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Sample records for progressive atlanto-axial subluxation

  1. Atlanto-axial subluxation: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Thurlow, Robert D

    1988-01-01

    One of the causes of death in rheumatoid patients is cord compression following atlanto-axial subluxation. Dislocations in the cervical spine are common with patients who have rheumatoid arthritis. Anterior subluxation occurs in up to 35%, followed by vertical subluxation in 22.2%, lateral subluxation in 20.6% and rarely posterior subluxation. A case report is presented to illustrate such a complication. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4

  2. Rotary atlanto-axial subluxation with torticollis following central-venous catheter insertion.

    PubMed

    Brisson, P; Patel, H; Scorpio, R; Feins, N

    2000-01-01

    Atlanto-axial subluxation with torticollis is an uncommon condition that occurs in children usually as a result of pharyngeal infection, minor trauma, or neck surgery. Passive motion of the head and neck during general anesthesia is probably another etiologic factor. Torticollis is the most common presenting physical finding. Pain may or may not be present, but is commonly present with passive neck motion. Neurologic sequelae are uncommon. Our case illustrates this condition as a complication of central venous catheter (CVC) insertion in a child under general anesthesia. The surgeon should suspect this pathology when a child presents with torticollis following CVC placement. Precautions should be taken in the operating room to avoid aggressive rotation and extension of the child's neck while under general anesthesia whether or not cervical inflammation is present. Special attention to head and neck positioning should be taken in patients with Down's syndrome since they are at increased risk for atlanto-axial subluxation. The prognosis is excellent when diagnosed early. A delay in diagnosis can result in the need for surgical intervention.

  3. Anterior facetal realignment and distraction for atlanto-axial subluxation with basilar invagination …. a technical note.

    PubMed

    Patkar, Sushil

    2016-08-01

    Unilateral anterior retropharyngeal approach was used in a case of basilar invagination with atlanto-axial instability. This approach provided easy access to both atlanto-axial joints. Wedge-shaped titanium cages were used to distract the joints and reduce the basilar invagination. Titanium plates with screws were used to fix the lateral mass of atlas with the body of axis, bilaterally. The anterior atlanto-axial joint distraction procedure has not been described in literature before seems to be an easy option in selected cases of craniovertebral anomalies and needs to be investigated by more surgeons.

  4. Atlanto-Axial Instability in Down Syndrome: A Need for Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, William D.

    1985-01-01

    The article is intended to provide educators and parents with a definition of atlanto-axial instability and dislocation (abnormal increase of mobility of the two upper cervical vertebrae) discuss related factors to causation, identify visible symptoms, review pertinent recommendations from the medical community, and comment on the disorder's…

  5. Atlanto Axial Rotatory Dislocation in Adults: A Rare Complication of an Epileptic Seizure—Case Report

    PubMed Central

    TARANTINO, Roberto; DONNARUMMA, Pasquale; MAROTTA, Nicola; MISSORI, Paolo; VIOZZI, Ilaria; LANDI, Alessandro; DELFINI, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Atlanto Axial Rotatory Dislocations (AARDs) are a heterogeneous group of post-traumatic pathologies typical of the pediatric age, and rare in adults. We describe the case of a 34-year-old woman, developing Atlanto Axial Rotatory Fixation (AARF) after a generalized tonic-clonic epileptic seizure, an extremely rare traumatic cause never described in literature. AARF was detected only 1 month after the accident and nonsurgical treatment was attempted at the beginning. The patient underwent surgery only 2 months after the accident. The best treatment should be conservative reduction within 1 month; when it is not possible, it is advisable to perform surgery as soon as possible. C1–C2 fixation with Harm's technique is the gold standard for fixed luxations. Delay of treatment makes intraoperative reduction more difficult and increase the establishment of the chronic permanent change of neck muscles and ligaments. PMID:24201098

  6. Atlanto axial rotatory dislocation in adults: a rare complication of an epileptic seizure--case report.

    PubMed

    Tarantino, Roberto; Donnarumma, Pasquale; Marotta, Nicola; Missori, Paolo; Viozzi, Ilaria; Landi, Alessandro; Delfini, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Atlanto Axial Rotatory Dislocations (AARDs) are a heterogeneous group of post-traumatic pathologies typical of the pediatric age, and rare in adults. We describe the case of a 34-year-old woman, developing Atlanto Axial Rotatory Fixation (AARF) after a generalized tonic-clonic epileptic seizure, an extremely rare traumatic cause never described in literature. AARF was detected only 1 month after the accident and nonsurgical treatment was attempted at the beginning. The patient underwent surgery only 2 months after the accident. The best treatment should be conservative reduction within 1 month; when it is not possible, it is advisable to perform surgery as soon as possible. C1-C2 fixation with Harm's technique is the gold standard for fixed luxations. Delay of treatment makes intraoperative reduction more difficult and increase the establishment of the chronic permanent change of neck muscles and ligaments.

  7. Surgical stabilization of the atlanto-occipital overlap with atlanto-axial instability in a dog.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Atsushi; Nishimura, Ryohei

    2016-05-01

    The atlanto-occipital (AO) overlap in combination with atlanto-axial (AA) instability was found in a dog. We hypothesized that ventral fixation of the AA junction can stabilize the atlas and prevent AO overlap by reviewing our past cases with AA instability. A standard ventral fixation of the AA junction using stainless k-wires and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) was performed. The dog fully recovered, and no complication was noted. The results of the postoperative CT imaging supported our hypothesis. The ventral fixation of the AA junction is a feasible treatment option for similar cases, although craniocervical junction abnormalities (CJA) including AA instability are varied, and careful consideration is required for each case. PMID:27506088

  8. Surgical stabilization of the atlanto-occipital overlap with atlanto-axial instability in a dog.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Atsushi; Nishimura, Ryohei

    2016-05-01

    The atlanto-occipital (AO) overlap in combination with atlanto-axial (AA) instability was found in a dog. We hypothesized that ventral fixation of the AA junction can stabilize the atlas and prevent AO overlap by reviewing our past cases with AA instability. A standard ventral fixation of the AA junction using stainless k-wires and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) was performed. The dog fully recovered, and no complication was noted. The results of the postoperative CT imaging supported our hypothesis. The ventral fixation of the AA junction is a feasible treatment option for similar cases, although craniocervical junction abnormalities (CJA) including AA instability are varied, and careful consideration is required for each case.

  9. Progressive hip joint subluxation in Saul-Wilson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chinen, Yasutsugu; Kaneshi, Takuya; Kamiya, Takeshi; Hata, Kenichiro; Nishimura, Gen; Kaname, Tadashi

    2015-11-01

    Saul-Wilson syndrome (SWS) is a rare congenital skeletal syndrome characterized by postnatal onset of short stature, relative microcephaly, frontal bossing, prominent eyes with shallow orbits, midface hypoplasia, cataract, and generalized skeletal changes, including spondylar dysplasia, overtubulation of the long bones with metaphyseal flaring and megaepiphyses, coxa valga, elbow deformity, and brachydactyly. We describe a boy with the overall clinical and radiological features fitting the characteristics of SWS, although cataract, elbow deformity, and overt brachydactyly were not seen. He presented with painful hip joint due to hip subluxation in late childhood, which exacerbated with age and ultimately, required surgical intervention. Awareness of this orthopedic complication in SWS is essential in the management of patients with SWS. PMID:26239279

  10. Irreducible Atlanto-Axial Dislocation in Neglected Odontoid Fracture Treated with Single Stage Anterior Release and Posterior Instrumented Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Rathod, Ashok Keshav; Chaudhary, Kshitij Subhash

    2016-01-01

    It is a well-know fact that type 2 odontoid fractures frequently go into nonunion. If left untreated, patients may develop irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD). We describe the surgical management of two patients with neglected odontoid fractures and irreducible AAD treated with single stage anterior release followed by posterior instrumented fusion. Both patients presented with history of neglected trauma and progressive myelopathy. Traction under anesthesia failed to achieve reduction of AAD. Anterior release was done by trans-oral approach in one patient and retrophayngeal approach in the other. Posterior fixation was performed with transarticular screws in both the patients. Both patients had full neurological recovery and demonstrated fusion at follow-up. Anterior release followed by posterior instrumented correction may be an effective alternative to the traditional means of treating irreducible dislocations associated with neglected odontoid fractures. PMID:27114778

  11. Subluxation: dogma or science?

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Joseph C; Charlton, Keith H; Grod, Jaroslaw P; Perle, Stephen M; Sikorski, David; Winterstein, James F

    2005-01-01

    Subluxation syndrome is a legitimate, potentially testable, theoretical construct for which there is little experimental evidence. Acceptable as hypothesis, the widespread assertion of the clinical meaningfulness of this notion brings ridicule from the scientific and health care communities and confusion within the chiropractic profession. We believe that an evidence-orientation among chiropractors requires that we distinguish between subluxation dogma vs. subluxation as the potential focus of clinical research. We lament efforts to generate unity within the profession through consensus statements concerning subluxation dogma, and believe that cultural authority will continue to elude us so long as we assert dogma as though it were validated clinical theory. PMID:16092955

  12. Spontaneous atlantoaxial subluxation associated with tonsillitis

    PubMed Central

    Shunmugam, Meenalochani; Poonnoose, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    Atlantoaxial subluxation is a rare condition and requires a high index of suspicion to diagnose and treat in order to avoid long-term sequelae. Here, we present a case of late presentation of a nontraumatic rotatory subluxation of the atlantoaxial joint or atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation. A 17-year-old girl presented 3 months after the onset of nonspecific upper limb sensory symptoms which eventually settled spontaneously. Initial conservative management by the general practitioner had no effect. Computed tomography scanning revealed a Type 1 dislocation with rotatory fixation and with <3 mm anterior displacement of the atlas. The management of Type 1 subluxations is usually conservative with bed rest, oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, muscle relaxants, reduction (if required) and immobilization with a soft collar. This patient, however, required more invasive management due to the late presentation and slightly greater fixed deformity. As the subluxation could not be reduced with active manipulation, Gardner-Wells tongs with traction were applied. She then progressed to a pinned HALO, cyber neck support and subsequently an aspen collar which was eventually weaned off over a few weeks. The outcome and radiologic alignment at follow-up was satisfactory. PMID:25972950

  13. Peroneal tendons subluxation.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Francesco; Del Frate, Dario; Ferran, Nicholas Antonio; Maffulli, Nicola

    2009-06-01

    Subluxation of the peroneal tendons is uncommon. It occurs especially in skiing, soccer, basketball, rugby, ice skating, judo, sprint, water-skiing, mountaineering, and gymnastics. We present an overview of the injury, with the classification commonly used. Many surgical techniques have been described to manage recurrent subluxation of the peroneal tendons, but only Level IV/Grade C evidence has been produced. Thus, randomized controlled trials are necessary to determinate the best surgical management method. It appears that high-demand individuals should be primarily managed surgically, and retinaculoplasty seems to be, when indicated, the best surgical option: it affords less complications and a high rate of return to sports without reducing their activity levels.

  14. Subluxation and semantics: a corpus linguistics study

    PubMed Central

    Budgell, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to analyze the curriculum of one chiropractic college in order to discover if there were any implicit consensus definitions of the term subluxation. Methods: Using the software WordSmith Tools, the corpus of an undergraduate chiropractic curriculum was analyzed by reviewing collocated terms and through discourse analysis of text blocks containing words based on the root ‘sublux.’ Results: It was possible to identify 3 distinct concepts which were each referred to as ‘subluxation:’ i) an acute or instantaneous injurious event; ii) a clinical syndrome which manifested post-injury; iii) a physical lesion, i.e. an anatomical or physiological derangement which in most instances acted as a pain generator. Conclusions: In fact, coherent implicit definitions of subluxation exist and may enjoy broad but subconscious acceptance. However, confusion likely arises from failure to distinguish which concept an author or speaker is referring to when they employ the term subluxation. PMID:27385839

  15. Four-dimensional computed tomography and detection of dynamic capitate subluxation.

    PubMed

    Repse, Stephen E; Amis, Benjamin; Troupis, John M

    2015-06-01

    Midcarpal instability syndrome is often misdiagnosed, leading to delayed recognition, treatment and possibly poor clinical outcome. Four-dimensional computed tomography (4D CT) has previously proved useful in assessment of the acromioclavicular joint and wrist motion, allowing clinicians and radiologists to gain an understanding of abnormalities in function as well as morphology, which often contribute to patient symptoms. We present the case of a 25-year-old male with no history of trauma who presents with several months of a right wrist clunk on both passive and active (load bearing) motion. Plain film and 1.5 Tesla MRI with intra-articular contrast demonstrates a normal appearance, without joint space, tendon or ligament disturbance. We further investigated this condition using a wide volume detector CT scanning technique (4D CT). Data from the patient's asymptomatic wrist was utilized as a comparison for this study. Assessment of cine movie files from the symptomatic wrist revealed abnormal subluxation of the capitate from the lunate when compared with the normal wrist, in which the capitate did not deviate from the concavity of the lunate and did not cross the perpendicular line from the superior pole of the lunate in any phase of motion, which we defined as capitate subluxation. 4D CT allows for detection of capitate subluxation in an earlier stage of disease progression, constituting earlier recognition and providing the opportunity for earlier treatment of the disease, potentially mitigating significant patient morbidity. We have been able to confidently identify capitate subluxation both visually (assessment of the sagittal RLC axis) and objectively (documentation of percent subluxation of the capitate beyond the superior pole of the lunate). We propose that 4D CT investigation of all functional carpal instability syndromes may be beneficial as this technique has the potential to significantly increase our knowledge of dynamic carpal bone abnormalities

  16. Pediatric Chiropractic Care: The Subluxation Question And Referral Risk.

    PubMed

    Homola, Samuel

    2016-02-01

    Chiropractors commonly treat children for a variety of ailments by manipulating the spine to correct a 'vertebral subluxation' or a 'vertebral subluxation complex' alleged to be a cause of disease. Such treatment might begin soon after a child is born. Both major American chiropractic associations - the International Chiropractic Association and the American Chiropractic Association - support chiropractic care for children, which includes subluxation correction as a treatment or preventive measure. I do not know of any credible evidence to support chiropractic subluxation theory. Any attempt to manipulate the immature, cartilaginous spine of a neonate or a small child to correct a putative chiropractic subluxation should be regarded as dangerous and unnecessary. Referral of a child to a chiropractor for such treatment should not be considered lest a bad outcome harms the child or leads to a charge of negligence or malpractice. PMID:26806448

  17. Acquired Chiari malformation secondary to atlantoaxial vertical subluxation in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis combined with atlanto-occipital assimilation.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yuiko; Seichi, Atsushi; Gomi, Akira; Kojima, Masahiro; Inoue, Hirokazu; Kimura, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    A 65-year-old woman with a history of rheumatoid arthritis presented with a rare case of acquired Chiari malformation secondary to atlantoaxial vertical subluxation, associated with congenital atlanto-occipital assimilation. Syringomyelia and tetraparesis improved immediately after posterior fossa decompression and simultaneous occipito-cervical junction fusion. The progression of acquired Chiari malformation is not well known. We concluded that coexisting assimilation accelerated crowded foramen magnum following atlantoaxial vertical subluxation and induced acquired Chiari malformation over the course of a few years.

  18. PHYSICAL THERAPY INTERVENTION FOR MEDIAL PATELLOFEMORAL LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION AFTER REPEATED LATERAL PATELLAR SUBLUXATION/DISLOCATION

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Brianne; Vitale, Ashley; Apergis, Demitra; Wirth, Stephen; Grossman, Mark G.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background The incidence of patellar subluxation or dislocation has been documented up to 43/100,000 with females more prevalent then males. There are many contributing factors involving the hip, knee, and ankle that lead to patellar subluxation. A patellar position of lateral tilt with lateral glide may indicate weakness of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO) and adductors, increased tightness in the iliotibial band, and overpowering of the vastus lateralis. Patella alta can predispose an individual to lateral dislocation due to the patella placement outside of the femoral trochlear groove with a disadvantage of boney stability. Other factors that may cause the patella to laterally sublux or dislocate during a functional activity or sporting activity include a position of femoral external rotation, tibial internal rotation, and excessive contraction of the vastus lateralis. The medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) aids in the prevention of a lateral patellar subluxation or dislocation. In cases where there is recurrent subluxation/dislocation and Magnetic Resonance Imaging confirms a MPFL tear, a reconstruction may be the treatment of choice. Purpose The purpose of this case series is to describe the post-surgical physical therapy management of MPFL reconstructions, outcomes using the Modified Cincinnati Knee Outcome Measure (MCKOM) and to propose staged physical therapy interventions for this pathology in the form of a treatment progression. Methods Post-operative management data and outcomes were retrospectively collected using a detailed chart review methodology from seven subjects who underwent MPFL reconstruction. Findings The Modified Cincinnati Knee Outcome Measure (MCKOM) was analyzed for each participant in four sections that were most important to the return and maintenance of participation in sport. At follow-up the mean scores for the seven subjects in Section 3 (instability) was 19.3/20, Section 4 (overall activity level) was 17.3/20, Section

  19. Intraarticular osteoblastoma with subluxation of the hip joint

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Kyoji; Nagasawa, Hiroyuki; Chida, Schuichi; Nanjo, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Patient: Male, 5 Final Diagnosis: Osteoblastoma Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Oncology Objective: Rare disease Background: Osteoblastomas are relatively uncommon bone tumors that account for <1% of all bone tumors. They usually occur in the medullary region of the bone. As such, intraarticular osteoblastomas are quite rare. Case Report: In this report, we present the case of a 5-year-old boy who presented with vague pain and subluxation of the hip joint due to an intraarticular osteoblastoma. Radiological examinations showed an irregular calcified mass lesion in the hip joint. The final diagnosis of osteoblastoma was made by histological examination. The patient’s symptoms completely subsided following surgical removal of the tumor. Conclusions: Osteoblastomas can occur in the intraarticular region. Although quite rare, osteoblastoma should be considered among the differential diagnoses for patients with pain and subluxation of the hip joint. PMID:23901353

  20. Traumatic manubriosternal joint subluxations in two basketball players.

    PubMed

    Woo, C C

    1988-10-01

    Two cases of traumatic manubriosternal joint subluxation without rib fractures in basketball players are illustrated. The incidence of this sport injury is rare. Accidental or intentional violent blows of the elbow to the body of the sternum is the mechanism of this injury. Radiographic analysis of the manubriosternal joint is discussed. Radiographically, the body of the sternum in each case has subluxated posteriorly. The athletes present pain directly at the manubriosternal joint; this may be aggravated by active thoracic hyperflexion or hyperextension. Ordinary or deep breathing does not cause discomfort. Palpation may reveal local tenderness that will be accentuated by ballottement against the manubrium. Conservative treatment consists of manipulative hyperflexion reduction supplemented with antiinflammatory or analgesic cream, cryotherapy, taping or with pad, strapping and rest.

  1. A Case of Bilateral Permanent Subluxation of the Lateral Meniscus

    PubMed Central

    Sugiki, Tadashi; Inoue, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of bilateral, permanent subluxation of the lateral meniscus. To our knowledge, the present case is the first reported description of bilateral irreducible anterior dislocation of the posterior segment of the lateral meniscus. This disorder is characterized by a flipped meniscus sign of the lateral meniscus on sagittal magnetic resonance images of the knee joint, with no history of trauma or locking symptoms. A detailed examination of serial magnetic resonance images of the lateral meniscus can help differentiate this condition from malformation of the lateral meniscus, that is, a double-layered meniscus. We recommend two-stage treatment for this disorder. First, the knee joint is kept in straight position for 3 weeks after the lateral meniscus is reduced to the normal position. Second, if subluxation of the lateral meniscus recurs, meniscocapsular suture is then performed. Although subluxation of the lateral meniscus without locking symptoms is rare, it is important to be familiar with this condition to diagnose and treat it correctly. PMID:27774328

  2. Not your typical torticollis: a case of atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Kosar; Abdo, Motea Mohamad; AlNajjar, Firas Jaafar Kareem; Abbo, Michael

    2014-03-25

    A 9-year-old boy was pushed while carrying a heavy backpack. He had no fall or direct trauma to his neck. After a few hours from the incident, he presented with neck pain and torticollis. However, somewhat atypical for torticollis, he was not able to rotate his face to the neutral position. There were no neurological deficits. Concerned by his inability to rotate his neck, the clinician suggested CT of the upper cervical spine, which demonstrated rotary subluxation of the atlantoaxial junction. The patient was taken to the operating theatre. Reduction was performed under general anaesthesia. He did well and was back to school in the following days.

  3. Not your typical torticollis: a case of atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Kosar; Abdo, Motea Mohamad; AlNajjar, Firas Jaafar Kareem; Abbo, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A 9-year-old boy was pushed while carrying a heavy backpack. He had no fall or direct trauma to his neck. After a few hours from the incident, he presented with neck pain and torticollis. However, somewhat atypical for torticollis, he was not able to rotate his face to the neutral position. There were no neurological deficits. Concerned by his inability to rotate his neck, the clinician suggested CT of the upper cervical spine, which demonstrated rotary subluxation of the atlantoaxial junction. The patient was taken to the operating theatre. Reduction was performed under general anaesthesia. He did well and was back to school in the following days. PMID:24667946

  4. Atlantoaxial Subluxation after Pyogenic Spondylitis around the Odontoid Process.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Atsushi; Yagi, Mitsuru; Takemitsu, Masakazu; Machida, Masafumi; Asazuma, Takashi; Ichimura, Shoichi

    2015-01-01

    Study Design. A case report and review of the literature. Objective. The aim of this study was to describe the conservative management of pyogenic spondylitis around the odontoid process. Summary of Background Data. Atlantoaxial subluxation after pyogenic spondylitis is rare. The therapeutic approach to infection of the upper cervical spine is controversial. Methods. Medical chart and radiological images of a 76-year-old male patient were retrospectively reviewed. Radiography revealed atlantoaxial subluxation, and an abscess was seen around the odontoid process on magnetic resonance images. Intravenous antibiotics and a halo vest were used to treat the patient. We then observed the patient's conservative treatment course. Results. C-reactive protein levels returned to normal 4 weeks after administration of the intravenous antibiotics. The patient's muscle weakness also completely recovered 8 weeks after administration of the intravenous antibiotics. Because the patient was able to walk without any support, surgical treatment was not necessary. Conclusions. Pyogenic spondylitis of the upper cervical spine is a rare manifestation. Surgical or conservative treatment must be selected carefully based on the patient's symptoms. If early diagnosis and treatment can be provided to the patients, conservative treatment can be achieved. PMID:26090255

  5. Chronic neglected irreducible atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Padalkar, Pravin

    2016-01-01

    Atlantoaxial rotatory fixation (AARF) is a rare condition and delayed diagnosis. We report a case of chronic neglected atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation in adolescence child that was treated by serial skull traction followed by posterior fusing by method pioneered by Goel et al. A 15-year-old male presented with signs of high cervical myelopathy 2 years after trauma to neck childhood. There was upper cervical kyphosis, direct tenderness over C2 spinous process, atrophy of both hand muscles with weakness in grip strength. Reflexes in upper and lower extremities were exaggerated. Imaging showed Type 3 (Fielding and Hawkins) rotatory atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD). Treatment options available were 1. Staged anterior Transoral release & reduction followed by posterior fusion described by Govender and Kumar et al, 2. Posterior open reduction of joint and fusion, 3. Occipitocervical fusion with decompression. Our case was AARF presented to us with almost 2-year post injury. Considering complications associated with anterior surgery and posterior open reduction, we have opted for closed reduction by serially applying weight to skull traction under closed neurological monitoring. We have serially increased weight up to 15 kg over a period of 1 week before. We have achieved some reduction which was confirmed by traction lateral radiographs and computerized axial tomography scan. Residual subluxation corrected intra-operatively indirectly by using reduction screws in Goel et al. procedure. Finally performed for C1-C2 fusion to take care of Instability. We like to emphasis here role of closed reduction even in delayed and neglected cases. PMID:27630481

  6. Chronic neglected irreducible atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Padalkar, Pravin

    2016-01-01

    Atlantoaxial rotatory fixation (AARF) is a rare condition and delayed diagnosis. We report a case of chronic neglected atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation in adolescence child that was treated by serial skull traction followed by posterior fusing by method pioneered by Goel et al. A 15-year-old male presented with signs of high cervical myelopathy 2 years after trauma to neck childhood. There was upper cervical kyphosis, direct tenderness over C2 spinous process, atrophy of both hand muscles with weakness in grip strength. Reflexes in upper and lower extremities were exaggerated. Imaging showed Type 3 (Fielding and Hawkins) rotatory atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD). Treatment options available were 1. Staged anterior Transoral release & reduction followed by posterior fusion described by Govender and Kumar et al, 2. Posterior open reduction of joint and fusion, 3. Occipitocervical fusion with decompression. Our case was AARF presented to us with almost 2-year post injury. Considering complications associated with anterior surgery and posterior open reduction, we have opted for closed reduction by serially applying weight to skull traction under closed neurological monitoring. We have serially increased weight up to 15 kg over a period of 1 week before. We have achieved some reduction which was confirmed by traction lateral radiographs and computerized axial tomography scan. Residual subluxation corrected intra-operatively indirectly by using reduction screws in Goel et al. procedure. Finally performed for C1-C2 fusion to take care of Instability. We like to emphasis here role of closed reduction even in delayed and neglected cases.

  7. FRACTURE PROPAGATION PROPENSITY OF CERAMIC LINERS DURING IMPINGEMENT-SUBLUXATION

    PubMed Central

    Elkins, Jacob M.; Pedersen, Douglas R.; Callaghan, John J.; Brown, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    Although improvements in materials engineering have greatly reduced fracture rates in ceramic femoral heads, concerns still exist for liners. Ceramics are vulnerable fracture due to impact, and from stress concentrations (point and line loading) such as those associated with impingement-subluxation. Thus, ceramic cup fracture propensity is presumably very sensitive to surgical cup positioning. A novel fracture mechanics finite element formulation was developed to identify cup orientations most susceptible to liner fracture propagation, for several impingement-prone patient maneuvers. Other factors being equal, increased cup inclination and increased anteversion were found to elevate fracture risk. Squatting, stooping and leaning shoe-tie maneuvers were associated with highest fracture risk. These results suggest that fracture risk can be reduced by surgeons’ decreasing cup abduction and by patients’ avoiding of specific activities. PMID:21855277

  8. Transient apical breakdown following subluxation injury: a case report.

    PubMed

    Boyd, K S

    1995-02-01

    Transient apical breakdown has been reported to occur in cases in which a periapical radiolucency develops and resolves without treatment following luxation injury. Diagnostic errors are inevitable if periapical breakdown is used as the sole criterion or as an overriding criterion in the decision to initiate root canal treatment. A clinical case report is presented in which transient apical breakdown occurred after a subluxation injury. The threshold to sensitivity tests increased yet sensitivity remained positive with the appearance of the periapical radiolucency. The decision was made not to initiate root canal treatment in spite of the radiographic appearance periapically. At the 10-month recall the tooth remained responsive to sensitivity tests and the apical radiolucency had disappeared.

  9. Ultrasound of Extensor Carpi Ulnaris Tendon Subluxation in a Tennis Player.

    PubMed

    Spicer, Paul J; Romesberg, Amanda; Kamineni, Srinath; Beaman, Francesca D

    2016-06-01

    Wrist pain is common among competitive tennis players. Subluxation of the extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) tendon has gained recognition as a cause of ulnar-side wrist pain in athletes. In tennis, the wrist is forcibly flexed, supinated, and ulnar deviated. These repetitive motions stress the ECU tendon stabilizers allowing tendon subluxation from the ulnar groove, especially in cases of anatomic variations such as a shallow groove. We present the presurgical and postsurgical imaging findings of recurrent ECU tendon subluxation in an elite tennis player.

  10. Unique paleopathology in a pre-Columbian mummy remnant from Southern Peru--severe cervical rotation trauma with subluxation of the axis as cause of death.

    PubMed

    Sokiranski, Roman; Pirsig, Wolfgang; Richter, Hans-Peter; Lösch, Sandra; Struck, Ulrich; Nerlich, Andreas G

    2011-03-01

    We describe the multidisciplinary findings in a pre-Columbian mummy head from Southern Peru (Cahuachi, Nazca civilisation, radiocarbon dating between 120 and 750 AD) of a mature male individual (40-60 years) with the first two vertebrae attached in pathological position. Accordingly, the atlanto-axial transition (C1/C2) was significantly rotated and dislocated at 38° angle associated with a bulging brownish mass that considerably reduced the spinal canal by circa 60%. Using surface microscopy, endoscopy, high-resolution multi-slice computer tomography, paleohistology and immunohistochemistry, we identified an extensive epidural hematoma of the upper cervical spinal canal-extending into the skull cavity-obviously due to a rupture of the left vertebral artery at its transition between atlas and skull base. There were no signs of fractures of the skull or vertebrae. Histological and immunohistochemical examinations clearly identified dura, brain residues and densely packed corpuscular elements that proved to represent fresh epidural hematoma. Subsequent biochemical analysis provided no evidence for pre-mortal cocaine consumption. Stable isotope analysis, however, revealed significant and repeated changes in the nutrition during his last 9 months, suggesting high mobility. Finally, the significant narrowing of the rotational atlanto-axial dislocation and the epidural hematoma probably caused compression of the spinal cord and the medulla oblongata with subsequent respiratory arrest. In conclusion, we suggest that the man died within a short period of time (probably few minutes) in an upright position with the head rotated rapidly to the right side. In paleopathologic literature, trauma to the upper cervical spine has as yet only very rarely been described, and dislocation of the vertebral bodies has not been presented.

  11. An anatomical basis for the neck-tongue syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Bogduk, N

    1981-01-01

    The C2 nerve roots and rami were dissected in five cadavers to explore the pathogenesis of Neck-Tongue Syndrome. The most likely cause of the simultaneous occurrence of suboccipital pain and ipsilateral numbness of the tongue is an abnormal subluxation of one lateral atlanto-axial joint with impaction of the C2 ventral ramus against the subluxated articular processes. Images PMID:7229642

  12. Postinfective skin contracture: a rare cause of fifth metatarsophalangeal joint subluxation

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Jatin; Mehtani, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Dislocation or subluxation of the metatarsophalangeal joint (MTP) is common and usually follows a traumatic event. Non-traumatic causes usually include inflammatory arthritis (rheumatoid arthritis), connective tissue disorders, crowded shoewear or flexor digitorum longus tendon contracture. We present a very unusual case of subluxation of the fifth MTP joint following a postboil skin contracture. The case was treated with the release of contracture by Z-plasty. It resulted in concentric reduction of the joint and normal skin healing. PMID:25199201

  13. Prediction of motor outcome by shoulder subluxation at early stage of stroke

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sung Ho; Yi, Ji Hyun; Chang, Chul Hoon; Jung, Young Jin; Kim, Seong Ho; Lee, Jun; Seo, Jeong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We attempted to determine whether shoulder subluxation at the early stage of stroke can predict motor outcome in relation to the corticospinal tract (CST) state on diffusion tensor tractography. Fifty-nine stroke patients with severe hemiparesis were recruited. The patients were classified according to the distance of shoulder subluxation (group A: ≥2 cm, group B: <2 cm) and the affected CST on diffusion tensor tractography at the first evaluation (CST type A—the CST was discontinued at the stroke lesion; CST type B—the integrity of the CST was preserved). Motor function of the patients was evaluated twice (first: beginning of rehabilitation—24.1 ± 16.6 days; second: discharge after first rehabilitation—58.5 ± 24.1 days) using the Medical Research Council score, Motricity Index, and Modified Brunnstrom Classification. Regarding the improvement of the Medical Research Council for the finger extensor and upper Motricity Index, the order in terms of better recovery was as follows: group B–type B, group A–type B, group B–type A, and group A–type A (P < 0.05). The distance of shoulder subluxation showed significant correlation with improvement of the finger extensor (moderate negative correlation, r = −0.37) and improvement of the Modified Brunnstrom Classification (weak negative correlation, r = −0.29) (P < 0.05). The presence of shoulder subluxation at the early stage of stroke can be a predictor of motor outcome of the affected upper extremity and the degree of shoulder subluxation can be a predictor of the motor function of the affected hand. Therefore, our results suggest that shoulder subluxation in relation to the affected CST state at the early stage of stroke can be a prognostic factor for motor outcome. PMID:27512873

  14. Superior subluxation of an anterior end of the first rib in a trauma patient

    PubMed Central

    Kaczynski, Jakub; Dillon, Marianne; Hilton, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of a young man with a superior subluxation of an anterior end of the first rib following a road traffic accident. To the best of our knowledge, no similar case has so far been described in the literature. The patient presented with headache, backache and pain in the right anterior chest wall. After initial assessment, a chest radiograph was performed and it showed no abnormalities. A CT of the chest revealed an isolated hypermobile first rib at the anterior end owing to superior subluxation. The patient was treated conservatively. PMID:22669858

  15. Use of the term subluxation in publications during the formative years of the chiropractic profession

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Claire

    2011-01-01

    The term subluxation has come to have different meanings for different health care professions in the United States for over the past century. This controversy has resulted in some contention both internal and external to the chiropractic profession. Some current factions within the chiropractic profession hold the term subluxation to be synonymous with the identity of chiropractic itself; however, this term was not solely used by chiropractic during its formative years. The purpose of this article is to look at uses of the term by various professions (osteopathy, medicine, and chiropractic) at the turn of the century, a time in which the chiropractic profession was developing. PMID:22693477

  16. Thoracolumbar kyphoscoliosis with unilateral subluxation of the spine and postoperative lumbar spondylolisthesis in Hunter syndrome.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Simon B; Tsirikos, Athanasios I

    2016-03-01

    Surgical correction for kyphoscoliosis is increasingly being performed for patients with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS). Reported case series have predominantly included patients with Type I (Hurler) and Type IV (Morquio) MPS. To their knowledge, the authors describe the first case report of surgical management of thoracolumbar kyphoscoliosis in Hunter syndrome (MPS Type II) and the rare occurrence of lumbar spondylolisthesis following surgical stabilization. A 12-year-old boy with Hunter syndrome presented with severe thoracolumbar kyphoscoliosis and no associated symptoms. Spinal radiographs demonstrated kyphosis of 48° (T11-L3) and scoliosis of 22° (T11-L3) with an anteriorly hypoplastic L-1 vertebra. The deformity progressed to kyphosis of 60° and scoliosis of 42° prior to surgical intervention. Spinal CT scans identified left T12-L1 facet subluxation, causing anterior rotatory displacement of the spine proximal to L-1 and bilateral L-5 isthmic spondylolysis with no spondylolisthesis. A combined single-stage anterior and posterior instrumented spinal arthrodesis from T-9 to L-4 was performed. Kyphosis and scoliosis were corrected to 4° and 0°, respectively. Prolonged ventilator support and nasogastric feedings were required for 3 months postoperatively. At 2.5 years following surgery, the patient was asymptomatic, mobilizing independently, and had achieved a solid spinal fusion. However, he had also developed a Grade II spondylolisthesis at L4-5; this was managed nonoperatively in the absence of symptoms or further deterioration of the spondylolisthesis to the 3.5-year postoperative follow-up visit. Satisfactory correction of thoracolumbar kyphoscoliosis in Hunter syndrome can be achieved by combined anterior/posterior instrumented arthrodesis. The risk of developing deformity or instability in motion segments adjacent to an instrumented fusion may be greater in patients with MPS related to the underlying connective tissue disorder.

  17. Radial ridge excision for symptomatic volar tendon subluxation following de Quervain's release.

    PubMed

    Collins, Evan D

    2014-09-01

    Traditional surgical release to address de Quervain's stenosing tenosynovitis can lead to the rare complication of volar tendon subluxation. This study presents a surgical procedure, which entails excision of the radial ridge as an alternative treatment to relieve pain associated with symptomatic volar tendon subluxation following de Quervain's release. The procedure was performed on 6 patients complaining of painful volar tendon subluxation of abductor pollicis longus (APL) and extensor pollicis brevis (EPB), following a first dorsal compartment release and postoperative splinting. We opened the same incision sharply, with direct view of the tendons of the first dorsal compartment. The wrist was ranged through extension and flexion, and volar subluxation of the APL and EPB over the prominent radial ridge was confirmed. The bony portion of the radial ridge was excised and filed smooth. The periosteal flap is advanced over the ridge and sutured into place. The APL and EPB tendons were released from dorsal retractors. All patients reported relief upon follow-up. Excision of this ridge removes the obtrusive friction to the APL and EPB tendons, allowing them to glide painlessly over the radial styloid. PMID:24977493

  18. Passive Rotation Range of Motion and Shoulder Subluxation: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Stanish, William; Kozey, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    Background Conflicting reports of range of motion (ROM) findings exist related to shoulder instability. Knowledge of range of motion findings among individuals with shoulder subluxation may aid in diagnosis and facilitate appropriate management. Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare passive rotation ROM and determine if a symptom-provoking activity alters ROM between patients with shoulder subluxations and healthy controls. Methods Seventeen symptomatic patients with shoulder subluxations and 14 healthy controls between the ages of 18 and 35 years were recruited. Lateral and medial rotation ROM measures were taken using a universal goniometer. Symptoms were assessed using a 10cm visual analog scale (VAS). Each group performed a symptom-provoking activity, and VAS and ROM measures were repeated. Results A two-factor analysis of variance with repeated measures on pre/post activity demonstrated lower medial rotation measures for the instability group, but no differences for lateral rotation or total range (p < 0.05). A “warm-up” effect was noted, with greater ROM found in each group post activity, with a greater increase noted among controls. Analysis of the ratio of lateral rotation to medial rotation ROM found a significantly greater ratio in the instability group. VAS pain scores were greater in the instability group. Conclusion Shoulder subluxation is not necessarily associated with increased rotation ROM, therefore total ROM findings should not be used to screen for instability. Imbalances in rotation ROM may be associated with symptomatic shoulder instability and may have implications for treatment. PMID:21509102

  19. The California Tri-pull Taping Method in the Treatment of Shoulder Subluxation After Stroke: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Subhasish; Hayner, Kate A; Arumugam, Narkeesh; Goyal, Manu; Midha, Divya; Arora, Ashima; Sharma, Sorabh; Kumar, Senthil P

    2016-01-01

    Background: Shoulder subluxation is a frequent occurrence in individuals following a stroke. Although various methods of treatment are available, none of them address all possible consequences of the subluxation pain, limited range of motion, the subluxation, and decreased functional use of the arm. Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of California tri-pull taping (CTPT) method on shoulder subluxation, pain, active shoulder flexion, and upper limb functional recovery after stroke. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized control study on 30 participants. All participants received conventional neurorehabilitation 5 days a week over 6 weeks. Half of the participants also received the CTPT. Pre- and post-assessment scores were taken on all participants for the amount of shoulder subluxation, pain, active shoulder flexion, and functional recovery. Results: The CTPT method demonstrated a significant reduction of pain in the treatment group from baseline, a significant improvement in active shoulder flexion and a significant improvement in proximal arm function as measured on the proximal subscale on the Fugl-Meyer upper extremity functional Scale but not the distal or total Fugl-Meyer subscales. Shoulder subluxation was not statistically significant. Conclusions: The CTPT method is an effective treatment for the hemiplegic subluxed shoulder. PMID:27213141

  20. One-stage open reduction of an old cervical subluxation: case report.

    PubMed

    Barrenechea, Ignacio J

    2014-12-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective The recommended treatment of cervical subluxation is currently closed or open reduction. These treatments are better accomplished in the acute setting, when muscular and ligamentous laxity allows the required maneuvers to realign the dislocated segments. However, subsets of patients are still being treated subacutely. The majority of the literature addressing subacute subluxations reports treatment through "front and back" approaches, many of them performed in two, three, or even four stages. Other authors recommend days or weeks of traction to reduce the subluxation, followed by anterior or posterior approaches. Herein, we present a one-stage open posterior surgical treatment of a 2-month standing C5-C6 subluxation with "jumped facets," describing a useful technique to reduce these challenging cases without the need of traction or multistage procedures. Methods After opening and exposing the posterior elements, we performed a wide C5-6 bilateral foraminotomy; we then put lateral mass screws and rods from C4 to C6. Resembling the technique used in the reduction of high-grade lumbar spondylolisthesis, we used a rod reducer to bring back the C5 screw head toward the rod, thus realigning the lateral mass screw heads and reducing the subluxation. Results No changes were observed in the motor evoked or somatosensory potentials during this maneuver. Following an uneventful procedure, the patient was transferred to the postanesthetic care unit and discharged 3 days later. Conclusions This open single-stage posterior approach dramatically reduces operating time. This technique could be added into the decision-making armamentarium for cases without disk herniation. PMID:25396107

  1. Odontoid upward migration in rheumatoid arthritis. An analysis of 45 patients with "cranial settling".

    PubMed

    Menezes, A H; VanGilder, J C; Clark, C R; el-Khoury, G

    1985-10-01

    Lack of correlation between the severity of rheumatoid subluxation of the upper cervical vertebrae and supposed absence of neurological damage has led to the erroneous supposition that this finding is innocuous. Incomplete autopsy studies in rheumatoid arthritis have failed to recognize the cause of death, despite previously proven dramatic occipito-atlanto-axial dislocations. The most feared entity of rheumatoid basilar invagination, namely "cranial settling," is poorly understood. Between 1978 and 1984, the authors treated 45 rheumatoid arthritis patients who were symptomatic with "cranial settling." This consisted of vertical odontoid penetration through the foramen magnum (9 to 33 mm), occipito-atlanto-axial dislocation, lateral atlantal mass erosion, downward telescoping of the anterior arch of C-1 on the axis, and rostral rotation of the posterior arch of C-1 producing ventral and dorsal cervicomedullary junction compromise. Cervicomedullary junction dysfunction has mistakenly been called "entrapment neuropathy," "progression of disease," or "vasculitis." Occipital pain occurred in all 45 patients, myelopathy in 36, blackout spells in 24, brain-stem signs in 17, and lower cranial nerve palsies in 10. Four patients had prior tracheostomies. Four previously asymptomatic patients with "cranial settling" presented acutely quadriplegic. The factors governing treatment were reducibility and direction of encroachment determined by skeletal traction and myelotomography. Transoral odontoidectomy was performed in seven patients with irreducible pathology. All patients underwent occipitocervical bone fusion (with C-1 decompression if needed) and acrylic fixation. Improvement occurred during traction, implying that compression might be the etiology for the neurological signs. There were no complications. Thus, "cranial settling" is a frequent complication of rheumatoid arthritis; although it is poorly recognized, it has serious implications and is treatable. PMID:4032013

  2. Irreducible volar subluxation of the proximal interphalangeal joint due to radial collateral ligament interposition: case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Jason Pui Yin; Tse, Wing Lim; Ho, Pak Cheong

    2015-01-01

    Irreducible volar subluxation should be considered when assessing a patient with flexion deformity of the proximal interphalangeal finger joint (PIPJ). Primary assessment requires careful examination of the collateral ligaments and extensor tendon. Preoperative imaging such as ultrasound and MRI can help identify the interposed structures and plan the subsequent operation. Although rare, irreducible volar subluxation due to radial collateral ligament interposition is an important entity to be aware of. Prompt and appropriate management can prevent joint stiffness and loss of function.

  3. [Unusual presentation of juvenile idiopathic arthritis and autoimmune hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Moreno Prieto, M; Carbonero Celis, M J; Cuadrado Caballero, M C

    2015-01-01

    The coexistence of autoimmune hepatitis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis is very rare. This is the case of an 18 month old female patient whose first sign of disease was torticollis due to an underlying atlanto-axial subluxation. Three months later, bilateral knee arthritis developed and she was diagnosed with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis. Throughout the disease a persistent elevation of liver enzymes was noted, combined with positive antinuclear antibodies and hypergammaglobulinemia, reaching the diagnosis of concomitant autoimmune hepatitis.

  4. Atlantoaxial Rotatory Subluxation after Removal of a Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt in the Supine-Lateral Position.

    PubMed

    Hashide, Shusei; Aihara, Yasuo; Nagahara, Ayumi; Mitsuyama, Tetsuryu; Okada, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation (AARS) is an uncommon disease with a greater prevalence in children than adults. So far there has only been one report of AARS after surgery related to ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting. We present a new case of AARS closed reduction treatment after VP shunt removal in an 8-year-old girl with wound pain on the back of her head and torticollis after surgery. Her head was rotated in the spine-lateral position during surgery. The diagnosis of AARS was established by 3D-computed tomography. The rotatory subluxation was cured after cervical traction therapy. The successful closed reduction was the consequence of early detection and conservative treatment, which are important constituents in the management of AARS. PMID:26202450

  5. Post-traumatic upper cervical subluxation visualized by MRI: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Demetrious, James

    2007-01-01

    Background This paper describes MRI findings of upper cervical subluxation due to alar ligament disruption following a vehicular collision. Incidental findings included the presence of a myodural bridge and a spinal cord syrinx. Chiropractic management of the patient is discussed. Case presentation A 21-year old female presented with complaints of acute, debilitating upper neck pain with unremitting sub-occipital headache and dizziness following a vehicular collision. Initial emergency department and neurologic investigations included x-ray and CT evaluation of the head and neck. Due to persistent pain, the patient sought chiropractic care. MRI of the upper cervical spine revealed previously unrecognized clinical entities. Conclusion This case highlights the identification of upper cervical ligamentous injury that produced vertebral subluxation following a traumatic incident. MRI evaluation provided visualization of previously undetected injury. The patient experienced improvement through chiropractic care. PMID:18093309

  6. Treatment of hip subluxation in skeletally mature patients with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Oetgen, Matthew E; Ayyala, Haripriya; Martin, Benjamin D

    2015-04-01

    Hip subluxation is common in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Most physicians favor intervention to treat hip subluxation in skeletally immature patients with cerebral palsy. However, treatment in skeletally mature patients with cerebral palsy is controversial. The goal of this study was to evaluate radiographic and clinical outcomes after hip reconstruction in skeletally mature patients with cerebral palsy. The authors performed a retrospective review of all skeletally mature patients (n=20) with cerebral palsy who underwent hip surgery for subluxation at the authors' institution between 2005 and 2011. Charts were reviewed for demographic characteristics, procedure, follow-up, and complications. Acetabular index, migration index, and neck-shaft angle were measured on preoperative and most recent radiographs. Average follow-up was 2.2 years. Average migration index for the entire group improved from 57% to 20% (P<.0001). Of patients who had all radiographic abnormalities addressed at surgery (varus derotational femoral osteotomy for neck-shaft angle >135°, open reduction for migration index >50%, and acetabular osteotomy for acetabular index >25°), 91% had a final migration index of less than 25%. In patients who did not have all radiographic abnormalities addressed, 33% had a migration index of less than 25% at final follow-up. No intraoperative complications occurred; however, 13 patients had at least 1 postoperative complication. Hip subluxation in skeletally mature patients with cerebral palsy is difficult to treat and is associated with a high incidence of complications. The likelihood of a successful outcome appears to be related to the appropriateness of the surgical procedure. When all radiographic abnormalities were addressed during surgery, a successful radiographic outcome at final follow-up was much more likely than when intervention was less comprehensive.

  7. Dynamic sonography of snapping hip due to gluteus maximus subluxation over greater trochanter.

    PubMed

    Chang, Connie Y; Kreher, Jeffrey; Torriani, Martin

    2016-03-01

    We report on the dynamic sonographic findings of a 10-year-old avid female dancer who presented with symptoms of abrupt left hip motion and associated painful snapping sensation while performing lateral motions of the pelvis suggesting external snapping hip syndrome. Dynamic sonographic evaluation of both hips demonstrated that symptoms were due to gluteus maximus subluxation over the greater trochanter. This etiology of external snapping hip syndrome is rare with limited imaging descriptions in the literature. We present case history, physical examination, and dynamic ultrasound examination, including multiple still images and cine clips, comprehensively characterizing this uncommon source of external snapping hip syndrome. PMID:26490678

  8. Assessment of lateral subluxation in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease: a time-sequential study of magnetic resonance imaging and plain radiography.

