Science.gov

Sample records for progressive cultural politics

  1. Cross Cultural Varieties of Politeness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hondo, Junko; Goodman, Bridget

    2001-01-01

    The treatment of politeness features is particularly revealing of the complex dynamics that language teachers face given the cultural variety present in schools and colleges. Along with its positive contributions to the learning environment, the growing student diversity poses a significant challenge for both students and educators. This paper…

  2. Political Parody and Public Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hariman, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Parody and related forms of political humor are essential resources for sustaining democratic public culture. They do so by exposing the limits of public speech, transforming discursive demands into virtual images, setting those images before a carnivalesque audience, and celebrating social leveling while decentering all discourses within the…

  3. Political Culture as Context for Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahler-Larsen, Peter; Schwandt, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    One way to understand the context of evaluation is in terms of its interaction with political culture. That culture includes citizens' views of the role of government and of evaluation and the history of the polity. This chapter illustrates the relationship of political culture and evaluation by means of two accounts of Danish political culture.…

  4. Politeness Principle in Cross-Culture Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yongliang

    2008-01-01

    As we all know, different people hold different views about politeness. To be polite, Leech thinks you should follow "Politeness Principle" while Levinson suggests paying attention to others' "Face Wants". Sometimes what the Chinese people considered to be polite may not be true according to western culture. In order to…

  5. Politics Between Economy and Culture. Introductory Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokkan, Stein

    The introductory statement to the plenary session of the Ninth World Congress of the International Political Science Association announces the first of two major themes, politics between economy and culture. This theme is described as investigating the culture-economy dialectic at all levels of politics -- global, territorial, national, community,…

  6. Political and Legal Progress Since 1964

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glickstein, Howard

    1975-01-01

    The stated purpose of this testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, is to evaluate the political and legal progress--or lack of it--that has been made toward achieving racial equality in the decade since the Civil Rights Act of 1964 became law. (Author/JM)

  7. The Transformation of Political Culture in Cuba.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagen, Richard R.

    Cuba has experienced drastic social, economic, and political change since 1959. This book examines and analyses three important programs of Castro's regime which incorporate some of the distinctive features of the entire Cuban experience political socialization and cultural change; the literacy campaign of 1961, which was perhaps the most…

  8. Determinants of health: a progressive political platform.

    PubMed

    Terris, M

    1994-01-01

    This paper is based on the statement in the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion that "The fundamental conditions and resources for health are peace, shelter, education, food, income, a stable eco-system, sustainable resources, social justice and equity. Improvement in health requires a secure foundation in these basic prerequisites." It attempts to formulate a progressive political platform for a number of these prerequisites, offering a series of recommendations regarding education, employment, income, and housing, and urging that the proposed programs be funded by progressive taxation and major reductions in the military budget.

  9. Conceptualizing the Role of Culture in Political Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronoff, Myron J.

    Using as a point of departure anthropologist Clifford Geertz's study of culture with special emphasis on political change, the paper develops a theoretical framework for studying the relationship between culture and political change. A major objective of this anthropological approach to the study of political culture is to help political…

  10. The cultural politics of eating in Shenzhen.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the 1980s and early 1990s, construction in Shenzhen symbolized both the transformation of Chinese socialism and the concomitant integration of Chinese society into global capitalist networks. This article tells the story of Shenzhen from the perspective of this first generation of immigrants, the so-called Old Shenzheners, who use nostalgia about food to define, debate, and ultimately retreat from conversations about what Shenzhen culture was and what it ought to be. Their food nostalgia is part of a larger cultural tradition of Chinese alimentary politics and has allowed Shenzheners to indigenize capitalist globalization to make the city their own. Old Shenzheners' food nostalgia represents an important moment in the Chinese transition to a post socialist political economy, redefining what it means to be both Chinese and global in a post–cold war world order.

  11. Cultural Neuroscience: Progress and Promise

    PubMed Central

    Chiao, Joan Y.; Cheon, Bobby K.; Pornpattanangkul, Narun; Mrazek, Alissa J.; Blizinsky, Katherine D.

    2013-01-01

    The nature and origin of human diversity has been a source of intellectual curiosity since the beginning of human history. Contemporary advances in cultural and biological sciences provide unique opportunities for the emerging field of cultural neuroscience. Research in cultural neuroscience examines how cultural and genetic diversity shape the human mind, brain and behavior across multiple time scales: situation, ontogeny and phylogeny. Recent progress in cultural neuroscience provides novel theoretical frameworks for understanding the complex interaction of environmental, cultural and genetic factors in the production of adaptive human behavior. Here, we provide a brief history of cultural neuroscience, theoretical and methodological advances, as well as empirical evidence of the promise of and progress in the field. Implications of this research for population health disparities and public policy are discussed. PMID:23914126

  12. Edmund Burke's "Discontents" and the Interpretation of Political Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Stephen H.

    1991-01-01

    Argues that the rhetorical action of Edmund Burke's classic defense of political parties is its inducement to see that, by interpreting political culture as he does, reader and author collaborate in the recovery of public virtue. (RS)

  13. Working through a psychotherapy group's political cultures.

    PubMed

    Ettin, Mark F; Cohen, Bertram D

    2003-10-01

    Macropolitical evolution, starting with authoritarian monarchism, has moved through anarchistic transitions either to the totalitarianism of fascism and communism or to liberal and social democracy. We posit analogous micropolitical development in process-oriented therapy groups: "dependence" and "counterdependence" corresponding to monarchism and anarchism; and "independence" and "interdependence" to liberal and social democracy, respectively. Transition from counterdependence to independence and interdependence may be: (1) facilitated through group members' cooperative experience of rebellion, or (2) blocked by collective identification, the internalization of dystopian or utopian fantasies that coalesce as "group-self" perceptions. We explore how group therapists work clinically with and through these several "political cultures" in the service of group and self transformation.

  14. Black Hair Culture, Politics and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dash, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Since the period of black enslavement in the Americas, Diaspora people have used their bodies as a canvas on which to articulate their presence as subjects. This propensity to use the body as a key medium of creative and political expression emerged from an amalgam of African retentions and new, grounded syncretisms in the West. It was further…

  15. Work in Progress: Gender and Politics in Late Elizabethan Progress Entertainments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolkovich, Elizabeth Zeman

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes the understudied dramatic genre of Elizabethan progress entertainments, the political ideologies it conveys, and especially the female alliances it enacts. Aristocrats staged these outdoor, episodic pageants on their country estates during Elizabeth I's summer "progress" visits, 1575-1602. While previous scholars…

  16. Culture, Prevention, and the Politics of Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, Elizabeth M.

    2007-01-01

    The following article is a response to Adams's (2007 [this issue]) and Griffin and Miller's (2007 [this issue]) reactions to the Major Contribution articles presented on Culturally Relevant Prevention. Each reaction article identifies important implications for engaging in culturally relevant prevention efforts that are relevant to developing this…

  17. The demand to progress: critical nostalgia in LGBTQ cultural memory.

    PubMed

    de Szegheo Lang, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that, while representations of tragic lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) histories are disseminated widely, positive aspects of the past must be largely pushed out of the cultural imaginary to support a vision of the present in which sexual rights and freedoms have been achieved. It proposes that this view relies on a linear progress narrative wherein the experiences of LGBTQ people are held as consistently improving over time. In considering the construction of cultural memory through popular media and art, it claims a nostalgic turn to the past as a useful political tool for dismantling the pacifying aspects of the present.

  18. Cross-cultural comparison of political leaders' operational codes.

    PubMed

    Dirilen-Gumus, Ozlem

    2016-03-04

    This study aims at comparing operational codes (namely, philosophical and instrumental beliefs about the political universe) of political leaders from different cultures. According to Schwartz (2004), cultures can be categorised into 3 dimensions: autonomy-embeddedness, egalitarianism-hierarchy and mastery-harmony. This study draws upon the 1st dimension (akin to the most popular cultural dimension of Hofstede: individualism-collectivism) and focuses on comparing the leaders of autonomous and embedded cultures based on how cooperative/conflictual they are. The main research hypothesis is as follows: the leaders of embedded cultures would be more cooperative than the leaders of autonomous cultures. For this purpose, 3 autonomous cultures (the UK, Canada and Australia) and embedded cultures (Singapore, South Africa and Malaysia) cultures were chosen randomly and the cooperativeness of the correspondent countries' leaders were compared after being profiled by Profiler Plus. The results indicated that the leaders of embedded cultures were significantly more cooperative than autonomous cultures after holding the control variables constant. The findings were discussed in the light of relevant literature.

  19. Understanding generations: political economy and culture in an ageing society.

    PubMed

    Vincent, John A

    2005-12-01

    Sociological understanding of generations can be enhanced by avoiding defining them rigidly as chronological cohorts but rather linking people's accounts of their generational experience with an historically informed political economy. It then becomes possible, for example, to understand the complexity of generational politics. This paper uses data on the 'War Generation' taken from the Exeter Politics of Old Age project to link an empirically based political economy of generational inequality with a cultural sociology of generations. The 'War Generation' recognizes itself and is referred to by others in terms of a common identity. It is also an historical generation; its values, attitudes and, above all, sense of national solidarity and mutual obligation were forged in the direct experience of war. But it is also divided by divergent economic interests in property and pension rights based on the historical experience of the life course by successive groups and this segmentation can be observed in political action. The political culture of the War Generation manifests both continuity and change. Understanding these dynamics requires listening to people constructing their worlds, understanding their full range of historical experiences, and analysing the conditions for their conflicts and their cohesion.

  20. Stealing Innocence: Youth, Corporate Power, and the Politics of Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Henry A.

    This book looks at the way corporate cultures is encroaching on children's lives. It explores three myths prevalent in society: (1) that the triumph of democracy is equal to the triumph of the market; (2) that children are unaffected by power and politics; and (3) that teaching and learning are no longer linked to improving the world. The book…

  1. Prosocial Behaviour and Political Culture among Australian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saha, Lawrence J.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the extent to which forms of prosocial behaviour and values of social responsibility are related to various domains of political culture among Australian youth. Using data from a survey of 1311 senior secondary students from the ACT and South Australia, it was found that 14 per cent had participated in one or more volunteer…

  2. Public sphere as assemblage: the cultural politics of roadside memorialization.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Elaine

    2013-09-01

    This paper investigates contemporary academic accounts of the public sphere. In particular, it takes stock of post-Habermasian public sphere scholarship, and acknowledges a lively and variegated debate concerning the multiple ways in which individuals engage in contemporary political affairs. A critical eye is cast over a range of key insights which have come to establish the parameters of what 'counts' as a/the public sphere, who can be involved, and where and how communicative networks are established. This opens up the conceptual space for re-imagining a/the public sphere as an assemblage. Making use of recent developments in Deleuzian-inspired assemblage theory - most especially drawn from DeLanda's (2006) 'new philosophy of society' - the paper sets out an alternative perspective on the notion of the public sphere, and regards it as a space of connectivity brought into being through a contingent and heterogeneous assemblage of discursive, visual and performative practices. This is mapped out with reference to the cultural politics of roadside memorialization. However, a/the public sphere as an assemblage is not simply a 'social construction' brought into being through a logic of connectivity, but is an emergent and ephemeral space which reflexively nurtures and assembles the cultural politics (and political cultures) of which it is an integral part. The discussion concludes, then, with a consideration of the contribution of assemblage theory to public sphere studies. (Also see Campbell 2009a).

  3. Cultural Descriptions as Political Cultural Acts: An Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Interculturality may be something normal which everyone possesses to a degree. However, dominant neo-essentialist theories of culture give the impression that we are too different to easily cross-cultural boundaries. These theories support the development of academic disciplines and the need for professional certainty in intercultural training.…

  4. Peak Politics: Resource Scarcity and Libertarian Political Culture in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider-Mayerson, Matthew

    My dissertation uses the "peak oil" movement as a lens to analyze the convergence of apocalyptic environmental thinking and libertarian political culture in the recent United States. The "peak oil" movement was a twenty-first century American social movement of Americans who came to believe that oil depletion and other environmental problems would lead to the imminent collapse of global industrial society. Dedicated adherents developed a rich subculture, primarily online, and prepared themselves for the "post-carbon" future by conserving energy, changing occupations, and even purchasing land. Drawing on surveys of over 1,500 participants, ethnographic research, discourse analysis of peak oil websites and literary analysis of subcultural fiction, my research reveals a group of mostly white, male, liberal Americans struggling with the perceived threat of economic, environmental and geopolitical decline while the country undergoes a broad shift in political culture: the continued rise of libertarian ideals, accelerated by the influence of Internet technology. I view this apocalyptic subculture in the context of petroleum dependence, eco-apocalyptic discourses, the environmental discourse of "limits to growth," white masculinity, climate change, and the influence of conservative individualism on American political culture.

  5. Music Education in Shanghai from 1895 to 1945: The Cultural Politics of Singing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Wai-Chung

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the development of music education in China and the integration of cultural politics and nationalism, using Shanghai, twentieth-century China's most developed city, as a case study; it examines the historical and political processes in Shanghai's music education to show what is cultural about politics and what is political…

  6. Cultures of Death and Politics of Corpse Supply

    PubMed Central

    Buklijas, Tatjana

    2008-01-01

    Summary Nineteenth-century Vienna is well known to medical historians as a leading centre of medical research and education, offering easy access to patients and corpses to students from all over the world. This article seeks to explain how this enviable supply with cadavers was achieved, why it provoked so little opposition at a time when Britain and the United States saw widespread protests against dissection, and how it was threatened from mid-century. To understand permissive Viennese attitudes we need to place them in a longue durée history of death and dissection, and to pay close attention to the city’s political geography as it was transformed into a major imperial capital. The tolerant stance of the Roman Catholic Church, strong links to Southern Europe and the weak position of individuals in the absolutist state all contributed to an idiosyncratic anatomical culture. But as the fame of the Vienna medical school peaked in the later 1800s, the increased demand created by rising student numbers combined with intensified interdisciplinary competition to produce a shortfall that professors found increasingly difficult to meet. Around 1900, new religious groups and mass political parties challenged the long-standing anatomical practice by refusing to supply cadavers and making dissection into an instrument of political struggle. This study of the material preconditions for anatomy at one of Europe’s most influential medical schools provides a contrast to the dominant Anglo-American histories of death and dissection. PMID:18791297

  7. Dialogue, Eurocentrism, and Comparative Political Theory: A View from Cross-Cultural Intellectual History.

    PubMed

    Shogimen, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Comparative political theory is an emerging sub-field of political theory; it is a response to the dissatisfaction with the prevalent Eurocentric mode of political theorizing in the age of globalization. A methodological characteristic of comparative political theory is cross-cultural engagement through dialogue with foreign political ideas. The present paper argues that the dialogical mode of cross-cultural engagement is distinctively European. While the dialogical engagement with foreign worldviews constitutes a mainstream of the European literary tradition, it is largely absent, for example, from the Japanese counterpart. Despite its anti-Eurocentric motivations, comparative political theory is methodologically rooted in the European tradition.

  8. La culture politique du Mouvement Quebec Francais [The Political Culture of the "French Quebec Movement"].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turcotte, Denis

    This study of the "Mouvement Quebec Francais (MQF)" covers the period from March 1971 through Spring 1974. The fundamental postulate of the study is that if the political culture is internalized by individuals, it is at the same time borne by groups. The study of groups represents, therefore, a good vehicle to reveal the most significant…

  9. Christianity, Islam, and Political Culture: Lessons from Sub-Saharan Africa in Comparative Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowd, Robert A.

    Many theorists have argued that western Christianity and Islam affect political culture in different ways, and that western Christianity is more conducive to the rise of a democratic culture than is Islam. This paper argues that the difference between Christianity and Islam in terms of the type of political culture they encourage, is largely…

  10. Whose Citizenship Education? Hong Kong from a Spatial and Cultural Politics Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tse, Thomas Kwan-choi

    2007-01-01

    Citizenship (education) is "de facto" a political and spatial concept and should be considered in local, national, and global contexts. Adopting a spatial and cultural politics perspective and with the dynamic formation of Hong Kong's citizenship education as a case study, this article tries to illustrate the politics at three different…

  11. How Democratic is the Federal Republic? The Remade Political Culture at 40.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conradt, David P.

    This document examines the definition of democracy and the political attitudes and values of the West German public and implications of these attitudes for future German politics and German-U.S. relations. The stability of postwar democracy in West Germany, it is agreed, is related to changes in the characteristics of the political culture over…

  12. Political, cultural and economic foundations of primary care in Europe.

    PubMed

    Kringos, Dionne S; Boerma, Wienke G W; van der Zee, Jouke; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2013-12-01

    This article explores various contributing factors to explain differences in the strength of the primary care (PC) structure and services delivery across Europe. Data on the strength of primary care in 31 European countries in 2009/10 were used. The results showed that the national political agenda, economy, prevailing values, and type of healthcare system are all important factors that influence the development of strong PC. Wealthier countries are associated with a weaker PC structure and lower PC accessibility, while Eastern European countries seemed to have used their growth in national income to strengthen the accessibility and continuity of PC. Countries governed by left-wing governments are associated with a stronger PC structure, accessibility and coordination of PC. Countries with a social-security based system are associated with a lower accessibility and continuity of PC; the opposite is true for transitional systems. Cultural values seemed to affect all aspects of PC. It can be concluded that strengthening PC means mobilising multiple leverage points, policy options, and political will in line with prevailing values in a country.

  13. African American Women's Breastfeeding Experiences: Cultural, Personal, and Political Voices.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Becky; Wambach, Karen; Domain, Elaine Williams

    2015-07-01

    The low rate of breastfeeding among African American women in the United States is a poorly understood, persistent disparity. Our purpose in this study was to gain an understanding of how African American women experience breastfeeding in the context of their day-to-day lives. The Sequential-Consensual Qualitative Design (SCQD), a 3-stage qualitative methodology aimed at exploring the cultural, personal, and political context of phenomena, was used to explore the experiences of African American women who felt successful with breastfeeding. An integration of qualitative content analysis and Black feminist theory was used to analyze the data. Themes that emerged from Stage-2 data analysis included self-determination, spirituality and breastfeeding, and empowerment. In Stage 3 of the study, participant recommendations regarding breastfeeding promotion and support initiatives for African American breastfeeding were categorized into three themes, including engaging spheres of influence, sparking breastfeeding activism, and addressing images of the sexual breast vs. the nurturing breast.

  14. Social responses to climate change: Political cultures and social plasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Pendergraft, C.A.

    1997-12-31

    Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change cautiously observes that {open_quotes}The value of better information about climate change processes and impacts and society`s responses to them is likely to be great.{close_quotes} Global-scale problems involve an infinite number of social complexities, so a fundamental analytic need is a metric to facilitate cross-cultural comparison of sets of attitudes or worldviews relevant to coping with climate change. Enhanced climate change is a salient example of the synergistic character of anthropogenic and natural processes, but the very fact that not everyone sees {open_quotes}anthropogenic{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}natural{close_quotes} as dichotomous, or agrees on the implications of either alternative, indicates the presence of competing worldviews. There is a consensus that a high level of environmental quality is a collective good, so a general failure to provide it needs explaining. Is the problem inherent to collective action or is it a function of the global politico-economic system? The premises of some worldviews lead to doubt that collective action problems can be resolved in a system dominated by sovereign states, and insist that nothing short of radical systemic revision is required. Other premises produce fear of concentrations of power in supranational or international organizations. What elements predispose people and groups to accept or reject one or the other of these views? This research uses cultural theory to explore socioeconomic and political implications of diverse worldviews. Responses of a sample of over 500 people to politically and environmentally relevant statements are classified, scaled and clustered. Implications for social adaptability, or plasticity, are suggested.

  15. Language Problems and Types of Political and Socio-Cultural Integration: A Conceptual Postscript.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Joshua A.

    The author outlines the socio-cultural and language problems of three main types of developing nations. The first type, the "new developing nations," (sub-Saharan and East Africa) have little to draw upon in terms of a useable socio-cultural or political past. The language problems reflect emphasis on political integration, for which…

  16. Political Change in a School District Leading to Cultural Change in a High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Donald B.; Johnson-Howard, Debra

    To construct the outlines of a theoretical model relating contextual political change in a school district to cultural organizational change in a school within the district, a political change in a specific school district and the resultant cultural change in one of the district's high schools were analyzed. The school district, chosen to ensure a…

  17. Towards a "Critical Cultural Political Economy" Account of the Globalising of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Susan L.; Dale, Roger

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines the basis of an alternative theoretical approach to the study of the globalisation of "education"--a Critical, Cultural Political Economy of Education (CCPEE) approach. Our purpose here is to bring this body of concepts--critical, cultural, political, economy--into our interrogation of globalising projects and…

  18. Democratic Politics and the Culture of American Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merelman, Richard M.

    1980-01-01

    Addresses arguments about the "hidden curriculum" of the schools and outlines the conflict between democratic politics and "the basic shape of schooling." Available from The American Political Science Association, 1527 New Hampshire Ave., N.W., Washington, DC 20036. (IRT)

  19. Does cultural exposure partially explain the association between personality and political orientation?

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaowen; Mar, Raymond A; Peterson, Jordan B

    2013-11-01

    Differences in political orientation are partly rooted in personality, with liberalism predicted by Openness to Experience and conservatism by Conscientiousness. Since Openness is positively associated with intellectual and creative activities, these may help shape political orientation. We examined whether exposure to cultural activities and historical knowledge mediates the relationship between personality and political orientation. Specifically, we examined the mediational role of print exposure (Study 1), film exposure (Study 2), and knowledge of American history (Study 3). Studies 1 and 2 found that print and film exposure mediated the relationships Openness to Experience and Conscientiousness have with political orientation. In Study 3, knowledge of American history mediated the relationship between Openness and political orientation, but not the association between Conscientiousness and political orientation. Exposure to culture, and a corollary of this exposure in the form of acquiring knowledge, can therefore partially explain the associations between personality and political orientation.

  20. The politics of reducing malnutrition: building commitment and accelerating progress.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Stuart; Haddad, Lawrence; Mannar, Venkatesh; Menon, Purnima; Nisbett, Nicholas

    2013-08-10

    In the past 5 years, political discourse about the challenge of undernutrition has increased substantially at national and international levels and has led to stated commitments from many national governments, international organisations, and donors. The Scaling Up Nutrition movement has both driven, and been driven by, this developing momentum. Harmonisation has increased among stakeholders, with regard to their understanding of the main causes of malnutrition and to the various options for addressing it. The main challenges are to enhance and expand the quality and coverage of nutrition-specific interventions, and to maximise the nutrition sensitivity of more distal interventions, such as agriculture, social protection, and water and sanitation. But a crucial third level of action exists, which relates to the environments and processes that underpin and shape political and policy processes. We focus on this neglected level. We address several fundamental questions: how can enabling environments and processes be cultivated, sustained, and ultimately translated into results on the ground? How has high-level political momentum been generated? What needs to happen to turn this momentum into results? How can we ensure that high-quality, well-resourced interventions for nutrition are available to those who need them, and that agriculture, social protection, and water and sanitation systems and programmes are proactively reoriented to support nutrition goals? We use a six-cell framework to discuss the ways in which three domains (knowledge and evidence, politics and governance, and capacity and resources) are pivotal to create and sustain political momentum, and to translate momentum into results in high-burden countries.

  1. Progress Towards Drosophila Epithelial Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Simcox, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila epithelial research is at the forefront of the field; however, there are no well-characterized epithelial cell lines that could provide a complementary in vitro model for studies conducted in vivo. Here, a protocol is described that produces epithelial cell lines. The method uses genetic manipulation of oncogenes or tumor suppressors to induce embryonic primary culture cells to rapidly progress to permanent cell lines. It is, however, a general method and the type of cells that comprise a given line is not controlled experimentally. Indeed, only a small fraction of the lines produced are epithelial in character. For this reason, additional work needs to be done to develop a more robust epithelial cell-specific protocol. It is expected that Drosophila epithelial cell lines will have great utility for in vitro analysis of epithelial biology, particularly high-throughput analyses such as RNAi screens. PMID:23097097

  2. Political chaos reins progress on new joint ventures in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-16

    This paper reports that frustration is mounting among foreign petroleum companies chasing business opportunities in Russia. Political uncertainty continues to block large oil and gas exploration and production deals there. Most foreign officials believe Russia's transformation from a centrally planned economy to a market economy is irreversible. But enough political, social, and economic uncertainty persists that Russian leaders are hesitant to approve deals with foreign companies. The lack of certainty among leaders of the former Soviet republic about who controls Russia's natural resources, who can approve contracts, and who determines winners of bid tenders is causing confusion among foreign companies trying to negotiate major E and P deals. With no clearly successful path apparent for completing large deals, various secondary negotiating strategies are prevailing. Russian industry specialists say those secondary strategies work best for small deals involving relatively small players in less prospective regions. Meantime, countervailing political forces within the country, the world's top producer of oil and gas, continue to buffet petroleum companies that are negotiating deals or getting projects off the ground.

  3. Anger and Political Culture: A Time for Outrage!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the role of political anger in democracy. It reviews the work of Stephane Hessel before examining the role and reception of anger in classical and modern thought. The author identifies two main traditions within which the concept of political anger can be located: revolutionary violence of the Marxist tradition and the…

  4. The Relationship between Islam and Democracy in Turkey: Employing Political Culture as an Indicator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toros, Emre

    2010-01-01

    During the last decade the agenda of local and global politics is heavily marked by the encounter of two powerful currents, namely democracy and political Islam. On the one hand Islam as a religion itself is facing a cultural dialectic between a modern and an authentic form, producing a synthesis which is only to be criticized again by a new…

  5. Political and Cultural Determinants of Educational Policymaking: The Case of Native Hawaiians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benham, Maenette K. P.; Heck, Ronald H.

    A political-cultural model explores the educational process and its impact on Native Hawaiians over a 140-year period. The theoretical model suggests that core political values are transmitted to educational policy and school-related activities, and thereby impact the social, economic, and academic status of Native Hawaiians. Three historical case…

  6. Deaf Culture and the Cochlear Implant Debate: Cyborg Politics and the Identity of People with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherney, James L.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the potential benefits and limitations of cyborg politics. Explores depictions of cyborgs in science fiction stories and examines the deaf culture's arguments in the cochlear-implant debate. Investigates the current viability of cyborg politics as a mode of advocacy for people with disabilities. (SC)

  7. Scientific and Technological Progress, Political Beliefs and Environmental Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makrakis, Vassilios

    2012-01-01

    With the development of science and technology, a basically optimistic ideology of progress has emerged. This deterministic attitude has been challenged in recent decades as a result of harmful side-effects generated by the way technology and science have been approached and used. The study presented here is a part of a larger international and…

  8. e-Democracy: The Political Culture of Tomorrow's Citizens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilis, Triantafillou; Dimitris, Kalogeras

    The aim of this study is to investigate how Internet influences the political-social behavior of the members of the School Community. In order to do so we questioned students (tomorrow's citizens) and teachers of secondary schools and analyzed their understanding about e-democracy issues. The research is held by the department of Telecommunication Systems & Networks, Nafpaktos Branch of the Technological Educational Institute of Messolonghi with the participation of students and teachers from the Region of Western Greece. It was observed that Internet offers new possibilities for people's participation in the political process. The results show that students feel more confident against technology and Democracy in contrast to their teachers.

  9. Cultural Flashpoint: The Politics of Teacher Education Reform in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Paul F.

    2013-01-01

    The publication of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009 (Cosgrove et al., 2010; Perkins et al., 2010) reading literacy results heralded a crisis of confidence in educational standards in Ireland. This article examines the national and international context of teacher education reform and the politics of the policy…

  10. Cultural Politics and Vocational Religious Education: The Case of Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pak, Soon-Yong

    2004-01-01

    The "project of modernity" that has transformed every aspect of Turkish society since the founding of the new republic in 1923 has been increasingly questioned and scrutinized in recent decades. Meanwhile, Islam has reasserted itself to become a real force in contemporary Turkish politics with ambiguous implications for long-term social…

  11. Learning Tolerance: The Impact of Comparative Politics Courses on Levels of Cultural Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, D. Christopher

    2005-01-01

    In addition to exposing students to basic concepts, theories, and ideas, teachers of comparative politics often claim to foster and promote values of tolerance and cultural sensitivity through exposure to the histories, cultures, and societies of cases from around the world. This claim, however, has been largely speculative and unsupported by any…

  12. Ludic Ontology: Play's Relationship to Language, Cultural Forms, and Transformative Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    S?????hields, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    The author defines play as something beyond culture and its quotidian practices, discussing play as an embodied, affective experience that cannot be fully conveyed using conventional language. She looks at notions of play in the political philosophy and cultural criticism of the late-modern thinkers of late-capitalist society and notes that,…

  13. Who's Afraid of Sex at School? The Politics of Researching Culture, Religion and Sexuality at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Louisa; Rasmussen, Mary Lou; Quinlivan, Kathleen; Aspin, Clive; Sanjakdar, Fida; Brömdal, Annette

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the methodological politics of researching at the intersections of sexuality, culture and religion in secondary schools. It draws on experiences during a project concerned with how to address cultural and religious diversity in sexuality education in Australia and New Zealand. The paper focuses on two methodological sticking…

  14. Cultural Politics in Revolution: Teachers, Peasants, and Schools in Mexico, 1930-1940.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Mary Kay

    In the 1930s, Mexican rural schools became arenas for cultural politics--the process of articulating and disputing definitions of culture, from national identity to the broader sense of social behavior and meaning. Created in 1921, the Secretaria de Educacion Publica (SEP) set up federal rural schools to nationalize and modernize rural peasants.…

  15. Study Progress on Tissue Culture of Maize Mature Embryo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongzhen; Cheng, Jun; Cheng, Yanping; Zhou, Xioafu

    It has been paid more and more attention on maize tissue culture as it is a basic work in maize genetic transformation, especially huge breakthrough has been made in maize tissue culture utilizing mature embryos as explants in the recent years. This paper reviewed the study progress on maize tissue culture and plant regeneration utilizing mature embryos as explants from callus induction, subculture, plant regeneration and browning reduction and so on.

  16. Smoke and mirrors - the politics and culture of air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    E. Melanie DuPuis

    2004-01-15

    From the coal factory chimneys in Manchester, England in the late nineteenth century to the smog hanging over Los Angeles, USA in the late twentieth century, air pollution has long been one of the greatest threats to our environment. In this important collection of original essays, the leading environmental scientists and social scientists examine the politics of air pollution policies and help us to understand the ways these policies have led to, idiosyncratic, effective, ineffective, and even disastrous choices about what we choose to put into and take out of the air. Offering historical, contemporary and cross-national perspectives, this volume provides a refreshing new approach to understanding how air pollution policies have evolved over time.

  17. When politics froze fashion: the effect of the Cultural Revolution on naming in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Obukhova, Elena; Zuckerman, Ezra W; Zhang, Jiayin

    2014-09-01

    The authors examine the popularity of boys' given names in Beijing before and after the onset of the Cultural Revolution to clarify how exogenous and endogenous factors interact to shape fashion. Whereas recent work in the sociology of culture emphasizes the importance of endogenous processes in explaining fashion, their analysis demonstrates two ways in which politics shaped cultural expression during the Cultural Revolution: by promoting forms of expression reflecting prevailing political ideology and by limiting individuals' willingness to act differently. As argued by Lieberson and developed further in this article, the second condition is important because endogenous fashion cycles require a critical mass of individuals who seek to differentiate themselves from common practice. Exogenous factors can influence the operation of the endogenous factors. The authors discuss the implications of their study for understanding the nature of conformity under authoritarian regimes and social conditions supporting individual expression.

  18. Political Culture and Intergroup Relations in Plurilingual Switzerland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Patrick

    1990-01-01

    Switzerland's multilingual and multicultural image as an exemplary model of successful cohabitation and conflict management gives a misleading static impression of harmonious intercultural relations. The highly complex Swiss society faces challenges from the coalition of cultural and linguistic entities that live beside, rather than with, one…

  19. Innocents Abroad: The Politics of Cross-Cultural Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufva, Hannele

    Some failure types that occur in cross-cultural interactions are described, mainly from the point of view of Finns and Finland and from primarily anecdotal and "folk theoretical" data. Material from such sources as newspapers, joke collections, proverbs, and student experiences are used as the basis of the discussion. Non-grammatical…

  20. Political Culture, Schooling and Subaltern Groups in the Brazilian Empire (1822-1850)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Faria Filho, Luciano Mendes; Fonseca, Marcus Vinicius

    2010-01-01

    This paper articulates the concepts of political culture, schooling and slavery in order to comprehend the process of instituting modern schools in Brazil, during the period immediately after Independence in 1822. With a view to this, it takes as its starting point the strategies and proposals of different groups disputing the direction of the…

  1. Rethinking Cultural Politics and Radical Pedagogy in the Work of Antonio Gramsci.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Henry A.

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes Gramsci's work on education, discussing right-wing attempts to subordinate public education and the role of cultural politics in spearheading this assault. The paper examines attempts by right-wing theorists to appropriate Gramsci's views on education for conservative educational work, noting implications of Gramsci's work for defending…

  2. Indians Weaving in Cyberspace Indigenous Urban Youth Cultures, Identities and Politics of Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez Quispe, Luz

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed at analyzing how contemporary urban Aymara youth hip hoppers and bloggers are creating their identities and are producing discourses in texts and lyrics to contest racist and colonial discourses. The research is situated in Bolivia, which is currently engaged in a cultural and political revolution supported by Indigenous…

  3. State Political Culture, Higher Education Spending Indicators, and Undergraduate Graduation Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heck, Ronald H.; Lam, Wendy S.; Thomas, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    Issues concerning higher education today (e.g., rising costs, declining public trust, changing state economics) have created new demands for postsecondary institutions to demonstrate their productivity. We examine whether differences in states' political cultures (i.e., underlying traditions, values, and public policy choices) are reflected…

  4. Explaining the Expansion of Feminist Ideas: Cultural Diffusion or Political Struggle?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromquist, Nelly P.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the expansion of feminist ideas as both a conceptual and a political issue. It focuses on two major theories of social change, world culture theory (WCT) and world system analysis (WSA), comparing and contrasting how they frame gender as a factor shaping society, how they account for the diffusion of feminist ideas and how…

  5. The (Be)Comings and Goings of "Developmental Disabilities": The Cultural Politics of "Impairment"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodley, Dan; Roets, Griet

    2008-01-01

    Disability should be a concern for those interested in analysing and subverting the cultural politics of education. In this paper we address this concern through connecting critical analyses of "developmental disabilities" (formerly "mental retardation"), disability studies and poststructuralism. We target normative constructions of "developmental…

  6. The Politics of Inquiry: Education Research and the "Culture of Science"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baez, Benjamin; Boyles, Deron

    2009-01-01

    In "The Politics of Inquiry", Benjamin Baez and Deron Boyles critique recent trends in education research to argue against the "culture of science." Using the National Research Council's 2002 report "Scientific Research in Education" as a point of departure, they contend that the entire discourse on education science reflects a number of distinct…

  7. Political and Cultural Nationalism in Education. The Ideas of Rousseau and Herder Concerning National Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiborg, Susanne

    2000-01-01

    Jean Jacques Rousseau in France and Johann Gottfied Herder in Germany both emphasized the role of education in building the nation-state. However, Rousseau focused on shaping the national character through citizenship education and political socialization in public schools, while Herder saw a national identity evolving from a common culture and…

  8. The Cultural Politics of Constructivist Pedagogies: Teacher Education Reform in the United Republic of Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vavrus, Frances

    2009-01-01

    This article examines recent educational reforms in Tanzania by looking at the cultural politics of pedagogical change in secondary and teacher education. It presents an ethnography of a teachers college founded on the principles of social constructivism in a country where formalistic, teacher-centered pedagogy is the norm. Using data collected…

  9. Learning from Popular Culture: The "Politics" of Competitive Reality Television Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyer, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Reality television programming has become a pervasive part of popular culture. Although such programming may seem to be mindless entertainment, it can serve as a tool to introduce political lessons in the classroom. This article examines how the concepts of alliance behavior and strategic voting can be explored by using the television program…

  10. Cultural, Socio-Economic and Political Influences on Special Education in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obiakor, Festus E.

    The paper describes the present state of education in Nigeria with emphasis on the cultural, socio-economic, and political influences affecting special education. After a brief summary of education in Nigeria since independence (1960), the paper looks at problems identified in special education and at Section 8, that portion of the National Policy…

  11. The Cultural and Political Context of Child Development: Reality and Fantasy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, Joseph

    Read on the occasion of the establishment of the Joseph Church collection in psychology and education at the New York Public Library, this anecdotal and allusive paper informally discusses cultural changes affecting Americans' views and practices in the areas of parenting and child development. Reference is made to the present political context.…

  12. Speaking "Out of Place": YouTube Documentaries and Viewers' Comment Culture as Political Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Marcelina

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the comment culture that accompanies documentary films on YouTube as a site of (geo) political education. It considers how viewers try to teach each other about the proper "place" of critique in response to the global, national, and local rhetoric featured in one environmental documentary film. YouTube viewers use…

  13. Cultural Capital and the Political Orientations of the Younger Generation of the Russian and Polish Intelligentsia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarycki, Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    This article completes the cycle of studies that present the results of a survey of the attitudes and values of college students in the higher educational institutions of Moscow and Warsaw in the context of the problems and subject matter of cultural capital. It presents an analysis of the sphere of active political involvement and the cultural…

  14. A Clash of Cultures: Improving the "Fit" between Evaluative Independence and the Political Requirements of a Democratic Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chelimsky, Eleanor

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a plenary address wherein the author talks about cultural clashes, about what happens when evaluation meets politics. In her address, the author talks about the kinds of clashes that occur on a regular basis between evaluative independence and the political culture it challenges, along with possible ways to predict, parry, or…

  15. Cultural and Political Vignettes in the English Classroom: Problem-Posing, Problem-Solving, and the Imagination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darvin, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    One way to merge imagination with problem-posing and problem-solving in the English classroom is by asking students to respond to "cultural and political vignettes" (CPVs). CPVs are cultural and political situations that are presented to students so that they can practice the creative and essential decision-making skills that they will need to use…

  16. Teacher collaboration and curriculum construction: Political, cultural, and structural contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esterle, Rochelle Eda Penn

    This longitudinal case study is the story of one high school's efforts to implement curriculum reform and the profound effect of local circumstances on reform ideologies. What began as a study of inter- and intradisciplinary collaborative science curriculum integration became the study of a systemic failure to modify cultural practices. Poritical, economic, and structural measures initiated to facilitate reform ultimately represent inherent conflicts of interest which undermine the reform effort. This research exposes obstacles that are deeply embedded within the school's governance, the beliefs and knowledge of teachers, and the culture of schools. The study site is both a new entity and a new concept: a specialized math/science high school located on a state university campus; the school recruits underrepresented students to become acclimated to university coursework and culture. To date, the school has maintained an exceptional record of college and university placements. The school is governed by a partnership representing the university, the corporate sector, and 11 surrounding K-12 school districts. Free from the regularities of a traditional high school, the school appears to be ideally situated for innovation. The principle innovations at this school relate to its organizational structure--heterogeneous student groupings, cooperative group work, curriculum integration, block scheduling, and concurrent university coursework. For teachers, grade level teams replace departments as the dominant unit for professional, curricular, and social interactions. Within teacher teams, collaboration centers around ongoing student problems and policies, subordinating academic content and significant interdisciplinary connections. Without active discipline-based departments and curricular leadership, however, this research finds an absence of academic direction and accountability.

