN, the Nuclear Energy Division, can construct new equipment and thus have available a range of R and D facilities in line with the issues of the nuclear industry of the future. Since the 1960's and 1970's in all its centres, the CEA has acquired experience and know-how through dismantling various nuclear facilities. The dismantling techniques are nowadays operational, even if sometimes certain specific developments are necessary to reduce the cost of operations. Thanks to availability of techniques and guarantees of dismantling programme financing now from two dedicated funds, close to euro 15,000 M for the next thirty years, for current or projected dismantling operations, the CEA's Nuclear Energy Division has been able to develop, when necessary, its immediate dismantling strategy. Currently, nearly thirty facilities are being dismantled by the CEA's Nuclear Energy Division operational units with industrial partners. Thus the next decade will see completion of the dismantling and radioactive clean-up of the Grenoble site and of the facilities on the Fontenay-aux-Roses site. By 2016, the dismantling of the UP1 plant at Marcoule, the largest dismantling work in France, will be well advanced, with all the process equipment dismantled. After an overview of the French regulatory framework, the paper will describe the DD and R (Decontamination Decommissioning and Remediation) strategy, programme and feedback experience inside the CEA's Nuclear Energy Division. A special feature of dismantling operations at the CEA

  7. DECOMMISSIONING OF SHIELDED FACILITIES AT WINFRITH USED FOR POST IRRADIATION EXAMINATION OF NUCLEAR FUELS & OTHER ACTIVE ITEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, K.D.; Parkinson, S.J.; Cornell, R.M.; Staples, A.T.

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes the approaches used in the clearing, cleaning, decontamination and decommissioning of a very large suite of seven concrete shielded caves and other facilities used by UKAEA at Winfrith Technology Centre, England over a period of about 30 years for the postirradiation examination (PIE) of a wide range of nuclear fuels and other very active components. The basic construction of the facilities will first be described, setting the scene for the major challenges that 1970s' thinking posed for decommissioning engineers. The tendency then to use large and heavy items of equipment supported upon massive steel bench structures produced a series of major problems that had to be overcome. The means of solving these problems by utilization of relatively simple and inexpensive equipment will be described. Later, a further set of challenges was experienced to decontaminate the interior surfaces to allow man entries to be undertaken at acceptable dose rates. The paper will describe the types of tooling used and the range of complementary techniques that were employed to steadily reduce the dose rates down to acceptable levels. Some explanations will also be given for the creation of realistic dose budgets and the methods of recording and continuously assessing the progress against these budgets throughout the project. Some final considerations are given to the commercial approaches to be adopted throughout this major project by the decommissioning engineers. Particular emphasis will be given to the selection of equipment and techniques that are effective so that the whole process can be carried out in a cost-effective and timely manner. The paper also provides brief complementary information obtained during the decommissioning of a plutonium-contaminated facility used for a range of semi-experimental purposes in the late 1970s. The main objective here was to remove the alpha contamination in such a manner that the volume of Plutonium Contaminated Materials (P

  8. A Strategy for Skills to meet the demands of Nuclear Decommissioning and Clean-up in the UK

    SciTech Connect

    Brownridge, M.; Ensor, B.

    2008-07-01

    The NDA remit as set out within the Energy Act includes - 'to ensure the availability of skills required to deliver the overall decommissioning and nuclear clean-up mission'. The NDA approach to meeting their statutory obligation is by: - finding the best ways of re-training, re-skilling or re-deploying people in a way that encourages a more flexible workforce; - identifying and communicating the skills and workforce requirements to deliver the mission; and - developing the infrastructure and capability initiatives in line with long term needs, for example, a National Skills Academy for Nuclear, Nuclear Institute, National Graduate Scheme, and - developing locally specific provision. Firstly, NDA has set the requirement for nuclear sites to write down within the Life Time Plans (LTP), at a high level, their Site Skills Strategies; furthermore, a National Skills Working Group has been established to develop tactical cross sector solutions to support the NDA's Skills Strategy. In support of the short, medium and long term needs to meet demands of the NDA sites and the nuclear decommissioning sector, as well as being aware of the broader nuclear sector, investments have been made in infrastructure and skills programmes such as: - A National Skills Academy for Nuclear - including UK wide representation of the whole nuclear sector; - A Nuclear Institute in partnership with the University of Manchester focussing on world class research and skills in Radiation Sciences and Decommissioning Engineering; - Post Graduate sponsorship for decommissioning related projects; - A National Graduate Scheme partnership with nuclear related employers; - Vocational qualifications and Apprenticeship Schemes - Engaging 14-19 year old students to encourage the take up of Science related subjects; and - A sector wide 'Skills Passport'. In conclusion: The skills challenge has many dimensions but requires addressing due to the clear link to improved business performance and the availability

  9. Resource book: Decommissioning of contaminated facilities at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    In 1942 Hanford was commissioned as a site for the production of weapons-grade plutonium. The years since have seen the construction and operation of several generations of plutonium-producing reactors, plants for the chemical processing of irradiated fuel elements, plutonium and uranium processing and fabrication plants, and other facilities. There has also been a diversification of the Hanford site with the building of new laboratories, a fission product encapsulation plant, improved high-level waste management facilities, the Fast Flux test facility, commercial power reactors and commercial solid waste disposal facilities. Obsolescence and changing requirements will result in the deactivation or retirement of buildings, waste storage tanks, waste burial grounds and liquid waste disposal sites which have become contaminated with varying levels of radionuclides. This manual was established as a written repository of information pertinent to decommissioning planning and operations at Hanford. The Resource Book contains, in several volumes, descriptive information of the Hanford Site and general discussions of several classes of contaminated facilities found at Hanford. Supplementing these discussions are appendices containing data sheets on individual contaminated facilities and sites at Hanford. Twelve appendices are provided, corresponding to the twelve classes into which the contaminated facilities at Hanford have been organized. Within each appendix are individual data sheets containing administrative, geographical, physical, radiological, functional and decommissioning information on each facility within the class. 68 refs., 54 figs., 18 tabs.

  10. Characterisation of radioactive waste products associated with plant decommissioning.

    PubMed

    Sejvar, J; Fero, A H; Gil, C; Hagler, R J; Santiago, J L; Holgado, A; Swenson, R

    2005-01-01

    The inventory of radioactivity that must be considered in the decommissioning of a typical 1000 MWe Spanish pressurised water reactor (PWR) was investigated as part of a generic plant decommissioning study. Analyses based on DORT models (in both R-Z and R-theta geometries) were used with representative plant operating history and core power distribution data in defining the expected neutron environment in regions near the reactor core. The activation analyses were performed by multiplying the DORT scalar fluxes by energy-dependent reaction cross sections (based on ENDF/B-VI data) to generate reaction rates on a per atom basis. The results from the ORIGEN2 computer code were also used for determining the activities associated with certain nuclides where multi-group cross section data were not available. In addition to the bulk material activation of equipment and structures near the reactor, the activated corrosion-product (or 'crud') deposits on system and equipment surfaces were considered. The projected activities associated with these sources were primarily based on plant data and experience from operating PWR plants.

  11. Resource book: Decommissioning of contaminated facilities at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    In 1942 Hanford was commissioned as a site for the production of weapons-grade plutonium. The years since have seen the construction and operation of several generations of plutonium-producing reactors, plants for the chemical processing of irradiated fuel elements, plutonium and uranium processing and fabrication plants, and other facilities. There has also been a diversification of the Hanford site with the building of new laboratories, a fission product encapsulation plant, improved high-level waste management facilities, the Fast Flux test facility, commercial power reactors and commercial solid waste disposal facilities. Obsolescence and changing requirements will result in the deactivation or retirement of buildings, waste storage tanks, waste burial grounds and liquid waste disposal sites which have become contaminated with varying levels of radionuclides. This manual was established as a written repository of information pertinent to decommissioning planning and operations at Hanford. The Resource Book contains, in several volumes, descriptive information of the Hanford Site and general discussions of several classes of contaminated facilities found at Hanford. Supplementing these discussions are appendices containing data sheets on individual contaminated facilities and sites at Hanford. Twelve appendices are provided, corresponding to the twelve classes into which the contaminated facilities at Hanford have been organized. Within each appendix are individual data sheets containing administrative, geographical, physical, radiological, functional and decommissioning information on each facility within the class. 49 refs., 44 figs., 14 tabs.

  12. Radiological characterization of a vitrification facility for decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Asou, M.

    2007-07-01

    Cleanup operations in the Marcoule Vitrification Facility (AVM) will start in 2007. This plant includes 20 highly irradiating storage tanks for high-level liquid waste before vitrification. The objective of the cleanup phase is to significantly decrease the amount of highly radioactive waste resulting from dismantling. A comprehensive radiological survey of the plant was initiated in 2000. Most of the tanks were characterized using advanced technologies: gamma imaging, CdZnTe gamma spectroscopy, dose rate measurements and 3D calculations codes. At the same time, inspections were conducted to develop 3D geometrical models of the tanks. The techniques used and the main results obtained are described as well as lessons learned from these operations. The rinsing program was defined in 2006. Decontamination operations are expected to begin in 2007, and radiological surveys will be followed up to monitor the efficiency of the decontamination process. Specific rinsing of all tanks and equipment will be carried out from 2007 to 2009. Concentrated liquid solutions will be vitrified between 2008 and 2010; the decommissioning of AVM will be delayed until the end of 2010. This strategy aims at producing less than 5% 'B' type (long-lived intermediate-level) waste from the decommissioning operations, as well as reducing the dose rate and risks by simplified remote dismantling. The paper reviews the main options selected for decontamination, as well as the radiological characterization strategy. Some cost-related aspects will also be analyzed. (authors)

  13. The AVR (HTGR) decommissioning project with new strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Sterner, Hakan; Rittscher, Dieter

    2007-07-01

    The 15-MWel prototype pilot reactor AVR is a pebble bed HTGR. It was designed in the late 50's and was connected to the grid end of 1967. After 21 y of successful operation the reactor was shut down end of 1988. In 1994 the first decommissioning license was granted and work with defueling, dismantling and preparation of a Safe Enclosure started. The primary system is contaminated with the fission products Sr{sup 90} and Cs{sup 137} and the activation products are Co{sup 60}, C{sup 14} and H{sup 3}. Due to the large amounts of Sr and Cs bound to graphite dust, the dismantling of systems connected to the pressure vessel is very tedious. In 2003 the AVR company was restructured and the strategy of the decommissioning was changed from safe enclosure to green field, i.e. the complete direct dismantling of all facilities and clean up of the site. The highlight during the dismantling is the removal of the reactor vessel (diameter ca. 7.6 m and length ca. 26 m) in one piece. Before handling the reactor vessel it will be filled with low density cellular concrete. Subsequently the reactor building will be cut open and the reactor vessel (total weight ca. 2100 Mg) lifted out and transported to an interim store. (authors)

  14. DECOMMISSIONING THE BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY BUILDING 830 GAMMA IRRADIATION FACILITY.

    SciTech Connect

    BOWERMAN, B.S.; SULLIVAN, P.T.

    2001-08-13

    The Building 830 Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) was decommissioned because its design was not in compliance with current hazardous tank standards and its cobalt-60 sources were approaching the end of their useful life. The facility contained 354 stainless steel encapsulated cobalt-60 sources in a pool, which provided shielding. Total cobalt-60 inventory amounted to 24,000 Curies when the sources were shipped for disposal. The decommissioning project included packaging, transport, and disposal of the sources and dismantling and disposing of all other equipment associated with the facility. Worker exposure was a major concern in planning for the packaging and disposal of the sources. These activities were planned carefully according to ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principles. As a result, the actual occupational exposures experienced during the work were within the planned levels. Disposal of the pool water required addressing environmental concerns, since the planned method was to discharge the slightly contaminated water to the BNL sewage treatment plant. After the BNL evaluation procedure for discharge to the sewage treatment plant was revised and reviewed by regulators and BNL's Community Advisory Council, the pool water was discharged to the Building 830 sanitary system. Because the sources were sealed and the pool water contamination levels were low, most of the remaining equipment was not contaminated; therefore disposal was straightforward, as scrap metal and construction debris.

  15. Decommissioning of the high flux beam reactor at Brookhaven Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, J.P.; Reciniello, R.N.; Holden, N.E.

    2011-07-01

    The high-flux beam reactor (HFBR) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory was a heavy water cooled and moderated reactor that achieved criticality on Oct. 31, 1965. It operated at a power level of 40 megawatts. An equipment upgrade in 1982 allowed operations at 60 megawatts. After a 1989 reactor shutdown to reanalyze safety impact of a hypothetical loss of coolant accident, the reactor was restarted in 1991 at 30 megawatts. The HFBR was shut down in December 1996 for routine maintenance and refueling. At that time, a leak of tritiated water was identified by routine sampling of groundwater from wells located adjacent to the reactor's spent fuel pool. The reactor remained shut down for almost three years for safety and environmental reviews. In November 1999 the United States Dept. of Energy decided to permanently shut down the HFBR. The decontamination and decommissioning of the HFBR complex, consisting of multiple structures and systems to operate and maintain the reactor, were complete in 2009 after removing and shipping off all the control rod blades. The emptied and cleaned HFBR dome, which still contains the irradiated reactor vessel, is presently under 24/7 surveillance for safety. Detailed dosimetry performed for the HFBR decommissioning during 1996-2009 is described in the paper. (authors)

  16. The Point-Focusing Thermal and Electric Applications Project - A progress report. [small solar power systems applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marriott, A. T.

    1979-01-01

    The paper discusses the Point-Focusing Thermal and Electric Applications Project which encompasses three primary activities: (1) applications analysis and development, in which potential markets for small power systems (less than 10 MWe) are identified and characterized in order to provide requirements for design and information for activities relating to market development; (2) systems engineering and development, for analyses that will define the most appropriate small power system designs based on specific user requirements; and (3) experiment implementation and test, which deals with the design and placement of engineering experiments in various applications environments in order to test the readiness of the selected technology in an operational setting. Progress to date and/or key results are discussed throughout the text.

  17. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning Nuclear Reactors At Multiple-Reactor Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Wittenbrock, N. G.

    1982-01-01

    Safety and cost information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of large (1175-MWe) pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and large (1155-MWe) boiling water reactors {BWRs) at multiple-reactor stations. Three decommissioning alternatives are studied: DECON (immediate decontamination), SAFSTOR (safe storage followed by deferred decontamination), and ENTOMB (entombment). Safety and costs of decommissioning are estimated by determining the impact of probable features of multiple-reactor-station operation that are considered to be unavailable at a single-reactor station, and applying these estimated impacts to the decommissioning costs and radiation doses estimated in previous PWR and BWR decommissioning studies. The multiple-reactor-station features analyzed are: the use of interim onsite nuclear waste storage with later removal to an offsite nuclear waste disposal facility, the use of permanent onsite nuclear waste disposal, the dedication of the site to nuclear power generation, and the provision of centralized services. Five scenarios for decommissioning reactors at a multiple-reactor station are investigated. The number of reactors on a site is assumed to be either four or ten; nuclear waste disposal is varied between immediate offsite disposal, interim onsite storage, and immediate onsite disposal. It is assumed that the decommissioned reactors are not replaced in one scenario but are replaced in the other scenarios. Centralized service facilities are provided in two scenarios but are not provided in the other three. Decommissioning of a PWR or a BWR at a multiple-reactor station probably will be less costly and result in lower radiation doses than decommissioning an identical reactor at a single-reactor station. Regardless of whether the light water reactor being decommissioned is at a single- or multiple-reactor station: • the estimated occupational radiation dose for decommissioning an LWR is lowest for SAFSTOR and highest for DECON • the estimated

  18. [Progress of research on genetic engineering antibody and its application in prevention and control of parasitic diseases].

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuan; Yu, Chuan-xin

    2013-08-01

    Antibody has extensive application prospects in the biomedical field. The inherent disadvantages of traditional polyclonal antibody and monoclonal antibody limit their application values. The humanized and fragmented antibody remodeling has given a rise to a series of genetic engineered antibody variant. This paper reviews the progress of research on genetic engineering antibody and its application in prevention and control of parasitic diseases.

  19. Computational chemistry for graphene-based energy applications: progress and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Zak E.; Walsh, Tiffany R.

    2015-04-01

    Research in graphene-based energy materials is a rapidly growing area. Many graphene-based energy applications involve interfacial processes. To enable advances in the design of these energy materials, such that their operation, economy, efficiency and durability is at least comparable with fossil-fuel based alternatives, connections between the molecular-scale structure and function of these interfaces are needed. While it is experimentally challenging to resolve this interfacial structure, molecular simulation and computational chemistry can help bridge these gaps. In this Review, we summarise recent progress in the application of computational chemistry to graphene-based materials for fuel cells, batteries, photovoltaics and supercapacitors. We also outline both the bright prospects and emerging challenges these techniques face for application to graphene-based energy materials in future.

  20. Progress toward determining the potential of ODS alloys for gas turbine applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreshfield, R. L.; Hoppin, G., III; Sheffler, K.

