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Sample records for progressive application decommissioning

  1. Role of decommissioning plan and its progress for the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Zakaria, Norasalwa Mustafa, Muhammad Khairul Ariff Anuar, Abul Adli Idris, Hairul Nizam Ba'an, Rohyiza

    2014-02-12

    Malaysian nuclear research reactor, the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor, reached its first criticality in 1982, and since then, it has been serving for more than 30 years for training, radioisotope production and research purposes. Realizing the age and the need for its decommissioning sometime in the future, a ground basis of assessment and an elaborative project management need to be established, covering the entire process from termination of reactor operation to the establishment of final status, documented as the Decommissioning Plan. At international level, IAEA recognizes the absence of Decommissioning Plan as one of the factors hampering progress in decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the world. Throughout the years, IAEA has taken initiatives and drawn out projects in promoting progress in decommissioning programmes, like CIDER, DACCORD and R2D2P, for which Malaysia is participating in these projects. This paper highlights the concept of Decommissioning plan and its significances to the Agency. It will also address the progress, way forward and challenges faced in developing the Decommissioning Plan for the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor. The efforts in the establishment of this plan helps to provide continual national contribution at the international level, as well as meeting the regulatory requirement, if need be. The existing license for the operation of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor does not impose a requirement for a decommissioning plan; however, the renewal of license may call for a decommissioning plan to be submitted for approval in future.

  2. Role of decommissioning plan and its progress for the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Norasalwa; Mustafa, Muhammad Khairul Ariff; Anuar, Abul Adli; Idris, Hairul Nizam; Ba'an, Rohyiza

    2014-02-01

    Malaysian nuclear research reactor, the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor, reached its first criticality in 1982, and since then, it has been serving for more than 30 years for training, radioisotope production and research purposes. Realizing the age and the need for its decommissioning sometime in the future, a ground basis of assessment and an elaborative project management need to be established, covering the entire process from termination of reactor operation to the establishment of final status, documented as the Decommissioning Plan. At international level, IAEA recognizes the absence of Decommissioning Plan as one of the factors hampering progress in decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the world. Throughout the years, IAEA has taken initiatives and drawn out projects in promoting progress in decommissioning programmes, like CIDER, DACCORD and R2D2P, for which Malaysia is participating in these projects. This paper highlights the concept of Decommissioning plan and its significances to the Agency. It will also address the progress, way forward and challenges faced in developing the Decommissioning Plan for the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor. The efforts in the establishment of this plan helps to provide continual national contribution at the international level, as well as meeting the regulatory requirement, if need be. The existing license for the operation of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor does not impose a requirement for a decommissioning plan; however, the renewal of license may call for a decommissioning plan to be submitted for approval in future.

  3. Progress in Decommissioning the Humboldt Bay Power Plant - 13604

    SciTech Connect

    Rod, Kerry; Shelanskey, Steven K.; Kristofzski, John

    2013-07-01

    Decommissioning of the Pacific Gas and Electric (PG and E) Company Humboldt Bay Power Plant (HBPP) Unit 3 nuclear facility has now, after more than three decades of SAFSTOR and initial decommissioning work, transitioned to full-scale decommissioning. Decommissioning activities to date have been well orchestrated and executed in spite of an extremely small work site with space constricted even more by other concurrent on-site major construction projects including the demolition of four fossil units, construction of a new generating station and 60 KV switchyard upgrade. Full-scale decommissioning activities - now transitioning from Plant Systems Removal (PG and E self-perform) to Civil Works Projects (contractor performed) - are proceeding in a safe, timely, and cost effective manner. As a result of the successful decommissioning work to date (approximately fifty percent completed) and the intense planning and preparations for the remaining work, there is a high level of confidence for completion of all HBPP Unit 3 decommissions activities in 2018. Strategic planning and preparations to transition into full-scale decommissioning was carried out in 2008 by a small, highly focused project team. This planning was conducted concurrent with other critical planning requirements such as the loading of spent nuclear fuel into dry storage at the Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) finishing December 2008. Over the past four years, 2009 through 2012, the majority of decommissioning work has been installation of site infrastructure and removal of systems and components, known as the Plant System Removal Phase, where work scope was dynamic with significant uncertainty, and it was self-performed by PG and E. As HBPP Decommissioning transitions from the Plant System Removal Phase to the Civil Works Projects Phase, where work scope is well defined, a contracting plan similar to that used for Fossil Decommissioning will be implemented. Award of five major work scopes

  4. 30 CFR 585.905 - When must I submit my decommissioning application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... application? 585.905 Section 585.905 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Decommissioning Decommissioning Applications § 585.905 When must I submit my decommissioning application? You...

  5. 30 CFR 585.905 - When must I submit my decommissioning application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... application? 585.905 Section 585.905 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Decommissioning Decommissioning Applications § 585.905 When must I submit my decommissioning application? You...

  6. Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Progress in Iraq - 13216

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Musawi, Fouad; Shamsaldin, Emad S.; Jasim, Hadi; Cochran, John R.

    2013-07-01

    Management of Iraq's radioactive wastes and decommissioning of Iraq's former nuclear facilities are the responsibility of Iraq's Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST). The majority of Iraq's former nuclear facilities are in the Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center located a few kilometers from the edge of Baghdad. These facilities include bombed and partially destroyed research reactors, a fuel fabrication facility and radioisotope production facilities. Within these facilities are large numbers of silos, approximately 30 process or waste storage tanks and thousands of drums of uncharacterised radioactive waste. There are also former nuclear facilities/sites that are outside of Al-Tuwaitha and these include the former uranium processing and waste storage facility at Jesira, the dump site near Adaya, the former centrifuge facility at Rashdiya and the former enrichment plant at Tarmiya. In 2005, Iraq lacked the infrastructure needed to decommission its nuclear facilities and manage its radioactive wastes. The lack of infrastructure included: (1) the lack of an organization responsible for decommissioning and radioactive waste management, (2) the lack of a storage facility for radioactive wastes, (3) the lack of professionals with experience in decommissioning and modern waste management practices, (4) the lack of laws and regulations governing decommissioning or radioactive waste management, (5) ongoing security concerns, and (6) limited availability of electricity and internet. Since its creation eight years ago, the MoST has worked with the international community and developed an organizational structure, trained staff, and made great progress in managing radioactive wastes and decommissioning Iraq's former nuclear facilities. This progress has been made, despite the very difficult implementing conditions in Iraq. Within MoST, the Radioactive Waste Treatment and Management Directorate (RWTMD) is responsible for waste management and the Iraqi Decommissioning

  7. Remote machine engineering applications for nuclear facilities decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Toto, G.; Wyle, H.R.

    1983-01-01

    Decontamination and decommissioning of a nuclear facility require the application of techniques that protect the worker and the enviroment from radiological contamination and radiation. Remotely operated portable robotic arms, machines, and devices can be applied. The use of advanced systems should enhance the productivity, safety, and cost facets of the efforts; remote automatic tooling and systems may be used on any job where job hazard and other factors justify application. Many problems based on costs, enviromental impact, health, waste generation, and political issues may be mitigated by use of remotely operated machines. The work that man can not do or should not do will have to be done by machines.

  8. 30 CFR 585.905 - When must I submit my decommissioning application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... application? 585.905 Section 585.905 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF..., COPs and GAPs Decommissioning Applications § 585.905 When must I submit my decommissioning...

  9. 30 CFR 285.905 - When must I submit my decommissioning application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... application? 285.905 Section 285.905 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Decommissioning Decommissioning Applications § 285.905 When must I submit...

  10. Decommissioning Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Cusack, J.G.; Dalfonso, P.H.; Lenyk, R.G.

    1994-12-31

    The Decommissioning Handbook provides technical guidance on conducting decommissioning projects. Information presented ranges from planning logic, regulations affecting decommissioning, technology discussion, health and safety requirements, an developing a cost estimate. The major focus of the handbook are the technologies -- decontamination technologies, waste treatment, dismantling/segmenting/demolition, and remote operations. Over 90 technologies are discussed in the handbook providing descriptions, applications, and advantages/disadvantages. The handbook was prepared to provide a compendium of available or potentially available technologies in order to aid the planner in meeting the specific needs of each decommissioning project. Other subjects presented in the Decommissioning Handbook include the decommissioning plan, characterization, final project configuration based planning, environmental protection, and packaging/transportation. These discussions are presented to complement the technologies presented in the handbook.

  11. 30 CFR 585.907 - How will BOEM process my decommissioning application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... decommissioning application with the decommissioning general concept in your approved SAP, COP, or GAP to determine what technical and environmental reviews are needed. (b) You will likely have to revise your SAP... change in the impacts previously identified and evaluated in your SAP, COP, or GAP; (2) Require...

  12. 30 CFR 585.907 - How will BOEM process my decommissioning application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Environmental and Safety Management, Inspections, and Facility Assessments for Activities Conducted Under SAPs... your decommissioning application with the decommissioning general concept in your approved SAP, COP, or... revise your SAP, COP, or GAP, and BOEM will begin the appropriate NEPA analysis and other...

  13. 30 CFR 285.907 - How will MMS process my decommissioning application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... decommissioning application with the decommissioning general concept in your approved SAP, COP, or GAP to determine what technical and environmental reviews are needed. (b) You will likely have to revise your SAP... the impacts previously identified and evaluated in your SAP, COP, or GAP; (2) Require any...

  14. 30 CFR 585.907 - How will BOEM process my decommissioning application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... decommissioning application with the decommissioning general concept in your approved SAP, COP, or GAP to determine what technical and environmental reviews are needed. (b) You will likely have to revise your SAP... change in the impacts previously identified and evaluated in your SAP, COP, or GAP; (2) Require...

  15. 30 CFR 285.907 - How will MMS process my decommissioning application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... compare your decommissioning application with the decommissioning general concept in your approved SAP... to revise your SAP, COP, or GAP, and MMS will begin the appropriate NEPA analysis and other... a significant change in the impacts previously identified and evaluated in your SAP, COP, or GAP;...

  16. 30 CFR 285.913 - What happens if I fail to comply with my approved decommissioning application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... approved decommissioning application? 285.913 Section 285.913 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Decommissioning Compliance with An Approved Decommissioning Application § 285.913...

  17. 30 CFR 585.913 - What happens if I fail to comply with my approved decommissioning application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... approved decommissioning application? 585.913 Section 585.913 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Decommissioning Compliance with An Approved Decommissioning...

  18. 30 CFR 585.913 - What happens if I fail to comply with my approved decommissioning application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... approved decommissioning application? 585.913 Section 585.913 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Decommissioning Compliance with An Approved Decommissioning...

  19. Application of Robotics in Decommissioning and Decontamination - 12536

    SciTech Connect

    Banford, Anthony; Kuo, Jeffrey A.; Bowen, R.A.; Szilagyi, Andrew; Kirk, Paula

    2012-07-01

    Decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear facilities is a significant challenge worldwide and one which is growing in size as more plants reach the end of their operational lives. The strategy chosen for individual projects varies from the hands-on approach with significant manual intervention using traditional demolition equipment at one extreme to bespoke highly engineered robotic solutions at the other. The degree of manual intervention is limited by the hazards and risks involved, and in some plants are unacceptable. Robotic remote engineering is often viewed as more expensive and less reliable than manual approaches, with significant lead times and capital expenditure. However, advances in robotics and automation in other industries offer potential benefits for future decommissioning activities, with the high probability of reducing worker exposure and other safety risks as well as reducing the schedule and costs required to complete these activities. Some nuclear decommissioning tasks and facility environments are so hazardous that they can only be accomplished by exclusive use of robotic and remote intervention. Less hazardous tasks can be accomplished by manual intervention and the use of PPE. However, PPE greatly decreases worker productivity and still exposes the worker to both risk and dose making remote operation preferable to achieve ALARP. Before remote operations can be widely accepted and deployed, there are some economic and technological challenges that must be addressed. These challenges will require long term investment commitments in order for technology to be: - Specifically developed for nuclear applications; - At a sufficient TRL for practical deployment; - Readily available as a COTS. Tremendous opportunities exist to reduce cost and schedule and improve safety in D and D activities through the use of robotic and/or tele-operated systems. - Increasing the level of remote intervention reduces the risk and dose to an operator. Better

  20. 30 CFR 585.913 - What happens if I fail to comply with my approved decommissioning application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... approved decommissioning application? 585.913 Section 585.913 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON... Application § 585.913 What happens if I fail to comply with my approved decommissioning application? If...

  1. 30 CFR 285.913 - What happens if I fail to comply with my approved decommissioning application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... approved decommissioning application? 285.913 Section 285.913 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES... Decommissioning Application § 285.913 What happens if I fail to comply with my approved...

  2. 30 CFR 285.905 - When must I submit my decommissioning application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When must I submit my decommissioning application? 285.905 Section 285.905 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL...

  3. Decommissioning handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Manion, W.J.; LaGuardia, T.S.

    1980-11-01

    This document is a compilation of information pertinent to the decommissioning of surplus nuclear facilities. This handbook is intended to describe all stages of the decommissioning process including selection of the end product, estimation of the radioactive inventory, estimation of occupational exposures, description of the state-of-the-art in re decontamination, remote csposition of wastes, and estimation of program costs. Presentation of state-of-the-art technology and data related to decommissioning will aid in consistent and efficient program planning and performance. Particular attention is focused on available technology applicable to those decommissioning activities that have not been accomplished before, such as remote segmenting and handling of highly activated 1100 MW(e) light water reactor vessel internals and thick-walled reactor vessels. A summary of available information associated with the planning and estimating of a decommissioning program is also presented. Summarized in particular are the methodologies associated with the calculation and measurement of activated material inventory, distribution, and surface dose level, system contamination inventory and distribution, and work area dose levels. Cost estimating techniques are also presented and the manner in which to account for variations in labor costs as impacting labor-intensive work activities is explained.

  4. INTERNATIONAL DECOMMISSIONING SYMPOSIUM 2000

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of IDS 2000 was to deliver a world-class conference on applicable global environmental issues. The objective of this conference was to publicize environmental progress of individual countries, to provide a forum for technology developer and problem-holder interaction, to facilitate environmental and technology discussions between the commercial and financial communities, and to accommodate information and education exchange between governments, industries, universities, and scientists. The scope of this project included the planning and execution of an international conference on the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, and the providing of a business forum for vendors and participants sufficient to attract service providers, technology developers, and the business and financial communities. These groups, when working together with attendees from regulatory organizations and government decision-maker groups, provide an opportunity to more effectively and efficiently expedite the decommissioning projects.

  5. Advanced sensing and control techniques to facilitate semi-autonomous decommissioning. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Schalkoff, R.J.; Geist, R.M.; Dawson, D.M.

    1998-06-01

    'This research is intended to advance the technology of semi-autonomous teleoperated robotics as applied to Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) tasks. Specifically, research leading to a prototype dual-manipulator mobile work cell is underway. This cell is supported and enhanced by computer vision, virtual reality and advanced robotics technology. This report summarizes work after approximately 1.5 years of a 3-year project. The autonomous, non-contact creation of a virtual environment from an existing, real environment (virtualization) is an integral part of the workcell functionality. This requires that the virtual world be geometrically correct. To this end, the authors have encountered severe sensitivity in quadric estimation. As a result, alternative procedures for geometric rendering, iterative correction approaches, new calibration methods and associated hardware, and calibration quality examination software have been developed. Following geometric rendering, the authors have focused on improving the color and texture recognition components of the system. In particular, the authors have moved beyond first-order illumination modeling to include higher order diffuse effects. This allows us to combine the surface geometric information, obtained from the laser projection and surface recognition components of the system, with a stereo camera image. Low-level controllers for Puma 560 robotic arms were designed and implemented using QNX. The resulting QNX/PC based low-level robot control system is called QRobot. A high-level trajectory generator and application programming interface (API) as well as a new, flexible robot control API was required. Force/torque sensors and interface hardware have been identified and ordered. A simple 3-D OpenGL-based graphical Puma 560 robot simulator was developed and interfaced with ARCL and RCCL to assist in the development of robot motion programs.'

  6. Progress and experiences from the decommissioning of the Eurochemic reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gills, R.; Lewandowski, P.; Ooms, B.; Reusen, N.; Van Laer, W.; Walthery, R.

    2007-07-01

    Belgoprocess started the industrial decommissioning of the main process building of the former EUROCHEMIC reprocessing plant in 1990, after completion of a pilot project in which two buildings were emptied and decontaminated to background levels. The remaining structures were demolished and the concrete debris was disposed of as industrial waste and green field conditions restored. The Eurochemic reprocessing plant operated from 1966 to 1974 to process fuel from power reactors and research reactors. The main building is a large concrete structure, comprising a surface area of 55,000 m{sup 2}, concrete volume 12,500 m{sup 3}, and 1,500 Mg of metal components. The building is divided into multiple cells. About 106 individual cell structures have to be dismantled, involving the removal and decontamination of equipment from each cell, the decontamination of the cell walls, ceilings and floors, the dismantling of the ventilation system. Most of the work involves hands-on operations under protective clothing tailored to each specific task. Tool automation and automatic positioning systems are successfully applied. In view of the final demolition of the main process building, the main process building is divided into three parts - each part is isolated from the others. In the middle of 2008, after the removal of the NDA-IPAN/GEA installation, the eastern part will be demolished. The paper presents a status overview of the decommissioning and decontamination activities at the main process building of the former Eurochemic reprocessing plant on the nuclear site of Dessel in Belgium. The specific BELGOPROCESS approach will be highlighted, in which the decommissioning activities are carried out on an industrial scale with special emphasis on cost minimisation, the use of technology on an industrial representative scale and the specific alpha contamination of equipment and building surfaces, requiring that the decommissioning work is done with adequate protective clothing

  7. Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1 Accident Progression Uncertainty Analysis and Implications for Decommissioning of Fukushima Reactors - Volume I.

    SciTech Connect

    Gauntt, Randall O.; Mattie, Patrick D.

    2016-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has conducted an uncertainty analysis (UA) on the Fukushima Daiichi unit (1F1) accident progression with the MELCOR code. The model used was developed for a previous accident reconstruction investigation jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). That study focused on reconstructing the accident progressions, as postulated by the limited plant data. This work was focused evaluation of uncertainty in core damage progression behavior and its effect on key figures-of-merit (e.g., hydrogen production, reactor damage state, fraction of intact fuel, vessel lower head failure). The primary intent of this study was to characterize the range of predicted damage states in the 1F1 reactor considering state of knowledge uncertainties associated with MELCOR modeling of core damage progression and to generate information that may be useful in informing the decommissioning activities that will be employed to defuel the damaged reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Additionally, core damage progression variability inherent in MELCOR modeling numerics is investigated.

  8. Task 21 - Development of Systems Engineering Applications for Decontamination and Decommissioning Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, T.A.

    1998-11-01

    The objectives of this task are to: Develop a model (paper) to estimate the cost and waste generation of cleanup within the Environmental Management (EM) complex; Identify technologies applicable to decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) operations within the EM complex; Develop a database of facility information as linked to project baseline summaries (PBSs). The above objectives are carried out through the following four subtasks: Subtask 1--D and D Model Development, Subtask 2--Technology List; Subtask 3--Facility Database, and Subtask 4--Incorporation into a User Model.

  9. Progress report on decommissioning activities at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) site

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), is located about 18 miles northwest of Cincinnati, Ohio. Between 1953 and 1989, the facility, then called the Feed Material Production Center or FMPC, produced uranium metal products used in the eventual production of weapons grade material for use by other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. In 1989, FMPC`s production was suspended by the federal government in order to focus resources on environmental restoration versus defense production. In 1992, Fluor Daniel Fernald assumed responsibility for managing all cleanup activities at the FEMP under contract to the DOE. In 1990, as part of the remediation effort, the site was divided into five operable units based on physical proximity of contaminated areas, similar amounts of types of contamination, or the potential for a similar technology to be used in cleanup activities. This report continues the outline of the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities at the FEMP site Operable Unit 3 (OU3) and provides an update on the status of the decommissioning activities. OU3, the Facilities Closure and Demolition Project, involves the remediation of more than 200 uranium processing facilities. The mission of the project is to remove nuclear materials stored in these buildings, then perform the clean out of the buildings and equipment, and decontaminate and dismantle the facilities.

  10. Decommissioning at AWE

    SciTech Connect

    Biles, K.; Hedges, M.; Campbell, C

    2008-07-01

    AWE (A) has been at the heart of the UK Nuclear deterrent since it was established in the early 1950's. It is a nuclear licensed site and is governed by the United Kingdoms Nuclear Installation Inspectorate (NII). AWE plc on behalf of the Ministry of Defence (MOD) manages the AWE (A) site and all undertakings including decommissioning. Therefore under NII license condition 35 'Decommissioning', AWE plc is accountable to make and implement adequate arrangements for the decommissioning of any plant or process, which may affect safety. The majority of decommissioning projects currently being undertaken are to do with Hazard category 3, 4 or 5 facilities, systems or plant that have reached the end of their operational span and have undergone Post-Operational Clean-Out (POCO). They were either built for the production of fissile components, for supporting the early reactor fuels programmes or for processing facility waste arisings. They either contain redundant contaminated gloveboxes associated process areas, process plant or systems or a combination of all. In parallel with decommissioning project AWE (A) are undertaking investigation into new technologies to aid decommissioning projects; to remove the operative from hands on operations; to develop and implement modifications to existing process and techniques used. AWE (A) is currently going thorough a sustained phase of upgrading its facilities to enhance its scientific capability, with older facilities, systems and plant being replaced, making decommissioning a growth area. It is therefore important to the company to reduce these hazards progressively and safety over the coming years, making decommissioning an important feature of the overall legacy management aspects of AWE PLC's business. This paper outlines the current undertakings and progress of Nuclear decommissioning on the AWE (A) site. (authors)

  11. REVIEW OF INDUSTRIES AND GOVERNMENT AGENCIES FOR TECHNOLOGIES APPLICABLE TO DEACTIVATION AND DECOMMISSIONING OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Reilkoff, T. E.; Hetland, M. D.; O'Leary, E. M.

    2002-02-25

    The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area's (DDFA's) mission is to develop, demonstrate, and deploy improved deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) technologies. This mission requires that emphasis be continually placed on identifying technologies currently employed or under development in other nuclear as well as nonnuclear industries and government agencies. In support of DDFA efforts to clean up the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) radiologically contaminated surplus facilities using technologies that improve worker safety, reduce costs, and accelerate cleanup schedules, a study was conducted to identify innovative technologies developed for use in nonnuclear arenas that are appropriate for D&D applications.

  12. Interim progress report -- geophysics: Decommissioning of Buildings E5974 and E5978, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.

    1992-11-01

    Buildings E5974 and E5978, located near the mouth of Canal Creek, were among 10 potentially contaminated sites in the Westwood and Canal Creek areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including the complementary technologies of magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeters of the buildings to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The magnetic anomalies and the electrically conductive areas around these buildings have a spatial relationship similar to that observed in low-lying sites in the Canal Creek area; they are probably associated with construction fill. Electrically conductive terrain is dominant on the eastern side of the site, and resistive terrain predominates on the west. The smaller magnetic anomalies are not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. The high resistivities in the northwest quadrant are believed to be caused by a natural sand lens. The causes of three magnetic anomalies in the high-resistivity area are unidentified, but they are probably anthropogenic.

  13. Geophysics: Building E5375 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Interim progress report

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.

    1992-08-01

    Building E5375 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek area of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR), were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. Several anomalies wear, noted: (1) An underground storage tank located 25 ft east of Building E5375 was identified with magnetic, resistivity, and GPR profiling. (2) A three-point resistivity anomaly, 12 ft east of the northeast comer of Building E5374 (which borders Building E5375) and 5 ft south of the area surveyed with the magnetometer, may be caused by another underground storage tank. (3) A 2,500-gamma magnetic anomaly near the northeast corner of the site has no equivalent resistivity anomaly, although disruption in GPR reflectors was observed. (4) A one-point magnetic anomaly was located at the northeast comer, but its source cannot be resolved. A chaotic reflective zone to the east represents the radar signature of Building E5375 construction fill.

  14. Geophysics: Building E5282 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Interim progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.

    1992-08-01

    This report discusses Building E5282 which was one of 10 potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek area of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR), were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. Magnetic surveys identified small, complicated, multiple anomalies west, north, and northeast of the building that may be caused by construction fill. Two underground storage tanks, at the northeast and southeast corners, were identified. A large magnetic anomaly complex east of the building was caused by aboveground pipes and unexploded ordnance fragments scattered at the surface. Electrical resistivity profiling showed a broad, conductive terrain superimposed over magnetic anomalies on the north and west. A broad, high-resistivity, nonmagnetic area centered 25 ft east of the building has an unknown origin, but it may be due to nonconductive organic liquids, construction fill, or a buried concrete slab; GPR imaging showed this area as a highly reflective zone at a depth of about 5 ft. The GPR data also showed a small-diameter pipe oriented north-south located east of the building.

  15. Geophysics: Building E5440 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Interim progress report

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.

    1992-11-01

    Building E5440 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR), were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The results show several complex geophysical signatures. Isolated, one-point, magnetic anomalies surrounding the building may be associated with construction fill. A 10-ft-wide band of strongly magnetic positive anomalies bordering the north side of the building obliterates small magnetic sources that might otherwise be seen. A prominent magnetic ``nose`` extending northward from this band toward a standpipe at 100N,63E may be connected to an underground tank. The southeast corner of the site is underlain by a rectangular, magnetized source associated with strong radar images. A magnetic lineament extending south from the anomaly may be caused by a buried pipe; the anomaly itself may be caused by subsurface equipment associated with a manhole or utility access pit. A 2,500-gamma, positive magnetic anomaly centered at 0N,20E, which is also the location of a 12 {Omega}-m resistivity minimum, may be caused by a buried vault. It appears on radar imaging as a strong reflector.

  16. Geophysics: Building E5190 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Interim progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1992-07-01

    Building E5190 is one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek area of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May 1992. A noninvasive geophysical survey, including the complementary technologies of magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, was conducted around the perimeter as a guide to developing a sampling and monitoring program prior to decommissioning and dismantling the building. The magnetics surveys indicated that multistation, positive magnetic sources are randomly distributed north and west of the building. Two linear trends were noted: one that may outline buried utility lines and another that is produced by a steel-covered trench. The resistivity profiling indicated three conductive zones: one due to increased moisture in a ditch, one associated with buried utility lines, and a third zone associated with the steel-covered trench. Ground-penetrating radar imaging detected two significant anomalies, which were correlated with small-amplitude magnetic anomalies. The objectives of the study -- to detect and locate objects and to characterize a located object were achieved.

  17. Environmental geophysics: Building E3640 Decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Interim progress report

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Borden, H.M.; Benson, M.A.; Thompson, M.D.; Padar, C.A.; Daudt, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    Building E3640 is a potentially contaminated site in the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground. Noninvasive geophysical survey techniques, including magnetics, EM-31, EM-61, and ground-penetrating radar, were used as part of a sampling and monitoring program prior to decommissioning and dismantling of the building. Complex and large-amplitude anomalies caused by aboveground metal in this area obscure many smaller features produced by subsurface sources. No underground storage tanks were found in the areas surveyed. Major anomalies produced by subsurface sources include the following: EM-61 and EM-31 lineaments caused by a water line extending north from the south fence; a broad positive magnetic anomaly caused by magnetic fill north of the material and drum storage area and northeast of E3640; a 30-ft-wide band of EM-31 anomalies extending from the front gate to the southeast comer of E3640 and a coincident EM-61 anomaly produced by buried utilities; ground-penetrating radar images along three lines extending from a sump at the northeast comer of E3640 to the eastern fence; and EM-61, EM-31, and magnetic anomalies caused by overhead and underground pipes extending south from the north fence. Smaller, unidentified, localized anomalies observed throughout the survey area are also described in this report.

  18. Geophysics: Building E5481 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Interim progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.

    1992-11-01

    Building E5481 is one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The building is located on the northern margin of a landfill that was sited in a wetland. The large number of magnetic sources surrounding the building are believed to be contained in construction fill that had been used to raise the grade. The smaller anomalies, for the most part, are not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. A conductive zone trending northwest to southeast across the site is spatially related to an old roadbed. Higher resistivity areas in the northeast and east are probably representive of background values. Three high-amplitude, positive, rectangular magnetic anomalies have unknown sources. The features do not have equivalent electrical signatures, nor are they seen with radar imaging.

  19. Offshore-platform decommissioning perceptions change

    SciTech Connect

    Twachtman, R.

    1997-12-08

    The oil and gas industry has seen a change in the perceptions about decommissioning offshore facilities. Now, decommissioning projects are being planned ahead of actual field development, and new concepts derived during decommissioning often are used to provide feedback for new development projects. The current trends and concepts applicable to decommissioning can be summarized as: advanced planning; engineered solutions; research and development; reuse; expanded use of offshore reefs; and deepwater disposal. Planning the platform decommissioning ahead of time (at least 2 years before production ceases) is key to a safe, environmentally conscious, and efficient decommissioning project. The paper discusses decommissioning projects, engineered solutions, research and development; reuse of platforms, and deepwater disposal.

  20. PCB regulations and their application to deactivation and decommissioning activities: Technical assistance project

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    DOE`s economic development plans involve efforts to deactivate and decommission or refurbish site buildings and operational facilities for other uses. Site personnel must decide on disposition of stored materials, which include increasing numbers of excess and/or unwanted oil-filled equipment (e.g., transformers, hydraulic systems, heat transfer systems) and oil-containing `orphaned` drums. Because oil and these items can also contain polychlorinated biphenyls, it is essential that site personnel become aware of the regulations applicable to PCBs (adherence will minimize DOE hazardous material management liabilities). A recent incident at a DOE facility provides a case in point with important lessons to be learned for all sites within the DOE complex.

  1. Decommissioning Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The Decommissioning Handbook is a technical guide for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The decommissioning of a nuclear facility involves the removal of the radioactive and, for practical reasons, hazardous materials to enable the facility to be released and not represent a further risk to human health and the environment. This handbook identifies and technologies and techniques that will accomplish these objectives. The emphasis in this handbook is on characterization; waste treatment; decontamination; dismantling, segmenting, demolition; and remote technologies. Other aspects that are discussed in some detail include the regulations governing decommissioning, worker and environmental protection, and packaging and transportation of the waste materials. The handbook describes in general terms the overall decommissioning project, including planning, cost estimating, and operating practices that would ease preparation of the Decommissioning Plan and the decommissioning itself. The reader is referred to other documents for more detailed information. This Decommissioning Handbook has been prepared by Enserch Environmental Corporation for the US Department of Energy and is a complete restructuring of the original handbook developed in 1980 by Nuclear Energy Services. The significant changes between the two documents are the addition of current and the deletion of obsolete technologies and the addition of chapters on project planning and the Decommissioning Plan, regulatory requirements, characterization, remote technology, and packaging and transportation of the waste materials.

  2. 30 CFR 285.906 - What must my decommissioning application include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... including: (1) Lease operator, ROW grant holder, or RUE grant holder; (2) Address; (3) Contact person and... decommissioning schedule for your lease, ROW grant, or RUE grant, including the expiration or relinquishment...

  3. Site decommissioning management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fauver, D.N.; Austin, J.H.; Johnson, T.C.; Weber, M.F.; Cardile, F.P.; Martin, D.E.; Caniano, R.J.; Kinneman, J.D.

    1993-10-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has identified 48 sites contaminated with radioactive material that require special attention to ensure timely decommissioning. While none of these sites represent an immediate threat to public health and safety they have contamination that exceeds existing NRC criteria for unrestricted use. All of these sites require some degree of remediation, and several involve regulatory issues that must be addressed by the Commission before they can be released for unrestricted use and the applicable licenses terminated. This report contains the NRC staff`s strategy for addressing the technical, legal, and policy issues affecting the timely decommissioning of the 48 sites and describes the status of decommissioning activities at the sites.

  4. 30 CFR 250.1751 - How do I decommission a pipeline in place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I decommission a pipeline in place? 250... Pipeline Decommissioning § 250.1751 How do I decommission a pipeline in place? You must do the following to decommission a pipeline in place: (a) Submit a pipeline decommissioning application in triplicate to...

  5. Assessment, evaluation, and testing of technologies for environmental restoration, decontamination, and decommissioning and high level waste management. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Uzochukwu, G.A.

    1997-12-31

    Nuclear and commercial non-nuclear technologies that have the potential of meeting the environmental restoration, decontamination and decommissioning, and high-level waste management objectives are being assessed and evaluated. A detailed comparison of innovative technologies available will be performed to determine the safest and most economical technology for meeting these objectives. Information derived from this effort will be matched with the multi-objectives of the environmental restoration, decontamination and decommissioning, and high-level waste management effort to ensure that the best, most economical, and the safest technologies are used in decision making at USDOE-SRS. Technology-related variables will be developed and the resulting data formatted and computerized for multimedia systems. The multimedia system will be made available to technology developers and evaluators to ensure that the best, most economical, and the safest technologies are used in decision making at USDOE-SRS. Technology-related variables will be developed and the resulting data formatted and computerized for multimedia systems. The multimedia system will be made available to technology developers and evaluators to ensure that the safest and most economical technologies are developed for use at SRS and other DOE sites.

  6. 30 CFR 285.904 - Can I request a departure from the decommissioning requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... decommissioning requirements? 285.904 Section 285.904 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING... the decommissioning requirements under § 285.103. Decommissioning Applications...

  7. An investigation of HPGe gamma efficiency calibration software (ANGLE V.3) for applications in nuclear decommissioning.

    PubMed

    Bell, S J; Judge, S M; Regan, P H

    2012-12-01

    High resolution gamma spectrometry offers a rapid method to characterise waste materials on a decommissioning nuclear site. To meet regulatory requirements, measurements must be traceable to national standards, meaning that the spectrometers must be calibrated for a wide range of materials. Semi-empirical modelling software (such as ANGLE™) offers a convenient method to carry out such calibrations. This paper describes an assessment of the modelling software for use by a small laboratory based on a nuclear site. The results confirmed the need for accurate information on the detection construction if the calibration were to be accurate to within 10%. PMID:23041778

  8. Application of a laser to decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities at JAERI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirabayashi, Takakuni; Kameo, Yutaka; Myodo, Masato

    2000-01-01

    In the research and development of various advanced technologies needed for decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities, laser was applied to decontamination of metal and concrete surfaces and to cutting of large metal of low level radioactive waste. (a) Laser decontamination for metal waste: Metal waste was irradiated by laser in the atmosphere of chloride gas, and contaminant was changed from oxide to chloride which is sublimable or soluble in water and could be easily removed; and also metal waste coated with gel-decontamination reagent was irradiated by laser, and contaminant could be removed through the laser-induced chemical reaction. (b) Laser decontamination for concrete surface: Concrete surface was bursted or vitrified by laser irradiation and easily removed. (c) Laser cutting: Laser cutter was applied to cutting of large metal wastes such as tanks arising from dismantling of nuclear facilities.

  9. 76 FR 3837 - Nuclear Decommissioning Funds; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... 23, 2010 (75 FR 80697) relating to deductions for contributions to trusts maintained for decommissioning nuclear power plants. DATES: This correction is effective on January 21, 2011, and is applicable... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BF08 Nuclear Decommissioning Funds; Correction...

  10. Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project decommissioning plan. Volume XII

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Information is presented concerning allowable residual contamination levels in soil for decommissioning the Shippingport reactor site; draft statement of work for the decommissioning operations contractor; the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project Change Control Board charter; the surplus facilities management program; the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project charter; DOE-RL/DOE-PNR program management agreement; and draft occupational medical plan for the decommissioning project.

  11. Modelling of nuclear power plant decommissioning financing.

    PubMed

    Bemš, J; Knápek, J; Králík, T; Hejhal, M; Kubančák, J; Vašíček, J

    2015-06-01

    Costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear power plants create a significant financial burden for nuclear power plant operators. This article discusses the various methodologies employed by selected European countries for financing of the liabilities related to the nuclear power plant decommissioning. The article also presents methodology of allocation of future decommissioning costs to the running costs of nuclear power plant in the form of fee imposed on each megawatt hour generated. The application of the methodology is presented in the form of a case study on a new nuclear power plant with installed capacity 1000 MW. PMID:25979740

  12. Modelling of nuclear power plant decommissioning financing.

    PubMed

    Bemš, J; Knápek, J; Králík, T; Hejhal, M; Kubančák, J; Vašíček, J

    2015-06-01

    Costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear power plants create a significant financial burden for nuclear power plant operators. This article discusses the various methodologies employed by selected European countries for financing of the liabilities related to the nuclear power plant decommissioning. The article also presents methodology of allocation of future decommissioning costs to the running costs of nuclear power plant in the form of fee imposed on each megawatt hour generated. The application of the methodology is presented in the form of a case study on a new nuclear power plant with installed capacity 1000 MW.

  13. NMSS handbook for decommissioning fuel cycle and materials licensees

    SciTech Connect

    Orlando, D.A.; Hogg, R.C.; Ramsey, K.M.

    1997-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission amended its regulations to set forth the technical and financial criteria for decommissioning licensed nuclear facilities. These regulations were further amended to establish additional recordkeeping requirements for decommissioning; to establish timeframes and schedules for the decommissioning; and to clarify that financial assurance requirements must be in place during operations and updated when licensed operations cease. Reviews of the Site Decommissioning Management Plan (SDMP) program found that, while the NRC staff was overseeing the decommissioning program at nuclear facilities in a manner that was protective of public health and safety, progress in decommissioning many sites was slow. As a result NRC determined that formal written procedures should be developed to facilitate the timely decommissioning of licensed nuclear facilities. This handbook was developed to aid NRC staff in achieving this goal. It is intended to be used as a reference document to, and in conjunction with, NRC Inspection Manual Chapter (IMC) 2605, ``Decommissioning Inspection Program for Fuel Cycle and Materials Licensees.`` The policies and procedures discussed in this handbook should be used by NRC staff overseeing the decommissioning program at licensed fuel cycle and materials sites; formerly licensed sites for which the licenses were terminated; sites involving source, special nuclear, or byproduct material subject to NRC regulation for which a license was never issued; and sites in the NRC`s SDMP program. NRC staff overseeing the decommissioning program at nuclear reactor facilities subject to regulation under 10 CFR Part 50 are not required to use the procedures discussed in this handbook.

  14. SOME RECENT TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENTS FROM THE UK'S NATIONAL NUCLEAR LABORATORY TO ENABLE HAZARD CHARACTERISATION FOR NUCLEAR DECOMMISSIONING APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.; Foley, T.

    2010-02-11

    Under its programme of self investment Internal Research and Development (IR&D), the UK's National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) is addressing the requirement for development in technology to enable hazard characterisation for nuclear decommissioning applications. Three such examples are described here: (1) RadBall developed by the NNL (patent pending) is a deployable baseball-sized radiation mapping device which can, from a single location, locate and quantify radiation hazards. RadBall offers a means to collect information regarding the magnitude and distribution of radiation in a given cell, glovebox or room to support the development of a safe, cost effective decontamination strategy. RadBall requires no electrical supplies and is relatively small, making it easy to be deployed and used to map radiation hazards in hard to reach areas. Recent work conducted in partnership with the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is presented. (2) HiRAD (patent pending) has been developed by the NNL in partnership with Tracerco Ltd (UK). HiRAD is a real-time, remotely deployed, radiation detection device designed to operate in elevated levels of radiation (i.e. thousands and tens of thousands of Gray) as seen in parts of the nuclear industry. Like the RadBall technology, the HiRAD system does not require any electrical components, the small dimensions and flexibility of the device allow it to be positioned in difficult to access areas (such as pipe work). HiRAD can be deployed as a single detector, a chain, or as an array giving the ability to monitor large process areas. Results during the development and deployment of the technology are presented. (3) Wireless Sensor Network is a NNL supported development project led by the University of Manchester (UK) in partnership with Oxford University (UK). The project is concerned with the development of wireless sensor network technology to enable the underwater deployment and communication of miniaturised probes allowing pond

  15. Pipeline Decommissioning Trial AWE Berkshire UK - 13619

    SciTech Connect

    Agnew, Kieran

    2013-07-01

    of breaching the pipe while maintaining containment to remove residual liquids, - Crimp and shear - remote crimping, cutting and handling of pipe using the excavator - Pipe jacking - a way of removing pipes avoiding excavations and causing minimal disturbance and disruption. The details of the decommissioning trial design, the techniques employed, their application and effectiveness are discussed and evaluated here in. (authors)

  16. Safety of Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Batandjieva, B.; Warnecke, E.; Coates, R.

    2008-01-15

    Full text of publication follows: ensuring safety during all stages of facility life cycle is a widely recognised responsibility of the operators, implemented under the supervision of the regulatory body and other competent authorities. As the majority of the facilities worldwide are still in operation or shutdown, there is no substantial experience in decommissioning and evaluation of safety during decommissioning in majority of Member States. The need for cooperation and exchange of experience and good practices on ensuring and evaluating safety of decommissioning was one of the outcomes of the Berlin conference in 2002. On this basis during the last three years IAEA initiated a number of international projects that can assist countries, in particular small countries with limited resources. The main IAEA international projects addressing safety during decommissioning are: (i) DeSa Project on Evaluation and Demonstration of Safety during Decommissioning; (ii) R{sup 2}D{sup 2}P project on Research Reactors Decommissioning Demonstration Project; and (iii) Project on Evaluation and Decommissioning of Former Facilities that used Radioactive Material in Iraq. This paper focuses on the DeSa Project activities on (i) development of a harmonised methodology for safety assessment for decommissioning; (ii) development of a procedure for review of safety assessments; (iii) development of recommendations on application of the graded approach to the performance and review of safety assessments; and (iv) application of the methodology and procedure to the selected real facilities with different complexities and hazard potentials (a nuclear power plant, a research reactor and a nuclear laboratory). The paper also outlines the DeSa Project outcomes and planned follow-up activities. It also summarises the main objectives and activities of the Iraq Project and introduces the R{sup 2}D{sup 2} Project, which is a subject of a complementary paper.

  17. Recent Progress of Microfluidics in Translational Applications

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zongbin; Han, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidics, featuring microfabricated structures, is a technology for manipulating fluids at the micrometer scale. The small dimension and flexibility of microfluidic systems are ideal for mimicking molecular and cellular microenvironment, and show great potential in translational research and development. Here, the recent progress of microfluidics in biological and biomedical applications, including molecular analysis, cellular analysis, and chip-based material delivery and biomimetic design is presented. The potential future developments in the translational microfluidics field are also discussed. PMID:27091777

  18. 30 CFR 585.904 - Can I request a departure from the decommissioning requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... decommissioning requirements? 585.904 Section 585.904 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER... requirements under § 585.103. Decommissioning Applications...

  19. 30 CFR 585.904 - Can I request a departure from the decommissioning requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... decommissioning requirements? 585.904 Section 585.904 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER... requirements under § 585.103. Decommissioning Applications...

  20. 30 CFR 585.904 - Can I request a departure from the decommissioning requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... decommissioning requirements? 585.904 Section 585.904 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER... requirements under § 585.103. Decommissioning Applications...

  1. University of Virginia Reactor Facility Decommissioning Results

    SciTech Connect

    Ervin, P. F.; Lundberg, L. A.; Benneche, P. E.; Mulder, R. U.; Steva, D. P.

    2003-02-24

    The University of Virginia Reactor Facility started accelerated decommissioning in 2002. The facility consists of two licensed reactors, the CAVALIER and the UVAR. This paper will describe the progress in 2002, remaining efforts and the unique organizational structure of the project team.

  2. Rancho Seco--Decommissioning Update

    SciTech Connect

    Newey, J. M.; Ronningen, E. T.; Snyder, M. W.

    2003-02-26

    The Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station ceased operation in June of 1989 and entered an extended period of SAFSTOR to allow funds to accumulate for dismantlement. Incremental dismantlement was begun in 1997 of steam systems and based on the successful completion of work, the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) board of directors approved full decommissioning in July 1999. A schedule has been developed for completion of decommissioning by 2008, allowing decommissioning funds to accumulate until they are needed. Systems removal began in the Auxiliary Building in October of 1999 and in the Reactor Building in January of 2000. Systems dismantlement continues in the Reactor Building and should be completed by the end of 2003. System removal is near completion in the Auxiliary Building with removal of the final liquid waste tanks in progress. The spent fuel has been moved to dry storage in an onsite ISFSI, with completion on August 21, 2002. The spent fuel racks are currently being removed from the pool, packaged and shipped, and then the pool will be cleaned. Also in the last year the reactor coolant pumps and primary piping were removed and shipped. Characterization and planning work for the reactor vessel and internals is also in progress with various cut-up and/or disposal options being evaluated. In the year ahead the remaining systems in the Reactor Building will be removed, packaged and sent for disposal, including the pressurizer. Work will be started on embedded and underground piping and the large outdoor tanks. Building survey and decontamination will begin. RFP's for removal of the vessel and internals and the steam generators are planned to fix the cost of those components. If the costs are consistent with current estimates the work will go forward. If they are not, hardened SAFSTOR/entombment may be considered.

  3. Decommissioning of the Iraq former nuclear complex

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas, Mohammed; Helou, Tuama; Ahmead, Bushra; Al-Atia, Mousa; Al-Mubarak, Mowaffak; Danneels, Jeffrey; Cochran, John; Sorenson, Ken; Coates, Roger

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: A number of sites in Iraq have some degree of radiological contamination and require decommissioning and remediation in order to ensure radiological safety. Many of these sites in Iraq are located at the nuclear research centre at Al Tuwaitha. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Board of Governors has approved a project to assist the Government of Iraq in the evaluation and decommissioning of former facilities that used radioactive materials. The project is divided into three phases: Phase 1: collect and analyze all available data and conduct training of the Iraqi staff, Phase 2: develop a decommissioning and remediation plan, and Phase 3: implement field activities relating to decommissioning, remediation and site selection suitable for final disposal of waste. Four working groups have been established to complete the Phase 1 work and significant progress has been made in drafting a new nuclear law which will provide the legal basis for the licensing of the decommissioning of the former nuclear complex. Work is also underway to collect and analysis existing date, to prioritize future activities and to develop a waste management strategy. This will be a long-term and costly project. (authors)

  4. [Biofabrication with chitosan and its application progress].

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanping; Zhang, Aijing

    2009-05-01

    Chitosan is a polymer with good biocompatibility, unique pH-responsive solubility, convenient modification and easier film-formability. Chitosan could serve as an active mediator between biological components and microfabricated devices to prepare biological micro electro mechanical systems (BioMEMS) with high selectivity and sensitivity. Recently, there has been a growing interest in BioMEMS based on biofabrication of chitosan. We reviewed the mechanisms and processes of three biofabrication methods based on chitosan, including directed assembly, enzymatic assembly and self-assembly. Current applications and research progress in biological, medical and environmental fields are also discussed. Finally, future research directions are prospected.

  5. Preliminary decommissioning study reports

    SciTech Connect

    Peretz, F.J.

    1984-09-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) is one of approximately 76 facilities currently managed by the ORNL Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). This program, as part of the DOE national SFMP, is responsible for the maintenance and surveillance and the final decommissioning of radioactively-contaminated surplus ORNL facilities. A long range planning effort is being conducted that will outline the scope and objectives of the ORNL program and establish decommissioning priorities based on health and safety concerns, budget constraints, and other programmatic constraints. In support of this SFMP planning activity, preliminary engineering assessments are being conducted for each of the ORNL surplus facilities currently managed under the program. These efforts, in general, are designed to: (1) provide an initial assessment of the potential decommissioning alternatives; (2) choose a preferred alternative and provide a justification for that choice, and (3) provide a preliminary description of the decommissioning plan, including cost and schedule estimates. Because of several issues which cannot be evaluated quantitatively at this time, this report on the MSRE does not select a most probable decommissioning mode'' but rather discusses the issues and representative alternatives for disposal of the MSRE fuel salts and decommissioning of the facility. A budget and schedule representative of the types of activities likely to be required is also suggested for preliminary use in the SFMP Long Range Plan.

  6. 30 CFR 585.908 - What must I include in my decommissioning notice?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... notice? 585.908 Section 585.908 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Decommissioning Decommissioning Applications § 585.908 What must I include in my decommissioning notice? (a)...

  7. 30 CFR 585.908 - What must I include in my decommissioning notice?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... notice? 585.908 Section 585.908 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Decommissioning Decommissioning Applications § 585.908 What must I include in my decommissioning notice? (a)...

  8. Development of improved technology for decommissioning operations

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.P.

    1982-07-01

    This paper describes the technology development activities conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory under US Department of Energy sponsorship to help ensure the availability of safe, cost-effective and environmentally sound decommissioning technology for radioactively contaminated facilities. These improved decommissioning technologies include techniques for the removal of contaminated concrete surfaces and coatings, adaptation of electropolishing and vibratory finishing decontamination techniques for field decommissioning applications, development of sensitive field instrumentation and methods for the monitoring of large surface areas, techniques for the field sectioning of contaminated components, improved contamination-stabilizing coatings and application methods, and development of a small solidification system for the field solidification of liquid waste. The results of cost/benefit studies for some of these technologies are also reported.

  9. [Progress on epigenetics applications in forensic science].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ya-ran; Wang, Peng-xiang; Fang, Xiang-dong; Yan, Jiang-wei

    2012-10-01

    Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence. Such changes include DNA methylation, histone modification, chromatin remodeling, genomic imprinting, X chromosome inactivation and non-coding RNA regulation. Recent progresses on epigenetics open new possibilities in tackling these challenging problems in forensic science, including identification of fetal paternity testing in embryonic period, determination of the necessary allele in paternity testing, discrimination of identical twins, origination analysis of micro tissue, verification of forged DNA. This review focuses on epigenetics concept and its latest application in the field of paternity testing, age estimation, discrimination between the twins, identification of tissue of origin, and estimation of postmortem interval. PMID:23213789

  10. Decommissioning Cost Estimating Factors And Earned Value Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, P.C.; Cimmarron, E.

    2008-07-01

    The Rocky Flats 771 Project progressed from the planning stage of decommissioning a plutonium facility, through the strip-out of highly-contaminated equipment, removal of utilities and structural decontamination, and building demolition. Actual cost data was collected from the strip-out activities and compared to original estimates, allowing the development of cost by equipment groupings and types and over time. Separate data was developed from the project control earned value reporting and compared with the equipment data. The paper discusses the analysis to develop the detailed factors for the different equipment types, and the items that need to be considered during characterization of a similar facility when preparing an estimate. The factors are presented based on direct labor requirements by equipment type. The paper also includes actual support costs, and examples of fixed or one-time start-up costs. The integration of the estimate and the earned value system used for the 771 Project is also discussed. The paper covers the development of the earned value system as well as its application to a facility to be decommissioned and an existing work breakdown structure. Lessons learned are provided, including integration with scheduling and craft supervision, measurement approaches, and verification of scope completion. In summary: The work of decommissioning the Rocky Flats 771 Project process equipment was completed in 2003. Early in the planning process, we had difficulty in identifying credible data and implementing processes for estimating and controlling this work. As the project progressed, we were able to collect actual data on the costs of removing plutonium contaminated equipment from various areas over the life of this work and associate those costs with individual pieces of equipment. We also were able to develop and test out a system for measuring the earned value of a decommissioning project based on an evolving estimate. These were elements that

  11. STANDARD OPERATING PROTOCOLS FOR DECOMMISSIONING

    SciTech Connect

    Foss, D. L.; Stevens, J. L.; Gerdeman, F. W.

    2002-02-25

    Decommissioning projects at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites are conducted under project-specific decision documents, which involve extensive preparation time, public comment periods, and regulatory approvals. Often, the decision documents must be initiated at least one year before commencing the decommissioning project, and they are expensive and time consuming to prepare. The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) is a former nuclear weapons production plant at which hazardous substances and wastes were released or disposed during operations. As a result of the releases, RFETS was placed on the National Priorities List in 1989, and is conducting cleanup activities under a federal facilities compliance agreement. Working closely with interested stakeholders and state and federal regulatory agencies, RFETS has developed and implemented an improved process for obtaining the approvals. The key to streamlining the approval process has been the development of sitewide decision documents called Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement Standard Operating Protocols or ''RSOPs.'' RSOPs have broad applicability, and could be used instead of project-specific documents. Although no two decommissioning projects are exactly the same and they may vary widely in contamination and other hazards, the basic steps taken for cleanup are usually similar. Because of this, using RSOPs is more efficient than preparing a separate project-specific decision documents for each cleanup action. Over the Rocky Flats cleanup life cycle, using RSOPs has the potential to: (1) Save over 5 million dollars and 6 months on the site closure schedule; (2) Eliminate preparing one hundred and twenty project-specific decision documents; and (3) Eliminate writing seventy-five closure description documents for hazardous waste unit closure and corrective actions.

  12. Progress of OCT and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmi, Masato; Haruna, Masamitsu

    2009-11-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is the cross-sectional imaging of biological tissue based on the low-coherence interferometry, where the image resolution is around 10 ım with the imaging depth of 1 to 2 mm. Since its first demonstration, OCT has been developed intensively for clinical diagnoses of ophthalmology and arteriosclerosis. Beside the clinical applications, OCT is used for analysis of physiological functions underneath the human skin surface. Recently, we proposed and demonstrated the dynamic OCT for in vivo observation of physiological functions of small organs underneath the skin surface. In the dynamic OCT, tomographic images are obtained time-sequentially for tracking of the dynamics of eccrin sweat glands and peripheral vessels. In the last three years, the dynamic skin physiology has been analyzed using both time-domain (TD) OCT and swept source (SS) OCT. In this paper, we present progress of OCT as well as the dynamic analysis of mental sweating and pulsation of a small artery in synchronization with the heartbeat using SS-OCT.

  13. [Progress in transgenic fish techniques and application].

