Science.gov

Sample records for progressive design methodology

  1. Establishing Equivalence: Methodological Progress in Group-Matching Design and Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kover, Sara T.; Atwood, Amy K.

    2013-01-01

    This methodological review draws attention to the challenges faced by intellectual and developmental disabilities researchers in the appropriate design and analysis of group comparison studies. We provide a brief overview of matching methodologies in the field, emphasizing group-matching designs used in behavioral research on cognition and…

  2. Autonomous spacecraft design methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Divita, E.L.; Turner, P.R.

    1984-08-01

    A methodology for autonomous spacecraft design blends autonomy requirements with traditional mission requirements and assesses the impact of autonomy upon the total system resources available to support faulttolerance and automation. A baseline functional design can be examined for autonomy implementation impacts, and the costs, risk, and benefits of various options can be assessed. The result of the process is a baseline design that includes autonomous control functions.

  3. A Methodology of Analysis for Monitoring Treatment Progression with 19-Channel Z-Score Neurofeedback (19ZNF) in a Single-Subject Design.

    PubMed

    Krigbaum, Genomary; Wigton, Nancy L

    2015-09-01

    19-Channel Z-Score Neurofeedback (19ZNF) is a modality using 19-electrodes with real-time normative database z-scores, suggesting effective clinical outcomes in fewer sessions than traditional neurofeedback. Thus, monitoring treatment progression and clinical outcome is necessary. The area of focus in this study was a methodology of quantitative analysis for monitoring treatment progression and clinical outcome with 19ZNF. This methodology is noted as the Sites-of-Interest, which included repeated measures analyses of variance (rANOVA) and t-tests for z-scores; it was conducted on 10 cases in a single subject design. To avoid selection bias, the 10 sample cases were randomly selected from a pool of 17 cases that met the inclusion criteria. Available client outcome measures (including self-report) are briefly discussed. The results showed 90% of the pre-post comparisons moved in the targeted direction (z = 0) and of those, 96% (80% Bonferroni corrected) of the t-tests and 96% (91% Bonferroni corrected) of the rANOVAs were statistically significant; thus indicating a progression towards the mean in 15 or fewer 19ZNF sessions. All cases showed and reported improvement in all outcome measures (including quantitative electroencephalography assessment) at case termination.

  4. RAMCAD Design Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    fault detection and isolation , and reduces...elements during the design process. Fault detection and isolation are simplified when an entire function can be assigned to a single hardware design element...defining the fault detection and isolation constraints and goals) are met or all of the test resources have been committed. Alternative resource

  5. Permanent magnet design methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leupold, Herbert A.

    1991-01-01

    Design techniques developed for the exploitation of high energy magnetically rigid materials such as Sm-Co and Nd-Fe-B have resulted in a revolution in kind rather than in degree in the design of a variety of electron guidance structures for ballistic and aerospace applications. Salient examples are listed. Several prototype models were developed. These structures are discussed in some detail: permanent magnet solenoids, transverse field sources, periodic structures, and very high field structures.

  6. Solid lubrication design methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggarwal, B. B.; Yonushonis, T. M.; Bovenkerk, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    A single element traction rig was used to measure the traction forces at the contact of a ball against a flat disc at room temperature under combined rolling and sliding. The load and speed conditions were selected to match those anticipated for bearing applications in adiabatic diesel engines. The test program showed that the magnitude of traction forces were almost the same for all the lubricants tested; a lubricant should, therefore, be selected on the basis of its ability to prevent wear of the contact surfaces. Traction vs. slide/roll ratio curves were similar to those for liquid lubricants but the traction forces were an order of magnitude higher. The test data was used to derive equations to predict traction force as a function of contact stress and rolling speed. Qualitative design guidelines for solid lubricated concentrated contacts are proposed.

  7. MEIC Design Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y; Douglas, D; Hutton, A; Krafft, G A; Li, R; Lin, F; Morozov, V S; Nissen, E W; Pilat, F C; Satogata, T; Tennant, C; Terzic, B; Yunn, C; Barber, D P; Filatov, Y; Hyde, C; Kondratenko, A M; Manikonda, S L; Ostroumov, P N; Sullivan, M K

    2012-07-01

    This paper will report the recent progress in the conceptual design of MEIC, a high luminosity medium energy polarized ring-ring electron-ion collider at Jefferson lab. The topics and achievements that will be covered are design of the ion large booster and the ERL-circulator-ring-based electron cooling facility, optimization of chromatic corrections and dynamic aperture studies, schemes and tracking simulations of lepton and ion polarization in the figure-8 collider ring, and the beam-beam and electron cooling simulations. A proposal of a test facility for the MEIC electron cooler will also be discussed.

  8. Waste Package Design Methodology Report

    SciTech Connect

    D.A. Brownson

    2001-09-28

    The objective of this report is to describe the analytical methods and processes used by the Waste Package Design Section to establish the integrity of the various waste package designs, the emplacement pallet, and the drip shield. The scope of this report shall be the methodology used in criticality, risk-informed, shielding, source term, structural, and thermal analyses. The basic features and appropriateness of the methods are illustrated, and the processes are defined whereby input values and assumptions flow through the application of those methods to obtain designs that ensure defense-in-depth as well as satisfy requirements on system performance. Such requirements include those imposed by federal regulation, from both the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and those imposed by the Yucca Mountain Project to meet repository performance goals. The report is to be used, in part, to describe the waste package design methods and techniques to be used for producing input to the License Application Report.

  9. Reliability based design optimization: Formulations and methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Harish

    Modern products ranging from simple components to complex systems should be designed to be optimal and reliable. The challenge of modern engineering is to ensure that manufacturing costs are reduced and design cycle times are minimized while achieving requirements for performance and reliability. If the market for the product is competitive, improved quality and reliability can generate very strong competitive advantages. Simulation based design plays an important role in designing almost any kind of automotive, aerospace, and consumer products under these competitive conditions. Single discipline simulations used for analysis are being coupled together to create complex coupled simulation tools. This investigation focuses on the development of efficient and robust methodologies for reliability based design optimization in a simulation based design environment. Original contributions of this research are the development of a novel efficient and robust unilevel methodology for reliability based design optimization, the development of an innovative decoupled reliability based design optimization methodology, the application of homotopy techniques in unilevel reliability based design optimization methodology, and the development of a new framework for reliability based design optimization under epistemic uncertainty. The unilevel methodology for reliability based design optimization is shown to be mathematically equivalent to the traditional nested formulation. Numerical test problems show that the unilevel methodology can reduce computational cost by at least 50% as compared to the nested approach. The decoupled reliability based design optimization methodology is an approximate technique to obtain consistent reliable designs at lesser computational expense. Test problems show that the methodology is computationally efficient compared to the nested approach. A framework for performing reliability based design optimization under epistemic uncertainty is also developed

  10. Space Engineering Projects in Design Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, R.; Wood, K.; Nichols, S.; Hearn, C.; Corrier, S.; DeKunder, G.; George, S.; Hysinger, C.; Johnson, C.; Kubasta, K.

    1993-01-01

    NASA/USRA is an ongoing sponsor of space design projects in the senior design courses of the Mechanical Engineering Department at The University of Texas at Austin. This paper describes the UT senior design sequence, focusing on the first-semester design methodology course. The philosophical basis and pedagogical structure of this course is summarized. A history of the Department's activities in the Advanced Design Program is then presented. The paper includes a summary of the projects completed during the 1992-93 Academic Year in the methodology course, and concludes with an example of two projects completed by student design teams.

  11. Assuring data transparency through design methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Allen

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses the role of design methodologies and practices in the assurance of technology transparency. The development of several subsystems on large, long life cycle government programs was analyzed to glean those characteristics in the design, development, test, and evaluation that precluded or enabled the insertion of new technology. The programs examined were Minuteman, DSP, B1-B, and space shuttle. All these were long life cycle, technology-intensive programs. The design methodologies (or lack thereof) and design practices for each were analyzed in terms of the success or failure in incorporating evolving technology. Common elements contributing to the success or failure were extracted and compared to current methodologies being proposed by the Department of Defense and NASA. The relevance of these practices to the design and deployment of Space Station Freedom were evaluated. In particular, appropriate methodologies now being used on the core development contract were examined.

  12. General Methodology for Designing Spacecraft Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, Gerald; Ocampo, Cesar; Mathur, Ravishankar; Morcos, Fady; Senent, Juan; Williams, Jacob; Davis, Elizabeth C.

    2012-01-01

    A methodology for designing spacecraft trajectories in any gravitational environment within the solar system has been developed. The methodology facilitates modeling and optimization for problems ranging from that of a single spacecraft orbiting a single celestial body to that of a mission involving multiple spacecraft and multiple propulsion systems operating in gravitational fields of multiple celestial bodies. The methodology consolidates almost all spacecraft trajectory design and optimization problems into a single conceptual framework requiring solution of either a system of nonlinear equations or a parameter-optimization problem with equality and/or inequality constraints.

  13. A new methodology for hospital design.

    PubMed

    Mejia, Ana Maria Silva

    2013-08-01

    According to architect, Ana Maria Silva Mejia, 'a new era for the design of hospitals in Guatemala has arrived', with a considerable growth in interest around good healthcare facility design. Here, in a slightly adapted version of an article, 'A new methodology for design', first published in the IFHE (International Federation of Hospital Engineering) Digest 2012, she reports on the application of a new methodology designed to optimise efficient use of space, and clinical and other adjacencies, in a district hospital in the City of Zacapa. The system has subsequently been successfully applied to a number of other Guatemalan healthcare facilities.

  14. Applying Software Design Methodology to Instructional Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, J. Philip

    2004-01-01

    The premise of this paper is that computer science has much to offer the endeavor of instructional improvement. Software design processes employed in computer science for developing software can be used for planning instruction and should improve instruction in much the same manner that design processes appear to have improved software. Techniques…

  15. Design methodology and projects for space engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, S.; Kleespies, H.; Wood, K.; Crawford, R.

    1993-01-01

    NASA/USRA is an ongoing sponsor of space design projects in the senior design course of the Mechanical Engineering Department at The University of Texas at Austin. This paper describes the UT senior design sequence, consisting of a design methodology course and a capstone design course. The philosophical basis of this sequence is briefly summarized. A history of the Department's activities in the Advanced Design Program is then presented. The paper concludes with a description of the projects completed during the 1991-92 academic year and the ongoing projects for the Fall 1992 semester.

  16. Monitoring Progress towards Education for All: A Methodological Guidebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This guidebook, aimed at middle-level policy advisors and planners in education, suggests a methodology that can be used to monitor progress in the implementation of Education for All (EFA) programs regardless of the proprieties and targets involved at the national level of the individual country. The first chapter discusses the decision to…

  17. Waste Package Component Design Methodology Report

    SciTech Connect

    D.C. Mecham

    2004-07-12

    This Executive Summary provides an overview of the methodology being used by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) to design waste packages and ancillary components. This summary information is intended for readers with general interest, but also provides technical readers a general framework surrounding a variety of technical details provided in the main body of the report. The purpose of this report is to document and ensure appropriate design methods are used in the design of waste packages and ancillary components (the drip shields and emplacement pallets). The methodology includes identification of necessary design inputs, justification of design assumptions, and use of appropriate analysis methods, and computational tools. This design work is subject to ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description''. The document is primarily intended for internal use and technical guidance for a variety of design activities. It is recognized that a wide audience including project management, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and others are interested to various levels of detail in the design methods and therefore covers a wide range of topics at varying levels of detail. Due to the preliminary nature of the design, readers can expect to encounter varied levels of detail in the body of the report. It is expected that technical information used as input to design documents will be verified and taken from the latest versions of reference sources given herein. This revision of the methodology report has evolved with changes in the waste package, drip shield, and emplacement pallet designs over many years and may be further revised as the design is finalized. Different components and analyses are at different stages of development. Some parts of the report are detailed, while other less detailed parts are likely to undergo further refinement. The design methodology is intended to provide designs that satisfy the safety and operational

  18. An Analysis of Software Design Methodologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    Technical Report 401-, # "AN ANALYSIS OF SOFTWARE DESIGN METHODOLOGIES H. Rudy Ramsey, Michael E. Atwood , and Gary D. Campbell Science...H. Rudy Ramsey, Michael E. Atwood , and Gary D. Campbell Science Applications, Incorporated Submitted by: Edgar M. Johnson, Chief HUMAN FACTORS...expressed by members ot the Integrated Software Research and Development Working Group (ISRAD). The authors are indebted to Martha Cichelli, Margaret

  19. A Design Methodology for Optoelectronic VLSI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    soldered to a copper -clad printed circuit (PC) board, are no longer sufficient for today’s high-speed ICs. A processing chip that can compute data at a rate...design approach. A new design methodology has to be adopted to take advan- tage of the benefits that FSOI offers. Optoelectronic VLSI is the coupling of...and connections are made from chip to chip via traces of copper wire, as shown in Figure 2-2. The signal from a logic gate on one chip to a logic gate

  20. Structural design methodology for large space structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dornsife, Ralph J.

    1992-02-01

    The Department of Defense requires research and development in designing, fabricating, deploying, and maintaining large space structures (LSS) in support of Army and Strategic Defense Initiative military objectives. Because of their large size, extreme flexibility, and the unique loading conditions in the space environment, LSS will present engineers with problems unlike those encountered in designing conventional civil engineering or aerospace structures. LSS will require sophisticated passive damping and active control systems in order to meet stringent mission requirements. These structures must also be optimally designed to minimize high launch costs. This report outlines a methodology for the structural design of LSS. It includes a definition of mission requirements, structural modeling and analysis, passive damping and active control system design, ground-based testing, payload integration, on-orbit system verification, and on-orbit assessment of structural damage. In support of this methodology, analyses of candidate LSS truss configurations are presented, and an algorithm correlating ground-based test behavior to expected microgravity behavior is developed.

  1. Structural design methodology for large space structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dornsife, Ralph J.

    The Department of Defense requires research and development in designing, fabricating, deploying, and maintaining large space structures (LSS) in support of Army and Strategic Defense Initiative military objectives. Because of their large size, extreme flexibility, and the unique loading conditions in the space environment, LSS will present engineers with problems unlike those encountered in designing conventional civil engineering or aerospace structures. LSS will require sophisticated passive damping and active control systems in order to meet stringent mission requirements. These structures must also be optimally designed to minimize high launch costs. This report outlines a methodology for the structural design of LSS. It includes a definition of mission requirements, structural modeling and analysis, passive damping and active control system design, ground-based testing, payload integration, on-orbit system verification, and on-orbit assessment of structural damage. In support of this methodology, analyses of candidate LSS truss configurations are presented, and an algorithm correlating ground-based test behavior to expected microgravity behavior is developed.

  2. Control/structure interaction design methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Hugh C.; Layman, William E.

    1989-01-01

    The Control Structure Interaction Program is a technology development program for spacecraft that exhibit interactions between the control system and structural dynamics. The program objectives include development and verification of new design concepts (such as active structure) and new tools (such as a combined structure and control optimization algorithm) and their verification in ground and possibly flight test. The new CSI design methodology is centered around interdisciplinary engineers using new tools that closely integrate structures and controls. Verification is an important CSI theme and analysts will be closely integrated to the CSI Test Bed laboratory. Components, concepts, tools and algorithms will be developed and tested in the lab and in future Shuttle-based flight experiments. The design methodology is summarized in block diagrams depicting the evolution of a spacecraft design and descriptions of analytical capabilities used in the process. The multiyear JPL CSI implementation plan is described along with the essentials of several new tools. A distributed network of computation servers and workstations was designed that will provide a state-of-the-art development base for the CSI technologies.

  3. Methodology for Designing Fault-Protection Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barltrop, Kevin; Levison, Jeffrey; Kan, Edwin

    2006-01-01

    A document describes a methodology for designing fault-protection (FP) software for autonomous spacecraft. The methodology embodies and extends established engineering practices in the technical discipline of Fault Detection, Diagnosis, Mitigation, and Recovery; and has been successfully implemented in the Deep Impact Spacecraft, a NASA Discovery mission. Based on established concepts of Fault Monitors and Responses, this FP methodology extends the notion of Opinion, Symptom, Alarm (aka Fault), and Response with numerous new notions, sub-notions, software constructs, and logic and timing gates. For example, Monitor generates a RawOpinion, which graduates into Opinion, categorized into no-opinion, acceptable, or unacceptable opinion. RaiseSymptom, ForceSymptom, and ClearSymptom govern the establishment and then mapping to an Alarm (aka Fault). Local Response is distinguished from FP System Response. A 1-to-n and n-to- 1 mapping is established among Monitors, Symptoms, and Responses. Responses are categorized by device versus by function. Responses operate in tiers, where the early tiers attempt to resolve the Fault in a localized step-by-step fashion, relegating more system-level response to later tier(s). Recovery actions are gated by epoch recovery timing, enabling strategy, urgency, MaxRetry gate, hardware availability, hazardous versus ordinary fault, and many other priority gates. This methodology is systematic, logical, and uses multiple linked tables, parameter files, and recovery command sequences. The credibility of the FP design is proven via a fault-tree analysis "top-down" approach, and a functional fault-mode-effects-and-analysis via "bottoms-up" approach. Via this process, the mitigation and recovery strategy(s) per Fault Containment Region scope (width versus depth) the FP architecture.

  4. Sketching Designs Using the Five Design-Sheet Methodology.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jonathan C; Headleand, Chris; Ritsos, Panagiotis D

    2016-01-01

    Sketching designs has been shown to be a useful way of planning and considering alternative solutions. The use of lo-fidelity prototyping, especially paper-based sketching, can save time, money and converge to better solutions more quickly. However, this design process is often viewed to be too informal. Consequently users do not know how to manage their thoughts and ideas (to first think divergently, to then finally converge on a suitable solution). We present the Five Design Sheet (FdS) methodology. The methodology enables users to create information visualization interfaces through lo-fidelity methods. Users sketch and plan their ideas, helping them express different possibilities, think through these ideas to consider their potential effectiveness as solutions to the task (sheet 1); they create three principle designs (sheets 2,3 and 4); before converging on a final realization design that can then be implemented (sheet 5). In this article, we present (i) a review of the use of sketching as a planning method for visualization and the benefits of sketching, (ii) a detailed description of the Five Design Sheet (FdS) methodology, and (iii) an evaluation of the FdS using the System Usability Scale, along with a case-study of its use in industry and experience of its use in teaching.

  5. Nonlinear flight control design using backstepping methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Thanh Trung

    The subject of nonlinear flight control design using backstepping control methodology is investigated in the dissertation research presented here. Control design methods based on nonlinear models of the dynamic system provide higher utility and versatility because the design model more closely matches the physical system behavior. Obtaining requisite model fidelity is only half of the overall design process, however. Design of the nonlinear control loops can lessen the effects of nonlinearity, or even exploit nonlinearity, to achieve higher levels of closed-loop stability, performance, and robustness. The goal of the research is to improve control quality for a general class of strict-feedback dynamic systems and provide flight control architectures to augment the aircraft motion. The research is divided into two parts: theoretical control development for the strict-feedback form of nonlinear dynamic systems and application of the proposed theory for nonlinear flight dynamics. In the first part, the research is built on two components: transforming the nonlinear dynamic model to a canonical strict-feedback form and then applying backstepping control theory to the canonical model. The research considers a process to determine when this transformation is possible, and when it is possible, a systematic process to transfer the model is also considered when practical. When this is not the case, certain modeling assumptions are explored to facilitate the transformation. After achieving the canonical form, a systematic design procedure for formulating a backstepping control law is explored in the research. Starting with the simplest subsystem and ending with the full system, pseudo control concepts based on Lyapunov control functions are used to control each successive subsystem. Typically each pseudo control must be solved from a nonlinear algebraic equation. At the end of this process, the physical control input must be re-expressed in terms of the physical states by

  6. Unshrouded Centrifugal Turbopump Impeller Design Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prueger, George H.; Williams, Morgan; Chen, Wei-Chung; Paris, John; Williams, Robert; Stewart, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Turbopump weight continues to be a dominant parameter in the trade space for reduction of engine weight. Space Shuttle Main Engine weight distribution indicates that the turbomachinery make up approximately 30% of the total engine weight. Weight reduction can be achieved through the reduction of envelope of the turbopump. Reduction in envelope relates to an increase in turbopump speed and an increase in impeller head coefficient. Speed can be increased until suction performance limits are achieved on the pump or due to alternate constraints the turbine or bearings limit speed. Once the speed of the turbopump is set the impeller tip speed sets the minimum head coefficient of the machine. To reduce impeller diameter the head coefficient must be increased. A significant limitation with increasing head coefficient is that the slope of the head-flow characteristic is affected and this can limit engine throttling range. Unshrouded impellers offer a design option for increased turbopump speed without increasing the impeller head coefficient. However, there are several issues with regard to using an unshrouded impeller: there is a pump performance penalty due to the front open face recirculation flow, there is a potential pump axial thrust problem from the unbalanced front open face and the back shroud face, and since test data is very limited for this configuration, there is uncertainty in the magnitude and phase of the rotordynamic forces due to the front impeller passage. The purpose of the paper is to discuss the design of an unshrouded impeller and to examine the hydrodynamic performance, axial thrust, and rotordynamic performance. The design methodology will also be discussed. This work will help provide some guidelines for unshrouded impeller design.

  7. CONCEPTUAL DESIGNS FOR A NEW HIGHWAY VEHICLE EMISSIONS ESTIMATION METHODOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses six conceptual designs for a new highway vehicle emissions estimation methodology and summarizes the recommendations of each design for improving the emissions and activity factors in the emissions estimation process. he complete design reports are included a...

  8. Methodology for Preliminary Design of Electrical Microgrids

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Richard P.; Stamp, Jason E.; Eddy, John P.; Henry, Jordan M; Munoz-Ramos, Karina; Abdallah, Tarek

    2015-09-30

    Many critical loads rely on simple backup generation to provide electricity in the event of a power outage. An Energy Surety Microgrid TM can protect against outages caused by single generator failures to improve reliability. An ESM will also provide a host of other benefits, including integration of renewable energy, fuel optimization, and maximizing the value of energy storage. The ESM concept includes a categorization for microgrid value proposi- tions, and quantifies how the investment can be justified during either grid-connected or utility outage conditions. In contrast with many approaches, the ESM approach explic- itly sets requirements based on unlikely extreme conditions, including the need to protect against determined cyber adversaries. During the United States (US) Department of Defense (DOD)/Department of Energy (DOE) Smart Power Infrastructure Demonstration for Energy Reliability and Security (SPIDERS) effort, the ESM methodology was successfully used to develop the preliminary designs, which direct supported the contracting, construction, and testing for three military bases. Acknowledgements Sandia National Laboratories and the SPIDERS technical team would like to acknowledge the following for help in the project: * Mike Hightower, who has been the key driving force for Energy Surety Microgrids * Juan Torres and Abbas Akhil, who developed the concept of microgrids for military installations * Merrill Smith, U.S. Department of Energy SPIDERS Program Manager * Ross Roley and Rich Trundy from U.S. Pacific Command * Bill Waugaman and Bill Beary from U.S. Northern Command * Melanie Johnson and Harold Sanborn of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Construc- tion Engineering Research Laboratory * Experts from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

  9. Enhancing the Front-End Phase of Design Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, Erasto

    2006-01-01

    Design methodology (DM) is defined by the procedural path, expressed in design models, and techniques or methods used to untangle the various activities within a design model. Design education in universities is mainly based on descriptive design models. Much knowledge and organization have been built into DM to facilitate design teaching.…

  10. Progressive Designs for New Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, William A.; Belida, Loren; Johnson, William C.

    2000-01-01

    Explores how school building design influences the success of children in preparing for the future. Considerations when renovating and upgrading school design to enhance learning are discussed, including issues of sustainability, collaboration, lighting, and ventilation. (GR)

  11. Technical report on LWR design decision methodology. Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    1980-03-01

    Energy Incorporated (EI) was selected by Sandia Laboratories to develop and test on LWR design decision methodology. Contract Number 42-4229 provided funding for Phase I of this work. This technical report on LWR design decision methodology documents the activities performed under that contract. Phase I was a short-term effort to thoroughly review the curret LWR design decision process to assure complete understanding of current practices and to establish a well defined interface for development of initial quantitative design guidelines.

  12. Design Research: Theoretical and Methodological Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Allan; Joseph, Diana; Bielaczyc, Katerine

    2004-01-01

    The term "design experiments" was introduced in 1992, in articles by Ann Brown (1992) and Allan Collins (1992). Design experiments were developed as a way to carry out formative research to test and refine educational designs based on principles derived from prior research. More recently the term design research has been applied to this kind of…

  13. A Design Methodology for Medical Processes

    PubMed Central

    Bonacina, Stefano; Pozzi, Giuseppe; Pinciroli, Francesco; Marceglia, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Healthcare processes, especially those belonging to the clinical domain, are acknowledged as complex and characterized by the dynamic nature of the diagnosis, the variability of the decisions made by experts driven by their experiences, the local constraints, the patient’s needs, the uncertainty of the patient’s response, and the indeterminacy of patient’s compliance to treatment. Also, the multiple actors involved in patient’s care need clear and transparent communication to ensure care coordination. Objectives In this paper, we propose a methodology to model healthcare processes in order to break out complexity and provide transparency. Methods The model is grounded on a set of requirements that make the healthcare domain unique with respect to other knowledge domains. The modeling methodology is based on three main phases: the study of the environmental context, the conceptual modeling, and the logical modeling. Results The proposed methodology was validated by applying it to the case study of the rehabilitation process of stroke patients in the specific setting of a specialized rehabilitation center. The resulting model was used to define the specifications of a software artifact for the digital administration and collection of assessment tests that was also implemented. Conclusions Despite being only an example, our case study showed the ability of process modeling to answer the actual needs in healthcare practices. Independently from the medical domain in which the modeling effort is done, the proposed methodology is useful to create high-quality models, and to detect and take into account relevant and tricky situations that can occur during process execution. PMID:27081415

  14. Design Methodology for Automated Construction Machines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-11

    positioning of structural members, and tunneling [3,5]. U.S. construction firms typically allocate little or no funding for R & D; progress to date...addition, four general purpose robots for building construction tasks [1] and the automation of sandblasting and concrete formwork cleaning have been

  15. The Study of the Relationship between Probabilistic Design and Axiomatic Design Methodology. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onwubiko, Chinyere; Onyebueke, Landon

    1996-01-01

    This program report is the final report covering all the work done on this project. The goal of this project is technology transfer of methodologies to improve design process. The specific objectives are: 1. To learn and understand the Probabilistic design analysis using NESSUS. 2. To assign Design Projects to either undergraduate or graduate students on the application of NESSUS. 3. To integrate the application of NESSUS into some selected senior level courses in Civil and Mechanical Engineering curricula. 4. To develop courseware in Probabilistic Design methodology to be included in a graduate level Design Methodology course. 5. To study the relationship between the Probabilistic design methodology and Axiomatic design methodology.

  16. A Methodology for Total Hospital Design

    PubMed Central

    Delon, Gerald L.

    1970-01-01

    A procedure is described that integrates three techniques into a unified approach: a computerized method for estimating departmental areas and construction costs, a computerized layout routine that produces a space-relationship diagram based on qualitative factors, and a second layout program that establishes a final layout by a series of iterations. The methodology described utilizes as input the results of earlier phases of the research, with the output of each step in turn becoming the input for the succeeding step. The method is illustrated by application to a hypothetical pediatric hospital of 100 beds. PMID:5494263

  17. CAGE IIIA Distributed Simulation Design Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    and Execution Process (FEDEP), Synthetic Environment Development and Exploitation Process (SEDEP), Distributed Simulation Engineering and Execution... Process (DSEEP) and Kweley and Wood [Andreas Tolk et al. (2012)] all assume a central design authority and thus full control of the system of... Process ......................................................................... 6 2.3.2.1 Scenario Design Products

  18. A design methodology for portable software on parallel computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicol, David M.; Miller, Keith W.; Chrisman, Dan A.

    1993-01-01

    This final report for research that was supported by grant number NAG-1-995 documents our progress in addressing two difficulties in parallel programming. The first difficulty is developing software that will execute quickly on a parallel computer. The second difficulty is transporting software between dissimilar parallel computers. In general, we expect that more hardware-specific information will be included in software designs for parallel computers than in designs for sequential computers. This inclusion is an instance of portability being sacrificed for high performance. New parallel computers are being introduced frequently. Trying to keep one's software on the current high performance hardware, a software developer almost continually faces yet another expensive software transportation. The problem of the proposed research is to create a design methodology that helps designers to more precisely control both portability and hardware-specific programming details. The proposed research emphasizes programming for scientific applications. We completed our study of the parallelizability of a subsystem of the NASA Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) data processing system. This work is summarized in section two. A more detailed description is provided in Appendix A ('Programming Practices to Support Eventual Parallelism'). Mr. Chrisman, a graduate student, wrote and successfully defended a Ph.D. dissertation proposal which describes our research associated with the issues of software portability and high performance. The list of research tasks are specified in the proposal. The proposal 'A Design Methodology for Portable Software on Parallel Computers' is summarized in section three and is provided in its entirety in Appendix B. We are currently studying a proposed subsystem of the NASA Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data processing system. This software is the proof-of-concept for the Ph.D. dissertation. We have implemented and measured

  19. The methodology of database design in organization management systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudinov, I. L.; Osipova, V. V.; Bobrova, Y. V.

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes the unified methodology of database design for management information systems. Designing the conceptual information model for the domain area is the most important and labor-intensive stage in database design. Basing on the proposed integrated approach to design, the conceptual information model, the main principles of developing the relation databases are provided and user’s information needs are considered. According to the methodology, the process of designing the conceptual information model includes three basic stages, which are defined in detail. Finally, the article describes the process of performing the results of analyzing user’s information needs and the rationale for use of classifiers.

  20. A design optimization methodology for Li+ batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golmon, Stephanie; Maute, Kurt; Dunn, Martin L.

    2014-05-01

    Design optimization for functionally graded battery electrodes is shown to improve the usable energy capacity of Li batteries predicted by computational simulations and numerically optimizing the electrode porosities and particle radii. A multi-scale battery model which accounts for nonlinear transient transport processes, electrochemical reactions, and mechanical deformations is used to predict the usable energy storage capacity of the battery over a range of discharge rates. A multi-objective formulation of the design problem is introduced to maximize the usable capacity over a range of discharge rates while limiting the mechanical stresses. The optimization problem is solved via a gradient based optimization. A LiMn2O4 cathode is simulated with a PEO-LiCF3SO3 electrolyte and both a Li Foil (half cell) and LiC6 anode. Studies were performed on both half and full cell configurations resulting in distinctly different optimal electrode designs. The numerical results show that the highest rate discharge drives the simulations and the optimal designs are dominated by Li+ transport rates. The results also suggest that spatially varying electrode porosities and active particle sizes provides an efficient approach to improve the power-to-energy density of Li+ batteries. For the half cell configuration, the optimal design improves the discharge capacity by 29% while for the full cell the discharge capacity was improved 61% relative to an initial design with a uniform electrode structure. Most of the improvement in capacity was due to the spatially varying porosity, with up to 5% of the gains attributed to the particle radii design variables.

  1. Methodology for Characterizing Trends | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  2. Progressive Failure Analysis Methodology for Laminated Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sleight, David W.

    1999-01-01

    A progressive failure analysis method has been developed for predicting the failure of laminated composite structures under geometrically nonlinear deformations. The progressive failure analysis uses C(exp 1) shell elements based on classical lamination theory to calculate the in-plane stresses. Several failure criteria, including the maximum strain criterion, Hashin's criterion, and Christensen's criterion, are used to predict the failure mechanisms and several options are available to degrade the material properties after failures. The progressive failure analysis method is implemented in the COMET finite element analysis code and can predict the damage and response of laminated composite structures from initial loading to final failure. The different failure criteria and material degradation methods are compared and assessed by performing analyses of several laminated composite structures. Results from the progressive failure method indicate good correlation with the existing test data except in structural applications where interlaminar stresses are important which may cause failure mechanisms such as debonding or delaminations.

  3. Implicit Shape Parameterization for Kansei Design Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordgren, Andreas Kjell; Aoyama, Hideki

    Implicit shape parameterization for Kansei design is a procedure that use 3D-models, or concepts, to span a shape space for surfaces in the automotive field. A low-dimensional, yet accurate shape descriptor was found by Principal Component Analysis of an ensemble of point-clouds, which were extracted from mesh-based surfaces modeled in a CAD-program. A theoretical background of the procedure is given along with step-by-step instructions for the required data-processing. The results show that complex surfaces can be described very efficiently, and encode design features by an implicit approach that does not rely on error-prone explicit parameterizations. This provides a very intuitive way to explore shapes for a designer, because various design features can simply be introduced by adding new concepts to the ensemble. Complex shapes have been difficult to analyze with Kansei methods due to the large number of parameters involved, but implicit parameterization of design features provides a low-dimensional shape descriptor for efficient data collection, model-building and analysis of emotional content in 3D-surfaces.

  4. Philosophical and Methodological Beliefs of Instructional Design Faculty and Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Michael D.; Johnson, R. Burke

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to probe the philosophical beliefs of instructional designers using sound philosophical constructs and quantitative data collection and analysis. We investigated the philosophical and methodological beliefs of instructional designers, including 152 instructional design faculty members and 118 non-faculty…

  5. Development of Distributed Computing Systems Software Design Methodologies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-05

    R12i 941 DEVELOPMENT OF DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS SOFTWARE ± DESIGN METHODOLOGIES(U) NORTHWESTERN UNIV EVANSTON IL DEPT OF ELECTRICAL...GUIRWAU OF STANDARDS -16 5 A Ax u FINAL REPORT Development of Distributed Computing System Software Design Methodologies C)0 Stephen S. Yau September 22...of Distributed Computing Systems Software pt.22,, 80 -OJu1, 2 * Dsig Mehodloges PERFORMING ORG REPORT NUMBERDesign th ol ies" 7. AUTHOR() .. CONTRACT

  6. Design Methodology for Multiple Microcomputer Architectures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    multimicro design knowledge is true both in industry and in university environments. In the industrial environment, it reduces productivity and increases...Real-Time Processor Problems," Proc. of ELECTRO-81 Tercer Seminario de Ingenieria Electronica, Nov. 9-13, 1981. 14 1981 "D Flip/Flop Substracts

  7. A Design Methodology For Industrial Vision Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, B. G.; Waltz, F. M.; Snyder, M. A.

    1988-11-01

    The cost of design, rather than that of target system hardware, represents the principal factor inhibiting the adoption of machine vision systems by manufacturing industry. To reduce design costs to a minimum, a number of software and hardware aids have been developed or are currently being built by the authors. These design aids are as follows: a. An expert system for giving advice about which image acquisition techniques (i.e. lighting/viewing techniques) might be appropriate in a given situation. b. A program to assist in the selection and setup of camera lenses. c. A rich repertoire of image processing procedures, integrated with the Al language Prolog. This combination (called ProVision) provides a facility for experimenting with intelligent image processing techniques and is intended to allow rapid prototyping of algorithms and/or heuristics. d. Fast image processing hardware, capable of implementing commands in the ProVision language. The speed of operation of this equipment is sufficiently high for it to be used, without modification, in many industrial applications. Where this is not possible, even higher execution speed may be achieved by adding extra modules to the processing hardware. In this way, it is possible to trade speed against the cost of the target system hardware. New and faster implementations of a given algorithm/heuristic can usually be achieved with the expenditure of only a small effort. Throughout this article, the emphasis is on designing an industrial vision system in a smooth and effortless manner. In order to illustrate our main thesis that the design of industrial vision systems can be made very much easier through the use of suitable utilities, the article concludes with a discussion of a case study: the dissection of tiny plants using a visually controlled robot.