    1983-01-01

    The Materials for Advanced Turbine Engine (MATE) Program managed by the NASA Lewis Research Center is supporting two projects to evaluate the potential of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys for aircraft gas turbine applications. One project involves the evaluation of Incoloy (TM) MA-956 for application as a combustor liner material. An assessment of advanced engine potential will be conducted by means of a test in a P&WA 2037 turbofan engine. The other project involves the evaluation of Inconel (TM) MA 6000 for application as a high pressure turbine blade material and includes a test in a Garrett TFE 731 turbofan engine. Both projects are progressing toward these engine tests in 1984.

  1. Computational chemistry for graphene-based energy applications: progress and challenges.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Zak E; Walsh, Tiffany R

    2015-04-28

    Research in graphene-based energy materials is a rapidly growing area. Many graphene-based energy applications involve interfacial processes. To enable advances in the design of these energy materials, such that their operation, economy, efficiency and durability is at least comparable with fossil-fuel based alternatives, connections between the molecular-scale structure and function of these interfaces are needed. While it is experimentally challenging to resolve this interfacial structure, molecular simulation and computational chemistry can help bridge these gaps. In this Review, we summarise recent progress in the application of computational chemistry to graphene-based materials for fuel cells, batteries, photovoltaics and supercapacitors. We also outline both the bright prospects and emerging challenges these techniques face for application to graphene-based energy materials in future.

  2. Ecological and political issues surrounding decommissioning of offshore oil facilities in the Southern California Bight

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Donna M.; Love, Milton S.

    2004-01-01

    To aid legislators, resource managers, and the general public, this paper summarizes and clarifies some of the issues and options that the federal government and the state of California face in decommissioning offshore oil and gas production platforms, particularly as these relate to platform ecology. Both local marine ecology and political climate play a role in decommissioning offshore oil production platforms. Compared to the relatively supportive political climate in the Gulf of Mexico for “rigs-to-reefs” programs, conflicting social values among stakeholders in Southern California increases the need for understanding ecological impacts of various decommissioning alternatives (which range from total removal to allowing some or all of platform structure to remain in the ocean). Additional scientific needs in the decommissioning process include further assessment of platform habitat quality, estimation of regional impacts of decommissioning alternatives to marine populations, and determination of biological effects of any residual contaminants. The principal management need is a ranking of environmental priorities (e.g. species-of-interest and marine habitats). Because considerable numbers of economically important species reside near oil platforms, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries should consider the consequences of decommissioning alternatives in their overall management plans. Management strategies could include designating reefed platforms as marine protected areas. The overarching conclusion from both ecological and political perspectives is that decommissioning decisions should be made on a case-by-case basis.

  3. Technology Development, Evaluation, and Application (TDEA) FY 1999 Progress Report, Environment, Safety, and Health (ESH) Division

    SciTech Connect

    Larry G. Hoffman

    2000-12-01

    This progress report presents the results of 10 projects funded ($500K) in FY99 by the Technology Development, Evaluation, and Application (TDEA) Committee of the Environment, Safety, and Health Division. Five are new projects for this year; seven projects have been completed in their third and final TDEA-funded year. As a result of their TDEA-funded projects, investigators have published thirty-four papers in professional journals, proceedings, or Los Alamos reports and presented their work at professional meetings. Supplemental funds and in-kind contributions, such as staff time, instrument use, and work space, were also provided to TDEA-funded projects by organizations external to ESH Division.

  4. Progress in vacuum susceptibilities and their applications to the chiral phase transition of QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Zhu-Fang; Hou, Feng-Yao; Shi, Yuan-Mei; Wang, Yong-Long; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2015-07-15

    The QCD vacuum condensates and various vacuum susceptibilities are all important parameters which characterize the nonperturbative properties of the QCD vacuum. In the QCD sum rules external field formula, various QCD vacuum susceptibilities play important roles in determining the properties of hadrons. In this paper, we review the recent progress in studies of vacuum susceptibilities together with their applications to the chiral phase transition of QCD. The results of the tensor, the vector, the axial–vector, the scalar, and the pseudo-scalar vacuum susceptibilities are shown in detail in the framework of Dyson–Schwinger equations.

  5. Technology Development, Evaluation, and Application (TDEA) FY 2001 Progress Report Environment, Safety, and Health (ESH) Division

    SciTech Connect

    L.G. Hoffman; K. Alvar; T. Buhl; E. Foltyn; W. Hansen; B. Erdal; P. Fresquez; D. Lee; B. Reinert

    2002-05-01

    This progress report presents the results of 11 projects funded ($500K) in FY01 by the Technology Development, Evaluation, and Application (TDEA) Committee of the Environment, Safety, and Health Division (ESH). Five projects fit into the Health Physics discipline, 5 projects are environmental science and one is industrial hygiene/safety. As a result of their TDEA-funded projects, investigators have published sixteen papers in professional journals, proceedings, or Los Alamos reports and presented their work at professional meetings. Supplement funds and in-kind contributions, such as staff time, instrument use, and workspace, were also provided to TDEA-funded projects by organizations external to ESH Divisions.

  6. TWRS privatization: Phase I monitoring well engineering study and decommissioning plan

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, B.A.

    1996-09-11

    This engineering study evaluates all well owners and users, the status or intended use of each well, regulatory programs, and any future well needs or special purpose use for wells within the TWRS Privatization Phase I demonstration area. Based on the evaluation, the study recommends retaining 11 of the 21 total wells within the demonstration area and decommissioning four wells prior to construction activities per the Well Decommissioning Plan (WHC-SD-EN-AP-161, Rev. 0, Appendix I). Six wells were previously decommissioned.

  7. Progress on ThermoBrachytherapy Surface Applicator for Superficial Tissue Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Arunachalam, Kavitha; Craciunescu, Oana I.; Maccarini, Paolo F.; Schlorff, Jaime L.; Markowitz, Edward; Stauffer, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    This work reports the ongoing development of a combination applicator for simultaneous heating of superficial tissue disease using a 915 MHz DCC (dual concentric conductor) array and High Dose Rate (HDR) brachytherapy delivered via an integrated conformal catheter array. The progress includes engineering design changes in the waterbolus, DCC configurations and fabrication techniques of the conformal multilayer applicator. The dosimetric impact of the thin copper DCC array is also assessed. Steady state fluid dynamics of the new waterbolus bag indicates nearly uniform flow with less than 1°C variation across a large (19×32cm) bolus. Thermometry data of the torso phantom acquired with computer controlled movement of fiberoptic temperature probes inside thermal mapping catheters indicate feasibility of real time feedback control for the DCC array. MR (magnetic resonance) scans of a torso phantom indicate that the waterbolus thickness across the treatment area is controlled by the pressure applied by the surrounding inflatable airbladder and applicator securing straps. The attenuation coefficient of the DCC array was measured as 3± 0.001% and 2.95±0.03 % using an ion chamber and OneDose™ dosimeters respectively. The performance of the combination applicator on patient phantoms provides valuable feedback to optimize the applicator prior use in the patient clinic. PMID:24392196

  8. Recent Progress and Development on Multi-parameters Remote Sensing Application in Earthquake Monitoring in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xuhui; Zhang, Xuemin; Hong, Shunying; Jing, Feng; Zhao, Shufan

    2014-05-01

    In the last ten years, a few national research plans and scientific projects on remote sensing application in Earthquake monitoring research are implemented in China. Focusing on advancing earthquake monitoring capability searching for the way of earthquake prediction, satellite electromagnetism, satellite infrared and D-InSAR technology were developed systematically and some remarkable progress were achieved by statistical research on historical earthquakes and summarized initially the space precursory characters, which laid the foundation for gradually promoting the practical use. On the basis of these works, argumentation on the first space-based platform has been finished in earthquake stereoscope observation system in China, and integrated earthquake remote sensing application system has been designed comprehensively. To develop the space-based earthquake observational system has become a major trend of technological development in earthquake monitoring and prediction. We shall pay more emphasis on the construction of the space segment of China earthquake stereoscope observation system and Imminent major scientific projects such as earthquake deformation observation system and application research combined INSAR, satellite gravity and GNSS with the goal of medium and long term earthquake monitoring and forcasting, infrared observation and technical system and application research with the goal of medium and short term earthquake monitoring and forcasting, and satellite-based electromagnetic observation and technical system and application system with the goal of short term and imminent earthquake monitoring.

  9. How Does Decommissioning Forest Roads Effect Hydrologic and Geomorphic Risk?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, T.; Luce, C.; Cissel, R. M.; Nelson, N.; Staab, B.

    2010-12-01

    The US Forest Service is investigating road decommissioning projects to understand how treatments change hydrologic and geomorphic risks. Road treatment effect was measured using a before after control impact design (BACI), using the Geomorphic Road Analysis and Inventory Package (http://www.fs.fed.us/GRAIP). This suite of inventory and analysis tools evaluates: road-stream hydrologic connectivity, fine sediment production and delivery, shallow landslide risk, gully initiation risk, and risks associated with stream crossing failures. The Skokomish River study site is steep and wet and received a high intensity treatment including the removal of stream crossing pipes and fills, all ditch relief pipes and a full hillslope recontouring. Road to stream hydrologic connectivity was reduced by 70%. The treatments reduced fine sediment delivery by 21.8 tons or 81%. The removal of the stream crossing culverts and large associated road fills eliminated the risk of pipe plugging related failures and the eventual erosion of over 4,000 m3 of fill. The slope stability risk was assessed using a modified version of SINMAP (Pack et al, 2005). Risk below drain point locations on the original road was reduced as water was redistributed across the hillslope to waterbars and diffuse drainage. It is unclear; however, if landslide risk was reduced across the entire treated road length because treatments slightly increased risk in some areas where new concentrated drainage features were added above steep slopes. Similarly, values of a gully index ESI (Istanbulluoglu et al, 2003), were reduced at many of the original drainage points, however some new drainage was added. ESI values still exceed a predicted conservative initiation thresholds at some sites, therefore it is uncertain if gully risk will be changed. Mann Creek occupies a moderately steep mid-elevation site in Southern Idaho. The high intensity treatments removed all constructed road drainage features including stream crossing

  10. TA-2 water boiler reactor decommissioning (Phase 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, J.C.; Knoell, C.L.

    1986-12-01

    Removal of external structures and underground piping associated with the gaseous effluent (stack) line from the TA-2 Water Boiler Reactor was performed as Phase I of reactor decommissioning. Six concrete structures were dismantled and 435 ft of contaminated underground piping was removed. Extensive soil contamination by /sup 137/Cs was encountered around structure TA-2-48 and in a suspected leach field near the stream flowing through Los Alamos Canyon. Efforts to remove all contaminated soil were hampered by infiltrating ground water and heavy rains. Methods, cleanup guidelines, and ALARA decisions used to successfully restore the area are described. The cost of the project was approximately $320K; 970 m/sup 3/ of low-level solid radioactive waste resulted from the cleanup operations.

  11. Decontamination and decommissioning experience at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Monson, R.W.

    1994-07-01

    A continuing concern within the DOE complex is how to address the retirement contains special of a facility which nuclear material (SNM). When the life expectancy of a facility has been reached, decisions must be made pertaining to (1) rial from the facility, removing the mate (2) accounting for the material and (3) final disposition of the material. This paper will discuss such a decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) process which we are presently dealing with at the Savannah River Site. The process must follow DOE Order 5633.3A as well as internal Company procedures regarding MC&A. In some D&D cases the material can be exempt from the DOE Order when all of the following criteria are met: (1) the material has been declared waste, (2) the material has been written off the MC&A books, and (3) the material is under the control of a waste management organization.

  12. Recent Progress on Cellulose-Based Electro-Active Paper, Its Hybrid Nanocomposites and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Asif; Abas, Zafar; Kim, Heung Soo; Kim, Jaehwan

    2016-01-01

    We report on the recent progress and development of research into cellulose-based electro-active paper for bending actuators, bioelectronics devices, and electromechanical transducers. The cellulose electro-active paper is characterized in terms of its biodegradability, chirality, ample chemically modifying capacity, light weight, actuation capability, and ability to form hybrid nanocomposites. The mechanical, electrical, and chemical characterizations of the cellulose-based electro-active paper and its hybrid composites such as blends or coatings with synthetic polymers, biopolymers, carbon nanotubes, chitosan, and metal oxides, are explained. In addition, the integration of cellulose electro-active paper is highlighted to form various functional devices including but not limited to bending actuators, flexible speaker, strain sensors, energy harvesting transducers, biosensors, chemical sensors and transistors for electronic applications. The frontiers in cellulose paper devices are reviewed together with the strategies and perspectives of cellulose electro-active paper and cellulose nanocomposite research and applications. PMID:27472335

  13. Progress on uncooled PbSe detectors for low-cost applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergara, German; Gomez, Luis J.; Villamayor, Victor; Alvarez, M.; Rodrigo, Maria T.; del Carmen Torquemada, Maria; Sanchez, Fernando J.; Verdu, Marina; Diezhandino, Jorge; Rodriguez, Purificacion; Catalan, Irene; Almazan, Rosa; Plaza, Julio; Montojo, Maria T.

    2004-08-01

    This work reports on progress on development of polycrystalline PbSe infrared detectors at the Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo de la Armada (CIDA). Since mid nineties, the CIDA owns an innovative technology for processing uncooled MWIR detectors of polycrystalline PbSe. Based on this technology, some applications have been developed. However, future applications demand smarter, more complex, faster yet cheaper detectors. Aiming to open new perspectives to polycrystalline PbSe detectors, we are currently working on different directions: 1) Processing of 2D arrays: a) Designing and processing low density x-y addressed arrays with 16x16 and 32x32 elements, as an extension of our standard technology. b) Trying to make compatible standard CMOS and polycrystalline PbSe technologies in order to process monolithic large format arrays. 2) Adding new features to the detector such as monolithically integrated spectral discrimination.

  14. Research progress of low-dimensional perovskites: synthesis, properties and optoelectronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Xinzhe; Pengchen, Zhu; Gu, Shuai; Jia, Zhu

    2017-01-01

    The lead halide-based perovskites, for instance, CH3NH3PbX3 and CsPbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I), have received a lot of attention. Compared with bulk materials, low-dimensional perovskites have demonstrated a range of unique optical, electrical and mechanical properties, which enable wide applications in solar cells, lasers and other optoelectronic devices. In this paper, we provide a summary of the research progress of the low-dimensional perovskites in recent years, from synthesis methods, basic properties to their optoelectronic applications. Project jointly supported by the State Key Program for Basic Research of China (No. 2015CB659300), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11321063, 11574143), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (Nos. BK20150056, BK20151079), the Project Funded by the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities.

  15. In utero stem cell transplantation and gene therapy: Recent progress and the potential for clinical application.

    PubMed

    McClain, Lauren E; Flake, Alan W

    2016-02-01

    Advances in prenatal diagnosis have led to the prenatal management and treatment of a variety of congenital diseases. Although surgical treatment has been successfully applied to specific anatomic defects that place the fetus at a risk of death or life-long disability, the indications for fetal surgical intervention have remained relatively limited. By contrast, prenatal stem cell and gene therapy await clinical application, but they have tremendous potential to treat a broad range of genetic disorders. If there are biological advantages unique to fetal development that favor fetal stem cell or gene therapy over postnatal treatment, prenatal therapy may become the preferred approach to the treatment of any disease that can be prenatally diagnosed and cured by stem cell or gene therapy. Here, we review the field including recent progress toward clinical application and imminent clinical trials for cellular and gene therapy.

  16. [Application progress of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for surface analysis in materials science field].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Jia, Yun-Hai; Chen, Ji-Wen; Liu, Ying; Shen, Xue-Jing; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Shu-Ming; Yu, Hong; Han, Peng-Cheng; Qu, Hua-Yang; Liu, Shao-Zun

    2012-06-01

    As a truly surface analytical tool, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was developed in recent ten years, and in this paper, fundamental theory, instrumentation and it's applications in material science are reviewed in detail. Application progress of elemental distribution and depth profile analysis are mainly discussed in the field of metallurgy, semiconductor and electronical materials at home and abroad. It is pointed out that the pulse energy, ambient gas and it's pressure, and energy distribution of laser beam strongly influence spatial and depth resolution, and meanwhile a approach to improving resolution considering analytical sensitivity is provided. Compared with traditional surface analytical methods, the advantage of LIBS is very large scanning area, high analytical speed, and that conducting materials or non-conducting materials both can be analyzed. It becomes a powerful complement of traditional surface analytical tool.