    PubMed

    Kotoura, Yoshihiro; Kim, Wook-Cheol; Hosokawa, Motoo; Yoshida, Takashi; Oka, Yoshinobu; Yamada, Naotake; Nakase, Masashi; Nishida, Atsushi; Yokozeki, Koichi; Kusakabe, Torao; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2015-11-01

    Lateral subluxation of the femoral head is one of the poor prognostic factors of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the cause of lateral subluxation of the femoral head on the basis of the changes over time on MRI. Twenty-four patients with unilateral Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease were analyzed retrospectively. Lateral subluxation was measured as the tear drop distance on radiographs. We focused on joint fluid, medial articular cartilage thickening, and abnormal lesion on MRI. Lateral subluxation continued significantly in patients with poor results. Among the MRI findings, the presence of an abnormal lesion was associated significantly with the continuous lateral subluxation. PMID:26163864

  9. Measurement of rehabilitation in thumb MP joint subluxation due to rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kitano, Keisuke; Tsujiuchi, Nobutaka; Ito, Akihito; Tokunaga, Daisaku; Kubo, Toshikazu; Nakamura, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    As treatment for subluxation due to rheumatoid arthritis (RA), rehabilitation by hand therapy is one option, but the number of therapist is not sufficient. Therefore, a device for rehabilitation of thumb metacarpophalangeal (MP) joint subluxation has been developed. To improve the device, it is necessary to measure in close proximity to the actual rehabilitation. Therefore, the authors tried to measure two kinds of rehabilitation by using motion capture and a contact force sensor. To measure rehabilitation movements, three markers were attached to the metacarpal bone, six markers were attached to each side of the interphalangeal (IP) joint, MP joint and proximal phalanx of the right thumb of the subjects, and a finger model was created by these markers. Further, three markers were placed on the left index of the therapist, and force direction was calculated by these markers. Measurement was conducted on healthy subjects, Rehabilitation was performed by the person who is not a therapist, but received the guidance of the doctor who is coauthor. As a result, the authors could measure rehabilitation by hand therapy, force, point of action and displacement. The results suggest that rehabilitation with traction twice as efficient as that without traction. Furthermore, it was found that rehabilitation is possible with calculated force, and the force is reproducible by the actuator in the device.

  10. Multiple subluxations and comminuted fracture of the cervical spine in a sheep.

    PubMed

    Lin, C-C; Chen, K-S; Lin, Y-L; Chan, J P-W

    2015-01-01

    A 5-month-old, 13.5 kg, female Corriedale sheep was referred to the Veterinary Medicine Teaching Hospital, with a history of traumatic injury of the cervical spine followed by non-ambulatoric tetraparesis that occurred 2 weeks before being admitted to the hospital. At admission, malalignment of the cervical spine with the cranial part of the neck deviating to the right was noted. Neurological examinations identified the absence of postural reactions in both forelimbs, mildly decreased spinal reflexes, and normal reaction to pain perception tests. Radiography revealed malalignment of the cervical vertebrae with subluxations at C1-C2 and C2-C3, and a comminuted fracture of the caudal aspect of C2. The sheep was euthanized due to a presumed poor prognosis. Necropsy and histopathological findings confirmed injuries of the cervical spine from C1 to C3, which were consistent with the clinical finding of tetraparesis in this case. This paper presents a rare case of multiple subluxations of the cervical spine caused by blunt force trauma in a young sheep. These results highlight the importance of an astute clinical diagnosis for such an acute cervical spine trauma and the need for prompt surgical correction for similar cases in the future. PMID:25626484

  11. Multiple subluxations and comminuted fracture of the cervical spine in a sheep.

    PubMed

    Lin, C-C; Chen, K-S; Lin, Y-L; Chan, J P-W

    2015-01-01

    A 5-month-old, 13.5 kg, female Corriedale sheep was referred to the Veterinary Medicine Teaching Hospital, with a history of traumatic injury of the cervical spine followed by non-ambulatoric tetraparesis that occurred 2 weeks before being admitted to the hospital. At admission, malalignment of the cervical spine with the cranial part of the neck deviating to the right was noted. Neurological examinations identified the absence of postural reactions in both forelimbs, mildly decreased spinal reflexes, and normal reaction to pain perception tests. Radiography revealed malalignment of the cervical vertebrae with subluxations at C1-C2 and C2-C3, and a comminuted fracture of the caudal aspect of C2. The sheep was euthanized due to a presumed poor prognosis. Necropsy and histopathological findings confirmed injuries of the cervical spine from C1 to C3, which were consistent with the clinical finding of tetraparesis in this case. This paper presents a rare case of multiple subluxations of the cervical spine caused by blunt force trauma in a young sheep. These results highlight the importance of an astute clinical diagnosis for such an acute cervical spine trauma and the need for prompt surgical correction for similar cases in the future.

  12. Traumatic Globe Subluxation and Intracranial Injury Caused by Bicycle Brake Handle

    PubMed Central

    Poroy, Ceren; Cibik, Cansu; Yazici, Bulent

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Penetration of a bicycle brake handle into the orbit is a rare and serious type of trauma. Globe subluxation due to such trauma has not been previously reported. Case Presentation A 10-year-old girl presented after falling from a bicycle, which resulted in the handbrake penetrating her right upper eyelid. On examination, the globe was subluxated anteriorly, there was no light perception, and the pupilla was fixed and dilated. Radiologic studies revealed orbitonasal fractures, hemorrhage, emphysema in the orbit and cranium, and rupture of the extraocular muscles. The globe was replaced into the orbit with the help of lateral cantholysis and orbital septotomy. During 22 months of follow-up, the globe remained intact, but total loss of vision, blepharoptosis, and extraocular motility restriction persisted. Conclusions This case and previous reports show that bicycle brake handles can cause severe, penetrating orbital and cerebral traumas that can result in vision loss or fatality. Brake handles should be designed to protect bicyclists from such injuries. PMID:27800464

  13. Case Report of a Traumatic Atlantoaxial Rotatory Subluxation with Bilateral Locked Cervical Facets: Management, Treatment, and Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Hawi, Nael; Alfke, Dirk; Liodakis, Emmanouil; Omar, Mohamed; Krettek, Christian; Müller, Christian Walter; Meller, Rupert

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to report a rare case of isolated traumatic atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation without ligamentous injury. Management consisted of analgesia, sedation, and application of a halo skull traction device. After removing halo skull traction, full reduction and recovery were achieved without instability. PMID:27190664

  14. Results of intraocular lens implantation with capsular tension ring in subluxated crystalline or cataractous lenses in children

    PubMed Central

    Das, Pranab; Ram, Jagat; Brar, Gagandeep Singh; Dogra, Mangat R

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of intraocular lens (IOL) implantation using capsular tension ring (CTR) in subluxated crystalline or cataractous lenses in children. Setting: Tertiary care setting Materials and Methods: We prospectively studied 18 eyes of 15 children with subluxation of crystalline or cataractous lenses between 90° up to 210° after phacoemulsification, CTR and IOL implantation. Each child was examined for IOL centration, zonular dehiscence and posterior capsular opacification (PCO). Results: Age of the patient ranged between five to 15 years. Out of 18 eyes, seven had traumatic and 11 had spontaneous subluxation of crystalline or cataractous lens. Phacoemulsification was successfully performed with CTR implantation in the capsular bag. Intraoperative zonular dialysis occurred in two eyes. Anterior vitrectomy was performed in six eyes to manage vitreous prolapse. IOL implanted was polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) in eight eyes, hydrophobic acrylic in seven and hydrophilic acrylic in three. Follow-up ranged from 24 months to 72 months. Sixteen eyes had a best corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or better. Nine eyes developed significant PCO and were managed with Neodymium Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser posterior capsulotomy. One eye with acrylic IOL in the capsular bag had IOL dislocation after two years which was managed with vitrectomy and secondary trans-scleral fixation of IOL. Conclusions: Phacoaspiration with CTR implantation makes capsular bag IOL fixation possible in most of the eyes with subluxated crystalline or cataractous lenses. PCO still remains a challenge in children with successful phacoaspiration with CTR implantation PMID:19861744

  15. Evaluation of Publicly Available Documents to Trace Chiropractic Technique Systems That Advocate Radiography for Subluxation Analysis: A Proposed Genealogy

    PubMed Central

    Young, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate publicly available information of chiropractic technique systems that advocate radiography for subluxation detection to identify links between chiropractic technique systems and to describe claims made of the health effects of the osseous misalignment component of the chiropractic subluxation and radiographic paradigms. Methods The Internet and publicly available documents were searched for information representing chiropractic technique systems that advocate radiography for subluxation detection. Key phrases including chiropractic, x-ray, radiography, and technique were identified from a Google search between April 2013 and March 2014. Phrases in Web sites and public documents were examined for any information about origins and potential links between these techniques, including the type of connection to BJ Palmer, who was the first chiropractor to advocate radiography for subluxation detection. Quotes were gathered to identify claims of health effects from osseous misalignment (subluxation) and paradigms of radiography. Techniques were grouped by region of the spine and how they could be traced back to B.J Palmer. A genealogy model and summary table of information on each technique were created. Patterns in year of origination and radiographic paradigms were noted, and percentages were calculated on elements of the techniques’ characteristics in comparison to the entire group. Results Twenty-three techniques were identified on the Internet: 6 full spine, 17 upper cervical, and 2 techniques generating other lineage. Most of the upper cervical techniques (14/16) traced their origins to a time when the Palmer School was teaching upper cervical technique, and all the full spine techniques (6/6) originated before or after this phase. All the technique systems’ documents attributed broad health effects to their methods. Many (21/23) of the techniques used spinal realignment on radiographs as one of their outcome

  16. Atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation as a cause of torticollis in a 5-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Bagouri, Elmunzar; Deshmukh, Sandeep; Lakshmanan, Palaniappan

    2014-05-15

    Many patients present to the emergency department complaining of a sore or stiff neck and lateral flexion of the neck with contralateral rotation. Under the pressure of the breaching time and busy shifts some of the patients are discharged to the care of their general practitioners without adequate investigations. While most of the cases are due to benign causes, torticollis can be due to many congenital and acquired pathologies, some of which may need further investigation and urgent management. Atlantoaxial subluxation (AAS), tumours of the base of the skull and infections are among these causes. Delayed diagnosis may lead to worsening neurology and complicate the management. We report a case of a 5-year-old girl who presented to our fracture clinic with a fractured clavicle and torticollis; her subsequent investigations confirmed the diagnosis of AAS. Our patient responded to non-operative treatment and improved with no neurological complications.

  17. Atlantooccipital subluxation in a neonate with Down's syndrome. Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Trumble, E R; Myseros, J S; Smoker, W R; Ward, J D; Mickell, J J

    1994-01-01

    Atlantooccipital subluxation (AOS) occurs in up to 63% of patients with Down's syndrome. However, presenting symptoms and the age at which preoperative screening becomes necessary have not been clearly delineated. Recently, a 16-day-old female with Down's syndrome and AOS presented to our institution. Following patent ductus arteriosus ligation, her neurological examination revealed trace movement, few spontaneous respirations, and left lower extremity clonus. Cervical spine radiographs revealed significant AOS. She was reduced and underwent a fusion from the occiput to C2. She gradually regained full strength and sensation. This case is the youngest example of AOS related to Down's syndrome described. It emphasizes the need for preoperative screening of all patients with Down's syndrome. PMID:7947311

  18. Irreducible ankle fracture-dislocation due to tibialis anterior subluxation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Natoli, Roman M; Summers, Hobie D

    2015-01-01

    Irreducible ankle fracture-dislocations are rare. Several cases of irreducible ankle fracture-dislocation have been reported in published studies secondary to the tibialis posterior tendon, deltoid ligament, or extensor digitorum longus tendon blocking the reduction. We report a case of irreducible ankle fracture-dislocation resulting from posteromedial subluxation of the tibialis anterior tendon around a medial malleolar fracture fragment. Ultimately, the ankle required open reduction of the incarcerated tendon to reduce the joint and proceed with internal fixation of the associated fracture. The patient's postoperative course was uncomplicated, and the tibialis anterior tendon was functioning at 10 months postoperatively, after which he did not return for follow-up examinations. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of the tibialis anterior tendon blocking closed reduction of an ankle fracture-dislocation. PMID:25618805

  19. Physical therapy management of the subluxated wrist in children with arthritis.

    PubMed

    Barden, W; Brooks, D; Ayling-Campos, A

    1995-10-01

    Arthritis commonly affects the hand and wrist in children and may contribute to loss of range of motion and force of the muscles surrounding the involved joints. The purpose of this case report is to describe a physical therapy protocol for managing a subluxated wrist in children with arthritis. Measures of range of motion and force of the wrist observed in two patients up to 2 years after the implementation of this protocol are also reported. The initial phase of the physical therapy program focused on realigning the subluxated wrist. Heat was used to manage flexor muscle tightness and increase tissue extensibility. The carpal bones were then realigned manually and supported in position with a cast for a period of 72 hours. Once alignment of the wrist was achieved, the emphasis of physical therapy was placed on increasing range of motion and force at the wrist joint through visits to the physical therapist and an extensive home program. Measurements of passive range of motion and active range of motion using a goniometer, grip forces using a modified sphygmomanometer, and peak torque of the wrist extensors using a dynamometer (measured in one patient) were recorded before and up to 2 years following the implementation of the protocol. There was an increase in wrist extension passive range of motion (35 degrees in both patients) and active range of motion (15 degrees in patient 1 and 25 degrees in patient 2) between the measurements obtained before and 1 to 2 years following the implementation of the protocol.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Influence of the application of inelastic taping on shoulder subluxation and pain changes in acute stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Heo,, Min-Yeong; Kim,, Cheol-Yong; Nam, Chan-Woo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact on the shoulder joints of performing inelastic taping and bed physical therapy for acute stroke. [Subjects and Methods] The intervention was conducted for eight weeks with an experimental group of 18 stroke patients who received bed physical therapy and inelastic taping and a control group of 18 stroke patients who received only bed physical therapy. [Results] After the intervention, the subluxation degree of the experimental group, which received bed physical therapy and inelastic taping, was found to be significantly different from that of the control group, which received only bed physical therapy. [Conclusion] In conclusion, the application of inelastic taping for acute stroke patients was confirmed to be effective at reducing shoulder subluxation and pain, and was confirmed to be a good physical therapy intervention, based on its efficacy. PMID:26696705

  1. Active and passive characteristics of muscle tone and their relationship to models of subluxation/joint dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Knutson, Gary A; Owens, Edward F

    2003-01-01

    The relationship of muscles to the causes and effects of the pathophysiologic entity referred to as chiropractic subluxation or joint dysfunction is critical. Part I of this paper reviews complexities of skeletal muscle in regards to anatomy, active and passive tone, detection of muscle tone, neurophysiology, and how muscle function fits into a variety of subluxation/joint dysfunction models. The review culminates in Part II with a hypothesis to describe and explain varying degrees of muscle tone that may be encountered clinically. It is hoped that knowledge of the differing levels of muscle tone and their causes will help the clinician to better determine the underlying cause of a neuro-musculoskeletal problem allowing application of necessary and proper intervention. Imagesp179-a

  2. Active and passive characteristics of muscle tone and their relationship to models of subluxation/joint dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Knutson, Gary A.; Owens, Edward F.

    2003-01-01

    The relationship of muscles to the causes and effects of the pathophysiologic entity referred to as chiropractic subluxation or joint dysfunction is critical. Part I of this paper reviewed the complexities of skeletal muscle in regards to anatomy, active and passive tone, detection of muscle tone, neurophysiology, and how muscle function fits into a variety of subluxation/joint dysfunction models. The concluding part of the review culminates in a hypothesis to describe and explain varying degrees of muscle tone that may be encountered clinically. It is hoped that knowledge of the differing levels of muscle tone and their causes will help the clinician to better determine the underlying cause of a neuromusculoskeletal problem allowing application of necessary and proper intervention.

  3. Peroneus Brevis Attrition & Longitudinal Split Tear without Subluxation and Associated Hypertrophy of Peronal Tubercle” – Treatment of an Uncommon Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Mukesh; Singh, Varun; Bhargava, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Peroneus brevis tendinitis with its attritional longitudinal split rupture without any subluxation from peroneal groove and associated enlarged peroneal tubercle is un common presentation. Case Report: A 40 year old female presented with moderate swelling and tenderness over the lateral and dorso-lateral aspect of left ankle with history of old trauma to ankle with swelling, persistant pain and difficulty in walking. On physical examination during passive eversion and inversion the excursion of the peroneal tendons was painful. Most tender point was just posterior to the tip of the fibula. During surgery we found the intact superior peroneal ligament with both peroneal tendons placed at normal site without subluxation, tendon sheath was inflamed and swollen, on further dissection we could see the attrition of inner surface of the peroneus brevis and a 2 cm longitudinal split tear of the same. Conclusion: Although rare but peroneus brevis tendon attrition and tear can occur without subluxation from peronal groove. Refractory ankle pain on lateral aspect presenting with on and off swelling should arise suspicion of peroneal tendon tear. Correct diagnosis and proper surgical repair can produce excellent results. PMID:27299016

  4. Otitis interna, media, and externa with destruction of the left tympanic bulla and subluxation and septic arthritis of the left temporomandibular joint in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Galvan, Noe; Middleton, John R; Cook, Cristi; Britt, Lisa G; Kuroki, Keiichi

    2013-03-01

    A 1.5-year-old, 37.7 kg, female alpaca was evaluated for a 2-week history of weight loss, left ear droop, and deviation of the rostral mandible to the right. Antemortem radiography and postmortem examination revealed otitis interna, media, and externa, destruction of the left tympanic bulla, and subluxation and septic arthritis of the left temporomandibular joint.

  5. Rotatory subluxation of the scaphoid after excision of dorsal carpal ganglion and wrist manipulation--a case report.

    PubMed

    Crawford, G P; Taleisnik, J

    1983-11-01

    Surgical excision of a ganglion on the dorsum of the wrist is usually a benign procedure. The most frequent complications are transient postoperative stiffness and recurrence of the ganglion. This paper reports the development of a rotatory subluxation of the scaphoid after the manipulation of the wrist of a patient who had developed postoperative stiffness after the surgical excision of a dorsal wrist ganglion. This unusual complication was successfully treated by closed pinning under radiographic control followed by immobilization in palmar flexion. Manipulation of the wrist for the management of postoperative stiffness is rarely, if ever, indicated. Limitation of motion of a wrist without underlying structural changes is best managed by gentle, gradual splinting, both static and dynamic. It is suggested that preoperative x-rays should be obtained as part of the routine workup for a dorsal wrist ganglion.

  6. Simultaneous Volar Dislocation of Distal Interphalangeal Joint and Volar Fracture-Subluxation of Proximal Interphalangeal Joint of Little Finger: A New Mechanism of Injury.

    PubMed

    Mozaffarian, Kamran; Bayatpour, Abdollah; Vosoughi, Amir Reza

    2016-10-01

    Simultaneous volar dislocation of distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint and volar fracture-subluxation of proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint of the same finger has not been reported yet. A 19-year-old man was referred due to pain on the deformed left little finger after a ball injury. Radiographs showed volar dislocation of the DIP joint and dorsal lip fracture of the middle phalanx with volar subluxation of PIP joint of the little finger. This case was unique in terms of the mechanism of injury which was hyperflexion type in two adjacent joints of the same finger. The patient was treated by closed reduction of DIP joint dislocation and open reduction and internal fixation of the PIP joint fracture-subluxation and application of dorsal external fixator due to instability. Finally, full flexion of the PIP joint and full extension of the DIP joint were obtained but with 10 degree extension lag at the PIP joint and DIP joint flexion ranging from 0 degree to 30 degrees. Some loss of motion in small joints of the fingers after hyperflexion injuries should be expected. PMID:27595966

  7. Simultaneous Volar Dislocation of Distal Interphalangeal Joint and Volar Fracture-Subluxation of Proximal Interphalangeal Joint of Little Finger: A New Mechanism of Injury.

    PubMed

    Mozaffarian, Kamran; Bayatpour, Abdollah; Vosoughi, Amir Reza

    2016-10-01

    Simultaneous volar dislocation of distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint and volar fracture-subluxation of proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint of the same finger has not been reported yet. A 19-year-old man was referred due to pain on the deformed left little finger after a ball injury. Radiographs showed volar dislocation of the DIP joint and dorsal lip fracture of the middle phalanx with volar subluxation of PIP joint of the little finger. This case was unique in terms of the mechanism of injury which was hyperflexion type in two adjacent joints of the same finger. The patient was treated by closed reduction of DIP joint dislocation and open reduction and internal fixation of the PIP joint fracture-subluxation and application of dorsal external fixator due to instability. Finally, full flexion of the PIP joint and full extension of the DIP joint were obtained but with 10 degree extension lag at the PIP joint and DIP joint flexion ranging from 0 degree to 30 degrees. Some loss of motion in small joints of the fingers after hyperflexion injuries should be expected.

  8. Traumatic C6-7 subluxation with anomalous course of vertebral arteries treated with pedicle screw/rod fixation. Case report.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Masashi; Koshi, Takana; Mannoji, Chikato; Okawa, Akihiko; Koda, Masao

    2007-07-01

    The authors report the case of a 62-year-old woman who suffered an accidental fall and complained of severe neck pain and right C-7 radiculopathy. A right C6-7 facet fracture-subluxation was diagnosed. Bone fragments impinged on the right C-7 nerve root at the neural foramen. The bilateral vertebral arteries (VAs) ascended at the anterior aspect of C-6 and C-5 and entered the transverse foramen at the C-4 level. Based on findings of anomalous VAs, the authors applied a pedicle screw (PS)/rod system to effect surgical correction of the deformity. Intraoperatively, they successfully performed reduction of the subluxation, decompression of the impinged nerve root, and minimum single-segment fusion involving the placement of a PS/rod system. After surgery, the patient's neurological deficit dramatically improved and spinal fusion was completed without any loss of deformity correction. Prior to surgery for cervical injuries, the possible presence of an abnormal VA course should be considered. Preoperative detection of anomalous VAs will affect decisions on the appropriate corrective surgery option in cases of cervical spine injuries. PMID:17633490

  9. Effect of tibial tuberosity advancement on cranial tibial subluxation in the feline cranial cruciate deficient stifle joint: An ex vivo experimental study.

    PubMed

    Retournard, M; Bilmont, A; Asimus, E; Palierne, S; Autefage, A

    2016-08-01

    The effects of Tibial Tuberosity Advancement (TTA) on Cranial Tibial Subluxation (CTS) and Tibial Rotation Angle (TRA) were evaluated in a model of feline Cranial Cruciate Ligament (CrCL)-deficient stifle joint. Ten hindlimbs of adult cats were used. Quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscles were simulated using cables, turnbuckles and a spring. An axial load of 30% body weight was applied. The stifle and talocrural joint angles were adjusted to 120°. Patellar tendon angle (PTA), CTS and TRA were measured radiographically before and after CrCL section, after TTA and after additional advancement by 1 and 2mm. CrCL section resulted in a CTS of 8.1±1.5mm and a TRA of 18.4±5.7 °. After TTA, PTA was significantly decreased from 99.1±1.7° to 89.1±0.7°; CTS and TRA did not change significantly (7.8±1.0mm and 15.9±5.7° respectively). Additional advancement of the tibial tuberosity by 1mm did not significantly affect CTS and TRA. Additional advancement of the tibial tuberosity by 2mm significantly reduced the PTA to 82.9±0.9°. A significant decrease of CTS (6.9±1.3mm) and TRA (14.7±3.6°) was also observed. A lack of stabilization of the CrCL deficient stifle was observed after TTA in this model of the feline stifle. Even though the validity of the model can be questioned, simple transposition of the technique of TTA from the cat to the dog appeared hazardous. PMID:27474002

  10. [Neurologic manifestations in mucopolysaccharidoses].

    PubMed

    Héron, B

    2014-06-01

    Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are progressive multisystem lysosomal storage diseases caused by defective catabolism of complex molecules, namely the glycosaminoglycans and their consequent accumulation in tissues. Of the 7 clinical types representing 11 different enzyme deficiencies, only MPS III (Sanfilippo syndromes A, B, C and D) and severe forms of MPS I (Hurler's syndrome), MPS II (severe Hunter syndrome) and MPS VII (severe Sly syndrome) give rise to progressive cerebral disease. Neurosensory complications (hearing impairment, retinopathy and optic atrophy) can also occur in some types. Carpal (or even tarsal) tunnel syndrome is a common complication of the MPS, except for MPS III and MPS IV. Hydrocephalus due to abnormal circulation or resorption of cerebrospinal fluid, chronic spinal compression may occur as complications of MPS I, II and VII and also in MPS IV and VI. Atlanto-axial instability may be observed in type IV and I. PMID:25063379

  11. Dysspondyloenchondromatosis (DSC) associated with COL2A1 mutation: Clinical and radiological overlap with spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia-Strudwick type (SEMD-S).

    PubMed

    Merrick, Blair; Calder, Alistair; Wakeling, Emma

    2015-12-01

    Dysspondyloenchondromatosis (DSC) is a rare skeletal dysplasia characterized by enchondroma-like lesions and anisospondyly. The former leads to discrepancies in limb length, and the latter, to progressive kyphoscoliosis. Two recent cases have highlighted the genetic heterogeneity of DSC, one demonstrating the presence and, the other, the absence of a COL2A1 mutation. This may have important clinical implications, for example, screening for complications including atlanto-axial instability associated with type II collagenopathies, as well as long-term patient management. We report on a case with radiographic features of DSC with overlap into the type II collagenopathy spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, Strudwick type, who was found to carry a novel heterozygous mutation in the COL2A1 gene. Testing for COL2A1 mutations should be performed in all patients with radiological features of DSC. Further research is needed to identify the underlying molecular cause in cases where no COL2A1 mutation is identified.

  12. Upper cervical instability associated with rheumatoid arthritis: what to 'know' and what to 'do'.

    PubMed

    Slater, Helen; Briggs, Andrew M; Fary, Robyn E; Chan, Madelynn

    2013-12-01

    This case report describes a patient who presented with cervical spinal pain and headaches associated with atlanto-axial subluxation (AAS) secondary to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). For physiotherapists, especially less experienced clinicians, the significant risks associated with using manual assessment and treatment techniques in such a patient require careful consideration right at the start of a consultation. The focus of the case is therefore on the recognition of AAS in this patient with RA, highlighting the clinical findings that alert clinicians to this possibility and explaining the requisite knowledge and skills required to safely and effectively manage this patient. The use of screening tools to help clinicians identify possible RA in its pre-diagnosis stage and the clinical signs and symptoms that raise the index of suspicion for AAS, are discussed. The relevant contraindications and precautions associated with manual treatments directed at the upper cervical spine, and which may have potentially serious negative consequences, including quadriplegia and mortality, are addressed. Finally, the implications for the use of manual assessment and treatment of patients with RA and co-morbid AAS are addressed.

  13. Quadriplegia in a child following adenotonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, J; Tandon, M S; Singh, D; Ganjoo, P

    2013-05-01

    Neurological deterioration in a child following routine surgery, although rare, has potentially life threatening consequences. We report the case of a child who, following adentonsillectomy, developed quadriplegia and acute respiratory distress due to previously undetected atlanto-axial instability. Patients with atlanto-axial instability often have mild or non-specific symptoms, despite severe cervical cord compression. Subtle manifestations may be ignored or attributed to other disease processes, which render patients with undiagnosed atlanto-axial instability at risk of serious neurological injury during general anaesthesia, particularly at the time of laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation. PMID:23316777

  14. EDITORIAL: Catalysing progress Catalysing progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Examples of the merits of blue-sky research in the history of science are legion. The invention of the laser, celebrating its 50th anniversary this year, is an excellent example. When it was invented it was considered to be 'a solution waiting for a problem', and yet the level to which it has now infiltrated our day-to-day technological landscape speaks volumes. At the same time it is also true to say that the direction of research is also at times rightly influenced by the needs and concerns of the general public. Over recent years, growing concerns about the environment have had a noticeable effect on research in nanotechnology, motivating work on a range of topics from green nanomaterial synthesis [1] to high-efficiency solar cells [2] and hydrogen storage [3]. The impact of the world's energy consumption on the welfare of the planet is now an enduring and well founded concern. In the face of an instinctive reluctance to curtail habits of comfort and convenience and the appendages of culture and consumerism, research into renewable and more efficient energy sources seem an encouraging approach to alleviating an impending energy crisis. Fuel cells present one alternative to traditional combustion cells that have huge benefits in terms of the efficiency of energy conversion and the limited harmful emissions. In last week's issue of Nanotechnology, Chuan-Jian Zhong and colleagues at the State University of New York at Binghamton in the USA presented an overview of research on nanostructured catalysts in fuel cells [4]. The topical review includes insights into the interactions between nanoparticles and between nanoparticles and their substrate as well as control over the composition and nanostructure of catalysts. The review also serves to highlight how the flourishing of nanotechnology research has heralded great progress in the exploitation of catalysts with nanostructures ingeniously controlled to maximize surface area and optimize energetics for synthesis

  15. EDITORIAL: Catalysing progress Catalysing progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Examples of the merits of blue-sky research in the history of science are legion. The invention of the laser, celebrating its 50th anniversary this year, is an excellent example. When it was invented it was considered to be 'a solution waiting for a problem', and yet the level to which it has now infiltrated our day-to-day technological landscape speaks volumes. At the same time it is also true to say that the direction of research is also at times rightly influenced by the needs and concerns of the general public. Over recent years, growing concerns about the environment have had a noticeable effect on research in nanotechnology, motivating work on a range of topics from green nanomaterial synthesis [1] to high-efficiency solar cells [2] and hydrogen storage [3]. The impact of the world's energy consumption on the welfare of the planet is now an enduring and well founded concern. In the face of an instinctive reluctance to curtail habits of comfort and convenience and the appendages of culture and consumerism, research into renewable and more efficient energy sources seem an encouraging approach to alleviating an impending energy crisis. Fuel cells present one alternative to traditional combustion cells that have huge benefits in terms of the efficiency of energy conversion and the limited harmful emissions. In last week's issue of Nanotechnology, Chuan-Jian Zhong and colleagues at the State University of New York at Binghamton in the USA presented an overview of research on nanostructured catalysts in fuel cells [4]. The topical review includes insights into the interactions between nanoparticles and between nanoparticles and their substrate as well as control over the composition and nanostructure of catalysts. The review also serves to highlight how the flourishing of nanotechnology research has heralded great progress in the exploitation of catalysts with nanostructures ingeniously controlled to maximize surface area and optimize energetics for synthesis

  16. Learning numerical progressions.

    PubMed

    Vitz, P C; Hazan, D N

    1974-01-01

    Learning of simple numerical progressions and compound progressions formed by combining two or three simple progressions is investigated. In two experiments, time to solution was greater for compound vs simple progressions; greater the higher the progression's solution level; and greater if the progression consisted of large vs small numbers. A set of strategies is proposed to account for progression learning based on the assumption S computes differences between integers, differences between differences, etc., in a hierarchical fashion. Two measures of progression difficulty, each a summary of the strategies, are proposed; C1 is a count of the number of differences needed to solve a progression; C2 is the same count with higher level differences given more weight. The measures accurately predict in both experiments the mean time to solve 16 different progressions with C2 being somewhat superior. The measures also predict the learning difficulty of 10 other progressions reported by Bjork (1968).

  17. Progressive Pigmentary Purpura

    MedlinePlus

    ... Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Progressive Pigmentary Purpura Share | Progressive pigmentary purpura (we will call it PPP) is a group ... conditions ( Schamberg's disease , Lichenoid dermatitis of Gourgerot-Blum, purpura annularis telangiectodes of Majocchi and Lichen aureus). Schamberg's ...

  18. Ligamentous laxity across C0-C1-C2 complex. Axial torque-rotation characteristics until failure.

    PubMed

    Goel, V K; Winterbottom, J M; Schulte, K R; Chang, H; Gilbertson, L G; Pudgil, A G; Gwon, J K

    1990-10-01

    The axial torque until failure of the ligamentous occipito-atlanto-axial complex (C0-C1-C2) subjected to axial angular rotation (theta) was characterized using a biaxial MTS system. A special fixture and gearbox that permitted right axial rotation of the specimen until failure without imposing any additional constraints were designed to obtain the data. The average values for the axial rotation and torque at the point of maximum resistance were, respectively, 68.1 degrees and 13.6 N-m. The specimens offered minimal resistance (approximately 0.5 N-m), up to an average axial rotation of 21 degrees across the complex. The torque-angular rotation (T-theta) curve can be divided into four regions: regions of least and steadily increasing resistances, a transition zone that connects these two regions, and the increasing resistance region to the point of maximum resistance. The regions of least and steadily increasing resistances may be represented by two straight lines with average slopes of 0.028 and 0.383 N-m/degree, respectively. Post-test dissection of the specimens disclosed the following. The point of maximum resistance corresponded roughly to the value of axial rotation at which complete bilateral rotary dislocation of the C1-C2 facets occurred. The types of injuries observed were related to the magnitude of axial rotation imposed on a specimen during testing. Soft-tissue injuries alone (like stretch/rupture of the capsular ligaments, subluxation of the C1-C2 facets, etc.) were confined to specimens rotated up to or close to the point of maximum resistance. The specimens that were subjected to rotations up to the point of maximum resistance of the curve spontaneously reduced completely on removal from the testing apparatus. Spontaneous reduction was not possible for specimens tested slightly beyond their points of maximum resistance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Progress in renewables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San Martin, R. L.

    This is a status report on progress made in the conduct of eleven Federally-supported renewable energy programs. Considerable progress has been made in the establishment and development of an infrastructure to support sustained growth. Unique technical problems led to the research and development of materials and designs which have achieved energy conversion efficiencies of up to 25% for electricity and 92% for heat in solar thermal systems. Overall, enough real progress has been made to provide a sound technology base upon which renewable energy systems industries can reasonably continue development.

  20. Rapidly Progressive Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Geschwind, Michael D.; Shu, Huidy; Haman, Aissa; Sejvar, James J.; Miller, Bruce L.

    2009-01-01

    In contrast with more common dementing conditions that typically develop over years, rapidly progressive dementias can develop subacutely over months, weeks, or even days and be quickly fatal. Because many rapidly progressive dementias are treatable, it is paramount to evaluate and diagnose these patients quickly. This review summarizes recent advances in the understanding of the major categories of RPD and outlines efficient approaches to the diagnosis of the various neurodegenerative, toxic-metabolic, infectious, autoimmune, neoplastic, and other conditions that may progress rapidly. PMID:18668637

  1. Progress and promise.

    PubMed

    Kamphaus, Randy W

    2012-12-01

    This editorial introduces the current issue of the journal School Psychology Quarterly (SPQ).There has been an impressive and promising progress of school psychology science has been reflected in every issue of SPQ, including the current one.

  2. Progressive hemifacial atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Sande, Abhijeet; Risbud, Mukund; Kshar, Avinash; Paranjpe, Arati Oka

    2013-01-01

    Progressive hemifacial atrophy, also known as Parry-Romberg Syndrome, is an uncommon degenerative and poorly understood condition. It is characterized by a slow and progressive but self-limited atrophy affecting one side of the face. The incidence and the cause of this alteration are unknown. A cerebral disturbance of fat metabolism has been proposed as a primary cause. Possible factors that are involved in the pathogenesis include trauma, viral infections, heredity, endocrine disturbances and auto-immunity. The most common complications that appear in association to this disorder are: trigeminal neuralgia, facial paresthesia, severe headache and epilepsy. Characteristically, the atrophy progresses slowly for several years and, it becomes stable. The objective of this work is, through the presentation of a clinical case, to accomplish a literature review concerning general characteristics, etiology, physiopathology and treatment of progressive hemifacial atrophy. PMID:23878573

  3. Orion Progress - Spring 2010

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA and contractor teams are designing, building and testing the next generation human spacecraft Orion. Progress on Orion is highlighted by employees working on the project, along with video of t...

  4. Comparison of spectacle classical progressive and office progressive lenses.

    PubMed

    Kozlík, Marek; Knollová, Libuse Nováková

    2013-04-01

    This paper elaborates on analysis of progressive spectacle lenses, to correct presbyopia, which are nowadays offered at the market. The paper describes different types of progressive lenses, their parameters, length and width of their progressive segments. It also describes degressive spectacles lenses--progressive lenses on middle and near distance. The main part of the paper is a comparison of functional differences among different types of progressive spectacles lenses. The paper also addresses correctness of choice of progressive lenses for different works and professions. Lastly, it elaborates on differences of centration of different types of progressive lenses and parameters for correct choice of glasses frame for progressive spectacles lenses. PMID:23837232

  5. [Progressive visual agnosia].

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Azusa; Futamura, Akinori; Kawamura, Mitsuru

    2011-10-01

    Progressive visual agnosia was discovered in the 20th century following the discovery of classical non-progressive visual agnosia. In contrast to the classical type, which is caused by cerebral vascular disease or traumatic injury, progressive visual agnosia is a symptom of neurological degeneration. The condition of progressive visual loss, including visual agnosia, and posterior cerebral atrophy was named posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) by Benson et al. (1988). Progressive visual agnosia is also observed in semantic dementia (SD) and other degenerative diseases, but there is a difference in the subtype of visual agnosia associated with these diseases. Lissauer (1890) classified visual agnosia into apperceptive and associative types, and it in most cases, PCA is associated with the apperceptive type. However, SD patients exhibit symptoms of associative visual agnosia before changing to those of semantic memory disorder. Insights into progressive visual agnosia have helped us understand the visual system and discover how we "perceive" the outer world neuronally, with regard to consciousness. Although PCA is a type of atypical dementia, its diagnosis is important to enable patients to live better lives with appropriate functional support.

  6. Progressive multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ontaneda, Daniel; Fox, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose to Review To highlight the pathological features and clinical aspects of progressive multiple sclerosis (PMS). To highlight results of clinical trial experience to date and review ongoing clinical trials and perspective new treatment options. Explain the challenges of clinical trial design in PMS. Recent Findings MS has been identified as a chronic immune mediated disease, and the progressive phase of the disease appears to have significant neurodegenerative mechanisms. The classification of the course of PMS has been re-organized into categories of active vs. inactive inflammatory disease and the presence vs. absence of gradual disease progression. This differentiation allows clearer conceptualization of PMS and possibly even more efficient recruitment of PMS subjects into clinical trials. Clinical trial experience to date in PMS has been negative with anti-inflammatory medications used in relapsing MS. Simvastatin was recently tested in a phase II trial and showed a 43% reduction on annualized atrophy progression in secondary progressive MS. Ongoing PMS trials are currently being conducted with the phosphodiesterase inhibitor ibudilast, S1P modulator siponimod, and anti-B-cell therapy ocrelizumab. Several efforts for development of outcome measures in PMS are ongoing. Summary PMS represents a significant challenge, as the pathogenesis of the disease is not well understood, no validated outcome metrics have been established, and clinical trial experience to date has been disappointing. Advances in the understanding of the disease and lessons learned in previous clinical trials are paving the way for successful development of disease modifying agents for this disease. PMID:25887766

  7. A prospective study of the radiological changes in the cervical spine in early rheumatoid disease.

    PubMed Central

    Winfield, J; Cooke, D; Brook, A S; Corbett, M

    1981-01-01

    The cervical spine radiographs of 100 patients with early rheumatoid disease were studied annually, on a prospective basis, for a mean follow-up period of 7 years 2 months. Atlantoaxial subluxation developed in 12 patients. The subluxation was more frequent in females, more severe in patients with progressive, seropositive, erosive rheumatoid disease, and more marked in patients treated with oral corticosteroids. Subaxial subluxation, affecting upper cervical disc levels, occurred in a further 20 patients. Three patients developed vertical subluxation. The mobility of the cervical spine affects the degree of subluxation achieved, and when assessing serial films for subluxation it may be necessary to measure the cervical spine flexion before deciding whether subluxation has progressed or not. Over 80% of the patients with subluxation developed the first evidence of subluxation within 2 years of disease onset. Subluxation in the cervical spine is not, therefore, a late complication of rheumatoid disease. During the follow-up period none of the patients developed neurological signs. PMID:7224682

  8. Pesticide reregistration progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The report is produced by the Special Review and Reregistration Division (SRRD), Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), on progress towards pesticide reregistration as mandated under 1988 amendments to the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act. The report shows the status of reregistration through the first quarter of the 1993 fiscal year. SRRD is in the process of re-evaluating the format and information in the Progress Report, as a result of the October 1992 Customer Survey sent to the recipients of the report. Results of the survey will be incorporated in the April 1993 issue of the report.

  9. Atlantoaxial subluxation and nasopharyngeal necrosis complicating suspected granulomatosis with polyangiitis.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Anand; Holekamp, Terrence F; Diaz, Jason A; Zebala, Lukas; Brasington, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Granulomatosis polyangiitis (GPA, formerly Wegener granulomatosis) is a vasculitis that typically involves the upper respiratory tract, lungs, and kidneys. The 2 established methods to confirm a suspicion of GPA are the antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) test and biopsy. However, ANCA-negative cases have been known to occur, and it can be difficult to find biopsy evidence of granulomatous disease.We report a case of suspected granulomatosis with polyangiitis limited to the nasopharynx. With a negative ANCA and no histological evidence, our diagnosis was founded on the exclusion of other diagnoses and the response to cyclophosphamide therapy. This case is unique because the patient's lesion resulted in atlantoaxial instability, which required a posterior spinal fusion at C1-C2. This is the first reported case of suspected GPA producing damage to the cervical spine and threatening the spinal cord. PMID:25807096

  10. 1992 PVUSA progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Ellyn, W.

    1992-12-31

    Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA) is a national public-private partnership that is assessing and demonstrating the viability of utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) electric generating systems. This report updates the progress of the PVUSA project, reviews the status and performance of the various PV installations during 1992, and summarizes key accomplishments and conclusions from work to date.

  11. Opportunities and progress.

    PubMed

    Litchfield, John H

    2014-01-01

    In this review, I cover my professional experiences in food science and technology and related areas of applied and industrial microbiology over the span of my career. It emphasizes opportunities and technological problems that I encountered together with my progress in follow-up development of products and processes. PMID:24580071

  12. Basic Measures of Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calkins, Julia; Ling, Thomson; Moore, Eric; Halle, Tamara; Hair, Beth; Moore, Kris; Zaslow, Marty

    This document provides a compilation of measures of progress toward school readiness and three contributing conditions as used in several local, state, and national surveys. The report begins with a legend listing the surveys examined, their acronyms, and contact information. The remainder of the report, in tabular format, lists measures of…

  13. Mystery in Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Kristen

    1989-01-01

    Describes "Mystery in Progress," a traveling exhibit which traces the development of Predynastic Egypt. The exhibit provides a time line for Predynastic Egypt, depicts the history of the Hierakonpolis expedition, documents the formation of Egypt's first centralized nation state, and summarizes the emergence of a unified Egypt. (LS)

  14. Learning Progressions & Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Joyce M.; de los Santos, Elizabeth X.; Anderson, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    Our society is currently having serious debates about sources of energy and global climate change. But do students (and the public) have the requisite knowledge to engage these issues as informed citizenry? The learning-progression research summarized here indicates that only 10% of high school students typically have a level of understanding…

  15. MCNP Progress & Performance Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Forrest B.; Bull, Jeffrey S.; Rising, Michael Evan

    2015-04-14

    Twenty-eight slides give information about the work of the US DOE/NNSA Nuclear Criticality Safety Program on MCNP6 under the following headings: MCNP6.1.1 Release, with ENDF/B-VII.1; Verification/Validation; User Support & Training; Performance Improvements; and Work in Progress. Whisper methodology will be incorporated into the code, and run speed should be increased.

  16. Progressive Response Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romero, V. J.; Swiler, L. P.

    2004-01-01

    Response surface functions are often used as simple and inexpensive replacements for computationally expensive computer models that simulate the behavior of a complex system over some parameter space. Progressive response surfaces are ones that are built up progressively as global information is added from new sample points in the parameter space. As the response surfaces are globally upgraded based on new information, heuristic indications of the convergence of the response surface approximation to the exact (fitted) function can be inferred. Sampling points can be incrementally added in a structured fashion, or in an unstructured fashion. Whatever the approach, at least in early stages of sampling it is usually desirable to sample the entire parameter space uniformly. At later stages of sampling, depending on the nature of the quantity being resolved, it may be desirable to continue sampling uniformly over the entire parameter space (Progressive response surfaces), or to switch to a focusing/economizing strategy of preferentially sampling certain regions of the parameter space based on information gained in early stages of sampling (Adaptive response surfaces). Here we consider Progressive response surfaces where a balanced indication of global response over the parameter space is desired.We use a variant of Moving Least Squares to fit and interpolate structured and unstructured point sets over the parameter space. On a 2-D test problem we compare response surface accuracy for three incremental sampling methods: Progressive Lattice Sampling; Simple-Random Monte Carlo; and Halton Quasi-Monte-Carlo sequences. We are ultimately after a system for constructing efficiently upgradable response surface approximations with reliable error estimates.

  17. Progressive cone dystrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Ripps, H; Noble, K G; Greenstein, V C; Siegel, I M; Carr, R E

    1987-01-01

    Psychophysical, reflectometric, and electrophysiological studies were performed on four members of a dominant pedigree with progressive cone dystrophy. The two youngest individuals were asymptomatic at the initial examination, and none of the subjects complained of problems associated with night vision. Absent or grossly reduced cone-mediated ERG responses revealed the widespread loss of cone function. Moderate elevations (1 log unit) in absolute threshold together with reductions in rhodopsin levels in the midperipheral retina provided evidence of a mild impairment of the rod system also, although not to the degree seen in a cone-rod dystrophy. The progressive nature of the disease was apparent from the case histories and the changes in visual performance that occurred on re-test after a 5-year interval. Likewise, the results of incremental threshold measurements at several retinal loci suggested that peripheral cones may be affected earlier and more severely than those in the central retina. PMID:3502298

  18. Progressive compressive imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evladov, Sergei; Levi, Ofer; Stern, Adrian

    2012-06-01

    We have designed and built a working automatic progressive sampling imaging system based on the vector sensor concept, which utilizes a unique sampling scheme of Radon projections. This sampling scheme makes it possible to progressively add information resulting in tradeoff between compression and the quality of reconstruction. The uniqueness of our sampling is that in any moment of the acquisition process the reconstruction can produce a reasonable version of the image. The advantage of the gradual addition of the samples is seen when the sparsity rate of the object is unknown, and thus the number of needed measurements. We have developed the iterative algorithm OSO (Ordered Sets Optimization) which employs our sampling scheme for creation of nearly uniform distributed sets of samples, which allows the reconstruction of Mega-Pixel images. We present the good quality reconstruction from compressed data ratios of 1:20.

  19. Progress in Scientific Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N

    2004-11-15

    Visualization of observed data or simulation output is important to science and engineering. I have been particularly interested in visualizing 3-D structures, and report here my personal impressions on progress in the last 20 years in visualizing molecules, scalar fields, and vector fields and their associated flows. I have tried to keep the survey and list of references manageable, so apologize to those authors whose techniques I have not mentioned, or have described without a reference citation.

  20. COSMIC monthly progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Activities of the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) are summarized for the month of January 1994. Tables showing the current inventory of programs available from COSMIC are presented and program processing and evaluation activities are discussed. Marketing and customer service activities in this period are presented as is the progress report of NASTRAN maintenance and support. Tables of disseminations and budget summary conclude the report.

  1. ISABELLE: a progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses the ISABELLE project, which has the objective of constructing a high-energy proton colliding beam facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The major technical features of the intersecting storage accelerators with their projected performance are described. Application of over 1000 superconducting magnets in the two rings represents the salient characteristic of the machine. The status of the entire project, the technical progress made so far, and difficulties encountered are reviewed.

  2. Progression of myopia.

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, R H

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Myopia is an important public health problem because it is common and is associated with increased risk for chorioretinal degeneration, retinal detachment, and other vision-threatening abnormalities. In animals, ocular elongation and myopia progression can be lessened with atropine treatment. This study provides information about progression of myopia and atropine therapy for myopia in humans. METHODS: A total of 214 residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota (118 girls and 96 boys; median age, 11 years; range, 6 to 15 years) received atropine for myopia from 1967 through 1974. Control subjects were matched by age, sex, refractive error, and date of baseline examination to 194 of those receiving atropine. Duration of treatment with atropine ranged from 18 weeks to 11.5 years (median 3.5 years). RESULTS: Median follow-up from initial to last refraction in the atropine group (11.7 years) was similar to that in the control group (12.4 years). Photophobia and blurred vision were frequently reported, but no serious adverse effects were associated with atropine therapy. Mean myopia progression during atropine treatment adjusted for age and refractive error (0.05 diopters per year) was significantly less than that among control subjects (0.36 diopters per year) (P < .001). Final refractions standardized to the age of 20 years showed a greater mean level of myopia in the control group (3.78 diopters) than in the atropine group (2.79 diopters) (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The data support the view that atropine therapy is associated with decreased progression of myopia and that beneficial effects remain after treatment has been discontinued. PMID:8719698

  3. Radiologic comparison of erosive polyarthritis with prominent interphalangeal involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, R.H.; Bassett, L.W.; Theros, E.G.