    PubMed

    Ye, Xing; Tian, Yuan-Yuan; Gao, Feng-Ying

    2011-05-01

    Transgenic technique provides a new way for fish breeding. Stable lines of growth hormone gene transfer carps, salmon and tilapia, as well as fluorescence protein gene transfer zebra fish and white cloud mountain minnow have been produced. The fast growth characteristic of GH gene transgenic fish will be of great importance to promote aquaculture production and economic efficiency. This paper summarized the progress in transgenic fish research and ecological assessments. Microinjection is still the most common used method, but often resulted in multi-site and multi-copies integration. Co-injection of transposon or meganuclease will greatly improve the efficiency of gene transfer and integration. "All fish" gene or "auto gene" should be considered to produce transgenic fish in order to eliminate misgiving on food safety and to benefit expression of the transferred gene. Environmental risk is the biggest obstacle for transgenic fish to be commercially applied. Data indicates that transgenic fish have inferior fitness compared with the traditional domestic fish. However, be-cause of the genotype-by-environment effects, it is difficult to extrapolate simple phenotypes to the complex ecological interactions that occur in nature based on the ecological consequences of the transgenic fish determined in the laboratory. It is critical to establish highly naturalized environments for acquiring reliable data that can be used to evaluate the environ-mental risk. Efficacious physical and biological containment strategies remain to be crucial approaches to ensure the safe application of transgenic fish technology.

  14. Decommissioning the UHTREX Reactor Facility at Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, M.; Elder, J.

    1992-08-01

    The Ultra-High Temperature Reactor Experiment (UHTREX) facility was constructed in the late 1960s to advance high-temperature and gas-cooled reactor technology. The 3-MW reactor was graphite moderated and helium cooled and used 93% enriched uranium as its fuel. The reactor was run for approximately one year and was shut down in February 1970. The decommissioning of the facility involved removing the reactor and its associated components. This document details planning for the decommissioning operations which included characterizing the facility, estimating the costs of decommissioning, preparing environmental documentation, establishing a system to track costs and work progress, and preplanning to correct health and safety concerns in the facility. Work to decommission the facility began in 1988 and was completed in September 1990 at a cost of $2.9 million. The facility was released to Department of Energy for other uses in its Los Alamos program.

  15. Use of InSpector{sup TM} 1 1000 Instrument with LaBr{sub 3} for Nuclear Criticality Safety (NCS) Applications at the Westinghouse Hematite Decommissioning Project (HDP) - 13132

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchard, Megan; Guido, Joe

    2013-07-01

    The Westinghouse Hematite Decommissioning Project (HDP) is a former nuclear fuel cycle facility that is currently undergoing decommissioning. One aspect of the decommissioning scope is remediation of buried nuclear waste in unlined burial pits. The current Nuclear Criticality Safety program relies on application of criticality controls based on radiological setpoints from a 2 x 2 Sodium Iodide (NaI) detector. Because of the nature of the material buried (Low Enriched Uranium (LEU), depleted uranium, thorium, and radium) and the stringent threshold for application of criticality controls based on waste management (0.1 g {sup 235}U/L), a better method for {sup 235}U identification and quantification has been developed. This paper outlines the early stages of a quick, in-field nuclear material assay and {sup 235}U mass estimation process currently being deployed at HDP. Nuclear material initially classified such that NCS controls are necessary can be demonstrated not to require such controls and dispositioned as desired by project operations. Using Monte Carlo techniques and a high resolution Lanthanum Bromide (LaBr) detector with portable Multi-Channel Analyzer (MCA), a bounding {sup 235}U mass is assigned to basic geometries of nuclear material as it is excavated. The deployment of these methods and techniques has saved large amounts of time and money in the nuclear material remediation process. (authors)

  16. 30 CFR 585.902 - What are the general requirements for decommissioning for facilities authorized under my SAP, COP...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... decommissioning for facilities authorized under my SAP, COP, or GAP? 585.902 Section 585.902 Mineral Resources... authorized under my SAP, COP, or GAP? (a) Except as otherwise authorized by BOEM under § 585.909, within 2... decommissioning the facilities under your SAP, COP, or GAP, you must submit a decommissioning application...

  17. 30 CFR 585.902 - What are the general requirements for decommissioning for facilities authorized under my SAP, COP...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... decommissioning for facilities authorized under my SAP, COP, or GAP? 585.902 Section 585.902 Mineral Resources... authorized under my SAP, COP, or GAP? (a) Except as otherwise authorized by BOEM under § 585.909, within 2... decommissioning the facilities under your SAP, COP, or GAP, you must submit a decommissioning application...

  18. In Situ Decommissioning (ISD) Concepts and Approaches for Excess Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning End State - 13367

    SciTech Connect

    Serrato, Michael G.; Musall, John C.; Bergren, Christopher L.

    2013-07-01

    government and private industry decommissioning applications. SRS offers critical services based upon the SRS experience in decommissioning and reactor entombment technology (e.g., grout formulations for varying conditions, structural and material sciences). The SRS ISD approach follows a systems engineering framework to achieve a regulatory acceptable end state based on established protocols, attains the final end state with minimal long stewardship requirements, protects industrial workers, and protects groundwater and the environment. The ISD systems engineering framework addresses key areas of the remedial process planning, technology development and deployment, and assessment to attain the ultimate goal of natural resource stewardship and protecting the public. The development and deployment of the SRS ISD approach has established a path for ISD of other large nuclear facilities in the United States and around the globe as an acceptable remedial alternative for decommissioning nuclear facilities. (authors)

  19. International Research Reactor Decommissioning Project

    SciTech Connect

    Leopando, Leonardo; Warnecke, Ernst

    2008-01-15

    Many research reactors have been or will be shut down and are candidates for decommissioning. Most of the respective countries neither have a decommissioning policy nor the required expertise and funds to effectively implement a decommissioning project. The IAEA established the Research Reactor Decommissioning Demonstration Project (R{sup 2}D{sup 2}P) to help answer this need. It was agreed to involve the Philippine Research Reactor (PRR-1) as model reactor to demonstrate 'hands-on' experience as it is just starting the decommissioning process. Other facilities may be included in the project as they fit into the scope of R{sup 2}D{sup 2}P and complement to the PRR-1 decommissioning activities. The key outcome of the R{sup 2}D{sup 2}P will be the decommissioning of the PRR-1 reactor. On the way to this final goal the preparation of safety related documents (i.e., decommissioning plan, environmental impact assessment, safety analysis report, health and safety plan, cost estimate, etc.) and the licensing process as well as the actual dismantling activities could provide a model to other countries involved in the project. It is expected that the R{sup 2}D{sup 2}P would initiate activities related to planning and funding of decommissioning activities in the participating countries if that has not yet been done.

  20. Decontamination and Decommissioning Experience at a Sellafield Uranium Purification Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Prosser, J.L.

    2006-07-01

    Built in the 1950's, this plant was originally designed to purify depleted uranyl nitrate solution arising from reprocessing operations at the Primary Separation and Head End Plant (Fig. 1). The facility was used for various purposes throughout its life cycle such as research, development and trial based processes. Test rigs were operated in the building from the 1970's until 1984 to support development of the process and equipment now used at Sellafield's Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP). The extensive decommissioning program for this facility began over 15 years ago. Many challenges have been overcome throughout this program such as decommissioning the four main process cells, which were very highly alpha contaminated. The cells contained vessels and pipeline systems that were contaminated to such levels that workers had to use pressurized suits to enter the cells. Since decommissioning at Sellafield was in its infancy, this project has trialed various decontamination/decommissioning methods and techniques in order to progress the project, and this has provided valuable learning for other decommissioning projects. The project has included characterization, decontamination, dismantling, waste handling, and is now ready for demolition during late 2005, early 2006. This will be the first major facility within the historic Separation Area at Sellafield to be demolished down to base slab level. The lessons learnt from this project will directly benefit numerous decommissioning projects as the cleanup at Sellafield continues. (authors)

  1. ORNL decontamination and decommissioning program

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, J. P.

    1980-01-01

    A program has been initiated at ORNL to decontaminate and decommission surplus or abandoned nuclear facilities. Program planning and technical studies have been performed by UCC-ND Engineering. A feasibility study for decommissioning the Metal Recovery Facility, a fuel reprocessing pilot plant, has been completed.

  2. Remote Decommissioning Experiences at Sellafield

    SciTech Connect

    Brownridge, M.

    2006-07-01

    British Nuclear Group has demonstrated through delivery of significant decommissioning projects the ability to effectively deploy innovative remote decommissioning technologies and deliver cost effective solutions. This has been achieved through deployment and development of off-the-shelf technologies and design of bespoke equipment. For example, the worlds first fully remotely operated Brokk was successfully deployed to enable fully remote dismantling, packaging and export of waste during the decommissioning of a pilot reprocessing facility. British Nuclear Group has also successfully implemented remote decommissioning systems to enable the decommissioning of significant challenges, including dismantling of a Caesium Extraction Facility, Windscale Pile Chimney and retrieval of Plutonium Contaminated Material (PCM) from storage cells. The challenge for the future is to continue to innovate through utilization of the supply chain and deploy off-the-shelf technologies which have been demonstrated in other industry sectors, thus reducing implementation schedules, cost and maintenance. (authors)

  3. Decommissioning of surplus facilities at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Stout, D.S.

    1995-03-01

    Decommissioning Buildings 3 and 4 South at Technical Area 21, Los Alamos National Laboratory, involves the decontamination, dismantlement, and demolition of two enriched-uranium processing buildings containing process equipment and ductwork holdup. The Laboratory has adopted two successful management strategies to implement this project: Rather than characterize an entire site, upfront, investigators use the ``observational approach,`` in which they collect only enough data to begin decommissioning activities and then determine appropriate procedures for further characterization as the work progresses. Project leaders augment work packages with task hazard analyses to fully define specific tasks and inform workers of hazards; all daily work activities are governed by specific work procedures and hazard analyses.

  4. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  5. Progress in noise thermometry for nuclear applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, A. L.; Villard, J. F.

    2011-07-01

    The effects of nuclear radiations on conventional thermocouples (type K, C and N) mainly used in irradiation experiments may create significant drifts of the signals. In order to solve these difficulties, the CEA (French Nuclear Energy Commission) has developed and qualified in laboratory conditions miniature devices, which combine a noise thermometer and intrinsic thermocouples (NT-TC), for future application in a research reactor. In this paper, a particular approach of combined NT-TC sensors is described. Present measurements, based on a correlation and a comparison technique, have been performed in a typical laboratory environment between 200 and 400 deg. C which are typical temperatures in materials irradiation experiments. (authors)

  6. Progress in the application of DNA microarrays.

    PubMed Central

    Lobenhofer, E K; Bushel, P R; Afshari, C A; Hamadeh, H K

    2001-01-01

    Microarray technology has been applied to a variety of different fields to address fundamental research questions. The use of microarrays, or DNA chips, to study the gene expression profiles of biologic samples began in 1995. Since that time, the fundamental concepts behind the chip, the technology required for making and using these chips, and the multitude of statistical tools for analyzing the data have been extensively reviewed. For this reason, the focus of this review will be not on the technology itself but on the application of microarrays as a research tool and the future challenges of the field. PMID:11673116

  7. Progress in material design for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Tibbitt, Mark W; Rodell, Christopher B; Burdick, Jason A; Anseth, Kristi S

    2015-11-24

    Biomaterials that interface with biological systems are used to deliver drugs safely and efficiently; to prevent, detect, and treat disease; to assist the body as it heals; and to engineer functional tissues outside of the body for organ replacement. The field has evolved beyond selecting materials that were originally designed for other applications with a primary focus on properties that enabled restoration of function and mitigation of acute pathology. Biomaterials are now designed rationally with controlled structure and dynamic functionality to integrate with biological complexity and perform tailored, high-level functions in the body. The transition has been from permissive to promoting biomaterials that are no longer bioinert but bioactive. This perspective surveys recent developments in the field of polymeric and soft biomaterials with a specific emphasis on advances in nano- to macroscale control, static to dynamic functionality, and biocomplex materials.

  8. Progress in material design for biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Tibbitt, Mark W.; Rodell, Christopher B.; Burdick, Jason A.; Anseth, Kristi S.

    2015-01-01

    Biomaterials that interface with biological systems are used to deliver drugs safely and efficiently; to prevent, detect, and treat disease; to assist the body as it heals; and to engineer functional tissues outside of the body for organ replacement. The field has evolved beyond selecting materials that were originally designed for other applications with a primary focus on properties that enabled restoration of function and mitigation of acute pathology. Biomaterials are now designed rationally with controlled structure and dynamic functionality to integrate with biological complexity and perform tailored, high-level functions in the body. The transition has been from permissive to promoting biomaterials that are no longer bioinert but bioactive. This perspective surveys recent developments in the field of polymeric and soft biomaterials with a specific emphasis on advances in nano- to macroscale control, static to dynamic functionality, and biocomplex materials. PMID:26598696

  9. The shielding design process--new plants to decommissioning.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, Graham; Cooper, Andrew; Hobson, John

    2005-01-01

    BNFL have over 25 years experience of designing nuclear plant for the whole-fuel cycle. In the UK, a Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) is to be set up to ensure that Britain's nuclear legacy is cleaned up safely, securely and cost effectively. The resulting challenges and opportunities for shielding design will be substantial as the shielding design process was originally devised for the design of new plants. Although its underlying principles are equally applicable to decommissioning and remediation of old plants, there are many aspects of detailed application that need to adapt to this radically different operating environment. The paper describes both the common issues and the different challenges of shielding design at different operational phases. Sample applications will be presented of both new plant and decommissioning projects that illustrate not only the robust nature of the processes being used, but also how they lead to cost-effective solutions making a substantive and appropriate contribution to radiological protection goals. PMID:16604700

  10. Worldwide Overview of Lessons Learned from Decommissioning Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Laraia, Michele

    2008-01-15

    With an increasing number of radioactive facilities and reactors now reaching the end of their useful life and being taken out of service, there is a growing emphasis worldwide on the safe and efficient decommissioning of such plants. There is a wealth of experience already gained in decommissioning projects for all kinds of nuclear facilities. It is now possible to compare and discuss progress and accomplishments worldwide. In particular, rather than on the factual descriptions of projects, technologies and case histories, it is important to focus on lessons learned: in this way, the return of experience is felt to effectively contribute to progress. Key issues - inevitably based on a subjective ranking - are presented in this paper. Through the exchange of lessons learned, it is possible to achieve full awareness of the need for resources for and constraints of safe and cost-effective decommissioning. What remains now is the identification of specific, remaining issues that may hinder or delay the smooth progress of decommissioning. To this end, lessons learned provide the necessary background information; this paper tries to make extensive use of practical experience gained by the international community.

  11. Development of Safety Assessment Code for Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Taro; Ohshima, Soichiro; Sukegawa, Takenori

    A safety assessment code, DecDose, for decommissioning of nuclear facilities has been developed, based on the experiences of the decommissioning project of Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR) at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (currently JAEA). DecDose evaluates the annual exposure dose of the public and workers according to the progress of decommissioning, and also evaluates the public dose at accidental situations including fire and explosion. As for the public, both the internal and the external doses are calculated by considering inhalation, ingestion, direct radiation from radioactive aerosols and radioactive depositions, and skyshine radiation from waste containers. For external dose for workers, the dose rate from contaminated components and structures to be dismantled is calculated. Internal dose for workers is calculated by considering dismantling conditions, e.g. cutting speed, cutting length of the components and exhaust velocity. Estimation models for dose rate and staying time were verified by comparison with the actual external dose of workers which were acquired during JPDR decommissioning project. DecDose code is expected to contribute the safety assessment for decommissioning of nuclear facilities.

  12. 76 FR 65541 - Assuring the Availability of Funds for Decommissioning Nuclear Reactors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... COMMISSION Assuring the Availability of Funds for Decommissioning Nuclear Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Decommissioning Nuclear Reactors.'' This guide provides guidance to applicants and licensees of nuclear power, research, and test reactors concerning methods acceptable to the staff of the U.S. Nuclear...

  13. 30 CFR 585.908 - What must I include in my decommissioning notice?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... notice? 585.908 Section 585.908 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF..., COPs and GAPs Decommissioning Applications § 585.908 What must I include in my decommissioning...

  14. 30 CFR 285.908 - What must I include in my decommissioning notice?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... notice? 285.908 Section 285.908 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Decommissioning Decommissioning Applications § 285.908 What must I include in...

  15. 26 CFR 1.468A-0 - Nuclear decommissioning costs; table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nuclear decommissioning costs; table of contents...-0 Nuclear decommissioning costs; table of contents. This section lists the paragraphs contained in.... (b) Definitions. (c) Special rules applicable to certain experimental nuclear facilities. §...

  16. 26 CFR 1.468A-0 - Nuclear decommissioning costs; table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nuclear decommissioning costs; table of contents...-0 Nuclear decommissioning costs; table of contents. This section lists the paragraphs contained in.... (b) Definitions. (c) Special rules applicable to certain experimental nuclear facilities. §...

  17. 26 CFR 1.468A-0 - Nuclear decommissioning costs; table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nuclear decommissioning costs; table of contents...-0 Nuclear decommissioning costs; table of contents. This section lists the paragraphs contained in.... (b) Definitions. (c) Special rules applicable to certain experimental nuclear facilities. §...

  18. 26 CFR 1.468A-0 - Nuclear decommissioning costs; table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nuclear decommissioning costs; table of contents...-0 Nuclear decommissioning costs; table of contents. This section lists the paragraphs contained in.... (b) Definitions. (c) Special rules applicable to certain experimental nuclear facilities. §...

  19. Money Related Decommissioning and Funding Decision Making

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, Lynne S.

    2008-01-15

    'Money makes the world go round', as the song says. It definitely influences decommissioning decision-making and financial assurance for future decommissioning. This paper will address two money-related decommissioning topics. The first is the evaluation of whether to continue or to halt decommissioning activities at Fermi 1. The second is maintaining adequacy of financial assurance for future decommissioning of operating plants. Decommissioning costs considerable money and costs are often higher than originally estimated. If costs increase significantly and decommissioning is not well funded, decommissioning activities may be deferred. Several decommissioning projects have been deferred when decision-makers determined future spending is preferable than current spending, or when costs have risen significantly. Decommissioning activity timing is being reevaluated for the Fermi 1 project. Assumptions for waste cost-escalation significantly impact the decision being made this year on the Fermi 1 decommissioning project. They also have a major impact on the estimated costs for decommissioning currently operating plants. Adequately funding full decommissioning during plant operation will ensure that the users who receive the benefit pay the full price of the nuclear-generated electricity. Funding throughout operation also will better ensure that money is available following shutdown to allow decommissioning to be conducted without need for additional funds.

  20. Progress on PRONGHORN Application to NGNP Related Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Dana A. Knoll

    2009-08-01

    We are developing a multiphysics simulation tool for Very High-Temperature gascooled Reactors (VHTR). The simulation tool, PRONGHORN, takes advantages of the Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation library, and is capable of solving multidimensional thermal-fluid and neutronics problems implicitly in parallel. Expensive Jacobian matrix formation is alleviated by the Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov method, and physics-based preconditioning is applied to improve the convergence. The initial development of PRONGHORN has been focused on the pebble bed corec concept. However, extensions required to simulate prismatic cores are underway. In this progress report we highlight progress on application of PRONGHORN to PBMR400 benchmark problems, extension and application of PRONGHORN to prismatic core reactors, and progress on simulations of 3-D transients.

  1. [Research Progress of Application of Microfluidics Techniques in Cryopreservation].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Nanfeng; Yang, Yun; Zhou, Xinli

    2015-06-01

    Microfluidics technology may be an effective method to solve some problems in cryopreservation. This review presents the research progress of microfluidics technology in the field of cell membrane transport properties, cryoprotectant addition and washout and the vitrification for cryopreservation of biological materials. Existing problems of microfluidics technology in the application of cryopreservation are summarized and future research directions are indicated as well.

  2. Is Entombment an Acceptable Option for Decommissioning? An International Perspective - 13488

    SciTech Connect

    Belencan, Helen; Nys, Vincent; Guskov, Andrey; Francois, Patrice; Watson, Bruce; Ljubenov, Vladan

    2013-07-01

    Selection of a decommissioning strategy is one of the key steps in the preparation for decommissioning of nuclear facilities and other facilities using radioactive material. Approaches being implemented or considered by Member States include immediate dismantling, deferred dismantling and entombment. Other options or slight modifications of these strategies are also possible. Entombment has been identified in the current International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Standards as one of the three basic decommissioning strategies and has been defined as a decommissioning strategy by which radioactive contaminants are encased in a structurally long lived material until radioactivity decays to a level permitting the unrestricted release of the facility, or release with restrictions imposed by the regulatory body. Although all three strategies have been considered, in principle, applicable to all facilities, their application to some facilities may not be appropriate owing to political concerns, safety or environmental requirements, technical considerations, local conditions or financial considerations. The IAEA is currently revising the decommissioning Safety Standards and one of the issues widely discussed has been the applicability of entombment in the context of decommissioning and its general objective to enable removal of regulatory control from the decommissioned facility. The IAEA recently established a consultancy to collect and discuss experience and lessons learned from entombment projects, to identify regulatory requirements and expectations for applying entombment as a decommissioning option strategy, in compliance with the internationally agreed standards. (authors)

  3. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Ferguson, S.D.; Fielden, J.M.; Schumann, P.L.

    1989-09-01

    The 576 abstracted references on nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the tenth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types--technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions--have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) General Remedial Action Program Studies. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication description. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title work, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords.

  4. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, N.P.; Webb, J.R.; Ferguson, S.D.; Goins, L.F.; Owen, P.T.

    1990-09-01

    The 394 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the eleventh in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types -- technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions -- have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Programs, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program, (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (8) Technical Measurements Center, (9) Remedial Action Program, and (10) Environmental Restoration Program. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects and analyzes information on remedial actions and relevant radioactive waste management technologies.

  5. 77 FR 41107 - Decommissioning Planning During Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... Decommissioning Planning Rule (DPR) (June 17, 2011, 76 FR 33512). The DPR applies to the operational phase of a..., ``Decommissioning Planning During Operations'' (December 13, 2011, 76 FR 77431). The NRC received more than 100...; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 20, 30, 40, 50, 70, and 72 Decommissioning Planning...

  6. Progress and applications of the variational nodal method

    SciTech Connect

    Carrico, C.B.; Palmiotti, G.; Lewis, E.E.

    1995-07-01

    This paper summarizes current progress and developments with the variational nodal method(VNM) and its implementaion within the DIF3D code suite. After a brief development of the mathematical basis for the VNM, results from two three-dimensional benchmarks are presented for a variety of computers. Then current applications of the VNM are discussed including diffusion theory calculations, burnup calculations, highly heterogeneous cores, higher-order spherical harmonics approximations, perturbation theory and heterogeneous nodes.

  7. Applying laser technology to decommissioning for nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saishu, Sadanori; Abe, Seiji; Inoue, T.

    2000-01-01

    Laser technology has much possibility to accomplish nuclear facility decommissioning effective and the laser application to cutting technique and decontamination technique is considered in Japan. Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation had developed CO laser for cutting technique, and had developed YAG laser for decontamination.

  8. Silk-microfluidics for advanced biotechnological applications: A progressive review.

    PubMed

    Konwarh, Rocktotpal; Gupta, Prerak; Mandal, Biman B

    2016-01-01

    Silk based biomaterials have not only carved a unique niche in the domain of regenerative medicine but new avenues are also being explored for lab-on-a-chip applications. It is pertinent to note that biospinning of silk represents nature's signature microfluidic-maneuver. Elucidation of non-Newtonian flow of silk in the glands of spiders and silkworms has inspired researchers to fabricate devices for continuous extrusion and concentration of silk. Microfluidic channel networks within porous silk scaffolds ensure optimal nutrient and oxygen supply apart from serving as precursors for vascularization in tissue engineering applications. On the other hand, unique topographical features and surface wettability of natural silk fibers have inspired development of a number of simple and cost-effective devices for applications like blood typing and chemical sensing. This review mirrors the recent progress and challenges in the domain of silk-microfluidics for prospective avant-garde applications in the realm of biotechnology. PMID:27165254

  9. 77 FR 10491 - Progress Energy Carolinas, Inc.; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    .... d. Applicant: Progress Energy Carolinas, Inc. e. Name of Project: Yadkin-Pee Dee Hydroelectric... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Progress Energy Carolinas, Inc.; Notice of Application for...

  10. Development of guidance on applications of regulatory requirements for regulating large, contaminated equipment and large decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) components

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, R.B.; Easton, E.P.; Cook, J.R.; Boyle, R.W.

    1997-10-01

    In 1985, the International Atomic Energy Agency issued revised regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material. Significant were major changes to requirements for Low Specific Activity material and Surface Contaminated Objects. As these requirements were adopted into regulations in the US, it was recognized that guidance on how to apply these requirements to large, contaminated/activated pieces of equipment and decommissioning and decontamination objects would be needed both by the regulators and those regulated to clarify technical uncertainties and ensure implementation. Thus, the US Department of Transportation and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, with assistance of staff from Oak Ridge National Laboratory, are preparing regulatory guidance which will present examples of acceptable methods for demonstrating compliance with the revised rules for large items. Concepts being investigated for inclusion in the pending guidance are discussed in this paper. Under current plans, the guidance will be issued for public comment before final issuance in 1997.

  11. Decommissioning of nuclear reactor fuel channels using laser technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchenko, Vladislav Y.; Zabelin, Alexandre M.; Slepokon, Yu. I.; Ryahin, V. M.; Kuznetsov, P. P.; Panasyuk, V. F.; Korotchenko, A. V.; Kislov, V. S.; Loktev, S. V.

    2000-07-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear reactors using laser remote dismounting and welding was experimentally proved at a nuclear reactor of Kursk Nuclear Power Plant. The main reason of laser beam application in this case is the marked decrease of radioactive exposure of the service personnel. The use of a high-power laser beam provided for laser cutting and welding processes realization at a distance up to 35 m between the laser and the workstation placed behind a radiation shield. By application of laser cutting gas and dust contamination is ten-fold decreased. Some results of decommissioning application of a stationary laser workstation based upon a 5 kW fast-transverse-flow discharge CW CO2 laser TL-5M installed at a nuclear reactor site are presented. A special high-beam- quality model of the laser was developed to satisfy the needs of decommissioning. Laser cutting process was applied to decommissioning of fuel channels (FC) of RBMK-1000 reactor, after their extractor from the reactor active zone during the procedure of channels replacement.

  12. 76 FR 35511 - Decommissioning Planning

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... regulations in 1997 as Subpart E of 10 CFR part 20 (62 FR 39058; July 21, 1997). This set of requirements is... the January 27, 1988 (53 FR 24018), rule on planning for decommissioning require licensees to provide... contamination and the amount of funds set aside and expended on cleanup. (62 FR 39082; July 21, 1997)....

  13. STATUS OF THE NRC'S DECOMMISSIONING PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Orlando, D. A.; Camper, L. W.; Buckley, J.

    2002-02-25

    On July 21, 1997, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission published the final rule on Radiological Criteria for License Termination (the License Termination Rule) as Subpart E to 10 CFR Part 20. NRC regulations require that materials licensees submit Decommissioning Plans to support the decommissioning of its facility if it is required by license condition, or if the procedures and activities necessary to carry out the decommissioning have not been approved by NRC and these procedures could increase the potential health and safety impacts to the workers or the public. NRC regulations also require that reactor licensees submit Post-shutdown Decommissioning Activities Reports and License Termination Plans to support the decommissioning of nuclear power facilities. This paper provides an update on the status of the NRC's decommissioning program. It discusses the status of permanently shut-down commercial power reactors, complex decommissioning sites, and sites listed in the Site Decommissioning Management Plan. The paper provides the status of various tools and guidance the NRC is developing to assist licensees during decommissioning, including a Standard Review Plan for evaluating plans and information submitted by licensees to support the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and the D and D Screen software for determining the potential doses from residual radioactivity. Finally, it discusses the status of the staff's current efforts to streamline the decommissioning process.

  14. Age-progression technology and its application to law enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heafner, Horace

    1996-02-01

    The application of recent computer technology of the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children (NCMEC) has provided the means to age progress faces of long term missing children. In the thousands of cases of missing children that have disappeared for two or more years, there is a particular priority to identify and recover these children. It is apparent that long term solutions to this problem lie in the realm of technology. One of the areas is the computerized aging of children's faces. Forensic artists working with this new technology help this goal become a reality. When imaging a child's face, the forensic artist must consider using photographs of the biological family at an age consistent with the age of the missing child. With these pictures, a reasonable likeness can be produced using computer technology. This image can aid law enforcement, child find and social service agencies and the public in their search for the missing child. Unique features of the system provide for the stretching, merging, pixelation and refining of a completed progression. A knowledge of the steps of facial growth and anatomy is necessary to achieve an accurate image. Future developments in age progression and facial reconstruction may be in the realm of morphing technology. Application of this technology is being tested to provide a more accurate image for investigative use.

  15. Accelerating the Whiteshell Laboratories Decommissioning Through the Implementation of a Projectized and Delivery-Focused Organization - 13074

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, Brian; Mellor, Russ; Michaluk, Craig

    2013-07-01

    Whiteshell Laboratories (WL) is a nuclear research site in Canada that was commissioned in 1964 by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. It covers a total area of approximately 4,375 hectares (10,800 acres) and includes the main campus site, the Waste Management Area (WMA) and outer areas of land identified as not used for or impacted by nuclear development or operations. The WL site employed up to 1100 staff. Site activities included the successful operation of a 60 MW organic liquid-cooled research reactor from 1965 to 1985, and various research programs including reactor safety research, small reactor development, fuel development, biophysics and radiation applications, as well as work under the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. In 1997, AECL made a business decision to discontinue research programs and operations at WL, and obtained government concurrence in 1998. The Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program (NLLP) was established in 2006 by the Canadian Government to remediate nuclear legacy liabilities in a safe and cost effective manner, including the WL site. The NLLP is being implemented by AECL under the governance of a Natural Resources Canada (NRCan)/AECL Joint Oversight Committee (JOC). Significant progress has since been made, and the WL site currently holds the only Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) nuclear research site decommissioning license in Canada. The current decommissioning license is in place until the end of 2018. The present schedule planned for main campus decommissioning is 30 years (to 2037), followed by institutional control of the WMA until a National plan is implemented for the long-term management of nuclear waste. There is an impetus to advance work and complete decommissioning sooner. To accomplish this, AECL has added significant resources, reorganized and moved to a projectized environment. This presentation outlines changes made to the organization, the tools implemented to foster projectization, and the benefits

  16. Sensor Network Demonstration for In Situ Decommissioning - 13332

    SciTech Connect

    Lagos, L.; Varona, J.; Awwad, A.; Rivera, J.; McGill, J.

    2013-07-01

    data network to capture, log and analyze sensor system data in near real time from a single interface. FIU personnel and DOE Fellows monitored the progress and condition of the sensors for a period of six months. During this time, the sensors recorded data pertaining to strain, compression, temperature, crack detection, moisture presence, fluid mobility, shock resistance, monolith movement, and electrical resistivity. In addition, FIU regularly observed the curing process of the grout and documented the cube condition via the nine racks of sensors. The sensors held up throughout the curing process, withstood the natural elements for six months, and monitored the integrity of the grout. The large scale experiment and demonstration conducted at FIU was the first of its kind to demonstrate the feasibility of state of the art sensors for in situ decommissioning applications. These efforts successfully measured the durability, performance, and precision of the sensors in question as well as monitored and recorded the curing process of the selected grout material under natural environmental conditions. The current energy analysis work is resulting in data on the constraints placed by some of the sensor systems on a power network that requires high reliability and low losses. In addition, a sensor system demonstration has determined that it is feasible to develop an integrated data network where data can be accessed in near real-time from all systems, thereby allowing for larger-scale integrated system testing to be performed. Information collected during the execution of this research project will aid decision makers in the identification of sensors to be used in nuclear facilities selected for in situ decommissioning. (authors)

  17. 30 CFR 285.902 - What are the general requirements for decommissioning for facilities authorized under my SAP, COP...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... decommissioning for facilities authorized under my SAP, COP, or GAP? 285.902 Section 285.902 Mineral Resources... SAP, COP, or GAP? (a) Except as otherwise authorized by MMS under § 285.909, within 2 years following... under your SAP, COP, or GAP, you must submit a decommissioning application and receive approval from...

  18. Korea Research Reactor -1 & 2 Decommissioning Project in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S. K.; Chung, U. S.; Jung, K. J.; Park, J. H.

    2003-02-24

    Korea Research Reactor 1 (KRR-1), the first research reactor in Korea, has been operated since 1962, and the second one, Korea Research Reactor 2 (KRR-2) since 1972. The operation of both of them was phased out in 1995 due to their lifetime and operation of the new and more powerful research reactor, HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor; 30MW). Both are TRIGA Pool type reactors in which the cores are small self-contained units sitting in tanks filled with cooling water. The KRR-1 is a TRIGA Mark II, which could operate at a level of up to 250 kW. The second one, the KRR-2 is a TRIGA Mark III, which could operate at a level of up 2,000 kW. The decontamination and decommissioning (D & D) project of these two research reactors, the first D & D project in Korea, was started in January 1997 and will be completed to stage 3 by 2008. The aim of this decommissioning program is to decommission the KRR-1 & 2 reactors and to decontaminate the residual building structure s and the site to release them as unrestricted areas. KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) submitted the decommissioning plan and the environmental impact assessment reports to the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) for the license in December 1998, and was approved in November 2000.

  19. Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorial issue, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2005-07-15

    The focus of the July-August issue is on Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorials. Major interviews, articles and reports in this issue include: Increasing momentum, by Gary Taylor, Entergy Nuclear, Inc.; An acceptable investment, by Tom Chrisopher, Areva, Inc.; Fuel recycling for the U.S. and abroad, by Philippe Knoche, Areva, France; We're bullish on nuclear power, by Dan R. Keuter, Entergy Nuclear, Inc.; Ten key actions for decommissioning, by Lawrence E. Boing, Argonne National Laboratory; Safe, efficient and cost-effective decommissioning, by Dr. Claudio Pescatore and Torsten Eng, OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), France; and, Plant profile: SONGS decommissioning.

  20. Progresses on the theory and application of quartz crystal microbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Xiaoxi; Zhang, Xiangjun; Tian, Yu; Meng, Yonggang

    2016-09-01

    Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is a nondestructive technique in investigating the physical properties of solid-liquid interfacial layer in situ. It has the capability of quantifying the extremely tiny force change occurring on the interface by measuring the frequency shift Δ f and the energy dissipation change Δ D (or the half-bandwidth variation Δ Γ ). The quantitative analysis of QCM results greatly depends on the theoretical models, whose development could generally expand the comprehension of the properties at the interfaces and the application of QCM. In the paper, the progresses on the theory and applications of QCM are reviewed. The commonly used theoretical models for a single layer in the gas/liquid phase are essential for QCM in the fields of biosensor application, surface chemistry study, and interfacial rheology, such as the adsorption of proteins, the polymer and surfactants, and the viscoelastic properties of the interfacial liquid layer. The advanced models, incorporating the effects of boundary slip, surface roughness, microstructure, and micro/nanoscale confinement, are helpful for a better understanding and description of how these factors influence the various interfacial processes occurring on the solid-liquid interface, e.g., interfacial rheology and adsorption. The establishments of nanocell and the corresponding theoretical model make QCM a potential technique in studying the dynamic behavior of micro/nanoscale flow coupling with various surface effects by connecting a micro/nanofluidic channel to the nanocell.

  1. Asset Decommissioning Risk Metrics for Floating Structures in the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Mark J

    2015-08-01

    Public companies in the United States are required to report standardized values of their proved reserves and asset retirement obligations on an annual basis. When compared, these two measures provide an aggregate indicator of corporate decommissioning risk but, because of their consolidated nature, cannot readily be decomposed at a more granular level. The purpose of this article is to introduce a decommissioning risk metric defined in terms of the ratio of the expected value of an asset's reserves to its expected cost of decommissioning. Asset decommissioning risk (ADR) is more difficult to compute than a consolidated corporate risk measure, but can be used to quantify the decommissioning risk of structures and to perform regional comparisons, and also provides market signals of future decommissioning activity. We formalize two risk metrics for decommissioning and apply the ADR metric to the deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GOM) floater inventory. Deepwater oil and gas structures are expensive to construct, and at the end of their useful life, will be expensive to decommission. The value of proved reserves for the 42 floating structures in the GOM circa January 2013 is estimated to range between $37 and $80 billion for future oil prices between 60 and 120 $/bbl, which is about 10 to 20 times greater than the estimated $4.3 billion to decommission the inventory. Eni's Allegheny and MC Offshore's Jolliet tension leg platforms have ADR metrics less than one and are approaching the end of their useful life. Application of the proposed metrics in the regulatory review of supplemental bonding requirements in the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf is suggested to complement the current suite of financial metrics employed.

  2. Asset Decommissioning Risk Metrics for Floating Structures in the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Mark J

    2015-08-01

    Public companies in the United States are required to report standardized values of their proved reserves and asset retirement obligations on an annual basis. When compared, these two measures provide an aggregate indicator of corporate decommissioning risk but, because of their consolidated nature, cannot readily be decomposed at a more granular level. The purpose of this article is to introduce a decommissioning risk metric defined in terms of the ratio of the expected value of an asset's reserves to its expected cost of decommissioning. Asset decommissioning risk (ADR) is more difficult to compute than a consolidated corporate risk measure, but can be used to quantify the decommissioning risk of structures and to perform regional comparisons, and also provides market signals of future decommissioning activity. We formalize two risk metrics for decommissioning and apply the ADR metric to the deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GOM) floater inventory. Deepwater oil and gas structures are expensive to construct, and at the end of their useful life, will be expensive to decommission. The value of proved reserves for the 42 floating structures in the GOM circa January 2013 is estimated to range between $37 and $80 billion for future oil prices between 60 and 120 $/bbl, which is about 10 to 20 times greater than the estimated $4.3 billion to decommission the inventory. Eni's Allegheny and MC Offshore's Jolliet tension leg platforms have ADR metrics less than one and are approaching the end of their useful life. Application of the proposed metrics in the regulatory review of supplemental bonding requirements in the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf is suggested to complement the current suite of financial metrics employed. PMID:25692712

  3. Decommissioning of U.S. uranium production facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    From 1980 to 1993, the domestic production of uranium declined from almost 44 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8} to about 3 million pounds. This retrenchment of the U.S. uranium industry resulted in the permanent closing of many uranium-producing facilities. Current low uranium prices, excess world supply, and low expectations for future uranium demand indicate that it is unlikely existing plants will be reopened. Because of this situation, these facilities eventually will have to be decommissioned. The Uranium Mill Tailings and Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA) vests the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) with overall responsibility for establishing environmental standards for decommissioning of uranium production facilities. UMTRCA also gave the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) the responsibility for licensing and regulating uranium production and related activities, including decommissioning. Because there are many issues associated with decommissioning-environmental, political, and financial-this report will concentrate on the answers to three questions: (1) What is required? (2) How is the process implemented? (3) What are the costs? Regulatory control is exercised principally through the NRC licensing process. Before receiving a license to construct and operate an uranium producing facility, the applicant is required to present a decommissioning plan to the NRC. Once the plan is approved, the licensee must post a surety to guarantee that funds will be available to execute the plan and reclaim the site. This report by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) represents the most comprehensive study on this topic by analyzing data on 33 (out of 43) uranium production facilities located in Colorado, Nebraska, New Mexico, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, and Washington.

  4. EDITORIAL: Progress in applications of magnetic nanoparticles in biomedicine Progress in applications of magnetic nanoparticles in biomedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Grady, Kevin

    2009-11-01

    In 2003 Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics published three sequential review articles on the subject of biomedical applications of magnetic nanoparticles. At that time there was growing interest in basic research on the potential of magnetic nanoparticles in biomedicine, including the appropriate methods to synthesize the particles and how to functionalize them. Following that initial publication the field has burgeoned and is now of a scale that could never have been envisaged in 2003. In the original review articles the authors anticipated applications in three specific technical areas of drug delivery and cell separation, MRI contrast enhancement and hyperthermic heating of biological materials, either for cell destruction or to increase the efficacy of other associated treatments such as chemotherapy. Six years later, significant progress has been made in all three areas, with applications already having been realized. More significantly, in vivo applications of both MRI contrast and hyperthermic cell heating have been achieved in human patients. This rapid progress in such a complex field is due to the need for non-invasive therapies and more effective management of serious conditions than is possible by the simple use of drugs alone. Imaging techniques such as MRI have also improved beyond all expectation and hence the possibility of improved contrast is particularly appealing. However, none of these applications could have been realized without dramatic progress beyond the state of the art in 2003 in the areas of particle synthesis and functionalization. Hence, remarkable progress has been made in all areas of the physics, chemistry and biochemistry of this subject, leading to many publications and perhaps a ten-fold increase in the number of those actively involved in research in this area. In 2003 we were most fortunate to have several expert authors review the subject. Quentin Pankhurst, Puerto Morales and Catherine Berry are now recognized as leaders

  5. The Creative Application of Science, Technology and Work Force Innovations to the Decontamination and Decommissioning of the Plutonium Finishing Plant at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Charboneau, S.; Klos, B.; Heineman, R.; Skeels, B.; Hopkins, A.

    2006-07-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) consists of a number of process and support buildings for handling plutonium. Building construction began in the late 1940's to meet national priorities and became operational in 1950 producing refined plutonium salts and metal for the United States nuclear weapons program The primary mission of the PFP was to provide plutonium used as special nuclear material for fabrication into a nuclear device for the war effort. Subsequent to the end of World War II, the PFP's mission expanded to support the Cold War effort through plutonium production during the nuclear arms race. PFP has now completed its mission and is fully engaged in deactivation, decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). At this time the PFP buildings are planned to be reduced to ground level (slab-on-grade) and the site remediated to satisfy national, Department of Energy (DOE) and Washington state requirements. The D and D of a highly contaminated plutonium processing facility presents a plethora of challenges. PFP personnel approached the D and D mission with a can-do attitude. They went into D and D knowing they were facing a lot of challenges and unknowns. There were concerns about the configuration control associated with drawings of these old process facilities. There were unknowns regarding the location of electrical lines and the condition and contents of process piping containing chemical residues such as strong acids and caustics. The gloveboxes were highly contaminated with plutonium and chemical residues. Most of the glovebox windows were opaque with splashed process chemicals that coated the windows or etched them, reducing visibility to near zero. Visibility into the glovebox was a serious worker concern. Additionally, all the gloves in the gloveboxes were degraded and unusable. Replacing gloves in gloveboxes was necessary to even begin glovebox clean-out. The sheer volume of breathing air needed was also an issue. These and other challenges and PFP

  6. Prospects and progress of high Tc superconductivity for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, Robert R.; Sokoloski, Marty M.

    1991-01-01

    Current research in the area of high temperature superconductivity is organized around four key areas: communications and data, sensors and cryogenics, propulsion and power, and space materials technology. Recently, laser ablated YBa2Cu3O(7-x) films on LaAlO3 produced far superior RF characteristics when compared to metallic films on the same substrate. The achievement has enabled a number of unique microwave device applications, such as low insertion loss phase shifters and high-Q filters. Melt texturing and melt-quenched techniques are being used to produce bulk material with optimized magnetic properties. These yttrium-enriched materials possess enhanced flux pinning characteristics and could lead to prototype cryocooler bearings. Significant progress has also occurred in bolometer and current lead technology. Studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of high temperature superconducting materials on the performance and life of high power magnetoplasma-dynamic thrusters. Extended studies were also performed to evaluate the benefit of superconducting magnetic energy storage for LEO space station, lunar, and Mars mission applications.

  7. Progress towards biocompatible intracortical microelectrodes for neural interfacing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorfi, Mehdi; Skousen, John L.; Weder, Christoph; Capadona, Jeffrey R.

    2015-02-01

    To ensure long-term consistent neural recordings, next-generation intracortical microelectrodes are being developed with an increased emphasis on reducing the neuro-inflammatory response. The increased emphasis stems from the improved understanding of the multifaceted role that inflammation may play in disrupting both biologic and abiologic components of the overall neural interface circuit. To combat neuro-inflammation and improve recording quality, the field is actively progressing from traditional inorganic materials towards approaches that either minimizes the microelectrode footprint or that incorporate compliant materials, bioactive molecules, conducting polymers or nanomaterials. However, the immune-privileged cortical tissue introduces an added complexity compared to other biomedical applications that remains to be fully understood. This review provides a comprehensive reflection on the current understanding of the key failure modes that may impact intracortical microelectrode performance. In addition, a detailed overview of the current status of various materials-based approaches that have gained interest for neural interfacing applications is presented, and key challenges that remain to be overcome are discussed. Finally, we present our vision on the future directions of materials-based treatments to improve intracortical microelectrodes for neural interfacing.

  8. Progress for the Industry Application External Hazard Analyses Early Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Curtis L.; Prescott, Steven; Coleman, Justin; Ryan, Emerald; Bhandari, Bishwo; Sludern, Daniel; Pope, Chad; Sampath, Ram

    2015-09-01

    This report describes the current progress and status related to the Industry Application #2 focusing on External Hazards. For this industry application within the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) R&D Pathway, we will create the Risk-Informed Margin Management (RIMM) approach to represent meaningful (i.e., realistic facility representation) event scenarios and consequences by using an advanced 3D facility representation that will evaluate external hazards such as flooding and earthquakes in order to identify, model and analyze the appropriate physics that needs to be included to determine plant vulnerabilities related to external events; manage the communication and interactions between different physics modeling and analysis technologies; and develop the computational infrastructure through tools related to plant representation, scenario depiction, and physics prediction. One of the unique aspects of the RISMC approach is how it couples probabilistic approaches (the scenario) with mechanistic phenomena representation (the physics) through simulation. This simulation-based modeling allows decision makers to focus on a variety of safety, performance, or economic metrics. In this report, we describe the evaluation of various physics toolkits related to flooding representation. Ultimately, we will be coupling the flooding representation with other events such as earthquakes in order to provide coupled physics analysis for scenarios where interactions exist.

  9. Progress Towards Biocompatible Intracortical Microelectrodes for Neural Interfacing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Jorfi, Mehdi; Skousen, John L.; Weder, Christoph; Capadona, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    To ensure long-term consistent neural recordings, next-generation intracortical microelectrodes are being developed with an increased emphasis on reducing the neuro-inflammatory response. The increased emphasis stems from the improved understanding of the multifaceted role that inflammation may play in disrupting both biologic and abiologic components of the overall neural interface circuit. To combat neuro-inflammation and improve recording quality, the field is actively progressing from traditional inorganic materials towards approaches that either minimizes the microelectrode footprint or that incorporate compliant materials, bioactive molecules, conducting polymers or nanomaterials. However, the immune-privileged cortical tissue introduces an added complexity compared to other biomedical applications that remains to be fully understood. This review provides a comprehensive reflection on the current understanding of the key failure modes that may impact intracortical microelectrode performance. In addition, a detailed overview of the current status of various materials-based approaches that have gained interest for neural interfacing applications is presented, and key challenges that remain to be overcome are discussed. Finally, we present our vision on the future directions of materials-based treatments to improve intracortical microelectrodes for neural interfacing. PMID:25460808

  10. Radiochemistry Lab Decommissioning and Dismantlement. AECL, Chalk River Labs, Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Kenny, Stephen

    2008-01-15

    Atomic Energy of Canada (AECL) was originally founded in the mid 1940's to perform research in radiation and nuclear areas under the Canadian Defense Department. In the mid 50's The Canadian government embarked on several research and development programs for the development of the Candu Reactor. AECL was initially built as a temporary site and is now faced with many redundant buildings. Prior to 2004 small amounts of Decommissioning work was in progress. Many reasons for deferring decommissioning activities were used with the predominant ones being: 1. Reduction in radiation doses to workers during the final dismantlement, 2. Development of a long-term solution for the management of radioactive wastes in Canada, 3. Financial constraints presented by the number of facilities shutdown that would require decommissioning funds and the absence of an approved funding strategy. This has led to the development of a comprehensive decommissioning plan that is all inclusive of AECL's current and legacy liabilities. Canada does not have a long-term disposal site; therefore waste minimization becomes the driving factor behind decontamination for decommissioning before and during dismantlement. This decommissioning job was a great learning experience for decommissioning and the associated contractors who worked on this project. Throughout the life of the project there was a constant focus on waste minimization. This focus was constantly in conflict with regulatory compliance primarily with respect to fire regulations and protecting the facility along with adjacent facilities during the decommissioning activities. Discrepancies in historical documents forced the project to treat every space as a contaminated space until proven differently. Decommissioning and dismantlement within an operating site adds to the complexity of the tasks especially when it is being conducted in the heart of the plant. This project was very successful with no lost time accidents in over one hundred

  11. Decontamination and decommissioning of the Mayaguez (Puerto Rico) facility

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, P.K.; Freemerman, R.L.

    1989-11-01

    On February 6, 1987 the US Department of Energy (DOE) awarded the final phase of the decontamination and decommissioning of the nuclear and reactor facilities at the Center for Energy and Environmental Research (CEER), in Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. Bechtel National, Inc., was made the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) contractor. The goal of the project was to enable DOE to proceed with release of the CEER facility for use by the University of Puerto Rico, who was the operator. This presentation describes that project and lesson learned during its progress. The CEER facility was established in 1957 as the Puerto Rico Nuclear Center, a part of the Atoms for Peace Program. It was a nuclear training and research institution with emphasis on the needs of Latin America. It originally consisted of a 1-megawatt Materials Testing Reactor (MTR), support facilities and research laboratories. After eleven years of operation the MTR was shutdown and defueled. A 2-megawatt TRIGA reactor was installed in 1972 and operated until 1976, when it woo was shutdown. Other radioactive facilities at the center included a 10-watt homogeneous L-77 training reactor, a natural uranium graphite-moderated subcritical assembly, a 200KV particle accelerator, and a 15,000 Ci Co-60 irradiation facility. Support facilities included radiochemistry laboratories, counting rooms and two hot cells. As the emphasis shifted to non-nuclear energy technology a name change resulted in the CEER designation, and plans were started for the decontamination and decommissioning effort.

  12. Antiferroelectric Materials, Applications and Recent Progress on Multiferroic Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ziyao; Yang, Qu; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Xinyang; Sun, Dazhi; Nan, Tianxiang; Sun, Nianxiang; Chen, Xing

    2015-04-01

    Antiferroelectric (AFE) materials with adjacent dipoles oriented in antiparallel directions have a double polarization hysteresis loops. An electric field (E-field)-induced AFE-ferroelectric (FE) phase transition takes place in such materials, leading to a large lattice strain and energy change. The high dielectric constant and the distinct phase transition in AFE materials provide great opportunities for the realization of energy storage devices like super-capacitors and energy conversion devices such as AFE MEMS applications. Lots of work has been done in this field since 60-70 s. Recently, the strain tuning of the spin, charge and orbital orderings and their interactions in complex oxides and multiferroic heterostructures have received great attention. In these systems, a single control parameter of lattice strain is used to control lattice-spin, lattice-phonon, and lattice-charge interactions and tailor properties or create a transition between distinct magnetic/electronic phases. Due to the large strain/stress arising from the phase transition, AFE materials are great candidates for integrating with ferromagnetic (FM) materials to realize in situ manipulation of magnetism and lattice-ordered parameters by voltage. In this paper, we introduce the AFE material and it's applications shortly and then review the recent progress in AFEs based on multiferroic heterostructures. These new multiferroic materials could pave a new way towards next generation light, compact, fast and energy efficient voltage tunable RF/microwave, spintronic and memory devices promising approaches to in situ manipulation of lattice-coupled order parameters is to grow epitaxial oxide films on FE/ferroelastic substrates.

  13. Phase II -- Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA). Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA) is a national public-private partnership that is assessing and demonstrating the viability of utility-scale (US) photovoltaic (PV) electric generation systems and recent developments in PV module technology. This report updates the project`s progress, reviews the status and performance of the various PV installations during 1994, summarizes key accomplishments and conclusions for the year, and outlines future work. The PVUSA project has five objectives. These are designed to narrow the gap between a large utility industry that is unfamiliar with PV and a small PV industry that is aware of a potentially large utility market but unfamiliar with how to meet its requirements. The objectives are: Evaluate the performance, reliability, and cost of promising PV modules and balance-of-system (BOS) components side by side at a single location; Assess PV system operation and maintenance in a utility setting; Compare US utilities hands-on experience in designing, procuring, and operating PV systems; and, Document and disseminate knowledge gained from the project.

  14. Technology development, evaluation, and application (TDEA) FY 1997 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, L.G.

    1998-05-01

    The public expects that the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) will operate in a manner that prevents negative impacts to the environment and protects the safety and health of its employees and the public. To achieve this goal within budget, the Department of Energy (DOE) and LANL must develop new and improved environment, safety, and health (ES and H) technologies and implement innovative, more cost-effective ES and H approaches to operations. In FY95, the Environment, Safety, and Health (ESH) Division initiated a Technology Development, Evaluation, and Application (TDEA) program. The purpose of this unique program is to test and develop technologies that solve LANL ES and H problems and improve the safety of LANL operations. This progress report presents the results of 10 projects funded in FY97 by the TDEA Committee of the Environment, Safety, and Health Division. Products generated from the projects funded in FY97 included implementation of radiation worker dosimetric monitoring systems (two); evaluation and validation of cost-effective animal-tracking systems for environmental studies (two); evaluation of personal protective equipment (two); and development of a method for optimal placement of continuous air monitors in the workplace.

  15. RNA Interference in Moths: Mechanisms, Applications, and Progress

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jin; Wang, Xia-Fei; Chen, Peng; Liu, Fang-Tao; Zheng, Shuai-Chao; Ye, Hui; Mo, Ming-He

    2016-01-01

    The vast majority of lepidopterans, about 90%, are moths. Some moths, particularly their caterpillars, are major agricultural and forestry pests in many parts of the world. However, some other members of moths, such as the silkworm Bombyx mori, are famous for their economic value. Fire et al. in 1998 initially found that exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) can silence the homolog endogenous mRNA in organisms, which is called RNA interference (RNAi). Soon after, the RNAi technique proved to be very promising not only in gene function determination but also in pest control. However, later studies demonstrate that performing RNAi in moths is not as straightforward as shown in other insect taxa. Nevertheless, since 2007, especially after 2010, an increasing number of reports have been published that describe successful RNAi experiments in different moth species either on gene function analysis or on pest management exploration. So far, more than 100 peer-reviewed papers have reported successful RNAi experiments in moths, covering 10 families and 25 species. By using classic and novel dsRNA delivery methods, these studies effectively silence the expression of various target genes and determine their function in larval development, reproduction, immunology, resistance against chemicals, and other biological processes. In addition, a number of laboratory and field trials have demonstrated that RNAi is also a potential strategy for moth pest management. In this review, therefore, we summarize and discuss the mechanisms and applications of the RNAi technique in moths by focusing on recent progresses. PMID:27775569

  16. TA-2 Water Boiler Reactor Decommissioning Project

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, M.E.; Montoya, G.M.