  17. Overcoming decommissioning challenges through client/laboratory co-operation

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, Mike; Gray, Lesley

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Accelerated decommissioning projects of the type underway at the former gaseous diffusion plant at BNG Capenhurst, UK, involve characterisation and radiochemical fingerprinting of a variety of unusual materials derived from legacy wastes. The project management and technical challenges that can occur during such a program can be successfully surmounted if a close working relationship between the client and the analytical laboratory is achieved. The Capenhurst Integrated Decommissioning Program (IDP) is an example of how such co-operation can reduce costs and time scales by providing the analytical laboratory with key sample and technical information prior to the shipping of the samples to the lab. This ensures that challenges associated with unusual sample matrices can be anticipated and dealt with at an early stage in the project. Gamma spectrometry is the most common analytical technique when analysing samples for radioactive content as it is non-destructive, relatively inexpensive and fast. However, accurate measurement generally requires samples of a known density to be counted in calibrated geometries. This becomes a challenge as many legacy wastes comprise materials of uneven geometry and/or varying density, as has been the case during the Capenhurst IDP. Liaising with the client to ensure a representative sub-sample of the material is taken on-site, and a series of additional checks when analysing the sample ensure that accurate results are obtained even for non-routine materials. Often it is only one or two radionuclides that dominate the radioactive inventory for legacy wastes. (authors)

  18. Recent Progress in Producing Lignin-Based Carbon Fibers for Functional Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Ryan; Burwell, Deanna; Dai, Xuliang; Naskar, Amit; Gallego, Nidia; Akato, Kokouvi

    2015-10-29

    Lignin, a biopolymer, has been investigated as a renewable and low-cost carbon fiber precursor since the 1960s. Although successful lab-scale production of lignin-based carbon fibers has been reported, there are currently not any commercial producers. This paper will highlight some of the known challenges with converting lignin-based precursors into carbon fiber, and the reported methods for purifying and modifying lignin to improve it as a precursor. Several of the challenges with lignin are related to its diversity in chemical structure and purity, depending on its biomass source (e.g. hardwood, softwood, grasses) and extraction method (e.g. organosolv, kraft). In order to make progress in this field, GrafTech and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are collaborating to develop lignin-based carbon fiber technology and to demonstrate it in functional applications, as part of a cooperative agreement with the DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office. The progress made to date with producing lignin-based carbon fiber for functional applications, as well as developing and qualifying a supply chain and value proposition, are also highlighted.

  19. Proceedings of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission fifteenth water reactor safety information meeting: Volume 6, Decontamination and decommissioning, accident management, TMI-2

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, A. J.

    1988-02-01

    This six-volume report contains 140 papers out of the 164 that were presented at the Fifteenth Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Maryland, during the week of October 26-29, 1987. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. This report, Volume 6, discusses decontamination and decommissioning, accident management, and the Three Mile Island-2 reactor accident. Thirteen reports have been cataloged separately.

  20. 75 FR 13568 - MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010-0142, Decommissioning Activities, Extension of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... Minerals Management Service MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010-0142, Decommissioning Activities, Extension of a Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Minerals Management Service (MMS), Interior. ACTION... comments to the Department of the Interior; Minerals Management Service; Attention: Cheryl Blundon;...

  1. 76 FR 8785 - ABB Inc.; License Amendment Request for Decommissioning of the ABB Inc., Combustion Engineering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ...--Resident Farmer Thorium and Radium. August 2010. ML102310548. 5. ABB, Inc. Decommissioning Plan Revision 2.... ABB, Inc. Derivation of the Site Specific Soil DCGLs, Addendum, Soil DCGLs for thorium and...

  2. 78 FR 49553 - Three Mile Island, Unit 2; Post Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Three Mile Island, Unit 2; Post Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report AGENCY: Nuclear...) for Three Mile Island, Unit 2 (TMI-2). The PSDAR provides an overview of GPUN's...

  3. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 13: Part 2, Indexes

    SciTech Connect

    Goins, L.F.; Webb, J.R.; Cravens, C.D.; Mallory, P.K.

    1992-09-01

    This is part 2 of a bibliography on nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial action. This report contains indexes on the following: authors, corporate affiliation, title words, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and key word.

  4. 75 FR 54363 - BOEMRE Information Collection Activity: 1010-0142, Decommissioning Activities, Extension of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... information. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: 30 CFR 250, subpart Q, Decommissioning Activities. OMB Control... prevent or minimize the likelihood of blowouts, loss of well control, fires, spillages, physical... equipment and subsea protective covering; or other departures. Subtotal 50 responses 150...

  5. 30 CFR 250.1751 - How do I decommission a pipeline in place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to be decommissioned; and (4) Length (feet) of segment remaining. (b) Pig the pipeline, unless the Regional Supervisor determines that pigging is not practical; (c) Flush the pipeline; (d) Fill the...

  6. An Analysis of Decommissioning Costs for the AFRRI TRIGA Reactor Facility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    Laboratory, as provided in U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission publication NUREG /CR-1756. The data in this study were adapted to reflect the decommissioning requirements of the AFRRI TRIGA reactor facility.

  7. Y-12 Plant decontamination and decommissioning technology logic diagram for Building 9201-4. Volume 2: Technology logic diagram

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Logic Diagram for Building 9201-4 (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) problems at Bldg. 9201-4 to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. This TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to D and D and waste management (WM) activities. It is essential that follow-on engineering studies be conducted to build on the output of this project. These studies will begin by selecting the most promising technologies identified in the TLD and by finding an optimum mix of technologies that will provide a socially acceptable balance between cost and risk. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1 (Technology Evaluation), Vol. 2 (Technology Logic Diagram), and Vol. 3 (Technology Evaluation Data Sheets). Volume 2 contains the logic linkages among environmental management goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 2 has been divided into five sections: Characterization, Decontamination, Dismantlement, Robotics/Automation, and Waste Management. Each section contains logical breakdowns of the Y-12 D and D problems by subject area and identifies technologies that can be reasonably applied to each D and D challenge.

  8. Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for Decommissioning of the Engineering Test Reactor Complex

    SciTech Connect

    A. B. Culp

    2006-10-01

    Preparation of this Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis is consistent with the joint U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Policy on Decommissioning of Department of Energy Facilities Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, which establishes the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act non-time-critical removal action (NTCRA) process as an approach for decommissioning.

  9. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning reference nuclear research and test reactors. Main report

    SciTech Connect

    Konzek, G.J.; Ludwick, J.D.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Smith, R.I.

    1982-03-01

    Safety and Cost Information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of two representative licensed nuclear research and test reactors. Three decommissioning alternatives are studied to obtain comparisons between costs (in 1981 dollars), occupational radiation doses, potential radiation dose to the public, and other safety impacts. The alternatives considered are: DECON (immediate decontamination), SAFSTOR (safe storage followed by deferred decontamination), and ENTOMB (entombment). The study results are presented in two volumes. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains the results in summary form.

  10. The development of release criteria for the West Valley Demonstration Project and Western New York Nuclear Service Center after decontamination and decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Szalinki, S.; Gramling, J.; Vlad, P.

    1994-12-31

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is located at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC), 40 miles south of Buffalo, New York. The WNYNSC processed over 600 metric tons of irradiated fuel between 1966 and 1972, which also produced more than two million litres of high level wastes stored in sub-surface tanks. In 1980, Congress passed the West Valley Demonstration Project Act authorizing the Department of Energy to conduct a high level waste management project on the WNYNSC site. The two million litres of liquid wastes are to be processes and solidified by vitrification, then transported to a federal repository for storage. This paper demonstrates the approach taken in determining release criteria for the WVDP and the WNYNSC, after decontamination and decommissioning. The criteria development is unique because the WNYNSC is home to the only commercially licensed irradiated fuel reprocessing facility ever to operate within the United States. This process is more complex because the Department of Energy and the State of New York both have defined roles in the site decommissioning, through the 1980 Act and the Operating License. To complete this project, the Act requires the DOE to decontaminate and decommission facilities used for the WVDP to criteria prescribed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The DOE is evaluating a range of alternatives for project completion and identifying the release criteria that could be applied to each alternative. To terminate the operating license, New York State must also meet prescribed criteria set forth by the NRC. Since the NRC currently has no generic release criteria, the development and approval of site-specific criteria has been handled on a case-by-case basis. With respect to the WVDP, it is important to assure that the standards developed are applicable to the decommissioning responsibilities of the DOE and New York State, and that both parties are subject to manageable and realistic criteria.

  11. 25th anniversary article: progress in chemistry and applications of functional indigos for organic electronics.

    PubMed

    Głowacki, Eric Daniel; Voss, Gundula; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar

    2013-12-17

    Indigo and its derivatives are dyes and pigments with a long and distinguished history in organic chemistry. Recently, applications of this 'old' structure as a functional organic building block for organic electronics applications have renewed interest in these molecules and their remarkable chemical and physical properties. Natural-origin indigos have been processed in fully bio-compatible field effect transistors, operating with ambipolar mobilities up to 0.5 cm(2) /Vs and air-stability. The synthetic derivative isoindigo has emerged as one of the most successful building-blocks for semiconducting polymers for plastic solar cells with efficiencies > 5%. Another isomer of indigo, epindolidione, has also been shown to be one of the best reported organic transistor materials in terms of mobility (∼2 cm(2) /Vs) and stability. This progress report aims to review very recent applications of indigoids in organic electronics, but especially to logically bridge together the hereto independent research directions on indigo, isoindigo, and other materials inspired by historical dye chemistry: a field which was the root of the development of modern chemistry in the first place.

  12. New Researches and Application Progress of Commonly Used Optical Molecular Imaging Technology

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhi-Yi; Yang, Feng; Lin, Yan; Zhou, Qiu-Lan; Liao, Yang-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Optical molecular imaging, a new medical imaging technique, is developed based on genomics, proteomics and modern optical imaging technique, characterized by non-invasiveness, non-radiativity, high cost-effectiveness, high resolution, high sensitivity and simple operation in comparison with conventional imaging modalities. Currently, it has become one of the most widely used molecular imaging techniques and has been applied in gene expression regulation and activity detection, biological development and cytological detection, drug research and development, pathogenesis research, pharmaceutical effect evaluation and therapeutic effect evaluation, and so forth, This paper will review the latest researches and application progresses of commonly used optical molecular imaging techniques such as bioluminescence imaging and fluorescence molecular imaging. PMID:24696850

  13. Development and application of the electrochemical etching technique. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    This annual progress report documents further advances in the development and application of electrochemical etching of polycarbonate foils (ECEPF) for fast, intermediate, and thermal neutron dosimetry as well as alpha particle dosimetry. The fast (> 1.1 MeV) and thermal neutron dosimetry techniques were applied to a thorough investigation of the neutron contamination inherent in and about the primary x-ray beam of several medical therapy electron accelerators. Because of the small size of ECEPF dosimeters in comparison to other neutron meters, they have an unusually low perturbation of the radiation field under measurement. Due to this small size and the increased sensitivity of the ECEPF dosimeter over current techniques of measuring neutrons in a high photon field, the fast neutron contamination in the primary x-ray beam of all the investigated accelerators was measured with precision and found to be greater than that suggested by the other, more common, neutron dosimetry methods.

  14. [Research progress in the application of biosensors by using metamaterial in terahertz wave].

    PubMed

    Yan, Xin; Zhang, Xing-Fang; Liang, Lan-Ju; Yao, Jian-Quan

    2014-09-01

    In the present paper, the recent progress in terahertz metamaterials-based sensing is reviewed with the principle of metamaterial biosensor,metamaterial substrate, and structure design, respectively. The paper introduces the principle in detail, analyzes the sensitivity of the biosensor with the material and the thickness of the substrate and the structure of metamaterial. The analysis shows that we can enhance the sensitivity and resolution of biosensor by designing specific metamaterial structure, using low dielectric constant and low loss thin substrate, especially many materials have a specific response in the terahertz frequency. So, there is a large potential application for label-free sensing by using the terahertz metamaterials. This paper also presents the future development of THz metamaterial sensors.

  15. Application of the ARRAMIS Risk and Reliability Software to the Nuclear Accident Progression

    SciTech Connect

    Wyss, Gregory D.; Daniel, Sharon L.; Hays, Kelly M.; Brown, Thomas D.

    1997-06-01

    The ARRAMIS risk and reliability analysis software suite developed by Sandia National Laboratories enables analysts to evaluate the safety and reliability of a wide range of complex systems whose failure results in high consequences. This software was originally designed to model the systems, responses, and phenomena associated with potential severe accidents at commercial nuclear power reactors by solving very large fault tree and event tree models. However, because of its power and versatility, ARRAMIS and its constituent analysis engines have recently been used to evaluate a wide variety of systems, including nuclear weapons, telecommunications facilities, robotic material handling systems, and aircraft systems using hybrid fault tree event tree analysis techniques incorporating fully integrated uncertainty analysis capabilities. This paper describes recent applications in the area of nuclear reactor accident progression analysis using a large event tree methodology and the ARRAMIS package.

  16. [Progress in the application of laser ablation ICP-MS to surface microanalysis in material science].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Jia, Yun-hai; Chen, Ji-wen; Shen, Xue-jing; Liu, Ying; Zhao, Leiz; Li, Dong-ling; Hang, Peng-cheng; Zhao, Zhen; Fan, Wan-lun; Wang, Hai-zhou

    2014-08-01

    In the present paper, apparatus and theory of surface analysis is introduced, and the progress in the application of laser ablation ICP-MS to microanalysis in ferrous, nonferrous and semiconductor field is reviewed in detail. Compared with traditional surface analytical tools, such as SEM/EDS (scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectrum), EPMA (electron probe microanalysis analysis), AES (auger energy spectrum), etc. the advantage is little or no sample preparation, adjustable spatial resolution according to analytical demand, multi-element analysis and high sensitivity. It is now a powerful complementary method to traditional surface analytical tool. With the development of LA-ICP-MS technology maturing, more and more analytical workers will use this powerful tool in the future, and LA-ICP-MS will be a super star in elemental analysis field just like LIBS (Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy).

  17. Technology Development, Evaluation, and Application (TDEA) FY 1998 Progress Report Environment, Safety, and Health (ESH) Division

    SciTech Connect

    Larry G. Hoffman; Kenneth Alvar; Thomas Buhl; Bruce Erdal; Philip Fresquez; Elizabeth Foltyn; Wayne Hansen; Bruce Reinert

    1999-06-01

    This progress report presents the results of 10 projects funded ($504K) in FY98 by the Technology Development, Evaluation, and Application (TDEA) Committee of the Environment, Safety, and Health Division. Nine projects are new for this year; two projects were completed in their third and final TDEA-funded year. As a result of their TDEA-funded projects, investigators have published 19 papers in professional journals, proceedings, or Los Alamos reports and presented their work at professional meetings. Supplemental funds and in-kind contributions, such as staff time, instrument use, and work space were also provided to the TDEA-funded projects by organizations external to ESH Division. Products generated from the projects funded in FY98 included a new extremity dosimeter that replaced the previously used finger-ring dosimeters, a light and easy-to-use detector to measure energy deposited by neutron interactions, and a device that will allow workers to determine the severity of a hazard.

  18. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a Reference Boiling Water Reactor Power Station. Main report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Oak, H.D.; Holter, G.M.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Konzek, G.J.

    1980-06-01

    Technology, safety and cost information is given for the conceptual decommissioning of a large (1100MWe) boiling water reactor (BWR) power station. Three approaches to decommissioning, immediate dismantlement, safe storage with deferred dismantlement and entombment, were studied to obtain comparisons between costs, occupational radiation doses, potential dose to the public and other safety impacts. It also shows the sensitivity of decommissioning safety and costs to the power rating of a BWR in the range of 200 to 1100 MWe.

  19. Financial Planning as a Tool for Efficient and Timely Decommissioning of Nuclear Research Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Cato, Anna; Lindskog, Staffan; Sjoeblom, Rolf

    2008-01-15

    It is generally recognized in the technical and economical literature that reliable cost evaluations with adequate estimates also of the errors and uncertainties involved are necessary in order for rational and appropriate management decisions to be made on any major plant investment. Such estimates are required for the selection of technologies to be applied and for selection to be made between alternative technologies and designs as well as for the overall financing issues including the one of whether to go ahead with the project. Inadequacies in the cost calculations typically lead to suboptimal decisions and ultimately substantial overruns and/or needs for retrofits. Actually, a very strict discipline has to be applied with adaptation of the approach used with regard to the stage of the planning. Deviations from the expected tend to raise the estimated cost much more frequently than they lower it. The same rationale applies to planning and cost calculations for decommissioning of nuclear research facilities. There are, however, many reasons why such estimations may be very treacherous to carry out. This will be dealt with in the following. The knowledge base underlying the present paper has been developed and accumulated as a result of the research that the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) has carried out in support of its regulatory oversight over the Swedish system of finance. The findings are, however, equally applicable and appropriate for implementers in their planning, decision, monitoring and evaluation activities. In the nineteen fifties and sixties, Sweden had a comprehensive program for utilization of nuclear power including uranium mining, fuel fabrication, reprocessing and domestically developed heavy water reactors. Examples of facilities are presented in Figures 1-5. Eventually, the development work lead to the present nuclear program with ten modern light water reactors in operation at present. According to Swedish law, those who benefit

  20. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 2, Technology Logic Diagram: Part A, Decontamination and Decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This report documents activities of decontamination and decommissioning at ORNL. Topics discussed include general problems, waste types, containment, robotics automation and decontamination processes.

  1. PaR Tensile Truss for Nuclear Decontamination and Decommissioning - 12467

    SciTech Connect

    Doebler, Gary R.