  17. Shared Cultural History as a Predictor of Political and Economic Changes among Nation States

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Luke J.; Passmore, Sam; Richard, Paul M.; Gray, Russell D.; Atkinson, Quentin D.

    2016-01-01

    Political and economic risks arise from social phenomena that spread within and across countries. Regime changes, protest movements, and stock market and default shocks can have ramifications across the globe. Quantitative models have made great strides at predicting these events in recent decades but incorporate few explicitly measured cultural variables. However, in recent years cultural evolutionary theory has emerged as a major paradigm to understand the inheritance and diffusion of human cultural variation. Here, we combine these two strands of research by proposing that measures of socio-linguistic affiliation derived from language phylogenies track variation in cultural norms that influence how political and economic changes diffuse across the globe. First, we show that changes over time in a country’s democratic or autocratic character correlate with simultaneous changes among their socio-linguistic affiliations more than with changes of spatially proximate countries. Second, we find that models of changes in sovereign default status favor including socio-linguistic affiliations in addition to spatial data. These findings suggest that better measurement of cultural networks could be profoundly useful to policy makers who wish to diversify commercial, social, and other forms of investment across political and economic risks on an international scale. PMID:27110713

  18. Shared Cultural History as a Predictor of Political and Economic Changes among Nation States.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Luke J; Passmore, Sam; Richard, Paul M; Gray, Russell D; Atkinson, Quentin D

    2016-01-01

    Political and economic risks arise from social phenomena that spread within and across countries. Regime changes, protest movements, and stock market and default shocks can have ramifications across the globe. Quantitative models have made great strides at predicting these events in recent decades but incorporate few explicitly measured cultural variables. However, in recent years cultural evolutionary theory has emerged as a major paradigm to understand the inheritance and diffusion of human cultural variation. Here, we combine these two strands of research by proposing that measures of socio-linguistic affiliation derived from language phylogenies track variation in cultural norms that influence how political and economic changes diffuse across the globe. First, we show that changes over time in a country's democratic or autocratic character correlate with simultaneous changes among their socio-linguistic affiliations more than with changes of spatially proximate countries. Second, we find that models of changes in sovereign default status favor including socio-linguistic affiliations in addition to spatial data. These findings suggest that better measurement of cultural networks could be profoundly useful to policy makers who wish to diversify commercial, social, and other forms of investment across political and economic risks on an international scale.

  19. The cultural politics of mining and natural disaster in Indonesia: by fire and sword.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jeff; Lewis, Belinda

    2017-01-01

    Natural disasters are inevitably the outcome of cultural agonisms. The cultural politics of natural disasters are shaped by competing claims and conceptions of 'nature'. Recent disasters in Indonesia are directly linked to these contending conceptions and the ways in which different social groups imagine risk and reward. The Sidoarjo volcanic mudflow of 2006 represents a volatile and violent exemplar of contending cultural and economic claims. Like other disasters in Indonesia and elsewhere in the developing world, this 'natural' disaster is characterised by differing conceptions of 'nature' as cultural tradition, divine force, and natural resource. A new extractive project in East Java is exhibiting similar economic and cultural agonisms, particularly around the notion of development, environment, self-determination, and tradition. This paper examines the 'disputes over meaning' associated with natural disasters in contemporary societies, and the ways in which they are related to human culture, social organisation, and hierarchical systems of violence.

  20. The Influence of Soviet and American Political Culture on Negotiating Positions: The Intermediate-Range Nuclear Force Case.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    AD-Ri42 990 THE INFLUENCE OF SOVIET AND AMERICAN POLITICAL CULTURE 1/2 ON~ NEGOTIATING POS..(U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA W R BLACKBURN...SCHOOL Monterey, California DTIC 0f JUL1 3ŕ H THESIS THE INFLUENCE OF SOVIET AND AMERICAN POLITICA CULTURE ON NEGOTIATING POSITIONS: THE INTERMEDIATE...4. TITL.E (and Sublto) S. TYPE[ OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED The Influence of Soviet and American Master’s Thesis Political Culture on Negotiating

  1. New Education, Progressive Education and the Counter Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potts, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    This article uses the themes of genesis, metamorphoses, continuity and change from a comparative perspective to show the links and relationships between the ideas of the New Educationists, progressive education and the counter culture of the late 1970s. The article discusses important educationists from different continents and different time…

  2. Repression and solidary cultures of resistance: Irish political prisoners on protest.

    PubMed

    O'Hearn, Denis

    2009-09-01

    Social activists and especially insurgents have created solidary cultures of resistance in conditions of high risk and repression. One such instance is an episode of contention by Irish political prisoners in the late 1970s. The "blanketmen" appropriated and then built a solidary culture within spaces that had been under official control. Their ability to maintain such a collective response was enhanced by an intensifying cycle of protest and violent reprisal, including extreme stripping of their material environment, in which the prisoners gained considerable initiative. This study uses interviews and contemporary writings by prisoners, prison authorities, visitors, and movement activists to examine how the dynamic of protest and repression transformed insurgent prison culture--through material, emotional, and perceptive changes--and the importance of leadership in the transformation. Special attention is given to prisoner activities in appropriated spaces that reinforced the culture of resistance: promoting the Irish language, cultural production, and the production of propaganda.

  3. [The participation in health councils and its interface with politics culture].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Lucia Conde; Pinheiro, Roseni

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyse the participation of current health councils in a city in the north-eastern of Brazil and its relationship with local political culture. The following theoretical presumption served as starting point: The practices adopted by health councils initiate a new institution that involves new social actors - the users - in the public sphere. The process of democratisation in the Brazilian society expands this sphere and leads to a confrontation of traditional and democratic political cultures. This is a qualitative research with the following data collection methods: documentary analysis, participant observation and semi-structured interviews. Within the evidence emerged, the dominance of traditional political culture resulted as one of the conditioning elements of participation practices in the Council, expressed in the authoritarianism and cooptation involving municipal managers and representatives of civil society. The majority of counsellors recognises the fragile power of the Council in terms of deliberative and fiscal issues. Despite confirming the frailties of the health councils, it is obvious that their importance in the democratisation of the relationship between State and civil society in the fight for the implementation of the right to health care.

  4. Winning the Counterinsurgency Fight in Iraq: The Role of Political Culture in Counterinsurgency Warfare 2003-2006 in Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-26

    Winning the Counterinsurgency Fight in Iraq: The Role of Political Culture in Counterinsurgency Warfare 2003-2006 in Iraq A Monograph by Major...for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response , including the time for reviewing instructions. searching existing data...Counterinsurgency Fight in Iraq: The Role of Political Culture in Counterinsurgency Warfare 2003-2006 in Iraq 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  5. Older adults and political participation on the Internet: a cross-cultural comparison of the USA and China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Bo; Jaeger, Paul T

    2008-03-01

    Older adults are not only lagging behind in terms of physical access to the Internet but also in engaging in political activities in the online environment. The findings from two independent studies bridging the USA and China suggest that older adults, even when they have access to the Internet, have ambivalent or negative attitudes toward political activities online. As political participation is seen as one of the key social benefits of the Internet and many governments are moving interactions with citizens into the online environment through e-government, the hesitance of older adults to engage in political participation via the Internet is a significant social and political issue that deserves further study and discussion internationally. This paper reviews the social impact of the Internet on political participation and the possible forms of political participation among older Internet users, examining the data from the two studies in terms of the parallel issues of older adults' attitudes toward political participation online and different cultural understandings of political participation. The findings from the comparison of the data are examined and the growing importance of this area of study is detailed. Ultimately, this paper offers suggestions for future research in the area of older adults, political participation, and the Internet.

  6. The Politics, Policies and Progress of Basic Education in Sri Lanka. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 38

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Angela W.

    2010-01-01

    Sri Lanka is hailed internationally for her achievements in literacy, access to education and equality of educational opportunity. However, progress has not been straightforward due to the complex interactions between politics, policy formulation, and the implementation of reforms. This dynamic process has often led to contradictory outcomes. This…

  7. Access to Elementary Education in India: Politics, Policies and Progress. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 44

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Angela W.

    2010-01-01

    This monograph examines progress in, and policies for, access to elementary education over the past 60 years, the role played by political factors in the process of policy formulation and implementation and the drivers and inhibitors of the implementation of reforms in elementary education in recent years in India. Drawing on interviews and…

  8. Patenting, morality and human embryonic stem cell science: bioethics and cultural politics in Europe.

    PubMed

    Salter, Brian

    2007-05-01

    As the recent experience of the European Patent Office graphically demonstrates, there is an inherent political tension between the individual ownership rights necessary for the operation of an international market in human embryonic stem cell science and the communal values of the many cultures in which such markets operate. This report examines the basis of the conflict between patenting and morality at national and international levels, the manifestation of those tensions in European patenting policy, and the contribution of bioethics to the attempt by European institutions to develop a governance response.

  9. Femicide and colonization: between the politics of exclusion and the culture of control.

    PubMed

    Shalhoub-Kervorkian, Nadera; Daher-Nashif, Suhad

    2013-03-01

    This article explores the murder of women and girls, which we name it Femicide, among the Palestinian community living in Israel. Specifically, it analyzes how the dialectic interrelationship between informal and formal legal-social systems constructs the murders of Palestinian women. The data revealed that femicide is a crime empowered by the wider context of colonization and the increasing spatial segregation of Palestinian communities. The study confirms the need to move beyond simplistic "cultural" explanations of femicide, and pay closer attention to the ways in which the structure, politics and economy of death function in colonized spaces and contexts.

  10. The Cultural Politics of Mixed-Income Schools and Housing: A Racialized Discourse of Displacement, Exclusion, and Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipman, Pauline

    2009-01-01

    In this article, I examine the contested and racially coded cultural politics of creating mixed-income schools in mixed-income communities. Policymakers claim deconcentrating low-income people will reduce poverty and improve education. However, based on activist research in Chicago, I argue these policies are grounded in "culture of…

  11. A Culture of Distrust: The Impact of Local Political Culture on Participation in the Detroit EZ.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockmeyer, Janice L.

    2000-01-01

    Examines Detroit's economic development policy-making culture and assesses its impact on the formation of the community development corporation (CDC) network that dominated Empowerment Zone (EZ) planning in the initial stages. Analyzes the importance of distrust between City Hall, business interests, and community residents in consolidating CDC…

  12. The Unknown Cultural Revolution: Educational Reforms and Their Impact on China's Rural Development. East Asia: History, Politics, Sociology, Culture. A Garland Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Dongping

    China's official history maintains that the radical egalitarianism of the Cultural Revolution (1966-76) led to economic disaster. This book challenges that view. Drawing on local interviews and records in rural Jimo County, Shandong Province, this study contends that the Cultural Revolution's political convulsions democratized village political…

  13. Preventing adolescent pregnancy: biological, social, cultural, and political influences on age at first sexual intercourse.

    PubMed

    Pires, Raquel; Araújo-Pedrosa, Anabela; Pereira, Joana; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2014-08-01

    Age at first sexual intercourse (AFSI) is the initial factor related to adolescents' sexual life that may increase the risk of adolescent pregnancy. We explored the biological, social, cultural, and political predictors of AFSI addressing several gaps that prevent us from generalizing the results of past research to adolescent pregnancy prevention. We also explored the moderating effects of cultural variables on the links between social and political predictors and AFSI. Our sample consisted of 889 Portuguese female adolescents aged 12-19. Earlier age at menarche, non-intact family structure, maternal history of adolescent pregnancy, lower maternal emotional warmth, absence of religious involvement, and living in Portugal's mainland and in a legal context penalizing abortion predicted earlier AFSI. School attendance predicted earlier AFSI among adolescents of European ethnic origin; adolescents of non-European ethnic origin presented the opposite, but non-significant, pattern. These findings suggest that, in addition to isolated characteristics, factors from different ecological contexts should be considered when planning interventions designed to foster healthy and informed transitions to sexual initiation and prevent the related risks of unwanted outcomes. We discuss implications for future research and practice.

  14. Left or right? Sources of political orientation: the roles of genetic factors, cultural transmission, assortative mating, and personality.

    PubMed

    Kandler, Christian; Bleidorn, Wiebke; Riemann, Rainer

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we used an extended twin family design to investigate the influences of genetic and cultural transmission as well as different sources of nonrandom mating on 2 core aspects of political orientation: acceptance of inequality and rejecting system change. In addition, we studied the sources of phenotypic links between Big Five personality traits and political beliefs using self- and other reports. Data of 1,992 individuals (224 monozygotic and 166 dizygotic twin pairs, 92 unmatched twins, 530 spouses of twins, 268 fathers, and 322 mothers) were analyzed. Genetically informative analyses showed that political attitudes are genetically but not environmentally transmitted from parents to offspring and that a substantial proportion of this genetic variance can be accounted for by genetic variance in personality traits. Beyond genetic effects and genotypic assortative mating, generation-specific environmental sources act to increase twins' and spouses' resemblance in political beliefs. The results suggest multiple sources of political orientations in a modern democracy.

  15. Cultural politics: Linguistic identity and its role as gatekeeper in the science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton-Brown, Bryan Anthony

    This dissertation investigated how participation in the cultural practices of science classrooms creates intrapersonal conflict for ethnic minority students. Grounded in research perspectives of cultural anthropology, sociocultural studies of science education, and critical pedagogy, this study examined the cultural tensions encountered by minority students as they assimilate into the culture of the science classroom. Classroom interaction was viewed from the perspective of instructional congruence---the active incorporation of students' culture into science pedagogy. Ogbu's notion of "oppositional identity", Fordham's "fictive kinship", Bahktin's "antidialogics", and Freire's "critical consciousness" were brought together to examine how members of marginalized cultures develop non-normative behaviors as a means of cultural resistance. Choice of genre for public discourse was seen as a political act, representing students' own cultural affiliations. Conducted in a diverse Southern Californian high school with an annual population of over 3,900 students, this study merged ethnographic research, action research, and sociolinguistic discourse analysis. Post hoc analysis of videotaped classroom activities, focus group interviews, and samples of student work revealed students' discursive behavior to shift as a product of the context of their discursive exchanges. In whole class discussions students explained their understanding of complex phenomena to classmates, while in small group discussions they favored brief exchanges of group data. Four domains of discursive identities were identified: Opposition Status, Maintenance Status, Incorporation Status, and Proficiency Status. Students demonstrating Opposition Status avoided use of science discourse. Those students who demonstrated Maintenance Status were committed to maintaining their own discursive behavior. Incorporation Status students were characterized by an active attempt to incorporate science discourse into

  16. Outlining social physics for modern societies—locating culture, economics, and politics: The Enlightenment reconsidered

    PubMed Central

    Iberall, A. S.

    1985-01-01

    A groundwork is laid for a formulation of the modern human social system as a field continuum. As in a simple material physical field, the independent implied relationships of materials or processes in flux have to be based on local conservations of mass, energy, and momentum. In complex fields, the transport fluctuations of momentum are transformed into action modes (e.g., [unk] pdq = ΣHi = H, a characteristic quantum of action over a characteristic cycle time). In complex living systems, a fourth local conservation of population number, the demographic variable, has to be added as a renormalized variable. Modern man, settled in place via agriculture, urbanized, and engaged largely in trade and war, invents a fifth local conservation—value-in-trade, the economic variable. The potentials that drive these five fluxes are also enumerated. Among the more evident external and internal physical-chemical potentials, the driving potentials include a sheaf of internal potential-like components that represent the command-control system emergent as politics. In toto, culture represents the social solvent with the main processes of economics and politics being driven by a social pressure. PMID:16593594

  17. Beyond the "Cultural Turn": The Politics of Recognition versus the Politics of Redistribution in the Field of Intercultural Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zotzmann, Karin; Hernández-Zamora, Gregorio

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1980s the field of language teaching and learning has emphasised the interplay between language, culture and identity and promotes both communicative and intercultural competencies. This mirrors a general trend in the social sciences after the so-called "cultural turn" which brought about a concentration on culture, identity…

  18. Democratization of Education as Prerequisite for Social Economic and Cultural Progress in a Multi-Cultural Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madumere, S. C.; Olisaemeka, B. U.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on democratization of education as a prerequisite for social, economic and cultural progress in a multi-cultural society, such as Nigeria. Attempt was made to define and explain the major concepts in the paper. Education was explained as an instrument of democracy and as function of socialization, culture and economic…

  19. Cell Cycle Progression of Human Cells Cultured in Rotating Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, Kelsey

    2009-01-01

    Space flight has been shown to alter the astronauts immune systems. Because immune performance is complex and reflects the influence of multiple organ systems within the host, scientists sought to understand the potential impact of microgravity alone on the cellular mechanisms critical to immunity. Lymphocytes and their differentiated immature form, lymphoblasts, play an important and integral role in the body's defense system. T cells, one of the three major types of lymphocytes, play a central role in cell-mediated immunity. They can be distinguished from other lymphocyte types, such as B cells and natural killer cells by the presence of a special receptor on their cell surface called T cell receptors. Reported studies have shown that spaceflight can affect the expression of cell surface markers. Cell surface markers play an important role in the ability of cells to interact and to pass signals between different cells of the same phenotype and cells of different phenotypes. Recent evidence suggests that cell-cycle regulators are essential for T-cell function. To trigger an effective immune response, lymphocytes must proliferate. The objective of this project is to investigate the changes in growth of human cells cultured in rotating bioreactors and to measure the growth rate and the cell cycle distribution for different human cell types. Human lymphocytes and lymphoblasts will be cultured in a bioreactor to simulate aspects of microgravity. The bioreactor is a cylindrical culture vessel that incorporates the aspects of clinostatic rotation of a solid fluid body around a horizontal axis at a constant speed, and compensates gravity by rotation and places cells within the fluid body into a sustained free-fall. Cell cycle progression and cell proliferation of the lymphocytes will be measured for a number of days. In addition, RNA from the cells will be isolated for expression of genes related in cell cycle regulations.

  20. Canadian and US Adult Learning (1945-1970) and the Cultural Politics and Place of Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Andre P.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the problematic relationship between public education and adult education in the United States and Canada since World War II, the shift in understanding of adult education as social education, and the rise of cultural politics in lifelong learning in postindustrial society. (SK)

  1. Gypsies and Travellers. Socio-Cultural Data, Socio-Political Data. Dossiers for the Intercultural Training of Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liegeois, Jean-Pierre

    Written for the intercultural training of teachers, this document deals with Gypsies and Travellers and their families, presenting information under the broad headings of socio-cultural data and socio-political data. Introductory material stresses the diversity of Gypsy reality and the need for information to correct the prejudices and stereotypes…

  2. Images of American Indians in Environmental Education: Anthropological Reflections on the Politics and History of Cultural Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willow, Anna J.

    2010-01-01

    For hundreds of years, North America's colonizers worked systematically to eradicate the indigenous cultural practices, religious beliefs, and autonomous political systems many venerate. This article illustrates that imperialist nostalgia underlies and directs portrayals of American Indians in environmental education today. Whether unconsciously…

  3. Parenting Style as a Moderator of Effects of Political Violence: Cross-Cultural Comparison of Israeli Jewish and Arab Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slone, Michelle; Shechner, Tomer; Farah, Oula Khoury

    2012-01-01

    This study examined cross-cultural differences in the moderating function of authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive parenting styles for Jewish and Arab Israeli children exposed to political violence. Respondents were parents and children aged 10-11 from 94 families (42 Arab, 52 Jewish). Parents completed the Parenting Styles and Dimensions…

  4. Situated Performances in a Graduate Teacher Education Course: An Inquiry into the Impact of Cultural and Political Vignettes (CPVs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darvin, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    This inquiry investigates teachers' perceptions regarding the impact of Cultural and Political Vignettes (CPVs) and situated performance activities in their graduate teacher education course, Literacy Instruction for Diverse Learners, at a large urban university in New York City. The study involved a pedagogical strategy that the author created…

  5. Political, Economic, Socio-Cultural, and Educational Challenges of Administering a Sino-US Joint Venture Campus in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturgut, Osman

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the political, economic, socio-cultural, and educational challenges of administering a Sino-U.S. joint-venture campus in the People's Republic of China. China American University (CAU) is an educational joint venture between China Investment Company (CIC) and American University (AU) in the U.S. that resulted in…

  6. The Effects of Political Culture of Fear on Student Perceptions of Leadership in Student-Faculty Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamed, Amin Marei Mosa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of a political culture of fear and power distance on student perceptions regarding the leader-member exchange theory (LMX) relationship with faculty, and their perceptions of nature of leadership in Libyan business schools. 650 Faculty members and students from business school in seven Libyan…

  7. Cultural Persistence, Political Resistance, and Hope in the Community and School-Based Art of a Puerto Rican Diaspora Neighborhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker-Raymond, Eli; Rosario-Ramos, Enid M.; Rosario, Maria L.

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe themes of cultural persistence, political resistance, and hope in the art of one Puerto Rican neighborhood in the Midwestern United States. The themes are described across three contexts: community mural art, poetry from students in an alternative high school, and poetry from seventh grade students in a neighborhood middle…

  8. "I Don't Feel Comfortable Reading Those Books in My Classroom": A Qualitative Study of the Impact of Cultural and Political Vignettes in a Teacher Education Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darvin, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    This article chronicles a qualitative study of the impact of a pedagogical practice called cultural and political vignettes (CPVs) on graduate students enrolled in a teacher education course. CPVs are cultural and political "situations" that are presented to teachers so that they can practice the decision-making skills that they will use…

  9. Woodland restoration in Scotland: ecology, history, culture, economics, politics and change.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Richard

    2009-07-01

    In the latter half of the 20th century, native pine woodlands in Scotland were restricted to small remnant areas within which there was little regeneration. These woodlands are important from a conservation perspective and are habitat for numerous species of conservation concern. Recent developments have seen a large increase in interest in woodland restoration and a dramatic increase in regeneration and woodland spread. The proximate factor enabling this regeneration is a reduction in grazing pressure from sheep and, particularly, deer. However, this has only been possible as a result of a complex interplay between ecological, political and socio-economic factors. We are currently seeing the decline of land management practices instituted 150-200 years ago, changes in land ownership patterns, cultural revival, and changes in societal perceptions of the Scottish landscape. These all feed into the current move to return large areas of the Scottish Highlands to tree cover. I emphasize the need to consider restoration in a multidisciplinary framework which accounts not just for the ecology involved but also the historical and cultural context.

  10. Heritability in political interest and efficacy across cultures: Denmark and the United States.

    PubMed

    Klemmensen, Robert; Hatemi, Peter K; Hobolt, Sara B; Skytthe, Axel; Nørgaard, Asbjørn S

    2012-02-01

    Interest in politics is important for a host of political behaviors and beliefs. Yet little is known about where political interest comes from. Most studies exploring the source of political interest focus on parental influences, economic status, and opportunity. Here, we investigate an alternative source: genetic transmission. Using two twin samples, one drawn from Denmark and the other from USA, we find that there is a high degree of heritability in political interest. Furthermore, we show that interest in politics and political efficacy share the same underlying, latent genetic factor. These findings add to the growing body of literature that documents political behaviors and attitudes as not simply the result of socialization, but also as part of an individual's genetically informed disposition.

  11. Urology in Stettin (Szczecin). The impact of political changes on progress in urology and medicine.

    PubMed

    Zajaczkowski, Tadeusz; Wojewska-Zajaczkowska, Elzbieta

    2012-01-01

    The history of modern hospitals in Stettin is about 280 years long. The history of urology in Stettin (Szczecin), like in Europe, is closely associated with the construction of the useful cystoscope, discovery of X-rays, and progress in radiology and endoscopy. In Stettin, like in many other cities, patients with urological diseases were treated at departments of surgery or departments of internal medicine. On March 1It, 1919, a specialized urology ward with 27 beds was opened in the Municipal Hospital in Stettin. Dr. Felix Hagen from Berlin was the first head of this ward. The main duty of the urology ward at that time was to conduct differential diagnosis and to offer conservative treatment to patients not needing surgery. Cystoscopy, chromocystoscopy, and radiographs were done in the beginning. Later on, retroperitoneal pneumography, pneumopyelography, and retrograde pyelography were added. Urography in the final period enabled a more precise assessment of the kidney prior to surgery. The preparation of patients with benign prostate hyperplasia for surgery was an important element. Therapeutic activities of the urology ward included transurethral procedures such as lithotripsy of bladder stones and treatment of bladder cancer. Urological surgery was done at the surgery ward. Patients with tuberculosis were usually referred to the Tuberculosis Hospital in Hohenkrug (Zdunowo). In 1935, the urology ward in Stettin was closed and incorporated into the surgery ward. During the World War II, just as during the World War I, the Municipal Hospital in Stettin was transformed into a field hospital. The end of the World War II created a new political situation in Europe. Stettin (Szczecin) and West Pomerania became part of Poland. In 1948, the Polish government established the Pomeranian Medical Academy (PAM) in Stettin. During the first 10 years of its existence all urological operations were performed at surgery wards. In August 1955, a 30-bed urology ward affiliated

  12. Cultural politics and masculinities: multiple-partners in historical perspective in KwaZulu-Natal.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Mark

    2005-05-01

    Drawing from ethnographic, archival and secondary research, this article examines multiple-sexual partners in historical perspective in KwaZulu-Natal, a South Africa province where one in three people are thought to be HIV positive. Research on masculinities, multiple partners, and AIDS has been predominantly directed towards the present day. This article stresses the importance of unraveling the antecedents of contemporary masculinities particularly the gendered cultural politics through which they have been produced. Arguing against dominant conceptions of African masculinity as being innate or static, it charts the rise and fall of the isoka, the Zulu man with multiple-sexual partners, over the last century. Showing how the isoka developed through changing conditions occasioned by capitalism, migrant labor and Christianity, it contends that an important turning point took place from the 1970s when high unemployment threatened previous expressions of manliness, notably marriage, settings up an independent household and becoming umnumzana (a household head). The high value placed on men seeking multiple-partners increasingly filled the void left by men's inability to become men through previous means. Turning to the contemporary period, the articles argues that, shaken by the huge AIDS deaths, men are betraying increasing doubts about the isoka masculinity.

  13. Seismic microzonation in Latin America and the Caribbean: social, cultural, economic and political aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murria, J.

    2009-04-01

    The lack of success, not to say failure, of seismic microzonation projects in the Latin America and Caribbean nations-and for that matter elsewhere in the world-should not be attributed to the lack of technical and scientific expertise of our engineers and scientists as there exists in our continent sufficient knowledge and information about the techniques and procedures that have been successfully used elsewhere in the world in the implementation of seismic microzonation projects. The main constrains to the implementation of seismic microzonation projects in Latin America and the Caribbean are of an economic, social, political, and cultural aspects rather than the purely scientific and engineering aspects. Another very important factor contributing to this lack of success has been the apparent failure of the scientific and technical community to convince decision makers (both official and private) that the sound implementation of seismic microzonation projects are a valid instrument to mitigate the negative effects that earthquakes have on the population, on the physical infrastructure and on the environment. An attempt will be made in this paper to analyze these "non technical" aspects and try to arrive at some conclusions as well as to some possible lines of action for the successful implementation of seismic microzonation projects in the seismic risk prone Latin American and Caribbean nations.

  14. The cultural evolution of democracy: saltational changes in a political regime landscape.

    PubMed

    Lindenfors, Patrik; Jansson, Fredrik; Sandberg, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Transitions to democracy are most often considered the outcome of historical modernization processes. Socio-economic changes, such as increases in per capita GNP, education levels, urbanization and communication, have traditionally been found to be correlates or 'requisites' of democratic reform. However, transition times and the number of reform steps have not been studied comprehensively. Here we show that historically, transitions to democracy have mainly occurred through rapid leaps rather than slow and incremental transition steps, with a median time from autocracy to democracy of 2.4 years, and overnight in the reverse direction. Our results show that autocracy and democracy have acted as peaks in an evolutionary landscape of possible modes of institutional arrangements. Only scarcely have there been slow incremental transitions. We discuss our results in relation to the application of phylogenetic comparative methods in cultural evolution and point out that the evolving unit in this system is the institutional arrangement, not the individual country which is instead better regarded as the 'host' for the political system.

  15. Progressive but Not Socialist: Political Education in the Zimbabwe Liberation War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Griff

    1993-01-01

    During the struggle for liberation in Zimbabwe in the 1970s, a form of cadre and mass political education developed that was nationalist rather than socialist. It focused on the need to elect a popular government rather than on Marxist class struggle. (SK)

  16. Cultural competence and evidence-based practice in mental health: epistemic communities and the politics of pluralism.

    PubMed

    Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2012-07-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) and cultural competence (CC) aim to improve the effectiveness of mental health care for diverse populations. However, there are basic tensions between these approaches. The evidence that purports to ground EBP is limited, often in ways that are biased by specific disciplinary, economic or political interests and cultural assumptions. In particular, the paucity of evidence regarding cultural minorities results in standard practices based on data from the majority population that have uncertain relevance for specific cultural groups. As well, research evidence about intervention outcomes tends to focus on individual symptoms and behaviors and may not reflect culturally relevant outcomes. To some extent, these limitations can be addressed by refining and extending current methods of evidence production. However, consideration of culture raises two deeper problems for EBP: 1) The diagnostic and conceptual frameworks used to pose questions, devise interventions, and determine outcomes in EBP are themselves culturally determined and therefore potentially biased or inappropriate; and 2) Cultural communities may have "ways of knowing" that do not rely on the kinds of observational and experimental measures and methods that characterize EBP. Attention to the nature of clinical evidence and to the importance of cultural context in illness and healing can help both EBP and CC move beyond their current limitations and contribute to the evolution of mental health services that respond effectively to cultural diversity.

  17. The Border Crossed Us: Education, Hospitality Politics, and the Social Construction of the "Illegal Immigrant"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    In this essay, Dennis Carlson explores some of the implications of Derrida's "hospitality politics" in helping articulate a progressive response to a rightist cultural politics in the United States of policing national, linguistic, and other borders. He applies the concept of hospitality politics to a critical analysis of the social construction…

  18. Cultural Appropriation of Political Participation and Concepts of Democracy in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kontogiannopoulou-Polydorides, Georgia; Andritsopoulou, C.

    2003-01-01

    The present work explores aspects of political thinking of Greek adolescents in relation to civic education. The chapter aims to investigate the relationship of social and political education, as taught in high-school, to students' concepts and attitudes centering on the way students (a) formulate attitudes towards anticipated political…

  19. Culturally Relevant Political Education: Using Immigration as a Catalyst for Civic Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journell, Wayne; Castro, Erin L.

    2011-01-01

    Latino students, in particular, often feel alienated from politics, especially at the federal level, and this political disengagement often correlates with the immigrant status of students or their families. However, recent research suggests that the amount and quality of social studies coursework taken by immigrant students can reverse these…

  20. Framing the Discussion: Elections as Components of Larger Political and Cultural Geographies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knopp, Larry

    2016-01-01

    It is important to remember that elections are but one piece--albeit an important one--of much larger processes of politics and governance. Moreover, in the United States they are increasingly implicated in the construction of identities and places. What goes on in the course of electoral politics (creating electoral systems and voting districts,…

  1. "Fear of a Black Planet": Rap Music and Black Cultural Politics in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Tricia

    1991-01-01

    Explores the exercise of institutional and ideological power over rap music and fans, how artists and fans respond to that context, and the complex relationships between rap's political economy and the sociologically based crime discourse that frames it. Rap's poetic voice is a political expression of the Black experience. (JB)

  2. Strategic, political, and cultural aspects of IT implementation: improving the efficacy of an IT system in a large hospital.

    PubMed

    Wurster, Christina J; Lichtenstein, Benyamin B; Hogeboom, Tasha

    2009-01-01

    Healthcare spending will exceed $4 trillion by 2017, a trend that is leading executives to implement information technology (IT) systems to contain these rising costs. Studies show that numerous factors determine the outcome and net benefits of IT in healthcare. However, what happens when a newly implemented IT system results in negative outcomes? We explore this question by examining a newly implemented IT system in a large hospital that was yielding none of the benefits for which its designers had hoped. Using an expanded set of analytic lenses, our in-depth study found that political issues were a major stumbling block to the implementation of this IT system, as the interests of IT managers were different from those of the system's users. In addition, cultural values among these stakeholders were not aligned. The new IT system carried very different meanings for these two key groups. These political and cultural issues, which reflect a broader set of factors than is commonly applied in IT or in management, led to specific recommendations designed to improve the system's viability and benefits. In a follow-up analysis we found that these alternative lenses helped increase the intended usage of the IT system by 16 percent in the first year, yielding a 20 percent improvement in performance. By better understanding the cultural and political significance of IT implementation, managers may thus improve the effectiveness of new information technologies for containing costs in hospitals.

  3. Embryo culture in teratological surveillance and serum proteins in development. Progress report, 1979-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, N.W.

    1980-07-01

    Research progress for the period 1979-1980 is reported. The feasibility of using rat embryo cultures to test the teratogenic activity of serum was studied. The mechanisms regulating the synthesis of serum proteins were investigated. (ACR)

  4. Genetic fallout in biocultural landscapes: molecular imperialism and the cultural politics of (not) seeing transgenes in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Christophe Bonneuil; Foyer, Jean; Wynne, Brian

    2014-12-01

    This article explores the trajectory of the global controversy over the introgression (or not) of transgenes from genetically modified maize into Mexican indigenous maize landraces. While a plurality of knowledge-making processes were deployed to render transgenes visible or invisible, we analyze how a particular in vitro based DNA-centered knowledge came to marginalize other forms of knowledge, thus obscuring other bio-cultural dimensions key to the understanding of gene flow and maize diversity. We show that dominant molecular norms of proof and standards of detection, which co-developed with the world of industrial monocropping and gene patenting, discarded and externalized non-compliant actors (i.e. complex maize genomes, human dimensions of gene flow). Operating in the name of high science, they hence obscured the complex biological and cultural processes that maintain crop diversity and enacted a cultural-political domination over the world of Mexican landraces and indigenous communities.

  5. Comparison of social resistance to Ebola response in Sierra Leone and Guinea suggests explanations lie in political configurations not culture

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Annie; Fairhead, James

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Sierra Leone and Guinea share broadly similar cultural worlds, straddling the societies of the Upper Guinea Coast with Islamic West Africa. There was, however, a notable difference in their reactions to the Ebola epidemic. As the epidemic spread in Guinea, acts of violent or everyday resistance to outbreak control measures repeatedly followed, undermining public health attempts to contain the crisis. In Sierra Leone, defiant resistance was rarer. Instead of looking to ‘culture’ to explain patterns of social resistance (as was common in the media and in the discourse of responding public health authorities) a comparison between Sierra Leone and Guinea suggests that explanations lie in divergent political practice and lived experiences of the state. In particular the structures of state authority through which the national epidemic response were organised integrated very differently with trusted institutions in each country. Predicting and addressing social responses to epidemic control measures should assess such political-trust configurations when planning interventions. PMID:28366999

  6. State Assessment of Educational Progress in North Carolina, 1973-74, Cultural Arts, Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Research.

    A representative sample of about 2,500 third-graders took the Cultural Arts Test, a perception survey which was part of the 1973-74 State Assessment of Educational Progress in North Carolina. The test dealt with students' perceptions of their own competence, interests, preferences, and happiness in the cultural arts; of their teachers. and…

  7. Politics, Religion and Social Connections: Pillars for Progression among Primary Teachers in Jamaica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Perceptions about teacher progression among Jamaica's primary schoolteachers should force society to stop and ask itself several questions. Are these perceptions accurate? If not, how did these perceptions emerge and what can national leaders and those in positions of authority do to "manage" if not resolve these perceptions? If there is…

  8. Progress, innovation and regulatory science in drug development: the politics of international standard-setting.

    PubMed

    Abraham, John; Reed, Tim

    2002-06-01

    This paper examines international standard-setting in the toxicology of pharmaceuticals during the 1990s, which has involved both the pharmaceutical industry and regulatory agencies in an organization known as the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The analysis shows that the relationships between innovation, regulatory science and 'progress' may be more complex and controversial than is often assumed. An assessment of the ICH's claims about the implications of 'technical' harmonization of drug-testing standards for the maintenance of drug safety, via toxicological testing, and the delivery of therapeutic progress, via innovation, is presented. By demonstrating that there is not a technoscientific validity for these claims, it is argued that, within the ICH, a discourse of technological innovation and scientific progress has been used by regulatory agencies and prominent parts of the transnational pharmaceutical industry to legitimize the lowering and loosening of toxicological standards for drug testing. The mobilization and acceptance of this discourse are shown to be pivotal to the ICH's transformation of reductions in safety standards, which are apparently against the interests of patients and public health, into supposed therapeutic benefits derived from promises of greater access to more innovative drug products. The evidence suggests that it is highly implausible that these reductions in the standards of regulatory toxicology are consistent with therapeutic progress for patients, and highlights a worrying aspect embedded in the 'technical trajectories' of regulatory science.

  9. Endgame for polio eradication? Options for overcoming social and political factors in the progress to eradicating polio.

    PubMed

    Ganapathiraju, Pavan V; Morssink, Christiaan B; Plumb, James

    2015-01-01

    In 1988, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) was launched with the goal of eradicating polio by the year 2000. After 25 years, several dynamics still challenge this large public health campaign with new cases of polio being reported annually. We examine the roots of this initiative to eradicate polio, its scope, the successes and setbacks during the last 25 years and reflect on the current state of affairs. We examine the social and political factors that are barriers to polio eradication. Options are discussed for solving the current impasse of polio eradication: using force, respecting individual freedoms and gaining support from those vulnerable to fundamentalist 'propaganda'. The travails of the GPEI indicate the need for expanding the Convention on the Rights of the Child to address situations of war and civic strife. Such a cultural and structural reference will provide the basis for global stakeholders to engage belligerent local actors whose local political conflicts are barriers to the eradication of polio. Disregard for these actors will result in stagnation of polio eradication policy, delaying eradication beyond 2018.

  10. The Role of Confucian Cultural Values and Politics in Planning Educational Programs for Adults in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryu, Kiung; Cervero, Ronald M.