    1991-06-01

    This final report addresses the Phase 2 decommissioning of the Water Boiler Reactor, biological shield, other components within the biological shield, and piping pits in the floor of the reactor building. External structures and underground piping associated with the gaseous effluent (stack) line from Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Water Boiler Reactor were removed in 1985--1986 as Phase 1 of reactor decommissioning. The cost of Phase 2 was approximately $623K. The decommissioning operation produced 173 m{sup 3} of low-level solid radioactive waste and 35 m{sup 3} of mixed waste. 15 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Decommissioning the Research Nuclear Reactor Vvr-S Magurele - Analyze, Justification and Selection of Decommissioning Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragusin, M.; Popa, V.; Boicu, A.; Tuca, C.; Iorga, I.; Mustata, C.

    2004-09-01

    The decommissioning of Research Nuclear Reactor VVR-S Magurele - Bucharest involves the removal of the radioactive and hazardous materials to permit the facility to be released without representing a further risk to human health and the environment [1-3]. A very important aspect of decommissioning is the analyze, justification and selection of the decommissioning strategy. Two strategies: DECON (Immediate Dismantling) and SAFSTOR (Safe Enclosure) are in study (see Table 1)... Note from Publisher: This article contains the abstract and references only.

  18. Semiconductor solar cells: Recent progress in terrestrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avrutin, V.; Izyumskaya, N.; Morkoç, H.

    2011-04-01

    In the last decade, the photovoltaic industry grew at a rate exceeding 30% per year. Currently, solar-cell modules based on single-crystal and large-grain polycrystalline silicon wafers comprise more than 80% of the market. Bulk Si photovoltaics, which benefit from the highly advanced growth and fabrication processes developed for microelectronics industry, is a mature technology. The light-to-electric power conversion efficiency of the best modules offered on the market is over 20%. While there is still room for improvement, the device performance is approaching the thermodynamic limit of ˜28% for single-junction Si solar cells. The major challenge that the bulk Si solar cells face is, however, the cost reduction. The potential for price reduction of electrical power generated by wafer-based Si modules is limited by the cost of bulk Si wafers, making the electrical power cost substantially higher than that generated by combustion of fossil fuels. One major strategy to bring down the cost of electricity generated by photovoltaic modules is thin-film solar cells, whose production does not require expensive semiconductor substrates and very high temperatures and thus allows decreasing the cost per unit area while retaining a reasonable efficiency. Thin-film solar cells based on amorphous, microcrystalline, and polycrystalline Si as well as cadmium telluride and copper indium diselenide compound semiconductors have already proved their commercial viability and their market share is increasing rapidly. Another avenue to reduce the cost of photovoltaic electricity is to increase the cell efficiency beyond the Shockley-Queisser limit. A variety of concepts proposed along this avenue forms the basis of the so-called third generation photovoltaics technologies. Among these approaches, high-efficiency multi-junction solar cells based on III-V compound semiconductors, which initially found uses in space applications, are now being developed for terrestrial applications. In

  19. Trip report: European Communities 1989 International Conference on Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations, Brussels, Belgium, October 24-27, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, W.N.

    1989-01-01

    The European community is conducting research on the decommissioning of nuclear installations. The prime objective is to develop effective techniques to ensure the protection of man and his environment against the potential hazards of nuclear installations that have been shut down. The results of the 1979--1983 research program were presented in a conference held in Luxembourg. This program was primarily concerned with decommissioning nuclear power plants. The 1984--1988 program was extended to all types of nuclear installations. Fuel fabrication, enrichment and reprocessing plants, and research and development facilities having fulfilled their useful purposes are also awaiting decommissioning. This Program has produced numerous scientific and technical achievements. Great progress has in particular been achieved in the reduction of metal waste arising from decommissioning, due to advances in areas such as the development of aggressive decontamination procedures and of techniques for melting and recycling low-level radioactive waste metal.

  20. Russian nuclear-powered submarine decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Bukharin, O.; Handler, J.

    1995-11-01

    Russia is facing technical, economic and organizational difficulties in dismantling its oversized and unsafe fleet of nuclear powered submarines. The inability of Russia to deal effectively with the submarine decommissioning crisis increases the risk of environmental disaster and may hamper the implementation of the START I and START II treaties. This paper discusses the nuclear fleet support infrastructure, the problems of submarine decommissioning, and recommends international cooperation in addressing these problems.

  1. Waste Management Strategy for Dismantling Waste to Reduce Costs for Power Plant Decommissioning - 13543

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, Arne; Lidar, Per; Bergh, Niklas; Hedin, Gunnar

    2013-07-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants generates large volumes of radioactive or potentially radioactive waste. The proper management of the dismantling waste plays an important role for the time needed for the dismantling phase and thus is critical to the decommissioning cost. An efficient and thorough process for inventorying, characterization and categorization of the waste provides a sound basis for the planning process. As part of comprehensive decommissioning studies for Nordic NPPs, Westinghouse has developed the decommissioning inventories that have been used for estimations of the duration of specific work packages and the corresponding costs. As part of creating the design basis for a national repository for decommissioning waste, the total production of different categories of waste packages has also been predicted. Studsvik has developed a risk based concept for categorization and handling of the generated waste using six different categories with a span from extremely small risk for radiological contamination to high level waste. The two companies have recently joined their skills in the area of decommissioning on selected market in a consortium named 'ndcon' to further strengthen the proposed process. Depending on the risk for radiological contamination or the radiological properties and other properties of importance for waste management, treatment routes are proposed with well-defined and proven methods for on-site or off-site treatment, activity determination and conditioning. The system is based on a graded approach philosophy aiming for high confidence and sustainability, aiming for re-use and recycling where found applicable. The objective is to establish a process where all dismantled material has a pre-determined treatment route. These routes should through measurements, categorization, treatment, conditioning, intermediate storage and final disposal be designed to provide a steady, un-disturbed flow of material to avoid interruptions. Bottle

  2. PROGRESS REPORT ON THE DSSTOX DATABASE NETWORK: NEWLY LAUNCHED WEBSITE, APPLICATIONS, FUTURE PLANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Progress Report on the DSSTox Database Network: Newly Launched Website, Applications, Future Plans

    Progress will be reported on development of the Distributed Structure-Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) Database Network and the newly launched public website that coordinates and...

  3. Extracellular photosensitization reaction progress and effect on myocardial cell necrosis for arrhythmia treatment application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Emiyu; Takahashi, Mei; Ito, Arisa; Arai, Tsunenori

    2013-06-01

    We investigated detailed extracellular photosensitization reaction effect on rat myocardial cells and the photosensitization reaction progress in a well to study a new application of photodynamic therapy for arrhythmia therapy.

  4. Technical Aspects Regarding the Management of Radioactive Waste from Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Dragolici, F.; Turcanu, C. N.; Rotarescu, G.; Paunica, I.

    2003-02-25

    The proper application of the nuclear techniques and technologies in Romania started in 1957, once with the commissioning of the Research Reactor VVR-S from IFIN-HH-Magurele. During the last 45 years, appear thousands of nuclear application units with extremely diverse profiles (research, biology, medicine, education, agriculture, transport, all types of industry) which used different nuclear facilities containing radioactive sources and generating a great variety of radioactive waste during the decommissioning after the operation lifetime is accomplished. A new aspect appears by the planning of VVR-S Research Reactor decommissioning which will be a new source of radioactive waste generated by decontamination, disassembling and demolition activities. By construction and exploitation of the Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant (STDR)--Magurele and the National Repository for Low and Intermediate Radioactive Waste (DNDR)--Baita, Bihor county, in Romania was solved the management of radioactive wastes arising from operation and decommissioning of small nuclear facilities, being assured the protection of the people and environment. The present paper makes a review of the present technical status of the Romanian waste management facilities, especially raising on treatment capabilities of ''problem'' wastes such as Ra-266, Pu-238, Am-241 Co-60, Co-57, Sr-90, Cs-137 sealed sources from industrial, research and medical applications. Also, contain a preliminary estimation of quantities and types of wastes, which would result during the decommissioning project of the VVR-S Research Reactor from IFIN-HH giving attention to some special category of wastes like aluminum, graphite and equipment, components and structures that became radioactive through neutron activation. After analyzing the technical and scientific potential of STDR and DNDR to handle big amounts of wastes resulting from the decommissioning of VVR-S Research Reactor and small nuclear facilities, the necessity of

  5. An Application of a State of the Art 3D-CAD-Modeling and Simulation System for the Decommissioning of Nuclear Capital Equipment in Respect of German Prototype Spent Fuel Reprocessing Plant Karlsruhe

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, M.; Boese, U.; Doering, K.

    2002-02-25

    Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH is engaged in the optimization of decommissioning processes for several years. With respect of the complexity of the projects, the time frame and the budget it is necessary to find more effective ways to handle those tasks in the near future. The decommissioning and dismantling will be achieved in six steps taking into account that some processing equipment can be dismantled before and the rest only after the High Active Liquid Waste Concentrate (HAWC) has been vitrified approximately by mid of 2005. After the successful beginning of the remote dismantling of the main process cells from March 2000, the next remote dismantling project at the WAK was initiated April 2000.

  6. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: a selected bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Fielden, J.M.; Johnson, C.A.

    1982-09-01

    This bibliography contains 693 references with abstracts on the subject of nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions. Foreign, as well as domestic, literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, conference papers, symposium proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - has been included in this publication. The bibliography contains scientific (basic research as well as applied technology), economic, regulatory, and legal literature pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Program. Major chapters are Surplus Facilities Management Program, Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, Grand Junction Remedial Action Program, and Uranium Mill Tailings Management. Chapter sections for chapters 1 and 2 include: Design, Planning, and Regulations; Site Surveys; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Land Decontamination and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; and General Studies. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author. References having no individual author are arranged by corporate author or by title. Indexes are provided for (1) author; (2) corporate affiliation; (3) title; (4) publication description; (5) geographic location; and (6) keywords. An appendix of 202 bibliographic references without abstracts or indexes has been included in this bibliography. This appendix represents literature identified but not abstracted due to time constraints.

  7. 26 CFR 1.88-1 - Nuclear decommissioning costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nuclear decommissioning costs. 1.88-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Included in Gross Income § 1.88-1 Nuclear decommissioning costs. (a) In general. Section 88 provides that the amount of nuclear decommissioning...

  8. 26 CFR 1.88-1 - Nuclear decommissioning costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nuclear decommissioning costs. 1.88-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Included in Gross Income § 1.88-1 Nuclear decommissioning costs. (a) In general. Section 88 provides that the amount of nuclear decommissioning...

  9. 26 CFR 1.88-1 - Nuclear decommissioning costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nuclear decommissioning costs. 1.88-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Included in Gross Income § 1.88-1 Nuclear decommissioning costs. (a) In general. Section 88 provides that the amount of nuclear decommissioning...

  10. 26 CFR 1.88-1 - Nuclear decommissioning costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nuclear decommissioning costs. 1.88-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Included in Gross Income § 1.88-1 Nuclear decommissioning costs. (a) In general. Section 88 provides that the amount of nuclear decommissioning...

  11. 26 CFR 1.88-1 - Nuclear decommissioning costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nuclear decommissioning costs. 1.88-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Included in Gross Income § 1.88-1 Nuclear decommissioning costs. (a) In general. Section 88 provides that the amount of nuclear decommissioning...

  12. Decision framework for platform decommissioning in California.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Brock B

    2015-10-01

    This article describes the overall decision framework for eventual decisions about decommissioning the 27 operating oil and gas platforms offshore southern California. These platforms will eventually reach the end of their useful lifetimes (estimated between 2015 and 2030, although specific dates have not been determined). Current law and regulations allow for alternative uses in lieu of the complete removal required in existing leases. To prepare for eventual decommissioning, the California Natural Resources Agency initiated an in-depth process to identify and investigate issues surrounding possible decommissioning alternatives. The detailed evaluation of alternatives focused on 2-complete removal and artificial reefing that included partial removal to 85 feet below the waterline. These were selected after a comparison of the technical and economic feasibility of several potential alternatives, availability of a legal framework for implementation, degree of interest from proponents, and relative acceptance by state and federal decision makers. Despite California's history of offshore oil and gas production, only 7 decommissioning projects have been completed and these were all relatively small and close to shore. In contrast, nearly 30% of the California platforms are in water depths (as much as 1200 feet) that exceed any decommissioning project anywhere in the world. Most earlier projects considered an artificial reefing alternative but none were implemented and all platforms were completely removed. Future decisions about decommissioning must grapple with a more complex decision context involving greater technological and logistical challenges and cost, a wider range of viable options, tradeoffs among environmental impacts and benefits, and an intricate maze of laws, regulations, and authorities. The specific engineering differences between complete and partial removal provide an explicit basis for a thorough evaluation of their respective impacts.

  13. Decision framework for platform decommissioning in California.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Brock B

    2015-10-01

    This article describes the overall decision framework for eventual decisions about decommissioning the 27 operating oil and gas platforms offshore southern California. These platforms will eventually reach the end of their useful lifetimes (estimated between 2015 and 2030, although specific dates have not been determined). Current law and regulations allow for alternative uses in lieu of the complete removal required in existing leases. To prepare for eventual decommissioning, the California Natural Resources Agency initiated an in-depth process to identify and investigate issues surrounding possible decommissioning alternatives. The detailed evaluation of alternatives focused on 2-complete removal and artificial reefing that included partial removal to 85 feet below the waterline. These were selected after a comparison of the technical and economic feasibility of several potential alternatives, availability of a legal framework for implementation, degree of interest from proponents, and relative acceptance by state and federal decision makers. Despite California's history of offshore oil and gas production, only 7 decommissioning projects have been completed and these were all relatively small and close to shore. In contrast, nearly 30% of the California platforms are in water depths (as much as 1200 feet) that exceed any decommissioning project anywhere in the world. Most earlier projects considered an artificial reefing alternative but none were implemented and all platforms were completely removed. Future decisions about decommissioning must grapple with a more complex decision context involving greater technological and logistical challenges and cost, a wider range of viable options, tradeoffs among environmental impacts and benefits, and an intricate maze of laws, regulations, and authorities. The specific engineering differences between complete and partial removal provide an explicit basis for a thorough evaluation of their respective impacts. PMID:26259879

  14. Progress in proton transport code development: Microelectronic application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ngo, Duc M.; Buck, Warren W.; Fogarty, Tom N.; Wilson, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    The process of target nucleus fragmentation by energetic protons is examined, and their effects on microelectronic devices are considered. A formalism for target fragment transport is presented. Future applications to microelectronic effects are discussed.

  15. Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorial issue, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2006-07-15

    The focus of the July-August issue is on Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorials. Major articles/reports in this issue include: NPP Krsko revised decommissioning program, by Vladimir Lokner and Ivica Levanat, APO d.o.o., Croatia, and Nadja Zeleznik and Irena Mele, ARAO, Slovenia; Supporting the renaissance, by Marilyn C. Kray, Exelon Nuclear; Outage world an engineer's delight, by Tom Chrisopher, Areva, NP Inc.; Optimizing refueling outages with R and D, by Ross Marcoot, GE Energy; and, A successful project, by Jim Lash, FirstEnergy.

  16. Decommissioning of a tritium-contaminated laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, J.R.; Garde, R.

    1981-11-01

    A tritium laboratory facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, was decommissioned in 1979. The project involved dismantling the laboratory equipment and disposing of the equipment and debris at an on-site waste disposal/storage area. The laboratory was constructed in 1953 and was in service for tritium research and fabrication of lithium tritide components until 1974. The major features of the laboratory included some 25 meters of gloveboxes and hoods, associated vacuum lines, utility lines, exhaust ducts, electrodryers, blowers, and laboratory benches. This report presents details on the decommissioning, health physics, waste management, environmental surveillance, and costs for the operation.

  17. The health risks of decommissioning nuclear facilities.

    PubMed

    Dodic-Fikfak, M; Clapp, R; Kriebel, D

    1999-01-01

    The health risks facing workers involved in decommissioning nuclear facilities are a critical concern as the nuclear weapons complex and nuclear power plants begin to be dismantled. In addition to risks from exposure to radioactive materials, there are risks from other common industrial materials like crystalline silica dust and asbestos. We discuss these issues in the context of recent research on the risk of low-level ionizing radiation, the classification of crystalline silica as a carcinogen, and early experience with decommissioning nuclear facilities in the United States. Health and safety advocates will need to be vigilant to prevent worker exposure. PMID:17208791

  18. The health risks of decommissioning nuclear facilities.

    PubMed

    Dodic-Fikfak, M; Clapp, R; Kriebel, D

    1999-01-01

    The health risks facing workers involved in decommissioning nuclear facilities are a critical concern as the nuclear weapons complex and nuclear power plants begin to be dismantled. In addition to risks from exposure to radioactive materials, there are risks from other common industrial materials like crystalline silica dust and asbestos. We discuss these issues in the context of recent research on the risk of low-level ionizing radiation, the classification of crystalline silica as a carcinogen, and early experience with decommissioning nuclear facilities in the United States. Health and safety advocates will need to be vigilant to prevent worker exposure.

  19. 26 CFR 1.468A-0T - Nuclear decommissioning costs; table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nuclear decommissioning costs; table of contents... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Taxable Year for Which Deductions Taken § 1.468A-0T Nuclear...) Definitions. (c) Special rules applicable to certain experimental nuclear facilities. § 1.468A-2TTreatment...

  20. 75 FR 8147 - Notice of Consideration of Amendment Request for Decommissioning of Analytical Bio-Chemistry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... participating under 10 CFR 2.315(c), must be filed in accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139, August... COMMISSION Notice of Consideration of Amendment Request for Decommissioning of Analytical Bio-Chemistry...-Chemistry Laboratories, Inc. (the Licensee) pursuant to 10 CFR part 30. By application dated October...

  1. Emerging nanomedicine applications and manufacturing: progress and challenges.

    PubMed

    Sartain, Felicity; Greco, Francesca; Hill, Kathryn; Rannard, Steve; Owen, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    APS 6th International PharmSci Conference 2015 7-9 September 2015 East Midlands Conference Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK As part of the 6th APS International PharmSci Conference, a nanomedicine session was organised to address challenges and share experiences in this field. Topics ranged from the reporting on latest results and advances in the development of targeted therapeutics to the needs that the community faces in how to progress these exciting proof of concept results into products. Here we provide an overview of the discussion and highlight some of the initiatives that have recently been established to support the translation of nanomedicines into the clinic. PMID:26911307

  2. Recent Progress in Engine Noise Reduction for Commercial Aircraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2003-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made over the past ten years developing technologies for reducing aircraft noise. Engine noise continues to be a dominate source, particularly for aircraft departing from airports. Research efforts have concentrated on developing noise prediction methods, experimental validation, and developing noise reduction concepts that have been verified through model scale and static engine tests. Most of the work has concentrated on fan and jet components for commercial turbofan engines. In this seminar, an overview of the engine noise reduction work that was sponsored by NASA s Advanced Subsonic Technology Noise Reduction Program will be given, along with background information on turbofan noise sources and certification procedures. Concepts like "chevron" nozzles for jet noise reduction and swept stators for fan noise reduction will be highlighted. A preliminary assessment on how the new technologies will impact future engines will be given.

  3. Recent progress in NMR/MRI in petroleum applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yi-Qiao

    2007-03-01

    NMR has become an important technique for characterization of porous materials. In particular, its importance in petroleum exploration has been enhanced by the recent progress in NMR well-logging techniques and instruments. Such advanced techniques are increasing being accepted as a valuable service especially in deep-sea exploration. This paper will outline the recent progress of MR techniques at Schlumberger-Doll Research. Well-logging - The second generation NMR well-logging tool and the 2D NMR methods (D-T2, etc) enable measurements at several depths from the well bore allowing a one-dimensional profiling of the fluid. Such data have allowed quantification of fluid invasion during drilling, obtaining the properties of native fluids and identifying oil/gas zones. MRI- Rocks from oil reservoirs are heterogeneous (e.g. large range of pore sizes and porosity variation) due to the complex geological and geochemical histories. The spatial pattern of the heterogeneity has not been well studied. We have developed several NMR techniques to quantify pore length scale previously. In order to predict flow over a large length scale, it is necessary to determine spatial heterogeneity and pore connectivity over the relevant size. We have performed MRI on a series of carbonate rocks and found interesting patterns of the heterogeneity characteristics. Mathematics - It is well known that the Laplace inversion is non-unique and the resulting spectrum can be strongly dependent on the prior constraints, specific algorithm and noise. However, the different spectra can all be solutions consistent with data. It would be useful to have a robust criterion -- independent of algorithms -- to determine the properties of the resulting spectrum. Several methods will be described to examine the statistics of the solutions, uncertainty of the spectrum and its integrals and resolution.

  4. [Progress in synthesis technologies and application of aviation biofuels].

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoying; Liu, Xiang; Zhao, Xuebing; Yang, Ming; Liu, Dehua

    2013-03-01

    Development of aviation biofuels has attracted great attention worldwide because that the shortage of fossil resources has become more and more serious. In the present paper, the development background, synthesis technologies, current application status and existing problems of aviation biofuels were reviewed. Several preparation routes of aviation biofuels were described, including Fischer-Tropsch process, catalytic hydrogenation and catalytic cracking of bio-oil. The status of flight tests and commercial operation were also introduced. Finally the problems for development and application of aviation biofuels were stated, and some accommodation were proposed.

  5. The Windscale Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor (WAGR) Decommissioning Project A Close Out Report for WAGR Decommissioning Campaigns 1 to 10 - 12474

    SciTech Connect

    Halliwell, Chris

    2012-07-01

    the various decommissioning campaigns. The use of low force compaction for insulation and soft wastes provided a simple, robust and cost effective solution as did the direct encapsulation of LLW steel components in the later stages of reactor decommissioning. Progress through early campaigns was good, often bettering the baseline schedule, especially when undertaking the repetitive tasks seen during Neutron Shield and Graphite Core decommissioning, once the operators had become experienced with the equipment, though delays became more pronounced, mainly as a result of increased failures due to the age and maintainability of the RDM and associated equipment. Extensive delays came about as a result of the unsupported insulation falling away from the pressure vessel during removal and the inability of the ventilation system to manage the sub micron particulate generated during IPOPI cutting operations, though the in house development of revised and new methodologies ultimately led to the successful completion of PV and I removal. In a programme spanning over 12 years, the decommissioning of the reactor pressure vessel and core led to the production 110 ILW and 75 LLW WAGR boxes, with 20 LLW ISO freight containers of primary reactor wastes, resulting in an overall packaged volume of approximately 2500 cubic metres containing the estimated 460 cubic metres of the reactor structure. (authors)

  6. Recent progress in nanomaterials for gene delivery applications.

    PubMed

    Keles, Erhan; Song, Yang; Du, Dan; Dong, Wen-Ji; Lin, Yuehe

    2016-08-16

    Nanotechnology-based gene delivery is the division of nanomedicine concerned with the synthesis, characterization, and functionalization of nanomaterials to be used in targeted-gene delivery applications. Nanomaterial-based gene delivery systems hold great promise for curing fatal inherited and acquired diseases, including neurological disorders, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, their use in clinical applications is still controversial. To date, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved any gene delivery system because of the unknown long-term toxicity and the low gene transfection efficiency of nanomaterials in vivo. Compared to viral vectors, nonviral gene delivery vectors are characterized by a low preexisting immunogenicity, which is important for preventing a severe immune response. In addition, nonviral vectors provide higher loading capacity and ease of fabrication. For these reasons, this review article focuses on applications of nonviral gene delivery systems, including those based on lipids, polymers, graphene, and other inorganic nanoparticles, and discusses recent advances in nanomaterials for gene therapy. Methods of synthesizing these nanomaterials are briefly described from a materials science perspective. Also, challenges, critical issues, and concerns about the in vivo applications of nanomaterial-based gene delivery systems are discussed. It should be noted that this article is not a comprehensive review of the literature. PMID:27480033

  7. Recent progress in nanomaterials for gene delivery applications.

    PubMed

    Keles, Erhan; Song, Yang; Du, Dan; Dong, Wen-Ji; Lin, Yuehe

    2016-08-16

    Nanotechnology-based gene delivery is the division of nanomedicine concerned with the synthesis, characterization, and functionalization of nanomaterials to be used in targeted-gene delivery applications. Nanomaterial-based gene delivery systems hold great promise for curing fatal inherited and acquired diseases, including neurological disorders, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, their use in clinical applications is still controversial. To date, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved any gene delivery system because of the unknown long-term toxicity and the low gene transfection efficiency of nanomaterials in vivo. Compared to viral vectors, nonviral gene delivery vectors are characterized by a low preexisting immunogenicity, which is important for preventing a severe immune response. In addition, nonviral vectors provide higher loading capacity and ease of fabrication. For these reasons, this review article focuses on applications of nonviral gene delivery systems, including those based on lipids, polymers, graphene, and other inorganic nanoparticles, and discusses recent advances in nanomaterials for gene therapy. Methods of synthesizing these nanomaterials are briefly described from a materials science perspective. Also, challenges, critical issues, and concerns about the in vivo applications of nanomaterial-based gene delivery systems are discussed. It should be noted that this article is not a comprehensive review of the literature.

  8. Conceptual Decontamination and Decommissioning Plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation Waste Isolation Division, now Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    1995-01-30

    The Conceptual Decontamination and Decommissioning Plan (D&D) was developed as a concept for progressing from the final actions of the Disposal Phase, through the Decontamination and Decommissioning Phase, and into the initiation of the Long-Term Monitoring Phase. This plan was written in a manner that coincides with many of the requirements specified in DOE Order 5820.2A. Radioactive Waste Management; ASTM El 167 87, Standard Guide for Radiation Protection Program for Decommissioning Operations; and other documents listed in Attachment 3 of the D&D Plan. However, this conceptual plan does not meet all of the requirements necessary for a Decontamination and Decommissioning plan necessary for submission to the U.S. Congress in accordance with the Land Withdrawal Act (P.L. 102-579). A complete D&D plan that will meet the requirements of all of these documents and of the Land Withdrawal Act will be prepared and submitted to Congress by October 1997.

  9. Current Progress in Nanotechnology Applications for Diagnosis and Treatment of Kidney Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sue Hyun; Lee, Jung Bok; Bae, Min Soo; Balikov, Daniel A.; Hwang, Amy; Boire, Timothy C.; Kwon, Il Keun; Sung, Hak-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in nanomedicine, primarily in the form of nanoparticles, for theranostic applications to various diseases. A variety of materials, both organic and inorganic, have been used to develop nanoparticles with promise to achieve improved efficacy in medical applications as well as reduced systemic side effects compared to current standard of care medical practices. In particular, this article highlights the recent development and application of nanoparticles for diagnosing and treating nephropathologies. PMID:26121684

  10. 75 FR 80697 - Nuclear Decommissioning Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ...This document contains final regulations under section 468A of the Internal Revenue Code relating to deductions for contributions to trusts maintained for decommissioning nuclear power plants. These final regulations affect taxpayers that own an interest in a nuclear power plant and reflect recent statutory changes. The corresponding temporary regulations are...

  11. Halons: The hidden dangers of accelerated decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Dalzell, G.A.

    1996-12-31

    Many operators have introduced a decommissioning programme for halon systems following the Montreal Protocol and the cessation of production of 1211 and 1301. Some have already decommissioned all their systems. This paper questions whether rapid decommissioning, particularly when faced with external pressure or a desire to be {open_quotes}seen to be green{close_quotes} does reduce the environmental impact. It examines the lifecycle of the halon in an existing system until it is finally destroyed, used, or lost to the atmosphere. Halon is one of the most difficult gases to contain. It is more prone to leakage than almost any other gas. Fixed systems, which contain the majority of 1301 also have valve arrangements which are designed to open with the minimum of energy input. As a result they are also prone to accidental discharge. This paper examines these aspects and the potential for loss to the atmosphere when decommissioning, transporting, recycling and storing the halon. Controlling leakage and preventing accidental discharges within systems has been addressed in other work.

  12. Decontamination and decommissioning focus area. Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This report presents details of the facility deactivation, decommissioning, and material disposition research for development of new technologies sponsored by the Department of Energy. Topics discussed include; occupational safety, radiation protection, decontamination, remote operated equipment, mixed waste processing, recycling contaminated metals, and business opportunities.

  13. Sodium Reactor Experiment decommissioning. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, J.W.; Conners, C.C.; Harris, J.M.; Marzec, J.M.; Ureda, B.F.

    1983-08-15

    The Sodium Reactor Experiment (SRE) located at the Rockwell International Field Laboratories northwest of Los Angeles was developed to demonstrate a sodium-cooled, graphite-moderated reactor for civilian use. The reactor reached full power in May 1958 and provided 37 GWh to the Southern California Edison Company grid before it was shut down in 1967. Decommissioning of the SRE began in 1974 with the objective of removing all significant radioactivity from the site and releasing the facility for unrestricted use. Planning documentation was prepared to describe in detail the equipment and techniques development and the decommissioning work scope. A plasma-arc manipulator was developed for remotely dissecting the highly radioactive reactor vessels. Other important developments included techniques for using explosives to cut reactor vessel internal piping, clamps, and brackets; decontaminating porous concrete surfaces; and disposing of massive equipment and structures. The documentation defined the decommissioning in an SRE dismantling plan, in activity requirements for elements of the decommissioning work scope, and in detailed procedures for each major task.

  14. 78 FR 663 - Decommissioning Planning During Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    ... Federal Regulations is sold by the Superintendent of Documents. #0;Prices of new books are listed in the... complying with the NRC's Decommissioning Planning Rule (DPR) (76 FR 35512; June 17, 2011). The DPR went into... available documents online in the NRC Library at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/adams.html . To begin...

  15. Decontamination and decommissioning of Shippingport commercial reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, J.

    1989-11-01

    To a certain degree, the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the Shippingport reactor was a joint venture with Duquesne Light Company. The structures that were to be decommissioned were to be removed to at least three feet below grade. Since the land had been leased from Duquesne Light, there was an agreement with them to return the land to them in a radiologically safe condition. The total enclosure volume for the steam and nuclear containment systems was about 1.3 million cubic feet, more than 80% of which was below ground. Engineering plans for the project were started in July of 1980 and the final environmental impact statement (EIS) was published in May of 1982. The plant itself was shut down in October of 1982 for end-of-life testing and defueling. The engineering services portion of the decommissioning plans was completed in September of 1983. DOE moved onto the site and took over from the Navy in September of 1984. Actual physical decommissioning began after about a year of preparation and was completed about 44 months later in July of 1989. This paper describes the main parts of D and D.

  16. Progress on conformal microwave array applicators for heating chestwall disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, P. R.; Maccarini, P. F.; Juang, T.; Jacobsen, S. K.; Gaeta, C. J.; Schlorff, J. L.; Milligan, A. J.

    2007-02-01

    Previous studies have reported the computer modeling, CAD design, and theoretical performance of single and multiple antenna arrays of Dual Concentric Conductor (DCC) square slot radiators driven at 915 and 433 MHz. Subsequently, practical CAD designs of microstrip antenna arrays constructed on thin and flexible printed circuit board (PCB) material were reported which evolved into large Conformal Microwave Array (CMA) sheets that could wrap around the surface of the human torso for delivering microwave energy to large areas of superficial tissue. Although uniform and adjustable radiation patterns have been demonstrated from multiple element applicators radiating into simple homogeneous phantom loads, the contoured and heterogeneous tissue loads typical of chestwall recurrent breast cancer have required additional design efforts to achieve good coupling and efficient heating from the increasingly larger conformal array applicators used to treat large area contoured patient anatomy. Thus recent work has extended the theoretical optimization of DCC antennas to improve radiation efficiency of each individual aperture and reduce mismatch reflections, radiation losses, noise, and cross coupling of the feedline distribution network of large array configurations. Design improvements have also been incorporated into the supporting bolus structure to maintain effective coupling of DCC antennas into contoured anatomy and to monitor and control surface temperatures under the entire array. New approaches for non-invasive monitoring of surface and sub-surface tissue temperatures under each independent heat source are described that make use of microwave radiometry and flexible sheet grid arrays of thermal sensors. Efforts to optimize the clinical patient interface and move from planar rectangular shapes to contoured vest applicators that accommodate entire disease in a larger number of patients are summarized. By applying heat more uniformly to large areas of contoured anatomy

  17. Progress and needs in agricultural research, development, and applications programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, D. G.; Myers, V. I.

    1977-01-01

    The dynamic nature of agriculture requires repetitive resource assessments such as those from remote sensing. Until recently, the use of remote sensing in agriculture has been limited primarily to site specific investigations without large-scale evaluations. Examples of successful applications at various user levels are provided. The stage of development for applying remote sensing to many agricultural problems is assessed, and goals for planning future data characteristics for increased use in agriculture are suggested.

  18. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE R REACTOR DISASSEMBLY BASIN IN SITU DECOMMISSIONING

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.; Blankenship, J.; Griffin, W.; Serrato, M.

    2009-12-03

    and testing, and fill placement strategy. This information is applicable to decommissioning both the 105-P and 105-R facilities. The ISD process for the entire 105-P and 105-R reactor facilities will require approximately 250,000 cubic yards (191,140 cubic meters) of grout and 2,400 cubic yards (1,840 cubic meters) of structural concrete which will be placed over a twelve month period to meet the accelerated schedule ISD schedule. The status and lessons learned in the SRS Reactor Facility ISD process will be described.

  19. Photoacoustic cavitation for theranostics: mechanism, current progress and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Y.; Qin, D.; Wan, M.

    2015-12-01

    As an emerging cavitation technology, photoacoustic cavitation (PAC) means the formation of bubbles in liquids using focused laser and pre-established ultrasound synchronously. Its significant advantages include the decreased threshold of each modality and the precise location of cavitation determined by the focused laser. In this paper, a brief review of PAC is presented, including the physical mechanism description, the classic experimental technology, the representative results in variety of media, and its applications in biomedical imaging and therapy. Moreover, some preliminary results of PAC in perfluoropentane (PFP) liquid and PFP droplets investigated by passive cavitation detection (PCD) in our group are also presented.

  20. [Progress in Teflon AF LWCC/LCW applications].

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhao-Hua; Zhou, Wen; Xu, Zhan-Tang; Ye, Hai-Bin; Yang, Chao-Yu; Lin, Jun-Fang; Hu, Shui-Bo; Yang, Yue-Zhong; Li, Cai; Cao, Wen-Xi

    2011-11-01

    Teflon AF is chemically very inert, quite physically and optically stable, a highly vapor-permeable polymer with optical transparency through much of the UV-Vis region and with an RI lower than that of water, so Teflon AF LWCC/LCW (Long path-length liquid waveguide capillary cell/liquid core waveguides) has been used with a range of different detection techniques, including absorbance spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and gas sensor. The present article describes the properties and the aspects of Teflon AF LWCC/LCW instrumentation and applications. And finally,the future prospect and outlook of Teflon AF LWCC/LCW is also discussed.

  1. Somatic cell nuclear transfer in mammals: progress and applications.

    PubMed

    Colman, A

    Somatic nuclear transfer has been performed with frogs since the early 1960s, yet it has proved impossible to generate an adult frog using an adult cell as nuclear donor. After some initial skepticism, the birth of sheep, cows, goats, and mice using this technique with fetal or adult cell donors is now established fact. The success with adult mammalian cell donors extends the historic work in frogs by attesting to the totipotency of nuclei in at least some adult, differentiated cell types. Because the technique offers a developmental read out of the totality of genetic and molecular lifetime changes accumulated by the nucleus of a single somatic cell, basic research applications are seen in the fields of ageing, cancer, X chromosome inactivation, and imprinting. The prospect of a method for gene targeting in livestock holds particular promise for commercial applications; whilst for humans, the use of nuclear transfer to provide diverse populations of customized stem cells for therapeutic purposes presents a tantalizing future goal.

  2. Latest Progress in CNT-Based Composites for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klebor, Maximilian; Heep, Felicitas; Pfeiffer, Ernst K.; Linke, Stefan; Roddecke, Susanne; Lodereau, Pierre

    2012-07-01

    Composite materials used in S/C platforms and pay- loads can benefit from the latest developments in carbon fibres and nano-technologies. One of the most relevant novelties is the gradual incorporation of nano-species in the resin systems. This paper addresses the results of several technology studies lead and or performed by HPS. They deal with the incorporation of CNT and other nano-species into CFRP to improve the physical properties and to antagonise specific CFRP drawbacks like e.g. the anisotropic properties based on the respective carbon fibre setup. The most interesting and promising applications for these novel composites were assessed and selected for composite development. Entities from several European countries worked together to establish composite and structure processing methods. Promising results concerning electrical and thermal properties were obtained but also many challenges had and still have to be faced. During the projects it has been found that different ingredient combinations and manufacturing processes are favourable for different applications/improvements. It seems that the CNTs and the processes have to be tailored for one specific target property, e.g. electrical conductivity enhancement. The achieved material improvements were and are still further investigated.

  3. Recent Progress in Magntic Regenerator Materials and Their Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Takasu

    Our group have investigated applications of magnetic materials to refrigeration technology since 1978. We have verified that the heavy rare earth magnetic materials are very effective and useful as the regenerator material. Therefore, in the present articles I will describe the developing process of the magnetic regenerator materials briefly and will show the recenttopics. First,I will present the guideline for selecting the magnetic materials and show some typical examples of the specific heats of the promising materials. Next, I will indicate the superiority of the magnetic material from the comparison between the characteristics of the Pb regenerator and the Er3Ni magnetic regenerator. Then, in order to obtain the large refrigeration power at low temperature we have developed two layer type of magnetic regenerators which is the simplest model of the multi-layered magnetic regenerator. We will explain the developing process of those regenerators and their characteristics. Last, we will discuss briefly the advaning way of magnetic regenerator.

  4. High temperature solder alloys for underhood applications. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Drewien, C.A.; Yost, F.G.; Sackinger, S.; Kern, J.; Weiser, M.W.

    1995-02-01

    Under a cooperative research and development agreement with General Motors Corporation, lead-free solder systems including the flux, metallization, and solder are being developed for high temperature, underhood applications. Six tin-rich solders, five silver-rich metallizations, and four fluxes were screened using an experimental matrix whereby every combination was used to make sessile drops via hot plate or Heller oven processing. The contact angle, sessile drop appearance, and in some instances the microstructure was evaluated to determine combinations that would yield contact angles of less than 30{degrees}, well-formed sessile drops, and fine, uniform microstructures. Four solders, one metallization, and one flux were selected and will be used for further aging and mechanical property studies.

  5. Recent progress of electro-optic polymers for device applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jen, A.K.Y.; Yang, Q.; Marder, S.R.; Dalton, L.R.; Shu, C.F.

    1998-07-01

    Electro-optic (E-O) polymers have drawn great interest in recent years because of their potential applications in photonics devices such as high speed modulators and switches, optical data storage and information processing. In order to have suitable materials for device fabrication, it is essential to design and develop polymeric material systems (active and passive polymers) with matched refractive indices, large E-O coefficients, good temporal and photochemical stability. The E-O response of an active polymer commonly arises from the electric field induced alignment of its second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) chromophore, either doped as a guest/host system or covalently bonded as a side-chain. Because of the strong interaction among the electric dipoles, the poled structure is in a meta-stable state; the poled NLO chromophores which possess large dipole moment will tend to relax back to the randomly oriented state. As a result, the stability of the poled structure strongly depends on the rigidity of the overall material system. As it might be expected, the continuous increases of the rigidity and T{sub g} of poled polymers imposes constraints on the selection of suitable chromophores that can survive the high-temperature poling and processing conditions. To circumvent this problem, the authors have developed a series of chromophores that possess conformation-locked geometry and perfluoro-dicyanovinyl-substituted electron-accepting group which demonstrate both good thermal stability and nonlinearity. This paper provides a brief review of these highly efficient and thermally stable chromophores and polymers for device applications.

  6. Applications and Progress of Dust Injection to Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zhehui; Wurden, Glen A.; Mansfield, Dennis K.; Roquemore, Lane A.; Ticos, Catalin M.

    2008-09-07

    Three regimes of dust injection are proposed for different applications to fusion energy. In the 'low-speed' regime (<5 km/s), basic dust transport study, edge plasma diagnostics, edge-localized-mode (ELM) pacing in magnetic fusion devices can be realized by injecting dust of known properties into today's fusion experiments. ELM pacing, as an alternative to mini-pellet injection, is a promising scheme to prevent disruptions and type I ELM's that can cause catastrophic damage to fusion devices. Different schemes are available to inject dust. In the 'intermediate-speed' regime (10-200 km/s), possible applications of dust injection include fueling of the next-step fusion devices, core-diagnostics of the next-step fusion devices, and compression of plasma and solid targets to aid fusion energy production. Promising laboratory results of dust moving at 10-50 km/s do exist. Significant advance in this regime may be expected in the near term to achieve higher dust speeds. In the 'high-speed' regime (>500 km/s), dust injection can potentially be used to directly produce fusion energy through impact. Ideas on how to achieve these extremely high speeds are mostly on paper. No plan exists today to realize them in laboratory. Some experimental results, including electrostatic, electromagnetic, gas-dragged, plasma-dragged, and laser-ablation-based acceleration, are summarized and compared. Some features and limitations of the different acceleration methods will be discussed. A necessary component of all dust injectors is the dust dropper (also known as dust dispenser). A computer-controlled piezoelectric crystals has been developed to dropped dust in a systematic and reproducible manner. Particle fluxes ranges from a few tens of particles per second up to thousands of particles per second by this simple device.

  7. Progress and application of the Tohoku microbeam system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuyama, S.; Ishii, K.; Yamazaki, H.; Kikuchi, Y.; Inomata, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Ishizaki, A.; Oyama, R.; Kawamura, Y.; Yamaguchi, T.; Momose, G.; Nagakura, M.; Takahashi, M.; Kamiya, T.

    2007-07-01

    A microbeam system was constructed at the Tohoku University Dynamitron laboratory and optimization of the system was performed. Parasitic field contamination from tungsten carbide slit chips and an annular Si surface barrier detector limited the beam spot size to 2 × 2 μm 2. By replacing these components, the parasitic field contamination of the system was reduced and the performance of the microbeam system was remarkably improved. A measured beam spot size of 0.4 × 0.4 μm 2 at a beam current of several tens of pA has been accomplished. The results obtained using the grid shadow method show that a beam spot size of less than 0.4 μm is obtainable in the low-current regime. For easy tuning and operation of the microbeam system, a human-machine interface (HMI) was developed based on the user participatory design concept. The HMI has been accepted favorably by users and is used in routine operations. The analysis system has been re-developed and is applicable to simultaneous in-air/in-vacuum PIXE, RBS, SEM, and STIM analyses and 3D μ-CT. The system is now applied for studies in biological, environmental, and other fields.

  8. [Progress and application prospects of glutamine synthase in plants].

    PubMed

    Feng, Wanjun; Xing, Guofang; Niu, Xulong; Dou, Chen; Han, Yuanhuai

    2015-09-01

    Nitrogen is one of the most important nutrient elements for plants and a major limiting factor in plant growth and crop productivity. Glutamine synthase (GS) is a key enzyme involved in the nitrogen assimilation and recycling in plants. So far, members of the glutamine synthase gene family have been characterized in many plants such as Arabidopsis, rice, wheat, and maize. Reports show that GS are involved in the growth and development of plants, in particular its role in seed production. However, the outcome has generally been inconsistent, which are probably derived from the transcriptional and post-translational regulation of GS genes. In this review, we outlined studies on GS gene classification, QTL mapping, the relationship between GS genes and plant growth with nitrogen and the distribution characters, the biological functions of GS genes, as well as expression control at different regulation levels. In addition, we summarized the application prospects of glutamine synthetase genes in enhancing plant growth and yield by improving the nitrogen use efficiency. The prospects were presented on the improvement of nitrogen utility efficiency in crops and plant nitrogen status diagnosis on the basis of glutamine synthase gene regulation. PMID:26955708

  9. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Expressed Sequence Tag Project: Progress and Application

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Suping; Wang, Xingjun; Zhang, Xinyou; Dang, Phat M.; Holbrook, C. Corley; Culbreath, Albert K.; Wu, Yaoting; Guo, Baozhu

    2012-01-01

    Many plant ESTs have been sequenced as an alternative to whole genome sequences, including peanut because of the genome size and complexity. The US peanut research community had the historic 2004 Atlanta Genomics Workshop and named the EST project as a main priority. As of August 2011, the peanut research community had deposited 252,832 ESTs in the public NCBI EST database, and this resource has been providing the community valuable tools and core foundations for various genome-scale experiments before the whole genome sequencing project. These EST resources have been used for marker development, gene cloning, microarray gene expression and genetic map construction. Certainly, the peanut EST sequence resources have been shown to have a wide range of applications and accomplished its essential role at the time of need. Then the EST project contributes to the second historic event, the Peanut Genome Project 2010 Inaugural Meeting also held in Atlanta where it was decided to sequence the entire peanut genome. After the completion of peanut whole genome sequencing, ESTs or transcriptome will continue to play an important role to fill in knowledge gaps, to identify particular genes and to explore gene function. PMID:22745594

  10. [Progress and application prospects of glutamine synthase in plants].

    PubMed

    Feng, Wanjun; Xing, Guofang; Niu, Xulong; Dou, Chen; Han, Yuanhuai

    2015-09-01

    Nitrogen is one of the most important nutrient elements for plants and a major limiting factor in plant growth and crop productivity. Glutamine synthase (GS) is a key enzyme involved in the nitrogen assimilation and recycling in plants. So far, members of the glutamine synthase gene family have been characterized in many plants such as Arabidopsis, rice, wheat, and maize. Reports show that GS are involved in the growth and development of plants, in particular its role in seed production. However, the outcome has generally been inconsistent, which are probably derived from the transcriptional and post-translational regulation of GS genes. In this review, we outlined studies on GS gene classification, QTL mapping, the relationship between GS genes and plant growth with nitrogen and the distribution characters, the biological functions of GS genes, as well as expression control at different regulation levels. In addition, we summarized the application prospects of glutamine synthetase genes in enhancing plant growth and yield by improving the nitrogen use efficiency. The prospects were presented on the improvement of nitrogen utility efficiency in crops and plant nitrogen status diagnosis on the basis of glutamine synthase gene regulation.

  11. [Application of lysosomal detection in marine pollution monitoring: research progress].

    PubMed

    Weng, You-Zhu; Fang, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Yu-Sheng

    2013-11-01

    Lysosome is an important organelle existing in eukaryotic cells. With the development of the study on the structure and function of lysosome in recent years, lysosome is considered as a target of toxic substances on subcellular level, and has been widely applied abroad in marine pollution monitoring. This paper summarized the biological characteristics of lysosomal marker enzyme, lysosome-autophagy system, and lysosomal membrane, and introduced the principles and methods of applying lysosomal detection in marine pollution monitoring. Bivalve shellfish digestive gland and fish liver are the most sensitive organs for lysosomal detection. By adopting the lysosomal detection techniques such as lysosomal membrane stability (LMS) test, neutral red retention time (NRRT) assay, morphological measurement (MM) of lysosome, immunohistochemical (Ih) assay of lysosomal marker enzyme, and electron microscopy (EM), the status of marine pollution can be evaluated. It was suggested that the lysosome could be used as a biomarker for monitoring marine environmental pollution. The advantages and disadvantages of lysosomal detection and some problems worthy of attention were analyzed, and the application prospects of lysosomal detection were discussed.

  12. 30 CFR 250.1753 - After I decommission a pipeline, what information must I submit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false After I decommission a pipeline, what... SHELF Decommissioning Activities Pipeline Decommissioning § 250.1753 After I decommission a pipeline, what information must I submit? Within 30 days after you decommission a pipeline, you must submit...

  13. 30 CFR 250.1753 - After I decommission a pipeline, what information must I submit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false After I decommission a pipeline, what... OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Decommissioning Activities Pipeline Decommissioning § 250.1753 After I decommission a pipeline, what information must I submit? Within 30 days after you decommission a pipeline,...

  14. 30 CFR 250.1754 - When must I remove a pipeline decommissioned in place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false When must I remove a pipeline decommissioned in... Decommissioning Activities Pipeline Decommissioning § 250.1754 When must I remove a pipeline decommissioned in place? You must remove a pipeline decommissioned in place if the Regional Supervisor determines that...

  15. 30 CFR 250.1754 - When must I remove a pipeline decommissioned in place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When must I remove a pipeline decommissioned in... Decommissioning Activities Pipeline Decommissioning § 250.1754 When must I remove a pipeline decommissioned in place? You must remove a pipeline decommissioned in place if the Regional Supervisor determines that...

  16. 30 CFR 250.1753 - After I decommission a pipeline, what information must I submit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false After I decommission a pipeline, what... SHELF Decommissioning Activities Pipeline Decommissioning § 250.1753 After I decommission a pipeline, what information must I submit? Within 30 days after you decommission a pipeline, you must submit...

  17. 30 CFR 250.1751 - How do I decommission a pipeline in place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I decommission a pipeline in place? 250... Decommissioning Activities Pipeline Decommissioning § 250.1751 How do I decommission a pipeline in place? You must do the following to decommission a pipeline in place: (a) Submit a pipeline...

  18. 30 CFR 250.1754 - When must I remove a pipeline decommissioned in place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When must I remove a pipeline decommissioned in... Decommissioning Activities Pipeline Decommissioning § 250.1754 When must I remove a pipeline decommissioned in place? You must remove a pipeline decommissioned in place if the Regional Supervisor determines that...

  19. 30 CFR 250.1754 - When must I remove a pipeline decommissioned in place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When must I remove a pipeline decommissioned in... SHELF Decommissioning Activities Pipeline Decommissioning § 250.1754 When must I remove a pipeline decommissioned in place? You must remove a pipeline decommissioned in place if the Regional Supervisor...

  20. 30 CFR 250.1751 - How do I decommission a pipeline in place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I decommission a pipeline in place? 250... Decommissioning Activities Pipeline Decommissioning § 250.1751 How do I decommission a pipeline in place? You must do the following to decommission a pipeline in place: (a) Submit a pipeline...

  1. 30 CFR 250.1751 - How do I decommission a pipeline in place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I decommission a pipeline in place? 250... Decommissioning Activities Pipeline Decommissioning § 250.1751 How do I decommission a pipeline in place? You must do the following to decommission a pipeline in place: (a) Submit a pipeline...

  2. 30 CFR 250.1751 - How do I decommission a pipeline in place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I decommission a pipeline in place? 250... Decommissioning Activities Pipeline Decommissioning § 250.1751 How do I decommission a pipeline in place? You must do the following to decommission a pipeline in place: (a) Submit a pipeline...

  3. 30 CFR 250.1753 - After I decommission a pipeline, what information must I submit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false After I decommission a pipeline, what... Decommissioning Activities Pipeline Decommissioning § 250.1753 After I decommission a pipeline, what information must I submit? Within 30 days after you decommission a pipeline, you must submit a written report...

  4. 30 CFR 250.1750 - When may I decommission a pipeline in place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false When may I decommission a pipeline in place... Decommissioning Activities Pipeline Decommissioning § 250.1750 When may I decommission a pipeline in place? You may decommission a pipeline in place when the Regional Supervisor determines that the pipeline...

  5. 30 CFR 250.1750 - When may I decommission a pipeline in place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When may I decommission a pipeline in place... Decommissioning Activities Pipeline Decommissioning § 250.1750 When may I decommission a pipeline in place? You may decommission a pipeline in place when the Regional Supervisor determines that the pipeline...

  6. 30 CFR 250.1750 - When may I decommission a pipeline in place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When may I decommission a pipeline in place... Decommissioning Activities Pipeline Decommissioning § 250.1750 When may I decommission a pipeline in place? You may decommission a pipeline in place when the Regional Supervisor determines that the pipeline...

  7. 30 CFR 250.1750 - When may I decommission a pipeline in place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When may I decommission a pipeline in place... SHELF Decommissioning Activities Pipeline Decommissioning § 250.1750 When may I decommission a pipeline in place? You may decommission a pipeline in place when the Regional Supervisor determines that...

  8. 30 CFR 250.1753 - After I decommission a pipeline, what information must I submit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false After I decommission a pipeline, what... SHELF Decommissioning Activities Pipeline Decommissioning § 250.1753 After I decommission a pipeline, what information must I submit? Within 30 days after you decommission a pipeline, you must submit...

  9. Recent progress in preparation and application of microfluidic chip electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Hailin; Xu, Xiaodan; Yu, Bing; Yuan, Hua; Peng, Qiaohong; Tian, Chao

    2015-05-01

    Since its discovery in 1990, microfluidic chip electrophoresis (MCE) has allowed the development of applications with small size, fast analysis, low cost, high integration density and automatic level, which are easy to carry and have made commercialization efficient. MCE has been widely used in the areas of environmental protection, biochemistry, medicine and health, clinical testing, judicial expertise, food sanitation, pharmaceutical checking, drug testing, agrochemistry, biomedical engineering and life science. As one of the foremost fields in the research of capillary electrophoresis, MCE is the ultimate frontier to develop the miniaturized, integrated, automated all-in-one instruments needed in modern analytical chemistry. By adopting the advanced technologies of micro-machining, lasers and microelectronics, and the latest research achievements in analytical chemistry and biochemistry, the sampling, separation and detection systems of commonly used capillary electrophoresis are integrated with high densities onto glass, quartz, silicon or polymer wafers to form the MCE, which can finish the analysis of multi-step operations such as injection, enrichment, reaction, derivatization, separation, and collection of samples in a portable, efficient and super high speed manner. With reference to the different technological achievements in this area, the latest developments in MCE are reviewed in this article. The preparation mechanisms, surface modifications, and properties of different materials in MCE are compared, and the different sampling, separation and detection systems in MCE are summarized. The performance of MCE in analysis of fluorescent substance, metallic ion, sugar, medicine, nucleic acid, DNA, amino acid, polypeptide and protein is discussed, and the future direction of development is forecast.