    2012-07-01

    Remote robotics and manipulators are commonly used in nuclear decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) processes. D and D robots are often deployed using rigid telescoping masts in order to apply and counteract side loads. However, for very long vertical reaches (15 meters or longer) and high lift capacities, a telescopic is usually not practical due to the large cross section and weight required to make the mast stiff and resist seismic forces. For those long vertical travel applications, PaR Systems has recently developed the Tensile Truss, a rigid, hoist-driven 'structure' that employs six independent wire rope hoists to achieve long vertical reaches. Like a mast, the Tensile Truss is typically attached to a bridge-mounted trolley and is used as a platform for robotic manipulators and other remotely operated tools. For suspended, rigid deployment of D and D tools with very long vertical reaches, the Tensile Truss can be a better alternative than a telescoping mast. Masts have length limitations that can make them impractical or unworkable as lengths increase. The Tensile Truss also has the added benefits of increased safety, ease of decontamination, superior stiffness and ability to withstand excessive side loading. A Tensile Truss system is currently being considered for D and D operations and spent fuel recovery at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan. This system will deploy interchangeable tools such as underwater hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic shears and crushers, grippers and fuel grapples. (authors)

  2. Geophysics: Building E5375 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.

    1992-08-01

    Building E5375 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek area of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR), were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. Several anomalies wear, noted: (1) An underground storage tank located 25 ft east of Building E5375 was identified with magnetic, resistivity, and GPR profiling. (2) A three-point resistivity anomaly, 12 ft east of the northeast comer of Building E5374 (which borders Building E5375) and 5 ft south of the area surveyed with the magnetometer, may be caused by another underground storage tank. (3) A 2,500-gamma magnetic anomaly near the northeast corner of the site has no equivalent resistivity anomaly, although disruption in GPR reflectors was observed. (4) A one-point magnetic anomaly was located at the northeast comer, but its source cannot be resolved. A chaotic reflective zone to the east represents the radar signature of Building E5375 construction fill.

  3. Geophysics: Building E5282 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.

    1992-08-01

    This report discusses Building E5282 which was one of 10 potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek area of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR), were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. Magnetic surveys identified small, complicated, multiple anomalies west, north, and northeast of the building that may be caused by construction fill. Two underground storage tanks, at the northeast and southeast corners, were identified. A large magnetic anomaly complex east of the building was caused by aboveground pipes and unexploded ordnance fragments scattered at the surface. Electrical resistivity profiling showed a broad, conductive terrain superimposed over magnetic anomalies on the north and west. A broad, high-resistivity, nonmagnetic area centered 25 ft east of the building has an unknown origin, but it may be due to nonconductive organic liquids, construction fill, or a buried concrete slab; GPR imaging showed this area as a highly reflective zone at a depth of about 5 ft. The GPR data also showed a small-diameter pipe oriented north-south located east of the building.

  4. Assessment of strippable coatings for decontamination and decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Strippable or temporary coatings were developed to assist in the decontamination of the Three Mile Island (TMI-2) reactor. These coatings have become a viable option during the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of both US Department of Energy (DOE) and commercial nuclear facilities to remove or fix loose contamination on both vertical and horizontal surfaces. A variety of strippable coatings are available to D and D professionals. However, these products exhibit a wide range of performance criteria and uses. The Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU) was commissioned to perform a 2-year investigation into strippable coatings. This investigation was divided into four parts: (1) identification of commercially available strippable coating products; (2) survey of D and D professionals to determine current uses of these coatings and performance criteria; (3) design and implementation of a non-radiological testing program to evaluate the physical properties of these coatings; and (4) design and implementation of a radiological testing program to determine decontamination factors and effects of exposure to ionizing radiation. Activities during fiscal year 1997 are described.

  5. Ecological risk assessment of a decommissioned military base

    SciTech Connect

    Starodub, M.E.; Feniak, N.A.; Willes, R.F.; Moore, C.E.; Mucklow, L.; Marshall, L.

    1995-12-31

    The ecological health risks to selected terrestrial animals at a decommissioned military base in Atlantic Canada have been assessed. Areas of the base varied in terms of terrain, ground cover, as well as types and extent of contamination, dependent on former uses of the sites. Analysis of surficial soils, sediments, water and fish tissue at the base indicated contamination by metals, PCBs, and various petroleum products and their constituents. Identification of chemicals of concern was based on these analyses, in conjunction with detailed chemical selection procedures. Exposures to chemicals of concern for ecological receptors were assessed in one of two ways. The exposures of moose, snowshoe hare and meadow vole were estimated in areas with surficial contamination, based on expected exposures to environmental media via oral inhalation, and dermal routes of exposure. For two top predators (mink and bald-headed eagle), exposures to bioaccumulative chemicals (cadmium, lead, mercury and PCBs) via transport through the aquatic and/or terrestrial foodchain were estimated. A toxicological assessment was conducted for the chemicals of concern, to yield exposure limits derived from governmental regulations or developed based on no-observed-effect-levels (NOELs) reported in scientifically sound toxicological assays in relevant species. The risk evaluation of each chemical of concern was conducted as a comparison of the estimated total exposures to the exposure limits derived for the selected ecological receptors.

  6. Geophysics: Building E5190 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1992-07-01

    Building E5190 is one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek area of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May 1992. A noninvasive geophysical survey, including the complementary technologies of magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, was conducted around the perimeter as a guide to developing a sampling and monitoring program prior to decommissioning and dismantling the building. The magnetics surveys indicated that multistation, positive magnetic sources are randomly distributed north and west of the building. Two linear trends were noted: one that may outline buried utility lines and another that is produced by a steel-covered trench. The resistivity profiling indicated three conductive zones: one due to increased moisture in a ditch, one associated with buried utility lines, and a third zone associated with the steel-covered trench. Ground-penetrating radar imaging detected two significant anomalies, which were correlated with small-amplitude magnetic anomalies. The objectives of the study -- to detect and locate objects and to characterize a located object were achieved.

  7. Decommissioning of the High Flux Beam Reactor at Brookhaven Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, J. P.; Reciniello, R. N.; Holden, N. E.

    2011-05-27

    The High Flux Beam Reactor at the Brookhaven National Laboratory was a heavy water cooled and moderated reactor that achieved criticality on October 31, 1965. It operated at a power level of 40 mega-watts. An equipment upgrade in 1982 allowed operations at 60 mega-watts. After a 1989 reactor shutdown to reanalyze safety impact of a hypothetical loss of coolant accident, the reactor was restarted in 1991 at 30 mega-watts. The HFBR was shutdown in December 1996 for routine maintenance and refueling. At that time, a leak of tritiated water was identified by routine sampling of ground water from wells located adjacent to the reactor’s spent fuel pool. The reactor remained shutdown for almost three years for safety and environmental reviews. In November 1999 the United States Department of Energy decided to permanently shutdown the HFBR. The decontamination and decommissioning of the HFBR complex, consisting of multiple structures and systems to operate and maintain the reactor, were complete in 2009 after removing and shipping off all the control rod blades. The emptied and cleaned HFBR dome which still contains the irradiated reactor vessel is presently under 24/7 surveillance for safety. Details of the HFBR cleanup conducted during 1999-2009 will be described in the paper.

  8. UK contractors' experience of management of tritium during decommissioning projects

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Tommy; Stevens, Keith; Heaney, John; Murray, Alan; Warwick, Phil; Croudace, Ian

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: This paper provides an account of the tritium management experience of a UK decommissioning and remediation contracting organisation (NUKEM Limited), supported by a specialist radio-analysis organisation (GAU-Radioanalytical). This experience was gained during the execution of projects which involved the characterisation and remediation of facilities which had previously been used for tritium work and were contaminated with tritium. The emphasis of the paper is on the characterisation (sampling and analysis) of tritium. An account is given of the development of a methodology to improve the accuracy of tritium characterisation. The improved methodology evolved from recognition of the need to minimise tritium losses during sampling, storage, transport and preparation for analysis. These improvements were achieved in a variety of ways, including use of cold and dry sampling techniques in preference to hot or wet ones and freezing relevant samples during storage and transport. The major benefit was an improvement in the accuracy and reliability of the analyses results, essential for proper categorisation, sentencing and future management of tritiated waste. (authors)

  9. Geophysics: Building E5440 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.

    1992-11-01

    Building E5440 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR), were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The results show several complex geophysical signatures. Isolated, one-point, magnetic anomalies surrounding the building may be associated with construction fill. A 10-ft-wide band of strongly magnetic positive anomalies bordering the north side of the building obliterates small magnetic sources that might otherwise be seen. A prominent magnetic nose'' extending northward from this band toward a standpipe at 100N,63E may be connected to an underground tank. The southeast corner of the site is underlain by a rectangular, magnetized source associated with strong radar images. A magnetic lineament extending south from the anomaly may be caused by a buried pipe; the anomaly itself may be caused by subsurface equipment associated with a manhole or utility access pit. A 2,500-gamma, positive magnetic anomaly centered at 0N,20E, which is also the location of a 12 [Omega]-m resistivity minimum, may be caused by a buried vault. It appears on radar imaging as a strong reflector.

  10. Geophysics: Building E5481 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.

    1992-11-01

    Building E5481 is one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The building is located on the northern margin of a landfill that was sited in a wetland. The large number of magnetic sources surrounding the building are believed to be contained in construction fill that had been used to raise the grade. The smaller anomalies, for the most part, are not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. A conductive zone trending northwest to southeast across the site is spatially related to an old roadbed. Higher resistivity areas in the northeast and east are probably representive of background values. Three high-amplitude, positive, rectangular magnetic anomalies have unknown sources. The features do not have equivalent electrical signatures, nor are they seen with radar imaging.

  11. Lessons Learned in the Decommissioning of the Stardust Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Timothy W.

    2012-01-01

    The Stardust spacecraft completed its prime mission in 2006, returning samples from the coma of comet Wild 2 to earth in the sample return capsule. Still healthy, and in a heliocentric orbit, the Stardust spacecraft was repurposed for a new mission - Stardust NExT. This new mission would take the veteran spacecraft to a 2011 encounter with comet Tempel 1, providing a new look at the comet visited in 2005 by the Deep Impact mission. This extended mission for Stardust would push it to the limits of its fuel reserves, prompting several studies aimed at determining the actual remaining fuel on board. The results were used to plan mission events within the constraints of this dwindling resource. The team tracked fuel consumption and adjusted the mission plans to stay within the fuel budget. This effort intensified toward the end of the mission, when a final assessment showed even less remaining fuel than previously predicted, triggering a delay in the start of comet imaging during the approach phase. The flyby of comet Tempel 1 produced spectacular up close views of this comet, imaging previously seen areas as well as new territory, and providing clear views of the location of the 2005 impact. The spacecraft was decommissioned about a month after the flyby, revealing that the fuel tank was now empty after having flown successfully for 12 years, returned comet dust samples to earth, and flown by an asteroid and two comets.

  12. Action Memorandum for Decommissioning of TAN-607 Hot Shop Area

    SciTech Connect

    M. A. Pinzel

    2007-05-01

    The Department of Energy is documenting the selection of an alternative for the TAN-607 Hot Shop Area using a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act non-time-critical removal action (NTCRA). The scope of the removal action is limited to TAN-607 Hot Shop Area. An engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) has assisted the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office in identifuomg the most effective method for performing the decommissioning of this structure whose mission has ended. TAN-607 Hot Shop Area is located at Test Area North Technical Support Facility within the Idaho National Laboratory Site. The selected alternative consists of demolishing the TAN-607 aboveground structures and components, removing belowground noninert components (e.g. wood products), and removing the radiologically contaminated debris that does not meet remedial action objectives (RAOs), as defined in the Record of Decision Amendment for the V-Tanks and Explanation of Significant Differences for the PM-2A Tanks at Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-10.

  13. Lessons learned from decommissioning projects at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, M.

    1995-09-01

    This paper describes lessons learned over the last 20 years from 12 decommissioning projects at Los Alamos National Laboratory. These lessons relate both to overall program management and to management of specific projects during the planning and operations phases. The issues include waste management; the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA); the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA); the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA); contracting; public involvement; client/customer interface; and funding. Key elements of our approach are to be proactive; follow the observation method; perform field activities concurrently; develop strategies to keep reportable incidents from delaying work; seek and use programs, methods, etc., in existence to shorten learning curves; network to help develop solutions; and avoid overstudying and overcharacterizing. This approach results in preliminary plans that require very little revision before implementation, reasonable costs and schedules, early acquisition of permits and NEPA documents, preliminary characterization reports, and contracting documents. Our track record is good -- the last four projects (uranium and plutonium-processing facility and three research reactors) have been on budget and on schedule.

  14. DECOMMISSIONING OF NUCLEAR FACILITIES IN GERMANY - STATUS AT BMBF SITES

    SciTech Connect

    Papp, R.; Komorowski, K.

    2002-02-25

    In a period of approximately 40 years prior to 1994, the German Federal Government had spent about {approx} 15 billion to promote nuclear technology. These funds were earmarked for R&D projects as well as demonstration facilities which took up operation between 1960 and 1980. These BMBF (Federal Ministry for Research) facilities were mainly located at the sites of the federal research centers at Juelich and Karlsruhe (the research reactors AVR, FR2, FRJ-1, KNK, and MZFR, the pilot reprocessing plant WAK) but included also the pilot plants SNR-300 and THTR-300 for fast breeder and high-temperature gas-cooled reactor development, respectively, and finally the salt mine Asse which had been used for waste emplacement prior to conversion into an underground research laboratory. In the meantime, almost all of these facilities were shut down and are now in a state of decommissioning and dismantling. This is mainly due to the facts that R&D needs are satisfied or do not exist any more and that, secondly, the lack of political consensus led to the cancellation of advanced nuclear technology.

  15. Decommissioning of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment: A technical evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Notz, K.J.

    1988-01-01

    This report completes a technical evaluation of decommissioning planning for the former Molten Salt Reactor Experiment, which was shut down in December, 1969. The key issues revolve around the treatment and disposal of some five tons of solid fuel salt which contains over 30 kg of fissionable uranium-233 plus fission products and higher actinides. The chemistry of this material is complicated by the formation of elemental fluorine via a radiolysis reaction under certain conditions. Supporting studies carried out as part of this evaluation include (a) a broad scope analysis of possible options for storage/disposal of the salts, (b) calculation of nuclide decay in future years, (c) technical evaluation of the containment facility and hot cell penetrations, (d) review and update of surveillance and maintenance procedures, (e) measurements of facility groundwater radioactivity and sump pump operation, (f) laboratory studies of the radiolysis reaction, and (g) laboratory studies which resulted in finding a suitable getter for elemental fluorine. In addition, geologic and hydrologic factors of the surrounding area were considered, and also the implications of entombment of the fuel in-place with concrete. The results of this evaluation show that the fuel salt cannot be left in its present form and location permanently. On the other hand, extended storage in its present form is quite acceptable for 20 to 30 years, or even longer. For continued storage in-place, some facility modifications are recommended. 30 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. Current progress of targetron technology: development, improvement and application in metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya-Jun; Zhang, Jie; Cui, Gu-Zhen; Cui, Qiu

    2015-06-01

    Targetrons are mobile group II introns that can recognize their DNA target sites by base-pairing RNA-DNA interactions with the aid of site-specific binding reverse transcriptases. Targetron technology stands out from recently developed gene targeting methods because of the flexibility, feasibility, and efficiency, and is particularly suitable for the genetic engineering of difficult microorganisms, including cellulolytic bacteria that are considered promising candidates for biomass conversion via consolidated bioprocessing. Along with the development of the thermotargetron method for thermophiles, targetron technology becomes increasingly important for the metabolic engineering of industrial microorganisms aiming at biofuel/chemical production. To summarize the current progress of targetron technology and provide new insights on the use of the technology, this paper reviews the retrohoming mechanisms of both mesophilic and thermophilic targetron methods based on various group II introns, investigates the improvement of targetron tools for high target efficiency and specificity, and discusses the current applications in the metabolic engineering for bacterial producers. Although there are still intellectual property and technical restrictions in targetron applications, we propose that targetron technology will contribute to both biochemistry research and the metabolic engineering for industrial productions.

  17. Analysis and Application of LIDAR Waveform Data Using a Progressive Waveform Decomposition Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J.; Zhang, Z.; Hu, X.; Li, Z.

    2011-09-01

    Due to rich information of a full waveform of airborne LiDAR (light detection and ranging) data, the analysis of full waveform has been an active area in LiDAR application. It is possible to digitally sample and store the entire reflected waveform of small-footprint instead of only discrete point clouds. Decomposition of waveform data, a key step in waveform data analysis, can be categorized to two typical methods: 1) the Gaussian modelling method such as the Non-linear least-squares (NLS) algorithm and the maximum likelihood estimation using the Exception Maximization (EM) algorithm. 2) pulse detection method—Average Square Difference Function (ASDF). However, the Gaussian modelling methods strongly rely on initial parameters, whereas the ASDF omits the importance of parameter information of the waveform. In this paper, we proposed a fast algorithm—Progressive Waveform Decomposition (PWD) method to extract local maxims and fit the echo with Gaussian function, and calculate other parameters from the raw waveform data. On the one hand, experiments are implemented to evaluate the PWD method and the results demonstrate its robustness and efficiency. On the other hand, with the PWD parametric analysis of the full-waveform instead of a 3D point cloud, some special applications are investigated afterward.