    2011-01-01

    Program planning activities are not culturally neutral but are replete with various cultural values and affected by them. This qualitative study was conducted in Korea and examines how cultural values influence educational planning in Korea. Specifically, the study was to examine how Confucian cultural values play out in educational planning in…

  11. Globalisation and the Cultural Politics of Educational Change: The Controversy over Teaching of English in West Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scrase, Timothy J.

    2002-09-01

    (Globalisation and the Cultural Politics of Educational Change: The Controversy over the Teaching of English in West Bengal) - This article deals with the articulation of educational policy, cultural politics, and social class in the era of globalization. It analyses the policy of the Government of West Bengal to remove the teaching of English from the primary school syllabus in the state in the early 1980s and its subsequent reintroduction from the beginning of the school year in 2000. The author argues that English is a crucial component of the middle classes' cultural capital and is essential to their future employment success, especially in a globalising work environment. This is supported by interviews conducted during 1998/1999 with middle-class Bengalis. For governments of postcolonial, developing societies, this dispute highlights an essential dichotomy between, on the one hand, the ideal of broad-based educational policies and, on the other hand, the need to prepare children for employment at home and abroad in the context of globalisation.

  12. Environmental carcinogens in human target tissues in culture. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, I.C.

    1984-10-19

    The metabolism and mutagenicity of 1-nitropyrene, 1-aminopyrene, 2-aminofluorene and acetylaminofluarene in hepatic cell cultures is investigated. Metabolic products were assayed by thin-layer chromatography. Ancillary studies on Ames' assary mutagencity screening, unscheduled DNA synthesis by hepatocytes and binding to nuclear structures are also reported. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  13. Cultural Adaptations of Behavioral Health Interventions: A Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrera, Manuel, Jr.; Castro, Felipe G.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Toobert, Deborah J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To reduce health disparities, behavioral health interventions must reach subcultural groups and demonstrate effectiveness in improving their health behaviors and outcomes. One approach to developing such health interventions is to culturally adapt original evidence-based interventions. The goals of the article are to (a) describe…

  14. Complicating the "soccer mom:"the cultural politics of forming class-based identity, distinction, and necessity.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Lisa

    2009-06-01

    Using Pierre Bourdieu's theories of social class differentiation and class reproduction, this paper provides an analysis of class-based identity politics in contemporary suburban America. Through a critical ethnography of the emergent, American, upper-middle-class "soccer mom" phenomenon, this study contributes to a growing body of research that interrogates class-based, cultural practices of status differentiation. As part of a larger; longitudinal ethnographic study, this paper specifically focuses on the ways in which women, who are driven by upper-middle-class habitus, contest and construct their identity as mothers of young, soccer-playing children.

  15. Politics of science: Progress toward prevention of the dementia-Alzheimer's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Khachaturian, Zaven S; Khachaturian, Ara S

    2015-01-01

    There exist many challenges hampering the discovery and development of effective interventions to prevent dementia. Three major trends have now intersected to influence the emerging interest in disease modifying therapies that may delay or halt dementia. The three crucial factors shaping this current focus are: (1) the emergence of the longevity revolution and the impact of a aging society, (2) the effects of the US Federal investment in research in advancing knowledge about the neurobiology of aging and dementia, and (3) the problem of US legislators and health policy makers to balance the allocation of evermore scarce research funding resources. The purpose of this essay is to provide a survey of the politics of science and to describe efforts to correctly manage the high level of expectations of both the patient and research communities. The perspective offered reviews the history and evolution of the ideas to treat or prevent dementia and Alzheimer's disease as a national strategic goal. The aim is to evaluate the interplay between science and formulation of public policy for setting research priority. We use the history of developing US National Institute of Aging's extramural research programs on brain aging and Alzheimer's disease (Khachaturian, 2006; 2007) as an initial case study.

  16. Three necessary conditions for progress in low-level waste management: Political commitment, managerial skill, and public involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Wiltshire, S.

    1989-11-01

    Since the late 1970`s many people have worked hard to resolve the question of how this nation will manage its low-level radioactive waste. However, many problems persist. No new disposal facilities have been built since the early 1970`s and some states do not appear to be making much headway on the problem. The current alignment of states in compacts may lead to the designation of more sites than necessary, thus wasting resources and sites that might be used for something else and causing dissension and disruption in more communities than is really necessary. However, progress has been made: low-level waste is on the political agenda in an effective way in many states; much more management attention and skill are being devoted to waste management; and more experience has increased the understanding and skill necessary for management and government officials to be able to involve the public effectively in waste management decision-making. What conditions have produced this progress? What has been learned from ten years of work on the problem? How can these lessons be applied to future decisions, including those about the cleanup and isolation of defense waste? The paper attempts to answer these questions.

  17. The Teaching of Business French in Its Interaction with Legal, Economic, Political and Cultural Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branan, Elisabeth Girod

    One approach to teaching business French is to familiarize students with true business situations and to help students realize that business interacts with a body of laws and within a political and socioeconomic environment. On the first day of class, students are divided into groups of two or three, and each group becomes an enterprise with a…

  18. (Re)Searching Culture in Foreign Language Textbooks, or the Politics of Hide and Seek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canale, Germán

    2016-01-01

    Textbooks are curriculum artefacts that embody particular ideologies and legitimise specific types of knowledge [Apple, M. W. (1982). "Education and power." Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul; Apple, M. W., & Christian-Smith, L. K. (1991). "The politics of the textbook." In M. W. Apple & L. K. Christian-Smith (Eds.),…

  19. Political and Socio-Cultural Factors in Foreign Language Education: The Case of Lebanon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diab, Rula

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the importance of political and sociocultural factors in foreign language education, focusing on English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) learning in Lebanon. It begins with a historical review of foreign language education in Lebanon, then discusses the current role and status of English in the Lebanese context, which reveals…

  20. Comment on Richard Merelman's "Democratic Politics and the Culture of American Education."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, M. Kent

    1980-01-01

    If for no other reason than the strong association between education and democratic values, we must give the education system some credit for the commitment of educated people to those values. Available from The American Political Science Association, 1527 New Hampshire Ave., N.W., Washington, DC 20036. (Author/IRT)

  1. Educational Policymaking in the Tanzanian Postcolony: Authenticity, Accountability, and the Politics of Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    In this article I explore the political event of the Tanzanian government's interdiction of a prominent educational civil society organization in order to theorize the emerging policy heterarchy in Tanzania. In the context of the ensuing public debate about the interdiction, I ask two questions: (1) what tensions are emerging from the…

  2. An Epistemic Frame Analysis of Neoliberal Culture and Politics in the US, UK, and the UAE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Carol A.; Samier, Eugenie A.; Brindley, Sue; English, Fenwick W.; Carr, Nora K.

    2013-01-01

    Neoliberalism is a loosely knit bricolage from economics, politics, and various forms of reactionary populism that can be envisioned as a kind of epistemic frame in which largely counterrevolutionary forces engage in the "creative destruction" of institutional frameworks and powers, forging divisions across society that include labor and…

  3. Complicating the "Soccer Mom:" The Cultural Politics of Forming Class-Based Identity, Distinction, and Necessity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Using Pierre Bourdieu's theories of social class differentiation and class reproduction, this paper provides an analysis of class-based identity politics in contemporary suburban America. Through a critical ethnography of the emergent, American, upper-middle-class "soccer mom" phenomenon, this study contributes to a growing body of…

  4. New Girlhood and Lost Boys: Analysing the Cultural Politics of Gender and Education through Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nairn, Karen; Wyn, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    The "coming of age" films "Bend it like Beckham," "Whale Rider" and "Harry Potter" feature distinctive narratives about girlhood and boyhood that provide a perspective on the changing historical and political context of gendered identity construction in the new millennium. The early 2000s represented a…

  5. Freedom of Choice: Vouchers in American Education. Praeger Series on American Political Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carl, Jim

    2011-01-01

    This book reveals that, far from being the result of a groundswell of support for parental choice in American education, the origins of school vouchers are seated in identity politics, religious schooling, and educational entrepreneurship. As the most radical form of "school choice," vouchers remain controversial in education today. The U.S.…

  6. The political collapse of Chichén Itzá in climatic and cultural context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoggarth, Julie A.; Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.; Culleton, Brendan J.; Ebert, Claire E.; Masson, Marilyn A.; Kennett, Douglas J.

    2016-03-01

    Chichén Itzá dominated the political landscape of the northern Yucatán during the Terminal Classic Period (AD 800-1000). Chronological details of the rise and fall of this important polity are obscure because of the limited corpus of dated hieroglyphic records and by a restricted set of radiocarbon dates for the site. Here we compile and review these data and evaluate them within the context of political and climatic change in northern Yucatán at the end of the Classic period. The available data point to the end of elite activity at Chichén Itzá around AD 1000, a century after the collapse of Puuc Maya cities and other interior centers. Evidence supports a population shift in the eleventh century towards some coastal locations during a time associated with the end of monumental construction and art at Chichén Itzá. Our results suggest that regional political disintegration came in two waves. The first was the asynchronous collapse of multiple polities between AD 850 and 925 associated with a regional drying trend and punctuated by a series of multi-decadal droughts in the ninth and tenth centuries. The second wave was the political collapse at Chichén Itzá that coincides with the longest and most severe drought recorded in regional climate records between AD 1000 and 1100. This is a time that some scholars have characterized as a "dark age" across the northern Maya lowlands. Political developments during the Postclassic period (AD 1000-1517) correspond with a return to higher rainfall. These patterns support a strong relationship between political disintegration and climatic stress in the Maya lowlands. This research employs Bayesian radiocarbon models in conjunction with calendar dates on carved monuments and climate proxies to evaluate the rise and fall of Maya political centers and serves as an example of the impact of climate change on rainfall-dependent societies in Mesoamerica.

  7. "Made in Germany": The Politics of Teaching German Popular Culture in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahnke, Corinna; Stehle, Maria

    2011-01-01

    In North American universities, pop culture increasingly appears in the German Studies classroom to "spice up" the curriculum. But what is conveyed and taught and how is it inserted into the curriculum and into the US cultural context? This article explores three examples of popular culture in the German Studies classroom:…

  8. Environmental carcinogens in human target tissues in culture. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, I.C.

    1986-02-19

    Cells from different organ or animal species have shown diverse activities in activation and detoxification of chemical carcinogens. Based on the mutation assays, human hepatocytes were more effective than animal hepatocytes in detoxification of aromatic nitrogen compounds. The adduct formation was also different in human and rodent hepatocytes exposed to aminofluorene (AF) or acetylaminofluorene (AAF). Both AF and AAF adduct DNA were observed in rat liver cells exposed to AF or AAF. However, very little acetylation or deacetyl of the DNA adducts occurred in the human hepatocytes. Human hepatocytes treated with AF in primary culture produced mainly AF adducted DNA while AAF treated cells formed AAF adduct DNA. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Scientific progress and the prospects for culture-bound syndromes.

    PubMed

    Blease, Charlotte

    2010-12-01

    This paper aims to show that the classification by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) of a distinct listing of disorders known as Culture-Bound Syndromes (CBS) is misguided. I argue that the list of CBS (in Appendix I of the manual) comprises either (a) genuine disorders that should be included within the main body of the DSM; or (b) ersatz-disorders that serve a practical role for psychiatrists dealing with patients from certain cultures but will one day be eliminated or assimilated by bona fide DSM classifications. In support of these views I draw on claims from two key themes in the philosophy of science: (1) the claim that all folk (that is, non-scientific) explanations for phenomena are thoroughly theoretical and therefore fallible; and (2) the occurrence of theoretical elimination in the history of science. I contend that any ersatz-disorders located in the DSM that are judged to be radically false do not differ in kind from eliminated theories in the history of pre-science.

  10. Automobile Politics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, Matthew

    2006-11-01

    The car, and the range of social and political institutions which sustain its dominance, play an important role in many of the environmental problems faced by contemporary society. But in order to understand the possibilities for moving towards sustainability and 'greening cars', it is first necessary to understand the political forces that have made cars so dominant. This book identifies these forces as a combination of political economy and cultural politics. From the early twentieth century, the car became central to the organization of capitalism and deeply embedded in individual identities, providing people with a source of value and meaning but in a way which was broadly consistent with social imperatives for mobility. Projects for sustainability to reduce the environmental impacts of cars are therefore constrained by these forces but must deal with them in order to shape and achieve their goals. Addresses the increasingly controversial debate on the place of the car in contemporary society and its contribution to environmental problems Questions whether automobility is sustainable and what political, social and economic forces might prevent this Will appeal to scholars and advanced students from a wide range of disciplines including environmental politics, political economy, environmental studies, cultural studies and geography

  11. The fate of a progressive science: the Harvard Fatigue Laboratory, athletes, the science of work and the politics of reform.

    PubMed

    Scheffler, Robin Wolfe

    2011-06-01

    In the early twentieth century, fatigue research marked a site of conflicting scientific, industrial, and cultural understandings of working bodies. Many fatigue researchers understood fatigue to be a physiological fact and allied themselves with Progressive-era reformers in urging industrial regulation. Reformers clashed with advocates of Taylorism, who held that productivity could be perpetually increased through managerial efficiency. Histories of this conflict typically cease with the end of the First World War. I examine the work of the Harvard Fatigue Laboratory in the 1920s and 1930s to explore the impact that the introduction of biochemical methods had on the relationship between science and reform. The Laboratory developed sophisticated techniques to study the blood of exercising individuals. In particular, it found that exercising individuals could attain a biochemically "steady state," or equilibrium, and extrapolated from this to assert that fatigue was psychological, not physiological, in nature. In contrast to Progressive-era research, the Laboratory reached this conclusion through laboratory examination, not of workers, but of Laboratory staff members and champion marathon runners. I present the Laboratory's institutional history, scientific work, and finally how common cultural understandings of athletes and work lent plausibility to its efforts to make authoritative statements about industrial conditions.

  12. Critical Hip-Hop Language Pedagogies: Combat, Consciousness, and the Cultural Politics of Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alim, H. Samy

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses two long-standing tensions in the education of linguistically marginalized youth: (a) the cultural tension, or cultural combat, that such students engage in as they form their linguistic identities, and (b) the tensions between the development of critical language pedagogies and the lack of their broader implementation due…

  13. Politics, culture, and the legitimacy of disease: the case of Buerger's disease.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Stephen J; Bresler, Scott C; Granter, Scott R

    2016-09-01

    Thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO) or Buerger's disease is a rare form of vasculitis with distinctive clinical and pathological features that carries significant morbidity, often leading to amputation, and is strongly associated with tobacco smoking. Despite its distinctive clinicopathological characteristics, the existence of TAO as an entity sui generis was challenged for many years as it languished in relative obscurity. Then, as societal attitudes towards smoking changed, TAO not only became accepted as a disease entity, it quite literally became a poster child to illustrate the ills of smoking. Herein, we examine the history of TAO to illustrate the power of societal attitudes and politics in shaping medicine.

  14. Progress towards understanding heterotypic interactions in multi-culture models of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Regier, Mary C; Alarid, Elaine T; Beebe, David J

    2016-06-13

    Microenvironments in primary tumors and metastases include multiple cell types whose dynamic and reciprocal interactions are central to progression of the disease. However, the literature involving breast cancer studied in vitro is dominated by cancer cells in mono-culture or co-cultured with one other cell type. For in vitro studies of breast cancer the inclusion of multiple cell types has led to models that are more representative of in vivo behaviors and functions as compared to more traditional monoculture. Here, we review foundational co-culture techniques and their adaptation to multi-culture (including three or more cell types). Additionally, while macroscale methods involving conditioned media, direct contact, and indirect interactions have been informative, we examined many advances that have been made more recently using microscale systems with increased control over cellular and structural complexity. Throughout this discussion we consider the benefits and limitations of current multi-culture methods and the significant results they have produced.

  15. Sex, secularism and religious influence in US politics.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Elizabeth; Jakobsen, Janet R

    2010-01-01

    Through an analysis of alliances between secular and religious actors in US politics and a specific case study on anti-trafficking policy, we show that the intertwining of religion and politics in the US comes from two sources: 1) the secular political and cultural institutions of American public life that have developed historically out of Protestantism, and which predominantly operate by presuming Protestant norms and values; and 2) the direct influence on US politics of religious groups and organisations, particularly in the past quarter-century of lobby groups and political action committees identified with conservative evangelical Christianity. The sources of policies that promote gender and sexual inequality in the US are both secular and religious and we conclude that it is inaccurate to assume that religious influence in politics is necessarily conservative or that more secular politics will necessarily be more progressive than the religious varieties.

  16. Neoliberalism and indigenous knowledge: Māori health research and the cultural politics of New Zealand's "National Science Challenges".

    PubMed

    Prussing, Erica; Newbury, Elizabeth

    2016-02-01

    In 2012-13 the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment (MBIE) in New Zealand rapidly implemented a major restructuring of national scientific research funding. The "National Science Challenges" (NSC) initiative aims to promote greater commercial applications of scientific knowledge, reflecting ongoing neoliberal reforms in New Zealand. Using the example of health research, we examine the NSC as a key moment in ongoing indigenous Māori advocacy against neoliberalization. NSC rhetoric and practice through 2013 moved to marginalize participation by Māori researchers, in part through constructing "Māori" and "science" as essentially separate arenas-yet at the same time appeared to recognize and value culturally distinctive forms of Māori knowledge. To contest this "neoliberal multiculturalism," Māori health researchers reasserted the validity of culturally distinctive knowledge, strategically appropriated NSC rhetoric, and marshalled political resources to protect Māori research infrastructure. By foregrounding scientific knowledge production as an arena of contestation over neoliberal values and priorities, and attending closely to how neoliberalizing tactics can include moves to acknowledge cultural diversity, this analysis poses new questions for social scientific study of global trends toward reconfiguring the production of knowledge about health. Study findings are drawn from textual analysis of MBIE documents about the NSC from 2012 to 2014, materials circulated by Māori researchers in the blogosphere in 2014, and ethnographic interviews conducted in 2013 with 17 Māori health researchers working at 7 sites that included university-based research centers, government agencies, and independent consultancies.

  17. [Seiichi Ishida, a chief physician of Shinsaku Takasugi: culture and politics as seen by a doctor of the Reformation period].

    PubMed

    Kameda, Kazukuni

    2009-12-01

    This is first paper on Seiichi Ishida, who worked as the Bakan town doctor at the end of the Edo period. Seiichi was initially a private practice physician of Habuura, Asa-gun. He then studied Dutch medicine under Banri Hyakutake of Hakata and on his return home he further prospered. From the Kaei period, the assessment of Seiichi as an artistic, cultured person became high and at the beginning of the Ansei period he moved to Okinoshima of Shimonoseki. By the Bunkyu period, Seiichi held an important place in the history of cultural exchange among Shimonoseki's cultural figures. In the Keio period he moved to Odo, which was to the West of Isakiura and further inland. It was a very tranquil and beautiful place. It was from around this time that his socialization commenced with samurai belonging to the reformist group of the Hagi Domain. Shinsaku Takasugi in particular, adored Seiichi as a friend of the heart who loved Chinese poetry, and trusted him as his chief physician. Furthermore, Seiichi's political activity intensified and it has become clear that he was deeply involved in rescuing Botoni Nomura from Himeshima and the Hagi Domain's production of counterfeit currency.

  18. Regulating genetically modified food. Policy trajectories, political culture, and risk perceptions in the U.S., Canada, and EU.

    PubMed

    Wohlers, Anton E

    2010-09-01

    This paper examines whether national differences in political culture add an explanatory dimension to the formulation of policy in the area of biotechnology, especially with respect to genetically modified food. The analysis links the formulation of protective regulatory policies governing genetically modified food to both country and region-specific differences in uncertainty tolerance levels and risk perceptions in the United States, Canada, and European Union. Based on polling data and document analysis, the findings illustrate that these differences matter. Following a mostly opportunistic risk perception within an environment of high tolerance for uncertainty, policymakers in the United States and Canada modified existing regulatory frameworks that govern genetically modified food in their respective countries. In contrast, the mostly cautious perception of new food technologies and low tolerance for uncertainty among European Union member states has contributed to the creation of elaborate and stringent regulatory policies governing genetically modified food.

  19. Essential veterinary education in the cultural, political and biological complexities of international trade in animals and animal products.

    PubMed

    Brown, C C

    2009-08-01

    Globalisation has changed the veterinary profession in many ways and academic institutes may need to re-tool to help future professionals deal with the changes in a successful and productive way. The remarkably expanded and expanding volume of trade and traffic in animals and animal products means that to be effective veterinarians must grasp some of the complexities inherent in this trade. Being able to engage productively in cross-cultural dialogue will be important in negotiations over livestock shipments and also within the context of the delivery of medical services to companion animals in societies that are becoming increasingly diverse. Understanding the political landscapes that influence trade decisions will help to expedite agreements and facilitate the transfer of goods and materials that involve animal health. Disease emergence will continue to occur, and an awareness of the factors responsible and the response measures to undertake will help to contain any damage.

  20. [Cultures of bacteriology in France, 1880-1900: bench and politics].

    PubMed

    Löwy, Ilana

    2010-01-01

    Iconic accounts of the "bacteriological revolution" presented it as a radical change in the understanding of the natural world. Scientist had discovered that human being shared their environment with billions of invisible living beings which shape life phenomena, health and disease. They also learned to cultivate and manipulate these invisible creatures. The domestication of microorganisms in the laboratory disarmed them as enemies and occasionally transformed them into allies. This analysis of the development in French bacteriology displays a more nuanced and complex picture, with continuities as well as ruptures, and multiple levels of change. Between 1880 and 1900, the rise of "pasteurian science" did produce important changes in French society, but these changes were obtained through a variety of approaches: introduction of new experimental techniques, administrative and legal methods, training of professionals, education of the general public, and a direct political intervention.

  1. Access to Basic Education in Ghana: Politics, Policies and Progress. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 42

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Angela W.

    2010-01-01

    This monograph examines the history and politics of educational reform in Ghana. Using data from interviews conducted with senior policy-makers, implementers and researchers, as well as documentary sources, to explore the drivers and inhibitors of change at the political, bureaucratic and grass-roots levels. The monograph explores the nature of…

  2. The Politics of Planning Culturally Relevant AIDS Prevention Education for African American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archie-Booker, D. Elaine; Cervero, Ronald M.; Langone, Christine A.

    1999-01-01

    Interviews and observations of three AIDS-prevention programs revealed that in this agency, AIDS education overall was not culturally relevant for African-American women for several reasons: (1) organization image and financing were geared toward White gay males; (2) interpretation of the mission did not include African-American women; and (3)…

  3. Remaining and Becoming: Cultural Crosscurrents in an Hispano School. Sociocultural, Political, and Historical Studies in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Shelley

    Nortenos, or Hispanos, are Spanish-heritage residents of northern New Mexico whose ancestors settled in the region in the 17th and 18th centuries and were long isolated from the U.S. mainstream. The ebb and flow of cultural crosscurrents in northern New Mexico add richness and complexity to educational issues faced by the Norteno community. This…

  4. Political and Cultural Dimensions of Organizing Learning around Funds of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ares, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    O'Connor and Penuel (2010) argue that viewing research in education as a human science requires explicit attention to social, cultural, historical, and institutional dimensions of human activity, to the agency of participants in learning research, and to the importance of incorporating "emic" perspectives that shift the voice of the…

  5. The Politics of Resistance to Workplace Cultural Diversity Education for Health Service Providers: An Australian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Kanitsaki, Olga

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study has as its focus an exploration of health service providers' perceptions and experiences of the processes and implications of delivering workplace cultural diversity education for staff. Data were obtained from conducting in-depth individual and focus group interviews with a purposeful sample of 137 healthcare professionals,…

  6. Transformative World Language Learning: An Approach for Environmental and Cultural Sustainability and Economic and Political Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulah, Jason

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author responds to the Modern Language Association's report, "Foreign Languages and Higher Education: New Structures for a Changed World" (2007) by arguing for an explicit and interdisciplinary transformative world language learning approach toward environmental and cultural sustainability and economic and political…

  7. Transformation and School Success: The Politics and Culture of Educational Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Frederick

    1987-01-01

    Explanations for the low school performance of minority children are critiqued. When these explanations are considered in light of social theory, it can be seen how the legitimacy of schools and teachers are factors in school success. A new, more culturally responsive pedagogy is necessary. (VM)

  8. Culture, Schooling, and the Politics of Class Identity in an Andalusian Town.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, Richard

    1994-01-01

    Describes Aracena (Spain) and its educational history. Compares the experience of schooling and community from the perspectives of middle-class and working-class students. Explores social and cultural factors that may explain why middle-class students are more likely than working-class students to continue their education despite similar…

  9. "Crack in the Pavement": Pedagogy as Political and Moral Practice for Educating Culturally Competent Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Juliana

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the reception of Indigenous perspectives and knowledges in university curricula and educators' social responsibility to demonstrate cultural competency through their teaching and learning practices. Drawing on tenets of critical race theory, Indigenous standpoint theory and critical pedagogies, this paper argues that the…

  10. Culture, political economy and gender marginalisation: a case of girl child in India.

    PubMed

    Punalekar, S P

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses female children and the impact of macro- and micro- economic and cultural aspects of gender neglect and marginalization. Although gender marginalization is a widely accepted theoretical concern, the explanations for women's vulnerability vary. One view holds that changes in relations of production and in the system of property relations will automatically resolve gender issues. Another view holds that cultural factors are responsible for entrenched female inequalities. This paper argues that culture is not one-dimensional. Culture affects the material activity of people and their ideas. Feminists over the past two decades have promoted a generalized consciousness about women and their strategic role in production and reproduction, especially female children. Research inadequately addresses issues affecting the female child. In the domestic or household sphere, evidence suggests that the female child experiences greater child mortality, infanticide, and sex-selective abortion, and lower health status. Female children have greater micronutrient deficiencies, growth retardation, and micronutrient deficiencies. In times of natural disasters or crises, girls were found to suffer more from malnutrition than boys. The enrollment and retention of girls in school is lower than boys. Cultural stereotyping and restrictions on movement subject girls to the authority and control of male children and adult males. Girls are socialized differently and are not encouraged to be autonomous or to use initiative. In the public sphere, girls are used by families to serve household and production needs of the family and other relatives. Working wages for girls are very low, and working conditions are oppressive. The economic status of the household determines allocation of work, access to education, and lifestyle.

  11. English as a Medium of Instruction in East Asia's Higher Education Sector: A Critical Realist Cultural Political Economy Analysis of Underlying Logics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kedzierski, Matt

    2016-01-01

    As discourses of globalisation and the knowledge-based economy become increasingly influential in both policy-making and in public debates about education, employability and national competitiveness--the choice of language in the classroom takes on a strategic importance. The paper employs a critical realist Cultural Political Economy lens to…

  12. Art as a Political Act: Expression of Cultural Identity, Self-Identity, and Gender by Suk Nam Yun and Yong Soon Min

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruso, Hwa Young Choi

    2005-01-01

    This cross-cultural study explored the lives of two contemporary Korean/Korean American women artists--Suk Nam Yun and Yong Soon Min--who live in Seoul, South Korea, and Los Angeles, California. The author's research focused on the artists' identity formation, artistic expression, professional achievements, and the role of art as a political act.…

  13. Secularizing funerary culture in nineteenth-century Belgium: A product of political and religious controversy.

    PubMed

    De Spiegeleer, Christoph; Tyssens, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    Modern historiography of collective attitudes, practices, and conflicts surrounding death often focuses on the institutional history of cemeteries and nonreligious funerals in 19th-century France. Institutional and cultural discussions concerning funerals and cemeteries also divided nineteenth-century Belgium. This article explores emblematic civil burials and the secularization of cemeteries in major Belgian cities. The article distinguishes different dimensions of the secularization of death and highlights the particular nature of Belgian funerary conflicts and burial reform within a broader European context.

  14. Unique Rural District Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Tod Allen

    2009-01-01

    The politics of rural educational leadership are both intense and concentrated. Rural educational leaders need to be savvy and politically skilled if they are to inspire educational stakeholders and accomplish organizational objectives. The local school system is an organization with a political culture that can be characterized as a competitive…

  15. An imbalance in progenitor cell populations reflects tumour progression in breast cancer primary culture models

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many factors influence breast cancer progression, including the ability of progenitor cells to sustain or increase net tumour cell numbers. Our aim was to define whether alterations in putative progenitor populations could predict clinicopathological factors of prognostic importance for cancer progression. Methods Primary cultures were established from human breast tumour and adjacent non-tumour tissue. Putative progenitor cell populations were isolated based on co-expression or concomitant absence of the epithelial and myoepithelial markers EPCAM and CALLA respectively. Results Significant reductions in cellular senescence were observed in tumour versus non-tumour cultures, accompanied by a stepwise increase in proliferation:senescence ratios. A novel correlation between tumour aggressiveness and an imbalance of putative progenitor subpopulations was also observed. Specifically, an increased double-negative (DN) to double-positive (DP) ratio distinguished aggressive tumours of high grade, estrogen receptor-negativity or HER2-positivity. The DN:DP ratio was also higher in malignant MDA-MB-231 cells relative to non-tumourogenic MCF-10A cells. Ultrastructural analysis of the DN subpopulation in an invasive tumour culture revealed enrichment in lipofuscin bodies, markers of ageing or senescent cells. Conclusions Our results suggest that an imbalance in tumour progenitor subpopulations imbalances the functional relationship between proliferation and senescence, creating a microenvironment favouring tumour progression. PMID:21521500

  16. Political Corruption in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Steven R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of political corruption and its place in Japanese culture and society. Discusses recent scandals and efforts at political reform. These efforts are moving Japan from a "boss-patronage" system to a "civic-culture." Includes a table of post-war Japanese prime ministers and corruption scandals. (MJP)

  17. The doctor as businessman: the changing politics of a cultural icon.

    PubMed

    Stone, D A

    1997-04-01

    From just after the Civil War, when medicine began to professionalize, until the late 1970s, doctors and policy makers believed that clinical judgment should not be influenced by the financial interests of doctors. Physicians were highly entrepreneurial, and organized medicine fought to preserve their entrepreneurial interests, but the moral norm that justified their autonomy from state regulation was a strict separation of clinical judgment and pecuniary interests. Under managed care, the old norm is reversed. A good doctor takes financial considerations into account in making clinical decisions. Theoretically, doctors should consider measures of cost to society, but in practice, the payment systems of managed care plans induce doctors to consider the impact of each clinical decision on their own income. Because doctors share the risks of insuring patients with managed care plans, they have the same incentives as insurers to avoid patients who are expensively sick. The new cultural image of doctors as entrepreneurs masks their considerable loss of clinical autonomy under managed care. It also serves to persuade doctors to accept managed care arrangements and to persuade insurance consumers and patients to accept reduced benefits from employers and the government.

  18. [Progress in microalgae culture system for biodiesel combined with reducing carbon dioxide emission].

    PubMed

    Su, Hongyang; Zhou, Xuefei; Xia, Xuefen; Sun, Zhen; Zhang, Yalei

    2011-09-01

    Wastewater resources, CO2 emission reduction and microalgae biodiesel are considered as current frontier fields of energy and environmental researches. In this paper, we reviewed the progress in system of microalgae culture for biodiesel production by wastewater and stack gas. Multiple factors including microalgal species, nutrition, culture methods and photobioreactor, which were crucial to the cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production, were discussed in detail. A valuable culture system of microalgae for biodiesel production or other high value products combined with the treatment of wastewater by microalgae was put forward through the optimizations of algal species and culture technology. The culture system coupled with the treatment of wastewater, the reduction of CO2 emission with the cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production will reduce the production cost of microalgal biofuel production and the treatment cost of wastewater simultaneously. Therefore, it would be a promising technology with important environmental value, social value and economic value to combine the treatment of wastewater with the cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production.

  19. The political culture of healthcare: why substantial dental care in Canada is covered by government insurance only in Québec - lessons for the United States?

    PubMed

    Flaer, P J; Younis, M Z; Benjamin, P L; Al-Hajeri, M

    2011-06-10

    This opinion paper explains the unique and favourable terms of dental health insurance coverage available to residents (both permanent and temporary) of the Province of Québec, Canada. In comparison, the United States and British Canada are the poor stepchildren of government-mediated provision of dental health coverage. The differences in dental healthcare provision between these regions are a question of culture - more specifically, of differing socio-political cultures and different perspectives on the importance of dental care. Lawmakers in the United States can learn from this policy of government-administered dental insurance that appears to work well in Québec.

  20. Microfluidic culture models to study the hydrodynamics of tumor progression and therapeutic response.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Cara; Rylander, Marissa Nichole

    2013-08-01

    The integration of tissue engineering strategies with microfluidic technologies has enabled the design of in vitro microfluidic culture models that better adapt to morphological changes in tissue structure and function over time. These biomimetic microfluidic scaffolds accurately mimic native 3D microenvironments, as well as permit precise and simultaneous control of chemical gradients, hydrodynamic stresses, and cellular niches within the system. The recent application of microfluidic in vitro culture models to cancer research offers enormous potential to aid in the development of improved therapeutic strategies by supporting the investigation of tumor angiogenesis and metastasis under physiologically relevant flow conditions. The intrinsic material properties and fluid mechanics of microfluidic culture models enable high-throughput anti-cancer drug screening, permit well-defined and controllable input parameters to monitor tumor cell response to various hydrodynamic conditions or treatment modalities, as well as provide a platform for elucidating fundamental mechanisms of tumor physiology. This review highlights recent developments and future applications of microfluidic culture models to study tumor progression and therapeutic targeting under conditions of hydrodynamic stress relevant to the complex tumor microenvironment.

  1. Why Should We Have Political Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velthuis, Ruud

    2002-01-01

    Political education prepares citizens for political, social, economic, and cultural participation. Democratic citizenship is learned formally, nonformally, and informally. A thematic and problem-oriented approach to political education should highlight the various roles of citizens. (SK)

  2. The Politics of Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Information Update, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This document examines political questions that surround the issue of literacy. "City Literacy Cuts" outlines effects of the most recent budget cuts in New York City. "Families, Inequality, and Power: The Cultural Politics of Literacy" (Deborah D'Amico-Samuels) focuses on the importance of understanding the different models…

  3. Nondestructive evaluation of progressive neuronal changes in organotypic rat hippocampal slice cultures using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengqiang; Song, Yu; Dryer, Alexandra; Cogguillo, William; Berdichevsky, Yevgeny; Zhou, Chao

    2014-10-01

    Three-dimensional tissue cultures have been used as effective models for studying different diseases, including epilepsy. High-throughput, nondestructive techniques are essential for rapid assessment of disease-related processes, such as progressive cell death. An ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence microscopy (UHR-OCM) system with [Formula: see text] axial resolution and [Formula: see text] transverse resolution was developed to evaluate seizure-induced neuronal injury in organotypic rat hippocampal cultures. The capability of UHR-OCM to visualize cells in neural tissue was confirmed by comparison of UHR-OCM images with confocal immunostained images of the same cultures. In order to evaluate the progression of neuronal injury, UHR-OCM images were obtained from cultures on 7, 14, 21, and 28 days in vitro (DIVs). In comparison to DIV 7, statistically significant reductions in three-dimensional cell count and culture thickness from UHR-OCM images were observed on subsequent time points. In cultures treated with kynurenic acid, significantly less reduction in cell count and culture thickness was observed compared to the control specimens. These results demonstrate the capability of UHR-OCM to perform rapid, label-free, and nondestructive evaluation of neuronal death in organotypic hippocampal cultures. UHR-OCM, in combination with three-dimensional tissue cultures, can potentially prove to be a promising tool for high-throughput screening of drugs targeting various disorders.

  4. In Vitro Co-Culture Models of Breast Cancer Metastatic Progression towards Bone

    PubMed Central

    Arrigoni, Chiara; Bersini, Simone; Gilardi, Mara; Moretti, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Advanced breast cancer frequently metastasizes to bone through a multistep process involving the detachment of cells from the primary tumor, their intravasation into the bloodstream, adhesion to the endothelium and extravasation into the bone, culminating with the establishment of a vicious cycle causing extensive bone lysis. In recent years, the crosstalk between tumor cells and secondary organs microenvironment is gaining much attention, being indicated as a crucial aspect in all metastatic steps. To investigate the complex interrelation between the tumor and the microenvironment, both in vitro and in vivo models have been exploited. In vitro models have some advantages over in vivo, mainly the possibility to thoroughly dissect in controlled conditions and with only human cells the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the metastatic progression. In this article we will review the main results deriving from in vitro co-culture models, describing mechanisms activated in the crosstalk between breast cancer and bone cells which drive the different metastatic steps. PMID:27571063

  5. Do committees ru(i)n the bio-political culture? On the democratic legitimacy of bioethics committees.

    PubMed

    Friele, Minou Bernadette

    2003-08-01

    Bioethical and bio-political questions are increasingly tackled by committees, councils, and other advisory boards that work on different and often interrelated levels. Research ethics committees work on an institutional or clinical level; local advisory boards deal with biomedical topics on the level of particular political regions; national and international political advisory boards try to answer questions about morally problematic political decisions in medical research and practice. In accordance with the increasing number and importance of committees, the quality of their work and their functional status are being subjected to more and more scrutiny. Besides overall criticism regarding the quality of their work, particular committees giving political advice are often suspected of being incompatible with democratic values, such as respect for affected parties, representation of diverse values and transparency in the decision-making processes. Based on the example of the German National Ethics Council, whose inauguration caused a still ongoing debate on the aims and scopes of committees in general, this paper discusses: (1) the requirements of modern democratic societies in dealing with complex scientific-technical problems; (2) the composition and organisation of committees working as political advisory boards; and (3) the appointment procedures and roles of laymen and experts, and here in particular of ethicists, who may legitimately be taken on by a committee. I will argue that bioethics committees do not necessarily endanger democratic values, but can considerably improve their realisation in democratic decision-making procedures--if, and only if, they do not act as substitutes for parliamentarian processes, but help prepare parliamentarian processes to be organised as rationally as possible.

  6. "Second class loss": political culture as a recovery barrier--the families of terrorist casualties' struggle for national honors, recognition, and belonging.

    PubMed

    Lebel, Udi

    2014-01-01

    Israeli families of terrorist victims have undertaken initiatives to include their dearest in the national pantheon. The objections opposed the penetration of "second-class loss" into the symbolic closure of heroic national bereavement. The "hierarchy of bereavement" is examined through the lens of political culture organized around the veneration held for the army fallen and their families, which has symbolic as well as rehabilitative outcomes. Families of civilian terror victims claims for similar status and treatment had to frame their loss as national in the eyes of the social policy. The article claimed linkage between collective memory and rehabilitation.