  8. "MARK I" MEASUREMENT METHODOLOGY FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION PROGRESS OCCURRING AS A RESULT OF PRODUCT DECISIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A methodology for assessing progress in pollution prevention resulting from product redesign, reformulation or replacement is described. The method compares the pollution generated by the original product with that from the modified or replacement product, taking into account, if...

  9. Integrated Design Methodology for Highly Reliable Liquid Rocket Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuratani, Naoshi; Aoki, Hiroshi; Yasui, Masaaki; Kure, Hirotaka; Masuya, Goro

    The Integrated Design Methodology is strongly required at the conceptual design phase to achieve the highly reliable space transportation systems, especially the propulsion systems, not only in Japan but also all over the world in these days. Because in the past some catastrophic failures caused some losses of mission and vehicle (LOM/LOV) at the operational phase, moreover did affect severely the schedule delays and cost overrun at the later development phase. Design methodology for highly reliable liquid rocket engine is being preliminarily established and investigated in this study. The sensitivity analysis is systematically performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of this methodology, and to clarify and especially to focus on the correlation between the combustion chamber, turbopump and main valve as main components. This study describes the essential issues to understand the stated correlations, the need to apply this methodology to the remaining critical failure modes in the whole engine system, and the perspective on the engine development in the future.

  10. Surface design methodology - challenge the steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, M.; Rosen, B.-G.; Eriksson, L.; Anderberg, C.

    2014-03-01

    The way a product or material is experienced by its user could be different depending on the scenario. It is also well known that different materials and surfaces are used for different purposes. When optimizing materials and surface roughness for a certain something with the intention to improve a product, it is important to obtain not only the physical requirements, but also the user experience and expectations. Laws and requirements of the materials and the surface function, but also the conservative way of thinking about materials and colours characterize the design of medical equipment. The purpose of this paper is to link the technical- and customer requirements of current materials and surface textures in medical environments. By focusing on parts of the theory of Kansei Engineering, improvements of the companys' products are possible. The idea is to find correlations between desired experience or "feeling" for a product, -customer requirements, functional requirements, and product geometrical properties -design parameters, to be implemented on new improved products. To be able to find new materials with the same (or better) technical requirements but a higher level of user stimulation, the current material (stainless steel) and its surface (brushed textures) was used as a reference. The usage of focus groups of experts at the manufacturer lead to a selection of twelve possible new materials for investigation in the project. In collaboration with the topical company for this project, three new materials that fulfil the requirements -easy to clean and anti-bacterial came to be in focus for further investigation in regard to a new design of a washer-disinfector for medical equipment using the Kansei based Clean ability approach CAA.

  11. A Methodology for the Neutronics Design of Space Nuclear Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    King, Jeffrey C.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2004-02-04

    A methodology for the neutronics design of space power reactors is presented. This methodology involves balancing the competing requirements of having sufficient excess reactivity for the desired lifetime, keeping the reactor subcritical at launch and during submersion accidents, and providing sufficient control over the lifetime of the reactor. These requirements are addressed by three reactivity values for a given reactor design: the excess reactivity at beginning of mission, the negative reactivity at shutdown, and the negative reactivity margin in submersion accidents. These reactivity values define the control worth and the safety worth in submersion accidents, used for evaluating the merit of a proposed reactor type and design. The Heat Pipe-Segmented Thermoelectric Module Converters space reactor core design is evaluated and modified based on the proposed methodology. The final reactor core design has sufficient excess reactivity for 10 years of nominal operation at 1.82 MW of fission power and is subcritical at launch and in all water submersion accidents.

  12. Solid lubrication design methodology, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pallini, R. A.; Wedeven, L. D.; Ragen, M. A.; Aggarwal, B. B.

    1986-01-01

    The high temperature performance of solid lubricated rolling elements was conducted with a specially designed traction (friction) test apparatus. Graphite lubricants containing three additives (silver, phosphate glass, and zinc orthophosphate) were evaluated from room temperature to 540 C. Two hard coats were also evaluated. The evaluation of these lubricants, using a burnishing method of application, shows a reasonable transfer of lubricant and wear protection for short duration testing except in the 200 C temperature range. The graphite lubricants containing silver and zinc orthophosphate additives were more effective than the phosphate glass material over the test conditions examined. Traction coefficients ranged from a low of 0.07 to a high of 0.6. By curve fitting the traction data, empirical equations for slope and maximum traction coefficient as a function of contact pressure (P), rolling speed (U), and temperature (T) can be developed for each lubricant. A solid lubricant traction model was incorporated into an advanced bearing analysis code (SHABERTH). For comparison purposes, preliminary heat generation calculations were made for both oil and solid lubricated bearing operation. A preliminary analysis indicated a significantly higher heat generation for a solid lubricated ball bearing in a deep groove configuration. An analysis of a cylindrical roller bearing configuration showed a potential for a low friction solid lubricated bearing.

  13. Optimal Design and Purposeful Sampling: Complementary Methodologies for Implementation Research.

    PubMed

    Duan, Naihua; Bhaumik, Dulal K; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Hoagwood, Kimberly

    2015-09-01

    Optimal design has been an under-utilized methodology. However, it has significant real-world applications, particularly in mixed methods implementation research. We review the concept and demonstrate how it can be used to assess the sensitivity of design decisions and balance competing needs. For observational studies, this methodology enables selection of the most informative study units. For experimental studies, it entails selecting and assigning study units to intervention conditions in the most informative manner. We blend optimal design methods with purposeful sampling to show how these two concepts balance competing needs when there are multiple study aims, a common situation in implementation research.

  14. PEM Fuel Cells Redesign Using Biomimetic and TRIZ Design Methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Keith Kin Kei

    Two formal design methodologies, biomimetic design and the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving, TRIZ, were applied to the redesign of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell. Proof of concept prototyping was performed on two of the concepts for water management. The liquid water collection with strategically placed wicks concept demonstrated the potential benefits for a fuel cell. Conversely, the periodic flow direction reversal concepts might cause a potential reduction water removal from a fuel cell. The causes of this water removal reduction remain unclear. In additional, three of the concepts generated with biomimetic design were further studied and demonstrated to stimulate more creative ideas in the thermal and water management of fuel cells. The biomimetic design and the TRIZ methodologies were successfully applied to fuel cells and provided different perspectives to the redesign of fuel cells. The methodologies should continue to be used to improve fuel cells.

  15. Methodological Innovation in Practice-Based Design Doctorates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yee, Joyce S. R.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a selective review of recent design PhDs that identify and analyse the methodological innovation that is occurring in the field, in order to inform future provision of research training. Six recently completed design PhDs are used to highlight possible philosophical and practical models that can be adopted by future PhD…

  16. Helicopter-V/STOL dynamic wind and turbulence design methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, J. Earl

    1987-01-01

    Aircraft and helicopter accidents due to severe dynamic wind and turbulence continue to present challenging design problems. The development of the current set of design analysis tools for a aircraft wind and turbulence design began in the 1940's and 1950's. The areas of helicopter dynamic wind and turbulence modeling and vehicle response to severe dynamic wind inputs (microburst type phenomena) during takeoff and landing remain as major unsolved design problems from a lack of both environmental data and computational methodology. The development of helicopter and V/STOL dynamic wind and turbulence response computation methology is reviewed, the current state of the design art in industry is outlined, and comments on design methodology are made which may serve to improve future flight vehicle design.

  17. Progress in multirate digital control system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Martin C.; Mason, Gregory S.

    1991-01-01

    A new methodology for multirate sampled-data control design based on a new generalized control law structure, two new parameter-optimization-based control law synthesis methods, and a new singular-value-based robustness analysis method are described. The control law structure can represent multirate sampled-data control laws of arbitrary structure and dynamic order, with arbitrarily prescribed sampling rates for all sensors and update rates for all processor states and actuators. The two control law synthesis methods employ numerical optimization to determine values for the control law parameters. The robustness analysis method is based on the multivariable Nyquist criterion applied to the loop transfer function for the sampling period equal to the period of repetition of the system's complete sampling/update schedule. The complete methodology is demonstrated by application to the design of a combination yaw damper and modal suppression system for a commercial aircraft.

  18. A design methodology for nonlinear systems containing parameter uncertainty: Application to nonlinear controller design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, G.

    1982-01-01

    A design methodology capable of dealing with nonlinear systems, such as a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS), containing parameter uncertainty is discussed. The methodology was applied to the design of discrete time nonlinear controllers. The nonlinear controllers can be used to control either linear or nonlinear systems. Several controller strategies are presented to illustrate the design procedure.

  19. Enhancing Instructional Design Efficiency: Methodologies Employed by Instructional Designers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roytek, Margaret A.

    2010-01-01

    Instructional systems design (ISD) has been frequently criticised as taking too long to implement, calling for a reduction in cycle time--the time that elapses between project initiation and delivery. While instructional design research has historically focused on increasing "learner" efficiencies, the study of what instructional designers do to…

  20. Implementation of Probabilistic Design Methodology at Tennessee State University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onwubiko, Chinyere

    1996-01-01

    Engineering Design is one of the most important areas in engineering education. Deterministic Design Methodology (DDM) is the only design method that is taught in most engineering schools. This method does not give a direct account of uncertainties in design parameters. Hence, it is impossible to quantify the uncertainties in the response and the actual safety margin remains unknown. The desire for a design methodology tha can identify the primitive (random) variables that affect the structural behavior has led to a growing interest on Probabilistic Design Methodology (PDM). This method is gaining more recognition in industries than in educational institutions. Some of the reasons for the limited use of the PDM at the moment are that many are unaware of its potentials, and most of the software developed for PDM are very recent. The central goal of the PDM project at Tennessee State University is to introduce engineering students to the method. The students participating in the project learn about PDM and the computer codes that are available to the design engineer. The software being used of this project is NESSUS (Numerical Evaluation of Stochastic Structures Under Stress) developed under NASA probabilistic structural analysis program. NESSUS has three different modules which make it a very comprehensive computer code for PDM. A research in technology transfer through course offering in PDM is in effect a Tennessee State University. The aim is to familiarize students with the problem of uncertainties in engineering design. Included in the paper are some projects on PDM carried out by some students and faculty. The areas this method is being applied at the moment include, Design of Gears (spur and worm); Design of Shafts; Design of Statistically Indeterminate Frame Structures; Design of Helical Springs; and Design of Shock Absorbers. Some of the current results of these projects are presented.

  1. A bio-inspired EAP actuator design methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Diego; Moreno, Luis; Baselga, Juan

    2005-05-01

    Current EAP actuator sheets or fibers perform reasonable well in the centimeter and mN range, but are not practical for larger force and deformation requirements. In order to make EAP actuators technology scalable a design methodology for polymer actuators is required. Design variables, optimization formulas and a general architecture are required, as it is usual in electromagnetic or hydraulic actuator design. This will allow the development of large EAP actuators specifically designed for a particular application. It will also help to enhance the EAP material final performance. This approach is not new, it is found in Nature. Skeletal muscle architecture has a profound influence on muscle force-generating properties and functionality. Based on existing literature on skeletal muscle biomechanics, the Nature design philosophy is inferred. Formulas and curves employed by Nature in the design of muscles are presented. Design units such as fiber, tendon, aponeurosis, and motor unit are compared with the equivalent design units to be taken into account in the design of EAP actuators. Finally a complete design methodology for the design of actuators based on multiple EAP fiber is proposed. In addition, the procedure gives an idea of the required parameters that must be clearly modeled and characterized at EAP material level.

  2. Extensibility of a linear rapid robust design methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinfeldt, Bradley A.; Braun, Robert D.

    2016-05-01

    The extensibility of a linear rapid robust design methodology is examined. This analysis is approached from a computational cost and accuracy perspective. The sensitivity of the solution's computational cost is examined by analysing effects such as the number of design variables, nonlinearity of the CAs, and nonlinearity of the response in addition to several potential complexity metrics. Relative to traditional robust design methods, the linear rapid robust design methodology scaled better with the size of the problem and had performance that exceeded the traditional techniques examined. The accuracy of applying a method with linear fundamentals to nonlinear problems was examined. It is observed that if the magnitude of nonlinearity is less than 1000 times that of the nominal linear response, the error associated with applying successive linearization will result in ? errors in the response less than 10% compared to the full nonlinear error.

  3. Viability, Advantages and Design Methodologies of M-Learning Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabel, Todd W.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the viability and principle design methodologies of Mobile Learning models in developing regions. Demographic and market studies were utilized to determine the viability of M-Learning delivery as well as best uses for such technologies and methods given socioeconomic and political conditions within the…

  4. Chicken or Egg? Communicative Methodology or Communicative Syllabus Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yalden, Janice

    A consensus has emerged on many issues in communicative language teaching, but one question that needs attention is the question of what ought to constitute the appropriate starting point in the design and implementation of a second language program. Two positions to consider are the following: first, the development of communicative methodology,…

  5. Tornado missile simulation and design methodology. Volume 1: simulation methodology, design applications, and TORMIS computer code. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Twisdale, L.A.; Dunn, W.L.

    1981-08-01

    A probabilistic methodology has been developed to predict the probabilities of tornado-propelled missiles impacting and damaging nuclear power plant structures. Mathematical models of each event in the tornado missile hazard have been developed and sequenced to form an integrated, time-history simulation methodology. The models are data based where feasible. The data include documented records of tornado occurrence, field observations of missile transport, results of wind tunnel experiments, and missile impact tests. Probabilistic Monte Carlo techniques are used to estimate the risk probabilities. The methodology has been encoded in the TORMIS computer code to facilitate numerical analysis and plant-specific tornado missile probability assessments. Sensitivity analyses have been performed on both the individual models and the integrated methodology, and risk has been assessed for a hypothetical nuclear power plant design case study.

  6. Methodological considerations for designing a community water fluoridation cessation study.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Sonica; Farmer, Julie; McLaren, Lindsay

    2017-02-22

    High-quality, up-to-date research on community water fluoridation (CWF), and especially on the implications of CWF cessation for dental health, is limited. Although CWF cessation studies have been conducted, they are few in number; one of the major reasons is the methodological complexity of conducting such a study. This article draws on a systematic review of existing cessation studies (n=15) to explore methodological considerations of conducting CWF cessation studies in future. We review nine important methodological aspects (study design, comparison community, target population, time frame, sampling strategy, clinical indicators, assessment criteria, covariates and biomarkers) and provide recommendations for planning future CWF cessation studies that examine effects on dental caries. There is no one ideal study design to answer a research question. However, recommendations proposed regarding methodological aspects to conduct an epidemiological study to observe the effects of CWF cessation on dental caries, coupled with our identification of important methodological gaps, will be useful for researchers who are looking to optimize resources to conduct such a study with standards of rigour.

  7. Progress in the MITICA beam source design.

    PubMed

    Zaccaria, P; Agostinetti, P; Marcuzzi, D; Pavei, M; Pilan, N; Rizzolo, A; Sonato, P; Spada, F; Trevisan, L

    2012-02-01

    In the framework of the development of the ITER neutral beam (NB) system, a test facility is planned to be built in Padova. A full size prototype of the ITER heating NB injector (MITICA) shall be built and tested at full beam power (17 MW) as per ITER requirements. The design of the MITICA beam source has further progressed following updated optimization and overall integration criteria. In the paper, the major design choices and revisions are presented, together with some results of numerical analyses carried out in order to assess the electrostatic and thermo-mechanical behaviour of the source.

  8. PROGRESS IN DESIGN OF THE SNS LINAC

    SciTech Connect

    R. HARDEKOPF

    2000-11-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a six-laboratory collaboration to build an intense pulsed neutron facility at Oak Ridge, TN. The linac design has evolved from the conceptual design presented in 1997 to achieve higher initial performance and to incorporate desirable upgrade features. The linac will initially produce 2-MW beam power using a combination of radio-frequency quadruple (RFQ) linac, drift-tube linac (DTL), coupled-cavity linac (CCL), and superconducting-cavity linac (SCL). Designs of each of these elements support the high peak intensity and high quality beam required for injection into the SNS accumulator ring. This paper will trace the evolution of the linac design, the cost and performance factors that drove architecture decisions, and the progress made in the R&D program.

  9. Failure detection system design methodology. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, E. Y.

    1980-01-01

    The design of a failure detection and identification system consists of designing a robust residual generation process and a high performance decision making process. The design of these two processes are examined separately. Residual generation is based on analytical redundancy. Redundancy relations that are insensitive to modelling errors and noise effects are important for designing robust residual generation processes. The characterization of the concept of analytical redundancy in terms of a generalized parity space provides a framework in which a systematic approach to the determination of robust redundancy relations are developed. The Bayesian approach is adopted for the design of high performance decision processes. The FDI decision problem is formulated as a Bayes sequential decision problem. Since the optimal decision rule is incomputable, a methodology for designing suboptimal rules is proposed. A numerical algorithm is developed to facilitate the design and performance evaluation of suboptimal rules.

  10. Progressive failure methodologies for predicting residual strength and life of laminated composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Charles E.; Allen, David H.; Obrien, T. Kevin

    1991-01-01

    Two progressive failure methodologies currently under development by the Mechanics of Materials Branch at NASA Langley Research Center are discussed. The damage tolerance/fail safety methodology developed by O'Brien is an engineering approach to ensuring adequate durability and damage tolerance by treating only delamination onset and the subsequent delamination accumulation through the laminate thickness. The continuum damage model developed by Allen and Harris employs continuum damage laws to predict laminate strength and life. The philosophy, mechanics framework, and current implementation status of each methodology are presented.

  11. FOREWORD: Computational methodologies for designing materials Computational methodologies for designing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Talat S.

    2009-02-01

    It would be fair to say that in the past few decades, theory and computer modeling have played a major role in elucidating the microscopic factors that dictate the properties of functional novel materials. Together with advances in experimental techniques, theoretical methods are becoming increasingly capable of predicting properties of materials at different length scales, thereby bringing in sight the long-sought goal of designing material properties according to need. Advances in computer technology and their availability at a reasonable cost around the world have made tit all the more urgent to disseminate what is now known about these modern computational techniques. In this special issue on computational methodologies for materials by design we have tried to solicit articles from authors whose works collectively represent the microcosm of developments in the area. This turned out to be a difficult task for a variety of reasons, not the least of which is space limitation in this special issue. Nevertheless, we gathered twenty articles that represent some of the important directions in which theory and modeling are proceeding in the general effort to capture the ability to produce materials by design. The majority of papers presented here focus on technique developments that are expected to uncover further the fundamental processes responsible for material properties, and for their growth modes and morphological evolutions. As for material properties, some of the articles here address the challenges that continue to emerge from attempts at accurate descriptions of magnetic properties, of electronically excited states, and of sparse matter, all of which demand new looks at density functional theory (DFT). I should hasten to add that much of the success in accurate computational modeling of materials emanates from the remarkable predictive power of DFT, without which we would not be able to place the subject on firm theoretical grounds. As we know and will also

  12. A bioclimatic design methodology for urban outdoor spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaid, H.; Bar-El, M.; Hoffman, M. E.

    1993-03-01

    The development of a bioclimatic urban design methodology is described. The cluster thermal time constant ( CTTC) model for predicting street-level urban air temperature variations is coupled with the wind-profile power law and the index of thermal stress (ITS.) for human comfort. The CTTC model and the power law produce the diurnal air temperature and wind speed variations in various canyonlike urban forms. The thermal comfort requirements for lightly-dressed, moderately-walking/seated persons in the outdoor space in summer are then obtained using the ITS. model. The proposed methodology enables a first-order assessment of the climatic implications of different features of the physical structure of the city such as street orientation, canyon height-to-width ratio, building density, and street shading. The application of the proposed methodology is demonstrated for Tel Aviv.

  13. A robust optimization methodology for preliminary aircraft design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prigent, S.; Maréchal, P.; Rondepierre, A.; Druot, T.; Belleville, M.

    2016-05-01

    This article focuses on a robust optimization of an aircraft preliminary design under operational constraints. According to engineers' know-how, the aircraft preliminary design problem can be modelled as an uncertain optimization problem whose objective (the cost or the fuel consumption) is almost affine, and whose constraints are convex. It is shown that this uncertain optimization problem can be approximated in a conservative manner by an uncertain linear optimization program, which enables the use of the techniques of robust linear programming of Ben-Tal, El Ghaoui, and Nemirovski [Robust Optimization, Princeton University Press, 2009]. This methodology is then applied to two real cases of aircraft design and numerical results are presented.

  14. Aerodynamic configuration design using response surface methodology analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelund, Walter C.; Stanley, Douglas O.; Lepsch, Roger A.; McMillin, Mark M.; Unal, Resit

    1993-08-01

    An investigation has been conducted to determine a set of optimal design parameters for a single-stage-to-orbit reentry vehicle. Several configuration geometry parameters which had a large impact on the entry vehicle flying characteristics were selected as design variables: the fuselage fineness ratio, the nose to body length ratio, the nose camber value, the wing planform area scale factor, and the wing location. The optimal geometry parameter values were chosen using a response surface methodology (RSM) technique which allowed for a minimum dry weight configuration design that met a set of aerodynamic performance constraints on the landing speed, and on the subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic trim and stability levels. The RSM technique utilized, specifically the central composite design method, is presented, along with the general vehicle conceptual design process. Results are presented for an optimized configuration along with several design trade cases.

  15. Aerodynamic configuration design using response surface methodology analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelund, Walter C.; Stanley, Douglas O.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Mcmillin, Mark M.; Unal, Resit

    1993-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted to determine a set of optimal design parameters for a single-stage-to-orbit reentry vehicle. Several configuration geometry parameters which had a large impact on the entry vehicle flying characteristics were selected as design variables: the fuselage fineness ratio, the nose to body length ratio, the nose camber value, the wing planform area scale factor, and the wing location. The optimal geometry parameter values were chosen using a response surface methodology (RSM) technique which allowed for a minimum dry weight configuration design that met a set of aerodynamic performance constraints on the landing speed, and on the subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic trim and stability levels. The RSM technique utilized, specifically the central composite design method, is presented, along with the general vehicle conceptual design process. Results are presented for an optimized configuration along with several design trade cases.

  16. Yakima Hatchery Experimental Design : Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Busack, Craig; Knudsen, Curtis; Marshall, Anne

    1991-08-01

    This progress report details the results and status of Washington Department of Fisheries' (WDF) pre-facility monitoring, research, and evaluation efforts, through May 1991, designed to support the development of an Experimental Design Plan (EDP) for the Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP), previously termed the Yakima/Klickitat Production Project (YKPP or Y/KPP). This pre- facility work has been guided by planning efforts of various research and quality control teams of the project that are annually captured as revisions to the experimental design and pre-facility work plans. The current objective are as follows: to develop genetic monitoring and evaluation approach for the Y/KPP; to evaluate stock identification monitoring tools, approaches, and opportunities available to meet specific objectives of the experimental plan; and to evaluate adult and juvenile enumeration and sampling/collection capabilities in the Y/KPP necessary to measure experimental response variables.

  17. ProSAR: a new methodology for combinatorial library design.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongming; Börjesson, Ulf; Engkvist, Ola; Kogej, Thierry; Svensson, Mats A; Blomberg, Niklas; Weigelt, Dirk; Burrows, Jeremy N; Lange, Tim

    2009-03-01

    A method is introduced for performing reagent selection for chemical library design based on topological (2D) pharmacophore fingerprints. Optimal reagent selection is achieved by optimizing the Shannon entropy of the 2D pharmacophore distribution for the reagent set. The method, termed ProSAR, is therefore expected to enumerate compounds that could serve as a good starting point for deriving a structure activity relationship (SAR) in combinatorial library design. This methodology is exemplified by library design examples where the active compounds were already known. The results show that most of the pharmacophores on the substituents for the active compounds are covered by the designed library. This strategy is further expanded to include product property profiles for aqueous solubility, hERG risk assessment, etc. in the optimization process so that the reagent pharmacophore diversity and the product property profile are optimized simultaneously via a genetic algorithm. This strategy is applied to a two-dimensional library design example and compared with libraries designed by a diversity based strategy which minimizes the average ensemble Tanimoto similarity. Our results show that by using the PSAR methodology, libraries can be designed with simultaneously good pharmacophore coverage and product property profile.

  18. Evaluation of a Progressive Failure Analysis Methodology for Laminated Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sleight, David W.; Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Wang, John T.

    1997-01-01

    A progressive failure analysis methodology has been developed for predicting the nonlinear response and failure of laminated composite structures. The progressive failure analysis uses C plate and shell elements based on classical lamination theory to calculate the in-plane stresses. Several failure criteria, including the maximum strain criterion, Hashin's criterion, and Christensen's criterion, are used to predict the failure mechanisms. The progressive failure analysis model is implemented into a general purpose finite element code and can predict the damage and response of laminated composite structures from initial loading to final failure.

  19. A Progressive Damage Methodology for Residual Strength Predictions of Notched Composite Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coats, Timothy W.; Harris, Charles E.

    1998-01-01

    The translaminate fracture behavior of carbon/epoxy structural laminates with through-penetration notches was investigated to develop a residual strength prediction methodology for composite structures. An experimental characterization of several composite materials systems revealed a fracture resistance behavior that was very similar to the R-curve behavior exhibited by ductile metals. Fractographic examinations led to the postulate that the damage growth resistance was primarily due to fractured fibers in the principal load-carrying plies being bridged by intact fibers of the adjacent plies. The load transfer associated with this bridging mechanism suggests that a progressive damage analysis methodology will be appropriate for predicting the residual strength of laminates with through-penetration notches. A progressive damage methodology developed by the authors was used to predict the initiation and growth of matrix cracks and fiber fracture. Most of the residual strength predictions for different panel widths, notch lengths, and material systems were within about 10% of the experimental failure loads.

  20. An automated methodology development. [software design for combat simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawley, L. R.

    1985-01-01

    The design methodology employed in testing the applicability of Ada in large-scale combat simulations is described. Ada was considered as a substitute for FORTRAN to lower life cycle costs and ease the program development efforts. An object-oriented approach was taken, which featured definitions of military targets, the capability of manipulating their condition in real-time, and one-to-one correlation between the object states and real world states. The simulation design process was automated by the problem statement language (PSL)/problem statement analyzer (PSA). The PSL/PSA system accessed the problem data base directly to enhance the code efficiency by, e.g., eliminating non-used subroutines, and provided for automated report generation, besides allowing for functional and interface descriptions. The ways in which the methodology satisfied the responsiveness, reliability, transportability, modifiability, timeliness and efficiency goals are discussed.

  1. Design methodology of an automated scattering measurement facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, D. G.

    1985-12-01

    This thesis addresses the design methodology surrounding an automated scattering measurement facility. A brief historical survey of radar cross-section (RCS) measurements is presented. The electromagnetic theory associated with a continuous wave (CW) background cancellation technique for measuring RCS is discussed as background. In addition, problems associated with interfacing test equipment, data storage and output are addressed. The facility used as a model for this thesis is located at the Air Force Institute of Technology, WPARB, OH. The design methodology applies to any automated scattering measurement facility. A software package incorporating features that enhance the operation of AFIT's facility by students is presented. Finally, sample output from the software package illustrate formats for displaying RCS data.

  2. Development of a Design Methodology for Reconfigurable Flight Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Ronald A.; McLean, C.

    2000-01-01

    A methodology is presented for the design of flight control systems that exhibit stability and performance-robustness in the presence of actuator failures. The design is based upon two elements. The first element consists of a control law that will ensure at least stability in the presence of a class of actuator failures. This law is created by inner-loop, reduced-order, linear dynamic inversion, and outer-loop compensation based upon Quantitative Feedback Theory. The second element consists of adaptive compensators obtained from simple and approximate time-domain identification of the dynamics of the 'effective vehicle' with failed actuator(s). An example involving the lateral-directional control of a fighter aircraft is employed both to introduce the proposed methodology and to demonstrate its effectiveness and limitations.

  3. Methodology for object-oriented real-time systems analysis and design: Software engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeffler, James D.

    1991-01-01

    Successful application of software engineering methodologies requires an integrated analysis and design life-cycle in which the various phases flow smoothly 'seamlessly' from analysis through design to implementation. Furthermore, different analysis methodologies often lead to different structuring of the system so that the transition from analysis to design may be awkward depending on the design methodology to be used. This is especially important when object-oriented programming is to be used for implementation when the original specification and perhaps high-level design is non-object oriented. Two approaches to real-time systems analysis which can lead to an object-oriented design are contrasted: (1) modeling the system using structured analysis with real-time extensions which emphasizes data and control flows followed by the abstraction of objects where the operations or methods of the objects correspond to processes in the data flow diagrams and then design in terms of these objects; and (2) modeling the system from the beginning as a set of naturally occurring concurrent entities (objects) each having its own time-behavior defined by a set of states and state-transition rules and seamlessly transforming the analysis models into high-level design models. A new concept of a 'real-time systems-analysis object' is introduced and becomes the basic building block of a series of seamlessly-connected models which progress from the object-oriented real-time systems analysis and design system analysis logical models through the physical architectural models and the high-level design stages. The methodology is appropriate to the overall specification including hardware and software modules. In software modules, the systems analysis objects are transformed into software objects.

  4. An integrated risk analysis methodology in a multidisciplinary design environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampton, Katrina Renee

    Design of complex, one-of-a-kind systems, such as space transportation systems, is characterized by high uncertainty and, consequently, high risk. It is necessary to account for these uncertainties in the design process to produce systems that are more reliable. Systems designed by including uncertainties and managing them, as well, are more robust and less prone to poor operations as a result of parameter variability. The quantification, analysis and mitigation of uncertainties are challenging tasks as many systems lack historical data. In such an environment, risk or uncertainty quantification becomes subjective because input data is based on professional judgment. Additionally, there are uncertainties associated with the analysis tools and models. Both the input data and the model uncertainties must be considered for a multi disciplinary systems level risk analysis. This research synthesizes an integrated approach for developing a method for risk analysis. Expert judgment methodology is employed to quantify external risk. This methodology is then combined with a Latin Hypercube Sampling - Monte Carlo simulation to propagate uncertainties across a multidisciplinary environment for the overall system. Finally, a robust design strategy is employed to mitigate risk during the optimization process. This type of approach to risk analysis is conducive to the examination of quantitative risk factors. The core of this research methodology is the theoretical framework for uncertainty propagation. The research is divided into three stages or modules. The first two modules include the identification/quantification and propagation of uncertainties. The third module involves the management of uncertainties or response optimization. This final module also incorporates the integration of risk into program decision-making. The risk analysis methodology, is applied to a launch vehicle conceptual design study at NASA Langley Research Center. The launch vehicle multidisciplinary

  5. Thin Film Heat Flux Sensors: Design and Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fralick, Gustave C.; Wrbanek, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Thin Film Heat Flux Sensors: Design and Methodology: (1) Heat flux is one of a number of parameters, together with pressure, temperature, flow, etc. of interest to engine designers and fluid dynamists, (2) The measurement of heat flux is of interest in directly determining the cooling requirements of hot section blades and vanes, and (3)In addition, if the surface and gas temperatures are known, the measurement of heat flux provides a value for the convective heat transfer coefficient that can be compared with the value provided by CFD codes.

  6. Integrating rock mechanics issues with repository design through design process principles and methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Bieniawski, Z.T.

    1996-04-01

    A good designer needs not only knowledge for designing (technical know-how that is used to generate alternative design solutions) but also must have knowledge about designing (appropriate principles and systematic methodology to follow). Concepts such as {open_quotes}design for manufacture{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}concurrent engineering{close_quotes} are widely used in the industry. In the field of rock engineering, only limited attention has been paid to the design process because design of structures in rock masses presents unique challenges to the designers as a result of the uncertainties inherent in characterization of geologic media. However, a stage has now been reached where we are be able to sufficiently characterize rock masses for engineering purposes and identify the rock mechanics issues involved but are still lacking engineering design principles and methodology to maximize our design performance. This paper discusses the principles and methodology of the engineering design process directed to integrating site characterization activities with design, construction and performance of an underground repository. Using the latest information from the Yucca Mountain Project on geology, rock mechanics and starter tunnel design, the current lack of integration is pointed out and it is shown how rock mechanics issues can be effectively interwoven with repository design through a systematic design process methodology leading to improved repository performance. In essence, the design process is seen as the use of design principles within an integrating design methodology, leading to innovative problem solving. In particular, a new concept of {open_quotes}Design for Constructibility and Performance{close_quotes} is introduced. This is discussed with respect to ten rock mechanics issues identified for repository design and performance.

  7. When Playing Meets Learning: Methodological Framework for Designing Educational Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linek, Stephanie B.; Schwarz, Daniel; Bopp, Matthias; Albert, Dietrich

    Game-based learning builds upon the idea of using the motivational potential of video games in the educational context. Thus, the design of educational games has to address optimizing enjoyment as well as optimizing learning. Within the EC-project ELEKTRA a methodological framework for the conceptual design of educational games was developed. Thereby state-of-the-art psycho-pedagogical approaches were combined with insights of media-psychology as well as with best-practice game design. This science-based interdisciplinary approach was enriched by enclosed empirical research to answer open questions on educational game-design. Additionally, several evaluation-cycles were implemented to achieve further improvements. The psycho-pedagogical core of the methodology can be summarized by the ELEKTRA's 4Ms: Macroadaptivity, Microadaptivity, Metacognition, and Motivation. The conceptual framework is structured in eight phases which have several interconnections and feedback-cycles that enable a close interdisciplinary collaboration between game design, pedagogy, cognitive science and media psychology.

  8. Implementation of probabilistic design methodology at Tennessee State University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onwubiko, Chinyere

    1995-01-01

    The fact that Deterministic Design Method no longer satisfies most design needs calls for methods that will cope with the high trend in technology. The advance in computer technology has reduced the rigors that normally accompany many design analysis methods that account for uncertainties in design parameters. Probabilistic Design Methodology (PDM) is beginning to make impact in engineering design. This method is gaining more recognition in industries than in educational institutions. Some of the reasons for the limited use of the PDM at the moment are that many are unaware of its potentials, and most of the software developed for PDM are very recent. The central goal of the PDM project at Tennessee State University is to introduce engineering students to this method. The students participating in the project learn about PDM and the computer codes that are available to the design engineer. The software being used for this project is NESSUS (Numerical Evaluation of Stochastic Structures Under Stress) developed under NASA probabilistic structural analysis program. NESSUS has three different modules which make it a very comprehensive computer code for PDM. Since this method is new to the students, its introduction into the engineering curriculum is to be in stages. These range from the introduction of PDM and its software to the applications. While this program is being developed for its eventual inclusion into the engineering curriculum, some graduate and undergraduate students are already carrying out some projects using this method. As the students are increasing their understanding on PDM, they are at the same time applying it to some common design problems. The areas this method is being applied at the moment include, Design of Gears (spur and worm); Design of Brakes; Design of Heat Exchangers Design of Helical Springs; and Design of Shock Absorbers. Some of the current results of these projects are presented.

  9. Fuel cell cathode air filters: Methodologies for design and optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Daniel M.; Cahela, Donald R.; Zhu, Wenhua H.; Westrom, Kenneth C.; Nelms, R. Mark; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells experience performance degradation, such as reduction in efficiency and life, as a result of poisoning of platinum catalysts by airborne contaminants. Research on these contaminant effects suggests that the best possible solution to allowing fuel cells to operate in contaminated environments is by filtration of the harmful contaminants from the cathode air. A cathode air filter design methodology was created that connects properties of cathode air stream, filter design options, and filter footprint, to a set of adsorptive filter parameters that must be optimized to efficiently operate the fuel cell. Filter optimization requires a study of the trade off between two causal factors of power loss: first, a reduction in power production due to poisoning of the platinum catalyst by chemical contaminants and second, an increase in power requirements to operate the air compressor with a larger pressure drop from additional contaminant filtration. The design methodology was successfully applied to a 1.2 kW fuel cell using a programmable algorithm and predictions were made about the relationships between inlet concentration, breakthrough time, filter design, pressure drop, and compressor power requirements.