  18. Progress in Addressing DNFSB Recommendation 2002-1 Issues: Improving Accident Analysis Software Applications

    SciTech Connect

    VINCENT, ANDREW

    2005-04-25

    Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2002-1 (''Quality Assurance for Safety-Related Software'') identified a number of quality assurance issues on the use of software in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities for analyzing hazards, and designing and operating controls to prevent or mitigate potential accidents. Over the last year, DOE has begun several processes and programs as part of the Implementation Plan commitments, and in particular, has made significant progress in addressing several sets of issues particularly important in the application of software for performing hazard and accident analysis. The work discussed here demonstrates that through these actions, Software Quality Assurance (SQA) guidance and software tools are available that can be used to improve resulting safety analysis. Specifically, five of the primary actions corresponding to the commitments made in the Implementation Plan to Recommendation 2002-1 are identified and discussed in this paper. Included are the web-based DOE SQA Knowledge Portal and the Central Registry, guidance and gap analysis reports, electronic bulletin board and discussion forum, and a DOE safety software guide. These SQA products can benefit DOE safety contractors in the development of hazard and accident analysis by precluding inappropriate software applications and utilizing best practices when incorporating software results to safety basis documentation. The improvement actions discussed here mark a beginning to establishing stronger, standard-compliant programs, practices, and processes in SQA among safety software users, managers, and reviewers throughout the DOE Complex. Additional effort is needed, however, particularly in: (1) processes to add new software applications to the DOE Safety Software Toolbox; (2) improving the effectiveness of software issue communication; and (3) promoting a safety software quality assurance culture.

  19. Recent progress in tungsten oxides based memristors and their neuromorphological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Bo; Younis, Adnan; Chu, Dewei

    2016-09-01

    The advance in conventional silicon based semiconductor industry is now becoming indeterminacy as it still along the road of Moore's Law and concomitant problems associated with it are the emergence of a number of practical issues such as short channel effect. In terms of memory applications, it is generally believed that transistors based memory devices will approach to their scaling limits up to 2018. Therefore, one of the most prominent challenges today in semiconductor industry is the need of a new memory technology which is able to combine the best characterises of current devices. The resistive switching memories which are regarded as "memristors" thus gain great attentions thanks to their specific nonlinear electrical properties. More importantly, their behaviour resembles with the transmission characteristic of synapse in biology. Therefore, the research of synapses biomimetic devices based on memristor will certainly bring a great research prospect in studying synapse emulation as well as building artificial neural networks. Tungsten oxides (WO x ) exhibits many essential characteristics as a great candidate for memristive devices including: accredited endurance (over 105 cycles), stoichiometric flexibility, complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process compatibility and configurable properties including non-volatile rectification, memorization and learning functions. Herein, recent progress on Tungsten oxide based materials and its associating memory devices had been reviewed. The possible implementation of this material as a bio-inspired artificial synapse is also highlighted. The penultimate section summaries the current research progress for tungsten oxide based biological synapses and end up with several proposals that have been suggested for possible future developments.

  20. Novel Problems Associated with Accounting and Control of Nuclear Material from Decontamination and Decommissioning and in Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Schlegel, Steven C.

    2007-01-10

    The United States is eliminating many facilities that support the nuclear weapons program. With the changing political conditions around the world and changes in military capabilities, the decreased emphasis on nuclear weapons has eliminated the need for many of the aging facilities. Since weapons program and commercial applications do not mix in the United States, the facilities in the weapons complex that no longer have a mission are being deinventoried, decontaminated, decommissioned, and dismantled/demolished. The materials from these activities are then disposed of in various ways but usually in select waste burial sites. Additionally, the waste in many historical burial sites associated with the weapons complex are being recovered, repackaged if necessary, and disposed of in either geological sites or low-level waste sites.

  1. What we should expect from theories in social psychology: truth, abstraction, progress, and applicability as standards (TAPAS).

    PubMed

    Van Lange, Paul A M

    2013-02-01

    The construction and development of theory is one of the central routes to scientific progress. But what exactly constitutes a good theory? What is it that people might expect from an ideal theory? This article advances a new model, which delineates truth, abstraction, progress, and applicability as standards (TAPAS) for a good theory. After providing the rationale for TAPAS, this article evaluates several social-psychological theories in terms of TAPAS, especially classic theories, and illustrates its utility with some more recent theoretical contributions of social psychology. This article concludes by outlining recommendations for effective theory construction and development, such as the utility of meta-analytic approaches for pursuing truth, the utility of theory-oriented courses and journals for pursuing abstraction, and the utility of adversarial collaboration for pursuing progress, and reaching out to major personal or societal issues for pursuing applicability.

  2. Historical site assessments--they're not just for decommissioning anymore.

    PubMed

    Aker, Rock E

    2002-02-01

    At the conclusion of its mission, every nuclear facility eventually undergoes decommissioning. An early and essential part of decommissioning is the conduct of an extensive site characterization process. A Historical Site Assessment (HSA), a critical aspect of the site characterization process, sufficiently informs the facility owner and stakeholders of the radiological contaminants on the facility site. This allows for a safe and optimal decommissioning process. Although many nuclear facilities in the United States are permanently closed, many are entering a long-term storage condition typically known as safe storage (SAFSTOR). In these cases, only minimal characterization may be conducted initially. Full characterization may not occur for several decades. Additional delays in decommissioning will occur in operating facilities that successfully extend their operating licenses. In both of these cases, the conduct of a robust HSA can provide a valuable and cost-beneficial decommissioning step. This paper suggests that a substantial portion of the early site characterization process should be conducted prior to the conclusion of a facility's mission.

  3. Guide for radiological characterization and measurements for decommissioning of US Department of Energy surplus facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Denahm, D. H.; Barnes, M. G.; Jaquish, R. E.; Corley, J. P.; Gilbert, R. O.; Hoenes, G. R.; Jamison, J. D.; McMurray, B. J.; Watson, E. C.

    1983-08-01

    This Guide describes the elements of radiological characterization at DOE excess facilities in preparation for, during, and subsequent to decommissioning operations. It is the intent of this Guide and accompanying appendices to provide the reader (user) with sufficient information to carry out that task with a minimum of confusion and to provide a uniform basis for evaluating site conditions and verifying that decommissioning operations are conducted according to a specific plan. Some areas of particular interest in this Guide are: the need to involve appropriate staff from the affected states in the early planning stages of decommissioning; the need for and suggested methods of radiological site characterization to complete a decommissioning project, including: historical surveys, environmental pathway analyses, statistical sampling design, and choosing appropriate instrumentation and measurements; the need for and emphasis on quality assurance, documentation and records retention; the establishment of a Design Objective approach to applying site-specific contamination limits based on the ALARA philosophy; the establishment of a ''de minimis'' or minimum dose level of concern for decommissioning operations based on existing standards, experience and ALARA considerations.

  4. The conceptual solutions concerning decommissioning and dismantling of Russian civil nuclear powered ships

    SciTech Connect

    Kulikov, Konstantin N.; Nizamutdinov, Rinat A.; Abramov, Andrey N.

    2013-07-01

    From 1959 up to 1991 nine civil nuclear powered ships were built in Russia: eight ice-breakers and one lash lighter carrier (cargo ship). At the present time three of them were taking out of service: ice-breaker 'Lenin' is decommissioned as a museum and is set for storage in the port of Murmansk, nuclear ice-breakers 'Arktika' and 'Sibir' are berthing. The ice-breakers carrying rad-wastes appear to be a possible source of radiation contamination of Murmansk region and Kola Bay because the ship long-term storage afloat has the negative effect on hull's structures. As the result of this under the auspices of the Federal Targeted Program 'Nuclear and Radiation Safety of Russia for 2008 and the period until 2015' the conception and projects of decommissioning of nuclear-powered ships are developed by the State corporation Rosatom with the involvement of companies of United Shipbuilding Corporation. In developing the principal provisions of conception of decommissioning and dismantling of icebreakers the technical and economic assessment of dismantling options in ship-repairing enterprises of North-West of Russia was performed. The paper contains description of options, research procedure, analysis of options of decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear ice-breakers, taking into account the principle of optimization of potential radioactive effect to personnel, human population and environment. The report's conclusions contain the recommendations for selection of option for development of nuclear icebreaker decommissioning and dismantling projects. (authors)

  5. [Study progress of spectral color science and its prospect of application in the field of Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Yin, Fang-zhou; Wu, Xiao-yan; Mao, Chun-qing; Ji, De; Cai, Bao-chang; Lu, Tu-lin

    2013-09-01

    The paper reviewed the research progress in the spectral color science, including the common model, color measurement instrument in recent years, application of color measurement technology in agriculture, food, industry, medicine and other fields. The possibility to achieve the color quantization of Chinese medicine was explored by color measurement technology, and analyzed its application prospect in the field of Chinese medicine, provided a model for the study on quality control for Chinese medicine non-destructive online

  6. 76 FR 11522 - In the Matter of Progress Energy Florida, Inc. (Combined License Application, Levy County Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION In the Matter of Progress Energy Florida, Inc. (Combined License Application, Levy County Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2); Notice of Appointment of Adjudicatory Employee Commissioners: Gregory...

  7. Progress in GaAs Metamorphic HEMT Technology for Microwave Applications. High Efficiency Ka-Band MHEMT Power MMICs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, P. M.; Dugas, D.; Chu, K.; Nichols, K.; Duh, K. H.; Fisher, J.; MtPleasant, L.; Xu, D.; Gunter, L.; Vera, A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews recent progress in the development of GaAs metamorphic HEMT (MHEMT) technology for microwave applications. Commercialization has begun, while efforts to further improve performance, manufacturability and reliability continue. We also report the first multi-watt MHEMT MMIC power amplifiers, demonstrating up to 3.2W output power and record power-added efficiency (PAE) at Ka-band.

  8. Rosie - mobile robot worksystem for decommissioning and dismantling operations. Final report, April 1, 1996--January 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    RedZone Robotics, Inc. has undertaken development of an advanced remote worksystem - Rosie - specifically designed to meet the challenges of performing a wide range of decontamination and dismantlement (D&D) operations in nuclear environments. The Rosie worksystem includes a locomotor, heavy manipulator, operator console, and control system for remote operations. The locomotor is a highly mobile platform with tether management and hydraulic power onboard. The heavy manipulator is a high-payload, long-reach boom used to deploy a wide variety of tools and/or sensors into the work area. Rosie`s advanced control system, broad work capabilities, and hardening/reliability for hazardous duty make it a new and unique capability that facilitates completion of significant cleanup projects throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) and private sector. Endurance testing of the first Rosie system from September 1995 to March 1996 has proven its capabilities and appropriateness for D&D applications. Design enhancements were incorporated into the second Rosie system to improve and add features necessary for deployment at a DOE facility decommissioning. This second Rosie unit was deployed to the Argonne National Laboratory`s CP-5 reactor facility in early December 1996, and it is currently being used in the decommissioning of the reactor there. This report will overview this second Rosie system and the design enhancements made to it based on the lessons learned during the design, fabrication, and testing of the first Rosie system. The Rosie system has been designed to be a versatile and adaptable tool that can be used in many different applications in D&D work at nuclear facilities. It can carry a wide variety of tooling, sensors, and other robotic equipment at the tip of its heavy manipulator, and it can deploy those items to many different hazardous work areas. Rosie`s capabilities and system design address the need for durability and reliability in these environments.

  9. Mobile worksystems for decontamination and decommissioning operations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    This project is an interdisciplinary effort to develop effective mobile worksystems for decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of facilities within the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex. These mobile worksystems will be configured to operate within the environmental and logistical constraints of such facilities and to perform a number of work tasks. Our program is designed to produce a mobile worksystem with capabilities and features that are matched to the particular needs of D&D work by evolving the design through a series of technological developments, performance tests and evaluations. The Phase I effort was based on a robot called the Remote Work Vehicle (RWV) that was previously developed by CMU for use in D&D operations at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building basement. During Phase I of this program, the RWV was rehabilitated and upgraded with contemporary control and user interface technologies and used as a testbed for remote D&D operations. We established a close working relationship with the DOE Robotics Technology Development Program (RTDP). In the second phase, we designed and developed a next generation mobile worksystem, called Rosie, and a semi-automatic task space scene analysis system, called Artisan, using guidance from RTDP. Both systems are designed to work with and complement other RTDP D&D technologies to execute selective equipment removal scenarios in which some part of an apparatus is extricated while minimally disturbing the surrounding objects. RTDP has identified selective equipment removal as a timely D&D mission, one that is particularly relevant during the de-activation and de-inventory stages of facility transitioning as a means to reduce the costs and risks associated with subsequent surveillance and monitoring. In the third phase, we tested and demonstrated core capabilities of Rosie and Artisan; we also implemented modifications and enhancements that improve their relevance to DOE`s facility transitioning mission.

  10. Decontamination and decommissioning activities photobriefing book FY 1999

    SciTech Connect

    2000-03-08

    The Chicago Pile 5 (CP-5) Reactor, the first reactor built on the Argonne National Laboratory-East site, followed a rich history that had begun in 1942 with Enrico Fermi's original pile built under the west stands at the Stagg Field Stadium of The University of Chicago. CP-5 was a 5-megawatt, heavy water-moderated, enriched uranium-fueled reactor used to produce neutrons for scientific research from 1954--79. The reactor was shut down and defueled in 1979, and placed into a lay-up condition pending funding for decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). In 1990, work was initiated on the D and D of the facility in order to alleviate safety and environmental concerns associated with the site due to the deterioration of the building and its associated support systems. A decision was made in early Fiscal Year (FY) 1999 to direct focus and resources to the completion of the CP-5 Reactor D and D Project. An award of contract was made in December 1998 to Duke Engineering and Services (Marlborough, MA), and a D and D crew was on site in March 1999 to begin work, The project is scheduled to be completed in July 2000. The Laboratory has determined that the building housing the CP-5 facility is surplus to the Laboratory's needs and will be a candidate for demolition. In addition to a photographic chronology of FY 1999 activities at the CP-5 Reactor D and D Project, brief descriptions of other FY 1999 activities and of projects planned for the future are provided in this photobriefing book.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT FOR DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this one-year investigation is to perform a technology integration/search, thereby ensuring that the safest and most cost-effective options are developed and subsequently used during the deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management (DOE-EM) sites. Issues of worker health and safety are the main concern, followed by cost. Two lines of action were explored: innovative Personal Cooling Systems (PCS) and Personal Monitoring Equipment (PME). PME refers to sensors affixed to the worker that warn of an approaching heat stress condition, thereby preventing it. Three types of cooling systems were investigated: Pre-Chilled or Forced-Air System (PCFA), Umbilical Fluid-Chilled System (UFCS), and Passive Vest System (PVS). Of these, the UFCS leads the way. The PVS or Gel pack vest lagged due to a limited cooling duration. And the PCFA or chilled liquid air supply was cumbersome and required an expensive and complex recharge system. The UFCS in the form of the Personal Ice Cooling System (PICS) performed exceptionally. The technology uses a chilled liquid circulating undergarment and a Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) external pump and ice reservoir. The system is moderately expensive, but the recharge is low-tech and inexpensive enough to offset the cost. There are commercially available PME that can be augmented to meet the DOE's heat stress alleviation need. The technology is costly, in excess of $4,000 per unit. Workers easily ignore the alarm. The benefit to health & safety is indirect so can be overlooked. A PCS is a more justifiable expenditure.

  12. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, H. K.

    1981-10-01

    Safety and cost information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of a commercial uranium hexafluoride conversion (UF{sub 6}) plant. Two basic decommissioning alternatives are studied to obtain comparisons between cost and safety impacts: DECON, and passive SAFSTOR. A third alternative, DECON of the plant and equipment with stabilization and long-term care of lagoon wastes. is also examined. DECON includes the immediate removal (following plant shutdown) of all radioactivity in excess of unrestricted release levels, with subsequent release of the site for public use. Passive SAFSTOR requires decontamination, preparation, maintenance, and surveillance for a period of time after shutdown, followed by deferred decontamination and unrestricted release. DECON with stabilization and long-term care of lagoon wastes (process wastes generated at the reference plant and stored onsite during plant operation} is also considered as a decommissioning method, although its acceptability has not yet been determined by the NRC. The decommissioning methods assumed for use in each decommissioning alternative are based on state-of-the-art technology. The elapsed time following plant shutdown required to perform the decommissioning work in each alternative is estimated to be: for DECON, 8 months; for passive SAFSTOR, 3 months to prepare the plant for safe storage and 8 months to accomplish deferred decontamination. Planning and preparation for decommissioning prior to plant shutdown is estimated to require about 6 months for either DECON or passive SAFSTOR. Planning and preparation prior to starting deferred decontamination is estimated to require an additional 6 months. OECON with lagoon waste stabilization is estimated to take 6 months for planning and about 8 months to perform the decommissioning work. Decommissioning cost, in 1981 dollars, is estimated to be $5.91 million for OECON. For passive SAFSTOR, preparing the facility for safe storage is estimated to cost $0

  13. 30 CFR 250.1731 - Who is responsible for decommissioning an OCS facility subject to an Alternate Use RUE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... facility subject to an Alternate Use RUE? 250.1731 Section 250.1731 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND... responsible for decommissioning an OCS facility subject to an Alternate Use RUE? (a) The holder of an Alternate Use RUE issued under 30 CFR part 585 is responsible for all decommissioning obligations...