  7. Pedagogical and Political Encounters in Linguistically and Culturally Diverse Primary Classrooms: Examples from Quebec, Canada, and Gauteng, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breton-Carbonneau, Gabrielle; Cleghorn, Ailie; Evans, Rinelle; Pesco, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Comparative research in multilingual urban primary schools indicates that the pedagogical and political goals of schooling may operate at cross-purposes. Classroom observations and teacher interview-discussions were conducted in classes for immigrant children in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, where the language of instruction is French, and in classes…

  8. "Race" and Early Childhood Education: An International Approach to Identity, Politics, and Pedagogy. Critical Cultural Studies of Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mac Naughton, Glenda, Ed.; Davis, Karina, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This book explores the prominence of "race" in the lives of young children and their early childhood educators. It critiques the often presumed racial innocence of young children and shows instead how young children actively engage with the politics of race as they form their own identities. It challenges early childhood educators to engage with…

  9. Ethnicity and Nonelectoral Political Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrinkle, Robert D.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes data from the Latino National Political Survey to examine whether nonelectoral political participation by Latino subgroups (Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Cuban Americans) can be explained on the basis of culture, socioeconomic status, or mobilization (political activism). Mobilization offered the strongest explanation for…

  10. The Winds of Change Revisited: Progress Towards Building a Culture of Evidence-Based Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, Robert J.; McCann, Ann L.; Schneiderman, Emet D.; Dechow, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    In 2008, Texas A&M University Baylor College of Dentistry launched a comprehensive four-year curriculum in evidence-based dentistry (EBD) along with a series of faculty development initiatives to create an EBD culture. The aim of this study was to determine the institution's success in achieving this goal. The assessment tool used was the PEAK instrument, which measures respondents’ EBD Practices, Experience, Attitudes, and Knowledge. Two EBD-trained classes of students and one class untrained in EBD (approximately 100 students in each class) were assessed annually. The faculty were assessed before and after completion of the initiative. Nearly all students responded, with samples ranging from 87 to 102; the faculty response rates were 53% (62/117) in 2009 and 66% in 2013 (81/123). In the results, the trained students scored significantly higher in knowledge than the untrained students at each of the first three PEAK administrations (p≤0.001). Regarding confidence in appraising a research report, the first trained group significantly gained in appropriate use of statistical tests (p<0.001), while the second trained group significantly gained in this aspect and five others (p≤0.032). At the final PEAK administration, the second trained group agreed more than the untrained group that EBD was important for the practice of dentistry (p<0.001). Faculty comfort level with reading peer-reviewed articles increased significantly from 2009 to 2013 (p=0.039). Faculty members who participated in the summer EBD Fundamentals course (n=28) had significantly higher EBD knowledge scores than those who did not participate (p=0.013), and their EBD attitudes and practices were more positive (p<0.05). Students and faculty trained in EBD were more knowledgeable and exhibited more positive attitudes, supporting a conclusion that the college has made substantial progress towards achieving an EBD culture. PMID:25941143

  11. The winds of change revisited: progress towards building a culture of evidence-based dentistry.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Robert J; McCann, Ann L; Schneiderman, Emet D; Dechow, Paul C

    2015-05-01

    In 2008, Texas A&M University Baylor College of Dentistry launched a comprehensive four-year curriculum in evidence-based dentistry (EBD) along with a series of faculty development initiatives to create an EBD culture. The aim of this study was to determine the institution's success in achieving this goal. The assessment tool used was the PEAK instrument, which measures respondents' EBD Practices, Experience, Attitudes, and Knowledge. Two EBD-trained classes of students and one class untrained in EBD (approximately 100 students in each class) were assessed annually. The faculty were assessed before and after completion of the initiative. Nearly all students responded, with samples ranging from 87 to 102; the faculty response rates were 53% (62/117) in 2009 and 66% in 2013 (81/123). In the results, the trained students scored significantly higher in knowledge than the untrained students at each of the first three PEAK administrations (p≤0.001). Regarding confidence in appraising a research report, the first trained group significantly gained in appropriate use of statistical tests (p<0.001), while the second trained group significantly gained in this aspect and five others (p≤0.032). At the final PEAK administration, the second trained group agreed more than the untrained group that EBD was important for the practice of dentistry (p<0.001). Faculty comfort level with reading peer-reviewed articles increased significantly from 2009 to 2013 (p=0.039). Faculty members who participated in the summer EBD Fundamentals course (n=28) had significantly higher EBD knowledge scores than those who did not participate (p=0.013), and their EBD attitudes and practices were more positive (p<0.05). Students and faculty trained in EBD were more knowledgeable and exhibited more positive attitudes, supporting a conclusion that the college has made substantial progress towards achieving an EBD culture.

  12. Business Culture and the Death of Public Education: Mayor Bloomberg, David Steiner, and the Politics of Corporate "Leadership"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Henry A.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a case study of how a business culture imposes modes of educational leadership on a public school system in New York City that has little if any concerns for empowering children, teachers, and the communities. The article provides a counter-narrative that serves to dispel the notion that the culture of educational empowerment…

  13. Transformational leadership, transnational culture and political competence in globalizing health care services: a case study of Jordan's King Hussein Cancer Center

    PubMed Central

    Moe, Jeffrey L; Pappas, Gregory; Murray, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Background Following the demise of Jordan's King Hussein bin Talal to cancer in 1999, the country's Al-Amal Center was transformed from a poorly perceived and ineffectual cancer care institution into a Western-style comprehensive cancer center. Renamed King Hussein Cancer Center (KHCC), it achieved improved levels of quality, expanded cancer care services and achieved Joint Commission International accreditation under new leadership over a three-year period (2002–2005). Methods An exploratory case research method was used to explain the rapid change to international standards. Sources including personal interviews, document review and on-site observations were combined to conduct a robust examination of KHCC's rapid changes. Results The changes which occurred at the KHCC during its formation and leading up to its Joint Commission International (JCI) accreditation can be understood within the conceptual frame of the transformational leadership model. Interviewees and other sources for the case study suggest the use of inspirational motivation, idealized influence, individualized consideration and intellectual stimulation, four factors in the transformational leadership model, had significant impact upon the attitudes and motivation of staff within KHCC. Changes in the institution were achieved through increased motivation and positive attitudes toward the use of JCI continuous improvement processes as well as increased professional training. The case study suggests the role of culture and political sensitivity needs re-definition and expansion within the transformational leadership model to adequately explain leadership in the context of globalizing health care services, specifically when governments are involved in the change initiative. Conclusion The KHCC case underscores the utility of the transformational leadership model in an international health care context. To understand leadership in globalizing health care services, KHCC suggests culture is broader

  14. [Medical politics. Graffiti].

    PubMed

    Fugelli, P

    1991-03-20

    If doctors want to play a role in future health promotion, they have to leave their citadel, and come closer to life and society. Modern preventive medicine cannot be dissociated from basic political, cultural and religious values and processes. Genetic counseling and engineering, influencing lifestyle, community intervention and changing the health culture among patients and doctors all require ethical and political competence rather than traditional medical skills. The author advocates the development of a new discipline, medical politics, with two major commitments: -To define basic health rights -To study the public health consequences of political systems and decisions. In a polemic and provocative style the article enlightens the potentials and dangers associated with an expanded concept of preventive medicine.

  15. Cultures of categories: Psychological diagnoses as institutional and political projects before and after the transition from state socialism in 1989 in East Germany.

    PubMed

    Leuenberger, Christine

    2007-01-01

    How can psychological categories be understood as historical, political, and cultural artifacts? How are such categories maintained by individuals, organizations, and governments? How do macrosocietal changes-such as the transition from state socialism in East Germany in 1989-correlate with changes in the social and organizational structures that maintain psychological categories? This essay focuses on how--pre-1989--the category of neurosis (as a mental disorder) became entwined with East Germany's grand socialist project of creating new socialist personalities, a new society, and a new science and on how diagnostic preferences were adapted, modified, and extended by local cultural and institutional practices. It also examines how post-1989 the category of neurosis became redefined in accord with a formerly West German psychotherapeutic paradigm and was eventually obliterated by the bureaucratic health care system of the new Germany. East German practitioners adopted new therapeutic guidelines and a new language to make sense of the "normal", "neurotic", and "pathological" self in terms of "individualizing forms of knowledge" that tied in with efforts to remake East German citizens as liberal democratic subjects. At the same time, practitioners' clinical practice remained based upon face-to-face encounters in which formal guidelines and stipulations were often superseded by local, interactional, institutional, and cultural practices and contingencies.

  16. The bid, the lead-up, the event and the legacy: global cultural politics and hosting the Olympics.

    PubMed

    Rowe, David

    2012-06-01

    Hosting mega sport events, especially the Olympics, demands an extensive engagement with global civil society given the voluntary, highly mediated exposure of host cities and nations to the world. The philosophy of Olympism requires ethical authority in demonstrating 'fitness' to host the Games, so demanding intensive strategic image management. Offensive and defensive mobilization of image-dependent 'species of power' in the field of sport (in a Bourdieusian sense) in conducting 'wars of position and movement' (following Gramsci) within global civil society are, then, crucial features of competitive manoeuvres around staging major sport events. The main empirical focus of this article is on the case of the Sydney 2000 ('Millennial') Games, in illustrating the socio-political dynamics of bidding and hosting in the context of a major civil societal matter of concern - Australia's continuing failure to achieve reconciliation with, and equality for, its indigenous peoples. Ironically, though, it was in the domain of human rights that Sydney had an advantage over its closest competitor in the 1993 bidding process - China. The strategies deployed to secure the consent of Australian Aborigines to the Games are addressed in analysing the means by which the Sydney 2000 Games avoided major disruption and international criticism. A second, briefer case analysis is then presented of the disputation concerning Beijing's successful bid for the 2008 Olympics, which saw them influentially described by one (US) political activist as the 'Genocide Games' and the subject of international protests surrounding the Torch Relay. It is concluded that the contrasting levels of public, mediated discord in these two Olympiads in which human rights were key issues related, significantly though not exclusively, to the Chinese authorities' difficulties in 'winning consent' through strategic incorporation of the most conspicuous, non-state oppositional forces within Western-dominated global

  17. The Egyptian Press: An Historical View of Its Importance in Political Movements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, John

    This report traces the development of the Egyptian press, from its origin with the arrival of the first printing press in 1789 to the present free press policies of Anwar Sadat. Because political struggle and social reform have accompanied the educational and cultural progress of Egypt, the news publications have traditionally been utilitarian.…

  18. Beyond Comfort Zones in Multiculturalism. Confronting the Politics of Privilege. Critical Studies in Education and Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Sandra, Ed.; Solis, Jose, Ed.

    Demystifying some of the implications of multiculturalism might allow the opportunity to ground the field in the basic exercise of cultural affirmation, self-determination. Contributors to this book affirm that self-determination and moving beyond the comfort zones to which multiculturalism has advanced are essential to seeing multiculturalism as…

  19. Office Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storm, Paula; Kelly, Robert; deVries, Susann

    2008-01-01

    People and organizations are inherently political. Library workplace environments have zones of tension and dynamics just like any corporation, often leading to the formation of political camps. These different cliques influence productivity and work-related issues and, at worst, give meetings the feel of the Camp David negotiations. Politics are…

  20. Creating an Assessment Culture at Eastern Michigan University: A Decade of Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennion, Donald H.; Harris, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Fostering a culture of assessment is extremely challenging work. In this article, the authors show how Eastern Michigan University (EMU) has approached this challenge and how the authors' experience can help others who are struggling with the same issue. An effective and self-reinforcing assessment culture cannot be established overnight but…

  1. Investigating the Effects of Culturally Relevant Texts on African American Struggling Readers' Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Kathleen F.

    2017-01-01

    Background/Context: In a recent review of culturally relevant instruction and reading comprehension, Fairbanks, Cooper, Masterson, and Webb (2009) highlighted the paucity of research available to support the widespread claim in the literacy field that "students' social and cultural practices are deeply intertwined with literacy learning"…

  2. Embryo culture in teratological surveillance and serum proteins in development. Progress report, 1981-1982

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, N.W.

    1982-08-01

    Major efforts have focused on three areas: the teratogenic effects of anticonvulsants and thalidomide in monkeys and rats; the teratogenic risks of occupational and environmental exposures as well as cigarette smoke on rat embryo cultures; and the use of rat embryo cultures to detect teratological and reproductive risks. (ERB)

  3. Some trade-offs: culture, education, and economic progress on Federal Indian reservations

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, S.; Tweeten, L.

    1981-04-01

    Federal policies have not been consistent about whether to assimilate American Indians into the larger culture or whether to preserve the reservations. Single-equation, eight-variable regression models are developed to analyze per-capita income and labor-force participation on the reservation. The variables include educational levels, retention of Indian culture, the ratio of tribal to government employees on the reservation, the percentage of labor in agriculture relative to professional jobs, home ownership, automobile ownership, and marriage. A trade-off between education and culture retention is shown for both models in relation to income level. Indian residents who remain on reservations accept lower incomes in order to retain their culture, although continued government investment in reservation programs will raise per-capita income. Educational programs that emphasize traditional culture and cognitive skills can offset the trade-off dilemma of economic development. (DCK)

  4. Chondrogenesis of embryonic limb bud cells in micromass culture progresses rapidly to hypertrophy and is modulated by hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Saha, Anurati; Rolfe, Rebecca; Carroll, Simon; Kelly, Daniel J; Murphy, Paula

    2017-04-01

    Chondrogenesis in vivo is precisely controlled in time and space. The entire limb skeleton forms from cells at the core of the early limb bud that condense and undergo chondrogenic differentiation. Whether they form stable cartilage at the articular surface of the joint or transient cartilage that progresses to hypertrophy as endochondral bone, replacing the cartilage template of the skeletal rudiment, is spatially controlled over several days in the embryo. Here, we follow the differentiation of cells taken from the early limb bud (embryonic day 11.5), grown in high-density micromass culture and show that a self-organising pattern of evenly spaced cartilage nodules occurs spontaneously in growth medium. Although chondrogenesis is enhanced by addition of BMP6 to the medium, the spatial pattern of nodule formation is disrupted. We show rapid progression of the entire nodule to hypertrophy in culture and therefore loss of the local signals required to direct formation of stable cartilage. Dynamic hydrostatic pressure, which we have previously predicted to be a feature of the forming embryonic joint region, had a stabilising effect on chondrogenesis, reducing expression of hypertrophic marker genes. This demonstrates the use of micromass culture as a relatively simple assay to compare the effect of both biophysical and molecular signals on spatial and temporal control of chondrogenesis that could be used to examine the response of different types of progenitor cell, both adult- and embryo-derived.

  5. High CD49f expression is associated with osteosarcoma tumor progression: a study using patient-derived primary cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Penfornis, Patrice; Cai, David Z; Harris, Michael R; Walker, Ryan; Licini, David; Fernandes, Joseph D A; Orr, Griffin; Koganti, Tejaswi; Hicks, Chindo; Induru, Spandana; Meyer, Mark S; Khokha, Rama; Barr, Jennifer; Pochampally, Radhika R

    2014-01-01

    Overall prognosis for osteosarcoma (OS) is poor despite aggressive treatment options. Limited access to primary tumors, technical challenges in processing OS tissues, and the lack of well-characterized primary cell cultures has hindered our ability to fully understand the properties of OS tumor initiation and progression. In this study, we have isolated and characterized cell cultures derived from four central high-grade human OS samples. Furthermore, we used the cell cultures to study the role of CD49f in OS progression. Recent studies have implicated CD49f in stemness and multipotency of both cancer stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells. Therefore, we investigated the role of CD49f in osteosarcomagenesis. First, single cell suspensions of tumor biopsies were subcultured and characterized for cell surface marker expression. Next, we characterized the growth and differentiation properties, sensitivity to chemotherapy drugs, and anchorage-independent growth. Xenograft assays showed that cell populations expressing CD49fhi/CD90lo cell phenotype produced an aggressive tumor. Multiple lines of evidence demonstrated that inhibiting CD49f decreased the tumor-forming ability. Furthermore, the CD49fhi/CD90lo cell population is generating more aggressive OS tumor growth and indicating this cell surface marker could be a potential candidate for the isolation of an aggressive cell type in OSs. PMID:24802970

  6. Women, Politics, Elections, and Citizenship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Gerald R.

    2000-01-01

    Outlines the historical development of women's legal and political status in the United States, focusing on suffrage, the three "waves" of women's movements, and access to elected office. Discusses three impediments of electing women candidates to public office: (1) solidarity; (2) political culture; and (3) the impact of the single-member…

  7. [Political psychology].

    PubMed

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  8. ROCK inhibition with Y27632 promotes the proliferation and cell cycle progression of cultured astrocyte from spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhiyuan; Liu, Miao; Fu, Peicai; Xie, Minjie; Wang, Wei; Luo, Xiang

    2012-12-01

    Rho-associated Kinase (ROCK) has been identified as an important regulator of proliferation and cell cycle progression in a number of cell types. Although its effects on astrocyte proliferation have not been well characterized, ROCK has been reported to play important roles in gap junction formation, morphology, and migration of astrocytes. In the present study, our aim was to investigate the effect of ROCK inhibition by [(+)-(R)-trans-4-(1-aminoethyl)-N-(4-pyridyl) cyclohexanecarboxamide dihydrochloride] (Y27632) on proliferation and DNA synthesis in cultured astrocytes from rat spinal cord and the possible mechanism involved. Western blots showed that treatment of astrocytes with Y27632 increased their expression of cyclin D1, CDK4, and cyclin E, thereby causing cell cycle progression. Furthermore, Y27632-induced astrocyte proliferation was mediated through the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase signaling cascade. These results indicate the importance of ROCK in astrocyte proliferation.

  9. Islam and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forte, David F.

    1984-01-01

    Law is central to Islamic civilization. The classical law (the Shari'a) is the standard by which political action is measured. The history of the Shari'a and how it has influenced the world view and the cultural identity of Arab countries are examined. (RM)

  10. Prejudice and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Charles P.; Felknor, Bruce L.

    This monograph, written in 1960, examines the part prejudice played in politics throughout our national history. Part I of the monograph discusses "The Colonial Era." The immigrants that populated the new nation brought with them varied cultural heritages and different religious faiths. Soon the colonial pattern of religious prejudice reflected…

  11. The ART of studying early embryo development: progress and challenges in ruminant embryo culture.

    PubMed

    Lonergan, Pat; Fair, Trudee

    2014-01-01

    The study of preimplantation mammalian embryo development is challenging due to difficulties in accessing in vivo-derived embryos in large numbers at the early stages and the inability to culture embryos in vitro much beyond the blastocyst stage. Nonetheless, embryos exhibit an amazing plasticity and tolerance when it comes to adapting to the environment in which they are cultured. They are capable of developing in media ranging in composition from simple balanced salt solutions to complex systems involving serum and somatic cells. At least a proportion of the blastocysts that develop in culture are developmentally competent as evidenced by the fact that live offspring have resulted following transfer. However, several studies using animal models have shown that such embryos are sensitive to environmental conditions that can affect future pre- and post-natal growth and developmental potential. This review summarises some key aspects of early embryo development and the approaches taken to study this important window in early life.

  12. Recent Progress in the Diagnosis of Pathogenic Candida Species in Blood Culture.

    PubMed

    Phoompoung, Pakpoom; Chayakulkeeree, Methee

    2016-06-01

    Candidemia has become an emerging invasive fungal disease. Prompt treatment with appropriate antifungal agent is crucial to reduce the mortality of candidemia. The conventional blood culture method, which is considered the gold standard for candidemia diagnosis, has a low sensitivity and is time-consuming to perform. Recently, several novel advanced diagnostic methods that have a higher sensitivity and a shorter turnaround time than the conventional blood culture method have been developed for the early detection of Candida in blood samples or in blood culture broth. Most of these newer methods were developed using various molecular techniques, such as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization, and a number of DNA-based techniques including in-house and commercial polymerase chain reactions. In this article, we review and summarize the novel molecular methods that have been recently used for the detection and identification of Candida organisms in blood specimens.

  13. A Critical Review of Prominent Theories of Politeness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Duleimi, Hutheifa Y.; Rashid, Sabariah Md.; Abdullah, Ain Nadzimah

    2016-01-01

    Politeness plays a crucial role in all cultures and societies for maintaining relationships and for face saving. Although politeness is common to all cultures and languages, how it functions and is realised varies from one culture to another. Different theories have been proposed to examine the strategies with which politeness is expressed. Each…

  14. Recent Progress in Endothelial Progenitor Cell Culture Systems: Potential for Stroke Therapy

    PubMed Central

    TAKIZAWA, Shunya; NAGATA, Eiichiro; NAKAYAMA, Taira; MASUDA, Haruchika; ASAHARA, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) participate in endothelial repair and angiogenesis due to their abilities to differentiate into endothelial cells and to secrete protective cytokines and growth factors. Consequently, there is considerable interest in cell therapy with EPCs isolated from peripheral blood to treat various ischemic injuries. Quality and quantity-controlled culture systems to obtain mononuclear cells enriched in EPCs with well-defined angiogenic and anti-inflammatory phenotypes have recently been developed, and increasing evidence from animal models and clinical trials supports the idea that transplantation of EPCs contributes to the regenerative process in ischemic organs and is effective for the therapy of ischemic cerebral injury. Here, we briefly describe the general characteristics of EPCs, and we review recent developments in culture systems and applications of EPCs and EPC-enriched cell populations to treat ischemic stroke. PMID:27041632

  15. Genetic recombination in mammalian cells in culture. Progress report, August 1, 1981-July 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Morse, M L

    1982-09-01

    A glycine requiring hybrid, synthesized from two independent glycine requiring non-complementary mutants, was examined for its ability to produce glycine independent progeny spontaneously. The hybrid produced glycine independent progeny at a rate two orders of magnitude above the spontaneous mutation rate of either parent culture. Karyotype analysis of the progeny indicated a high incidence of rearrangement in one chromosome accompanying the change to glycine independence. These observations are compatible with a recombination process.

  16. Political Culture versus Socioeconomic Approaches to Predicting Police Strength in U.S. Police Agencies: Results of a Longitudinal Study, 1993 to 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Jihong; Ren, Ling; Lovrich, Nicholas P.

    2012-01-01

    A variety of theories have emerged that offer plausible explanations, one from the political institutional perspective and others from sociological perspective. There has been renewed interest in the effect of local political structure on police strength in the policing literature. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to assess the two main…

  17. Political News and Political Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schertges, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with mass media in modern democratic societies, using the example of Israeli news reports in German television (TV) news. Central to this interest are processes of mediating politics: political socialisation and education; that is to say, empowering citizens via TV news to participate in democratic processes. The article…

  18. Towards Social Progress and Post-Imperial Modernity? Colonial Politics of Literacy in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, 1946-1956

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seri-Hersch, Iris

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the politics of literacy in late colonial Sudan. Drawing upon hitherto untapped archival sources in English and Arabic, it focuses on two key questions: What were the purposes and uses of literacy in the eyes of colonial authorities? What means were used to spread literacy skills among Sudanese people? Positioning these…

  19. Inhabiting Latino Politics: How Colleges Shape Students' Political Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Daisy Verduzco

    2015-01-01

    To comply with ideals of multiculturalism and diversity, postsecondary institutions incorporate Latino students into distinct campus cultures. These cultures influence how students interact with one another, the university community at large, and communities outside of campus, ultimately shaping how students inhabit Latino politics. Drawing on…

  20. Community and the Politics of Place.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemmis, Daniel

    The preamble to Montana's constitution, which expresses gratitude for Montana's landscape, reflects an understanding that the political culture of a place is not something apart from the place itself. By the same token, the strengthening of political culture must take place and must be studied in the context of very specific places and the people…

  1. Stem cell properties in cell cultures from different stage of melanoma progression.

    PubMed

    Magnoni, Cristina; Giudice, Stefania; Pellacani, Giovanni; Bertazzoni, Giorgia; Longo, Caterina; Veratti, Eugenia; Morini, Daria; Benassi, Luisa; Vaschieri, Cristina; Azzoni, Paola; De Pol, Anto; Seidenari, Stefania; Tomasi, Aldo; Pollio, Annamaria; Ponti, Giovanni

    2014-03-01

    Cutaneous melanoma is an extremely heterogenous human cancer. The most aggressive melanoma may contain deregulated cells with undifferentiated/stem cell-like phenotype. A critical mechanism by which melanoma cells enhance their invasive capacity is the dissolution of the intercellular adhesion and the acquisition of mesenchymal features as a part of an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. The aim of this study was to clarify the role of a stem cell-like population in human melanomas by means of melanocytic cell culture analysis obtained from distinct histotypes of primary and metastatic malignant melanoma. Patients with advanced melanoma >2 cm in diameter and/or >300 mm surface were enrolled. The melanoma cells were isolated from skin biopsies of lentigo maligna melanoma, superficial spreading melanoma, nodular melanoma, and metastatic melanoma. The colony forming unit assay and alkaline phosphatase stain were evaluated. Cells were subsequently cultured and maintained in different media to evaluate their ability to differentiate into osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. Immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry analysis were performed to evaluate antigenic markers CD90, CD73, CD105, CD146, CD20, CD166, and Nestin. This study confirms that melanoma can include heterogenous cell populations with the ability both to self-renew and to a give rise to differentiated progeny. Melanoma cells displayed intratumoral heterogeneity and dynamic antigen phenotypes. Histologically, transitions from normal skin to melanoma were associated with a gradual increase in the expression of CD146, CD20, CD133, Nestin, and CD73. These molecular profiles could be further analyzed and, in the future, used for the development of novel biomolecular targeted-therapy approaches.

  2. The U.S. Culture Collection Network Lays the Foundation for Progress in Preservation of Valuable Microbial Resources.

    PubMed

    McCluskey, Kevin; Alvarez, Anne; Bennett, Rick; Bokati, Deepak; Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Brown, Daniel; Bull, Carolee T; Coffey, Michael; Dreaden, Tyler; Duke, Clifford; Dye, Greg; Ehmke, Erin; Eversole, Kellye; Fenstermacher, Kristi; Geiser, David; Glaeser, Jessie A; Greene, Stephanie; Gribble, Lisa; Griffith, M Patrick; Hanser, Kathryn; Humber, Richard; Johnson, Barbara W; Kermode, Anthony; Krichevsky, Micah; Laudon, Matt; Leach, Jan; Leslie, John; May, Meghan; Melcher, Ulrich; Nobles, David; Fonseca, Natalia Risso; Robinson, Sara; Ryan, Matthew; Scott, James; Silflow, Carolyn; Vidaver, Anne; Webb, Kimberly M; Wertz, John E; Yentsch, Sara; Zehr, Sarah

    2016-06-01

    The U.S. Culture Collection Network was formed in 2012 by a group of culture collection scientists and stakeholders in order to continue the progress established previously through efforts of an ad hoc group. The network is supported by a Research Coordination Network grant from the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) and has the goals of promoting interaction among collections, encouraging the adoption of best practices, and protecting endangered or orphaned collections. After prior meetings to discuss best practices, shared data, and synergy with genome programs, the network held a meeting at the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation (NCGRP) in Fort Collins, Colorado in October 2015 specifically to discuss collections that are vulnerable because of changes in funding programs, or are at risk of loss because of retirement or lack of funding. The meeting allowed collection curators who had already backed up their resources at the USDA NCGRP to visit the site, and brought collection owners, managers, and stakeholders together. Eight formal collections have established off-site backups with the USDA-ARS, ensuring that key material will be preserved for future research. All of the collections with backup at the NCGRP are public distributing collections including U.S. NSF-supported genetic stock centers, USDA-ARS collections, and university-supported collections. Facing the retirement of several pioneering researchers, the community discussed the value of preserving personal research collections and agreed that a mechanism to preserve these valuable collections was essential to any future national culture collection system. Additional input from curators of plant and animal collections emphasized that collections of every kind face similar challenges in developing long-range plans for sustainability.

  3. Political Warfare and Contentious Politics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    The upper- right quadrant of the PW spectrum represents direct, covert actions. Covert political warfare is any action that can be attributed to a...15 3. Covert, Indirect Actions The lower- right quadrant represents covert, indirect political warfare actions. Indirect PW is conducted through an... life . From those identities, social ties and organizational forms emerge both the collective claims that people make and the means they have for making

  4. Estrogen inhibits cell cycle progression and retinoblastoma phosphorylation in rhesus ovarian surface epithelial cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Jay W.; Stouffer, Richard L.; Rodland, Karin D.

    2003-10-31

    Estrogen promotes the growth of some ovarian cancer cells at nanomolar concentrations, but has been shown to inhibit growth of normal ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells at micromolar concentrations (1μg/ml). OSE cells express the estrogen receptor (ER)-α, and are the source of 90% of various cancers. The potential sensitivity of OSE cells to estrogen stresses the importance of understanding the estrogen-dependent mechanisms at play in OSE proliferation and transformation, as well as in anticancer treatment. We investigated the effects of estradiol on cell proliferation in vitro, and demonstrate an intracellular locus of action of estradiol in cultured rhesus ovarian surface epithelial (RhOSE) cells. We show that ovarian and breast cells are growth-inhibited by micromolar concentration of estradiol and that this inhibition correlates with estrogen receptor expression. We further show that normal rhesus OSE cells do not activate ERK or Akt in response to estradiol nor does estradiol block the ability of serum to stimulate ERK or induce cyclin D expression. Contrarily, estradiol inhibits serum-dependent retinoblastoma protein (Rb) phosphorylation and blocks DNA synthesis. This inhibition does not formally arrest cells and is reversible within hours of estrogen withdrawal. Our data are consistent with growth inhibition by activation of Rb and indicate that sensitivity to hormone therapy in anticancer treatment can be modulated by cell cycle regulators downstream of the estrogen receptor.

  5. Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    Twelve conference papers on cultural aspects of second language instruction include: "Towards True Multiculturalism: Ideas for Teachers" (Brian McVeigh); Comparing Cultures Through Critical Thinking: Development and Interpretations of Meaningful Observations" (Laurel D. Kamada); "Authority and Individualism in Japan and the…

  6. How Internal Political Efficacy Translates Political Knowledge Into Political Participation

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This study presents evidence for the mediation effect of political knowledge through political self-efficacy (i.e. internal political efficacy) in the prediction of political participation. It employs an action theoretic approach—by and large grounded on the Theory of Planned Behaviour—and uses data from the German Longitudinal Election Study to examine whether political knowledge has distinct direct effects on voting, conventional, and/or unconventional political participation. It argues that political knowledge raises internal political efficacy and thereby indirectly increases the chance that a citizen will participate in politics. The results of mediated multiple regression analyses yield evidence that political knowledge indeed translates into internal political efficacy, thus it affects political participation of various kinds indirectly. However, internal political efficacy and intentions to participate politically yield simultaneous direct effects only on conventional political participation. Sequentially mediated effects appear for voting and conventional political participation, with political knowledge being mediated by internal political efficacy and subsequently also by behavioural intentions. The mediation patterns for unconventional political participation are less clear though. The discussion accounts for restrictions of this study and points to questions for answer by future research. PMID:27298633

  7. Effect of diet on ability of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (VEGFA) isoforms to alter follicular progression in bovine ovarian cortical cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of changes in diet on ability of VEGFA isoforms to alter follicle progression in bovine ovarian cortex cultures. Our hypothesis was that diet would affect the magnitude of VEGFA isoform actions on follicular development. Heifers (n = 30) receiv...

  8. 18α-Glycyrrhetinic Acid Proteasome Activator Decelerates Aging and Alzheimer's Disease Progression in Caenorhabditis elegans and Neuronal Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Papaevgeniou, Nikoletta; Sakellari, Marianthi; Jha, Sweta; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Holmberg, Carina I.; Gonos, Efstathios S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Proteasomes are constituents of the cellular proteolytic networks that maintain protein homeostasis through regulated proteolysis of normal and abnormal (in any way) proteins. Genetically mediated proteasome activation in multicellular organisms has been shown to promote longevity and to exert protein antiaggregation activity. In this study, we investigate whether compound-mediated proteasome activation is feasible in a multicellular organism and we dissect the effects of such approach in aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression. Results: Feeding of wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans with 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid (18α-GA; a previously shown proteasome activator in cell culture) results in enhanced levels of proteasome activities that lead to a skinhead-1- and proteasome activation-dependent life span extension. The elevated proteasome function confers lower paralysis rates in various AD nematode models accompanied by decreased Aβ deposits, thus ultimately decelerating the progression of AD phenotype. More importantly, similar positive results are also delivered when human and murine cells of nervous origin are subjected to 18α-GA treatment. Innovation: This is the first report of the use of 18α-GA, a diet-derived compound as prolongevity and antiaggregation factor in the context of a multicellular organism. Conclusion: Our results suggest that proteasome activation with downstream positive outcomes on aging and AD, an aggregation-related disease, is feasible in a nongenetic manipulation manner in a multicellular organism. Moreover, they unveil the need for identification of antiaging and antiamyloidogenic compounds among the nutrients found in our normal diet. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 25, 855–869. PMID:26886723

  9. Politics 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslow, Abraham

    1977-01-01

    This article expresses some last thoughts from Abraham Maslow on his vision of humanistic psychology. He suggests that the two main problems of creating the good person and the good society are interwoven inextricably. He gives some social and political mechanisms which would enhance desirable personal growth and considers the main tasks of…

  10. Political bugs.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    Certain decisions, problems, and successes are selected to recall the great impact of the 1950s on the history of rocketry, and particularly the inauguration of the space age. In reviewing the history of the Redstone, Juno, and Jupiter, some of the largest stepping stones to space, problems stand out in three areas: technical or engineering, management, and political.

  11. Protein Expression Differences of 2-Dimensional and Progressive 3-Dimensional Cell Cultures of Non-Small-Cell-Lung-Cancer Cell Line H460.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Maddaly; Mohan, Divya K; Sahu, Bellona

    2016-11-18

    Non-small-cell-lung-cancer (NSCLC) constitutes about 75-80% of lung cancers. The challenge to tackle cancers is in early diagnosis and arriving at safer therapeutic options. In vitro studies using cancer cell lines continue to contribute significantly in understanding cancers. Cell culture methods have evolved and the recent developments in 3 dimensional (3D) cell cultures are inducing greater resemblance of the in vitro cultured cells with in vivo conditions. In this study, we established 3D aggregates of H460 cell line on agarose hydrogels and studied the protein expression differences among cells grown as monolayers (2D) and the progressively developing 3D aggregates from days 2 to 10. Analysis included matching of those proteins expressed by the developing aggregates and the available literature on progressing tumors in vivo. J. Cell. Biochem. 9999: 1-5, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Culture contre Universite (Culture against University).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fumaroli, Marc

    1992-01-01

    France's cultural policy since the 1950s is criticized as having more of a leisure and recreational focus than being truly encouraging of French culture and intellect. Politics and economics are seen as inappropriate policy motivators. (MSE)

  13. Mapping methyl jasmonate-mediated transcriptional reprogramming of metabolism and cell cycle progression in cultured Arabidopsis cells

    PubMed Central

    Pauwels, Laurens; Morreel, Kris; De Witte, Emilie; Lammertyn, Freya; Van Montagu, Marc; Boerjan, Wout; Inzé, Dirk; Goossens, Alain

    2008-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are plant-specific signaling molecules that steer a diverse set of physiological and developmental processes. Pathogen attack and wounding inflicted by herbivores induce the biosynthesis of these hormones, triggering defense responses both locally and systemically. We report on alterations in the transcriptome of a fast-dividing cell culture of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana after exogenous application of methyl JA (MeJA). Early MeJA response genes encoded the JA biosynthesis pathway proteins and key regulators of MeJA responses, including most JA ZIM domain proteins and MYC2, together with transcriptional regulators with potential, but yet unknown, functions in MeJA signaling. In a second transcriptional wave, MeJA reprogrammed cellular metabolism and cell cycle progression. Up-regulation of the monolignol biosynthesis gene set resulted in an increased production of monolignols and oligolignols, the building blocks of lignin. Simultaneously, MeJA repressed activation of M-phase genes, arresting the cell cycle in G2. MeJA-responsive transcription factors were screened for their involvement in early signaling events, in particular the regulation of JA biosynthesis. Parallel screens based on yeast one-hybrid and transient transactivation assays identified both positive (MYC2 and the AP2/ERF factor ORA47) and negative (the C2H2 Zn finger proteins STZ/ZAT10 and AZF2) regulators, revealing a complex control of the JA autoregulatory loop and possibly other MeJA-mediated downstream processes. PMID:18216250

  14. Politics and the Operational Level of War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-19

    Powell’s support, political leaders had limited impact on tactical commanders during the campaign. By doing this, General Schwarzkopf was fulfilling his...Nash’s interaction with political leaders, both U.S. and NATO, continued as operations progressed. As a result, Major General Nash was making...evolving political objectives. As a result, Major General Nash and his command were clearly operating at the operational level of war, despite the fact

  15. Identity Politics, Institutional Response, and Cultural Negotiation: Meanings of a Lesbian/Gay/Bisexual Office on Campus. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talburt, Susan

    This study examined the social and political climate surrounding the opening of a controversial gay/lesbian/bisexual support office at an anonymous midwestern public research university. In addition to analyses of university mission statements, plans, and policies, other "diversity" literature, and campus and local newspapers, fieldwork…

  16. Asian American Interethnic Relations and Politics. Asians in America: The Peoples of East, Southeast, and South Asia in American Life and Culture Series, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Franklin, Ed.