    1982-05-01

    Psoriatic arthritis, Reiter's disease, and multicentric reticulohistiocytosis may manifest prominent interphalangeal joint and cutaneous involvement. All three disorders may also affect the sacroiliac joints and spine. Despite these similarities, there are basic radiologic differences enabling distinction between the three disorders. Erosive osteoarthritis must also be considered in the differential diagnosis of interphalangeal erosive arthritis. Psoriatic erosions are characteristically ill defined, often bilaterally asymmetrical, usually unaccompanied by significant osteoporosis, and frequently associated with florid proliferation of subperiosteal new bone. An unilateral polyarticular pattern, which often occurs in a single ray, is the most prevalent of several patterns of involvement. Reiter's disease exhibits many clinical and radiologic similarities to psoriatic arthritis, but in the former there tends to be selective involvement of the joints of the lower limbs and particularly the feet, with relative sparing of the hands and wrists, while in the latter the joints of the upper and lower limbs tend to be involved to an equal extent. Multicentric reticulohistiocytosis (MR). Lesions predominate in skin and synovium and result in sharply circumscribed, rapidly progressive, strikingly bilaterally symmetrical erosions spreading from joint margins to articular surfaces. Most or all of the diarthrodial joints may be affected, but interphalangeal joint predominance and early and severe atlanto-axial involvement are characteristic. Erosive osteoarthritis is characterized by interphalangeal subchondral erosions, accompanying periosteal new bone that is more subtle than that of psoriatic arthritis, and interphalangeal bony ankylosis that occurs with the same frequency as that of psoriatic arthritis.

  4. Dystrophic calcinosis with both a huge calcified mass in the cervical spine and calcification in the chest wall in a patient with rheumatoid overlap syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tadashi; Hirakawa, Kei; Takaoka, Hirokazu; Iyama, Ken-Ichi

    2016-05-01

    Dystrophic calcinosis in soft tissue occurs in damaged or devitalized tissues in the presence of normal calcium and phosphorous metabolism. It is often noted in subcutaneous tissues in patients with collagen vascular diseases and may involve a relatively localized area or be widespread. A 74-year-old Japanese woman with an overlap of rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren's syndrome, and systemic sclerosis developed a huge tumor-like mass at the atlanto-axial vertebral joint region that caused severe cervical pain and difficulty in activities of daily living. She also had subcutaneous dystrophic calcification in the soft tissue of the chest wall. Calcinosis associated with systemic sclerosis is a well-recognized phenomenon, but a destructive paraspinal tumor in the cervical spine associated with overlap syndrome is extremely unique. Because calcinosis in spinal locations can be complicated by neurological involvement, patients with progressive symptoms may require surgical intervention. Surgical resection and biological therapy improved this patient's life and activities of daily living. Calcinosis is common in the conditions reviewed here, and different agents have been used for treatment. However, calcinosis management is poorly organized and lacks an accepted classification, systematic studies, and clinical therapeutic trials. The association of calcinosis and collagen vascular diseases is clinically and etiologically important. Although a combination of calcinosis and rheumatoid overlap syndrome is rare, various collagen vascular diseases may occur simultaneously. A perceptive diagnostic approach toward these diseases is critical, and early diagnosis and treatment are needed to prevent dystrophic calcinosis.

  5. Primary-Progressive MS (PPMS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... MS? Types of MS Primary progressive MS (PPMS) Primary progressive MS (PPMS) Share Smaller Text Larger Text Print In this article Overview PPMS is characterized by worsening neurologic function ( ...

  6. Progressive failure of structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khozeimeh, K.; Toridis, G. T. G.; Zanganeh, S. E.

    1978-01-01

    A procedure is presented for determining the nonlinear behavior of structures subjected to extreme loading and the possibility of development of potential for progressive failure. The methodology takes into account the effect of both material and geometric nonlinearities. At a given stage of analysis, the individual components of the structure are checked against predetermined failure criteria. Subsequently, the failing components are removed and the modified structure is analyzed for overall failure. Examples, obtained from a computer program based on the proposed procedure, showing the applicability of the method are presented.

  7. Progress in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Galimberti, Daniela; Scarpini, Elio

    2012-02-01

    After more than one century from Alois Alzheimer and Gaetano Perusini's first report, progress has been made in understanding the pathogenic steps of Alzheimer's disease (AD), as well as in its early diagnosis. This review discusses recent findings leading to the formulation of novel criteria for diagnosis of the disease even in a preclinical phase, by using biological markers. In addition, treatment options will be discussed, with emphasis on new disease-modifying compounds and future trial design suitable to test these drugs in an early phase of the disease.

  8. MEIC Design Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y; Douglas, D; Hutton, A; Krafft, G A; Li, R; Lin, F; Morozov, V S; Nissen, E W; Pilat, F C; Satogata, T; Tennant, C; Terzic, B; Yunn, C; Barber, D P; Filatov, Y; Hyde, C; Kondratenko, A M; Manikonda, S L; Ostroumov, P N; Sullivan, M K

    2012-07-01

    This paper will report the recent progress in the conceptual design of MEIC, a high luminosity medium energy polarized ring-ring electron-ion collider at Jefferson lab. The topics and achievements that will be covered are design of the ion large booster and the ERL-circulator-ring-based electron cooling facility, optimization of chromatic corrections and dynamic aperture studies, schemes and tracking simulations of lepton and ion polarization in the figure-8 collider ring, and the beam-beam and electron cooling simulations. A proposal of a test facility for the MEIC electron cooler will also be discussed.

  9. Conceptions of Progress: How Is Progress Perceived? Mainstream versus Alternative Conceptions of Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Itay, Anat

    2009-01-01

    Progress is a powerful political concept, encompassing different and sometimes contradictory conceptions. This paper examines the results of a survey on progress conducted at the OECD World Forum entitled "Measuring and Fostering the Progress of Societies" held in Istanbul in June 2007. First, a distinction is drawn between the two approaches to…

  10. Tumour progression and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Arvelo, Francisco; Sojo, Felipe; Cotte, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The two biological mechanisms that determine types of malignancy are infiltration and metastasis, for which tumour microenvironment plays a key role in developing and establishing the morphology, growth and invasiveness of a malignancy. The microenvironment is formed by complex tissue containing the extracellular matrix, tumour and non-tumour cells, a signalling network of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and proteases that control autocrine and paracrine communication among individual cells, facilitating tumour progression. During the development of the primary tumour, the tumour stroma and continuous genetic changes within the cells makes it possible for them to migrate, having to count on a pre-metastatic niche receptor that allows the tumour’s survival and distant growth. These niches are induced by factors produced by the primary tumour; if it is eradicated, the active niches become responsible for activating the latent disseminated cells. Due to the importance of these mechanisms, the strategies that develop tumour cells during tumour progression and the way in which the microenvironment influences the formation of metastasis are reviewed. It also suggests that the metastatic niche can be an ideal target for new treatments that make controlling metastasis possible. PMID:26913068

  11. Tumour progression and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Arvelo, Francisco; Sojo, Felipe; Cotte, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The two biological mechanisms that determine types of malignancy are infiltration and metastasis, for which tumour microenvironment plays a key role in developing and establishing the morphology, growth and invasiveness of a malignancy. The microenvironment is formed by complex tissue containing the extracellular matrix, tumour and non-tumour cells, a signalling network of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and proteases that control autocrine and paracrine communication among individual cells, facilitating tumour progression. During the development of the primary tumour, the tumour stroma and continuous genetic changes within the cells makes it possible for them to migrate, having to count on a pre-metastatic niche receptor that allows the tumour's survival and distant growth. These niches are induced by factors produced by the primary tumour; if it is eradicated, the active niches become responsible for activating the latent disseminated cells. Due to the importance of these mechanisms, the strategies that develop tumour cells during tumour progression and the way in which the microenvironment influences the formation of metastasis are reviewed. It also suggests that the metastatic niche can be an ideal target for new treatments that make controlling metastasis possible.

  12. Rapidly Progressive Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Geschwind, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of Review This article presents a practical and informative approach to the evaluation of a patient with a rapidly progressive dementia (RPD). Recent Findings Prion diseases are the prototypical causes of RPD, but reversible causes of RPD might mimic prion disease and should always be considered in a differential diagnosis. Aside from prion diseases, the most common causes of RPD are atypical presentations of other neurodegenerative disorders, curable disorders including autoimmune encephalopathies, as well as some infections, and neoplasms. Numerous recent case reports suggest dural arterial venous fistulas sometimes cause RPDs. Summary RPDs, in which patients typically develop dementia over weeks to months, require an alternative differential than the slowly progressive dementias that occur over a few years. Because of their rapid decline, patients with RPDs necessitate urgent evaluation and often require an extensive workup, typically with multiple tests being sent or performed concurrently. Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease, perhaps the prototypical RPD, is often the first diagnosis many neurologists consider when treating a patient with rapid cognitive decline. Many conditions other than prion disease, however, including numerous reversible or curable conditions, can present as an RPD. This chapter discusses some of the major etiologies for RPDs and offers an algorithm for diagnosis. PMID:27042906

  13. Progressive myoclonus epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Girard, Jean-Marie; Turnbull, Julie; Ramachandran, Nivetha; Minassian, Berge A

    2013-01-01

    The progressive myoclonus epilepsies (PMEs) consist of a group of diseases with myoclonic seizures and progressive neurodegeneration, with onset in childhood and/or adolescence. Lafora disease is a neuronal glycogenosis in which normal glycogen is transformed into starch-like polyglucosans that accumulate in the neuronal somatodendritic compartment. It is caused by defects of two genes of yet unknown function, one encoding a glycogen phosphatase (laforin) and the other an ubiquitin E3 ligase (malin). Early cognitive deterioration, visual seizures affecting over half, and slowing down of EEG basic activity are three major diagnostic clues. Unverricht-Lundborg disease is presently thought to be due to damage to neurons by lysosomal cathepsins and reactive oxygen species due to absence of cystatin B, a small protein that inactivates cathepsins and, by ways yet unknown, quenches damaging redox compounds. Preserved cognition and background EEG activity, action myoclonus early morning and vertex spikes in REM sleep are the diagnostic clues. Sialidosis, with cherry-red spot, neuronopathic Gaucher disease, with paralysis of verticality, and ataxia-PME, with ataxia at onset in the middle of the first decade, are also lysosomal diseases. How the lysosomal defect culminates in myoclonus and epilepsy in these conditions remains unknown. PMID:23622396

  14. The Progressive Era.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    The American College of Dentists was founded in 1920 for the purpose of encouraging young dentists to continue study and to apply science to their practices. This ideal emerged in the Progressive Era, which lasted roughly from 1895 to 1920. The animating spirit of this period was that the human condition could be improved and that the way to achieve this was through science and the use of experts working together. The Progressive Era saw inventions, such as automobiles and airplanes, telephone and radio, that required mass production and brought people together. It also spawned many political and legislative innovations that we now take for granted. Among these are the Food and Drug Administration, the Department of Commerce, and the Federal Trade Commission. Workers' compensation and other social protections were introduced, as were city commissions; the income tax; women's suffrage; and initiative, referendum, and recall. Medicine, for the first time, became an effective way to treat disease as it developed a scientific foundation. PMID:16350929

  15. Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Adang, Laura; Berger, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a devastating demyelinating disease with significant morbidity and mortality and no effective, targeted therapies. It is most often observed in association with abnormalities of cell-mediated immunity, in particular human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, but also occurs in association with lymphoproliferative diseases, certain immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory regimens, and other conditions. The etiologic agent of PML is a small, ubiquitous polyomavirus, the JC virus (JCV, also known as JCPyV), for which at least 50% of the adult general population is seropositive. PML results when JCV replicates within cerebral oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, leading to oligodendrocyte death and demyelination. Unfortunately, no treatments have been convincingly demonstrated to be effective, though some have been employed in desperation; treatment otherwise includes attempts to restore any immune system defect, such as the withdrawal of the causative agent if possible, and general supportive care. PMID:26918152

  16. Progressing batch hydrolysis process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, J.D.

    1985-01-10

    A progressive batch hydrolysis process is disclosed for producing sugar from a lignocellulosic feedstock. It comprises passing a stream of dilute acid serially through a plurality of percolation hydrolysis reactors charged with feed stock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the cellulose component of the feed stock to glucose. The cooled dilute acid stream containing glucose, after exiting the last percolation hydrolysis reactor, serially fed through a plurality of pre-hydrolysis percolation reactors, charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the hemicellulose component of said feedstock to glucose. The dilute acid stream containing glucose is cooled after it exits the last prehydrolysis reactor.

  17. Progressing batch hydrolysis process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, John D.

    1986-01-01

    A progressive batch hydrolysis process for producing sugar from a lignocellulosic feedstock, comprising passing a stream of dilute acid serially through a plurality of percolation hydrolysis reactors charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the cellulose component of the feedstock to glucose; cooling said dilute acid stream containing glucose, after exiting the last percolation hydrolysis reactor, then feeding said dilute acid stream serially through a plurality of prehydrolysis percolation reactors, charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the hemicellulose component of said feedstock to glucose; and cooling the dilute acid stream containing glucose after it exits the last prehydrolysis reactor.

  18. Progress in Stockholm talks

    SciTech Connect

    Borawski, J.

    1986-02-01

    Public interest focuses on whether the superpowers will eventually agree to reduce their strategic nuclear arsenals by 50% or better, and on whether Star Wars should be bargained away or preserved at all costs. Yet progress in arms control quietly proceeded in Stockholm at the multilateral Conference on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures and Disarmament in Europe (CDE), convened on January 17, 1984. The Conference examined ways to reduce the risks of war, but not arbitrarily lowering weapons levels or restricting the deployment of certain systems. Rather, the goal is to lower these risks by clarifying politico-military intentions and regulating the uses of military activities by means of confidence- and security-building measures. Through information exchange, observation, and inspection, along with operational restraints on military activities, these measure seek to diminish the opportunities for wars to start by surprise attack, miscalculation, or accident, and to inhibit the threat or indirect use of force for political intimidation. 2 references.

  19. Progress toward synthetic cells.

    PubMed

    Blain, J Craig; Szostak, Jack W

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of even the simplest known life forms makes efforts to synthesize living cells from inanimate components seem like a daunting task. However, recent progress toward the creation of synthetic cells, ranging from simple protocells to artificial cells approaching the complexity of bacteria, suggests that the synthesis of life is now a realistic goal. Protocell research, fueled by advances in the biophysics of primitive membranes and the chemistry of nucleic acid replication, is providing new insights into the origin of cellular life. Parallel efforts to construct more complex artificial cells, incorporating translational machinery and protein enzymes, are providing information about the requirements for protein-based life. We discuss recent advances and remaining challenges in the synthesis of artificial cells, the possibility of creating new forms of life distinct from existing biology, and the promise of this research for gaining a deeper understanding of the nature of living systems. PMID:24606140

  20. 1992 PVUSA progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA) is a national public-private partnership that is assessing and demonstrating the viability of utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) electric generating systems. This report updates the progress of the PVUSA project, reviews the status and performance of the various PV installations during 1992, and summarizes key accomplishments and conclusions from work to date. Fall PV module costs and rising environmental pressures could make PV a significant source of large-scale power within the next decade. However, utility acceptance of this technology requires knowledge of PV operational characteristics in a utility system and confidence in predicting PV performance, reliability, and economics. PVUSA consists of two types of demonstrations: Emerging Module Technologies (EMTs), which are unproven but promising state-of-the-art PV technologies in 20-kW (nominal) arrays; and Utility Scale (US) systems, which represent more mature PV technologies in 200- to 500-kW (nominal) turnkey systems.

  1. Indochinese power progress

    SciTech Connect

    Hennagir, T.

    1995-07-01

    Fifty years ago, U.S. engineers, fresh with the new-found success of building North America`s landmark dam projects, first considered building a series of multipurpose hydro-electric dams along the ancient Southeast Asian Mekong River descending from Tibet`s snowy plateau to the warm waters of the South China Sea. Recent transmission interconnection agreements such as those between Laos and Thailand and the incorporation of international partnering agreements for power project development are helping to reshape electric industry relationships throughout the region of the Mekong. Former economic pragmatism is being rapidly replaced by a general movement toward positive market forces. Progress continues as international players bring a varied assortment of financial packages and models to the project development table.

  2. Progress in palaeotsunami research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, James; Chagué-Goff, Catherine; Nichol, Scott; Jaffe, Bruce; Dominey-Howes, Dale

    2012-01-01

    The study of palaeotsunamis preserved in the sedimentary record has developed over the past three decades to a point where the criteria used to identify these events range from well-tested and accepted to new methods yet to receive wide application. In this paper we review progress with the development of these criteria and identify opportunities for refinements and for extending their application to new settings. The emphasis here is on promoting the use of multiple proxies, selected to best match the context of the site or region of interest. Ultimately, this requires that palaeotsunami research must be a multidisciplinary endeavour and indeed, extend beyond the geological sciences of sedimentology and stratigraphy and, to include knowledge and approaches from field such as archaeology, anthropology and sociology. We also argue that in some instances, despite the use of multiple proxies, the evidence for tsunami inundation of a coast simply may not be preserved.

  3. Progress and Potential

    PubMed Central

    Haspel, Richard L.; Olsen, Randall J.; Berry, Anna; Hill, Charles E.; Pfeifer, John D.; Schrijver, Iris; Kaul, Karen L.

    2014-01-01

    Context Genomic medicine is revolutionizing patient care. Physicians in areas as diverse as oncology, obstetrics, and infectious disease have begun using next-generation sequencing assays as standard diagnostic tools. Objective To review the role of pathologists in genomic testing as well as current educational programs and future training needs in genomic pathology. Data Sources Published literature as well as personal experience based on committee membership and genomic pathology curricular design. Conclusion Pathologists, as the directors of the clinical laboratories, must be prepared to integrate genomic testing into their practice. The pathology community has made significant progress in genomics-related education. A continued coordinated and proactive effort will ensure a future vital role for pathologists in the evolving health care system and also the best possible patient care. PMID:24678680

  4. Rapidly progressive silicon nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Bolton, W K; Suratt, P M; Strugill, B C

    1981-11-01

    Rapidly progressive renal failure developed in four patients with silica exposure. Three presented with manifestations of a connective tissue disorders. All had abnormal proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia and active urinary sediments. Histologically, a distinct constellation of findings was present, consisting of glomerular hypercellularity and sclerosis, crescents, interstitial cellular infiltrates and tubular necrosis with red cell casts as seen on light microscopy. On electron microscopy there was foot process obliteration, characteristic cytoplasmic dense lysosomes, microtubules and dense deposits. Despite vigorous treatment, two patients died of the systemic illness and one is on hemodialysis. The fourth is improved after pulse methylprednisolone therapy. We propose that silica induced this multisystem disease through activation of the immune system and a direct tissue toxic effect.

  5. Progressive Band Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Kevin; Chang, Chein-I

    2009-01-01

    Progressive band selection (PBS) reduces spectral redundancy without significant loss of information, thereby reducing hyperspectral image data volume and processing time. Used onboard a spacecraft, it can also reduce image downlink time. PBS prioritizes an image's spectral bands according to priority scores that measure their significance to a specific application. Then it uses one of three methods to select an appropriate number of the most useful bands. Key challenges for PBS include selecting an appropriate criterion to generate band priority scores, and determining how many bands should be retained in the reduced image. The image's Virtual Dimensionality (VD), once computed, is a reasonable estimate of the latter. We describe the major design details of PBS and test PBS in a land classification experiment.

  6. Sphingosylphosphorylcholine in cancer progress

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Hong-Wei; Jing, Qing-Chuan; Liu, Ping-Ping; Liu, Jing; Li, Wen-Jing; Zhao, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) is a naturally occurring bioactive sphingolipid in blood plasma, metabolizing from the hydrolysis of the membrane sphingolipid. It has been shown to exert multifunctional role in cell physiological regulation either as an intracellular second messenger or as an extracellular agent through G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Because of elevated levels of SPC in malicious ascites of patients with cancer, the role of SPC in tumor progression has prompted wide interest. The factor was reported to affect the proliferation and/or migration of many cancer cells, including pancreatic cancer cells, epithelial ovarian carcinoma cells, rat C6 glioma cells, neuroblastoma cells, melanoma cells, and human leukemia cells. This review covers current knowledge of the role of SPC in tumor. PMID:26550104

  7. Progress Towards International Repositories

    SciTech Connect

    McCombie, C.; Chapman, N.

    2002-02-27

    The nuclear fuel cycle is designed to be very international, with some specialist activities (e.g. fuel fabrication, reprocessing, etc.) being confined to a few countries. Nevertheless, political and public opposition has in the past been faced by proposals to internationalise the back-end of the cycle, in particular waste disposal. Attitudes, however, have been changing recently and there is now more acceptance of the general concept of shared repositories and of specific proposals such as that of Pangea. However, as for national facilities, progress towards implementation of shared repositories will be gradual. Moreover, the best vehicle for promoting the concept may not be a commercial type of organization. Consequently the Pangea project team are currently establishing a widely based Association for this purpose.

  8. Using Learning Progressions to Monitor Progress across Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Karin K.

    2010-01-01

    Learning progressions (LPs)--descriptive continuums of how students develop and demonstrate more sophisticated understanding over time--have become an increasingly important tool in today's science classrooms. Here the author discusses some of the research behind learning progressions and presents The Science Inquiry Profile for PreK-4. This is a…

  9. Dynamically prioritized progressive transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanford, Ronald

    1992-04-01

    Retrieval of image data from a centralized database may be subject to bandwidth limitations, whether due to a low-bandwidth communications link or to contention from simultaneous accesses over a high-bandwidth link. Progressive transmission can alleviate this problem by encoding image data so that any prefix of the data stream approximates the complete image at a coarse level of resolution. The longer the prefix, the finer the resolution. In many cases, as little at 1 percent of the image data may be sufficient to decide whether to discard the image, to permit the retrieval to continue, or to restrict retrieval to a subsection of the image. Our approach treats resolution not as a fixed attribute of the image, but rather as a resource which may be allocated to portions of the image at the direction of a user-specified priority function. The default priority function minimizes error by allocating more resolution to regions of high variance. The user may also point to regions of interest requesting priority transmission. More advanced target recognition strategies may be incorporated at the user's discretion. Multispectral imagery is supported. The user engineering implications are profounded. There is immediate response to a query that might otherwise take minutes to complete. The data is transmitted in small increments so that no single user dominates the communications bandwidth. The user-directed improvement means that bandwidth is focused on interesting information. The user may continue working with the first coarse approximations while further image data is still arriving. The algorithm has been implemented in C on Sun, Silicon Graphics, and NeXT workstations, and in Lisp on a Symbolics. Transmission speeds reach as high as 60,000 baud using a Sparc or 68040 processor when storing data to memory; somewhat less if also updating a graphical display. The memory requirements are roughly five bytes per image pixel. Both computational and memory costs may be reduced

  10. Nuclear chemistry progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Viola, V.E.; Kwiatkowski, K.

    1993-08-01

    This is the annual progress report for the Indiana University nuclear chemistry program for the 1992/1993 year. Accomplishments include the construction, testing, and initial experimental runs of the Indiana Silicon Sphere (ISiS) 4{pi} charged particle detector. ISiS is designed to study energy dissipation and multifragmentation phenomena in light-ion-induced nuclear reactions at medium-to-high energies. Its second test run was to examine 3.6 GeV {sup 3}He beam reactions at Laboratoire National Saturne (LNS) in Saclay. The development and deployment of this system has occupied a great deal of the groups effort this reporting period. Additional work includes: calculations of isotopic IMF yields in the {sup 4}He + {sup 116,124}Sn reaction; cross sections for A = 6 - 30 fragments from the {sup 4}He + {sup 28}Si reaction at 117 and 198 MeV; charging effects of passivated silicon detectors; neck emission of intermediate-mass fragments in the fission of hot heavy nuclei.

  11. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This report summarizes experimental and theoretical work in basic nuclear physics carried out between October 1, 1995, the closing of our last Progress Report, and September 30, 1996 at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado, Boulder, under contracts DE-FG03-93ER-40774 and DE-FG03-95ER-40913 with the United States Department of Energy. The experimental contract supports broadly-based experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear physics. This report includes results from studies of Elementary Systems involving the study of the structure of the nucleon via polarized high-energy positron scattering (the HERMES experiment) and lower energy pion scattering from both polarized and unpolarized nucleon targets. Results from pion- and kaon-induced reactions in a variety of nuclear systems are reported under the section heading Meson Reactions; the impact of these and other results on understanding the nucleus is presented in the Nuclear Structure section. In addition, new results from scattering of high-energy electrons (from CEBAF/TJNAF) and pions (from KEK) from a broad range of nuclei are reported in the section on Incoherent Reactions. Finally, the development and performance of detectors produced by the laboratory are described in the section titled Instrumentation.

  12. PVUSA progress report, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Ellyn, W.; Jennings, C.

    1991-12-31

    Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA) is a national public-private partnership that is assessing and demonstrating the viability of utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) electric generating systems. PVUSA participants include Pacific Gas & Electric (PG&E), the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the California Energy Commission (CEC), and eight utilities and other agencies. This report updates the progress of the PVUSA project, reviews the status and performance of the various PV installations during 1991, and summarizes key findings and conclusions from work to date. PVUSA offers utilities hands-on experience needed to evaluate and utilize maturing PV technology. The project also provides manufacturers a test bed for their products, encourages technology improvement and cost reductions in PV modules and other system components, and establishes communication channels between utilities and the PV industry. The project consists of two types of demonstrations: Emerging Module Technology (EMT) arrays, which are unproven but promising state-of-the-art PV technologies in 20-kW (nominal) arrays; and Utility Scale (US) systems, which represent more mature PV technologies in 200- to 500-kW turnkey systems.

  13. 1993 PVUSA progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA) is a national public-private partnership that is assessing and demonstrating the viability of utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) electric generation systems and recent developments in module technology. This report updates the progress of the PVUSA project, review the status and performance of all PV installations during 1993, and summarizes key accomplishments and conclusions for the year. The PVUSA project has five objectives designed to narrow the gap between a large utility industry that is unfamiliar with PV, and a small PV industry that is aware of a potentially large utility market but unfamiliar with how to meet its requirements. The objectives are: to evaluate the performance, reliability, and cost of promising PV modules and balance-of-system (BOS) components side-by-side at a single location; to assess PV system operation and maintenance (O and M) in a utility setting; to compare PV technologies in diverse geographic areas; to provide US utilities with hands-on experience in designing, procuring, and operating PV systems; and to document and disseminate knowledge gained from the project.

  14. Progressive cavity pump

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, J.W.

    1989-04-04

    A progressive cavity pump is described, comprising: a first housing portion defining an inlet; a second housing portion attachable to the first housing portion and defining an outlet; a substantially elastomeric stator comprising an outer portion removably attached to the first and second housing portions, having a first end and a second end spaced from the first end, an inner portion defining a pumping chamber and spaced an annular end portion interconnecting the first ends of the outer and inner portions; a rotor disposed in the inner portion of the stator and extending through the pumping chamber for pumping fluid from the inlet to the outlet in response to rotation of the rotor; and an elongated member disposed in the housing portions and generally annularly between the inner and outer portions of the stator and longitudinally between the annular end portion of the stator and a portion of the second housing portion, the member being removable from the housing portions and separable from the stator.

  15. Annual Technical Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ayman I. Hawari

    2002-10-02

    This report describes the results generated during phase 1 of this project. During this phase, the main tools that are used to compute the thermal neutron scattering kernels for graphite, beryllium, beryllium oxide, zirconium hydride, light water, polyethylene were implemented and tested. This includes a modified NJOY/LEAPR code system, the GASKET code, and the ab initio condensed matter codes VASP and PHONON. Thermal neutron scattering kernels were generated for graphite, beryllium, beryllium oxide. In the case of graphite, new phonon spectra were examined. The first is a spectrum based on experiments performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the early seventies, and the second is generated using the ab initio methods. In the case of beryllium, and beryllium oxide, a synthetic approach for generating the phonon spectra was implemented. In addition, significant progress was made on an experiment to benchmark the graphite scattering kernels was made. The simulations of this experiment show that differences on the order of a few percent, in Pu-239 detector responses, can be expected due to the use of different scattering kernels. (B204) NOT A FINAL REPORT

  16. Progress of AMOLED technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Joon Young

    2005-01-01

    We report the technical progress of AMOLED at Samsung SDI, comparing with other technologies. We introduce the voltage-compensational TFT circuit structure to improve the brightness uniformity of AMOLED, which is based on the low temperature poly-silicon. We have developed not only small molecule emitters (phosphorescence and fluorescence) but also polymeric emitters. From red and green phosphors, we achieved longer lifetime and higher efficiency than fluorophors. With the shadow mask patterning and the bottom-emission structure, 20,000-hour lifetime of QCIF device and the power consumption less than 150 mW at 100 cd/m2 (30% on condition) were obtained. In the case of the top-emission structure, we could get high efficiency also by maximizing the light out-coupling efficiency and enhance the color purity to the level of the NTSC. We have developed another patterning technology, "LITI: Laser Induced Thermal Imaging" and fabricated 17-inch full color AMOLED, which is the largest AMOLED based on the low temperature poly-Silicon.

  17. Quarterly Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    David Gray; Glen Tomlinson

    1998-11-12

    The Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) at Pittsburgh contracted with the MJTRE Corporation to perform Research Guidance Studies that will assist the Center and other relevant offices in the Department of Energy in evaluating and prioritizing research in the areas of coal and natural gas conversion. MITRE was reorganized in December 1995, which resulted in the formation of Mitretek Systems Inc. Mitretek has been performing this work on MITRE's behalf awaiting completion of contract novation to Mitretek. The contract was novated in February 1998 to Mitretek Systems. The overall objectives of this contract are to provide support to DOE in the following areas: (1) technical and economic analyses of current and future coal-based energy conversion technologies and other similar emerging technologies such as coal-waste coprocessing, natural gas conversion, and biomass conversion technologies for the production of fuels, chemicals and electric power,(2) monitor progress in these technologies with respect to technical, economic, and environmental impact (including climate change), (3) conduct specific and generic project economic and technical feasibility studies based on these technologies, (4) identify long-range R&D areas that have the greatest potential for process improvements, and (5) investigate optimum configurations and associated costs for production of high quality energy products via refining and their performance in end-use applications.

  18. Microparticles in tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Falanga, Anna; Tartari, Carmen Julia; Marchetti, Marina

    2012-04-01

    Microparticles (MP) are shed from the surface of activated or apoptotic blood cells and their levels in plasma reflect a balance between cell stimulation, proliferation, and death. MP production occurs through vesiculation of cell membranes, and involves cytoskeletal changes and a shift in the normal phospholipid asymmetry. The expression on the majority of MP of the anionic phosphatidylserine (PS) is responsible for the capacity of MP to support blood coagulation activation. In some cases, PS expression is also associated, in the same MP, with the presence of active Tissue Factor, the main activator of blood coagulation. Elevation in plasma levels of MP have been described in numerous clinical conditions, most of which also associated with an increased thrombotic risk. Particularly, MP have been found to be increased in both solid and hematological malignancies, including myeloproliferative neoplasms. A role of MP in tumor progression has been suggested by both in vitro and in vivo studies. Evidence exists that MP of platelet origin are the main players in this process, being rich in pro-angiogenic factors. The utility of measuring MP as a diagnostic and prognostic marker is currently a subject of intense investigation. The possibility to inhibit MP production by pharmacological interventions represents a future challenge. PMID:22682124

  19. The Progress of Nations, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This report summarizes the latest available statistics on international progress on children's well-being. Each of the report's sections contains a commentary, related statistics, and a discussion on progress and disparity in the section's particular area. Following a foreword by United Nations Secretary-General Kofi A. Annan, the sections of the…

  20. Progress in NASA Rotorcraft Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Johnson, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation reviews recent progress made under NASA s Subsonic Rotary Wing (SRW) propulsion research activities. Advances in engines, drive systems and optimized propulsion systems are discussed. Progress in wide operability compressors, modeling of variable geometry turbine performance, foil gas bearings and multi-speed transmissions are presented.

  1. The Thermochronologist's Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeitler, P. K.

    2011-12-01

    We owe our current understanding of thermochronology less to a series of revolutionary insights than to a somewhat uneven intellectual pilgrimage that over fifty years has progressed in fits and starts. Though hampered at times by overenthusiasm, oversimplification, and misunderstandings, on balance the field advanced thanks to a blend of curiosity-driven research, tool-building motivated by new ideas about Earth science, and improvements in technology. But now that we've exploited most radiogenic systems and the major minerals that host them, and now that our models can devour CPU time along with the best of them, are we done? Have we reached peak thermochron? The answer of course is no, and papers in this session will demonstrate what new technologies and techniques might have to offer in the coming years. However, I will argue that the discipline as a whole has matured to a point where if thermochronology is to remain a mainstream tool as opposed to a weekend sport, we need to get serious about several challenges. The most fundamental challenge is that current geodynamic models (and even more complex models we can envision coding) have outpaced our meagre stockpile of kinetic calibrations, our understanding of detailed isotope systematics, and our ability to generate data with sufficient throughput. These issues will not be addressed adequately through the business-as-usual approach that brought us to our current knowledge, and some community effort will probably be needed to coordinate the hard work that will be required. But any serious attempt to answer important questions with accurate thermal histories that have low and well-defined uncertainties will require that we actually know the kinetics for the specific samples we are analyzing, that we fully understand scatter in the data, that we work with the large sample numbers that are required for some problems like landscape evolution, and that inversion tools fully explore the important aspects of both the

  2. Progress with parasite plastids.

    PubMed

    Wilson, R J M Iain

    2002-05-31

    This review offers a snapshot of our current understanding of the origin, biology, and metabolic significance of the non-photosynthetic plastid organelle found in apicomplexan parasites. These protists are of considerable medical and veterinary importance world-wide, Plasmodium spp., the causative agent of malaria being foremost in terms of human disease. It has been estimated that approximately 8% of the genes currently recognized by the malarial genome sequencing project (now nearing completion) are of bacterial/plastid origin. The bipartite presequences directing the products of these genes back to the plastid have provided fresh evidence that secondary endosymbiosis accounts for this organelle's presence in these parasites. Mounting phylogenetic evidence has strengthened the likelihood that the plastid originated from a red algal cell. Most importantly, we now have a broad understanding of several bacterial metabolic systems confined within the boundaries of the parasite plastid. The primary ones are type II fatty acid biosynthesis and isoprenoid biosynthesis. Some aspects of heme biosynthesis also might take place there. Retention of the plastid's relict genome and its still ill-defined capacity to participate in protein synthesis might be linked to an important house-keeping process, i.e. guarding the type II fatty acid biosynthetic pathway from oxidative damage. Fascinating observations have shown the parasite plastid does not divide by constriction as in typical plants, and that plastid-less parasites fail to thrive after invading a new cell. The modes of plastid DNA replication within the phylum also have provided surprises. Besides indicating the potential of the parasite plastid for therapeutic intervention, this review exposes many gaps remaining in our knowledge of this intriguing organelle. The rapid progress being made shows no sign of slackening.

  3. Benchtop energetics progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajardo, Mario; Fossum, Emily C.; Molek, Christopher D.; Lewis, William K.

    2012-03-01

    We have constructed an apparatus for investigating the reactive chemical dynamics of mgscale energetic materials samples. We seek to advance the understanding of the reaction kinetics of energetic materials, and of the chemical influences on energetic materials sensitivity. We employ direct laser irradiation, and indirect laser-driven shock, techniques to initiate thin-film explosive samples contained in a high-vacuum chamber. Expansion of the reacting flow into vacuum quenches the chemistry and preserves reaction intermediates for interrogation via time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS). By rastering the sample coupon through the fixed laser beam focus, we generate hundreds of repetitive energetic events in a few minutes. A detonation wave passing through an organic explosive, such as pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN, C5H8N4O12), is remarkably efficient in converting the solid explosive into final thermodynamically-stable gaseous products (e.g. N2, CO, CO2, H2O…). Termination of a detonation at an explosive-to-vacuum interface produces an expanding pulse of hyperthermal molecular species, with leading-edge velocities ~ 10 km/s. In contrast, deflagration (subsonic combustion) of PETN in vacuum produces mostly reaction intermediates, such as NO and NO2, with much slower molecular velocities; consistent with expansion-quenched thermal decomposition of PETN. We propose to exploit these differences in product chemical identities and molecular species velocities to provide a chemically-based diagnostic for distinguishing between "detonation-like" and deflagration events. We report recent progress towards the quantitative detection of hyperthermal neutral species produced by direct laser ablation of aluminum metal and of organic energetic materials, as a step towards demonstrating the ability to discriminate slow reaction intermediates from fast thermodynamically-stable final products.

  4. Benchtop Energetics Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajardo, Mario

    2011-06-01

    We have constructed an apparatus for investigating the reactive chemical dynamics of mg-scale energetic materials samples. We seek to advance the understanding of the reaction kinetics of energetic materials, and of the chemical influences on energetic materials sensitivity. We employ direct laser irradiation, and indirect laser-driven shock, techniques to initiate thin-film explosive samples contained in a high-vacuum chamber. Expansion of the reacting flow into vacuum quenches the chemistry and preserves reaction intermediates for interrogation via time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS). By rastering the sample coupon through the fixed laser beam focus, we generate hundreds of repetitive energetic events in a few minutes. A detonation wave passing through an organic explosive, such as pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN, C5H4N4O12) , is remarkably efficient in converting the solid explosive into final thermodynamically-stable gaseous products (e . g . N2, CO2, H2O...). Termination of a detonation at an explosive-to-vacuum interface produces an expanding pulse of hyperthermal molecular species, with leading-edge velocities ~10 km/s. In contrast, deflagration (subsonic combustion) of PETN in vacuum produces mostly reaction intermediates, such as NO and NO2, with much slower molecular velocities; consistent with expansion-quenched thermal decomposition of PETN. We propose to exploit these differences in product chemical identities and molecular species velocities to provide a chemically-based diagnostic for distinguishing between detonation and deflagration events. In this talk we also report recent progress towards the quantitative detection of hyperthermal neutral species produced by direct laser ablation of aluminum metal and of organic energetic materials, as a step towards demonstrating the ability to discriminate slow reaction intermediates from fast thermodynamically-stable final products. Work done in collaboration with Emily Fossum, Christopher Molek, and

  5. Targeting ECM Disrupts Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Venning, Freja A.; Wullkopf, Lena; Erler, Janine T.

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic complications are responsible for more than 90% of cancer-related deaths. The progression from an isolated tumor to disseminated metastatic disease is a multistep process, with each step involving intricate cross talk between the cancer cells and their non-cellular surroundings, the extracellular matrix (ECM). Many ECM proteins are significantly deregulated during the progression of cancer, causing both biochemical and biomechanical changes that together promote the metastatic cascade. In this review, the influence of several ECM proteins on these multiple steps of cancer spread is summarized. In addition, we highlight the promising (pre-)clinical data showing benefits of targeting these ECM macromolecules to prevent cancer progression. PMID:26539408

  6. Federal Facility Agreement progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The (SRS) Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) was made effective by the US. Environmental Protection Agency Region IV (EPA) on August 16, 1993. To meet the reporting requirements in Section XXV of the Agreement, the FFA Progress Report was developed. The FFA Progress Report is the first of a series of quarterly progress reports to be prepared by the SRS. As such this report describes the information and action taken to September 30, 1993 on the SRS units identified for investigation and remediation in the Agreement. This includes; rubble pits, runoff basins, retention basin, seepage basin, burning pits, H-Area Tank 16, and spill areas.

  7. [Domestic violence: any progress?].

    PubMed

    Henrion, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Since the publication of the French national survey of violence against women in 2000, the fight against domestic violence has made steady progress. Knowledge of the phenomenon has significantly improved. A nationwide study of murders and manslaughters perpetrated by one partner of a couple against the other has been published annually since 2006. In 2012, domestic violence resulted in the deaths of 314 persons: 166 women, 31 men, 25 children, 9 collateral victims, 14 rivals, and two former spouses killed by their ex-fathers in law. In addition, 67 perpetrators committed suicide (51 men and3 women). The number of victims fluctuates from year to year but has remained fairly stable since 2006 (n=168). Legislation has improved significantly: eight new laws have been passed since 2004, all designed to protect women and to ensure that violent men are restrained and treated. New measures to inform and protect women have been implemented and others have been improved, such as the anonymous helpline (phone no 3919, "domestic violence information"). An inter-ministerial committee on the protection of women from violence and the prevention of human trafficking (MIPROF) was created on 3 January 2013. A website entitled "Stop violence against women " (Stop violences faites aux femmes) is now available. The "Imminent Danger" mobile phone system, designed to alert police if a suspected or known perpetrator breaches restraint conditions, will be extended to the entire country from January 2014. Referees charged with coordinating comprehensive long-tern care of women victims have been deployed at the county level. Information centers on the rights of women and families (CIDFF) now form a local nationwide network. Routine interviews with a midwife during the fourth month of pregnancy, focusing on the woman's emotional, economic and social conditions, have been implemented in 21 % of maternity units and should gradually be generalized. The authorities who have enforced the law have

  8. [Domestic violence: any progress?].

    PubMed

    Henrion, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Since the publication of the French national survey of violence against women in 2000, the fight against domestic violence has made steady progress. Knowledge of the phenomenon has significantly improved. A nationwide study of murders and manslaughters perpetrated by one partner of a couple against the other has been published annually since 2006. In 2012, domestic violence resulted in the deaths of 314 persons: 166 women, 31 men, 25 children, 9 collateral victims, 14 rivals, and two former spouses killed by their ex-fathers in law. In addition, 67 perpetrators committed suicide (51 men and3 women). The number of victims fluctuates from year to year but has remained fairly stable since 2006 (n=168). Legislation has improved significantly: eight new laws have been passed since 2004, all designed to protect women and to ensure that violent men are restrained and treated. New measures to inform and protect women have been implemented and others have been improved, such as the anonymous helpline (phone no 3919, "domestic violence information"). An inter-ministerial committee on the protection of women from violence and the prevention of human trafficking (MIPROF) was created on 3 January 2013. A website entitled "Stop violence against women " (Stop violences faites aux femmes) is now available. The "Imminent Danger" mobile phone system, designed to alert police if a suspected or known perpetrator breaches restraint conditions, will be extended to the entire country from January 2014. Referees charged with coordinating comprehensive long-tern care of women victims have been deployed at the county level. Information centers on the rights of women and families (CIDFF) now form a local nationwide network. Routine interviews with a midwife during the fourth month of pregnancy, focusing on the woman's emotional, economic and social conditions, have been implemented in 21 % of maternity units and should gradually be generalized. The authorities who have enforced the law have

  9. Progressive-Relapsing MS (PRMS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the disease process in MS and in MRI technology. Individuals who were previously diagnosed with progressive-relapsing MS would now be ... The National MS Society is Here to Help Need More Information? We ...

  10. Public Attitudes to Technological Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Eliot

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the probable changes in public attitudes toward science and technology as a result of the engineering accidents of 1979. Results of national polls conducted to identify public confidence in technological progress are included. (HM)

  11. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... 000 women will have been diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, and nearly 41,000 women will die from ...

  12. Annual Progress report - General Task

    SciTech Connect

    Wesnousky, S.G.

    1993-09-30

    This report provides a summary of progress for the project {open_quotes}Evaluation of the Geologic Relations and Seismotectonic Stability of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigation (NNWSI).{close_quotes} A similar report was previously provided for the period of 1 October 1991 to 30 September 1992. The report initially covers the activities of the General Task and is followed by sections that describe the progress of the other ongoing tasks.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: Lafora progressive myoclonus epilepsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Lafora progressive myoclonus epilepsy Lafora progressive myoclonus epilepsy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... Open All Close All Description Lafora progressive myoclonus epilepsy is a brain disorder characterized by recurrent seizures ( ...

  14. Defining secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lorscheider, Johannes; Buzzard, Katherine; Jokubaitis, Vilija; Spelman, Tim; Havrdova, Eva; Horakova, Dana; Trojano, Maria; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Girard, Marc; Duquette, Pierre; Prat, Alexandre; Lugaresi, Alessandra; Grand'Maison, François; Grammond, Pierre; Hupperts, Raymond; Alroughani, Raed; Sola, Patrizia; Boz, Cavit; Pucci, Eugenio; Lechner-Scott, Jeanette; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Iuliano, Gerardo; Van Pesch, Vincent; Granella, Franco; Ramo-Tello, Cristina; Spitaleri, Daniele; Petersen, Thor; Slee, Mark; Verheul, Freek; Ampapa, Radek; Amato, Maria Pia; McCombe, Pamela; Vucic, Steve; Sánchez Menoyo, José Luis; Cristiano, Edgardo; Barnett, Michael H; Hodgkinson, Suzanne; Olascoaga, Javier; Saladino, Maria Laura; Gray, Orla; Shaw, Cameron; Moore, Fraser; Butzkueven, Helmut; Kalincik, Tomas

    2016-09-01

    A number of studies have been conducted with the onset of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis as an inclusion criterion or an outcome of interest. However, a standardized objective definition of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis has been lacking. The aim of this work was to evaluate the accuracy and feasibility of an objective definition for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis, to enable comparability of future research studies. Using MSBase, a large, prospectively acquired, global cohort study, we analysed the accuracy of 576 data-derived onset definitions for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and first compared these to a consensus opinion of three neurologists. All definitions were then evaluated against 5-year disease outcomes post-assignment of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: sustained disability, subsequent sustained progression, positive disability trajectory, and accumulation of severe disability. The five best performing definitions were further investigated for their timeliness and overall disability burden. A total of 17 356 patients were analysed. The best definition included a 3-strata progression magnitude in the absence of a relapse, confirmed after 3 months within the leading Functional System and required an Expanded Disability Status Scale step ≥4 and pyramidal score ≥2. It reached an accuracy of 87% compared to the consensus diagnosis. Seventy-eight per cent of the identified patients showed a positive disability trajectory and 70% reached significant disability after 5 years. The time until half of all patients were diagnosed was 32.6 years (95% confidence interval 32-33.6) after disease onset compared with the physicians' diagnosis at 36 (35-39) years. The identified patients experienced a greater disease burden [median annualized area under the disability-time curve 4.7 (quartiles 3.6, 6.0)] versus non-progressive patients [1.8 (1.2, 1.9)]. This objective definition of secondary progressive multiple

  15. Defining secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lorscheider, Johannes; Buzzard, Katherine; Jokubaitis, Vilija; Spelman, Tim; Havrdova, Eva; Horakova, Dana; Trojano, Maria; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Girard, Marc; Duquette, Pierre; Prat, Alexandre; Lugaresi, Alessandra; Grand'Maison, François; Grammond, Pierre; Hupperts, Raymond; Alroughani, Raed; Sola, Patrizia; Boz, Cavit; Pucci, Eugenio; Lechner-Scott, Jeanette; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Iuliano, Gerardo; Van Pesch, Vincent; Granella, Franco; Ramo-Tello, Cristina; Spitaleri, Daniele; Petersen, Thor; Slee, Mark; Verheul, Freek; Ampapa, Radek; Amato, Maria Pia; McCombe, Pamela; Vucic, Steve; Sánchez Menoyo, José Luis; Cristiano, Edgardo; Barnett, Michael H; Hodgkinson, Suzanne; Olascoaga, Javier; Saladino, Maria Laura; Gray, Orla; Shaw, Cameron; Moore, Fraser; Butzkueven, Helmut; Kalincik, Tomas

    2016-09-01

    A number of studies have been conducted with the onset of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis as an inclusion criterion or an outcome of interest. However, a standardized objective definition of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis has been lacking. The aim of this work was to evaluate the accuracy and feasibility of an objective definition for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis, to enable comparability of future research studies. Using MSBase, a large, prospectively acquired, global cohort study, we analysed the accuracy of 576 data-derived onset definitions for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and first compared these to a consensus opinion of three neurologists. All definitions were then evaluated against 5-year disease outcomes post-assignment of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: sustained disability, subsequent sustained progression, positive disability trajectory, and accumulation of severe disability. The five best performing definitions were further investigated for their timeliness and overall disability burden. A total of 17 356 patients were analysed. The best definition included a 3-strata progression magnitude in the absence of a relapse, confirmed after 3 months within the leading Functional System and required an Expanded Disability Status Scale step ≥4 and pyramidal score ≥2. It reached an accuracy of 87% compared to the consensus diagnosis. Seventy-eight per cent of the identified patients showed a positive disability trajectory and 70% reached significant disability after 5 years. The time until half of all patients were diagnosed was 32.6 years (95% confidence interval 32-33.6) after disease onset compared with the physicians' diagnosis at 36 (35-39) years. The identified patients experienced a greater disease burden [median annualized area under the disability-time curve 4.7 (quartiles 3.6, 6.0)] versus non-progressive patients [1.8 (1.2, 1.9)]. This objective definition of secondary progressive multiple

  16. Why neurodegenerative diseases are progressive: uncontrolled inflammation drives disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hui-Ming; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are a group of chronic, progressive disorders characterized by the gradual loss of neurons in discrete areas of the central nervous system (CNS). The mechanism(s) underlying their progressive nature remains unknown but a timely and well-controlled inflammatory reaction is essential for the integrity and proper function of the CNS. Substantial evidence has documented a common inflammatory mechanism in various neurodegenerative diseases. We hypothesize that in the diseased CNS, interactions between damaged neurons and dysregulated, overactivated microglia create a vicious self-propagating cycle causing uncontrolled, prolonged inflammation that drives the chronic progression of neurodegenerative diseases. We further propose that dynamic modulation of this inflammatory reaction by interrupting the vicious cycle might become a disease-modifying therapeutic strategy for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:18599350

  17. Geothermal pipeline - progress and development update, geothermal progress monitor

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This document is a progress and development update and geothermal progress monitor prepared by the Geo-Heat Center at the Oregon Institute of Technology in Klamath Falls, Oregon. Several upcoming meetings in the field of geothermal energy and resource development are announced. Proposed and past geothermal activities within the Glass Mountain Known Geothermal Resource Area are also discussed. As of this date, there has been limited geothermal exploration in this area, however, two projects located in the near vicinity have been proposed within the last two years.