  14. 30 CFR 285.1018 - Who is responsible for decommissioning an OCS facility subject to an Alternate Use RUE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... facility subject to an Alternate Use RUE? 285.1018 Section 285.1018 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN...- and Marine-Related Activities Using Existing OCS Facilities Decommissioning An Alternate Use Rue § 285.1018 Who is responsible for decommissioning an OCS facility subject to an Alternate Use RUE? (a)...

  15. 30 CFR 285.1018 - Who is responsible for decommissioning an OCS facility subject to an Alternate Use RUE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... facility subject to an Alternate Use RUE? 285.1018 Section 285.1018 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT... Existing OCS Facilities Decommissioning An Alternate Use Rue § 285.1018 Who is responsible for decommissioning an OCS facility subject to an Alternate Use RUE? (a) The holder of an Alternate Use RUE...

  16. 30 CFR 250.1731 - Who is responsible for decommissioning an OCS facility subject to an Alternate Use RUE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... facility subject to an Alternate Use RUE? 250.1731 Section 250.1731 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT... for decommissioning an OCS facility subject to an Alternate Use RUE? (a) The holder of an Alternate Use RUE issued under part 285 of this subchapter is responsible for all decommissioning...

  17. 30 CFR 250.1731 - Who is responsible for decommissioning an OCS facility subject to an Alternate Use RUE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... facility subject to an Alternate Use RUE? 250.1731 Section 250.1731 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND... responsible for decommissioning an OCS facility subject to an Alternate Use RUE? (a) The holder of an Alternate Use RUE issued under 30 CFR part 585 is responsible for all decommissioning obligations...

  18. 30 CFR 250.1731 - Who is responsible for decommissioning an OCS facility subject to an Alternate Use RUE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... facility subject to an Alternate Use RUE? 250.1731 Section 250.1731 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND... responsible for decommissioning an OCS facility subject to an Alternate Use RUE? (a) The holder of an Alternate Use RUE issued under 30 CFR part 585 is responsible for all decommissioning obligations...

  19. 30 CFR 285.517 - How will MMS determine the amounts of the supplemental and decommissioning financial assurance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... supplemental and decommissioning financial assurance requirements associated with commercial leases? 285.517... Assurance Requirements Financial Assurance Requirements for Commercial Leases § 285.517 How will MMS... decommissioning financial assurance requirements on estimates of the cost to meet all accrued lease...

  20. 75 FR 15423 - U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Technical Evaluation Report for the Phase 1 Decommissioning...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    .... Nuclear Regulatory Commission Technical Evaluation Report for the Phase 1 Decommissioning Plan for the... Regulatory Commission (NRC) Technical Evaluation Report (TER) for the Phase 1 Decommissioning Plan for the... Center (DOE/ EIS-0226). ADDRESSES: Copies of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Technical...

  1. 30 CFR 285.902 - What are the general requirements for decommissioning for facilities authorized under my SAP, COP...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... decommissioning for facilities authorized under my SAP, COP, or GAP? 285.902 Section 285.902 Mineral Resources... facilities authorized under my SAP, COP, or GAP? (a) Except as otherwise authorized by MMS under § 285.909...) Before decommissioning the facilities under your SAP, COP, or GAP, you must submit a...

  2. 30 CFR 585.902 - What are the general requirements for decommissioning for facilities authorized under my SAP, COP...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... decommissioning for facilities authorized under my SAP, COP, or GAP? 585.902 Section 585.902 Mineral Resources..., Inspections, and Facility Assessments for Activities Conducted Under SAPs, COPs and GAPs Decommissioning... authorized under my SAP, COP, or GAP? (a) Except as otherwise authorized by BOEM under § 585.909, within...

  3. 77 FR 58591 - Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... COMMISSION Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level Waste... document entitled: NUREG-1307 Revision 15, ``Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level Waste Burial Facilities.'' DATES: Please submit comments by October...

  4. 77 FR 64361 - Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... COMMISSION Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level Waste... Commission (NRC or the Commission) issued Draft NUREG-1307, Revision 15, ``Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level Waste Burial Facilities,'' in the...

  5. Progress Report for Diffusion Welding of the NGNP Process Application Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    R.E. Mizia; D.E. Clark; M.V. Glazoff; T.E. Lister; T.L. Trowbridge

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy selected the high temperature gas-cooled reactor as the basis for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity, hydrogen production, and process heat applications. The NGNP Project is currently investigating the use of metallic, diffusion welded, compact heat exchangers to transfer heat from the primary (reactor side) heat transport system to the secondary heat transport system. An intermediate heat exchanger will transfer this heat to downstream applications such as hydrogen production, process heat, and electricity generation. The channeled plates that make up the heat transfer surfaces of the intermediate heat exchanger will have to be assembled into an array by diffusion welding. This report describes the preliminary results of a scoping study that evaluated the diffusion welding process parameters and the resultant mechanical properties of diffusion welded joints using Alloy 800H. The long-term goal of the program is to progress towards demonstration of small heat exchanger unit cells fabricated with diffusion welds. Demonstration through mechanical testing of the unit cells will support American Society of Mechanical Engineers rules and standards development, reduce technical risk, and provide proof of concept for heat exchanger fabrication methods needed to deploy heat exchangers in several potential NGNP configurations.1 Researchers also evaluated the usefulness of modern thermodynamic and diffusion computational tools (Thermo-Calc and Dictra) in optimizing the parameters for diffusion welding of Alloy 800H. The modeling efforts suggested a temperature of 1150 C for 1 hour with an applied pressure of 5 MPa using 15 {micro}m nickel foil as joint filler to reduce chromium oxidation on the welded surfaces. Good agreement between modeled and experimentally determined concentration gradients was achieved

  6. Progress in bioleaching: part B: applications of microbial processes by the minerals industries.

    PubMed

    Brierley, Corale L; Brierley, James A

    2013-09-01

    This review presents developments and applications in bioleaching and mineral biooxidation since publication of a previous mini review in 2003 (Olson et al. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 63:249-257, 2003). There have been discoveries of newly identified acidophilic microorganisms that have unique characteristics for effective bioleaching of sulfidic ores and concentrates. Progress has been made in understanding and developing bioleaching of copper from primary copper sulfide minerals, chalcopyrite, covellite, and enargite. These developments point to low oxidation-reduction potential in concert with thermophilic bacteria and archaea as a potential key to the leaching of these minerals. On the commercial front, heap bioleaching of nickel has been commissioned, and the mineral biooxidation pretreatment of sulfidic-refractory gold concentrates is increasingly used on a global scale to enhance precious metal recovery. New and larger stirred-tank reactors have been constructed since the 2003 review article. One biooxidation-heap process for pretreatment of sulfidic-refractory gold ores was also commercialized. A novel reductive approach to bioleaching nickel laterite minerals has been proposed.

  7. A Progressive Damage Model for unidirectional Fibre Reinforced Composites with Application to Impact and Penetration Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerschbaum, M.; Hopmann, C.

    2016-06-01

    The computationally efficient simulation of the progressive damage behaviour of continuous fibre reinforced plastics is still a challenging task with currently available computer aided engineering methods. This paper presents an original approach for an energy based continuum damage model which accounts for stress-/strain nonlinearities, transverse and shear stress interaction phenomena, quasi-plastic shear strain components, strain rate effects, regularised damage evolution and consideration of load reversal effects. The physically based modelling approach enables experimental determination of all parameters on ply level to avoid expensive inverse analysis procedures. The modelling strategy, implementation and verification of this model using commercially available explicit finite element software are detailed. The model is then applied to simulate the impact and penetration of carbon fibre reinforced cross-ply specimens with variation of the impact speed. The simulation results show that the presented approach enables a good representation of the force-/displacement curves and especially well agreement with the experimentally observed fracture patterns. In addition, the mesh dependency of the results were assessed for one impact case showing only very little change of the simulation results which emphasises the general applicability of the presented method.

  8. Differential role of intravenous anesthetics in colorectal cancer progression: implications for clinical application

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaofei; Yao, Xueqing; Chen, Yeming; Tao, Tao; Sun, Xuegang; Xu, Lijun; Tang, Jing; Zhao, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Anesthetics are unavoidable to colorectal cancer (CRC) patients who underwent surgical treatment. Thus, the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of the intravenous anesthetics in CRC metastasis are still unclear. In this study, the effects of intravenous anesthetics, such as propofol, etomidate and dexmedetomidine, on cell migration were determined. The migration of CRC cells was inhibited by propofol in vitro, but not in vivo. Etomidate, however, promoted the migration of CRC cells both in vitro and in vivo. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) mediated the promotive effect of propofol and etomidate on the migration of CRC cells through PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Dexmedetomidine alone or in combination with propofol or etomidate had minor effect on the migration of CRC cells. These findings indicate that propofol inhibites CRC cell migration in vitro. Etomidate playes a role for prompting CRC metastasis progression by activating (PI3K)/AKT signaling and inducing EMT. It provides an important hint for the clinical application of these anesthetics. PMID:27780923

  9. Progress of near-infrared spectroscopy and topography for brain and muscle clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Martin; Ferrari, Marco; Quaresima, Valentina

    2007-01-01

    This review celebrates the 30th anniversary of the first in vivo near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy (NIRS) publication, which was authored by Professor Frans Jobsis. At first, NIRS was utilized to experimentally and clinically investigate cerebral oxygenation. Later it was applied to study muscle oxidative metabolism. Since 1993, the discovery that the functional activation of the human cerebral cortex can be explored by NIRS has added a new dimension to the research. To obtain simultaneous multiple and localized information, a further major step forward was achieved by introducing NIR imaging (NIRI) and tomography. This review reports on the progress of the NIRS and NIRI instrumentation for brain and muscle clinical applications 30 years after the discovery of in vivo NIRS. The review summarizes the measurable parameters in relation to the different techniques, the main characteristics of the prototypes under development, and the present commercially available NIRS and NIRI instrumentation. Moreover, it discusses strengths and limitations and gives an outlook into the "bright" future.

  10. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning reference nuclear research and test reactors. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Konzek, G.J.; Ludwick, J.D.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Smith, R.I.

    1982-03-01

    Safety and Cost Information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of two representative licensed nuclear research and test reactors. Three decommissioning alternatives are studied to obtain comparisons between costs (in 1981 dollars), occupational radiation doses, potential radiation dose to the public, and other safety impacts. The alternatives considered are: DECON (immediate decontamination), SAFSTOR (safe storage followed by deferred decontamination), and EMTOMB (entombment). The study results are presented in two volumes. Volume 2 (Appendices) contains the detailed data that support the results given in Volume 1, including unit-component data.

  11. Environmental, health and safety assessment of decommissioning radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) in northwest Russia.

    PubMed

    Standring, W J F; Dowdall, M; Sneve, M; Selnaes, Ø G; Amundsen, I

    2007-09-01

    This paper presents findings from public health and environmental assessment work that has been conducted as part of a joint Norwegian-Russian project to decommission radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) in northwest Russia. RTGs utilise heat energy from radioactive isotopes, in this case 90Sr and its daughter nuclide 90Y, to generate electricity as a power source. Different accident scenarios based on the decommissioning process for RTGs are assessed in terms of possible radiation effects to humans and the environment. Doses to humans and biota under the worst-case scenario were lower than threshold limits given in ICRP and IAEA literature.

  12. Environmental assessment of decommissioning radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) in northwest Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Hosseini, A.; Standring, W.J.F.; Brown, J.E.; Dowdall, M.; Amundsen, I.B.

    2007-07-01

    This article presents some results from assessment work conducted as part of a joint Norwegian-Russian project to decommission radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) in Northwest Russia. Potential worst case accident scenarios, based on the decommissioning procedures for RTGs, were assessed to study possible radiation effects to the environment. Close contact with exposed RTG sources will result in detrimental health effects. However, doses to marine biota from ingestion of radioactivity under the worst-case marine scenario studied were lower than threshold limits given in IAEA literature. (authors)

  13. Action Memorandum for General Decommissioning Activities under the Idaho Cleanup Project

    SciTech Connect

    S. L. Reno

    2006-10-26

    This Action Memorandum documents the selected alternative to perform general decommissioning activities at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) under the Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP). Preparation of this Action Memorandum has been performed in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended by the "Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986", and in accordance with the "National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan". An engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) was prepared and released for public comment and evaluated alternatives to accomplish the decommissioning of excess buildings and structures whose missions havve been completed.

  14. Decommissioning of the remediation systems at Waverly, Nebraska, in 2011-2012.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.

    2012-06-29

    the CCC/USDA characterization and remediation efforts, including the quarterly monitoring reports, is on the compact disc inside the back cover of this report. The EPA reported on the progress of the remediation systems in a series of five-year reviews (EPA 1993, 1999, 2004, 2009). These reports and other EPA documentation are also on the compact disc inside the back cover of this report, along with the Woodward-Clyde (1986, 1988a,b) documentation cited. Starting in 2006, the analytical results for groundwater (the only medium still being monitored) showed no carbon tetrachloride concentrations above the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 5.0 g/L. Because the cleanup goals specified in the ROD (EPA 1990) had been met, the EPA removed the site from the NPL in November 2006 (Appendix A). In 2008 the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for the remediation system was deactivated, and a year later the EPA released its fourth and final five-year report (EPA 2009), indicating that no further action was required for the site and that the site was ready for unlimited use. In 2011-2012, the CCC/USDA decommissioned the remediation systems at Waverly. This report documents the decommission process and closure of the site.

  15. Lessons learned from decommissioning of a research lab and how to apply these on upcoming decommissioning projects at the Studsvik site

    SciTech Connect

    Ellmark, Christoffer; Eriksson, Anders; Lindberg, Maria

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The clearance of material and release of buildings for unconditional use are crucial factors for the waste amounts coming from decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The possibilities for clearance is also very much dependent on the regulatory body's ability to put in place the correct regulations or legislations. During the last decade the development of new guidelines for decommissioning has taken place. The implementation of these guidelines on a national level has not been fast but in Sweden it is on its way. This paper will describe the Swedish situation from the point of view of a decommissioner, i.e. an organization in need of clear and long term regulations. (authors)

  16. Fiscal years 1993 and 1994 decontamination and decommissioning activities photobriefing book for the Argonne National Laboratory-East Site, Technology Development Division, Decontamination and Decommissioning Projects Department

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This photobriefing book describes the ongoing decontamination and decommissioning projects at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)-East Site near Lemont, Illinois. The book is broken down into three sections: introduction, project descriptions, and summary. The introduction elates the history and mission of the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) Projects Department at ANL-East. The second section describes the active ANL-East D and D projects, giving a project history and detailing fiscal year (FY) 1993 and FY 1994 accomplishments and FY 1995 goals. The final section summarizes the goals of the D and D Projects Department and the current program status. The D/D projects include the Experimental Boiling Water Reactor, Chicago Pile-5 Reactor, that cells, and plutonium gloveboxes. 73 figs.

  17. A Curricular-Sampling Approach to Progress Monitoring: Mathematics Concepts and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Zumeta, Rebecca O.

    2008-01-01

    Progress monitoring is an important component of effective instructional practice. Curriculum-based measurement (CBM) is a form of progress monitoring that has been the focus of rigorous research. Two approaches for formulating CBM systems exist. The first is to assess performance regularly on a task that serves as a global indicator of competence…

  18. Recent Progress in Chemical Modifications of Chlorophylls and Bacteriochlorophylls for the Applications in Photodynamic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Staron, Jakub; Boron, Bożena; Karcz, Dariusz; Szczygieł, Małgorzata; Fiedor, Leszek

    2015-01-01

    Since photodynamic therapy emerged as a promising cancer treatment, the development of photosensitizers has gained great interest. In this context, the photosynthetic pigments, chlorophylls and bacteriochlorophylls, as excellent natural photosensitizers, attracted much attention. In effect, several (bacterio) chlorophyll-based phototherapeutic agents have been developed and (or are about to) enter the clinics. The aim of this review article is to give a survey of the advances in the synthetic chemistry of these pigments which have been made over the last decade, and which are pertinent to the application of their derivatives as photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT). The review focuses on the synthetic strategies undertaken to obtain novel derivatives of (bacterio)chlorophylls with both enhanced photosensitizing and tumorlocalizing properties, and also improved photo- and chemical stability. These include modifications of the C- 17-ester moiety, the isocyclic ring, the central binding pocket, and the derivatization of peripheral functionalities at the C-3 and C-7 positions with carbohydrate-, peptide-, and nanoparticle moieties or other residues. The effects of these modifications on essential features of the pigments are discussed, such as the efficiency of reactive oxygen species generation, photostability, phototoxicity and interactions with living organisms. The review is divided into several sections. In the first part, the principles of PDT and photosensitizer action are briefly described. Then the relevant photophysical features of (bacterio)chlorophylls and earlier approaches to their modification are summarized. Next, a more detailed overview of the progress in synthetic methods is given, followed by a discussion of the effects of these modifications on the photophysics of the pigments and on their biological activity.