  10. Magnetic nanoparticles for medical applications: Progress and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Doaga, A.; Cojocariu, A. M.; Constantin, C. P.; Caltun, O. F.; Hempelmann, R.

    2013-11-13

    Magnetic nanoparticles present unique properties that make them suitable for applications in biomedical field such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), hyperthermia and drug delivery systems. Magnetic hyperthermia involves heating the cancer cells by using magnetic particles exposed to an alternating magnetic field. The cell temperature increases due to the thermal propagation of the heat induced by the nanoparticles into the affected region. In order to increase the effectiveness of the treatment hyperthermia can be combined with drug delivery techniques. As a spectroscopic technique MRI is used in medicine for the imaging of tissues especially the soft ones and diagnosing malignant or benign tumors. For this purpose Zn{sub x}Co{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite nanoparticles with x between 0 and 1 have been prepared by co-precipitation method. The cristallite size was determined by X-ray diffraction, while the transmission electron microscopy illustrates the spherical shape of the nanoparticles. Magnetic characterizations of the nanoparticles were carried out at room temperature by using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The specific absorption rate (SAR) was measured by calorimetric method at different frequencies and it has been observed that this value depends on the chemical formula, the applied magnetic fields and the frequency. The study consists of evaluating the images, obtained from an MRI facility, when the nanoparticles are dispersed in agar phantoms compared with the enhanced ones when Omniscan was used as contrast agent. Layer-by-layer technique was used to achieve the necessary requirement of biocompatibility. The surface of the magnetic nanoparticles was modified by coating it with oppositely charged polyelectrolites, making it possible for the binding of a specific drug.

  11. Messenger RNA-based vaccines: progress, challenges, applications.

    PubMed

    Kramps, Thomas; Probst, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Twenty years after the demonstration that messenger RNA (mRNA) was expressed and immunogenic upon direct injection in mice, the first successful proof-of-concept of specific protection against viral infection in small and large animals was reported. These data indicate wider applicability to infectious disease and should encourage continued translation of mRNA-based prophylactic vaccines into human clinical trials. At the conceptual level, mRNA-based vaccines-more than other genetic vectors-combine the simplicity, safety, and focused immunogenicity of subunit vaccines with favorable immunological properties of live viral vaccines: (1) mRNA vaccines are molecularly defined and carry no excess information. In the environment and upon physical contact, RNA is rapidly degraded by ubiquitous RNases and cannot persist. These characteristics also guarantee tight control over their immunogenic profile (including avoidance of vector-specific immune responses that could interfere with repeated administration), pharmacokinetics, and dosing. (2) mRNA vaccines are synthetically produced by an enzymatic process, just requiring information about the nucleic acid sequence of the desired antigen. This greatly reduces general complications associated with biological vaccine production, such as handling of infectious agents, genetic variability, environmental risks, or restrictions to vaccine distribution. (3) RNA can be tailored to provide potent adjuvant stimuli to the innate immune system by direct activation of RNA-specific receptors; this may reduce the need for additional adjuvants. The formation of native antigen in situ affords great versatility, including intracellular localization, membrane association, posttranslational modification, supra-molecular assembly, or targeted structural optimization of delivered antigen. Messenger RNA vaccines induce balanced immune responses including B cells, helper T cells, and cytotoxic T lymphocytes, rendering them an extremely adaptable

  12. Covariant Density Functional Theory--highlights on recent progress and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, J.; Li, J.; Zhao, P. W.; Liang, H. Z.; Yao, J. M.

    2011-05-06

    The density functional theory with a few number of parameters allows a very successful phenomenological description of ground state properties of nuclei all over the nuclear chart. The recent progress on the application of the covariant density functional theory (CDFT) for nuclear structure and astrophysics as well as its extensions by the group in Beijing is summarized. In particular, its application to magnetic moments is discussed in details.

  13. 76 FR 28016 - Progress Energy Carolinas, Inc.; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... of License and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Protests Take notice that the following... Carter, (678) 245-3083, mark.carter@ferc.gov . j. Deadline for filing comments, motions to intervene, and... (P-2206-041) on any comments or motions filed. k. Description of Application: Progress...

  14. Applications of computer modeling to fusion research. Progress report, 1988--1989

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, J.M.

    1989-12-31

    Progress achieved during this report period is presented on the following topics: Development and application of gyrokinetic particle codes to tokamak transport, development of techniques to take advantage of parallel computers; model dynamo and bootstrap current drive; and in general maintain our broad-based program in basic plasma physics and computer modeling.

  15. 76 FR 78702 - Progress Energy Florida, Inc. (Combined License Application for Levy County Nuclear Power Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Progress Energy Florida, Inc. (Combined License Application for Levy County Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2) Notice of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Reconstitution Pursuant to 10 CFR...

  16. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference pressurized water reactor power station: Technical support for decommissioning matters related to preparation of the final decommissioning rule

    SciTech Connect

    Konzek, G.J.; Smith, R.I.

    1988-07-01

    Preparation of the final Decommissioning Rule by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has been assisted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff familiar with decommissioning matters. These efforts have included updating previous cost estimates developed during the series of studies on conceptually decommissioning reference licensed nuclear facilities for inclusion in the Final Generic Environmental Impact Statement (FGEIS) on decommissioning; documenting the cost updates; evaluating the cost and dose impacts of post-TMI-2 backfits on decommissioning; developing a revised scaling formula for estimating decommissioning costs for reactor plants different in size from the reference pressurized water reactor (PWR) described in the earlier study; defining a formula for adjusting current cost estimates to reflect future escalation in labor, materials, and waste disposal costs; and completing a study of recent PWR steam generator replacements to determine realistic estimates for time, costs and doses associated with steam generator removal during decommissioning. This report presents the results of recent PNL studies to provide supporting information in four areas concerning decommissioning of the reference PWR: updating the previous cost estimates to January 1986 dollars; assessing the cost and dose impacts of post-TMI-2 backfits; assessing the cost and dose impacts of recent steam generator replacements; and developing a scaling formula for plants different in size than the reference plant and an escalation formula for adjusting current cost estimates for future escalation.

  17. Gnome site decontamination and decommissioning project

    SciTech Connect

    Orcutt, J.A.; Sorom, E.R.

    1982-08-01

    In July 1977, DOE/Headquarters directed DOE/NV to design a decontamination and decommissioning plan for the Gnome site, 48 kilometers southeast of Carlsbad, New Mexico. The plan incorporated three distinct phases. During Phase I, both aerial and ground radiological surveys were conducted on the site. Radiological decontamination criteria were established, and a decontamination plan was developed based on the radiological survey results. During Phase II, site preparatory and rehabilitation work was completed. The actual land area decontamination was accomplished during Phase III with conventional earthmoving equipment. A gravity water injection system deposited 36,700 metric tons of contaminated soil and salt in the Gnome cavity. After completion of the decontamination and decommissioning operations, the Gnome site was returned to the Bureau of Land Management for unrestricted surface use.

  18. Decommissioning of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    E. Perry; J. Chrzanowski; C. Gentile; R. Parsells; K. Rule; R. Strykowsky; M. Viola

    2003-10-28

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory was operated from 1982 until 1997. The last several years included operations with mixtures of deuterium and tritium. In September 2002, the three year Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Project for TFTR was successfully completed. The need to deal with tritium contamination as well as activated materials led to the adaptation of many techniques from the maintenance work during TFTR operations to the D&D effort. In addition, techniques from the decommissioning of fission reactors were adapted to the D&D of TFTR and several new technologies, most notably the development of a diamond wire cutting process for complex metal structures, were developed. These techniques, along with a project management system that closely linked the field crews to the engineering staff who developed the techniques and procedures via a Work Control Center, resulted in a project that was completed safely, on time, and well below budget.

  19. Optimized nuclear plant decommissioning economics through repowering

    SciTech Connect

    Demoss, D.; Charles, R.P.

    1996-11-01

    Nuclear power has provided a significant portion of electricity produced in the US over the last 39 years. Since the first commercial nuclear plant at Shippingport, Pennsylvania, started producing power in 1957, 110 nuclear plants have been placed in service. This accounts for approximately 20% of the US electric power production. In some states the number is much higher: Illinois relies on nuclear power for approximately 70% of its electricity needs. The generation of electricity from nuclear power will start to decrease in the year 2005 due to a number of plants being taken out of service as they reach the end of their design life (EDL). As these nuclear plants approach their design basis life of 40 years, plant owners will be faced with strategic decisions concerning continued operation through license renewal, decommissioning, or repowering. Without license renewal 20 units totaling more than 14 gigawatts will reach EDL by the year 2010. Three basic options are available to nuclear utilities: (1) continued operation through nuclear license renewal beyond EDL; (2) shutdown and decommissioning at EDL; (3) continued operation through nonnuclear repowering. This paper briefly reviews license renewal and decommissioning issues. Its primary focus is on the feasibility of Option 3 by reviewing the conceptual technical requirements for nonnuclear repowering and its associated economics.

  20. Decommissioning nuclear power plants - the wave of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Griggs, F.S. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    The paper discusses the project controls developed in the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant. Considerations are given to the contaminated piping and equipment that have to be removed and the spent and used fuel that has to be disposed of. The storage issue is of primary concern here. The cost control aspects and the dynamics of decommissioning are discussed. The effects of decommissioning laws on the construction and engineering firms are mentioned. 5 refs.

  1. A review of disease progression models of Parkinson's disease and applications in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Venuto, Charles S; Potter, Nicholas B; Ray Dorsey, E; Kieburtz, Karl

    2016-07-01

    Quantitative disease progression models for neurodegenerative disorders are gaining recognition as important tools for drug development and evaluation. In Parkinson's disease (PD), several models have described longitudinal changes in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), one of the most utilized outcome measures for PD trials assessing disease progression. We conducted a literature review to examine the methods and applications of quantitative disease progression modeling for PD using a combination of key words including "Parkinson disease," "progression," and "model." For this review, we focused on models of PD progression quantifying changes in the total UPDRS scores against time. Four different models reporting equations and parameters have been published using linear and nonlinear functions. The reasons for constructing disease progression models of PD thus far have been to quantify disease trajectories of PD patients in active and inactive treatment arms of clinical trials, to quantify and discern symptomatic and disease-modifying treatment effects, and to demonstrate how model-based methods may be used to design clinical trials. The historical lack of efficiency of PD clinical trials begs for model-based simulations in planning for studies that result in more informative conclusions, particularly around disease modification. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  2. Reactor Design and Decommissioning - An Overview of International Activities in Post Fukushima Era1 - 12396

    SciTech Connect

    Devgun, Jas S.; Laraia, Michele; Dinner, Paul

    2012-07-01

    perspective in the post Fukushima -accident era. Accidents at the Fukushima Daiichi reactors in the aftermath of the devastating earthquake and tsunami of March 11, 2011 have slowed down the nuclear renaissance world-wide and may have accelerated decommissioning either because some countries have decided to halt or reduce nuclear, or because the new safety requirements may reduce life-time extensions. Even in countries such as the UK and France that favor nuclear energy production existing nuclear sites are more likely to be chosen as sites for future NPPs. Even as the site recovery efforts continue at Fukushima and any decommissioning decisions are farther into the future, the accidents have focused attention on the reactor designs in general and specifically on the Fukushima type BWRs. The regulatory authorities in many countries have initiated a re-examination of the design of the systems, structures and components and considerations of the capability of the station to cope with beyond-design basis events. Enhancements to SSCs and site features for the existing reactors and the reactors that will be built will also impact the decommissioning phase activities. The newer reactor designs of today not only have enhanced safety features but also take into consideration the features that will facilitate future decommissioning. Lessons learned from past management and operation of reactors as well as the lessons from decommissioning are incorporated into the new designs. However, in the post-Fukushima era, the emphasis on beyond-design-basis capability may lead to significant changes in SSCs, which eventually will also have impact on the decommissioning phase. Additionally, where some countries decide to phase out the nuclear power, many reactors may enter the decommissioning phase in the coming decade. While the formal updating and expanding of existing guidance documents for accident cleanup and decommissioning would benefit by waiting until the Fukushima project has progressed

  3. HEAVY WATER COMPONENTS TEST REACTOR DECOMMISSIONING

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, W.; Brinkley, D.

    2011-10-13

    The Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) Decommissioning Project was initiated in 2009 as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Removal Action with funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). This paper summarizes the history prior to 2009, the major D&D activities, and final end state of the facility at completion of decommissioning in June 2011. The HWCTR facility was built in 1961, operated from 1962 to 1964, and is located in the northwest quadrant of the Savannah River Site (SRS) approximately three miles from the site boundary. The HWCTR was a pressurized heavy water test reactor used to develop candidate fuel designs for heavy water power reactors. In December of 1964, operations were terminated and the facility was placed in a standby condition as a result of the decision by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission to redirect research and development work on heavy water power reactors to reactors cooled with organic materials. For about one year, site personnel maintained the facility in a standby status, and then retired the reactor in place. In the early 1990s, DOE began planning to decommission HWCTR. Yet, in the face of new budget constraints, DOE deferred dismantlement and placed HWCTR in an extended surveillance and maintenance mode. The doors of the reactor facility were welded shut to protect workers and discourage intruders. In 2009 the $1.6 billion allocation from the ARRA to SRS for site footprint reduction at SRS reopened the doors to HWCTR - this time for final decommissioning. Alternative studies concluded that the most environmentally safe, cost effective option for final decommissioning was to remove the reactor vessel, both steam generators, and all equipment above grade including the dome. The transfer coffin, originally above grade, was to be placed in the cavity vacated by the reactor vessel and the remaining below grade spaces would be grouted. Once all above equipment

  4. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference boiling water reactor power station: Technical support for decommissioning matters related to preparation of the final decommissioning rule

    SciTech Connect

    Konzek, G.J.; Smith, R.I.

    1988-07-01

    Preparation of the final Decommissioning Rule by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has been assisted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff familiar with decommissioning matters. These efforts have included updating previous cost estimates developed during the series of studies of conceptually decommissioning reference licensed nuclear facilities for inclusion in the Final Generic Environmental Impact Statement (FGEIS) on decommissioning; documenting the cost updates; evaluating the cost and dose impacts of post-TMI-2 backfits on decommissioning; developing a revised scaling formula for estimating decommissioning costs for reactor plants different in size from the reference boiling water reactor (BWR) described in the earlier study; and defining a formula for adjusting current cost estimates to reflect future escalation in labor, materials, and waste disposal costs. This report presents the results of recent PNL studies to provide supporting information in three areas concerning decommissioning of the reference BWR: updating the previous cost estimates to January 1986 dollars; assessing the cost and dose impacts of post-TMI-2 backfits; and developing a scaling formula for plants different in size than the reference plant and an escalation formula for adjusting current cost estimates for future escalation.

  5. Mixed application MMIC technologies - Progress in combining RF, digital and photonic circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swirhun, S.; Bendett, M.; Sokolov, V.; Bauhahn, P.; Sullivan, C.; Mactaggart, R.; Mukherjee, S.; Hibbs-Brenner, M.; Mondal, J.

    1991-01-01

    Approaches for future 'mixed application' monolithic integrated circuits (ICs) employing optical receive/transmit, RF amplification and modulation and digital control functions are discussed. We focus on compatibility of the photonic component fabrication with conventional RF and digital IC technologies. Recent progress at Honeywell in integrating several parts of the desired RF/digital/photonic circuit integration suite required for construction of a future millimeter-wave optically-controlled phased-array element are illustrated.

  6. Decommissioning of the secondary containment of the steam generating heavy water reactor at UKAEA Winfrith

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, K.D.; Cornell, R.M.; Parkinson, S.J.; McIntyre, K.; Staples, A.

    2007-07-01

    The Winfrith SGHWR was a prototype nuclear power plant operated for 23 years by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) until 1990 when it was shut down permanently. The current Stage 1 decommissioning contract is part of a multi-stage strategy. It involves the removal of all the ancillary plant and equipment in the secondary containment and non-containment areas ahead of a series of contracts for the decommissioning of the primary containment, the reactor core and demolition of the building and ail remaining facilities. As an outcome of a competitive tending process, the Stage 1 decommissioning contract was awarded to NUKEM with operations commencing in April 2005. The decommissioning processes involved with these plant items will be described with some emphasis of the establishment of multiple work-fronts for the production, recovery, treatment and disposal of mainly tritium-contaminated waste arising from its contact with the direct cycle reactor coolant. The means of size reduction of a variety of large, heavy and complex items of plant made from a range of materials will also be described with some emphasis on the control of fumes during hot cutting operations and establishing effective containments within a larger secondary containment structure. Disposal of these wastes in a timely and cost-effective manner is a major challenge facing the decommissioning team and has required the development of a highly efficient means of packing the resultant materials into mainly one-third height IS0 containers for disposal as LLW. Details of the quantities of LLW and exempt wastes handled during this process will be given with a commentary about the difficulty in segregating these two waste streams efficiently. The paper sets out to demonstrate the considerable progress that has been made with these challenging decommissioning operations at the SGHWR plant and to highlight some of the techniques and processes that have contributed to the overall success of the

  7. FAMS DECOMMISSIONING END-STATE ALTERNATIVE EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    Grimm, B; Stephen Chostner, S; Brenda Green, B

    2006-05-25

    Nuclear Material Management (NMM) completed a comprehensive study at the request of the Department of Energy Savannah River Operations Office (DOE-SR) in 2004 (Reference 11.1). The study evaluated the feasibility of removal and/or mitigation of the Pu-238 source term in the F-Area Material Storage (FAMS) facility during on-going material storage operations. The study recommended different options to remove and/or mitigate the Pu-238 source term depending on its location within the facility. During April 2005, the Department of Energy (DOE) sent a letter of direction (LOD) to Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC) directing WSRC to implement a new program direction that would enable an accelerated shutdown and decommissioning of FAMS (Reference 11.2). Further direction in the LOD stated that effective December 1, 2006 the facility will be transitioned to begin deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) activities. To implement the LOD, Site D&D (SDD) and DOE agreed the planning end-state would be demolition of the FAMS structure to the building slab. SDD developed the D&D strategy, preliminary cost and schedule, and issued the deactivation project plan in December 2005 (Reference 11.3). Due to concerns and questions regarding the FAMS planning end-state and in support of the project's Critical Decision 1, an alternative study was performed to evaluate the various decommissioning end-states and the methods by which those end-states are achieved. This report documents the results of the alternative evaluation which was performed in a structured decision-making process as outlined in the E7 Manual, Procedure 2.15, ''Alternative Studies'' (Reference 11.4).

  8. A review of decommissioning considerations for new reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Devgun, J.S.Ph.D.

    2008-07-01

    At a time of 'nuclear renaissance' when the focus is on advanced reactor designs and construction, it is easy to overlook the decommissioning considerations because such a stage in the life of the new reactors will be some sixty years down the road. Yet, one of the lessons learned from major decommissioning projects has been that decommissioning was not given much thought when these reactors were designed three or four decades ago. Hence, the time to examine what decommissioning considerations should be taken into account is right from the design stage with regular updates of the decommissioning strategy and plans throughout the life cycle of the reactor. Designing D and D into the new reactor designs is necessary to ensure that the tail end costs of the nuclear power are manageable. Such considerations during the design stage will facilitate a more cost-effective, safe and timely decommissioning of the facility when a reactor is eventually retired. This paper examines the current regulatory and industry design guidance for the new reactors with respect to the decommissioning issues and provides a review of the design considerations that can help optimize the reactor designs for the eventual decommissioning. (authors)

  9. Decommissioning considerations at a time of nuclear renaissance

    SciTech Connect

    Devgun, Jas S.

    2007-07-01

    At a time of renaissance in the nuclear power industry, when it is estimated that anywhere between 60 to 130 new power reactors may be built worldwide over the next 15 years, why should we focus on decommissioning? Yet it is precisely the time to examine what decommissioning considerations should be taken into account as the industry proceeds with developing final designs for new reactors and the construction on the new build begins. One of the lessons learned from decommissioning of existing reactors has been that decommissioning was not given much thought when these reactors were designed three or four decades ago. Even though decommissioning may be sixty years down the road from the time they go on line, eventually all reactors will be decommissioned. It is only prudent that new designs be optimized for eventual decommissioning, along with the other major considerations. The overall objective in this regard is that when the time comes for decommissioning, it can be completed in shorter time frames, with minimum generation of radioactive waste, and with better radiological safety. This will ensure that the tail end costs of the power reactors are manageable and that the public confidence in the nuclear power is sustained through the renaissance and beyond. (author)

  10. 78 FR 64028 - Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Reactors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... Register on February 14, 2012 (77 FR 8902), for a 60-day public comment period. The public comment period... COMMISSION Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... regulatory guide (RG) 1.184 ``Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Reactors.'' This guide describes a method...

  11. Decommissioning: Nuclear Power's Missing Link. Worldwatch Paper 69.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Cynthia

    The processes and associated dilemmas of nuclear power plant decommissioning are reviewed in this publication. Decommissioning involves the clearing up and disposal of a retired nuclear plant and its equipment of such a way as to safeguard the public from the dangers of radioactivity. Related problem areas are identified and include: (1) closure…

  12. 10 CFR 72.130 - Criteria for decommissioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria for decommissioning. 72.130 Section 72.130 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT... Criteria § 72.130 Criteria for decommissioning. The ISFSI or MRS must be designed for...

  13. Decontamination and decommissioning of the uranium mill and processing plant at Seelingstaedt, Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Barnekow, Ulf; Bauroth, Matthias; Paul, Michael

    2007-07-01

    In Eastern Germany uranium mining lasted from 1946 till 1990 including a production of in total 220,000 t of uranium. The Seelingstaedt Uranium Mill and Processing Plant, located in Thuringia, Germany, was one of two large uranium mills owned by Wismut. The mill was erected by 1960 and covered an area of 93 ha. From 1961 till 1991 a total of about 110 million t of different types of uranium ores were milled and processed at the Seelingstaedt mill. The mill produced ca. 110,000 t of uranium (in yellow cake). Demolition of the buildings and industrial facilities of the Seelingstaedt mill and processing plant site are nearly completed. The site is being decommissioned with respect to after-use aiming at afforestation and grasslands allowing for a stable plant succession. Decommissioning includes excavation and relocation of contaminated materials, reshaping of the site and construction of ditches for granting a stable surface runoff as well construction of access and maintenance roads. About 85% of the demolition and relocation works have been completed till to date. Last decommissioning works shall be completed by 2015. The present paper presents experiences made and progress achieved till to date. (authors)

  14. Environmental Problems Associated With Decommissioning The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E. B.; Jannik, G. T.; Marra, J. C.; Oskolkov, B. Ya.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Gaschak, S. P.; Maksymenko, A. M.; Maksymenko, V. M.; Martynenko, V. I.

    2009-11-09

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning.

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH DECOMMISSIONING THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT COOLING POND

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.

    2009-09-30

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning.

  16. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 12

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, P. T.; Webb, J. R.; Knox, N. P.; Goins, L. F.; Harrell, R. E.; Mallory, P. K.; Cravens, C. D.

    1991-09-01

    The 664 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the twelfth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types -- technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions -- have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Decontamination and Decommissioning Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) Environmental Restoration Program. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and key word. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects, analyzes, and disseminates information on environmental restoration and remedial actions. RAPIC staff and resources are available to meet a variety of information needs. Contact the center at FTS 624-7764 or (615) 574-7764.

  17. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 12. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The 664 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the twelfth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types -- technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions -- have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Decontamination and Decommissioning Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) Environmental Restoration Program. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and key word. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects, analyzes, and disseminates information on environmental restoration and remedial actions. RAPIC staff and resources are available to meet a variety of information needs. Contact the center at FTS 624-7764 or (615) 574-7764.

  18. 30 CFR 250.1754 - When must I remove a pipeline decommissioned in place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When must I remove a pipeline decommissioned in... Activities Pipeline Decommissioning § 250.1754 When must I remove a pipeline decommissioned in place? You must remove a pipeline decommissioned in place if the Regional Supervisor determines that the...

  19. 30 CFR 250.1750 - When may I decommission a pipeline in place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When may I decommission a pipeline in place... Pipeline Decommissioning § 250.1750 When may I decommission a pipeline in place? You may decommission a pipeline in place when the Regional Supervisor determines that the pipeline does not constitute a...

  20. 26 CFR 1.468A-4 - Treatment of nuclear decommissioning fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Treatment of nuclear decommissioning fund. 1...-4 Treatment of nuclear decommissioning fund. (a) In general. A nuclear decommissioning fund is... by the assets of the nuclear decommissioning fund. (b) Modified gross income. For purposes of...

  1. 26 CFR 1.468A-4T - Treatment of nuclear decommissioning fund (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Treatment of nuclear decommissioning fund...-4T Treatment of nuclear decommissioning fund (temporary). (a) In general. A nuclear decommissioning... income earned by the assets of the nuclear decommissioning fund. (b) Modified gross income. For...

  2. 26 CFR 1.468A-4 - Treatment of nuclear decommissioning fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Treatment of nuclear decommissioning fund. 1...-4 Treatment of nuclear decommissioning fund. (a) In general. A nuclear decommissioning fund is... by the assets of the nuclear decommissioning fund. (b) Modified gross income. For purposes of...

  3. 26 CFR 1.468A-4 - Treatment of nuclear decommissioning fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Treatment of nuclear decommissioning fund. 1...-4 Treatment of nuclear decommissioning fund. (a) In general. A nuclear decommissioning fund is... by the assets of the nuclear decommissioning fund. (b) Modified gross income. For purposes of...

  4. 26 CFR 1.468A-4 - Treatment of nuclear decommissioning fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Treatment of nuclear decommissioning fund. 1...-4 Treatment of nuclear decommissioning fund. (a) In general. A nuclear decommissioning fund is... by the assets of the nuclear decommissioning fund. (b) Modified gross income. For purposes of...

  5. Computational chemistry for graphene-based energy applications: progress and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Zak E.; Walsh, Tiffany R.

    2015-04-01

    Research in graphene-based energy materials is a rapidly growing area. Many graphene-based energy applications involve interfacial processes. To enable advances in the design of these energy materials, such that their operation, economy, efficiency and durability is at least comparable with fossil-fuel based alternatives, connections between the molecular-scale structure and function of these interfaces are needed. While it is experimentally challenging to resolve this interfacial structure, molecular simulation and computational chemistry can help bridge these gaps. In this Review, we summarise recent progress in the application of computational chemistry to graphene-based materials for fuel cells, batteries, photovoltaics and supercapacitors. We also outline both the bright prospects and emerging challenges these techniques face for application to graphene-based energy materials in future.

  6. Computational chemistry for graphene-based energy applications: progress and challenges.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Zak E; Walsh, Tiffany R

    2015-04-28

    Research in graphene-based energy materials is a rapidly growing area. Many graphene-based energy applications involve interfacial processes. To enable advances in the design of these energy materials, such that their operation, economy, efficiency and durability is at least comparable with fossil-fuel based alternatives, connections between the molecular-scale structure and function of these interfaces are needed. While it is experimentally challenging to resolve this interfacial structure, molecular simulation and computational chemistry can help bridge these gaps. In this Review, we summarise recent progress in the application of computational chemistry to graphene-based materials for fuel cells, batteries, photovoltaics and supercapacitors. We also outline both the bright prospects and emerging challenges these techniques face for application to graphene-based energy materials in future. PMID:25833794

  7. Progress toward determining the potential of ODS alloys for gas turbine applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreshfield, R. L.; Hoppin, G., III; Sheffler, K.

    1983-01-01

    The Materials for Advanced Turbine Engine (MATE) Program managed by the NASA Lewis Research Center is supporting two projects to evaluate the potential of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys for aircraft gas turbine applications. One project involves the evaluation of Incoloy (TM) MA-956 for application as a combustor liner material. An assessment of advanced engine potential will be conducted by means of a test in a P&WA 2037 turbofan engine. The other project involves the evaluation of Inconel (TM) MA 6000 for application as a high pressure turbine blade material and includes a test in a Garrett TFE 731 turbofan engine. Both projects are progressing toward these engine tests in 1984.

  8. [Progress in establishment and application of feline calicivirus reverse genetics operating system].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanli; Dong, Hongwei; Chen, Xiaoqing; Gao, Chao; Liu, Qiuyan; Yang, Songtao; Hu, Guixue

    2015-01-01

    Feline calicivirus (FCV) is an important and highly prevalent pathogen of cats that causes feline respiratory disease. The reverse genetic systems for FCV have been established in national and international laboratories since 1995. This technique has been used widely in FCV basic research and good progress has consequently been made to determine the relationship between viral genome structures and the function of their proteins, the expression of foreign proteins, virus-host interactions, and viral pathogenic mechanisms. In this article,we review the state of progress with regards to the establishment and application of the FCV reverse genetic operating system,which will provide a useful reference tool for future related research. PMID:25997334

  9. Optimal policies for aggregate recycling from decommissioned forest roads.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Matthew; Sessions, John

    2008-08-01

    To mitigate the adverse environmental impact of forest roads, especially degradation of endangered salmonid habitat, many public and private land managers in the western United States are actively decommissioning roads where practical and affordable. Road decommissioning is associated with reduced long-term environmental impact. When decommissioning a road, it may be possible to recover some aggregate (crushed rock) from the road surface. Aggregate is used on many low volume forest roads to reduce wheel stresses transferred to the subgrade, reduce erosion, reduce maintenance costs, and improve driver comfort. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for aggregate to be recovered and used elsewhere on the road network, at a reduced cost compared to purchasing aggregate from a quarry. This article investigates the potential for aggregate recycling to provide an economic incentive to decommission additional roads by reducing transport distance and aggregate procurement costs for other actively used roads. Decommissioning additional roads may, in turn, result in improved aquatic habitat. We present real-world examples of aggregate recycling and discuss the advantages of doing so. Further, we present mixed integer formulations to determine optimal levels of aggregate recycling under economic and environmental objectives. Tested on an example road network, incorporation of aggregate recycling demonstrates substantial cost-savings relative to a baseline scenario without recycling, increasing the likelihood of road decommissioning and reduced habitat degradation. We find that aggregate recycling can result in up to 24% in cost savings (economic objective) and up to 890% in additional length of roads decommissioned (environmental objective).

  10. Optimal Policies for Aggregate Recycling from Decommissioned Forest Roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Matthew; Sessions, John

    2008-08-01

    To mitigate the adverse environmental impact of forest roads, especially degradation of endangered salmonid habitat, many public and private land managers in the western United States are actively decommissioning roads where practical and affordable. Road decommissioning is associated with reduced long-term environmental impact. When decommissioning a road, it may be possible to recover some aggregate (crushed rock) from the road surface. Aggregate is used on many low volume forest roads to reduce wheel stresses transferred to the subgrade, reduce erosion, reduce maintenance costs, and improve driver comfort. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for aggregate to be recovered and used elsewhere on the road network, at a reduced cost compared to purchasing aggregate from a quarry. This article investigates the potential for aggregate recycling to provide an economic incentive to decommission additional roads by reducing transport distance and aggregate procurement costs for other actively used roads. Decommissioning additional roads may, in turn, result in improved aquatic habitat. We present real-world examples of aggregate recycling and discuss the advantages of doing so. Further, we present mixed integer formulations to determine optimal levels of aggregate recycling under economic and environmental objectives. Tested on an example road network, incorporation of aggregate recycling demonstrates substantial cost-savings relative to a baseline scenario without recycling, increasing the likelihood of road decommissioning and reduced habitat degradation. We find that aggregate recycling can result in up to 24% in cost savings (economic objective) and up to 890% in additional length of roads decommissioned (environmental objective).

  11. Optimal policies for aggregate recycling from decommissioned forest roads.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Matthew; Sessions, John

    2008-08-01

    To mitigate the adverse environmental impact of forest roads, especially degradation of endangered salmonid habitat, many public and private land managers in the western United States are actively decommissioning roads where practical and affordable. Road decommissioning is associated with reduced long-term environmental impact. When decommissioning a road, it may be possible to recover some aggregate (crushed rock) from the road surface. Aggregate is used on many low volume forest roads to reduce wheel stresses transferred to the subgrade, reduce erosion, reduce maintenance costs, and improve driver comfort. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for aggregate to be recovered and used elsewhere on the road network, at a reduced cost compared to purchasing aggregate from a quarry. This article investigates the potential for aggregate recycling to provide an economic incentive to decommission additional roads by reducing transport distance and aggregate procurement costs for other actively used roads. Decommissioning additional roads may, in turn, result in improved aquatic habitat. We present real-world examples of aggregate recycling and discuss the advantages of doing so. Further, we present mixed integer formulations to determine optimal levels of aggregate recycling under economic and environmental objectives. Tested on an example road network, incorporation of aggregate recycling demonstrates substantial cost-savings relative to a baseline scenario without recycling, increasing the likelihood of road decommissioning and reduced habitat degradation. We find that aggregate recycling can result in up to 24% in cost savings (economic objective) and up to 890% in additional length of roads decommissioned (environmental objective). PMID:18481140

  12. DECOMMISSIONING OF A CAESIUM-137 SEALED SOURCE PRODUCTION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, A.; Abbott, H.

    2003-02-27

    Amersham owns a former Caesium-137 sealed source production facility. They commissioned RWE NUKEM to carry out an Option Study to determine a strategy for the management of this facility and then the subsequent decommissioning of it. The decommissioning was carried out in two sequential phases. Firstly robotic decommissioning followed by a phase of manual decommissioning. This paper describes the remote equipment designed built and operated, the robotic and manual decommissioning operations performed, the Safety Management arrangements and summarizes the lessons learned. Using the equipment described the facility was dismantled and decontaminated robotically. Some 2300kg of Intermediate Level Waste containing in the order of 4000Ci were removed robotically from the facility. Ambient dose rates were reduced from 100's of R per hour {gamma} to 100's of mR per hour {gamma}. The Telerobotic System was then removed to allow man access to complete the decommissioning. Manual decommissioning reduced ambient dose rates further to less than 1mR per hour {gamma} and loose contamination levels to less than 0.25Bq/cm2. This allowed access to the facility without respiratory protection.

  13. Safety Oversight of Decommissioning Activities at DOE Nuclear Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Zull, Lawrence M.; Yeniscavich, William

    2008-01-15

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (Board) is an independent federal agency established by Congress in 1988 to provide nuclear safety oversight of activities at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) defense nuclear facilities. The activities under the Board's jurisdiction include the design, construction, startup, operation, and decommissioning of defense nuclear facilities at DOE sites. This paper reviews the Board's safety oversight of decommissioning activities at DOE sites, identifies the safety problems observed, and discusses Board initiatives to improve the safety of decommissioning activities at DOE sites. The decommissioning of former defense nuclear facilities has reduced the risk of radioactive material contamination and exposure to the public and site workers. In general, efforts to perform decommissioning work at DOE defense nuclear sites have been successful, and contractors performing decommissioning work have a good safety record. Decommissioning activities have recently been completed at sites identified for closure, including the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, the Fernald Closure Project, and the Miamisburg Closure Project (the Mound site). The Rocky Flats and Fernald sites, which produced plutonium parts and uranium materials for defense needs (respectively), have been turned into wildlife refuges. The Mound site, which performed R and D activities on nuclear materials, has been converted into an industrial and technology park called the Mound Advanced Technology Center. The DOE Office of Legacy Management is responsible for the long term stewardship of these former EM sites. The Board has reviewed many decommissioning activities, and noted that there are valuable lessons learned that can benefit both DOE and the contractor. As part of its ongoing safety oversight responsibilities, the Board and its staff will continue to review the safety of DOE and contractor decommissioning activities at DOE defense nuclear sites.

  14. Recent Progress in Discrete Dislocation Dynamics and Its Applications to Micro Plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Po, Giacomo; Mohamed, Mamdouh S.; Crosby, Tamer; Erel, Can; El-Azab, Anter; Ghoniem, Nasr

    2014-09-01

    We present a self-contained review of the discrete dislocation dynamics (DDD) method for the numerical investigation of plasticity in crystals, focusing on recent development and implementation progress. The review covers the theoretical foundations of DDD within the framework of incompatible elasticity, its numerical implementation via the nodal method, the extension of the method to finite domains and several implementation details. Applications of the method to current topics in micro-plasticity are presented, including the size effects in nano-indentation, the evolution of the dislocation microstructure in persistent slip bands, and the phenomenon of dislocation avalanches in micro-pillar compression.

  15. Recent Progress in Discrete Dislocation Dynamics and Its Applications to Micro Plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Po, Giacomo; Mohamed, Mamdouh S.; Crosby, Tamer; Erel, Can; El-Azab, Anter; Ghoniem, Nasr

    2014-10-01

    We present a self-contained review of the discrete dislocation dynamics (DDD) method for the numerical investigation of plasticity in crystals, focusing on recent development and implementation progress. The review covers the theoretical foundations of DDD within the framework of incompatible elasticity, its numerical implementation via the nodal method, the extension of the method to finite domains and several implementation details. Applications of the method to current topics in micro-plasticity are presented, including the size effects in nano-indentation, the evolution of the dislocation microstructure in persistent slip bands, and the phenomenon of dislocation avalanches in micro-pillar compression.

  16. Progress in vacuum susceptibilities and their applications to the chiral phase transition of QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Zhu-Fang; Hou, Feng-Yao; Shi, Yuan-Mei; Wang, Yong-Long; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2015-07-15

    The QCD vacuum condensates and various vacuum susceptibilities are all important parameters which characterize the nonperturbative properties of the QCD vacuum. In the QCD sum rules external field formula, various QCD vacuum susceptibilities play important roles in determining the properties of hadrons. In this paper, we review the recent progress in studies of vacuum susceptibilities together with their applications to the chiral phase transition of QCD. The results of the tensor, the vector, the axial–vector, the scalar, and the pseudo-scalar vacuum susceptibilities are shown in detail in the framework of Dyson–Schwinger equations.

  17. Atmospheric remote sensing and applications from GNSS: Recent results and progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shuanggen; Gurbuz, Gokhan; Akgul, Volkan

    2016-07-01

    The atmospheric delay is one of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) errors. Nowadays, the total zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) and ionospheric total electron content (TEC) can be precisely obtained from GNSS, which can be used for weather prediction and atmospheric research as well as space weather. In this paper, recent results and progress on atmospheric remote sensing and applications from GNSS are presented, including ocean tide models and mapping functions effects, high-order ionospheric delay correction, tropoapause variations, ionospheric climatology, seismo-atmospheric anomalies and characteristics. Finally, some possible mechanism on atmospheric anomalies and coupling processes are given and discussed as well as future challenges.

  18. Technology Development, Evaluation, and Application (TDEA) FY 2001 Progress Report Environment, Safety, and Health (ESH) Division

    SciTech Connect

    L.G. Hoffman; K. Alvar; T. Buhl; E. Foltyn; W. Hansen; B. Erdal; P. Fresquez; D. Lee; B. Reinert

    2002-05-01

    This progress report presents the results of 11 projects funded ($500K) in FY01 by the Technology Development, Evaluation, and Application (TDEA) Committee of the Environment, Safety, and Health Division (ESH). Five projects fit into the Health Physics discipline, 5 projects are environmental science and one is industrial hygiene/safety. As a result of their TDEA-funded projects, investigators have published sixteen papers in professional journals, proceedings, or Los Alamos reports and presented their work at professional meetings. Supplement funds and in-kind contributions, such as staff time, instrument use, and workspace, were also provided to TDEA-funded projects by organizations external to ESH Divisions.

  19. Technology Development, Evaluation, and Application (TDEA) FY 1999 Progress Report, Environment, Safety, and Health (ESH) Division

    SciTech Connect

    Larry G. Hoffman

    2000-12-01

    This progress report presents the results of 10 projects funded ($500K) in FY99 by the Technology Development, Evaluation, and Application (TDEA) Committee of the Environment, Safety, and Health Division. Five are new projects for this year; seven projects have been completed in their third and final TDEA-funded year. As a result of their TDEA-funded projects, investigators have published thirty-four papers in professional journals, proceedings, or Los Alamos reports and presented their work at professional meetings. Supplemental funds and in-kind contributions, such as staff time, instrument use, and work space, were also provided to TDEA-funded projects by organizations external to ESH Division.

  20. Constructing Predictive Estimates for Worker Exposure to Radioactivity During Decommissioning: Analysis of Completed Decommissioning Projects - Master Thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Dettmers, Dana Lee; Eide, Steven Arvid

    2002-10-01

    An analysis of completed decommissioning projects is used to construct predictive estimates for worker exposure to radioactivity during decommissioning activities. The preferred organizational method for the completed decommissioning project data is to divide the data by type of facility, whether decommissioning was performed on part of the facility or the complete facility, and the level of radiation within the facility prior to decommissioning (low, medium, or high). Additional data analysis shows that there is not a downward trend in worker exposure data over time. Also, the use of a standard estimate for worker exposure to radioactivity may be a best estimate for low complete storage, high partial storage, and medium reactor facilities; a conservative estimate for some low level of facility radiation facilities (reactor complete, research complete, pits/ponds, other), medium partial process facilities, and high complete research facilities; and an underestimate for the remaining facilities. Limited data are available to compare different decommissioning alternatives, so the available data are reported and no conclusions can been drawn. It is recommended that all DOE sites and the NRC use a similar method to document worker hours, worker exposure to radiation (person-rem), and standard industrial accidents, injuries, and deaths for all completed decommissioning activities.

  1. Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorial issue, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2008-07-15

    The focus of the July-August issue is on Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorials. Articles and reports in this issue include: D and D technical paper summaries; The role of nuclear power in turbulent times, by Tom Chrisopher, AREVA, NP, Inc.; Enthusiastic about new technologies, by Jack Fuller, GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy; It's important to be good citizens, by Steve Rus, Black and Veatch Corporation; Creating Jobs in the U.S., by Guy E. Chardon, ALSTOM Power; and, and, An enviroment and a community champion, by Tyler Lamberts, Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. The Industry Innovations article is titled Best of the best TIP achievement 2008, by Edward Conaway, STP Nuclear Operating Company.

  2. DEACTIVATION AND DECOMMISSIONING (D AND D) TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the ongoing task of making Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D) operations more efficient, this subtask has addressed the need to integrate existing characterization technologies with decontamination technologies in order to provide real-time data on the progress of contamination removal. Specifically, technologies associated with concrete decontamination and/or removal have been examined with the goal of integrating existing technologies and commercializing the resulting hybrid. The Department of Energy (DOE) has estimated that 23 million cubic meters of concrete will require disposition as 1200 buildings undergo the D&D process. All concrete removal to be performed will also necessitate extensive use of characterization techniques. The in-process characterization presents the most potential for improvement and cost-savings as compared to other types. Current methods for in-process characterization usually require cessation of work to allow for radiation surveys to assess the rate of decontamination. Combining together decontamination and characterization technologies would allow for in-process evaluation of decontamination efforts. Since the present methods do not use in-process evaluations for the progress of decontamination, they may allow for ''overremoval'' of materials (removal of contaminated along with non-contaminated materials). Overremoval increases the volume of waste and therefore the costs associated with disposal. Integrating technologies would facilitate the removal of only contaminated concrete and reduce the total volume of radioactive waste, which would be disposed of. This would eventually ensure better productivity and time savings. This project presents a general procedure to integrate the above-mentioned technologies in the form of the Technology Integration Module (TIM) along with combination lists of commercially available decontamination and characterization technologies. The scope of the project has also been expanded by FIU

  3. [Research progress and application prospect of near-infrared spectroscopy in analysis of food amino acid].

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Lan; Xu, Ning; He, Yong

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the progress and application of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) used to detect amino acids in the growth of crops and food processing process. With online searching databases including ISI (Web of Knowledge), CNKI (China Knowledge Network), summarize the detection of chemical value using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and chemometric methods involved in the application of NIR used to analyze amino acids in food, meanwhile summarize the data, materials and main topics in relevant original literature. Overview the methods of chemical value detection using HPLC and chemometric analysis, their applications in detecting the quality of crops, determining the content of water, amino acids and polyphenol in green tea, detecting the quality of feed and determining the content of amino acids in cheese, ham and meat products, We forecasted the application of NIR in determining the content of amino acids in food and analyzed its merits and drawbacks. The development of NIR's application in amino acids detection should be based on the HPLC detection, and the problem of model transfer mainly restricts its large-scale promotion currently. Online analysis can monitor the entire reaction and change process from raw materials to products and thus meets the needs of real-time monitoring food quality from production to sales, and it will be an important direction for future.

  4. Progress on uncooled PbSe detectors for low-cost applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergara, German; Gomez, Luis J.; Villamayor, Victor; Alvarez, M.; Rodrigo, Maria T.; del Carmen Torquemada, Maria; Sanchez, Fernando J.; Verdu, Marina; Diezhandino, Jorge; Rodriguez, Purificacion; Catalan, Irene; Almazan, Rosa; Plaza, Julio; Montojo, Maria T.

    2004-08-01

    This work reports on progress on development of polycrystalline PbSe infrared detectors at the Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo de la Armada (CIDA). Since mid nineties, the CIDA owns an innovative technology for processing uncooled MWIR detectors of polycrystalline PbSe. Based on this technology, some applications have been developed. However, future applications demand smarter, more complex, faster yet cheaper detectors. Aiming to open new perspectives to polycrystalline PbSe detectors, we are currently working on different directions: 1) Processing of 2D arrays: a) Designing and processing low density x-y addressed arrays with 16x16 and 32x32 elements, as an extension of our standard technology. b) Trying to make compatible standard CMOS and polycrystalline PbSe technologies in order to process monolithic large format arrays. 2) Adding new features to the detector such as monolithically integrated spectral discrimination.

  5. Recent Progress on Cellulose-Based Electro-Active Paper, Its Hybrid Nanocomposites and Applications.

    PubMed

    Khan, Asif; Abas, Zafar; Kim, Heung Soo; Kim, Jaehwan

    2016-01-01

    We report on the recent progress and development of research into cellulose-based electro-active paper for bending actuators, bioelectronics devices, and electromechanical transducers. The cellulose electro-active paper is characterized in terms of its biodegradability, chirality, ample chemically modifying capacity, light weight, actuation capability, and ability to form hybrid nanocomposites. The mechanical, electrical, and chemical characterizations of the cellulose-based electro-active paper and its hybrid composites such as blends or coatings with synthetic polymers, biopolymers, carbon nanotubes, chitosan, and metal oxides, are explained. In addition, the integration of cellulose electro-active paper is highlighted to form various functional devices including but not limited to bending actuators, flexible speaker, strain sensors, energy harvesting transducers, biosensors, chemical sensors and transistors for electronic applications. The frontiers in cellulose paper devices are reviewed together with the strategies and perspectives of cellulose electro-active paper and cellulose nanocomposite research and applications. PMID:27472335

  6. Recent Progress on Cellulose-Based Electro-Active Paper, Its Hybrid Nanocomposites and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Asif; Abas, Zafar; Kim, Heung Soo; Kim, Jaehwan

    2016-01-01

    We report on the recent progress and development of research into cellulose-based electro-active paper for bending actuators, bioelectronics devices, and electromechanical transducers. The cellulose electro-active paper is characterized in terms of its biodegradability, chirality, ample chemically modifying capacity, light weight, actuation capability, and ability to form hybrid nanocomposites. The mechanical, electrical, and chemical characterizations of the cellulose-based electro-active paper and its hybrid composites such as blends or coatings with synthetic polymers, biopolymers, carbon nanotubes, chitosan, and metal oxides, are explained. In addition, the integration of cellulose electro-active paper is highlighted to form various functional devices including but not limited to bending actuators, flexible speaker, strain sensors, energy harvesting transducers, biosensors, chemical sensors and transistors for electronic applications. The frontiers in cellulose paper devices are reviewed together with the strategies and perspectives of cellulose electro-active paper and cellulose nanocomposite research and applications. PMID:27472335

  7. Recent Progress on Cellulose-Based Electro-Active Paper, Its Hybrid Nanocomposites and Applications.

    PubMed

    Khan, Asif; Abas, Zafar; Kim, Heung Soo; Kim, Jaehwan

    2016-07-26

    We report on the recent progress and development of research into cellulose-based electro-active paper for bending actuators, bioelectronics devices, and electromechanical transducers. The cellulose electro-active paper is characterized in terms of its biodegradability, chirality, ample chemically modifying capacity, light weight, actuation capability, and ability to form hybrid nanocomposites. The mechanical, electrical, and chemical characterizations of the cellulose-based electro-active paper and its hybrid composites such as blends or coatings with synthetic polymers, biopolymers, carbon nanotubes, chitosan, and metal oxides, are explained. In addition, the integration of cellulose electro-active paper is highlighted to form various functional devices including but not limited to bending actuators, flexible speaker, strain sensors, energy harvesting transducers, biosensors, chemical sensors and transistors for electronic applications. The frontiers in cellulose paper devices are reviewed together with the strategies and perspectives of cellulose electro-active paper and cellulose nanocomposite research and applications.

  8. DiME: A Scalable Disease Module Identification Algorithm with Application to Glioma Progression

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yunpeng; Tennant, Daniel A.; Zhu, Zexuan; Heath, John K.; Yao, Xin; He, Shan

    2014-01-01

    Disease module is a group of molecular components that interact intensively in the disease specific biological network. Since the connectivity and activity of disease modules may shed light on the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis and disease progression, their identification becomes one of the most important challenges in network medicine, an emerging paradigm to study complex human disease. This paper proposes a novel algorithm, DiME (Disease Module Extraction), to identify putative disease modules from biological networks. We have developed novel heuristics to optimise Community Extraction, a module criterion originally proposed for social network analysis, to extract topological core modules from biological networks as putative disease modules. In addition, we have incorporated a statistical significance measure, B-score, to evaluate the quality of extracted modules. As an application to complex diseases, we have employed DiME to investigate the molecular mechanisms that underpin the progression of glioma, the most common type of brain tumour. We have built low (grade II) - and high (GBM) - grade glioma co-expression networks from three independent datasets and then applied DiME to extract potential disease modules from both networks for comparison. Examination of the interconnectivity of the identified modules have revealed changes in topology and module activity (expression) between low- and high- grade tumours, which are characteristic of the major shifts in the constitution and physiology of tumour cells during glioma progression. Our results suggest that transcription factors E2F4, AR and ETS1 are potential key regulators in tumour progression. Our DiME compiled software, R/C++ source code, sample data and a tutorial are available at http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/~szh/DiME. PMID:24523864

  9. Suspended-sediment concentrations during dam decommissioning in the Elwha River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curran, Christopher A.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Duda, Jeffrey J.

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, the National Park Service commenced the incremental removal of two century-old dams along the Elwha River, Washington, in order to restore ecological and sediment-delivery processes (U.S. Department of the Interior, 1996; Duda and others, 2008, 2011; Curran and others, 2009). Elwha Dam (32-m high; 8 km from the Strait of Juan de Fuca) was completed in 1913, and Glines Canyon Dam (64-m high; 22 km from the Strait of Juan de Fuca) was completed in 1927 (fig. 1). Elwha Dam formed Lake Aldwell and Glines Canyon Dam formed Lake Mills. During the decommissioning period, each dam was notched from the top down in progressive steps to allow a metered release of sediment to downstream river reaches (Randle and others, 1996; Randle and Bountry, 2010; Czuba and others, 2011). Throughout the project, decommissioning was periodically ceased (termed “deconstruction hold periods”) to reduce effects of increased sediment concentration on migrating fish or to accomplish sediment-transport management targets (U.S. Department of the Interior, 1996; Czuba and others, 2011). Dam decommissioning started in September 2011 with both dams. Elwha Dam was completely removed by April 2012, which permitted unregulated release of sediment trapped in Lake Aldwell. Lake Mills Reservoir ceased to exist in autumn 2012 as the prograding delta of sediment in the reservoir finally abutted the lowered Glines Canyon Dam structure. In cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the National Park Service, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was asked to measure turbidity and calculate suspended-sediment concentrations in the lower Elwha River during the dam-decommissioning and river-restoration project. During the project, USGS operated a turbidity sensor at a water-quality monitoring station in the lower Elwha River (fig. 1), which collected data at 15-min increments. The USGS also collected suspended-sediment samples from the lower Elwha River about 380 m downstream of the

  10. Recent Progress in Producing Lignin-Based Carbon Fibers for Functional Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Ryan; Burwell, Deanna; Dai, Xuliang; Naskar, Amit; Gallego, Nidia; Akato, Kokouvi

    2015-10-29

    Lignin, a biopolymer, has been investigated as a renewable and low-cost carbon fiber precursor since the 1960s. Although successful lab-scale production of lignin-based carbon fibers has been reported, there are currently not any commercial producers. This paper will highlight some of the known challenges with converting lignin-based precursors into carbon fiber, and the reported methods for purifying and modifying lignin to improve it as a precursor. Several of the challenges with lignin are related to its diversity in chemical structure and purity, depending on its biomass source (e.g. hardwood, softwood, grasses) and extraction method (e.g. organosolv, kraft). In order to make progress in this field, GrafTech and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are collaborating to develop lignin-based carbon fiber technology and to demonstrate it in functional applications, as part of a cooperative agreement with the DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office. The progress made to date with producing lignin-based carbon fiber for functional applications, as well as developing and qualifying a supply chain and value proposition, are also highlighted.

  11. DEACTIVATION AND DECOMMISSIONING ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY FOR THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT COMPLEX, HANFORD NUCLEAR RESERVATION

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, A.M.; Heineman, R.; Norton, S.; Miller, M.; Oates, L.