    The articles in this anthology address the complex subject of interethnic relations and Asian American politics, transcending ideas of Asian Americans as the model minority. The articles are: (1) "Opening the American Mind and Body: The Role of Asian American Studies" (Shirley Hume); (2) "Surviving Democracy's 'Mistake":…

  17. The Politics of Political Correctness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minsky, Leonard

    1992-01-01

    This article reacts to President Bush's entry into the dispute over "political correctness" on college campuses. The paper summarizes discussions of students, faculty, and others in the Washington, D.C. area which concluded that this seeming defense of free speech is actually an attack on affirmative action and multiculturalism stemming…

  18. ``Political'' Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berzak Hopkins, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Politics and policy affect all of us, both as scientists and as citizens, and issues ranging from laboratory budgets to arms control treaties clearly require research problem-solving skills and technical expertise. There is a critical role for scientists in each aspect of the political system, and in fact, we as a society need more scientists to take part in politics. Furthermore, the research we pursue has important societal applications and is fascinating! We have a right and a responsibility to share our scientific knowledge not only with each other, but with the general public as well. So, why are we as a community of scientists reticent in the public arena, hesitant to enter politics, and even at times unsupportive of our peers who transition into governmental roles? In this time of fiscal constraint, when difficult research funding (and de-funding) choices are regularly being made, we as scientists must step up to the plate, reach across the aisle, and explain why what we do is fascinating, inspiring, and important, not just to us, but to society as a whole. A range of policy-relevant roles exists inside and outside the laboratory, such as Congressional Fellowships. Each year the Congressional Fellowships program brings together approximately thirty scientists at all stages of their careers to serve as scientific advisors in a variety of offices in the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives. Although the jump from lab to lobbying meetings can be frustrating, the transition can also be intriguing. Firsthand experience with the ``how'' and ``why'' (or lack thereof) of politics and policy is invaluable and provides a unique opportunity to expand and broaden one's background. The opportunity to work on Capitol Hill is unparalleled, particularly because our nation has a definite need for scientists with the inclination and interest to inform and develop policy. But, whatever role you decide to take, from contributing scientific news to local publications to

  19. Comparative State Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Gary H.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a college course dealing with comparative state politics. Students learn about the way in which political scientists employ the study of American state politics as a "laboratory" for the development of scientific explanations of political phenomena. (RM)

  20. Learning progressions from a sociocultural perspective: response to "co-constructing cultural landscapes for disciplinary learning in and out of school: the next generation science standards and learning progressions in action"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tytler, Russell

    2016-10-01

    This article discusses a case for a different, socio-cultural way of looking at learning progressions as treated in the next generation science standards (NGSS) as described by Ralph Cordova and Phyllis Balcerzak's paper "Co-constructing cultural landscapes for disciplinary learning in and out of school: the next generation science standards and learning progressions in action". The paper is interesting for a number of reasons, and in this response I will identify different aspects of the paper and link the points made to my own research, and that of colleagues, as complementary perspectives. First, the way that the science curriculum is conceived as an expanding experience that moves from the classroom into the community, across subjects, and across time, links to theoretical positions on disciplinary literacies and notions of learning as apprenticeship into the discursive tools, or `habits of mind' as the authors put it, that underpin disciplinary practice. Second, the formulation of progression through widening communities of practice is a strong feature of the paper, and shows how children take on the role of scientists through this expanding exposure. I will link this approach to some of our own work with school—community science partnerships, drawing on the construct of boundary crossing to tease out relations between school science and professional practice. Third, the demonstration of the expansion of the children's view of what scientists do is well documented in the paper, illustrated by Figure 13 for instance. However I will, in this response, try to draw out and respond to what the paper is saying about the nature of progression; what the progression consists of, over what temporal or spatial dimensions it progresses, and how it can productively frame curriculum processes.

  1. Cultural History and Cultural Materialism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Ronald

    1990-01-01

    Historicism critiques cultural history and cultural materialism as a methodology for literary analysis. Questions the finality of interpretation, how original values change, and whether dramatic history implies actual history. Using Shakespearean plays, analyzes the power and politics of a play in relation to its audience; posits that cultural…

  2. Political notebook.

    PubMed

    2013-11-20

    The NHS has made 'good progress' towards achieving its goal of being one of the best health services in Europe for helping people with long-term conditions, an NHS England senior official has told MPs.

  3. Science, politics, and health in the brave new world of pharmaceutical carcinogenic risk assessment: technical progress or cycle of regulatory capture?

    PubMed

    Abraham, John; Ballinger, Rachel

    2012-10-01

    The carcinogenicity (cancer-inducing potential) of pharmaceuticals is an important risk factor for health when considering whether thousands of patients on drug trials or millions/billions of consumers in the marketplace should be exposed to a new drug. Drawing on fieldwork involving over 50 interviews and documentary research spanning 2002-2010 in Europe and the US, and on regulatory capture theory, this article investigates how the techno-regulatory standards for carcinogenicity testing of pharmaceuticals have altered since 1998. It focuses on the replacement of long-term carcinogenicity tests in rodents (especially mice) with shorter-term tests involving genetically-engineered mice (GEM). Based on evidence regarding financial/organizational control, methodological design, and interpretation of the validation and application of these new GEM tests, it is argued that regulatory agencies permitted the drug industry to shape such validation and application in ways that prioritized commercial interests over the need to protect public health. Boundary-work enabling industry scientists to define some standards of public-health policy facilitated such capture. However, as the scientific credibility of GEM tests as tools to protect public health by screening out carcinogens became inescapably problematic, a regulatory resurgence, impelled by reputational concerns, exercised more control over industry's construction and use of the tests, The extensive problems with GEM tests as public-health protective regulatory science raises the spectre that alterations to pharmaceutical carcinogenicity-testing standards since the 1990s may have been boundary-work in which the political project of decreasing the chance that companies' products are defined as carcinogenic has masqueraded as techno-science.

  4. Science, politics, and health in the brave new world of pharmaceutical carcinogenic risk assessment: Technical progress or cycle of regulatory capture?

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, John; Ballinger, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    The carcinogenicity (cancer-inducing potential) of pharmaceuticals is an important risk factor for health when considering whether thousands of patients on drug trials or millions/billions of consumers in the marketplace should be exposed to a new drug. Drawing on fieldwork involving over 50 interviews and documentary research spanning 2002–2010 in Europe and the US, and on regulatory capture theory, this article investigates how the techno-regulatory standards for carcinogenicity testing of pharmaceuticals have altered since 1998. It focuses on the replacement of long-term carcinogenicity tests in rodents (especially mice) with shorter-term tests involving genetically-engineered mice (GEM). Based on evidence regarding financial/organizational control, methodological design, and interpretation of the validation and application of these new GEM tests, it is argued that regulatory agencies permitted the drug industry to shape such validation and application in ways that prioritized commercial interests over the need to protect public health. Boundary-work enabling industry scientists to define some standards of public-health policy facilitated such capture. However, as the scientific credibility of GEM tests as tools to protect public health by screening out carcinogens became inescapably problematic, a regulatory resurgence, impelled by reputational concerns, exercised more control over industry’s construction and use of the tests, The extensive problems with GEM tests as public-health protective regulatory science raises the spectre that alterations to pharmaceutical carcinogenicity-testing standards since the 1990s may have been boundary-work in which the political project of decreasing the chance that companies’ products are defined as carcinogenic has masqueraded as techno-science. PMID:22784375

  5. Power, expertise and the limits of representative democracy: genetics as scientific progress or political legitimation in carcinogenic risk assessment of pharmaceuticals?

    PubMed

    Abraham, John; Ballinger, Rachel

    2012-04-01

    In modern 'representative' democratic states, the legitimacy of governments' actions rests on their publicly declared commitment to protect the interests of their citizens. Regarding the pharmaceutical sector in most democracies, new drug products are developed and marketed by a capitalist industry, whose member firms, via shareholders, have commercial interests in expanding product sales. In those democracies, states have established government agencies to regulate the pharmaceutical industry on behalf of citizens. State legislatures, such as the US Congress and European Parliaments, have charged government drug regulatory agencies with the legal responsibility to protect public health. Yet, this paper argues that government drug regulatory agencies in the EU, Japan, and USA have permitted the pharmaceutical industry to reshape the regulatory guidance for carcinogenic risk assessment of pharmaceuticals in ways that are not techno-scientifically defensible as bases for improved, or even equivalent, protection of public health, compared with the previous techno-regulatory standards. By adopting the industry's agenda of streamlining carcinogenicity testing in order to accelerate drug development and regulatory review, it is contended that these regulatory agencies have allowed the techno-regulatory standards for carcinogenic risk assessment to be loosened in ways that are presented as scientific progress resulting from new genetics, but for which there is little evidence of progress in public health protection.

  6. Reconciliation and Pedagogy. Postcolonial Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahluwalia, Pal, Ed.; Atkinson, Stephen, Ed.; Bishop, Peter, Ed.; Christie, Pam, Ed.; Hattam, Robert, Ed.; Matthews, Julie, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Reconciliation is one of the most significant contemporary challenges in the world today. In this innovative new volume, educational academics and practitioners across a range of cultural and political contexts examine the links between reconciliation and critical pedagogy, putting forward the notion that reconciliation projects should be regarded…

  7. On the Teaching of Irish Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Daniel J.

    1974-01-01

    The Irish Republic as a laboratory for teachers of comparative politics has potential in the areas of revolution, culture, economic development, and general problem solving as illustrated by this article and its references. (JH)

  8. Auto-catalysed progression of aneuploidy explains the Hayflick limit of cultured cells, carcinogen-induced tumours in mice, and the age distribution of human cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Rasnick, D

    2000-01-01

    Evidence continues to accumulate that aneuploidy, an imbalance in the number of chromosomes, is responsible for the characteristic phenotypes of cancer, including the abnormal cellular size and morphology of cancer cells, the appearance of tumour-associated antigens, as well as the high levels of membrane-bound and secreted proteins responsible for invasiveness and loss of contact inhibition. Aneuploidy has also been demonstrated to be the self-perpetuating source of the karyotypic instability of cancer cells. Here it is shown that the auto-catalysed progression of aneuploidy explains the kinetics of the finite lifetime of diploid cells in culture, the time course of the appearance of papillomas and carcinomas in benzo[a]pyrene-treated mice, and the age-dependence of human cancers. Modelling studies indicate that the ease of spontaneous transformation of mouse cells in culture may be due to a chaotic progression of aneuploidy. Conversely, the strong preference towards senescence and resistance to transformation of human cells in culture may be the result of a non-chaotic progression of aneuploidy. Finally, a method is proposed for quantifying the aneuploidogenic potencies of carcinogens. PMID:10839979

  9. Styling the revolution: masculinities, youth, and street politics in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Doreen

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the changes to urban political culture in Jakarta, Indonesia, from 1998 to the present. By tracing the contributions of youth activists, and middle-class university students in particular, to the production of the street as a political and public space, the author demonstrates to what extent the democratized post-Suharto era naturalizes the place of youth in nationalist politics. Central to this inquiry of youth identity formation is the elision of class and gender as analytical categories. Student movements in 1998 and after have relied on a specific masculine style that draws on both the authenticity of nationalist historical narratives and the street as the domain of the People, and in the process masks potentially contentious class and gender differences among progressive activists.

  10. Political Reactance and Political Reality: A Theory of Political Alienation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Samuel

    The research investigated political and psychological reactance among adolescents. Political reactance is interpreted to include feelings of political alienation and distrust. Psychological reactance is defined as behavior by an individual in response to reduction or threatened reduction of freedom. A model was created which expanded existing…

  11. American Political Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehlinger, Howard D.; Patrick, John J.

    This text presents high school students with up-to-date findings of social scientists about political behavior in order to increase their political knowledge and sophistication. Case studies which describe the various political activities of typical citizens and political leaders are used throughout the work. Simulations, games, political attitude…

  12. "These Are Issues that Should Not Be Raised in Black and White": The Culture of Progress Reporting and the Doctorate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mewburn, Inger; Tokareva, Ekaterina; Cuthbert, Denise; Sinclair, Jennifer; Barnacle, Robyn

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports findings from Australian research into student, academic and administrative staff understandings of the role and efficacy of periodic progress reports designed to monitor the progress of higher-degree-by-research candidates. Major findings are that confusion of the purpose and ultimate audience of these reports is linked to less…

  13. Morality and politics: Comparing alternate theories.

    PubMed

    Miles, Andrew; Vaisey, Stephen

    2015-09-01

    Debates about the American "culture wars" have led scholars to develop several theories relating morality to political attitudes and behaviors. However, researchers have not adequately compared these theories, nor have they examined the overall contribution of morality to explaining political variation. This study uses nationally representative data to compare the utility of 19 moral constructs from four research traditions - associated with the work of Hunter, Lakoff, Haidt, and Schwartz - for predicting political orientation (liberalism/conservatism). Results indicate that morality explains a third of the variation in political orientation - more than basic demographic and religious predictors - but that no one theory provides a fully adequate explanation of this phenomenon. Instead, political orientation is best predicted by selected moral constructs that are unique to each of the four traditions, and by two moral constructs that crosscut them. Future work should investigate how these moral constructs can be synthesized to create a more comprehensive theory of morality and politics.

  14. PCaAnalyser: A 2D-Image Analysis Based Module for Effective Determination of Prostate Cancer Progression in 3D Culture

    PubMed Central

    Lovitt, Carrie J.; Avery, Vicky M.

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro cell based assays for Prostate Cancer (PCa) research are rapidly becoming the preferred alternative to that of conventional 2D monolayer cultures. 3D assays more precisely mimic the microenvironment found in vivo, and thus are ideally suited to evaluate compounds and their suitability for progression in the drug discovery pipeline. To achieve the desired high throughput needed for most screening programs, automated quantification of 3D cultures is required. Towards this end, this paper reports on the development of a prototype analysis module for an automated high-content-analysis (HCA) system, which allows for accurate and fast investigation of in vitro 3D cell culture models for PCa. The Java based program, which we have named PCaAnalyser, uses novel algorithms that allow accurate and rapid quantitation of protein expression in 3D cell culture. As currently configured, the PCaAnalyser can quantify a range of biological parameters including: nuclei-count, nuclei-spheroid membership prediction, various function based classification of peripheral and non-peripheral areas to measure expression of biomarkers and protein constituents known to be associated with PCa progression, as well as defining segregate cellular-objects effectively for a range of signal-to-noise ratios. In addition, PCaAnalyser architecture is highly flexible, operating as a single independent analysis, as well as in batch mode; essential for High-Throughput-Screening (HTS). Utilising the PCaAnalyser, accurate and rapid analysis in an automated high throughput manner is provided, and reproducible analysis of the distribution and intensity of well-established markers associated with PCa progression in a range of metastatic PCa cell-lines (DU145 and PC3) in a 3D model demonstrated. PMID:24278197

  15. Culture, territories, and confidence in food: an anthropological view on health in the context of environmental pollution and socio-political tension.

    PubMed

    Bargès, Anne

    2008-07-01

    Pollutants in the environment as well as potential risks to human health and health policies are leading to profound changes in the food chain. Whether dietary patterns and medical interventions are accepted, depends on the cultural and territorial anchorage of the populations, their socio-cultural past as well as scientific uncertainty and modalities of objectification of social actors. Controversies, debates, and the media influence governance. Local and minority experiences open up global perspectives. This paper focuses on the necessary contextualization of events at the crossroads of various social sciences. The exposure of fish-eating native people to methylmercury in Canada is used as an example.

  16. Education and Violence: The Schools' Micro-Politics and the Macro-Politics in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tshabangu, Icarbord

    2008-01-01

    This study examined forms of violence in Zimbabwean schools and sought to draw an analogy with the country's macro-politics. Key interrelationships emerged which painted an endemic culture of violence. Over three hundred (300) students and eighty, (80) teachers submitted 2-3 page-written accounts on their schools' micro-politics. Thirty, (30)…

  17. From "Culturally Deprived" to "At Risk": The Politics of Popular Expression and Educational Inequality in the United States, 1960-1985

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Sylvia L. M.; Rury, John L.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the terms "culturally deprived" and "disadvantaged" in light of their popular use in the sixties and following decades, particularly in the ethnic and mainstream press. These expressions represented an effort to explain differences in educational attainment and academic achievement along lines of social…

  18. Education and Economic, Political, and Social Change in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huong, Pham Lan; Fry, Gerald W.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the complex relations among history, education, political economy, and social change in Vietnam. Vietnam has a long history of education and a literate culture. The evolution of Vietnamese culture and society is characterized by both persistence and change. Social and political persistence and change have been…

  19. Co-constructing cultural landscapes for disciplinary learning in and out of school: the next generation science standards and learning progressions in action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córdova, Ralph A.; Balcerzak, Phyllis

    2016-12-01

    The authors of this study are teacher-researchers, the first is a university researcher and former third and fourth grade teacher, while the second author is a university-based science educator. They report findings from a community-based study that Ralph, the first author, and his students conducted across two academic years (2001-2003) in order to illustrate the ways in which the next generation science standards and learning progressions can be appropriated as social-constructed practices inside and outside of school. The authors argue that what constitutes science learning in school is not a `state of grace' dictated by standards. Rather, becoming a scientist within a community of learners is a cultural phenomenon that teachers and students co-construct and as such teachers can approach the next generation science standards and learning progressions as opportunities to create intentional, disciplinary practice-based learning communities inside and outside of school.

  20. Detection of Changes in the Medicago sativa Retinoblastoma-Related Protein (MsRBR1) Phosphorylation During Cell Cycle Progression in Synchronized Cell Suspension Culture.

    PubMed

    Ayaydin, Ferhan; Kotogány, Edit; Ábrahám, Edit; Horváth, Gábor V

    2017-01-01

    Deepening our knowledge on the regulation of the plant cell division cycle depends on techniques that allow for the enrichment of cell populations in defined cell cycle phases. Synchronization of cell division can be achieved using different plant tissues; however, well-established cell suspension cultures provide large amount of biological sample for further analyses. Here, we describe the methodology of the establishment, propagation, and analysis of a Medicago sativa suspension culture that can be used for efficient synchronization of the cell division. A novel 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU)-based method is used for the estimation of cell fraction that enters DNA synthesis phase of the cell cycle and we also demonstrate the changes in the phosphorylation level of Medicago sativa retinoblastoma-related protein (MsRBR1) during cell cycle progression.

  1. Politics, power, and birth.

    PubMed

    Tillett, Jackie

    2011-01-01

    Politics is the process and method of decision making for individuals and groups. Politics may define the power relationships between women and their healthcare providers. Politics may shape the experience for the woman. Nurses and birthing women can learn to negotiate the politics and power relationships surrounding the birth experience.

  2. The politics of reproduction.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, F; Rapp, R

    1991-01-01

    The topic of human reproduction encompasses events throughout the human and especially female life-cycle as well as ideas and practices surrounding fertility, birth, and child care. Most of the scholarship on the subject, up through the 1960s, was based on cross-cultural surveys focused on the beliefs, norms, and values surrounding reproductive behaviors. Multiple methodologies and subspecialties, and fields like social history, human biology, and demography were utilized for the analysis. The concept of the politics of reproduction synthesizes local and global perspectives. The themes investigated include: the concept of reproduction, population control, and the internationalization of state and market interests (new reproductive technologies); social movements and contested domains; medicalization and its discontents; fertility and its control; adolescence and teen pregnancy; birth; birth attendants; the construction of infancy and the politics of child survival; rethinking the demographic transition; networks of nurturance; and meanings of menopause. The medicalization of reproduction is a central issue of studies of birth, midwifery, infertility, and reproductive technologies. Scholars have also analyzed different parts of the female life-cycle as medical problems. Other issues worth analysis include the internationalization of adoption and child care workers; the crisis of infertility of low-income and minority women who are not candidates for expensive reproductive technologies; the concerns of women at high risk for HIV whose cultural status depends on their fertility; questions of reproduction concerning, lesbians and gay men (artificial insemination and discrimination in child rearing); the study of menopause; and fatherhood. New discourse analysis is used to analyze state eugenic policies; conflicts over Western neocolonial influences in which women's status as childbearers represent nationalist interests; fundamentalist attacks on abortion rights; and

  3. Political Culture and the Nature of Political Participation in Egypt.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    Nasser’s Egypt, Austin: Univ. of Texas Press, 1971. Meisel, J.H., The Myth of the Ruling Class: Gaetano Mosca and the Elite, Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan... Mosca called the "second strata of the ruling class" - the strata without which the leadership could not 27 rule (Meisel 1962, p. 217]. The clientage

  4. "Clever Microbes": bacteriology and sanitary technology in Manchester and Chicago during the progressive age.

    PubMed

    Platt, Harold L

    2004-01-01

    A neglected aspect of the history of germ theories is its use in the purification of sewage. In the 1890s, progressive reformers rapidly developed bacteriological methods of wastewater treatment. A comparison of the United Kingdom's Manchester and the United States' Chicago shows, however, that science and technology were mediated by political culture and institutions. In Manchester, a politics of deference and strong extralocal government gave the authority of scientific expertise a decisive role in policy formation. In Chicago, devolution of power to the ward bosses meant a quarter-century of defiance against the national authority and its effort to get the city to install a modern sanitation system.

  5. Recent progress in the understanding of tissue culture-induced genome level changes in plants and potential applications.

    PubMed

    Neelakandan, Anjanasree K; Wang, Kan

    2012-04-01

    In vitro cell and tissue-based systems have tremendous potential in fundamental research and for commercial applications such as clonal propagation, genetic engineering and production of valuable metabolites. Since the invention of plant cell and tissue culture techniques more than half a century ago, scientists have been trying to understand the morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular changes associated with tissue culture responses. Establishment of de novo developmental cell fate in vitro is governed by factors such as genetic make-up, stress and plant growth regulators. In vitro culture is believed to destabilize the genetic and epigenetic program of intact plant tissue and can lead to chromosomal and DNA sequence variations, methylation changes, transposon activation, and generation of somaclonal variants. In this review, we discuss the current status of understanding the genomic and epigenomic changes that take place under in vitro conditions. It is hoped that a precise and comprehensive knowledge of the molecular basis of these variations and acquisition of developmental cell fate would help to devise strategies to improve the totipotency and embryogenic capability in recalcitrant species and genotypes, and to address bottlenecks associated with clonal propagation.

  6. Conceptions of Progress: How Is Progress Perceived? Mainstream versus Alternative Conceptions of Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Itay, Anat

    2009-01-01

    Progress is a powerful political concept, encompassing different and sometimes contradictory conceptions. This paper examines the results of a survey on progress conducted at the OECD World Forum entitled "Measuring and Fostering the Progress of Societies" held in Istanbul in June 2007. First, a distinction is drawn between the two approaches to…

  7. Political Systems, Public Schools, and Political Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaNoue, George R.; Adler, Norman

    This paper, prepared for the Center for Research and Education in American Liberties Conference in 1968, argues that education is the foundation upon which democratic politics stands because of the transmittal by schools of the skills and values necessary for our political system to operate. The objective of the paper is to show the relationship…

  8. Adolescent Rebellion and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeus, Wim

    1988-01-01

    Examination of 352 Dutch secondary school students reveals that adolescents with high-level education who endorse adolescent rebellion have a more distinctly left-wing profile--in both their political party preferences and their political views--than those with low-level education, who more often ratified political intolerance. (BJV)

  9. Tracking Politics with POWER

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreira, Silvio; Batista, David S.; Carvalho, Paula; Couto, Francisco M.; Silva, Mario J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: POWER is an ontology of political processes and entities. It is designed for tracking politicians, political organizations and elections, both in mainstream and social media. The aim of this paper is to propose a data model to describe political agents and their relations over time. Design/methodology/approach: The authors propose a data…

  10. Talking Politics, Practicing Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKinnon, Mary Pat

    2008-01-01

    The message emerging from a recent research series on youth civic and political participation is clear: today's youth are not disengaged from associational and small "p" political life, but they are increasingly disenchanted with formal political institutions and practices. Generation Y (those born after 1979) has less formal political…

  11. Political Education in Hungary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szabo, Mate

    1989-01-01

    The contradictions of political education in East European socialist countries based on the Hungarian experience are explored in this paper. Divided into three parts, the first part gives a brief sketch of institutionalized political education, while the second concerns the crisis of Hungary's political education emerging in the 1980s. In the…

  12. Political Education in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dag, Nilgun; Sozer, Mehmet Akif; Sel, Burcu

    2015-01-01

    Political education is a term with negative associations and triggering prejudiced approaches and discourses--maybe some paranoid thoughts--like "keep politics away from education!" in the minds of several people. This article deals with "political education" phenomenon almost never discussed and made subject to scientific…

  13. Contested identities: gendered politics, gendered religion in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shaheed, Farida

    2010-01-01

    In Pakistan, the self-serving use of Islam by more secular elements alongside politico-religious ones facilitated the latter's increasing influence and the conflation and intricate interweaving of Islam and Pakistani nationhood. A paradigm shift under Zia's martial law revamped society as much as state laws, producing both religiously defined militias and aligned civil society groups. Examining the impact on women of fusing religion and politics, this paper argues that women become symbolic markers of appropriated territory in the pursuit of state power, and that the impact of such fusing, different for differently situated women, needs to be gauged in societal terms as well as in terms of state dynamics. Questioning the positing of civil society as a self-evident progressive desideratum, the paper concludes that gender equality projects seeking reconfigurations of power cannot be effective without vigorously competing in the creation of knowledge, culture and identity.

  14. What price politics? Scientists and political controversy.

    PubMed

    Nye, M J

    1999-01-01

    There is a long tradition within scientific communities that encourages governments, patrons and citizens to enlist scientific expertise in the service of the public good. However, since the 17th century, scientists who have engaged in public political controversy have often been judged harshly by scientific colleagues, as well as by political adversaries. Some prominent scientists were politically active in Germany, France and England during the 1920s and 1930s; controversial stands were taken by the British physicist P.M.S. Blackett and the American chemist Linus C. Pauling against their countries' nuclear weapons policy following the Second World War.

  15. On medicine and politics.

    PubMed Central

    Krakauer, E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between medicine and politics, between medical management of the human body and governmental management of the body politic. It argues that the increasing complexity both of society and of governmental administration of society in the modern age has made it impossible completely to separate medicine from politics. It demonstrates that, along with great potential for social benefit, "medico-politics" brought with it great danger; much harm has been done purportedly to heal the body politic. The paper concludes by suggesting a way for physicians to minimize this danger. Images FIG. 1 PMID:1285451

  16. Bioethical ambition, political opportunity and the European governance of patenting: the case of human embryonic stem cell science.

    PubMed

    Salter, Brian; Salter, Charlotte

    2013-12-01

    Scientific progress in the life sciences is dependent on the governance of tensions between the economic potential of the innovation and the cultural response from society. Ownership of the scientific innovation through patenting is a necessary part of the realization of its economic value yet, in the case of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) science, ownership of the human body and human life may offend fundamental cultural values. In the case of transnational patenting governance by the European Patent Office (EPO) and the European Union (EU), cross-national cultural conflict in the field of hESC science has produced a political demand for a form of governance that can incorporate ethical as well as economic judgements in its decision making. This paper explores how bioethics has responded to this opportunity to establish itself as a form of expert authority for the negotiation and resolution of the cultural conflict. In so doing, it shows how the political struggle that has accompanied this bid for new governance territory has been influenced both by the political tensions between the EPO and EU systems of patenting governance and the resistance of competing experts in law and science to a bioethical presence.

  17. Does sociability predict civic involvement and political participation?

    PubMed

    Foschi, Renato; Lauriola, Marco

    2014-02-01

    In contemporary history as well as in political science, a strong associational life known as sociability is thought to explain the roots of modern democracy by establishing a link between the increasing availability of free time to the middle classes, increasing willingness to gather with others in circles or associations, and increasing social capital. In personality psychology, sociability is related to prosocial behavior (i.e., the need for affiliation, agreeableness, openness, and extraversion), whose importance in different political behaviors is increasingly recognized. In the present article, we carried out 5 studies (N = 1,429) that showed that political and associative sociability (a) can be reliably assessed, can have cross-cultural validity, and are properly associated with general social interest measures and personality domains and facets in the five-factor model; (b) do not overlap with similar concepts used in political psychology to account for political participation (political expertise, political interest, political self-efficacy); and (c) predicted political and nonpolitical group membership as well as observable choices in decision-making tasks with political and nonpolitical outcomes. The results are discussed, taking into consideration the extent to which specific facets of sociability can mediate between general personality traits and measures of civic involvement and political participation in a holistic model of political behavior.

  18. Putting politics first.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Jacob S

    2008-01-01

    The greatest lesson of the failure of comprehensive health reform in the early 1990s is that politics comes first. Even the best-laid policy plans are worthless if they lack the political support to pass. Putting politics first means avoiding the overarching mistake of the Clinton reformers: envisioning a grand policy compromise rather than hammering out a real political compromise. It also means addressing the inevitable fears of those who believe that they are well protected by our eroding employment-based system. And it means formulating political strategies that are premised on the contemporary realities of the hyperpolarized U.S. political environment, rather than wistfully recalled images of the bipartisan politics of old.

  19. Polite Theories Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanović, Dejan; Barrett, Clark

    The classic method of Nelson and Oppen for combining decision procedures requires the theories to be stably-infinite. Unfortunately, some important theories do not fall into this category (e.g. the theory of bit-vectors). To remedy this problem, previous work introduced the notion of polite theories. Polite theories can be combined with any other theory using an extension of the Nelson-Oppen approach. In this paper we revisit the notion of polite theories, fixing a subtle flaw in the original definition. We give a new combination theorem which specifies the degree to which politeness is preserved when combining polite theories. We also give conditions under which politeness is preserved when instantiating theories by identifying two sorts. These results lead to a more general variant of the theorem for combining multiple polite theories.

  20. Political Compromise Makes the World Go 'Round

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Diana

    2007-01-01

    Compromise in any context is often hard to accept. It feels like a person is giving up on his or her ideals. This is especially true in dealing with politics. Legislative and congressional bills can be written with the highest of ideals in mind. By the time the bill progresses through committees and the floor debate process, it can look like a…

  1. George Lakoff's New Happiness: Politics after Rationality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrott, John B.

    2009-01-01

    Berkeley professor of linguistics and cognitive science George Lakoff is among the handful of current faculty members in the United States to have successfully recast himself as a significant figure in national politics. Though his views place rather far on the progressive left, he has, unlike some other scholar-activists, focused most of his…

  2. Suffering, justice, and the politics of becoming.

    PubMed

    Connolly, W E

    1996-09-01

    To suffer is to undergo, to bear, to endure. Suffering exists on the underside of agency; it is as important to ethics as agency. The experience of suffering is never entirely captured by the ethical, political, medical and spiritual categories in which it is represented. Perhaps an engagement with suffering can open up hidden connections between these domains. After examining John Caputo and Friedrich Nietzsche comparatively on the relation between suffering and ethics, this essay explores the relation of the "politics of becoming" to suffering. The politics of becoming is a paradoxical process by which a new cultural identity is drawn into being and yet is irreducible to the energies and motives that spurred its initiators to action. To exemplify and think the politics of becoming is to call into question the sufficiency of existing paradigms of morality. A critical examination of the Rawlsian model of justice brings out, for example, the insufficiency of justice to the politics of becoming. It suggests the need, first, to pursue an "ethics of engagement" between several parties drawing upon a variety of sources of ethical inspiration and, second, to cultivate "critical responsiveness" to new social movements that struggle to place new identities onto the cultural register. If the latter movements sometimes modify general understandings of suffering, identity, justice and medical practice they also indicate the role cultural thinkers can play in re-examining periodically established codes of interaction between these domains.

  3. The politics of researching global health politics

    PubMed Central

    Rushton, Simon

    2015-01-01

    In this comment, I build on Shiffman’s call for the global health community to more deeply investigate structural and productive power. I highlight two challenges we must grapple with as social scientists carrying out the types of investigation that Shiffman proposes: the politics of challenging the powerful; and the need to investigate types of expertise that have traditionally been thought of as ‘outside’ global health. In doing so, I argue that moving forward with the agenda Shiffman sets out requires social scientists interested in the global politics of health to be reflexive about our own exercise of structural and productive power and the fact that researching global health politics is itself a political undertaking. PMID:25905482

  4. Transformative or Political Functions of Young Children's Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinley, William; Kamberelis, George

    A study drew upon the oral and written texts of four fourth-grade, inner-city children to explore how writing functioned in transformative or political ways. Transformative or political aspects of writing involve the potential restructuring of power relations that exist between the writer and a variety of social or cultural spheres. Several…

  5. Politeness and Pragmatic Competence in Foreign Language Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoCastro, Virginia

    It is noted that a common belief among native Japanese-speakers is that it is not necessary to be polite when speaking English, despite the fact that politeness is seen as a Japanese cultural attribute. Researchers have also noted this discrepancy. A study investigated how Japanese secondary school textbooks for English as a Second Language (ESL)…

  6. Rethinking the Politics of "Fit" and Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooms, Autumn K.; Lugg, Catherine A.; Bogotch, Ira

    2010-01-01

    This theoretical analysis employs a poststructuralist lens to reveal the constructs behind the word "fit", an oft used descriptor integral to the discourse of school hiring practices, personnel decisions, and politics. Although the term is a part of the everyday culture of school politics, it is rarely considered with any depth. Using the metaphor…

  7. The State, Television, and Political Power in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Lima, Venicio A.

    1988-01-01

    Using Antonio Gramsci's theory of politics, traces the rise of the Brazilian media giant, TV Globo, and examines how its owner (Roberto Marinho) has become the key mediator between the Brazilian "ruling bloc" and the rest of the country in the construction and maintenance of cultural and political hegemony. (JK)

  8. The Political Organization of Space, Resource Paper No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soja, Edward W.

    This resource paper on political geography is part of a series designed to supplement undergraduate geography courses. Starting with a broad outline of the relationship between human spatial and societal organization, it examines cross-cultural perspectives on the political organization of space and the emergence of the nation-state as a…

  9. Liquid Subjects: News Media and Public Political Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Marcelina; Ruitenberg, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between news media and political education within consumer society. We argue that political education today needs to be understood as part of consumerism and media culture, in which individuals selectively expose themselves to and scrutinize various media representations not only of…

  10. Wizarding in the Classroom: Teaching Harry Potter and Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deets, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    This article describes teaching a course called Harry Potter and Politics. Focusing on aspects of political culture, the class tackled themes of identity, institutional behavior, and globalization. Teaching Harry Potter has several benefits. Students are both familiar with the wizarding world and yet have enough distance to examine it…

  11. The Politics of Self-Esteem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahne, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    Before analysts can assess self-esteem as a goal for policy and practice, they must consider the ideological orientations of those who use the term and the cultural norms that shape the debate. Explicit attention to the politics surrounding self-esteem is needed to evaluate the use of the term in policy contexts. (Author/SLD)

  12. Education and the Politics of Cyberpunk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, David R.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses education and the politics of cyberpunk. The importance in contemporary education of critical theory as a pedagogic basis for the analysis of textual and cultural resources creates a space for educationalists to implement meaningful curriculum content. The genre of cyberpunk acts on this level, yet also…

  13. Teaching International Politics in High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Raymond, Ed.

    Approaches to teaching about international politics and avenues to peace should be realistic and pragmatic rather than based on generalities about global education and peace education. This volume contains essays on international economic relations, cultural and linguistic understanding, and the conflict of ideologies and value systems in…

  14. The Political Economy of North American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John H., Ed.

    This book presents 12 papers that proceed from the idea that Native American history in the United States and Canada is best understood not as an Indian-European cultural conflict but as an economic conflict between communal and capitalist modes of production. Three chapters are of particular educational interest. "Political Economy in…

  15. The Pragmatics of Minority Politics in Belgium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blommaert, Jan; Verschueren, Jef

    1991-01-01

    An analysis of newspaper reports, political policy papers and social science investigations, uncovers a coherent world of beliefs concerning minority-majority relations. These beliefs, centered around stable but vague notions of culture, nation, state, democracy, and human rights, reveal a society profoundly troubled by the idea of diversity,…

  16. Rethinking Democratic Education: The Politics of Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, David M.

    This book argues that democratic education should equip citizens to be "the measure of all things." The volume contends that the voices of society should develop the skills of questioning, criticizing, and reconstructing the language of the day in order to dissect the rhetoric of politics, economy, and culture. But the volume asserts that these…

  17. The American Imprint on Alberta Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Nelson

    2011-01-01

    Characteristics assigned to America's classical liberal ideology--rugged individualism, market capitalism, egalitarianism in the sense of equality of opportunity, and fierce hostility toward centralized federalism and socialism--are particularly appropriate for fathoming Alberta's political culture. The author contends that Alberta's early…

  18. Progress and privilege: America in the age of environmentalism

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, W.

    1982-01-01

    Environmentalism, which was a rarity in the 1960s, approaches a national religion in the 1980s, with some environmentalists experiencing pleasure at the prospect of limited resources and no growth. The author explores this new ambivalence toward progress, and concludes that accomplishment can dampen ambition. His analysis of environmentalism as an expression of privilege examines the political and economic characteristics of environmentalists, the major environmental issues, and the public revolt against science to uncover an aristocratic element that is diappearing from our culture. Progress will continue, however, because of global ambitions. The US can build on what has been learned during the Age of Environmentalism and get on with the progress of humanity. 159 references, 1 figure. (DCK)

  19. Getting Politically Active

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Robert J.

    2003-01-01

    Projects can, and do, succeed because of politics. And they can fail due to politics, as well. Politics does not have to be a dirty word, if it means working closely and openly with customers and stakeholder s; it is an essential approach that requires continuous dedication of time and attention. Project management is a people industry. Gainin g the trust of your followers will grant you more influence than any formal authority.

  20. Nuclear Politics in Iran

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    system. States with prestige are recognized by other actors as having a high 21 Nuclear Politics in Iran standing either generally or with regard to...Nuclear Politics in Iran Edited by Judith S. Yaphe MIDDLE EAST STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVES 1 Center for Strategic Research Institute for National...OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE MAY 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nuclear Politics in

  1. The Political and Cultural Complications of Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFee, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Student bullying is one of the most frequently reported discipline issues in schools. Members of minority groups are the typical targets. These days, that most often means students whose sexual orientation or gender identity attracts the ire of others. In a school climate survey of 7,261 middle and high school students conducted by the advocacy…

  2. Decoding Hip-Hop's Cultural Impact: Scholars Are Poised to Take a Close Look at the Influence of Hip-Hop on the Social Identity, Values of Today's Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    As a cultural movement, hip-hop manages to get billed as both a positive and negative influence on young people, especially on Black and Latino youth. On one hand, there are African American activists, artists and entrepreneurs, such as Russell Simmons, who seek to build a progressive political movement among young hip-hop fans and who have had…

  3. Astronomy and Politics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, John M.

    The relationship between astronomy and politics is a complex but important part of understanding the practice of astronomy throughout history. This chapter explores some of the ways that astronomy, astrology, and politics have interacted, placing particular focus on the way that astronomy and astrology have been used for political purposes by both people in power and people who wish to influence a ruler's policy. Also discussed are the effects that politics has had on the development of astronomy and, in particular, upon the recording and preservation of astronomical knowledge.

  4. Cosmopolitan political science.

    PubMed

    Grande, Edgar

    2006-03-01

    Until recently, the term cosmopolitism could rarely be found in modern political science literature. It was only in the 1990s that the term was rediscovered by political scientists in the critical discourse on globalization. In this article, I will explore the full potential of cosmopolitism as an analytical concept for empirical political science. I will argue that the concept of cosmopolitism should not be restricted to the analysis of global politics. Indeed, cosmopolitism has much more to offer for political scientists. Properly understood, it enables--and necessitates--a re-invention of political science in the age of globalization, comparable to the behavioural revolution in political science in the 1950s. Such a paradigmatic shift should be based on a twofold transformation of existing disciplinary boundaries: A removal of the boundary between national (and comparative) and international politics on the one hand; and a re-definition of the boundaries between empirical and normative approaches on the other. As a result, cosmopolitism may serve as a new, critical theory of politics based on the integration of hitherto separated fields and sub-fields.