  19. Progress in HTS Trapped Field Magnets: J(sub c), Area, and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Roy; Ren, Yanru; Liu, Jian-Xiong; Sawh, Ravi; Parks, Drew; Foster, Charles; Obot, Victor; Arndt, G. Dickey; Crapo, Alan

    1995-01-01

    Progress in trapped field magnets is reported. Single YBCO grains with diameters of 2 cm are made in production quantities, while 3 cm, 4 1/2 cm and 6 cm diameters are being explored. For single grain tiles: J(sub c) - 10,000 A/sq cm for melt textured grains; J(sub c) - 40,000 A/sq cm for light ion irradiation; and J(sub c) - 85,000 A/J(sub c) for heavy ion irradiation. Using 2 cm diameter tiles bombarded by light ions, we have fabricated a mini-magnet which trapped 2.25 Tesla at 77K, and 5.3 Tesla at 65K. A previous generation of tiles, 1 cm x 1 cm, was used to trap 7.0 Tesla at 55K. Unirradiated 2.0 cm tiles were used to provide 8 magnets for an axial gap generator, in a collaborative experiment with Emerson Electric Co. This generator delivered 100 Watts to a resistive load, at 2265 rpm. In this experiment, activation of the TFMs was accomplished by a current pulse of 15 ms duration. Tiles have also been studied for application as a bumper-tether system for the soft docking of spacecraft. A method for optimizing tether forces, and mechanisms of energy dissipation are discussed. A bus bar was constructed by welding three crystals while melt-texturing, such that their a,b planes were parallel and interleaved. The bus bar, of area approx. 2 sq cm, carried a transport current of 1000 amps, the limit of the testing equipment available.

  20. Progress in HTS trapped field magnets: J(sub c), area, and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Roy; Ren, Yanru; Liu, Jianxiong; Sawh, Ravi; Parks, Drew; Foster, Charles; Obot, Victor; Arndt, G. Dickey; Crapo, Alan

    1995-01-01

    Progress in trapped field magnets is reported. Single YBCO grains with diameters of 2 cm are made in production quantities, while 3 cm, 4 1/2 cm and 6 cm diameters are being explored. For single grain tiles: J(sub c) is approximately 10,000 A/cm(exp 2) for melt textured grains; J(sub c) is approximately 40,000 A/cm2 for light ion irradiation; and J(sub c) is approximately 85,000 A/cm(exp 2) for heavy ion irradiation. Using 2 cm diameter tiles bombarded by light ions, we have fabricated a mini-magnet which trapped 2.25 Tesla at 77K, and 5.3 Tesla at 65K. A previous generation of tiles, 1 cm x 1 cm, was used to trap 7.0 Tesla at 55K. Unirradiated 2.0 cm tiles were used to provide 8 magnets for an axial gap generator, in a collaborative experiment with Emerson Electric Co. This generator delivered 100 Watts to a resistive load, at 2265 rpm. In this experiment activation of the TFMs was accomplished by a current pulse of 15 ms duration. Tiles have also been studied for application as a bumper-tether system for the soft docking of spacecraft. A method for optimizing tether forces, and mechanisms of energy dissipation are discussed. A bus bar was constructed by welding three crystals while melt-texturing, such that their a,b planes were parallel and interleaved. The bus bar, an area of approximately 2 cm(exp 2), carried a transport current of 1000 amps, the limit of the testing equipment available.

  1. Application of polymer graded-index materials for aberration correction of progressive addition lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shitanoki, Yuki; Tagaya, Akihiro; Koike, Yasuhiro

    2009-02-01

    Graded-index (GRIN) progressive addition lens (PAL) was successfully fabricated, and GRIN's potential for aberration correction of PAL was confirmed. GRIN material was prepared by partial diffusion of methyl methacrylate (MMA (nd at polymer = 1.492)) monomer into cross-linked benzyl methacrylate (BzMA (nd at polymer=1.568)) flat gel, and GRINPAL was prepared by polymerization of the GRIN material attached to a mold of commercially available PAL. GRIN polymer materials have been used for various applications such as rod lenses and optical fibers. GRIN represents gradual change of refractive index in a material, which adds or reduces light focusing power of the material. PAL is a multifocal spectacle lens for presbyopia. However, some localized aberrations (especially astigmatism) in PAL have not yet been reduced satisfactorily for decades by optimizing surface geometry of a lens. In this research, we propose to employ GRIN materials for astigmatism reduction of PALs. BzMA flat gel was prepared by UV polymerization of BzMA, crosslinking agent ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) and photopolymerization initiator DAROCURE 1173. MMA monomer was diffused into BzMA flat gel from a portion of periphery for several hours. The obtained GRIN material was attached to a mold of commercially available PAL and polymerized by UV. As a result, reduction of astigmatism was confirmed locally in the fabricated PAL and GRIN-PAL using lens meter. In conclusion, GRIN-PAL was successfully fabricated. The validity of GRIN employment for the astigmatism reduction in PAL was demonstrated experimentally.

  2. The benefits and current progress of SiC SGTOs for pulsed power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogunniyi, Aderinto; O'Brien, Heather; Lelis, Aivars; Scozzie, Charles; Shaheen, William; Agarwal, Anant; Zhang, Jon; Callanan, Robert; Temple, Victor

    2010-10-01

    Silicon Carbide (SiC) is an extremely attractive material for semiconductor power devices because of its electrical and physical characteristics. This paper describes the benefits of utilizing SiC Super Gate Turn-Off thyristors (SGTO) in pulsed power applications, reviews the current progress and development of SiC GTOs, and presents the static and pulsed characteristics of large area GTOs with high blocking capabilities. The wide pulsed evaluation of the 0.5 cm 2 SiC SGTOs has been demonstrated and reported by the Army Research Laboratory (ARL). This paper presents the wide pulsed capabilities of the 1 cm 2 SiC SGTOs. The 1 cm 2 SiC SGTO devices handled up to twice the peak current of the 0.5 cm 2 SiC SGTOs at a 1 ms pulse width. The wide pulsed evaluation of these devices was demonstrated at ARL. ARL evaluated the static and pulsed characteristics of six of these devices. The devices had a forward blocking voltage rating of 9 kV and a trigger requirement of a negative pulse of 1 A to the gate for a millisecond pulse width. These devices were pulsed as high as 3.5 kA at 1 ms, equating to an action rate of 6 × 10 3 A 2 s and a current density of 4.8 kA/cm 2, based on the device active area. The narrow pulsed evaluation of this device has been demonstrated by Cree Inc. A peak current of 12.8 kA with a pulse width of 17 μs (corresponding to 12.8 kA/cm 2 based on the chip size) was conducted with this device.

  3. 10 CFR 50.75 - Reporting and recordkeeping for decommissioning planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... parent company whose subsidiary is an owner or operator of a foreign or domestic nuclear power plant... more nuclear power plants. (B) Is obligated at all times to adhere to a standard of care set forth in... assessment of the major factors that could affect the cost to decommission. (4) Each non-power...

  4. Evaluation of Dam Decommissioning in an Ice-Affected River: Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    Abdul-Mohsen 2005 and Kuby et al. 2005). Conyngham et al. (2006) provide an overview of the ecological and engi- neering aspects of dam decommissioning...2007) CRREL Ice Jam Database (http://www.crrel.usace.army.mil/ierd/ijdb/), accessed March 2007. Kuby , M.J., W.F. Fagan, C.S. ReVelle, W.L. Graf (2005

  5. 30 CFR 285.908 - What must I include in my decommissioning notice?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I include in my decommissioning notice? 285.908 Section 285.908 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL...

  6. 10 CFR 72.30 - Financial assurance and recordkeeping for decommissioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial assurance and recordkeeping for decommissioning. 72.30 Section 72.30 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER...

  7. THE SCIENCE OF REMEDIATION, ABATEMENT, AND DECOMMISSIONING OF CATASTROPHIC (AND LESSER) EVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a brief overview of some of the activities commonly involved in remediation, abatement, and decommissioning of areas affected by significant events whether natural or man-made. Some examples from the EPA's post-Katrina and anthrax responses are used to demonstrate the sc...

  8. 10 CFR 40.36 - Financial assurance and recordkeeping for decommissioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... decommissioning. (c) * * * (5) If, in surveys made under 10 CFR 20.1501(a), residual radioactivity in the facility... containing residual radioactivity that will require remediation; and (D) An adequate contingency factor. (ii... producing additional residual radioactivity in onsite subsurface material; (ii) Waste inventory...

  9. Allowable Residual Contamination Levels in soil for decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station site

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Napier, B.A.; Soldat, J.K.

    1983-09-01

    As part of decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station, a fundamental concern is the determination of Allowable Residual Contamination Levels (ARCL) for radionuclides in the soil at the site. The ARCL method described in this report is based on a scenario/exposure-pathway analysis and compliance with an annual dose limit for unrestricted use of the land after decommissioning. In addition to naturally occurring radionuclides and fallout from weapons testing, soil contamination could potentially come from five other sources. These include operation of the Shippingport Station as a pressurized water reactor, operations of the Shippingport Station as a light-water breeder, operation of the nearby Beaver Valley reactors, releases during decommissioning, and operation of other nearby industries, including the Bruce-Mansfield coal-fired power plants. ARCL values are presented for 29 individual radionculides and a worksheet is provided so that ARCL values can be determined for any mixture of the individual radionuclides for any annual dose limit selected. In addition, a worksheet is provided for calculating present time soil concentration value that will decay to the ARCL values after any selected period of time, such as would occur during a period of restricted access. The ARCL results are presented for both unconfined (surface) and confined (subsurface) soil contamination. The ARCL method and results described in this report provide a flexible means of determining unrestricted-use site release conditions after decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station.

  10. Advanced Sensing and Control Techniques to Facilitate Semi-Autonomous Decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Schalkoff, Robert J.

    1999-06-01

    This research is intended to advance the technology of semi-autonomous teleoperated robotics as applied to Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) tasks. Specifically, research leading to a prototype dual-manipulator mobile work cell is underway. This cell is supported and enhanced by computer vision, virtual reality and advanced robotics technology.

  11. 30 CFR 250.255 - What decommissioning information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What decommissioning information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 250.255 Section 250.255 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Information Contents of Development and Production Plans (dpp) and Development Operations...

  12. Decommissioning - An approach to predict the amount of radioactive waste arisings

    SciTech Connect

    Kugel, K.; Brennecke, P.; Koch, W.

    2007-07-01

    In the next decades many facilities are going to be decommissioned in Germany. On the basis of the agreement between the utilities and the Federal Government on the phase out of nuclear energy use for commercial electricity generation predictions can be made on the schedule of the shut down of nuclear installations in Germany and a prognosis might be given for the complete amount of decommissioning waste that will arise. 17 nuclear power plants and other nuclear installations are to be shut down and decommissioned within the next 2 decades. An approach for the prediction of the amount of radioactive waste and an overview on the underlying assumptions is given. The prognosis for the expected radioactive waste in Germany depends on several assumptions. Utilities in Germany expect approx. 5000 m{sup 3} of radioactive waste with negligible heat-generation from decommissioning per reactor. New inquiries seem to indicate that less radioactive waste may arise due to new techniques in decontamination and conditioning. Nevertheless, there will be limits due to costs and physical properties. (authors)

  13. 10 CFR 50.75 - Reporting and recordkeeping for decommissioning planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... administrative costs (including taxes) and other incidental expenses of the fund (including legal, accounting... administrative costs (including taxes) and other incidental expenses of the fund (including legal, accounting... certification may be based on a cost estimate for decommissioning the facility. As part of the certification,...

  14. 10 CFR 40.36 - Financial assurance and recordkeeping for decommissioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Financial assurance and recordkeeping for decommissioning. 40.36 Section 40.36 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SOURCE MATERIAL... licenses authorizing the receipt, possession, and use of source material for uranium or thorium milling,...

  15. 10 CFR 40.36 - Financial assurance and recordkeeping for decommissioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial assurance and recordkeeping for decommissioning. 40.36 Section 40.36 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SOURCE MATERIAL... licenses authorizing the receipt, possession, and use of source material for uranium or thorium milling,...

  16. Radionuclide characterization of reactor decommissioning waste and spent fuel assembly hardware

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.; Wynhoff, N.L.; Hetzer, D.C. )

    1991-01-01

    This study is providing the NRC and licensees with a more comprehensive and defensible data base and regulatory assessment of the radiological factors associated with reactor decommissioning and disposal of wastes generated during these activities. The objectives of this study are being accomplished during a two-phase sampling, measurement, and assessment program involving the actual decommissioning of Shippingport Station and the detailed analysis of neutron-activated materials from commercial reactors. Radiological characterization studies at Shippingport have shown that neutron activation products, dominated by {sup 60}Co, comprised the residual radionuclide inventory. Fission products and transuranic radionuclides were essentially absent. Waste classification assessments have shown that all decommissioning materials (except reactor pressure vessel internals) could be disposed of as Class A waste. Measurements and assessments of spent fuel assembly hardware have shown that {sup 63}Ni, {sup 59}Ni, and {sup 94}Nb sometimes greatly exceed the 10CFR61 Class C limit for some components, and thus would require disposal in a high level waste repository. These measurements are providing the basis for an assessment of the disposal options for these types of highly radioactive materials. Comparisons of predicted (calculated) activation product concentrations with the empirical data are providing as assessment of the accuracy of calculational methods. Work is continuing on radiological characterization of spent PWR and BWR control rod assemblies. Additional work is planned on current issues/problems relating to reactor decommissioning. These efforts will be reported on in future supplements to this report. 20 refs., 23 figs., 34 tabs.

  17. Radiological Surveys Performed in Support of the Demolition and Bulk Disposal Decommissioning Method

    SciTech Connect

    Yetter, R.F.; Newson, C.T.

    2006-07-01

    Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company is decommissioning the Haddam Neck Plant using the 'Demolition and Bulk Disposal' method, or commonly referred to as 'Rip and Ship'. In general, completing the project using this method entails the removal of all irradiated fuel and highly contaminated systems and components, and the subsequent demolition of the above ground portions of most site structures. Since most structures are removed from site, cost and time savings are realized by virtually eliminating the need for remediation. However, this method of decommissioning creates more waste, both radiological and non-radiological, which must be segregated, packaged and disposed of properly. Prior to demolition, various types of radiological surveys must be performed and work controls put into place to minimize the spread of contamination to other areas of the site, and to prevent the inadvertent release of radioactive materials from the site. This paper will discuss the various types of radiological surveys performed, and controls implemented, in support of the demolition and bulk material disposal decommissioning method, with the emphasis on pre-demolition surveys. Details will be provided on the release criteria, survey design, survey implementation and data analysis on each of the various surveys, as well as a discussion on the controls implemented to prevent the various wastes from inadvertently being shipped to an inappropriate disposal facility. This paper will also strive to provide lessons learned for future projects that utilize the demolition and bulk disposal decommissioning method. (authors)

  18. 78 FR 38739 - Standard Format and Content for Post-Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ..., DG-1272, in the Federal Register on December 19, 2012 (77 FR 75198), for a 60-day public comment... COMMISSION Standard Format and Content for Post-Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report AGENCY: Nuclear... (NRC) is issuing Revision 1 of Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.185, ``Standard Format and Content for...

  19. Decommissioning of the secondary containment of the steam generating heavy water reactor at UKAEA-Winfrith

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Keith; Cornell, Rowland; Parkinson, Steve; McIntyre, Kevin; Staples, Andy

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The Winfrith SGHWR was a prototype nuclear power plant operated for 23 years by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) until 1990 when it was shut down permanently. The current Stage 1 decommissioning contract is part of a multi-stage strategy. It involves the removal of all the ancillary plant and equipment in the secondary containment and non-containment areas ahead of a series of contracts for the decommissioning of the primary containment, the reactor core and demolition of the building and all remaining facilities. As an outcome of a competitive tending process, the Stage 1 decommissioning contract was awarded to NUKEM with operations commencing in April 2005. The decommissioning processes involved with these plant items will be described with some emphasis of the establishment of multiple work-fronts for the production, recovery, treatment and disposal of mainly tritium-contaminated waste arising from its contact with the direct cycle reactor coolant. The means of size reduction of a variety of large, heavy and complex items of plant made from a range of materials will also be described with some emphasis on the control of fumes during hot cutting operations and establishing effective containments within a larger secondary containment structure. Disposal of these wastes in a timely and cost-effective manner is a major challenge facing the decommissioning team and has required the development of a highly efficient means of packing the resultant materials into mainly one-third height ISO containers for disposal as LLW. Details of the quantities of LLW and exempt wastes handled during this process will be given with a commentary about the difficulty in segregating these two waste streams efficiently. (authors)

  20. Recommended values for the distribution coefficient (Kd) to be used in dose assessments for decommissioning the Zion Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan T.