    2003-02-27

    Maintaining compliance with environmental regulatory requirements is a significant priority in successful completion of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Nuclear Material Stabilization (NMS) Project. To ensure regulatory compliance throughout the deactivation and decommissioning of the PFP complex, an environmental regulatory strategy was developed. The overall goal of this strategy is to comply with all applicable environmental laws and regulations and/or compliance agreements during PFP stabilization, deactivation, and eventual dismantlement. Significant environmental drivers for the PFP Nuclear Material Stabilization Project include the Tri-Party Agreement; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA); the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA); the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA); the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA); the Clean Air Act (CAA), and the Clean Water Act (CWA). Recent TPA negotiation s with Ecology and EPA have resulted in milestones that support the use of CERCLA as the primary statutory framework for decommissioning PFP. Milestones have been negotiated to support the preparation of Engineering Evaluations/Cost Analyses for decommissioning major PFP buildings. Specifically, CERCLA EE/CA(s) are anticipated for the following scopes of work: Settling Tank 241-Z-361, the 232-Z Incinerator, , the process facilities (eg, 234-5Z, 242, 236) and the process facility support buildings. These CERCLA EE/CA(s) are for the purpose of analyzing the appropriateness of the slab-on-grade endpoint Additionally, agreement was reached on performing an evaluation of actions necessary to address below-grade structures or other structures remaining after completion of the decommissioning of PFP. Remaining CERCLA actions will be integrated with other Central Plateau activities at the Hanford site.

  12. Lessons Learned from the NASA Plum Brook Reactor Facility Decommissioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    NASA has been conducting decommissioning activities at its PBRF for the last decade. As a result of all this work there have been several lessons learned both good and bad. This paper presents some of the more exportable lessons.

  13. The Decommissioning of the Trino Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Brusa, L.; DeSantis, R.; Nurden, P. L.; Walkden, P.; Watson, B.

    2002-02-27

    Following a referendum in Italy in 1987, the four Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) owned and operated by the state utility ENEL were closed. After closing the NPPs, ENEL selected a ''safestore'' decommissioning strategy; anticipating a safestore period of some 40-50 years. This approach was consistent with the funds collected during plant operation, and was reinforced by the lack of both a waste repository and a set of national free release limits for contaminated materials in Italy. During 1999, twin decisions were made to privatize ENEL and to transform the nuclear division into a separate subsidiary of the ENEL group. This group was renamed Sogin and during the following year, ownership of the company was transferred to the Italian Treasury. On formation, Sogin was asked by the Italian government to review the national decommissioning strategy. The objective of the review was to move from a safestore strategy to a prompt decommissioning strategy, with the target of releasing all of the nuclear sites by 2020. It was recognized that this target was conditional upon the availability of a national LLW repository together with interim stores for both spent fuel and HLW by 2009. The government also agreed that additional costs caused by the acceleration of the decommissioning program would be considered as stranded costs. These costs will be recovered by a levy on the kWh price of electricity, a process established and controlled by the Regulator of the Italian energy sector. Building on the successful collaboration to develop a prompt decommissioning strategy for the Latina Magnox reactor (1), BNFL and Sogin agreed to collaborate on an in depth study for the prompt decommissioning of the Sogin PWR at Trino. BNFL is currently decommissioning six NPPs and is at an advanced stage of planning for two further units, having completed a full and rigorous exercise to develop Baseline Decommissioning Plans (BDP's) for these stations. The BDP exercise utilizes the full range of

  14. Preliminary decommissioning study reports. Volume 5, Molten Salt Reactor Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Peretz, F.J.

    1984-09-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) is one of approximately 76 facilities currently managed by the ORNL Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). This program, as part of the DOE national SFMP, is responsible for the maintenance and surveillance and the final decommissioning of radioactively-contaminated surplus ORNL facilities. A long range planning effort is being conducted that will outline the scope and objectives of the ORNL program and establish decommissioning priorities based on health and safety concerns, budget constraints, and other programmatic constraints. In support of this SFMP planning activity, preliminary engineering assessments are being conducted for each of the ORNL surplus facilities currently managed under the program. These efforts, in general, are designed to: (1) provide an initial assessment of the potential decommissioning alternatives; (2) choose a preferred alternative and provide a justification for that choice, and (3) provide a preliminary description of the decommissioning plan, including cost and schedule estimates. Because of several issues which cannot be evaluated quantitatively at this time, this report on the MSRE does not select a ``most probable decommissioning mode`` but rather discusses the issues and representative alternatives for disposal of the MSRE fuel salts and decommissioning of the facility. A budget and schedule representative of the types of activities likely to be required is also suggested for preliminary use in the SFMP Long Range Plan.

  15. The unit cost factors and calculation methods for decommissioning - Cost estimation of nuclear research facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan-Seong Jeong; Dong-Gyu Lee; Chong-Hun Jung; Kune-Woo Lee

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The uncertainties of decommissioning costs increase high due to several conditions. Decommissioning cost estimation depends on the complexity of nuclear installations, its site-specific physical and radiological inventories. Therefore, the decommissioning costs of nuclear research facilities must be estimated in accordance with the detailed sub-tasks and resources by the tasks of decommissioning activities. By selecting the classified activities and resources, costs are calculated by the items and then the total costs of all decommissioning activities are reshuffled to match with its usage and objectives. And the decommissioning cost of nuclear research facilities is calculated by applying a unit cost factor method on which classification of decommissioning works fitted with the features and specifications of decommissioning objects and establishment of composition factors are based. Decommissioning costs of nuclear research facilities are composed of labor cost, equipment and materials cost. Of these three categorical costs, the calculation of labor costs are very important because decommissioning activities mainly depend on labor force. Labor costs in decommissioning activities are calculated on the basis of working time consumed in decommissioning objects and works. The working times are figured out of unit cost factors and work difficulty factors. Finally, labor costs are figured out by using these factors as parameters of calculation. The accuracy of decommissioning cost estimation results is much higher compared to the real decommissioning works. (authors)

  16. Deactivation and Decommissioning Planning and Analysis with Geographic Information Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, James S.; Koffman, Larry D.; Austin, William E.

    2008-01-15

    From the mid-1950's through the 1980's, the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site produced nuclear materials for the weapons stockpile, for medical and industrial applications, and for space exploration. Although SRS has a continuing defense-related mission, the overall site mission is now oriented toward environmental restoration and management of legacy chemical and nuclear waste. With the change in mission, SRS no longer has a need for much of the infrastructure developed to support the weapons program. This excess infrastructure, which includes over 1000 facilities, will be decommissioned and demolished over the forthcoming years. Dis-positioning facilities for decommissioning and deactivation requires significant resources to determine hazards, structure type, and a rough-order-of-magnitude estimate for the decommissioning and demolition cost. Geographic information systems (GIS) technology was used to help manage the process of dis-positioning infrastructure and for reporting the future status of impacted facilities. Several thousand facilities of various ages and conditions are present at SRS. Many of these facilities, built to support previous defense-related missions, now represent a potential hazard and cost for maintenance and surveillance. To reduce costs and the hazards associated with this excess infrastructure, SRS has developed an ambitious plan to decommission and demolish unneeded facilities in a systematic fashion. GIS technology was used to assist development of this plan by: providing locational information for remote facilities, identifying the location of known waste units adjacent to buildings slated for demolition, and for providing a powerful visual representation of the impact of the overall plan. Several steps were required for the development of the infrastructure GIS model. The first step involved creating an accurate and current GIS representation of the infrastructure data. This data is maintained in a Computer Aided Design

  17. Revised Analyses of Decommissioning Reference Non-Fuel-Cycle Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    MC Bierschbach; DR Haffner; KJ Schneider; SM Short

    2002-12-01

    Cost information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of non-fuel-cycle nuclear facilities that represent a significant decommissioning task in terms of decontamination and disposal activities. This study is a re-evaluation of the original study (NUREG/CR-1754 and NUREG/CR-1754, Addendum 1). The reference facilities examined in this study are the same as in the original study and include: a laboratory for the manufacture of {sup 3}H-labeled compounds; a laboratory for the manufacture of {sup 14}C-labeled compounds; a laboratory for the manufacture of {sup 123}I-labeled compounds; a laboratory for the manufacture of {sup 137}Cs sealed sources; a laboratory for the manufacture of {sup 241}Am sealed sources; and an institutional user laboratory. In addition to the laboratories, three reference sites that require some decommissioning effort were also examined. These sites are: (1) a site with a contaminated drain line and hold-up tank; (2) a site with a contaminated ground surface; and (3) a tailings pile containing uranium and thorium residues. Decommissioning of these reference facilities and sites can be accomplished using techniques and equipment that are in common industrial use. Essentially the same technology assumed in the original study is used in this study. For the reference laboratory-type facilities, the study approach is to first evaluate the decommissioning of individual components (e.g., fume hoods, glove boxes, and building surfaces) that are common to many laboratory facilities. The information obtained from analyzing the individual components of each facility are then used to determine the cost, manpower requirements and dose information for the decommissioning of the entire facility. DECON, the objective of the 1988 Rulemaking for materials facilities, is the decommissioning alternative evaluated for the reference laboratories because it results in the release of the facility for restricted or unrestricted use as soon as possible. For a

  18. Cost Savings through Innovation in Decontamination, Decommissioning, and Dismantlement

    SciTech Connect

    Neal A. Yancey

    2003-02-27

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost effective technologies for the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsored large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs) to help bring new technologies into the D&D programs. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) LSDDP generated a list of needs defining specific problems where improved technologies could be incorporated into ongoing D&D tasks. The needs fell into 5 major categories--characterization, dismantlement, safety, material dispositioning, and decontamination. Technologies were carefully selected that provide a large benefit for a small investment. The technologies must provide significant improvements in cost, safety, radiation exposure, waste volume reduction, or schedule savings and widely applicable throughout the DOE complex. The LSDDP project provided training for the new technologies and worked with technology suppliers to resolve any questions that arose. Since 1998, 26 technologies have been demonstrated or deployed through the LSDDP for the D&D program at the INEEL. Of the 26 demonstrated and deployed technologies, 14 were in characterization, 3 were in decontamination, 4 were in dismantlement, 3 were in safety, and 2 were in material dispositioning. To promote the use of these technologies at other sites within the DOE complex, the LSDDP team published fact sheets, videos, technology summary reports, articles in INEEL star newspaper, posters, and maintained an internet home page on the project. As a result, additional deployments have taken place at the Hanford, Mound, Fernald, Oak Ridge, Ashtabula, and West Valley. Eight of the 26 technologies evaluated were developed in foreign countries. The technologies demonstrated have been shown to be faster, less expensive, and/or safer. The

  19. Development of a Preliminary Decommissioning Plan Following the International Structure for Decommissioning Costing (ISDC) of Nuclear Installations - 13361

    SciTech Connect

    Moshonas Cole, Katherine; Dinner, Julia; Grey, Mike; Daniska, Vladimir

    2013-07-01

    The International Structure for Decommissioning Costing (ISDC) of Nuclear Installations, published by OECD/NEA, IAEA and EC is intended to provide a uniform list of cost items for decommissioning projects and provides a standard format that permits international cost estimates to be compared. Candesco and DECOM have used the ISDC format along with two costing codes, OMEGA and ISDCEX, developed from the ISDC by DECOM, in three projects: the development of a preliminary decommissioning plan for a multi-unit CANDU nuclear power station, updating the preliminary decommissioning cost estimates for a prototype CANDU nuclear power station and benchmarking the cost estimates for CANDU against the cost estimates for other reactor types. It was found that the ISDC format provides a well defined and transparent basis for decommissioning planning and cost estimating that assists in identifying gaps and weaknesses and facilitates the benchmarking against international experience. The use of the ISDC can also help build stakeholder confidence in the reliability of the plans and estimates and the adequacy of decommissioning funding. (authors)

  20. Testing an Integrated Ground-Water Monitoring Strategy for Nuclear Waste and Decommissioning Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, V.; Dai, Z.; Heffner, D.; Temples, T. J.; Nicholson, T. J.

    2005-05-01

    This talk discusses a Nuclear Regulatory Commission-sponsored research project designed to develop an integrated and systematic strategy for monitoring ground-water flow and transport through the unsaturated zone to the underlying water-table aquifer at waste disposal sites. The goal is to provide scientifically-based guidance for monitoring across a wide range of geologic settings, waste compositions, and site designs. The monitoring will specifically support performance assessment studies and modeling. The research objectives include: (1) the strategy will couple performance confirmation monitoring to site characterization and performance assessment, and will consist of an ordered and logical sequence of procedures; (2) the research will develop the technical bases as citable references, identified guidance and analytical tools, and test case applications of the developed integrated ground-water monitoring strategy for confirming performance of nuclear waste and decommissioning sites; (3) this strategy will focus on identifying and monitoring critical performance indicators (e.g., water contents over time in the unsaturated zone, and ground-water potentials in the saturated zone) of the hydrologic system; and (4) the strategy will demonstrate the connection between performance indicators and site performance. The monitoring strategy has been developed in draft form, and the testing phase of this work is beginning. The test plan includes: 1. develop testing objectives; 2. develop success criteria based on objectives; 3. select test datasets from field sites; 4. apply the draft strategy to field data; 5. feed-back for strategy improvement. Testing objectives will include: 1. develop rules for selection of performance indicators; 2. evaluate efficient methods to develop conceptual site models; 3. develop rules for selection of monitoring points (in the spatial and temporal domain) and rules for identification of monitoring approaches (e.g., geophysical methods) and

  1. Safety analysis factors for environmental restoration and decontamination and decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, D.R.

    1993-04-01

    Environmental restoration (ER) and facility decontamination/decommissioning (D&D) operations can be grouped into two general categories. ``Nonstationary cleanup`` or simply ``cleanup`` activities are where the operation must relocate to the site of new contaminated material at the completion of each task (i.e., the operation moves to the contaminated material). ``Stationary production`` or simply ``production`` activities are where the contaminated material is moved to a centralized location (i.e., the contaminated material is moved to the operation) for analysis, sorting, treatment, storage, and disposal. This paper addresses the issue of nonstationary cleanup design. The following are the specific assigned action items: Collect and compile a list of special safety-related ER/D&D design factors, especially ones that don`t follow DOE Order 6430.1A requirements. Develop proposal of what makes sense to recommend to designers; especially consider recommendations for short-term projects. Present proposal at the January meeting. To achieve the action items, applicable US Department of Energy (DOE) design requirements, and cleanup operations and differences from production activities are reviewed and summarized; basic safety requirements influencing design are summarized; and finally, approaches, considerations, and methods for safe, cost-effective design of cleanup activities are discussed.

  2. 25th anniversary article: progress in chemistry and applications of functional indigos for organic electronics.

    PubMed

    Głowacki, Eric Daniel; Voss, Gundula; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar

    2013-12-17

    Indigo and its derivatives are dyes and pigments with a long and distinguished history in organic chemistry. Recently, applications of this 'old' structure as a functional organic building block for organic electronics applications have renewed interest in these molecules and their remarkable chemical and physical properties. Natural-origin indigos have been processed in fully bio-compatible field effect transistors, operating with ambipolar mobilities up to 0.5 cm(2) /Vs and air-stability. The synthetic derivative isoindigo has emerged as one of the most successful building-blocks for semiconducting polymers for plastic solar cells with efficiencies > 5%. Another isomer of indigo, epindolidione, has also been shown to be one of the best reported organic transistor materials in terms of mobility (∼2 cm(2) /Vs) and stability. This progress report aims to review very recent applications of indigoids in organic electronics, but especially to logically bridge together the hereto independent research directions on indigo, isoindigo, and other materials inspired by historical dye chemistry: a field which was the root of the development of modern chemistry in the first place.

  3. Progress and challenges in cleaning up Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Wagoner, J.D.

    1997-08-01

    This paper presents captioned viewgraphs which briefly summarize cleanup efforts at the Hanford Site. Underground waste tank and spent nuclear fuel issues are described. Progress is reported for the Plutonium Finishing Plant, PUREX plant, B-Plant/Waste Encapsulation Storage Facility, and Fast Flux Test Facility. A very brief overview of costs and number of sites remediated and/or decommissioned is given.

  4. Smoking cessation: an application of theory of planned behavior to understanding progress through stages of change.

    PubMed

    Bledsoe, Linda K

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate variables relevant to smoking cessation early in the process of change through an application of the Theory of Planned Behavior [Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. In J. Kuhl and J. Beckman (Eds). Action-control: From cognition to behavior (pp.11-39). Heidelberg: Springer.] to the temporal structure provided by the Transtheoretical Model. Study 1 was a preliminary elicitation study (n=68) conducted to ground the concepts used in the model testing in Study 2 [Ajzen, I., Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.]. Study 2 tested the proposed model fit with data from a sample of 230 adult smokers. Structural equation modeling did not support the Theory of Planned Behavior as a model of motivation for progress through the stages of change and highlighted measurement issues with perceived behavioral control. A modified model using the Theory of Reasoned Action provided a good fit to the data, accounting for approximately 64% of the variance in intention to quit smoking and stage of change. This research addresses the need for a more complete theoretical rationale for progress through stages of change.

  5. Smoking cessation: an application of theory of planned behavior to understanding progress through stages of change.

    PubMed

    Bledsoe, Linda K

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate variables relevant to smoking cessation early in the process of change through an application of the Theory of Planned Behavior [Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. In J. Kuhl and J. Beckman (Eds). Action-control: From cognition to behavior (pp.11-39). Heidelberg: Springer.] to the temporal structure provided by the Transtheoretical Model. Study 1 was a preliminary elicitation study (n=68) conducted to ground the concepts used in the model testing in Study 2 [Ajzen, I., Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.]. Study 2 tested the proposed model fit with data from a sample of 230 adult smokers. Structural equation modeling did not support the Theory of Planned Behavior as a model of motivation for progress through the stages of change and highlighted measurement issues with perceived behavioral control. A modified model using the Theory of Reasoned Action provided a good fit to the data, accounting for approximately 64% of the variance in intention to quit smoking and stage of change. This research addresses the need for a more complete theoretical rationale for progress through stages of change. PMID:16182458

  6. An overview of U.S. decommissioning experience -- A basic introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Boing, L.E.

    1998-03-09

    This paper presents an overview of the US experiences in the decommissioning technical area. Sections included are: (1) an overview of the magnitude of the problem, (2) a review of the US decommissioning process, (3) regulation of decommissioning, (4) regulatory and funding requirements for decommissioning, and (5) a general overview of all on-going and completed decommissioning projects to date in the US. The final section presents a review of some issues in the decommissioning area currently being debated in the technical specialists community.

  7. Technology Development, Evaluation, and Application (TDEA) FY 1998 Progress Report Environment, Safety, and Health (ESH) Division

    SciTech Connect

    Larry G. Hoffman; Kenneth Alvar; Thomas Buhl; Bruce Erdal; Philip Fresquez; Elizabeth Foltyn; Wayne Hansen; Bruce Reinert

    1999-06-01

    This progress report presents the results of 10 projects funded ($504K) in FY98 by the Technology Development, Evaluation, and Application (TDEA) Committee of the Environment, Safety, and Health Division. Nine projects are new for this year; two projects were completed in their third and final TDEA-funded year. As a result of their TDEA-funded projects, investigators have published 19 papers in professional journals, proceedings, or Los Alamos reports and presented their work at professional meetings. Supplemental funds and in-kind contributions, such as staff time, instrument use, and work space were also provided to the TDEA-funded projects by organizations external to ESH Division. Products generated from the projects funded in FY98 included a new extremity dosimeter that replaced the previously used finger-ring dosimeters, a light and easy-to-use detector to measure energy deposited by neutron interactions, and a device that will allow workers to determine the severity of a hazard.

  8. Current progress in Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)-Responsive materials for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sue Hyun; Gupta, Mukesh K; Bang, Jae Beum; Bae, Hojae; Sung, Hak-Joon

    2013-01-01

    Recently, significant progress has been made in developing “stimuli-sensitive” biomaterials as a new therapeutic approach to interact with dynamic physiological conditions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production has been implicated in important pathophysiological events, such as atherosclerosis,aging, and cancer. ROS are often overproduced locally in diseased cells and tissues, and they individually and synchronously contribute to many of the abnormalities associated with local pathogenesis. Therefore, the advantages of developing ROS-responsive materials extend beyond site-specific targeting of therapeutic delivery, and potentially include navigating,sensing, and repairing the cellular damages via programmed changes in material properties. Here we review the mechanism and development of biomaterials with ROS-induced solubility switch or degradation, as well as their performance and potential for future biomedical applications.

  9. New Researches and Application Progress of Commonly Used Optical Molecular Imaging Technology

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhi-Yi; Yang, Feng; Lin, Yan; Zhou, Qiu-Lan; Liao, Yang-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Optical molecular imaging, a new medical imaging technique, is developed based on genomics, proteomics and modern optical imaging technique, characterized by non-invasiveness, non-radiativity, high cost-effectiveness, high resolution, high sensitivity and simple operation in comparison with conventional imaging modalities. Currently, it has become one of the most widely used molecular imaging techniques and has been applied in gene expression regulation and activity detection, biological development and cytological detection, drug research and development, pathogenesis research, pharmaceutical effect evaluation and therapeutic effect evaluation, and so forth, This paper will review the latest researches and application progresses of commonly used optical molecular imaging techniques such as bioluminescence imaging and fluorescence molecular imaging. PMID:24696850

  10. [Progress and application of phosphoproteomics in the proteomics of liver pathological and physiological state].

    PubMed

    Yi, Tailong; Tian, Miaomiao; Yang, Xiaoming; Xu, Ping

    2014-07-01

    The phosphorylation is one of most common protein post-translational modifications. The protein phosphorylation plays important roles in the life through the reversible process of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation by kinases and phosphatases. Systematical analysis of the phosphorylation state of proteins would greatly help to reveal the mystery of the life. Recently, with the development of mass spectrometer, bioinformatics sortwares and enrichment methods of phosphopeptides, phosphorylation stduy of orgnism proteins by mass spectrometer has become mature gradually. Liver is one of the most important metabolic and immune organs. In-depth study of protein phosphorylation in liver is of great importance to reveal its function. And booming phosphoproteomics has been applied into the study of liver, which has deepened the knowledge of molecular mechnism of its physiology and pathology states. Here, we review the recent progress on the research and development of phosphoproteomics and their application in liver proteomics study.

  11. Current Progress in Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)-Responsive Materials for Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sue Hyun; Gupta, Mukesh K.; Bang, Jae Beum; Bae, Hojae

    2013-01-01

    Recently, significant progress has been made in developing “stimuli-sensitive” biomaterials as a new therapeutic approach to interact with dynamic physiological conditions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production has been implicated in important pathophysiological events, such as atherosclerosis, aging, and cancer. ROS are often overproduced locally in diseased cells and tissues, and they individually and synchronously contribute to many of the abnormalities associated with local pathogenesis. Therefore, the advantages of developing ROS-responsive materials extend beyond site-specific targeting of therapeutic delivery, and potentially include navigating, sensing, and repairing the cellular damages via programmed changes in material properties. Here we review the mechanism and development of biomaterials with ROS-induced solubility switch or degradation, as well as their performance and potential for future biomedical applications. PMID:25136729

  12. Development and application of the electrochemical etching technique. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    This annual progress report documents further advances in the development and application of electrochemical etching of polycarbonate foils (ECEPF) for fast, intermediate, and thermal neutron dosimetry as well as alpha particle dosimetry. The fast (> 1.1 MeV) and thermal neutron dosimetry techniques were applied to a thorough investigation of the neutron contamination inherent in and about the primary x-ray beam of several medical therapy electron accelerators. Because of the small size of ECEPF dosimeters in comparison to other neutron meters, they have an unusually low perturbation of the radiation field under measurement. Due to this small size and the increased sensitivity of the ECEPF dosimeter over current techniques of measuring neutrons in a high photon field, the fast neutron contamination in the primary x-ray beam of all the investigated accelerators was measured with precision and found to be greater than that suggested by the other, more common, neutron dosimetry methods.

  13. [Progress in the application of laser ablation ICP-MS to surface microanalysis in material science].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Jia, Yun-hai; Chen, Ji-wen; Shen, Xue-jing; Liu, Ying; Zhao, Leiz; Li, Dong-ling; Hang, Peng-cheng; Zhao, Zhen; Fan, Wan-lun; Wang, Hai-zhou

    2014-08-01

    In the present paper, apparatus and theory of surface analysis is introduced, and the progress in the application of laser ablation ICP-MS to microanalysis in ferrous, nonferrous and semiconductor field is reviewed in detail. Compared with traditional surface analytical tools, such as SEM/EDS (scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectrum), EPMA (electron probe microanalysis analysis), AES (auger energy spectrum), etc. the advantage is little or no sample preparation, adjustable spatial resolution according to analytical demand, multi-element analysis and high sensitivity. It is now a powerful complementary method to traditional surface analytical tool. With the development of LA-ICP-MS technology maturing, more and more analytical workers will use this powerful tool in the future, and LA-ICP-MS will be a super star in elemental analysis field just like LIBS (Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy).

  14. Mobile workstation for decontamination and decommissioning operations

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, W.L.; Osborn, J.F.; Thompson, B.R.

    1993-10-01

    This project is an interdisciplinary effort to develop effective mobile worksystems for decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of facilities within the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex. These mobile worksystems will be configured to operate within the environmental and logistical constraints of such facilities and to perform a number of work tasks. Our program is designed to produce a mobile worksystem with capabilities and features that are matched to the particular needs of D&D work by evolving the design through a series of technological developments, performance tests and evaluations. The project has three phases. In this the first phase, an existing teleoperated worksystem, the Remote Work Vehicle (developed for use in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building basement), was enhanced for telerobotic performance of several D&D operations. Its ability to perform these operations was then assessed through a series of tests in a mockup facility that contained generic structures and equipment similar to those that D&D work machines will encounter in DOE facilities. Building upon the knowledge gained through those tests and evaluations, a next generation mobile worksystem, the RWV II, and a more advanced controller will be designed, integrated and tested in the second phase, which is scheduled for completion in January 1995. The third phase of the project will involve testing of the RWV II in the real DOE facility.

  15. Decontamination & Decommissioning Equipment Tracking System (DDETS)

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, S.

    1994-07-01

    At the request of the Department of Energy (DOE)(EM-50), the Scientific Computing Unit developed a prototype system to track information and data relevant to equipment and tooling removed during decontamination and decommissioning activities. The DDETS proof-of-concept tracking system utilizes a one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) bar coding technology to retain and track information such as identification number, manufacturer, requisition information, and various contaminant information, etc. The information is encoded in a bar code, printed on a label and can be attached to corresponding equipment. The DDETS was developed using a proven relational database management system which allows the addition, modification, printing, and deletion of data. In addition, communication interfaces with bar code printers and bar code readers were developed. Additional features of the system include: (a) Four different reports available for the user (REAPS, transaction, and two inventory), (b) Remote automated inventory tracking capabilities, (c) Remote automated inventory tracking capability (2D bar codes allow equipment to be scanned/tracked without being linked to the DDETS database), (d) Edit, update, delete, and query capabilities, (e) On-line bar code label printing utility (data from 2D bar codes can be scanned directly into the data base simplifying data entry), and (f) Automated data backup utility. Compatibility with the Reportable Excess Automated Property System (REAPS) to upload data from DDETS is planned.

  16. Decommissioning of Active Ventilation Systems in a Nuclear R and D Facility to Prepare for Building Demolition (Whiteshell Laboratories Decommissioning Project, Canada) - 13073

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, Brian; May, Doug; Howlett, Don; Bilinsky, Dennis

    2013-07-01

    Whiteshell Laboratories (WL) is a nuclear research establishment owned by the Canadian government and operated by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) since the early 1960's. WL is currently under a decommissioning license and the mandate is to remediate the nuclear legacy liabilities in a safe and cost effective manner. The WL Project is the first major nuclear decommissioning project in Canada. A major initiative underway is to decommission and demolish the main R and D Laboratory complex. The Building 300 R and D complex was constructed to accommodate laboratories and offices which were mainly used for research and development associated with organic-cooled reactors, nuclear fuel waste management, reactor safety, advanced fuel cycles and other applications of nuclear energy. Building 300 is a three storey structure of approximately 16,000 m{sup 2}. In order to proceed with building demolition, the contaminated systems inside the building have to be characterized, removed, and the waste managed. There is a significant focus on volume reduction of radioactive waste for the WL project. The active ventilation system is one of the significant contaminated systems in Building 300 that requires decommissioning and removal. The active ventilation system was designed to manage hazardous fumes and radioactivity from ventilation devices (e.g., fume hoods, snorkels and glove boxes) and to prevent the escape of airborne hazardous material outside of the laboratory boundary in the event of an upset condition. The system includes over 200 ventilation devices and 32 active exhaust fan units and high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. The strategy to remove the ventilation system was to work from the laboratory end back to the fan/filter system. Each ventilation duct was radiologically characterized. Fogging was used to minimize loose contamination. Sections of the duct were removed by various cutting methods and bagged for temporary storage prior to disposition

  17. USE OF CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS FOR SRS REACTOR FACILITY IN-SITU DECOMMISSIONING - 11620

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.; Stefanko, D.; Serrato, M.; Blankenship, J.; Griffin, W.; Waymer, J.; Matheny, D.; Singh, D.

    2010-12-07

    The United States Department of Energy (US DOE) concept for facility in-situ decommissioning (ISD) is to physically stabilize and isolate in tact, structurally sound facilities that are no longer needed for their original purpose of, i.e., producing (reactor facilities), processing (isotope separation facilities) or storing radioactive materials. The Savannah River Site 105-P and 105-R Reactor Facility ISD requires about 250,000 cubic yards of grout to fill the below grade structure. The fills are designed to prevent subsidence, reduce water infiltration, and isolate contaminated materials. This work is being performed as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensations and Liability Act (CERCLA) action and is part of the overall soil and groundwater completion projects for P- and R-Areas. Cementitious materials were designed for the following applications: (1) Below grade massive voids/rooms: Portland cement-based structural flowable fills for - Bulk filling, Restricted placement and Underwater placement. (2) Special below grade applications for reduced load bearing capacity needs: Cellular portland cement lightweight fill (3) Reactor vessel fills that are compatible with reactive metal (aluminum metal) components in the reactor vessels: Calcium sulfoaluminate flowable fill, and Magnesium potassium phosphate flowable fill. (4) Caps to prevent water infiltration and intrusion into areas with the highest levels of radionuclides: Portland cement based shrinkage compensating concrete. A system engineering approach was used to identify functions and requirements of the fill and capping materials. Laboratory testing was performed to identify candidate formulations and develop final design mixes. Scale-up testing was performed to verify material production and placement as well as fresh and cured properties. The 105-P and 105-R ISD projects are currently in progress and are expected to be complete in 2012. The focus of this paper is to describe the (1) grout mixes

  18. Current progress of targetron technology: development, improvement and application in metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya-Jun; Zhang, Jie; Cui, Gu-Zhen; Cui, Qiu

    2015-06-01

    Targetrons are mobile group II introns that can recognize their DNA target sites by base-pairing RNA-DNA interactions with the aid of site-specific binding reverse transcriptases. Targetron technology stands out from recently developed gene targeting methods because of the flexibility, feasibility, and efficiency, and is particularly suitable for the genetic engineering of difficult microorganisms, including cellulolytic bacteria that are considered promising candidates for biomass conversion via consolidated bioprocessing. Along with the development of the thermotargetron method for thermophiles, targetron technology becomes increasingly important for the metabolic engineering of industrial microorganisms aiming at biofuel/chemical production. To summarize the current progress of targetron technology and provide new insights on the use of the technology, this paper reviews the retrohoming mechanisms of both mesophilic and thermophilic targetron methods based on various group II introns, investigates the improvement of targetron tools for high target efficiency and specificity, and discusses the current applications in the metabolic engineering for bacterial producers. Although there are still intellectual property and technical restrictions in targetron applications, we propose that targetron technology will contribute to both biochemistry research and the metabolic engineering for industrial productions.

  19. Recent progress in the modeling of high-temperature creep and its application to alloy development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, L.; Northwood, D. O.

    1995-04-01

    Recent progress in the understanding of high-temperature creep of alloys is discussed in the context of theoretical modeling and its application to alloy development. Emphasis is placed upon those engineering alloys specifically designed for high-temperature applications, such as precipitation and dispersion-strengthened (DS) alloys and metal-matrix composites (MMCs). Currently, these theoretical models use one of two different approaches, (a) a phenomenological approach, which is used in such models as those based on the internal stress concept, and those based on empirical creep equations; and (b) micromechanical models that are based on dislocation mechanisms and the interactions of dislocations with solute atoms, second-phase particles, and other reinforcements such as fibers. All these theoretical models have a common goal, namely, the understanding of high-temperature strengthening mechanisms and the relationship between high-temperature strength and the micromechanical mechanisms during high-temperature plastic deformation of the alloys. These theoretical studies can provide information that is useful in alloy design and processing, such as the selection of alloy chemistry, and the optimization of phase microstructural features (e.g., reinforcement amount, shape, size, and distribution; matrix grain size; and matrix and reinforcement interfaces) by optimization of processing methods.

  20. Recent progress in applications of graphene oxide for gas sensing: A review.

    PubMed

    Toda, Kei; Furue, Ryo; Hayami, Shinya

    2015-06-01

    This paper is a review of the recent progress on gas sensors using graphene oxide (GO). GO is not a new material but its unique features have recently been of interest for gas sensing applications, and not just as an intermediate for reduced graphene oxide (RGO). Graphene and RGO have been well known gas-sensing materials, but GO is also an attractive sensing material that has been well studied these last few years. The functional groups on GO nanosheets play important roles in adsorbing gas molecules, and the electric or optical properties of GO materials change with exposure to certain gases. Addition of metal nanoparticles and metal oxide nanocomposites is an effective way to make GO materials selective and sensitive to analyte gases. In this paper, several applications of GO based sensors are summarized for detection of water vapor, NO2, H2, NH3, H2S, and organic vapors. Also binding energies of gas molecules onto graphene and the oxygenous functional groups are summarized, and problems and possible solutions are discussed for the GO-based gas sensors. PMID:26002325

  1. Analysis and Application of LIDAR Waveform Data Using a Progressive Waveform Decomposition Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J.; Zhang, Z.; Hu, X.; Li, Z.

    2011-09-01

    Due to rich information of a full waveform of airborne LiDAR (light detection and ranging) data, the analysis of full waveform has been an active area in LiDAR application. It is possible to digitally sample and store the entire reflected waveform of small-footprint instead of only discrete point clouds. Decomposition of waveform data, a key step in waveform data analysis, can be categorized to two typical methods: 1) the Gaussian modelling method such as the Non-linear least-squares (NLS) algorithm and the maximum likelihood estimation using the Exception Maximization (EM) algorithm. 2) pulse detection method—Average Square Difference Function (ASDF). However, the Gaussian modelling methods strongly rely on initial parameters, whereas the ASDF omits the importance of parameter information of the waveform. In this paper, we proposed a fast algorithm—Progressive Waveform Decomposition (PWD) method to extract local maxims and fit the echo with Gaussian function, and calculate other parameters from the raw waveform data. On the one hand, experiments are implemented to evaluate the PWD method and the results demonstrate its robustness and efficiency. On the other hand, with the PWD parametric analysis of the full-waveform instead of a 3D point cloud, some special applications are investigated afterward.

  2. The Chernobyl NPP decommissioning: Current status and alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Mikolaitchouk, H.; Steinberg, N.

    1996-08-01

    After the Chernobyl accident of April 26, 1986, many contradictory decisions were taken concerning the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) future. The principal source of contradictions was a deadline for a final shutdown of the Chernobyl NPP units. Alterations in a political and socioeconomic environment resulted in the latest decision of the Ukrainian Authorities about 2000 as a deadline for a beginning of the Chernobyl NPP decommissioning. The date seems a sound compromise among the parties concerned. However, in order to meet the data a lot of work should be done. First of all, a decommissioning strategy has to be established. The problem is complicated due to both site-specific aspects and an absence of proven solutions for the RBMK-type reactor decommissioning. In the paper the problem of decommissioning option selection is considered taking into account an influence of the following factors: relevant legislative and regulatory requirements; resources required to carry out decommissioning (man-power, equipment, technologies, waste management infrastructure, etc.); radiological and physical status of the plant, including structural integrity and predictable age and weather effects; impact of planned activities at the destroyed unit 4 and within the 30-km exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP; planed use of the site; socio-economic considerations.

  3. Progress in Addressing DNFSB Recommendation 2002-1 Issues: Improving Accident Analysis Software Applications

    SciTech Connect

    VINCENT, ANDREW

    2005-04-25

    Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2002-1 (''Quality Assurance for Safety-Related Software'') identified a number of quality assurance issues on the use of software in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities for analyzing hazards, and designing and operating controls to prevent or mitigate potential accidents. Over the last year, DOE has begun several processes and programs as part of the Implementation Plan commitments, and in particular, has made significant progress in addressing several sets of issues particularly important in the application of software for performing hazard and accident analysis. The work discussed here demonstrates that through these actions, Software Quality Assurance (SQA) guidance and software tools are available that can be used to improve resulting safety analysis. Specifically, five of the primary actions corresponding to the commitments made in the Implementation Plan to Recommendation 2002-1 are identified and discussed in this paper. Included are the web-based DOE SQA Knowledge Portal and the Central Registry, guidance and gap analysis reports, electronic bulletin board and discussion forum, and a DOE safety software guide. These SQA products can benefit DOE safety contractors in the development of hazard and accident analysis by precluding inappropriate software applications and utilizing best practices when incorporating software results to safety basis documentation. The improvement actions discussed here mark a beginning to establishing stronger, standard-compliant programs, practices, and processes in SQA among safety software users, managers, and reviewers throughout the DOE Complex. Additional effort is needed, however, particularly in: (1) processes to add new software applications to the DOE Safety Software Toolbox; (2) improving the effectiveness of software issue communication; and (3) promoting a safety software quality assurance culture.

  4. Recent progress in tungsten oxides based memristors and their neuromorphological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Bo; Younis, Adnan; Chu, Dewei

    2016-09-01

    The advance in conventional silicon based semiconductor industry is now becoming indeterminacy as it still along the road of Moore's Law and concomitant problems associated with it are the emergence of a number of practical issues such as short channel effect. In terms of memory applications, it is generally believed that transistors based memory devices will approach to their scaling limits up to 2018. Therefore, one of the most prominent challenges today in semiconductor industry is the need of a new memory technology which is able to combine the best characterises of current devices. The resistive switching memories which are regarded as "memristors" thus gain great attentions thanks to their specific nonlinear electrical properties. More importantly, their behaviour resembles with the transmission characteristic of synapse in biology. Therefore, the research of synapses biomimetic devices based on memristor will certainly bring a great research prospect in studying synapse emulation as well as building artificial neural networks. Tungsten oxides (WO x ) exhibits many essential characteristics as a great candidate for memristive devices including: accredited endurance (over 105 cycles), stoichiometric flexibility, complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process compatibility and configurable properties including non-volatile rectification, memorization and learning functions. Herein, recent progress on Tungsten oxide based materials and its associating memory devices had been reviewed. The possible implementation of this material as a bio-inspired artificial synapse is also highlighted. The penultimate section summaries the current research progress for tungsten oxide based biological synapses and end up with several proposals that have been suggested for possible future developments.

  5. Recent Progress in Ohmic Contacts to Silicon Carbide for High-Temperature Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhongtao; Liu, Wei; Wang, Chunqing

    2016-01-01

    During the past few decades, silicon carbide (SiC) has emerged as the most promising wide-bandgap semiconductor for high-temperature, high-frequency, and high-power applications. All its attractive properties depend critically on and are often limited by the formation of Ohmic contacts to SiC. Although impressive progress has been made, improvements to further reduce the specific contact resistance without lowering the stability of Ohmic contacts during long-term aging are still indispensable. In this regard, we present a review of recent progress in Ohmic contacts to n- and p-type SiC reported in literature. The mechanism of Ohmic contact to SiC, surface preparation methods, and performance of Ohmic contacts are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the thermal stability of Ohmic contacts to SiC. To date, extremely low specific contact resistance values (10-7 Ω cm2 to 10-6 Ω cm2) have been obtained after high-temperature (>800°C) annealing. Moreover, great efforts have been made to achieve good Ohmic contact performance (10-6 Ω cm2 to 10-5 Ω cm2) under low-temperature annealing (<600°C) or even without annealing. During long-term aging at high temperature (300°C to 1000°C), surface morphology degradation, formation of unwanted Kirkendall voids, interdiffusion between metallization stacks and/or SiC substrates, and especially severe oxidation in oxygen-containing atmospheres can be responsible for electrical degradation of Ohmic contacts. These critical issues are discussed along with future perspectives.

  6. Technology needs for decommissioning and decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Bundy, R.D.; Kennerly, J.M.

    1993-12-01

    This report summarizes the current view of the most important decontamination and decommissioning (D & D) technology needs for the US Department of Energy facilities for which the D & D programs are the responsibility of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. The source of information used in this assessment was a survey of the D & D program managers at each facility. A summary of needs presented in earlier surveys of site needs in approximate priority order was supplied to each site as a starting point to stimulate thinking. This document reflects a brief initial assessment of ongoing needs; these needs will change as plans for D & D are finalized, some of the technical problems are solved through successful development programs, and new ideas for D and D technologies appear. Thus, this assessment should be updated and upgraded periodically, perhaps, annually. This assessment differs from others that have been made in that it directly and solely reflects the perceived need for new technology by key personnel in the D & D programs at the various facilities and does not attempt to consider the likelihood that these technologies can be successfully developed. Thus, this list of technology needs also does not consider the cost, time, and effort required to develop the desired technologies. An R & D program must include studies that have a reasonable chance for success as well as those for which there is a high need. Other studies that considered the cost and probability of successful development as well as the need for new technology are documented. However, the need for new technology may be diluted in such studies; this document focuses only on the need for new technology as currently perceived by those actually charged with accomplishing D & D.

  7. What we should expect from theories in social psychology: truth, abstraction, progress, and applicability as standards (TAPAS).

    PubMed

    Van Lange, Paul A M

    2013-02-01

    The construction and development of theory is one of the central routes to scientific progress. But what exactly constitutes a good theory? What is it that people might expect from an ideal theory? This article advances a new model, which delineates truth, abstraction, progress, and applicability as standards (TAPAS) for a good theory. After providing the rationale for TAPAS, this article evaluates several social-psychological theories in terms of TAPAS, especially classic theories, and illustrates its utility with some more recent theoretical contributions of social psychology. This article concludes by outlining recommendations for effective theory construction and development, such as the utility of meta-analytic approaches for pursuing truth, the utility of theory-oriented courses and journals for pursuing abstraction, and the utility of adversarial collaboration for pursuing progress, and reaching out to major personal or societal issues for pursuing applicability.

  8. What we should expect from theories in social psychology: truth, abstraction, progress, and applicability as standards (TAPAS).

    PubMed

    Van Lange, Paul A M

    2013-02-01

    The construction and development of theory is one of the central routes to scientific progress. But what exactly constitutes a good theory? What is it that people might expect from an ideal theory? This article advances a new model, which delineates truth, abstraction, progress, and applicability as standards (TAPAS) for a good theory. After providing the rationale for TAPAS, this article evaluates several social-psychological theories in terms of TAPAS, especially classic theories, and illustrates its utility with some more recent theoretical contributions of social psychology. This article concludes by outlining recommendations for effective theory construction and development, such as the utility of meta-analytic approaches for pursuing truth, the utility of theory-oriented courses and journals for pursuing abstraction, and the utility of adversarial collaboration for pursuing progress, and reaching out to major personal or societal issues for pursuing applicability. PMID:22854861

  9. [Study progress of spectral color science and its prospect of application in the field of Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Yin, Fang-zhou; Wu, Xiao-yan; Mao, Chun-qing; Ji, De; Cai, Bao-chang; Lu, Tu-lin

    2013-09-01

    The paper reviewed the research progress in the spectral color science, including the common model, color measurement instrument in recent years, application of color measurement technology in agriculture, food, industry, medicine and other fields. The possibility to achieve the color quantization of Chinese medicine was explored by color measurement technology, and analyzed its application prospect in the field of Chinese medicine, provided a model for the study on quality control for Chinese medicine non-destructive online

  10. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions. Volume 6. A selected bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, P.T.; Michelson, D.C.; Knox, N.P.

    1985-09-01

    This bibliography of 683 references with abstracts on the subject of nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions is the sixth in a series of annual reports prepared for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Foreign as well as domestic literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, conference papers, symposium proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - has been included. The bibliography contains scientific (basic research as well as applied technology), economic, regulatory, and legal literature pertinent to the US Department of Energy's remedial action program. Major chapters are: (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program; (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program; (4) Facilities Contaminated with Natural Radioactivity; (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program; (6) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program; (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; (8) Technical Measurements Center; and (9) General Remedial Action Program Studies. Chapter sections for chapters 1, 2, 5, and 7 include Design, Planning, and Regulations; Environmental Studies and Site Surveys; Health, Safety, and Biomedical Studies; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Site Stabilization and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; Remedial Action Experience; and General Studies. The references within each chapter or section are arranged alphabetically by leading author. References having no individual author are arranged by corporate affiliation or by publication description.

  11. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography: Volume 8

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, P.T.; Michelson, D.C.; Knox, N.P.

    1987-09-01

    The 553 abstracted references on nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the eighth in a series of reports. Foreign and domestic literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - has been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of energy's remedial action program. Major chapters are Surplus Facilities Management Program, Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, Uranium Mill Tailings Management, Technical Measurements Center, and General Remedial Action Program Studies. Chapter sections for chapters 1, 2, 5, and 6 include Design, Planning, and Regulations; Environmental Studies and Site Surveys; Health, Safety, and Biomedical Studies; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Site Stabilization and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; Remedial Action Experience; and General Studies. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication description. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, and keywords. The appendix contains a list of frequently used acronyms and abbreviations.

  12. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: a selected bibliography. Volume 5

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Chilton, B.D.; Baldauf, M.F.

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography of 756 references with abstracts on the subject of nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions is the fifth in a series of annual reports prepared for the US Department of Energy, Division of Remedial Action Projects. Foreign as well as domestic literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, conference papers, symposium proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - has been included in this publication. The bibliography contains scientific (basic research as well as applied technology), economic, regulatory, and legal literature pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Program. Major chapters are: (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program; (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program; (4) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program; (5) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program; (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; and (7) Technical Measurements Center. Chapter sections for chapters 1, 2, 4, and 6 include Design, Planning, and Regulations; Environmental Studies and Site Surveys; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Site Stabilization and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; Remedial Action Experience; and General Studies. The references within each chapter or section are arranged alphabetically by leading author. References having no individual author are arranged by corporate author or by title. Indexes are provided for the categories of author, corporate affiliation, title, publication description, geographic location, and keywords. The Appendix contains a list of frequently used acronyms.

  13. 76 FR 11522 - In the Matter of Progress Energy Florida, Inc. (Combined License Application, Levy County Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION In the Matter of Progress Energy Florida, Inc. (Combined License Application, Levy County Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2); Notice of Appointment of Adjudicatory Employee Commissioners: Gregory...

  14. 77 FR 75198 - Standard Format and Content for Post-Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... COMMISSION Standard Format and Content for Post-Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report AGENCY: Nuclear... Format and Content for Post-shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report.'' This guide describes a method...) 1.185, ``Standard Format and Content for Post-shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report,''...

  15. 77 FR 8902 - Draft Regulatory Guide: Issuance, Availability Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Reactors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... COMMISSION Draft Regulatory Guide: Issuance, Availability Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Reactors AGENCY... ``Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Reactors.'' This guide describes a method NRC considers acceptable for use in... Revision 1 of Regulatory Guide 1.184, ``Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Reactors,'' dated July 2000.......

  16. 30 CFR 585.1019 - What are the decommissioning requirements for an Alternate Use RUE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... an Alternate Use RUE? 585.1019 Section 585.1019 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... Facilities Decommissioning An Alternate Use Rue § 585.1019 What are the decommissioning requirements for an Alternate Use RUE? (a) Decommissioning requirements will be determined by BOEM on a case-by-case basis,...

  17. 30 CFR 285.1019 - What are the decommissioning requirements for an Alternate Use RUE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... an Alternate Use RUE? 285.1019 Section 285.1019 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... Facilities Decommissioning An Alternate Use Rue § 285.1019 What are the decommissioning requirements for an Alternate Use RUE? (a) Decommissioning requirements will be determined by MMS on a case-by-case basis,...

  18. 30 CFR 285.1019 - What are the decommissioning requirements for an Alternate Use RUE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... an Alternate Use RUE? 285.1019 Section 285.1019 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... Activities Using Existing OCS Facilities Decommissioning An Alternate Use Rue § 285.1019 What are the decommissioning requirements for an Alternate Use RUE? (a) Decommissioning requirements will be determined by...

  19. 30 CFR 585.1019 - What are the decommissioning requirements for an Alternate Use RUE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... an Alternate Use RUE? 585.1019 Section 585.1019 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... Facilities Decommissioning An Alternate Use Rue § 585.1019 What are the decommissioning requirements for an Alternate Use RUE? (a) Decommissioning requirements will be determined by BOEM on a case-by-case basis,...

  20. 30 CFR 585.1019 - What are the decommissioning requirements for an Alternate Use RUE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... an Alternate Use RUE? 585.1019 Section 585.1019 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... Facilities Decommissioning An Alternate Use Rue § 585.1019 What are the decommissioning requirements for an Alternate Use RUE? (a) Decommissioning requirements will be determined by BOEM on a case-by-case basis,...

  1. ADVANTAGES, DISADVANTAGES, AND LESSONS LEARNED FROM MULTI-REACTOR DECOMMISSIONING PROJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, M.R.; Nielson, R.R.; Trevino, R.A.

    2003-02-27

    This paper discusses the Reactor Interim Safe Storage (ISS) Project within the decommissioning projects at the Hanford Site and reviews the lessons learned from performing four large reactor decommissioning projects sequentially. The advantages and disadvantages of this multi-reactor decommissioning project are highlighted.

  2. 30 CFR 250.1703 - What are the general requirements for decommissioning?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are the general requirements for decommissioning? 250.1703 Section 250.1703 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT... Manager before decommissioning wells and from the Regional Supervisor before decommissioning platforms...

  3. 30 CFR 250.1703 - What are the general requirements for decommissioning?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the general requirements for decommissioning? 250.1703 Section 250.1703 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT... Manager before decommissioning wells and from the Regional Supervisor before decommissioning platforms...

  4. 26 CFR 1.468A-1T - Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules...-1T Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules (temporary). (a) Introduction. Section 468A provides an elective method for taking into account nuclear decommissioning costs for Federal income...

  5. 26 CFR 1.468A-1 - Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules. 1...-1 Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules. (a) Introduction. Section 468A provides an elective method for taking into account nuclear decommissioning costs for Federal income tax purposes. In...

  6. 26 CFR 1.468A-1 - Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules. 1...-1 Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules. (a) Introduction. Section 468A provides an elective method for taking into account nuclear decommissioning costs for Federal income tax purposes. In...

  7. 26 CFR 1.468A-1 - Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules. 1...-1 Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules. (a) Introduction. Section 468A provides an elective method for taking into account nuclear decommissioning costs for Federal income tax purposes. In...

  8. 26 CFR 1.468A-1 - Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules. 1...-1 Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules. (a) Introduction. Section 468A provides an elective method for taking into account nuclear decommissioning costs for Federal income tax purposes. In...

  9. A costing model for offshore decommissioning in California.

    PubMed

    Bressler, Andrew; Bernstein, Brock B

    2015-10-01

    California's 27 offshore oil and gas platforms will reach the end of their useful lifetimes sometime in the near future and will require decommissioning. Although existing leases require complete removal of all platforms and associated infrastructure, the underlying laws and regulations have changed in recent years to allow a number of alternative uses after decommissioning. In particular, AB 2503, signed into law in September 2010, provides for a rigs-to-reefs program that allows the state to accept ownership of decommissioned platforms in federal waters. Decisions about whether to remove platforms completely or leave them in place as artificial reefs will depend in part on the relative cost of the 2 options. In this study, we describe the design and use of a mathematical decision model that provides detailed cost estimates of complete and partial removal (to 85 feet below the water line) for California's offshore platforms. The model, PLATFORM, is loaded with Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE) and Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) costs for complete removal, along with costs for partial removal calculated for this study and estimates of the uncertainty associated with decommissioning cost estimates. PLATFORM allows users to define a wide range of decommissioning and costing scenarios (e.g., number of platforms, choice of heavy lift vessel, shell mound removal, reef enhancement). As a benchmark cost, complete removal of all 27 offshore platforms, grouped into the 7 decommissioning projects defined by the most recent federal cost estimates produced in 2010, would cost an estimated $1.09 billion, whereas partial removal of these platforms, grouped into the same set of projects, would cost $478 million, with avoided costs of $616 million (with minor rounding).

  10. A costing model for offshore decommissioning in California.

    PubMed

    Bressler, Andrew; Bernstein, Brock B

    2015-10-01

    California's 27 offshore oil and gas platforms will reach the end of their useful lifetimes sometime in the near future and will require decommissioning. Although existing leases require complete removal of all platforms and associated infrastructure, the underlying laws and regulations have changed in recent years to allow a number of alternative uses after decommissioning. In particular, AB 2503, signed into law in September 2010, provides for a rigs-to-reefs program that allows the state to accept ownership of decommissioned platforms in federal waters. Decisions about whether to remove platforms completely or leave them in place as artificial reefs will depend in part on the relative cost of the 2 options. In this study, we describe the design and use of a mathematical decision model that provides detailed cost estimates of complete and partial removal (to 85 feet below the water line) for California's offshore platforms. The model, PLATFORM, is loaded with Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE) and Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) costs for complete removal, along with costs for partial removal calculated for this study and estimates of the uncertainty associated with decommissioning cost estimates. PLATFORM allows users to define a wide range of decommissioning and costing scenarios (e.g., number of platforms, choice of heavy lift vessel, shell mound removal, reef enhancement). As a benchmark cost, complete removal of all 27 offshore platforms, grouped into the 7 decommissioning projects defined by the most recent federal cost estimates produced in 2010, would cost an estimated $1.09 billion, whereas partial removal of these platforms, grouped into the same set of projects, would cost $478 million, with avoided costs of $616 million (with minor rounding). PMID:25914378

  11. Concrete crushing and sampling, a methodology and technology for the unconditional release of concrete material from decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Gills, R.; Lewandowski, P.; Ooms, B.; Reusen, N.; Van Laer, W.; Walthery, R.