  10. The design and methodology of premature ejaculation interventional studies.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Chris G

    2016-08-01

    Large well-designed clinical efficacy and safety randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are required to achieve regulatory approval of new drug treatments. The objective of this article is to make recommendations for the criteria for defining and selecting the clinical trial study population, design and efficacy outcomes measures which comprise ideal premature ejaculation (PE) interventional trial methodology. Data on clinical trial design, epidemiology, definitions, dimensions and psychological impact of PE was reviewed, critiqued and incorporated into a series of recommendations for standardisation of PE clinical trial design, outcome measures and reporting using the principles of evidence based medicine. Data from PE interventional studies are only reliable, interpretable and capable of being generalised to patients with PE, when study populations are defined by the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) multivariate definition of PE. PE intervention trials should employ a double-blind RCT methodology and include placebo control, active standard drug control, and/or dose comparison trials. Ejaculatory latency time (ELT) and subject/partner outcome measures of control, personal/partner/relationship distress and other study-specific outcome measures should be used as outcome measures. There is currently no published literature which identifies a clinically significant threshold response to intervention. The ISSM definition of PE reflects the contemporary understanding of PE and represents the state-of-the-art multi-dimensional definition of PE and is recommended as the basis of diagnosis of PE for all PE clinical trials.

  11. The design and methodology of premature ejaculation interventional studies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Large well-designed clinical efficacy and safety randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are required to achieve regulatory approval of new drug treatments. The objective of this article is to make recommendations for the criteria for defining and selecting the clinical trial study population, design and efficacy outcomes measures which comprise ideal premature ejaculation (PE) interventional trial methodology. Data on clinical trial design, epidemiology, definitions, dimensions and psychological impact of PE was reviewed, critiqued and incorporated into a series of recommendations for standardisation of PE clinical trial design, outcome measures and reporting using the principles of evidence based medicine. Data from PE interventional studies are only reliable, interpretable and capable of being generalised to patients with PE, when study populations are defined by the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) multivariate definition of PE. PE intervention trials should employ a double-blind RCT methodology and include placebo control, active standard drug control, and/or dose comparison trials. Ejaculatory latency time (ELT) and subject/partner outcome measures of control, personal/partner/relationship distress and other study-specific outcome measures should be used as outcome measures. There is currently no published literature which identifies a clinically significant threshold response to intervention. The ISSM definition of PE reflects the contemporary understanding of PE and represents the state-of-the-art multi-dimensional definition of PE and is recommended as the basis of diagnosis of PE for all PE clinical trials. PMID:27652224

  12. Behavioral headache research: methodologic considerations and research design alternatives.

    PubMed

    Hursey, Karl G; Rains, Jeanetta C; Penzien, Donald B; Nash, Justin M; Nicholson, Robert A

    2005-05-01

    Behavioral headache treatments have garnered solid empirical support in recent years, but there is substantial opportunity to strengthen the next generation of studies with improved methods and consistency across studies. Recently, Guidelines for Trials of Behavioral Treatments for Recurrent Headache were published to facilitate the production of high-quality research. The present article compliments the guidelines with a discussion of methodologic and research design considerations. Since there is no research design that is applicable in every situation, selecting an appropriate research design is fundamental to producing meaningful results. Investigators in behavioral headache and other areas of research consider the developmental phase of the research, the principle objectives of the project, and the sources of error or alternative interpretations in selecting a design. Phases of clinical trials typically include pilot studies, efficacy studies, and effectiveness studies. These trials may be categorized as primarily pragmatic or explanatory. The most appropriate research designs for these different phases and different objectives vary on such characteristics as sample size and assignment to condition, types of control conditions, periods or frequency of measurement, and the dimensions along which comparisons are made. A research design also must fit within constraints on available resources. There are a large number of potential research designs that can be used and considering these characteristics allows selection of appropriate research designs.

  13. Applying a user centered design methodology in a clinical context.

    PubMed

    Kashfi, Hajar

    2010-01-01

    A clinical decision support system (CDSS) is an interactive application that is used to facilitate the process of decisionmaking in a clinical context. Developing a usable CDSS is a challenging process; mostly because of the complex nature of domain knowledge and the context of use of those systems. This paper describes how a user centered design (UCD) approach can be used in a clinical context for developing a CDSS. In our effort, a design-based research methodology has been used. The outcomes of this work are as follow; a customized UCD approach is suggested that combines UCD and openEHR. Moreover, the GUI developed in the design phase and the result of the GUI evaluation is briefly presented.

  14. Aircraft conceptual design - an adaptable parametric sizing methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Gary John, Jr.

    Aerospace is a maturing industry with successful and refined baselines which work well for traditional baseline missions, markets and technologies. However, when new markets (space tourism) or new constrains (environmental) or new technologies (composite, natural laminar flow) emerge, the conventional solution is not necessarily best for the new situation. Which begs the question "how does a design team quickly screen and compare novel solutions to conventional solutions for new aerospace challenges?" The answer is rapid and flexible conceptual design Parametric Sizing. In the product design life-cycle, parametric sizing is the first step in screening the total vehicle in terms of mission, configuration and technology to quickly assess first order design and mission sensitivities. During this phase, various missions and technologies are assessed. During this phase, the designer is identifying design solutions of concepts and configurations to meet combinations of mission and technology. This research undertaking contributes the state-of-the-art in aircraft parametric sizing through (1) development of a dedicated conceptual design process and disciplinary methods library, (2) development of a novel and robust parametric sizing process based on 'best-practice' approaches found in the process and disciplinary methods library, and (3) application of the parametric sizing process to a variety of design missions (transonic, supersonic and hypersonic transports), different configurations (tail-aft, blended wing body, strut-braced wing, hypersonic blended bodies, etc.), and different technologies (composite, natural laminar flow, thrust vectored control, etc.), in order to demonstrate the robustness of the methodology and unearth first-order design sensitivities to current and future aerospace design problems. This research undertaking demonstrates the importance of this early design step in selecting the correct combination of mission, technologies and configuration to

  15. Development and implementation of rotorcraft preliminary design methodology using multidisciplinary design optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid, Adeel Syed

    Rotorcraft's evolution has lagged behind that of fixed-wing aircraft. One of the reasons for this gap is the absence of a formal methodology to accomplish a complete conceptual and preliminary design. Traditional rotorcraft methodologies are not only time consuming and expensive but also yield sub-optimal designs. Rotorcraft design is an excellent example of a multidisciplinary complex environment where several interdependent disciplines are involved. A formal framework is developed and implemented in this research for preliminary rotorcraft design using IPPD methodology. The design methodology consists of the product and process development cycles. In the product development loop, all the technical aspects of design are considered including the vehicle engineering, dynamic analysis, stability and control, aerodynamic performance, propulsion, transmission design, weight and balance, noise analysis and economic analysis. The design loop starts with a detailed analysis of requirements. A baseline is selected and upgrade targets are identified depending on the mission requirements. An Overall Evaluation Criterion (OEC) is developed that is used to measure the goodness of the design or to compare the design with competitors. The requirements analysis and baseline upgrade targets lead to the initial sizing and performance estimation of the new design. The digital information is then passed to disciplinary experts. This is where the detailed disciplinary analyses are performed. Information is transferred from one discipline to another as the design loop is iterated. To coordinate all the disciplines in the product development cycle, Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) techniques e.g. All At Once (AAO) and Collaborative Optimization (CO) are suggested. The methodology is implemented on a Light Turbine Training Helicopter (LTTH) design. Detailed disciplinary analyses are integrated through a common platform for efficient and centralized transfer of design

  16. A Research Methodology for Green IT Systems Based on WSR and Design Science: The Case of a Chinese Company

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Yinghong; Liu, Hongwei

    Currently green IT has been a hotspot in both practice and research fields. Much progress has been made in the aspect of green technologies. However, researchers and designers could not simply build up a green IT system from technological aspect, which is normally considered as a wicked problem. This paper puts forward a research methodology for green IT systems by introducing WSR and design science. This methodology absorbs essence from soft systems methodology and action research. It considers the research, design and building of green IT systems from a systemic perspective which can be divided into as technological dimension, management dimension and human dimension. This methodology consists of 7 iterated stages. Each stage is presented and followed by a case study from a Chinese company.

  17. 50 years of medicinal plant research - every progress in methodology is a progress in science.

    PubMed

    Phillipson, J David

    2003-06-01

    Many scientific methods of analysis have been developed for the investigation of the constituents and biological activities of medicinal plants during the 50 years since the inaugural meeting of the Gesellschaft für Arzneipflanzenforschung (GA). The chromatographic (e. g., TLC, GLC, HPLC), spectroscopic (e. g., UV, IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR, MS), and biological (e. g., anticancer, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulant, antiprotozoal, CNS) techniques utilized for medicinal plant research are briefly reviewed. The contribution that advances in scientific methodology have made to our understanding of the actions of some herbal medicines (e. g., Echinacea, Ginkgo, St John's wort, Cannabis), as well as to ethnopharmacology and biotechnology, are briefly summarized. Plants have provided many medicinal drugs in the past and remain as a potential source of novel therapeutic agents. Despite all of the powerful analytical techniques available, the majority of plant species has not been investigated chemically or biologically in any great detail and even well known medicinal plants require further clinical study.

  18. The Study of the Relationship between Probabilistic Design and Axiomatic Design Methodology. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onwubiko, Chin-Yere; Onyebueke, Landon

    1996-01-01

    The structural design, or the design of machine elements, has been traditionally based on deterministic design methodology. The deterministic method considers all design parameters to be known with certainty. This methodology is, therefore, inadequate to design complex structures that are subjected to a variety of complex, severe loading conditions. A nonlinear behavior that is dependent on stress, stress rate, temperature, number of load cycles, and time is observed on all components subjected to complex conditions. These complex conditions introduce uncertainties; hence, the actual factor of safety margin remains unknown. In the deterministic methodology, the contingency of failure is discounted; hence, there is a use of a high factor of safety. It may be most useful in situations where the design structures are simple. The probabilistic method is concerned with the probability of non-failure performance of structures or machine elements. It is much more useful in situations where the design is characterized by complex geometry, possibility of catastrophic failure, sensitive loads and material properties. Also included: Comparative Study of the use of AGMA Geometry Factors and Probabilistic Design Methodology in the Design of Compact Spur Gear Set.

  19. Fast underdetermined BSS architecture design methodology for real time applications.

    PubMed

    Mopuri, Suresh; Reddy, P Sreenivasa; Acharyya, Amit; Naik, Ganesh R

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a high speed architecture design methodology for the Under-determined Blind Source Separation (UBSS) algorithm using our recently proposed high speed Discrete Hilbert Transform (DHT) targeting real time applications. In UBSS algorithm, unlike the typical BSS, the number of sensors are less than the number of the sources, which is of more interest in the real time applications. The DHT architecture has been implemented based on sub matrix multiplication method to compute M point DHT, which uses N point architecture recursively and where M is an integer multiples of N. The DHT architecture and state of the art architecture are coded in VHDL for 16 bit word length and ASIC implementation is carried out using UMC 90 - nm technology @V DD = 1V and @ 1MHZ clock frequency. The proposed architecture implementation and experimental comparison results show that the DHT design is two times faster than state of the art architecture.

  20. Design Evolution and Methodology for Pumpkin Super-Pressure Balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farley, Rodger

    The NASA Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) program has had many technical development issues discovered and solved along its road to success as a new vehicle. It has the promise of being a sub-satellite, a means to launch up to 2700 kg to 33.5 km altitude for 100 days from a comfortable mid-latitude launch point. Current high-lift long duration ballooning is accomplished out of Antarctica with zero-pressure balloons, which cannot cope with the rigors of diurnal cycles. The ULDB design is still evolving, the product of intense analytical effort, scaled testing, improved manufacturing, and engineering intuition. The past technical problems, in particular the s-cleft deformation, their solutions, future challenges, and the methodology of pumpkin balloon design will generally be described.

  1. A variable-gain output feedback control design methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halyo, Nesim; Moerder, Daniel D.; Broussard, John R.; Taylor, Deborah B.

    1989-01-01

    A digital control system design technique is developed in which the control system gain matrix varies with the plant operating point parameters. The design technique is obtained by formulating the problem as an optimal stochastic output feedback control law with variable gains. This approach provides a control theory framework within which the operating range of a control law can be significantly extended. Furthermore, the approach avoids the major shortcomings of the conventional gain-scheduling techniques. The optimal variable gain output feedback control problem is solved by embedding the Multi-Configuration Control (MCC) problem, previously solved at ICS. An algorithm to compute the optimal variable gain output feedback control gain matrices is developed. The algorithm is a modified version of the MCC algorithm improved so as to handle the large dimensionality which arises particularly in variable-gain control problems. The design methodology developed is applied to a reconfigurable aircraft control problem. A variable-gain output feedback control problem was formulated to design a flight control law for an AFTI F-16 aircraft which can automatically reconfigure its control strategy to accommodate failures in the horizontal tail control surface. Simulations of the closed-loop reconfigurable system show that the approach produces a control design which can accommodate such failures with relative ease. The technique can be applied to many other problems including sensor failure accommodation, mode switching control laws and super agility.

  2. A symbolic methodology to improve disassembly process design.

    PubMed

    Rios, Pedro; Blyler, Leslie; Tieman, Lisa; Stuart, Julie Ann; Grant, Ed

    2003-12-01

    Millions of end-of-life electronic components are retired annually due to the proliferation of new models and their rapid obsolescence. The recovery of resources such as plastics from these goods requires their disassembly. The time required for each disassembly and its associated cost is defined by the operator's familiarity with the product design and its complexity. Since model proliferation serves to complicate an operator's learning curve, it is worthwhile to investigate the benefits to be gained in a disassembly operator's preplanning process. Effective disassembly process design demands the application of green engineering principles, such as those developed by Anastas and Zimmerman (Environ. Sci. Technol. 2003, 37, 94A-101A), which include regard for product complexity, structural commonality, separation energy, material value, and waste prevention. This paper introduces the concept of design symbolsto help the operator more efficiently survey product complexity with respect to location and number of fasteners to remove a structure that is common to all electronics: the housing. With a sample of 71 different computers, printers, and monitors, we demonstrate that appropriate symbols reduce the total disassembly planning time by 13.2 min. Such an improvement could well make efficient the separation of plastic that would otherwise be destined for waste-to-energy or landfill. The symbolic methodology presented may also improve Design for Recycling and Design for Maintenance and Support.

  3. A review and synthesis of late Pleistocene extinction modeling: progress delayed by mismatches between ecological realism, interpretation, and methodological transparency.

    PubMed

    Yule, Jeffrey V; Fournier, Robert J; Jensen, Christopher X J; Yang, Jinyan

    2014-06-01

    Late Pleistocene extinctions occurred globally over a period of about 50,000 years, primarily affecting mammals of > or = 44 kg body mass (i.e., megafauna) first in Australia, continuing in Eurasia and, finally, in the Americas. Polarized debate about the cause(s) of the extinctions centers on the role of climate change and anthropogenic factors (especially hunting). Since the late 1960s, investigators have developed mathematical models to simulate the ecological interactions that might have contributed to the extinctions. Here, we provide an overview of the various methodologies used and conclusions reached in the modeling literature, addressing both the strengths and weaknesses of modeling as an explanatory tool. Although late Pleistocene extinction models now provide a solid foundation for viable future work, we conclude, first, that single models offer less compelling support for their respective explanatory hypotheses than many realize; second, that disparities in methodology (both in terms of model parameterization and design) prevent meaningful comparison between models and, more generally, progress from model to model in increasing our understanding of these extinctions; and third, that recent models have been presented and possibly developed without sufficient regard for the transparency of design that facilitates scientific progress.

  4. Finite-element/progressive-lattice-sampling response surface methodology and application to benchmark probability quantification problems

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, V.J.; Bankston, S.D.

    1998-03-01

    Optimal response surface construction is being investigated as part of Sandia discretionary (LDRD) research into Analytic Nondeterministic Methods. The goal is to achieve an adequate representation of system behavior over the relevant parameter space of a problem with a minimum of computational and user effort. This is important in global optimization and in estimation of system probabilistic response, which are both made more viable by replacing large complex computer models with fast-running accurate and noiseless approximations. A Finite Element/Lattice Sampling (FE/LS) methodology for constructing progressively refined finite element response surfaces that reuse previous generations of samples is described here. Similar finite element implementations can be extended to N-dimensional problems and/or random fields and applied to other types of structured sampling paradigms, such as classical experimental design and Gauss, Lobatto, and Patterson sampling. Here the FE/LS model is applied in a ``decoupled`` Monte Carlo analysis of two sets of probability quantification test problems. The analytic test problems, spanning a large range of probabilities and very demanding failure region geometries, constitute a good testbed for comparing the performance of various nondeterministic analysis methods. In results here, FE/LS decoupled Monte Carlo analysis required orders of magnitude less computer time than direct Monte Carlo analysis, with no appreciable loss of accuracy. Thus, when arriving at probabilities or distributions by Monte Carlo, it appears to be more efficient to expend computer-model function evaluations on building a FE/LS response surface than to expend them in direct Monte Carlo sampling.

  5. Towards a Methodology for the Design of Multimedia Public Access Interfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Jennifer

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of information systems methodologies that can contribute to interface design for public access systems covers: the systems life cycle; advantages of adopting information systems methodologies; soft systems methodologies; task-oriented approaches to user interface design; holistic design, the Star model, and prototyping; the…

  6. Combustor design and analysis using the Rocket Combustor Interactive Design (ROCCID) methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klem, Mark D.; Pieper, Jerry L.; Walker, Richard E.

    1990-01-01

    The ROCket Combustor Interactive Design (ROCCID) Methodology is a newly developed, interactive computer code for the design and analysis of a liquid propellant rocket combustion chamber. The application of ROCCID to design a liquid rocket combustion chamber is illustrated. Designs for a 50,000 lbf thrust and 1250 psi chamber pressure combustor using liquid oxygen (LOX)RP-1 propellants are developed and evaluated. Tradeoffs between key design parameters affecting combustor performance and stability are examined. Predicted performance and combustion stability margin for these designs are provided as a function of the combustor operating mixture ratio and chamber pressure.

  7. Combustor design and analysis using the ROCket Combustor Interactive Design (ROCCID) Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klem, Mark D.; Pieper, Jerry L.; Walker, Richard E.

    1990-01-01

    The ROCket Combustor Interactive Design (ROCCID) Methodology is a newly developed, interactive computer code for the design and analysis of a liquid propellant rocket combustion chamber. The application of ROCCID to design a liquid rocket combustion chamber is illustrated. Designs for a 50,000 lbf thrust and 1250 psi chamber pressure combustor using liquid oxygen (LOX)RP-1 propellants are developed and evaluated. Tradeoffs between key design parameters affecting combustor performance and stability are examined. Predicted performance and combustion stability margin for these designs are provided as a function of the combustor operating mixture ratio and chamber pressure.

  8. A new hot gas cleanup filter design methodology

    SciTech Connect

    VanOsdol, J.G.; Dennis, R.A.; Shaffer, F.D.

    1996-12-31

    The fluid dynamics of Hot Gas Cleanup (HGCU) systems having complex geometrical configurations are typically analyzed using computational fluid dynamics codes (CFD) or bench-scale laboratory test facilities called cold-flow models (CFM). At the present time, both CFD and CFM can be effectively used for simple flows limited to one or two characteristic length scales with well defined boundary conditions. This is not the situation with HGCU devices. These devices have very complex geometries, low Reynolds number, multi-phase flows that operate on multiple-length scales. For this reason, both CFD and CFM analysis cannot yet be considered as a practical engineering analysis tool for modeling the entire flow field inside HGCU systems. The thrust of this work is to provide an aerodynamic analysis methodology that can be easily applied to the complex geometries characteristic of HGCU filter vessels, but would not require the tedious numerical solution to the entire set of transport equations. The analysis methodology performs the following tasks: Predicts problem areas where ash deposition will most likely occur; Predicts residence times for particles at various locations inside the filter vessel; Lends itself quickly to major design changes; Provides a sound technical basis for more appropriate use of CFD and CFM analysis; and Provides CFD and CFM analysis in a more focused way where if is needed.

  9. Sonic Boom Mitigation Through Aircraft Design and Adjoint Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rallabhandi, Siriam K.; Diskin, Boris; Nielsen, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to design of the supersonic aircraft outer mold line (OML) by optimizing the A-weighted loudness of sonic boom signature predicted on the ground. The optimization process uses the sensitivity information obtained by coupling the discrete adjoint formulations for the augmented Burgers Equation and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) equations. This coupled formulation links the loudness of the ground boom signature to the aircraft geometry thus allowing efficient shape optimization for the purpose of minimizing the impact of loudness. The accuracy of the adjoint-based sensitivities is verified against sensitivities obtained using an independent complex-variable approach. The adjoint based optimization methodology is applied to a configuration previously optimized using alternative state of the art optimization methods and produces additional loudness reduction. The results of the optimizations are reported and discussed.

  10. Development of design and analysis methodology for composite bolted joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Peter; Sawicki, Adam

    1991-05-01

    This paper summarizes work performed to develop composite joint design methodology for use on rotorcraft primary structure, determine joint characteristics which affect joint bearing and bypass strength, and develop analytical methods for predicting the effects of such characteristics in structural joints. Experimental results have shown that bearing-bypass interaction allowables cannot be defined using a single continuous function due to variance of failure modes for different bearing-bypass ratios. Hole wear effects can be significant at moderate stress levels and should be considered in the development of bearing allowables. A computer program has been developed and has successfully predicted bearing-bypass interaction effects for the (0/+/-45/90) family of laminates using filled hole and unnotched test data.

  11. SSME Investment in Turbomachinery Inducer Impeller Design Tools and Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoladz, Thomas; Mitchell, William; Lunde, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Within the rocket engine industry, SSME turbomachines are the de facto standards of success with regard to meeting aggressive performance requirements under challenging operational environments. Over the Shuttle era, SSME has invested heavily in our national inducer impeller design infrastructure. While both low and high pressure turbopump failures/anomaly resolution efforts spurred some of these investments, the SSME program was a major benefactor of key areas of turbomachinery inducer-impeller research outside of flight manifest pressures. Over the past several decades, key turbopump internal environments have been interrogated via highly instrumented hot-fire and cold-flow testing. Likewise, SSME has sponsored the advancement of time accurate and cavitating inducer impeller computation fluid dynamics (CFD) tools. These investments together have led to a better understanding of the complex internal flow fields within aggressive high performing inducers and impellers. New design tools and methodologies have evolved which intend to provide confident blade designs which strike an appropriate balance between performance and self induced load management.

  12. An NAFP Project: Use of Object Oriented Methodologies and Design Patterns to Refactor Software Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaykhian, Gholam Ali; Baggs, Rhoda

    2007-01-01

    In the early problem-solution era of software programming, functional decompositions were mainly used to design and implement software solutions. In functional decompositions, functions and data are introduced as two separate entities during the design phase, and are followed as such in the implementation phase. Functional decompositions make use of refactoring through optimizing the algorithms, grouping similar functionalities into common reusable functions, and using abstract representations of data where possible; all these are done during the implementation phase. This paper advocates the usage of object-oriented methodologies and design patterns as the centerpieces of refactoring software solutions. Refactoring software is a method of changing software design while explicitly preserving its external functionalities. The combined usage of object-oriented methodologies and design patterns to refactor should also benefit the overall software life cycle cost with improved software.

  13. Progress in the spectacle correction of presbyopia. Part 1: Design and development of progressive lenses.

    PubMed

    Meister, Darryl J; Fisher, Scott W

    2008-05-01

    Most of the commercial advances in the spectacle correction of presbyopia continue to occur in progressive lens design, which has been the focus of intense research and development over the past 60 years by major spectacle lens manufacturers. While progressive lens design and manufacturing techniques have advanced at a steady pace, recent progress in 'free-form' lens surfacing has opened up many exciting possibilities that will in all likelihood bring about a paradigm shift in the current model of progressive lens fabrication and distribution. The first installment of this two-part series will review the fundamental optical principles and early development work associated with progressive lenses.

  14. Database Design Methodology and Database Management System for Computer-Aided Structural Design Optimization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    1983). Several researchers Lillehagen and Dokkar (1982), Grabowski, Eigener and Ranch (1978), and Eberlein and Wedekind (1982) have worked on database...Proceedings of International Federation of Information Processing. pp. 335-366. Eberlein, W. and Wedekind , H., 1982, "A Methodology for Embedding Design

  15. Supporting Space Systems Design via Systems Dependency Analysis Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guariniello, Cesare

    assess the behavior of each system based on its internal status and on the topology of its dependencies on systems connected to it. Designers and decision makers can therefore quickly analyze and explore the behavior of complex systems and evaluate different architectures under various working conditions. The methods support educated decision making both in the design and in the update process of systems architecture, reducing the need to execute extensive simulations. In particular, in the phase of concept generation and selection, the information given by the methods can be used to identify promising architectures to be further tested and improved, while discarding architectures that do not show the required level of global features. The methods, when used in conjunction with appropriate metrics, also allow for improved reliability and risk analysis, as well as for automatic scheduling and re-scheduling based on the features of the dependencies and on the accepted level of risk. This dissertation illustrates the use of the two methods in sample aerospace applications, both in the operational and in the developmental domain. The applications show how to use the developed methodology to evaluate the impact of failures, assess the criticality of systems, quantify metrics of interest, quantify the impact of delays, support informed decision making when scheduling the development of systems and evaluate the achievement of partial capabilities. A larger, well-framed case study illustrates how the Systems Operational Dependency Analysis method and the Systems Developmental Dependency Analysis method can support analysis and decision making, at the mid and high level, in the design process of architectures for the exploration of Mars. The case study also shows how the methods do not replace the classical systems engineering methodologies, but support and improve them.

  16. A Progressive Damage Methodology for Residual Strength Predictions of Center-Crack Tension Composite Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coats, Timothy William

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of translaminate fracture and a progressive damage methodology was conducted to evaluate and develop a residual strength prediction capability for laminated composites with through penetration notches. This is relevant to the damage tolerance of an aircraft fuselage that might suffer an in-flight accident such as an uncontained engine failure. An experimental characterization of several composite materials systems revealed an R-curve type of behavior. Fractographic examinations led to the postulate that this crack growth resistance could be due to fiber bridging, defined here as fractured fibers of one ply bridged by intact fibers of an adjacent ply. The progressive damage methodology is currently capable of predicting the initiation and growth of matrix cracks and fiber fracture. Using two difference fiber failure criteria, residual strength was predicted for different size panel widths and notch lengths. A ply discount fiber failure criterion yielded extremely conservative results while an elastic-perfectly plastic fiber failure criterion showed that the fiber bridging concept is valid for predicting residual strength for tensile dominated failure loads. Furthermore, the R-curves predicted by the model using the elastic-perfectly plastic fiber criterion compared very well with the experimental R-curves.

  17. Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS): objectives, design, methodology and implications

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a lack of comparable data on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, which limits our understanding and interpretation of the relationship between obesity and lifestyle parameters. Therefore, we initiated the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS). The ATLS is a multicenter collaborative project for assessing lifestyle habits of Arab adolescents. The objectives of the ATLS project were to investigate the prevalence rates for overweight and obesity, physical activity, sedentary activity and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, and to examine the interrelationships between these lifestyle variables. This paper reports on the objectives, design, methodology, and implications of the ATLS. Design/Methods The ATLS is a school-based cross-sectional study involving 9182 randomly selected secondary-school students (14–19 years) from major Arab cities, using a multistage stratified sampling technique. The participating Arab cities included Riyadh, Jeddah, and Al-Khobar (Saudi Arabia), Bahrain, Dubai (United Arab Emirates), Kuwait, Amman (Jordan), Mosel (Iraq), Muscat (Oman), Tunisia (Tunisia) and Kenitra (Morocco). Measured variables included anthropometric measurements, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep duration, and dietary habits. Discussion The ATLS project will provide a unique opportunity to collect and analyze important lifestyle information from Arab adolescents using standardized procedures. This is the first time a collaborative Arab project will simultaneously assess broad lifestyle variables in a large sample of adolescents from numerous urbanized Arab regions. This joint research project will supply us with comprehensive and recent data on physical activity/inactivity and eating habits of Arab adolescents relative to obesity. Such invaluable lifestyle-related data are crucial for developing public health policies and regional strategies for health promotion and disease prevention. PMID

  18. Design and fabrication of the progressive addition lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Linling; Qian, Lin; Yu, Jingchi

    2011-11-01

    The use of progressive addition lenses (PALs) for the correction of presbyopia has increased dramatically in recent years. These lenses are now being used as the preferred alternative to bifocal and trifocal lenses in many parts of the world. Progressive addition lenses are a kind of opthalmic lenses with freeform surface. The surface curvature of the Progressive addition lenses varies gradually from a minimum value in the upper area, to a maximum value in the lower area. Thus a PAL has a surface with three zones which have very small astigmatism: far-view zone, near-view zone, and intermediate zone. The far view zone and near view zone have relatively constant powers and connected by the intermediate zone with power varies progressively. The design and fabrication technologies of progressive addition lenses have fast progresses because of the massive development of the optical simulation software, multi-axis ultraprecision machining technologies and CNC machining technologies. The design principles of progressive addition lenses are discussed in a historic review. Several kinds of design methods are illustrated, and their advantages and disadvantages are also represented. In the current study, it is shown that the optical characteristics of the different progressive addition lenses designs are significantly different from one another. The different fabrication technologies of Progressive addition lenses are also discussed in the paper. Plastic injection molding and precision-machine turning are the common fabrication technologies for exterior PALs and Interior PALs respectively.

  19. Community-wide assessment of protein-interface modeling suggests improvements to design methodology.

    PubMed

    Fleishman, Sarel J; Whitehead, Timothy A; Strauch, Eva-Maria; Corn, Jacob E; Qin, Sanbo; Zhou, Huan-Xiang; Mitchell, Julie C; Demerdash, Omar N A; Takeda-Shitaka, Mayuko; Terashi, Genki; Moal, Iain H; Li, Xiaofan; Bates, Paul A; Zacharias, Martin; Park, Hahnbeom; Ko, Jun-su; Lee, Hasup; Seok, Chaok; Bourquard, Thomas; Bernauer, Julie; Poupon, Anne; Azé, Jérôme; Soner, Seren; Ovali, Sefik Kerem; Ozbek, Pemra; Tal, Nir Ben; Haliloglu, Türkan; Hwang, Howook; Vreven, Thom; Pierce, Brian G; Weng, Zhiping; Pérez-Cano, Laura; Pons, Carles; Fernández-Recio, Juan; Jiang, Fan; Yang, Feng; Gong, Xinqi; Cao, Libin; Xu, Xianjin; Liu, Bin; Wang, Panwen; Li, Chunhua; Wang, Cunxin; Robert, Charles H; Guharoy, Mainak; Liu, Shiyong; Huang, Yangyu; Li, Lin; Guo, Dachuan; Chen, Ying; Xiao, Yi; London, Nir; Itzhaki, Zohar; Schueler-Furman, Ora; Inbar, Yuval; Potapov, Vladimir; Cohen, Mati; Schreiber, Gideon; Tsuchiya, Yuko; Kanamori, Eiji; Standley, Daron M; Nakamura, Haruki; Kinoshita, Kengo; Driggers, Camden M; Hall, Robert G; Morgan, Jessica L; Hsu, Victor L; Zhan, Jian; Yang, Yuedong; Zhou, Yaoqi; Kastritis, Panagiotis L; Bonvin, Alexandre M J J; Zhang, Weiyi; Camacho, Carlos J; Kilambi, Krishna P; Sircar, Aroop; Gray, Jeffrey J; Ohue, Masahito; Uchikoga, Nobuyuki; Matsuzaki, Yuri; Ishida, Takashi; Akiyama, Yutaka; Khashan, Raed; Bush, Stephen; Fouches, Denis; Tropsha, Alexander; Esquivel-Rodríguez, Juan; Kihara, Daisuke; Stranges, P Benjamin; Jacak, Ron; Kuhlman, Brian; Huang, Sheng-You; Zou, Xiaoqin; Wodak, Shoshana J; Janin, Joel; Baker, David

    2011-11-25

    The CAPRI (Critical Assessment of Predicted Interactions) and CASP (Critical Assessment of protein Structure Prediction) experiments have demonstrated the power of community-wide tests of methodology in assessing the current state of the art and spurring progress in the very challenging areas of protein docking and structure prediction. We sought to bring the power of community-wide experiments to bear on a very challenging protein design problem that provides a complementary but equally fundamental test of current understanding of protein-binding thermodynamics. We have generated a number of designed protein-protein interfaces with very favorable computed binding energies but which do not appear to be formed in experiments, suggesting that there may be important physical chemistry missing in the energy calculations. A total of 28 research groups took up the challenge of determining what is missing: we provided structures of 87 designed complexes and 120 naturally occurring complexes and asked participants to identify energetic contributions and/or structural features that distinguish between the two sets. The community found that electrostatics and solvation terms partially distinguish the designs from the natural complexes, largely due to the nonpolar character of the designed interactions. Beyond this polarity difference, the community found that the designed binding surfaces were, on average, structurally less embedded in the designed monomers, suggesting that backbone conformational rigidity at the designed surface is important for realization of the designed function. These results can be used to improve computational design strategies, but there is still much to be learned; for example, one designed complex, which does form in experiments, was classified by all metrics as a nonbinder.