  18. Clinical management of progressive myopia.

    PubMed

    Aller, T A

    2014-02-01

    Myopia has been increasing in prevalence throughout the world, reaching over 90% in some East Asian populations. There is increasing evidence that whereas genetics clearly have an important role, the type of visual environment to which one is exposed to likely influences the onset, progression, and cessation of myopia. Consequently, attempts to either modify the environment or to reduce the exposure of the eye to various environmental stimuli to eye growth through the use of various optical devices are well under way at research centers around the globe. The most promising of current treatments include low-percentage atropine, bifocal soft contact lenses, orthokeratology, and multifocal spectacles. These methods are discussed briefly and are then categorized in terms of their expected degree of myopia progression control. A clinical strategy is presented for selecting the most effective treatment for the appropriate type of patient at the optimal stage of refractive development to achieve the maximum control of myopia progression. PMID:24357844

  19. Damage progression in Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnetyan, Levon

    1996-01-01

    A computational simulation tool is used to evaluate the various stages of damage progression in composite materials during Iosipescu sheat testing. Unidirectional composite specimens with either the major or minor material axis in the load direction are considered. Damage progression characteristics are described for each specimen using two types of boundary conditions. A procedure is outlined regarding the use of computational simulation in composites testing. Iosipescu shear testing using the V-notched beam specimen is a convenient method to measure both shear strength and shear stiffness simultaneously. The evaluation of composite test response can be made more productive and informative via computational simulation of progressive damage and fracture. Computational simulation performs a complete evaluation of laminated composite fracture via assessment of ply and subply level damage/fracture processes.

  20. Clinical management of progressive myopia

    PubMed Central

    Aller, T A

    2014-01-01

    Myopia has been increasing in prevalence throughout the world, reaching over 90% in some East Asian populations. There is increasing evidence that whereas genetics clearly have an important role, the type of visual environment to which one is exposed to likely influences the onset, progression, and cessation of myopia. Consequently, attempts to either modify the environment or to reduce the exposure of the eye to various environmental stimuli to eye growth through the use of various optical devices are well under way at research centers around the globe. The most promising of current treatments include low-percentage atropine, bifocal soft contact lenses, orthokeratology, and multifocal spectacles. These methods are discussed briefly and are then categorized in terms of their expected degree of myopia progression control. A clinical strategy is presented for selecting the most effective treatment for the appropriate type of patient at the optimal stage of refractive development to achieve the maximum control of myopia progression. PMID:24357844

  1. Thematic Progression in a Cardiologist's Text: Context, Frames and Progression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Robert T.

    Thematic progression (TP) is examined in the text of a communication between a cardiologist and a general practitioner concerning a patient, offering a clinical diagnosis of the patient's condition. Analysis of the discourse looks at the field, tenor, and mode of the communication as a context for TP. The methods of analysis are first described,…

  2. Measuring Progressions: Assessment Structures Underlying a Learning Progression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This article describes some of the underlying conceptualizations that have gone into the work of the BEAR Center in the development of learning progressions. The core of all of these developments has been the construct map, which is the first building block in the BEAR Assessment System (BAS). After introducing the concept of a learning…

  3. "Reading Progress": Historians and Public Literacy in the Progressive Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler-Kassner, Linda

    Controlling "literacy processes" was a concern of members of the dominant culture during the Progressive Era (about 1890-1917). Educators wanted to set students on the "right" course before formal schooling was over. Four history textbooks from the era share a general sense of what is required for public literacy, but they present multiple public…

  4. Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2015-12-01

    In support of the Obama Administration's Climate Action Plan, the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Agriculture jointly released the Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report, updating the federal government's progress to reduce methane emissions through biogas systems since the Biogas Opportunities Roadmap was completed by the three agencies in July 2014. The report highlights actions taken, outlines challenges and opportunities, and identifies next steps to the growth of a robust biogas industry.

  5. Progressive fracture of fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvin, T. B.; Ginty, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    Refined models and procedures are described for determining progressive composite fracture in graphite/epoxy angleplied laminates. Lewis Research Center capabilities are utilized including the Real Time Ultrasonic C Scan (RUSCAN) experimental facility and the Composite Durability Structural Analysis (CODSTRAN) computer code. The CODSTRAN computer code is used to predict the fracture progression based on composite mechanics, finite element stress analysis, and fracture criteria modules. The RUSCAN facility, CODSTRAN computer code, and scanning electron microscope are used to determine durability and identify failure mechanisms in graphite/epoxy composites.

  6. Shuttle Risk Progression by Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamlin, Teri; Kahn, Joe; Thigpen, Eric; Zhu, Tony; Lo, Yohon

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the early mission risk and progression of risk as a vehicle gains insights through flight is important: . a) To the Shuttle Program to understand the impact of re-designs and operational changes on risk. . b) To new programs to understand reliability growth and first flight risk. . Estimation of Shuttle Risk Progression by flight: . a) Uses Shuttle Probabilistic Risk Assessment (SPRA) and current knowledge to calculate early vehicle risk. . b) Shows impact of major Shuttle upgrades. . c) Can be used to understand first flight risk for new programs.

  7. Myositis ossificans progressive: case report

    PubMed Central

    Talbi, Sofia; Aradoini, Nassira; Mezouar, Iman El; Abourazzak, Fatima Ezzahra; Harzy, Taoufik

    2016-01-01

    Myositis ossificans progressiva (MOP) is an autosomal dominant disorder. There is a progressive ectopic ossification and skeletal malformation, mainly in the connective tissue of muscle. The diagnosis is based on the clinical findings and radiological demonstration of the skeletal malformations. A 38-year-old female patient was admitted to our department with progressive increase of the thigh. Results of laboratory studies were normal. The radiography of the right thigh showed multiple intramuscular calcifications. Myositis ossificans progressiva should be diagnosed as early as possible and non-invasively, based upon history, clinical and radiological findings. Early and correct diagnosis is fundamental for indication of proper management of the disease. PMID:27800117

  8. Continuous Progress Schools See the "Whole Child"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Jamie

    2008-01-01

    It has been called many names: Continuous Progress Format, Advancement Based on Competency (ABC), Continuous Progress Schools, and Continuous Progress Education. The idea of "Continuous Progress" refers to academic and developmental growth of students in a multi-age program. Students learn new materials as they are ready, regardless of their age,…

  9. Family Research Project Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, David C.; Bell, Linda G.

    This document presents an overview and progress report on the Family Research Project, started in 1974 to (1) study the relationship between family process and individual development of family members, especially children, (2) conceptualize and measure system level variables describing family structure and process, (3) develop microanalytic…

  10. Progress Update: Stack Project Complete

    SciTech Connect

    Cody, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Progress update from the Savannah River Site. The 75 foot 293 F Stack, built for plutonium production, was cut down to size in order to prevent injury or release of toxic material if the structure were to collapse due to harsh weather.

  11. The Future of Progressive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, William

    2008-01-01

    What David J. Ferrero has called "the Hundred Year's War between "progressives" and "traditionalists"" continues unabated in the twenty-first century. Undoubtedly, current initiatives in public education favor those who support traditional approaches, yet many critics believe inflexible state tests are restricting teachers' flexibility in…

  12. Baltimore Community Schools: Promise & Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durham, Rachel E.; Connolly, Faith

    2016-01-01

    This report documents the interim progress of the Baltimore Community School (CommSch) strategy by examining outcomes for the 2014-15 school year. Results show that CommSch parents more often reported being connected with community resources by school staff compared to parents at other schools. They also were more likely to report that school…

  13. Solar Energy: Progress and Promise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, DC.

    This report discusses many of the economic and policy questions related to the widespread introduction of solar power, presents recent progress in developing solar technologies and advancing their economic feasibility, and reviews some recommendations that have been made for achieving the early introduction and sustained application of solar…

  14. Measuring research progress in photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, B.; Mcguire, P.

    1986-01-01

    The role and some results of the project analysis and integration function in the Flat-plate Solar Array (FSA) Project are presented. Activities included supporting the decision-making process, preparation of plans for project direction, setting goals for project activities, measuring progress within the project, and the development and maintenance of analytical models.

  15. Minority Student Progress Report, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Porfirio R.; Luan, Jing

    This report offers a consolidated systemwide analysis of key issues and recommendations for improvement of minority recruitment and retention at Arizona State Universities and an evaluation of progress toward achieving Arizona Board of Regents (ABOR) approved recruitment and graduation goals. A description of ABOR system goals notes three goals:…

  16. Mapping Arizona's Educational Progress, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Every day, we learn what works so students can make greater progress. Six years after No Child Left Behind's passage--and midway to the nation's goal of having students on grade level or better in reading and math by 2014--we have collected more data than ever before about the academic performance of our students and schools. This information…

  17. Katrina's Progress with Learning Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnochie, Jan; Sneath, Greg

    2007-01-01

    Katrina is 10 years old and has Down syndrome. She is making good progress with learning numbers and mathematics. We describe how Katrina has learned number concepts and arithmetic skills over several years. We highlight the influence of early learning habits, visual supports, motivation and practice, and the uses made of different number…

  18. [Eugenics: progress or backward movement?].

    PubMed

    González de Cancino, Emilssen

    2007-01-01

    Throughout this article there is a critical analysis of how genetics presents a dilemma for "human progress". So much so, that the legal world aims to create unequivocal norms and guarantees in relation with eugenics in order to avoid attempting against human dignity. The document makes the reader reflect on the ethical problems that eugenics can entail.

  19. Progress in semiconductor drift detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Rehak, P.; Walton, J.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sanpietro, M.; Kemmer, J.; Dietl, H.; Holl, P.; Klanner, R.; Lutz, G.

    1985-01-01

    Progress in testing semiconductor drift detectors is reported. Generally better position and energy resolutions were obtained than resolutions published previously. The improvement is mostly due to new electronics better matched to different detectors. It is shown that semiconductor drift detectors are becoming versatile and reliable detectors for position and energy measurements.

  20. Progress with Student Teacher Placements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This is a report on the progress that has been made since HMIE published "Student Teacher Placements within Initial Teacher Education" in October 2005 in response to a request by the Minister for Education and Young People. The report was based on extensive fieldwork and consultation over session 2004/2005, activity which itself contributed to…

  1. Canadian ERTS program progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morley, L. W.; Mcquillan, A. K.

    1974-01-01

    Progress of the Canadian ERTS program is provided along with statistics on the production and role of ERTS images both from the CCRS in Ottawa and from the Prince Albert Saskatchewan satellite station. The types of products, difficulties of production and some of the main applications in Canada are discussed.

  2. Progress Update: Stack Project Complete

    ScienceCinema

    Cody, Tom

    2016-07-12

    Progress update from the Savannah River Site. The 75 foot 293 F Stack, built for plutonium production, was cut down to size in order to prevent injury or release of toxic material if the structure were to collapse due to harsh weather.

  3. Managing Employees through Progressive Discipline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Ronald F.

    1981-01-01

    The process of "progressive discipline" is one method of improving employee performance by documenting areas needing improvement. Each disciplinary case must be dealt with as though the administrator would be asked to argue it before an arbitrator or a court of law. (Author/MLF)

  4. Significant Ideas and Progressive Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Gwen; Mitchell, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Ideas are not one-time "Eureka" moments, but are parts of concepts progressing forward. Sometimes years pass before ideas are implemented. They then resurface, connect with other ideas, and move policies ahead. Meanwhile, the idea remains alive in the field, influencing decisions and goals. Ideas build on one another when implemented. The field of…

  5. Continuous Progress Program Inservice Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago Board of Education, IL.

    The Continuous Progress Program of the Board of Education for the City of Chicago focuses on the improvement of education for the individual child and the upgrading of educational practices and techniques. The philosophy of the program is based on the individualized rate of teaching and learning of the pupil. Its planning and organization is…

  6. Geothermal Progress Monitor report No. 5. Progress report, June 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Updated information is presented on activities and progress in the areas of electric power plants, direct heat applications, deep well drilling, leasing of federal lands, legislative and regulatory actions, research and development, and others. Special attention is given in this report to 1980 highlights, particularly in the areas of electric and direct heat uses, drilling, and the Federal lands leasing program. This report also includes a summary of the DOE FY 1982 geothermal budget request to Congress.

  7. Geothermal Progress Monitor report No. 8. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-11-01

    Geothermal Progress Monitor (GPM) Report Number 8 presents information concerning ongoing technology transfer activities and the mechanisms used to support these activities within geothermal R and D programs. A state-by-state review of major geothermal development activities for the reporting period 1 February 1983 through 31 July 1983 is provided. Recent drilling and exploration efforts and the current status of geothermal electric power plant development in the United States are summarized.

  8. Progress in front propagation research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fort, Joaquim; Pujol, Toni

    2008-08-01

    We review the progress in the field of front propagation in recent years. We survey many physical, biophysical and cross-disciplinary applications, including reduced-variable models of combustion flames, Reid's paradox of rapid forest range expansions, the European colonization of North America during the 19th century, the Neolithic transition in Europe from 13 000 to 5000 years ago, the description of subsistence boundaries, the formation of cultural boundaries, the spread of genetic mutations, theory and experiments on virus infections, models of cancer tumors, etc. Recent theoretical advances are unified in a single framework, encompassing very diverse systems such as those with biased random walks, distributed delays, sequential reaction and dispersion, cohabitation models, age structure and systems with several interacting species. Directions for future progress are outlined.

  9. Progress Toward National Aeronautics Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russo, Carlo J.; Sehra, Arun K.

    1999-01-01

    NASA has made definitive progress towards achieving several bold U.S. goals in aeronautics related to air breathing engines. The advanced technologies developed towards these goals span applications from general aviation to large subsonic and supersonic aircraft. The proof of successful technology development is demonstrated through successful technology transfer to U.S. industry and projected fleet impact. Specific examples of progress are discussed that quantifies the achievement towards these goals. In addition, a more detailed vision for NASA aeronautics is defined and key strategic issues are explored which invite international and national debate and involvement especially in reduced environmental impact for subsonic and supersonic aircraft, dramatic new capabilities in general aviation engines, and reduced development cycle time and costs.

  10. Progressive Ratio Schedules of Reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Killeen, Peter R.; Posadas-Sanchez, Diana; Johansen, Espen Borgå; Thrailkill, Eric A.

    2009-01-01

    Pigeons’ pecks produced grain under progressive ratio (PR) schedules, whose response requirements increased systematically within sessions. Experiment 1 compared arithmetic (AP) and geometric (GP) progressions. Response rates increased as a function of the component ratio requirement, then decreased linearly (AP) or asymptotically (GP). Experiment 2 found the linear decrease in AP rates to be relatively independent of step size. Experiment 3 showed pausing to be controlled by the prior component length, which predicted the differences between PR and regressive ratio schedules found in Experiment 4. When the longest component ratios were signaled by different key colors, rates at moderate ratios increased, demonstrating control by forthcoming context. Models for response rate and pause duration described performance on AP schedules; GP schedules required an additional parameter representing the contextual reinforcement. PMID:19159161

  11. Cultural Neuroscience: Progress and Promise

    PubMed Central

    Chiao, Joan Y.; Cheon, Bobby K.; Pornpattanangkul, Narun; Mrazek, Alissa J.; Blizinsky, Katherine D.

    2013-01-01

    The nature and origin of human diversity has been a source of intellectual curiosity since the beginning of human history. Contemporary advances in cultural and biological sciences provide unique opportunities for the emerging field of cultural neuroscience. Research in cultural neuroscience examines how cultural and genetic diversity shape the human mind, brain and behavior across multiple time scales: situation, ontogeny and phylogeny. Recent progress in cultural neuroscience provides novel theoretical frameworks for understanding the complex interaction of environmental, cultural and genetic factors in the production of adaptive human behavior. Here, we provide a brief history of cultural neuroscience, theoretical and methodological advances, as well as empirical evidence of the promise of and progress in the field. Implications of this research for population health disparities and public policy are discussed. PMID:23914126

  12. Progress in Heavy Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1988-09-01

    The progress of the field of Heavy Ion Fusion has been documented in the proceedings of the series of International Symposia that, in recent years, have occurred every second year. The latest of these conferences was hosted by Gesellshaft fuer Schwerionenforshung (GSI) in Darmstadt, West Germany, June 28-30, 1988. For this report, a few highlights from the conference are selected, stressing experimental progress and prospects for future advances. A little extra time is devoted to report on the developments at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) which is the center for most of the HIFAR program. The Director of the HIFAR program at LBL is Denis Keefe, who presented the HIF report at the last two of the meetings in this series, and in whose place the author is appearing now. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Progress of MICE RFCC Module

    SciTech Connect

    Li, D.; Bowring, D.; DeMello, A.; Gourlay, S.; Green, M.; Li, N.; Niinikoski, T.; Pan, H.; Prestemon, S.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, M.; Bross, A.; Carcagno, R.; Kashikhin, V.; Sylvester, C.; Chen, A. B.; Guo, Bin; Li, Liyi; Xu, Fengyu; Cao, Y.; Sun, S.; Wang, Li; Yin, Lixin; Luo, Tianhuan; Summers, Don; Smith, B.; Radovinsky, A.; Zhukovsky, A.; Kaplan, D.

    2012-05-20

    Recent progress on the design and fabrication of the RFCC (RF and superconducting Coupling Coil) module for the international MICE (Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment) are reported. The MICE ionization cooling channel has two RFCC modules, each having four 201- MHz normal conducting RF cavities surrounded by one superconducting coupling coil (solenoid) magnet. The magnet is designed to be cooled by three cryocoolers. Fabrication of the RF cavities is complete; preparation for the cavity electro-polishing, low power RF measurements, and tuning are in progress at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Fabrication of the cold mass of the first coupling coil magnet has been completed in China and the cold mass arrived at LBNL in late 2011. Preparations for testing the cold mass are currently under way at Fermilab. Plans for the RFCC module assembly and integration are being developed and are described.

  14. Progress in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kadia, Tapan M; Ravandi, Farhad; O'Brien, Susan; Cortes, Jorge; Kantarjian, Hagop M

    2015-03-01

    Significant progress has been made in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Steady gains in clinical research and a renaissance of genomics in leukemia have led to improved outcomes. The recognition of tremendous heterogeneity in AML has allowed individualized treatments of specific disease entities within the context of patient age, cytogenetics, and mutational analysis. The following is a comprehensive review of the current state of AML therapy and a roadmap of our approach to these distinct disease entities. PMID:25441110

  15. Gammasphere software development. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Piercey, R.B.

    1993-05-01

    Activities of the nuclear physics group are described. Progress was made in organizing the Gammasphere Software Working Group, establishing a nuclear computing facility, participating in software development at Lawrence Berkeley, developing a common data file format, and adapting the ORNL UPAK software to run at Gammasphere. A universal histogram object was developed that defines a file format and provides for an objective-oriented programming model. An automated liquid nitrogen fill system was developed for Gammasphere (110 Ge detectors comprise the sphere).

  16. Gammasphere software development. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Piercey, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the activities of the nuclear physics group at Mississippi State University which were performed during 1993. Significant progress has been made in the focus areas: chairing the Gammasphere Software Working Group (SWG); assisting with the porting and enhancement of the ORNL UPAK histogramming software package; and developing standard formats for Gammasphere data products. In addition, they have established a new public ftp archive to distribute software and software development tools and information.

  17. Progress of nanoscience in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yu-Liang; Song, Yan-Lin; Song, Wei-Guo; Liang, Wei; Jiang, Xing-Yu; Tang, Zhi-Yong; Xu, Hong-Xing; Wei, Zhi-Xiang; Liu, Yun-Qi; Liu, Ming-Hua; Jiang, Lei; Bao, Xin-He; Wan, Li-Jun; Bai, Chun-Li

    2014-06-01

    Fast evolving nanosciences and nanotechnology in China has made it one o f the front countries of nanotechnology development. In this review, we summarize some most recent progresses in nanoscience research and nanotechnology development in China. The topics we selected in this article include nano-fabrication, nanocatalysis, bioinspired nanotechnology, green printing nanotechnology, nanoplasmonics, nanomedicine, nanomaterials and their applications, energy and environmental nanotechnology, nano EHS (nanosafety), etc. Most of them have great potentials in applications or application-related key issues in future.

  18. Progress in NTHMP Hazard Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gonzalez, F.I.; Titov, V.V.; Mofjeld, H.O.; Venturato, A.J.; Simmons, R.S.; Hansen, R.; Combellick, R.; Eisner, R.K.; Hoirup, D.F.; Yanagi, B.S.; Yong, S.; Darienzo, M.; Priest, G.R.; Crawford, G.L.; Walsh, T.J.

    2005-01-01

    The Hazard Assessment component of the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program has completed 22 modeling efforts covering 113 coastal communities with an estimated population of 1.2 million residents that are at risk. Twenty-three evacuation maps have also been completed. Important improvements in organizational structure have been made with the addition of two State geotechnical agency representatives to Steering Group membership, and progress has been made on other improvements suggested by program reviewers. ?? Springer 2005.

  19. Recent progress of quantum annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Sei

    2015-03-10

    We review the recent progress of quantum annealing. Quantum annealing was proposed as a method to solve generic optimization problems. Recently a Canadian company has drawn a great deal of attention, as it has commercialized a quantum computer based on quantum annealing. Although the performance of quantum annealing is not sufficiently understood, it is likely that quantum annealing will be a practical method both on a conventional computer and on a quantum computer.

  20. Progress in breast cancer: overview.

    PubMed

    Arteaga, Carlos L

    2013-12-01

    This edition of CCR Focus titled Research in Breast Cancer: Frontiers in Genomics, Biology, and Clinical Investigation reviews six topics that cover areas of translational research of high impact in breast cancer. These topics represent areas of breast cancer research where significant progress has occurred but also where very important challenges remain. The papers in this CCR Focus section are contributed by experts in the respective areas of investigation. Herein, key aspects of these contributions and the research directions they propose are reviewed.

  1. Visual Analytics Technology Transition Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Scholtz, Jean; Cook, Kristin A.; Whiting, Mark A.; Lemon, Douglas K.; Greenblatt, Howard

    2009-09-23

    The authors provide a description of the transition process for visual analytic tools and contrast this with the transition process for more traditional software tools. This paper takes this into account and describes a user-oriented approach to technology transition including a discussion of key factors that should be considered and adapted to each situation. The progress made in transitioning visual analytic tools in the past five years is described and the challenges that remain are enumerated.

  2. Information Loss from Technological Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    Progress in electronics and optics offers faster computers, and rapid communication via the internet that is matched by ever larger and evolving storage systems. Instinctively one assumes that this must be totally beneficial. However advances in software and storage media are progressing in ways which are frequently incompatible with earlier systems and the economics and commercial pressures rarely guarantee total compatibility with earlier systems. Instead, the industries actively choose to force the users to purchase new systems and software. Thus we are moving forward with new technological variants that may have access to only the most recent systems and we will have lost earlier alternatives. The reality is that increased processing speed and storage capacity are matched by an equally rapid decline in the access and survival lifetime of older information. This pattern is not limited to modern electronic systems but is evident throughout history from writing on stone and clay tablets to papyrus and paper. It is equally evident in image systems from painting, through film, to magnetic tapes and digital cameras. In sound recording we have variously progressed from wax discs to vinyl, magnetic tape and CD formats. In each case the need for better definition and greater capacity has forced the earlier systems into oblivion. Indeed proposed interactive music systems could similarly relegate music CDs to specialist collections. The article will track some of the examples and discuss the consequences as well as noting that this information loss is further compounded by developments in language and changes in cultural views of different societies.

  3. Progress Toward Heavy Ion IFE

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R; Logan, B G; Waldron, W L; Sabbi, G L; Callahan-Miller, D A; Peterson, P F; Goodin, D T

    2002-01-17

    Successful development of Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) will require scientific and technology advances in areas of targets, drivers and chambers. Design work on heavy ion targets indicates that high gain (60-130) may be possible with a -3-6 MJ driver depending on the ability to focus the beams to small spot sizes. Significant improvements have been made on key components of heavy ion drivers, including sources, injectors, insulators and ferromagnetic materials for long-pulse induction accelerator cells, solid-state pulsers, and superconducting quadrupole magnets. The leading chamber concept for HIF is the thick-liquid-wall HYLEE-II design, which uses an array of flibe jets to protect chamber structures from x-ray, debris, and neutron damage. Significant progress has been made in demonstrating the ability to create and control the types of flow needed to form the protective liquid blanket. Progress has also been made on neutron shielding for the final focus magnet arrays with predicted lifetimes now exceeding the life of the power plant. Safety analyses have been completed for the HYLEE-II design using state-of-the-art codes. Work also continues on target fabrication and injection for HE. A target injector experiment capable of > 5 Hz operation has been designed and construction will start in 2002. Methods for mass production of hohlraum targets are being evaluated with small-scale experiments and analyses. Progress in these areas will be reviewed.

  4. Mathematical models of diabetes progression.

    PubMed

    De Gaetano, Andrea; Hardy, Thomas; Beck, Benoit; Abu-Raddad, Eyas; Palumbo, Pasquale; Bue-Valleskey, Juliana; Pørksen, Niels

    2008-12-01

    Few attempts have been made to model mathematically the progression of type 2 diabetes. A realistic representation of the long-term physiological adaptation to developing insulin resistance is necessary for effectively designing clinical trials and evaluating diabetes prevention or disease modification therapies. Writing a good model for diabetes progression is difficult because the long time span of the disease makes experimental verification of modeling hypotheses extremely awkward. In this context, it is of primary importance that the assumptions underlying the model equations properly reflect established physiology and that the mathematical formulation of the model give rise only to physically plausible behavior of the solutions. In the present work, a model of the pancreatic islet compensation is formulated, its physiological assumptions are presented, some fundamental qualitative characteristics of its solutions are established, the numerical values assigned to its parameters are extensively discussed (also with reference to available cross-sectional epidemiologic data), and its performance over the span of a lifetime is simulated under various conditions, including worsening insulin resistance and primary replication defects. The differences with respect to two previously proposed models of diabetes progression are highlighted, and therefore, the model is proposed as a realistic, robust description of the evolution of the compensation of the glucose-insulin system in healthy and diabetic individuals. Model simulations can be run from the authors' web page.

  5. Statins and progressive renal disease.

    PubMed

    Buemi, Michele; Senatore, Massimino; Corica, Francesco; Aloisi, Carmela; Romeo, Adolfo; Cavallaro, Emanuela; Floccari, Fulvio; Tramontana, Domenico; Frisina, Nicola

    2002-01-01

    Thanks to the administration of hypocholesterolemic drugs, important advances have been made in the treatment of patients with progressive renal disease. In vitro and in vivo findings demonstrate that statins, the inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase, can provide protection against kidney diseases characterized by inflammation and/or enhanced proliferation of epithelial cells occurring in rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, or by increased proliferation of mesangial cells occurring in IgA nephropathy. Many of the beneficial effects obtained occur independent of reduced cholesterol levels because statins can directly inhibit the proliferation of different cell types (e.g., mesangial, renal tubular, and vascular smooth muscle cells), and can also modulate the inflammatory response, thus inhibiting macrophage recruitment and activation, as well as fibrosis. The mechanisms underlying the action of statins are not yet well understood, although recent data in the literature indicate that they can directly affect the proliferation/apoptosis balance, the down-regulation of inflammatory chemokines, and the cytogenic messages mediated by the GTPases Ras superfamily. Therefore, as well as reducing serum lipids, statins and other lipid-lowering agents may directly influence intracellular signaling pathways involved in the prenylation of low molecular weight proteins that play a crucial role in cell signal transduction and cell activation. Statins appear to have important potential in the treatment of progressive renal disease, although further studies are required to confirm this in humans.

  6. Fluor Hanford Project Focused Progress at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    HANSON, R.D.

    2000-02-01

    Fluor Hanford is making significant progress in accelerating cleanup at the Hanford site. This progress consistently aligns with a new strategic vision established by the U.S. Department of Energy's Richland Operations Office (RL).

  7. Genetics Home Reference: progressive osseous heteroplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... and muscle tissue. Bone that forms outside the skeleton is called heterotopic or ectopic bone. In progressive ... preventing bony tissue from being produced outside the skeleton. The GNAS gene mutations that cause progressive osseous ...

  8. Primary Progressive Aphasia and Apraxia of Speech

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Youngsin; Duffy, Joseph R.; Josephs, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by progressive language dysfunction. The majority of primary progressive aphasia cases can be classified into three subtypes: non-fluent/agrammatic, semantic, and logopenic variants of primary progressive aphasia. Each variant presents with unique clinical features, and is associated with distinctive underlying pathology and neuroimaging findings. Unlike primary progressive aphasia, apraxia of speech is a disorder that involves inaccurate production of sounds secondary to impaired planning or programming of speech movements. Primary progressive apraxia of speech is a neurodegenerative form of apraxia of speech, and it should be distinguished from primary progressive aphasia given its discrete clinicopathological presentation. Recently, there have been substantial advances in our understanding of these speech and language disorders. Here, we review clinical, neuroimaging, and histopathological features of primary progressive aphasia and apraxia of speech. The distinctions among these disorders will be crucial since accurate diagnosis will be important from a prognostic and therapeutic standpoint. PMID:24234355

  9. 40 CFR 35.6650 - Progress reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Reports Required Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6650 Progress reports. (a) Reporting frequency. The recipient must submit progress reports as specified in the Cooperative Agreement. Progress...

  10. Adult Learners: Pathways to Progression. FEDA Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisenberger, Anna; Sanders, John

    1997-01-01

    A study focused on facilitating progression for adults from nonvocational adult education to qualification-bearing courses in further education (FE) and studied their patterns of progression and which factors helped or hindered such progress. Information was collected from adult learners in 10 adult and FE organizations in Britain through a…

  11. Towards a Learning Progression of Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Knut; Viering, Tobias; Boone, William J.; Fischer, Hans E.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an empirical study on an initial learning progression of energy, a concept of central importance to the understanding of science. Learning progressions have been suggested as one vehicle to support the systematic and successful teaching of core science concepts. Ideally, a learning progression will provide teachers with a…

  12. Recent cryocooler progress in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, Y.

    1985-05-01

    The progress of cryocoolers and related devices in Japan is reviewed. The Japanese National Railways has developed the light weight 4 K on-board refrigerators since 1977 as part of the MAGLEV train program. Superconducting and cryogenic fundamental technology was examined which included high performance cryocooler, magnetic refrigerator and superfluid refrigeration. Space cryogenics such as the cooling systems of IR-detectors was studied. Cryocooler for special applications such as cryopump, NMR-CT and JJ devices was investigated. Compact heat exchangers, high performance regenerators and reliable compressors are investigated as a critical component technology.

  13. Recent cryocooler progress in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsubara, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The progress of cryocoolers and related devices in Japan is reviewed. The Japanese National Railways has developed the light weight 4 K on-board refrigerators since 1977 as part of the MAGLEV train program. Superconducting and cryogenic fundamental technology was examined which included high performance cryocooler, magnetic refrigerator and superfluid refrigeration. Space cryogenics such as the cooling systems of IR-detectors was studied. Cryocooler for special applications such as cryopump, NMR-CT and JJ devices was investigated. Compact heat exchangers, high performance regenerators and reliable compressors are investigated as a critical component technology.

  14. [Research Progress on Forensic Entomotoxicology].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-jiang; Zhai, Xian-dun; Guan, Ling; Mo, Yao-nan

    2015-06-01

    Forensic entomotoxicology is a branch of forensic medicine, which applies entomology, toxicology and other related studies to solve the poisoning cases. It has an obvious advantage in the investigation on poisoning death. Based on the expounding definition and research of entomotoxicology, this paper reviews research progress and application value in some aspects of forensic medicine, such as the effects of drugs/toxins on the growth and development of sarcosaphagous insects and the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the drugs/toxins in the poisoned body tissue.

  15. Progress toward hydrogen peroxide micropulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, J C; Dittman, M D; Ledebuhr, A G

    1999-07-08

    A new self-pressurizing propulsion system has liquid thrusters and gas jet attitude control without heavy gas storage vessels. A pump boosts the pressure of a small fraction of the hydrogen peroxide, so that reacted propellant can controllably pressurize its own source tank. The warm decomposition gas also powers the pump and is supplied to the attitude control jets. The system has been incorporated into a prototype microsatellite for terrestrial maneuvering tests. Additional progress includes preliminary testing of a bipropellant thruster, and storage of unstabilized hydrogen peroxide in small sealed tanks.

  16. Progress towards autonomous, intelligent systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Henry; Heer, Ewald

    1987-01-01

    An aggressive program has been initiated to develop, integrate, and implement autonomous systems technologies starting with today's expert systems and evolving to autonomous, intelligent systems by the end of the 1990s. This program includes core technology developments and demonstration projects for technology evaluation and validation. This paper discusses key operational frameworks in the content of systems autonomy applications and then identifies major technological challenges, primarily in artificial intelligence areas. Program content and progress made towards critical technologies and demonstrations that have been initiated to achieve the required future capabilities in the year 2000 era are discussed.

  17. Nuclear spectroscopic studies. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, C.R.; Riedinger, L.L.; Sorensen, S.P.

    1996-01-16

    This report describes progress in the experimental nuclear physics program of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. It presents findings related to properties of high-spin states, low-energy levels of nuclei far from stability, and high-energy heavy-ion physics, as well as a brief description of the Joint Institute of Heavy Ion Research (a collaboration between the University of Tennessee, Vanderbilt University, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory) and its activities (particularly those of the last few years), and a list of publications. 89 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Interventions in progressive supranuclear palsy.

    PubMed

    Koros, Christos; Stamelou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) an atypical parkinsonian with a common phenotype comprising early falls, the characteristic slowing of vertical saccades and a frontal syndrome with marked apathy (Richardson's syndrome). Currently, no effective symptomatic or neuroprotective treatment is available for PSP. Current medical have a limited role in PSP. Novel experimental treatments include davunetide or tideglusib, both inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) that failed to improve the clinical outcome of PSP patients in two recent studies. Future interventions aiming at tau dysfunction and passive or active immunization are ongoing or underway.

  19. [Progress of RNA interference mechanism].

    PubMed

    Yan, Fei; Cheng, Zhuo-Min

    2005-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a phenomenon that the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) intermediates the degradation of complementary mRNA found in many organisms. This is a specifically mechanism involved in kinds of proteins to complete the interference function. Structure of siRNA affects which strand will be assembled into RISC. Another role of siRNA is directing RITS complex to bind with homologue chromosome, and then induces heterochromatinization. Although systemic silence induced by dsRNA is observed in Caenorhabditis elegans and plants, this progress is probably transmembrane protein-dependent, and mostly, the systemic silencing is controlled by multi-factors.

  20. Progress of the LASSO experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serene, B. E. H.

    1981-01-01

    The LASSO (Later Synchronisation from Stationary Orbit) experiment, designed to demonstrate the feasibility of achieving time synchronization between remote atomic clocks with an accuracy of one nanosecond or better by using laser techniques for the first time is described. The experiment uses groundbased laser stations and the SIRIO-2 geostationary satellite to be launched towards the end of 1981. The qualification of the LASSO on-board equipment is discussed with a brief description of the electrical and optical test equipment used. The progress of the operational organization is included.

  1. [Research progress on wetland ecotourism].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Long; Lu, Lin

    2009-06-01

    Wetland is rich in biodiversity and cultural diversity, possessing higher tourism value and environmental education and community participation functions. Wetland ecotourism reflects the sustainable development of tourism economy and wetland protection, having received great concern from governments and scholars at home and abroad. This paper summarized the related theories and practices, discussed the research advances in wetland ecotourism from the aspects of significance, progress, contents, methods and results, and pointed out the important research fields in the future, aimed to accelerate the development of wetland ecotourism research and to provide reference about the resources exploitation, environment protection, and scientific administration of wetland and related scenic areas.

  2. Successful delayed non-operative management of C2 neurosynchondrosis fractures in a pediatric patient: a case report and review of management strategies and considerations for treatment.

    PubMed

    Shammassian, Berje; Wright, Christina Huang; Wright, James; Onwuzulike; Tomei, Krystal L

    2016-01-01

    Upper cervical synchondrosis fractures are the most common types of cervical fractures in the pediatric population less than 7 years of age (Blauth et al (Eur Spine J 5:63-70, 1996); Connolly et al (Pediatr Radiol 25(Suppl1):S129-133, 1995); Mandabach et al (Pediatr Neurosurg 19(5):225-232, 1993); Schippers et al (Acta Neurochir 138:524-530, 1990)) The vast majority occur through the dentocentral or basilar synchondrosis. We present the second reported case in recent literature of a unilateral neurosynchondrosis fracture. The patient, a 4-year-old male, was initially managed conservatively with a rigid cervical collar for a period of 3 months. Despite multiple counseling sessions with family, the patient remained poorly compliant with cervical immobilization. After 3 months, imaging demonstrated partial fusion with persistent anterolisthesis of C2 on C3. The decision was made to place the child in external halo fixation as an attempt to achieve fusion prior to committing to internal surgical fixation and the associated sequelae. Immobilization with a hard cervical collar is often first line treatment. In the case of failed fusion, debate exists regarding surgical fixation in children. Occipito-atlanto-axial fusion leads to permanent loss of a significant degree of flexion, extension, and rotatory movement. The pediatric population has a strong propensity to fuse; however, compliance is often a barrier to conservative treatment due to age-related behavioral practices. We demonstrate that even with initial failed fusion and progression of deformity while in a cervical collar, conservative management with external halo fixation can potentially obviate the need for internal fixation. PMID:26231564

  3. Progressive silicosis in granite workers

    PubMed Central

    Gründorfer, W.; Raber, A.

    1970-01-01

    Gründorfer, W., and Raber, A.(1970).Brit. J. industr. Med.,27, 110-120. Progressive silicosis in granite workers. The first case of silicosis was discovered in a granite quarry and crushing plant in Lower Austria in 1958 after 30 years of freedom. A routine ϰ-ray survey then revealed no further cases but three more cases were discovered in the next two years. Detailed investigation revealed that these and further cases came from the area where the granite was crushed and loaded. In 10 years 18 cases were found out of a labour force of 170 falling to 120. Average exposure was 15 years and the disease tended to progress. Fifteen of the 18 cases came from the crushing plant where only 20 men were at risk, indicating a very high incidence within 15 years of first exposure. The risk is attributed to increased size and working capacity of the machines without improved dust suppression. This had led to dust levels over 10 times the accepted maximum in places. As well as more effective dust suppression, a reduction in staff, the wearing of masks and effective medical supervision of those particularly at risk are recommended. Images PMID:5428630

  4. [Growth and nonlinearity]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Savit, R.

    1993-12-31

    The research centered on the physics of growth. One particular focus was the spiral patterns seen in excitable media, such as the chemical reaction of Belousov and Zhabatinskii, and the aggregation of the slime mold, Dictyostelium Discoideum. Another area of interest is the statistical roughness of the growth front itself. For example, when growing thin films, the roughness of the surface is very important for the ultimate quality of the film. Besides its direct technological relevance, this problem is intimately connected to many fundamental problems in statistical physics. In addition work was done in the related area of statistical properties of flux-flow motion in superconductors. Substantial progress was also made on techniques and applications of the analysis of complex systems. Methods of time series analysis were generalized to the analysis of complex spatio-temporal patterns. In the examples studied most, turbulence and electroencephalograms, the spatio-temporal patterns are very complex and fleeting, and can easily be misken for random noise. Nevertheless, substantial progress was made in developing and applying methods to these systems that indicate the presence of nonrandom time-varying spatial patterns.

  5. LIFE: Recent Developments and Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Anklam, T M

    2011-04-08

    Test results from the NIF show excellent progress toward achieving ignition. Experiments designed to verify coupling of the laser energy to the fusion target have shown that the efficiency meets that needed for ignition. Several tests with the cryogenic targets needed for ignition have been performed, and world-record neutron output produced. The National Ignition Campaign is on schedule to meet its 2012 ignition milestone, with the next phase in the campaign due to start later this month. It has been a busy and very productive year. The NIF is in full 24/7 operations and has progressed markedly in the path toward ignition. The long-standing goal of the National Ignition Campaign to demonstrate ignition by the end of FY 2012 is on track. The LIFE plant design has matured considerably, and a delivery plan established based on close interactions with vendors. National-level reviews of fusion are underway, and are due to present initial findings later this year. A value proposition has been drafted for review. The LIFE project is ready to move into the delivery phase.

  6. Progress towards understanding baryon resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Crede, Volker; Roberts, Winston

    2013-07-01

    The composite nature of baryons manifests itself in the existence of a rich spectrum of excited states, in particular in the important mass region 1?2 GeV for the light-flavoured baryons. The properties of these resonances can be identified by systematic investigations using electromagnetic and strong probes, primarily with beams of electrons, photons, and pions. After decades of research, the fundamental degrees of freedom underlying the baryon excitation spectrum are still poorly understood. The search for hitherto undiscovered but predicted resonances continues at many laboratories around the world. Recent results from photo- and electroproduction experiments provide intriguing indications for new states and shed light on the structure of some of the known nucleon excitations. The continuing study of available data sets with consideration of new observables and improved analysis tools have also called into question some of the earlier findings in baryon spectroscopy. Other breakthrough measurements have been performed in the heavy-baryon sector, which has seen a fruitful period in recent years, in particular at the B factories and the Tevatron. First results from the large hadron collider indicate rapid progress in the field of bottom baryons. In this review, we discuss the recent experimental progress and give an overview of theoretical approaches.

  7. Progress on DCLL Blanket Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Clement; Abdou, M.; Katoh, Yutai; Kurtz, Richard J.; Lumsdaine, A.; Marriott, Edward P.; Merrill, Brad; Morley, Neil; Pint, Bruce A.; Sawan, M.; Smolentsev, S.; Williams, Brian; Willms, Scott; Youssef, M.

    2013-09-01

    Under the US Fusion Nuclear Science and Technology Development program, we have selected the Dual Coolant Lead Lithium concept (DCLL) as a reference blanket, which has the potential to be a high performance DEMO blanket design with a projected thermal efficiency of >40%. Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAF/M) steel is used as the structural material. The self-cooled breeder PbLi is circulated for power conversion and for tritium breeding. A SiC-based flow channel insert (FCI) is used as a means for magnetohydrodynamic pressure drop reduction from the circulating liquid PbLi and as a thermal insulator to separate the high-temperature PbLi (~700°C) from the helium-cooled RAF/M steel structure. We are making progress on related R&D needs to address critical Fusion Nuclear Science and Facility (FNSF) and DEMO blanket development issues. When performing the function as the Interface Coordinator for the DCLL blanket concept, we had been developing the mechanical design and performing neutronics, structural and thermal hydraulics analyses of the DCLL TBM module. We had estimated the necessary ancillary equipment that will be needed at the ITER site and a detailed safety impact report has been prepared. This provided additional understanding of the DCLL blanket concept in preparation for the FNSF and DEMO. This paper will be a summary report on the progress of the DCLL TBM design and R&Ds for the DCLL blanket concept.

  8. Progressive Fracture of Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnetyan, Levon

    2001-01-01

    This report includes the results of a research in which the COmposite Durability STRuctural ANalysis (CODSTRAN) computational simulation capabilities were augmented and applied to various structures for demonstration of the new features and verification. The first chapter of this report provides an introduction to the computational simulation or virtual laboratory approach for the assessment of damage and fracture progression characteristics in composite structures. The second chapter outlines the details of the overall methodology used, including the failure criteria and the incremental/iterative loading procedure with the definitions of damage, fracture, and equilibrium states. The subsequent chapters each contain an augmented feature of the code and/or demonstration examples. All but one of the presented examples contains laminated composite structures with various fiber/matrix constituents. For each structure simulated, damage initiation and progression mechanisms are identified and the structural damage tolerance is quantified at various degradation stages. Many chapters contain the simulation of defective and defect free structures to evaluate the effects of existing defects on structural durability.

  9. Death, mourning, and medical progress.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    A number of changes can be observed in the way people are coming to think about death, mourning, and medical progress. The palliative care movement was initiated some 30 years ago to respond to widespread ignorance or neglect of pain relief for the dying, which was then coming to public attention and becoming a key part of the nascent hospice movement. Yet if an important feature of the latter movement was acceptance of the reality of death, in recent years there has emerged a blending of clinical treatment and hospice care, a kind of compromise with the idea of death as an inevitability. Meanwhile, the combination of real progress in forestalling death and the matching medical and media hype about past and coming victories over mortality mean that death itself is coming to be seen as a biological accident, a contingent event, not a fixed given. People die now because of bad luck, indifference to good living habits, unfortunate genetics, and the like, or because they have the misfortune of dying before a cure for their fatal disease is at hand. Mourning likewise is changing. The old custom of the deceased being laid out in their living rooms, followed by a funeral, has long given way to a movement away from public funerals to private ones followed later by a memorial ceremony. No more dead bodies on display to grieve over, but soothing ceremonies of remembrance.

  10. PROGRESS IN ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, L.W.; Rosenfeld, A.H.

    1982-12-01

    Recent accomplishments in buildings energy research by the diverse groups in the Energy Efficient Buildings Program at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) are summarized. We review technological progress in the areas of ventilation and indoor air quality, buildings energy performance, computer modeling, windows, and artificial lighting. The need for actual consumption data to track accurately the improving energy efficiency of buildings is being addressed by the Buildings Energy Data (BED) Group at LBL. We summarize results to date from our Building Energy Use Compilation and Analysis (BECA) studies, which include time trends in the energy consumption of new commercial and new residential buildings, the measured savings being attained by both commercial and residential retrofits, and the cost-effectiveness of buildings energy conservation measures. We also examine recent comparisons of predicted vs. actual energy usage/savings, and present the case for building energy use labels.