  5. Envy, politics, and age.

    PubMed

    Harris, Christine R; Henniger, Nicole E

    2013-01-01

    In the last 5 years, the phrase "politics of envy" has appeared more than 621 times in English-language newspapers, generally in opinion essays contending that political liberalism reflects and exploits feelings of envy. Oddly, this assertion has not been tested empirically. We did so with a large adult sample (n = 357). Participants completed a Dispositional Envy Scale and questions about political ideology, socioeconomic status, and age. Envy and age were moderately correlated; younger people reported greater envy. Political ideology and envy were weakly correlated; however, this relationship was not significant when controlling for age.

  6. Iodine regulates G2/M progression induced by CCL21/CCR7 interaction in primary cultures of papillary thyroid cancer cells with RET/PTC expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, You-Yuan; Liu, Ze-Bing; Ye, Xuan-Guang; Ren, Wei-Min

    2016-10-01

    Treatment with high iodine concentrations can delay oncogenic activation effects, reduce cell growth and return thyroid-specific gene and protein expression levels to normal. During rearranged during transfection (RET)/papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) 3 activation, excess iodine can act as a protective agent in thyroid follicular cells. The chemokine receptor CCR7 serves a critical role in lymphocyte trafficking into and within lymph nodes, the preferential metastatic site for PTC. However, the potential associations between chemokine (C‑C motif) ligand 21 (CCL21)/C‑C chemokine receptor type 7 (CCR7) interaction and iodine concentrations in primary cultures of PTC with RET/PTC expression remain unclear. Proliferation assays of primary cultures of PTC cells with RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 expression indicated that CCR7 activation by its specific ligand, CCL21, was associated with significantly increased cell proliferation. Flow cytometry data indicated that CCL21/CCR7 interaction significantly increased the fraction of cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Western blotting indicated that CCL21/CCR7 interaction significantly upregulated cyclin A, cyclin B1 and cyclin‑dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) expression. Western blotting determined that CCL21/CCR7 interaction significantly enhanced the levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (P‑ERK). Co-immunoprecipitation confirmed that there was interaction between P‑ERK and cyclin A, cyclin B1 or CDK1, particularly in the presence of CCL21. Sodium iodide (NaI, 10-5 M) significantly abolished the effects of exogenous CCL21. These results suggest that CCL21/CCR7 interaction contributes to G2/M progression of RET/PTC‑expressing cells via the ERK pathway in association with 10‑5 M NaI.

  7. Mastering the art of politics.

    PubMed

    Dailey, Mary Ann

    2008-09-01

    As a long-term political relationship matures, the nurse's scope of influence with the legislator generally grows and mutual respect ensues. In the best relationships, legislators seek the opinion of nurses on health care questions and ask them to share their expertise at informal meetings or through formal testimony at a policy committee hearing. When possible, backing friendly legislators from either party during their re-election bids places nurses in a proactive rather than a reactive relationship with legislative policymakers. Alliances-are further developed when nursing organizations endorse legislators who have taken pro-nursing stances on important issues. Nurses or nursing groups that take the initial step toward involvement in the political process are the ones who will influence the future of nursing and health care policy. Visionary nurses throughout the past century helped establish nursing as a professional discipline. They were risk takers with a dream and acted for the betterment of nursing. We should still heed the advice of one of these prominent visionaries, Florence Nightingale, who said: The progressive world is necessarily divided into two classes--those who take the best of what there is and enjoy it--those who wish for something better and try to create it. Without these two classes, the world would be badly off. They are the very conditions of progress, both the one and the other. Were there none who were discontented with what they have, the world would never reach anything better (Nightingale, 1860/1979, p. 29). You need to seize the moment, be risk-takers, become politically-savvy nurses and make a difference in the profession of nursing and, more importantly, the lives of the patients who are entrusted to your care!

  8. The Evolution of Chicano Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Armando

    1974-01-01

    The historical evolution of Chicano politics from the United States war with Mexico to the early seventies is analyzed in 4 stages: 1) Politics of Resistance (1846-1915); 2) Politics of Accommodation (1915-1945); 3) Politics of Social Change (1945-1965); and 4) Politics of Protest (1965-1972). (NQ)

  9. Does Big Business Rule America? Critical Commentaries on Charles E. Lindblom's "Politics and Markets."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessen, Robert, Ed.

    This volume pulls together commentaries on Charles E. Lindblom's book entitled "Politics and Markets: The World's Political-Economic Systems" (1977) which expounds the thesis that big business dominates American culture and politics and prevents the introduction of central planning in place of a market-oriented economy. Following an introduction,…

  10. America's Political Cartoon Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzmann, William Ray

    1988-01-01

    Traces the history of political cartoons in the United States from the first (Benjamin Franklin's "Unite or Die") in 1754 to the present. Discusses three requirements for effective cartoons, and identifies important cartoonists and their work. Characterizes political cartoons as one of the United States' liveliest, most enjoyable, and…

  11. Getting Your Political Bearings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Being an instructional leader is important, but no one can be an instructional leader without a job. Political astuteness is key to survival in the principalship. The salient question, of course, is, How does one become politically astute? This process involves learning how to conscientiously and accurately keep a finger on the pulse of the…

  12. Educating for Political Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitty, Clyde

    2010-01-01

    The term "political activity" can be interpreted in a myriad of different ways, but in this paper, it is taken to mean involvement in a variety of campaigns around issues affecting the way we live and the sort of society we want to live in. At a time when support for the main political parties has never been weaker, it is essential that…

  13. The Politics of Encyclopaedias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fozooni, Babak

    2012-01-01

    The paper assesses the political credibility of three encyclopaedias (Encyclopaedia Britannica, Encyclopedia of Marxism and Wikipedia) in relation to three chosen topics (Friedrich Engels's biography; the political philosophy of fascism; and, the discipline of social psychology). I was interested in discerning how entries are represented and…

  14. Affect in electoral politics.

    PubMed

    Glaser, J; Salovey, P

    1998-01-01

    Recent U.S. history provides vivid illustrations of the importance of politicians' emotional displays in subsequent judgments of them. Yet, a review of empirical research on the role of affect (emotion, mood, and evaluation) in electoral politics reveals little work that has focused on the impact of candidates' emotional expression on voters' preferences for them. A theoretical framework is proposed to identify psychological mechanisms by which a target's displays of emotion influence judgments of that target. Findings from the emerging literature on emotions and politics challenge the traditional assumption of political science that voters make decisions based solely on the cold consideration of nonaffectively charged information. The affect and politics literature, although somewhat unfocused and broad, represents an interdisciplinary domain of study that contributes to the understanding of both electoral politics and social interaction more generally.

  15. Politeness and Psychological Distance: A Construal Level Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Stephan, Elena; Liberman, Nira; Trope, Yaacov

    2011-01-01

    According to politeness theory (P. Brown & S. Levinson, 1987), politeness serves to both reflect and regulate social distance. On the basis of this notion and on construal level theory (N. Liberman & Y. Trope, 2008; N. Liberman, Y. Trope, & E. Stephan, 2007), it was predicted that politeness would be related to abstract construal, temporal distance, and spatial distance. Eight studies supported this prediction. Politeness increased when the addressees were construed abstractly (Study 1), were temporally distant (Studies 2, 3), and were spatially distant (Study 4). It was also found that increasing politeness produced abstract construals (Study 5), greater temporal distance (Study 6), and greater spatial distance (Study 7, 8). These findings shed light on the way politeness operates in different cultures and is conveyed in different languages, and they support the idea that dimensions of psychological distance are interrelated. PMID:20085400

  16. Introduction: transnational lesbian cultures.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Heike; Mahn, Churnjeet

    2014-01-01

    This special issue examines the transnational shape and shaping of lesbian lives and cultures in and across China, India, the United Kingdom, and the United States. It uses the expression "transnational lesbian cultures" to suggest that despite sometimes radically different sociopolitical and cultural contexts, the lived experiences of same-sex desire and their emotional attachments create particular affinities between women who love women, affinities that reach across the distinct cultural and social contexts that shape them. The articles brought together explore lesbian subcultures, film, graphic novels, music, and online intimacies. They show that as a cultural and political signifier and as an analytical tool, lesbian troubles and complicates contemporary sexual politics, not least by revealing some of the gendered structures that shape debates about sexuality in a range of critical, cultural and political contexts. While the individual pieces cover a wide range of issues and concerns-which are often highly specific to the historical, cultural, and political contexts they discuss-together they tell a story about contemporary transnational lesbian culture: one that is marked by intricate links between norms and their effects and shaped by the efforts to resist denial, discrimination, and sometimes even active persecution.

  17. The Prediction of Political Competencies by Political Action and Political Media Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichert, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Political competencies are often considered a precondition for political action; however, they are not independent of previous political participation, which may also include the frequency and the kind of political media consumption. My research aims at finding out the importance of participation in political activities in the past, as well as…

  18. Political Integration of Hezbollah into Lebanese Politics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    hold the political trump-card within Lebanon’s wobbly confessional system. Hezbollah has demonstrated, “probity, transparency, accountability, and...Distribution of Religious Groups, 1983, http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/lebanon_religions_83.jpg (accessed May 20, 2009). Chandler

  19. Everyone Else is They: A New Framework for Operational Culture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-14

    emerging contestation of the status quo. Finally, multiple theories regarding political language and political reality, semiotics and meaning-making...status quo. Finally, multiple theories regarding political language and political reality, semiotics and meaning-making, and the existential faith...according to six sociocultural factors: society; social structure; culture; language ; power and authority; interests (U.S. Department of the Army 2007

  20. Student life - Making politics matter.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Siobhan

    2014-12-02

    'What has politics got to do with nursing?' This is a question I hear often as a lecturer in nursing with a specialist interest in politics, as is the comment: 'I did not come into nursing to learn about politics.'

  1. [Health and politics in France].

    PubMed

    Tabuteau, Didier

    2012-06-01

    Health is a dual notion. It is individual, singular and intimate. It is also collective, statistical and political. The modern problematic of health relies upon a balance of complex relations between individual and collective acceptances of the notion. You can try to outline the evolutions and the main concepts through a quadruple approach: health and politics, health and its professionals, health and society and in the end, health and the State. The relationships between health and politics in France are affected by the historical delay of France in public health, namely because of a structural weakness of the administrative organization of public health. Nevertheless France developed a dense and well organized care system and a universal social protection against the disease. The creation of the health professions in France was marked by a historical opposition between the doctors and the state which led to a failure of hygienist medicine and a fundamental misunderstanding on health insurance. Medical domination led to the organization of a system based on professional dichotomy and the delegation of the regulation skills to the health care professionals. The role of health issues in the French society was deeply renewed by the development of the medical and epidemiological knowledge. This resulted in a new political responsibility in the management of health risks but also in the confirmation of the patients' rights and the role of their associations in the health systems operations and the piloting of public policies. In this environment, the state has recently and progressively confirmed its dominating role in the health sector. A public hospital service was created In the 60's and 70's, then in the 80's there were recurrent interventions in order to control health spendings and eventually in the 90's health safety devices were set up. More recently, a process of health policies institutionalization confirmed this evolution. In the future, health issues should

  2. How Internal Political Efficacy Translates Political Knowledge Into Political Participation: Evidence From Germany.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Frank

    2016-05-01

    This study presents evidence for the mediation effect of political knowledge through political self-efficacy (i.e. internal political efficacy) in the prediction of political participation. It employs an action theoretic approach-by and large grounded on the Theory of Planned Behaviour-and uses data from the German Longitudinal Election Study to examine whether political knowledge has distinct direct effects on voting, conventional, and/or unconventional political participation. It argues that political knowledge raises internal political efficacy and thereby indirectly increases the chance that a citizen will participate in politics. The results of mediated multiple regression analyses yield evidence that political knowledge indeed translates into internal political efficacy, thus it affects political participation of various kinds indirectly. However, internal political efficacy and intentions to participate politically yield simultaneous direct effects only on conventional political participation. Sequentially mediated effects appear for voting and conventional political participation, with political knowledge being mediated by internal political efficacy and subsequently also by behavioural intentions. The mediation patterns for unconventional political participation are less clear though. The discussion accounts for restrictions of this study and points to questions for answer by future research.

  3. Split WHO in two: strengthening political decision-making and securing independent scientific advice.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Steven J; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2014-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has never fulfilled its original mission of simultaneously serving as the world's pre-eminent public health authority and intergovernmental platform for global health negotiations. While WHO's secretariat works hard to fulfill both functions, it is undermined by an institutional design that mixes technical and political mandates. This forces staff to walk uncomfortably along many fine lines: advising but never directing; guiding but never governing; leading but never advocating; evaluating but never judging. The result is mediocrity on both fronts. Instead, WHO should be split in two, separating its technical and political stewardship functions into separate entities, with collaboration in areas of overlap. The Executive Board and secretariat would be bifurcated, with technical units reporting to a Technical Board and political units reporting to a Political Board. Both boards would report to the World Health Assembly where all member states would continue to provide ultimate oversight. Such bold changes can be implemented either by revising WHO's constitution or through simpler mechanisms. Either way, structural governance reforms would need to be accompanied by complementary changes in culture that support strengthened political decision-making and scientific independence. States' inability to act on WHO's institutional design challenges will only lead them and non-state actors to continue bypassing the organization through the creation of new entities as they have done over the last 15 years. The key will be to mobilize those advocates and decision-makers who have the audacity to demand more from WHO and convince member states to elevate their ambitions in current WHO reform efforts. Continued progress in global health depends on it.

  4. The importance of the microenvironment in breast cancer progression: recapitulation of mammary tumorigenesis using a unique human mammary epithelial cell model and a three-dimensional culture assay

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, V.M.; Fischer, A.H.; Peterson, O.W.; Bissell, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a dominant regulator of tissue development and homeostasis. “Designer microenvironments” in culture and in vivo model systems have shown that the ECM regulates growth, differentiation, and apoptosis in murine and human mammary epithelial cells (MEC) through a hierarchy of transcriptional events involving the intricate interplay between soluble and physical signaling pathways. Furthermore, these studies have shown that these pathways direct and in turn are influenced by the tissue structure. Tissue structure is directed by the cooperative interactions of the cell–cell and cell–ECM pathways and can be modified by stromal factors. Not surprisingly then, loss of tissue structure and alterations in ECM components are associated with the appearance and dissemination of breast tumors, and malignancy is associated with perturbations in cell adhesion, changes in adhesion molecules, and a stromal reaction. Several lines of evidence now support the contention that the pathogenesis of breast cancer is determined (at least in part) by the dynamic interplay between the ductal epithelial cells, the microenvironment, and the tissue structure (acini). Thus, to understand the mechanisms involved in carcinogenesis, the role of the microenvironment (ECM as well as the stromal cells) with respect to tissue structure should be considered and studied. Towards this goal, we have established a unique human MEC model of tumorigenesis, which in concert with a three-dimensional assay, recapitulates many of the genetic and morphological changes observed in breast cancer in vivo. We are currently using this system to understand the role of the microenvironment and tissue structure in breast cancer progression. PMID:9164652

  5. Political determinants of Health: Lessons for Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Jooma, Rashid; Sabatinelli, Guido

    2014-01-01

    There is much concern about the capacity of the health system of Pakistan to meet its goals and obligations. Historically, the political thrust has been absent from the health policy formulation and this is reflected in the low and stagnant public allocations to health. Successive political leaderships have averred from considering healthcare is a common good rather than a market commodity and health has not been recognized as a constitutional right. Over 120 of world’s nation states have accepted health as a constitutional right but the 1973 Constitution of Pakistan does not mandate health or education as a fundamental right and the recently adopted 18th constitutional amendment missed the opportunity to extend access to primary health care as an obligation of the State. It is argued in this communication that missing from the calculations of policy formulation and agenda setting is the political benefits of providing health and other social services to underserved populations. Across the developing world, many examples are presented of governments undertaking progressive health reforms that bring services where none existed and subsequently reaping electoral benefit. The political determinant of healthcare will be realized when the political leaders of poorly performing countries can be convinced that embracing distributive policies and successfully bringing healthcare to the poor can be major factors in their re-elections. PMID:24948958

  6. The Effects of Majoring in Political Science on Political Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez, Casey B. K.; Smith, Keith W.; Williams, J. Michael

    2017-01-01

    This study tests, and finds support, for the hypotheses that a student who majors in political science will have stronger feelings of political competence and will be more willing to engage in hypothetical political actions than two peer groups: (a) those who major in other fields and (b) those who show an interest in politics but have not studied…

  7. Political Socialization and Political Interest: The Role of School Reassessed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koskimaa, Vesa; Rapeli, Lauri

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing concern about the lack of political interest and engagement among Western youth. This has led to a revival of political socialization studies. One recent finding is that (late) adolescence is key to understanding the development of interest for politics. This study builds on this finding by examining political interest among…

  8. The Politics of Weeding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Hope N.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the literature that deals with the political ramifications of weeding material from academic library collections and the need to involve users and other libraries within the institution in the decision process. (14 references) (CLB)

  9. 4 CFR 7.3 - Political activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... a political party. (8) Political fund means any fund, organization, political action committee, or..., political party, candidate, organization, political action committee, or other entity. (9) Political party means a national political party, a state political party, and an affiliated organization. (b)...

  10. Politics of Persuasion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    conform to social and political standards of appropriateness, the ethics of persuasion, and the social sanctions given to the change agent. An analysis...of the techniques used by salesmen, police interrogators, and volunteers canvassing for political candidates helps make explicit some of these...fundamental assumptions. In the process of presenting these general analyses, extractions from police training manuals and improvised tactics used to

  11. Psychoanalysis And Politics: Historicising Subjectivity

    PubMed Central

    Layton, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I compare three different views of the relation between subjectivity and modernity: one proposed by Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, a second by theorists of institutionalised individualisation, and a third by writers in the Foucaultian tradition of studies of the history of governmentalities. The theorists were chosen because they represent very different understandings of the relation between contemporary history and subjectivity. My purpose is to ground psychoanalytic theory about what humans need in history and so to question what it means to talk ahistorically about what humans need in order to thrive psychologically. Only in so doing can one assess the relation between psychoanalysis and progressive politics. I conclude that while psychoanalysis is a discourse of its time, it can also function as a counter-discourse and can help us understand the effects on subjectivity of a more than thirty year history in the West of repudiating dependency needs and denying interdependence. PMID:23678239

  12. Global health politics: neither solidarity nor policy

    PubMed Central

    Méndez, Claudio A.

    2014-01-01

    The global health agenda has been dominating the current global health policy debate. Furthermore, it has compelled countries to embrace strategies for tackling health inequalities in a wide range of public health areas. The article by Robert and colleagues highlights that although globalization has increased opportunities to share and spread ideas, there is still great asymmetry of power according to the countries’ economic and political development. It also emphasizes how policy diffusion from High Income Countries (HICs) to Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) have had flaws at understanding their political, economic, and cultural backgrounds while they are pursuing knowledge translation. Achieving a fair global health policy diffusion of ideas would imply a call for a renewal on political elites worldwide at coping global health politics. Accordingly, moving towards fairness in disseminating global health ideas should be driven by politics not only as one of the social determinants of health, but the main determinant of health and well-being among—and within—societies. PMID:25114949

  13. Has Political Science Ignored Religion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettell, Steven

    2012-01-01

    A common complaint from political scientists involved in the study of religion is that religious issues have been largely overlooked by political science. Through a content analysis of leading political science and sociology journals from 2000 to 2010, this article considers the extent of this claim. The results show that political science…

  14. Political Speeches and Discourse Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffner, Christina

    1996-01-01

    Argues that any political action is prepared, controlled and influenced by language. Notes that the study of language has become more central to academic disciplines concerned with politics. Political scientists focus on the consequences of political decisions and actions for a society, whereas linguists concentrate on the linguistic structures…

  15. Sunlight upon a Dark Sky Haiti's Urban Poor Responds to Socio-Political and Socio-Cultural Conflicts: A Case Study of the Grande Ravine Community Human Rights Council

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimmett, Deborah Lynn

    2010-01-01

    This case study investigates the organizational characteristics of a Haitian grassroots community human rights council (CHRC) that emerged as a response to three politically motivated massacres. The impromptu grassroots response of this poor urban community is at the core of the following research question investigated in this study: "What…

  16. A benign cultured colon adenoma bears three genetically altered colon cancer oncogenes, but progresses to tumorigenicity and transforming growth factor-beta independence without inactivating the p53 tumor suppressor gene.

    PubMed Central

    Markowitz, S D; Myeroff, L; Cooper, M J; Traicoff, J; Kochera, M; Lutterbaugh, J; Swiriduk, M; Willson, J K

    1994-01-01

    We describe the spontaneous progression of a colon adenoma cell line to tumorigenicity and growth factor independence. This system allows direct comparison of biologic stages of malignant progression with alterations of colon cancer suppressor genes and oncogenes. VACO-235, a human colon adenoma cell line, is at early passages nontumorigenic in the nude mouse, unable to grow in soft agar, growth stimulated by serum and EGF, and growth inhibited by TGF-beta. VACO-235 daughter passages 93 and higher have in culture spontaneously progressed to being weakly tumorigenic, but retain all other growth characteristics of VACO-235 early passages. A mouse xenograft from late passage VACO-235 was reestablished in culture as the granddaughter cell line, VACO-411. VACO-411 is highly tumorigenic, clones in soft agar, and is unresponsive to serum, EGF, and TGF-beta. Early passage VACO-235 bears a mutant K-ras allele, bears only mutant APC alleles, expresses no DCC transcripts, and expresses only wild type p53 transcripts. VACO-411 retains the identical genotype, still expressing only wild type p53. Colonic cells after ras mutation, APC mutation, and DCC inactivation remain nontumorigenic and growth factor dependent. Malignant progression involves at least two additional steps, and in VACO-411 can proceed by a novel pathway not requiring p53 inactivation. Images PMID:8132740

  17. "Show me" bioethics and politics.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Myra J

    2007-10-01

    Missouri, the "Show Me State," has become the epicenter of several important national public policy debates, including abortion rights, the right to choose and refuse medical treatment, and, most recently, early stem cell research. In this environment, the Center for Practical Bioethics (formerly, Midwest Bioethics Center) emerged and grew. The Center's role in these "cultural wars" is not to advocate for a particular position but to provide well researched and objective information, perspective, and advocacy for the ethical justification of policy positions; and to serve as a neutral convener and provider of a public forum for discussion. In this article, the Center's work on early stem cell research is a case study through which to argue that not only the Center, but also the field of bioethics has a critical role in the politics of public health policy.

  18. Hezbollah: Armed Resistance to Political Participation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    ability to build upon existing political and cultural organizations.13 Francesca Polletta and James Jasper focus on collective identity within social...International Journal 3, no 1, (1998), 23–4. 14 Francesca Polletta and James M. Jasper , “Collective Identity and Social Movements,” Annual Review of...Goodwin, James M. Jasper , and Francesca Polletta, “Introduction: Why Emotions Matter” in Rethinking Social Movements: Structure, Meaning, and Emotion

  19. The New Right and family politics.

    PubMed

    Somerville, J

    1992-05-01

    Political concern for the family has historically been intermittent; the present context is that there are considerable consequences for individuals, families, and personal life. Socioeconomic and cultural changes brought the rise of the New Right; The Thatcher (UK) and Reagan (US) administrations were committed to strengthening the traditional family. The emergence of the family as a social problem and the political agenda are discussed. The costs of liberalism were felt in a recessionary economy. The US political agenda of Carter to hold a White House Conference on the American Family never materialized. Reagan used the restoration of the traditional American family as a way to get the economy back on its feet. Moral crusaders and the new evangelical Christian movement merged with the political right; the "Gang of Four" (Republican Party right) politicians involved morally conservative communities normally outside the political area into the New Right. Grass roots organizations were mobilized on the Right. The British situation is explained; differences existed in that there were no antiabortion and moral lobby groups tied to the Right although their influence was felt. Pressure group politics is relatively novel to Britain. The Moral Majority in the US and right wing pressure groups on the Tory government are but 1 part of the New Right; it is characterized as populist, proclaiming the Radical Conservatism of Adam Smith and Edmund Burke. The approach in this article is to show the complex interactions of theory, biography, and public opinion in the practical politics of the New Right. Policy outcomes are not predictable because of ideological differences in New Right attitudes toward the family. The attitudes of the moral order and the family is exemplified in the work of Roger Scruton's neoconservative stand on social order, Robert Nozick's Kantian proposition that human beings are ends with natural inviolable rights of individual freedom, Hayak and Friedman

  20. Politics in evaluation: Politically responsive evaluation in high stakes environments.

    PubMed

    Azzam, Tarek; Levine, Bret

    2015-12-01

    The role of politics has often been discussed in evaluation theory and practice. The political influence of the situation can have major effects on the evaluation design, approach and methods. Politics also has the potential to influence the decisions made from the evaluation findings. The current study focuses on the influence of the political context on stakeholder decision making. Utilizing a simulation scenario, this study compares stakeholder decision making in high and low stakes evaluation contexts. Findings suggest that high stakes political environments are more likely than low stakes environments to lead to reduced reliance on technically appropriate measures and increased dependence on measures better reflect the broader political environment.

  1. Corporate Philanthropy, Political Influence, and Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Fooks, Gary J.; Gilmore, Anna B.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Framework Convention of Tobacco Control (FCTC) provides a basis for nation states to limit the political effects of tobacco industry philanthropy, yet progress in this area is limited. This paper aims to integrate the findings of previous studies on tobacco industry philanthropy with a new analysis of British American Tobacco's (BAT) record of charitable giving to develop a general model of corporate political philanthropy that can be used to facilitate implementation of the FCTC. Method Analysis of previously confidential industry documents, BAT social and stakeholder dialogue reports, and existing tobacco industry document studies on philanthropy. Results The analysis identified six broad ways in which tobacco companies have used philanthropy politically: developing constituencies to build support for policy positions and generate third party advocacy; weakening opposing political constituencies; facilitating access and building relationships with policymakers; creating direct leverage with policymakers by providing financial subsidies to specific projects; enhancing the donor's status as a source of credible information; and shaping the tobacco control agenda by shifting thinking on the importance of regulating the market environment for tobacco and the relative risks of smoking for population health. Contemporary BAT social and stakeholder reports contain numerous examples of charitable donations that are likely to be designed to shape the tobacco control agenda, secure access and build constituencies. Conclusions and Recommendations Tobacco companies' political use of charitable donations underlines the need for tobacco industry philanthropy to be restricted via full implementation of Articles 5.3 and 13 of the FCTC. The model of tobacco industry philanthropy developed in this study can be used by public health advocates to press for implementation of the FCTC and provides a basis for analysing the political effects of charitable giving in other

  2. Political Status of Puerto Rico: Options for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-23

    Rico’s Political Status, Revista del Colegio de Abogados de Puerto Rico, vol. 37, August 1976, p. 493. 38 Juan M. Garcia Passalacqua, “The 1993...the following articles: Juan M. Garcia Passalacqua, “The 1993 Plebiscite in Puerto Rico: A First Step to Decolonization?,” Current History, vol. 93...of votes for independence calculated by CRS based on data presented in: Arturo Morales Carrion , Puerto Rico: A Political and Cultural History, (New

  3. Political Status of Puerto Rico: Options for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-07

    Rico’s Political Status, Revista del Colegio de Abogados de Puerto Rico, vol. 37, August 1976, p. 493. 46 Juan M. Garcia Passalacqua, “The 1993...learned see the following articles: Juan M. Garcia Passalacqua, “The 1993 Plebiscite in Puerto Rico: A First Step to Decolonization?,” Current History...data presented in: Arturo Morales Carrion , Puerto Rico: A Political and Cultural History, (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., Inc., 1983), p. 306. [Total

  4. Murder, political resources, and women's political success.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, David; Paxton, Pamela M; Jackson, Aubrey L; Malone, Chad A

    2013-03-01

    This analysis tests overlooked sociological hypotheses about women's presence in the state legislatures and the House of Representatives. Stereotypes about women suggest that shifts in social conditions affect these political outcomes by making such stereotypes more or less salient. Findings indicate that beliefs about female competencies-such as women's purported unwillingness to endorse violent solutions-should reduce support for female candidates when increases in violent crime create demands for increasingly severe punishments. Since women also are typecast as being more protective of vulnerable populations than males, states with larger minority populations should have additional women in both legislatures. Pooled time-series models based on 1127 state-years show that fewer women were present in the state legislatures or in state delegations to the House after increases in the murder rates. States with larger minority populations, however, had more women in these two legislative bodies. Our results support claims that under researched social conditions produce political climates that either benefit or harm women who seek these offices.

  5. Astronomy and political theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campion, Nicholas

    2011-06-01

    This paper will argue that astronomical models have long been applied to political theory, from the use of the Sun as a symbol of the emperor in Rome to the application of Copernican theory to the needs of absolute monarchy. We will begin with consideration of astral divination (the use of astronomy to ascertain divine intentions) in the ancient Near East. Particular attention will be paid to the use of Newton's discovery that the universe operates according to a single set of laws in order to support concepts of political quality and eighteenth century Natural Rights theory. We will conclude with consideration of arguments that the discovery of the expanding, multi-galaxy universe, stimulated political uncertainty in the 1930s, and that photographs of the Earth from Apollo spacecraft encouraged concepts of the `global village'.

  6. Political participation of registered nurses.

    PubMed

    Vandenhouten, Christine L; Malakar, Crystalmichelle L; Kubsch, Sylvia; Block, Derryl E; Gallagher-Lepak, Susan

    2011-08-01

    Level of political participation and factors contributing to participation were measured among Midwest RNs (n = 468) via an online survey (Cronbach's α = .95). Respondents reported engaging in primarily "low cost" activities (e.g., voting, discussing politics, and contacting elected officials), with fewer reporting speaking at public gatherings, participating in demonstrations, and membership in nursing organizations. Psychological engagement was most predictive (p < .001) of political participation with the dimensions of political interest, political efficacy, and political information/knowledge highly significant (p < .001). Resources (time/money/civic skills) significantly contributed to political participation (p < .001). Less than half (40%) felt they could impact local decisions, and fewer (32%) felt they could impact state or national government decisions. Most respondents (80%) indicated their nursing courses lacked political content and did not prepare them for political participation. Findings showed that nurse educators and leaders of professional nursing organizations need to model and cultivate greater psychological engagement among students and nurses.

  7. Cross-Cultural Dialogics: Bakhtinian Theory and Second Language Audience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaub, Mark

    This paper outlines the possible impact of Bakhtinian theory concept in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) instruction. Bakhtin views on the culturally and politically embedded nature of language and addressivity and answerability are ideal for discussion of cross-cultural communication. His cultural and political context are inseparable from an…

  8. Rhetoric and Cultural Explanation: A Discussion with Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipiora, Phillip; Atwill, Janet

    1990-01-01

    Recounts an interview with cultural critic Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak. Explains that the study of cultural politics is an examination of how politics devises cultural explanations for managing crises. Argues that the composition theory/practice distinction is artificial. Suggests that mediation of two positions often favors one side or the other.…

  9. Extending the the behavioral immune system to political psychology: are political conservatism and disgust sensitivity really related?

    PubMed

    Tybur, Joshua M; Merriman, Leslie A; Hooper, Ann E Caldwell; McDonald, Melissa M; Navarrete, Carlos David

    2010-10-26

    Previous research suggests that several individual and cultural level attitudes, cognitions, and societal structures may have evolved to mitigate the pathogen threats posed by intergroup interactions. It has been suggested that these anti-pathogen defenses are at the root of conservative political ideology. Here, we test a hypothesis that political conservatism functions as a pathogen-avoidance strategy. Across three studies, we consistently find no relationship between sensitivity to pathogen disgust and multiple measures of political conservatism. These results are contrasted with theoretical perspectives suggesting a relationship between conservatism and pathogen avoidance, and with previous findings of a relationship between conservatism and disgust sensitivity.

  10. Albert Einstein and Friedrich Dessauer: Political Views and Political Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goenner, Hubert

    In this case study I compare the political views of the physicists Albert Einstein and Friedrich Dessauer between the first and second world wars, and I investigate their translation into concrete political practice. Both departed from their roles as experts in physics in favor of political engagement. The essence of Einstein's political practice seems to have been a form of political participation in exerting moral influence on people and organizations through public declarations and appeals in isolation from political mass movements. Dessauer exerted political influence both through public office (as a member of Parliament for the Catholic Center Party) and by acquiring a newspaper. The different political practice of both Einstein and Dessauer were unsuccessful in thwarting the Nazi takeover.

  11. The Mexican American Political Conference Urges Participation in National Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcelo, Cosme Juan, Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Participants of the second semiannual meeting of the Arizona Mexican American Political Conference, held in Tucson on September 24, 1977, discussed the Mexican American influence and involvement in local, state, and national politics. (NQ)

  12. 9 CFR 354.25 - Political activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND... licenses, to take an active part in political management or in political campaigns. Political activity...

  13. Culture and Difference. Critical Perspectives on the Bicultural Experience in the United States. Critical Studies in Education and Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darder, Antonia, Ed.

    The teaching and politics of cultural difference and identity are explored in these essays, which examine the possibilities of living with cultural differences through new ethical and pedagogical frameworks. The following chapters are included: (1) "Introduction. The Politics of Biculturalism: Culture and Difference in the Formation of…

  14. Counselors, Not Political Agitators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drapela, Victor J.

    1974-01-01

    This article centers around the relationship of counselors to the social order and political system of this country. The author questions the basic premise that social alienation is a natural outcome of the American system. A response by Harold J. Adams follows. (Author)

  15. Biology and Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiting, Pat

    1977-01-01

    A state representative from Oregon uses his state as example for political action regarding critical sociobiological issues having great bearing on world ecosystems: pollution, energy-resource allocation, and population density. Discusses ozone depletion, use of fluorocarbons, and the Oregon Energy Policy. Suggests methods of involving educators.…

  16. Imaging and Political Packaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leidman, Mary Beth

    This document looks at advertising and political commercials in radio. When placing an advertisement, in any media in general and radio in particular, one takes into consideration qualitative and quantitative data: how many people are listening, and who they are, and what level of education they have attained. Listeners have extremely well…

  17. Librarians as Political Activists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manheimer, Ethel

    1981-01-01

    Argues that librarians should become politically involved in order to support their library systems. The work of public librarians in Berkeley to get a special tax referendum passed is described, as well as the experiences of school librarians in Contra Costa County in organizing to protect their program. (BK)

  18. The Politics of Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, David; Jones, Jeffery M.

    2005-01-01

    After decades of debate inside the educational community, literacy policy has recently moved to the larger stage of national politics. Prior to 1997 no federal bill had specifically addressed child literacy as an issue. But in the 2000 presidential campaign, George W. Bush regularly touted his record on literacy, and he and his wife Laura, a…

  19. Conscience and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Richard G.

    1984-01-01

    The meaning and understanding of conscience in political thought are examined. The problem of distinguishing apparent and real conscience and private and public judgment is illustrated by contrasting the acts of conscience of Socrates and Thomas More with the rejection of private judgment against the state in Hobbes and Locke. (RM)

  20. The politics of insight

    PubMed Central

    Salvi, Carola; Cristofori, Irene; Grafman, Jordan; Beeman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that liberals and conservatives differ in cognitive style. Liberals are more flexible, and tolerant of complexity and novelty, whereas conservatives are more rigid, are more resistant to change, and prefer clear answers. We administered a set of compound remote associate problems, a task extensively used to differentiate problem-solving styles (via insight or analysis). Using this task, several researches have proven that self-reports, which differentiate between insight and analytic problem-solving, are reliable and are associated with two different neural circuits. In our research we found that participants self-identifying with distinct political orientations demonstrated differences in problem-solving strategy. Liberals solved significantly more problems via insight instead of in a step-by-step analytic fashion. Our findings extend previous observations that self-identified political orientations reflect differences in cognitive styles. More specifically, we show that type of political orientation is associated with problem-solving strategy. The data converge with previous neurobehavioural and cognitive studies indicating a link between cognitive style and the psychological mechanisms that mediate political beliefs. PMID:26810954

  1. Learning Linguistic Politeness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byon, Andrew Sangpil

    2004-01-01

    American KFL (Korean as a foreign language) students' communicative success depends to a large extent on their ability to express interpersonal meanings with target-language resources. However, information regarding how KFL students acquire, or fail to learn linguistic politeness through classroom learning is scarce. The nature of this study is…

  2. Manual on Political Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schakel, Minnekus

    This guide offers teachers and senior high school students the simple facts of how he can make a difference in the operation of the two-party system in the United States at the precinct level. It also attempts to show that students, teachers, the school curriculum, and our American political structure definitely need large numbers of high school…

  3. Political Communication Yearbook 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Keith R., Ed.; And Others

    Focusing on current scholarship in the evolving field of political communication, this publication is organized in three sections. Part 1, "Current Perspectives on the Spiral of Silence," features essays by Charles T. Salmon and F. Gerald Kline, Klaus Merten, Carroll J. Glynn and Jack M. McLeod, and a response by the theory's original…

  4. Politics of Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bessant, Bob; Spaull, Andrew

    This book is concerned with examining how the processes involved in decision-making at the political and administrative levels have affected the school systems in Australia over the years since World War I. Schooling is distinguished from education in that schooling may well provide the individual with an introduction to an education, but it is…

  5. JPRS Report, Political Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    leadership, while rejecting the former peremptory bureaucratic style of operation and administration. It is necessary also to refrain completely... maternity leaves and child care leaves, longer vacations, financed by centralized funds and enterprise funds, for mothers of large families and single...shortcomings, a radically modified style of party leader- ship, and better methods of exerting ideological and political influence on economic and social

  6. Plants, People, and Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galston, Arthur W.

    1970-01-01

    Advocates that some established botanists should become involved in social and political problems to which botanical expertise is relevant. Discusses food production in relation to world population growth, indicating problems on which botanical knowledge and research should be brought to bear. Discusses herbicides and plant growth regulators as…

  7. Politics and Professional Advancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Stanley; Nevitte, Neil; Lichter, S. Robert

    2005-01-01

    Apparently, the department of agriculture is the last bastion for ideological pluralism in the modern American academy. Almost everywhere else, according to research by Stanley Rothman et al., a monolithic liberal orthodoxy holds sway, rewarding its own and conferring career disadvantage upon scholars deemed politically inconvenient. As his…

  8. Lifelong Learning and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Penelope L.

    1979-01-01

    States that community colleges are in a good position to be centers of lifelong education and that adult educators must engage in politics in order to promote learning opportunities for adults. Suggests legislative, administrative, judicial, and electoral strategies for adult educators to use in influencing policymakers to support lifelong…

  9. Practical Politics. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Dept. of State, Columbus.

    The 12 lessons on practical politics have been designed to help high school classroom teachers in Ohio develop and implement educational programs on citizen participation and, specifically, on voting. Objectives are to familiarize students with Ohio voting and registration laws and procedures, to introduce them to voting equipment, to acquaint…

  10. Politics of aviation fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vivent, Jacques

    1922-01-01

    In short, the "politics of aviation" lies in a few propositions: the need of having as large a number of fields as possible and of sufficient area; the utilization of the larger part of the existing military fields; the selection of uncultivated or unproductive fields, whenever technical conditions permit; ability to disregard (save in exceptional cases) objections of an agricultural nature.