  20. Community-wide assessment of protein-interface modeling suggests improvements to design methodology

    PubMed Central

    Fleishman, Sarel J; Whitehead, Timothy A; Strauch, Eva-Maria; Corn, Jacob E; Qin, Sanbo; Zhou, Huan-Xiang; Mitchell, Julie C.; Demerdash, Omar N.A; Takeda-Shitaka, Mayuko; Terashi, Genki; Moal, Iain H.; Li, Xiaofan; Bates, Paul A.; Zacharias, Martin; Park, Hahnbeom; Ko, Jun-su; Lee, Hasup; Seok, Chaok; Bourquard, Thomas; Bernauer, Julie; Poupon, Anne; Azé, Jérôme; Soner, Seren; Ovali, Şefik Kerem; Ozbek, Pemra; Ben Tal, Nir; Haliloglu, Türkan; Hwang, Howook; Vreven, Thom; Pierce, Brian G.; Weng, Zhiping; Pérez-Cano, Laura; Pons, Carles; Fernández-Recio, Juan; Jiang, Fan; Yang, Feng; Gong, Xinqi; Cao, Libin; Xu, Xianjin; Liu, Bin; Wang, Panwen; Li, Chunhua; Wang, Cunxin; Robert, Charles H.; Guharoy, Mainak; Liu, Shiyong; Huang, Yangyu; Li, Lin; Guo, Dachuan; Chen, Ying; Xiao, Yi; London, Nir; Itzhaki, Zohar; Schueler-Furman, Ora; Inbar, Yuval; Patapov, Vladimir; Cohen, Mati; Schreiber, Gideon; Tsuchiya, Yuko; Kanamori, Eiji; Standley, Daron M.; Nakamura, Haruki; Kinoshita, Kengo; Driggers, Camden M.; Hall, Robert G.; Morgan, Jessica L.; Hsu, Victor L.; Zhan, Jian; Yang, Yuedong; Zhou, Yaoqi; Kastritis, Panagiotis L.; Bonvin, Alexandre M.J.J.; Zhang, Weiyi; Camacho, Carlos J.; Kilambi, Krishna P.; Sircar, Aroop; Gray, Jeffrey J.; Ohue, Masahito; Uchikoga, Nobuyuki; Matsuzaki, Yuri; Ishida, Takashi; Akiyama, Yutaka; Khashan, Raed; Bush, Stephen; Fouches, Denis; Tropsha, Alexander; Esquivel-Rodríguez, Juan; Kihara, Daisuke; Stranges, P Benjamin; Jacak, Ron; Kuhlman, Brian; Huang, Sheng-You; Zou, Xiaoqin; Wodak, Shoshana J; Janin, Joel; Baker, David

    2013-01-01

    The CAPRI and CASP prediction experiments have demonstrated the power of community wide tests of methodology in assessing the current state of the art and spurring progress in the very challenging areas of protein docking and structure prediction. We sought to bring the power of community wide experiments to bear on a very challenging protein design problem that provides a complementary but equally fundamental test of current understanding of protein-binding thermodynamics. We have generated a number of designed protein-protein interfaces with very favorable computed binding energies but which do not appear to be formed in experiments, suggesting there may be important physical chemistry missing in the energy calculations. 28 research groups took up the challenge of determining what is missing: we provided structures of 87 designed complexes and 120 naturally occurring complexes and asked participants to identify energetic contributions and/or structural features that distinguish between the two sets. The community found that electrostatics and solvation terms partially distinguish the designs from the natural complexes, largely due to the non-polar character of the designed interactions. Beyond this polarity difference, the community found that the designed binding surfaces were on average structurally less embedded in the designed monomers, suggesting that backbone conformational rigidity at the designed surface is important for realization of the designed function. These results can be used to improve computational design strategies, but there is still much to be learned; for example, one designed complex, which does form in experiments, was classified by all metrics as a non-binder. PMID:22001016

  1. Multidisciplinary design and optimization (MDO) methodology for the aircraft conceptual design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Liaquat Ullah

    An integrated design and optimization methodology has been developed for the conceptual design of an aircraft. The methodology brings higher fidelity Computer Aided Design, Engineering and Manufacturing (CAD, CAE and CAM) Tools such as CATIA, FLUENT, ANSYS and SURFCAM into the conceptual design by utilizing Excel as the integrator and controller. The approach is demonstrated to integrate with many of the existing low to medium fidelity codes such as the aerodynamic panel code called CMARC and sizing and constraint analysis codes, thus providing the multi-fidelity capabilities to the aircraft designer. The higher fidelity design information from the CAD and CAE tools for the geometry, aerodynamics, structural and environmental performance is provided for the application of the structured design methods such as the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and the Pugh's Method. The higher fidelity tools bring the quantitative aspects of a design such as precise measurements of weight, volume, surface areas, center of gravity (CG) location, lift over drag ratio, and structural weight, as well as the qualitative aspects such as external geometry definition, internal layout, and coloring scheme early in the design process. The performance and safety risks involved with the new technologies can be reduced by modeling and assessing their impact more accurately on the performance of the aircraft. The methodology also enables the design and evaluation of the novel concepts such as the blended (BWB) and the hybrid wing body (HWB) concepts. Higher fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and finite element analysis (FEA) allow verification of the claims for the performance gains in aerodynamics and ascertain risks of structural failure due to different pressure distribution in the fuselage as compared with the tube and wing design. The higher fidelity aerodynamics and structural models can lead to better cost estimates that help reduce the financial risks as well. This helps in

  2. A combined stochastic feedforward and feedback control design methodology with application to autoland design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halyo, Nesim

    1987-01-01

    A combined stochastic feedforward and feedback control design methodology was developed. The objective of the feedforward control law is to track the commanded trajectory, whereas the feedback control law tries to maintain the plant state near the desired trajectory in the presence of disturbances and uncertainties about the plant. The feedforward control law design is formulated as a stochastic optimization problem and is embedded into the stochastic output feedback problem where the plant contains unstable and uncontrollable modes. An algorithm to compute the optimal feedforward is developed. In this approach, the use of error integral feedback, dynamic compensation, control rate command structures are an integral part of the methodology. An incremental implementation is recommended. Results on the eigenvalues of the implemented versus designed control laws are presented. The stochastic feedforward/feedback control methodology is used to design a digital automatic landing system for the ATOPS Research Vehicle, a Boeing 737-100 aircraft. The system control modes include localizer and glideslope capture and track, and flare to touchdown. Results of a detailed nonlinear simulation of the digital control laws, actuator systems, and aircraft aerodynamics are presented.

  3. A Synergy between the Technological Process and a Methodology for Web Design: Implications for Technological Problem Solving and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakovljevic, Maria; Ankiewicz, Piet; De swardt, Estelle; Gross, Elna

    2004-01-01

    Traditional instructional methodology in the Information System Design (ISD) environment lacks explicit strategies for promoting the cognitive skills of prospective system designers. This contributes to the fragmented knowledge and low motivational and creative involvement of learners in system design tasks. In addition, present ISD methodologies,…

  4. An Examination of the MH-60S Common Cockpit from a Design Methodology and Acquisitions Standpoint

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    HCI Design Methodology Based on the CCD Philosophy ...................................51 a. Use of Design Methodology Specifically Developed for...19 Figure 8. Lockheed Martin Human Computer Interface Requirements (HCIRS) contents (From: [6]).......36 Figure 9. Lockheed Martin eight step HCI ...function of time (From: [9]).....................................46 Figure 15. Systems engineering iterative HCI design process (From [10

  5. A performance-oriented power transformer design methodology using multi-objective evolutionary optimization.

    PubMed

    Adly, Amr A; Abd-El-Hafiz, Salwa K

    2015-05-01

    Transformers are regarded as crucial components in power systems. Due to market globalization, power transformer manufacturers are facing an increasingly competitive environment that mandates the adoption of design strategies yielding better performance at lower costs. In this paper, a power transformer design methodology using multi-objective evolutionary optimization is proposed. Using this methodology, which is tailored to be target performance design-oriented, quick rough estimation of transformer design specifics may be inferred. Testing of the suggested approach revealed significant qualitative and quantitative match with measured design and performance values. Details of the proposed methodology as well as sample design results are reported in the paper.

  6. A performance-oriented power transformer design methodology using multi-objective evolutionary optimization

    PubMed Central

    Adly, Amr A.; Abd-El-Hafiz, Salwa K.

    2014-01-01

    Transformers are regarded as crucial components in power systems. Due to market globalization, power transformer manufacturers are facing an increasingly competitive environment that mandates the adoption of design strategies yielding better performance at lower costs. In this paper, a power transformer design methodology using multi-objective evolutionary optimization is proposed. Using this methodology, which is tailored to be target performance design-oriented, quick rough estimation of transformer design specifics may be inferred. Testing of the suggested approach revealed significant qualitative and quantitative match with measured design and performance values. Details of the proposed methodology as well as sample design results are reported in the paper. PMID:26257939

  7. Developing a Methodology for Observing Stress-Induced Temporal Variations in Travel Time: A Progress Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, P. G.; Niu, F.; Daley, T. M.; Majer, E. L.

    2005-12-01

    The dependence of crack properties on stress means that crustal seismic velocity exhibits stress dependence. This dependence constitutes, in principle, a powerful means of studying transient changes in stress at seismogenic depth through the repeat measurement of travel time from a controlled source. While the scientific potential of this stress dependence has been known for decades, time-dependent seismic imaging has yet to become a reliable means of measuring subsurface stress changes in fault-zone environments. This is due to 1) insufficient delay-time precision necessary to detect small changes in stress, and 2) the difficulty in establishing a reliable in-situ calibration between stress and seismic velocity. These two problems are coupled because the best sources of calibration, solid-earth tides and barometric pressure, produce weak stress perturbations of order 10{2}-10{3} Pa that require precision in the measurement of the fractional velocity change dlnv of order 10-6, based on laboratory experiments. We have thus focused on developing a methodology that is capable of providing this high level of precision. For example, we have shown that precision in dlnv is maximized when there are Q/π wavelengths in the source-receiver path. This relationship provides a means of selecting an optimal geometry and/or source characteristic frequency in the planning of experiments. We have initiated a series of experiments to demonstrate the detectability of these stress-calibration signals in progressively more tectonically relevant settings. Initial tests have been completed on the smallest scale, with two boreholes 17 m deep and 3 meters apart. We have used a piezoelectric source (0.1ms source pulse repeated every 100ms) and a string of 24 hydrophones to record P waves with a dominant frequency of 10KHz. Recording was conducted for 160 hours. The massive stacking of ~36,000 high-SNR traces/hr leads to delay-time precision of 6ns (hour sampling) corresponding to dlnv

  8. Design methodology of the strength properties of medical knitted meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikołajczyk, Z.; Walkowska, A.

    2016-07-01

    One of the most important utility properties of medical knitted meshes intended for hernia and urological treatment is their bidirectional strength along the courses and wales. The value of this parameter, expected by the manufacturers and surgeons, is estimated at 100 N per 5 cm of the sample width. The most frequently, these meshes are produced on the basis of single- or double-guide stitches. They are made of polypropylene and polyester monofilament yarns with the diameter in the range from 0.6 to 1.2 mm, characterized by a high medical purity. The aim of the study was to develop the design methodology of meshes strength based on the geometrical construction of the stitch and strength of yarn. In the environment of the ProCAD warpknit 5 software the simulated stretching process of meshes together with an analysis of their geometry changes was carried out. Simulations were made for four selected representative stitches. Both on a built, unique measuring position and on the tensile testing machine the real parameters of the loops geometry of meshes were measured. Model of mechanical stretching of warp-knitted meshes along the courses and wales was developed. The thesis argument was made, that the force that breaks the loop of warp-knitted fabric is the lowest value of breaking forces of loop link yarns or yarns that create straight sections of loop. This thesis was associate with the theory of strength that uses the “the weakest link concept”. Experimental verification of model was carried out for the basic structure of the single-guide mesh. It has been shown that the real, relative strength of the mesh related to one course is equal to the strength of the yarn breakage in a loop, while the strength along the wales is close to breaking strength of a single yarn. In relation to the specific construction of the medical mesh, based on the knowledge of the density of the loops structure, the a-jour mesh geometry and the yarns strength, it is possible, with high

  9. Educational Design Research: Signs of Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    This special issue of the "Australasian Journal of Educational Technology" includes an introductory article by the guest editors and six papers that illustrate the potential of educational design research (EDR) to address important problems in higher education. In this final paper, reflections on the papers are made. Then the rationale…

  10. Progress in aircraft design since 1903

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Significant developments in aviation history are documented to show the advancements in aircraft design which have taken place since 1903. Each aircraft is identified according to the manufacturer, powerplant, dimensions, normal weight, and typical performance. A narrative summary of the major accomplishments of the aircraft is provided. Photographs of each aircraft are included.

  11. A Formal Semantics for the SRI Hierarchical Program Design Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, R. S.; Moore, J. S.

    1983-01-01

    A formal statement of what it means to use (a subset of) the methodology is presented. It is formally defined that some specified module exists and what it means to say that another module is paid correctly implemented on top of it. No attention is to motivation, either of the methodology or of the formal development of it. Concentration is entirely upon mathematical succinctness and precision. A discussion is presented of how to use certain INTERLISP programs which implement the formal definitions. Among these are a program which generates Floyd like verification conditions sufficient to imply the correctness of a module implementation.

  12. Hyperbolic tangential function-based progressive addition lens design.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Gufeng; Cui, Xudong

    2015-12-10

    The diopter distribution is key to the successful design of a progressive addition lens. A hyperbolic tangential function is then introduced to describe well the desired diopter distribution on the lens. Simulation and fabrication show that the astigmia on the whole surface is very close to the addition, exhibiting superior performance than that of currently used high-order polynomials and cosine functions. Our investigations found that once the diopter distribution design is reasonable, both the direct and indirect methods of constructing a progressive addition lens can give consistent results. With this function we are able to effectively control the design of critical areas, the position, sizes of far-view and near-view zones, as well as the channel of the lens. This study would provide an efficient way to customize different progressive lenses not only for presbyopia, but also for anti-fatigue, office progressive usages, etc.

  13. De/signing Research in Education: Patchwork(ing) Methodologies with Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Marc; Madden, Brooke; Berard, Marie-France; Lenz Kothe, Elsa; Nordstrom, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Four education scholars extend the methodological space inspired by Jackson and Mazzei's "Thinking with Theory" through focusing on research design. The notion of de/sign is presented and employed to counter prescriptive method/ology that often sutures over pedagogical possibilities in research and educational settings. Key…

  14. Methodology for designing accelerated aging tests for predicting life of photovoltaic arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaines, G. B.; Thomas, R. E.; Derringer, G. C.; Kistler, C. W.; Bigg, D. M.; Carmichael, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    A methodology for designing aging tests in which life prediction was paramount was developed. The methodology builds upon experience with regard to aging behavior in those material classes which are expected to be utilized as encapsulant elements, viz., glasses and polymers, and upon experience with the design of aging tests. The experiences were reviewed, and results are discussed in detail.

  15. Methodology of Computer-Aided Design of Variable Guide Vanes of Aircraft Engines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falaleev, Sergei V.; Melentjev, Vladimir S.; Gvozdev, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a methodology which helps to avoid a great amount of costly experimental research. This methodology includes thermo-gas dynamic design of an engine and its mounts, the profiling of compressor flow path and cascade design of guide vanes. Employing a method elaborated by Howell, we provide a theoretical solution to the task of…

  16. Progress in material design for biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Tibbitt, Mark W.; Rodell, Christopher B.; Burdick, Jason A.; Anseth, Kristi S.

    2015-01-01

    Biomaterials that interface with biological systems are used to deliver drugs safely and efficiently; to prevent, detect, and treat disease; to assist the body as it heals; and to engineer functional tissues outside of the body for organ replacement. The field has evolved beyond selecting materials that were originally designed for other applications with a primary focus on properties that enabled restoration of function and mitigation of acute pathology. Biomaterials are now designed rationally with controlled structure and dynamic functionality to integrate with biological complexity and perform tailored, high-level functions in the body. The transition has been from permissive to promoting biomaterials that are no longer bioinert but bioactive. This perspective surveys recent developments in the field of polymeric and soft biomaterials with a specific emphasis on advances in nano- to macroscale control, static to dynamic functionality, and biocomplex materials. PMID:26598696

  17. Behavioral Methodology for Designing and Evaluating Applied Programs for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurston, Linda P.

    To be maximally effective in solving problems, researchers must place their methodological and theoretical models of science within social and political contexts. They must become aware of biases and assumptions and move toward a more valid perception of social realities. Psychologists must view women in the situational context within which…

  18. Peer Review of a Formal Verification/Design Proof Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The role of formal verification techniques in system validation was examined. The value and the state of the art of performance proving for fault-tolerant compuers were assessed. The investigation, development, and evaluation of performance proving tools were reviewed. The technical issues related to proof methodologies are examined. The technical issues discussed are summarized.

  19. Loss Exposure and Risk Analysis Methodology (LERAM) Project Database Design.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-06-01

    MISREPS) to more capably support system safety engineering concepts such as hazard analysis and risk management. As part of the Loss Exposure and Risk ... Analysis Methodology (LERAM) project, the research into the methods which we employ to report, track, and analyze hazards has resulted in a series of low

  20. Integrated Controls-Structures Design Methodology for Flexible Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maghami, P. G.; Joshi, S. M.; Price, D. B.

    1995-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach for the design of flexible spacecraft, wherein the structural design and the control system design are performed simultaneously. The integrated design problem is posed as an optimization problem in which both the structural parameters and the control system parameters constitute the design variables, which are used to optimize a common objective function, thereby resulting in an optimal overall design. The approach is demonstrated by application to the integrated design of a geostationary platform, and to a ground-based flexible structure experiment. The numerical results obtained indicate that the integrated design approach generally yields spacecraft designs that are substantially superior to the conventional approach, wherein the structural design and control design are performed sequentially.

  1. Game Methodology for Design Methods and Tools Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Rafiq; Lahonde, Nathalie; Omhover, Jean-françois

    2014-01-01

    Design process optimisation and intelligence are the key words of today's scientific community. A proliferation of methods has made design a convoluted area. Designers are usually afraid of selecting one method/tool over another and even expert designers may not necessarily know which method is the best to use in which circumstances. This…

  2. New Mexico Tech Satellite Design and Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landavazo, M.; Cooper, B.; Jorgensen, A. M.; Bernson, C.; Chesebrough, S.; Dang, C.; Guillette, D.; Hall, T.; Huynh, A.; Jackson, R.; Klepper, J.; MacGillivray, J.; Park, D.; Ravindran, V.; Stanton, W.; Yelton, C.; Zagrai, A. N.

    2012-12-01

    New Mexico Tech Satellite (NMTSat) is a low-budget, 3U CubeSat for correlating state-of-health information from the spacecraft with space weather in low Earth orbit (LEO). NMTSat is funded by the NASA/EPSCoR program and is built almost entirely by NMT students at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. The scientific payload of NMTSat will consist of five instruments built in-house including: a magnetometer, a Langmuir plasma probe, a dosimeter, a state-of-the-art structural health monitor and an electrical health monitor. NMTSat utilizes passive attitude control by means of a magnet and hysteresis rods and carries out attitude determination from a combination of solar panel current and magnetometer readings. NMTSat will also be built around the Space Plug-and-Play Avionics I2C interface (SPA-1) to the greatest extent practical. In this presentation we will give an overview of the NMTSat design and design-tradeoffs and provide a status report on the work of completing NMTSat.

  3. Design methodology for optimal hardware implementation of wavelet transform domain algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson-Bey, Charles; Mickens, Lisa P.

    2005-05-01

    The work presented in this paper lays the foundation for the development of an end-to-end system design methodology for implementing wavelet domain image/video processing algorithms in hardware using Xilinx field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). With the integration of the Xilinx System Generator toolbox, this methodology will allow algorithm developers to design and implement their code using the familiar MATLAB/Simulink development environment. By using this methodology, algorithm developers will not be required to become proficient in the intricacies of hardware design, thus reducing the design cycle and time-to-market.

  4. Design of a methodology for assessing an electrocardiographic telemonitoring system.

    PubMed

    Alfonzo, A; Huerta, M K; Wong, S; Passariello, G; Díaz, M; La Cruz, A; Cruz, J

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies in Bioengineering show a great interest in telemedicine projects, it is motivated mainly for the fast communication technologies reached during the last decade. Since then many telemedicine projects in different areas have been pursued, among them the electrocardiographic monitoring, as well as methodological reports for the evaluation of these projects. In this work a methodology to evaluate an electrocardiographic telemonitoring system is presented. A procedure to verify the operation of Data Acquisition Module (DAM) of an electrocardiographic telemonitoring system is given, taking as reference defined standards, and procedures for the measurement of the Quality of Service (QoS) parameters required by the system in a Local Area Network (LAN). Finally a graphical model and protocols of evaluation are proposed.

  5. Methodological developments in US state-level Genuine Progress Indicators: toward GPI 2.0

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Berik, Günseli; Gaddis, Erica J. Brown

    2014-01-01

    The Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI) has emerged as an important monetary measure of economic well-being. Unlike mainstream economic indicators, primarily Gross Domestic Product (GDP), the GPI accounts for both the benefits and costs of economic production across diverse economic, social, and environmental domains in a more comprehensive manner. Recently, the GPI has gained traction in subnational policy in the United States, with GPI studies being conducted in a number of states and with their formal adoption by several state governments. As the GPI is applied in different locations, new methods are developed, different data sources are available, and new issues of policy relevance are addressed using its component indicators. This has led to a divergence in methods, reducing comparability between studies and yielding results that are of varying methodological sophistication. In this study, we review the “state of the art” in recent US state-level GPI studies, focusing on those from Hawaii, Maryland, Ohio, Utah, and Vermont. Through adoption of a consistent approach, these and future GPI studies could utilize a framework that supports more uniform, comparable, and accurate measurements of progress. We also identify longer-term issues, particularly related to treatment of nonrenewable resource depletion, government spending, income inequality, and ecosystem services. As these issues are successfully addressed and disseminated, a “GPI 2.0” will emerge that better measures economic well-being and has greater accuracy and policy relevance than past GPI measurements. As the GPI expands further into mainstream policy analysis, a more formal process by which methods could be updated, standardized, and applied is needed.

  6. A Multiscale Progressive Failure Modeling Methodology for Composites that Includes Fiber Strength Stochastics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricks, Trenton M.; Lacy, Thomas E., Jr.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.; Hutchins, John W.

    2014-01-01

    A multiscale modeling methodology was developed for continuous fiber composites that incorporates a statistical distribution of fiber strengths into coupled multiscale micromechanics/finite element (FE) analyses. A modified two-parameter Weibull cumulative distribution function, which accounts for the effect of fiber length on the probability of failure, was used to characterize the statistical distribution of fiber strengths. A parametric study using the NASA Micromechanics Analysis Code with the Generalized Method of Cells (MAC/GMC) was performed to assess the effect of variable fiber strengths on local composite failure within a repeating unit cell (RUC) and subsequent global failure. The NASA code FEAMAC and the ABAQUS finite element solver were used to analyze the progressive failure of a unidirectional SCS-6/TIMETAL 21S metal matrix composite tensile dogbone specimen at 650 degC. Multiscale progressive failure analyses were performed to quantify the effect of spatially varying fiber strengths on the RUC-averaged and global stress-strain responses and failure. The ultimate composite strengths and distribution of failure locations (predominately within the gage section) reasonably matched the experimentally observed failure behavior. The predicted composite failure behavior suggests that use of macroscale models that exploit global geometric symmetries are inappropriate for cases where the actual distribution of local fiber strengths displays no such symmetries. This issue has not received much attention in the literature. Moreover, the model discretization at a specific length scale can have a profound effect on the computational costs associated with multiscale simulations.models that yield accurate yet tractable results.

  7. Ethics of Engagement: User-Centered Design and Rhetorical Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvo, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the shift from observation of users to participation with users, describing and investigating three examples of user-centered design practice in order to consider the new ethical demands being made of technical communicators. Explores Pelle Ehn's participatory design method, Roger Whitehouse's design of tactile signage for blind users,…

  8. Propulsion integration of hypersonic air-breathing vehicles utilizing a top-down design methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, Brad Kenneth

    In recent years, a focus of aerospace engineering design has been the development of advanced design methodologies and frameworks to account for increasingly complex and integrated vehicles. Techniques such as parametric modeling, global vehicle analyses, and interdisciplinary data sharing have been employed in an attempt to improve the design process. The purpose of this study is to introduce a new approach to integrated vehicle design known as the top-down design methodology. In the top-down design methodology, the main idea is to relate design changes on the vehicle system and sub-system level to a set of over-arching performance and customer requirements. Rather than focusing on the performance of an individual system, the system is analyzed in terms of the net effect it has on the overall vehicle and other vehicle systems. This detailed level of analysis can only be accomplished through the use of high fidelity computational tools such as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) or Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The utility of the top-down design methodology is investigated through its application to the conceptual and preliminary design of a long-range hypersonic air-breathing vehicle for a hypothetical next generation hypersonic vehicle (NHRV) program. System-level design is demonstrated through the development of the nozzle section of the propulsion system. From this demonstration of the methodology, conclusions are made about the benefits, drawbacks, and cost of using the methodology.

  9. A methodology for designing aircraft to low sonic boom constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, Robert J.; Needleman, Kathy E.

    1991-01-01

    A method for designing conceptual supersonic cruise aircraft to meet low sonic boom requirements is outlined and described. The aircraft design is guided through a systematic evolution from initial three view drawing to a final numerical model description, while the designer using the method controls the integration of low sonic boom, high supersonic aerodynamic efficiency, adequate low speed handling, and reasonable structure and materials technologies. Some experience in preliminary aircraft design and in the use of various analytical and numerical codes is required for integrating the volume and lift requirements throughout the design process.

  10. A transonic-small-disturbance wing design methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Pamela S.; Waggoner, Edgar G.; Campbell, Richard L.

    1988-01-01

    An automated transonic design code has been developed which modifies an initial airfoil or wing in order to generate a specified pressure distribution. The design method uses an iterative approach that alternates between a potential-flow analysis and a design algorithm that relates changes in surface pressure to changes in geometry. The analysis code solves an extended small-disturbance potential-flow equation and can model a fuselage, pylons, nacelles, and a winglet in addition to the wing. A two-dimensional option is available for airfoil analysis and design. Several two- and three-dimensional test cases illustrate the capabilities of the design code.

  11. Design Thinking: A Methodology towards Sustainable Problem Solving in Higher Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munyai, Keneilwe

    2016-01-01

    This short paper explores the potential contribution of design thinking methodology to the education and training system in South Africa. Design thinking is slowly gaining traction in South Africa. Design Thinking is gaining traction in South Africa. There is offered by the Hasso Plattner Institute of Design Thinking at the University of Cape Town…

  12. Designing trials for pressure ulcer risk assessment research: methodological challenges.

    PubMed

    Balzer, K; Köpke, S; Lühmann, D; Haastert, B; Kottner, J; Meyer, G

    2013-08-01

    For decades various pressure ulcer risk assessment scales (PURAS) have been developed and implemented into nursing practice despite uncertainty whether use of these tools helps to prevent pressure ulcers. According to current methodological standards, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are required to conclusively determine the clinical efficacy and safety of this risk assessment strategy. In these trials, PURAS-aided risk assessment has to be compared to nurses' clinical judgment alone in terms of its impact on pressure ulcer incidence and adverse outcomes. However, RCTs evaluating diagnostic procedures are prone to specific risks of bias and threats to the statistical power which may challenge their validity and feasibility. This discussion paper critically reflects on the rigour and feasibility of experimental research needed to substantiate the clinical efficacy of PURAS-aided risk assessment. Based on reflections of the methodological literature, a critical appraisal of available trials on this subject and an analysis of a protocol developed for a methodologically robust cluster-RCT, this paper arrives at the following conclusions: First, available trials do not provide reliable estimates of the impact of PURAS-aided risk assessment on pressure ulcer incidence compared to nurses' clinical judgement alone due to serious risks of bias and insufficient sample size. Second, it seems infeasible to assess this impact by means of rigorous experimental studies since sample size would become extremely high if likely threats to validity and power are properly taken into account. Third, means of evidence linkages seem to currently be the most promising approaches for evaluating the clinical efficacy and safety of PURAS-aided risk assessment. With this kind of secondary research, the downstream effect of use of PURAS on pressure ulcer incidence could be modelled by combining best available evidence for single parts of this pathway. However, to yield reliable modelling

  13. A Methodology for Quantifying Certain Design Requirements During the Design Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Timothy; Rhodes, Russel

    2005-01-01

    A methodology for developing and balancing quantitative design requirements for safety, reliability, and maintainability has been proposed. Conceived as the basis of a more rational approach to the design of spacecraft, the methodology would also be applicable to the design of automobiles, washing machines, television receivers, or almost any other commercial product. Heretofore, it has been common practice to start by determining the requirements for reliability of elements of a spacecraft or other system to ensure a given design life for the system. Next, safety requirements are determined by assessing the total reliability of the system and adding redundant components and subsystems necessary to attain safety goals. As thus described, common practice leaves the maintainability burden to fall to chance; therefore, there is no control of recurring costs or of the responsiveness of the system. The means that have been used in assessing maintainability have been oriented toward determining the logistical sparing of components so that the components are available when needed. The process established for developing and balancing quantitative requirements for safety (S), reliability (R), and maintainability (M) derives and integrates NASA s top-level safety requirements and the controls needed to obtain program key objectives for safety and recurring cost (see figure). Being quantitative, the process conveniently uses common mathematical models. Even though the process is shown as being worked from the top down, it can also be worked from the bottom up. This process uses three math models: (1) the binomial distribution (greaterthan- or-equal-to case), (2) reliability for a series system, and (3) the Poisson distribution (less-than-or-equal-to case). The zero-fail case for the binomial distribution approximates the commonly known exponential distribution or "constant failure rate" distribution. Either model can be used. The binomial distribution was selected for

  14. Optimal color design of psychological counseling room by design of experiments and response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenjuan; Ji, Jianlin; Chen, Hua; Ye, Chenyu

    2014-01-01

    Color is one of the most powerful aspects of a psychological counseling environment. Little scientific research has been conducted on color design and much of the existing literature is based on observational studies. Using design of experiments and response surface methodology, this paper proposes an optimal color design approach for transforming patients' perception into color elements. Six indices, pleasant-unpleasant, interesting-uninteresting, exciting-boring, relaxing-distressing, safe-fearful, and active-inactive, were used to assess patients' impression. A total of 75 patients participated, including 42 for Experiment 1 and 33 for Experiment 2. 27 representative color samples were designed in Experiment 1, and the color sample (L = 75, a = 0, b = -60) was the most preferred one. In Experiment 2, this color sample was set as the 'central point', and three color attributes were optimized to maximize the patients' satisfaction. The experimental results show that the proposed method can get the optimal solution for color design of a counseling room.

  15. Improved FTA Methodology and Application to Subsea Pipeline Reliability Design

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jing; Yuan, Yongbo; Zhang, Mingyuan

    2014-01-01

    An innovative logic tree, Failure Expansion Tree (FET), is proposed in this paper, which improves on traditional Fault Tree Analysis (FTA). It describes a different thinking approach for risk factor identification and reliability risk assessment. By providing a more comprehensive and objective methodology, the rather subjective nature of FTA node discovery is significantly reduced and the resulting mathematical calculations for quantitative analysis are greatly simplified. Applied to the Useful Life phase of a subsea pipeline engineering project, the approach provides a more structured analysis by constructing a tree following the laws of physics and geometry. Resulting improvements are summarized in comparison table form. PMID:24667681

  16. Probabilistic Design Methodology and its Application to the Design of an Umbilical Retract Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onyebueke, Landon; Ameye, Olusesan

    2002-01-01

    A lot has been learned from past experience with structural and machine element failures. The understanding of failure modes and the application of an appropriate design analysis method can lead to improved structural and machine element safety as well as serviceability. To apply Probabilistic Design Methodology (PDM), all uncertainties are modeled as random variables with selected distribution types, means, and standard deviations. It is quite difficult to achieve a robust design without considering the randomness of the design parameters which is the case in the use of the Deterministic Design Approach. The US Navy has a fleet of submarine-launched ballistic missiles. An umbilical plug joins the missile to the submarine in order to provide electrical and cooling water connections. As the missile leaves the submarine, an umbilical retract mechanism retracts the umbilical plug clear of the advancing missile after disengagement during launch and retrains the plug in the retracted position. The design of the current retract mechanism in use was based on the deterministic approach which puts emphasis on factor of safety. A new umbilical retract mechanism that is simpler in design, lighter in weight, more reliable, easier to adjust, and more cost effective has become desirable since this will increase the performance and efficiency of the system. This paper reports on a recent project performed at Tennessee State University for the US Navy that involved the application of PDM to the design of an umbilical retract mechanism. This paper demonstrates how the use of PDM lead to the minimization of weight and cost, and the maximization of reliability and performance.

  17. Probabilistic Design Methodology and its Application to the Design of an Umbilical Retract Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onyebueke, Landon; Ameye, Olusesan

    2002-10-01

    A lot has been learned from past experience with structural and machine element failures. The understanding of failure modes and the application of an appropriate design analysis method can lead to improved structural and machine element safety as well as serviceability. To apply Probabilistic Design Methodology (PDM), all uncertainties are modeled as random variables with selected distribution types, means, and standard deviations. It is quite difficult to achieve a robust design without considering the randomness of the design parameters which is the case in the use of the Deterministic Design Approach. The US Navy has a fleet of submarine-launched ballistic missiles. An umbilical plug joins the missile to the submarine in order to provide electrical and cooling water connections. As the missile leaves the submarine, an umbilical retract mechanism retracts the umbilical plug clear of the advancing missile after disengagement during launch and retrains the plug in the retracted position. The design of the current retract mechanism in use was based on the deterministic approach which puts emphasis on factor of safety. A new umbilical retract mechanism that is simpler in design, lighter in weight, more reliable, easier to adjust, and more cost effective has become desirable since this will increase the performance and efficiency of the system. This paper reports on a recent project performed at Tennessee State University for the US Navy that involved the application of PDM to the design of an umbilical retract mechanism. This paper demonstrates how the use of PDM lead to the minimization of weight and cost, and the maximization of reliability and performance.

  18. From inhibition of radiographic progression to maintaining structural integrity: a methodological framework for radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Landewé, Robert; Strand, Vibeke; van der Heijde, Désirée

    2013-07-01

    Usually, a clinical trial in rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis aiming to demonstrate that a new antirheumatic drug treatment can inhibit progression of structural damage has a 'superiority design': The new treatment is compared to placebo or to another active treatment. Currently, many new drug treatments have shown to be able to completely suppress progression (progression rates close to zero). For largely unknown reasons, during the last 10 years, radiographic progression rates in clinical trials have gradually decreased, so that progression rates in the comparator groups are often too low to demonstrate meaningful inhibition, and thus superiority of the new treatment. We here propose an alternative framework to demonstrate that new treatments have the ability to 'preserve structural integrity' rather than to 'inhibit radiographic progression'. Anno 2013, preserving structural integrity is conceptually more realistic than inhibiting radiographic progression.

  19. Participatory Pattern Workshops: A Methodology for Open Learning Design Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mor, Yishay; Warburton, Steven; Winters, Niall

    2012-01-01

    In order to promote pedagogically informed use of technology, educators need to develop an active, inquisitive, design-oriented mindset. Design Patterns have been demonstrated as powerful mediators of theory-praxis conversations yet widespread adoption by the practitioner community remains a challenge. Over several years, the authors and their…

  20. Participant Observation, Anthropology Methodology and Design Anthropology Research Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Wendy; Løgstrup, Louise B.

    2014-01-01

    Within the design studio, and across multiple field sites, the authors compare involvement of research tools and materials during collaborative processes of designing. Their aim is to trace temporal dimensions (shifts/ movements) of where and when learning takes place along different sites of practice. They do so by combining participant…

  1. A Fundamental Methodology for Designing Management Information Systems for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visscher, Adrie J.

    Computer-assisted school information systems (SISs) are developed and used worldwide; however, the literature on strategies for their design and development is lacking. This paper presents the features of a fundamental approach to systems design that proved to be successful when developing SCHOLIS, a computer-assisted SIS for Dutch secondary…

  2. Information System Design Methodology Based on PERT/CPM Networking and Optimization Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bose, Anindya

    The dissertation attempts to demonstrate that the program evaluation and review technique (PERT)/Critical Path Method (CPM) or some modified version thereof can be developed into an information system design methodology. The methodology utilizes PERT/CPM which isolates the basic functional units of a system and sets them in a dynamic time/cost…

  3. Application of optimal design methodologies in clinical pharmacology experiments.

    PubMed

    Ogungbenro, Kayode; Dokoumetzidis, Aristides; Aarons, Leon

    2009-01-01

    Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics data are often analysed by mixed-effects modelling techniques (also known as population analysis), which has become a standard tool in the pharmaceutical industries for drug development. The last 10 years has witnessed considerable interest in the application of experimental design theories to population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic experiments. Design of population pharmacokinetic experiments involves selection and a careful balance of a number of design factors. Optimal design theory uses prior information about the model and parameter estimates to optimize a function of the Fisher information matrix to obtain the best combination of the design factors. This paper provides a review of the different approaches that have been described in the literature for optimal design of population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic experiments. It describes options that are available and highlights some of the issues that could be of concern as regards practical application. It also discusses areas of application of optimal design theories in clinical pharmacology experiments. It is expected that as the awareness about the benefits of this approach increases, more people will embrace it and ultimately will lead to more efficient population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic experiments and can also help to reduce both cost and time during drug development.

  4. Design methodology and application of high speed gate arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, R.

    A system to provide real-time signal averaging of waveforms from a 50 MHz analog to digital converter has been fabricated to operate over a wide temperature range. This system evolved from conception, through an initial simulated design for emitter coupled logic (ECL), to a pair of CMOS gate array designs. Changing the implementation technology to CMOS gate arrays resulted in savings in cost, size, weight, and power. Design rules employed to obtain working silicon on the first cycle, at double state-of-the-art gate array speeds, are discussed. Also discussed are built-in, run-time, self-test features.