    2007-07-01

    Belgoprocess started the industrial decommissioning of the main process building of the former Eurochemic reprocessing plant in 1990, after completion of a pilot project. Two small storage buildings for final products from reprocessing were dismantled to verify the assumptions made in a previous paper study on decommissioning, to demonstrate and develop dismantling techniques and to train personnel. Both buildings were emptied and decontaminated to background levels. They were demolished and the remaining concrete debris was disposed of as industrial waste and green field conditions restored. Currently, the decommissioning operations carried out at the main building have made substantial progress. They are executed on an industrial scale. In view of the final demolition of the building, foreseen to start in the middle of 2008, a clearance methodology for the concrete from the cells into the Eurochemic building has been developed. It considers at least one complete measurement of all concrete structures and the removal of all detected residual radionuclides. This monitoring sequence is followed by a controlled demolition of the concrete structures and crushing of the resulting concrete parts to smaller particles. During the crushing operations, metal parts are separated from the concrete and representative concrete samples are taken. The frequency of sampling meets the prevailing standards. In a further step, the concrete samples are milled, homogenised, and a smaller fraction is sent to the laboratory for analyses. The paper describes the developed concrete crushing and sampling methodology. (authors)

  12. Management of radiological safety--lessons learnt and issues arising from the decommissioning of Berkeley power station.

    PubMed

    Spooner, K

    1999-06-01

    Berkeley Power Station was a world leader when in June 1962 it became the UK's first commercial nuclear power station to produce electricity for the National Grid. Berkeley then stood at the leading edge of nuclear technology. After 27 years of successful operation and the supply of nearly 40 billion units of electricity, Berkeley ceased generation in March 1989. Just as it was at start-up, Berkeley is continuing to lead the way as the UK's first commercial nuclear power station to be decommissioned. A three-stage decommissioning process is under way to safely dismantle the plant and eventually return the site to its original 'green field' state. Stage 1 of this process is well advanced. To set the scene, and for general interest, this paper first provides some background to the development of the decommissioning strategy and a brief summary of the progress to date. Recognising the specific interest of the reader, the paper then focuses on the radiological aspects of the work carried out, specifically the hazards, the risk assessment process and the ALARP performance. Finally, and in some detail, the paper reports on the important lessons learnt and discusses one of the issues arising. PMID:10400153

  13. Progress Report for Diffusion Welding of the NGNP Process Application Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    R.E. Mizia; D.E. Clark; M.V. Glazoff; T.E. Lister; T.L. Trowbridge

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy selected the high temperature gas-cooled reactor as the basis for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity, hydrogen production, and process heat applications. The NGNP Project is currently investigating the use of metallic, diffusion welded, compact heat exchangers to transfer heat from the primary (reactor side) heat transport system to the secondary heat transport system. An intermediate heat exchanger will transfer this heat to downstream applications such as hydrogen production, process heat, and electricity generation. The channeled plates that make up the heat transfer surfaces of the intermediate heat exchanger will have to be assembled into an array by diffusion welding. This report describes the preliminary results of a scoping study that evaluated the diffusion welding process parameters and the resultant mechanical properties of diffusion welded joints using Alloy 800H. The long-term goal of the program is to progress towards demonstration of small heat exchanger unit cells fabricated with diffusion welds. Demonstration through mechanical testing of the unit cells will support American Society of Mechanical Engineers rules and standards development, reduce technical risk, and provide proof of concept for heat exchanger fabrication methods needed to deploy heat exchangers in several potential NGNP configurations.1 Researchers also evaluated the usefulness of modern thermodynamic and diffusion computational tools (Thermo-Calc and Dictra) in optimizing the parameters for diffusion welding of Alloy 800H. The modeling efforts suggested a temperature of 1150 C for 1 hour with an applied pressure of 5 MPa using 15 {micro}m nickel foil as joint filler to reduce chromium oxidation on the welded surfaces. Good agreement between modeled and experimentally determined concentration gradients was achieved

  14. Implantable electrochemical sensors for biomedical and clinical applications: progress, problems, and future possibilities.

    PubMed

    Li, Chang Ming; Dong, Hua; Cao, Xiaodong; Luong, John H T; Zhang, Xueji

    2007-01-01

    Biosensors are of great interest for their ability to monitor clinically important analytes such as blood gases, electrolytes, and metabolites. A classic example is to monitor the dynamics of blood-glucose levels for treating diabetes. However, the current practice, based on a three decade old technology, requires a drop of blood on a test strip, which is in dire need of replacement. The increasing demands and interests in developing implantable glucose sensors for treating diabetes has led to notable progress in this area, and various electrochemical sensors have been developed for intravascular and subcutaneous applications. However, implantations are plagued by biofouling, tissue destruction and infection around the implanted sensors and the response signals must be interpreted in terms of blood or plasma concentrations for clinical utility, rather than tissue fluid levels. This review focuses on the potentials and pitfalls of implantable electrochemical sensors and presents our opinions about future possibilities of such implantable devices with respect to biocompatibility issues, long-term calibration, and other aging effects on the sensors.

  15. A Progressive Damage Model for unidirectional Fibre Reinforced Composites with Application to Impact and Penetration Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerschbaum, M.; Hopmann, C.

    2016-06-01

    The computationally efficient simulation of the progressive damage behaviour of continuous fibre reinforced plastics is still a challenging task with currently available computer aided engineering methods. This paper presents an original approach for an energy based continuum damage model which accounts for stress-/strain nonlinearities, transverse and shear stress interaction phenomena, quasi-plastic shear strain components, strain rate effects, regularised damage evolution and consideration of load reversal effects. The physically based modelling approach enables experimental determination of all parameters on ply level to avoid expensive inverse analysis procedures. The modelling strategy, implementation and verification of this model using commercially available explicit finite element software are detailed. The model is then applied to simulate the impact and penetration of carbon fibre reinforced cross-ply specimens with variation of the impact speed. The simulation results show that the presented approach enables a good representation of the force-/displacement curves and especially well agreement with the experimentally observed fracture patterns. In addition, the mesh dependency of the results were assessed for one impact case showing only very little change of the simulation results which emphasises the general applicability of the presented method.

  16. Direct cardiac reprogramming: progress and challenges in basic biology and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Sadahiro, Taketaro; Yamanaka, Shinya; Ieda, Masaki

    2015-04-10

    The discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells changed the field of regenerative medicine and inspired the technological development of direct reprogramming or the process by which one cell type is directly converted into another without reverting a stem cell state by overexpressing lineage-specific factors. Indeed, direct reprogramming has proven sufficient in yielding a diverse range of cell types from fibroblasts, including neurons, cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, and hepatocytes. These studies revealed that somatic cells are more plastic than anticipated, and that transcription factors, microRNAs, epigenetic factors, secreted molecules, as well as the cellular microenvironment are all important for cell fate specification. With respect to the field of cardiology, the cardiac reprogramming presents as a novel method to regenerate damaged myocardium by directly converting endogenous cardiac fibroblasts into induced cardiomyocyte-like cells in situ. The first in vivo cardiac reprogramming reports were promising to repair infarcted hearts; however, the low induction efficiency of fully reprogrammed, functional induced cardiomyocyte-like cells has become a major challenge and hampered our understanding of the reprogramming process. Nevertheless, recent studies have identified several critical factors that may affect the efficiency and quality of cardiac induction and have provided new insights into the mechanisms of cardiac reprogramming. Here, we review the progress in direct reprogramming research and discuss the perspectives and challenges of this nascent technology in basic biology and clinical applications.

  17. Progress in bioleaching: part B: applications of microbial processes by the minerals industries.

    PubMed

    Brierley, Corale L; Brierley, James A

    2013-09-01

    This review presents developments and applications in bioleaching and mineral biooxidation since publication of a previous mini review in 2003 (Olson et al. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 63:249-257, 2003). There have been discoveries of newly identified acidophilic microorganisms that have unique characteristics for effective bioleaching of sulfidic ores and concentrates. Progress has been made in understanding and developing bioleaching of copper from primary copper sulfide minerals, chalcopyrite, covellite, and enargite. These developments point to low oxidation-reduction potential in concert with thermophilic bacteria and archaea as a potential key to the leaching of these minerals. On the commercial front, heap bioleaching of nickel has been commissioned, and the mineral biooxidation pretreatment of sulfidic-refractory gold concentrates is increasingly used on a global scale to enhance precious metal recovery. New and larger stirred-tank reactors have been constructed since the 2003 review article. One biooxidation-heap process for pretreatment of sulfidic-refractory gold ores was also commercialized. A novel reductive approach to bioleaching nickel laterite minerals has been proposed.

  18. Progress in bioleaching: part B: applications of microbial processes by the minerals industries.

    PubMed

    Brierley, Corale L; Brierley, James A

    2013-09-01

    This review presents developments and applications in bioleaching and mineral biooxidation since publication of a previous mini review in 2003 (Olson et al. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 63:249-257, 2003). There have been discoveries of newly identified acidophilic microorganisms that have unique characteristics for effective bioleaching of sulfidic ores and concentrates. Progress has been made in understanding and developing bioleaching of copper from primary copper sulfide minerals, chalcopyrite, covellite, and enargite. These developments point to low oxidation-reduction potential in concert with thermophilic bacteria and archaea as a potential key to the leaching of these minerals. On the commercial front, heap bioleaching of nickel has been commissioned, and the mineral biooxidation pretreatment of sulfidic-refractory gold concentrates is increasingly used on a global scale to enhance precious metal recovery. New and larger stirred-tank reactors have been constructed since the 2003 review article. One biooxidation-heap process for pretreatment of sulfidic-refractory gold ores was also commercialized. A novel reductive approach to bioleaching nickel laterite minerals has been proposed. PMID:23877580

  19. Decommissioning and PIE of the MEGAPIE spallation target

    SciTech Connect

    Latge, C.; Henry, J.; Wohlmuther, M.; Dai, Y.; Gavillet, D.; Hammer, B.; Heinitz, S.; Neuhausen, J.; Schumann, D.; Thomsen, K.; Tuerler, A.; Wagner, W.; Gessi, A.; Guertin, A.; Konstantinovic, M.; Lindau, R.; Maloy, S.; Saito, S.

    2013-07-01

    A key experiment in the Accelerated Driven Systems roadmap, the MEGAwatt PIlot Experiment (MEGAPIE) (1 MW) was initiated in 1999 in order to design and build a liquid lead-bismuth spallation target, then to operate it into the Swiss spallation neutron facility SINQ at Paul Scherrer Institute. The target has been designed, manufactured, and tested during integral tests, before irradiation carried out end of 2006. During irradiation, neutron and thermo hydraulic measurements were performed allowing deep interpretation of the experiment and validation of the models used during design phase. The decommissioning, Post Irradiation Examinations and waste management phases were defined properly. The phases dedicated to cutting, sampling, cleaning, waste management, samples preparation and shipping to various laboratories were performed by PSI teams: all these phases constitute a huge work, which allows now to perform post-irradiation examination (PIE) of structural material, irradiated in relevant conditions. Preliminary results are presented in the paper, they concern chemical characterization. The following radio-nuclides have been identified by γ-spectrometry: {sup 60}Co, {sup 101}Rh, {sup 102}Rh, {sup 108m}Ag, {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 172}Hf/Lu, {sup 173}Lu, {sup 194}Hg/Au, {sup 195}Au, {sup 207}Bi. For some of these nuclides the activities can be easily evaluated from γ-spectrometry results ({sup 207}Bi, {sup 194}Hg/Au), while other nuclides can only be determined after chemical separations ({sup 108m}Ag, {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 195}Au, {sup 129}I, {sup 36}Cl and α-emitting {sup 208-210}Po). The concentration of {sup 129}I is lower than expected. The chemical analysis already performed on spallation and corrosion products in the lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) are very relevant for further applications of LBE as a spallation media and more generally as a coolant.

  20. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory decontamination and decommissioning robotics development program

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, M.D.

    1993-04-01

    As part of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Robotics Technology Development Program (RTDP) Decontamination & Decommissioning (D&D) robotics program, a task was designed to integrate the plasma arc cutting technology being developed under the Waste Facility Operations (WFO) robotics program into D&D cutting applications. The plasma arc cutting technology is based upon the use of a high energy plasma torch to cut metallic objects. Traditionally, D&D workers removing equipment and processes from a facility have used plasma arc cutting to accomplish this task. The worker is required to don a protective suit to shield from the high electromagnetic energy released from the cutting operation. Additionally, the worker is required to don protective clothing to shield against the radioactive materials and contamination. This protective clothing can become restrictive and cumbersome to work in. Because some of the work areas contain high levels of radiation, the worker is not allowed to dwell in the environment for sustained periods of time. To help alleviate some of the burdens required to accomplish this task, reduce or eliminate the safety hazardous to the worker, and reduce the overall cost of remediation, a program was established though the Office of Technology Development (OTD) to design and develop a robotic system capable of performing cutting operations using a plasma arc torch. Several D&D tasks were identified having potential for use of the plasma arc cutting technology. The tasks listed below were chosen to represent common D&D type activities where the plasma arc cutting technology can be applied.

  1. Recent Trends in the Adequacy of Nuclear Plant Decommissioning Funding

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D. G.

    2002-02-26

    Concerned about the potential cost and sufficiency of funds to decommission the nation's nuclear power plants, the Congress asked the U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) to assess the adequacy, as of December 31, 1997, of electric utilities'; funds to eventually decommission their plants. GAO's report (GAO/RCED-99-75) on this issue addressed three alternative assumption scenarios--baseline (most likely), optimistic, and pessimistic; and was issued in May 1999. This paper updates GAO's baseline assessment of fund adequacy in 1997, and extends the analysis through 2000. In 2000, we estimate that the present value cost to decommission the nation's nuclear plants is about $35 billion; utility fund balances are about $29 billion. Both our two measures of funding adequacy for utilities are on average not only much above ideal levels, but also overall have greatly improved since 1997. However, certain utilities still show less than ideal fund balances and annual contributions. We suggest that the range of these results among the individual utilities is a more important policy measure to assess the adequacy of decommissioning funding than is the funding adequacy for the industry as a whole.

  2. 18 CFR 2.24 - Project decommissioning at relicensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Project decommissioning at relicensing. 2.24 Section 2.24 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL POLICY AND INTERPRETATIONS Statements of...

  3. 18 CFR 2.24 - Project decommissioning at relicensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Project decommissioning at relicensing. 2.24 Section 2.24 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL POLICY AND INTERPRETATIONS Statements of...

  4. 18 CFR 2.24 - Project decommissioning at relicensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Project decommissioning at relicensing. 2.24 Section 2.24 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL POLICY AND INTERPRETATIONS Statements of...

  5. 18 CFR 2.24 - Project decommissioning at relicensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Project decommissioning at relicensing. 2.24 Section 2.24 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL POLICY AND INTERPRETATIONS Statements of...

  6. Integration of improved decontamination and characterization technologies in the decommissioning of the CP-5 research reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, S. K.; Boing, L. E.

    2000-02-17

    The aging of research reactors worldwide has resulted in a heightened awareness in the international technical decommissioning community of the timeliness to review and address the needs of these research institutes in planning for and eventually performing the decommissioning of these facilities. By using the reactors already undergoing decommissioning as test beds for evaluating enhanced or new/innovative technologies for decommissioning, it is possible that new techniques could be made available for those future research reactor decommissioning projects. Potentially, the new technologies will result in: reduced radiation doses to the work force, larger safety margins in performing decommissioning and cost and schedule savings to the research institutes in performing the decommissioning of these facilities. Testing of these enhanced technologies for decontamination, dismantling, characterization, remote operations and worker protection are critical to furthering advancements in the technical specialty of decommissioning. Furthermore, regulatory acceptance and routine utilization for future research reactor decommissioning will be assured by testing and developing these technologies in realistically contaminated environments prior to use in the research reactors. The decommissioning of the CP-5 Research Reactor is currently in the final phase of dismantlement. In this paper the authors present results of work performed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in the development, testing and deployment of innovative and/or enhanced technologies for the decommissioning of research reactors.

  7. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning a reference large irradiator and reference sealed sources

    SciTech Connect

    Haffner, D.R.; Villelgas, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    This report contains the results of a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to examine the decommissioning of large radioactive irradiators and their respective facilities, and a broad spectrum of sealed radioactive sources and their respective devices. Conceptual decommissioning activities are identified, and the technology, safety, and costs (in early 1993 dollars) associated with decommissioning the reference large irradiator and sealed source facilities are evaluated. The study provides bases and background data for possible future NRC rulemaking regarding decommissioning, for evaluation of the reasonableness of planned decommissioning actions, and for determining if adequate funds are reserved by the licensees for decommissioning of their large irradiator or sealed source facilities. Another purpose of this study is to provide background and information to assist licensees in planning and carrying out the decommissioning of their sealed radioactive sources and respective facilities.

  8. A Curricular-Sampling Approach to Progress Monitoring: Mathematics Concepts and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Zumeta, Rebecca O.

    2008-01-01

    Progress monitoring is an important component of effective instructional practice. Curriculum-based measurement (CBM) is a form of progress monitoring that has been the focus of rigorous research. Two approaches for formulating CBM systems exist. The first is to assess performance regularly on a task that serves as a global indicator of competence…

  9. Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA) for Decommissioning of TAN-607 Hot Shop Area

    SciTech Connect

    J. P. Floerke

    2007-02-05

    will be protective of human health and the environment. Decommissioning the TAN-607 Hot Shop Area is consistent with the joint DOE and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Policy on Decommissioning of Department of Energy Facilities Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, which establishes the CERCLA NTCRA process as the preferred approach for decommissioning surplus DOE facilities. Under this policy, a NTCRA may be taken when DOE determines that the action will prevent, minimize, stabilize, or eliminate a risk to human health and/or the environment. When DOE determines that a CERCLA NTCRA is necessary, DOE is authorized to evaluate, select, and implement the removal action that DOE determines is most appropriate to address the potential risk posed by the release or threat of release. This action is taken in accordance with applicable authorities and in conjunction with EPA and the State of Idaho pursuant to Section 5.3 of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. In keeping with the joint policy, this engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) was developed in accordance with CERCLA as amended by the ''Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986'' and in accordance with the ''National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan.'' This EE/CA is consistent with the remedial action objectives (RAOs) of the Final Record of Decision, Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-10 and supports the overall remediation goals established through the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order for Waste Area Group 1. Waste Area Group 1 is located at TAN.

  10. Recent Progress in Chemical Modifications of Chlorophylls and Bacteriochlorophylls for the Applications in Photodynamic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Staron, Jakub; Boron, Bożena; Karcz, Dariusz; Szczygieł, Małgorzata; Fiedor, Leszek

    2015-01-01

    Since photodynamic therapy emerged as a promising cancer treatment, the development of photosensitizers has gained great interest. In this context, the photosynthetic pigments, chlorophylls and bacteriochlorophylls, as excellent natural photosensitizers, attracted much attention. In effect, several (bacterio) chlorophyll-based phototherapeutic agents have been developed and (or are about to) enter the clinics. The aim of this review article is to give a survey of the advances in the synthetic chemistry of these pigments which have been made over the last decade, and which are pertinent to the application of their derivatives as photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT). The review focuses on the synthetic strategies undertaken to obtain novel derivatives of (bacterio)chlorophylls with both enhanced photosensitizing and tumorlocalizing properties, and also improved photo- and chemical stability. These include modifications of the C- 17-ester moiety, the isocyclic ring, the central binding pocket, and the derivatization of peripheral functionalities at the C-3 and C-7 positions with carbohydrate-, peptide-, and nanoparticle moieties or other residues. The effects of these modifications on essential features of the pigments are discussed, such as the efficiency of reactive oxygen species generation, photostability, phototoxicity and interactions with living organisms. The review is divided into several sections. In the first part, the principles of PDT and photosensitizer action are briefly described. Then the relevant photophysical features of (bacterio)chlorophylls and earlier approaches to their modification are summarized. Next, a more detailed overview of the progress in synthetic methods is given, followed by a discussion of the effects of these modifications on the photophysics of the pigments and on their biological activity. PMID:26282940

  11. Regulatable Gene Expression Systems for Gene Therapy Applications: Progress and Future Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Goverdhana, S.; Puntel, M.; Xiong, W.; Zirger, J. M.; Barcia, C.; Curtin, J. F.; Soffer, E. B.; Mondkar, S.; King, G. D.; Hu, J.; Sciascia, S. A.; Candolfi, M.; Greengold, D. S.; Lowenstein, P. R.; Castro, M. G.

    2009-01-01

    Gene therapy aims to revert diseased phenotypes by the use of both viral and nonviral gene delivery systems. Substantial progress has been made in making gene transfer vehicles more efficient, less toxic, and nonimmunogenic and in allowing long-term transgene expression. One of the key issues in successfully implementing gene therapies in the clinical setting is to be able to regulate gene expression very tightly and consistently as and when it is needed. The regulation ought to be achievable using a compound that should be nontoxic, be able to penetrate into the desired target tissue or organ, and have a half-life of a few hours (as opposed to minutes or days) so that when withdrawn or added (depending on the regulatable system used) gene expression can be turned “on” or “off” quickly and effectively. Also, the genetic switches employed should ideally be nonimmunogenic in the host. The ability to switch transgenes on and off would be of paramount importance not only when the therapy is no longer needed, but also in the case of the development of adverse side effects to the therapy. Many regulatable systems are currently under development and some, i.e., the tetracycline-dependent transcriptional switch, have been used successfully for in vivo preclinical applications. Despite this, there are no examples of switches that have been employed in a human clinical trial. In this review, we aim to highlight the main regulatable systems currently under development, the gene transfer systems employed for their expression, and also the preclinical models in which they have been used successfully. We also discuss the substantial challenges that still remain before these regulatable switches can be employed in the clinical setting. PMID:15946903

  12. Progress in HTS Trapped Field Magnets: J(sub c), Area, and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Roy; Ren, Yanru; Liu, Jian-Xiong; Sawh, Ravi; Parks, Drew; Foster, Charles; Obot, Victor; Arndt, G. Dickey; Crapo, Alan

    1995-01-01

    Progress in trapped field magnets is reported. Single YBCO grains with diameters of 2 cm are made in production quantities, while 3 cm, 4 1/2 cm and 6 cm diameters are being explored. For single grain tiles: J(sub c) - 10,000 A/sq cm for melt textured grains; J(sub c) - 40,000 A/sq cm for light ion irradiation; and J(sub c) - 85,000 A/J(sub c) for heavy ion irradiation. Using 2 cm diameter tiles bombarded by light ions, we have fabricated a mini-magnet which trapped 2.25 Tesla at 77K, and 5.3 Tesla at 65K. A previous generation of tiles, 1 cm x 1 cm, was used to trap 7.0 Tesla at 55K. Unirradiated 2.0 cm tiles were used to provide 8 magnets for an axial gap generator, in a collaborative experiment with Emerson Electric Co. This generator delivered 100 Watts to a resistive load, at 2265 rpm. In this experiment, activation of the TFMs was accomplished by a current pulse of 15 ms duration. Tiles have also been studied for application as a bumper-tether system for the soft docking of spacecraft. A method for optimizing tether forces, and mechanisms of energy dissipation are discussed. A bus bar was constructed by welding three crystals while melt-texturing, such that their a,b planes were parallel and interleaved. The bus bar, of area approx. 2 sq cm, carried a transport current of 1000 amps, the limit of the testing equipment available.

  13. Progressive phase conjugation and its application in reconfigurable spatial-mode extraction and conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Atsushi; Maeda, Tomohiro; Hirasaki, Yuki; Tomita, Akihisa; Sato, Kunihiro

    2014-05-01

    We develop a new technology, which is referred to as progressive phase conjugation (PPC), in which phase conjugation is electrically performed without requiring a coherent reference beam by fusion using a reference-free spatial phase detection and spatial phase modulation. This method enables remote setting of a phase detector from the signal transmitter without an additional transmission line for the reference beam. It also enables realization of high-speed and dynamic wavefront compensation owing to its open-loop architecture using the single-shot phase detection method. Therefore, the PPC is applicable to a wide range of optical communication technologies, including the reconfigurable spatial-mode extraction and conversion of mode transmission in a multi-mode fiber (MMF). In our experiment, spatial modes are generated by directing a laser beam into a MMF with a 50-micron core diameter. At the output side of the optical fiber, the phase distributions of the spatial modes are detected using the reference-free phase detector constructed by combining a spatial filtering method with holographic diversity interferometry using two CCD imagers. Then, the phase conjugate distribution of the detected phase pattern is displayed on a LCOS-type SLM. We confirm that the PPC system can extract a specific mode pattern with a considerably low crosstalk of less than 1% by displaying the corresponding phase-conjugation pattern on the SLM. In addition, we demonstrated a reconfigurable spatial-mode conversion by the phase control technology using the SLM. By applying the spatial phase modulation to an optical beam incident on the SLM, the spatial mode of the output beam is flexibly changed.

  14. Progress in HTS trapped field magnets: J(sub c), area, and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Roy; Ren, Yanru; Liu, Jianxiong; Sawh, Ravi; Parks, Drew; Foster, Charles; Obot, Victor; Arndt, G. Dickey; Crapo, Alan

    1995-01-01

    Progress in trapped field magnets is reported. Single YBCO grains with diameters of 2 cm are made in production quantities, while 3 cm, 4 1/2 cm and 6 cm diameters are being explored. For single grain tiles: J(sub c) is approximately 10,000 A/cm(exp 2) for melt textured grains; J(sub c) is approximately 40,000 A/cm2 for light ion irradiation; and J(sub c) is approximately 85,000 A/cm(exp 2) for heavy ion irradiation. Using 2 cm diameter tiles bombarded by light ions, we have fabricated a mini-magnet which trapped 2.25 Tesla at 77K, and 5.3 Tesla at 65K. A previous generation of tiles, 1 cm x 1 cm, was used to trap 7.0 Tesla at 55K. Unirradiated 2.0 cm tiles were used to provide 8 magnets for an axial gap generator, in a collaborative experiment with Emerson Electric Co. This generator delivered 100 Watts to a resistive load, at 2265 rpm. In this experiment activation of the TFMs was accomplished by a current pulse of 15 ms duration. Tiles have also been studied for application as a bumper-tether system for the soft docking of spacecraft. A method for optimizing tether forces, and mechanisms of energy dissipation are discussed. A bus bar was constructed by welding three crystals while melt-texturing, such that their a,b planes were parallel and interleaved. The bus bar, an area of approximately 2 cm(exp 2), carried a transport current of 1000 amps, the limit of the testing equipment available.

  15. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE R-REACTOR DISASSEMBLY BASIN IN-SITU DECOMMISSIONING -10499

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.; Serrato, M.; Blankenship, J.; Griffin, W.

    2010-01-04

    designs and testing, and fill placement strategy. This information is applicable to decommissioning both the 105-P and 105-R facilities. The ISD process for the entire 105-P and 105-R reactor facilities will require approximately 250,000 cubic yards (191,140 cubic meters) of grout and approximately 3,900 cubic yards (2,989 cubic meters) of structural concrete which will be placed over about an eighteen month period to meet the accelerated schedule ISD schedule. The status and lessons learned in the SRS Reactor Facility ISD process will be described.

  16. Atmospheric discharges from nuclear facilities during decommissioning: German experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, H.; Goertz, R.; Weil, L.

    1997-08-01

    In Germany, a substantial amount of experience is available with planning, licensing and realization of decommissioning projects. In total, a number of 18 nuclear power plants including prototype facilities as well as 6 research reactors and 3 fuel cycle facilities have been shut down finally and are at different stages of decommissioning. Only recently the final {open_quotes}green field{close_quotes} stage of the Niederaichbach Nuclear Power Plant total dismantlement project has been achieved. From the regulatory point of view, a survey of the decommissioning experience in Germany is presented highlighting the aspects of production and retention of airborne radioactivity. Nuclear air cleaning technology, discharge limits prescribed in licences and actual discharges are presented. As compared to operation, the composition of the discharged radioactivity is different as well as the off-gas discharge rate. In practically all cases, there is no significant amount of short-lived radionuclides. The discussion further includes lessons learned, for example inadvertent discharges of radionuclides expected not to be in the plants inventory. It is demonstrated that, as for operation of nuclear power plants, the limits prescribed in the Ordinance on Radiological Protection can be met using existing air cleaning technology, Optimization of protection results in public exposures substantially below the limits. In the frame of the regulatory investigation programme a study has been conducted to assess the airborne radioactivity created during certain decommissioning activities like decontamination, segmentation and handling of contaminated or activated parts. The essential results of this study are presented, which are supposed to support planning for decommissioning, for LWRs, Co-60 and Cs-137 are expected to be the dominant radionuclides in airborne discharges. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Education in nuclear decommissioning in the north of Scotland

    SciTech Connect

    Catlow, F.; Reeves, G.M.

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes the work covered and experience gained in the first two years of operation of DERC, a Centre for Decommissioning and Environmental Remediation in the Highlands of Scotland. The Centre is a unique development which was set up to teach nuclear decommissioning as a separate discipline, address the problem of a declining skills base in the field of nuclear technologies and to take advantage of the unique and exceptional innovative, technical and research opportunities offered through the decommissioning of Britain's fast reactor site at Dounreay. The Centre is an offshoot from North Highland College which is a member of UHI, the University in embryo of the Highlands and Islands. The Centre currently supports ten PhD students completing various diverse projects mainly in the field of nuclear environmental remediation. In addition there area number of full and part time MSc students who participate in NTEC (Nuclear Technology Education Consortium) a consortium of British Universities set up specifically to engender interest and skills in nuclear technology at postgraduate level. At undergraduate level, courses are offered in Nuclear Decommissioning and related subjects as part of Electrical and Mechanical degree courses. In addition to our relationship with the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) the Dounreay site licensee, we have links with Rolls-Royce and the Ministry of Defence who also share the Dounreay site and with other stakeholders such as, the UK regulator (HSE/NII), the Scottish Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA), local and international contractors and we liaise with the newly formed Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), who provide some sponsorship and support. We possess our own equipment and laboratories for taking and analysing soil samples and for conducting environmental surveys. Recently we commissioned an aerial survey of contamination in the locality from natural sources, other background levels such as

  18. STATUS AND PROGRESS IN PARTICULATE MATTER FORECASTING: INITIAL APPLICATION OF THE ETA- CMAQ FORECAST MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation reviews the status and progress in forecasting particulate matter distributions. The shortcomings in representation of particulate matter formation in current atmospheric chemistry/transport models are presented based on analyses and detailed comparisons with me...

  19. 76 FR 45221 - Notice of Funding Availability: Inviting Applications for the Food for Progress Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... Progress (FFPr) program. The total resources available are estimated at about $160 million. The FFPr... estimated number of beneficiaries? (e) Is the number of beneficiaries realistic for the proposed...

  20. Summary of stationary and personal air sampling measurements made during a plutonium glovebox decommissioning project.

    SciTech Connect

    Munyon, W. J.; Lee, M. B.

    2002-02-01

    Workplace air sampling was performed during the decommissioning of a previously active plutonium glovebox facility located at Argonne National Laboratory. Personal air samplers (PAS) were used to measure breathing zone activity concentrations of workers engaged in size-reducing contaminated gloveboxes. Stationary air samplers (SAS) were used to measure the work area activity concentrations and test their application in providing representative sampling of breathing zone activity concentrations. The relative response of these samplers (PAS:SAS) was tracked during the course of the decommissioning work, with results yielding favorable agreement to within a factor of {+-}5. A cascade impactor was used to determine the particle size distribution of workplace aerosols. The average activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) was estimated to be 3.0 {mu}m, with a corresponding geometric standard deviation of 2.4. A gas-flow proportional counter was utilized to measure the gross alpha activity collected on both the SAS glass fiber and the PAS cellulose fiber filters. A subset of this filter group was subsequently analyzed using an alpha spectrometer post radiochemical processing and isotopic separation. The quantity of alpha activity measured on the SAS filters was generally within {+-}30% of the alpha spectrometry measurements. However, measurements made of the activity present on the PAS cellulose fiber filters were consistently underestimated using a gas-flow proportional counter, suggesting a small correction factor of 15-20% to account for the absorption of alpha particle emissions.

  1. Summary of stationary and personal air sampling measurements made during a plutonium glovebox decommissioning project.

    PubMed

    Munyon, W J; Lee, M B

    2002-02-01

    Workplace air sampling was performed during the decommissioning of a previously active plutonium glovebox facility located at Argonne National Laboratory. Personal air samplers (PAS) were used to measure breathing zone activity concentrations of workers engaged in size-reducing contaminated gloveboxes. Stationary air samplers (SAS) were used to measure the work area activity concentrations and test their application in providing representative sampling of breathing zone activity concentrations. The relative response of these samplers (PAS:SAS) was tracked during the course of the decommissioning work, with results yielding favorable agreement to within a factor of +/-5. A cascade impactor was used to determine the particle size distribution of workplace aerosols. The average activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) was estimated to be 3.0 microm, with a corresponding geometric standard deviation of 2.4. A gas-flow proportional counter was utilized to measure the gross alpha activity collected on both the SAS glass fiber and the PAS cellulose fiber filters. A subset of this filter group was subsequently analyzed using an alpha spectrometer post radiochemical processing and isotopic separation. The quantity of alpha activity measured on the SAS filters was generally within +/-30% of the alpha spectrometry measurements. However, measurements made of the activity present on the PAS cellulose fiber filters were consistently underestimated using a gas-flow proportional counter, suggesting a small correction factor of 15-20% to account for the absorption of alpha particle emissions.

  2. Progressive Vector Quantization on a massively parallel SIMD machine with application to multispectral image data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manohar, Mareboyana; Tilton, James C.

    1994-01-01

    A progressive vector quantization (VQ) compression approach is discussed which decomposes image data into a number of levels using full search VQ. The final level is losslessly compressed, enabling lossless reconstruction. The computational difficulties are addressed by implementation on a massively parallel SIMD machine. We demonstrate progressive VQ on multispectral imagery obtained from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer instrument and other Earth observation image data, and investigate the trade-offs in selecting the number of decomposition levels and codebook training method.

  3. Temporal trajectory and progression score estimation from voxelwise longitudinal imaging measures: Application to amyloid imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bilgel, Murat; Jedynak, Bruno; Wong, Dean F.; Resnick, Susan M.; Prince, Jerry L.

    2015-01-01

    Cortical β-amyloid deposition begins in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) years before the onset of any clinical symptoms. It is therefore important to determine the temporal trajectories of amyloid deposition in these earliest stages in order to better understand their associations with progression to AD. A method for estimating the temporal trajectories of voxelwise amyloid as measured using longitudinal positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is presented. The method involves the estimation of a score for each subject visit based on the PET data that reflects their amyloid progression. This amyloid progression score allows subjects with similar progressions to be aligned and analyzed together. The estimation of the progression scores and the amyloid trajectory parameters are performed using an expectation-maximization algorithm. The correlations among the voxel measures of amyloid are modeled to reflect the spatial nature of PET images. Simulation results show that model parameters are captured well at a variety of noise and spatial correlation levels. The method is applied to longitudinal amyloid imaging data considering each cerebral hemisphere separately. The results are consistent across the hemispheres and agree with a global index of brain amyloid known as mean cortical DVR. Unlike mean cortical DVR, which depends on a priori defined regions, the progression score extracted by the method is data-driven and does not make assumptions about regional longitudinal changes. Compared to regressing on age at each voxel, the longitudinal trajectory slopes estimated using the proposed method show better localized longitudinal changes. PMID:26221692

  4. Preservation and Implementation of Decommissioning Lessons Learned in the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Rafael L.

    2008-01-15

    Over the past several years, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has actively worked to capture and preserve lessons learned from the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. More recently, NRC has involved industry groups, the Organization of Agreement States (OAS), and the Department of Energy (DOE) in the effort to develop approaches to capture, preserve and disseminate decommissioning lessons learned. This paper discusses the accomplishments of the working group, some lessons learned by the NRC in the recent past, and how NRC will incorporate these lessons learned into its regulatory framework. This should help ensure that the design and operation of current and future nuclear facilities will result in less environmental impact and more efficient decommissioning. In summary, the NRC will continue capturing today's experience in decommissioning so that future facilities can take advantage of lessons learned from today's decommissioning projects. NRC, both individually and collectively with industry groups, OAS, and DOE, is aggressively working on the preservation and implementation of decommissioning lessons learned. The joint effort has helped to ensure the lessons from the whole spectrum of decommissioning facilities (i.e., reactor, fuel cycle, and material facilities) are better understood, thus maximizing the amount of knowledge and best practices obtained from decommissioning activities. Anticipated regulatory activities at the NRC will make sure that the knowledge gained from today's decommissioning projects is preserved and implemented to benefit the nuclear facilities that will decommission in the future.

  5. Draft principles, policy, and acceptance criteria for decommissioning of U.S. Department of Energy contaminated surplus facilities and summary of international decommissioning programs

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, B.K. |; Gillette, J.; Jackson, J.

    1994-12-01

    Decommissioning activities enable the DOE to reuse all or part of a facility for future activities and reduce hazards to the general public and any future work force. The DOE Office of Environment, Health and Safety has prepared this document, which consists of decommissioning principles and acceptance criteria, in an attempt to establish a policy that is in agreement with the NRC policy. The purpose of this document is to assist individuals involved with decommissioning activities in determining their specific responsibilities as identified in Draft DOE Order 5820.DDD, ``Decommissioning of US Department of Energy Contaminated Surplus Facilities`` (Appendix A). This document is not intended to provide specific decommissioning methodology. The policies and principles of several international decommissioning programs are also summarized. These programs are from the IAEA, the NRC, and several foreign countries expecting to decommission nuclear facilities. They are included here to demonstrate the different policies that are to be followed throughout the world and to allow the reader to become familiar with the state of the art for environment, safety, and health (ES and H) aspects of nuclear decommissioning.

  6. Decommissioning and Dismantling of the Floating Maintenance Base 'Lepse' - 13316

    SciTech Connect

    Field, D.; Mizen, K.

    2013-07-01

    The Lepse was built in Russia in 1934 and commissioned as a dry cargo ship. In 1961 she was re-equipped for use as a nuclear service ship (NSS), specifically a floating maintenance base (FMB), to support the operation of the civilian nuclear fleet (ice-breakers) of the USSR. In 1988 Lepse was taken out of service and in 1990 she was re-classified as a 'berth connected ship', located at a berth near the port of Murmansk under the ownership of Federal State Unitary Enterprise (FSUE) Atomflot. Lepse has special storage facilities for spent nuclear fuel assemblies (SFA) that have been used to store several hundred SFAs for nearly 40 years. High and intermediate-level liquid radioactive waste (LRW) is also present in the spent nuclear fuel assembly storage channels, in special tanks and also in the SFA cooling circuit. Many of the SFAs stored in Lepse are classified as damaged and cannot be removed using standard procedures. The removal of the SFA and LRW from the Lepse storage facilities is a hazardous task and requires specially designed tools, equipment and an infrastructure in which these can be deployed safely. Lepse is a significant environmental hazard in the North West of Russia. Storing spent nuclear fuel and high-level liquid radioactive waste on board Lepse in the current conditions is not acceptable with respect to Russian Federation health, safety and environmental standards and with international best practice. The approved concept design for the removal of the SFA and LRW and dismantling of Lepse requires that the ship be transported to Nerpa shipyard where specialist infrastructure will be constructed and equipment installed. One of the main complexities of the Project lies within the number of interested stakeholders involved in the Project. The Lepse project has been high focus on the international stage for many years with previous international efforts failing to make significant progress towards the objective of decommissioning Lepse. The Northern

  7. Application of Interface Technology in Progressive Failure Analysis of Composite Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sleight, D. W.; Lotts, C. G.

    2002-01-01

    A progressive failure analysis capability using interface technology is presented. The capability has been implemented in the COMET-AR finite element analysis code developed at the NASA Langley Research Center and is demonstrated on composite panels. The composite panels are analyzed for damage initiation and propagation from initial loading to final failure using a progressive failure analysis capability that includes both geometric and material nonlinearities. Progressive failure analyses are performed on conventional models and interface technology models of the composite panels. Analytical results and the computational effort of the analyses are compared for the conventional models and interface technology models. The analytical results predicted with the interface technology models are in good correlation with the analytical results using the conventional models, while significantly reducing the computational effort.

  8. Carbon-14 Bioassay for Decommissioning of Hanford Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Carbaugh, Eugene H.; Watson, David J.

    2012-05-01

    The old production reactors at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site used large graphite piles as the moderator. As part of long-term decommissioning plans, the potential need for 14C radiobioassay of workers was identified. Technical issues associated with 14C bioassay and worker monitoring were investigated, including anticipated graphite characterization, potential intake scenarios, and the bioassay capabilities that may be required to support the decommissioning of the graphite piles. A combination of urine and feces sampling would likely be required for the absorption type S 14C anticipated to be encountered. However the concentrations in the graphite piles appear to be sufficiently low that dosimetrically significant intakes of 14C are not credible, thus rendering moot the need for such bioassay.

  9. Decontamination and Decommissioning activities photobriefing book FY 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) Program at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) is dedicated to the safe and cost effective D{ampersand}D of surplus nuclear facilities. There is currently a backlog of more than 7,000 contaminated US Department of Energy facilities nationwide. Added to this are 110 licensed commercial nuclear power reactors operated by utilities learning to cope with deregulation and an aging infrastructure that supports the commercial nuclear power industry, as well as medical and other uses of radioactive materials. With this volume it becomes easy to understand the importance of addressing the unique issues and objectives associated with the D{ampersand}D of surplus nuclear facilities. This photobriefing book summarizes the decontamination and decommissioning projects and activities either completed or continuing at the ANL-E site during the year.

  10. Carbon-14 bioassay for decommissioning of Hanford reactors.

    PubMed

    Carbaugh, Eugene H; Watson, David J

    2012-05-01

    The production reactors at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site used large graphite piles as the moderator. As part of long-term decommissioning plans, the potential need for ¹⁴C radiobioassay of workers was identified. Technical issues associated with ¹⁴C bioassay and worker monitoring were investigated, including anticipated graphite characterization, potential intake scenarios, and the bioassay capabilities that may be required to support the decommissioning of the graphite piles. A combination of urine and feces sampling would likely be required for the absorption type S ¹⁴C anticipated to be encountered. However, the concentrations in the graphite piles appear to be sufficiently low that dosimetrically significant intakes of ¹⁴C are not credible, thus rendering moot the need for such bioassay.

  11. Carbon-14 bioassay for decommissioning of Hanford reactors.

    PubMed

    Carbaugh, Eugene H; Watson, David J

    2012-05-01

    The production reactors at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site used large graphite piles as the moderator. As part of long-term decommissioning plans, the potential need for ¹⁴C radiobioassay of workers was identified. Technical issues associated with ¹⁴C bioassay and worker monitoring were investigated, including anticipated graphite characterization, potential intake scenarios, and the bioassay capabilities that may be required to support the decommissioning of the graphite piles. A combination of urine and feces sampling would likely be required for the absorption type S ¹⁴C anticipated to be encountered. However, the concentrations in the graphite piles appear to be sufficiently low that dosimetrically significant intakes of ¹⁴C are not credible, thus rendering moot the need for such bioassay. PMID:22469998

  12. FACILITY DEACTIVATION AND DECOMMISSIONING AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmour, J; William Austin, W; Cathy Sizemore, C

    2007-01-31

    In February 2002, the U.S. Department of Energy initiated actions to expedite Cleanup, focus on significant and early risk reduction, and reduce costs at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In response SRS started on a project focused on completing the decommissioning of inactive facilities in T, D, and M Areas, areas that on the perimeter of the Site, by the end of 2006. In June 2003, the Department of Energy Savannah River Operations Office (DOE-SR), the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), and the Environmental Protection Agency, Region 4 (EPA-4) endorsed a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) concerning cleanup at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The vision of the Agreement is that SRS will reduce its operations footprint to establish a buffer zone at the perimeter if the Site, while the central core area of the Site will be reserved for continuing or future long-term operations. DOE-SR, EPA-4, and SCDHEC agreed that establishing this buffer zone and appropriately sequencing environmental restoration and decommissioning activities can lead to greater efficiency and accelerate completion of entire site areas. This vision is embodied in the concept of Area Completion--which integrated operations, deactivation and decommissioning (D&D), and soils and groundwater cleanup into a time-phased approach to completing all the work necessary to address the Cold War legacy. D&D addresses the ''footprint'' of the building or structure, while the soils and groundwater project addresses any environmental remediation that may be required in the underlying and surrounding soils and groundwater. Since then, {approx}250 facilities have been decommissioned at the SRS, ranging from guard stations to nuclear fuel production facilities.

  13. Reducing environmental risk associated with laboratory decommissioning and property transfer.

    PubMed

    Dufault, R; Abelquist, E; Crooks, S; Demers, D; DiBerardinis, L; Franklin, T; Horowitz, M; Petullo, C; Sturchio, G

    2000-12-01

    The need for more or less space is a common laboratory problem. Solutions may include renovating existing space, leaving or demolishing old space, or acquiring new space or property for building. All of these options carry potential environmental risk. Such risk can be the result of activities related to the laboratory facility or property (e.g., asbestos, underground storage tanks, lead paint), or the research associated with it (e.g., radioactive, microbiological, and chemical contamination). Regardless of the option chosen to solve the space problem, the potential environmental risk must be mitigated and the laboratory space and/or property must be decommissioned or rendered safe prior to any renovation, demolition, or property transfer activities. Not mitigating the environmental risk through a decommissioning process can incur significant financial liability for any costs associated with future decommissioning cleanup activities. Out of necessity, a functioning system, environmental due diligence auditing, has evolved over time to assess environmental risk and reduce associated financial liability. This system involves a 4-phase approach to identify, document, manage, and clean up areas of environmental concern or liability, including contamination. Environmental due diligence auditing includes a) historical site assessment, b) characterization assessment, c) remedial effort and d) final status survey. General practice standards from the American Society for Testing and Materials are available for conducting the first two phases. However, standards have not yet been developed for conducting the third and final phases of the environmental due diligence auditing process. Individuals involved in laboratory decommissioning work in the biomedical research industry consider this a key weakness.

  14. Reducing environmental risk associated with laboratory decommissioning and property transfer.

    PubMed Central

    Dufault, R; Abelquist, E; Crooks, S; Demers, D; DiBerardinis, L; Franklin, T; Horowitz, M; Petullo, C; Sturchio, G

    2000-01-01

    The need for more or less space is a common laboratory problem. Solutions may include renovating existing space, leaving or demolishing old space, or acquiring new space or property for building. All of these options carry potential environmental risk. Such risk can be the result of activities related to the laboratory facility or property (e.g., asbestos, underground storage tanks, lead paint), or the research associated with it (e.g., radioactive, microbiological, and chemical contamination). Regardless of the option chosen to solve the space problem, the potential environmental risk must be mitigated and the laboratory space and/or property must be decommissioned or rendered safe prior to any renovation, demolition, or property transfer activities. Not mitigating the environmental risk through a decommissioning process can incur significant financial liability for any costs associated with future decommissioning cleanup activities. Out of necessity, a functioning system, environmental due diligence auditing, has evolved over time to assess environmental risk and reduce associated financial liability. This system involves a 4-phase approach to identify, document, manage, and clean up areas of environmental concern or liability, including contamination. Environmental due diligence auditing includes a) historical site assessment, b) characterization assessment, c) remedial effort and d) final status survey. General practice standards from the American Society for Testing and Materials are available for conducting the first two phases. However, standards have not yet been developed for conducting the third and final phases of the environmental due diligence auditing process. Individuals involved in laboratory decommissioning work in the biomedical research industry consider this a key weakness. PMID:11121365

  15. TECHNOLOGY REQUIREMENTS FOR IN SITU DECOMMISSIONING WORKSHOP REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Jannik, T.; Lee, P.; Gladden, J.; Langton, C.; Serrato, M.; Urland, C.; Reynolds, E.

    2009-06-30

    In recognition of the increasing attention being focused on In Situ Decommissioning (ISD or entombment) as an acceptable and beneficial decommissioning end state, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) is developing guidance for the implementation of ISD of excess facilities within the DOE complex. Consistent with the overarching DOE goals for increased personnel and environmental safety, reduced technical uncertainties and risks, and overall gains in efficiencies and effectiveness, EM's Office of Deactivation and Decommissioning and Facility Engineering (EM-23) initiated efforts to identify the technical barriers and technology development needs for the optimal implementation of ISD. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), as the EM Corporate Laboratory, conducted an ISD Technology Needs Workshop to identify the technology needs at DOE sites. The overall goal of the workshop was to gain a full understanding of the specific ISD technical challenges, the technologies available, and those needing development. The ISD Workshop was held December 9-10, 2008 in Aiken, SC. Experienced decommissioning operations personnel from Richland Operations Office (RL), Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and Savannah River Site (SRS) along with scientists and engineers specific expertise were assembled to identify incremental and 'game changing' solutions to ISD technology challenges. The workshop and follow-up activities yielded 14 technology needs statements and the recommendation that EM-23 prioritize and pursue the following specific technology development and deployment actions. For each action, the recommended technology acquisition mechanisms (competitive solicitation (CS) or direct funding (TCR)) are provided. Activities that are time critical for ISD projects, or require unique capabilities that reside in the DOE Laboratory system will be funded directly to those institutions. Activities that have longer lead times and where the private

  16. Aroma potential of oak battens prepared from decommissioned oak barrels.

    PubMed

    Li, Sijing; Crump, Anna M; Grbin, Paul R; Cozzolino, Daniel; Warren, Peter; Hayasaka, Yoji; Wilkinson, Kerry L

    2015-04-01

    During barrel maturation, volatile compounds are extracted from oak wood and impart aroma and flavor to wine, enhancing its character and complexity. However, barrels contain a finite pool of extractable material, which diminishes with time. As a consequence, most barrels are decommissioned after 5 or 6 years. This study investigated whether or not decommissioned barrels can be "reclaimed" and utilized as a previously untapped source of quality oak for wine maturation. Oak battens were prepared from staves of decommissioned French and American oak barrels, and their composition analyzed before and after toasting. The oak lactone glycoconjugate content of untoasted reclaimed oak was determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, while the concentrations of cis- and trans-oak lactone, guaiacol, 4-methlyguaiacol, vanillin, eugenol, furfural, and 5-methylfurfural present in toasted reclaimed oak were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Aroma potential was then evaluated by comparing the composition of reclaimed oak with that of new oak. Comparable levels of oak lactone glycoconjugates and oak volatiles were observed, demonstrating the aroma potential of reclaimed oak and therefore its suitability as a raw material for alternative oak products, i.e., chips or battens, for the maturation of wine. The temperature profiles achieved during toasting were also measured to evaluate the viability of any yeast or bacteria present in reclaimed oak. PMID:25771908

  17. Evaluating alternatives for decommissioning California's offshore oil and gas platforms.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Brock B

    2015-10-01

    This paper introduces a series of 6 additional papers in this issue that describe an in-depth analysis of options for decommissioning oil and gas platforms offshore southern California. Although current leases require lessees in both state and federal waters to completely remove all production facilities and restore the seafloor to its pre-platform condition, other options have emerged since these leases were signed. Laws and regulations in other jurisdictions (particularly in federal waters) have evolved to allow a number of other uses such as aquaculture, alternative energy production, and artificial reefing. In response, the California Natural Resources Agency initiated an effort to investigate the issues associated with these and other decommissioning alternatives. The papers in this series are the result of the second phase in this process, a broad investigation of the engineering, economic, and environmental costs and benefits of the most feasible and likely options. In addition to the project's final report, the authors produced an interactive mathematical decision model, PLATFORM, that enables users to explore the implications of different decommissioning projects and options, as well as the effects of different approaches to valuing the associated costs and benefits.

  18. Decontamination and decommissioning surveillance and maintenance report for FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Gunter, David B.; Burwinkle, T. W.; Cannon, T. R.; Ford, M. K.; Holder, Jr., L.; Clotfelter, O. K.; Faulkner, R. L.; Smith, D. L.; Wooten, H. O.

    1991-12-01

    The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D D) Program has three distinct phases: (1) surveillance and maintenance (S M); (2) decontamination and removal of hazardous materials and equipment (which DOE Headquarters in Washington, D.C., calls Phase I of remediation); and (3) decommissioning and ultimate disposal, regulatory compliance monitoring, and property transfer (which DOE Headquarters calls Phase II of remediation). A large part of D D is devoted to S M at each of the sites. Our S M activities, which are performed on facilities awaiting decommissioning, are designed to minimize potential hazards to human health and the environment by: ensuring adequate containment of residual radioactive and hazardous materials; and, providing physical safety and security controls to minimize potential hazards to on-site personnel and the general public. Typically, we classify maintenance activities as either routine or special (major repairs). Routine maintenance includes such activities as painting, cleaning, vegetation control, minor structural repairs, filter changes, and building system(s) checks. Special maintenance includes Occupational Safety and Health Act facility upgrades, roof repairs, and equipment overhaul. Surveillance activities include inspections, radiological measurements, reporting, records maintenance, and security (as required) for controlling and monitoring access to facilities. This report summarizes out FY 1991 S M activities for the Tennessee plant sites, which include the K-25 Site, the Gas Centrifuge facilities, ORNL, and the Y-12 Plant.