  11. Unexplored Dimensions of 'Political' in the Politics of Education Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirst, Michael W.; Wirt, Fred

    Recent analyses of the linkages between policy analysis and politics suggests that contemporary focus on the first had been poorly attenuated to the theoretical needs of the second. This paper specifies the kinds of research in educational politics that should ensue if the politics-of-education field is to become less oriented to specific policies…

  12. Clean Air Now: Political Issues. Comparing Political Experiences, Experimental Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Judith A.; Lazarus, Stuart

    The fourth unit to the second-semester "Comparing Political Experiences" course focuses on a specific, controversial, political issue. Using a documentary approach, this unit analyzes the concept of political change by examining the changes in Riverside, California, as that community confronts the issue of smog. The unit is divided into…

  13. Practicing Politics: Female Political Scientists as Candidates for Elective Office

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrell, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, University of Oklahoma political science professor Cindy Simon Rosenthal was elected mayor of Norman, Oklahoma, after having served as a member of its city council. Was her activity unique within the political science profession among female political scientists? Her election stimulated the curiosity of some of us in the…

  14. Disability, culture and the U.N. convention.

    PubMed

    Bickenbach, Jerome E

    2009-01-01

    Is the universality of human rights, such as those set out in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, incompatible with therapeutic strategies of respecting cultural differences? I show that universalism is essential to the notion of human rights, as well as the rarely explained, political slogan of 'the rights approach to disability'. Similarly, culture responsiveness is commonly defended by therapists. I argue that the conflict between universalism of rights and cultural sensitivity exist only if these positions are expressed in extreme form: rights absolutism and cultural relativity. If more sensibly spelled out--in the form of progressive realisation of rights and situational sensitivity of difference--there is no conflict at all. Indeed, these more reasonable positions are mutually supportive. I conclude that, given resource and other constraints, the realisation of human rights will always be a matter of political negotiation, and that a social commitment to equality demands that we ensure that only transparent, fully-informed and fully-participatory procedures, respectful of difference [are employed]. These principles should guide us when we have to make hard choices in the implementation of human rights.

  15. The Study of Educational Politics. 1994 Commemorative Yearbook of the Politics of Education Association (1969-1994). Education Policy Perspectives Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scribner, Jay D., Ed.; Layton, Donald H., Ed.

    This book surveys major trends in the politics of education over the last 25 years. Chapters synthesize political and policy developments at local, national, and state levels in the United States, as well as in the international arena. The chapters examine the emerging micropolitics of education and policy-analysis, cultural, and feminist studies.…

  16. Mass Media and Political Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewellen, James R.

    1976-01-01

    Research reviews and statistical analysis of a specific study suggest that the mass media play a direct role in the political socialization of adolescents insofar as overt political behavior is concerned. (Author/AV)

  17. A Model of Political Violence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    A Model of Political Violence Michael W. Fowler1 Abstract: Insurgencies continue to proliferate around the globe. While U.S. political and...groups do not rebel. This study proposes a model to explain the intrastate political violence of insurgency. While primarily focused upon insurgency...the model can be used for all types of political violence . This study presents a model that uses a holistic approach to the study of violence

  18. [In search of politics in knowledge production. A plea for a historical-political epistemology].

    PubMed

    Roelcke, Volker

    2010-06-01

    Knowledge production has an intrinsic political dimension. Starting from this presupposition, it is argued that the systematic integration of and reflection on the political dimension is necessary for an adequate understanding of historical processes of knowledge production in the sciences. The consecutive plea for a historical-political epistemology proceeds in two steps: First, it is illustrated that in a number of recent historical science study cases, the political dimension is frequently marginal, or even absent. After a short discussion of previous theoretical concepts to describe the impact of politics for the production of scientific knowledge, an approach is sketched which builds on Hans-Jörg Rheinberger's historical epistemology and Bruno Latour's symmetrical anthropology. It is argued that in addition to Rheinberger's program to describe epistemic systems, the political dimension is intrinsic to three stages of the process of data production: First to an initial phase which consists in the arrangement socio-technical configurations to produce new evidence. Here, factors such as the culturally shaped perception and evaluation of "relevant" problems, as well as the perception of career resources have to be taken into account. Second, the political dimension is relevant in view of the continuous re-adjustments of the configuration of epistemic systems, e.g., towards newly available financial, technical, or intellectual resources and "relevant" challenges from outside the system. Thirdly, the data produced and represented by epistemic systems--"evidence"--are yet in need of interpretation. This process is in itself imbued with continuously shifting mechanisms of selecting and creating hierarchies amongst the pool of available data.

  19. American medicine and the politics of race.

    PubMed

    Bloche, M Gregg

    2005-01-01

    Straw men play a major role in the debate over racial disparity in American medicine. Most have been deployed by the disparities-denying right, but progressives intent on "outing" racism have sent forth their share. This essay flushes out the straw men while attempting to understand the competing moral premises that drive the politics of health care disparity. At bottom, arguments about the scope of disparity and discrimination in medical care are disputes about the appropriate scope of personal responsibility for life circumstances. Further research into the factors that correlate with racial differences in health care can shed light on the circumstances that bring about these differences. Whether these circumstances, once understood, should be deemed acceptable is a moral and political matter, and sharp differences over the scope of personal and public responsibility for these circumstances are inevitable. Such disagreements, however, distract us from efforts to reach common ground solutions to agreed-upon inequities in health care.

  20. The Rebirth of Political Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, Richard G.; Hepburn, Mary A.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that research on political socialization began in the late 1950s and died a premature death in the 1970s. Discusses the field's origins and downfall, and predicts a rebirth in a new and sustainable form. Outlines changes in secondary school political science education and political socialization research in other nations. (CFR)

  1. The Politics of Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claxton, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper, which was given as the Dudley Allen Sargent lecture at the 2012 conference of the National Association for Kinesiology and Physical Education in Higher Education, discusses the politics of physical education. It examines how both national politics and local/campus politics affect the discipline. Drawing from the history of national…

  2. The political reference point: How geography shapes political identity

    PubMed Central

    Feinberg, Matthew; Tullett, Alexa M.; Mensch, Zachary; Hart, William; Gottlieb, Sara

    2017-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that how individuals identify on the political spectrum–whether liberal, conservative, or moderate–has a universal meaning when it comes to policy stances and voting behavior. But, does political identity mean the same thing from place to place? Using data collected from across the U.S. we find that even when people share the same political identity, those in “bluer” locations are more likely to support left-leaning policies and vote for Democratic candidates than those in “redder” locations. Because the meaning of political identity is inconsistent across locations, individuals who share the same political identity sometimes espouse opposing policy stances. Meanwhile, those with opposing identities sometimes endorse identical policy stances. Such findings suggest that researchers, campaigners, and pollsters must use caution when extrapolating policy preferences and voting behavior from political identity, and that animosity toward the other end of the political spectrum is sometimes misplaced. PMID:28207906

  3. The political reference point: How geography shapes political identity.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Matthew; Tullett, Alexa M; Mensch, Zachary; Hart, William; Gottlieb, Sara

    2017-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that how individuals identify on the political spectrum-whether liberal, conservative, or moderate-has a universal meaning when it comes to policy stances and voting behavior. But, does political identity mean the same thing from place to place? Using data collected from across the U.S. we find that even when people share the same political identity, those in "bluer" locations are more likely to support left-leaning policies and vote for Democratic candidates than those in "redder" locations. Because the meaning of political identity is inconsistent across locations, individuals who share the same political identity sometimes espouse opposing policy stances. Meanwhile, those with opposing identities sometimes endorse identical policy stances. Such findings suggest that researchers, campaigners, and pollsters must use caution when extrapolating policy preferences and voting behavior from political identity, and that animosity toward the other end of the political spectrum is sometimes misplaced.

  4. Politics, religions, and grief: the cases of American spiritualism and the Deuteronomic reform in Israel.

    PubMed

    Klass, Dennis; Goss, Robert

    2002-11-01

    The article is a contribution to the task of developing a cross-cultural model of grief. It shows that grief narratives can be complexly interwoven with the religious and political narratives of the culture. Two political reforms in which religious narratives figured prominently are given as case examples: 19th-century Spiritualism in North America and the Deuteronomic reform in 7th-century BCE Israel. Similarities and differences between the two are discussed. The article concludes that an adequate cross-cultural model of grief must be capable of explaining how a particular grief narrative relates to the politics and religious narratives in which it is set.

  5. East Europe Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs, No. 2167

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-15

    progress on the road to universal happiness. The fascination of such a vision of progress has been shown both in practical activity and in the created...the following about a papal address given in Puebla (Mexico) in 1979: "It is a disappointing speech. The pope seems to ask the priests to limit...this continent ( Puebla , Mexico, 1979). This is the period in which he criticized the most harshly the leftwing political "outgrowths" that claimed

  6. Malala and the politics of global iconicity.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    The article presents a case analysis of Malala Yousafzai's transformation into a global injustice icon after she was shot in 2012 by the Pakistani Taliban for advocating for girls' right to education. The analysis focuses on the political aspects of this process and is divided into three parts. The first looks at factors that facilitated Malala's iconization as she was undergoing medical treatment and was unable to participate in her iconization. The second part starts when Malala enters the global public sphere and begins to actively contribute to the iconization process. The third part identifies de-iconizing resistance to Malala from Pakistani actors who see her iconization as a symbolic colonization in which Malala has become a vehicle of the West. Theoretically, the article is located within cultural sociology, but expands it in a political and global direction.

  7. Tuition Tax Credits and Vouchers: Political Finance Alternatives Rather than Rational Alternatives to Education Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Robert G.

    This paper describes the use of tuition tax credits and vouchers as political alternatives of choice and competition in a progressive society. School and public administration theorists identify two distinct finance models: the rational and the political. The first part of this paper examines and describes these two models. The next part…

  8. Gramsci's Challenge to the Politics of the Left in 'Our Times.'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allman, Paula; Wallis, John

    1995-01-01

    Argues that radical education and leftist political practice have misread Gramsci, claiming him for inspiration while advocating approaches to which he was opposed. Proposes that political projects be based anew on Gramsci's core concepts: the contingent/provisional/conjectural, the progressive, alliances, and the role of the party. (SK)

  9. Observing Political Systems: Political Systems, Unit One. Comparing Political Experiences, Experimental Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Judith A.; Patrick, John J.

    This first of three units of "Comparing Political Experiences", a first-semester course, provides 18 activities which introduce 12th-grade students to political system concepts that they will work with in-depth in succeeding units. The activities and readings, divided into seven sections, stress the development of political knowledge,…

  10. Political dimensions of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Blewett, N

    1988-01-01

    World political aspects and the example of Australia as a national political response to AIDS are presented. Global policy on AIDS is influenced by the fact that the AIDS epidemic is the 1st to be largely predictable, that long lag times occur between intervention and measurable events, and by the prompt, professional leadership of WHO, lead by Dr. J. Mann. WHO began a Global Programme on AIDS in 1987, modelled on the responses of Canada and Australia. A world summit of Ministers of Health was convened in January 1988. These moves generated a response qualified by openness, cooperation, hope and common sense. The AIDS epidemic calls for unprecedented involvement of politicians: they must coordinate medical knowledge with community action, deal with public fear, exert strong, rational leadership and avoid quick, appealing counterproductive responses. 3 clear directions must be taken to deal with the epidemic: 1) strong research and education campaigns; 2) close contact with political colleagues, interest groups and the community; 3) a national strategy which enjoins diverse interest groups, with courage, rationality and compassion. In Australia, the AIDS response began with the unwitting infection of 3 infants by blood transfusion. A public information campaign emphasizing a penetrating TV ad campaign was instituted in 1987. Policy discussions were held in all parliamentary bodies. The AIDS epidemic demands rapid, creative responses, a break from traditions in health bureaucracy, continual scrutiny of funding procedures and administrative arrangements. In practical terms in Australia, this meant establishing a special AIDS branch within the Health Advancement Division of the Community Health Department. AIDS issues must remain depoliticized to defuse adversary politics and keep leaders in a united front.

  11. On Political War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    34 Gregory E Treverton, Covert Action: The Limits of Intervention in the Postwar World, New York NY Basic Books, 1987, p. 13. The author is speaking of the...surveyed. only about half supported the regime in religion: 264 were set down as neutral, and 157 as definitely hostile." Mary Bateson , ed., "’A Collection...still inform Anglo-American political warfare methods. Treverton. Gregory E Covert Action: The Limits of Intervention in the Postwar World. New York

  12. Islam through the History and Culture of Pakistan. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad Project, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, William E.

    This project introduces a syllabus for studying comparative politics among Canada, Pakistan, and Japan. Students learn that comparative politics provides an understanding of how different political systems operate and the importance of culture in understanding politics. Three functions are addressed in the course: system functions, process…

  13. Cyberdemocracy and Online Politics: A New Model of Interactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferber, Paul; Foltz, Franz; Pugliese, Rudy

    2007-01-01

    Building on McMillan's two-way model of interactivity, this study presents a three-way model of interactive communication, which is used to assess political Web sites' progress toward the ideals of cyberdemocracy and the fostering of public deliberation. Results of a 3-year study of state legislature Web sites, an analysis of the community…

  14. The Politics of Reform at Stephen K. Hayt School, Chicago.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joravsky, Ben

    1991-01-01

    Three years after the passage of the Chicago Public Schools Reform Act, Stephen K. Hayt School in Chicago (Illinois) has shown some successes, but neighborhood politics have hampered progress as ethnic groups and others dispute issues. In addition, cuts in the citywide school budget left teachers scrambling for supplies. (JB)

  15. Is the political animal politically ignorant? Applying evolutionary psychology to the study of political attitudes.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Michael Bang; Aarøe, Lene

    2012-12-20

    As evidenced by research in evolutionary psychology, humans have evolved sophisticated psychological mechanisms tailored to solve enduring adaptive problems of social life. Many of these social problems are political in nature and relate to the distribution of costs and benefits within and between groups. In that sense, evolutionary psychology suggests that humans are, by nature, political animals. By implication, a straightforward application of evolutionary psychology to the study of public opinion seems to entail that modern individuals find politics intrinsically interesting. Yet, as documented by more than fifty years of research in political science, people lack knowledge of basic features of the political process and the ability to form consistent political attitudes. By reviewing and integrating research in evolutionary psychology and public opinion, we describe (1) why modern mass politics often fail to activate evolved mechanisms and (2) the conditions in which these mechanisms are in fact triggered.

  16. Women in Charge: Politeness and Directives in the Speech of Japanese Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Janet S.

    1992-01-01

    In an examination of power in speech, the linguistic practices of Japanese men and women giving directions to subordinates were studied. Explanations of gender differences are discussed in terms of a general theory of politeness and the culturally specific strategies for encoding politeness and authority in Japanese. (43 references) (Author/LB)

  17. A Politically Liberal Conception of Formal Education in a Developing Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çelik, Rasit

    2016-01-01

    As discussed by John Rawls, in a well-ordered society, a public political culture's wide educational role bears the primary responsibility for developing reasonable individuals for the stability of a politically liberal society. Rawlsian scholars have also focused on the stability and enhancement of developed liberal democratic societies by means…

  18. Chinese Higher Education and Commodity Socialism: The Problem of Political Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayhoe, Ruth

    This paper reviews trends in political education in China and examines implications of the new market emphasis on political education in institutions of higher education. Trends toward increased academic openness and cross fertilization among academic fields after the Cultural Revolution are identified. Reforms during this period are seen to have…

  19. The Politics of Multiculturalism and Bilingual Education: Students and Teachers Caught in the Crossfire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ovando, Carlos J., Ed.; McLaren, Peter, Ed.

    Essays on political issues in multicultural and bilingual education include: "Cultural Recognition and Civil Discourse in Democracy" (Carlos J. Ovando, Peter McLaren); "The Political Life of Language Metaphors in Writings About Diversity in Education" (Sharon Pugh, Ovando, Nicole Schonemann); "Contesting Whiteness:…

  20. Educational Sciences, Morality and Politics: International Educational Congresses in the Early Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Eckhardt

    2004-01-01

    Internationalism became one of the keywords in the international intellectual and political debates at the end of the nineteenth century. As a political, cultural and social movement it also included science and education. The desire for international cooperation and global understanding was caused by the growing economic interdependence in the…

  1. Cold War and the Politics of Comparative Education: The Case of Divided Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Theodor

    This paper deals with the political role and the political self-definition of researchers in the field of comparative education in East and West Germany in the post World War II period. The study addresses some of the general assumptions made about comparative education bridging the gap between cultures but asserts that none of these assumptions…

  2. Personalizing politics: a congruency model of political preference.

    PubMed

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Zimbardo, Philip G

    2004-10-01

    Modern politics become personalized as individual characteristics of voters and candidates assume greater importance in political discourse. Although personalities of candidates capture center stage and become the focus of voters' preferences, individual characteristics of voters, such as their traits and values, become decisive for political choice. The authors' findings reveal that people vote for candidates whose personality traits are in accordance with the ideology of their preferred political party. They also select politicians whose traits match their own traits. Moreover, voters' traits match their own values. The authors outline a congruency model of political preference that highlights the interacting congruencies among voters' self-reported traits and values, voters' perceptions of leaders' personalities, politicians' self-reported traits, and programs of favored political coalitions.

  3. Cross-cultural caregiving and the temporal dimension.

    PubMed

    Escandon, Socorro

    2013-11-01

    The caregiving research literature has explored and documented findings from psychological, clinical, and policy/program perspectives, but little is known regarding the contextual perspectives of caregiving. Temporal factors influence the structure and functioning of the caregiving family. The proposed paradigm adaptation extends a contextual perspective that addresses the exploration of the caregiving process as a temporal, dynamic, progressive process over time, in which decisions made by caregivers may not always be based on observable tasks but, nevertheless, may have important consequences. When cultures cross, attitudes and behaviors are modified, resulting from contact with a different set of values and beliefs. Cross-cultural research aims to explore these changes that take place over time. Future research should consider the inclusion of measures that assess the temporal aspect of caregiving and the acculturation considerations of family caregivers. These measures are especially needed because of the increased influence of international migration, economic globalization, and political conflicts in today's multicultural societies.

  4. Cultural diversity: the intention of nursing.

    PubMed

    Lowe, John; Archibald, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    Nursing in the United States has expressed its intention of being a professional discipline that is culturally diverse. However, after examining the progress in this area, it is evident that nursing's movement toward cultural diversity has been slow and episodic. This article addresses cultural diversity progress in nursing and explores behaviors and actions that could enhance the cultural diversity of nursing.

  5. Coalitions: Organizational, Political, Command & Control Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    position that finds that task cohesion has a modest but reliable correlation with group performance , whereas social cohesion has no reliable correlation with...technological and social perspectives. The most important challenges remain the political commitment, unity of command, cultural heterogeneity and technical and...conditions dans lesquelles les coalitions sont formées sont décrites, considérant coûts et bénéfices d’une telle entreprise . Les propriétés des

  6. Subject and Curriculum in Chile: A Historical Political Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redon, Silvia; Angulo Rasco, J. Félix

    2015-01-01

    In this article, addressing the curriculum will involve analysing and discussing the configuration of a subject, who has developed himself or herself within a historical-political context, in which a dominant culture has reproduced itself through the official curriculum. Bearing in mind such a framework, the text will follow the journey of this…

  7. School Consolidation and the Politics of School Closure across Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karanxha, Zorka; Agosto, Vonzell; Black, William R.; Effiom, Claudius B.

    2013-01-01

    This case involves dilemmas for educational leaders who may face the process of school consolidation brought on by decreased funding and demands for accountability. We highlight the challenges and opportunities to collaborate within and across diverse communities and schools with varying expressions of cultural, political, ethical, and…

  8. Sex, Kids, and Politics. Health Services in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emihovich, Catherine; Herrington, Carolyn D.

    This book examines practical, cultural, and political implications of placing health service programs in public schools, detailing three cases of Florida school districts, where a controversial statewide initiative for health services in schools recently went into effect. The plan supports programs to promote the health of medically underserved…

  9. Staging the Politics of Difference: Homi Bhabha's Critical Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Gary A.; Worsham, Lynn

    1998-01-01

    Presents an interview with postcolonial theorist Homi Bhabha, who sees writing as a highly political activity. Discusses: critical literacy as an essential step toward agency, self-representation, and an effective democracy; the role of postcolonial theory; and cultural difference. (RS)

  10. Culture shock and travelers.

    PubMed

    Stewart, L; Leggat, P A

    1998-06-01

    As travel has become easier and more affordable, the number of people traveling has risen sharply. People travel for many and varied reasons, from the business person on an overseas assignment to backpackers seeking new and exotic destinations. Others may take up residence in different regions, states or countries for family, business or political reasons. Other people are fleeing religious or political persecution. Wherever they go and for whatever reason they go, people take their culture with them. Culture, like language, is acquired innately in early childhood and is then reinforced through formal and complex informal social education into adulthood. Culture provides a framework for interpersonal and social interactions. Therefore, the contact with a new culture is often not the exciting or pleasurable experience anticipated. When immersed in a different culture, people no longer know how to act when faced with disparate value systems. Contact with the unfamiliar culture can lead to anxiety, stress, mental illness and, in extreme cases, physical illness and suicide. "Culture shock" is a term coined by the anthropologist Oberg. It is the shock of the new. It implies that the experience of the new culture is an unpleasant surprise or shock, partly because it is unexpected and partly because it can lead to a negative evaluation of one's own culture. It is also known as cross-cultural adjustment, being that period of anxiety and confusion experienced when entering a new culture. It affects people intellectually, emotionally, behaviorally and physically and is characterized by symptoms of psychological distress. Culture shock affects both adults and children. In travelers or workers who have prolonged sojourns in foreign countries, culture shock may occur not only as they enter the new culture, but also may occur on their return to their original culture. Children may also experience readjustment problems after returning from leading sheltered lives in expatriate

  11. Women's Discourse and Political Communication: A Case Study of Congressperson Patricia Schroeder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Patricia A.

    1993-01-01

    Proposes that Congressperson Patricia Schroeder's discourse, which emphasizes cooperation, context, and personal experience, reflects "a gendered approach" to policymaking. Proposes that Schroeder's voice, as it reflects women's culture, provides direction for vital transformations in political decision making. (NH)

  12. Determination of Glucose Utilization Rates in Cultured Astrocytes and Neurons with [(14)C]deoxyglucose: Progress, Pitfalls, and Discovery of Intracellular Glucose Compartmentation.

    PubMed

    Dienel, Gerald A; Cruz, Nancy F; Sokoloff, Louis; Driscoll, Bernard F

    2017-01-01

    2-Deoxy-D-[(14)C]glucose ([(14)C]DG) is commonly used to determine local glucose utilization rates (CMRglc) in living brain and to estimate CMRglc in cultured brain cells as rates of [(14)C]DG phosphorylation. Phosphorylation rates of [(14)C]DG and its metabolizable fluorescent analog, 2-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)-2-deoxyglucose (2-NBDG), however, do not take into account differences in the kinetics of transport and metabolism of [(14)C]DG or 2-NBDG and glucose in neuronal and astrocytic cells in cultures or in single cells in brain tissue, and conclusions drawn from these data may, therefore, not be correct. As a first step toward the goal of quantitative determination of CMRglc in astrocytes and neurons in cultures, the steady-state intracellular-to-extracellular concentration ratios (distribution spaces) for glucose and [(14)C]DG were determined in cultured striatal neurons and astrocytes as functions of extracellular glucose concentration. Unexpectedly, the glucose distribution spaces rose during extreme hypoglycemia, exceeding 1.0 in astrocytes, whereas the [(14)C]DG distribution space fell at the lowest glucose levels. Calculated CMRglc was greatly overestimated in hypoglycemic and normoglycemic cells because the intracellular glucose concentrations were too high. Determination of the distribution space for [(14)C]glucose revealed compartmentation of intracellular glucose in astrocytes, and probably, also in neurons. A smaller metabolic pool is readily accessible to hexokinase and communicates with extracellular glucose, whereas the larger pool is sequestered from hexokinase activity. A new experimental approach using double-labeled assays with DG and glucose is suggested to avoid the limitations imposed by glucose compartmentation on metabolic assays.

  13. Large-scale gene expression profiling data for the model moss Physcomitrella patens aid understanding of developmental progression, culture and stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Hiss, Manuel; Laule, Oliver; Meskauskiene, Rasa M; Arif, Muhammad A; Decker, Eva L; Erxleben, Anika; Frank, Wolfgang; Hanke, Sebastian T; Lang, Daniel; Martin, Anja; Neu, Christina; Reski, Ralf; Richardt, Sandra; Schallenberg-Rüdinger, Mareike; Szövényi, Peter; Tiko, Theodhor; Wiedemann, Gertrud; Wolf, Luise; Zimmermann, Philip; Rensing, Stefan A

    2014-08-01

    The moss Physcomitrella patens is an important model organism for studying plant evolution, development, physiology and biotechnology. Here we have generated microarray gene expression data covering the principal developmental stages, culture forms and some environmental/stress conditions. Example analyses of developmental stages and growth conditions as well as abiotic stress treatments demonstrate that (i) growth stage is dominant over culture conditions, (ii) liquid culture is not stressful for the plant, (iii) low pH might aid protoplastation by reduced expression of cell wall structure genes, (iv) largely the same gene pool mediates response to dehydration and rehydration, and (v) AP2/EREBP transcription factors play important roles in stress response reactions. With regard to the AP2 gene family, phylogenetic analysis and comparison with Arabidopsis thaliana shows commonalities as well as uniquely expressed family members under drought, light perturbations and protoplastation. Gene expression profiles for P. patens are available for the scientific community via the easy-to-use tool at https://www.genevestigator.com. By providing large-scale expression profiles, the usability of this model organism is further enhanced, for example by enabling selection of control genes for quantitative real-time PCR. Now, gene expression levels across a broad range of conditions can be accessed online for P. patens.

  14. The Impact of Culture on Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedard, Carol; Van Horn, Leigh; Garcia, Viola M.

    2011-01-01

    What can preservice teachers tell us about the impact of culture on literacy? Participants responded to an open-ended survey asking, "How do you think your culture influences what you read and write?" Three themes emerged in their answers: family influence, self-exploration through literacy, and the cultural politics of literacy. Further…

  15. A politics of health glossary

    PubMed Central

    Bambra, C; Fox, D; Scott‐Samuel, A

    2007-01-01

    This glossary reflects a (re‐)emerging awareness within public health of the political dimension of health and health inequalities, and it also attempts to define some of the key concepts from the political science literature in a way that will be of use in future public health analyses. Examples from different domains (healthcare and population health) are provided to highlight how political concepts pervade health. PMID:17568046

  16. Scientists need political literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    Scientists need to sharpen their political literacy to promote public and congressional awareness of science policy issues. This was the message of a panel of politically savvy scientists at a recent workshop at the American Association for the Advancement of Science's annual meeting in Washington, D.C. Researchers can maximize their lobbying efforts by targeting critical points of the legislative and federal funding cycles, the panel said, and by understanding the differences between the science and policy processes.Drastic modifications to the federal budget process this year will influence how much funding flows to research and development. A new feature for FY 1991-1993 is caps on federal expenditure in three areas: defense, foreign aid, and domestic “discretionary” spending. (Most of the agencies that fund geophysics fall into the domestic category.) Money cannot now be transferred from one of these areas to another, said Michael L. Telson, analyst for the House Budget Committee, and loopholes will be “very tough to find.” What is more, non-defense discretionary spending has dropped over a decade from 24% of the budget to the present 15%. Another new requirement is the “pay-as-you-go” system. Under this, a bill that calls for an increase in “entitlement” or other mandatory spending must offset this by higher taxes or by a cut in other spending.

  17. The Politics of Endangered Species.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipscomb, Fran

    1982-01-01

    Presents background information and teaching suggestions about endangered species for social studies teachers. Discusses political processes, economics, current events, and ethics. Lists resource information. (DC)

  18. The pursuit of political will: politicians' motivation and health promotion.

    PubMed

    Zalmanovitch, Yair; Cohen, Nissim

    2015-01-01

    The health promotion literature points out a significant gap between declared health promotion policy and practice. The common assumption is that one of the main obstacles to progress is "political will" and the intersectoral action necessary to create healthy environments. The concept of political will is most frequently invoked to explain a lack of action usually rooted in politicians' lack of personal courage or good sense. While stressing the fact that health and its promotion are profoundly political, we claim that the lack of political will is usually not because politicians have shown insufficient personal courage or good sense. Rather, we suggest that one of the reasons for the gap between the need for health promotion policies and political will derives from politicians' lack of attraction to several aspects associated with this policy area. In many cases, politicians are not attracted to the issue of health promotion because of the unique structural conditions usually associated with this policy domain. Using tools related to public policy theory, we suggest a conceptual framework that explains what those conditions are and answers the question of why politicians seem to lack the political will to undertake the design of health promotion policies.

  19. In the wake of politics: the political and economic construction of fisheries biology, 1860-1970.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Jennifer

    2014-06-01

    As an environmentally focused, applied field science, fisheries biology has recently been marked by its failed promise to enable sustainable exploitation. Fisheries biology's origin through state support raises many questions. How did fisheries biologists get this support? Did political considerations and economic ideals fundamentally shape the science? Why has it been perceived as fundamentally conservation oriented? New evidence indicates the political basis for Thomas Henry Huxley's contention that the deep-sea fisheries were inexhaustible; this essay shows how his influence extended to recent neoliberal resource management solutions. It also explores how fisheries biology acquired the ideal of maximum sustained yield (MSY) via Progressive Era efficiency conservation and German scientific forestry; how American Cold War foreign policy made this ideal paradigmatic of mid to late twentieth-century fisheries biology; and how emerging bioeconomics in the 1950s imposed a troublesome misunderstanding of fisheries biology's earlier mission.

  20. State Political Process Change and Educational Interest Group Political Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Robert E.

    The objective of this study was to determine the influence of changes in New York State political and legislative processes on the political behavior and strategies of education interest groups in seeking State policy change for education. Historical methods were utilized in examining the problem. As interest groups seek their objectives, they…

  1. Busing in Boston: Political Issues. Comparing Political Experiences, Experimental Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Judith A.; Lazarus, Stuart

    Unit two to the second-semester "Comparing Political Experiences" course focuses on a specific controversial political issue: court-ordered busing in Boston. A documentary approach represents the core of instruction in this 12th-grade unit. This approach avoids lengthy narratives of a theoretical approach and yet is more in-depth than…

  2. Mentoring Nurses in Political Skill to Navigate Organizational Politics

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to describe and analyze the correlations between mentoring functions and political skill development among nurses who have earned or are candidates for a Ph.D. or doctorate of nursing practice (DNP) degree. Background. The healthcare system is in flux; future generations of Ph.D. and DNP nurse leaders will be required to demonstrate political acumen. Political skill to navigate organizational politics has had limited research within nursing. Methods. A cross-sectional research design using a web-based survey of 222 nurses who have earned or are candidates for a Ph.D. or DNP. This study utilized two validated tools to measure mentoring functions and political skill. Results. The response rate was 52% (n = 115) of which 86 were Ph.D. and 29 were DNPs. An informal mentoring relationship was described by 62% of the respondents and formal mentoring by 35% of the protégés; only 25% (n = 74) established a mentoring contract. Mentoring score showed significance for total political skill and moderate effect on the networking ability. The mentoring functions of advocacy, career development facilitation, learning facilitation, and friendship were found to correlate significantly with total political skill scores. Conclusions. This study established a benefit for nurses who have earned or are candidates for a Ph.D. or DNP from mentoring to support political skill development. PMID:27777798

  3. Aggregating Political Dimensions: Of the Feasibility of Political Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanin, Francisco Gutierrez; Buitrago, Diana; Gonzalez, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Political indicators are widely used in academic writing and decision making, but remain controversial. This paper discusses the problems related to the aggregation functions they use. Almost always, political indicators are aggregated by weighted averages or summations. The use of such functions is based on untenable assumptions (existence of…

  4. Millennials Talk Politics: A Study of College Student Political Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiesa, Abby; Orlowski, Alexander P.; Levine, Peter; Both, Deborah; Kirby, Emily Hoban; Lopez, Mark Hugo; Marcelo, Karlo Barrios

    2007-01-01

    In 1993, The Charles F. Kettering Foundation published "College Students Talk Politics," a national study conducted by the Harwood Group and based on focus groups on ten American campuses. The study found, among other things, that students considered politics "irrelevant" to their lives and saw little purpose in ever actively participating in the…

  5. Personalizing Politics: A Congruency Model of Political Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Zimbardo, Philip G.

    2004-01-01

    Modern politics become personalized as individual characteristics of voters and candidates assume greater importance in political discourse. Although personalities of candidates capture center stage and become the focus of voters' preferences, individual characteristics of voters, such as their traits and values, become decisive for political…

  6. Mentoring Nurses in Political Skill to Navigate Organizational Politics.

    PubMed

    Montalvo, Wanda; Byrne, Mary W

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to describe and analyze the correlations between mentoring functions and political skill development among nurses who have earned or are candidates for a Ph.D. or doctorate of nursing practice (DNP) degree. Background. The healthcare system is in flux; future generations of Ph.D. and DNP nurse leaders will be required to demonstrate political acumen. Political skill to navigate organizational politics has had limited research within nursing. Methods. A cross-sectional research design using a web-based survey of 222 nurses who have earned or are candidates for a Ph.D. or DNP. This study utilized two validated tools to measure mentoring functions and political skill. Results. The response rate was 52% (n = 115) of which 86 were Ph.D. and 29 were DNPs. An informal mentoring relationship was described by 62% of the respondents and formal mentoring by 35% of the protégés; only 25% (n = 74) established a mentoring contract. Mentoring score showed significance for total political skill and moderate effect on the networking ability. The mentoring functions of advocacy, career development facilitation, learning facilitation, and friendship were found to correlate significantly with total political skill scores. Conclusions. This study established a benefit for nurses who have earned or are candidates for a Ph.D. or DNP from mentoring to support political skill development.

  7. Youth, Life, and Politics: Examining the Everyday in Comparative Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortuoste, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The traditional way of introducing comparative politics to freshmen, which is through the study of institutions, is contrasted with an alternative approach. An everyday-politics approach compares the daily struggles of global youth--how they cope in times of peace and war, and with issues of wealth and poverty, identity, education and employment,…

  8. Material Culture of Greek and Roman Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, James

    In the Greek and Roman worlds, astronomy had a rich material culture. Many objects had practical applications to timekeeping or liberal education or astrological prediction, but many others were meant to express philosophical, religious, or political values.

  9. Powerful politics at the XI International Conference on AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Walters, D J

    1996-01-01

    The XI International Conference on AIDS, held in Vancouver from July 7 to 12, 1996, produced encouraging signs of significant progress in basic, clinical and preventive science in the field of HIV infection and AIDS. The largest conference ever held on the global AIDS epidemic, it featured political and media highlights that served to focus the attention of participants and the public on controversial issues. Such political activity has become an expected part of international AIDS conferences and serves to remind participants and observers of the urgent need to continue the fight against AIDS. PMID:8823217

  10. Political institutions and their historical dynamics.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Mikael; Lundberg, Per

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, political scientists define political institutions deductively. This approach may prevent from discovery of existing institutions beyond the definitions. Here, a principal component analysis was used for an inductive extraction of dimensions in Polity IV data on the political institutions of all nations in the world the last two centuries. Three dimensions of institutions were revealed: core institutions of democracy, oligarchy, and despotism. We show that, historically and on a world scale, the dominance of the core institutions of despotism has first been replaced by a dominance of the core institutions of oligarchy, which in turn is now being followed by an increasing dominance by the core institutions of democracy. Nations do not take steps from despotic, to oligarchic and then to democratic institutions, however. Rather, nations hosting the core democracy institutions have succeeded in historically avoiding both the core institutions of despotism and those of oligarchy. On the other hand, some nations have not been influenced by any of these dimensions, while new institutional combinations are increasingly influencing others. We show that the extracted institutional dimensions do not correspond to the Polity scores for autocracy, "anocracy" and democracy, suggesting that changes in regime types occur at one level, while institutional dynamics work on another. Political regime types in that sense seem "canalized", i.e., underlying institutional architectures can and do vary, but to a considerable extent independently of regime types and their transitions. The inductive approach adds to the deductive regime type studies in that it produces results in line with modern studies of cultural evolution and memetic institutionalism in which institutions are the units of observation, not the nations that acts as host for them.

  11. Political dynamics determined by interactions between political leaders and voters.

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, Michael Lewis; Bier, Asmeret; Backus, George A.; Hills, Richard Guy

    2010-03-01

    The political dynamics associated with an election are typically a function of the interplay between political leaders and voters, as well as endogenous and exogenous factors that impact the perceptions and goals of the electorate. This paper describes an effort by Sandia National Laboratories to model the attitudes and behaviors of various political groups along with that population's primary influencers, such as government leaders. To accomplish this, Sandia National Laboratories is creating a hybrid system dynamics-cognitive model to simulate systems- and individual-level political dynamics in a hypothetical society. The model is based on well-established psychological theory, applied to both individuals and groups within the modeled society. Confidence management processes are being incorporated into the model design process to increase the utility of the tool and assess its performance. This project will enhance understanding of how political dynamics are determined in democratic society.

  12. The Progressive Era.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    The American College of Dentists was founded in 1920 for the purpose of encouraging young dentists to continue study and to apply science to their practices. This ideal emerged in the Progressive Era, which lasted roughly from 1895 to 1920. The animating spirit of this period was that the human condition could be improved and that the way to achieve this was through science and the use of experts working together. The Progressive Era saw inventions, such as automobiles and airplanes, telephone and radio, that required mass production and brought people together. It also spawned many political and legislative innovations that we now take for granted. Among these are the Food and Drug Administration, the Department of Commerce, and the Federal Trade Commission. Workers' compensation and other social protections were introduced, as were city commissions; the income tax; women's suffrage; and initiative, referendum, and recall. Medicine, for the first time, became an effective way to treat disease as it developed a scientific foundation.

  13. Institutionalizing Political and Civic Engagement on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Adam H.

    2015-01-01

    In this quasi-experimental design, I examine the impact of a political engagement program on students, looking at traditional measures of internal efficacy, as well as other areas of political engagement including levels of political knowledge, the development of political skills, and interest in media coverage of politics.