  5. Modern design methodology and problems in training aircraft engineers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liseitsev, N. K.

    1989-01-01

    A brief report on the problem of modern aircraft specialist education is presented that is devoted to the content and methods of teaching a course in General Aircraft Design in the Moscow Aviation Institute.

  6. 77 FR 66471 - Methodology for Designation of Frontier and Remote Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Methodology for Designation of Frontier and Remote Areas AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration, HHS. ACTION: Request for public... of Rural Health Policy (ORHP) in the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA); and...

  7. New Methods in Design Education: The Systemic Methodology and the Use of Sketch in the Conceptual Design Stage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westermeyer, Juan Carlos Briede; Ortuno, Bernabe Hernandis

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the application of a new product concurrent design methodologies in the context in the education of industrial design. The use of the sketch has been utilized many times as a tool of creative expression especially in the conceptual design stage, in an intuitive way and a little out of the context of the reality needs that the…

  8. Methodology Series Module 8: Designing Questionnaires and Clinical Record Forms

    PubMed Central

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2017-01-01

    As researchers, we often collect data on a clinical record form or a questionnaire. It is an important part of study design. If the questionnaire is not well designed, the data collected will not be useful. In this section of the module, we have discussed some practical aspects of designing a questionnaire. It is useful to make a list of all the variables that will be assessed in the study before preparing the questionnaire. The researcher should review all the existing questionnaires. It may be efficient to use an existing standardized questionnaire or scale. Many of these scales are freely available and may be used with an appropriate reference. However, some may be under copyright protection and permissions may be required to use the same questionnaire. While designing their own questionnaire, researchers may use open- or close-ended questions. It is important to design the responses appropriately as the format of responses will influence the analysis. Sometimes, one can collect the same information in multiple ways - continuous or categorical response. Besides these, the researcher can also use visual analog scales or Likert's scale in the questionnaire. Some practical take-home points are: (1) Use specific language while framing the questions; (2) write detailed instructions in the questionnaire; (3) use mutually exclusive response categories; (4) use skip patterns; (5) avoid double-barreled questions; and (6) anchor the time period if required.

  9. Structural Design Methodology Based on Concepts of Uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, K. Y.; Du, Jiaji; Rusk, David

    2000-01-01

    In this report, an approach to damage-tolerant aircraft structural design is proposed based on the concept of an equivalent "Level of Safety" that incorporates past service experience in the design of new structures. The discrete "Level of Safety" for a single inspection event is defined as the compliment of the probability that a single flaw size larger than the critical flaw size for residual strength of the structure exists, and that the flaw will not be detected. The cumulative "Level of Safety" for the entire structure is the product of the discrete "Level of Safety" values for each flaw of each damage type present at each location in the structure. Based on the definition of "Level of Safety", a design procedure was identified and demonstrated on a composite sandwich panel for various damage types, with results showing the sensitivity of the structural sizing parameters to the relative safety of the design. The "Level of Safety" approach has broad potential application to damage-tolerant aircraft structural design with uncertainty.

  10. New methodology for shaft design based on life expectancy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1986-01-01

    The design of power transmission shafting for reliability has not historically received a great deal of attention. However, weight sensitive aerospace and vehicle applications and those where the penalties of shaft failure are great, require greater confidence in shaft design than earlier methods provided. This report summarizes a fatigue strength-based, design method for sizing shafts under variable amplitude loading histories for limited or nonlimited service life. Moreover, applications factors such as press-fitted collars, shaft size, residual stresses from shot peening or plating, corrosive environments can be readily accommodated into the framework of the analysis. Examples are given which illustrate the use of the method, pointing out the large life penalties due to occasional cyclic overloads.

  11. Optimum design criteria for a synchronous reluctance motor with concentrated winding using response surface methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jung-Ho; Park, Seong-June; Jeon, Su-Jin

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents an optimization procedure using response surface methodology (RSM) to determine design parameters for reducing torque ripple. The RSM has been achieved to use the experimental design method in combination with finite element method and well adapted to make analytical model for a complex problem considering a lot of interaction of design variables.

  12. Structural design methodologies for ceramic-based material systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, Stephen F.; Chulya, Abhisak; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    1991-01-01

    One of the primary pacing items for realizing the full potential of ceramic-based structural components is the development of new design methods and protocols. The focus here is on low temperature, fast-fracture analysis of monolithic, whisker-toughened, laminated, and woven ceramic composites. A number of design models and criteria are highlighted. Public domain computer algorithms, which aid engineers in predicting the fast-fracture reliability of structural components, are mentioned. Emphasis is not placed on evaluating the models, but instead is focused on the issues relevant to the current state of the art.

  13. Design and Methodology of the Korean Early Psychosis Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Wan; Lee, Bong Ju; Kim, Jung Jin; Yu, Je-Chun; Lee, Kyu Young; Won, Seung-Hee; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Kang, Shi Hyun

    2017-01-01

    The present study details the rationale and methodology of the Korean Early Psychosis Cohort Study (KEPS), which is a clinical cohort investigation of first episode psychosis patients from a Korean population. The KEPS is a prospective naturalistic observational cohort study that follows the participants for at least 2 years. This study includes patients between 18 and 45 years of age who fulfill the criteria for one of schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders according to the diagnostic criteria of DSM-5. Early psychosis is defined as first episode patients who received antipsychotic treatment for fewer than 4 consecutive weeks after the onset of illness or stabilized patients in the early stages of the disorder whose duration of illness was less than 2 years from the initiation of antipsychotic treatment. The primary outcome measures are treatment response, remission, recovery, and relapse. Additionally, several laboratory tests are conducted and a variety of objective and subjective psychiatric measures assessing early life trauma, lifestyle pattern, and social and cognitive functioning are administered. This long-term prospective cohort study may contribute to the development of early intervention strategies and the improvement of long-term outcomes in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:28096881

  14. A general methodology and applications for conduction-like flow-channel design.

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, Eric B.; Fiechtner, Gregory J.

    2004-02-01

    A novel design methodology is developed for creating conduction devices in which fields are piecewise uniform. This methodology allows the normally analytically intractable problem of Lagrangian transport to be solved using algebraic and trigonometric equations. Low-dispersion turns, manifolds, and expansions are developed. In this methodology, regions of piece-wise constant specific permeability (permeability per unit width) border each other with straight, generally tilted interfaces. The fields within each region are made uniform by satisfying a simple compatibility relation between the tilt angle and ratio of specific permeability of adjacent regions. This methodology has particular promise in the rational design of quasi-planar devices, in which the specific permeability is proportional to the depth of the channel. For such devices, the methodology can be implemented by connecting channel facets having two or more depths, fabricated, e.g., using a simple two-etch process.

  15. Design Based Research Methodology for Teaching with Technology in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jetnikoff, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Design based research (DBR) is an appropriate method for small scale educational research projects involving collaboration between teachers, students and researchers. It is particularly useful in collaborative projects where an intervention is implemented and evaluated in a grounded context. The intervention can be technological, or a new program…

  16. Serration Design Methodology for Wind Turbine Noise Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, J.; Singh, A.; Madsen, J.; Arce León, C.

    2016-09-01

    Trailing edge serrations are today an established method to reduce the aeroacoustic noise from wind turbine blades. In this paper, a brief introduction to the aerodynamic and acoustic design procedure used at LM Wind Power is given. Early field tests on serrations, retrofitted to the turbine blades, gave preliminary indication of their noise reduction potential. However, a multitude of challenges stand in the way of any proof of concept and a viable commercial product. LM undertook a methodical test and validation procedure to understand the impact of design parameters on serration performance, and quantify the uncertainties associated with the proposed designs. Aerodynamic and acoustic validation tests were carried out in number of wind tunnel facilities. Models were written to predict the aerodynamic, acoustic and structural performance of the serrations. LM serration designs have evolved over the period of time to address constraints imposed by aero performance, structural reliability, manufacturing and installation. The latest LM serration offering was tested in the field on three different wind turbines. A consistent noise reduction in excess of 1.5 dB was achieved in the field for all three turbines.

  17. Kids in the city study: research design and methodology

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical activity is essential for optimal physical and psychological health but substantial declines in children's activity levels have occurred in New Zealand and internationally. Children's independent mobility (i.e., outdoor play and traveling to destinations unsupervised), an integral component of physical activity in childhood, has also declined radically in recent decades. Safety-conscious parenting practices, car reliance and auto-centric urban design have converged to produce children living increasingly sedentary lives. This research investigates how urban neighborhood environments can support or enable or restrict children's independent mobility, thereby influencing physical activity accumulation and participation in daily life. Methods/Design The study is located in six Auckland, New Zealand neighborhoods, diverse in terms of urban design attributes, particularly residential density. Participants comprise 160 children aged 9-11 years and their parents/caregivers. Objective measures (global positioning systems, accelerometers, geographical information systems, observational audits) assessed children's independent mobility and physical activity, neighborhood infrastructure, and streetscape attributes. Parent and child neighborhood perceptions and experiences were assessed using qualitative research methods. Discussion This study is one of the first internationally to examine the association of specific urban design attributes with child independent mobility. Using robust, appropriate, and best practice objective measures, this study provides robust epidemiological information regarding the relationships between the built environment and health outcomes for this population. PMID:21781341

  18. Situated Research Design and Methodological Choices in Formative Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supovitz, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Design-based implementation research offers the opportunity to rethink the relationships between intervention, research, and situation to better attune research and evaluation to the program development process. Using a heuristic called the intervention development curve, I describe the rough trajectory that programs typically follow as they…

  19. Designing a Methodology for Future Air Travel Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wuebbles, Donald J.; Baughcum, Steven L.; Gerstle, John H.; Edmonds, Jae; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Krull, Nick; Metwally, Munir; Mortlock, Alan; Prather, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    -subsonic future fleet. The methodology, procedures, and recommendations for the development of future HSCT and the subsonic fleet scenarios used for this evaluation are discussed.

  20. A Cybernetic Design Methodology for 'Intelligent' Online Learning Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinton, Stephen R.

    The World Wide Web (WWW) provides learners and knowledge workers convenient access to vast stores of information, so much that present methods for refinement of a query or search result are inadequate - there is far too much potentially useful material. The problem often encountered is that users usually do not recognise what may be useful until they have progressed some way through the discovery, learning, and knowledge acquisition process. Additional support is needed to structure and identify potentially relevant information, and to provide constructive feedback. In short, support for learning is needed. The learning envisioned here is not simply the capacity to recall facts or to recognise objects. The focus is on learning that results in the construction of knowledge. Although most online learning platforms are efficient at delivering information, most do not provide tools that support learning as envisaged in this chapter. It is conceivable that Web-based learning environments can incorporate software systems that assist learners to form new associations between concepts and synthesise information to create new knowledge. This chapter details the rationale and theory behind a research study that aims to evolve Web-based learning environments into 'intelligent thinking' systems that respond to natural language human input. Rather than functioning simply as a means of delivering information, it is argued that online learning solutions will 1 day interact directly with students to support their conceptual thinking and cognitive development.

  1. Memristor-Based Computing Architecture: Design Methodologies and Circuit Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    simply consists of an NMOS transistor (Q) and a memristor. When the input Vin is low, the transistor Q is turned off. Thus, the output Vout is...connected to ground through the memristor. Conversely, when Vin is high, turning Q on, the memristance M and the equivalent transistor resistance (RQ...synapse design was dependent on the equivalent resistance (effectively, the size) of the Q transistor (RQ). A larger Q would offer a wider range of Vout

  2. Methodological Foundations for Designing Intelligent Computer-Based Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-03

    metacognitive processes (Derry, in press). To this list, we would add that FSM techniques need not be restricted to intelligent tutoring systems. As Chin (1989...systems (pp. 313-333). New York: Springer-Verlag. Derry, S. (in press). Metacognitive models of learning and instructional systems design. In P.H. Winne...15 3.1 Stocks Portfolio Profiler Example .............................. 15 3.1.1 Chart Classes

  3. Progress in multidisciplinary design optimization at NASA Langley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, Sharon L.

    1993-01-01

    Multidisciplinary Design Optimization refers to some combination of disciplinary analyses, sensitivity analysis, and optimization techniques used to design complex engineering systems. The ultimate objective of this research at NASA Langley Research Center is to help the US industry reduce the costs associated with development, manufacturing, and maintenance of aerospace vehicles while improving system performance. This report reviews progress towards this objective and highlights topics for future research. Aerospace design problems selected from the author's research illustrate strengths and weaknesses in existing multidisciplinary optimization techniques. The techniques discussed include multiobjective optimization, global sensitivity equations and sequential linear programming.

  4. Development of a combustor analytical design methodology for liquid rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieper, Jerry L.; Muss, Jeff

    1989-01-01

    The development of a user friendly computerized methodology for the design and analysis of liquid propellant rocket engine combustion chambers is described. An overview of the methodology, consisting of a computer program containing an appropriate modular assembly of existing industry wide performance and combustion stability models, is presented. These models are linked with an interactive front end processor enabling the user to define the performance and stability traits of an existing design (point analysis) or to create the essential design features of a combustor to meet specific performance goals and combustion stability (point design). Plans for demonstration and verification of this methodology are also presented. These plans include the creation of combustor designs using the methodology, together with predictions of the performance and combustion stability for each design. A verification test program of 26 hot fire tests with up to four designs created using this methodology is described. This testing is planned using LOX/RP-1 propellants with a thrust level of approx. 220,000 N (50,000 lbf).

  5. Systematic Controller Design Methodology for Variable-Speed Wind Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M. M.; Balas, M. J.

    2002-02-01

    Variable-speed, horizontal axis wind turbines use blade-pitch control to meet specified objectives for three operational regions. This paper provides a guide for controller design for the constant power production regime. A simple, rigid, non-linear turbine model was used to systematically perform trade-off studies between two performance metrics. Minimization of both the deviation of the rotor speed from the desired speed and the motion of the actuator is desired. The robust nature of the proportional-integral-derivative controller is illustrated, and optimal operating conditions are determined. Because numerous simulation runs may be completed in a short time, the relationship between the two opposing metrics is easily visualized.

  6. Software Design Methodology Migration for a Distributed Ground System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritter, George; McNair, Ann R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Payload Operations Center (POC) ground system has been developed and has evolved over a period of about 10 years. During this time the software processes have migrated from more traditional to more contemporary development processes. The new Software processes still emphasize requirements capture, software configuration management, design documenting, and making sure the products that have been developed are accountable to initial requirements. This paper will give an overview of how the Software Process have evolved highlighting the positives as well as the negatives. In addition, we will mention the COTS tools that have been integrated into the processes and how the COTS have provided value to the project .

  7. Design-Based Research: Is This a Suitable Methodology for Short-Term Projects?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pool, Jessica; Laubscher, Dorothy

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a design-based methodology of a thesis in which a fully face-to-face contact module was converted into a blended learning course. The purpose of the article is to report on how design-based phases, in the form of micro-, meso- and macro-cycles were applied to improve practice and to generate design principles. Design-based…

  8. Model free audit methodology for bias evaluation of tumour progression in oncology.

    PubMed

    Stone, Andrew; Macpherson, Euan; Smith, Ann; Jennison, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Many oncology studies incorporate a blinded independent central review (BICR) to make an assessment of the integrity of the primary endpoint, progression free survival. Recently, it has been suggested that, in order to assess the potential for bias amongst investigators, a BICR amongst only a sample of patients could be performed; if evidence of bias is detected, according to a predefined threshold, the BICR is then assessed in all patients, otherwise, it is concluded that the sample was sufficient to rule out meaningful levels of bias. In this paper, we present an approach that adapts a method originally created for defining futility bounds in group sequential designs. The hazard ratio ratio, the ratio of the hazard ratio (HR) for the treatment effect estimated from the BICR to the corresponding HR for the investigator assessments, is used as the metric to define bias. The approach is simple to implement and ensures a high probability that a substantial true bias will be detected. In the absence of bias, there is a high probability of accepting the accuracy of local evaluations based on the sample, in which case an expensive BICR of all patients is avoided. The properties of the approach are demonstrated by retrospective application to a completed Phase III trial in colorectal cancer. The same approach could easily be adapted for other disease settings, and for test statistics other than the hazard ratio.

  9. Object-oriented analysis and design: a methodology for modeling the computer-based patient record.

    PubMed

    Egyhazy, C J; Eyestone, S M; Martino, J; Hodgson, C L

    1998-08-01

    The article highlights the importance of an object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD) methodology for the computer-based patient record (CPR) in the military environment. Many OOAD methodologies do not adequately scale up, allow for efficient reuse of their products, or accommodate legacy systems. A methodology that addresses these issues is formulated and used to demonstrate its applicability in a large-scale health care service system. During a period of 6 months, a team of object modelers and domain experts formulated an OOAD methodology tailored to the Department of Defense Military Health System and used it to produce components of an object model for simple order processing. This methodology and the lessons learned during its implementation are described. This approach is necessary to achieve broad interoperability among heterogeneous automated information systems.

  10. Design Methodology for Low-Speed Variable Reluctance Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suriano, John Riden

    Lowering the gear reduction in actuators by utilizing high-torque low-speed motors enables the use of less expensive and simpler gear systems and decreases the overall system inertia. Variable reluctance machines can produce high torque at low speeds. Their static torque, a critical quantity for determination of low speed operation, is compared for three variable reluctance motor design variations using linear analysis. Saturation effects, which are crucial to the accurate determination of static torque, are modeled using a dual energy technique first proposed by Lord Rayleigh. Dual energy techniques utilizing flux tubes and magnetomotive force slices are developed into a numerical method for predicting nonlinear three-dimensional magnetostatic field parameters. The dual energy method offers a compromise between the accurate but laborious finite element method and the speed of simplified lumped parameter magnetic circuit calculations. A two-dimensional dual energy model of a variable reluctance motor is developed. Results of calculations on a 4 kW Oulton machine are compared to measurements and other calculation methods. Finally, as a demonstration, the model is used to evaluate two competing variable reluctance motors for use as replacements for a DC windshield wiper motor.

  11. Weibull-Based Design Methodology for Rotating Aircraft Engine Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin; Hendricks, Robert C.; Soditus, Sherry

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Energy Efficient Engine (E(sup 3)-Engine) is used as the basis of a Weibull-based life and reliability analysis. Each component's life and thus the engine's life is defined by high-cycle fatigue (HCF) or low-cycle fatigue (LCF). Knowing the cumulative life distribution of each of the components making up the engine as represented by a Weibull slope is a prerequisite to predicting the life and reliability of the entire engine. As the engine Weibull slope increases, the predicted lives decrease. The predicted engine lives L(sub 5) (95 % probability of survival) of approximately 17,000 and 32,000 hr do correlate with current engine maintenance practices without and with refurbishment. respectively. The individual high pressure turbine (HPT) blade lives necessary to obtain a blade system life L(sub 0.1) (99.9 % probability of survival) of 9000 hr for Weibull slopes of 3, 6 and 9, are 47,391 and 20,652 and 15,658 hr, respectively. For a design life of the HPT disks having probable points of failure equal to or greater than 36,000 hr at a probability of survival of 99.9 %, the predicted disk system life L(sub 0.1) can vary from 9,408 to 24,911 hr.

  12. Advanced piloted aircraft flight control system design methodology. Volume 2: The FCX flight control design expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Thomas T.; Mcruer, Duane T.

    1988-01-01

    The development of a comprehensive and electric methodology for conceptual and preliminary design of flight control systems is presented and illustrated. The methodology is focused on the design states starting with the layout of system requirements and ending when some viable competing system architectures (feedback control structures) are defined. The approach is centered on the human pilot and the aircraft as both the sources of, and the keys to the solution of, many flight control problems. The methodology relies heavily on computational procedures which are highly interactive with the design engineer. To maximize effectiveness, these techniques, as selected and modified to be used together in the methodology, form a cadre of computational tools specifically tailored for integrated flight control system preliminary design purposes. The FCX expert system as presently developed is only a limited prototype capable of supporting basic lateral-directional FCS design activities related to the design example used. FCX presently supports design of only one FCS architecture (yaw damper plus roll damper) and the rules are largely focused on Class IV (highly maneuverable) aircraft. Despite this limited scope, the major elements which appear necessary for application of knowledge-based software concepts to flight control design were assembled and thus FCX represents a prototype which can be tested, critiqued and evolved in an ongoing process of development.

  13. Analysis and Design of Fuselage Structures Including Residual Strength Prediction Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Norman F.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this research project is to develop and assess methodologies for the design and analysis of fuselage structures accounting for residual strength. Two primary objectives are included in this research activity: development of structural analysis methodology for predicting residual strength of fuselage shell-type structures; and the development of accurate, efficient analysis, design and optimization tool for fuselage shell structures. Assessment of these tools for robustness, efficient, and usage in a fuselage shell design environment will be integrated with these two primary research objectives.

  14. Operational Design Cognitive Methodology: An Analysis of COMISAF 30 August 2009 Initial Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    the problem must exist between the instruments of power. This research paper applies the Operational Design Cognitive Methodology to the...AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY OPERATIONAL DESIGN COGNITIVE METHODOLGY : AN ANALYSIS OF COMISAF 30 AUGUST 2009 INITIAL...ASSESSMENT by Abraham L. Jackson, Major, USAF A Research Report Submitted to the Faculty In Partial Fulfillment of the Graduation

  15. A Step-by-Step Design Methodology for a Base Case Vanadium Redox-Flow Battery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mark; Counce, Robert M.; Watson, Jack S.; Zawodzinski, Thomas A.; Kamath, Haresh

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop an evolutionary procedure to be used by Chemical Engineering students for the base-case design of a Vanadium Redox-Flow Battery. The design methodology is based on the work of Douglas (1985) and provides a profitability analysis at each decision level so that more profitable alternatives and directions can be…

  16. A design methodology for evolutionary air transportation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Eunsuk

    The air transportation demand at large hubs in the U.S. is anticipated to double in the near future. Current runway construction plans at selected airports can relieve some capacity and delay problems, but many are doubtful that this solution is sufficient to accommodate the anticipated demand growth in the National Airspace System (NAS). With the worsening congestion problem, it is imperative to seek alternative solutions other than costly runway constructions. In this respect, many researchers and organizations have been building models and performing analyses of the NAS. However, the complexity and size of the problem results in an overwhelming task for transportation system modelers. This research seeks to compose an active design algorithm for an evolutionary airline network model so as to include network specific control properties. An airline network designer, referred to as a network architect, can use this tool to assess the possibilities of gaining more capacity by changing the network configuration. Since the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978, the airline service network has evolved into a distinct Hub-and-Spoke (H&S) network. Enplanement demand on the H&S network is the sum of Origin-Destination (O-D) demand and transfer demand. Even though the flight or enplanement demand is a function of O-D demand and passenger routings on the airline network, the distinction between enplanement and O-D demand is not often made. Instead, many demand forecast practices in current days are based on scale-ups from the enplanements, which include the demand to and from transferring network hubs. Based on this research, it was found that the current demand prediction practice can be improved by dissecting enplanements further into smaller pieces of information. As a result, enplanement demand is decomposed into intrinsic and variable parts. The proposed intrinsic demand model is based on the concept of 'true' O-D demand which includes the direction of each round trip

  17. Application of an Integrated Methodology for Propulsion and Airframe Control Design to a STOVL Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay; Mattern, Duane

    1994-01-01

    An advanced methodology for integrated flight propulsion control (IFPC) design for future aircraft, which will use propulsion system generated forces and moments for enhanced maneuver capabilities, is briefly described. This methodology has the potential to address in a systematic manner the coupling between the airframe and the propulsion subsystems typical of such enhanced maneuverability aircraft. Application of the methodology to a short take-off vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft in the landing approach to hover transition flight phase is presented with brief description of the various steps in the IFPC design methodology. The details of the individual steps have been described in previous publications and the objective of this paper is to focus on how the components of the control system designed at each step integrate into the overall IFPC system. The full nonlinear IFPC system was evaluated extensively in nonreal-time simulations as well as piloted simulations. Results from the nonreal-time evaluations are presented in this paper. Lessons learned from this application study are summarized in terms of areas of potential improvements in the STOVL IFPC design as well as identification of technology development areas to enhance the applicability of the proposed design methodology.

  18. Advanced piloted aircraft flight control system design methodology. Volume 1: Knowledge base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcruer, Duane T.; Myers, Thomas T.

    1988-01-01

    The development of a comprehensive and electric methodology for conceptual and preliminary design of flight control systems is presented and illustrated. The methodology is focused on the design stages starting with the layout of system requirements and ending when some viable competing system architectures (feedback control structures) are defined. The approach is centered on the human pilot and the aircraft as both the sources of, and the keys to the solution of, many flight control problems. The methodology relies heavily on computational procedures which are highly interactive with the design engineer. To maximize effectiveness, these techniques, as selected and modified to be used together in the methodology, form a cadre of computational tools specifically tailored for integrated flight control system preliminary design purposes. While theory and associated computational means are an important aspect of the design methodology, the lore, knowledge and experience elements, which guide and govern applications are critical features. This material is presented as summary tables, outlines, recipes, empirical data, lists, etc., which encapsulate a great deal of expert knowledge. Much of this is presented in topical knowledge summaries which are attached as Supplements. The composite of the supplements and the main body elements constitutes a first cut at a a Mark 1 Knowledge Base for manned-aircraft flight control.

  19. Monitoring Progress in Child Poverty Reduction: Methodological Insights and Illustration to the Case Study of Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, Jose Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Important steps have been taken at international summits to set up goals and targets to improve the wellbeing of children worldwide. Now the world also has more and better data to monitor progress. This paper presents a new approach to monitoring progress in child poverty reduction based on the Alkire and Foster adjusted headcount ratio and an…

  20. Integrated Controls-Structures Design Methodology: Redesign of an Evolutionary Test Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maghami, Peiman G.; Gupta, Sandeep; Elliot, Kenny B.; Joshi, Suresh M.

    1997-01-01

    An optimization-based integrated controls-structures design methodology for a class of flexible space structures is described, and the phase-0 Controls-Structures-Integration evolutionary model, a laboratory testbed at NASA Langley, is redesigned using this integrated design methodology. The integrated controls-structures design is posed as a nonlinear programming problem to minimize the control effort required to maintain a specified line-of-sight pointing performance, under persistent white noise disturbance. Static and dynamic dissipative control strategies are employed for feedback control, and parameters of these controllers are considered as the control design variables. Sizes of strut elements in various sections of the CEM are used as the structural design variables. Design guides for the struts are developed and employed in the integrated design process, to ensure that the redesigned structure can be effectively fabricated. The superiority of the integrated design methodology over the conventional design approach is demonstrated analytically by observing a significant reduction in the average control power needed to maintain specified pointing performance with the integrated design approach.

  1. Co-design of RAD and ETHICS methodologies: a combination of information system development methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasehi, Arezo; Shahriyari, Salman

    2011-12-01

    Co-design is a new trend in the social world which tries to capture different ideas in order to use the most appropriate features for a system. In this paper, co-design of two information system methodologies is regarded; rapid application development (RAD) and effective technical and human implementation of computer-based systems (ETHICS). We tried to consider the characteristics of these methodologies to see the possibility of having a co-design or combination of them for developing an information system. To reach this purpose, four different aspects of them are analyzed: social or technical approach, user participation and user involvement, job satisfaction, and overcoming change resistance. Finally, a case study using the quantitative method is analyzed in order to examine the possibility of co-design using these factors. The paper concludes that RAD and ETHICS are appropriate to be co-designed and brings some suggestions for the co-design.

  2. Efficient preliminary floating offshore wind turbine design and testing methodologies and application to a concrete spar design

    PubMed Central

    Matha, Denis; Sandner, Frank; Molins, Climent; Campos, Alexis; Cheng, Po Wen

    2015-01-01

    The current key challenge in the floating offshore wind turbine industry and research is on designing economic floating systems that can compete with fixed-bottom offshore turbines in terms of levelized cost of energy. The preliminary platform design, as well as early experimental design assessments, are critical elements in the overall design process. In this contribution, a brief review of current floating offshore wind turbine platform pre-design and scaled testing methodologies is provided, with a focus on their ability to accommodate the coupled dynamic behaviour of floating offshore wind systems. The exemplary design and testing methodology for a monolithic concrete spar platform as performed within the European KIC AFOSP project is presented. Results from the experimental tests compared to numerical simulations are presented and analysed and show very good agreement for relevant basic dynamic platform properties. Extreme and fatigue loads and cost analysis of the AFOSP system confirm the viability of the presented design process. In summary, the exemplary application of the reduced design and testing methodology for AFOSP confirms that it represents a viable procedure during pre-design of floating offshore wind turbine platforms. PMID:25583870

  3. Efficient preliminary floating offshore wind turbine design and testing methodologies and application to a concrete spar design.

    PubMed

    Matha, Denis; Sandner, Frank; Molins, Climent; Campos, Alexis; Cheng, Po Wen

    2015-02-28

    The current key challenge in the floating offshore wind turbine industry and research is on designing economic floating systems that can compete with fixed-bottom offshore turbines in terms of levelized cost of energy. The preliminary platform design, as well as early experimental design assessments, are critical elements in the overall design process. In this contribution, a brief review of current floating offshore wind turbine platform pre-design and scaled testing methodologies is provided, with a focus on their ability to accommodate the coupled dynamic behaviour of floating offshore wind systems. The exemplary design and testing methodology for a monolithic concrete spar platform as performed within the European KIC AFOSP project is presented. Results from the experimental tests compared to numerical simulations are presented and analysed and show very good agreement for relevant basic dynamic platform properties. Extreme and fatigue loads and cost analysis of the AFOSP system confirm the viability of the presented design process. In summary, the exemplary application of the reduced design and testing methodology for AFOSP confirms that it represents a viable procedure during pre-design of floating offshore wind turbine platforms.

  4. Progressive addition lens design by optimizing NURBS surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yen-Liang; Hsu, Wei-Yao; Cheng, Yuan-Chieh; Su, Guo-Dung

    2011-10-01

    Progressive addition lenses (PAL) are used to compensate presbyopia, which is induced by losing accommodation of elder eyes. These eyes need different optical power provided by eye glasses while watching objects at different distance. A smaller optical power is required in further distance and a larger one in nearer zone. A progressive addition lens can provides different power requirements in one piece of lens. This paper introduces a whole process of PAL production, from design, fabrication, to measurement. The PAL is designed by optimizing NURBS surface. Parameters of merit function are adjusted to design lenses with different specifications. The simulation results confirm that the power distributes as expected and cylinders are controlled under an acceptable level. Besides, sample lenses have been fabricated and measured. We apply precise-machining to produce the molds for plastic injection. Then, the samples are produced by injecting polycorbonate to the molds. Finally, Ultra Accuracy 3D Profilemeter is used to measure the sample PALs. Practical examinations shows that our designs are achievable and feasible in practice use.

  5. Energy-Based Design Methodology for Air Vehicle Systems: Aerodynamic Correlation Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    ENERGY -BASED DESIGN METHODOLOGY FOR AIR VEHICLE SYSTEMS : AERODYNAMIC CORRELATION STUDY AFOSR: FA9550-64-"t/Dr. John Schmisseur AFOSR-NA C>(4-1-0- I...drag estimation and vehicle-level utilization of energy . The exergy utilization of a wing in a steady, low subsonic, three-dimensional, viscous flow...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Energy -Based Design Methodology For Air Vehicle 5b. GRANT NUMBER Systems : Aerodynamic Correlation Study FA9550,-64 (9 4-1-- !(1 5c

  6. Failure: A Source of Progress in Maintenance and Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaïb, R.; Taleb, M.; Benidir, M.; Verzea, I.; Bellaouar, A.

    This approach, allows using the failure as a source of progress in maintenance and design to detect the most critical components in equipment, to determine the priority order maintenance actions to lead and direct the exploitation procedure towards the most penalizing links in this equipment, even define the necessary changes and recommendations for future improvement. Thus, appreciate the pathological behaviour of the material and increase its availability, even increase its lifespan and improve its future design. In this context and in the light of these points, the failures are important in managing the maintenance function. Indeed, it has become important to understand the phenomena of failure and degradation of equipments in order to establish an appropriate maintenance policy for the rational use of mechanical components and move to the practice of proactive maintenance [1], do maintenance at the design [2].

  7. Compact DEMO, SlimCS: design progress and issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobita, K.; Nishio, S.; Enoeda, M.; Kawashima, H.; Kurita, G.; Tanigawa, H.; Nakamura, H.; Honda, M.; Saito, A.; Sato, S.; Hayashi, T.; Asakura, N.; Sakurai, S.; Nishitani, T.; Ozeki, T.; Ando, M.; Ezato, K.; Hamamatsu, K.; Hirose, T.; Hoshino, T.; Ide, S.; Inoue, T.; Isono, T.; Liu, C.; Kakudate, S.; Kawamura, Y.; Mori, S.; Nakamichi, M.; Nishi, H.; Nozawa, T.; Ochiai, K.; Ogiwara, H.; Oyama, N.; Sakamoto, K.; Sakamoto, Y.; Seki, Y.; Shibama, Y.; Shimizu, K.; Suzuki, S.; Takahashi, K.; Tanigawa, H.; Tsuru, D.; Yamanishi, T.; Yoshida, T.

    2009-07-01

    The design progress in a compact low aspect ratio (low A) DEMO reactor, 'SlimCS', and its design issues are reported. The design study focused mainly on the torus configuration including the blanket, divertor, materials and maintenance scheme. For continuity with the Japanese ITER-TBM, the blanket is based on a water-cooled solid breeder blanket. For vertical stability of the elongated plasma and high beta access, the blanket is segmented into replaceable and permanent blankets and a sector-wide conducting shell is arranged inbetween these blankets. A numerical calculation indicates that fuel self-sufficiency can be satisfied when the blanket interior is ideally fabricated. An allowable heat load to the divertor plate should be 8 MW m-2 or lower, which can be a critical constraint for determining a handling power of DEMO.

  8. A methodology for designing robust multivariable nonlinear control systems. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunberg, D. B.

    1986-01-01

    A new methodology is described for the design of nonlinear dynamic controllers for nonlinear multivariable systems providing guarantees of closed-loop stability, performance, and robustness. The methodology is an extension of the Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian with Loop-Transfer-Recovery (LQG/LTR) methodology for linear systems, thus hinging upon the idea of constructing an approximate inverse operator for the plant. A major feature of the methodology is a unification of both the state-space and input-output formulations. In addition, new results on stability theory, nonlinear state estimation, and optimal nonlinear regulator theory are presented, including the guaranteed global properties of the extended Kalman filter and optimal nonlinear regulators.

  9. Development of an Expert Judgement Elicitation and Calibration Methodology for Risk Analysis in Conceptual Vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unal, Resit; Keating, Charles; Conway, Bruce; Chytka, Trina

    2004-01-01

    A comprehensive expert-judgment elicitation methodology to quantify input parameter uncertainty and analysis tool uncertainty in a conceptual launch vehicle design analysis has been developed. The ten-phase methodology seeks to obtain expert judgment opinion for quantifying uncertainties as a probability distribution so that multidisciplinary risk analysis studies can be performed. The calibration and aggregation techniques presented as part of the methodology are aimed at improving individual expert estimates, and provide an approach to aggregate multiple expert judgments into a single probability distribution. The purpose of this report is to document the methodology development and its validation through application to a reference aerospace vehicle. A detailed summary of the application exercise, including calibration and aggregation results is presented. A discussion of possible future steps in this research area is given.

  10. Methodological Study for Determining the Task Content of Dental Auxiliary Education Programs. Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, David R.