  19. Practitioner versus analyst methods: a nuclear decommissioning case study.

    PubMed

    Walker, Guy; Cooper, Mhairi; Thompson, Pauline; Jenkins, Dan

    2014-11-01

    A requirement arose during decommissioning work at a UK Magnox Nuclear Power Station to identify the hazards involved in removing High Dose Rate Items from a Cartridge Cooling Pond. Removing objects from the cooling pond under normal situations is a routine event with well understood risks but the situation described in this paper is not a routine event. The power station has shifted from an operational phase in its life-cycle to a decommissioning phase, and as such the risks, and procedures to deal with them, have become more novel and uncertain. This raises an important question. Are the hazard identification methods that have proven useful in one phase of the system lifecycle just as useful in another, and if not, what methods should be used? An opportunity arose at this site to put the issue to a direct test. Two methods were used, one practitioner focussed and in widespread use during the plant's operational phase (the Structured What-If method), the other was an analyst method (Cognitive Work Analysis). The former is proven on this site but might not be best suited to the novelty and uncertainty brought about by a shift in context from operations to decommissioning. The latter is not proven on this site but it is designed for novelty and uncertainty. The paper presents the outcomes of applying both methods to a real-world hazard identification task. PMID:24947001

  20. A NOVEL APPROACH TO SPENT FUEL POOL DECOMMISSIONING

    SciTech Connect

    R. L. Demmer

    2011-04-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been at the forefront of developing methods to reduce the cost and schedule of deactivating spent fuel pools (SFP). Several pools have been deactivated at the INL using an underwater approach with divers. These projects provided a basis for the INL cooperation with the Dresden Nuclear Power Station Unit 1 SFP (Exelon Generation Company) deactivation. It represents the first time that a commercial nuclear power plant (NPP) SFP was decommissioned using this underwater coating process. This approach has advantages in many aspects, particularly in reducing airborne contamination and allowing safer, more cost effective deactivation. The INL pioneered underwater coating process was used to decommission three SFPs with a total combined pool volume of over 900,000 gallons. INL provided engineering support and shared project plans to successfully initiate the Dresden project. This report outlines the steps taken by INL and Exelon to decommission SFPs using the underwater coating process. The rationale used to select the underwater coating process and the advantages and disadvantages are described. Special circumstances are also discussed, such as the use of a remotely-operated underwater vehicle to visually and radiologically map the pool areas that were not readily accessible. A larger project, the INTEC-603 SFP in-situ (grouting) deactivation, is reviewed. Several specific areas where special equipment was employed are discussed and a Lessons Learned evaluation is included.

  1. Evaluating alternatives for decommissioning California's offshore oil and gas platforms.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Brock B

    2015-10-01

    This paper introduces a series of 6 additional papers in this issue that describe an in-depth analysis of options for decommissioning oil and gas platforms offshore southern California. Although current leases require lessees in both state and federal waters to completely remove all production facilities and restore the seafloor to its pre-platform condition, other options have emerged since these leases were signed. Laws and regulations in other jurisdictions (particularly in federal waters) have evolved to allow a number of other uses such as aquaculture, alternative energy production, and artificial reefing. In response, the California Natural Resources Agency initiated an effort to investigate the issues associated with these and other decommissioning alternatives. The papers in this series are the result of the second phase in this process, a broad investigation of the engineering, economic, and environmental costs and benefits of the most feasible and likely options. In addition to the project's final report, the authors produced an interactive mathematical decision model, PLATFORM, that enables users to explore the implications of different decommissioning projects and options, as well as the effects of different approaches to valuing the associated costs and benefits. PMID:25914401

  2. Annual summary report on the Decontamination and Decommissioning Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for the period ending September 30, 1992. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The Y-12 Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program provides for the ultimate disposition of plant process buildings and their supporting facilities. The overall objective is to enable the Y-12 Plant to meet applicable environmental regulations and Department of Energy (DOE) orders to protect human health and the environment from contaminated facilities through decommissioning activities. This objective is met by providing for the surveillance and maintenance (S&M) of accepted standby or shutdown facilities awaiting decommissioning; planning for decommissioning of these facilities; and implementing a program to accomplish the safe, cost-effective, and orderly disposition of contaminated facilities. The Y-12 D&D Program was organized during FY 1992 to encompass the needs of surplus facilities at the Y-12 Plant. The need existed for a program which would include Weapons Program facilities as well as other facilities used by several programs within the Y-12 Plant. Building 9201-4 (Alpha 4) is the only facility that is formally in the D&D Program. Funding for the work completed in FY 1992 was shared by the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program (EW-20) and Weapons Operations (GB-92). This report summarizes the FY 1992 D&D activities associated with Building 9201-4. A section is provided for each task; the tasks include surveillance, routine and special maintenance, safety, and D&D planning.

  3. Completion of the decommissioning of a former active handling building at UKAEA Winfrith

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.; Parkinson, S.J.; Cornell, R.M.; Staples, A.T.

    2007-07-01

    Since July 2000, NUKEM Limited has been carrying out the full decommissioning of a former Active Handling Building A59 at Winfrith in Dorset under contract from the nuclear site licence holder, UKAEA. Work has generally centred upon clearance and decontamination of the two heavily shielded suites of caves originally used to carry out remote examination of irradiated nuclear fuel elements although a number of other supporting facilities are also involved. This work has proceeded successfully to completion following extensive decontamination of the caves and associated facilities and has been followed by the recent demolition of the main containment building structure. This has permitted a start to be made on the demolition of the two heavily shielded suites of caves which is to be followed by removal of the building slab and restoration of the site. This paper reviews some of the significant tasks undertaken during the past year in preparation for the building and cave line demolition operations. It also reviews the building structure removal and recent progress made with the demolition of the two heavily reinforced concrete cave lines. The procedure used for monitoring the concrete debris from the cave lines has had to be revised during these operations and the reasons for this and a temporary delay in the cave line demolition will be discussed in the context of the remaining sections of the programme. This decommissioning programme has been achieved throughout by the employment of a non-adversarial team working approach between client and contractor. This has been instrumental in developing cost-effective and safe solutions to a range of problems during the programme, demonstrating the worth of adopting this co-operative approach for mutual benefit. (authors)

  4. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: a selected bibliography. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Fielden, J.M.; Faust, R.A.

    1983-09-01

    This bibliography of 657 references with abstracts on the subject of nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions is the fourth in a series of annual reports prepared for the US Department of Energy, Division of Remedial Action Projects. Foreign as well as domestic documents of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, conference papers, symposium proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - have been references in this publication. The bibliography contains scientific (basic research as well as applied technology), economic, regulatory, and legal literature pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Program. Major chapters are: (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program; (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program; (4) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program; (5) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program; and (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management. Chapter sections for chapters 1 and 2 include: Design, Planning, and Regulations; Site Surveys; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Land Decontamination and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; and General studies. The references within each chapter or section are arranged alphabetically by leading author. References having no individual author are arranged by corporate author, or by title. Indexes are provided for the categories of author, corporate affiliation, title, publication description, geographic location, and keywords. Appendix A lists 264 bibliographic references to literature identified during this reporting period but not abstracted due to time constraints. Title and publication description indexes are given for this appendix. Appendix B defines frequently used acronyms, and Appendix C lists the recipients of this report according to their corporate affiliation.

  5. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, volume 9

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Michelson, D.C.; Turmer, G.S.

    1988-09-01

    The 604 abstracted references on nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the ninth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Foreign and domestic literature of all types--technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions--has been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's remedial action programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) General Remedial Action Program Studies. Subsections for sections 1, 2, 5, and 6 include: Design, Planning, and Regulations; Environmental Studies and Site Surveys; Health, Safety, and Biomedical Studies; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Site Stabilization and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; Remedial Action Experience; and General Studies. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication description. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, and keywords. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects and analyzes information on remedial actions and relevant radioactive waste management technologies. RAPIC staff and resources are available to meet a variety of information needs. Contact the center at (615) 576-0568 or FTS 626-0568.

  6. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Vol. 18. Part 2. Indexes

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This bibliography contains 3638 citations with abstracts of documents relevant to environmental restoration, nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions. This report is the eighteenth in a series of bibliographies prepared annually for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - have been included in Part 1 of the report. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, financial, and regulatory information that pertains to DOE environmental restoration programs. The citations are separated by topic into 16 sections, including (1) DOE Environmental Restoration Program; (2) DOE D&D Program; (3) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (4) DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Programs; (5) NORM-Contaminated Site Restoration; (6) DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project; (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; (8) DOE Site-Wide Remedial Actions; (9) DOE Onsite Remedial Action Projects; (10) Contaminated Site Remedial Actions; (11) DOE Underground Storage Tank Remediation; (12) DOE Technology Development, Demonstration, and Evaluations; (13) Soil Remediation; (14) Groundwater Remediation; (15) Environmental Measurements, Analysis, and Decision-Making; and (16) Environmental Management Issues. Within the 16 sections, the citations are sorted by geographic location. If a geographic location is not specified, the citations are sorted according to the document title. In Part 2 of the report, indexes are provided for author, author affiliation, selected title phrase, selected title word, publication description, geographic location, and keyword.

  7. Development and applications of photosensitive device systems to studies of biological and organic materials. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The purpose was to develop and improve appropriate experimental techniques to the point where they could be applied to specific classes of biological problems. Progress is reported in the following areas: (1) area detectors; (2) x-ray diffraction studies of membranes; (3) electron transfer in loosely coupled systems; (4) bioluminescence and fluorescence; and (5) sonoluminescence. (ACR)

  8. Program on Application of Communications Satellites to Educational Development. Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, R. P.; Singh, J. P.

    An interdisciplinary program is exploring the educational services which communications satellites may help provide and the synthesis of systems for delivering these services in the United States. From November 1970 to November 1971 substantial progress was made in three primary program categories: needs analysis, communications technology…

  9. A center of excellence for the medical application of lasers: Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Berns, M.W.

    1994-04-01

    This progress report presents six areas where lasers are used in diagnostic or therapeutic uses. They are: oncology; pulmonary/thoracic surgery; dermatology/plastic surgery; obstetrics and gynecology; ophthalmology; and dentistry. Within each area research findings and all publications resulting from the research are summarized.

  10. The Regulatory Challenges of Decommissioning Nuclear Power Plants in Korea - 13101

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jungjoon; Ahn, Sangmyeon; Choi, Kyungwoo; Kim, Juyoul; Kim, Juyub

    2013-07-01

    As of 2012, 23 units of nuclear power plants are in operation, but there is no experience of permanent shutdown and decommissioning of nuclear power plant in Korea. It is realized that, since late 1990's, improvement of the regulatory framework for decommissioning has been emphasized constantly from the point of view of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)'s safety standards. And it is known that now IAEA prepare the safety requirement on decommissioning of facilities, its title is the Safe Decommissioning of Facilities, General Safety Requirement Part 6. According to the result of IAEA's Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission to Korea in 2011, it was recommended that the regulatory framework for decommissioning should require decommissioning plans for nuclear installations to be constructed and operated and these plans should be updated periodically. In addition, after the Fukushima nuclear disaster in Japan in March of 2011, preparedness for early decommissioning caused by an unexpected severe accident became also important issues and concerns. In this respect, it is acknowledged that the regulatory framework for decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Korea need to be improved. First of all, we identify the current status and relevant issues of regulatory framework for decommissioning of nuclear power plants compared to the IAEA's safety standards in order to achieve our goal. And then the plan is to be established for improvement of regulatory framework for decommissioning of nuclear power plants in Korea. After dealing with it, it is expected that the revised regulatory framework for decommissioning could enhance the safety regime on the decommissioning of nuclear power plants in Korea in light of international standards. (authors)

  11. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference boiling water reactor power station. Appendices. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Oak, H.D.; Holter, G.M.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Konzek, G.J.

    1980-06-01

    Appendices are presented concerning the evaluations of decommissioning financing alternatives; reference site description; reference BWR facility description; radiation dose rate and concrete surface contamination data; radionuclide inventories; public radiation dose models and calculated maximum annual doses; decommissioning methods; generic decommissioning information; immediate dismantlement details; passive safe storage, continuing care, and deferred dismantlement details; entombment details; demolition and site restoration details; cost estimating bases; public radiological safety assessment details; and details of alternate study bases.

  12. Packaging, Transportation, and Disposal Logistics for Large Radioactively Contaminated Reactor Decommissioning Components

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Mark S.

    2008-01-15

    The packaging, transportation and disposal of large, retired reactor components from operating or decommissioning nuclear plants pose unique challenges from a technical as well as regulatory compliance standpoint. In addition to the routine considerations associated with any radioactive waste disposition activity, such as characterization, ALARA, and manifesting, the technical challenges for large radioactively contaminated components, such as access, segmentation, removal, packaging, rigging, lifting, mode of transportation, conveyance compatibility, and load securing require significant planning and execution. In addition, the current regulatory framework, domestically in Titles 49 and 10 and internationally in TS-R-1, does not lend itself to the transport of these large radioactively contaminated components, such as reactor vessels, steam generators, reactor pressure vessel heads, and pressurizers, without application for a special permit or arrangement. This paper addresses the methods of overcoming the technical and regulatory challenges. The challenges and disposition decisions do differ during decommissioning versus component replacement during an outage at an operating plant. During decommissioning, there is less concern about critical path for restart and more concern about volume reduction and waste minimization. Segmentation on-site is an available option during decommissioning, since labor and equipment will be readily available and decontamination activities are routine. The reactor building removal path is also of less concern and there are more rigging/lifting options available. Radionuclide assessment is necessary for transportation and disposal characterization. Characterization will dictate the packaging methodology, transportation mode, need for intermediate processing, and the disposal location or availability. Characterization will also assist in determining if the large component can be transported in full compliance with the transportation

  13. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference boiling water reactor power station. Classification of decommissioning wastes. Addendum 2

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, E.S.

    1984-09-01

    The radioactive wastes expected to result from decommissioning of the reference boiling water reactor power station are reviewed and classified in accordance with 10 CFR 61. The 18,949 cubic meters of waste from DECON are classified as follows: Class A, 97.5%; Class B, 2.0%; Class C, 0.3%. About 0.2% (47 cubic meters) of the waste would be generally unacceptable for disposal using near-surface disposal methods.

  14. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference pressurized water reactor power station. Classification of decommissioning wastes. Addendum 3

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, E.S.

    1984-09-01

    The radioactive wastes expected to result from decommissioning of the reference pressurized water reactor power station are reviewed and classified in accordance with 10 CFR 61. The 17,885 cubic meters of waste from DECON are classified as follows: Class A, 98.0%; Class B, 1.2%; Class C, 0.1%. About 0.7% (133 cubic meters) of the waste would be generally unacceptable for disposal using near-surface disposal methods.

  15. Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects: summary report. Plum Brook Reactor Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Doerge, D.H.; Miller, R.L.

    1984-02-01

    This document summarizes information concerning the decommissioning of the Plum Brook Reactor Facility, which was placed in a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approved safe storage configuration. The data were placed in a computerized information retrieval/manipulation system which permits future utilization of this information in decommissioning of similar facilities. The information is presented both in computer output form and a manually assembled summarization. Complete cost data were not readily available and decommissioning activities did not in all cases conform with current criteria for the SAFSTOR decommissioning mode, therefore no cost comparisons were made.

  16. Proceedings of the 2007 ANS Topical Meeting on Decommissioning, Decontamination, and Reutilization - DD and R 2007

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-15

    The American Nuclear Society (ANS) Topical Meeting on Decommissioning, Decontamination, and Reutilization (DD and R 2007), 'Capturing Decommissioning Lessons Learned', is sponsored by the ANS Decommissioning, Decontamination and Reutilization; Environmental Sciences; and Fuel Cycle and Waste Management Divisions. This meeting provides a forum for an international exchange of technical knowledge and project management experience gained from the ongoing process of decommissioning nuclear facilities. Of particular note is the number of projects that are approaching completion. This document gathers 113 presentations given at this meeting.

  17. A Plutonium Finishing Plant Model for the Cercla Removal Action and Decommissioning Construction Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, A.

    2008-07-01

    The joint policy between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for decommissioning buildings at DOE facilities documents an agreement between the agencies to perform decommissioning activities including demolition under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). The use of removal actions for decommissioning integrates EPA oversight authority, DOE lead agency responsibility, and state authority for decommissioning activities. Once removal actions have been performed under CERCLA, a construction completion report is required to document the completion of the required action. Additionally, a decommissioning report is required under DOE guidance. No direct guidance was found for documenting completion of decommissioning activities and preparing a final report that satisfies the CERCLA requirements and the DOE requirements for decommissioning. Additional guidance was needed for the documentation of construction completion under CERCLA for D and D projects undertaken under the joint policy that addresses the requirements of both agencies. A model for the construction completion report was developed to document construction completion for CERCLA D and D activities performed under the joint EPA/DOE policy at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The model documentation report developed at PFP integrates the DOE requirements for establishing decommissioning end-points, documenting end-point completion and preparing a final decommissioning report with the CERCLA requirements to document completion of the action identified in the Action Memorandum (AM). The model includes the required information on health and safety, data management, cost and schedule and end-points completion. (authors)

  18. Application of finite element, global polynomial, and kriging response surfaces in Progressive Lattice Sampling designs

    SciTech Connect

    ROMERO,VICENTE J.; SWILER,LAURA PAINTON; GIUNTA,ANTHONY A.

    2000-04-25

    This paper examines the modeling accuracy of finite element interpolation, kriging, and polynomial regression used in conjunction with the Progressive Lattice Sampling (PLS) incremental design-of-experiments approach. PLS is a paradigm for sampling a deterministic hypercubic parameter space by placing and incrementally adding samples in a manner intended to maximally reduce lack of knowledge in the parameter space. When combined with suitable interpolation methods, PLS is a formulation for progressive construction of response surface approximations (RSA) in which the RSA are efficiently upgradable, and upon upgrading, offer convergence information essential in estimating error introduced by the use of RSA in the problem. The three interpolation methods tried here are examined for performance in replicating an analytic test function as measured by several different indicators. The process described here provides a framework for future studies using other interpolation schemes, test functions, and measures of approximation quality.

  19. Available decontamination and decommissioning capabilities at the Savannah River Technology Center

    SciTech Connect

    Polizzi, L.M.; Norkus, J.K.; Paik, I.K.; Wooten, L.A.

    1992-08-19

    The Safety Analysis and Engineering Services Group has performed a survey of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) technical capabilities, skills, and experience in Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) activities. The goal of this survey is to enhance the integration of the SRTC capabilities with the technical needs of the Environmental Restoration Department D&D program and the DOE Office of Technology Development through the Integrated Demonstration Program. This survey has identified technical capabilities, skills, and experience in the following D&D areas: Characterization, Decontamination, Dismantlement, Material Disposal, Remote Systems, and support on Safety Technology for D&D. This review demonstrates the depth and wealth of technical capability resident in the SRTC in relation to these activities, and the unique qualifications of the SRTC to supply technical support in the area of DOE facility D&D. Additional details on specific technologies and applications to D&D will be made available on request.

  20. Available decontamination and decommissioning capabilities at the Savannah River Technology Center

    SciTech Connect

    Polizzi, L.M.; Norkus, J.K.; Paik, I.K.; Wooten, L.A.

    1992-08-19

    The Safety Analysis and Engineering Services Group has performed a survey of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) technical capabilities, skills, and experience in Decontamination and Decommissioning (D D) activities. The goal of this survey is to enhance the integration of the SRTC capabilities with the technical needs of the Environmental Restoration Department D D program and the DOE Office of Technology Development through the Integrated Demonstration Program. This survey has identified technical capabilities, skills, and experience in the following D D areas: Characterization, Decontamination, Dismantlement, Material Disposal, Remote Systems, and support on Safety Technology for D D. This review demonstrates the depth and wealth of technical capability resident in the SRTC in relation to these activities, and the unique qualifications of the SRTC to supply technical support in the area of DOE facility D D. Additional details on specific technologies and applications to D D will be made available on request.

  1. Progress in aeronautical research and technology applicable to civil air transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Recent progress in the aeronautical research and technology program being conducted by the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration is discussed. Emphasis is on computational capability, new testing facilities, drag reduction, turbofan and turboprop propulsion, noise, composite materials, active controls, integrated avionics, cockpit displays, flight management, and operating problems. It is shown that this technology is significantly impacting the efficiency of the new civil air transports. The excitement of emerging research promises even greater benefits to future aircraft developments.

  2. Recent progress in ferrofluids research: novel applications of magnetically controllable and tunable fluids.

    PubMed

    Torres-Díaz, I; Rinaldi, C

    2014-11-21

    Ferrofluids are suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles that have the attractive feature of being controlled by applied magnetic fields. Ferrofluids have been studied for decades in an ever growing number of applications that take advantage of their response to applied magnetic fields. Here, we provide a summary of recent advances in established and emerging applications of ferrofluids, including applications in optics, sensors, actuators, seals, lubrication, and static/dynamic magnetically driven assembly of structures. PMID:25277700

  3. HANFORD DECOMMISSIONING UPDATE 09/2007

    SciTech Connect

    GERBER, M.S.

    2007-08-20

    Fluor Hanford's K Basins Closure (KBC) Project tallied three major accomplishments at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in Southeastern Washington State this past summer. The Project finished emptying the aging K East Basin of both sludge and the last pieces of scrap spent nuclear fuel. It also Completed vacuuming the bulk of the sludge in the K West Basin into underwater containers. The 54-year-old concrete basins once held more than four million pounds of spent nuclear fuel and sit less than 400 yards from the Columbia River. Each basin holds more than a million gallons of radioactive water. In 2004, Fluor finished removing all the spent nuclear fuel from the K Basins. Nearly 50 cubic meters of sludge remained--a combination of dirt, sand, small pieces of corroded uranium fuel and fuel cladding, corrosion products from racks and canisters, ion-exchange resin beads, polychlorinated biphenyls, and fission products that had formed during the decades that the spent nuclear fuel was stored underwater. Capturing the sludge into underwater containers in the K East Basin took more than two years, and vacuuming the much smaller volume of sludge into containers in the K West Basin required seven months. Workers stood on grating above the basin water and vacuumed the sludge through long, heavy hoses. The work was complicated by murky water and contaminated solid waste (debris). Pumping was paused several times to safely remove and package debris that totaled more than 370 tons. In October 2006, Fluor Hanford workers began pumping the sludge captured in the K East Basin containers out through a specially designed pipeline to underwater containers in the K West Basin, about a half mile away. They used a heavy but flexible, double-walled ''hose-in-hose'' system. Pumping work progressed slowly at first, but ramped up in spring 2007 and was completed on May 31. Just a week before sludge transfers finished, the KBC Project removed the last few small pieces of

  4. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning reference nuclear research and test reactors: sensitivity of decommissioning radiation exposure and costs to selected parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Konzek, G.J.

    1983-07-01

    Additional analyses of decommissioning at the reference research and test (R and T) reactors and analyses of five recent reactor decommissionings are made that examine some parameters not covered in the initial study report (NUREG/CR-1756). The parameters examined for decommissioning are: (1) the effect on costs and radiation exposure of plant size and/or type; (2) the effects on costs of increasing disposal charges and of unavailability of waste disposal capacity at licensed waste disposal facilities; and (3) the costs of and the available alternatives for the disposal of nuclear R and T reactor fuel assemblies.

  5. Recent progress in the growth and applications of graphene as a smart material: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aissa, Brahim; Memon, Nasir; Ali, Adnan; Khraisheh, Marwan

    2015-09-01

    Innovative breakthroughs in fundamental research and industrial applications of graphene material have made its mass and low-cost production a necessary step toward its real world applications. This one-atom thick crystal of carbon, gathers a set of unique physico-chemical properties, ranging from its extreme mechanical behavior to its exceptional electrical and thermal conductivities, which are making graphene as a serious alternative to replace many conventional materials for various applications. In this review paper, we highlight the most important experimental results on the synthesis of graphene material, its emerging properties with reference to its smart applications. We discuss the possibility to successfully integrating graphene directly into device, enabling thereby the realization of a wide range of applications, including actuation, photovoltaic, thermoelectricity, shape memory, self-healing, electrorheology and space missions. The future outlook of graphene is also considered and discussed.

  6. Recent Progress in Evaluation Techniques and Device Applications of Organic and Composite Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Keizo; Shinbo, Kazunari; Okamoto, Tetsushi; Aoki, Yusuke; Iechi, Hiroyuki

    Evaluation techniques and the device applications of organic and composite thin films are described. One of the evaluation techniques is the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy. It has become a widely accepted method for the characterization and study of ultrathin films, interfaces and kinetic processes at surfaces, and it has been investigated in the applications of SPR sensors and plasmonic novel devices. Properties, functionalization and various applications of hybrid materials, nanocomposites, and nanoparticles are also introduced, and the application to industry is mentioned. Moreover, electronic device application of monolithic organic logic circuit using a stacked structure of two organic static induction transistors is explained. The advantages of this novel device structure are the controllability of the operational characteristics and simple device fabrication process.

  7. [Research and application progress of near infrared spectroscopy analytical technology in China in the past five years].

    PubMed

    Chu, Xiao-Li; Lu, Wan-Zhen

    2014-10-01

    In the past decade, near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) has expanded rapidly and been applied widely in many fields in China. The recent progress of the research and application of NIR analytical technology in China especially in the past five years has been reviewed. It includes hardware and software R&D, Chemometric algorithms and experimental methods research, and quantitative and qualitative applications in the typical fields such as food, agriculture, pharmaceuticals, petrochemicals, forestry, and medical diagnosis. 209 references are cited, which are mainly published in national journals, professional magazines, and book chapters. The developing trend of near infrared spectroscopy and the strategies to further promote its innovation and development in China in the near future are put forward and discussed. PMID:25739193

  8. Demobilization of the World's Largest Decontamination and Decommissioning Project Project Closeout of three Gaseous Diffusion Plants for Re-industrialization

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, J.L.; Miller, JA.

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes the challenges and lessons learned from the demobilization of the world' largest, and first, successfully decontaminated and decommissioned project. These gaseous diffusion plants are the first plants to be successfully decommissioned in the United States. (authors)

  9. Progress in SiC-Based Ceramic Composites for Fusion Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Katoh, Yutai; Kohyama, Akira; Hinoki, Tatsuya; Snead, Lance L.

    2003-07-15

    Silicon carbide (SiC) fiber-reinforced SiC-matrix ceramic composite (SiC/SiC composite) is an attractive material for blanket/first wall structures in fusion power devices. Recent extensive materials R and D efforts are producing advanced SiC/SiC composites substantially different from conventional materials in terms of baseline properties as well as irradiation stability. This paper provides a summary of the recent fusion-relevant progress in development and irradiation effect studies of SiC/SiC composites achieved through Japanese programs and Japan/US collaborative JUPITER(-II) program for fusion materials and blanket engineering.

  10. Gene therapy for inborn errors of liver metabolism: progress towards clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola

    2008-01-01

    The treatment for inborn errors of liver metabolism is based on dietary, drug, and cell therapies (orthotopic liver transplantation). However, significant morbidity and mortality still remain, and alternative strategies are needed. Gene replacement therapy has the potential of providing a definitive cure for patients with these diseases. Significant progress has been made in the pre-clinical arena and achievement of efficacy in different animal models has been reported using multiple gene transfer technologies. This article summarizes the gene transfer strategies being investigated, the pre-clinical data, and the available early clinical results for inborn errors of liver metabolism. PMID:19490653

  11. Applications of Magnetic Suspension Technology to Large Scale Facilities: Progress, Problems and Promises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britcher, Colin P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper will briefly review previous work in wind tunnel Magnetic Suspension and Balance Systems (MSBS) and will examine the handful of systems around the world currently known to be in operational condition or undergoing recommissioning. Technical developments emerging from research programs at NASA and elsewhere will be reviewed briefly, where there is potential impact on large-scale MSBSS. The likely aerodynamic applications for large MSBSs will be addressed, since these applications should properly drive system designs. A recently proposed application to ultra-high Reynolds number testing will then be addressed in some detail. Finally, some opinions on the technical feasibility and usefulness of a large MSBS will be given.

  12. Research in progress at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This report summarizes research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science during the period April 1, 1987 through October 1, 1987.

  13. Heavy Water Components Test Reactor Decommissioning - Major Component Removal

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, W.; Brinkley, D.

    2010-05-05

    The Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) facility (Figure 1) was built in 1961, operated from 1962 to 1964, and is located in the northwest quadrant of the Savannah River Site (SRS) approximately three miles from the site boundary. The HWCTR facility is on high, well-drained ground, about 30 meters above the water table. The HWCTR was a pressurized heavy water test reactor used to develop candidate fuel designs for heavy water power reactors. It was not a defense-related facility like the materials production reactors at SRS. The reactor was moderated with heavy water and was rated at 50 megawatts thermal power. In December of 1964, operations were terminated and the facility was placed in a standby condition as a result of the decision by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission to redirect research and development work on heavy water power reactors to reactors cooled with organic materials. For about one year, site personnel maintained the facility in a standby status, and then retired the reactor in place. In 1965, fuel assemblies were removed, systems that contained heavy water were drained, fluid piping systems were drained, deenergized and disconnected and the spent fuel basin was drained and dried. The doors of the reactor facility were shut and it wasn't until 10 years later that decommissioning plans were considered and ultimately postponed due to budget constraints. In the early 1990s, DOE began planning to decommission HWCTR again. Yet, in the face of new budget constraints, DOE deferred dismantlement and placed HWCTR in an extended surveillance and maintenance mode. The doors of the reactor facility were welded shut to protect workers and discourage intruders. The $1.6 billion allocation from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to SRS for site clean up at SRS has opened the doors to the HWCTR again - this time for final decommissioning. During the lifetime of HWCTR, 36 different fuel assemblies were tested in the facility. Ten of these

  14. Recent NASA progress in composites. [application to spacecraft and aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldenfels, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    The application of composites in aerospace vehicle structures is reviewed. Research and technology program results and specific applications to space vehicles, aircraft engines, and aircraft and helicopter structures are discussed in detail. Particular emphasis is given to flight service evaluation programs that are or will be accumulating substantial experience with secondary and primary structural components on military and commercial aircraft to increase confidence in their use.

  15. 78 FR 49603 - Gulf Gateway Deepwater Port Decommissioning and License Termination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... completed the final decommissioning process on March 14, 2013. At the end of the decommissioning process... termination of the Gulf Gateway Deepwater Port License (License), effective as of June 28, 2013. Pursuant to... licensee. For purposes of this agency action, MARAD has granted as of June 28, 2013, final clearance of...

  16. 30 CFR 585.903 - What are the requirements for decommissioning FERC-licensed hydrokinetic facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the requirements for decommissioning FERC-licensed hydrokinetic facilities? 585.903 Section 585.903 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY... What are the requirements for decommissioning FERC-licensed hydrokinetic facilities? You must...

  17. 30 CFR 585.903 - What are the requirements for decommissioning FERC-licensed hydrokinetic facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are the requirements for decommissioning FERC-licensed hydrokinetic facilities? 585.903 Section 585.903 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY... What are the requirements for decommissioning FERC-licensed hydrokinetic facilities? You must...

  18. 30 CFR 285.903 - What are the requirements for decommissioning FERC-licensed hydrokinetic facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the requirements for decommissioning FERC-licensed hydrokinetic facilities? 285.903 Section 285.903 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY... Requirements § 285.903 What are the requirements for decommissioning FERC-licensed hydrokinetic facilities?...

  19. 30 CFR 285.903 - What are the requirements for decommissioning FERC-licensed hydrokinetic facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the requirements for decommissioning FERC-licensed hydrokinetic facilities? 285.903 Section 285.903 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT... the requirements for decommissioning FERC-licensed hydrokinetic facilities? You must comply with...

  20. 30 CFR 585.903 - What are the requirements for decommissioning FERC-licensed hydrokinetic facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the requirements for decommissioning FERC-licensed hydrokinetic facilities? 585.903 Section 585.903 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY....903 What are the requirements for decommissioning FERC-licensed hydrokinetic facilities? You...

  1. 30 CFR 250.1703 - What are the general requirements for decommissioning?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the general requirements for decommissioning? 250.1703 Section 250.1703 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND... appropriate District Manager before decommissioning wells and from the Regional Supervisor...

  2. 30 CFR 250.1703 - What are the general requirements for decommissioning?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF... facilities are no longer useful for operations, you must: (a) Get approval from the appropriate District Manager before decommissioning wells and from the Regional Supervisor before decommissioning platforms...

  3. 75 FR 72737 - Proposed Generic Communications Reporting for Decommissioning Funding Status Reports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... Funding Status Reports AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of opportunity for public... present to the NRC in the Decommissioning Funding Status (DFS) reports to ensure that the NRC staff... INFORMATION: NRC Regulatory Issue Summary 2010-XXX 10 CFR 50.75 Reporting for Decommissioning Funding...

  4. DECOMMISSIONING OF SHIELDED FACILITIES AT WINFRITH USED FOR POST IRRADIATION EXAMINATION OF NUCLEAR FUELS & OTHER ACTIVE ITEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, K.D.; Parkinson, S.J.; Cornell, R.M.; Staples, A.T.

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes the approaches used in the clearing, cleaning, decontamination and decommissioning of a very large suite of seven concrete shielded caves and other facilities used by UKAEA at Winfrith Technology Centre, England over a period of about 30 years for the postirradiation examination (PIE) of a wide range of nuclear fuels and other very active components. The basic construction of the facilities will first be described, setting the scene for the major challenges that 1970s' thinking posed for decommissioning engineers. The tendency then to use large and heavy items of equipment supported upon massive steel bench structures produced a series of major problems that had to be overcome. The means of solving these problems by utilization of relatively simple and inexpensive equipment will be described. Later, a further set of challenges was experienced to decontaminate the interior surfaces to allow man entries to be undertaken at acceptable dose rates. The paper will describe the types of tooling used and the range of complementary techniques that were employed to steadily reduce the dose rates down to acceptable levels. Some explanations will also be given for the creation of realistic dose budgets and the methods of recording and continuously assessing the progress against these budgets throughout the project. Some final considerations are given to the commercial approaches to be adopted throughout this major project by the decommissioning engineers. Particular emphasis will be given to the selection of equipment and techniques that are effective so that the whole process can be carried out in a cost-effective and timely manner. The paper also provides brief complementary information obtained during the decommissioning of a plutonium-contaminated facility used for a range of semi-experimental purposes in the late 1970s. The main objective here was to remove the alpha contamination in such a manner that the volume of Plutonium Contaminated Materials (P

  5. Environmental restoration and decontamination & decommissioning safety documentation. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, J.L.; Frauenholz, L.H.; Kerr, N.R.

    1993-05-18

    This document presents recommendations of a working group designated by the Environmental Restoration and Remediation (ER) and Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) subcommittees of the Westinghouse M&O (Management and Operation) Nuclear Facility Safety Committee. A commonalty of approach to safety documentation specific to ER and D&D activities was developed and is summarized below. Allowance for interpretative tolerance and documentation flexibility appropriate to the activity, graded for hazard category, duration, and complexity, was a primary consideration in development of this guidance.

  6. Waste management for Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project: Extended summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mullee, G.R.; Schulmeister, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Shippingport Station (SSDP) is demonstrating that the techniques and methodologies of waste management, which are currently employed by the nuclear industry, provide adequate management and control of waste activities for the decommissioning of a large scale nuclear plant. The SSDP has some unique aspects in that as part of the objective to promote technology transfer, multiple subcontractors are being utilized in the project. The interfaces resulting from multiple subcontractors require additional controls. Effective control has been accomplished by the use of a process control and inventory system, coupled with personnel training in waste management activities. This report summarizes the waste management plan and provides a status of waste management activities for SSDP.

  7. Tools for decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hermetz, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    The decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities requires many different tools. These can vary from small hand tools to the heavy equipment used to remove concrete and soil. Tools for D and D should be reliable, versatile, economical, and easily disposed of in case they become contaminated. The experiences and information used as background for this paper where gained at the Mound Facility of the Monsanto Research Corporation in Miamisburg, Ohio. In the search to find tools to do the work proficiently, many tools were considered. The scheduled D and D tasks and the tools and equipment required for them are described.

  8. 10 CFR 30.36 - Expiration and termination of licenses and decommissioning of sites and separate buildings or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... accordance with the criteria for decommissioning in 10 CFR part 20, subpart E. The licensee shall, as... are suitable for release in accordance with the criteria for decommissioning in 10 CFR part 20... premises are suitable for release in accordance with the criteria for decommissioning in 10 CFR part...

  9. 10 CFR 30.36 - Expiration and termination of licenses and decommissioning of sites and separate buildings or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... accordance with the criteria for decommissioning in 10 CFR part 20, subpart E. The licensee shall, as... are suitable for release in accordance with the criteria for decommissioning in 10 CFR part 20... premises are suitable for release in accordance with the criteria for decommissioning in 10 CFR part...

  10. 10 CFR 30.36 - Expiration and termination of licenses and decommissioning of sites and separate buildings or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... accordance with the criteria for decommissioning in 10 CFR part 20, subpart E. The licensee shall, as... are suitable for release in accordance with the criteria for decommissioning in 10 CFR part 20... premises are suitable for release in accordance with the criteria for decommissioning in 10 CFR part...

  11. 10 CFR 30.36 - Expiration and termination of licenses and decommissioning of sites and separate buildings or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... accordance with the criteria for decommissioning in 10 CFR part 20, subpart E. The licensee shall, as... are suitable for release in accordance with the criteria for decommissioning in 10 CFR part 20... premises are suitable for release in accordance with the criteria for decommissioning in 10 CFR part...

  12. 10 CFR 30.36 - Expiration and termination of licenses and decommissioning of sites and separate buildings or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... accordance with the criteria for decommissioning in 10 CFR part 20, subpart E. The licensee shall, as... are suitable for release in accordance with the criteria for decommissioning in 10 CFR part 20... premises are suitable for release in accordance with the criteria for decommissioning in 10 CFR part...

  13. Recent Progress in Obtaining Semiconducting Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Transistor Applications.

    PubMed

    Islam, Ahmad E; Rogers, John A; Alam, Muhammad A

    2015-12-22

    High purity semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWCNTs) with a narrow diameter distribution are required for high-performance transistors. Achieving this goal is extremely challenging because the as-grown material contains mixtures of s-SWCNTs and metallic- (m-) SWCNTs with wide diameter distributions, typically inadequate for integrated circuits. Since 2000, numerous ex situ methods have been proposed to improve the purity of the s-SWCNTs. The majority of these techniques fail to maintain the quality and integrity of the s-SWCNTs with a few notable exceptions. Here, the progress in realizing high purity s-SWCNTs in as-grown and post-processed materials is highlighted. A comparison of transistor parameters (such as on/off ratio and field-effect mobility) obtained from test structures establishes the effectiveness of various methods and suggests opportunities for future improvements.

  14. Recent Progress in Obtaining Semiconducting Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Transistor Applications.

    PubMed

    Islam, Ahmad E; Rogers, John A; Alam, Muhammad A

    2015-12-22

    High purity semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWCNTs) with a narrow diameter distribution are required for high-performance transistors. Achieving this goal is extremely challenging because the as-grown material contains mixtures of s-SWCNTs and metallic- (m-) SWCNTs with wide diameter distributions, typically inadequate for integrated circuits. Since 2000, numerous ex situ methods have been proposed to improve the purity of the s-SWCNTs. The majority of these techniques fail to maintain the quality and integrity of the s-SWCNTs with a few notable exceptions. Here, the progress in realizing high purity s-SWCNTs in as-grown and post-processed materials is highlighted. A comparison of transistor parameters (such as on/off ratio and field-effect mobility) obtained from test structures establishes the effectiveness of various methods and suggests opportunities for future improvements. PMID:26540144

  15. Invited review current progress and limitations of spider silk for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Widhe, Mona; Johansson, Jan; Hedhammar, My; Rising, Anna

    2012-06-01

    Spider silk is a fascinating material combining remarkable mechanical properties with low density and biodegradability. Because of these properties and historical descriptions of medical applications, spider silk has been proposed to be the ideal biomaterial. However, overcoming the obstacles to produce spider silk in sufficient quantities and in a manner that meets regulatory demands has proven to be a difficult task. Also, there are relatively few studies of spider silk in biomedical applications available, and the methods and materials used vary a lot. Herein we summarize cell culture- and in vivo implantation studies of natural and synthetic spider silk, and also review the current status and future challenges in the quest for a large scale production of spider silk for medical applications. PMID:21898363

  16. [Progress of the hydrokinetic chromatography and its application in the characterization of particulate drug delivery systems].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Li, Hai-Yan; Guo, Zhen; Zhang, Ji-Wen; Sun, Li-Xin

    2011-06-01

    In the present paper, the basic principles, the device and the analytical method of the hydrodynamic chromatography (HDC) were summarized, which is most widely used in hydrokinetic chromatography. The application of the hydrodynamic chromatography in the determination of the particle size and size distribution of the particulate drug delivery system was also reviewed. The method can determine the particle size of nano- and micron-scale particulate drug delivery systems rapidly. And this method also has the advantages of economic, convenient and no damage to the samples. In summary, there will be a good prospect for the application of HDC in the determination of particle size distribution features of particulate drug delivery systems.

  17. Opto-chemical sensors based on integrated ring-shaped organic photodiodes: progress and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayr, Torsten; Abel, Tobias; Ungerböck, Birgit; Sagmeister, Martin; Charwat, Verena; Ertl, Peter; Kraker, Elke; Köstler, Stefan; Tschepp, Andreas; Lamprecht, Bernhard

    2012-10-01

    The recent advances on a monolithically integrated sensor platform based on ring-shaped organic photo detectors are presented. Various sensing chemistries based on luminescence for the detection of a number of parameters such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, humidity and pH in gaseous and/or liquid phase were investigated and optimized to the requirements of the sensor platform. Aiming on practical application, the need and methods to reference luminescence signals are evaluated including two wavelength rationing and lifetime measurements. Finally, we will discuss potential applications of the platform and present a micro-fluidic chip containing an array of integrated sensor spots and organic photodiodes.

  18. Recent Progress in Synthesis and Application of Thiophene Oligomers Based on Bithiophene Dicarbanions.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu; Zhao, Chunmei; Wang, Hua

    2016-04-01

    This focus review summarizes our recent efforts on the synthetic applications of bithiophene dicarbanions generated from three bithiophene isomers: 2,2'-, 3,3'-, and 2,3'-bithiophene. Based on these bithiophene dicarbanions, a series of dithienothiophenes (DTTs) and cyclooctatetrathiophenes (COThs) were synthesized by intra- and intermolecular cyclizations, respectively. Moreover, recent applications of DTT and COTh in characteristic compounds such as dendrimers, thio[8]circulenes, double helicenes, and thienoacenes are summarized in this account. Besides the synthetic work, some photoelectric properties of the thiophene-based oligomers including organic field-effect transistors and organic photovoltaics are briefly reviewed. PMID:26924384

  19. The Latest Progress Report on ICT Application in Chinese Basic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jingtao, Zhang; Yuanyuan, Fang; Xiaoling, Ma

    2010-01-01

    Facilitating educational modernisation through information and communication technology (ICT) application in education is an important strategic measure taken by the Chinese government on the requirement of educational reform and development. After briefly introducing the status quo of Chinese basic education, this paper elaborates the significant…

  20. A Progress Report on Artificial Intelligence: Hospital Applications and a Review of the Artificial Intelligence Marketplace

    PubMed Central

    Brenkus, Lawrence M.

    1984-01-01

    Artificial intelligence applications are finally beginning to move from the university research laboratory into commercial use. Before the end of the century, this new computer technology will have profound effects on our work, economy, and lives. At present, relatively few products have appeared in the hospital, but we can anticipate significant product offerings in instrumentation and affecting hospital administration within 5 years.

  1. Implementation of 10 CFR 20.1406 Through Life Cycle Planning for Decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    O'Donnell, E.; Ott, W.R.

    2008-01-15

    The focus of this paper is on a regulatory guide (draft guide DG-4012) being developed by the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research for the implementation of 10 CFR 20.1406. The draft guide was published in the Federal Register on July 31, 2007 for a 90 day public comment period. Besides being available in the Federal Register, it is also available electronically in NRC's agency data management system (ADAMS). The accession number is ML0712100110. 10 CFR 20.1406 requires license applicants, other than renewals, after August 20, 1997, '..to describe in the application how facility design and procedures for operation will minimize, to the extent practicable, contamination of the facility and the environment, facilitate eventual decommissioning, and minimize to the extent practicable, the generation of radioactive waste'. The intent of the regulation is to diminish the occurrence and severity of 'legacy sites' by taking measures that will reduce and control contamination and facilitate eventual decommissioning. 10 CFR 20.1406 is significant because it applies to all new facilities and in the very near future (perhaps as soon as the fall of 2007), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) anticipates receiving one or more license applications for new nuclear power plants. The regulatory guide is intended to facilitate that licensing by providing suggestions of things an applicant can do to minimize contamination of the facility and the environment, minimize generation of waste, and to facilitate decommissioning. Over 100 different kinds of activities are covered by license applications submitted to the NRC. They do not all reflect the same potential for contamination of a facility and the environment, or for the generation of radioactive waste. Therefore, an applicant should use sound judgment to evaluate the potential for contamination and the consequences of such contamination in deciding on the extent to which this guide applies to any given facility or activity

  2. Decommissioning of the high flux beam reactor at Brookhaven Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, J.P.; Reciniello, R.N.; Holden, N.E.

    2011-07-01

    The high-flux beam reactor (HFBR) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory was a heavy water cooled and moderated reactor that achieved criticality on Oct. 31, 1965. It operated at a power level of 40 megawatts. An equipment upgrade in 1982 allowed operations at 60 megawatts. After a 1989 reactor shutdown to reanalyze safety impact of a hypothetical loss of coolant accident, the reactor was restarted in 1991 at 30 megawatts. The HFBR was shut down in December 1996 for routine maintenance and refueling. At that time, a leak of tritiated water was identified by routine sampling of groundwater from wells located adjacent to the reactor's spent fuel pool. The reactor remained shut down for almost three years for safety and environmental reviews. In November 1999 the United States Dept. of Energy decided to permanently shut down the HFBR. The decontamination and decommissioning of the HFBR complex, consisting of multiple structures and systems to operate and maintain the reactor, were complete in 2009 after removing and shipping off all the control rod blades. The emptied and cleaned HFBR dome, which still contains the irradiated reactor vessel, is presently under 24/7 surveillance for safety. Detailed dosimetry performed for the HFBR decommissioning during 1996-2009 is described in the paper. (authors)

  3. The AVR (HTGR) decommissioning project with new strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Sterner, Hakan; Rittscher, Dieter

    2007-07-01

    The 15-MWel prototype pilot reactor AVR is a pebble bed HTGR. It was designed in the late 50's and was connected to the grid end of 1967. After 21 y of successful operation the reactor was shut down end of 1988. In 1994 the first decommissioning license was granted and work with defueling, dismantling and preparation of a Safe Enclosure started. The primary system is contaminated with the fission products Sr{sup 90} and Cs{sup 137} and the activation products are Co{sup 60}, C{sup 14} and H{sup 3}. Due to the large amounts of Sr and Cs bound to graphite dust, the dismantling of systems connected to the pressure vessel is very tedious. In 2003 the AVR company was restructured and the strategy of the decommissioning was changed from safe enclosure to green field, i.e. the complete direct dismantling of all facilities and clean up of the site. The highlight during the dismantling is the removal of the reactor vessel (diameter ca. 7.6 m and length ca. 26 m) in one piece. Before handling the reactor vessel it will be filled with low density cellular concrete. Subsequently the reactor building will be cut open and the reactor vessel (total weight ca. 2100 Mg) lifted out and transported to an interim store. (authors)

  4. DECOMMISSIONING THE BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY BUILDING 830 GAMMA IRRADIATION FACILITY.

    SciTech Connect

    BOWERMAN, B.S.; SULLIVAN, P.T.

    2001-08-13

    The Building 830 Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) was decommissioned because its design was not in compliance with current hazardous tank standards and its cobalt-60 sources were approaching the end of their useful life. The facility contained 354 stainless steel encapsulated cobalt-60 sources in a pool, which provided shielding. Total cobalt-60 inventory amounted to 24,000 Curies when the sources were shipped for disposal. The decommissioning project included packaging, transport, and disposal of the sources and dismantling and disposing of all other equipment associated with the facility. Worker exposure was a major concern in planning for the packaging and disposal of the sources. These activities were planned carefully according to ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principles. As a result, the actual occupational exposures experienced during the work were within the planned levels. Disposal of the pool water required addressing environmental concerns, since the planned method was to discharge the slightly contaminated water to the BNL sewage treatment plant. After the BNL evaluation procedure for discharge to the sewage treatment plant was revised and reviewed by regulators and BNL's Community Advisory Council, the pool water was discharged to the Building 830 sanitary system. Because the sources were sealed and the pool water contamination levels were low, most of the remaining equipment was not contaminated; therefore disposal was straightforward, as scrap metal and construction debris.

  5. Resource book: Decommissioning of contaminated facilities at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    In 1942 Hanford was commissioned as a site for the production of weapons-grade plutonium. The years since have seen the construction and operation of several generations of plutonium-producing reactors, plants for the chemical processing of irradiated fuel elements, plutonium and uranium processing and fabrication plants, and other facilities. There has also been a diversification of the Hanford site with the building of new laboratories, a fission product encapsulation plant, improved high-level waste management facilities, the Fast Flux test facility, commercial power reactors and commercial solid waste disposal facilities. Obsolescence and changing requirements will result in the deactivation or retirement of buildings, waste storage tanks, waste burial grounds and liquid waste disposal sites which have become contaminated with varying levels of radionuclides. This manual was established as a written repository of information pertinent to decommissioning planning and operations at Hanford. The Resource Book contains, in several volumes, descriptive information of the Hanford Site and general discussions of several classes of contaminated facilities found at Hanford. Supplementing these discussions are appendices containing data sheets on individual contaminated facilities and sites at Hanford. Twelve appendices are provided, corresponding to the twelve classes into which the contaminated facilities at Hanford have been organized. Within each appendix are individual data sheets containing administrative, geographical, physical, radiological, functional and decommissioning information on each facility within the class. 68 refs., 54 figs., 18 tabs.

  6. Characterisation of radioactive waste products associated with plant decommissioning.

    PubMed

    Sejvar, J; Fero, A H; Gil, C; Hagler, R J; Santiago, J L; Holgado, A; Swenson, R

    2005-01-01

    The inventory of radioactivity that must be considered in the decommissioning of a typical 1000 MWe Spanish pressurised water reactor (PWR) was investigated as part of a generic plant decommissioning study. Analyses based on DORT models (in both R-Z and R-theta geometries) were used with representative plant operating history and core power distribution data in defining the expected neutron environment in regions near the reactor core. The activation analyses were performed by multiplying the DORT scalar fluxes by energy-dependent reaction cross sections (based on ENDF/B-VI data) to generate reaction rates on a per atom basis. The results from the ORIGEN2 computer code were also used for determining the activities associated with certain nuclides where multi-group cross section data were not available. In addition to the bulk material activation of equipment and structures near the reactor, the activated corrosion-product (or 'crud') deposits on system and equipment surfaces were considered. The projected activities associated with these sources were primarily based on plant data and experience from operating PWR plants. PMID:16381771

  7. [Research progress on application of carbon nanotubes in bone tissue engineering scaffold].

    PubMed

    Yao, Mengzhu; Sheng, Xiaoxia; Lin, Jun; Gao, Jianqing

    2016-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes possess excellent mechanical and electrical properties and demonstrate broad application prospects in medical fields. Carbon nanotubes are composed of inorganic materials, natural biodegradable polymer or synthetic biodegradable polymer. The composite bone tissue engineering scaffolds are constructed by particle-hole method, lyophilization, microsphere aggregation method, electrostatic spinning or three-dimensional printing. Composite scaffolds overcome the shortcomings of single material and have good biocompatibility, osteoconduction and osteoinduction. With the study of surface chemistry, toxicology, and biocompatibility, a degradable "human-friendly" carbon nanotubes composite bone tissue scaffold will be available; and under the drive of new fabrication techniques, the clinical application of carbon nanotubes composite bone tissue engineering scaffolds will be better developed.

  8. [Research progress on application of carbon nanotubes in bone tissue engineering scaffold].

    PubMed

    Yao, Mengzhu; Sheng, Xiaoxia; Lin, Jun; Gao, Jianqing

    2016-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes possess excellent mechanical and electrical properties and demonstrate broad application prospects in medical fields. Carbon nanotubes are composed of inorganic materials, natural biodegradable polymer or synthetic biodegradable polymer. The composite bone tissue engineering scaffolds are constructed by particle-hole method, lyophilization, microsphere aggregation method, electrostatic spinning or three-dimensional printing. Composite scaffolds overcome the shortcomings of single material and have good biocompatibility, osteoconduction and osteoinduction. With the study of surface chemistry, toxicology, and biocompatibility, a degradable "human-friendly" carbon nanotubes composite bone tissue scaffold will be available; and under the drive of new fabrication techniques, the clinical application of carbon nanotubes composite bone tissue engineering scaffolds will be better developed. PMID:27273990

  9. [Recent progress of research and applications of fractal and its theories in medicine].

    PubMed

    Cai, Congbo; Wang, Ping

    2014-10-01

    Fractal, a mathematics concept, is used to describe an image of self-similarity and scale invariance. Some organisms have been discovered with the fractal characteristics, such as cerebral cortex surface, retinal vessel structure, cardiovascular network, and trabecular bone, etc. It has been preliminarily confirmed that the three-dimensional structure of cells cultured in vitro could be significantly enhanced by bionic fractal surface. Moreover, fractal theory in clinical research will help early diagnosis and treatment of diseases, reducing the patient's pain and suffering. The development process of diseases in the human body can be expressed by the fractal theories parameter. It is of considerable significance to retrospectively review the preparation and application of fractal surface and its diagnostic value in medicine. This paper gives an application of fractal and its theories in the medical science, based on the research achievements in our laboratory.