  11. International Study Group Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Raubenheimer, Tor O

    2000-07-18

    The focus of the ISG work was on advancing the accelerator design and supporting technologies. This is a complex process which involves a close interaction between theoretical analysis of the collider design and R and D progress on hardware components. The sequence of efforts took place roughly in the following order: (1) Optimization of the collider parameters and definition of system and subsystem requirements, (2) Identification of design strategies and options, and (3) Development of specific technologies to achieve these requirements. Development and testing of the required components, and R and D on manufacturing techniques have been important activities of the ISG. Experiments at the major test facilities such as the ATF at KEK and ASSET at SLAC have also played a significant role in the ISG studies.

  12. EUV progress toward HVM readiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turkot, Britt; Carson, Steven L.; Lio, Anna; Liang, Ted; Phillips, Mark; McCool, Brian; Stenehjem, Eric; Crimmins, Tim; Zhang, Guojing; Sivakumar, Sam

    2016-03-01

    This past year has witnessed a sharp increase in EUV lithography progress spanning production tools, source and infrastructure to better position the technology for HVM readiness. While the exposure source remains the largest contributor to downtime and availability, significant strides in demonstrated source power have bolstered confidence in the viability of EUVL for insertion into HVM production. The ongoing development of an EUV pellicle solution alleviates industry concern about one significant source of line-yield risk. In addition to continued expected improvements in EUV source power and availability, the ability to deliver predictable yield remains an ultimate gate to HVM insertion. Ensuring predictable yield requires significant emphasis on reticles. This includes continued pellicle development to enable the readiness and supply of a robust pellicle solution in advance of 250W source power, as well as improvements in mask blank defectivity and techniques to detect and mitigate reticle blank and pattern defects.

  13. Research Progress on Vertebrobasilar Dolichoectasia

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yong-Jie; Xu, Kan; Luo, Qi; Yu, Jin-Lu

    2014-01-01

    Vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia (VBD) is a rare disease characterized by significant expansion, elongation, and tortuosity of the vertebrobasilar arteries. Current data regarding VBD are very limited. Here we systematically review VBD incidence, etiology, characteristics, clinical manifestations, treatment strategies, and prognosis. The exact incidence rate of VBD remains unclear, but is estimated to be 1.3% of the population. The occurrence of VBD is thought to be due to the cooperation of multiple factors, including congenital factors, infections and immune status, and degenerative diseases. The VBD clinical manifestations are complex with ischemic stroke as the most common, followed by progressive compression of cranial nerves and the brain stem, cerebral hemorrhage, and hydrocephalus. Treatment of VBD remains difficult. Currently, there are no precise and effective treatments, and available treatments mainly target the complications of VBD. With the development of stent technology, however, it may become an effective treatment for VBD. PMID:25136259

  14. Decomposable Mandrel Project. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Letts, S.A.; Fearon, E.; Allison, L.; Buckley, S.; Saculla, M.; Cook, R.

    1995-05-08

    We report on our progress in developing a new technology to produce both Nova and NIF scale capsules using a depolymerizable mandrel. In this technique we use poly({alpha}-methylstyrene) (PAMS) beads or shells as mandrels which are overcoated with plasma polymer. The poly({alpha}-methylstyrene) mandrel is then thermally depolymerized to gas phase monomer which diffuses away through the more thermally stable plasma polymer coating, leaving a hollow shell. Since our last report we have concentrated on characterization of the final shell. Starting with PAMS bead mandrels leads to distorted pyrolyzed shells because of thermally induced creep of the CH coating. We found that plasma polymer coatings on hollow shell mandrels shrink isotropically during pyrolysis and maintain sphericity. We are now concentrating our efforts on the use of microencapsulated shells to prepare targets with buried diagnostic layers or inner wall surface texture.

  15. Progressive Fracture of Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Minnetyan, Levon

    2008-01-01

    A new approach is described for evaluating fracture in composite structures. This approach is independent of classical fracture mechanics parameters like fracture toughness. It relies on computational simulation and is programmed in a stand-alone integrated computer code. It is multiscale, multifunctional because it includes composite mechanics for the composite behavior and finite element analysis for predicting the structural response. It contains seven modules; layered composite mechanics (micro, macro, laminate), finite element, updating scheme, local fracture, global fracture, stress based failure modes, and fracture progression. The computer code is called CODSTRAN (Composite Durability Structural ANalysis). It is used in the present paper to evaluate the global fracture of four composite shell problems and one composite built-up structure. Results show that the composite shells and the built-up composite structure global fracture are enhanced when internal pressure is combined with shear loads.

  16. Progress on the Cluster Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kivelson, Margaret; Khurana, Krishan; Acuna, Mario (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Prof M. G. Kivelson and Dr. K. K. Khurana (UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles)) are co-investigators on the Cluster Magnetometer Consortium (CMC) that provided the fluxgate magnetometers and associated mission support for the Cluster Mission. The CMC designated UCLA as the site with primary responsibility for the inter-calibration of data from the four spacecraft and the production of fully corrected data critical to achieving the mission objectives. UCLA will also participate in the analysis and interpretation of the data. The UCLA group here reports its excellent progress in developing fully intra-calibrated data for large portions of the mission and an excellent start in developing inter-calibrated data for selected time intervals, especially extended intervals in August, 2001 on which a workshop held at ESTEC in March, 2002 focused. In addition, some scientific investigations were initiated and results were reported at meetings.

  17. Treatment of Primary Progressive Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Tippett, Donna C.; Hillis, Argye E.; Tsapkini, Kyrana

    2015-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative disease that primarily affects language functions and often begins in the fifth or sixth decade of life. The devastating effects on work and home life call for the investigation of treatment alternatives. In this paper, we present a review of the literature on treatment approaches for this neurodegenerative disease. We also present new data from two intervention studies we have conducted, a behavioral one and a neuromodulatory one using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) combined with written production intervention. We show that speech-language intervention improves language outcomes in individuals with PPA; and especially in the short term, tDCS augments generalization and maintenance of positive language outcomes. We also outline current issues and challenges in intervention approaches in PPA. PMID:26062526

  18. Progress on EUV pellicle development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoldesi, Carmen; Bal, Kursat; Blum, Brian; Bock, Guus; Brouns, Derk; Dhalluin, Florian; Dziomkina, Nina; Espinoza, Juan Diego Arias; de Hoogh, Joost; Houweling, Silvester; Jansen, Maarten; Kamali, Mohammad; Kempa, Alain; Kox, Ronald; de Kruif, Robert; Lima, Jorge; Liu, Yang; Meijer, Henk; Meiling, Hans; van Mil, Ijen; Reijnen, Marco; Scaccabarozzi, Luigi; Smith, Daniel; Verbrugge, Beatrijs; de Winters, Laurens; Xiong, Xugang; Zimmerman, John

    2014-04-01

    As EUV approaches high volume manufacturing, reticle defectivity becomes an even more relevant topic for further investigation. Current baseline strategy for EUV defectivity management is to design, build and maintain a clean system without pellicle. In order to secure reticle front side particle adders to an acceptable level for high volume manufacturing, EUV pellicle is being actively investigated. Last year ASML reported on our initial EUV pellicle feasibility. In this paper, we will update on our progress since then. We will also provide an update to pellicle requirements published last year. Further, we present experimental results showing the viability and challenges of potential EUV pellicle materials, including, material properties, imaging capability, scalability and manufacturability.

  19. Progress towards a dengue vaccine.

    PubMed

    Webster, Daniel P; Farrar, Jeremy; Rowland-Jones, Sarah

    2009-11-01

    The spread of dengue virus throughout the tropics represents a major, rapidly growing public health problem with an estimated 2.5 billion people at risk of dengue fever and the life-threatening disease, severe dengue. A safe and effective vaccine for dengue is urgently needed. The pathogenesis of severe dengue results from a complex interaction between the virus, the host, and, at least in part, immune-mediated mechanisms. Vaccine development has been slowed by fears that immunisation might predispose individuals to the severe form of dengue infection. A pipeline of candidate vaccines now exists, including live attenuated, inactivated, chimeric, DNA, and viral-vector vaccines, some of which are at the stage of clinical testing. In this Review, we present what is understood about dengue pathogenesis and its implications for vaccine design, the progress that is being made in the development of a vaccine, and the future challenges.

  20. PROGRESSIVE OSSIFYING FIBRODYSPLASIA: CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Romani, Fabiana; de Menezes Karam, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Progressive ossifying fibrodysplasia is a rare genetic disease that affects one individual in every two million births. Its main consequence is heterotopic ossification, i.e. formation of additional bone in abnormal locations. It is an autosomal dominant disease, usually caused by a new mutation in the ACVR1 receptor gene, which is in the signaling pathway for bone morphogenic protein. This abnormality is not related to gender, ethnicity or consanguinity. The present study reports the case of A.C., a 17-year-old girl. Her clinical investigation began at the age of four years, but she was only diagnosed with FOP at the age of 15 years, after being evaluated by several specialists in different centers. The patient has two siblings, but her family history did not reveal any similar cases. PMID:27047836

  1. Gene therapy: progress and predictions

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Mary; Thrasher, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The first clinical gene delivery, which involved insertion of a marker gene into lymphocytes from cancer patients, was published 25 years ago. In this review, we describe progress since then in gene therapy. Patients with some inherited single-gene defects can now be treated with their own bone marrow stem cells that have been engineered with a viral vector carrying the missing gene. Patients with inherited retinopathies and haemophilia B can also be treated by local or systemic injection of viral vectors. There are also a number of promising gene therapy approaches for cancer and infectious disease. We predict that the next 25 years will see improvements in safety, efficacy and manufacture of gene delivery vectors and introduction of gene-editing technologies to the clinic. Gene delivery may also prove a cost-effective method for the delivery of biological medicines. PMID:26702034

  2. Epigenetic regulation in cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a disease arising from both genetic and epigenetic modifications of DNA that contribute to changes in gene expression in the cell. Genetic modifications include loss or amplification of DNA, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) as well as gene mutations. Epigenetic changes in cancer are generally thought to be brought about by alterations in DNA and histone modifications that lead to the silencing of tumour suppressor genes and the activation of oncogenic genes. Other consequences that result from epigenetic changes, such as inappropriate expression or repression of some genes in the wrong cellular context, can also result in the alteration of control and physiological systems such that a normal cell becomes tumorigenic. Excessive levels of the enzymes that act as epigenetic modifiers have been reported as markers of aggressive breast cancer and are associated with metastatic progression. It is likely that this is a common contributor to the recurrence and spread of the disease. The emphasis on genetic changes, for example in genome-wide association studies and increasingly in whole genome sequencing analyses of tumours, has resulted in the importance of epigenetic changes having less attention until recently. Epigenetic alterations at both the DNA and histone level are increasingly being recognised as playing a role in tumourigenesis. Recent studies have found that distinct subgroups of poor-prognosis tumours lack genetic alterations but are epigenetically deregulated, pointing to the important role that epigenetic modifications and/or their modifiers may play in cancer. In this review, we highlight the multitude of epigenetic changes that can occur and will discuss how deregulation of epigenetic modifiers contributes to cancer progression. We also discuss the off-target effects that epigenetic modifiers may have, notably the effects that histone modifiers have on non-histone proteins that can modulate protein expression and activity, as well as the role of

  3. Progress in nanotechnology for healthcare.

    PubMed

    Raffa, V; Vittorio, O; Riggio, C; Cuschieri, A

    2010-06-01

    This review based on the Wickham lecture given by AC at the 2009 SMIT meeting in Sinaia outlines the progress made in nano-technology for healthcare. It describes in brief the nature of nano-materials and their unique properties which accounts for the significant research both in scientific institutions and industry for translation into new therapies embodied in the emerging field of nano-medicine. It stresses that the potential of nano-medicine to make significant inroads for more effective therapies both for life-threatening and life-disabling disorders will only be achieved by high-quality life science research. The first generation of passive nano-diagnostics based on nanoparticle contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging is well established in clinical practice and new such contrast agents are undergoing early clinical evaluation. Likewise active (second generation) nano-therapies, exemplified by targeted control drug release systems are undergoing early clinical evaluation. The situation concerning other nano-materials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) is less advanced although considerable progress has been made on their coating for aqueous dispersion and functionalisation to enable carriage of drugs, genes and fluorescent markers. The main problem related to the clinical use of these nanotubes is that there is no consent among scientists on the fate of such nano-materials following injection or implantation in humans. Provided carbon nanotubes are manufactured to certain medical criteria (length around 1 mum, purity of 97-99% and low Fe content) they exhibit no cytotoxicity on cell cultures and demonstrate full bio-compatibility on in vivo animal studies. The results of recent experimental studies have demonstrated the potential of technologies based on CNTs for low voltage wireless electro-chemotherapy of tumours and for electro-stimulation therapies for cardiac, neurodegenerative and skeletal and visceral muscle

  4. Progressive cerebral atrophy in neuromyelitis optica.

    PubMed

    Warabi, Yoko; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Isozaki, Eiji

    2015-12-01

    We report two cases of neuromyelitis optica patients with progressive cerebral atrophy. The patients exhibited characteristic clinical features, including elderly onset, secondary progressive tetraparesis and cognitive impairment, abnormally elevated CSF protein and myelin basic protein levels, and extremely highly elevated serum anti-AQP-4 antibody titer. Because neuromyelitis optica pathology cannot switch from an inflammatory phase to the degenerative phase until the terminal phase, neuromyelitis optica rarely appears as a secondary progressive clinical course caused by axonal degeneration. However, severe intrathecal inflammation and massive destruction of neuroglia could cause a secondary progressive clinical course associated with cerebral atrophy in neuromyelitis optica patients.

  5. Progressive macular hypomelanosis: an overview.

    PubMed

    Relyveld, Germaine N; Menke, Henk E; Westerhof, Wiete

    2007-01-01

    Progressive macular hypomelanosis (PMH) is a common skin disorder that is often misdiagnosed. Various authors have written about similar skin disorders, referring to them by different names, but we believe that all these similar disorders are part of the same entity.PMH is characterized by ill-defined nummular, non-scaly hypopigmented spots on the trunk, often confluent in and around the midline, and rarely extending to the proximal extremities and neck/head region. There is no itch, pain, or preceding inflammation. PMH has a worldwide distribution; however, it is more often identified in Black people living in or originating from tropical countries. It is also more often seen in young females. The natural history of PMH is stable disease or perhaps slow progression over decades, with spontaneous disappearance after mid-life. Extensive pityriasis alba is probably identical with PMH and we suggest discontinuation of use of the former term on the grounds that extensive pityriasis alba is histologically and clinically different from classical pityriasis alba, which is basically an eczematous type of disorder.PMH is characterized histologically by diminished pigment in the epidermis and a normal-looking dermis. Electron microscopy shows a shift from large melanosomes in normal-looking skin to small aggregated, membrane-bound melanosomes in hypopigmented skin. PMH should be differentiated from other disorders with hypopigmentation on the trunk such as pityriasis versicolor. We propose that Propionibacterium acnes bacteria living in hair follicles are the cause of PMH as a result of production of a hypothetical depigmenting factor. This hypothesis is based on: (i) the presence of a red follicular fluorescence in the hypopigmented spots and the absence of this phenomenon in normal skin when examined under a Wood's light in a dark room; (ii) cultivation of P. acnes from the follicles in the hypopigmented spots but not from follicles in normal-looking skin; and (iii

  6. Let s make progress together!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adriana, Mazare; Liliana, Gheorghian

    2015-04-01

    Let's make progress together! The "Theodor Balan" Secondary School in the urban area of Suceava County in northeastern Romania is involved in several different projects. In order to extend previous successful projects with the students, parents, teachers, businesses and local government representatives in science symposiums for civic projects within the concept of sustainable development, the school is continuing to develop various successful programs. "The battle" continues both in nature and in the classrooms, in order to preserve the environment and to discover new resources. To raise awareness about the importance of existing resources even at the level of individuals there is a constant concern for keeping up to date on what already exists and is well known, but at the same time to remove "barriers" and discover new horizons and resources. Scientific activities held in our school are an effective way to educate students and the community to which they belong. In our community, we discovered sources of drinking water polluted by nitrites from fertilizers used in agriculture. In order to inform and educate people in the area, our teachers have organized several educational activities. Its purpose was: -Knowledge of the importance of water for the environment and human health. -Reducing water pollution. Students have informed their families' about sustainable development acquired at school. In this way, the school manages to educate and change people's ideas. The ways and methods of adults' learning were practiced within a Grundtvig training course "It's never too late learning to learn" in February 2014, in Florence, Italy. The GIFT 2014 was a great occasion for the teachers and students, the county's educational department and the participants at the National Colloquia of Physics to discover new materials provided at the Conference and the latest news and topics in the world of science. The theme trips at the physics laboratories of "Alexandru Ioan Cuza

  7. Progress at LAMPF: Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. Progress report, July-December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Allred, J.C.

    1981-03-01

    Progress at LAMPF is the semiannual progress report of the MP Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The report also includes brief reports on research done at LAMPF by researchers from other institutions and Los Alamos divisions.

  8. Progress at LAMPF: Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. Progress report, January-June 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Allred, J.C.

    1981-09-01

    Progress at LAMPF is the semiannual progress report of the MP Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The report includes brief reports on research done at LAMPF by researchers from other institutions and Los Alamos divisions.

  9. [Progress in proteogenomics of prokaryotes].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengpu; Xu, Ping; Zhu, Yunping

    2014-07-01

    With the rapid development of genome sequencing technologies, a large amount of prokaryote genomes have been sequenced in recent years. To further investigate the models and functions of genomes, the algorithms for genome annotations based on the sequence and homology features have been widely implemented to newly sequenced genomes. However, gene annotations only using the genomic information are prone to errors, such as the incorrect N-terminals and pseudogenes. It is even harder to provide reasonable annotating results in the case of the poor genome sequencing results. The transcriptomics based on the technologies such as microarray and RNA-seq and the proteomics based on the MS/MS have been used widely to identify the gene products with high throughput and high sensitivity, providing the powerful tools for the verification and correction of annotated genome. Compared with transcriptomics, proteomics can generate the protein list for the expressed genes in the samples or cells without any confusion of the non-coding RNA, leading the proteogenomics an important basis for the genome annotations in prokaryotes. In this paper, we first described the traditional genome annotation algorithms and pointed out the shortcomings. Then we summarized the advantages of proteomics in the genome annotations and reviewed the progress of proteogenomics in prokaryotes. Finally we discussed the challenges and strategies in the data analyses and potential solutions for the developments of proteogenomics.

  10. Stillbirths: progress and unfinished business.

    PubMed

    Frøen, J Frederik; Friberg, Ingrid K; Lawn, Joy E; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Pattinson, Robert C; Allanson, Emma R; Flenady, Vicki; McClure, Elizabeth M; Franco, Lynne; Goldenberg, Robert L; Kinney, Mary V; Leisher, Susannah Hopkins; Pitt, Catherine; Islam, Monir; Khera, Ajay; Dhaliwal, Lakhbir; Aggarwal, Neelam; Raina, Neena; Temmerman, Marleen

    2016-02-01

    This first paper of the Lancet Series on ending preventable stillbirths reviews progress in essential areas, identified in the 2011 call to action for stillbirth prevention, to inform the integrated post-2015 agenda for maternal and newborn health. Worldwide attention to babies who die in stillbirth is rapidly increasing, from integration within the new Global Strategy for Women's, Children's and Adolescents' Health, to country policies inspired by the Every Newborn Action Plan. Supportive new guidance and metrics including stillbirth as a core health indicator and measure of quality of care are emerging. Prenatal health is a crucial biological foundation to life-long health. A key priority is to integrate action for prenatal health within the continuum of care for maternal and newborn health. Still, specific actions for stillbirths are needed for advocacy, policy formulation, monitoring, and research, including improvement in the dearth of data for effective coverage of proven interventions for prenatal survival. Strong leadership is needed worldwide and in countries. Institutions with a mandate to lead global efforts for mothers and their babies must assert their leadership to reduce stillbirths by promoting healthy and safe pregnancies.

  11. Progress in carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Krumpelt, M.; Roche, M.F.

    1995-08-01

    Our objective is to increase both the life and power of the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) by developing improved components and designs. Current activities are as follows: (1) Development of lithium ferrate (LiFeO{sub 2}) and lithium cobaltate (LiCoO{sub 2}) cathodes for extended MCFC life, particularly in pressurized operation, where the present cathode, NiO, provides insufficient life; (2) Development of distributed-manifold MCFC designs for increased volumetric power density and decreased temperature gradients (and, therefore, increased life); (3) Development of components and designs appropriate for high-power-density operation (>2 kW/m{sup 2} and >100 kW/m{sup 3} in an integrated MCFC system); and (4) Studies of pitting corrosion of the stainless-steel interconnects and aluminized seals now being employed in the MCFC (alternative components will also be studied). Each of these activities has the potential to reduce the MCFC system cost significantly. Progress in each activity will be presented during the poster session.

  12. Peptide Vaccine: Progress and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weidang; Joshi, Medha D.; Singhania, Smita; Ramsey, Kyle H.; Murthy, Ashlesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional vaccine strategies have been highly efficacious for several decades in reducing mortality and morbidity due to infectious diseases. The bane of conventional vaccines, such as those that include whole organisms or large proteins, appear to be the inclusion of unnecessary antigenic load that, not only contributes little to the protective immune response, but complicates the situation by inducing allergenic and/or reactogenic responses. Peptide vaccines are an attractive alternative strategy that relies on usage of short peptide fragments to engineer the induction of highly targeted immune responses, consequently avoiding allergenic and/or reactogenic sequences. Conversely, peptide vaccines used in isolation are often weakly immunogenic and require particulate carriers for delivery and adjuvanting. In this article, we discuss the specific advantages and considerations in targeted induction of immune responses by peptide vaccines and progresses in the development of such vaccines against various diseases. Additionally, we also discuss the development of particulate carrier strategies and the inherent challenges with regard to safety when combining such technologies with peptide vaccines. PMID:26344743

  13. Progress in carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Myles, K.M.; Krumpelt, M.; Roche, M.F.

    1995-12-31

    Our objective is to increase both the life and power of the molten carbonate fuel (MCFC) by developing improved components and designs. Current activities are as follows: (1)Development of LiFeO{sub 2} and LiCoO{sub 2} cathodes for extended MCFC life, particularly in pressurized operation, where the present cathode, NiO, provides insufficient life (2) Development of distributed-manifold MCFC designs for increased volumetric power density and decreased temperature gradients (and, therefore, increased life) (3) Development of components and designs appropriate for high-power density operation (>2 kW/m{sup 2}and >100 kW/m{sup 3}in an integrated MCFC system) (4)Studies of pitting corrosion of the stainless-steel interconnects and aluminized seals now being employed in the MCFC (alternative components will also be studied). Each of these activities has the potential to reduce the MCFC system cost significantly. Progress in each activity will be presented during the poster session.

  14. Progress on ITER Diagnostic Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, David; Feder, Russ; Klabacha, Jonathan; Loesser, Doug; Messineo, Mike; Stratton, Brentley; Wood, Rick; Zhai, Yuhu; Andrew, Phillip; Barnsley, Robin; Bertschinger, Guenter; Debock, Maarten; Reichle, Roger; Udintsev, Victor; Vayakis, George; Watts, Christopher; Walsh, Michael

    2013-10-01

    On ITER, front-end components must operate reliably in a hostile environment. Many will be housed in massive port plugs, which also shield the machine from radiation. Multiple diagnostics reside in a single plug, presenting new challenges for developers. Front-end components must tolerate thermally-induced stresses, disruption-induced mechanical loads, stray ECH radiation, displacement damage, and degradation due to plasma-induced coatings. The impact of failures is amplified due to the difficulty in performing robotic maintenance on these large structures. Motivated by needs to minimize disruption loads on the plugs, standardize the handling of shield modules, and decouple the parallel efforts of the many parties, the packaging strategy for diagnostics has recently focused on the use of 3 vertical shield modules inserted from the plasma side into each equatorial plug structure. At the front of each is a detachable first wall element with customized apertures. Progress on US equatorial and upper plugs will be used as examples, including the layout of components in the interspace and port cell regions. Supported by PPPL under contract DE-AC02-09CH11466 and UT-Battelle, LLC under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. DOE.

  15. MICE Spectrometer Magnet System Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.; Virostek, Steve P.

    2007-08-27

    The first magnets for the muon ionization cooling experimentwill be the tracker solenoids that form the ends of the MICE coolingchannel. The primary purpose of the tracker solenoids is to provide auniform 4 T field (to better than +-0.3 percent over a volume that is 1meter long and 0.3 meters in diameter) spectrometer magnet field for thescintillating fiber detectors that are used to analyze the muons in thechannel before and after ionization cooling. A secondary purpose for thetracker magnet is the matching of the muon beam between the rest of theMICE cooling channel and the uniform field spectrometer magnet. Thetracker solenoid is powered by three 300 amp power supplies. Additionaltuning of the spectrometer is provided by a pair of 50 amp power suppliesacross the spectrometer magnet end coils. The tracker magnet will becooled using a pair of 4 K pulse tube coolers that each provide 1.5 W ofcooling at 4.2 K. Final design and construction of the tracker solenoidsbegan during the summer of 2006. This report describes the progress madeon the construction of the tracker solenoids.

  16. Progress on the DPASS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, Sergei A.; Bogatu, I. N.; Svidzinski, V. A.

    2015-11-01

    A novel project to develop Disruption Prediction And Simulation Suite (DPASS) of comprehensive computational tools to predict, model, and analyze disruption events in tokamaks has been recently started at FAR-TECH Inc. DPASS will eventually address the following aspects of the disruption problem: MHD, plasma edge dynamics, plasma-wall interaction, generation and losses of runaway electrons. DPASS uses the 3-D Disruption Simulation Code (DSC-3D) as a core tool and will have a modular structure. DSC is a one fluid non-linear, time-dependent 3D MHD code to simulate dynamics of tokamak plasma surrounded by pure vacuum B-field in the real geometry of a conducting tokamak vessel. DSC utilizes the adaptive meshless technique with adaptation to the moving plasma boundary, with accurate magnetic flux conservation and resolution of the plasma surface current. DSC has also an option to neglect the plasma inertia to eliminate fast magnetosonic scale. This option can be turned on/off as needed. During Phase I of the project, two modules will be developed: the computational module for modeling the massive gas injection and main plasma respond; and the module for nanoparticle plasma jet injection as an innovative disruption mitigation scheme. We will report on this development progress. Work is supported by the US DOE SBIR grant # DE-SC0013727.

  17. Purpose and Progress of CUAHSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. L.; Potter, K. W.

    2002-05-01

    The Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science Incorporated (CUASHI) is a fifty plus member institution dedicated to the design, construction and operation of infrastructure in the support of hydrologic science. Formed last year, the Consortium is presently writing a Science Plan, part of which will be described in companion talks at this special session. To address today's water resources problems the plan proposes that there must be fundamental changes in the conduct of hydrologic science. Research must consider complete hydrologic systems, including all important coupled processes, atmosphere--biosphere--land surface--human infrastructure--soil--subsurface. Research should also integrate relevant disciplines to simultaneously consider physical, chemical, biological, and social phenomena, and it should address the enormous spatial and temporal heterogeneity that characterizes hydrologic systems over a range of scales. The plan proposes shared infrastructure needed by the hydrologic science community to grapple with these issues, along with related education and outreach activities, and a program of science application. This talk introduces CUAHSI, describes our progress over the first nine months of operation including membership, staffing and the founding of corporate offices in Washington, DC., and proposes anticipated actions for the next six to twelve months.

  18. Progress in coherent laser radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Considerable progress with coherent laser radar has been made over the last few years, most notably perhaps in the available range of high performance devices and components and the confidence with which systems may now be taken into the field for prolonged periods of operation. Some of this increasing maturity was evident at the 3rd Topical Meeting on Coherent Laser Radar: Technology and Applications. Topics included in discussions were: mesoscale wind fields, nocturnal valley drainage and clear air down bursts; airborne Doppler lidar studies and comparison of ground and airborne wind measurement; wind measurement over the sea for comparison with satellite borne microwave sensors; transport of wake vortices at airfield; coherent DIAL methods; a newly assembled Nd-YAG coherent lidar system; backscatter profiles in the atmosphere and wavelength dependence over the 9 to 11 micrometer region; beam propagation; rock and soil classification with an airborne 4-laser system; technology of a global wind profiling system; target calibration; ranging and imaging with coherent pulsed and CW system; signal fluctuations and speckle. Some of these activities are briefly reviewed.

  19. Computational Aeroelasticity: Success, Progress, Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, David M.; Liu, Danny D.; Huttsell, Lawrence J.

    2003-01-01

    The formal term Computational Aeroelasticity (CAE) has only been recently adopted to describe aeroelastic analysis methods coupling high-level computational fluid dynamics codes with structural dynamics techniques. However, the general field of aeroelastic computations has enjoyed a rich history of development and application since the first hand-calculations performed in the mid 1930 s. This paper portrays a much broader definition of Computational Aeroelasticity; one that encompasses all levels of aeroelastic computation from the simplest linear aerodynamic modeling to the highest levels of viscous unsteady aerodynamics, from the most basic linear beam structural models to state-of-the-art Finite Element Model (FEM) structural analysis. This paper is not written as a comprehensive history of CAE, but rather serves to review the development and application of aeroelastic analysis methods. It describes techniques and example applications that are viewed as relatively mature and accepted, the "successes" of CAE. Cases where CAE has been successfully applied to unique or emerging problems, but the resulting techniques have proven to be one-of-a-kind analyses or areas where the techniques have yet to evolve into a routinely applied methodology are covered as "progress" in CAE. Finally the true value of this paper is rooted in the description of problems where CAE falls short in its ability to provide relevant tools for industry, the so-called "challenges" to CAE.

  20. Progress on plague vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Rosenzweig, Jason A; Jejelowo, Olufisayo; Sha, Jian; Erova, Tatiana E; Brackman, Sheri M; Kirtley, Michelle L; van Lier, Cristina J; Chopra, Ashok K

    2011-07-01

    Yersinia pestis (YP), the gram-negative plague bacterium, has shaped human history unlike any other pathogen known to mankind. YP (transmitted by the bite of an infected flea) diverged only recently from the related enteric pathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis but causes radically different diseases. Three forms of plague exist in humans: bubonic (swollen lymph nodes or bubos), septicemic (spread of YP through the lymphatics or bloodstream from the bubos to other organs), and contagious, pneumonic plague which can be communicated via YP-charged respiratory droplets resulting in person-person transmission and rapid death if left untreated (50-90% mortality). Despite the potential threat of weaponized YP being employed in bioterrorism and YP infections remaining prevalent in endemic regions of the world where rodent populations are high (including the four corner regions of the USA), an efficacious vaccine that confers immunoprotection has yet to be developed. This review article will describe the current vaccine candidates being evaluated in various model systems and provide an overall summary on the progress of this important endeavor.

  1. Progress Toward Future Runway Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohr, Gary W.; Brown, Sherilyn A.; Atkins, Stephen; Eisenhawer, Stephen W.; Bott, Terrance F.; Long, Dou; Hasan, Shahab

    2011-01-01

    The runway is universally acknowledged as a constraining factor to capacity in the National Airspace System (NAS). It follows that investigation of the effective use of runways, both in terms of selection and assignment, is paramount to the efficiency of future NAS operations. The need to address runway management is not a new idea; however, as the complexities of factors affecting runway selection and usage increase, the need for effective research in this area correspondingly increases. Under the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Airspace Systems Program, runway management is a key research area. To address a future NAS which promises to be a complex landscape of factors and competing interests among users and operators, effective runway management strategies and capabilities are required. This effort has evolved from an assessment of current practices, an understanding of research activities addressing surface and airspace operations, traffic flow management enhancements, among others. This work has yielded significant progress. Systems analysis work indicates that the value of System Oriented Runway Management tools is significantly increased in the metroplex environment over that of the single airport case. Algorithms have been developed to provide runway configuration recommendations for a single airport with multiple runways. A benefits analysis has been conducted that indicates the SORM benefits include supporting traffic growth, cost reduction as a result of system efficiency, NAS optimization from metroplex operations, fairness in aircraft operations, and rational decision making.

  2. Recent progress in VSTOL technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, L.; Deckert, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    Progress in vertical and short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) aircraft technology, in particular, during the 1970 to 1980 period at Ames Research Center is discussed. Although only two kinds of V/STOL aircraft (the helicopter and the British direct lift Harrier) have achieved operational maturity, understanding of the technology has vastly improved during this 10 year period. To pursue an aggressive R and D program at a reasonable cost, it was decided to conduct extensive large scale testing in wind tunnel and flight simulation facilities, to develop low cost research aircraft using modified airframes or engines, and to involve other agencies and industry contractors in joint technical and funding arrangements. The STOL investigations include exploring STOL performance using the rotating cylinder flap concept, the augmentor wing, upon initiation of the Quiet Short Haul Research Aircraft program, the upper surface blown flap concept. The VTOL investigations were conducted using a tilt rotor aircraft, resulting in the XV-15 tilt rotor research aircraft. Direct jet lift is now being considered for application to future supersonic fighter aircraft.

  3. Stillbirths: progress and unfinished business.

    PubMed

    Frøen, J Frederik; Friberg, Ingrid K; Lawn, Joy E; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Pattinson, Robert C; Allanson, Emma R; Flenady, Vicki; McClure, Elizabeth M; Franco, Lynne; Goldenberg, Robert L; Kinney, Mary V; Leisher, Susannah Hopkins; Pitt, Catherine; Islam, Monir; Khera, Ajay; Dhaliwal, Lakhbir; Aggarwal, Neelam; Raina, Neena; Temmerman, Marleen

    2016-02-01

    This first paper of the Lancet Series on ending preventable stillbirths reviews progress in essential areas, identified in the 2011 call to action for stillbirth prevention, to inform the integrated post-2015 agenda for maternal and newborn health. Worldwide attention to babies who die in stillbirth is rapidly increasing, from integration within the new Global Strategy for Women's, Children's and Adolescents' Health, to country policies inspired by the Every Newborn Action Plan. Supportive new guidance and metrics including stillbirth as a core health indicator and measure of quality of care are emerging. Prenatal health is a crucial biological foundation to life-long health. A key priority is to integrate action for prenatal health within the continuum of care for maternal and newborn health. Still, specific actions for stillbirths are needed for advocacy, policy formulation, monitoring, and research, including improvement in the dearth of data for effective coverage of proven interventions for prenatal survival. Strong leadership is needed worldwide and in countries. Institutions with a mandate to lead global efforts for mothers and their babies must assert their leadership to reduce stillbirths by promoting healthy and safe pregnancies. PMID:26794077

  4. Tragedy, utopia and medical progress

    PubMed Central

    Fredriksen, S

    2006-01-01

    In this article, tragedy and utopia are juxtaposed, and it is proposed that the problem of “medicalisation” is better understood in a framework of tragedy than in a utopian one. In utopia, it is presupposed that there is an error behind every setback and every side effect, whereas tragedy brings to light how side effects can be the result of irreconcilable conflicts. Medicalisation is to some extent the result of such a tragic conflict. We are given power by medical progress, but are also confronted with our fallibility, thus provoking insecurity. This situation is illustrated by the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Recent epidemiological investigations have shown that infants sleeping in a prone position have a 15–20 times higher risk of dying from SIDS than infants sleeping in a supine position. A simple means of preventing infant death is suggested by this discovery, but insecurity is also created. What else has been overlooked? Perhaps a draught, or wet diapers, or clothes of wool are just as dangerous as sleeping prone? Further investigations and precautions will be needed, but medicalisation prevails. PMID:16877623

  5. Magnetic fusion: progress -> stagnation -> degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, Leonid

    2012-10-01

    ``The theory of the failure of magnetic fusion,'' created in 2004 and presented to APS-2007 introduced the notion of the ``difficult'' and ``complicated'' stages of the program and described them details. At the first phase the emerging fusion science was created under strong leadership. Progress was visible on year to year basis, and the program was easy to manage. The complicated phase started in the late 1980s, when the plasma physics appeared to be incapable to implement the mission of ITER to test nuclear components of a fusion reactor. Then, the failure of TFTR (PPPL, USA) and JET (Culham, UK) in the mid 1990 to demonstrate QDT=1 and the blindness of their leaders to already visible means to resolve the problem, were a clear indication of an irreversible stagnation. In fact, right after 2007, it became clear that in the case of a large system of human ``particles'' (scientists) two phases have a continuation. The internal degrees of freedom, otherwise protected from external perturbations by a strong dedication to the scientific method, are now eroding and collapsing. The loss of science in addressing confinement, stability, power extraction, fueling, stationary regimes issues makes the current program irrelevant to fusion energy. A fresh approach should be taken.

  6. Hepatitis C: progress and problems.

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbert, J A

    1994-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV), a single-stranded RNA virus, is the major cause of posttransfusion hepatitis. HCV isolates differ in nucleotide and amino acid sequences. Nucleotide changes are concentrated in hypervariable regions and may be related to immune selection. In most immunocompetent persons, HCV infection is diagnosed serologically, using antigens from conserved regions. Amplification of RNA may be necessary to detect infection in immunosuppressed patients. Transmission by known parenteral routes is frequent; other means of spread are less common and may represent inapparent, percutaneous dissemination. Infection can lead to classical acute hepatitis, but most infected persons have no history of acute disease. Once infected, most individuals apparently remain carriers of the virus, with varying degrees of hepatocyte damage and fibrosis ensuing. Chronic hepatitis may lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, disease progression varies widely, from less than 2 years to cirrhosis in some patients to more than 30 years with only chronic hepatitis in others. Determinants important in deciding outcome are unknown. Alpha interferon, which results in sustained remission in selected patients, is the only available therapy. Long-term benefits from such therapy have not been demonstrated. Prevention of HCV infection by vaccination is likely to be challenging if ongoing viral mutation results in escape from neutralization and clearance. PMID:7834603

  7. [Progresses and perspectives in cybersurgery].

    PubMed

    Falcone, Fulvio

    2006-01-01

    Aim of this paper is to describe the last progress of surgical robotics owing to the more precise and more reliable instrumentations The surgical robotic applications supported by these technological developments and by the new applications allowed by the outstanding contribution of Electronic Bioengineering Had the possibility to utilise more powerful Telecommunications Networks, essential tool for the data transmission, having an impact in several areas like Telemedicine, Diagnosis and Medical and Surgical Therapy of the patient. The data transmission in real time, that of course is not influenced by the distance, allows a new virtual contact (Map-Volume) and a Clinical three-dimensional Anatomical Space (3D) operative between the surgeon and the complex robotical system. Formed by the Monitor/Controller/Robot Surgeon/patients and distant neighbours. The use of Robotic Surgery, more and more involved in Telemedicine and in the complex system of teleassistance inside the Emergency Centres for all type of catastrophe, will be essential and decisive in the nearer future. In conclusion, many new scenarios with various applications have be opened us for Telerobotic Surgery. Innovations, applications, developments of new systems will involve a greater and greater number of technicians, Doctors, Bioengineers, Clinical Engineers, Informatic Staff in all Telemedicine sectors..

  8. Tragedy, utopia and medical progress.

    PubMed

    Fredriksen, S

    2006-08-01

    In this article, tragedy and utopia are juxtaposed, and it is proposed that the problem of "medicalisation" is better understood in a framework of tragedy than in a utopian one. In utopia, it is presupposed that there is an error behind every setback and every side effect, whereas tragedy brings to light how side effects can be the result of irreconcilable conflicts. Medicalisation is to some extent the result of such a tragic conflict. We are given power by medical progress, but are also confronted with our fallibility, thus provoking insecurity. This situation is illustrated by the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Recent epidemiological investigations have shown that infants sleeping in a prone position have a 15-20 times higher risk of dying from SIDS than infants sleeping in a supine position. A simple means of preventing infant death is suggested by this discovery, but insecurity is also created. What else has been overlooked? Perhaps a draught, or wet diapers, or clothes of wool are just as dangerous as sleeping prone? Further investigations and precautions will be needed, but medicalisation prevails.

  9. Progress in Brucella vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    YANG, Xinghong; SKYBERG, Jerod A.; CAO, Ling; CLAPP, Beata; THORNBURG, Theresa; PASCUAL, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Brucella spp. are zoonotic, facultative intracellular pathogens, which cause animal and human disease. Animal disease results in abortion of fetuses; in humans, it manifests flu-like symptoms with an undulant fever, with osteoarthritis as a common complication of infection. Antibiotic regimens for human brucellosis patients may last several months and are not always completely effective. While there are no vaccines for humans, several licensed live Brucella vaccines are available for use in livestock. The performance of these animal vaccines is dependent upon the host species, dose, and route of immunization. Newly engineered live vaccines, lacking well-defined virulence factors, retain low residual virulence, are highly protective, and may someday replace currently used animal vaccines. These also have possible human applications. Moreover, due to their enhanced safety and efficacy in animal models, subunit vaccines for brucellosis show great promise for their application in livestock and humans. This review summarizes the progress of brucellosis vaccine development and presents an overview of candidate vaccines. PMID:23730309

  10. Progress in advanced high temperature materials technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freche, J. C.; Ault, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    Significant progress has recently been made in many high temperature material categories pertinent to such applications by the industrial community. These include metal matrix composites, superalloys, directionally solidified eutectics, coatings, and ceramics. Each of these material categories is reviewed and the current state-of-the-art identified, including some assessment, when appropriate, of progress, problems, and future directions.

  11. Gaining Momentum, Losing Ground. Progress Report, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business Roundtable, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report presents an update of the progress of Tapping America's Potential (TAP), a coalition of 15 of the nation's leading business organizations, and assesses three years' progress since 2005 in working towards the goal of doubling the number of students earning bachelor's degrees in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) by 2015.…

  12. Solar Heating Systems: Progress Checks & Tests Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Joanne; And Others

    This manual contains Progress Checks and Tests for use in a Solar Heating Systems curriculum (see note). It contains master copies of all Progress Checks and Unit Tests accompanying the curriculum, organized by unit. (The master copies are to be duplicated by each school so that adequate copies are available for student use in a self-paced student…

  13. SuperB Progress Report: Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Grauges, E.; Donvito, G.; Spinoso, V.; Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; Eigen, G.; Fehlker, D.; Helleve, L.; Carbone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Gabrielli, A.; Galli, D.; Giorgi, F.; Marconi, U.; Perazzini, S.; Sbarra, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valentinetti, S.; Villa, M.; Zoccoli, A.; /INFN, Bologna /Bologna U. /Caltech /Carleton U. /Cincinnati U. /INFN, CNAF /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /UC, Irvine /Taras Shevchenko U. /Orsay, LAL /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Frascati /INFN, Legnaro /Orsay, IPN /Maryland U. /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Pavia /Pavia U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Caltech /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /PNL, Richland /Queen Mary, U. of London /Rutherford /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome2 /Rome U.,Tor Vergata /INFN, Rome3 /Rome III U. /SLAC /Tel Aviv U. /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Padua /Trento U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /TRIUMF /British Columbia U. /Montreal U. /Victoria U.

    2012-02-14

    This report describes the present status of the detector design for SuperB. It is one of four separate progress reports that, taken collectively, describe progress made on the SuperB Project since the publication of the SuperB Conceptual Design Report in 2007 and the Proceedings of SuperB Workshop VI in Valencia in 2008.

  14. Using Student Collaboration to Foster Progressive Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendrick, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Meaningful discussion helps students develop new knowledge about the world around them. "Progressive discourse" is talk that encourages people to develop a new understanding together. In this article, the author discusses how she used student collaboration to foster progressive discourse and describes assignments that engage her students in group…

  15. Progressive Associative Phonagnosia: A Neuropsychological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hailstone, Julia C.; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Vestergaard, Martin D.; Patterson, Roy D.; Warren, Jason D.

    2010-01-01

    There are few detailed studies of impaired voice recognition, or phonagnosia. Here we describe two patients with progressive phonagnosia in the context of frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Patient QR presented with behavioural decline and increasing difficulty recognising familiar voices, while patient KL presented with progressive prosopagnosia.…

  16. NUTRIENT REGULATION OF CELL CYCLE PROGRESSION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cell replication is tightly controlled in normal tissues and aberrant during disease progression, such as in tumorigenesis. The replication of cells can be divided into four distinct phases: Gap 1 (G1), synthesis (S), gap 2 (G2), and mitosis (M). The progression from one phase to the next is intrica...

  17. National Disability Policy: A Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Disability, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the National Council on Disability (NCD) Progress Report has been a retrospective review and analysis of Federal programs for people with disabilities. For this Progress Report, NCD members have chosen to depart from a retrospective approach, and, instead, will focus on the current status of the quality of life of people with…

  18. Yemeni Student Characteristics and Language Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Ian C.

    A study was undertaken to identify useful methods for measuring progress in English language proficiency among students at the Yemen-America Language Institute (YALI) in Sana'a, Yemen. The study examined factors critical to such progress as well as the profiles of student attitudes and demographic characteristics. A questionnaire was administered…

  19. Basal ganglia germinoma with progressive cerebral hemiatrophy.

    PubMed

    Liu, E; Robertson, R L; du Plessis, A; Pomeroy, S L

    1999-04-01

    The authors describe a 7-year-old Chinese-American female with a germinoma of the basal ganglia who presented with progressive hemiparesis and cerebral hemiatrophy. The additional finding of markedly elevated antiphospholipid antibodies suggests the possibility of an autoimmune pathogenesis for the progressive cerebral atrophy, as well as the later development of cognitive decline, tics, and obsessive-compulsive behaviors. PMID:10328283

  20. Motivational Aspects of Moral Learning and Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curren, Randall

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses a puzzle about moral learning concerning its social context and the potential for moral progress: Won't the social context of moral learning shape moral perceptions, beliefs, and motivation in ways that will inevitably "limit" moral cognition, motivation, and progress? It addresses the relationships between…

  1. Progressive Education in Georgia: Tradition or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopaliani, Bella; Harnisch, Delwyn L.; Doliashvili, Nana; Guetterman, Timothy C.

    2013-01-01

    Despite differences among progressive educators, they share the conviction that democracy means active participation by all citizens in the social, political, and economic decisions of their countries. The aim of this paper is to explore how Georgia is meeting goals and perspectives of progressive education by widely implementing civic education…

  2. Students' Progression in Understanding the Matter Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadenfeldt, Jan Christoph; Neumann, Knut; Bernholt, Sascha; Liu, Xiufeng; Parchmann, Ilka

    2016-01-01

    This study presents our attempt to elicit students' progression in understanding the matter concept. Past work has identified the big ideas about matter students need to understand, the many everyday understandings students hold about these ideas, and levels of understanding through which students progress in developing understanding of the big…

  3. The Relevance of Learning Progressions for NAEP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Lorrie; Daro, Phil; Stancavage, Frances B.

    2013-01-01

    "Learning progressions" are one of the most important assessment design ideas to be introduced in the past decade. In the United States, several committees of the National Research Council (NRC) have argued for the use of learning progressions as a means to foster both deeper mastery of subject-matter content and higher level reasoning…

  4. 40 CFR 35.6650 - Progress reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Notwithstanding 40 CFR 31.41(b)(1), the reports shall be due within 60 days after the reporting period. The final progress report shall be due 90 days after expiration or termination of the Cooperative Agreement. (b) Content. The progress report must contain the following information: (1) An explanation of...

  5. 40 CFR 35.6650 - Progress reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Notwithstanding 40 CFR 31.41(b)(1), the reports shall be due within 60 days after the reporting period. The final progress report shall be due 90 days after expiration or termination of the Cooperative Agreement. (b) Content. The progress report must contain the following information: (1) An explanation of...

  6. Estimating progression-free survival in paediatric brain tumour patients when some progression statuses are unknown

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ying; Thall, Peter F.; Wolff, Johannes E.