    The purpose of the study was to develop a methodology of collecting data pertaining to the dental tasks taught and the responsibility levels to which they are taught in the curricula of educational institutions preparing dental assistants, hygienists, and laboratory technicians. The sample group consisted of Faculty and Preceptor respondents from…

  11. Space station definitions, design, and development. Task 5: Multiple arm telerobot coordination and control: Manipulator design methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoughton, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    A proposed methodology applicable to the design of manipulator systems is described. The current design process is especially weak in the preliminary design phase, since there is no accepted measure to be used in trading off different options available for the various subsystems. The design process described uses Cartesian End-Effector Impedance as a measure of performance for the system. Having this measure of performance, it is shown how it may be used to determine the trade-offs necessary to the preliminary design phase. The design process involves three main parts: (1) determination of desired system performance in terms of End-Effector Impedance; (2) trade-off design options to achieve this desired performance; and (3) verification of system performance through laboratory testing. The design process is developed using numerous examples and experiments to demonstrate the feasability of this approach to manipulator design.

  12. Problems and progress in aeroelasticity for interdisciplinary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, E. Carson, Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Some problems and progress in the development of aerodynamic and aeroelastic computational capabilities are reviewed with emphasis on needs for use in current interdisciplinary design procedures as well as for stand-alone analyses. The primary focus is on integral-equation methods which are well suited for general, accurate, efficient, and unified treatment of flow around vehicles having arbitrary shapes, motions, and deformations at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds up to high angles of attack. Computational methods for potential flows and viscous flows are discussed, and some applications are shown. Calculation of steady and unsteady aeroelastic characteristics of aircraft with nonlinear aerodynamic behavior is also addressed briefly.

  13. Cyber-Informed Engineering: The Need for a New Risk Informed and Design Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Joseph Daniel; Anderson, Robert Stephen

    2015-06-01

    Current engineering and risk management methodologies do not contain the foundational assumptions required to address the intelligent adversary’s capabilities in malevolent cyber attacks. Current methodologies focus on equipment failures or human error as initiating events for a hazard, while cyber attacks use the functionality of a trusted system to perform operations outside of the intended design and without the operator’s knowledge. These threats can by-pass or manipulate traditionally engineered safety barriers and present false information, invalidating the fundamental basis of a safety analysis. Cyber threats must be fundamentally analyzed from a completely new perspective where neither equipment nor human operation can be fully trusted. A new risk analysis and design methodology needs to be developed to address this rapidly evolving threatscape.

  14. A multi-criteria decision aid methodology to design electric vehicles public charging networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raposo, João; Rodrigues, Ana; Silva, Carlos; Dentinho, Tomaz

    2015-05-01

    This article presents a new multi-criteria decision aid methodology, dynamic-PROMETHEE, here used to design electric vehicle charging networks. In applying this methodology to a Portuguese city, results suggest that it is effective in designing electric vehicle charging networks, generating time and policy based scenarios, considering offer and demand and the city's urban structure. Dynamic-PROMETHE adds to the already known PROMETHEE's characteristics other useful features, such as decision memory over time, versatility and adaptability. The case study, used here to present the dynamic-PROMETHEE, served as inspiration and base to create this new methodology. It can be used to model different problems and scenarios that may present similar requirement characteristics.

  15. BEAM STOP DESIGN METHODOLOGY AND DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SNS BEAM STOP

    SciTech Connect

    Polsky, Yarom; Plum, Michael A; Geoghegan, Patrick J; Jacobs, Lorelei L; Lu, Wei; McTeer, Stephen Mark

    2010-01-01

    The design of accelerator components such as magnets, accelerator cavities and beam instruments tends to be a fairly standardized and collective effort within the particle accelerator community with well established performance, reliability and, in some cases, even budgetary criteria. Beam stop design, by contrast, has been comparatively subjective historically with much more general goals. This lack of rigor has lead to a variety of facility implementations with limited standardization and minimal consensus on approach to development within the particle accelerator community. At the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), for example, there are four high power beam stops in use, three of which have significantly different design solutions. This paper describes the design of a new off-momentum beam stop for the SNS. The technical description of the system will be complemented by a discussion of design methodology. This paper presented an overview of the new SNS HEBT off-momentum beam stop and outlined a methodology for beam stop system design. The new beam stop consists of aluminium and steel blocks cooled by a closed-loop forced-air system and is expected to be commissioned this summer. The design methodology outlined in the paper represents a basic description of the process, data, analyses and critical decisions involved in the development of a beam stop system.

  16. Cell-based top-down design methodology for RSFQ digital circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, N.; Koshiyama, J.; Motoori, K.; Matsuzaki, F.; Yoda, K.

    2001-08-01

    We propose a cell-based top-down design methodology for rapid single flux quantum (RSFQ) digital circuits. Our design methodology employs a binary decision diagram (BDD), which is currently used for the design of CMOS pass-transistor logic circuits. The main features of the BDD RSFQ circuits are the limited primitive number, dual rail nature, non-clocking architecture, and small gate count. We have made a standard BDD RSFQ cell library and prepared a top-down design CAD environment, by which we can perform logic synthesis, logic simulation, circuit simulation and layout view extraction. In order to clarify problems expected in large-scale RSFQ circuits design, we have designed a small RSFQ microprocessor based on simple architecture using our top-down design methodology. We have estimated its system performance and compared it with that of the CMOS microprocessor with the same architecture. It was found that the RSFQ system is superior in terms of the operating speed though it requires extremely large chip area.

  17. A Novel Multiscale Physics Based Progressive Failure Methodology for Laminated Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Waas, Anthony M.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Collier, Craig S.; Yarrington, Phillip W.

    2008-01-01

    A variable fidelity, multiscale, physics based finite element procedure for predicting progressive damage and failure of laminated continuous fiber reinforced composites is introduced. At every integration point in a finite element model, progressive damage is accounted for at the lamina-level using thermodynamically based Schapery Theory. Separate failure criteria are applied at either the global-scale or the microscale in two different FEM models. A micromechanics model, the Generalized Method of Cells, is used to evaluate failure criteria at the micro-level. The stress-strain behavior and observed failure mechanisms are compared with experimental results for both models.

  18. A design methodology for effective application of pan-tilt cameras in alarm assessment systems

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.F.

    1993-08-01

    Effective application of pan-tilt cameras in alarm assessment systems requires that the overall system design be such that any threat for which the system is designed will be within the field of view of the camera for a sufficiently long time for the assessment of the alarm to be performed. The assessment of alarms in large, unobstructed areas requires a different type of analysis than traditionally used for clear zones between fences along fixed perimeters where an intruder`s possible location is well defined. This paper presents a design methodology which integrates the threat characteristics, sensor detection pattern, system response time, and optics geometry considerations to identify all feasible locations for camera placement for effective assessment of large, unobstructed areas. The methodology also can be used to evaluate tradeoffs among these various considerations to improve candidate designs.

  19. Curriculum Design: Nurse Educator's Role in Managing and Utilizing Various Teaching Methodologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Norma J.

    The role of the nurse educator in curriculum design in the future is considered. Changing technology, shifts in patient care agencies, legislation and long-term care specialties in nursing are all factors that will have a significant impact on curricula. Plans for managing and utilizing various teaching methodologies will be an important role for…

  20. Hydrogel design of experiments methodology to optimize hydrogel for iPSC-NPC culture.

    PubMed

    Lam, Jonathan; Carmichael, S Thomas; Lowry, William E; Segura, Tatiana

    2015-03-11

    Bioactive signals can be incorporated in hydrogels to direct encapsulated cell behavior. Design of experiments methodology methodically varies the signals systematically to determine the individual and combinatorial effects of each factor on cell activity. Using this approach enables the optimization of three ligands concentrations (RGD, YIGSR, IKVAV) for the survival and differentiation of neural progenitor cells.

  1. Beyond Needs Analysis: Soft Systems Methodology for Meaningful Collaboration in EAP Course Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tajino, Akira; James, Robert; Kijima, Kyoichi

    2005-01-01

    Designing an EAP course requires collaboration among various concerned stakeholders, including students, subject teachers, institutional administrators and EAP teachers themselves. While needs analysis is often considered fundamental to EAP, alternative research methodologies may be required to facilitate meaningful collaboration between these…

  2. A water quality monitoring network design methodology for the selection of critical sampling points: Part I.

    PubMed

    Strobl, R O; Robillard, P D; Shannon, R D; Day, R L; McDonnell, A J

    2006-01-01

    The principal instrument to temporally and spatially manage water resources is a water quality monitoring network. However, to date in most cases, there is a clear absence of a concise strategy or methodology for designing monitoring networks, especially when deciding upon the placement of sampling stations. Since water quality monitoring networks can be quite costly, it is very important to properly design the monitoring network so that maximum information extraction can be accomplished, which in turn is vital when informing decision-makers. This paper presents the development of a methodology for identifying the critical sampling locations within a watershed. Hence, it embodies the spatial component in the design of a water quality monitoring network by designating the critical stream locations that should ideally be sampled. For illustration purposes, the methodology focuses on a single contaminant, namely total phosphorus, and is applicable to small, upland, predominantly agricultural-forested watersheds. It takes a number of hydrologic, topographic, soils, vegetative, and land use factors into account. In addition, it includes an economic as well as logistical component in order to approximate the number of sampling points required for a given budget and to only consider the logistically accessible stream reaches in the analysis, respectively. The methodology utilizes a geographic information system (GIS), hydrologic simulation model, and fuzzy logic.

  3. IDR: A Participatory Methodology for Interdisciplinary Design in Technology Enhanced Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Niall; Mor, Yishay

    2008-01-01

    One of the important themes that emerged from the CAL'07 conference was the failure of technology to bring about the expected disruptive effect to learning and teaching. We identify one of the causes as an inherent weakness in prevalent development methodologies. While the problem of designing technology for learning is irreducibly…

  4. Using Delphi Methodology to Design Assessments of Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manizade, Agida Gabil; Mason, Marguerite M.

    2011-01-01

    Descriptions of methodologies that can be used to create items for assessing teachers' "professionally situated" knowledge are lacking in mathematics education research literature. In this study, researchers described and used the Delphi method to design an instrument to measure teachers' pedagogical content knowledge. The instrument focused on a…

  5. Methodology for the Preliminary Design of High Performance Schools in Hot and Humid Climates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Im, Piljae

    2009-01-01

    A methodology to develop an easy-to-use toolkit for the preliminary design of high performance schools in hot and humid climates was presented. The toolkit proposed in this research will allow decision makers without simulation knowledge easily to evaluate accurately energy efficient measures for K-5 schools, which would contribute to the…

  6. A low-power photovoltaic system with energy storage for radio communications: description and design methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, C.P.; Chapman, P.D.

    1982-01-01

    A low power photovoltaic system was constructed with approximately 500 amp hours of battery energy storage to provide power to an emergency amateur radio communications center. The system can power the communications center for about 72 hours of continuous nonsun operation. Complete construction details and a design methodology algorithm are given with abundant engineering data and adequate theory to allow similar systems to be constructed, scaled up or down, with minimum design effort.

  7. Low-power photovoltaic system with energy storage for radio communications. Description and design methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, C.P.; Chapman, P.D.; Lewison, A.H.

    1982-01-15

    A low-power photovoltaic system was constructed with approximately 500 amp-hours of battery energy storage to provide power to an emergency amateur radio communications center. The system can power the communications center for about 72 hours of continuous no-sun operation. Complete construction details and a design methodology algorithm are given with abundant engineering data and adequate theory to allow similar systems to be constructed, scaled up or down, with minimum design effort.

  8. A low-power photovoltaic system with energy storage for radio communications: Description and design methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, C. P.; Chapman, P. D.; Lewison, A. H.

    1982-01-01

    A low power photovoltaic system was constructed with approximately 500 amp hours of battery energy storage to provide power to an emergency amateur radio communications center. The system can power the communications center for about 72 hours of continuous nonsun operation. Complete construction details and a design methodology algorithm are given with abundant engineering data and adequate theory to allow similar systems to be constructed, scaled up or down, with minimum design effort.

  9. Design Methodology for Multi-Element High-Lift Systems on Subsonic Civil Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, R. S.; vanDam, C. P.

    1996-01-01

    The choice of a high-lift system is crucial in the preliminary design process of a subsonic civil transport aircraft. Its purpose is to increase the allowable aircraft weight or decrease the aircraft's wing area for a given takeoff and landing performance. However, the implementation of a high-lift system into a design must be done carefully, for it can improve the aerodynamic performance of an aircraft but may also drastically increase the aircraft empty weight. If designed properly, a high-lift system can improve the cost effectiveness of an aircraft by increasing the payload weight for a given takeoff and landing performance. This is why the design methodology for a high-lift system should incorporate aerodynamic performance, weight, and cost. The airframe industry has experienced rapid technological growth in recent years which has led to significant advances in high-lift systems. For this reason many existing design methodologies have become obsolete since they are based on outdated low Reynolds number wind-tunnel data and can no longer accurately predict the aerodynamic characteristics or weight of current multi-element wings. Therefore, a new design methodology has been created that reflects current aerodynamic, weight, and cost data and provides enough flexibility to allow incorporation of new data when it becomes available.

  10. Novel thermal management system design methodology for power lithium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, Nerea; Díaz, Luis; Gastelurrutia, Jon; Blanco, Francisco; Ramos, Juan Carlos; Rivas, Alejandro

    2014-12-01

    Battery packs conformed by large format lithium-ion cells are increasingly being adopted in hybrid and pure electric vehicles in order to use the energy more efficiently and for a better environmental performance. Safety and cycle life are two of the main concerns regarding this technology, which are closely related to the cell's operating behavior and temperature asymmetries in the system. Therefore, the temperature of the cells in battery packs needs to be controlled by thermal management systems (TMSs). In the present paper an improved design methodology for developing TMSs is proposed. This methodology involves the development of different mathematical models for heat generation, transmission, and dissipation and their coupling and integration in the battery pack product design methodology in order to improve the overall safety and performance. The methodology is validated by comparing simulation results with laboratory measurements on a single module of the battery pack designed at IK4-IKERLAN for a traction application. The maximum difference between model predictions and experimental temperature data is 2 °C. The models developed have shown potential for use in battery thermal management studies for EV/HEV applications since they allow for scalability with accuracy and reasonable simulation time.

  11. Application of Design Methodologies for Feedback Compensation Associated with Linear Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Monty J.

    1996-01-01

    The work that follows is concerned with the application of design methodologies for feedback compensation associated with linear systems. In general, the intent is to provide a well behaved closed loop system in terms of stability and robustness (internal signals remain bounded with a certain amount of uncertainty) and simultaneously achieve an acceptable level of performance. The approach here has been to convert the closed loop system and control synthesis problem into the interpolation setting. The interpolation formulation then serves as our mathematical representation of the design process. Lifting techniques have been used to solve the corresponding interpolation and control synthesis problems. Several applications using this multiobjective design methodology have been included to show the effectiveness of these techniques. In particular, the mixed H 2-H performance criteria with algorithm has been used on several examples including an F-18 HARV (High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle) for sensitivity performance.

  12. Aero-Mechanical Design Methodology for Subsonic Civil Transport High-Lift Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanDam, C. P.; Shaw, S. G.; VanderKam, J. C.; Brodeur, R. R.; Rudolph, P. K. C.; Kinney, D.

    2000-01-01

    In today's highly competitive and economically driven commercial aviation market, the trend is to make aircraft systems simpler and to shorten their design cycle which reduces recurring, non-recurring and operating costs. One such system is the high-lift system. A methodology has been developed which merges aerodynamic data with kinematic analysis of the trailing-edge flap mechanism with minimum mechanism definition required. This methodology provides quick and accurate aerodynamic performance prediction for a given flap deployment mechanism early on in the high-lift system preliminary design stage. Sample analysis results for four different deployment mechanisms are presented as well as descriptions of the aerodynamic and mechanism data required for evaluation. Extensions to interactive design capabilities are also discussed.

  13. Design Methodology of a Dual-Halbach Array Linear Actuator with Thermal-Electromagnetic Coupling.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Paulo Roberto; Flores Filho, Aly Ferreira; Perondi, Eduardo; Ferri, Jeferson; Goltz, Evandro

    2016-03-11

    This paper proposes a design methodology for linear actuators, considering thermal and electromagnetic coupling with geometrical and temperature constraints, that maximizes force density and minimizes force ripple. The method allows defining an actuator for given specifications in a step-by-step way so that requirements are met and the temperature within the device is maintained under or equal to its maximum allowed for continuous operation. According to the proposed method, the electromagnetic and thermal models are built with quasi-static parametric finite element models. The methodology was successfully applied to the design of a linear cylindrical actuator with a dual quasi-Halbach array of permanent magnets and a moving-coil. The actuator can produce an axial force of 120 N and a stroke of 80 mm. The paper also presents a comparative analysis between results obtained considering only an electromagnetic model and the thermal-electromagnetic coupled model. This comparison shows that the final designs for both cases differ significantly, especially regarding its active volume and its electrical and magnetic loading. Although in this paper the methodology was employed to design a specific actuator, its structure can be used to design a wide range of linear devices if the parametric models are adjusted for each particular actuator.

  14. Design Methodology of a Dual-Halbach Array Linear Actuator with Thermal-Electromagnetic Coupling

    PubMed Central

    Eckert, Paulo Roberto; Flores Filho, Aly Ferreira; Perondi, Eduardo; Ferri, Jeferson; Goltz, Evandro

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a design methodology for linear actuators, considering thermal and electromagnetic coupling with geometrical and temperature constraints, that maximizes force density and minimizes force ripple. The method allows defining an actuator for given specifications in a step-by-step way so that requirements are met and the temperature within the device is maintained under or equal to its maximum allowed for continuous operation. According to the proposed method, the electromagnetic and thermal models are built with quasi-static parametric finite element models. The methodology was successfully applied to the design of a linear cylindrical actuator with a dual quasi-Halbach array of permanent magnets and a moving-coil. The actuator can produce an axial force of 120 N and a stroke of 80 mm. The paper also presents a comparative analysis between results obtained considering only an electromagnetic model and the thermal-electromagnetic coupled model. This comparison shows that the final designs for both cases differ significantly, especially regarding its active volume and its electrical and magnetic loading. Although in this paper the methodology was employed to design a specific actuator, its structure can be used to design a wide range of linear devices if the parametric models are adjusted for each particular actuator. PMID:26978370

  15. A Robust Design Methodology for Optimal Microscale Secondary Flow Control in Compact Inlet Diffusers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Bernhard H.; Keller, Dennis J.

    2001-01-01

    It is the purpose of this study to develop an economical Robust design methodology for microscale secondary flow control in compact inlet diffusers. To illustrate the potential of economical Robust Design methodology, two different mission strategies were considered for the subject inlet, namely Maximum Performance and Maximum HCF Life Expectancy. The Maximum Performance mission maximized total pressure recovery while the Maximum HCF Life Expectancy mission minimized the mean of the first five Fourier harmonic amplitudes, i.e., 'collectively' reduced all the harmonic 1/2 amplitudes of engine face distortion. Each of the mission strategies was subject to a low engine face distortion constraint, i.e., DC60<0.10, which is a level acceptable for commercial engines. For each of these missions strategies, an 'Optimal Robust' (open loop control) and an 'Optimal Adaptive' (closed loop control) installation was designed over a twenty degree angle-of-incidence range. The Optimal Robust installation used economical Robust Design methodology to arrive at a single design which operated over the entire angle-of-incident range (open loop control). The Optimal Adaptive installation optimized all the design parameters at each angle-of-incidence. Thus, the Optimal Adaptive installation would require a closed loop control system to sense a proper signal for each effector and modify that effector device, whether mechanical or fluidic, for optimal inlet performance. In general, the performance differences between the Optimal Adaptive and Optimal Robust installation designs were found to be marginal. This suggests, however, that Optimal Robust open loop installation designs can be very competitive with Optimal Adaptive close loop designs. Secondary flow control in inlets is inherently robust, provided it is optimally designed. Therefore, the new methodology presented in this paper, combined array 'Lower Order' approach to Robust DOE, offers the aerodynamicist a very viable and

  16. Cognitive Activity-based Design Methodology for Novice Visual Communication Designers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyunjung; Lee, Hyunju

    2016-01-01

    The notion of design thinking is becoming more concrete nowadays, as design researchers and practitioners study the thinking processes involved in design and employ the concept of design thinking to foster better solutions to complex and ill-defined problems. The goal of the present research is to develop a cognitive activity-based design…

  17. New methods, new methodology: Advanced CFD in the Snecma turbomachinery design process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuillez, Christophe; Petot, Bertrand

    1994-05-01

    CFD tools represent a significant source of improvements in the design process of turbomachinery components, leading to higher performances, cost and cycle savings as well as lower associated risks. Such methods are the backbone of compressor and turbine design methodologies at Snecma. In the 80's, the use of 3D Euler solvers was a key factor in designing fan blades with very high performance level. Counter rotating high speed propellers designed with this methodology reached measured performances very close to their ambitious objective from the first test series. In the late 80's and the beginning of the 90's, new, more powerful methods were rapidly developed and are now commonly used in the design process: a quasi-3D, compressible, transonic inverse method; quasi-3D and 3D Navier-Stokes solvers; 3D unsteady Euler solvers. As an example, several hundred 3D Navier-Stokes computations are run yearly for the design of low and high pressure compressor and turbine blades. In addition to their modelling capabilities, the efficient use of such methods in the design process comes from their close integration in the global methodology and from an adequate exploitation environment. Their validation, their calibration, and the correlations between different levels of modelling are of critical importance to an actual improvement in design know-how. The integration of different methods in the design process is described. Several examples of application illustrate their practical utilization. Comparisons between computational results and test results show their capabilities as well as their present limitations. The prospects linked to new developments currently under way are discussed.

  18. Automated Methodologies for the Design of Flow Diagrams for Development and Maintenance Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivanand M., Handigund; Shweta, Bhat

    The Software Requirements Specification (SRS) of the organization is a text document prepared by strategic management incorporating the requirements of the organization. These requirements of ongoing business/ project development process involve the software tools, the hardware devices, the manual procedures, the application programs and the communication commands. These components are appropriately ordered for achieving the mission of the concerned process both in the project development and the ongoing business processes, in different flow diagrams viz. activity chart, workflow diagram, activity diagram, component diagram and deployment diagram. This paper proposes two generic, automatic methodologies for the design of various flow diagrams of (i) project development activities, (ii) ongoing business process. The methodologies also resolve the ensuing deadlocks in the flow diagrams and determine the critical paths for the activity chart. Though both methodologies are independent, each complements other in authenticating its correctness and completeness.

  19. A user-centred methodology for designing an online social network to motivate health behaviour change.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Noreen; Fels, Sidney

    2013-01-01

    Positive health behaviour is critical to preventing illness and managing chronic conditions. A user-centred methodology was employed to design an online social network to motivate health behaviour change. The methodology was augmented by utilizing the Appeal, Belonging, Commitment (ABC) Framework, which is based on theoretical models for health behaviour change and use of online social networks. The user-centred methodology included four phases: 1) initial user inquiry on health behaviour and use of online social networks; 2) interview feedback on paper prototypes; 2) laboratory study on medium fidelity prototype; and 4) a field study on the high fidelity prototype. The points of inquiry through these phases were based on the ABC Framework. This yielded an online social network system that linked to external third party databases to deploy to users via an interactive website.

  20. Methodology to design a municipal solid waste pre-collection system. A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Gallardo, A. Carlos, M. Peris, M. Colomer, F.J.

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • MSW recovery starts at homes; therefore it is important to facilitate it to people. • Additionally, to optimize MSW collection a previous pre-collection must be planned. • A methodology to organize pre-collection considering several factors is presented. • The methodology has been verified applying it to a Spanish middle town. - Abstract: The municipal solid waste (MSW) management is an important task that local governments as well as private companies must take into account to protect human health, the environment and to preserve natural resources. To design an adequate MSW management plan the first step consists in defining the waste generation and composition patterns of the town. As these patterns depend on several socio-economic factors it is advisable to organize them previously. Moreover, the waste generation and composition patterns may vary around the town and over the time. Generally, the data are not homogeneous around the city as the number of inhabitants is not constant nor it is the economic activity. Therefore, if all the information is showed in thematic maps, the final waste management decisions can be made more efficiently. The main aim of this paper is to present a structured methodology that allows local authorities or private companies who deal with MSW to design its own MSW management plan depending on the available data. According to these data, this paper proposes two ways of action: a direct way when detailed data are available and an indirect way when there is a lack of data and it is necessary to take into account bibliographic data. In any case, the amount of information needed is considerable. This paper combines the planning methodology with the Geographic Information Systems to present the final results in thematic maps that make easier to interpret them. The proposed methodology is a previous useful tool to organize the MSW collection routes including the selective collection. To verify the methodology it has

  1. Methodology for the Design of Streamline-Traced External-Compression Supersonic Inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, John W.

    2014-01-01

    A design methodology based on streamline-tracing is discussed for the design of external-compression, supersonic inlets for flight below Mach 2.0. The methodology establishes a supersonic compression surface and capture cross-section by tracing streamlines through an axisymmetric Busemann flowfield. The compression system of shock and Mach waves is altered through modifications to the leading edge and shoulder of the compression surface. An external terminal shock is established to create subsonic flow which is diffused in the subsonic diffuser. The design methodology was implemented into the SUPIN inlet design tool. SUPIN uses specified design factors to design the inlets and computes the inlet performance, which includes the flow rates, total pressure recovery, and wave drag. A design study was conducted using SUPIN and the Wind-US computational fluid dynamics code to design and analyze the properties of two streamline-traced, external-compression (STEX) supersonic inlets for Mach 1.6 freestream conditions. The STEX inlets were compared to axisymmetric pitot, two-dimensional, and axisymmetric spike inlets. The STEX inlets had slightly lower total pressure recovery and higher levels of total pressure distortion than the axisymmetric spike inlet. The cowl wave drag coefficients of the STEX inlets were 20% of those for the axisymmetric spike inlet. The STEX inlets had external sound pressures that were 37% of those of the axisymmetric spike inlet, which may result in lower adverse sonic boom characteristics. The flexibility of the shape of the capture cross-section may result in benefits for the integration of STEX inlets with aircraft.

  2. Applying Item Response Theory Methods to Design a Learning Progression-Based Science Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Learning progressions are used to describe how students' understanding of a topic progresses over time and to classify the progress of students into steps or levels. This study applies Item Response Theory (IRT) based methods to investigate how to design learning progression-based science assessments. The research questions of this study are: (1)…

  3. A knowledge management methodology for the integrated assessment of WWTP configurations during conceptual design.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Baserba, M; Reif, R; Rodriguez-Roda, I; Poch, M

    2012-01-01

    The current complexity involved in wastewater management projects is arising as the XXI century sets new challenges leading towards a more integrated plant design. In this context, the growing number of innovative technologies, stricter legislation and the development of new methodological approaches make it difficult to design appropriate flow schemes for new wastewater projects. Thus, new tools are needed for the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) conceptual design using integrated assessment methods in order to include different types of objectives at the same time i.e. environmental, economical, technical, and legal. Previous experiences used the decision support system (DSS) methodology to handle the specific issues related to wastewater management, for example, the design of treatment facilities for small communities. However, tools developed for addressing the whole treatment process independently of the plant size, capable of integrating knowledge from many different areas, including both conventional and innovative technologies are not available. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to present and describe an innovative knowledge-based methodology that handles the conceptual design of WWTP process flow-diagrams (PFDs), satisfying a vast number of different criteria. This global approach is based on a hierarchy of decisions that uses the information contained in knowledge bases (KBs) with the aim of automating the generation of suitable WWTP configurations for a specific scenario. Expert interviews, legislation, specialized literature and engineering experience have been integrated within the different KBs, which indeed constitute one of the main highlights of this work. Therefore, the methodology is presented as a valuable tool which provides customized PFD for each specific case, taking into account process unit interactions and the user specified requirements and objectives.

  4. Bayesian cross-entropy methodology for optimal design of validation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, X.; Mahadevan, S.

    2006-07-01

    An important concern in the design of validation experiments is how to incorporate the mathematical model in the design in order to allow conclusive comparisons of model prediction with experimental output in model assessment. The classical experimental design methods are more suitable for phenomena discovery and may result in a subjective, expensive, time-consuming and ineffective design that may adversely impact these comparisons. In this paper, an integrated Bayesian cross-entropy methodology is proposed to perform the optimal design of validation experiments incorporating the computational model. The expected cross entropy, an information-theoretic distance between the distributions of model prediction and experimental observation, is defined as a utility function to measure the similarity of two distributions. A simulated annealing algorithm is used to find optimal values of input variables through minimizing or maximizing the expected cross entropy. The measured data after testing with the optimum input values are used to update the distribution of the experimental output using Bayes theorem. The procedure is repeated to adaptively design the required number of experiments for model assessment, each time ensuring that the experiment provides effective comparison for validation. The methodology is illustrated for the optimal design of validation experiments for a three-leg bolted joint structure and a composite helicopter rotor hub component.

  5. Prognostics and health management design for rotary machinery systems—Reviews, methodology and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jay; Wu, Fangji; Zhao, Wenyu; Ghaffari, Masoud; Liao, Linxia; Siegel, David

    2014-01-01

    Much research has been conducted in prognostics and health management (PHM), an emerging field in mechanical engineering that is gaining interest from both academia and industry. Most of these efforts have been in the area of machinery PHM, resulting in the development of many algorithms for this particular application. The majority of these algorithms concentrate on applications involving common rotary machinery components, such as bearings and gears. Knowledge of this prior work is a necessity for any future research efforts to be conducted; however, there has not been a comprehensive overview that details previous and on-going efforts in PHM. In addition, a systematic method for developing and deploying a PHM system has yet to be established. Such a method would enable rapid customization and integration of PHM systems for diverse applications. To address these gaps, this paper provides a comprehensive review of the PHM field, followed by an introduction of a systematic PHM design methodology, 5S methodology, for converting data to prognostics information. This methodology includes procedures for identifying critical components, as well as tools for selecting the most appropriate algorithms for specific applications. Visualization tools are presented for displaying prognostics information in an appropriate fashion for quick and accurate decision making. Industrial case studies are included in this paper to show how this methodology can help in the design of an effective PHM system.

  6. Incorporating Army Design Methodology into Army Operations: Barriers and Recommendations for Facilitating Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    mission. A critical thinker would not do that. (Former Brigade Commander) The beauty of Design is that it’s not hierarchical; it’s not reductionist...progress and indicated that what we were doing was making a difference (like a wedding dress store opening, which was a joint business between Sunnis

  7. Impact of User-Centered Design Methodology on the Design of Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugar, William A.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the implications of incorporating user-centered design within information systems design practices. Highlights include a definition of user-centered design based on human-computer interface; questions asked about users, including outcome, process, and task variables; and three criteria for when to use this approach in information systems…

  8. Using CFD as Rocket Injector Design Tool: Recent Progress at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Kevin; West, Jeff; Williams, Robert; Lin, Jeff; Rocker, Marvin; Canabal, Francisco; Robles, Bryan; Garcia, Robert; Chenoweth, James

    2003-01-01

    The choice of tools used for injector design is in a transitional phase between exclusive reliance on the empirically based correlations and extensive use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) Program goals emphasizing lower costs and increased reliability have produced a need to enable CFD as an injector design tool in a shorter time frame. This is the primary objective of the Staged Combustor Injector Technology Task currently under way at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The documentation of this effort begins with a very brief status of current injector design tools. MSFC's vision for use of CFD as a tool for combustion devices design is stated and discussed with emphasis on the injector. The concept of the Simulation Readiness Level (SRL), comprised of solution fidelity, robustness and accuracy, is introduced and discussed. This quantitative measurement is used to establish the gap between the current state of demonstrated capability and that necessary for regular use in the design process. MSFC's view of the validation process is presented and issues associated with obtaining the necessary data are noted and discussed. Three current experimental efforts aimed at generating validation data are presented. The importance of uncertainty analysis to understand the data quality is also demonstrated. First, a brief status of current injector design tools is provided as context for the current effort. Next, the MSFC vision for using CFD as an injector design tool is stated. A generic CFD-based injector design methodology is also outlined and briefly discussed. Three areas where MSFC is using injector CFD analyses for program support will be discussed. These include the Integrated Powerhead Development (IPD) engine which uses hydrogen and oxygen propellants in a full flow staged combustion (FFSC) cycle and the TR-107 and the RS84 engine both of which use RP-1 and oxygen in an ORSC cycle. Finally, an attempt is made to

  9. Integrating uniform design and response surface methodology to optimize thiacloprid suspension

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bei-xing; Wang, Wei-chang; Zhang, Xian-peng; Zhang, Da-xia; Mu, Wei; Liu, Feng

    2017-01-01

    A model 25% suspension concentrate (SC) of thiacloprid was adopted to evaluate an integrative approach of uniform design and response surface methodology. Tersperse2700, PE1601, xanthan gum and veegum were the four experimental factors, and the aqueous separation ratio and viscosity were the two dependent variables. Linear and quadratic polynomial models of stepwise regression and partial least squares were adopted to test the fit of the experimental data. Verification tests revealed satisfactory agreement between the experimental and predicted data. The measured values for the aqueous separation ratio and viscosity were 3.45% and 278.8 mPa·s, respectively, and the relative errors of the predicted values were 9.57% and 2.65%, respectively (prepared under the proposed conditions). Comprehensive benefits could also be obtained by appropriately adjusting the amount of certain adjuvants based on practical requirements. Integrating uniform design and response surface methodology is an effective strategy for optimizing SC formulas. PMID:28383036

  10. Design methodology for multi-pumped discrete Raman amplifiers: case-study employing photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Castellani, C E S; Cani, S P N; Segatto, M E; Pontes, M J; Romero, M A

    2009-08-03

    This paper proposes a new design methodology for discrete multi-pumped Raman amplifier. In a multi-objective optimization scenario, in a first step the whole solution-space is inspected by a CW analytical formulation. Then, the most promising solutions are fully investigated by a rigorous numerical treatment and the Raman amplification performance is thus determined by the combination of analytical and numerical approaches. As an application of our methodology we designed an photonic crystal fiber Raman amplifier configuration which provides low ripple, high gain, clear eye opening and a low power penalty. The amplifier configuration also enables to fully compensate the dispersion introduced by a 70-km singlemode fiber in a 10 Gbit/s system. We have successfully obtained a configuration with 8.5 dB average gain over the C-band and 0.71 dB ripple with almost zero eye-penalty using only two pump lasers with relatively low pump power.

  11. Integrating uniform design and response surface methodology to optimize thiacloprid suspension.

    PubMed

    Li, Bei-Xing; Wang, Wei-Chang; Zhang, Xian-Peng; Zhang, Da-Xia; Mu, Wei; Liu, Feng

    2017-04-06

    A model 25% suspension concentrate (SC) of thiacloprid was adopted to evaluate an integrative approach of uniform design and response surface methodology. Tersperse2700, PE1601, xanthan gum and veegum were the four experimental factors, and the aqueous separation ratio and viscosity were the two dependent variables. Linear and quadratic polynomial models of stepwise regression and partial least squares were adopted to test the fit of the experimental data. Verification tests revealed satisfactory agreement between the experimental and predicted data. The measured values for the aqueous separation ratio and viscosity were 3.45% and 278.8 mPa·s, respectively, and the relative errors of the predicted values were 9.57% and 2.65%, respectively (prepared under the proposed conditions). Comprehensive benefits could also be obtained by appropriately adjusting the amount of certain adjuvants based on practical requirements. Integrating uniform design and response surface methodology is an effective strategy for optimizing SC formulas.