    2014-06-09

    ZionSolutions is in the process of decommissioning the Zion Nuclear Power Plant. The site contains two reactor Containment Buildings, a Fuel Building, an Auxiliary Building, and a Turbine Building that may be contaminated. The current decommissioning plan involves removing all above grade structures to a depth of 3 feet below grade. The remaining underground structures will be backfilled. The remaining underground structures will contain low amounts of residual licensed radioactive material. An important component of the decommissioning process is the demonstration that any remaining activity will not cause a hypothetical individual to receive a dose in excess of 25 mrem/y as specified in 10CFR20 SubpartE.

  1. Recommended values for the distribution coefficient (Kd) to be used in dose assessments for decommissioning the Zion Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T.

    2014-09-24

    ZionSolutions is in the process of decommissioning the Zion Nuclear Power Plant. The site contains two reactor Containment Buildings, a Fuel Building, an Auxiliary Building, and a Turbine Building that may be contaminated. The current decommissioning plan involves removing all above grade structures to a depth of 3 feet below grade. The remaining underground structures will be backfilled. The remaining underground structures will contain low amounts of residual licensed radioactive material. An important component of the decommissioning process is the demonstration that any remaining activity will not cause a hypothetical individual to receive a dose in excess of 25 mrem/y as specified in 10CFR20 SubpartE.

  2. Photometric Studies of Rapidly Spinning Decommissioned GEO Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, W.; Ryan, E.

    A satellites general characteristics can be substantially influenced by changes in the space environment. Rapidly spinning decommissioned satellites provide an excellent opportunity to study the rotation-dependent physical processes that affect a resident space objects (RSO) spin kinematics over time. Specifically, inactive satellites at or near geosynchronous Earth-orbit (GEO) provide easy targets for which high quality data can be collected and analyzed such that small differences can be detected under single-year or less time frames. Previous workers have shown that the rotational periods of defunct GEOs have been changing over time [1]. Further, the Yarkovsky-OKeefe-Radzievskii-Paddak (YORP) effect, a phenomenon which has been well-studied in the context of the changing the spin states of asteroids, has recently been suggested to be the cause of secular alterations in the rotational period of inactive satellites [2]. Researchers at the Magdalena Ridge Observatory 2.4-meter telescope (operated by the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology) have been investigating the spins states of retired GEOs and other high altitude space debris since 2007 [3]. In this current work, the 2.4-meter telescope was used to track and observe the objects typically over a one- to two-hour period, repeated several times over the course of weeks. When feasible, this is then repeated on a yearly basis. Data is taken with a 1 second cadence, nominally in groups of three 600 second image sets. With the current equipment, the cadence of the image sequences is very precise while the start time is accurate only to the nearest second. Therefore, periods are determined individually using each image sequence. Repeatability of the period determination for each of these sequences is typically on the order of 0.01 second or better for objects where a single period is identified. Spin rate periods determined from the GEO light curves collected thus far have been found to range from ~3 sec to

  3. The progressive wave pump: numerical multiphysics investigation of a novel pump concept with potential to ventricular assist device application.

    PubMed

    Perschall, Markus; Drevet, Jean Baptiste; Schenkel, Torsten; Oertel, Herbert

    2012-09-01

    This article describes the numerical fluid-structure interaction (FSI) validation of a new pumping concept and the possibility for application of a further developed type, as an implantable ventricular assist device (VAD). The novel principle of the so-called progressive wave pump is based on the interaction of an elastic membrane actuated by forced excitation with a surrounding fluid and the pump housing. By applying forced vibrations to one end of the membrane, a transversal wave builds up and progresses to the far end generating both a positive pressure gradient and flow rate. Among others, two axisymmetric geometrical configurations are possible, namely the discoidal and the tubular design. The first one has been built as a physical prototype and is experimentally investigated. In addition, a corresponding numerical FSI model is set up and validated against the experimental findings. Based on this validated numerical method, further numerical investigations are conducted focusing on the development of a tubular progressive wave pump concept with regard to its potential for application as a VAD in the future. To address VAD-relevant issues such as size, hydraulic performance, and blood trauma, corresponding numerical simulations involving macroscopic blood trauma models have been performed. Although being still in an early phase of development, the results are promising and indicate that the wave pump concept in its present state is feasible and can be further developed and investigated as a new type of blood pump.

  4. Decommissioning the physics laboratory, building 777-10A, at the Savannah River Site (SRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Musall, John C.; Cope, Jeff L.

    2008-01-15

    SRS recently completed a four year mission to decommission {approx}250 excess facilities. As part of that effort, SRS decommissioned a 48,000 ft{sup 2} laboratory that housed four low-power test reactors, formerly used by SRS to determine reactor physics. This paper describes and reviews the decommissioning, with a focus on component segmentation and handling (i.e. hazardous material removal, demolition, and waste handling). The paper is intended to be a resource for engineers, planners, and project managers, who face similar decommissioning challenges. Building 777-10A, located at the south end of SRS's A/M-Area, was built in 1953 and had a gross area of {approx}48,000 ft{sup 2}. Building 777-10A had two main areas: a west wing, which housed four experimental reactors and associated equipment; and an east wing, which housed laboratories, and shops, offices. The reactors were located in two separate areas: one area housed the Process Development Pile (PDP) reactor and the Lattice Test Reactor (LTR), while the second area housed the Standard Pile (SP) and the Sub-critical Experiment (SE) reactors. The west wing had five levels: three below and three above grade (floor elevations of -37', -28', -15', 0', +13'/+16' and +27' (roof elevation of +62')), while the east wing had two levels: one below and one above grade (floor elevations of -15' and 0' (roof elevation of +16')). Below-grade exterior walls were constructed of reinforced concrete, {approx}1' thick. In general, above-grade exterior walls were steel frames covered by insulation and corrugated, asbestos-cement board. The two interior walls around the PDP/LTR were reinforced concrete {approx}5' thick and {approx}30' high, while the SP/SE reactors resided in a reinforced, concrete cell with 3.5'-6' thick walls/roof. All other interior walls were constructed of metal studs covered with either asbestos-cement or gypsum board. In general, the floors were constructed of reinforced concrete on cast-in-place concrete

  5. 76 FR 45221 - Notice of Funding Availability: Inviting Applications for the Food for Progress Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... with published USG and host government development strategies? (d) Does the application describe what... letter, FAS will begin negotiations with the applicant to develop a grant agreement. The agreement...

  6. A center of excellence for the medical application of lasers: Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Berns, M.W.

    1994-04-01

    This progress report presents six areas where lasers are used in diagnostic or therapeutic uses. They are: oncology; pulmonary/thoracic surgery; dermatology/plastic surgery; obstetrics and gynecology; ophthalmology; and dentistry. Within each area research findings and all publications resulting from the research are summarized.

  7. [Progress of organometallic complexes and their application to organic electroluminescent materials].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui; An, Zhong-Wei; Chai, Sheng-Yong

    2004-08-01

    Organic electroluminescent (EL) material is one of most prospective display materials in flat panel display. Organometallic complexes, which have five or six member ring structures, with high stability, high melting point and high fluorescence quantum efficiency, are widely applied in organic EL devices. The recent progress in organometallic complexes is summarized in terms of the electroluminescence of ligands and metal atoms.

  8. Program on Application of Communications Satellites to Educational Development. Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, R. P.; Singh, J. P.

    An interdisciplinary program is exploring the educational services which communications satellites may help provide and the synthesis of systems for delivering these services in the United States. From November 1970 to November 1971 substantial progress was made in three primary program categories: needs analysis, communications technology…

  9. Development and applications of photosensitive device systems to studies of biological and organic materials. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The purpose was to develop and improve appropriate experimental techniques to the point where they could be applied to specific classes of biological problems. Progress is reported in the following areas: (1) area detectors; (2) x-ray diffraction studies of membranes; (3) electron transfer in loosely coupled systems; (4) bioluminescence and fluorescence; and (5) sonoluminescence. (ACR)

  10. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 13: Part 2, Indexes. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Goins, L.F.; Webb, J.R.; Cravens, C.D.; Mallory, P.K.

    1992-09-01

    This is part 2 of a bibliography on nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial action. This report contains indexes on the following: authors, corporate affiliation, title words, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and key word.

  11. Y-12 Plant decontamination and decommissioning technology logic diagram for Building 9201-4. Volume 3: Technology evaluation data sheets; Part A: Characterization, dismantlement

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Logic Diagram for Building 9201-4 (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) problems at Bldg. 9201-4 to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD uses information from the Strategic Roadmap for the Oak Ridge Reservation, the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram, and a previous Hanford logic diagram. This TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to D and D and waste management (WM) activities. It is essential that follow-on engineering studies be conducted to build on the output of this project. These studies will begin by selecting the most promising technologies identified in the TLD and by finding an optimum mix of technologies that will provide a socially acceptable balance between cost and risk. This report consists of the characterization and dismantlement data sheets.

  12. Overview of Remote Handling Equipment Used for the NPP A1 Decommissioning - 12141

    SciTech Connect

    Kravarik, K.; Medved, J.; Pekar, A.; Stubna, M.; Michal, V.; Vargovcik, L.

    2012-07-01

    The first Czechoslovak NPP A1 was in operation from 1972 to 1977 and it was finally shutdown due to an accident (level 4 according to the INES). The presence of radioactive, toxic or hazardous materials limits personnel access to facilities and therefore it is necessary to use remote handling technologies for some most difficult characterization, retrieval, decontamination and dismantling tasks. The history of remote handling technologies utilization started in nineties when the spent nuclear fuel, including those fuel assemblies damaged during the accident, was prepared for the transport to Russia. Subsequent significant development of remote handling equipment continued during implementation of the NPP A1 decommissioning project - Stage I and ongoing Stage II. Company VUJE, Inc. is the general contractor for both mentioned stages of the decommissioning project. Various remote handling manipulators and robotics arms were developed and used. It includes remotely controlled vehicle manipulator MT-15 used for characterisation tasks in hostile and radioactive environment, special robust manipulator DENAR-41 used for the decontamination of underground storage tanks and multi-purposes robotics arms MT-80 and MT-80A developed for variety of decontamination and dismantling tasks. The heavy water evaporator facility dismantling is the current task performed remotely by robotics arm MT-80. The heavy water evaporator is located inside the main production building in the room No. 220 where loose surface contamination varies from 10 Bq/cm{sup 2} to 1x10{sup 3} Bq/cm{sup 2}, dose rate is up to 1.5 mGy/h and the feeding pipeline contained liquid RAW with high tritium content. Presented manipulators have been designed for broad range of decommissioning tasks. They are used for recognition, sampling, waste retrieval from large underground tanks, decontamination and dismantling of technological equipments. Each of the mentioned fields claims specific requirements on design of

  13. Decommissioning of the Hematite Former Fuel Cycle Facility using a decision flow logic based work control process

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Keith D.

    2013-07-01

    The remediation and decommissioning of the Hematite Former Fuel Cycle Facility (FFCF), the Hematite Facility, is currently being carried out by Westinghouse Electric Company LLC under the Hematite Decommissioning Project (HDP). The Hematite Facility is located near the town of Hematite, Missouri, USA. The Hematite Facility consists of 228 acres of land with primary operations historically being conducted within the central portion of the property that is roughly 10 acres including Burial Pits and the Site Pond area. Decommissioning and remediation activities are being performed with the eventual objective of the release of the property. Primary contaminants include the legacy disposal and contamination of natural and enriched uranium from the nuclear fuel cycle, as well as chemicals used during the facility operations. Two major regulatory bodies, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR), provide critical roles in the approval and oversight of the current regulatory path to remediation, decommissioning and eventual release. Further, remediation and decommissioning activities are performed under the implementing policies, plans, and procedures under the Hematite Decommissioning Plan (DP) and the Record of Decision (ROD). Remediation and decommissioning tasks at the Hematite Former Fuel Cycle Facility, referred to as the Hematite Facility, are performed against a disciplined decision logic flow that applies accumulated technical and monitoring data to determine each step of the excavation, exhumation, and removal of wastes from the Burial Pits and the remaining Areas of Concern (AOC). Decision flow logic is based upon the nuclear criticality safety controls and threshold conditions, relative level of radioactive and chemical contamination, security protocol, and final waste stream disposition. The end result is to remediate the residual radioactive and chemical contamination to approved dose-based and risk

  14. Screening evaluation of radionuclide groundwater concentrations for the end state basement fill model Zion Nuclear Power Station decommissioning project

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan T.

    2014-06-09

    ZionSolutions is in the process of decommissioning the Zion Nuclear Power Plant. The site contains two reactor Containment Buildings, a Fuel Building, an Auxiliary Building, and a Turbine Building that may be contaminated. The current decommissioning plan involves removing all above grade structures to a depth of 3 feet below grade. The remaining underground structures will be backfilled with clean material. The final selection of fill material has not been made.

  15. Recent progress in low-level gamma imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mahe, C.; Girones, Ph.; Lamadie, F.; Le Goaller, C.

    2007-07-01

    The CEA's Aladin gamma imaging system has been operated successfully for several years in nuclear plants and during decommissioning projects with additional tools such as gamma spectrometry detectors and dose rate probes. The radiological information supplied by these devices is becoming increasingly useful for establishing robust and optimized decommissioning scenarios. Recent technical improvements allow this gamma imaging system to be operated in low-level applications and with shorter acquisition times suitable for decommissioning projects. The compact portable system can be used in places inaccessible to operators. It is quick and easy to implement, notably for onsite component characterization. Feasibility trials and in situ measurements were recently carried out under low-level conditions, mainly on waste packages and glove boxes for decommissioning projects. This paper describes recent low-level in situ applications. These characterization campaigns mainly concerned gamma emitters with {gamma} energy < 700 keV. In many cases, the localization of hot spots by gamma camera was confirmed by additional measurements such as dose rate mapping and gamma spectrometry measurements. These complementary techniques associated with advanced calculation codes (MCNP, Mercure 6.2, Visiplan and Siren) offer a mobile and compact tool for specific assessment of waste packages and glove boxes. (authors)

  16. A manual for applying the allowable residual contamination level method for decommissioning facilities on the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, B.A.; Piepel, G.F.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Schreckhise, R.G.

    1988-08-01

    This report describes the modifications that have been made to enhance the original Allowable Residual Contamination Level (ARCL) method to make it more applicable to site-specific analyses. This version considers the mixture of radionuclides present at the time of site characterization, the elapsed time after decommissioning when exposure to people could occur, and includes a calculation of the upper confidence limit of the potential dose based on sampling statistics that are developed during the site characterization efforts. The upper confidence limit of potential exposure can now be used for comparison against applicable radiation dose limits (i.e., 25 mrem/yr at Hanford). The level of confidence can be selected by the user. A wide range of exposure scenarios were evaluated; the rationale used to select the most limiting scenarios is explained. The radiation dose factors used for the inhalation and ingestion pathways were also updated to correspond with the radiation dosimetry methods utilized in the International Commission of Radiological Protection Publications 26 and 30 (ICRP 1977; 1979a,b, 1980, 1981, 1982a,b). This simplifies the calculations, since ''effective whole body'' doses are now calculated, and also brings the dosimetry methods used in the ARCL method in conformance with the rationale used by DOE in developing the 25 mrem/yr limit at Hanford. 46 refs., 21 figs., 15 tabs.

  17. [Progress of research on the microbial fuel cells in the application of environment pollution treatment--a review].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yonggang; Sun, Guoping; Xu, Meiying

    2010-07-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are bio-electrochemical reactors that have the capacity to convert chemical energy of biodegradable organic chemicals to electrical energy, and developed rapidly in the past few years. With an increasing concern for energy crisis and environment pollution, MFCs has became a promising technology in the researches of environment pollution treatments and biology electricity. In this paper, we offered a comprehensive review of the recent research progress of MFCs in environment pollution treatment, includes denitrification, desufurization, organic pollutants degradation, heavy metal reduction and landfill leachate treatment. Also, we pointed out the challenges and problems which were bottle necks for a wide application of MFCs and the potential future development.

  18. Recent progress in ferrofluids research: novel applications of magnetically controllable and tunable fluids.

    PubMed

    Torres-Díaz, I; Rinaldi, C

    2014-11-21

    Ferrofluids are suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles that have the attractive feature of being controlled by applied magnetic fields. Ferrofluids have been studied for decades in an ever growing number of applications that take advantage of their response to applied magnetic fields. Here, we provide a summary of recent advances in established and emerging applications of ferrofluids, including applications in optics, sensors, actuators, seals, lubrication, and static/dynamic magnetically driven assembly of structures.

  19. Progress in aeronautical research and technology applicable to civil air transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Recent progress in the aeronautical research and technology program being conducted by the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration is discussed. Emphasis is on computational capability, new testing facilities, drag reduction, turbofan and turboprop propulsion, noise, composite materials, active controls, integrated avionics, cockpit displays, flight management, and operating problems. It is shown that this technology is significantly impacting the efficiency of the new civil air transports. The excitement of emerging research promises even greater benefits to future aircraft developments.

  20. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act: Part B, Permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 1, Revison 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This report contains information related to the permit application for the WIPP facility. Information is presented on solid waste management; personnel safety; emergency plans; site characterization; applicable regulations; decommissioning; and ground water monitoring requirements.