    2012-01-01

    Summary In oncology, progression-free survival time, which is defined as the minimum of the times to disease progression or death, often is used to characterize treatment and covariate effects. We are motivated by the desire to estimate the progression time distribution on the basis of data from 780 paediatric patients with choroid plexus tumours, which are a rare brain cancer where disease progression always precedes death. In retrospective data on 674 patients, the times to death or censoring were recorded but progression times were missing. In a prospective study of 106 patients, both times were recorded but there were only 20 non-censored progression times and 10 non-censored survival times. Consequently, estimating the progression time distribution is complicated by the problems that, for most of the patients, either the survival time is known but the progression time is not known, or the survival time is right censored and it is not known whether the patient’s disease progressed before censoring. For data with these missingness structures, we formulate a family of Bayesian parametric likelihoods and present methods for estimating the progression time distribution. The underlying idea is that estimating the association between the time to progression and subsequent survival time from patients having complete data provides a basis for utilizing covariates and partial event time data of other patients to infer their missing progression times. We illustrate the methodology by analysing the brain tumour data, and we also present a simulation study. PMID:22408277

  7. Identifying predictive factors in melanoma progression.

    PubMed

    Dabrowska, D M; Elashoff, R M; Ho, W; Morton, D L

    1998-01-01

    Identification of risk factors is a fundamental goal of melanoma studies. The current understanding of melanoma progression is based primarily on two-stage modeling. A multistate Markov chain process combined with Cox proportional hazard regression is used to model the melanoma progression. The model is applied to 3,434 patients initially diagnosed as AJCC stage I or stage II. Parameter estimates are obtained using Cox regression and supplemented by plots of survival probabilities. Age is associated with increased risk of progression from stage I, II to stage III and from stage III to stage IV. Males experienced an increased risk of stage I, II to stage III progression. Primary tumor located on extremities decreased the risk of all transitions. Clark's level of invasion >III and Breslow's depth >1 mm increased the risk of progression from stage I, II to stage III and stage IV. The following interactions among the prognostic factors were identified for the first time in this research: interaction of age and gender in progression from stage I, II to stage III; interactions of level and depth and site by gender were found in the progression from stage I, II to stage III; interaction of site and gender in progression from stage III to stage IV and stage IV to death. Also we identified primary site as a new prognostic factor for the progression from stage IV to death. The study employed a multistate model in order to identify prognostic factors relevant for disease progression. The unique feature is the modeling of interactions among the prognostic factors and their identification. PMID:9538154

  8. [Laboratory markers of melanoma progression].

    PubMed

    Bánfalvi, Teodóra; Edesné, Mariann B; Gergye, Mária; Udvarhelyi, Nóra; Orosz, Zsolt; Gilde, Katalin; Kremmer, Tibor; Ottó, Szabolcs; Tímár, József

    2003-01-01

    Extracellular tumour markers may have potential role in the follow-up of patients with malignant melanoma, in therapy monitoring and in prediction of prognosis. In our article circulating tumour markers in melanoma (melanoma inhibitory activity, lipid bound sialic acid, neuron specific enolase, TA90 immune complex, S-100B protein, 5-S-cysteinyldopa, tyrosinase, cytokines, metalloproteinases, LDH) were reviewed. Among laboratory melanoma markers the S-100B protein is the most investigated. S-100B protein has high specificity, appropriate sensitivity and proved to be significant prognostic factor independent from stages. High serum values are associated with shorter survival. However, before S-100B monitoring immunohistochemistry for the detection of S-100B is required. In the case of malignant melanomas with low expression serum S-100B monitoring may not be sensitive enough to follow disease progression. Although the serum concentration of 5-S-cysteinyldopa did not prove to be independent prognostic factor in our previous studies comprising the highest patient number in the literature, the marker was suggested for therapy monitoring. The survival analysis indicated that the elevated 5-S-cysteinyldopa level predicts shorter survival. In spite of the calculated low correlation between the two markers, parallel elevation of S-100B protein and 5-S-cysteinyldopa indicated shorter survival. On the basis of the literature LDH is the most appropriate tumour marker in stage IV to predict prognosis, but its sensitivity and specificity could not achieve that of S-100B protein. S-100B and LDH proved to be similarly reliable in respect to the clinical outcome. Determination of serum concentration of MIA and tyrosinase are also reliable markers in malignant melanoma. The other investigated markers are not well known yet or do not provide useful information to the clinicians. PMID:12704461

  9. Through tubing progressing cavity pump

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, A.E.

    1986-06-03

    A method is described of installing a progressing cavity pump assembly within a well, the pump assembly being of the type having a stator, a helical rotor located in the stator and rotated by a string of sucker rods extending through tubing to the surface. The method consists of: securing a tubular seating member to a lower end of the tubing and lowering the tubing into the well; mounting a seating member on a lower end of the pump assembly; mounting a rotor nipple to the upper end of the stator and a drive rod to the upper end of the rotor, and providing the rotor nipple and drive rod with engaging means that allows a selected amount of vertical movement of the rotor with respect to the stator; connecting the upper end of the drive rod to the sucker rods; lowering the pump assembly into the tubing on the sucker rods until the seating member on the pump assembly contacts the tubular seating member; continuing to lower the sucker rods without rotation, moving the rotor downward with respect to the stator and forcing the seating members together with the weight of the sucker rods applied to the stator through the engaging means; then moving the sucker rods and the rotor a selected distance upward while the stator remains stationary to position the top of the rotor above the stator a selected distance; then connecting the sucker rods at the surface to a rotary power source and rotating the sucker rods to cause the pump to operate.

  10. On disciplinary fragmentation and scientific progress.

    PubMed

    Balietti, Stefano; Mäs, Michael; Helbing, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Why are some scientific disciplines, such as sociology and psychology, more fragmented into conflicting schools of thought than other fields, such as physics and biology? Furthermore, why does high fragmentation tend to coincide with limited scientific progress? We analyzed a formal model where scientists seek to identify the correct answer to a research question. Each scientist is influenced by three forces: (i) signals received from the correct answer to the question; (ii) peer influence; and (iii) noise. We observed the emergence of different macroscopic patterns of collective exploration, and studied how the three forces affect the degree to which disciplines fall apart into divergent fragments, or so-called "schools of thought". We conducted two simulation experiments where we tested (A) whether the three forces foster or hamper progress, and (B) whether disciplinary fragmentation causally affects scientific progress and vice versa. We found that fragmentation critically limits scientific progress. Strikingly, there is no effect in the opposite causal direction. What is more, our results shows that at the heart of the mechanisms driving scientific progress we find (i) social interactions, and (ii) peer disagreement. In fact, fragmentation is increased and progress limited if the simulated scientists are open to influence only by peers with very similar views, or when within-school diversity is lost. Finally, disciplines where the scientists received strong signals from the correct answer were less fragmented and experienced faster progress. We discuss model's implications for the design of social institutions fostering interdisciplinarity and participation in science.

  11. Site Characterization Progress Report Number 21

    SciTech Connect

    1999-09-30

    This is the 21 st progress report issued by the U.S. Department of Energy. This report provides a summary-level discussion of Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project progress. Accomplishments this period are presented in a format that identifies important progress achieved and conveys how that progress supports the near-term objectives in the U.S. Department of Energy's schedule. Greater detail is documented in the cited references and in deliverables listed in Appendix A to this report. This document provides a discussion of recently completed and ongoing activities conducted by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project during the six-month reporting period from April 1, 1999, through September 30, 1999. Some information presented herein is by necessity preliminary, because some deliverables and reports that support the discussions have not been finalized. Projected future deliverables and reports are listed in Appendix B and are noted in the text as works in progress. Appendix C lists the status of milestone reports referenced in previous progress reports commencing with Progress Report 17. A glossary of Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project-specific terms used in this report is given in Appendix D.

  12. On Disciplinary Fragmentation and Scientific Progress

    PubMed Central

    Balietti, Stefano; Mäs, Michael; Helbing, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Why are some scientific disciplines, such as sociology and psychology, more fragmented into conflicting schools of thought than other fields, such as physics and biology? Furthermore, why does high fragmentation tend to coincide with limited scientific progress? We analyzed a formal model where scientists seek to identify the correct answer to a research question. Each scientist is influenced by three forces: (i) signals received from the correct answer to the question; (ii) peer influence; and (iii) noise. We observed the emergence of different macroscopic patterns of collective exploration, and studied how the three forces affect the degree to which disciplines fall apart into divergent fragments, or so-called “schools of thought”. We conducted two simulation experiments where we tested (A) whether the three forces foster or hamper progress, and (B) whether disciplinary fragmentation causally affects scientific progress and vice versa. We found that fragmentation critically limits scientific progress. Strikingly, there is no effect in the opposite causal direction. What is more, our results shows that at the heart of the mechanisms driving scientific progress we find (i) social interactions, and (ii) peer disagreement. In fact, fragmentation is increased and progress limited if the simulated scientists are open to influence only by peers with very similar views, or when within-school diversity is lost. Finally, disciplines where the scientists received strong signals from the correct answer were less fragmented and experienced faster progress. We discuss model’s implications for the design of social institutions fostering interdisciplinarity and participation in science. PMID:25790025

  13. Patterns of attachment of the myodural bridge by the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiao-Ying; Yu, Sheng-Bo; Li, Yun-Fei; Chi, Yan-Yan; Zheng, Nan; Gao, Hai-Bin; Luan, Bing-Yi; Zhang, Zhao-Xi; Sui, Hong-Jin

    2016-03-01

    The myodural bridge was first described by Hack in 1995 and was thought to be related to chronic cervicogenic headaches. For a long time, few studies revealed the patterns of the myodural bridge considering the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle. In this study, P45 plastination technology and anatomical dissection were performed on head specimens, and four different terminal region types of the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle were observed, including the posterior atlanto-occipital interspace, posterior arch of the atlas and posterior atlanto-axial interspace. We propose that the myodural complex structures in the posterior atlanto-occipital and posterior atlanto-axial interspace have cooperative effects on cerebrospinal fluid and work together. This force might be an important source for the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:25859757

  14. Patterns of attachment of the myodural bridge by the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiao-Ying; Yu, Sheng-Bo; Li, Yun-Fei; Chi, Yan-Yan; Zheng, Nan; Gao, Hai-Bin; Luan, Bing-Yi; Zhang, Zhao-Xi; Sui, Hong-Jin

    2016-03-01

    The myodural bridge was first described by Hack in 1995 and was thought to be related to chronic cervicogenic headaches. For a long time, few studies revealed the patterns of the myodural bridge considering the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle. In this study, P45 plastination technology and anatomical dissection were performed on head specimens, and four different terminal region types of the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle were observed, including the posterior atlanto-occipital interspace, posterior arch of the atlas and posterior atlanto-axial interspace. We propose that the myodural complex structures in the posterior atlanto-occipital and posterior atlanto-axial interspace have cooperative effects on cerebrospinal fluid and work together. This force might be an important source for the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid.

  15. Progressive hemifacial atrophy. A natural history study.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, M T; Spencer, M A

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe two very different natural history courses in 2 patients with hemifacial atrophy. Progressive hemifacial atrophy (Parry-Romberg syndrome, Romberg syndrome, PHA) is characterized by slowly progressive atrophy, frequently involving only one side of the face, primarily affecting the subcutaneous tissue and fat. The onset usually occurs during the first 2 decades of life. The cause and pathophysiology are unknown. Ophthalmic involvement is common, with progressive enophthalmos a frequent finding. Pupillary disturbances, heterochromia, uveitis, pigmentary disturbances of the ocular fundus, and restrictive strabismus have also been reported. Neurologic findings may be present, but the natural history and progression of ocular findings are often not described in the literature. METHODS: We studied the records and present findings of 2 patients with progressive hemifacial atrophy who were observed in our institution over a 10-year period. RESULTS: Both patients showed progression of ophthalmic findings, primarily on the affected side. One patient has had chronic uveitis with secondary cataract and glaucoma, in addition to retinal pigmentary changes. She also had a third-nerve paresis of the contralateral eye and mild seizure activity. The other patient had mild uveitis, some progression of unilateral retinal pigmentary changes, and a significant increase in hyperopia in the affected eye, in addition to hypotony at age 19 without a clear cause, but with secondary retinal and refractive changes. CONCLUSION: Ocular manifestations of progressive hemifacial atrophy are varied, but can progress from mild visual impairment to blindness. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3A FIGURE 3B FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:8719679

  16. Cancer progression modeling using static sample data.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yijun; Yao, Jin; Nowak, Norma J; Goodison, Steve

    2014-01-01

    As molecular profiling data continues to accumulate, the design of integrative computational analyses that can provide insights into the dynamic aspects of cancer progression becomes feasible. Here, we present a novel computational method for the construction of cancer progression models based on the analysis of static tumor samples. We demonstrate the reliability of the method with simulated data, and describe the application to breast cancer data. Our findings support a linear, branching model for breast cancer progression. An interactive model facilitates the identification of key molecular events in the advance of disease to malignancy.

  17. Shading reduces coral-disease progression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, E. M.; van Woesik, R.

    2009-09-01

    The growing incidence of tropical-marine diseases is attributed to increases in pathogen prevalence and virulence associated with global warming. Additionally, the compromised-host hypothesis suggests that rising ocean temperatures may increase disease activity by making the corals more susceptible to ubiquitous pathogens. We tested the effects of reducing irradiance stress on coral-disease progression rates by shading corals showing signs consistent with white-plague disease. Our results showed that white-plague disease on shaded corals progressed significantly more slowly than on controls. Although the mechanisms are unknown, this study suggests that light intensity influences the rate of coral-disease progression.

  18. Tunneling progress on the Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hansmire, W.H.; Munzer, R.J.

    1996-06-01

    The current status of tunneling progress on the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) is presented in this paper. The Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), a key part of the YMP, has been long in development and construction is ongoing. This is a progress report on the tunneling aspects of the ESF as of January 1, 1996. For purposes of discussion in this summary, the tunneling has progressed in four general phases. The paper describes: tunneling in jointed rock under low stress; tunneling through the Bow Ridge Fault and soft rock; tunneling through the Imbricate Fault Zone; and Tunneling into the candidate repository formation.

  19. Surrogate Markers of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Progression.

    PubMed

    Wanhainen, Anders; Mani, Kevin; Golledge, Jonathan

    2016-02-01

    The natural course of many abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is to gradually expand and eventually rupture and monitoring the disease progression is essential to their management. In this publication, we review surrogate markers of AAA progression. AAA diameter remains the most widely used and important marker of AAA growth. Standardized reporting of reproducible methods of measuring AAA diameter is essential. Newer imaging assessments, such as volume measurements, biomechanical analyses, and functional and molecular imaging, as well as circulating biomarkers, have potential to add important information about AAA progression. Currently, however, there is insufficient evidence to recommend their routine use in clinical practice. PMID:26715680

  20. Theoretical problems in accelerator physics. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This is the second progress report submitted under the author`s current grant and covers progress made since the submission of the first progress report in August 1993. During this period the author has continued to spend approximately one half of his time at SLAC and most of the projects reported here were carried out in collaboration with individuals and groups at SLAC. Except where otherwise noted, reference numbers in the text refer to the attached list of current contract publications. Copies of the publications, numbered in agreement with the publication list, are included with this report.

  1. Affine Invariant Character Recognition by Progressive Removing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamura, Masakazu; Horimatsu, Akira; Niwa, Ryo; Kise, Koichi; Uchida, Seiichi; Omachi, Shinichiro

    Recognizing characters in scene images suffering from perspective distortion is a challenge. Although there are some methods to overcome this difficulty, they are time-consuming. In this paper, we propose a set of affine invariant features and a new recognition scheme called “progressive removing” that can help reduce the processing time. Progressive removing gradually removes less feasible categories and skew angles by using multiple classifiers. We observed that progressive removing and the use of the affine invariant features reduced the processing time by about 60% in comparison to a trivial one without decreasing the recognition rate.

  2. Progressive bilateral thinning of the parietal bones

    SciTech Connect

    Cederlund, C.G.; Andren, L.; Olivecrona, H.

    1982-03-01

    Observation of a case of progressive bilateral parietal thinning within a period of 14 years induced us to study skull films of 3 636 consecutive patients. Parietal thinning was found in 86 patients (2.37%). It was more common in women, with a sex ratio of 1:1.9. The mean age of the females was 72 years, and that of the males 63 years. Previous skull films of 25 of these patients were available and showed progression in 10. It is concluded that parietal thinning is a slowly progressive disease of middle-aged and old patients and is not an anatomical variant or congenital dysplasia of the dipole.

  3. Progressive discipline in nursing. Arbitrators' decisions.

    PubMed

    Kjervik, D K

    1984-04-01

    Nursing administrators occasionally must appear before an arbitrator during a hearing to present evidence about the disciplining or discharge of a nursing staff member. Labor arbitrators will examine the record for evidence of appropriate discipline, including progressive discipline, which gradually increases the severity of penalties. This gives the employee adequate warning about improper behavior and an opportunity to respond. The author describes progressive discipline, identifies its elements, and shows cases in which arbitrators have either upheld or overturned hospitals' disciplinary measures. Nursing administrators will discover guidelines for progressive discipline that will help them in either avoiding a demand for arbitration or convincing the arbitrator that disciplinary measures were appropriate.

  4. Primary progressive aphasia and transient global amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Graff-Radford, Jonathan; Josephs, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To report three patients with history of transient global amnesia who developed primary progressive aphasia. Patients Three patients presenting to the Neurology clinic with language complaints Setting Tertiary care center Results We describe three patients with a history of transient global amnesia who were subsequently diagnosed with primary progressive aphasia. All patients had recurrent attacks of transient global amnesia. The diagnoses of primary progressive aphasia were supported by speech pathology evaluations, neuropsychometric testing and imaging findings. PET scans, for example, revealed left posterior frontal hypometabolism in one patient, predominately left temporal-parietal hypometabolism in another while single-photon emission computed tomography demonstrated decreased perfusion in the anterior left temporal and frontal lobe in the third. Conclusions There may be a relationship between recurrent transient global amnesia and the development of primary progressive aphasia. PMID:22410450

  5. Complement activation in progressive renal disease

    PubMed Central

    Fearn, Amy; Sheerin, Neil Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common and the cause of significant morbidity and mortality. The replacement of functioning nephrons by fibrosis is characteristic of progressive disease. The pathways that lead to fibrosis are not fully understood, although chronic non-resolving inflammation in the kidney is likely to drive the fibrotic response that occurs. In patients with progressive CKD there is histological evidence of inflammation in the interstitium and strategies that reduce inflammation reduce renal injury in pre-clinical models of CKD. The complement system is an integral part of the innate immune system but also augments adaptive immune responses. Complement activation is known to occur in many diverse renal diseases, including glomerulonephritis, thrombotic microangiopathies and transplant rejection. In this review we discuss current evidence that complement activation contributes to progression of CKD, how complement could cause renal inflammation and whether complement inhibition would slow progression of renal disease. PMID:25664245

  6. Progress Resupply Craft Docks to Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    The 39th ISS Progress resupply vehicle automatically docked to the aft port of the Zvezda service module of the International Space Station at 7:58 a.m. EDT on September 12 using the Kurs automated...

  7. Clinical Trials: Key to Medical Progress

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Clinical Trials: Key to Medical Progress Past Issues / Summer 2008 ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo iStock Clinical trials are research studies that test how well new ...

  8. Progress in the Development of Nanotheranostic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Honggang; Wang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    This thematic issue includes both review and research articles and is intended to provide an overview on the recent progress in the development of nanostructure-based therapeutic, diagnostic, and theranostic systems. PMID:27217827

  9. Varieties of progressive non-fluent aphasia.

    PubMed

    Cappa, S F; Perani, D; Messa, C; Miozzo, A; Fazio, F

    1996-01-17

    We report four patients with progressive aphasia of the non-fluent type as the presenting clinical manifestation. The patients were included in a longitudinal study of focal progressive neuropsychological syndromes, and were periodically submitted to neuropsychological evaluations and neuroimaging studies (TC, MRI, SPET or PET). The pattern of neuropsychological impairment was in good agreement with the results of functional imaging studies, which indicated involvement of the anterior regions of the left hemisphere. The evolution of the clinical picture was extremely heterogeneous in the four patients, ranging from a relatively stable picture of transcortical motor aphasia to a severe progressive frontal lobe syndrome. Progressive non-fluent aphasia appears to be a reliable clinical marker of the localization of the pathological process; whether this is related to specific neuropathological conditions, such as Pick's disease, remains for the moment a matter of speculation.

  10. Study of heavy flavored particles. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    This report discusses progress on the following topics: time-of- flight system; charmed baryon production and decays; D decays to baryons; measurement of sigma plus particles magnetic moments; and strong interaction coupling. (LSP)

  11. MTSAT Satellite Movie of Haiyan's Progression

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of MTSAT satellite data shows the progression of Super-Typhoon Haiyan on Nov. 7 from 0930 UTC to 1530 UTC as it began moving over the Philippines. Credit: University of Wisconsin, CI...

  12. Hurricane Prediction: Progress and Problem Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    Describes progress made in recent decades in predicting the track and landfall of hurricanes. Examines the problems of detecting, tracking, and describing tropical cyclones, and the difficulties which continue to complicate the matter of warning and evacuating coastal residents. (JR)

  13. Pathophysiology and management of progressive renal disease.

    PubMed

    Brown, S A; Crowell, W A; Brown, C A; Barsanti, J A; Finco, D R

    1997-09-01

    Recently, the hypothesis that all renal diseases are inherently progressive and self-perpetuating has focused attention on adaptive changes in renal structure and function that occur whenever renal function is reduced. These glomerular adaptations to renal disease include increases in filtration rate, capillary pressure and size, and are referred to as glomerular hyperfiltration, glomerular hypertension and glomerular hypertrophy, respectively. Extrarenal changes, such as dietary phosphate excess, systemic hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, acidosis and hyperparathyroidism occur in animals with renal disease and may be contributors to progression of renal disease. Emphasis in the management of companion animals with renal disease has shifted to identifying, understanding and controlling those processes that play a role in the progression from early to end-stage renal failure. Advances made by veterinary nephrologists in the past 15 years permit resolution of old controversies, formulation of new hypotheses and discussion of unresolved issues about the nature of progressive renal disease in dogs and cats. PMID:9308397

  14. Hearing Loss Widespread, 'Progressive' in Older Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160985.html Hearing Loss Widespread, 'Progressive' in Older Americans Rates accelerate especially ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A new study finds widespread hearing loss among elderly Americans, with an especially high rate ...

  15. Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium (PIERS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The third Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium (PIERS) was held 12-16 Jul. 1993, at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California. More than 800 presentations were made, and those abstracts are included in this publication.

  16. Progressive Damage Modeling of Notched Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aitharaju, Venkat; Aashat, Satvir; Kia, Hamid; Satyanarayana, Arunkumar; Bogert, Philip

    2016-01-01

    There is an increased interest in using non-crimp fabric reinforced composites for primary and secondary structural weight savings in high performance automobile applications. However, one of the main challenges in implementing these composites is the lack of understanding of damage progression under a wide variety of loading conditions for general configurations. Towards that end, researchers at GM and NASA are developing new damage models to predict accurately the progressive failure of these composites. In this investigation, the developed progressive failure analysis model was applied to study damage progression in center-notched and open-hole tension specimens for various laminate schemes. The results of a detailed study with respect to the effect of element size on the analysis outcome are presented.

  17. Basic Research and Progress against Pediatric Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    An infographic about the importance of basic research for making progress against childhood cancers. The graphic shows the research milestones that led to the development and approval of Unituxin to treat neuroblastoma, a cancer seen mainly in children.

  18. Diagnosis and treatment of rapidly progressive dementias

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, Ross W.; Takada, Leonel T.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Rapidly progressive dementias are conditions that typically cause dementia over weeks or months. They are a particular challenge to neurologists as the differential diagnosis often is different from the more typical, slowly progressive dementias. Early and accurate diagnosis is essential, as many of the etiologies are treatable. The information in this review is in part based on experience through our rapidly progressive dementia program at the University of California San Francisco, Memory and Aging Center. As treatment of a rapidly progressive dementia is entirely dependent on the diagnosis, we present a comprehensive, structured, but pragmatic approach to diagnosis, including key clinical, laboratory, and radiologic features. For the 2 most common causes of rapid dementia, treatment algorithms for the autoimmune encephalopathies and symptomatic management for the neurodegenerative causes are discussed. PMID:23634367

  19. Grief and Loss as Alzheimer's Progresses

    MedlinePlus

    ... or share your name. Grief and Loss as Alzheimer's Progresses Tweet Bookmark this page | Email | Print It ... and grief as their life is changed by Alzheimer's. You're entitled to these emotions and may ...

  20. Progressive Fracture of Fiber Composite Builtup Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gotsis, Pascal K.; Chamis, Christos C.; Minnetyan, Levon

    1996-01-01

    The damage progression and fracture of builtup composite structures was evaluated by using computational simulation to examine the behavior and response of a stiffened composite (0 +/- 45/90)(sub s6) laminate panel subjected to a bending load. The damage initiation, growth, accumulation, progression, and propagation to structural collapse were simulated. An integrated computer code (CODSTRAN) was augmented for the simulation of the progressive damage and fracture of builtup composite structures under mechanical loading. Results showed that damage initiation and progression have a significant effect on the structural response. Also investigated was the influence of different types of bending load on the damage initiation, propagation, and final fracture of the builtup composite panel.

  1. Progress of the RERTR program in 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.

    1999-09-29

    This paper describes the progress achieved by the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program in collaboration with its many international partners during 1999 and discusses planned activities for the coming year.

  2. Imagine stopping the progression of Alzheimer's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Imagine stopping the progression of Alzheimer's Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... I have friends and loved ones suffering from Alzheimer's. But I can imagine… and hope for… a ...

  3. FY 2011 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials

    SciTech Connect

    2012-02-28

    The FY 2011 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials focuses on the development and validation of advanced materials and manufacturing technologies to significantly reduce light and heavy duty vehicle weight without compromising other attributes such as safety, performance, recyclability, and cost.

  4. Regulation of terpene metabolism. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Croteau, R.

    1983-01-01

    Progress is reported in the following research areas: function of monoterpene catabolism; pathways and enzymes of monoterpene catabolism; ultrastructure of oil glands; pathways and enzymes of monoterpene biosynthesis; and regulation of metabolism in peppermints. (ACR)

  5. Genetics Home Reference: progressive supranuclear palsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Progressive supranuclear palsy is also characterized by abnormal eye movements, which typically develop several years after the other movement problems first appear. Restricted up-and-down eye movement (vertical gaze palsy) is a hallmark of this ...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... cholestasis (PFIC) is a disorder that causes progressive liver disease, which typically leads to liver failure. In people ... The buildup of bile in liver cells causes liver disease in affected individuals. Signs and symptoms of PFIC ...

  7. Solar lease grant program. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    Progress on a lease program for the installation of a solar water heater with no installation charge is reported. Information on the announcement of the program, the selection of participants, the contractural agreement, progress on installation of equipment, monitoring, and evaluation is summarized. The status of the budget concerned with the program is announced. Forms used for applications for the program and an announcement from Resource Alternatives for Cilco customers are presented.

  8. Theoretical nuclear structure. Progress report for 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarewicz, W.; Strayer, M.R.

    1997-12-31

    This research effort is directed toward theoretical support and guidance for the fields of radioactive ion beam physics, gamma-ray spectroscopy, and the interface between nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics. The authors report substantial progress in all these areas. One measure of progress is publications and invited material. The research described here has led to more than 25 papers that are published, accepted, or submitted to refereed journals, and to 25 invited presentations at conferences and workshops.

  9. Progress in Fully Automated Abdominal CT Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Automated analysis of abdominal CT has advanced markedly over just the last few years. Fully automated assessment of organs, lymph nodes, adipose tissue, muscle, bowel, spine, and tumors are some examples where tremendous progress has been made. Computer-aided detection of lesions has also improved dramatically. CONCLUSION This article reviews the progress and provides insights into what is in store in the near future for automated analysis for abdominal CT, ultimately leading to fully automated interpretation. PMID:27101207

  10. Central conduction time in progressive supranuclear palsy.

    PubMed

    Pakalnis, A; Drake, M E; Huber, S; Paulson, G; Phillips, B

    1992-01-01

    Progressive nuclear palsy (PSP) is a parkinson-like extrapyramidal disorder with pathological evidence of brain stem demyelination. We studied brain stem auditory (BAEP) and somatosensory (SSEP) evoked potentials in 8 patients with progressive supra-nuclear palsy to look for evidence of such central demyelination. We found minor alterations in BAEPs and frequently abnormal SSEPs, suggestive of brain stem white matter involvement in this disorder. Evoked potentials may assist in the differentiation of PSP from other parkinsonian conditions. PMID:1541246

  11. Family Medicine Mandatory Assessment of Progress

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Fok-Han; Herold, Jodi; Iglar, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To report the results of a pilot in-training progress test, the Family Medicine Mandatory Assessment of Progress, taken by first- and second-year postgraduate family medicine trainees. Design Assessment of resident performance on a key-features approach multiple-choice progress test. Test questions were developed by competency content area experts. Setting University of Toronto in Ontario. Participants First- and second-year family medicine residents. Main outcome measures Construct validity was assessed based on performance on the test by first- and second-year residents, Canadian and international medical graduates, and residents with more or less than 1 month of relevant clinical experience. Results Pilot progress testing of family medicine residents (N = 255) at the University of Toronto revealed a significant 1.6% difference (P < .01) in mean scores between first- and second-year postgraduate family medicine trainees and achieved construct validity across many parameters studied. The agreement coefficients for residents being identified as the poorest performers ranged from 0.88 to 0.90 depending on the domain of practice assessed. Conclusion Competency-based progress testing using the key-features model is a valid means of assessing the progress of family medicine residents.

  12. Progression of alcoholic acute to chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Ammann, R W; Muellhaupt, B

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholic chronic pancreatitis usually progresses from acute attacks to chronic pancreatitis within one to 19 years. The factors responsible for the appreciable variability in progression are unclear. In this study the relation between progression and the incidence and severity of acute episodes in a large cohort of patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis was analysed. All patients with at least one documented episode of acute pancreatitis have been studied prospectively over the past 30 years according to our protocol. Patients were classified according to their long term course into (a) calcific (n = 185), (b) non-calcific (n = 30), and (c) non-progressive (n = 39) chronic pancreatitis groups. The yearly incidence of acute attacks of pancreatitis was significantly higher in groups (a) and (b) than in group (c). Furthermore, the progression rate to advanced chronic pancreatitis (groups (a) and (b)) correlated with the incidence of severe pancreatitis (associated with pseudocysts in more than 55%). Pseudocysts were located primarily in the cephalic pancreas in groups (a) and (b) (58-71%) and in the pancreatic tail in group (c) (61%). In conclusion, these data suggest that the progression of acute to chronic pancreatitis is closely related to the incidence and severity of acute attacks. This finding and the primary location of pseudocysts in the cephalic pancreas (groups (a) plus (b)) are compatible with the 'necrosis-fibrosis' pathogenetic hypothesis. PMID:8174996

  13. Genetic Association Analysis of Drusen Progression

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Joshua D.; van Grinsven, Mark J. J. P.; Li, Chun; Brantley, Milam; McGrath, Josephine; Agarwal, Anita; Scott, William K.; Schwartz, Stephen G.; Kovach, Jaclyn; Pericak-Vance, Margaret; Sanchez, Clara I.; Haines, Jonathan L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Age-related macular degeneration is a common form of vision loss affecting older adults. The etiology of AMD is multifactorial and is influenced by environmental and genetic risk factors. In this study, we examine how 19 common risk variants contribute to drusen progression, a hallmark of AMD pathogenesis. Methods Exome chip data was made available through the International AMD Genomics Consortium (IAMDGC). Drusen quantification was carried out with color fundus photographs using an automated drusen detection and quantification algorithm. A genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated per subject by summing risk allele counts at 19 common genetic risk variants weighted by their respective effect sizes. Pathway analysis of drusen progression was carried out with the software package Pathway Analysis by Randomization Incorporating Structure. Results We observed significant correlation with drusen baseline area and the GRS in the age-related eye disease study (AREDS) dataset (ρ = 0.175, P = 0.006). Measures of association were not statistically significant between drusen progression and the GRS (P = 0.54). Pathway analysis revealed the cell adhesion molecules pathway as the most highly significant pathway associated with drusen progression (corrected P = 0.02). Conclusions In this study, we explored the potential influence of known common AMD genetic risk factors on drusen progression. Our results from the GRS analysis showed association of increasing genetic burden (from 19 AMD associated loci) to baseline drusen load but not drusen progression in the AREDS dataset while pathway analysis suggests additional genetic contributors to AMD risk. PMID:27116550

  14. Site Characterization Progress Report No.20

    SciTech Connect

    DOE

    1999-10-01

    This is the 20th progress report issued by the U.S. Department of Energy. This report provides a summary-level discussion of Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project progress. Accomplishments this period are presented in a format that identifies important progress achieved and conveys how that progress supports the near-term objectives in the U.S. Department of Energy's schedule. Greater detail is documented in the cited references and in deliverables listed in Appendix A to this report. Readers may request specific U.S. Department of Energy-approved program documents that are listed in Section 7, References, and Appendix A by contacting the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Information Line at 1-800-225-6972. This document provides a discussion of recently completed and ongoing activities conducted by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project during the six-month reporting period from October 1, 1998, through March 31, 1999. Some information presented herein is by necessity preliminary, because some deliverables and reports that support the discussions have not been finalized. Projected future deliverables and reports are listed in Appendix B and are noted in the text as works in progress. Appendix C lists the status of milestone reports referenced in previous progress reports. A glossary of Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project-specific terms used in this report is given in Appendix D.

  15. Parkinson's disease showing progressive conduction aphasia.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kenji; Ono, Kenjiro; Harada, Hiromi; Shima, Keisuke; Notoya, Masako; Yamada, Masahito

    2012-04-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) may develop progressive dementia late in their clinical course. Dementia in PD is mostly related to neuropathological findings of extensive Lewy bodies (LBs), with or without the coexistence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Aphasia has been reported in patients with LB diseases with AD pathology; however, there have been no reports of typical PD patients developing progressive aphasia during their clinical course. We describe a female PD patient who later developed progressive conduction aphasia characterized by phonemic paraphasia and disturbance in repetition of short sentences without disturbance in writing or auditory comprehension. No episodes of fluctuations of attention, memory complaints, or planning errors were observed. She experienced episodes of visual hallucination. Her low scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination suggested impairment of orientation and attention, and her scores on Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices test indicated impaired visuospatial functions. However, her cognitive deficits were not sufficiently severe to impair her daily life. Brain magnetic resonance images revealed atrophy of the left superior temporal gyrus and widening of the left sylvian fissure. [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography revealed glucose hypometabolism in the left cerebral hemisphere. These findings may be related to conduction aphasia. During the progression of PD lesions, the brainstem LB is assumed to take an upward course, extend to the limbic system, and then extend to the neocortex. Conduction aphasia observed in our patient may be associated with an unusual progression of the LB pathology from the brainstem to the left temporoparietal lobe. PMID:21879327

  16. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis disease progression model.

    PubMed

    Gomeni, Roberto; Fava, Maurizio

    2014-03-01

    Our objective was to develop: 1) a longitudinal model to describe amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) disease progression using the revised Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R); and 2) a probabilistic model to estimate the presence of clusters of trajectories in ALS progression over 12 months of treatment. Three hundred and thirty-eight patients treated with placebo from the PRO-ACT database were included in the analyses. A non-linear Weibull model best described the ALS disease progression, and a stepwise logistic regression approach was used to select the variables predicting a slow or fast disease progression. Results identified two clusters of trajectories: 1) slow disease progressors (46% of patients with a change from baseline of 13%); 2) fast disease progressors (54% of patients with a change from baseline of 49%). ROC curve analysis estimated the optimal cut-off for classifying patients as slow or fast disease progressors given ALSFRS-R measurements at 2-4 weeks. Results showed that the degree of ALS disease progression quantified by the ALSFRS-R symptomatic change on placebo is highly heterogeneous. In conclusion, this finding indicates the potential interest of disease progression models for implementing a population enrichment strategy to control the level of heterogeneity in the patients included in new trials.

  17. The neural basis of monitoring goal progress

    PubMed Central

    Benn, Yael; Webb, Thomas L.; Chang, Betty P. I.; Sun, Yu-Hsuan; Wilkinson, Iain D.; Farrow, Tom F. D.

    2014-01-01

    The neural basis of progress monitoring has received relatively little attention compared to other sub-processes that are involved in goal directed behavior such as motor control and response inhibition. Studies of error-monitoring have identified the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) as a structure that is sensitive to conflict detection, and triggers corrective action. However, monitoring goal progress involves monitoring correct as well as erroneous events over a period of time. In the present research, 20 healthy participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imagining (fMRI) while playing a game that involved monitoring progress toward either a numerical or a visuo-spatial target. The findings confirmed the role of the dACC in detecting situations in which the current state may conflict with the desired state, but also revealed activations in the frontal and parietal regions, pointing to the involvement of processes such as attention and working memory (WM) in monitoring progress over time. In addition, activation of the cuneus was associated with monitoring progress toward a specific target presented in the visual modality. This is the first time that activation in this region has been linked to higher-order processing of goal-relevant information, rather than low-level anticipation of visual stimuli. Taken together, these findings identify the neural substrates involved in monitoring progress over time, and how these extend beyond activations observed in conflict and error monitoring. PMID:25309380

  18. Unilateral fronto-temporal headache with ocular pain caused by lens subluxation due to spontaneous zonulysis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Taejin; Choi, Gyuman

    2015-01-01

    A 52-year-old man presented to the emergency department (ED) for left frontotemporal headache and left eye pain. In the ED, visual exam with extra-ocular movement was performed to rule out ocular pathology and brain imaging to rule out cerebral pathology. No abnormal finding was noted after evaluation of ED. Initial exam by an ophthalmologist was also negative with normal intraocular pressure. Left lens dislocation was found only after brain imaging. In subsequent second exam by an ophthalmologist with iridodilator, lens dislocation due to spontaneous zonulysis was finally confirmed. Hence, ED physicians should carefully review ocular as well as brain anatomy in such cases.

  19. Treatment of recurrent anterior dislocation and subluxation of the glenohumeral joint in athletes.

    PubMed

    Lipscomb, A B

    1975-01-01

    This series of 93 Putti-Platt arthroplasties performed on 88 athletes without a recurrence and with the return of each athlete to full participation demonstrates the excellence of this procedure. The 5 year average follow-up further confirms this. Only one valid objection was found. This procedure performed on the dominant shoulder definitely restricts the athlete in throwing a baseball or passing a football, and is not advocated where either of these two functions must be preserved. From this series it was found that operative limitation of external rotation to about

  20. Yergason's Test: Discrepancies in Description and Implications for Diagnosing Biceps Subluxation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettitt, Robert W.; Sailor, Scott R.; Lentell, Gary; Tanner, Cary; Murray, Steven R.

    2008-01-01

    Yergason described the case of a woman with bicipital pain that was confirmed with isolated forearm supination. Since publication of this respective case report in 1931, orthopedic assessment textbooks have provided a wide range of descriptions for Yergason's Test and what a positive sign implicates. Vast differences in hand placement, along with…

  1. B cells and antibodies in progressive multiple sclerosis: Contribution to neurodegeneration and progression.

    PubMed

    Fraussen, Judith; de Bock, Laura; Somers, Veerle

    2016-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by demyelination, axonal degeneration and gliosis. The progressive form of MS is an important research topic as not much is known about its underlying mechanisms and no therapy is available. Although progressive MS is traditionally considered to be driven by neurodegeneration, compartmentalized CNS inflammation is currently accepted as one of the driving processes behind neurodegeneration and progression. In this review, the involvement of B cells and antibodies in progressive MS is discussed. The identification of meningeal ectopic B cell follicles in secondary progressive MS (SPMS) patients and the successful use of B cell-depleting therapy in primary progressive MS (PPMS) patients have underlined the importance of B cells in progressive MS. Proof is also available for the role of antibodies in neurodegeneration and progression in MS. Here, oligoclonal immunoglobulin M (IgM) production and autoreactive antibodies are described, with a focus on antibodies directed against sperm-associated antigen 16 (SPAG16). Further research into the role of B cells and autoantibodies in MS progression can lead to novel prognostic and theranostic opportunities.

  2. Pure progressive amnesia: An atypical amnestic syndrome?

    PubMed

    Barbeau, Emmanuel J; Didic, Mira; Felician, Olivier; Tramoni, Eve; Guedj, Eric; Ceccaldi, Mathieu; Poncet, Michel

    2006-12-01

    We report on M.S., an 83-year-old patient with isolated pure progressive amnesia. This rare, recently identified, form of amnesia has been described in elderly patients. Neuropathological studies suggest that this syndrome is an atypical clinical presentation of Alzheimer's disease. The aim of our study was to characterize the neuropsychological pattern of pure progressive amnesia in comparison with other amnestic syndromes and memory dissociations reported in the literature. Our results indicate that pure progressive amnesia is characterized by a highly unusual dissociation in the realm of memory, with severe deficits on tests based on recognition and recall of verbal and visual single items, contrasting with relatively preserved anterograde autobiographical and spatial memory and normal recall of complex material such as stories. These findings suggest that memory for single items could depend on an independent system. One hypothesis is that M.S.'s unusual memory profile results from relative dysfunction of the ventral medial temporal lobe pathway. An alternative explanation implicates cognitive reserve. Further studies are required in order to progress on this matter. In any case, pure progressive amnesia is a clinical syndrome that may provide further insight into the organization of declarative memory.

  3. Progress With Nonhuman Animal Models of Addiction.

    PubMed

    Crabbe, John C

    2016-09-01

    Nonhuman animals have been major contributors to the science of the genetics of addiction. Given the explosion of interest in genetics, it is fair to ask, are we making reasonable progress toward our goals with animal models? I will argue that our goals are changing and that overall progress has been steady and seems likely to continue apace. Genetics tools have developed almost incredibly rapidly, enabling both more reductionist and more synthetic or integrative approaches. I believe that these approaches to making progress have been unbalanced in biomedical science, favoring reductionism, particularly in animal genetics. I argue that substantial, novel progress is also likely to come in the other direction, toward synthesis and abstraction. Another area in which future progress with genetic animal models seems poised to contribute more is the reconciliation of human and animal phenotypes, or consilience. The inherent power of the genetic animal models could be more profitably exploited. In the end, animal research has continued to provide novel insights about how genes influence individual differences in addiction risk and consequences. The rules of the genetics game are changing so fast that it is hard to remember how comparatively little we knew even a generation ago. Rather than worry about whether we have been wasting time and resources asking the questions we have been, we should look to the future and see if we can come up with some new ones. The valuable findings from the past will endure, and the sidetracks will be forgotten. PMID:27588527

  4. A Progress Report on Progress Files. The Experience of One Higher Education Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Rob

    2005-01-01

    In order to facilitate personal development planning (PDP), the UK higher education sector is committed to introducing progress files. This article explores the experience of one institution in seeking to establish a system of progress files. It identifies the main practical problems in doing this, highlighting the lack of agreement on the skills…

  5. Work in Progress: Gender and Politics in Late Elizabethan Progress Entertainments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolkovich, Elizabeth Zeman

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes the understudied dramatic genre of Elizabethan progress entertainments, the political ideologies it conveys, and especially the female alliances it enacts. Aristocrats staged these outdoor, episodic pageants on their country estates during Elizabeth I's summer "progress" visits, 1575-1602. While previous scholars…

  6. Progress 7 Supply Vehicle Departs for Incineration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The unpiloted Russian Progress 7 supply ship departs from the Zvezda Service Module's docking port on the International Space Station. Carrying its load of trash and urneeded equipment, it will be deorbited and burned up in the atmosphere. The undocking paves the way for the arrival of the new Progress 8, filled with fresh supplies. Soviet designers realized that long-duration missions in space would demand a constant supply of consumable materials from Earth. The cost-effective Progress spacecraft made possible an almost permanent presence in space and stands out as a single biggest contribution to this achievement. Propulsion and service systems were installed in the tail section of the vehicle and the cargo ship was inseparable during its entire flight. Upon conclusion of its supply mission to the Station, it would be directed into the atmosphere to burn up.

  7. Preoperative progressive pneumoperitoneum for giant inguinal hernias.

    PubMed

    Piskin, Turgut; Aydin, Cemalettin; Barut, Bora; Dirican, Abuzer; Kayaalp, Cuneyt

    2010-01-01

    Reduction of giant hernia contents into the abdominal cavity may cause intraoperative and postoperative problems such as abdominal compartment syndrome. Preoperative progressive pneumoperitoneum expands the abdominal cavity, increases the patient's tolerability to operation, and can diminish intraoperative and postoperative complications. Preoperative progressive pneumoperitoneum is recommended for giant ventral hernias, but rarely for giant inguinal hernias. We present two giant inguinal hernia patients who were prepared for hernia repair with preoperative progressive pneumoperitoneum and then treated successfully by graft hernioplasty. We observed that abdominal expansion correlated with the inflated volume and pressure during the first four days of pneumperitoneum. Although insufflated gas volume can be different among patients, we observed that the duration of insufflation may be the same for similar patients.

  8. The progressive outer retinal necrosis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Holland, G N

    1994-01-01

    The progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) syndrome is a recently described clinical variant of necrotizing herpetic retinopathy in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is caused by varicellazoster virus infection of the retina. Its course and clinical features distinguish it from the acute retinal necrosis syndrome and CMV retinopathy. Early disease is characterized by multifocal deep retinal opacification. Lesions rapidly coalesce and progress to total retinal necrosis over a short period of time. Despite aggressive therapy with intravenous antivirial drugs, prognosis is poor; disease progression and/or recurrence is common, and the majority of patients develop no light perception vision. Total retinal detachments are common. Prophylaxis against retinal detachment using laser retinopexy has not been useful in most cases. PORN syndrome is an uncommon, but devastating complication of AIDS.

  9. The progressive outer retinal necrosis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Holland, G N

    1994-01-01

    The progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) syndrome is a recently described clinical variant of necrotizing herpetic retinopathy in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is caused by varicellazoster virus infection of the retina. Its course and clinical features distinguish it from the acute retinal necrosis syndrome and CMV retinopathy. Early disease is characterized by multifocal deep retinal opacification. Lesions rapidly coalesce and progress to total retinal necrosis over a short period of time. Despite aggressive therapy with intravenous antivirial drugs, prognosis is poor; disease progression and/or recurrence is common, and the majority of patients develop no light perception vision. Total retinal detachments are common. Prophylaxis against retinal detachment using laser retinopexy has not been useful in most cases. PORN syndrome is an uncommon, but devastating complication of AIDS. PMID:7852023

  10. Progress in MELCOR development and assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, R.M.; Kmetyk, L.N.; Cole, R.K. Jr.; Smith, R.C.; Elsbernd, A.E.; Stuart, D.S.; Thompson, S.L.

    1995-04-01

    MELCOR models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. Recent efforts in MELCOR development to incorporate CORCON-Mod3 models for core-concrete interactions, new models for advanced reactors, and improvements to several other existing models have resulted in release of MELCOR 1.8.3. In addition, continuing efforts to expand the code assessment database have filled in many of the gaps in phenomenological coverage. Efforts are now under way to develop models for chemical interactions of fission products with structural surfaces and for reactions of iodine in the presence of water, and work is also in progress to improve models for the scrubbing of fission products by water pools, the chemical reactions of boron carbide with steam, and the coupling of flow blockages with the hydrodynamics. Several code assessment analyses are in progress, and more are planned.

  11. Cerebral aneurysms: Formation, progression and developmental chronology

    PubMed Central

    Etminan, Nima; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Dreier, Rita; Bruckner, Peter; Torner, James C.; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Hänggi, Daniel; Macdonald, R. Loch

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UAIs) in the general population is up to 3%. Existing epidemiological data suggests that only a small fraction of UIAs progress towards rupture over the lifetime of an individual, but the surrogates for subsequent rupture and the natural history of UIAs are discussed very controversially at present. In case of rupture of an UIA, the case-fatality is up to 50%, which therefore continues to stimulate interest in the pathogenesis of cerebral aneurysm formation and progression. Actual data on the chronological development of cerebral aneurysm has been especially difficult to obtain and, until recently, the existing knowledge in this respect is mainly derived from animal or mathematical models or short-term observational studies. Here, we highlight the current data on cerebral aneurysm formation and progression as well as a novel approach to investigate the developmental chronology of cerebral aneurysms. PMID:24323717

  12. Progressive Compression of Volumetric Subdivision Meshes

    SciTech Connect

    Laney, D; Pascucci, V

    2004-04-16

    We present a progressive compression technique for volumetric subdivision meshes based on the slow growing refinement algorithm. The system is comprised of a wavelet transform followed by a progressive encoding of the resulting wavelet coefficients. We compare the efficiency of two wavelet transforms. The first transform is based on the smoothing rules used in the slow growing subdivision technique. The second transform is a generalization of lifted linear B-spline wavelets to the same multi-tier refinement structure. Direct coupling with a hierarchical coder produces progressive bit streams. Rate distortion metrics are evaluated for both wavelet transforms. We tested the practical performance of the scheme on synthetic data as well as data from laser indirect-drive fusion simulations with multiple fields per vertex. Both wavelet transforms result in high quality trade off curves and produce qualitatively good coarse representations.