  12. Increasing Airpower’s Effectiveness: Applying the U.S. Army’s Operational Design Methodology to Airpower in Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    used the U.S. Army’s Operational Design methodology. The lack of systems thinking , reflective thinking, environmental framing and the inability to...the U.S. Army’s Operational Design methodology has a positive impact on airpower. The presence of systems thinking and reflective thinking by

  13. The Atomic Intrinsic Integration Approach: A Structured Methodology for the Design of Games for the Conceptual Understanding of Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echeverria, Alejandro; Barrios, Enrique; Nussbaum, Miguel; Amestica, Matias; Leclerc, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Computer simulations combined with games have been successfully used to teach conceptual physics. However, there is no clear methodology for guiding the design of these types of games. To remedy this, we propose a structured methodology for the design of conceptual physics games that explicitly integrates the principles of the intrinsic…

  14. HPCC Methodologies for Structural Design and Analysis on Parallel and Distributed Computing Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farhat, Charbel

    1998-01-01

    In this grant, we have proposed a three-year research effort focused on developing High Performance Computation and Communication (HPCC) methodologies for structural analysis on parallel processors and clusters of workstations, with emphasis on reducing the structural design cycle time. Besides consolidating and further improving the FETI solver technology to address plate and shell structures, we have proposed to tackle the following design related issues: (a) parallel coupling and assembly of independently designed and analyzed three-dimensional substructures with non-matching interfaces, (b) fast and smart parallel re-analysis of a given structure after it has undergone design modifications, (c) parallel evaluation of sensitivity operators (derivatives) for design optimization, and (d) fast parallel analysis of mildly nonlinear structures. While our proposal was accepted, support was provided only for one year.

  15. Spintronic logic design methodology based on spin Hall effect-driven magnetic tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Wang; Wang, Zhaohao; Zhang, Youguang; Klein, Jacques-Olivier; Lv, Weifeng; Zhao, Weisheng

    2016-02-01

    Conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology is now approaching its physical scaling limits to enable Moore’s law to continue. Spintronic devices, as one of the potential alternatives, show great promise to replace CMOS technology for next-generation low-power integrated circuits in nanoscale technology nodes. Until now, spintronic memory has been successfully commercialized. However spintronic logic still faces many critical challenges (e.g. direct cascading capability and small operation gain) before it can be practically applied. In this paper, we propose a standard complimentary spintronic logic (CSL) design methodology to form a CMOS-like logic design paradigm. Using the spin Hall effect (SHE)-driven magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) device as an example, we demonstrate CSL implementation, functionality and performance. This logic family provides a unified design methodology for spintronic logic circuits and partly solves the challenges of direct cascading capability and small operation gain in the previously proposed spintronic logic designs. By solving a modified Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation, the magnetization dynamics in the free layer of the MTJ is theoretically described and a compact electrical model is developed. With this electrical model, numerical simulations have been performed to evaluate the functionality and performance of the proposed CSL design. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed CSL design paradigm is rather promising for low-power logic computing.

  16. Methodology for CFD Design Analysis of National Launch System Nozzle Manifold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haire, Scot L.

    1993-01-01

    The current design environment dictates that high technology CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) analysis produce quality results in a timely manner if it is to be integrated into the design process. The design methodology outlined describes the CFD analysis of an NLS (National Launch System) nozzle film cooling manifold. The objective of the analysis was to obtain a qualitative estimate for the flow distribution within the manifold. A complex, 3D, multiple zone, structured grid was generated from a 3D CAD file of the geometry. A Euler solution was computed with a fully implicit compressible flow solver. Post processing consisted of full 3D color graphics and mass averaged performance. The result was a qualitative CFD solution that provided the design team with relevant information concerning the flow distribution in and performance characteristics of the film cooling manifold within an effective time frame. Also, this design methodology was the foundation for a quick turnaround CFD analysis of the next iteration in the manifold design.

  17. A Formal Methodology to Design and Deploy Dependable Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Testa, Alessandro; Cinque, Marcello; Coronato, Antonio; Augusto, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are being increasingly adopted in critical applications, where verifying the correct operation of sensor nodes is a major concern. Undesired events may undermine the mission of the WSNs. Hence, their effects need to be properly assessed before deployment, to obtain a good level of expected performance; and during the operation, in order to avoid dangerous unexpected results. In this paper, we propose a methodology that aims at assessing and improving the dependability level of WSNs by means of an event-based formal verification technique. The methodology includes a process to guide designers towards the realization of a dependable WSN and a tool (“ADVISES”) to simplify its adoption. The tool is applicable to homogeneous WSNs with static routing topologies. It allows the automatic generation of formal specifications used to check correctness properties and evaluate dependability metrics at design time and at runtime for WSNs where an acceptable percentage of faults can be defined. During the runtime, we can check the behavior of the WSN accordingly to the results obtained at design time and we can detect sudden and unexpected failures, in order to trigger recovery procedures. The effectiveness of the methodology is shown in the context of two case studies, as proof-of-concept, aiming to illustrate how the tool is helpful to drive design choices and to check the correctness properties of the WSN at runtime. Although the method scales up to very large WSNs, the applicability of the methodology may be compromised by the state space explosion of the reasoning model, which must be faced by partitioning large topologies into sub-topologies. PMID:28025568

  18. Design Methodology and Experimental Verification of Serpentine/Folded Waveguide TWTs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-17

    serpentine amplifier, which embodies the design methodology described herein. Particular attention will be paid to the comparison between code ...segment. The width of waveguide measured in the page is a. demonstration. Thus, particular attention will be paid to the comparison between code prediction...are computed with the 3-D electromagnetic code ANALYST [17]. In the parametric study shown in Fig. 7, we keep p, b, and beam tunnel radius constant

  19. The IDEAL (Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis Languages) modeling methodology: Capabilities and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evers, Ken H.; Bachert, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    The IDEAL (Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis Languages) modeling methodology has been formulated and applied over a five-year period. It has proven to be a unique, integrated approach utilizing a top-down, structured technique to define and document the system of interest; a knowledge engineering technique to collect and organize system descriptive information; a rapid prototyping technique to perform preliminary system performance analysis; and a sophisticated simulation technique to perform in-depth system performance analysis.

  20. A Formal Methodology to Design and Deploy Dependable Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Testa, Alessandro; Cinque, Marcello; Coronato, Antonio; Augusto, Juan Carlos

    2016-12-23

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are being increasingly adopted in critical applications, where verifying the correct operation of sensor nodes is a major concern. Undesired events may undermine the mission of the WSNs. Hence, their effects need to be properly assessed before deployment, to obtain a good level of expected performance; and during the operation, in order to avoid dangerous unexpected results. In this paper, we propose a methodology that aims at assessing and improving the dependability level of WSNs by means of an event-based formal verification technique. The methodology includes a process to guide designers towards the realization of a dependable WSN and a tool ("ADVISES") to simplify its adoption. The tool is applicable to homogeneous WSNs with static routing topologies. It allows the automatic generation of formal specifications used to check correctness properties and evaluate dependability metrics at design time and at runtime for WSNs where an acceptable percentage of faults can be defined. During the runtime, we can check the behavior of the WSN accordingly to the results obtained at design time and we can detect sudden and unexpected failures, in order to trigger recovery procedures. The effectiveness of the methodology is shown in the context of two case studies, as proof-of-concept, aiming to illustrate how the tool is helpful to drive design choices and to check the correctness properties of the WSN at runtime. Although the method scales up to very large WSNs, the applicability of the methodology may be compromised by the state space explosion of the reasoning model, which must be faced by partitioning large topologies into sub-topologies.

  1. Progression in Learning about "The Nature of Science": Issues of Conceptualisation and Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, John; And Others

    Recently, it was proposed that a curricular aim of science education should be to engender an understanding of the nature of the scientific enterprise among students, as well as a knowledge of the technical contents of science. Seven diagnostic instruments were designed and administered to students (between the ages of 9 and 16) in an effort to…

  2. A Visual Analytics Based Decision Support Methodology For Evaluating Low Energy Building Design Alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Ranojoy

    The ability to design high performance buildings has acquired great importance in recent years due to numerous federal, societal and environmental initiatives. However, this endeavor is much more demanding in terms of designer expertise and time. It requires a whole new level of synergy between automated performance prediction with the human capabilities to perceive, evaluate and ultimately select a suitable solution. While performance prediction can be highly automated through the use of computers, performance evaluation cannot, unless it is with respect to a single criterion. The need to address multi-criteria requirements makes it more valuable for a designer to know the "latitude" or "degrees of freedom" he has in changing certain design variables while achieving preset criteria such as energy performance, life cycle cost, environmental impacts etc. This requirement can be met by a decision support framework based on near-optimal "satisficing" as opposed to purely optimal decision making techniques. Currently, such a comprehensive design framework is lacking, which is the basis for undertaking this research. The primary objective of this research is to facilitate a complementary relationship between designers and computers for Multi-Criterion Decision Making (MCDM) during high performance building design. It is based on the application of Monte Carlo approaches to create a database of solutions using deterministic whole building energy simulations, along with data mining methods to rank variable importance and reduce the multi-dimensionality of the problem. A novel interactive visualization approach is then proposed which uses regression based models to create dynamic interplays of how varying these important variables affect the multiple criteria, while providing a visual range or band of variation of the different design parameters. The MCDM process has been incorporated into an alternative methodology for high performance building design referred to as

  3. In Vitro Developmental Toxicology Screens: A Report on the Progress of the Methodology and Future Applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cindy; Ball, Jonathan; Panzica-Kelly, Julie; Augustine-Rauch, Karen

    2016-04-18

    There has been increasing focus on generation and assessment of in vitro developmental toxicology models for assessing teratogenic liability of chemicals. The driver for this focus has been to find reliable in vitro assays that will reduce or replace the use of in vivo tests for assessing teratogenicity. Such efforts may be eventually applied in testing pharmaceutical agents where a developmental toxicology assay or battery of assays may be incorporated into regulatory testing to replace one of the two species currently used in teratogenic assessment. Such assays may be eventually applied in testing a broader spectrum of chemicals, supporting efforts aligned with Tox21 strategies and responding to REACH legislation. This review describes the developmental toxicology assays that are of focus in these assessments: rodent whole embryo culture, zebrafish embryo assays, and embryonic stem cell assays. Progress on assay development as well as future directions of how these assays are envisioned to be applied for broader safety testing of chemicals are discussed. Altogether, the developmental model systems described in this review provide rich biological systems that can be utilized in better understanding teratogenic mechanisms of action of chemotypes and are promising in providing proactive safety assessment related to developmental toxicity. Continual advancements in refining/optimizing these in vitro assays are anticipated to provide a robust data set to provide thoughtful assessment of how whole animal teratogenicity evaluations can be reduced/refined in the future.

  4. Methodology to design a municipal solid waste generation and composition map: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Gallardo, A. Carlos, M. Peris, M. Colomer, F.J.

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • To draw a waste generation and composition map of a town a lot of factors must be taken into account. • The methodology proposed offers two different depending on the available data combined with geographical information systems. • The methodology has been applied to a Spanish city with success. • The methodology will be a useful tool to organize the municipal solid waste management. - Abstract: The municipal solid waste (MSW) management is an important task that local governments as well as private companies must take into account to protect human health, the environment and to preserve natural resources. To design an adequate MSW management plan the first step consist in defining the waste generation and composition patterns of the town. As these patterns depend on several socio-economic factors it is advisable to organize them previously. Moreover, the waste generation and composition patterns may vary around the town and over the time. Generally, the data are not homogeneous around the city as the number of inhabitants is not constant nor it is the economic activity. Therefore, if all the information is showed in thematic maps, the final waste management decisions can be made more efficiently. The main aim of this paper is to present a structured methodology that allows local authorities or private companies who deal with MSW to design its own MSW management plan depending on the available data. According to these data, this paper proposes two ways of action: a direct way when detailed data are available and an indirect way when there is a lack of data and it is necessary to take into account bibliographic data. In any case, the amount of information needed is considerable. This paper combines the planning methodology with the Geographic Information Systems to present the final results in thematic maps that make easier to interpret them. The proposed methodology is a previous useful tool to organize the MSW collection routes including the

  5. Application of an integrated flight/propulsion control design methodology to a STOVL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay; Mattern, Duane L.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented from the application of an emerging Integrated Flight/Propulsion Control (IFPC) design methodology to a Short Take Off and Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircraft in transition flight. The steps in the methodology consist of designing command shaping prefilters to provide the overall desired response to pilot command inputs. A previously designed centralized controller is first validated for the integrated airframe/engine plant used. This integrated plant is derived from a different model of the engine subsystem than the one used for the centralized controller design. The centralized controller is then partitioned in a decentralized, hierarchical structure comprising of airframe lateral and longitudinal subcontrollers and an engine subcontroller. Command shaping prefilters from the pilot control effector inputs are then designed and time histories of the closed loop IFPC system response to simulated pilot commands are compared to desired responses based on handling qualities requirements. Finally, the propulsion system safety and nonlinear limited protection logic is wrapped around the engine subcontroller and the response of the closed loop integrated system is evaluated for transients that encounter the propulsion surge margin limit.

  6. A methodology for the validated design space exploration of fuel cell powered unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffitt, Blake Almy

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are the most dynamic growth sector of the aerospace industry today. The need to provide persistent intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance for military operations is driving the planned acquisition of over 5,000 UAVs over the next five years. The most pressing need is for quiet, small UAVs with endurance beyond what is capable with advanced batteries or small internal combustion propulsion systems. Fuel cell systems demonstrate high efficiency, high specific energy, low noise, low temperature operation, modularity, and rapid refuelability making them a promising enabler of the small, quiet, and persistent UAVs that military planners are seeking. Despite the perceived benefits, the actual near-term performance of fuel cell powered UAVs is unknown. Until the auto industry began spending billions of dollars in research, fuel cell systems were too heavy for useful flight applications. However, the last decade has seen rapid development with fuel cell gravimetric and volumetric power density nearly doubling every 2--3 years. As a result, a few design studies and demonstrator aircraft have appeared, but overall the design methodology and vehicles are still in their infancy. The design of fuel cell aircraft poses many challenges. Fuel cells differ fundamentally from combustion based propulsion in how they generate power and interact with other aircraft subsystems. As a result, traditional multidisciplinary analysis (MDA) codes are inappropriate. Building new MDAs is difficult since fuel cells are rapidly changing in design, and various competitive architectures exist for balance of plant, hydrogen storage, and all electric aircraft subsystems. In addition, fuel cell design and performance data is closely protected which makes validation difficult and uncertainty significant. Finally, low specific power and high volumes compared to traditional combustion based propulsion result in more highly constrained design spaces that are

  7. Methodology for worker neutron exposure evaluation in the PDCF facility design.

    PubMed

    Scherpelz, R I; Traub, R J; Pryor, K H

    2004-01-01

    A project headed by Washington Group International is meant to design the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) to convert the plutonium pits from excessed nuclear weapons into plutonium oxide for ultimate disposition. Battelle staff are performing the shielding calculations that will determine appropriate shielding so that the facility workers will not exceed target exposure levels. The target exposure levels for workers in the facility are 5 mSv y(-1) for the whole body and 100 mSv y(-1) for the extremity, which presents a significant challenge to the designers of a facility that will process tons of radioactive material. The design effort depended on shielding calculations to determine appropriate thickness and composition for glove box walls, and concrete wall thicknesses for storage vaults. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff used ORIGEN-S and SOURCES to generate gamma and neutron source terms, and Monte Carlo (computer code for) neutron photon (transport) (MCNP-4C) to calculate the radiation transport in the facility. The shielding calculations were performed by a team of four scientists, so it was necessary to develop a consistent methodology. There was also a requirement for the study to be cost-effective, so efficient methods of evaluation were required. The calculations were subject to rigorous scrutiny by internal and external reviewers, so acceptability was a major feature of the methodology. Some of the issues addressed in the development of the methodology included selecting appropriate dose factors, developing a method for handling extremity doses, adopting an efficient method for evaluating effective dose equivalent in a non-uniform radiation field, modelling the reinforcing steel in concrete, and modularising the geometry descriptions for efficiency. The relative importance of the neutron dose equivalent compared with the gamma dose equivalent varied substantially depending on the specific shielding conditions and lessons

  8. A methodology for the design of experiments in computational intelligence with multiple regression models.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Lozano, Carlos; Gestal, Marcos; Munteanu, Cristian R; Dorado, Julian; Pazos, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    The design of experiments and the validation of the results achieved with them are vital in any research study. This paper focuses on the use of different Machine Learning approaches for regression tasks in the field of Computational Intelligence and especially on a correct comparison between the different results provided for different methods, as those techniques are complex systems that require further study to be fully understood. A methodology commonly accepted in Computational intelligence is implemented in an R package called RRegrs. This package includes ten simple and complex regression models to carry out predictive modeling using Machine Learning and well-known regression algorithms. The framework for experimental design presented herein is evaluated and validated against RRegrs. Our results are different for three out of five state-of-the-art simple datasets and it can be stated that the selection of the best model according to our proposal is statistically significant and relevant. It is of relevance to use a statistical approach to indicate whether the differences are statistically significant using this kind of algorithms. Furthermore, our results with three real complex datasets report different best models than with the previously published methodology. Our final goal is to provide a complete methodology for the use of different steps in order to compare the results obtained in Computational Intelligence problems, as well as from other fields, such as for bioinformatics, cheminformatics, etc., given that our proposal is open and modifiable.

  9. A methodology for the design of experiments in computational intelligence with multiple regression models

    PubMed Central

    Gestal, Marcos; Munteanu, Cristian R.; Dorado, Julian; Pazos, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    The design of experiments and the validation of the results achieved with them are vital in any research study. This paper focuses on the use of different Machine Learning approaches for regression tasks in the field of Computational Intelligence and especially on a correct comparison between the different results provided for different methods, as those techniques are complex systems that require further study to be fully understood. A methodology commonly accepted in Computational intelligence is implemented in an R package called RRegrs. This package includes ten simple and complex regression models to carry out predictive modeling using Machine Learning and well-known regression algorithms. The framework for experimental design presented herein is evaluated and validated against RRegrs. Our results are different for three out of five state-of-the-art simple datasets and it can be stated that the selection of the best model according to our proposal is statistically significant and relevant. It is of relevance to use a statistical approach to indicate whether the differences are statistically significant using this kind of algorithms. Furthermore, our results with three real complex datasets report different best models than with the previously published methodology. Our final goal is to provide a complete methodology for the use of different steps in order to compare the results obtained in Computational Intelligence problems, as well as from other fields, such as for bioinformatics, cheminformatics, etc., given that our proposal is open and modifiable. PMID:27920952

  10. Device Thrombogenicty Emulator (DTE) – Design optimization Methodology for Cardiovascular Devices: A Study in Two Bileaflet MHV Designs

    PubMed Central

    Xenos, Michalis; Girdhar, Gaurav; Alemu, Yared; Jesty, Jolyon; Slepian, Marvin; Einav, Shmuel; Bluestein, Danny

    2010-01-01

    Patients who receive prosthetic heart valve (PHV) implants require mandatory anticoagulation medication after implantation due to the thrombogenic potential of the valve. Optimization of PHV designs may facilitate reduction of flow-induced thrombogenicity and reduce or eliminate the need for post-implant anticoagulants. We present a methodology entitled Device Thrombogenicty Emulator (DTE) for optimizing the thrombo-resistance performance of PHV by combining numerical and experimental approaches. Two bileaflet mechanical heart valves (MHV) designs – St. Jude Medical (SJM) and ATS were investigated, by studying the effect of distinct flow phases on platelet activation. Transient turbulent and direct numerical simulations (DNS) were conducted, and stress loading histories experienced by the platelets were calculated along flow trajectories. The numerical simulations indicated distinct design dependent differences between the two valves. The stress-loading waveforms extracted from the numerical simulations were programmed into a hemodynamic shearing device (HSD), emulating the flow conditions past the valves in distinct ‘hot spot’ flow regions that are implicated in MHV thrombogenicity. The resultant platelet activity was measured with a modified prothrombinase assay, and was found to be significantly higher in the SJM valve, mostly during the regurgitation phase. The experimental results were in excellent agreement with the calculated platelet activation potential. This establishes the utility of the DTE methodology for serving as a test bed for evaluating design modifications for achieving better thrombogenic performance for such devices. PMID:20483411

  11. Design Methodology for Magnetic Field-Based Soft Tri-Axis Tactile Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongbo; de Boer, Greg; Kow, Junwai; Alazmani, Ali; Ghajari, Mazdak; Hewson, Robert; Culmer, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Tactile sensors are essential if robots are to safely interact with the external world and to dexterously manipulate objects. Current tactile sensors have limitations restricting their use, notably being too fragile or having limited performance. Magnetic field-based soft tactile sensors offer a potential improvement, being durable, low cost, accurate and high bandwidth, but they are relatively undeveloped because of the complexities involved in design and calibration. This paper presents a general design methodology for magnetic field-based three-axis soft tactile sensors, enabling researchers to easily develop specific tactile sensors for a variety of applications. All aspects (design, fabrication, calibration and evaluation) of the development of tri-axis soft tactile sensors are presented and discussed. A moving least square approach is used to decouple and convert the magnetic field signal to force output to eliminate non-linearity and cross-talk effects. A case study of a tactile sensor prototype, MagOne, was developed. This achieved a resolution of 1.42 mN in normal force measurement (0.71 mN in shear force), good output repeatability and has a maximum hysteresis error of 3.4%. These results outperform comparable sensors reported previously, highlighting the efficacy of our methodology for sensor design. PMID:27563908

  12. Design Methodology for Magnetic Field-Based Soft Tri-Axis Tactile Sensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongbo; de Boer, Greg; Kow, Junwai; Alazmani, Ali; Ghajari, Mazdak; Hewson, Robert; Culmer, Peter

    2016-08-24

    Tactile sensors are essential if robots are to safely interact with the external world and to dexterously manipulate objects. Current tactile sensors have limitations restricting their use, notably being too fragile or having limited performance. Magnetic field-based soft tactile sensors offer a potential improvement, being durable, low cost, accurate and high bandwidth, but they are relatively undeveloped because of the complexities involved in design and calibration. This paper presents a general design methodology for magnetic field-based three-axis soft tactile sensors, enabling researchers to easily develop specific tactile sensors for a variety of applications. All aspects (design, fabrication, calibration and evaluation) of the development of tri-axis soft tactile sensors are presented and discussed. A moving least square approach is used to decouple and convert the magnetic field signal to force output to eliminate non-linearity and cross-talk effects. A case study of a tactile sensor prototype, MagOne, was developed. This achieved a resolution of 1.42 mN in normal force measurement (0.71 mN in shear force), good output repeatability and has a maximum hysteresis error of 3.4%. These results outperform comparable sensors reported previously, highlighting the efficacy of our methodology for sensor design.

  13. Low-Radiation Cellular Inductive Powering of Rodent Wireless Brain Interfaces: Methodology and Design Guide.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Nima; Aliroteh, Miaad S; Salam, M Tariqus; Perez Velazquez, Jose Luis; Genov, Roman

    2016-03-04

    This paper presents a general methodology of inductive power delivery in wireless chronic rodent electrophysiology applications. The focus is on such systems design considerations under the following key constraints: maximum power delivery under the allowable specific absorption rate (SAR), low cost and spatial scalability. The methodology includes inductive coil design considerations within a low-frequency ferrite-core-free power transfer link which includes a scalable coil-array power transmitter floor and a single-coil implanted or worn power receiver. A specific design example is presented that includes the concept of low-SAR cellular single-transmitter-coil powering through dynamic tracking of a magnet-less receiver spatial location. The transmitter coil instantaneous supply current is monitored using a small number of low-cost electronic components. A drop in its value indicates the proximity of the receiver due to the reflected impedance of the latter. Only the transmitter coil nearest to the receiver is activated. Operating at the low frequency of 1.5 MHz, the inductive powering floor delivers a maximum of 15.9 W below the IEEE C95 SAR limit, which is over three times greater than that in other recently reported designs. The power transfer efficiency of 39% and 13% at the nominal and maximum distances of 8 cm and 11 cm, respectively, is maintained.

  14. Low-Radiation Cellular Inductive Powering of Rodent Wireless Brain Interfaces: Methodology and Design Guide.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Nima; Aliroteh, Miaad S; Salam, M Tariqus; Perez Velazquez, Jose Luis; Genov, Roman

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a general methodology of inductive power delivery in wireless chronic rodent electrophysiology applications. The focus is on such systems design considerations under the following key constraints: maximum power delivery under the allowable specific absorption rate (SAR), low cost and spatial scalability. The methodology includes inductive coil design considerations within a low-frequency ferrite-core-free power transfer link which includes a scalable coil-array power transmitter floor and a single-coil implanted or worn power receiver. A specific design example is presented that includes the concept of low-SAR cellular single-transmitter-coil powering through dynamic tracking of a magnet-less receiver spatial location. The transmitter coil instantaneous supply current is monitored using a small number of low-cost electronic components. A drop in its value indicates the proximity of the receiver due to the reflected impedance of the latter. Only the transmitter coil nearest to the receiver is activated. Operating at the low frequency of 1.5 MHz, the inductive powering floor delivers a maximum of 15.9 W below the IEEE C95 SAR limit, which is over three times greater than that in other recently reported designs. The power transfer efficiency of 39% and 13% at the nominal and maximum distances of 8 cm and 11 cm, respectively, is maintained.

  15. Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program conceptual design and product development. Quarterly progress report, December 1, 1995--February 29, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This report describes the overall program status of the General Electric Advanced Gas Turbine Development program, and reports progress on three main task areas. The program is focused on two specific products: (1) a 70-MW class industrial gas turbine based on the GE90 core technology, utilizing a new air cooling methodology; and (2) a 200-MW class utility gas turbine based on an advanced GE heavy-duty machine, utilizing advanced cooling and enhancement in component efficiency. The emphasis for the industrial system is placed on cycle design and low emission combustion. For the utility system, the focus is on developing a technology base for advanced turbine cooling while achieving low emission combustion. The three tasks included in this progress report are on: conversion to a coal-fueled advanced turbine system, integrated program plan, and design and test of critical components. 13 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Multirate Flutter Suppression System Design for the Benchmark Active Controls Technology Wing. Part 2; Methodology Application Software Toolbox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Gregory S.; Berg, Martin C.; Mukhopadhyay, Vivek

    2002-01-01

    To study the effectiveness of various control system design methodologies, the NASA Langley Research Center initiated the Benchmark Active Controls Project. In this project, the various methodologies were applied to design a flutter suppression system for the Benchmark Active Controls Technology (BACT) Wing. This report describes the user's manual and software toolbox developed at the University of Washington to design a multirate flutter suppression control law for the BACT wing.

  17. Preliminary Design and Evaluation of Portable Electronic Flight Progress Strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doble, Nathan A.; Hansman, R. John

    2002-01-01

    There has been growing interest in using electronic alternatives to the paper Flight Progress Strip (FPS) for air traffic control. However, most research has been centered on radar-based control environments, and has not considered the unique operational needs of the airport air traffic control tower. Based on an analysis of the human factors issues for control tower Decision Support Tool (DST) interfaces, a requirement has been identified for an interaction mechanism which replicates the advantages of the paper FPS (e.g., head-up operation, portability) but also enables input and output with DSTs. An approach has been developed which uses a Portable Electronic FPS that has attributes of both a paper strip and an electronic strip. The prototype flight strip system uses Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) to replace individual paper strips in addition to a central management interface which is displayed on a desktop computer. Each PDA is connected to the management interface via a wireless local area network. The Portable Electronic FPSs replicate the core functionality of paper flight strips and have additional features which provide a heads-up interface to a DST. A departure DST is used as a motivating example. The central management interface is used for aircraft scheduling and sequencing and provides an overview of airport departure operations. This paper will present the design of the Portable Electronic FPS system as well as preliminary evaluation results.

  18. Urban design and health: progress to date and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Melanie; Boulange, Claire; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2014-04-01

    Over the last 15 years, a growing body of Australian and international evidence has demonstrated that urban design attributes are associated with a range of health outcomes. For example, the location of employment, shops and services, provision of public and active transport infrastructure and access to open space and recreational opportunities are associated with chronic disease risk factors such as physical activity levels, access to healthy food, social connectedness, and air quality. Despite the growing knowledge base, this evidence is not being consistently translated into urban planning policy and practice in Australia. Low-density neighbourhoods with poor access to public transport, shops and services continue to be developed at a rapid rate in the sprawling outer suburbs of Australian cities. This paper provides an overview of the evidence of the association between the built environment and chronic diseases, highlighting progress and future challenges for health promotion. It argues that health promotion practitioners and researchers need to more closely engage with urban planning practitioners, policymakers and researchers to encourage the creation of healthy urban environments through integrated transport, land use and infrastructure planning. There is also a need for innovative research to evaluate the effectiveness of policy options. This would help evidence to be more effectively translated into policy and practice, making Australia a leader in planning healthy communities.

  19. Design methodology: edgeless 3D ASICs with complex in-pixel processing for pixel detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Fahim Farah, Fahim Farah; Deptuch, Grzegorz W.; Hoff, James R.; Mohseni, Hooman

    2015-08-28

    The design methodology for the development of 3D integrated edgeless pixel detectors with in-pixel processing using Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tools is presented. A large area 3 tier 3D detector with one sensor layer and two ASIC layers containing one analog and one digital tier, is built for x-ray photon time of arrival measurement and imaging. A full custom analog pixel is 65μm x 65μm. It is connected to a sensor pixel of the same size on one side, and on the other side it has approximately 40 connections to the digital pixel. A 32 x 32 edgeless array without any peripheral functional blocks constitutes a sub-chip. The sub-chip is an indivisible unit, which is further arranged in a 6 x 6 array to create the entire 1.248cm x 1.248cm ASIC. Each chip has 720 bump-bond I/O connections, on the back of the digital tier to the ceramic PCB. All the analog tier power and biasing is conveyed through the digital tier from the PCB. The assembly has no peripheral functional blocks, and hence the active area extends to the edge of the detector. This was achieved by using a few flavors of almost identical analog pixels (minimal variation in layout) to allow for peripheral biasing blocks to be placed within pixels. The 1024 pixels within a digital sub-chip array have a variety of full custom, semi-custom and automated timing driven functional blocks placed together. The methodology uses a modified mixed-mode on-top digital implementation flow to not only harness the tool efficiency for timing and floor-planning but also to maintain designer control over compact parasitically aware layout. The methodology uses the Cadence design platform, however it is not limited to this tool.

  20. Methodology to design a municipal solid waste generation and composition map: a case study.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, A; Carlos, M; Peris, M; Colomer, F J

    2014-11-01

    The municipal solid waste (MSW) management is an important task that local governments as well as private companies must take into account to protect human health, the environment and to preserve natural resources. To design an adequate MSW management plan the first step consist in defining the waste generation and composition patterns of the town. As these patterns depend on several socio-economic factors it is advisable to organize them previously. Moreover, the waste generation and composition patterns may vary around the town and over the time. Generally, the data are not homogeneous around the city as the number of inhabitants is not constant nor it is the economic activity. Therefore, if all the information is showed in thematic maps, the final waste management decisions can be made more efficiently. The main aim of this paper is to present a structured methodology that allows local authorities or private companies who deal with MSW to design its own MSW management plan depending on the available data. According to these data, this paper proposes two ways of action: a direct way when detailed data are available and an indirect way when there is a lack of data and it is necessary to take into account bibliographic data. In any case, the amount of information needed is considerable. This paper combines the planning methodology with the Geographic Information Systems to present the final results in thematic maps that make easier to interpret them. The proposed methodology is a previous useful tool to organize the MSW collection routes including the selective collection. To verify the methodology it has been successfully applied to a Spanish town.

  1. Methodology to design a municipal solid waste generation and composition map: a case study.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, A; Carlos, M; Peris, M; Colomer, F J

    2015-02-01

    The municipal solid waste (MSW) management is an important task that local governments as well as private companies must take into account to protect human health, the environment and to preserve natural resources. To design an adequate MSW management plan the first step consists in defining the waste generation and composition patterns of the town. As these patterns depend on several socio-economic factors it is advisable to organize them previously. Moreover, the waste generation and composition patterns may vary around the town and over the time. Generally, the data are not homogeneous around the city as the number of inhabitants is not constant nor it is the economic activity. Therefore, if all the information is showed in thematic maps, the final waste management decisions can be made more efficiently. The main aim of this paper is to present a structured methodology that allows local authorities or private companies who deal with MSW to design its own MSW management plan depending on the available data. According to these data, this paper proposes two ways of action: a direct way when detailed data are available and an indirect way when there is a lack of data and it is necessary to take into account bibliographic data. In any case, the amount of information needed is considerable. This paper combines the planning methodology with the Geographic Information Systems to present the final results in thematic maps that make easier to interpret them. The proposed methodology is a previous useful tool to organize the MSW collection routes including the selective collection. To verify the methodology it has been successfully applied to a Spanish town.

  2. A Human-Centered Design Methodology to Enhance the Usability, Human Factors, and User Experience of Connected Health Systems: A Three-Phase Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Harte, Richard; Glynn, Liam; Rodríguez-Molinero, Alejandro; Baker, Paul MA; Scharf, Thomas; ÓLaighin, Gearóid

    2017-01-01

    Background Design processes such as human-centered design, which involve the end user throughout the product development and testing process, can be crucial in ensuring that the product meets the needs and capabilities of the user, particularly in terms of safety and user experience. The structured and iterative nature of human-centered design can often present a challenge when design teams are faced with the necessary, rapid, product development life cycles associated with the competitive connected health industry. Objective We wanted to derive a structured methodology that followed the principles of human-centered design that would allow designers and developers to ensure that the needs of the user are taken into account throughout the design process, while maintaining a rapid pace of development. In this paper, we present the methodology and its rationale before outlining how it was applied to assess and enhance the usability, human factors, and user experience of a connected health system known as the Wireless Insole for Independent and Safe Elderly Living (WIISEL) system, a system designed to continuously assess fall risk by measuring gait and balance parameters associated with fall risk. Methods We derived a three-phase methodology. In Phase 1 we emphasized the construction of a use case document. This document can be used to detail the context of use of the system by utilizing storyboarding, paper prototypes, and mock-ups in conjunction with user interviews to gather insightful user feedback on different proposed concepts. In Phase 2 we emphasized the use of expert usability inspections such as heuristic evaluations and cognitive walkthroughs with small multidisciplinary groups to review the prototypes born out of the Phase 1 feedback. Finally, in Phase 3 we emphasized classical user testing with target end users, using various metrics to measure the user experience and improve the final prototypes. Results We report a successful implementation of the

  3. Inductive Powering of Subcutaneous Stimulators: Key Parameters and Their Impact on the Design Methodology.

    PubMed

    Godfraind, Carmen; Debelle, Adrien; Lonys, Laurent; Acuña, Vicente; Doguet, Pascal; Nonclercq, Antoine

    2016-06-13

    Inductive powering of implantable medical devices involves numerous factors acting on the system efficiency and safety in adversarial ways. This paper lightens up their role and identifies a procedure enabling the system design. The latter enables the problem to be decoupled into four principal steps: the frequency choice, the magnetic link optimization, the secondary circuit and then finally the primary circuit designs. The methodology has been tested for the powering system of a device requirering a power of 300mW and implanted at a distance of 15 to 30mm from the outside power source. It allowed the identification of the most critical parameters. A satisfying efficiency of 34% was reached at 21mm and tend to validate the proposed design procedure.

  4. Design Methodology: ASICs with complex in-pixel processing for Pixel Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Fahim, Farah

    2014-10-31

    The development of Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC) for pixel detectors with complex in-pixel processing using Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools that are, themselves, mainly developed for the design of conventional digital circuits requires a specialized approach. Mixed signal pixels often require parasitically aware detailed analog front-ends and extremely compact digital back-ends with more than 1000 transistors in small areas below 100μm x 100μm. These pixels are tiled to create large arrays, which have the same clock distribution and data readout speed constraints as in, for example, micro-processors. The methodology uses a modified mixed-mode on-top digital implementation flow to not only harness the tool efficiency for timing and floor-planning but also to maintain designer control over compact parasitically aware layout.