  10. Progress on Synthesis and Applications of Cr2O3 Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pei, Zhenzhao; Zheng, Xianlong; Li, Zhiguo

    2016-05-01

    As is known to us that nanosized chromic oxide (Cr2O3) is an important transition metal oxide. Because it has many excellent properties, it can be used in many fields such as pigment, catalyst, Lithium material etc. This article briefly reviewed the preparation and applications of Cr2O3 nanoparticles. In this paper, some specific applications will be listed according to different fields. Nanosized chromic oxide (Cr2O3) can be obtained via many methods. A summary of the methods have been made. The preparation methods are divided into three main types, including vapor phase method, solid phase method and liquid phase method. Simultaneously, different types of methods have been simply evaluated in this paper. And the advantage and disadvantage are simply noted. PMID:27483806

  11. [Progress of the hydrokinetic chromatography and its application in the characterization of particulate drug delivery systems].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Li, Hai-Yan; Guo, Zhen; Zhang, Ji-Wen; Sun, Li-Xin

    2011-06-01

    In the present paper, the basic principles, the device and the analytical method of the hydrodynamic chromatography (HDC) were summarized, which is most widely used in hydrokinetic chromatography. The application of the hydrodynamic chromatography in the determination of the particle size and size distribution of the particulate drug delivery system was also reviewed. The method can determine the particle size of nano- and micron-scale particulate drug delivery systems rapidly. And this method also has the advantages of economic, convenient and no damage to the samples. In summary, there will be a good prospect for the application of HDC in the determination of particle size distribution features of particulate drug delivery systems. PMID:21882521

  12. Progress in the preparation and application of three-dimensional graphene-based porous nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhengquan; Yao, Wenli; Hu, Lei; Liu, Dandan; Wang, Chundong; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2015-03-19

    Due to high specific surface area, excellent conductivity, low mass density, good compatibility and elegant flexibility, three-dimensional graphene composites with interconnected porous structures possess unusual and novel physical and electronic properties, unsurpassed chemical functionalities and other attractive features. Therefore, different three-dimensional graphene-based nanoporous scaffolds have been extensively designed, prepared and investigated for practical applications in lithium-ion batteries, super-capacitors, solar cells, catalysis, thermal management, environment pollution enrichment and separation, and chemical sensors with high performance from both fundamental and technological viewpoints. To present readers with a better understanding of this kind of important porous material, in this feature article, we will highlight the main achievements made in the preparation of 3D graphene micro- and/or nano-architectures and their potential applications in the aforementioned fields.

  13. Progress in the preparation and application of three-dimensional graphene-based porous nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhengquan; Yao, Wenli; Hu, Lei; Liu, Dandan; Wang, Chundong; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2015-03-01

    Due to high specific surface area, excellent conductivity, low mass density, good compatibility and elegant flexibility, three-dimensional graphene composites with interconnected porous structures possess unusual and novel physical and electronic properties, unsurpassed chemical functionalities and other attractive features. Therefore, different three-dimensional graphene-based nanoporous scaffolds have been extensively designed, prepared and investigated for practical applications in lithium-ion batteries, super-capacitors, solar cells, catalysis, thermal management, environment pollution enrichment and separation, and chemical sensors with high performance from both fundamental and technological viewpoints. To present readers with a better understanding of this kind of important porous material, in this feature article, we will highlight the main achievements made in the preparation of 3D graphene micro- and/or nano-architectures and their potential applications in the aforementioned fields.

  14. Application of genomics-assisted breeding for generation of climate resilient crops: Progress and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Kole, Chittaranjan; Muthamiliarasan, Mehanathan; Henry, Robert; Edwards, David; Sharma, Rishu; Abberton, Michael; Batley, Jacqueline; Bentley, Alison; Blakeney, Michael; Bryant, John; Cai, Hongwei; Cakir, Mehmet; Cseke, Leland J.; Cockram, James; de Oliveira, Antonio Costa; De Pace, Ciro; Dempewolf, Hannes; Ellison, Shelby; Gepts, Paul; Greenland, Andy; Hall, Anthony; Hori, Kiyosumi; Hughes, Stephen; Humphreys, Mike W.; Iorizzo, Massimo; Ismail, Abdelgabi M.; Marshall, Athole; Mayes, Sean; Nguyen, Henry T.; Ogbannaya, Francis C.; Ortiz, Rodomiro; Paterson, Andrew H.; Simon, Philipp W.; Tohme, Joe; Tuberosa, Roberto; Valliyodan, Babu; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Yano, Masahiro; Prasad, Manoj

    2015-08-11

    Climate change affects agricultural productivity worldwide. Increased prices of food commodities are the initial indication of drastic edible yield loss, which is expected to increase further due to global warming. This situation has compelled plant scientists to develop climate change-resilient crops, which can withstand broad-spectrum stresses such as drought, heat, cold, salinity, flood, submergence and pests, thus helping to deliver increased productivity. Genomics appears to be a promising tool for deciphering the stress responsiveness of crop species with adaptation traits or in wild relatives toward identifying underlying genes, alleles or quantitative trait loci. Molecular breeding approaches have proven helpful in enhancing the stress adaptation of crop plants, and recent advances in high-throughput sequencing and phenotyping platforms have transformed molecular breeding to genomics-assisted breeding (GAB). In view of this, the present review elaborates the progress and prospects of GAB for improving climate change resilience in crops, which is likely to play an ever increasing role in the effort to ensure global food security.

  15. Application of genomics-assisted breeding for generation of climate resilient crops: Progress and prospects

    DOE PAGES

    Kole, Chittaranjan; Muthamiliarasan, Mehanathan; Henry, Robert; Edwards, David; Sharma, Rishu; Abberton, Michael; Batley, Jacqueline; Bentley, Alison; Blakeney, Michael; Bryant, John; et al

    2015-08-11

    Climate change affects agricultural productivity worldwide. Increased prices of food commodities are the initial indication of drastic edible yield loss, which is expected to increase further due to global warming. This situation has compelled plant scientists to develop climate change-resilient crops, which can withstand broad-spectrum stresses such as drought, heat, cold, salinity, flood, submergence and pests, thus helping to deliver increased productivity. Genomics appears to be a promising tool for deciphering the stress responsiveness of crop species with adaptation traits or in wild relatives toward identifying underlying genes, alleles or quantitative trait loci. Molecular breeding approaches have proven helpful inmore » enhancing the stress adaptation of crop plants, and recent advances in high-throughput sequencing and phenotyping platforms have transformed molecular breeding to genomics-assisted breeding (GAB). In view of this, the present review elaborates the progress and prospects of GAB for improving climate change resilience in crops, which is likely to play an ever increasing role in the effort to ensure global food security.« less

  16. NASA's Photon-Counting SLR2000 Satellite Laser Ranging System: Progress and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, John J.; McGarry, Jan; Zagwodzki, Thomas; Donovan, Howard; Patterson, Don; Steggerda, Charles; Mallama, Anthony; Cheek, Jack

    2002-01-01

    NASA's new unmanned SLR2000 system is designed to track, with millimeter precision and using single photon returns, a constellation of roughly 24 retroreflector-equipped satellites, which range in altitude from about 300 km to 20,000 km. Totally autonomous operation and a common engineering configuration are expected to greatly reduce station operations costs relative to NASA's current manned systems. The system has also been designed with a goal of significantly lowering replication costs. All of the prototype components and subsystems have been completed and tested and have substantially met the original specifications. The prototype system is presently undergoing final integration and testing in a dedicated shelter with an azimuth tracking dome synchronized to the optical tracking mount. The facility also features a number of security features such as security cameras and sensors designed to detect power or thermal control problems or entry by unauthorized personnel. Field tests are in progress. The present paper provides an overview of the various subsystems and test results to date. The meteorological subsystem, which has operated successfully in the field for almost three years, consists of several sensors which measure: (1) pressure, temperature, and relative humidity; (2) wind speed and direction; (3) ground visibility and precipitation; and (4) local cloud cover as a function of station azimuth and elevation (day and night). A "pseudo-operator" software program interprets the sensor readings and modifies satellite tracking priorities based on local meteorological conditions.

  17. Application of genomics-assisted breeding for generation of climate resilient crops: progress and prospects.

    PubMed

    Kole, Chittaranjan; Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Henry, Robert; Edwards, David; Sharma, Rishu; Abberton, Michael; Batley, Jacqueline; Bentley, Alison; Blakeney, Michael; Bryant, John; Cai, Hongwei; Cakir, Mehmet; Cseke, Leland J; Cockram, James; de Oliveira, Antonio Costa; De Pace, Ciro; Dempewolf, Hannes; Ellison, Shelby; Gepts, Paul; Greenland, Andy; Hall, Anthony; Hori, Kiyosumi; Hughes, Stephen; Humphreys, Mike W; Iorizzo, Massimo; Ismail, Abdelbagi M; Marshall, Athole; Mayes, Sean; Nguyen, Henry T; Ogbonnaya, Francis C; Ortiz, Rodomiro; Paterson, Andrew H; Simon, Philipp W; Tohme, Joe; Tuberosa, Roberto; Valliyodan, Babu; Varshney, Rajeev K; Wullschleger, Stan D; Yano, Masahiro; Prasad, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    Climate change affects agricultural productivity worldwide. Increased prices of food commodities are the initial indication of drastic edible yield loss, which is expected to increase further due to global warming. This situation has compelled plant scientists to develop climate change-resilient crops, which can withstand broad-spectrum stresses such as drought, heat, cold, salinity, flood, submergence and pests, thus helping to deliver increased productivity. Genomics appears to be a promising tool for deciphering the stress responsiveness of crop species with adaptation traits or in wild relatives toward identifying underlying genes, alleles or quantitative trait loci. Molecular breeding approaches have proven helpful in enhancing the stress adaptation of crop plants, and recent advances in high-throughput sequencing and phenotyping platforms have transformed molecular breeding to genomics-assisted breeding (GAB). In view of this, the present review elaborates the progress and prospects of GAB for improving climate change resilience in crops, which is likely to play an ever increasing role in the effort to ensure global food security.

  18. Recent progress in InP/polymer-based devices for telecom and data center applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinert, Moritz; Zhang, Ziyang; de Felipe, David; Zawadzki, Crispin; Maese Novo, Alejandro; Brinker, Walter; Möhrle, Martin; Keil, Norbert

    2015-02-01

    Recent progress on polymer-based photonic devices and hybrid photonic integration technology using InP-based active components is presented. High performance thermo-optic components, including compact polymer variable optical attenuators and switches are powerful tools to regulate and control the light flow in the optical backbone. Polymer arrayed waveguide gratings integrated with InP laser and detector arrays function as low-cost optical line terminals (OLTs) in the WDM-PON network. External cavity tunable lasers combined with C/L band thinfilm filter, on-chip U-groove and 45° mirrors construct a compact, bi-directional and color-less optical network unit (ONU). A tunable laser integrated with VOAs, TFEs and two 90° hybrids builds the optical front-end of a colorless, dual-polarization coherent receiver. Multicore polymer waveguides and multi-step 45°mirrors are demonstrated as bridging devices between the spatialdivision- multiplexing transmission technology using multi-core fibers and the conventional PLCbased photonic platforms, appealing to the fast development of dense 3D photonic integration.

  19. Quantifying the Onset and Progression of Plant Senescence by Color Image Analysis for High Throughput Applications

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Jinhai; Okamoto, Mamoru; Atieno, Judith; Sutton, Tim; Li, Yongle; Miklavcic, Stanley J.

    2016-01-01

    Leaf senescence, an indicator of plant age and ill health, is an important phenotypic trait for the assessment of a plant’s response to stress. Manual inspection of senescence, however, is time consuming, inaccurate and subjective. In this paper we propose an objective evaluation of plant senescence by color image analysis for use in a high throughput plant phenotyping pipeline. As high throughput phenotyping platforms are designed to capture whole-of-plant features, camera lenses and camera settings are inappropriate for the capture of fine detail. Specifically, plant colors in images may not represent true plant colors, leading to errors in senescence estimation. Our algorithm features a color distortion correction and image restoration step prior to a senescence analysis. We apply our algorithm to two time series of images of wheat and chickpea plants to quantify the onset and progression of senescence. We compare our results with senescence scores resulting from manual inspection. We demonstrate that our procedure is able to process images in an automated way for an accurate estimation of plant senescence even from color distorted and blurred images obtained under high throughput conditions. PMID:27348807

  20. In Vitro Developmental Toxicology Screens: A Report on the Progress of the Methodology and Future Applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cindy; Ball, Jonathan; Panzica-Kelly, Julie; Augustine-Rauch, Karen

    2016-04-18

    There has been increasing focus on generation and assessment of in vitro developmental toxicology models for assessing teratogenic liability of chemicals. The driver for this focus has been to find reliable in vitro assays that will reduce or replace the use of in vivo tests for assessing teratogenicity. Such efforts may be eventually applied in testing pharmaceutical agents where a developmental toxicology assay or battery of assays may be incorporated into regulatory testing to replace one of the two species currently used in teratogenic assessment. Such assays may be eventually applied in testing a broader spectrum of chemicals, supporting efforts aligned with Tox21 strategies and responding to REACH legislation. This review describes the developmental toxicology assays that are of focus in these assessments: rodent whole embryo culture, zebrafish embryo assays, and embryonic stem cell assays. Progress on assay development as well as future directions of how these assays are envisioned to be applied for broader safety testing of chemicals are discussed. Altogether, the developmental model systems described in this review provide rich biological systems that can be utilized in better understanding teratogenic mechanisms of action of chemotypes and are promising in providing proactive safety assessment related to developmental toxicity. Continual advancements in refining/optimizing these in vitro assays are anticipated to provide a robust data set to provide thoughtful assessment of how whole animal teratogenicity evaluations can be reduced/refined in the future. PMID:26766213

  1. Principles and application of educational counseling used in progressive audiologic tinnitus management.

    PubMed

    Henry, James A; Zaugg, Tara L; Myers, Paula J; Kendall, Caroline J; Turbin, Mitchel B

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to loud sounds is a common cause and exacerbater of tinnitus - a troubling auditory symptom that affects millions of people worldwide. Clinical research at the National Center for Rehabilitative Auditory Research has resulted in a clinical model of tinnitus management referred to as Progressive Audiologic Tinnitus Management (PATM). The model involves five hierarchical levels of management: Triage, Audiologic Evaluation, Group Education, Tinnitus Evaluation, and Individualized Management. Counseling by audiologists and, as needed, mental health providers, is a key component of PATM. This style of counseling focuses less on didactic informational counseling; instead, counseling is used for facilitating patients' learning to adjust to the disturbing auditory symptom by successfully employing tools from two powerful skillsets for self-management of chronic tinnitus - the therapeutic uses of sound and techniques from cognitive-behavioral psychology. This article provides an overview of the methods of counseling used with PATM and provides details concerning the overarching principles of collaborative adult learning that are believed to be most important in facilitating self-management by patients who complain of tinnitus. PMID:19265252

  2. Quantifying the Onset and Progression of Plant Senescence by Color Image Analysis for High Throughput Applications.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jinhai; Okamoto, Mamoru; Atieno, Judith; Sutton, Tim; Li, Yongle; Miklavcic, Stanley J

    2016-01-01

    Leaf senescence, an indicator of plant age and ill health, is an important phenotypic trait for the assessment of a plant's response to stress. Manual inspection of senescence, however, is time consuming, inaccurate and subjective. In this paper we propose an objective evaluation of plant senescence by color image analysis for use in a high throughput plant phenotyping pipeline. As high throughput phenotyping platforms are designed to capture whole-of-plant features, camera lenses and camera settings are inappropriate for the capture of fine detail. Specifically, plant colors in images may not represent true plant colors, leading to errors in senescence estimation. Our algorithm features a color distortion correction and image restoration step prior to a senescence analysis. We apply our algorithm to two time series of images of wheat and chickpea plants to quantify the onset and progression of senescence. We compare our results with senescence scores resulting from manual inspection. We demonstrate that our procedure is able to process images in an automated way for an accurate estimation of plant senescence even from color distorted and blurred images obtained under high throughput conditions.

  3. Quantifying the Onset and Progression of Plant Senescence by Color Image Analysis for High Throughput Applications.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jinhai; Okamoto, Mamoru; Atieno, Judith; Sutton, Tim; Li, Yongle; Miklavcic, Stanley J

    2016-01-01

    Leaf senescence, an indicator of plant age and ill health, is an important phenotypic trait for the assessment of a plant's response to stress. Manual inspection of senescence, however, is time consuming, inaccurate and subjective. In this paper we propose an objective evaluation of plant senescence by color image analysis for use in a high throughput plant phenotyping pipeline. As high throughput phenotyping platforms are designed to capture whole-of-plant features, camera lenses and camera settings are inappropriate for the capture of fine detail. Specifically, plant colors in images may not represent true plant colors, leading to errors in senescence estimation. Our algorithm features a color distortion correction and image restoration step prior to a senescence analysis. We apply our algorithm to two time series of images of wheat and chickpea plants to quantify the onset and progression of senescence. We compare our results with senescence scores resulting from manual inspection. We demonstrate that our procedure is able to process images in an automated way for an accurate estimation of plant senescence even from color distorted and blurred images obtained under high throughput conditions. PMID:27348807

  4. Microwave generation for magnetic fusion energy applications. Progress report, July 15, 1992--July 14, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Destler, W.W.; Granatstein, V.L.; Levush, B.

    1993-02-01

    This work strives to develop high average power FELs at voltages below I MV allowing for smaller and less costly power supplies. To achieve operation of an FEL with 100 GHZ {approx_lt} f {approx_lt} 150 GHz and with relatively modest voltage, we have been investigating the use of small period ({lambda}{sub {omega}} {approximately} 1 cm) planar wiggler magnets together with sheet electron beams. The sheet beam geometry allows for an FEL interaction region in the form of a narrow slit with high wiggler field at the center plane where the electrons are concentrated. The total current and power may then be increased without making current density excessive by increasing the wide dimension of the sheet beam. Sheet beam FEL design parameters for both a Proof-of-Principle (PoP) FEL experiment, which is current in progress, and an ITER relevant FEL design are shown. A central issue in the sheet beam FEL concept is propagation of the beam through the interaction region without excessive interception by the walls. In section 2 below we describe a successful experimental demonstration of sheet beam propagation through a 56 period uniform wiggler. Cold testing and initial hot test operation of the (PoP) FEL amplifier are also described. Finally, we present a theoretical investigation of the bandwidth of an FEL amplifier with a tapered wiggler operating in saturation is described.

  5. Application of genomics-assisted breeding for generation of climate resilient crops: progress and prospects

    PubMed Central

    Kole, Chittaranjan; Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Henry, Robert; Edwards, David; Sharma, Rishu; Abberton, Michael; Batley, Jacqueline; Bentley, Alison; Blakeney, Michael; Bryant, John; Cai, Hongwei; Cakir, Mehmet; Cseke, Leland J.; Cockram, James; de Oliveira, Antonio Costa; De Pace, Ciro; Dempewolf, Hannes; Ellison, Shelby; Gepts, Paul; Greenland, Andy; Hall, Anthony; Hori, Kiyosumi; Hughes, Stephen; Humphreys, Mike W.; Iorizzo, Massimo; Ismail, Abdelbagi M.; Marshall, Athole; Mayes, Sean; Nguyen, Henry T.; Ogbonnaya, Francis C.; Ortiz, Rodomiro; Paterson, Andrew H.; Simon, Philipp W.; Tohme, Joe; Tuberosa, Roberto; Valliyodan, Babu; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Yano, Masahiro; Prasad, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    Climate change affects agricultural productivity worldwide. Increased prices of food commodities are the initial indication of drastic edible yield loss, which is expected to increase further due to global warming. This situation has compelled plant scientists to develop climate change-resilient crops, which can withstand broad-spectrum stresses such as drought, heat, cold, salinity, flood, submergence and pests, thus helping to deliver increased productivity. Genomics appears to be a promising tool for deciphering the stress responsiveness of crop species with adaptation traits or in wild relatives toward identifying underlying genes, alleles or quantitative trait loci. Molecular breeding approaches have proven helpful in enhancing the stress adaptation of crop plants, and recent advances in high-throughput sequencing and phenotyping platforms have transformed molecular breeding to genomics-assisted breeding (GAB). In view of this, the present review elaborates the progress and prospects of GAB for improving climate change resilience in crops, which is likely to play an ever increasing role in the effort to ensure global food security. PMID:26322050

  6. In Vitro Developmental Toxicology Screens: A Report on the Progress of the Methodology and Future Applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cindy; Ball, Jonathan; Panzica-Kelly, Julie; Augustine-Rauch, Karen

    2016-04-18

    There has been increasing focus on generation and assessment of in vitro developmental toxicology models for assessing teratogenic liability of chemicals. The driver for this focus has been to find reliable in vitro assays that will reduce or replace the use of in vivo tests for assessing teratogenicity. Such efforts may be eventually applied in testing pharmaceutical agents where a developmental toxicology assay or battery of assays may be incorporated into regulatory testing to replace one of the two species currently used in teratogenic assessment. Such assays may be eventually applied in testing a broader spectrum of chemicals, supporting efforts aligned with Tox21 strategies and responding to REACH legislation. This review describes the developmental toxicology assays that are of focus in these assessments: rodent whole embryo culture, zebrafish embryo assays, and embryonic stem cell assays. Progress on assay development as well as future directions of how these assays are envisioned to be applied for broader safety testing of chemicals are discussed. Altogether, the developmental model systems described in this review provide rich biological systems that can be utilized in better understanding teratogenic mechanisms of action of chemotypes and are promising in providing proactive safety assessment related to developmental toxicity. Continual advancements in refining/optimizing these in vitro assays are anticipated to provide a robust data set to provide thoughtful assessment of how whole animal teratogenicity evaluations can be reduced/refined in the future.

  7. Application of genomics-assisted breeding for generation of climate resilient crops: progress and prospects.

    PubMed

    Kole, Chittaranjan; Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Henry, Robert; Edwards, David; Sharma, Rishu; Abberton, Michael; Batley, Jacqueline; Bentley, Alison; Blakeney, Michael; Bryant, John; Cai, Hongwei; Cakir, Mehmet; Cseke, Leland J; Cockram, James; de Oliveira, Antonio Costa; De Pace, Ciro; Dempewolf, Hannes; Ellison, Shelby; Gepts, Paul; Greenland, Andy; Hall, Anthony; Hori, Kiyosumi; Hughes, Stephen; Humphreys, Mike W; Iorizzo, Massimo; Ismail, Abdelbagi M; Marshall, Athole; Mayes, Sean; Nguyen, Henry T; Ogbonnaya, Francis C; Ortiz, Rodomiro; Paterson, Andrew H; Simon, Philipp W; Tohme, Joe; Tuberosa, Roberto; Valliyodan, Babu; Varshney, Rajeev K; Wullschleger, Stan D; Yano, Masahiro; Prasad, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    Climate change affects agricultural productivity worldwide. Increased prices of food commodities are the initial indication of drastic edible yield loss, which is expected to increase further due to global warming. This situation has compelled plant scientists to develop climate change-resilient crops, which can withstand broad-spectrum stresses such as drought, heat, cold, salinity, flood, submergence and pests, thus helping to deliver increased productivity. Genomics appears to be a promising tool for deciphering the stress responsiveness of crop species with adaptation traits or in wild relatives toward identifying underlying genes, alleles or quantitative trait loci. Molecular breeding approaches have proven helpful in enhancing the stress adaptation of crop plants, and recent advances in high-throughput sequencing and phenotyping platforms have transformed molecular breeding to genomics-assisted breeding (GAB). In view of this, the present review elaborates the progress and prospects of GAB for improving climate change resilience in crops, which is likely to play an ever increasing role in the effort to ensure global food security. PMID:26322050

  8. Diagnostic and therapeutic applications of diode lasers and solid state lasers in medicine. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques, S.L.; Welch, A.J.; Motamedi, M.; Rastegar, S.; Tittel, F.; Esterowitz, L.

    1993-05-01

    The Texas Medical Center in Houston and the nearby UT Medical Branch at Galveston together constitute a major center of medical research activities. Laser applications in medicine are under development with the engineering assistance of the collaborating engineering enters at Rice University, UT-Austin, Texas A&M Univ. In addition, this collective is collaborating with the naval Research Laboratory, where new developments in laser design are underway, in order to transfer promising new laser technology rapidly into the medical environment.

  9. Progress Report for Diffusion Welding of the NGNP Process Application Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    R.E. Mizia; D.E. Clark; M.V. Glazoff; T.E. Lister; T.L. Trowbridge

    2011-04-01

    The NGNP Project is currently investigating the use of metallic, diffusion welded, compact heat exchangers to transfer heat from the primary (reactor side) heat transport system to the secondary heat transport system. The intermediate heat exchanger will transfer this heat to downstream applications such as hydrogen production, process heat, and electricity generation. The channeled plates that make up the heat transfer surfaces of the intermediate heat exchanger will have to be assembled into an array by diffusion welding.

  10. Nuclear structure models: Applications and development. Progress report, November 1, 1991--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Semmes, P.B.

    1992-07-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Studies of superdeformed States; Signature Inversion in Odd-Odd Nuclei: A fingerprint of Triaxiality; Signature Inversion in {sup 120}Cs - Evidence for a Residual p-n Interaction; Signatures of {gamma} Deformation in Nuclei and an Application to {sup 125}Xe; Nuclear Spins and Moments: Fundamental Structural Information; and Electromagnetic Properties of {sup 181}Ir: Evidence of {beta} Stretching.

  11. Application of LANDSAT data to monitor land reclamation progress in Belmont County, Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloemer, H. H. L.; Brumfield, J. O.; Campbell, W. J.; Witt, R. G.; Bly, B. G.

    1981-01-01

    Strip and contour mining techniques are reviewed as well as some studies conducted to determine the applicability of LANDSAT and associated digital image processing techniques to the surficial problems associated with mining operations. A nontraditional unsupervised classification approach to multispectral data is considered which renders increased classification separability in land cover analysis of surface mined areas. The approach also reduces the dimensionality of the data and requires only minimal analytical skills in digital data processing.

  12. Diagnostic and therapeutic applications of diode lasers and solid state lasers in medicine. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques, S.L.; Welch, A.J.; Motamedi, M.; Rastegar, S.; Tittel, F.; Esterowitz, L.

    1992-05-01

    The Texas Medical Center in Houston and the nearby UT Medical Branch at Galveston together constitute a major center of medical research activities. Laser applications in medicine are under development with the engineering assistance of the colloborating engineering centers at Rice University, UT-Austin, and Texas A&M Univ. In addition, this collective is collaborating with the Naval Research Laboratory, where new developments in laser design are underway, in order to transfer promising new laser technology rapidly into the medical environment.

  13. The application of induced pluripotent stem cells for bone regeneration: current progress and prospects.

    PubMed

    Teng, Songsong; Liu, Chaoxu; Krettek, Christian; Jagodzinski, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Loss of healthy bone tissue and dysosteogenesis are still common and significant problems in clinics. Cell-based therapy using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been performed in patients for quite some time, but the inherent drawbacks of these cells, such as the reductions in proliferation rate and osteogenic differentiation potential that occur with aging, greatly limit their further application. Moreover, embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have brought new hope to osteoregenerative medicine because of their full pluripotent differentiation potential and excellent performance in bone regeneration. However, the ethical issues involved in destroying human embryos and the immune reactions that occur after transplantation are two major stumbling blocks impeding the clinical application of ESCs. Instead, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which are ESC-like pluripotent cells that are reprogrammed from adult somatic cells using defined transcription factors, are considered a more promising source of cells for regenerative medicine because they present no ethical or immunological issues. Here, we summarize the primary technologies for generating iPSCs and the biological properties of these cells, review the current advances in iPSC-based bone regeneration and, finally, discuss the remaining challenges associated with these cells, particularly safety issues and their potential application for osteoregenerative medicine.

  14. Progress report for FACETS (Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations)

    SciTech Connect

    Epperly, T W

    2009-04-20

    This role of this computer science SAP is to facilitate FACETS design and development by contributing CCA component technology and new application-specific technology. From a software perspective, the FACETS project is a very complex project. It is a combination of legacy software written in Fortran, Python, and C++ by various coding groups along with new software modules being written from scratch. The FACETS team is spread among 11 organizations and is geographically distributed from coast to coast. The fusion physics modules to be incorporated vary in terms of the model dimensions, typical time scale, and type of interactions with other components. Because FACETS is a complex project, it requires a component-based framework to facilitate the definition and composition of scientific applications from a suite of available fusion physics components. Component architectures have proven themselves in the business world and more recently in the scientific computing world. The CS SAP contributes fundamental tools like Babel to the FACETS framework and helps develop application-specific interfaces appropriate for the fusion physics modules.

  15. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning Nuclear Reactors At Multiple-Reactor Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Wittenbrock, N. G.

    1982-01-01

    Safety and cost information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of large (1175-MWe) pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and large (1155-MWe) boiling water reactors {BWRs) at multiple-reactor stations. Three decommissioning alternatives are studied: DECON (immediate decontamination), SAFSTOR (safe storage followed by deferred decontamination), and ENTOMB (entombment). Safety and costs of decommissioning are estimated by determining the impact of probable features of multiple-reactor-station operation that are considered to be unavailable at a single-reactor station, and applying these estimated impacts to the decommissioning costs and radiation doses estimated in previous PWR and BWR decommissioning studies. The multiple-reactor-station features analyzed are: the use of interim onsite nuclear waste storage with later removal to an offsite nuclear waste disposal facility, the use of permanent onsite nuclear waste disposal, the dedication of the site to nuclear power generation, and the provision of centralized services. Five scenarios for decommissioning reactors at a multiple-reactor station are investigated. The number of reactors on a site is assumed to be either four or ten; nuclear waste disposal is varied between immediate offsite disposal, interim onsite storage, and immediate onsite disposal. It is assumed that the decommissioned reactors are not replaced in one scenario but are replaced in the other scenarios. Centralized service facilities are provided in two scenarios but are not provided in the other three. Decommissioning of a PWR or a BWR at a multiple-reactor station probably will be less costly and result in lower radiation doses than decommissioning an identical reactor at a single-reactor station. Regardless of whether the light water reactor being decommissioned is at a single- or multiple-reactor station: • the estimated occupational radiation dose for decommissioning an LWR is lowest for SAFSTOR and highest for DECON • the estimated

  16. [Progress of research on the microbial fuel cells in the application of environment pollution treatment--a review].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yonggang; Sun, Guoping; Xu, Meiying

    2010-07-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are bio-electrochemical reactors that have the capacity to convert chemical energy of biodegradable organic chemicals to electrical energy, and developed rapidly in the past few years. With an increasing concern for energy crisis and environment pollution, MFCs has became a promising technology in the researches of environment pollution treatments and biology electricity. In this paper, we offered a comprehensive review of the recent research progress of MFCs in environment pollution treatment, includes denitrification, desufurization, organic pollutants degradation, heavy metal reduction and landfill leachate treatment. Also, we pointed out the challenges and problems which were bottle necks for a wide application of MFCs and the potential future development. PMID:20815229

  17. Applications of condensed matter understanding to medical tissues and disease progression: Elemental analysis and structural integrity of tissue scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, D. A.; Farquharson, M. J.; Gundogdu, O.; Al-Ebraheem, Alia; Che Ismail, Elna; Kaabar, W.; Bunk, O.; Pfeiffer, F.; Falkenberg, G.; Bailey, M.

    2010-02-01

    The investigations reported herein link tissue structure and elemental presence with issues of environmental health and disease, exemplified by uptake and storage of potentially toxic elements in the body, the osteoarthritic condition and malignancy in the breast and other soft tissues. Focus is placed on application of state-of-the-art ionizing radiation techniques, including, micro-synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (μ-SXRF) and particle-induced X-ray emission/Rutherford backscattering mapping (μ-PIXE/RBS), coherent small-angle X-ray scattering (cSAXS) and X-ray phase-contrast imaging, providing information on elemental make-up, the large-scale organisation of collagen and anatomical features of moderate and low atomic number media. For the particular situations under investigation, use of such facilities is allowing information to be obtained at an unprecedented level of detail, yielding new understanding of the affected tissues and the progression of disease.

  18. Applications of Data Mining Methods in the Integrative Medical Studies of Coronary Heart Disease: Progress and Prospect

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yixin; Guo, Fang

    2014-01-01

    A large amount of studies show that real-world study has strong external validity than the traditional randomized controlled trials and can evaluate the effect of interventions in a real clinical setting, which open up a new path for researches of integrative medicine in coronary heart disease. However, clinical data of integrative medicine in coronary heart disease are large in amount and complex in data types, making exploring the appropriate methodology a hot topic. Data mining techniques are to analyze and dig out useful information and knowledge from the mass data to guide people's practices. The present review provides insights for the main features of data mining and their applications of integrative medical studies in coronary heart disease, aiming to analyze the progress and prospect in this field. PMID:25544853

  19. Finite-element/progressive-lattice-sampling response surface methodology and application to benchmark probability quantification problems

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, V.J.; Bankston, S.D.

    1998-03-01

    Optimal response surface construction is being investigated as part of Sandia discretionary (LDRD) research into Analytic Nondeterministic Methods. The goal is to achieve an adequate representation of system behavior over the relevant parameter space of a problem with a minimum of computational and user effort. This is important in global optimization and in estimation of system probabilistic response, which are both made more viable by replacing large complex computer models with fast-running accurate and noiseless approximations. A Finite Element/Lattice Sampling (FE/LS) methodology for constructing progressively refined finite element response surfaces that reuse previous generations of samples is described here. Similar finite element implementations can be extended to N-dimensional problems and/or random fields and applied to other types of structured sampling paradigms, such as classical experimental design and Gauss, Lobatto, and Patterson sampling. Here the FE/LS model is applied in a ``decoupled`` Monte Carlo analysis of two sets of probability quantification test problems. The analytic test problems, spanning a large range of probabilities and very demanding failure region geometries, constitute a good testbed for comparing the performance of various nondeterministic analysis methods. In results here, FE/LS decoupled Monte Carlo analysis required orders of magnitude less computer time than direct Monte Carlo analysis, with no appreciable loss of accuracy. Thus, when arriving at probabilities or distributions by Monte Carlo, it appears to be more efficient to expend computer-model function evaluations on building a FE/LS response surface than to expend them in direct Monte Carlo sampling.

  20. Development and applications of photosensitive device systems to biological studies. Three year progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The major developments of the project have been in the area of low light level detection. Although the instrumentation is designed for biological applications, the parallel interests of astronomers serve as a good source for information and interchange of experience and ideas. Also, it is increasingly evident that the instrumentation developed is applicable to other areas where low light level detection capability is essential. Two such areas are sonoluminescence and thermoluminescence. The research has been primarily directed to the two areas of x-ray diffraction and bioluminescence, with emphasis in the area of x-ray detection. Interest in x-ray image intensification techniques for biological and medical applications is long standing, and more and more utilized each year. During the past three years the demonstrated advantages of our system over fast scan TV systems and multiwire chambers has become recognized. This is particularly true for use as the synchrotron x-ray sources. Although in recent years less effort has been spent in bioluminescence studies, results have been numerous, both in instrumentation development and experimental results. Bioluminescence is not only of interest in itself, but is a powerful tool for non-destructive study of other biological processes. Bioluminescence has also become increasingly of interest because of its relation to communication with, and detection of, submarines. Instrumentation for in situ observations is under active consideration. The techniques for data acquisition and retrieval in the two areas are closely related, so that much of the development in one area is transferable to the other. (ERB)

  1. [Research and application progress of the infrared heating effects of moxibustion].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ying

    2012-02-01

    Moxibustion therapy is a commonly used external treatment method for numerous conditions and general health care. Besides the effects of the drugs, infrared-heat and radiation spectrum are also the manner of action. By collecting the literature about thermal radiation and infrared spectrum features of moxibustion, the author reported the novel studies on the thermal effect of moxibustion including factors that impacted the temperature, infrared spectrum features, apparatus based on infrared technology employed in clinic for moxibustion and characteristics of temperature sensitivity. The author also identified some existing problems and provided advice for future application and research.

  2. Research in progress and other activities of the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics and computer science during the period April 1, 1993 through September 30, 1993. The major categories of the current ICASE research program are: (1) applied and numerical mathematics, including numerical analysis and algorithm development; (2) theoretical and computational research in fluid mechanics in selected areas of interest to LaRC, including acoustic and combustion; (3) experimental research in transition and turbulence and aerodynamics involving LaRC facilities and scientists; and (4) computer science.

  3. Progress in the Development of Polymer Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Flakes for Display Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kosc, T.Z.; Marshall, K.L.; Trajkovska-Petkoska, A.; Kimball, E.; Jacobs, S.D.

    2004-12-31

    Polymer cholesteric liquid crystal (PCLC) flake technology is being developed as an alternative display technology for flexible, reflective particle displays. The motion of PCLC flakes suspended in a host fluid can be controlled with an electric field, creating means to electrically control for the flakes ability to brightly reflect light that is circularly polarized. The PCLC flake/host fluid dispersion has been successfully micro-encapsulated both in a polymer matrix and in gelatin micro-capsules. Micro-encapsulation will not only expand the applications scope of the technology, but also may aid in addressing some potential problem areas that are inherent to many forms of particle display technology.

  4. Technological progress in generation of induced pluripotent stem cells for clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seung-Ick; Lee, Chang Kyu; Cho, Kyung Jin; Lee, Kyung-Ok; Cho, Ssang-Goo; Hong, Sunghoi

    2012-01-01

    Reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is achieved by viral-mediated transduction of defined transcription factors. Generation of iPSCs is of great medical interest as they have the potential to be a source of patient-specific cells. For the eventual goal of clinical application, it is necessary to overcome the limitations of low reprogramming efficiency and chromosomal abnormalities due to viral DNA integration. In this paper, we summarize the current state of reprogramming technology for generation of iPSCs and also discuss potential approaches to the development of safe iPSCs for personalized cell-based replacement therapy.

  5. Recent Progress on the Preparation of Luminescent Silicon Nanoparticles for Bio-Imaging Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurice, V.; Sublemontier, O.; Herlin-Boime, N.; Doris, E.; Raccurt, O.; Sanson, A.

    2010-10-01

    : Luminescent silicon nanoparticles particles produced by laser pyrolysis are considered as possible alternative to replace toxic Quantum Dot in bioimaging applications. However, these nanoparticles are fully oxidized when kept in water, therefore, the luminescent silicon core must be be protected from oxidation. The Si nanoparticles were embedded in monodisperse silica beads (˜50 nm) produced in microemulsion. The silica beads provide protection of the silicon core and allow stability of the photoluminescence over time. They are well dispersed in water and biological medium with a colloidal stability of several days.

  6. Progress in holographic applications; Proceedings of the Meeting, Cannes, France, December 5, 6, 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebbeni, Jean (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Papers are presented on a holographic recording material containing poly-n-vinylcarbozole, photoelectrochemical etching of holographic gratings in semiconductors, the analysis and construction of powered reflection holographic optical elements, achromatic display holograms in dichromated gelatin, and image blurring in display holograms and in holographic optical elements. Topics discussed include two-dimensional optical beam switching techniques using dynamnic holography, a new holographic interferometer with monomode fibers for integrated optics applications, computer controlled holography, and the copying of holograms using incoherent light. Consideration is given to holography of very far objects, rainbow holography with a multimode laser source, and the use of an endoscope for optical fiber holography.

  7. [DNDC model, a model of biogeochemical processes: Research progress and applications].

    PubMed

    Guo, Jia-Wei; Zou, Yuan-Chun; Huo, Li-Li; Lü, Xian-Guo

    2013-02-01

    Denitrification-decomposition (DNDC) model can estimate the emission fluxes of soil trace gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) , and nitrous oxide (N2O) via the coupling of the denitrification and decomposition processes driven by soil environmental factors. At present, DNDC model is one of the most successful models in the world in simulating the terrestrial biogeochemical cycles. This paper mainly reviewed the development process of the DNDC model, its structure, model validation, and sensitive factor analysis, and summarized the hot fields in the applications of the model.

  8. Proceedings of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission fifteenth water reactor safety information meeting: Volume 6, Decontamination and decommissioning, accident management, TMI-2

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, A. J.

    1988-02-01

    This six-volume report contains 140 papers out of the 164 that were presented at the Fifteenth Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Maryland, during the week of October 26-29, 1987. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. This report, Volume 6, discusses decontamination and decommissioning, accident management, and the Three Mile Island-2 reactor accident. Thirteen reports have been cataloged separately.

  9. Progress on Platforms, Sensors and Applications with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in soil science and geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, Niels; Suomalainen, Juha; Seeger, Manuel; Keesstra, Saskia; Bartholomeus, Harm; Paron, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    The recent increase of performance and endurance of electronically controlled flying platforms, such as multi-copters and fixed-wing airplanes, and decreasing size and weight of different sensors and batteries leads to increasing popularity of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) for scientific purposes. Modern workflows that implement UAS include guided flight plan generation, 3D GPS navigation for fully automated piloting, and automated processing with new techniques such as "Structure from Motion" photogrammetry. UAS are often equipped with normal RGB cameras, multi- and hyperspectral sensors, radar, or other sensors, and provide a cheap and flexible solution for creating multi-temporal data sets. UAS revolutionized multi-temporal research allowing new applications related to change analysis and process monitoring. The EGU General Assembly 2014 is hosting a session on platforms, sensors and applications with UAS in soil science and geomorphology. This presentation briefly summarizes the outcome of this session, addressing the current state and future challenges of small-platform data acquisition in soil science and geomorphology.

  10. Characterization of electroactive behavior and of progress in developments and applications of ionic polymer gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guelch, Rainer W.; Weible, Andrea; Wallmersperger, Thomas

    2002-07-01

    Polyelectrolyte gels are distinguished by enormous swelling capabilities under the influence of external physical or chemical stimuli. No other kind of material attains similar volume expansiveness. These properties make them most attractive candidates for a new generation of pseudomuscular actuators. In contrast to chemical stimulations which are able to trigger large in-toto deformations, weak electric fields can only induce considerable bending strains in ionic polymer gels when confined to direct electrical effects. This, of course, restricts their potential for technical applications. To characterize their chemo-mechanical and electrical behavior and the underlying physico-chemical processes, experimental and theoretical findings are presented. Measurements of basic mechanical and electrical parameters on polyelectrolyte gels allow quantification of their electroactive responses, especially with respect to the direct effects of external electric fields on the Donnan potential inside the gels. Model calculations on the basis of a coupled chemo-electro-mechanical multi- field formulation are in good agreement with the experimental results. Although the emphasis of this study is given to various anionic and cationic gels of the polyacrylamide family, a new class of hydrogels based on the biopolymer chitosan is included. These natural polymers have excellent properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-toxicity etc. making them predestinate to biomedical applications.

  11. Progress of laser fusion in the last 40 years and expected prosperous applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, C.

    2008-05-01

    Inertial confinement fusion has remarkably developed in the last 40 years. In the 21st century, we can expect fusion energy for civilian use. We had performed two types of fusion experiments: High Temperature Demonstration and High Density Demonstration. The former experiment attained a neutron yield 1013 using the LHART target driven by the GEKKO XII laser. The latter achieved the 1000 times normal density using the random phased laser beams which realized the Edward Teller proposal of IQEC 1972. Now, the FIREX project to explore fast ignition is going on. The heating process of energetic electrons as well as ions is a key issue of the fast ignition. Investigation on the extreme condition of plasma in high density and high temperature which are introduced by the PW laser give us a new field of nuclear science. On the way to the final fusion goal, we can expect various fruits in the field of high power laser applications, such as laser-induced nuclear reaction, EUV light source for lithography, nuclear transmutation, laser astrophysics, medical application of particle beam and so on.

  12. Latest Progress In Novel High Conductivity And Highly Stable Composite Structure Developments For Satellite Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klebor, Maximillian; Reichmann, Olaf; Pfeiffer, Ernst K.; Ihle, Alexander; Linke, Stefan; Tschepe, Christoph; Roddecke, Susanne; Richter, Ines; Berrill, Mark; Santiago-Prowald, Julian

    2012-07-01

    Materials such as aluminium, titanium and carbon fibre based composites are indispensable in space business. However, special demands on spaceborne applications require both new ideas and new concepts but also powerful novel materials. These days the trend is to substitute aluminium for CFRP basically in order to safe mass or to decrease thermal expansions. Nevertheless there are upcoming requirements that cannot be met using standard CFRP materials. In this connection innovative composites have to be introduced. In the frame of this paper three major applications for such material requests are considered, i.e.: • antennas • satellite platform structural panels • radiators. The new composites need to cope with the following challenges and demands: high operational temperature range, high stiffness, high strength, high thermal conductivity, vacuum compatibility, low mass, high in- orbit stability, compatibility with metallic parts and many more. Some of these demands have to be fulfilled in conjunction. Herein the innovative composites cover new raw materials and their combination, manufacturing process enhancement as well as new inspection and test methods. It has been observed that by using the developed CFRPs it is possible to satisfy and excel the needs. However, these materials feature a different behaviour than conventional composites which has to be taken into account during future design.

  13. Scintillation materials for medical applications. Annual progress report, January 1, 1991--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Lempicki, A.; Wojtowicz, A.J.

    1992-12-31

    Scintillators are beginning to attract renewed attention because modern High Energy Physics accelerators are placing unprecedented demands of quantity and quality of detector materials and Positron Emission Tomography (PET), used by the medical field. Both applications required materials for scintillator detectors with properties beyond those delivered by traditional scintillators. Thallium doped halides are very efficient, but slow and chemically unstable. Two modern developments, namely the very fast BaF{sub 2}, which owed its success to the newly discovered crossover transitions, and CeF{sub 3}, which carried a promise of fast components, more practical wavelengths and attractive efficiency. Since traditional scintillators (Tl doped halides) are very efficient, and could be even more efficient at larger concentrations of Tl, if it were not for concentration quenching. However Tl transitions are spin forbidden and slow. Both ills could be remedied by replacing Tl with Ce, whose transitions are allowed and which is known to form fully concentrated compounds of high photoluminescent efficiency and no quenching. These materials, plus new Ce-doped materials, exhibiting highly promising properties for medical applications, became the target of our studies.

  14. Silicon Ultra fast Cameras for electron and γ sources In Medical Applications: a progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulgheroni, A.; Badano, L.; Berst, D.; Bianchi, C.; Bol, J.; Caccia, M.; Cappellini, C.; Claus, G.; Colledani, C.; Conte, L.; Czermak, A.; Deptuch, G.; de Boer, W.; Domanski, K.; Dulinski, W.; Dulny, B.; Ferrando, O.; Grigoriev, E.; Grabiec, P.; Grodner, M.; Lorusso, R.; Jaroszewicz, B.; Jastrzab, M.; Jungermann, L.; Klatka, T.; Kociubinski, A.; Koziel, M.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharski, K.; Kuta, S.; Marczewski, J.; Mozzanica, A.; Niemec, H.; Novario, R.; Paolucci, L.; Popowski, Y.; Prest, M.; Przykutta, A.; Riester, J.-L.; Rovere, M.; Sapor, M.; Schweickert, H.; Sowicki, B.; Spanò, B.; Szelezniak, M.; Tomaszewski, D.; Zalewska, A.

    2006-01-01

    SUCIMA (Silicon Ultra fast Cameras for electron and γ sources In Medical Applications) is a project approved by the European Commission within the Fifth Framework Programme, with the primary goal of developing a real time dosimeter based on direct detection of ionising particles in a position sensitive Silicon sensor. The main applications of this device are imaging of intravascular brachytherapy radioactive sources with activities up to 3 GBq and real time monitoring of hadrontherapy beams. In order to perform a feasibility study, during the first two years a real time dosimeter has been engineered using Silicon microstrip detectors read out by an integrating dead-timeless front-end electronics. The prototypes have been qualified as relative dosimeter with respect to certified secondary standards; moreover, further measurements are on going in order to investigate the possibility to use the sensors as absolute dosimeters. Since the final device is supposed to provide a two dimensional image, two different Monolithic Active Pixel dosimeters have been designed and produced by the collaboration based on CMOS and Silicon On Insulator technologies. The main features of the two sensors are presented in this paper.

  15. Recent Progress in Lab-on-a-Chip Technology and Its Potential Application to Clinical Diagnoses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We present the construction of the lab-on-a-chip (LOC) system, a state-of-the-art technology that uses polymer materials (i.e., poly[dimethylsiloxane]) for the miniaturization of conventional laboratory apparatuses, and show the potential use of these microfluidic devices in clinical applications. In particular, we introduce the independent unit components of the LOC system and demonstrate how each component can be functionally integrated into one monolithic system for the realization of a LOC system. In specific, we demonstrate microscale polymerase chain reaction with the use of a single heater, a microscale sample injection device with a disposable plastic syringe and a strategy for device assembly under environmentally mild conditions assisted by surface modification techniques. In this way, we endeavor to construct a totally integrated, disposable microfluidic system operated by a single mode, the pressure, which can be applied on-site with enhanced device portability and disposability and with simple and rapid operation for medical and clinical diagnoses, potentially extending its application to urodynamic studies in molecular level. PMID:23610705

  16. Progress in incompressible Navier-Stokes computations for propulsion flows and its dual-use applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiris, Cetin

    1995-01-01

    Development of an incompressible Navier-Stokes solution procedure was performed for the analysis of a liquid rocket engine pump components and for the mechanical heart assist devices. The solution procedure for the propulsion systems is applicable to incompressible Navier-Stokes flows in a steadily rotating frame of reference for any general complex configurations. The computer codes were tested on different complex configurations such as liquid rocket engine inducer and impellers. As a spin-off technology from the turbopump component simulations, the flow analysis for an axial heart pump was conducted. The baseline Left Ventricular Assist Device (LVAD) design was improved by adding an inducer geometry by adapting from the liquid rocket engine pump. The time-accurate mode of the incompressible Navier-Stokes code was validated with flapping foil experiment by using different domain decomposition methods. In the flapping foil experiment, two upstream NACA 0025 foils perform high-frequency synchronized motion and generate unsteady flow conditions for a downstream larger stationary foil. Fairly good agreement was obtained between unsteady experimental data and numerical results from two different moving boundary procedures. Incompressible Navier-Stokes code (INS3D) has been extended for heat transfer applications. The temperature equation was written for both forced and natural convection phenomena. Flow in a square duct case was used for the validation of the code in both natural and forced convection.

  17. Pulse combustion technology for heating applications. Quarterly progress report, April 1-June 30, 1980. [Pulse techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Blomquist, C.A.; Clinch, J.M.; Egbert, H.P.

    1980-08-01

    The primary purpose of this research program is to develop and expand the technology base for fossil-fuel-fired pulse combustion heating systems. A major goal is to develop design data and design procedures for pulse combustion burners. This design capability will contribute to the accelerated industrial development of cost-effective, high-efficiency systems for a variety of heating applications. Analytical and experimental studies will be carried out to establish a technology base and develop design procedures for gas-fired pulse combustion systems. A series of parametric experiments will be conducted with ANL's existing experimental pulse combustor. Basic performance characteristics including heat transfer rates, thermal efficiency, noise emissions, and exhaust gas composition will be obtained as a function of the primary combustor design parameters including combustor geometry, fuel/air ratio, valve geometry, and decoupling chamber size. Experimental data acquired under Section 1.1.1 above will be analyzed and correlated in a manner suitable for engineering design of gas-fired pulse combustors. Based on these data and correlations, a mathematical model of the combustor will be developed for use as an engineering design tool in establishing combustor geometry for specific applications and for defining trade-offs between system efficiency, noise emissions, and costs.

  18. [Progress of clinical application of functional MRI in the localization of brain language area].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Lu, Junfeng; Wu, Jinsong

    2016-02-01

    For surgical operation in the functional area in the brain, it's commonly demanded to resect the lesion to the maximal extent on the basis of preserve the normal neural function, thus the precise localization of functional area is extremely important. As for the advantages of being widely available, easy to grasp and non-invasive, the functional MRI (fMRI) has come into wide use, while the application of language fMRI is still in the initial stage. It's important to choose appropriate fMRI task according to the individual condition of the subject, the commonly-adopted tasks include verb generation, picture naming, word recognition, word generation, etc. However, the effectiveness of using fMRI to localize language area is not totally satisfactory, adopting multiple task is an effective approach to improve the sensitivity of this technique. The application of resting state fMRI in the localization of language area and the further research of the role of fMRI in localizing the Chinese language area are the important future directions.

  19. Improving the Identification, Dissemination and Implementation of Deactivation and Decommissioning Lessons Learned and Best Practices

    SciTech Connect

    Waisley, Sandra L.; Lackey, Michael B.; Dusek, Lansing G.

    2008-01-15

    Approximately $150 billion of work currently remains in the United States Department of Energy's (DoE's) Office of Environmental Management (EM) life cycle budget for U.S. projects. Contractors who manage facilities for the DOE have been challenged to identify transformational changes to reduce the life cycle costs and to develop a knowledge-management system that identifies, disseminates, and tracks the implementation of lessons learned and best practices. This paper discusses DoE's rationale for using lessons learned and best practices to improve safety and performance while reducing life cycle costs for Deactivation and Decommissioning (D and D) projects. It also provides an update on the Energy Facility Contractors Group's (EFCOG's) progress in supporting DoE's efforts. At this juncture the best practice efforts described are in developmental stages; however, the commitment to and the concrete nature of the work thus far is noteworthy in regard to improving the way D and D lessons learned and best practices are identified, disseminated and implemented across the DOE Complex.

  20. Ecological and political issues surrounding decommissioning of offshore oil facilities in the Southern California Bight

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Donna M.; Love, Milton S.

    2004-01-01

    To aid legislators, resource managers, and the general public, this paper summarizes and clarifies some of the issues and options that the federal government and the state of California face in decommissioning offshore oil and gas production platforms, particularly as these relate to platform ecology. Both local marine ecology and political climate play a role in decommissioning offshore oil production platforms. Compared to the relatively supportive political climate in the Gulf of Mexico for “rigs-to-reefs” programs, conflicting social values among stakeholders in Southern California increases the need for understanding ecological impacts of various decommissioning alternatives (which range from total removal to allowing some or all of platform structure to remain in the ocean). Additional scientific needs in the decommissioning process include further assessment of platform habitat quality, estimation of regional impacts of decommissioning alternatives to marine populations, and determination of biological effects of any residual contaminants. The principal management need is a ranking of environmental priorities (e.g. species-of-interest and marine habitats). Because considerable numbers of economically important species reside near oil platforms, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries should consider the consequences of decommissioning alternatives in their overall management plans. Management strategies could include designating reefed platforms as marine protected areas. The overarching conclusion from both ecological and political perspectives is that decommissioning decisions should be made on a case-by-case basis.