  13. Progression of coronary artery calcification at the crossroads: sign of progression or stabilization of coronary atherosclerosis?

    PubMed Central

    Carrascosa, Patricia; Bruining, Nico

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery calcification (CAC) has been strongly established as an independent predictor of adverse events, with a significant incremental prognostic value over traditional risk stratification algorithms. CAC progression has been associated with a higher rate of events. In parallel, several randomized studies and meta-analysis have shown the effectiveness of statins to slow progression and even promote plaque regression. However, evidence regarding the effect of routine medical therapy on CAC has yielded conflicting results, with initial studies showing significant CAC regression, and contemporaneous data showing rather the opposite. Accordingly, there is currently a great controversy on whether progression of CAC is a sign of progression or stabilization of coronary artery disease (CAD). The finding of inexorable CAC progression despite the implementation of intensive contemporaneous medical therapy suggests that further understanding of this phenomenon should be undertaken before the implementation of CAC as a surrogate endpoint for longitudinal studies, or for prospective follow-up of patients under routine medical treatment. PMID:27280088

  14. Juvenile myopia progression, risk factors and interventions

    PubMed Central

    Myrowitz, Elliott H.

    2011-01-01

    The development and progression of early onset myopia is actively being investigated. While myopia is often considered a benign condition it should be considered a public health problem for its visual, quality of life, and economic consequences. Nearly half of the visually impaired population in the world has uncorrected refractive errors, with myopia a high percent of that group. Uncorrected visual acuity should be screened for and treated in order to improve academic performance, career opportunities and socio-economic status. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to the onset and progression of myopia. Twin studies have supported genetic factors and research continues to identify myopia genetic loci. While multiple myopia genetic loci have been identified establishing myopia as a common complex disorder, there is not yet a genetic model explaining myopia progression in populations. Environmental factors include near work, education levels, urban compared to rural location, and time spent outdoors. In this field of study where there continues to be etiology controversies, there is recent agreement that children who spend more time outdoors are less likely to become myopic. Worldwide population studies, some completed and some in progress, with a common protocol are gathering both genetic and environmental cohort data of great value. There have been rapid population changes in prevalence rates supporting an environmental influence. Interventions to prevent juvenile myopia progression include pharmacologic agents, glasses and contact lenses. Pharmacological interventions over 1–2 year trials have shown benefits. Peripheral vision defocus has been found to affect the emmetropization process and may be affected by wearing glasses or contacts. Accommodation accuracy also has been implicated in myopia progression. Further research will aim to assess both the role and interaction of environmental influences and genetic factors. PMID:23961008

  15. Chemokines in tumor development and progression

    SciTech Connect

    Mukaida, Naofumi; Baba, Tomohisa

    2012-01-15

    Chemokines were originally identified as mediators of the inflammatory process and regulators of leukocyte trafficking. Subsequent studies revealed their essential roles in leukocyte physiology and pathology. Moreover, chemokines have profound effects on other types of cells associated with the inflammatory response, such as endothelial cells and fibroblasts. Thus, chemokines are crucial for cancer-related inflammation, which can promote tumor development and progression. Increasing evidence points to the vital effects of several chemokines on the proliferative and invasive properties of tumor cells. The wide range of activities of chemokines in tumorigenesis highlights their roles in tumor development and progression.

  16. Recent progress on MAP kinase pathway inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Uehling, David E; Harris, Philip A

    2015-10-01

    The RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK, or ERK signaling pathway propagates signals through an intracellular signal transduction cascade. Since approximately one third of human cancers are impacted by mutations in the ERK signaling pathway, intensive efforts to develop drugs targeting members of this cascade are ongoing. While efforts to develop drugs aimed at inhibiting RAS are still at an early stage, substantial progress in discovering clinical drugs targeting RAF, MEK, and ERK have been made. This review will highlight the recent progress in this area. PMID:26298497

  17. Determinants of health: a progressive political platform.

    PubMed

    Terris, M

    1994-01-01

    This paper is based on the statement in the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion that "The fundamental conditions and resources for health are peace, shelter, education, food, income, a stable eco-system, sustainable resources, social justice and equity. Improvement in health requires a secure foundation in these basic prerequisites." It attempts to formulate a progressive political platform for a number of these prerequisites, offering a series of recommendations regarding education, employment, income, and housing, and urging that the proposed programs be funded by progressive taxation and major reductions in the military budget. PMID:8027361

  18. Controlling myopia progression in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Smith, Molly J; Walline, Jeffrey J

    2015-01-01

    Myopia is a common disorder, affecting approximately one-third of the US population and over 90% of the population in some East Asian countries. High amounts of myopia are associated with an increased risk of sight-threatening problems, such as retinal detachment, choroidal degeneration, cataracts, and glaucoma. Slowing the progression of myopia could potentially benefit millions of children in the USA. To date, few strategies used for myopia control have proven to be effective. Treatment options such as undercorrection of myopia, gas permeable contact lenses, and bifocal or multifocal spectacles have all been proven to be ineffective for myopia control, although one recent randomized clinical trial using executive top bifocal spectacles on children with progressive myopia has shown to decrease the progression to nearly half of the control subjects. The most effective methods are the use of orthokeratology contact lenses, soft bifocal contact lenses, and topical pharmaceutical agents such as atropine or pirenzepine. Although none of these modalities are US Food and Drug Administration-approved to slow myopia progression, they have been shown to slow the progression by approximately 50% with few risks. Both orthokeratology and soft bifocal contact lenses have shown to slow myopia progression by slightly less than 50% in most studies. Parents and eye care practitioners should work together to determine which modality may be best suited for a particular child. Topical pharmaceutical agents such as anti-muscarinic eye drops typically lead to light sensitivity and poor near vision. The most effective myopia control is provided by atropine, but is rarely prescribed due to the side effects. Pirenzepine provides myopia control with little light sensitivity and few near-vision problems, but it is not yet commercially available as an eye drop or ointment. Several studies have shown that lower concentrations of atropine slow the progression of myopia control with fewer side

  19. Swine flu fibrosis: Regressive or progressive?

    PubMed

    Singh, Nishtha; Singh, Sheetu; Sharma, Bharat Bhushan; Singh, Virendra

    2016-01-01

    Swine flu influenza had spread the world over in 2009. The main pathology was bilateral pneumonia. Majority of these cases recovered from pneumonia fully. Though in some cases, pulmonary fibrosis was reported as a sequel. However, long-term progression of such pulmonary fibrosis is uncertain. We are hereby reporting two cases of swine flu that showed residual pulmonary fibrosis. The clinical and laboratory parameters were also recorded. In both the cases, radiological shadows and spirometric values did not show deterioration. We conclude that swine flu pulmonary fibrosis is not a progressive condition. PMID:27051116

  20. Geothermal progress monitor report No. 6

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    Geothermal Progress Monitor Report No. 6 presents a state-by-state summary of the status of geothermal leasing, exploration, and development in major physiographic regions where geothermal resource potential has been identified. Recent state-specific activities are reported at the end of each state status report, while recent activities of a more general nature are summarized briefly in Part II of the report. A list of recent publications of potential interest to the geothermal community and a directory of contributors to the geothermal progress monitoring system are also included.

  1. Rapidly Progressing Osteomyelitis of the Mandible

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Ken; Okada, Shino; Takeuchi, Noritami; Yura, Yoshiaki

    2013-01-01

    Acute osteomyelitis exists as a refractory disease even now, which usually exhibits systemic symptoms such as fever or malaise and local redness or swelling. The present paper describes a case of acute osteomyelitis of the mandible that was rapidly progressing without typical symptoms. The patient had liver cirrhosis, which should be one of the systemic factors that affect immune surveillance and metabolism. Actinomycotic druses and filaments were detected from the sequestrum. These were considered to play a role in the rapid progression of osteomyelitis without typical symptoms. There has been no evidence of local recurrence 24 months after surgery. PMID:24349802

  2. Controlling myopia progression in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Molly J; Walline, Jeffrey J

    2015-01-01

    Myopia is a common disorder, affecting approximately one-third of the US population and over 90% of the population in some East Asian countries. High amounts of myopia are associated with an increased risk of sight-threatening problems, such as retinal detachment, choroidal degeneration, cataracts, and glaucoma. Slowing the progression of myopia could potentially benefit millions of children in the USA. To date, few strategies used for myopia control have proven to be effective. Treatment options such as undercorrection of myopia, gas permeable contact lenses, and bifocal or multifocal spectacles have all been proven to be ineffective for myopia control, although one recent randomized clinical trial using executive top bifocal spectacles on children with progressive myopia has shown to decrease the progression to nearly half of the control subjects. The most effective methods are the use of orthokeratology contact lenses, soft bifocal contact lenses, and topical pharmaceutical agents such as atropine or pirenzepine. Although none of these modalities are US Food and Drug Administration-approved to slow myopia progression, they have been shown to slow the progression by approximately 50% with few risks. Both orthokeratology and soft bifocal contact lenses have shown to slow myopia progression by slightly less than 50% in most studies. Parents and eye care practitioners should work together to determine which modality may be best suited for a particular child. Topical pharmaceutical agents such as anti-muscarinic eye drops typically lead to light sensitivity and poor near vision. The most effective myopia control is provided by atropine, but is rarely prescribed due to the side effects. Pirenzepine provides myopia control with little light sensitivity and few near-vision problems, but it is not yet commercially available as an eye drop or ointment. Several studies have shown that lower concentrations of atropine slow the progression of myopia control with fewer side

  3. [Research progress of rectoanal inhibitory reflex].

    PubMed

    Yin, Shuhui; Zhao, Ke

    2015-12-01

    The understanding of rectoanal inhibitory reflex (RAIR) is progressing for the latest 100 years. From the discovery of its important role in diagnosis of Hirschsprung's disease to all aspects of its development, reflex pathways, neural regulation and physiological functions, there have been more in-depth explorations. It is now recognized that a number of other diseases also have a more specific performance of RAIR. It has become an important and indispensable part to anorectal manometry. Research progress of rectoanal inhibitory reflex is reviewed in this article.

  4. Comparing Acute Bouts of Sagittal Plane Progression Foam Rolling vs. Frontal Plane Progression Foam Rolling.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Corey A; Krein, Darren D; Antonio, Jose; Sanders, Gabriel J; Silver, Tobin A; Colas, Megan

    2015-08-01

    Many strength and conditioning professionals have included the use of foam rolling devices within a warm-up routine prior to both training and competition. Multiple studies have investigated foam rolling in regards to performance, flexibility, and rehabilitation; however, additional research is necessary in supporting the topic. Furthermore, as multiple foam rolling progressions exist, researching differences that may result from each is required. To investigate differences in foam rolling progressions, 16 athletically trained males underwent a 2-condition within-subjects protocol comparing the differences of 2 common foam rolling progressions in regards to performance testing. The 2 conditions included a foam rolling progression targeting the mediolateral axis of the body (FRml) and foam rolling progression targeting the anteroposterior axis (FRap). Each was administered in adjunct with a full-body dynamic warm-up. After each rolling progression, subjects performed National Football League combine drills, flexibility, and subjective scaling measures. The data demonstrated that FRml was effective at improving flexibility (p ≤ 0.05) when compared with FRap. No other differences existed between progressions.

  5. Setting a research agenda for progressive multiple sclerosis: The International Collaborative on Progressive MS

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Alan; Baker, David; Baneke, Peer; Brown, Doug; Browne, Paul; Chandraratna, Dhia; Ciccarelli, Olga; Coetzee, Timothy; Comi, Giancarlo; Feinstein, Anthony; Kapoor, Raj; Lee, Karen; Salvetti, Marco; Sharrock, Kersten; Toosy, Ahmed; Zaratin, Paola; Zuidwijk, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Despite significant progress in the development of therapies for relapsing MS, progressive MS remains comparatively disappointing. Our objective, in this paper, is to review the current challenges in developing therapies for progressive MS and identify key priority areas for research. A collaborative was convened by volunteer and staff leaders from several MS societies with the mission to expedite the development of effective disease-modifying and symptom management therapies for progressive forms of multiple sclerosis. Through a series of scientific and strategic planning meetings, the collaborative identified and developed new perspectives on five key priority areas for research: experimental models, identification and validation of targets and repurposing opportunities, proof-of-concept clinical trial strategies, clinical outcome measures, and symptom management and rehabilitation. Our conclusions, tackling the impediments in developing therapies for progressive MS will require an integrated, multi-disciplinary approach to enable effective translation of research into therapies for progressive MS. Engagement of the MS research community through an international effort is needed to address and fund these research priorities with the ultimate goal of expediting the development of disease-modifying and symptom-relief treatments for progressive MS. PMID:22917690

  6. Measuring Client Progression in Adult Guidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearne, Lucy

    2007-01-01

    Currently, in the field of guidance, relevant stakeholders including guidance practitioners, educators and policy makers, have identified progression for adults in education and employment as one of the key outcomes of educational guidance. Lifelong guidance is now inextricably linked with lifelong learning as a mechanism to enhance individual…

  7. Progress in Education: A Deconstructionist View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, George H.; Osborne, John

    1990-01-01

    Using the deconstructionist theories of Michel Foucault, argues that there are several perennial myths in educational thought (e.g., all change is progressive and what is promoted as change is novel). Finds support for this method of criticism in the work of Quintilian, Bloom, Elkind, and Popper. (DMM)

  8. Mycosis fungoides progression and chronic solvent exposure.

    PubMed

    Nikkels, Arjen F; Quatresooz, Pascale; Delvenne, Philippe; Balsat, Alain; Piérard, Gérald E

    2004-01-01

    The effect of repeated exposure to specific chemicals on the initiation or progression of mycosis fungoides (MF) remains unsettled. A patient with low-grade patch stage MF progressively developed MF plaques restricted to his arms, and a tumour on his right thigh. These areas were subject to repeated exposure to solvents. His thigh was indeed in close contact with his trousers pocket where he used to store a wiping rag drenched into white spirit and cellulosic thinner. Immunophenotyping these lesions revealed a dense LCA+, CD2+, CD3+, CD4+, CD5+, CD7+, CD45+, CD45RO+ T-cell infiltrate admixed with many factor XIIIa+ dendrocytes. T-cell receptor rearrangement analysis identified a monoclonal T-cell infiltrate. An internal work-up remained negative. Stopping further solvent exposure failed to improve his condition. Oral corticotherapy combined with low-dose interferon-alpha2a halted disease progression. This observation suggests that long-term solvent exposure may trigger MF and hasten its progression from the patch stage to the plaque and tumour stages.

  9. Education and the Logic of Economic Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilead, Tal

    2012-01-01

    Over the last few decades, the idea that education should function to promote economic progress has played a major role in shaping educational policy. So far, however, philosophers of education have shown relatively little interest in analysing this notion and its implications. The present article critically examines, from a philosophical…

  10. Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia with inflammatory myopathy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting; Pu, Chuanqiang; Shi, Qiang; Wang, Qian; Cong, Lu; Liu, Jiexiao; Luo, Hongyu; Fei, Lingna; Tang, Wei; Yu, Shanshan

    2014-01-01

    Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia is one of mitochondrial disorders, characterized by ptosis, limitation of eye movement, variably severe bulbar muscle weakness and proximal limb weakness. Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia complicated with acquired disease is extremely rare. We report a 44 years old male patient with more than 20 years of chronic progressive bilateral ptosis and limitation of eye movements manifested dysarthria, dysphagia and neck muscle weakness for 3 years. The first muscle biopsy showed red-ragged fibers and cytochrome c oxidase negative fibers as well as inflammatory cells infiltration. Electron microscopy revealed paracrystalline inclusions. Mitochondrial genetic analysis demonstrated a large-scale mtDNA deletion of m.8470_13446del4977. The patient was treated with prednisone. In a three-year follow-up study, the second biopsy was performed. Before the treatment, except bilateral ptosis and external ophthalmopelgia, this patient presented bulbar muscle weakness and neck muscle weakness. After treated with prednisone, the symptoms of dysphagia, dysarthria and neck muscle weakness were significantly improved, and the second biopsy showed only mitochondrial myopathy pathology but the inflammations disappeared. Here, we report a patient with chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia complicated with inflammatory myopathy and after treated with prednisone as myositis, he had a significant therapeutic effect. PMID:25674260

  11. Progress of the MICE experiment at RAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonesini, M.

    2013-04-01

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a systematic investigation of ionization cooling of a muon beam. The demonstration comprises one cell of the US Neutrino Factory Study II cooling channel. Results obtained on the construction of the beamline and its instrumentation (STEP I) will be reviewed, together with progress towards final measurements of ionization cooling (STEP IV and VI).

  12. Beyond metric gravity: Progress on PS-200

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, T.; Brown, R.E.; Camp, J.B.; Darling, T.; Dyer, P.; Holzscheiter, M.H.; Hughes, R.J.; Jarmie, N.; King, N.S.P.; Lizon, D.C.; Nieto, M.M.; Schauer, M.M.M.; Schecker, J.A.; Cornford, S.; Hosea, K.; Kenefick, R.A.; Hoibraaten, S.; Midzor, M.M.; Parry, S.P.; Ristenen, R.A.; Witteborn, F.C.; Rochet, J.

    1993-03-01

    The reconciliation of quantum mechanics and gravity on varying distance scales requires changes to General Relativity that may be testable implications. We briefly review the status of tests with matter of the inverse square law and the principle of equivalence, then report on progress on the drift-tube measurement section of PS- 200, the experiment to measure the gravitational acceleration of antiprotons.

  13. Beyond metric gravity: Progress on PS-200

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, T.; Brown, R.E.; Camp, J.B.; Darling, T.; Dyer, P.; Holzscheiter, M.H.; Hughes, R.J.; Jarmie, N.; King, N.S.P.; Lizon, D.C.; Nieto, M.M.; Schauer, M.M.M.; Schecker, J.A. ); Cornford, S.; Hosea, K.; Kenefick, R.A. ); Hoibraaten, S.; Midzor, M.M.; Parry, S.P.; Ristenen, R.A. (Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (U

    1993-01-01

    The reconciliation of quantum mechanics and gravity on varying distance scales requires changes to General Relativity that may be testable implications. We briefly review the status of tests with matter of the inverse square law and the principle of equivalence, then report on progress on the drift-tube measurement section of PS- 200, the experiment to measure the gravitational acceleration of antiprotons.

  14. Political and Legal Progress Since 1964

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glickstein, Howard

    1975-01-01

    The stated purpose of this testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, is to evaluate the political and legal progress--or lack of it--that has been made toward achieving racial equality in the decade since the Civil Rights Act of 1964 became law. (Author/JM)

  15. The Glass Ceiling: Progress and Persistent Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLlwain, Wendy M.

    2012-01-01

    It has been written that since 2001, there has not been any significant progress and the glass ceiling is still intact. Women are still underrepresented in top positions (Anonymous, 2004). If this is true, the glass ceiling presents a major barrier between women and their desire to advance into executive or senior management positions. In addition…

  16. Nebraska Higher Education Progress Report, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska's Coordinating Commission for Postsecondary Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report provides the Nebraska Legislature with comparative statistics to monitor and evaluate progress toward achieving three key priorities for Nebraska's postsecondary education system: (1) Increase the number of students who enter postsecondary education in Nebraska; (2) Increase the percentage of students who enroll and successfully…

  17. Nebraska Higher Education Progress Report, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska's Coordinating Commission for Postsecondary Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report provides the Nebraska Legislature with comparative statistics to monitor and evaluate progress toward achieving "three key priorities" for Nebraska's postsecondary education system: (1) Increase the number of students who enter postsecondary education in Nebraska; (2) Increase the percentage of students who enroll and successfully…

  18. 15 CFR 255.5 - Progress reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Progress reports. 255.5 Section 255.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FELLOWSHIPS AND RESEARCH ASSOCIATES FELLOWSHIPS IN LABORATORY STANDARDIZATION AND TESTING...

  19. Governmental Surveillance of Three Progressive Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Murry R.; Singleton, H. Wells

    Governmental interference with academic freedom is illustrated by F.B.I. surveillance of and unauthorized distribution of information about progressive educators John Dewey, George Counts, and Harold Rugg. These three educators attracted the attention of governmental agencies and special interest groups during the 1930s and 1940s because they…

  20. Progressive Image Coding by Hierarchical Linear Approximation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xiaolin; Fang, Yonggang

    1994-01-01

    Proposes a scheme of hierarchical piecewise linear approximation as an adaptive image pyramid. A progressive image coder comes naturally from the proposed image pyramid. The new pyramid is semantically more powerful than regular tessellation but syntactically simpler than free segmentation. This compromise between adaptability and complexity…

  1. Monovision slows juvenile myopia progression unilaterally

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, J R

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the acceptability, effectivity, and side effects of a monovision spectacle correction designed to reduce accommodation and myopia progression in schoolchildren. Methods: Dominant eyes of 11 year old children with myopia (−1.00 to −3.00 D mean spherical equivalent) were corrected for distance; fellow eyes were uncorrected or corrected to keep the refractive imbalance ⩽2.00 D. Myopia progression was followed with cycloplegic autorefraction and A-scan ultrasonography measures of vitreous chamber depth (VCD) for up to 30 months. Dynamic retinoscopy was used to assess accommodation while reading. Results: All children accommodated to read with the distance corrected (dominant) eye. Thus, the near corrected eye experienced myopic defocus at all levels of accommodation. Myopia progression in the near corrected eyes was significantly slower than in the distance corrected eyes (inter-eye difference = 0.36 D/year (95% CI: 0.54 to 0.19, p = 0.0015, n = 13); difference in VCD elongation = 0.13 mm/year (95% CI: 0.18 to 0.08, p = 0.0003, n = 13)). After refitting with conventional spectacles, the resultant anisometropia returned to baseline levels after 9–18 months. Conclusions: Monovision is not effective in reducing accommodation in juvenile myopia. However, myopia progression was significantly reduced in the near corrected eye, suggesting that sustained myopic defocus slows axial elongation of the human eye. PMID:16113381

  2. Better Plants Progress Update Fall 2013

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-09-23

    This Progress Update summarizes the significant energy saving achievements and cumulative cost savings made by these industry leaders from 2010-2012. The update also shares the plans and priorities over the next year for the Better Plants Program to continue to advance energy efficiency in the industrial sector.

  3. Indian Institute of Geomagnetism: Progress in research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Progress and aspects is the study of the geomagnetic variations in the Indian region on quiet and disturbed days, equatorial electrojet field, electromagnetic induction in the earth, magnetic pulsations, aeronomy, radio scintillations, magnetosphere and solar wind, and solar-terrestrial relationships were reported.

  4. Learning by Doing: the Progressive Novella Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Michael G.

    1996-01-01

    States that the Progressive Novella Project for high school students involves the collaborative writing of a 35-50 page novella. Explains that prior to the actual writing process, students are educated in the basic elements of fiction writing. Describes the division of labor into groups. Comments that the results of the project are invariably…

  5. Pancreatic necrosis in progressive systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, A A; Joos, A

    1980-01-01

    Fatal pancreatic necrosis, secondary to extensive acute arteritic changes, is reported in a case of progressive systemic sclerosis. The patient presented first with hypertension and renal involvement, with active vascular lesions demonstrated by biopsy. The renal lesion at necropsy was inactive, showing the characteristic concentric fibrosis only, while the pancreatic vascular lesions were both chronic proliferative and acute in type. Images PMID:7436566

  6. Teaching the Talented Program: A Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gear, Gayle Haywood

    Presented is a progress report (covering 1969-74) on the University of Connecticut's Teaching the Talented (TTT) Program, which is designed to recruit and train leadership personnel to work with gifted disadvantaged youth. Forty-six teachers and school administrators experienced in working with minority populations were recruited as TTT Fellows.…

  7. Progressive Education Standards: A Neuroscience Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, Patty

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a coherent and unique set of 12 standards, adopting a neuroscience framework for biologically based on school reform. This model of educational principles and practices aligns with the long-standing principles and practices of the Progressive Education Movement in the United States and the emerging principles of neuroscience.…

  8. Environment, safety and health progress assessment manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    On June 27, 1989, the Secretary of Energy announced a 10-Point Initiative to strengthen environment, safety, and health (ES H) programs, and waste management activities at DOE production, research, and testing facilities. One of the points involved conducting dent Tiger Team Assessments of DOE operating facilities. The Office of Special independent Projects (OSP), EH-5, in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, EH-1, was assigned the responsibility to conduct the Tiger Team Assessments. Through June 1992, a total of 35 Tiger Team Assessments were completed. The Secretary directed that Corrective Action Plans be developed and implemented to address the concerns identified by the Tiger Teams. In March 1991, the Secretary approved a plan for assessments that are more focused, concentrating on ES H management, ES H corrective actions, self-assessment programs, and root-cause related issues.'' In July 1991, the Secretary approved the initiation of ES H Progress Assessments, as a followup to the Tiger Team Assessments, and in the continuing effort to institutionalize the self-assessment process and line management accountability in the ES H areas. This manual documents the processes to be used to perform the ES H Progress Assessments. It was developed based upon the lessons learned from Tiger Team Assessments, the two pilot Progress Assessments, and Progress Assessments that have been completed. The manual will be updated periodically to reflect lessons learned or changes in policy.

  9. Recent Progress in Optical Chemical Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Qazi, Hummad Habib; Mohammad, Abu Bakar bin; Akram, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Optical chemical sensors have promoted escalating interest in the determination of various pollutants in the environment, which are creating toxicity and may cause serious health problems. This review paper focuses particularly on the recent progress and developments in this field; the working principles and basic classes of optical chemical sensors have been briefly described. PMID:23443392

  10. Measuring Well-Being and Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Acci, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Well-being is becoming a concept which is more and more involved in any world development consideration. A large amount of work is being carried out to study measurements of well-being, including a more holistic vision on the development and welfare of a country. This paper proposes an idea of well-being and progress being in equilibrium with each…

  11. [Progressive multifocal encephalopathy in a LED patient].

    PubMed

    Tikkakoski, Tapani; Ingo, Sinikka; Julin, Lillemor; Kanckos, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Progressive multifocal encephalopathy (PML) is a rare demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, caused by the reactivation of the JC virus in the body during immunosuppression. The use of monoclonal antibodies predisposes to PML, and the epidemiology of the disease has changed. We describe the first PML published from Finland and associated with rituximab treatment in a LED patient.

  12. Energy in America: Progress and Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Petroleum Inst., Washington, DC.

    An overview of America's energy situation is presented with emphasis on recent progress, the risk of depending upon foreign oil, and policy choices. Section one reviews the energy problems of the 1970s, issues of the 1980s, concerns for the future, and choices that if made today could alleviate future problems. Section two examines past problems,…

  13. Progress in extra-solar planet detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    Progress in extra-solar planet detection is reviewed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) the definition of a planet; (2) the weakness of planet signals; (3) direct techniques - imaging and spectral detection; and (4) indirect techniques - reflex motion and occultations.

  14. Toward surface quantification of liver fibrosis progression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yuting; Kang, Chiang Huen; Xu, Shuoyu; Tuo, Xiaoye; Trasti, Scott; Tai, Dean C. S.; Raja, Anju Mythreyi; Peng, Qiwen; So, Peter T. C.; Rajapakse, Jagath C.; Welsch, Roy; Yu, Hanry

    2010-09-01

    Monitoring liver fibrosis progression by liver biopsy is important for certain treatment decisions, but repeated biopsy is invasive. We envision redefinition or elimination of liver biopsy with surface scanning of the liver with minimally invasive optical methods. This would be possible only if the information contained on or near liver surfaces accurately reflects the liver fibrosis progression in the liver interior. In our study, we acquired the second-harmonic generation and two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy images of liver tissues from bile duct-ligated rat model of liver fibrosis. We extracted morphology-based features, such as total collagen, collagen in bile duct areas, bile duct proliferation, and areas occupied by remnant hepatocytes, and defined the capsule and subcapsular regions on the liver surface based on image analysis of features. We discovered a strong correlation between the liver fibrosis progression on the anterior surface and interior in both liver lobes, where biopsy is typically obtained. The posterior surface exhibits less correlation with the rest of the liver. Therefore, scanning the anterior liver surface would obtain similar information to that obtained from biopsy for monitoring liver fibrosis progression.

  15. Avionics. Progress Record and Theory Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Div. of Vocational-Technical Schools.

    This combination progress record and course outline is designed for use by individuals teaching a course in avionics that is intended to prepare students for employment in the field of aerospace electronics. Included among the topics addressed in the course are the following: shop practices, aircraft and the theory of flight, electron physics,…

  16. 34 CFR 668.34 - Satisfactory progress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the second year, the student has a grade point average of at least a “C” or its equivalent, or has... eligible to receive title IV, HEA program assistance after the second year, in addition to satisfying the... progress at the end of the second year, but at the end of a subsequent grading period comes into...

  17. Hydrogen from renewable resources. Monthly progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Rocheleau, R.E.

    1995-08-01

    This progress report updates two tasks. In the area of hydrogen production, photobiological production and photoelectrochemical production advances are discussed as well as thermochemical production of hydrogen from wet biomass. In the area of hydrogen storage, reversible catalytic dehydrogenation of cycloalkanes by polyhydride complexes and polyhydride systems engineering are presented.

  18. National Disability Policy: A Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Disability, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This National Council on Disability (NCD) annual progress report to the President and Congress covers the period December 2005 through December 2006. The report is divided into 13 chapters, each dealing with a major area of public policy. These subject-specific chapters are preceded by an introductory Major Trends section that identifies…

  19. [A case report of progressive penile necrosis].

    PubMed

    Haba, Tomomi; Koike, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    The penis is provided with blood by multiple arteries. Penile necrosis is uncommon. Penile necrosis sporadically occurs in patients with progressive diabetes mellitus and/or end stage renal failure. Penile necrosis is often considered a poor prognostic feature. We present a case of penile necrosis in a patient with mild diabetes mellitus.

  20. Progressive Social Movements and Educational Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyon, Jean

    2009-01-01

    This article places policy development in the context of progressive social movements. It describes how social movements develop, and delineates some of the accomplishments of such contestation in U.S. history as well as in changes of education policy. The article closes by considering the possibilities and challenges of current social movement…

  1. Private Pay Progression. Research Brief. Edition 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anders, Jake

    2015-01-01

    While the issue of access to the professions is relatively well understood, there is limited understanding of the impact of entrants' backgrounds on success once in graduate employment. The research looks at the way social background continues to influence graduate pay and career progression once in professional employment. Key findings include:…

  2. Mycosis fungoides progression and chronic solvent exposure.

    PubMed

    Nikkels, Arjen F; Quatresooz, Pascale; Delvenne, Philippe; Balsat, Alain; Piérard, Gérald E

    2004-01-01

    The effect of repeated exposure to specific chemicals on the initiation or progression of mycosis fungoides (MF) remains unsettled. A patient with low-grade patch stage MF progressively developed MF plaques restricted to his arms, and a tumour on his right thigh. These areas were subject to repeated exposure to solvents. His thigh was indeed in close contact with his trousers pocket where he used to store a wiping rag drenched into white spirit and cellulosic thinner. Immunophenotyping these lesions revealed a dense LCA+, CD2+, CD3+, CD4+, CD5+, CD7+, CD45+, CD45RO+ T-cell infiltrate admixed with many factor XIIIa+ dendrocytes. T-cell receptor rearrangement analysis identified a monoclonal T-cell infiltrate. An internal work-up remained negative. Stopping further solvent exposure failed to improve his condition. Oral corticotherapy combined with low-dose interferon-alpha2a halted disease progression. This observation suggests that long-term solvent exposure may trigger MF and hasten its progression from the patch stage to the plaque and tumour stages. PMID:15057012

  3. Evaluating Test Validity: Reprise and Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Lorrie A.

    2016-01-01

    The AERA, APA, NCME Standards define validity as "the degree to which evidence and theory support the interpretations of test scores for proposed uses of tests". A century of disagreement about validity does not mean that there has not been substantial progress. This consensus definition brings together interpretations and use so that it…

  4. Rapid Progression of Coronary Atherosclerosis: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Priyank; Bajaj, Sharad; Virk, Hartaj; Bikkina, Mahesh; Shamoon, Fayez

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is chronic disease, the prevalence of which has increased steadily as the population ages. Vascular injury is believed to be critical initiating event in pathogenesis of spontaneous atherosclerosis. Syndrome of accelerated atherosclerosis has been classically described in patients undergoing heart transplantation, coronary artery bypass graft, and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. In contrast to spontaneous atherosclerosis, denuding endothelial injury followed by thrombus formation and initial predominant smooth muscle cell proliferation is believed to be playing a significant role in accelerated atherosclerosis. There is no universal definition of rapid progression of atherosclerosis. However most studies describing the phenomenon have used the following definition: (i) > or = 10% diameter reduction of at least one preexisting stenosis > or = 50%, (ii) > or = 30% diameter reduction of a preexisting stenosis <50%, and (iii) progression of a lesion to total occlusion within few months. Recent studies have described the role of coronary vasospasm, human immunodeficiency virus, various inflammatory markers, and some genetic mutations as predictors of rapid progression of atherosclerosis. As research in the field of vascular biology continues, more factors are likely to be implicated in the pathogenesis of rapid progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:26823982

  5. Decisions 1985, Directions 1984: Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Dept. of Postsecondary Education, Montgomery.

    In 1984 and 1985, professional personnel from each college in Alabama were asked to assist the Alabama State Board of Education in resolving long-standing issues and concerns. This progress report summarizes the Alabama College System's accomplishments during this period. Following introductory comments by the chancellor and a list of the members…

  6. Automobile Course. Progress Record and Theory Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Div. of Vocational-Technical Schools.

    This combination progress record and course outline is designed for use by individuals teaching a course in automobile repair. Included among the topics addressed in the course are the following: shop safety, engines, fuel and exhaust systems, electrical systems, crankcase lubrication systems, cooling systems, power transmission systems, steering…

  7. Progress toward identification of gluonic states

    SciTech Connect

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1987-05-29

    Progress in the last two years toward identification of gluonic states is reviewed. Discovery of additional pseudoscalars tends to confirm the glueball interpretation of iota(1460). A variety of evidence indicates new physics in the J = 1 channel in the E mass region. 65 refs., 1 tab.

  8. 24 CFR 968.230 - Progress reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Progress reports. 968.230 Section 968.230 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  9. 24 CFR 968.230 - Progress reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Progress reports. 968.230 Section 968.230 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  10. Progress and challenges in cleaning up Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Wagoner, J.D.

    1997-08-01

    This paper presents captioned viewgraphs which briefly summarize cleanup efforts at the Hanford Site. Underground waste tank and spent nuclear fuel issues are described. Progress is reported for the Plutonium Finishing Plant, PUREX plant, B-Plant/Waste Encapsulation Storage Facility, and Fast Flux Test Facility. A very brief overview of costs and number of sites remediated and/or decommissioned is given.

  11. Casimir force in Schwarzschild metric: Progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, Munawar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper I report progress on both theoretical and experimental aspects. I describe two approaches to calculating putative effects of gravitational curvature on the Casimir force. The work I describe continues the quest to answer the question: do virtual field excitations follow geodesics?

  12. [Progresses in antiinflamatory treatment in cataract surgery].

    PubMed

    Stefan, C; Pop, Adina; Cojocaru, Inga

    2011-01-01

    Anti-inflamatory medication is commonly used to reduce inflammation, edema and symptoms associated with allergies, trauma and infections diseases. Topical nonsteroidial anti-inflammatory (NSAIDs) and topical corticosteroids are overview of the role of topical NSAIDs and the progress of their use in eye surgery

  13. Scintigraphic findings in progressive diaphyseal dysplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Lundy, M.M.; Billingsley, J.L.; Redwine, M.D.; Turnbull, G.L.; Brown, T.J.

    1982-04-01

    A 14-yr-old white male with a severe form of progressive diaphyseal dysplasia (Engelmann-Camurati disease) was referred to our institution for evaluation of splenomegaly, which is not usually associated with the disease. Our studies included bone-marrow, and liver-spleen scans. These scintigraphic findings, along with the probable cause for splenomegaly, are discussed.

  14. Scintigraphic findings in progressive diaphyseal dysplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Lundy, M.M.; Billingsley, M.L.; Redwine, M.D.; Turnbull, G.L.; Brown, T.J.

    1982-04-01

    A 14-yr-old white male with a severe form of progressive diaphyseal dysplasia (Engelmann-Camurati disease) was referred to our institution for evaluation of splenomegaly, which is not usually associated with the disease. Our studies included Tc-99m bone, bone-marrow, and liver-spleen scans. These scintigraphic findings, along with the probable cause for splenomegaly, are discussed.

  15. Progress in Understanding Autism: 2007-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Scientific progress is discussed in relation to clinical issues; genetic issues; environmental issues; and the state of play on psychological treatments. It is concluded that substantial gains in knowledge have been achieved during the last 3 years, and there have been some unexpected findings, but major puzzles remain. We should be hopeful of…

  16. Progress of Younger Children Learning Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Zhihong; Sisson, Keith; Kung, Hsiang-te

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out how young children can learn, understand, and progress in the Chinese language. This study focuses on 13 students between two and three years old. The data collection methods used classroom observation, benchmarks, and parent questionnaires about at home behavior. The data analysis used is qualitative…

  17. States' Progress toward High School Restructuring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National High School Center, 2007

    2007-01-01

    As many Title I high schools approach their fifth year of failing to meet adequate yearly progress (AYP), states and districts are struggling to navigate the new waters of school restructuring as required by the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001. This brief outlines the provisions of the law related to restructuring and includes strategies…

  18. Assessing Student Progress in Field Practica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, Martha L.

    1996-01-01

    This article describes a sequential criterion-referenced assessment tool that can be used by social work students in field work and field instructors in evaluating student progress over a semester, a process benefiting both groups. The system provides students with periodic self-administered, self-scored tests. Development and sustained use of the…

  19. Progress Testing: Critical Analysis and Suggested Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albanese, Mark; Case, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Educators have long lamented the tendency of students to engage in rote memorization in preparation for tests rather than engaging in deep learning where they attempt to gain meaning from their studies. Rote memorization driven by objective exams has been termed a steering effect. Progress testing (PT), in which a comprehensive examination…

  20. Alysha's Day: Progressive Pedagogy as School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Fran; Silin, Jonathan

    This paper argues that progressive pedagogy is a viable alternative to more limited basic skill approaches to school reform. Drawing on qualitative and quantitative data collected during the fourth year of a 7-year multi-site school reform initiative in a besieged urban district, the paper documents ways in which teachers have dramatically altered…

  1. Chemistry-Key to Our Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1976-01-01

    Address of Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg to the American Chemical Society banquet on August 31, 1976, San Francisco, California. Discussed are the contributions chemistry has made to human progress in the past and looks at some that it may add in the future. (Author/SL)

  2. The Effect of Mental Progression on Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Malia F.; Bar, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    Mood affects the way people think. But can the way people think affect their mood? In the present investigation, we examined this promising link by testing whether mood is influenced by the presence or absence of associative progression by manipulating the scope of participants' information processing and measuring their subsequent mood. In…

  3. Staying True?: Progressive Leadership in Tough Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pignatelli, Frank

    2012-01-01

    A system of accountability in public schools predicated upon standardized testing accompanied by high-stakes consequences for leaders, as well as teachers and students, has posed a daunting challenge to educational leaders who align themselves with core tenets of progressive education. This essay explores what it might mean--and take--to stay true…

  4. Status and progress of the RERTR Program

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.

    1996-12-31

    The progress of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program is described. The major events, findings, and activities of 1996 are reviewed after a brief summary of the results which the RERTR Program had achieved by the end of 1995 in collaboration with its many international partners.

  5. Pure science and the problem of progress.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Heather

    2014-06-01

    How should we understand scientific progress? Kuhn famously discussed science as its own internally driven venture, structured by paradigms. He also famously had a problem describing progress in science, as problem-solving ability failed to provide a clear rubric across paradigm change--paradigm changes tossed out problems as well as solving them. I argue here that much of Kuhn's inability to articulate a clear view of scientific progress stems from his focus on pure science and a neglect of applied science. I trace the history of the distinction between pure and applied science, showing how the distinction came about, the rhetorical uses to which the distinction has been put, and how pure science came to be both more valued by scientists and philosophers. I argue that the distinction between pure and applied science does not stand up to philosophical scrutiny, and that once we relinquish it, we can provide Kuhn with a clear sense of scientific progress. It is not one, though, that will ultimately prove acceptable. For that, societal evaluations of scientific work are needed.

  6. Making Progress as Leaders among University Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quah, Cheng Sim; Sim, Sandra Phek Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the overview of how individuals in their respective teams operated and contributed to their organization. This study also identified the salient characteristics of how the respondents made progress as leaders in their respective faculties or departments towards identifying directions for innovative future practice through…

  7. 76 FR 57012 - Progress Reports Rules Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ... of Prisons 28 CFR Part 524 RIN 1120-AB60 Progress Reports Rules Revision AGENCY: Bureau of Prisons, Justice. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: In this document, the Bureau of Prisons (Bureau) proposes to..., Office of General Counsel, Bureau of Prisons, 320 First Street, NW., Washington, DC 20534. You may...

  8. The Mixed Economic Progress of Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoeni, Robert F.; And Others

    This report examines whether the economic well-being of male immigrants to the United States improves substantially over time, details differences in economic progress of immigrants from different countries of origin, and assesses the impact of educational attainment on immigrants' earnings. Analyses are based on Public Use Micro Samples of the…

  9. Progress in KEKB beam instrumentation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arinaga, Mitsuhiro; Flanagan, John W.; Fukuma, Hitoshi; Furuya, Takaaki; Hiramatsu, Shigenori; Ikeda, Hitomi; Ishii, Hitoshi; Kikutani, Eiji; Mitsuhashi, Toshiyuki; Mori, Kenji; Tejima, Masaki; Tobiyama, Makoto

    2013-03-01

    The paper describes several topics relating to the beam instrumentation systems at the KEKB B-factory (KEKB) from 2003 to the end of its operation. It covers 1) measurement of the tilt angle of a bunch caused by a crab cavity, 2) a diagnostic system for beam aborts, 3) bunch feedback and related systems, and 4) progress in the beam position monitor system.

  10. [Recent progress in international public health].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Li, Liming

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes the recent progress in international public health in terms of public health challenges, infectious diseases prevention and control, disease surveillance, chronic and non-communicable disease prevention and treatment, global health, health literacy and precision medicine for the purpose to provide reference for the improvement of public health in China. PMID:26822634

  11. Natural Language Information Retrieval: Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Carballo, Jose; Strzalkowski, Tomek

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the progress of the natural language information retrieval project, a joint effort led by GE (General Electric) Research, and its evaluation at the sixth TREC (Text Retrieval Conference). Discusses stream-based information retrieval, which uses alternative methods of document indexing; advanced linguistic streams; weighting; and query…

  12. Arterial Remodeling Associates with CKD Progression

    PubMed Central

    Collin, Cédric; Karras, Alexandre; Laurent, Stéphane; Bozec, Erwan; Jacquot, Christian; Stengel, Bénédicte; Houillier, Pascal; Froissart, Marc; Boutouyrie, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    In CKD, large arteries remodel and become increasingly stiff. The greater pulsatile pressure reaching the glomerulus as a result of increased aortic stiffness could induce renal damage, suggesting that the stiffening and remodeling of large arteries could affect the progression of CKD. We measured carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, aortic pressure and carotid remodeling and stiffness parameters in 180 patients with CKD (mean measured GFR, 32 ml/min per 1.73 m2) and followed them prospectively for a mean of 3.1 years. During follow-up, carotid stiffness significantly increased (+0.28 ± 0.05 m/s; P < 0.0001) but aortic stiffness did not. Carotid intima-media thickness decreased significantly during follow-up and the internal diameter of the carotid increased, producing increased circumferential wall stress (+2.08 ± 0.43 kPa/yr; P < 0.0001). In a linear mixed model, circumferential wall stress significantly associated with faster GFR decline after adjustment for risk factors of cardiovascular disease and progression of CKD. In a multivariable Cox model, carotid circumferential wall stress and pulse pressure independently associated with higher risk for ESRD. None of the arterial stiffness parameters associated with progression of CKD. In conclusion, maladaptive remodeling of the carotid artery and increased pulse pressure independently associate with faster decline of renal function and progression to ESRD. PMID:21493771

  13. Learning Progressions that Support Formative Assessment Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alonzo, Alicia C.

    2011-01-01

    Black, Wilson, and Yao (this issue) lay out a comprehensive vision for the way that learning progressions (or other "road maps") might be used to inform and coordinate formative and summative purposes of assessment. As Black, Wilson, and others have been arguing for over a decade, the effective use of formative assessment has great potential to…

  14. Damaging effects of visible light. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, T.P.

    1980-01-01

    Research progress in studies of photodynamic damage of visual photoreceptors is presented. It was found the retina is not homogeneous in its susceptibility to light damage. Steady state rhodopsin levels have been evaluated in albino rats and in pigmented rats at several light intensities. Studies have continued of the effects of peroxidative photodynamic damage on the properties of rod outer segments. (ACR)

  15. [Progress in the analysis of brassinosteroids].

    PubMed

    Pan, Jialiang; Tan, Wei; Li, Gongke; Hu, Yuling

    2011-02-01

    Brassinosteroids have been considered as a class of plant hormones with high activity. However, the complex matrix of the plant samples and the ultra-trace level of naturally occurring brassinosteroids make their separation and determination very difficult. This review summarizes the progress in the development of sample pretreatment and determination of brassinosteroids.

  16. Subject Access Project. Second Quarterly Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atherton, Pauline

    The Subject Access Project second quarterly report for September to December 1976 summarized in-progress work to improve subject access to monographs. Activities include: (1) analysis of book indexes and tables of contents for terms to augment MARC subject description; (2) analysis of additional book sections--e.g., maps, illustrations, charts,…

  17. A progressive pruritic rash with blisters.

    PubMed

    Overcash, Michael D; Ewald, Matt

    2016-05-01

    This article describes a patient with a progressive pruritic rash and fluid-filled blisters. A punch biopsy later confirmed the diagnosis of bullous pemphigoid, an inflammatory condition that most commonly occurs in older adults and is treated with corticosteroids. PMID:27124233

  18. The spectrum of progressive derecho formation environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guastini, Corey T.