  14. Informed consent in Croatia. A work in progress.

    PubMed

    Vučemilo, Luka; Borovečki, Ana

    2014-07-01

    As Croatia makes the transition from one political system and type of economy to another, there are inevitable social and political changes that have a profound affect on the healthcare system. This article charts some of the progress of change with respect to patients' rights and informed consent.

  15. Technologist's political impotence

    SciTech Connect

    Pletta, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    Scientists and engineers have always improved living standards, but have also generated harmful side-effects which are becoming increasingly threatening. The author cites case histories which include (1) the overloading beyond safe design limits of highways and bridges, (2) the damage to forests and aquatic life from acid rain and irrigated-field runoff, and (3) the failure of certain engineering projects because of regulatory, legislative, or political failures and the lack of participation by scientists and engineers in decision making. Scientists and engineers would serve the public better if they would organize to pursue active leadership roles and if legislators were required to seek their participation and counsel. Scientists and engineers should bear ethical accountability for their professional activity. 9 references.

  16. Political complexity predicts the spread of ethnolinguistic groups

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Thomas E.; Mace, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    Human languages show a remarkable degree of variation in the area they cover. However, the factors governing the distribution of human cultural groups such as languages are not well understood. While previous studies have examined the role of a number of environmental variables the importance of cultural factors has not been systematically addressed. Here we use a geographical information system (GIS) to integrate information about languages with environmental, ecological, and ethnographic data to test a number of hypotheses that have been proposed to explain the global distribution of languages. We show that the degree of political complexity and type of subsistence strategy exhibited by societies are important predictors of the area covered by a language. Political complexity is also strongly associated with the latitudinal gradient in language area, whereas subsistence strategy is not. We argue that a process of cultural group selection favoring more complex societies may have been important in shaping the present-day global distribution of language diversity. PMID:19380740

  17. The politics of earthquake prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    This book gives an account of the politics, scientific and public, generated from the Brady-Spence prediction of a massive earthquake to take place within several years in central Peru. Though the disaster did not happen, this examination of the events serves to highlight American scientific processes and the results of scientific interaction with the media and political bureaucracy.

  18. Political Geography and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Phillip E.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews recent theoretical advances in political geography, particularly those that stress the political conflict behind the production of space. Discusses how this has impacted the study of environmental phenomena such as hazards, human-land relationships, development, and international environmental governance. Suggests ways that political…

  19. Political Kitsch and Educational Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lugg, Catherine A.

    This paper explores "political kitsch," a propaganda that incorporates familiar and easily understood art forms to shape the direction of public policy. Kitsch differs from art in that it is a powerful political construction designed to colonize the receiver's consciousness. It reassures and comforts the receiver through the exploitation…

  20. Informed Questions Paper: Philippine Politics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Encyclopedia Britannica Online . "Philippines." Janet Matthew Information Service. Quest Economics Database. 2002. "Philippines: Arroyo...Guia. "Philippine Political System." ii "Philippines." Encyclopedia Britannica Online . iii Gabriella Montinolo, "Parties and Accountability in the...34 STRATFOR Report. Apr 4, 2002. xi "Philippines." Encyclopedia Britannica Online . xii Luie Tito F. Guia. "Philippine Political System"

  1. The Politics of Star Wars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Lee

    George Lucas's Star Wars trilogy is used as the basis for the creation of a political subtext arising from one of America's most enduring literary myths--the American Adam. That subtext, when translated into a modern political context, pinpoints two central issues to face this democracy in the coming years, as well as a national ambivalence about…

  2. The Sixth "P"--Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Dean

    2013-01-01

    Invitational theory presents the concept of invitations as related to five factors: people, places, policies, programs, and processes (Purkey & Schmidt, 1990). In this article, the author proposes the addition of a sixth "P," politics. The assumption is that without addressing the political aspect of schools and school systems,…

  3. Evaluation as a Political Endeavor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Millard

    The politics of the behavioral modification approach to educational evaluation are examined in this position paper. In recent years the science of behavior modification has become an established political doctrine in professional education. Behavioral objectives, behavior change, performance criteria, and competency-based instruction are just a…

  4. The Politics of Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Political pressure against higher education is nothing new but, as in the broader public square, the discourse seems to have reached a new level of invective, particularly since 9/11. Much has been written about allegations against the academy for its systemic left-leaning political bias in teaching and for protecting, under the banner of academic…

  5. Critical Thinking about Political Commentary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckowski, Jean A.; Lopach, James J.

    2000-01-01

    Argues that political commentary is excellent pedagogical raw material to help secondary students develop critical thinking. Outlines a lesson plan based on comparing the political commentaries of Rush Limbaugh and Will Rogers. Includes suggested evaluation activities, a list of annotated resources, and excerpts from the writings or statements of…

  6. Hiroshima as Politics and History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherwin, Martin J.

    1995-01-01

    Argues that the objections raised to the Enola Gay exhibit are rooted in Cold War politics. Maintains that this historical myopia exemplifies the need for challenging historical inquiry. Characterizes opposition to the exhibit as largely political and discusses demands made to censor exhibit material. (MJP)

  7. Sociobiology, Neurobiology and Political Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Elliott

    Political science and its subfields cannot ignore the work being done in two areas of the life sciences: sociobiology and neurobiology. Current theories of political socialization which suggest that society molds the child will be increasingly affected by sociobiological theory which posits that children operate as independent actors in the…

  8. Politics, Doctrine, and the Airman

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    1921 and General Mitchell’s First Provisional Brigade sunk the Ostfriesland with 2,000-pound bombs. 8 Politically , the success of Mitchell’s bombing......FROM - TO) xx-xx-1998 to xx-xx-1998 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Politics , Doctrine, and the Airman Unclassified 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  9. The Politics of Latino Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leal, David L., Ed.; Meier, Kenneth J., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Education is one of the most important public policy issues facing Latinos in the United States today, but the political dynamics behind Latino school achievement and failure are often misunderstood--and at times, overlooked altogether. In twelve revealing essays, "The Politics of Latino Education" brings together 23 accomplished and…

  10. Creativity, Religiosity, and Political Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zysberg, Leehu; Schenk, Tal

    2013-01-01

    Although theoretically proposed in the literature, the direct associations between political attitudes, religion, and creativity have been scarcely explored. A convenience sample of 123 adults working in Israel filled out questionnaires assessing political-social attitudes, religiosity, and background factors (e.g., age, gender, education, and…

  11. Organizational Political Tactics in Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nejad, Bahareh Azizi; Abbaszadeh, Mir Mohammad Seiied; Hassani, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    The present research aimed to promote understanding of political tactics in organizations. Political behavior in nowadays-complex conditions is a process that the conflicts, contrasts and differences among interested groups are resolved. It means dialogue, attention to different goals in organizations, regarding the interest of different groups,…

  12. Hobbes, Liberalism, and Political Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esquith, Stephen L.

    The connection between liberal political philosophy and political education is discussed with particular emphasis on the philosophy of Thomas Hobbes. The purpose of the essay is to explain how liberal citizens become committed to a distinctively liberal conception of the common good. Part 1 discusses Hobbes' theory that rationally determining…

  13. The Ideology of Political Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiden, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    In a recent article in "Academic Questions" political scientists Robert Maranto and Matthew C. Woessner have suggested a program to reform their discipline and enhance its social utility. They encourage researchers to engage with consequential social issues and educate the public, while admonishing political scientists to resist partisan advocacy…

  14. Switzerland: Economy, Language and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhard, Marianne

    An overview of the economic policy, political structure, and four official languages of Switzerland is presented. The following topics are discussed: (1) economic expansion without natural resources, (2) linguistic diversity, (3) Swiss-German, and (4) politics and governmental organization. (PMP)

  15. The Politics of Data Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henig, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Many contemporary education reformers present themselves as reformers who, armed with data and evidence, are locked in battle against politics, the weapon of choice for entrenched defenders of the status quo. Although studies of school reform increasingly recognize that politics is inevitably intertwined with reform efforts,…

  16. Libraries in the Political Scene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dosa, Marta L.

    An attempt is made to document some of the developments which affected the political role of German librarianship as seen through the involvements, activities, and correspondence of one of its leaders, George Leyh, during and after the Hitler era. The interconnections of Leyh's behavior, inner conflicts, and actions and the political and…

  17. Political liberalism and religious claims

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This article gives an overview of 4 important lacunae in political liberalism and identifies, in a preliminary fashion, some trends in the literature that can come in for support in filling these blind spots, which prevent political liberalism from a correct assessment of the diverse nature of religious claims. Political liberalism operates with implicit assumptions about religious actors being either ‘liberal’ or ‘fundamentalist’ and ignores a third, in-between group, namely traditionalist religious actors and their claims. After having explained what makes traditionalist religious actors different from liberal and fundamentalist religious actors, the author develops 4 areas in which political liberalism should be pushed further theoretically in order to correctly theorize the challenge which traditional religious actors pose to liberal democracy. These 4 areas (blind spots) are: (1) the context of translation; (2) the politics of exemptions; (3) the multivocality of theology; and (4) the transnational nature of norm-contestation. PMID:28344375

  18. Cultural diversity, democracy and the prospects of cosmopolitanism: a theory of cultural encounters.

    PubMed

    Delanty, Gerard

    2011-12-01

    The most appropriate way of theorizing cultural diversity is to situate it in the context of a broader relational theory of culture in which the key dynamic is cultural encounters. The relational conception of culture places the emphasis on the relations between social actors and the processes by which some of these relations generate enduring cultural regularities and forms. This has important implications for political community and in particular for cosmopolitanism. It is in relationships that cultural phenomena are generated and become the basis of different kinds of political community. The paper outlines a typology of six kinds of cultural encounters and discusses four major cultural trends that variously emerge from these encounters. This approach with its emphasis on cultural encounters is the broad sociological context in which questions about cultural change and the prospects of cosmopolitanism should be discussed.

  19. Resveratrol increases nitric oxide synthase, induces accumulation of p53 and p21(WAF1/CIP1), and suppresses cultured bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cell proliferation by perturbing progression through S and G2.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, T C; Juan, G; Darzynkiewicz, Z; Wu, J M

    1999-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that the regular consumption of red wine may in part account for the apparent compatibility of a high fat diet with a low incidence of coronary atherosclerosis. This phenomenon, commonly referred to as the French paradox, may be associated with red wine constituents that exhibit tumor-preventive properties as well as inhibit reactions that increase the risk of coronary heart disease. Here we show that resveratrol, a polyphenol in red wine, induces nitric oxide synthase, the enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of NO, in cultured pulmonary artery endothelial cells, suggesting that resveratrol could afford cardioprotection by affecting the expression of nitric oxide synthase. We also show that resveratrol inhibits the proliferation of pulmonary artery endothelial cells, which, based on flow cytometric analysis, correlates with the suppression of cell progression through S and G2 phases of the cell cycle. Western blot analysis and immunocytochemical protein detection combined with multiparameter flow cytometry further demonstrate that the perturbed progression through S and G2 phases is accompanied by an increase in the expression of tumor suppressor gene protein p53 and elevation of the level of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(WAF1/CIP1). All of the observed effects of resveratrol, including induction of apoptosis at its higher concentration, are also compatible with its putative chemopreventive and/or antitumor activity.

  20. Facebook, Political Narrative, and Political Change: A Case Study of Palestinian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenderes, Amanda M.

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation I aim to advance political narrative theory by exploring the use of political narrative on Facebook and the possibility for Facebook to be used among Palestinian youth for political change. To examine the concepts of political narrative and political change, I developed a model for political change based on the changing…

  1. Teaching Political Science with Chillers and Thrillers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuse, Steven M.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses using popular detective and espionage fiction in courses related to area politics, international relations, political terrorism, socialization, and bureaucratic politics. Suggests several novels and ways in which they may be integrated into courses. (KC)

  2. Postmodernism, politics and religion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Philip

    2008-08-01

    Alan Sokal really likes footnotes, which may have made him uniquely qualified as a hoaxer of "science studies". The original hoax, a purposely and wonderfully nonsensical paper about the epistemology of quantum gravity, appeared in 1996 in the cultural-studies journal Social Text, with the enthusiastic endorsement of its editorship of eminent postmodernists. There were 107 footnotes.

  3. Higher Education and the Practice of Democratic Politics: A Political Education Reader. Kettering Political Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murchland, Bernard, Ed.

    This book is a collection of essays on political education for democratic citizenship in higher education developed out of meetings over 5 years of a small group of faculty, administrators and students who gathered to discuss the way academia was educating young people for political responsibility. Following a foreword and an introduction by…

  4. Knowledge, change and the preservation of progress.

    PubMed

    Morales-gomez, D A

    1993-04-01

    Respect for traditional knowledge is urges as a source of learning to understand where societies originate. A Western understanding of traditional cultural knowledge must go beyond an understanding of fundamental values that give meaning; there must be a change in the cultural perception of development. There operates a complex interaction among artistic and spiritual practices, language and communication, patterns of social reproduction, practices in community governance, and management of natural and human resources. There are contradictions because cultural expression is a diverse combination of individual and collective capacities to manage the social, political, economic, and environmental aspects of life. Quick solutions sometimes lead to romanticized notions of cultural knowledge, rather than being systematic and historical and part of the cultural milieu. From the ethnic perspective, traditional knowledge is seen as "indigenous" or an expression of "curious" traditions and practices of native peoples which are different from one's own perspective. Viewing traditional knowledge in this fashion detaches it from rites, languages, and community practices. When reduced to a utilitarian economic notion, traditional knowledge is separated from the lessons drawn from survival strategies and practices of "materially impoverished peoples." Sometimes, the application of this knowledge bypasses recognition of the part played by traditional peoples. People in the North or industrialized countries neglect the human and sociocultural basis of knowledge, even though there have been attempts to reclaim cultural knowledge as part of development efforts. There remain many questions about how to better understand traditional knowledge, how to preserve it in a meaningful way, and how to apply it to sustain development. There is no consensus about what traditional knowledge is and how it is "genuinely" expressed. The definition of traditional knowledge is as a body of

  5. EDITORIAL: Politically correct physics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pople Deputy Editor, Stephen

    1997-03-01

    If you were a caring, thinking, liberally minded person in the 1960s, you marched against the bomb, against the Vietnam war, and for civil rights. By the 1980s, your voice was raised about the destruction of the rainforests and the threat to our whole planetary environment. At the same time, you opposed discrimination against any group because of race, sex or sexual orientation. You reasoned that people who spoke or acted in a discriminatory manner should be discriminated against. In other words, you became politically correct. Despite its oft-quoted excesses, the political correctness movement sprang from well-founded concerns about injustices in our society. So, on balance, I am all for it. Or, at least, I was until it started to invade science. Biologists were the first to feel the impact. No longer could they refer to 'higher' and 'lower' orders, or 'primitive' forms of life. To the list of undesirable 'isms' - sexism, racism, ageism - had been added a new one: speciesism. Chemists remained immune to the PC invasion, but what else could you expect from a group of people so steeped in tradition that their principal unit, the mole, requires the use of the thoroughly unreconstructed gram? Now it is the turn of the physicists. This time, the offenders are not those who talk disparagingly about other people or animals, but those who refer to 'forms of energy' and 'heat'. Political correctness has evolved into physical correctness. I was always rather fond of the various forms of energy: potential, kinetic, chemical, electrical, sound and so on. My students might merge heat and internal energy into a single, fuzzy concept loosely associated with moving molecules. They might be a little confused at a whole new crop of energies - hydroelectric, solar, wind, geothermal and tidal - but they could tell me what devices turned chemical energy into electrical energy, even if they couldn't quite appreciate that turning tidal energy into geothermal energy wasn't part of the

  6. Teach for America and the Politics of Progressive Neoliberalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahann, Randall; Reagan, Emilie Mitescu

    2011-01-01

    Teach for America (TFA), a non-profit organization designed to recruit recent college graduates to commit two years to teach in understaffed urban and rural schools across the country, has been heralded by private organizations and state agencies as a poster child for alternative pathways to teaching. However, at the same time, TFA has also been…

  7. Language Testing in the Military: Problems, Politics and Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Rita; Wall, Dianne

    2005-01-01

    There appears to be little literature available -- either descriptive or research-related -- on language testing in the military. This form of specific purposes assessment affects both military personnel and civilians working within the military structure in terms of posting, promotion and remuneration, and it could be argued that it has serious…

  8. Sustainability: Cultural Considerations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-10

    have been a model unsuited to the US political system .38 Although the world was physically ready for the endeavors of the PCSD, perhaps culturally...of an organization strongly identify. The second leverage point for change in a social system is to enlist change agents to clarify purposes for...frameworks currently used in the Army for effective sustainability strategic planning are: the Organizations as Systems model , the Army Performance

  9. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Protective Effects of Quercetin Against Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Progressive Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration in Cell Culture and MitoPark Transgenic Mouse Models of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Ay, Muhammet; Luo, Jie; Langley, Monica; Jin, Huajun; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G

    2017-04-04

    Quercetin, one of the major flavonoids in plants, has been recently reported to have neuroprotective effects against neurodegenerative processes. However, since the molecular signaling mechanisms governing these effects are not well clarified, we evaluated quercetin's effect on the neuroprotective signaling events in dopaminergic neuronal models and further tested its efficacy in the MitoPark transgenic mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Western blotting analysis revealed that quercetin significantly induced the activation of two major cell survival kinases, protein kinase D1 (PKD1) and Akt in MN9D dopaminergic neuronal cells. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition or siRNA knockdown of PKD1 blocked the activation of Akt, suggesting that PKD1 acts as an upstream regulator of Akt in quercetin-mediated neuroprotective signaling. Quercetin also enhanced CREB phosphorylation and expression of the CREB target gene BDNF. Results from qRT-PCR, Western blot analysis, mtDNA content analysis, and MitoTracker assay experiments revealed that quercetin augmented mitochondrial biogenesis. Quercetin also increased mitochondrial bioenergetics capacity and protected MN9D cells against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity. To further evaluate the neuroprotective efficacy of quercetin against the mitochondrial dysfunction underlying PD, we used the progressive dopaminergic neurodegenerative MitoPark transgenic mouse model of PD. Oral administration of quercetin significantly reversed behavioral deficits, striatal dopamine depletion, and TH neuronal cell loss in MitoPark mice. Together, our findings demonstrate that quercetin activates PKD1-Akt cell survival signaling axis and suggest that further exploration of quercetin as a promising neuroprotective agent for treating PD may offer clinical benefits. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. The Sexuality Curriculum and Youth Culture. Counterpoints, Volume 392

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Dennis, Ed.; Roseboro, Donyell L., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The book aims to change the conversation about sexuality education for adolescents, making it consistent with a democratic cultural politics that is attuned to changes in youth and popular culture. Traditional sex education is nearly obsolete; sexuality curriculum is now primarily learned through popular culture and youth culture, which teach…

  11. The politics of professional ethics.

    PubMed

    Brecher, Bob

    2010-04-01

    In order to illustrate how terms of reference themselves, such as those announced by 'professional ethics', delimit and distort moral consideration I start with an extended discussion of how Just War Theory operates to do this; and go on to discuss 'the power of naming' with reference to the British attack on Iraq. Having thus situated my approach to the politics of professional ethics in a broader political context I offer a critique of 'professional' ethics in terms of what is left out of the moral picture and how in particular political considerations are sidelined. Finally I argue that 'codes' of professional ethics are especially insidious.

  12. Politics in the Korean War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    aspect o£ its uniqueness was the open debate between President Truman and General MacArthur con- cernin9 the war’s military and political objectives...NATIONAL DEFENSE UNIVERSITY NATIONAL WAR COLLEG~ POLITICS IN THE KOREAN WAR Course II Essay LTC Paul N. DunnlClass of 1994 COURSE II SEMINAR...to 00-00-1994 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Politics in the Korean War 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  13. Politics of nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Colglazier, E.W. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    In November of 1979, the Program in Science, Technology and Humanism and the Energy Committee of the Aspen Institute organized a conference on resolving the social, political, and institutional conflicts over the permanent siting of radioactive wastes. This book was written as a result of this conference. The chapters provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the governance issues connected with radioactive waste management as well as a sampling of the diverse views of the interested parties. Chapter 1 looks in depth of radioactive waste management in the United States, with special emphasis on the events of the Carter Administration as well as on the issues with which the Reagen administration must deal. Chapter 2 compares waste management policies and programs among the industralized countries. Chapter 3 examines the factional controversies in the last administration and Congress over nuclear waste issues. Chapter 4 examines the complex legal questions involved in the federal-state conflicts over nuclear waste management. Chapter 5 examines the concept of consultation and concurrence from the perspectives of a host state that is a candidate for a repository and an interested state that has special concerns regarding the demonstration of nuclear waste disposal technology. Chapter 6 examines US and European perspectives concerning public participation in nuclear waste management. Chapter 7 discusses propaganda in the issues. The epilogue attempts to assess the prospects for consensus in the United States on national policies for radioactive waste management. All of the chapter in this book should be interpreted as personal assessments. (DP)

  14. The politics of water

    SciTech Connect

    Postel, S.

    1993-08-01

    Wars have been waged over oil and gold, but it is water that now poses the greatest potential for provoking conflict among nations-and the greatest need for new guarantees of cooperation. Athough water is a renewable resource, it is also a finite one. Nearly 40 percent of the world's population depends on river systems shared by two or more countries, leading to political hot spots, most critically in the middle east. This article describes in detail the water problems in the middle east, starting with the Jordan River basin, the Golan Heights, and the coastal aquifer, partly polluted. On the Sinai Peninsula the Nile River is the water source for nine countries, and the Tigris-Euphrates, although still providing water in relative abundance, is prey to the failure of Iraq, Syria, and Turkey to reach water-sharing agreements. Discussion includes the possibilities of turning the win-lose situations into win-win situations by appropriate water management and the problem of lack of a clear legal framework for settling disputes.

  15. "The Success of Captive Broodstock Programs Depends on High In-Culture Survival, ..." [from the Abstract], 2006-2007 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Berejikian, Barry A.

    2009-04-08

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Accomplishments detailed in this report are listed below by major objective. Objective 1: This study documented that captively reared Chinook exhibited spawn timing similar to their founder anadromous population. An analysis of spawn timing data of captively reared Chinook salmon that had received different levels of antibiotic treatment did not suggest that antibiotic treatments during the freshwater or seawater phase of the life cycle affects final maturation timing. No effect of rearing density was found with respect to spawn timing or other reproductive behaviors. Objective 2: This study investigated the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon by exposing juvenile salmon to known odorants at key developmental stages. Molecular assessments of imprinting-induced changes in odorant receptor gene expression indicated that regulation of odorant expression differs between coho and sockeye salmon. While temporal patterns differ between these species, exposure to arginine elicited increases in odorant receptor mRNA expression in sockeye salmon. Objective 3: This study: (i) identified the critical period when maturation is initiated in male spring Chinook salmon and when body growth affects onset of puberty, (ii) described changes in the reproductive endocrine system during onset of puberty and throughout spermatogenesis in male spring Chinook salmon, (iii) found that the rate of oocyte development prior to vitellogenesis is related to body growth in female spring Chinook, and (iv) demonstrated that growth regimes which reduce early (age 2) male maturation slow the rate of primary and early

  16. Political conditions and life expectancy in Europe, 1900-2008.

    PubMed

    Mackenbach, Johan P

    2013-04-01

    The rise of life expectancy in Europe has been a very uneven process, both in time and space. This paper aims to identify instances in which major political conditions are likely to have influenced the rise of life expectancy, focusing on formation and dissolution of states and supranational blocs and on differences between political regimes (democratic vs. authoritarian non-communist and communist rule). Data on life expectancy, cause-specific mortality and political conditions were compiled from existing data sources. Possible relations between political conditions and life expectancy were studied by direct comparisons of changes in life expectancy in countries with different political conditions but similar starting levels of life expectancy. We found that formation and dissolution of states often went together with convergence and divergence of life expectancy, respectively, and that otherwise similar countries that did or did not become part of the Soviet bloc had distinctly different life expectancy trajectories. Democratically governed states had higher life expectancies than authoritarian states throughout the 20th century. The gap narrowed between 1920 and 1960 due to rapid catching up of infectious disease control in both non-communist and communist authoritarian states. It widened again after 1960 due to earlier and more rapid progress in democratic states against cardiovascular disease, breast cancer, motor vehicle accidents and other causes of death that have become amenable to intervention. We conclude that the history of life expectancy in Europe contains many instances in which political conditions are likely to have had a temporary or more lasting impact on population health. This suggests that there is scope for further in-depth studies of the impact of specific political determinants on the development of population health in Europe.

  17. Exploring Political Views on Synthetic Biology in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Rerimassie, Virgil

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic biology may be an important source of progress as well as societal and political conflict. Against this backdrop, several technology assessment organizations have been seeking to contribute to timely societal and political opinion-making on synthetic biology. The Rathenau Instituut, based in the Netherlands, is one of these organizations. In 2011, the institute organized a 'Meeting of Young Minds': a young people's debate between 'future synthetic biologists' and 'future politicians'. The former were represented by participants in the international Genetically Engineered Machines competition (iGEM), the latter by political youth organizations (PYOs) linked to Dutch political parties. The Rathenau Instituut found seven PYOs-including right wing, left wing, Green and Christian groups-willing to commit to an intensive process aimed at formulating a tentative partisan view on synthetic biology and discussing it with fellow PYOs and iGEM participants. Given the minimal amount of available data on how political parties understand synthetic biology, mapping the debate may provide valuable insights. In this article, I aim to provide such a mapping exercise and also to reflect on how and why the Rathenau Instituut organized the event.

  18. Teaching Comparative Politics: Beyond Preliminaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starrels, John

    1978-01-01

    Recommends that college teachers of comparative European politics attempt to broaden the geographic scope of the subject matter, integrate fact and theory, and make the course interesting and relevant to undergraduate students. (Author/DB)

  19. Science communication as political communication

    PubMed Central

    Scheufele, Dietram A.

    2014-01-01

    Scientific debates in modern societies often blur the lines between the science that is being debated and the political, moral, and legal implications that come with its societal applications. This manuscript traces the origins of this phenomenon to professional norms within the scientific discipline and to the nature and complexities of modern science and offers an expanded model of science communication that takes into account the political contexts in which science communication takes place. In a second step, it explores what we know from empirical work in political communication, public opinion research, and communication research about the dynamics that determine how issues are debated and attitudes are formed in political environments. Finally, it discusses how and why it will be increasingly important for science communicators to draw from these different literatures to ensure that the voice of the scientific community is heard in the broader societal debates surrounding science. PMID:25225389

  20. The Politics of Teaching Shakespeare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEvoy, Sean

    1991-01-01

    Considers the literary achievement of William Shakespeare and specifically why he continues to hold such an honored and sanctified position in the literary canon. Proposes a theoretically informed, politically aware pedagogy by which Shakespeare might be more usefully taught. (HB)

  1. Logical Empiricism, Politics, and Professionalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgar, Scott

    2009-02-01

    This paper considers George A. Reisch’s account of the role of Cold War political forces in shaping the apolitical stance that came to dominate philosophy of science in the late 1940s and 1950s. It argues that at least as early as the 1930s, Logical Empiricists such as Rudolf Carnap already held that philosophy of science could not properly have political aims, and further suggests that political forces alone cannot explain this view’s rise to dominance during the Cold War, since political forces cannot explain why a philosophy of science with liberal democratic, anti-communist aims did not flourish. The paper then argues that if professionalization is understood in the right way, it might point toward an explanation of the apolitical stance of Cold War philosophy of science.

  2. Science communication as political communication.

    PubMed

    Scheufele, Dietram A

    2014-09-16

    Scientific debates in modern societies often blur the lines between the science that is being debated and the political, moral, and legal implications that come with its societal applications. This manuscript traces the origins of this phenomenon to professional norms within the scientific discipline and to the nature and complexities of modern science and offers an expanded model of science communication that takes into account the political contexts in which science communication takes place. In a second step, it explores what we know from empirical work in political communication, public opinion research, and communication research about the dynamics that determine how issues are debated and attitudes are formed in political environments. Finally, it discusses how and why it will be increasingly important for science communicators to draw from these different literatures to ensure that the voice of the scientific community is heard in the broader societal debates surrounding science.

  3. The International Politics of Geoengineering Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackstock, Jason

    2010-05-01

    As concerns about the state of our global climate mount, solar radiation management (SRM) geoengineering schemes that might be able to rapidly moderate GHG-induced climate change are receiving increased scientific, public and political attention. In principle, such SRM schemes could be of considerable utility for insuring global public welfare against at least the worst potential outcomes of highly uncertain climate change. In practice, however, the coupling of significant scientific uncertainty about these schemes, with familiar roadblocks to international cooperation on global climate issues, could easily prevent this global utility from being realized. Moreover, serious national-level efforts to develop SRM technologies could spark international tensions that further obstruct global progress toward urgently needed carbon emission reductions. This talk will begin with an overview of the latest science underlying prominent SRM proposals, including the latest scientific proposals for SRM research, and then explore the variety of international coordination and political challenges likely to be associated with developing large-scale national and/or international SRM research programs.

  4. The KGB in Kremlin Politics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    Politics and government-I 982- 2. Soviet Union- Politics and govermnent- 1953 -1982. 3. Soviet Union. Komnitet gosudarstvennoi bezopasnosti-History. 1...secret police in 1953 ; and N. R. Mironov, one of the Ukrainian party apparatchik whom Khrushchev had infiltrated into the upper reaches of the secret...Purge, this was a particularly grim reminder. "Zhukov had been a candidate member of the Presidium since June 1953 . This pro- motion was also a first

  5. Politics of Snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burko, D.

    2012-12-01

    In a 2010 catalog introduction for my exhibition titled: POLITICS OF SNOW, Eileen Claussen, President of the Pew Center on Global Climate Change wrote the following: "Climate change has been taken over by politics…We are awash in talking points, briefing papers, scientific studies, and communiqués from national governments… Diane Burko's paintings remind us that all these words can often obscure or even obstruct our view of what is truly happening …..There is only so much you can do with words. People need to see that the world is changing before our eyes. When we look at Diane's images of the effects of climate change, we connect to something much deeper and more profound (and more moving) than the latest political pitch from one side or another in this debate…These paintings also connect us to something else. Even as Diane documents how things are changing, she also reminds us of the stunning beauty of nature - and, in turn, the urgency of doing everything in our power to protect it." The creation of this body of work was made possible because of the collaboration of many glacial geologists and scientists who continually share their visual data with me. Since 2006 I've been gathering repeats from people like Bruce Molnia (USGS) and Tad Pfeffer of Alaskan glaciers, from Daniel Fagre (USGS) of Glacier National Park and Lonnie Thompson and Jason Box (Ohio University's Byrd Polar Center) about Kilimanjaro, Qori Kalis and Petermann glaciers as well as from photographer David Breashears on the disappearing Himalayan glaciers. In my practice, I acknowledge the photographers, or archive agencies, such as USGS, NASA or Snow and Ice Center, in the title and all printed material. As a landscape painter and photographer my intent is to not reproduce those images but rather use them as inspiration. At first I used the documentary evidence in sets of diptychs or triptychs. Since 2010 I have incorporated geological charts of recessional lines, graphs, symbols and

  6. Climato-economic livability predicts societal collectivism and political autocracy better than parasitic stress does.

    PubMed

    Van de Vliert, Evert; Postmes, Tom

    2012-04-01

    A 121-nation study of societal collectivism and a 174-nation study of political autocracy show that parasitic stress does not account for any variation in these components of culture once the interactive impacts of climatic demands and income resources have been accounted for. Climato-economic livability is a viable rival explanation for the reported effects of parasitic stress on culture.

  7. Re-Imagining Spaces, Collectivity, and the Political Dimension of Contemporary Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Clorinde

    2015-01-01

    In a neoliberal moment of cultural production marked by commodification and the dominance of economic values, it is necessary to investigate the cultural, social, and aesthetic value of art. By examining Herbert Marcuse's aesthetic dimension, this article seeks to locate the political and pedagogic potential both in the aesthetics and in the…

  8. Freud's 'Lamarckism' and the politics of racial science.

    PubMed

    Slavet, Eliza

    2008-01-01

    This article re-contextualizes Sigmund Freud's interest in the idea of the inheritance of acquired characteristics in terms of the socio-political connotations of Lamarckism and Darwinism in the 1930s and 1950s. Many scholars have speculated as to why Freud continued to insist on a supposedly outmoded theory of evolution in the 1930s even as he was aware that it was no longer tenable. While Freud's initial interest in the inheritance of phylogenetic memory was not necessarily politically motivated, his refusal to abandon this theory in the 1930s must be understood in terms of wider debates, especially regarding the position of the Jewish people in Germany and Austria. Freud became uneasy about the inheritance of memory not because it was scientifically disproven, but because it had become politically charged and suspiciously regarded by the Nazis as Bolshevik and Jewish. Where Freud seemed to use the idea of inherited memory as a way of universalizing his theory beyond the individual cultural milieu of his mostly Jewish patients, such a notion of universal science itself became politically charged and identified as particularly Jewish. The vexed and speculative interpretations of Freud's Lamarckism are situated as part of a larger post-War cultural reaction against Communism on the one hand (particularly in the 1950s when Lamarckism was associated with the failures of Lysenko), and on the other hand, against any scientific concepts of race in the wake of World War II.

  9. [Psychoanalysis and engagement: Otto Fenichel and the political Freudians].

    PubMed

    Fisher, D J

    1988-01-01

    This essay is a critique of Russell Jacoby's The repression of psychoanalysis: Otto Fenichel and the political Freudians (New York, Basic Books, 1983), translated into French by P.U.F. Jacoby depicts Fenichel and his circle of colleagues as political Freudians whose early years were decisively colored by radical youth movements, leftwing politics, the early inspiration of the Russian Revolution, a serious immersion in Marxist culture, a commitment to either socialist or communist parties, and a desire to integrate classical psychoanalysis into a a broader framework of Marxist social theorizing. He centers his book around the archival discovery of the Rundbriefe, 119 circular letters written during Fenichel's exile from 1934 to 1945. He discusses the impact of Wilhelm Reich's ideas and career on the Fenichel circle. Fascism and exile from Europe shattered the lives and commitments of the political Freudians. This essay focuses on Jacoby's use and abuse of the concepts of Americanization, medicalization, the competition from the neo-Freudians, and the apparent silence and "self-repression" of this group's past and leftwing identity once in America. It concludes with a critical analysis of Fenichel's psychoanalytic ethic, which, while engagé, was not Marxist. Fenichel was oriented toward contributing to both psychoanalytic practice and theory. His ethic precluded the intrusion of politics into clinical work, supervision, and teaching.

  10. Understanding Culture and Influencing Change

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    sexes. 44 Democratic countries considered feministic tend to elect more women to political offices and government posts unless they have a large...his book Organization Change: Theory and Practice expands Gladwell’s ideas identifying areas a leader can leverage to assist with changing culture...Leading Across Cultures, 3rd Edition (Boston,MA: Nicholas Brealy Publishing, 2006), 28-29. 4 Gareth R. Jones, Organizational Theory , Design, and

  11. Recent Changes in Undergraduate Political Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Mary Lou

    1977-01-01

    Cites the results of a study which compared political science course offerings at various years to determine political changes. Results show that there are more courses being offered; a larger number of courses involve comparative politics; and there is more effort to respond to the employment needs of future political science graduates. (JR)

  12. POLITICS OF UNIVERSITY INVOLVEMENT IN SOCIAL CHANGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAMPBELL, ALAN K.

    THE AUTHOR DISCUSSES THE UNIVERSITY'S ROLE IN SOCIAL CHANGE FROM THE POLITICAL VIEWPOINT. BY EXAMINING OUR POLITICAL SYSTEM AS IT RELATED TO UNIVERSITY INVOLVEMENT, HE INDICATES THE POLITICAL RAMIFICATIONS OF SUCH INVOLVEMENT AND SHOWS THE KIND OF INVOLVEMENT THAT IS POLITICALLY POSSIBLE. HE PINPOINTS THE DIFFICULTIES CIVIC ADMINISTRATORS AND…

  13. Achieving What Political Science Is For

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isacoff, Jonathan B.

    2014-01-01

    This article argues for a political science discipline and teaching framework predicated empirically on the study of "real-world problems" and normatively on promoting civic engagement among political science students. I argue for a rethinking of political science and political science education in view of the pragmatist thought of John…

  14. Young Women and Politics: An Oxymoron?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Jacqueline Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Building upon the literature that examines young people and politics, this article examines the extent to which young women are interested in politics. The hypothesis is that young women might not necessarily be interested in mainstream party politics but that, when questioned, they are actually interested in political issues. This ties in with…

  15. The Politics of Body Capital within Neoliberal Social Reproduction Systems: Freirean Critical Pedagogy Principles in Brazilian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Müller, Antonio Jose; Rossatto, César Augusto

    2016-01-01

    Sports in our society are a source of enthusiasm for many people, reflecting their cultural values and at times social tensions. Body capital development in different countries follow the local culture and politics. Since schools tend to reproduce the culture at large, sports are also one intrinsic representation replicated. Physical education or…

  16. Contemporary Cultures: Issues and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maubrey, Pierre; And Others

    The articles on culture in the Northeast Conference Report are intended especially for those teaching French, German, Italian, or Spanish. Generally they provide an update in the target language about current concerns including the family, education, economics, politics, and other matters of interest to second language learners. The following…

  17. Rethinking Popular Culture and Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Elizabeth, Ed.; Sensoy, Ozlem, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Rethinking Popular Culture and Media" is a provocative collection of articles that begins with the idea that the "popular" in classrooms and in the everyday lives of teachers and students is fundamentally political. This anthology includes outstanding articles by elementary and secondary public school teachers, scholars, and activists who…

  18. Culture and Education in Micronesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Nancy Faires

    By focusing on social and cultural backgrounds of the five U.S.-affiliated Micronesian states, this document highlight issues that pertain to education in this region. The first sections deal with the political history of the region, emphasizing the period of U.S. administration from the 1940's to the 1970's. The history of instititonalized…

  19. [Canon Busting and Cultural Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Forum: Phi Kappa Phi Journal, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Articles on the literary canon include: "Contingencies of Value" (Barbara Herrnstein Smith); "Canon Fodder, the Cultural Hustle, and the Minotaur" (R. T. Smith); "Curriculum Battles and Global Politics" (Betty Jean Craige); "The Feminist Challenge to the Canon" (Elizabeth Fox-Genovese); and "Education…

  20. Gender, Education and Social Change: A Study of Feminist Politics and Practice in London, 1870-1990

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This article explores feminist interventions in urban school politics. First, it argues that the female contribution was an essential component to politics and policy making in the 120-year period that London had a single education authority. Second, it suggests that these women politicians were advocates of a cultural praxis that involved…