    Progressive derechos are severe mesoscale convective systems that often form east of the Rocky Mountains during the warm season (May--August) and cause, by definition, straight-line wind damage along paths upwards of 400 km long. This study develops a subjective, seven-category classification scheme that spans the spectrum of progressive derecho formation environments from those dominated by robust upper-level ridges to those characterized by vigorous upper-level troughs. A climatology of 256 progressive derecho events is created for 1996--2013 and is categorized according to the developed classification scheme. Derecho initiation-relative composites are constructed for each of the seven groups using 0.5° Climate Forecast System Reanalysis data to document the environmental characteristics unique to each group as well as those shared among them. Finally, two in-depth case studies and five cursory case studies provide examples of the seven categories and reveal important nuances in mesoscale dynamic and thermodynamic structure inherent to all derecho cases. Results of the climatology show progressive derecho activity increases from 1 May through 1 July before decreasing again through the end of August and follows a northward trend in latitude from 1 May through 1 August before shifting slightly southward through the end of the warm season. Upslope flow in the vicinity of the Rocky Mountains initiates 28 percent of progressive derechos, upper-level troughs initiate 20 percent, 47 percent form in benign synoptic environments, and 5 percent are unclassifiable. Composite results show all progressive derecho initiation environments are marked by a long axis of instability caused by the overlap of high atmospheric moisture content and steep midlevel lapse rates, but the relative positions and strengths of upper-level troughs and ridges are crucial in determining how the instability axis develops and what its orientation in space will be. Case studies reveal instability

  19. Exercise Training in Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Paulseth, John E.; Dove, Carin; Jiang, Shucui; Rathbone, Michel P.; Hicks, Audrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is evidence of the benefits of exercise training in multiple sclerosis (MS); however, few studies have been conducted in individuals with progressive MS and severe mobility impairment. A potential exercise rehabilitation approach is total-body recumbent stepper training (TBRST). We evaluated the safety and participant-reported experience of TBRST in people with progressive MS and compared the efficacy of TBRST with that of body weight–supported treadmill training (BWSTT) on outcomes of function, fatigue, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods: Twelve participants with progressive MS (Expanded Disability Status Scale scores, 6.0–8.0) were randomized to receive TBRST or BWSTT. Participants completed three weekly sessions (30 minutes) of exercise training for 12 weeks. Primary outcomes included safety assessed as adverse events and patient-reported exercise experience assessed as postexercise response and evaluation of exercise equipment. Secondary outcomes included the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite, the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale, and the Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life–54 questionnaire scores. Assessments were conducted at baseline and after 12 weeks. Results: Safety was confirmed in both exercise groups. Participants reported enjoying both exercise modalities; however, TBRST was reviewed more favorably. Both interventions reduced fatigue and improved HRQOL (P ≤ .05); there were no changes in function. Conclusions: Both TBRST and BWSTT seem to be safe, well tolerated, and enjoyable for participants with progressive MS with severe disability. Both interventions may also be efficacious for reducing fatigue and improving HRQOL. TBRST should be further explored as an exercise rehabilitation tool for patients with progressive MS. PMID:27803637

  20. Metabolome in progression to Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Orešič, M; Hyötyläinen, T; Herukka, S-K; Sysi-Aho, M; Mattila, I; Seppänan-Laakso, T; Julkunen, V; Gopalacharyulu, P V; Hallikainen, M; Koikkalainen, J; Kivipelto, M; Helisalmi, S; Lötjönen, J; Soininen, H

    2011-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is considered as a transition phase between normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). MCI confers an increased risk of developing AD, although the state is heterogeneous with several possible outcomes, including even improvement back to normal cognition. We sought to determine the serum metabolomic profiles associated with progression to and diagnosis of AD in a prospective study. At the baseline assessment, the subjects enrolled in the study were classified into three diagnostic groups: healthy controls (n=46), MCI (n=143) and AD (n=47). Among the MCI subjects, 52 progressed to AD in the follow-up. Comprehensive metabolomics approach was applied to analyze baseline serum samples and to associate the metabolite profiles with the diagnosis at baseline and in the follow-up. At baseline, AD patients were characterized by diminished ether phospholipids, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins and sterols. A molecular signature comprising three metabolites was identified, which was predictive of progression to AD in the follow-up. The major contributor to the predictive model was 2,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid, which was upregulated in AD progressors (P=0.0048), indicating potential involvement of hypoxia in the early AD pathogenesis. This was supported by the pathway analysis of metabolomics data, which identified upregulation of pentose phosphate pathway in patients who later progressed to AD. Together, our findings primarily implicate hypoxia, oxidative stress, as well as membrane lipid remodeling in progression to AD. Establishment of pathogenic relevance of predictive biomarkers such as ours may not only facilitate early diagnosis, but may also help identify new therapeutic avenues. PMID:22832349

  1. Broad Spectrum of Skeletal Malformation Complex in Patients with Cleidocranial Dysplasia Syndrome: Radiographic and Tomographic Study

    PubMed Central

    Al Kaissi, Ali; Ben Chehida, Farid; Kenis, Vladimir; Ganger, Rudolf; Radler, Christof; Hofstaetter, Jochen G.; Klaushofer, Klaus; Grill, Franz

    2013-01-01

    correlated with the pathological mechanism of the posterior occipital synchondrosis. Therefore, injuries to the craniocervical region in these patients might lead to a wide range of dreadful complications, ranging from complete atlanto-occipital or atlanto-axial dislocation to nondisplaced occipital condyle avulsion fractures with the possibility of morbid and or mortal outcome. On the other hand, the persistence of a cartilaginous spine was the reason behind the progressive spine tilting. This pathological form can be considered as a notoriously unpredictable malformation complex. The value of presenting these patients is to demonsterate that the genotype is not a precise index to assess the severity and the natural history of the phenotype. PMID:24023524

  2. Recent progress in vaccines against fungal diseases.

    PubMed

    Cassone, Antonio; Casadevall, Arturo

    2012-08-01

    Diseases caused by fungi are increasingly impacting the health of the human population and now account for a large fraction of infectious disease complications in individuals with impaired immunity or breached tissue defenses. Antifungal therapy is often of limited effectiveness in these patients, resulting into treatment failures, chronic infections and unacceptable rates of mortality, morbidity and their associated costs. Consequently there is a real medical need for new treatments and preventive measures to combat fungal diseases and, toward this goal, safe and efficacious vaccines would constitute major progress. After decades of complacency and neglect of this critically important field of research, remarkable progress has been made in recent years. A number of highly immunogenic and protective vaccine formulations in preclinical setting have been developed, and at least two have undergone Phase 1 clinical trials as preventive and/or therapeutic tools against candidiasis.

  3. Nontraditional Families and Childhood Progress Through School

    PubMed Central

    ROSENFELD, MICHAEL J.

    2010-01-01

    I use U.S. census data to perform the first large-sample, nationally representative tests of outcomes for children raised by same-sex couples. The results show that children of same-sex couples are as likely to make normal progress through school as the children of most other family structures. Heterosexual married couples are the family type whose children have the lowest rates of grade retention, but the advantage of heterosexual married couples is mostly due to their higher socioeconomic status. Children of all family types (including children of same-sex couples) are far more likely to make normal progress through school than are children living in group quarters (such as orphanages and shelters). PMID:20879687

  4. Progressive anomia without semantic or phonological impairment.

    PubMed

    Ingles, Janet L; Fisk, John D; Passmore, Michael; Darvesh, Sultan

    2007-05-01

    We describe a 59-year-old woman, M.T., with a progressive language impairment and neuroimaging findings of decreased perfusion (SPECT) and focal atrophy (MRI) in the left temporal region. The most prominent feature of her cognitive profile was a profound and progressive impairment in naming. In spite of this, she performed normally on tests of semantic processing and phonological output. Her spontaneous speech was fluent with preserved syntax and articulation but with notable word-finding problems. All other cognitive abilities were relatively stable and intact. These features are not typical of either fluent or non-fluent forms of neurodegenerative language disturbance. The cognitive mechanisms that may underlie this case are discussed.

  5. A progressive-duration schedule of reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Gulotta, Kara B; Byrne, Tom

    2015-12-01

    We describe a schedule of reinforcement involving systematic, within-session increases in response-duration requirements. Rats received access to appetitive reinforcers for depressing and holding down a response lever. Duration requirements increased after each reinforcer delivery. Sessions ended when reinforcement criteria were unmet for a period of ten minutes. Breaking points, defined as the terminal duration requirement in effect prior to the end of the session, stabilized when environmental conditions were held constant. Breaking points were sensitive to manipulations of both food deprivation and reinforcer quality. Analogous to progressive-ratio schedules, progressive-duration schedules may provide an assay for measuring the amount of behavior an organism will emit for a given reinforcer under current motivational conditions.

  6. Turbulence Modeling: Progress and Future Outlook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marvin, Joseph G.; Huang, George P.

    1996-01-01

    Progress in the development of the hierarchy of turbulence models for Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes codes used in aerodynamic applications is reviewed. Steady progress is demonstrated, but transfer of the modeling technology has not kept pace with the development and demands of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools. An examination of the process of model development leads to recommendations for a mid-course correction involving close coordination between modelers, CFD developers, and application engineers. In instances where the old process is changed and cooperation enhanced, timely transfer is realized. A turbulence modeling information database is proposed to refine the process and open it to greater participation among modeling and CFD practitioners.

  7. Chang'E-3 Science Exploration Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yongliao; Ouyang, Ziyuan

    Chang’e-3 mission is the second phase of China Lunar Exploration Program which its main science objectives is to map the landing site and the rover path, determine its surface chemical composition and study the regional geological and geochemical characteristics, map the earth’s plasmasphere and study Earth’s plasmasphere responses to solar activity and plasma behaviors in the magnetosphere, monitor the variable stars, bright active galactic nuclei ( AGN ) and survey the sky. Eight scientific payloads onboard the CE-3 probe has obtained lots of data, and this paper will introduce their exploration progresses and some new scientific results. Key words: Chang’e-3 Mission, Science Exploration Progress, Scientific Payloads

  8. SP-100 space subsystems development progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondt, Jack F.

    1991-09-01

    The space technology effort related to SP-100 subsystems is described in terms of the areas of primary focus and most significant progress. The SP-100 is briefly compared to the Voyager, and detailed descriptions of the converter subsystem, the heat-transport system, and the heat-rejection subsystem. Progress on the converter subsystem includes a high-voltage insulator composed of a single sapphire crystal, a compliant pad of coated niobium, an SiGe thermoelectric (TE) module, and a TE cell assembly. The test of the Nb1Zr piping related to the heat-transport subsystem is described, and the development is reported for the TEM pump and the gas separator. It is concluded that the critical technical issues related to the technologies have been addressed although further efforts are required. Future testing is described for the three major components of the space subsystems including the converter, pump, and the radiator.

  9. A tense situation: forcing tumour progression

    PubMed Central

    Butcher, Darci T.; Alliston, Tamara; Weaver, Valerie M.

    2009-01-01

    Cells within tissues are continuously exposed to physical forces including hydrostatic pressure, shear stress, and compression and tension forces. Cells dynamically adapt to force by modifying their behaviour and remodelling their microenvironment. They also sense these forces through mechanoreceptors and respond by exerting reciprocal actomyosin- and cytoskeletal-dependent cell-generated force by a process termed ‘mechanoreciprocity’. Loss of mechanoreciprocity has been shown to promote the progression of disease, including cancer. Moreover, the mechanical properties of a tissue contribute to disease progression, compromise treatment and might also alter cancer risk. Thus, the changing force that cells experience needs to be considered when trying to understand the complex nature of tumorigenesis. PMID:19165226

  10. Progress in molecular precursors for electronic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Buhro, W.E.

    1996-09-01

    Molecular-precursor chemistry provides an essential underpinning to all electronic-materials technologies, including photovoltaics and related areas of direct interest to the DOE. Materials synthesis and processing is a rapidly developing field in which advances in molecular precursors are playing a major role. This article surveys selected recent research examples that define the exciting current directions in molecular-precursor science. These directions include growth of increasingly complex structures and stoichiometries, surface-selective growth, kinetic growth of metastable materials, growth of size-controlled quantum dots and quantum-dot arrays, and growth at progressively lower temperatures. Continued progress in molecular-precursor chemistry will afford precise control over the crystal structures, nanostructures, and microstructures of electronic materials.

  11. Primary progressive aphasia in a bilingual woman.

    PubMed

    Filley, Christopher M; Ramsberger, Gail; Menn, Lise; Wu, Jiang; Reid, Bessie Y; Reid, Allan L

    2006-10-01

    Multilingual aphasias are common because most people in the world know more than one language, but little is known of these syndromes except in patients who have had a stroke. We present a 76-year-old right-handed woman, fluent in English and Chinese, who developed anomia at age 70 and then progressed to aphasia. Functional neuroimaging disclosed mild left temporoparietal hypometabolism. Neurolinguistic testing was performed in both English and Chinese, representing a unique contribution to the literature. Results revealed conduction-like aphasia that was comparable in the two languages, although English was slightly better preserved. Primary progressive aphasia has disrupted 2 languages in a similar manner, suggesting their close neuroanatomic relationship in this case.

  12. Technological Progress on Multi-Beam Klystrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yaogen

    2006-01-01

    The technological progress on Multi-Beam Klystrons (MBKs) at the Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IECAS) is presented in this paper. Topics to be discussed include the development of cathodes with high current densities and low evaporation rates; multi-beam electron guns with reduced chances for breakdown; multi-beam electron optics systems with high beam transmission; RF systems with wide bandwidth and high efficiency; the oscillation and broad spectrum noise caused by non-operational modes and reflecting electrons; and computer simulations of the multi-beam electron optics system and beam-wave interaction. In addition, the research progress of several types of MBKs developed in IECAS is reported. These MBKs range in frequency from L- to X-band with corresponding peak powers ranging from several tens to several hundreds of kilowatts, average powers from several kilowatts to tens of kilowatts, and bandwidths from 3% to 12%.

  13. [Marine microbial metagenomics: progress and prospect].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Qin, Ling; Dai, Shi-kun; Jiang, Shu-mei; Liu, Zhi-heng

    2007-06-01

    Preliminary statistics showed that there are more than one million species of microbes in marine environments that formed a dynamic genetic reservoir, among which the majority are not revealed and categorized due to barrier in cultivation techniques. However, the situation has changed in recent years because of the rapid development of phylogenetic studies based on small ribosomal RNA and rDNA sequencing independent to standard laboratory cultivation. These changes have significantly altered our understanding about microbial diversity and microbial ecology. In this review, we highlight some of recent progress and innovation in research on microbial diversity, and propose a metagenomic scheme as an alternative to overcome some of the barriers that still remain for exploitation of marine microbial diversity for its enormous potential in pharmaceutical applications. We believe that rapid progress in marine metagenomics allows direct access to the genomes of numerous non-cultivable microorganisms for their associated chemical prosperity.

  14. The progressing cavity pump in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Gaymard, B.; Chanton, E. ); Puyo, P. )

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the principle and the design of the Progressing Cavity pump. It recalls the Moineau principle on which the pump works, describes the various parameters which define the pump and determine its performances. It shows the configuration used for oil production and indicates the range of practical performance that can be expected. The authors describe the results of three years of operations in Europe. Also discussed are two recently developed pump models which broaden significantly the area of operation of the Progressing Cavity Pump. The presentation of the high pressure pump includes a discussion of the effects of high viscosity on the pump operation and of the solutions offered to optimize this operation.

  15. Monthly progress report summary, September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    This report consists of numerous progress reports on program support, systems analysis, materials handling, chemical and physical treatments, waste destruction and stabilization, off-gas treatment, and final waste form studies. The Mixed Waste Integrated Program has responsibility for the Department of Energy`s low-level radioactive waste and hazardous material mixture characterization, treatment, and disposal. The program is undergoing transition to the Mixed Waste Focus Area.

  16. Olympic Fisher Reintroduction Project- 2009 Progress Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, Jeffrey C.; Happe, Patti J.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Manson, David J.

    2009-01-01

    The 2009 progress report is a summary of the reintroduction, monitoring, and research efforts undertaken during the first two years of the Olympic fisher reintroduction project. Jeffrey C. Lewis of Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Patti J. Happe of Olympic National Park, and Kurt J. Jenkins of U. S. Geological Survey are the principal investigators of the monitoring and research program associated with the reintroduction. David J. Manson of Olympic National Park is the lead biological

  17. Olympic Fisher Reintroduction Project: 2010 Progress Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, Jeffrey C.; Happe, Patti J.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Manson, David J.

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 progress report is a summary of the reintroduction, monitoring, and research efforts undertaken during the third year of the Olympic fisher reintroduction project. Jeffrey C. Lewis of Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Patti J. Happe of Olympic National Park, and Kurt J. Jenkins of U. S. Geological Survey are the principal investigators of the monitoring and research program associated with the reintroduction. David J. Manson of Olympic National Park is the lead biological technician.

  18. Lung xenotransplantation: recent progress and current status.

    PubMed

    Harris, Donald G; Quinn, Kevin J; Dahi, Siamak; Burdorf, Lars; Azimzadeh, Agnes M; Pierson, Richard N

    2014-01-01

    Xenotransplantation has undergone important progress in controlling initial hyperacute rejection in many preclinical models, with some cell, tissue, and organ xenografts advancing toward clinical trials. However, acute injury, driven primarily by innate immune and inflammatory responses, continues to limit results in lung xenograft models. The purpose of this article is to review the current status of lung xenotransplantation--including the seemingly unique challenges posed by this organ-and summarize proven and emerging means of overcoming acute lung xenograft injury.

  19. Thermal structures: Four decades of progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, Earl A.

    1990-01-01

    Since the first supersonic flight in October 1947, the United States has designed, developed and flown flight vehicles within increasingly severe aerothermal environments. Over this period, major advances in engineering capabilities have occurred that will enable the design of thermal structures for high speed flight vehicles in the twenty-first century. Progress in thermal-structures is surveyed for the last four decades to provide a historical perspective for future efforts.

  20. Coordination: southeast continental shelf studies. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, D.W.

    1981-02-01

    The objectives are to identify important physical, chemical and biological processes which affect the transfer of materials on the southeast continental shelf, determine important parameters which govern observed temporal and spatial varibility on the continental shelf, determine the extent and modes of coupling between events at the shelf break and nearshore, and determine physical, chemical and biological exchange rates on the inner shelf. Progress in meeting these research objectives is presented. (ACR)

  1. [Progress of chlamydomonas as a model organism].

    PubMed

    Xie, Chuan-Xiao; Han, Wei; Yu, Zeng-Liang

    2003-05-01

    The unicellular alga Chlamydomonas offers a simple life cycle, easy culture and isolation of series of mutants, established the techniques and tool kit for molecular genetics and genetics analysis. It is now becoming the model organism for studies on photosynthesis in plant, flagellar assembly and function, cell cycle and circadian rhythms, signal transduction, light perception and cell recognition. It is summarized the progress of study on Chlamydomonas as a model organism in this paper.

  2. Progress Towards Laser Cooling and Trapping Gadolinium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Upendra; Simien, Clayton

    2016-05-01

    Lanthanide elements are of interest because of their potential for investigating next generation optical clock transitions, novel non-S ground state ultracold collisions, and the physics of quantum degenerate dipolar gases. We present our progress towards laser cooling and trapping atomic Gadolinium (Gd). A magneto-optical trap is the first step towards precision measurements, ultracold collision studies, and for probing dipolar physics of Gd. The design, construction, and performance of the apparatus will be presented.

  3. Chromosome 6p amplification and cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Gda C; Zielenska, M; Prasad, M; Squire, J A

    2007-01-01

    Chromosomal imbalances represent an important mechanism in cancer progression. A clear association between DNA copy‐number aberrations and prognosis has been found in a variety of tumours. Comparative genomic hybridisation studies have detected copy‐number increases affecting chromosome 6p in several types of cancer. A systematic analysis of large tumour cohorts is required to identify genomic imbalances of 6p that correlate with a distinct clinical feature of disease progression. Recent findings suggest that a central part of the short arm of chromosome 6p harbours one or more oncogenes directly involved in tumour progression. Gains at 6p have been associated with advanced or metastatic disease, poor prognosis, venous invasion in bladder, colorectal, ovarian and hepatocellular carcinomas. Copy number gains of 6p DNA have been described in a series of patients who presented initially with follicle centre lymphoma, which subsequently transformed to diffuse large B cell lymphoma. Melanoma cytogenetics has consistently identified aberrations of chromosome 6, and a correlation with lower overall survival has been described. Most of the changes observed in tumours to date map to the 6p21–p23 region, which encompasses approximately half of the genes on all of chromosome 6 and one third of the number of CpG islands in this chromosome. Analyses of the genes that cluster to the commonly amplified regions of chromosome 6p have helped to identify a small number of molecular pathways that become deregulated during tumour progression in diverse tumour types. Such pathways offer promise for new treatments in the future. PMID:16790693

  4. Cavernous sinus thrombosis progression from trismus.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jin Yong; Kim, Hyeon Min; Ryu, Jae Young

    2015-02-01

    In the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, patients with trismus can be easily identified. If the cause of trismus is infection of the masticatory space near the pterygoid plexus, the possibility of cavernous sinus thrombosis should be considered. We report the case of a patient who presented with limited mouth opening and progressed to cavernous sinus thrombosis, along with a review of the relevant literature. PMID:25741468

  5. Recent progress on the BIPM watt balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Hao; Kiss, Adrien; Robertsson, Lennart; de Mirandés, Estefania; Solve, Stéphane; Lavergne, Thomas; Picard, Alain; Stock, Michael

    2014-08-01

    We present the recent progress on the BIPM (Bureau International des Poids et Mesures) watt balance. The existing apparatus was transferred to the dedicated new laboratory with better thermal and vibrational conditions. The apparatus is fully operational in air. An improvement by a factor of three was achieved on the S/N ratio of both the voltage-to-velocity and force-to-current ratios. The fabrication of the parts of the new magnet is completed and its assembly is finished.

  6. [Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cancer progression].

    PubMed

    Gos, Monika; Miłoszewska, Joanna; Przybyszewska, Małgorzata

    2009-01-01

    According to recently published data, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition--a process important for embryonic development, may be involved in many pathological processes such as wound healing, tissue fibrosis or cancer progression. The EMT process in cell is driven by growth factors (EGF, PDGF, HGF) or other signaling proteins such as TGF-beta, sonic hedgehog (Shh), Wnt/beta-catenin and extracellular matrix (ECM) components that may stimulate cellular growth and migration. During cancer progression, the EMT process is necessary to the conversion of benign tumor to aggressive and highly invasive cancer. This is due to complex changes in cancer cells and their microenvironment that lead to dissolution of intracellular junctions and their detachment from basolateral membrane, and changes in the interactions between cancer cells and ECM. The loss of adhesion is accompanied by molecular and morphologic changes in cancer cells that are essential for the phenotypic change from epithelial to mesenchymal one, and the acquirement of higher migration and invasion potential. During the colonization of distant sites, a reverse process mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) takes place and metastatic cancer cells again acquire the epithelial phenotype. The EMT in cancer progression is not only specific for cancer cells. It has been suggested that also cells within tumor microenvironment e.g. cancer associated fibroblasts (CAF) are generated in part from normal epithelial cells in EMT process. The understanding of the role of EMT and MET processes in cancer progression and their relationship with cancer stem cells, cancer associated fibroblasts and other stroma cells might lead to the discovery of new, targeted cancer therapies.

  7. Evolutionary Game Theory Analysis of Tumor Progression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Amy; Liao, David; Sturm, James; Austin, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Evolutionary game theory applied to two interacting cell populations can yield quantitative prediction of the future densities of the two cell populations based on the initial interaction terms. We will discuss how in a complex ecology that evolutionary game theory successfully predicts the future densities of strains of stromal and cancer cells (multiple myeloma), and discuss the possible clinical use of such analysis for predicting cancer progression. Supported by the National Science Foundation and the National Cancer Institute.

  8. Recent Sikorsky R and D progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The recent activities and progress in four specific areas of Sikorsky's research and development program are summarized. Since the beginning of the S-76 design in 1974, Sikorsky has been aggressively developing the technology for using composite materials in helicopter design. Four specific topics are covered: advanced cockpit/controller efforts, fly-by-wire controls on RSRA/X-Wing, vibration control via higher harmonic control, and main rotor aerodynamic improvements.

  9. 1995 PVUSA progress report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA) is a national public-private partnership that is assessing and demonstrating the viability of utility-scale (US) photovoltaic (PV) electric generation systems and recent developments in PV module technology. This report updates the project`s progress, reviews the status and performance of the various PV installations during 1995, summarizes key accomplishments and conclusions, and serves as the final report under Pacific Gas and Electric Company`s project management.

  10. Recent Progress of Microfluidics in Translational Applications

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zongbin; Han, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidics, featuring microfabricated structures, is a technology for manipulating fluids at the micrometer scale. The small dimension and flexibility of microfluidic systems are ideal for mimicking molecular and cellular microenvironment, and show great potential in translational research and development. Here, the recent progress of microfluidics in biological and biomedical applications, including molecular analysis, cellular analysis, and chip-based material delivery and biomimetic design is presented. The potential future developments in the translational microfluidics field are also discussed. PMID:27091777

  11. The Ares Projects: Progress Toward Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, Phil

    2008-01-01

    Ares Projects are making great strides toward building a new generation of launch vehicles. Support ISS operations and human exploration of Moon and other destinations. Ares I-X flight test in 2009. Additional testing and development work is in progress. Ares launch vehicles continue on schedule to fulfill this strategic capability for the future. Capabilities will develop in environment of increasing challenges. NASA transitioning from performing space operations to expanding the Nation's frontiers.

  12. Inferring tumor progression from genomic heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Navin, Nicholas; Krasnitz, Alexander; Rodgers, Linda; Cook, Kerry; Meth, Jennifer; Kendall, Jude; Riggs, Michael; Eberling, Yvonne; Troge, Jennifer; Grubor, Vladimir; Levy, Dan; Lundin, Pär; Månér, Susanne; Zetterberg, Anders; Hicks, James; Wigler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Cancer progression in humans is difficult to infer because we do not routinely sample patients at multiple stages of their disease. However, heterogeneous breast tumors provide a unique opportunity to study human tumor progression because they still contain evidence of early and intermediate subpopulations in the form of the phylogenetic relationships. We have developed a method we call Sector-Ploidy-Profiling (SPP) to study the clonal composition of breast tumors. SPP involves macro-dissecting tumors, flow-sorting genomic subpopulations by DNA content, and profiling genomes using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Breast carcinomas display two classes of genomic structural variation: (1) monogenomic and (2) polygenomic. Monogenomic tumors appear to contain a single major clonal subpopulation with a highly stable chromosome structure. Polygenomic tumors contain multiple clonal tumor subpopulations, which may occupy the same sectors, or separate anatomic locations. In polygenomic tumors, we show that heterogeneity can be ascribed to a few clonal subpopulations, rather than a series of gradual intermediates. By comparing multiple subpopulations from different anatomic locations, we have inferred pathways of cancer progression and the organization of tumor growth. PMID:19903760

  13. Crevicular Fluid Biomarkers and Periodontal Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Min; Braun, Thomas M.; Ramseier, Christoph A.; Sugai, Jim V.; Giannobile, William V.

    2014-01-01

    Aim Assess the ability of a panel of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) biomarkers as predictors of periodontal disease progression (PDP). Materials and Methods 100 individuals participated in a 12-month longitudinal investigation and categorized into 4 groups according to their periodontal status. GCF, clinical parameters, and saliva were collected bi-monthly. Sub-gingival plaque and serum were collected bi-annually. For 6 months, no periodontal treatment was provided. At 6-months, patients received periodontal therapy and continued participation from 6-12 months. GCF samples were analyzed by ELISA for MMP-8, MMP-9, OPG, CRP and IL-1β. Differences in median levels of GCF biomarkers were compared between stable and progressing participants using Wilcoxon Rank Sum test (p=0.05). Clustering algorithm was used to evaluate the ability of oral biomarkers to classify patients as either stable or progressing. Results Eighty-three individuals completed the 6-month monitoring phase. With the exception of GCF C-reactive protein, all biomarkers were significantly higher in the PDP group compared to stable patients. Clustering analysis showed highest sensitivity levels when biofilm pathogens and GCF biomarkers were combined with clinical measures, 74% (95% CI = 61,86). Conclusions Signature of GCF fluid-derived biomarkers combined with pathogens and clinical measures provides a sensitive measure for discrimination of PDP (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00277745). PMID:24303954

  14. Depression and cancer: mechanisms and disease progression.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, David; Giese-Davis, Janine

    2003-08-01

    Depression and cancer commonly co-occur. The prevalence of depression among cancer patients increases with disease severity and symptoms such as pain and fatigue. The literature on depression as a predictor of cancer incidence is mixed, although chronic and severe depression may be associated with elevated cancer risk. There is divided but stronger evidence that depression predicts cancer progression and mortality, although disentangling the deleterious effects of disease progression on mood complicates this research, as does the fact that some symptoms of cancer and its treatment mimic depression. There is evidence that providing psychosocial support reduces depression, anxiety, and pain, and may increase survival time with cancer, although studies in this latter area are also divided. Psychophysiological mechanisms linking depression and cancer progression include dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, especially diurnal variation in cortisol and melatonin. Depression also affects components of immune function that may affect cancer surveillance. Thus, there is evidence of a bidirectional relationship between cancer and depression, offering new opportunities for therapeutic intervention.

  15. Dark polar ionosphere: Progress and future challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, H.C. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Since the end of the 1970s, we have seen enormous progress in our understanding of the polar ionosphere and its structuring. With this benchmark issue of Radio Science it is appropriate to reflect briefly on that passage and some key questions that lie ahead. The discussion here will concentrate on the winter hemisphere, in keeping with the conditions under which most of the data studied to date have been gathered. The polar ionosphere alternates between two states, depending on whether the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) is southward or northward. The former state is characterized by approximately 100-1000 km islands of enhanced F region plasma, originating in sunlit upper midlatitudes, entering and traversing the polar cap. They become highly structured and produce severe scintillation. Despite much progress on the source, evolution, and ultimate fate of this polar plasma, we remain challenged by the process(es) which chop entering plasma into such islands. For northward IMF we have learned much about the near-Earth processes determining the character of polar cap arcs, velocity structure and electrodynamics, and energetics. A remaining challenge is to relate these structures to the topology and driving physical processes in the magnetosphere and solar wind. Here we sketch the principles behind the progress and the context of several key problem areas ahead.

  16. Propulsion Progress for NASA's Space Launch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Todd A.; Lyles, Garry M.; Priskos, Alex S.; Kynard, Michael H.; Lavoie, Anthony R.

    2012-01-01

    Leaders from NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) will participate in a panel discussing the progress made on the program's propulsion systems. The SLS will be the nation's next human-rated heavy-lift vehicle for new missions beyond Earth's orbit. With a first launch slated for 2017, the SLS Program is turning plans into progress, with the initial rocket being built in the U.S.A. today, engaging the aerospace workforce and infrastructure. Starting with an overview of the SLS mission and programmatic status, the discussion will then delve into progress on each of the primary SLS propulsion elements, including the boosters, core stage engines, upper stage engines, and stage hardware. Included will be a discussion of the 5-segment solid rocket motors (ATK), which are derived from Space Shuttle and Ares developments, as well as the RS-25 core stage engines from the Space Shuttle inventory and the J- 2X upper stage engine now in testing (Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne). The panel will respond to audience questions about this important national capability for human and scientific space exploration missions.

  17. National-level progress on adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesnikowski, Alexandra; Ford, James; Biesbroek, Robbert; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Heymann, S. Jody

    2016-03-01

    It is increasingly evident that adaptation will figure prominently in the post-2015 United Nations climate change agreement. As adaptation obligations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change evolve, more rigorous approaches to measuring adaptation progress among parties will be critical. In this Letter we elaborate on an emerging area of research referred to as `adaptation tracking’, which has potential to inform development of a global adaptation monitoring framework. We evaluate this potential by presenting evidence on policy change for 41 high-income countries between 2010 and 2014. We examine whether countries that were in early stages of adaptation planning in 2010 are making progress to close adaptation gaps, and how the landscape of adaptation in these countries has evolved. In total we find an 87% increase in reported adaptation policies and measures, and evidence that implementation of concrete adaptation initiatives is growing. Reflecting on the strengths and challenges of this early methodology, we further discuss how adaptation tracking practices could guide development of a robust framework for monitoring global adaptation progress and inform future research on policy change across countries.

  18. Restriction Factors in HIV-1 Disease Progression.

    PubMed

    Merindol, Natacha; Berthoux, Lionel

    2015-01-01

    About 35 million people worldwide were living with HIV-1 at the end of 2013 and over 25 million have already died of AIDS. AIDS patients show high variability in the speed of disease progression in the absence of treatment. While certain immunological traits have been shown to correlate with accelerated or slowed progression in some subjects, including slow progressors, factors controlling HIV-1 replication and disease kinetics remain largely enigmatic. The importance of T lymphocytes and of protective HLA-alleles is undeniable, but not sufficient to explain every attenuated phenotype. A thorough understanding of HIV-1 infection control in these patient subsets may help the development of novel strategies for treatment and prevention. Restriction factors are type I interferon-induced specialized cellular proteins that block viruses at different steps of their life cycle. TRIM5α, Mx2/MxB, TRIM22/Staf50, SAMHD1, p21/CDKN1, tetherin/BST2/CD137, APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F have all been proposed to inhibit HIV-1, often with gene variant- or cellular context-specificity. Recent evidence highlights their possible implication in AIDS disease progression. In this review, we depict their restrictive activity against HIV-1 and recapitulate the latest data on their potential role in vivo, in both normal and slow progressors.

  19. Inferring tumor progression from genomic heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Navin, Nicholas; Krasnitz, Alexander; Rodgers, Linda; Cook, Kerry; Meth, Jennifer; Kendall, Jude; Riggs, Michael; Eberling, Yvonne; Troge, Jennifer; Grubor, Vladimir; Levy, Dan; Lundin, Pär; Månér, Susanne; Zetterberg, Anders; Hicks, James; Wigler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Cancer progression in humans is difficult to infer because we do not routinely sample patients at multiple stages of their disease. However, heterogeneous breast tumors provide a unique opportunity to study human tumor progression because they still contain evidence of early and intermediate subpopulations in the form of the phylogenetic relationships. We have developed a method we call Sector-Ploidy-Profiling (SPP) to study the clonal composition of breast tumors. SPP involves macro-dissecting tumors, flow-sorting genomic subpopulations by DNA content, and profiling genomes using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Breast carcinomas display two classes of genomic structural variation: (1) monogenomic and (2) polygenomic. Monogenomic tumors appear to contain a single major clonal subpopulation with a highly stable chromosome structure. Polygenomic tumors contain multiple clonal tumor subpopulations, which may occupy the same sectors, or separate anatomic locations. In polygenomic tumors, we show that heterogeneity can be ascribed to a few clonal subpopulations, rather than a series of gradual intermediates. By comparing multiple subpopulations from different anatomic locations, we have inferred pathways of cancer progression and the organization of tumor growth.

  20. Vaccine development for tuberculosis: current progress.

    PubMed

    Orme, Ian M

    2013-07-01

    Very substantial efforts have been made over the past decade or more to develop vaccines against tuberculosis. Historically, this began with a view to replace the current vaccine, Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG), but more recently most candidates are either new forms of this bacillus, or are designed to boost immunity in children given BCG as infants. Good progress is being made, but very few have, as yet, progressed into clinical trials. The leading candidate has advanced to phase IIb efficacy testing, with disappointing results. This article discusses the various types of vaccines, including those designed to be used in a prophylactic setting, either alone or BCG-boosting, true therapeutic (post-exposure) vaccines, and therapeutic vaccines designed to augment chemotherapy. While there is no doubt that progress is still being made, we have a growing awareness of the limitations of our animal model screening processes, further amplified by the fact that we still do not have a clear picture of the immunological responses involved, and the precise type of long-lived immunity that effective new vaccines will need to induce.

  1. Vaccine development for tuberculosis: current progress

    PubMed Central

    Orme, Ian M.

    2013-01-01

    Very substantial efforts have been made over the past decade or more to develop vaccines against tuberculosis. Historically, this began with a view to replace the current vaccine, BCG, but more recently most candidates are either new forms of this bacillus, or are designed to boost immunity in children given BCG as infants. Good progress is being made, but very few have as yet progressed into clinical trials. The leading candidate has advanced to Phase IIb efficacy testing, with disappointing results. This article discusses the various types of vaccines, including those designed to be used in a prophylactic setting, either alone or BCG-boosting, true therapeutic [post-exposure] vaccines, and therapeutic vaccines designed to augment chemotherapy. While there is no doubt that progress is still being made, we have a growing awareness of the limitations of our animal model screening processes, further amplified by the fact that we still do not have a clear picture of the immunological responses involved, and the precise type of long lived immunity we will need effective new vaccines to induce. PMID:23794129

  2. Progress in gene therapy for neurological disorders

    PubMed Central

    Simonato, Michele; Bennett, Jean; Boulis, Nicholas M.; Castro, Maria G.; Fink, David J.; Goins, William F.; Gray, Steven J.; Lowenstein, Pedro R.; Vandenberghe, Luk H.; Wilson, Thomas J.; Wolfe, John H.; Glorioso, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    Diseases of the nervous system have devastating effects and are widely distributed among the population, being especially prevalent in the elderly. These diseases are often caused by inherited genetic mutations that result in abnormal nervous system development, neurodegeneration, or impaired neuronal function. Other causes of neurological diseases include genetic and epigenetic changes induced by environmental insults, injury, disease-related events or inflammatory processes. Standard medical and surgical practice has not proved effective in curing or treating these diseases, and appropriate pharmaceuticals do not exist or are insufficient to slow disease progression. Gene therapy is emerging as a powerful approach with potential to treat and even cure some of the most common diseases of the nervous system. Gene therapy for neurological diseases has been made possible through progress in understanding the underlying disease mechanisms, particularly those involving sensory neurons, and also by improvement of gene vector design, therapeutic gene selection, and methods of delivery. Progress in the field has renewed our optimism for gene therapy as a treatment modality that can be used by neurologists, ophthalmologists and neurosurgeons. In this Review, we describe the promising gene therapy strategies that have the potential to treat patients with neurological diseases and discuss prospects for future development of gene therapy. PMID:23609618

  3. Progressive Failure Analysis of Composite Stiffened Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Yarrington, Phillip W.; Collier, Craig S.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2006-01-01

    A new progressive failure analysis capability for stiffened composite panels has been developed based on the combination of the HyperSizer stiffened panel design/analysis/optimization software with the Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells (MAC/GMC). MAC/GMC discretizes a composite material s microstructure into a number of subvolumes and solves for the stress and strain state in each while providing the homogenized composite properties as well. As a result, local failure criteria may be employed to predict local subvolume failure and the effects of these local failures on the overall composite response. When combined with HyperSizer, MAC/GMC is employed to represent the ply level composite material response within the laminates that constitute a stiffened panel. The effects of local subvolume failures can then be tracked as loading on the stiffened panel progresses. Sample progressive failure results are presented at both the composite laminate and the composite stiffened panel levels. Deformation and failure model predictions are compared with experimental data from the World Wide Failure Exercise for AS4/3501-6 graphite/epoxy laminates.

  4. Maladaptive coping strategies and glaucoma progression

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Ellen E.; Lesk, Mark R.; Harasymowycz, Paul; Desjardins, Daniel; Flores, Veronica; Kamga, Hortence; Li, Gisèle

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The identification of modifiable risk factors for glaucoma progression is needed. Our objective was to determine whether maladaptive coping styles are associated with recent glaucoma progression or worse visual field mean deviation. A hospital-based case–control study was conducted in the Glaucoma Service of Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital in Montreal, Canada. Patients with primary open angle glaucoma or normal tension glaucoma with ≥4 years of follow-up and ≥5 Humphrey visual fields were included. Cases had recent visual field progression as defined according to the Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial pattern change probability maps. Controls had stable visual fields. The Brief Cope questionnaire, a 28-item questionnaire about 14 different ways of coping with the stress of a chronic disease, was asked. Questions were also asked about demographic and medical factors, and the medical chart was examined. Outcomes included glaucoma progression (yes, no) and visual field mean deviation. Logistic and linear regressions were used. A total of 180 patients were included (82 progressors and 98 nonprogressors). Although none of the 14 coping scales were associated with glaucoma progression (P > 0.05), higher denial was correlated with worse visual field mean deviation (r = −0.173, P = 0.024). In a linear regression model including age, sex, education, depression, intraocular pressure, and family history of glaucoma, greater levels of denial (β = −1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] −2.32, −0.41), Haitian ethnicity (β = −7.78, 95% CI −12.52, −3.04), and the number of glaucoma medications (β = −1.20, 95% CI −2.00, −0.38) were statistically significantly associated with visual field mean deviation. The maladaptive coping mechanism of denial was a risk factor for worse visual field mean deviation. Further prospective research will be required to verify the pathways by which denial may exert an effect on glaucomatous visual

  5. Maladaptive coping strategies and glaucoma progression.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Ellen E; Lesk, Mark R; Harasymowycz, Paul; Desjardins, Daniel; Flores, Veronica; Kamga, Hortence; Li, Gisèle

    2016-08-01

    The identification of modifiable risk factors for glaucoma progression is needed. Our objective was to determine whether maladaptive coping styles are associated with recent glaucoma progression or worse visual field mean deviation.A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in the Glaucoma Service of Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital in Montreal, Canada. Patients with primary open angle glaucoma or normal tension glaucoma with ≥4 years of follow-up and ≥5 Humphrey visual fields were included. Cases had recent visual field progression as defined according to the Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial pattern change probability maps. Controls had stable visual fields. The Brief Cope questionnaire, a 28-item questionnaire about 14 different ways of coping with the stress of a chronic disease, was asked. Questions were also asked about demographic and medical factors, and the medical chart was examined. Outcomes included glaucoma progression (yes, no) and visual field mean deviation. Logistic and linear regressions were used.A total of 180 patients were included (82 progressors and 98 nonprogressors). Although none of the 14 coping scales were associated with glaucoma progression (P > 0.05), higher denial was correlated with worse visual field mean deviation (r = -0.173, P = 0.024). In a linear regression model including age, sex, education, depression, intraocular pressure, and family history of glaucoma, greater levels of denial (β = -1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] -2.32, -0.41), Haitian ethnicity (β = -7.78, 95% CI -12.52, -3.04), and the number of glaucoma medications (β = -1.20, 95% CI -2.00, -0.38) were statistically significantly associated with visual field mean deviation.The maladaptive coping mechanism of denial was a risk factor for worse visual field mean deviation. Further prospective research will be required to verify the pathways by which denial may exert an effect on glaucomatous visual field loss. PMID:27583929

  6. Progressively safer, cheaper demolition of Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Nichols; Norman Pennington

    2000-09-29

    Fluor Fernald, Inc. has been progressively improving Decontamination and Dismantlement (D&D) at the Department of Energy's Fernald Environmental Management Project by applying new technologies and better methodologies to the work. Demolition issues existed in the past that necessitated new or improved solutions to maintain worker safety, protect the environment and accomplish the work in a cost effective manner. Lessons learned from D&D of 80 structures has led to a systematic approach, which can be implemented in various D&D arenas. When facility production was halted, hold-up material and process residues remained in the process piping and components. Over 500,000 pounds of material was removed by workers who completed the tasks two years ahead of schedule, $7 million under budget and with an excellent safety record. This success was the result of detailed planning and irdision of lessons learned as work progressed from facility to facility. Work sequences were developed that reduced airborne contamination. Demolition of structures has been performed at Fernald by carefully selected and qualified subcontractors. Asbestos and lead abatement, equipment, piping and conduit removal, and structural demolition have been completed to progressively higher performance specifications developed by Fluor Fernald based on lessons learned during execution. Safety continues to be the primary consideration in performing potentially hazardous work. Technologies such as hydraulic shears have been developed and used to keep workers away from danger. A new technology, ''Cool Suits,'' has been demonstrated to help prevent heat stress when anti-contamination clothing is required in elevated temperature working conditions. For tall structures, implosion technologies have been employed with progressively improved results, Several other new technologies have been evaluated by Fluor Fernald and applied by subcontractors. The improved technologies included the oxy-gas torch, which uses

  7. PREFACE: Progress in Nonequilibrium Green's Functions IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonitz, Michael; Balzer, Karsten

    2010-04-01

    This is the fourth volume1 of articles on the theory of Nonequilibrium Green's functions (NEGF) and their modern application in various fields such as plasma physics, semiconductor physics, molecular electronics and high energy physics. It contains 23 articles written by experts in many-body theory and quantum transport who summarize recent progress in their respective area of research. The articles are based on talks given at the interdisciplinary conference Progress in Nonequilibrium Green's functions IV which was held 17-21 August 2009 at the University of Glasgow, Scotland. This conference continues the tradition of the previous meetings which started in 1999 and which aimed at an informal exchange across field boundaries. The previous meetings and the earlier proceedings proved to be very stimulating not only for young researchers but also for experienced scientists, and we are convinced that this fourth volume will be as successful as the previous ones. As before, this volume includes only extended review-type papers which are written in a way that they are understandable to a broad interdisciplinary audience. All papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed through processes administrated by the Editors assuring highest scientific standards. In the review process some papers were substantially revised and improved and some were rejected. This conference would not have been possible without the remarkable work of the local organizing team around John Barker and Scott Roy and the generous financial support from the University of Glasgow and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft via SFB-Transregio 24. Michael Bonitz and Karsten Balzer Kiel, February 2010 1 The first two volumes are Progress in Nonequilibrium Green's functions, M Bonitz (ed) and Progress in Nonequilibrium Green's functions II, M Bonitz and D Semkat (eds), which were published by World Scientific (Singapore), in 2000 and 2003, respectively (ISBN

  8. Genetics Home Reference: spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... myoclonic epilepsy spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Description Spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy (SMA-PME) is a neurological condition that causes ...

  9. Progressive Hearing Impairment in Children with Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahle, Arthur J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Audiological assessment of 86 children (mean age 38 months at last evaluation time) with congenital cytomegalovirus infection revealed progressive hearing loss in four of 12 Ss with sensorineural hearing impairments. Case descriptions documented the progression of the hearing loss. (Author)

  10. Scientific progress without increasing verisimilitude: In response to Niiniluoto.

    PubMed

    Rowbottom, Darrell P

    2015-06-01

    First, I argue that scientific progress is possible in the absence of increasing verisimilitude in science's theories. Second, I argue that increasing theoretical verisimilitude is not the central, or primary, dimension of scientific progress. Third, I defend my previous argument that unjustified changes in scientific belief may be progressive. Fourth, I illustrate how false beliefs can promote scientific progress in ways that cannot be explicated by appeal to verisimilitude.

  11. 21st Century Learning and Progressive Education: An Intersection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The seminal tenets of progressive education bear a striking resemblance to the newly fashionable principles associated with with a new movement known as "21st Century Education". This article traces the development of progressive education principles, starting with the founding of the Progressive Education Association, and shows their close…

  12. 40 CFR 52.2038 - Rate of Progress Plans: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rate of Progress Plans: Ozone. 52.2038... Progress Plans: Ozone. (a) EPA grants full approval to Pennsylvania's 15 Percent Rate of Progress Plan for the Pittsburgh-Beaver Valley ozone nonattainment area, submitted by the Secretary of the...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2038 - Rate of Progress Plans: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rate of Progress Plans: Ozone. 52.2038... Progress Plans: Ozone. (a) EPA grants full approval to Pennsylvania's 15 Percent Rate of Progress Plan for the Pittsburgh-Beaver Valley ozone nonattainment area, submitted by the Secretary of the...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2038 - Rate of Progress Plans: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rate of Progress Plans: Ozone. 52.2038... Progress Plans: Ozone. (a) EPA grants full approval to Pennsylvania's 15 Percent Rate of Progress Plan for the Pittsburgh-Beaver Valley ozone nonattainment area, submitted by the Secretary of the...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2038 - Rate of Progress Plans: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rate of Progress Plans: Ozone. 52.2038... Progress Plans: Ozone. (a) EPA grants full approval to Pennsylvania's 15 Percent Rate of Progress Plan for the Pittsburgh-Beaver Valley ozone nonattainment area, submitted by the Secretary of the...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2038 - Rate of Progress Plans: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rate of Progress Plans: Ozone. 52.2038... Progress Plans: Ozone. (a) EPA grants full approval to Pennsylvania's 15 Percent Rate of Progress Plan for the Pittsburgh-Beaver Valley ozone nonattainment area, submitted by the Secretary of the...

  17. The Fate of Progressive Language Policies and Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudley-Marling, Curt, Ed.; Edelsky, Carole, Ed.

    Noting that progressive language policies have encountered and will always encounter fierce resistance, this book presents a collection of essays by progressive language educators, theorists, and policymakers that reflect on the fate of progressive language practices and policies. Part 1 comprises three contextualizing chapters that provide a…

  18. 38 CFR 21.7653 - Progress, conduct, and attendance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., 103 Stat. 1457-1458) (d) Reports. At times the unsatisfactory progress, conduct, or course attendance... unsatisfactory progress must be reported to VA within the time allowed by paragraphs (d)(1), (d)(2), and (d)(3... she receives. The educational institution shall report such unsatisfactory progress to VA in time...

  19. 38 CFR 21.7653 - Progress, conduct, and attendance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., 103 Stat. 1457-1458) (d) Reports. At times the unsatisfactory progress, conduct, or course attendance... unsatisfactory progress must be reported to VA within the time allowed by paragraphs (d)(1), (d)(2), and (d)(3... she receives. The educational institution shall report such unsatisfactory progress to VA in time...

  20. 38 CFR 21.7653 - Progress, conduct, and attendance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., 103 Stat. 1457-1458) (d) Reports. At times the unsatisfactory progress, conduct, or course attendance... unsatisfactory progress must be reported to VA within the time allowed by paragraphs (d)(1), (d)(2), and (d)(3... she receives. The educational institution shall report such unsatisfactory progress to VA in time...