  5. Numerical simulation methodologies for design and development of Diffuser-Augmented Wind Turbines - analysis and comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michał, Lipian; Maciej, Karczewski; Jakub, Molinski; Krzysztof, Jozwik

    2016-01-01

    Different numerical computation methods used to develop a methodology for fast, efficient, reliable design and comparison of Diffuser-Augmented Wind Turbine (DAWT) geometries are presented. The demand for such methods is evident, following the multitude of geometrical parameters that influence the flow character through ducted turbines. The results of the Actuator Disk Model (ADM) simulations will be confronted with a simulation method of higher order of accuracy, i.e. the 3D Fully-resolved Rotor Model (FRM) in the rotor design point. Both will be checked for consistency with the experimental results measured in the wind tunnel at the Institute of Turbo-machinery (IMP), Lodz University of Technology (TUL). An attempt to find an efficient method (with a compromise between accuracy and design time) for the flow analysis pertinent to the DAWT is a novel approach presented in this paper.

  6. Inductive Powering of Subcutaneous Stimulators: Key Parameters and Their Impact on the Design Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Godfraind, Carmen; Debelle, Adrien; Lonys, Laurent; Acuña, Vicente; Doguet, Pascal; Nonclercq, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Inductive powering of implantable medical devices involves numerous factors acting on the system efficiency and safety in adversarial ways. This paper lightens up their role and identifies a procedure enabling the system design. The latter enables the problem to be decoupled into four principal steps: the frequency choice, the magnetic link optimization, the secondary circuit and then finally the primary circuit designs. The methodology has been tested for the powering system of a device requirering a power of 300mW and implanted at a distance of 15 to 30mm from the outside power source. It allowed the identification of the most critical parameters. A satisfying efficiency of 34% was reached at 21mm and tend to validate the proposed design procedure. PMID:27478572

  7. The scheme machine: A case study in progress in design derivation at system levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Steven D.

    1995-01-01

    The Scheme Machine is one of several design projects of the Digital Design Derivation group at Indiana University. It differs from the other projects in its focus on issues of system design and its connection to surrounding research in programming language semantics, compiler construction, and programming methodology underway at Indiana and elsewhere. The genesis of the project dates to the early 1980's, when digital design derivation research branched from the surrounding research effort in programming languages. Both branches have continued to develop in parallel, with this particular project serving as a bridge. However, by 1990 there remained little real interaction between the branches and recently we have undertaken to reintegrate them. On the software side, researchers have refined a mathematically rigorous (but not mechanized) treatment starting with the fully abstract semantic definition of Scheme and resulting in an efficient implementation consisting of a compiler and virtual machine model, the latter typically realized with a general purpose microprocessor. The derivation includes a number of sophisticated factorizations and representations and is also deep example of the underlying engineering methodology. The hardware research has created a mechanized algebra supporting the tedious and massive transformations often seen at lower levels of design. This work has progressed to the point that large scale devices, such as processors, can be derived from first-order finite state machine specifications. This is roughly where the language oriented research stops; thus, together, the two efforts establish a thread from the highest levels of abstract specification to detailed digital implementation. The Scheme Machine project challenges hardware derivation research in several ways, although the individual components of the system are of a similar scale to those we have worked with before. The machine has a custom dual-ported memory to support garbage collection

  8. A system-of-systems modeling methodology for strategic general aviation design decision-making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Henry Thome

    General aviation has long been studied as a means of providing an on-demand "personal air vehicle" that bypasses the traffic at major commercial hubs. This thesis continues this research through development of a system of systems modeling methodology applicable to the selection of synergistic product concepts, market segments, and business models. From the perspective of the conceptual design engineer, the design and selection of future general aviation aircraft is complicated by the definition of constraints and requirements, and the tradeoffs among performance and cost aspects. Qualitative problem definition methods have been utilized, although their accuracy in determining specific requirement and metric values is uncertain. In industry, customers are surveyed, and business plans are created through a lengthy, iterative process. In recent years, techniques have developed for predicting the characteristics of US travel demand based on travel mode attributes, such as door-to-door time and ticket price. As of yet, these models treat the contributing systems---aircraft manufacturers and service providers---as independently variable assumptions. In this research, a methodology is developed which seeks to build a strategic design decision making environment through the construction of a system of systems model. The demonstrated implementation brings together models of the aircraft and manufacturer, the service provider, and most importantly the travel demand. Thus represented is the behavior of the consumers and the reactive behavior of the suppliers---the manufacturers and transportation service providers---in a common modeling framework. The results indicate an ability to guide the design process---specifically the selection of design requirements---through the optimization of "capability" metrics. Additionally, results indicate the ability to find synergetic solutions, that is solutions in which two systems might collaborate to achieve a better result than acting

  9. LOX/hydrocarbon rocket engine analytical design methodology development and validation. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niiya, Karen E.; Walker, Richard E.; Pieper, Jerry L.; Nguyen, Thong V.

    1993-01-01

    This final report includes a discussion of the work accomplished during the period from Dec. 1988 through Nov. 1991. The objective of the program was to assemble existing performance and combustion stability models into a usable design methodology capable of designing and analyzing high-performance and stable LOX/hydrocarbon booster engines. The methodology was then used to design a validation engine. The capabilities and validity of the methodology were demonstrated using this engine in an extensive hot fire test program. The engine used LOX/RP-1 propellants and was tested over a range of mixture ratios, chamber pressures, and acoustic damping device configurations. This volume contains time domain and frequency domain stability plots which indicate the pressure perturbation amplitudes and frequencies from approximately 30 tests of a 50K thrust rocket engine using LOX/RP-1 propellants over a range of chamber pressures from 240 to 1750 psia with mixture ratios of from 1.2 to 7.5. The data is from test configurations which used both bitune and monotune acoustic cavities and from tests with no acoustic cavities. The engine had a length of 14 inches and a contraction ratio of 2.0 using a 7.68 inch diameter injector. The data was taken from both stable and unstable tests. All combustion instabilities were spontaneous in the first tangential mode. Although stability bombs were used and generated overpressures of approximately 20 percent, no tests were driven unstable by the bombs. The stability instrumentation included six high-frequency Kistler transducers in the combustion chamber, a high-frequency Kistler transducer in each propellant manifold, and tri-axial accelerometers. Performance data is presented, both characteristic velocity efficiencies and energy release efficiencies, for those tests of sufficient duration to record steady state values.

  10. Design, Progressive Modeling, Manufacture, and Testing of Composite Shield for Turbine Engine Blade Containment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binienda, Wieslaw K.; Sancaktar, Erol; Roberts, Gary D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An effective design methodology was established for composite jet engine containment structures. The methodology included the development of the full and reduced size prototypes, and FEA models of the containment structure, experimental and numerical examination of the modes of failure clue to turbine blade out event, identification of materials and design candidates for future industrial applications, and design and building of prototypes for testing and evaluation purposes.

  11. New Methodology of Designing Inexpensive Hybrid Control-Acquisition Systems for Mechatronic Constructions

    PubMed Central

    Augustyn, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a new methodology for designing a hybrid control and acquisition system consisting of a 32-bit SoC microsystem connected via a direct Universal Serial Bus (USB) with a standard commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) component running the Android operating system. It is proposed to utilize it avoiding the use of an additional converter. An Android-based component was chosen to explore the potential for a mobile, compact and energy efficient solution with easy to build user interfaces and easy wireless integration with other computer systems. This paper presents results of practical implementation and analysis of experimental real-time performance. It covers closed control loop time between the sensor/actuator module and the Android operating system as well as the real-time sensor data stream within such a system. Some optimisations are proposed and their influence on real-time performance was investigated. The proposed methodology is intended for acquisition and control of mechatronic systems, especially mobile robots. It can be used in a wide range of control applications as well as embedded acquisition-recording devices, including energy quality measurements, smart-grids and medicine. It is demonstrated that the proposed methodology can be employed without developing specific device drivers. The latency achieved was less than 0.5 ms and the sensor data stream throughput was on the order of 750 KB/s (compared to 3 ms latency and 300 KB/s in traditional solutions). PMID:24351633

  12. P-band Radar Retrieval of Root-Zone Soil Moisture: AirMOSS Methodology, Progress, and Improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghaddam, M.; Tabatabaeenejad, A.; Chen, R.

    2015-12-01

    The AirMOSS mission seeks to improve the estimates of the North American Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE)by providing high-resolution observations of the root zone soil moisture (RZSM) over regions representative of themajor North American biomes. The radar snapshots are used to generate estimates of RZSM. To retrieve RZSM, weuse a discrete scattering model integrated with layered-soil scattering models. The soil moisture profile is representedas a quadratic function in the form of az2 + bz + c, where z is the depth and a, b, and c are the coefficients to beretrieved. The ancillary data necessary to characterize a pixel are available from various databases. We applythe retrieval method to the radar data acquired over AirMOSS sites including Canada's BERMS, Walnut Gulchin Arizona, MOISST in Oklahoma, Tonzi Ranch in California, and Metolius in Oregon, USA. The estimated soilmoisture profile is validated against in-situ soil moisture measurements. We have continued to improve the accuracyof retrievals as the delivery of the RZSMproducts has progressed since 2012. For example, the 'threshold depth' (thedepth up to which the retrieval is mathematically valid) has been reduced from 100 cm to 50 cm after the retrievalaccuracy was assessed both mathematically and physically. Moreover, we progressively change the implementationof the inversion code and its subroutines as we find more accurate and efficient ways of mathematical operations. Thelatest AirMOSS results (including soil moisture maps, validation plots, and scatter plots) as well as all improvementsapplied to the retrieval algorithm, including the one mentioned above, will be reported at the talk, following a briefdescription of the retrieval methodology. Fig. 1 shows a validation plot for a flight over Tonzi Ranch from September2014 (a) and a scatter plot for various threshold depths using 2012 and 2013 data.

  13. Meta-Design. An Approach to the Development of Design Methodologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    subject to the constraints. The KKT conditions are necessary conditions for a particular value X* for the vector of design variables X, to be a... optimization problem a second time. We start by applying the requirement that optimality is to be maintained, so we must also satisfy the third KKT condition ... optimal solution to this problem must satisfy the third KKT condition : afl/’cl + X .g/Dcl = 2(cl/10 - 1)(1/10) + X1 = 0. Then X1 = (1/5)(1 - cl/10

  14. Novel DPT methodology co-optimized with design rules for sub-20nm device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyun-Jong; Choi, Soo-Han; Yang, Jae-Seok; Chun, Kwan-Young; Do, Jeong-ho; Park, Chul-Hong

    2012-11-01

    Because extreme ultra violet (EUV) lithography is not ready due to technical challenges and low throughput, we are facing severe limitation for sub-20nm node patterning even though the extreme resolution enhancement technology (RET) such as the off-axis illumination and computational lithography have been used to achieve enough process window and critical dimension uniformity (CDU). As an alternative solution, double patterning technology (DPT) becomes the essential patterning scheme for the sub-20nm technology node. DPT requires the complex design rules because DPT rules need to consider layout decomposability into two masks. In order to improve CDU and to achieve both design rule simplicity and better designability, we propose two kinds of layout decomposition methodologies in this paper; 1) new mandrel decomposition of the Fin generation for better uniformity, 2) chip-level decomposition and colorless design rule of the contact to improve the scalability. Co-optimized design rules, decomposition method and process requirement enable us to obtain about 6% scaling benefits by comparison with normal DPT flow. These DPT approaches provide benefits for both process and design.

  15. Proposal of a methodology for the design of offshore wind farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteban, Dolores; Diez, J. Javier; Santos Lopez, J.; Negro, Vicente

    2010-05-01

    In fact, the wind power installed in the sea is still very scarce, with only 1,500 megawatts in operation in the middle of 2009. Although the first offshore wind farm experiment took place in 1990, the facilities built up to now have been mainly pilot projects. These previous statements confirm the incipient state of offshore wind power, Anyway, in this moment this technology is being strongly pushed, especially by the governments of some countries - like the United Kingdom, Germany, etc. - which is due above all to the general commitments made to reduce the emission of greenhouses gases. All of these factors lead to predict a promising future for offshore wind power. Nevertheless, it has not been still established a general methodology for the design and the management of this kind of installations. This paper includes some of the results of a research project, which consists on the elaboration of a methodology to enable the optimization of the global process of the operations leading to the implantation of offshore wind facilities. The proposed methodology allows the planning of offshore wind projects according to an integral management policy, enabling not only technical and financial feasibility of the offshore wind project to be achieved, but also respect for the environment. For that, it has been necessary to take into account multiple factors, including the territory, the terrain, the physical-chemical properties of the contact area between the atmosphere and the ocean, the dynamics resulting in both as a consequence of the Earth's behaviour as a heat machine, external geodynamics, internal geodynamics, planetary dynamics, biokenosis, the legislative and financial framework, human activities, wind turbines, met masts, electric substations and lines, foundations, logistics and the project's financial profitability. For its validation, this methodology has been applied to different offshore wind farms in operation.

  16. The Study of the Relationship between Probabilistic Design and Axiomatic Design Methodology. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onwubiko, Chin-Yere; Onyebueke, Landon

    1996-01-01

    Structural failure is rarely a "sudden death" type of event, such sudden failures may occur only under abnormal loadings like bomb or gas explosions and very strong earthquakes. In most cases, structures fail due to damage accumulated under normal loadings such as wind loads, dead and live loads. The consequence of cumulative damage will affect the reliability of surviving components and finally causes collapse of the system. The cumulative damage effects on system reliability under time-invariant loadings are of practical interest in structural design and therefore will be investigated in this study. The scope of this study is, however, restricted to the consideration of damage accumulation as the increase in the number of failed components due to the violation of their strength limits.

  17. Application of Adjoint Methodology to Supersonic Aircraft Design Using Reversed Equivalent Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rallabhandi, Sriram K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to shape an aircraft to equivalent area based objectives using the discrete adjoint approach. Equivalent areas can be obtained either using reversed augmented Burgers equation or direct conversion of off-body pressures into equivalent area. Formal coupling with CFD allows computation of sensitivities of equivalent area objectives with respect to aircraft shape parameters. The exactness of the adjoint sensitivities is verified against derivatives obtained using the complex step approach. This methodology has the benefit of using designer-friendly equivalent areas in the shape design of low-boom aircraft. Shape optimization results with equivalent area cost functionals are discussed and further refined using ground loudness based objectives.

  18. A hybrid design methodology for structuring an Integrated Environmental Management System (IEMS) for shipping business.

    PubMed

    Celik, Metin

    2009-03-01

    The International Safety Management (ISM) Code defines a broad framework for the safe management and operation of merchant ships, maintaining high standards of safety and environmental protection. On the other hand, ISO 14001:2004 provides a generic, worldwide environmental management standard that has been utilized by several industries. Both the ISM Code and ISO 14001:2004 have the practical goal of establishing a sustainable Integrated Environmental Management System (IEMS) for shipping businesses. This paper presents a hybrid design methodology that shows how requirements from both standards can be combined into a single execution scheme. Specifically, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Fuzzy Axiomatic Design (FAD) are used to structure an IEMS for ship management companies. This research provides decision aid to maritime executives in order to enhance the environmental performance in the shipping industry.

  19. Piloted Evaluation of an Integrated Methodology for Propulsion and Airframe Control Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bright, Michelle M.; Simon, Donald L.; Garg, Sanjay; Mattern, Duane L.; Ranaudo, Richard J.; Odonoghue, Dennis P.

    1994-01-01

    An integrated methodology for propulsion and airframe control has been developed and evaluated for a Short Take-Off Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircraft using a fixed base flight simulator at NASA Lewis Research Center. For this evaluation the flight simulator is configured for transition flight using a STOVL aircraft model, a full nonlinear turbofan engine model, simulated cockpit and displays, and pilot effectors. The paper provides a brief description of the simulation models, the flight simulation environment, the displays and symbology, the integrated control design, and the piloted tasks used for control design evaluation. In the simulation, the pilots successfully completed typical transition phase tasks such as combined constant deceleration with flight path tracking, and constant acceleration wave-off maneuvers. The pilot comments of the integrated system performance and the display symbology are discussed and analyzed to identify potential areas of improvement.

  20. Application of Adjoint Methodology in Various Aspects of Sonic Boom Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rallabhandi, Sriram K.

    2014-01-01

    One of the advances in computational design has been the development of adjoint methods allowing efficient calculation of sensitivities in gradient-based shape optimization. This paper discusses two new applications of adjoint methodology that have been developed to aid in sonic boom mitigation exercises. In the first, equivalent area targets are generated using adjoint sensitivities of selected boom metrics. These targets may then be used to drive the vehicle shape during optimization. The second application is the computation of adjoint sensitivities of boom metrics on the ground with respect to parameters such as flight conditions, propagation sampling rate, and selected inputs to the propagation algorithms. These sensitivities enable the designer to make more informed selections of flight conditions at which the chosen cost functionals are less sensitive.

  1. Human factors analysis and design methods for nuclear waste retrieval systems. Human factors design methodology and integration plan

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, S.M.

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an overview of the recommended activities and methods to be employed by a team of human factors engineers during the development of a nuclear waste retrieval system. This system, as it is presently conceptualized, is intended to be used for the removal of storage canisters (each canister containing a spent fuel rod assembly) located in an underground salt bed depository. This document, and the others in this series, have been developed for the purpose of implementing human factors engineering principles during the design and construction of the retrieval system facilities and equipment. The methodology presented has been structured around a basic systems development effort involving preliminary development, equipment development, personnel subsystem development, and operational test and evaluation. Within each of these phases, the recommended activities of the human engineering team have been stated, along with descriptions of the human factors engineering design techniques applicable to the specific design issues. Explicit examples of how the techniques might be used in the analysis of human tasks and equipment required in the removal of spent fuel canisters have been provided. Only those techniques having possible relevance to the design of the waste retrieval system have been reviewed. This document is intended to provide the framework for integrating human engineering with the rest of the system development effort. The activities and methodologies reviewed in this document have been discussed in the general order in which they will occur, although the time frame (the total duration of the development program in years and months) in which they should be performed has not been discussed.

  2. Methodology for Sensitivity Analysis, Approximate Analysis, and Design Optimization in CFD for Multidisciplinary Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Arthur C., III; Hou, Gene W.

    1996-01-01

    An incremental iterative formulation together with the well-known spatially split approximate-factorization algorithm, is presented for solving the large, sparse systems of linear equations that are associated with aerodynamic sensitivity analysis. This formulation is also known as the 'delta' or 'correction' form. For the smaller two dimensional problems, a direct method can be applied to solve these linear equations in either the standard or the incremental form, in which case the two are equivalent. However, iterative methods are needed for larger two-dimensional and three dimensional applications because direct methods require more computer memory than is currently available. Iterative methods for solving these equations in the standard form are generally unsatisfactory due to an ill-conditioned coefficient matrix; this problem is overcome when these equations are cast in the incremental form. The methodology is successfully implemented and tested using an upwind cell-centered finite-volume formulation applied in two dimensions to the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations for external flow over an airfoil. In three dimensions this methodology is demonstrated with a marching-solution algorithm for the Euler equations to calculate supersonic flow over the High-Speed Civil Transport configuration (HSCT 24E). The sensitivity derivatives obtained with the incremental iterative method from a marching Euler code are used in a design-improvement study of the HSCT configuration that involves thickness. camber, and planform design variables.

  3. Assessment of current structural design methodology for high-temperature reactors based on failure tests

    SciTech Connect

    Corum, J.M.; Sartory, W.K.

    1985-01-01

    A mature design methodology, consisting of inelastic analysis methods, provided in Department of Energy guidelines, and failure criteria, contained in ASME Code Case N-47, exists in the United States for high-temperature reactor components. The objective of this paper is to assess the adequacy of this overall methodology by comparing predicted inelastic deformations and lifetimes with observed results from structural failure tests and from an actual service failure. Comparisons are presented for three types of structural situations: (1) nozzle-to-spherical shell specimens, where stresses at structural discontinuities lead to cracking, (2) welded structures, where metallurgical discontinuities play a key role in failures, and (3) thermal shock loadings of cylinders and pipes, where thermal discontinuities can lead to failure. The comparison between predicted and measured inelastic responses are generally reasonalbly good; quantities are sometimes overpredicted somewhat, and, sometimes underpredicted. However, even seemingly small discrepancies can have a significant effect on structural life, and lifetimes are not always as closely predicted. For a few cases, the lifetimes are substantially overpredicted, which raises questions regarding the adequacy of existing design margins.

  4. Integrated active and passive control design methodology for the LaRC CSI evolutionary model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voth, Christopher T.; Richards, Kenneth E., Jr.; Schmitz, Eric; Gehling, Russel N.; Morgenthaler, Daniel R.

    1994-01-01

    A general design methodology to integrate active control with passive damping was demonstrated on the NASA LaRC CSI Evolutionary Model (CEM), a ground testbed for future large, flexible spacecraft. Vibration suppression controllers designed for Line-of Sight (LOS) minimization were successfully implemented on the CEM. A frequency-shaped H2 methodology was developed, allowing the designer to specify the roll-off of the MIMO compensator. A closed loop bandwidth of 4 Hz, including the six rigid body modes and the first three dominant elastic modes of the CEM was achieved. Good agreement was demonstrated between experimental data and analytical predictions for the closed loop frequency response and random tests. Using the Modal Strain Energy (MSE) method, a passive damping treatment consisting of 60 viscoelastically damped struts was designed, fabricated and implemented on the CEM. Damping levels for the targeted modes were more than an order of magnitude larger than for the undamped structure. Using measured loss and stiffness data for the individual damped struts, analytical predictions of the damping levels were very close to the experimental values in the (1-10) Hz frequency range where the open loop model matched the experimental data. An integrated active/passive controller was successfully implemented on the CEM and was evaluated against an active-only controller. A two-fold increase in the effective control bandwidth and further reductions of 30 percent to 50 percent in the LOS RMS outputs were achieved compared to an active-only controller. Superior performance was also obtained compared to a High-Authority/Low-Authority (HAC/LAC) controller.

  5. Modeling and Design Analysis Methodology for Tailoring of Aircraft Structures with Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rehfield, Lawrence W.

    2004-01-01

    Composite materials provide design flexibility in that fiber placement and orientation can be specified and a variety of material forms and manufacturing processes are available. It is possible, therefore, to 'tailor' the structure to a high degree in order to meet specific design requirements in an optimum manner. Common industrial practices, however, have limited the choices designers make. One of the reasons for this is that there is a dearth of conceptual/preliminary design analysis tools specifically devoted to identifying structural concepts for composite airframe structures. Large scale finite element simulations are not suitable for such purposes. The present project has been devoted to creating modeling and design analysis methodology for use in the tailoring process of aircraft structures. Emphasis has been given to creating bend-twist elastic coupling in high aspect ratio wings or other lifting surfaces. The direction of our work was in concert with the overall NASA effort Twenty- First Century Aircraft Technology (TCAT). A multi-disciplinary team was assembled by Dr. Damodar Ambur to work on wing technology, which included our project.

  6. A robust rotorcraft flight control system design methodology utilizing quantitative feedback theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorder, Peter James

    1993-01-01

    Rotorcraft flight control systems present design challenges which often exceed those associated with fixed-wing aircraft. First, large variations in the response characteristics of the rotorcraft result from the wide range of airspeeds of typical operation (hover to over 100 kts). Second, the assumption of vehicle rigidity often employed in the design of fixed-wing flight control systems is rarely justified in rotorcraft where rotor degrees of freedom can have a significant impact on the system performance and stability. This research was intended to develop a methodology for the design of robust rotorcraft flight control systems. Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) was chosen as the basis for the investigation. Quantitative Feedback Theory is a technique which accounts for variability in the dynamic response of the controlled element in the design robust control systems. It was developed to address a Multiple-Input Single-Output (MISO) design problem, and utilizes two degrees of freedom to satisfy the design criteria. Two techniques were examined for extending the QFT MISO technique to the design of a Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) flight control system (FCS) for a UH-60 Black Hawk Helicopter. In the first, a set of MISO systems, mathematically equivalent to the MIMO system, was determined. QFT was applied to each member of the set simultaneously. In the second, the same set of equivalent MISO systems were analyzed sequentially, with closed loop response information from each loop utilized in subsequent MISO designs. The results of each technique were compared, and the advantages of the second, termed Sequential Loop Closure, were clearly evident.

  7. Integrated controls-structures design methodology development for a class of flexible spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maghami, P. G.; Joshi, S. M.; Walz, J. E.; Armstrong, E. S.

    1990-01-01

    Future utilization of space will require large space structures in low-Earth and geostationary orbits. Example missions include: Earth observation systems, personal communication systems, space science missions, space processing facilities, etc., requiring large antennas, platforms, and solar arrays. The dimensions of such structures will range from a few meters to possibly hundreds of meters. For reducing the cost of construction, launching, and operating (e.g., energy required for reboosting and control), it will be necessary to make the structure as light as possible. However, reducing structural mass tends to increase the flexibility which would make it more difficult to control with the specified precision in attitude and shape. Therefore, there is a need to develop a methodology for designing space structures which are optimal with respect to both structural design and control design. In the current spacecraft design practice, it is customary to first perform the structural design and then the controller design. However, the structural design and the control design problems are substantially coupled and must be considered concurrently in order to obtain a truly optimal spacecraft design. For example, let C denote the set of the 'control' design variables (e.g., controller gains), and L the set of the 'structural' design variables (e.g., member sizes). If a structural member thickness is changed, the dynamics would change which would then change the control law and the actuator mass. That would, in turn, change the structural model. Thus, the sets C and L depend on each other. Future space structures can be roughly divided into four mission classes. Class 1 missions include flexible spacecraft with no articulated appendages which require fine attitude pointing and vibration suppression (e.g., large space antennas). Class 2 missions consist of flexible spacecraft with articulated multiple payloads, where the requirement is to fine-point the spacecraft and each

  8. Experimental Validation of an Electromagnet Thermal Design Methodology for Magnetized Dusty Plasma Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birmingham, W. J.; Bates, E. M.; Romero-Talamás, C. A.; Rivera, W. F.

    2016-10-01

    An analytic thermal design method developed to aid in the engineering design of Bitter-type magnets, as well as finite element calculations of heat transfer, are compared against experimental measurements of temperature evolution in a prototype magnet designed to operate continuously at 1 T fields while dissipating 9 kW of heat. The analytic thermal design method is used to explore a variety of configurations of cooling holes in the Bitter plates, including their geometry and radial placement. The prototype has diagnostic ports that can accommodate thermocouples, pressure sensors, and optical access to measure the water flow. We present temperature and pressure sensor data from the prototype compared to the analytic thermal model and finite element calculations. The data is being used to guide the design of a 10 T Bitter magnet capable of sustained fields of up to 10 T for at least 10 seconds, which will be used in dusty plasma experiments at the University of Maryland Baltimore County. Preliminary design plans and progress towards the construction of the 10 T electromagnet are also presented.

  9. Development of a design methodology for pipelines in ice scoured seabeds

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.I.; Paulin, M.J.; Lach, P.R.; Yang, Q.S.; Poorooshasb, H.

    1994-12-31

    Large areas of the continental shelf of northern oceans are frequently scoured or gouged by moving bodies of ice such as icebergs and sea ice keels associated with pressure ridges. This phenomenon presents a formidable challenge when the route of a submarine pipeline is intersected by the scouring ice. It is generally acknowledged that if a pipeline, laid on the seabed, were hit by an iceberg or a pressure ridge keel, the forces imposed on the pipeline would be much greater than it could practically withstand. The pipeline must therefore be buried to avoid direct contact with ice, but it is very important to determine with some assurance the minimum depth required for safety for both economical and environmental reasons. The safe burial depth of a pipeline, however, cannot be determined directly from the relatively straight forward measurement of maximum scour depth. The major design consideration is the determination of the potential sub-scour deformation of the ice scoured soil. Forces transmitted through the soil and soil displacement around the pipeline could load the pipeline to failure if not taken into account in the design. If the designer can predict the forces transmitted through the soil, the pipeline can be designed to withstand these external forces using conventional design practice. In this paper, the authors outline a design methodology that is based on phenomenological studies of ice scoured terrain, both modern and relict, laboratory tests, centrifuge modeling, and numerical analysis. The implications of these studies, which could assist in the safe and economical design of pipelines in ice scoured terrain, will also be discussed.

  10. A Test Methodology for Determining Space-Readiness of Xilinx SRAM-Based FPGA Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Heather M; Graham, Paul S; Morgan, Keith S; Caffrey, Michael P

    2008-01-01

    Using reconfigurable, static random-access memory (SRAM) based field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) for space-based computation has been an exciting area of research for the past decade. Since both the circuit and the circuit's state is stored in radiation-tolerant memory, both could be alterd by the harsh space radiation environment. Both the circuit and the circuit's state can be prote cted by triple-moduler redundancy (TMR), but applying TMR to FPGA user designs is often an error-prone process. Faulty application of TMR could cause the FPGA user circuit to output incorrect data. This paper will describe a three-tiered methodology for testing FPGA user designs for space-readiness. We will describe the standard approach to testing FPGA user designs using a particle accelerator, as well as two methods using fault injection and a modeling tool. While accelerator testing is the current 'gold standard' for pre-launch testing, we believe the use of fault injection and modeling tools allows for easy, cheap and uniform access for discovering errors early in the design process.

  11. Formal Learning Sequences and Progression in the Studio: A Framework for Digital Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wärnestål, Pontus

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how to leverage the design studio learning environment throughout long-term Digital Design education in order to support students to progress from tactical, well-defined, device-centric routine design, to confidently design sustainable solutions for strategic, complex, problems for a wide range of devices and platforms in the…

  12. Development of a decision-making methodology to design a water quality monitoring network.

    PubMed

    Keum, Jongho; Kaluarachchi, Jagath J

    2015-07-01

    The number of water quality monitoring stations in the USA has decreased over the past few decades. Scarcity of observations can easily produce prediction uncertainty due to unreliable model calibration. An effective water quality monitoring network is important not only for model calibration and water quality prediction but also for resources management. Redundant or improperly located monitoring stations may cause increased monitoring costs without improvement to the understanding of water quality in watersheds. In this work, a decision-making methodology is proposed to design a water quality monitoring network by providing an adequate number of monitoring stations and their approximate locations at the eight-digit hydrologic unit codes (HUC8) scale. The proposed methodology is demonstrated for an example at the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB), where salinity is a serious concern. The level of monitoring redundancy or scarcity is defined by an index, station ratio (SR), which represents a monitoring density based on water quality load originated within a subbasin. By comparing the number of stations from a selected target SR with the available number of stations including the actual and the potential stations, the suggested number of stations in each subbasin was decided. If monitoring stations are primarily located in the low salinity loading subbasins, the average actual SR tends to increase, and vice versa. Results indicate that the spatial distribution of monitoring locations in 2011 is concentrated on low salinity loading subbasins, and therefore, additional monitoring is required for the high salinity loading subbasins. The proposed methodology shows that the SR is a simple and a practical indicator for monitoring density.

  13. A probabilistic methodology for radar cross section prediction in conceptual aircraft design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hines, Nathan Robert

    System effectiveness has increasingly become the prime metric for the evaluation of military aircraft. As such, it is the decision maker's/designer's goal to maximize system effectiveness. Industry and government research documents indicate that all future military aircraft will incorporate signature reduction as an attempt to improve system effectiveness and reduce the cost of attrition. Today's operating environments demand low observable aircraft which are able to reliably take out valuable, time critical targets. Thus it is desirable to be able to design vehicles that are balanced for increased effectiveness. Previous studies have shown that shaping of the vehicle is one of the most important contributors to radar cross section, a measure of radar signature, and must be considered from the very beginning of the design process. Radar cross section estimation should be incorporated into conceptual design to develop more capable systems. This research strives to meet these needs by developing a conceptual design tool that predicts radar cross section for parametric geometries. This tool predicts the absolute radar cross section of the vehicle as well as the impact of geometry changes, allowing for the simultaneous tradeoff of the aerodynamic, performance, and cost characteristics of the vehicle with the radar cross section. Furthermore, this tool can be linked to a campaign theater analysis code to demonstrate the changes in system and system of system effectiveness due to changes in aircraft geometry. A general methodology was developed and implemented and sample computer codes applied to prototype the proposed process. Studies utilizing this radar cross section tool were subsequently performed to demonstrate the capabilities of this method and show the impact that various inputs have on the outputs of these models. The F/A-18 aircraft configuration was chosen as a case study vehicle to perform a design space exercise and to investigate the relative impact of

  14. Assessment of an effective quasirelativistic methodology designed to study astatine chemistry in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Champion, Julie; Seydou, Mahamadou; Sabatié-Gogova, Andrea; Renault, Eric; Montavon, Gilles; Galland, Nicolas

    2011-09-07

    A cost-effective computational methodology designed to study astatine (At) chemistry in aqueous solution has been established. It is based on two-component spin-orbit density functional theory calculations and solvation calculations using the conductor-like polarizable continuum model in conjunction with specific astatine cavities. Theoretical calculations are confronted with experimental data measured for complexation reactions between metallic forms of astatine (At(+) and AtO(+)) and inorganic ligands (Cl(-), Br(-) and SCN(-)). For each reaction, both 1:1 and 1:2 complexes are evidenced. The experimental trends regarding the thermodynamic constants (K) can be reproduced qualitatively and quantitatively. The mean signed error on computed Log K values is -0.4, which corresponds to a mean signed error smaller than 1 kcal mol(-1) on free energies of reaction. Theoretical investigations show that the reactivity of cationic species of astatine is highly sensitive to spin-orbit coupling and solvent effects. At the moment, the presented computational methodology appears to be the only tool to gain an insight into astatine chemistry at a molecular level.

  15. Design of a strong cation exchange methodology for the evaluation of charge heterogeneity in glatiramer acetate.

    PubMed

    Campos-García, Víctor R; López-Morales, Carlos A; Benites-Zaragoza, Eleuterio; Jiménez-Miranda, Armando; Espinosa-de la Garza, Carlos E; Herrera-Fernández, Daniel; Padilla-Calderón, Jesús; Pérez, Néstor O; Flores-Ortiz, Luis F; Medina-Rivero, E

    2017-01-05

    Complex pharmaceuticals are in demand of competent analytical methods able to analyze charge heterogeneity as a critical quality attribute (CQA), in compliance with current regulatory expectations. A notorious example is glatiramer acetate (GA), a complex polypeptide mixture useful for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. This pharmaceutical challenges the current state of analytical technology in terms of the capacity to study their constituent species. Thus, a strong cation exchange methodology was designed under the lifecycle approach to support the establishment of GA identity, trough the evaluation of its chromatographic profile, which acts as a charge heterogeneity fingerprint. In this regard, a maximum relative margin of error of 5% for relative retention time and symmetry factor were proposed for the analytical target profile. The methodology met the proposed requirements after precision and specificity tests results, the former comprised of sensitivity and selectivity. Subsequently, method validation was conducted and showed that the method is able to differentiate between intact GA and heterogeneity profiles coming from stressed, fractioned or process-modified samples. In summary, these results provide evidence that the method is adequate to assess charge heterogeneity as a CQA of this complex pharmaceutical.

  16. Use of a qualitative methodological scaffolding process to design robust interprofessional studies.

    PubMed

    Wener, Pamela; Woodgate, Roberta L

    2013-07-01

    Increasingly, researchers are using qualitative methodology to study interprofessional collaboration (IPC). With this increase in use, there seems to be an appreciation for how qualitative studies allow us to understand the unique individual or group experience in more detail and form a basis for policy change and innovative interventions. Furthermore, there is an increased understanding of the potential of studying new or emerging phenomena qualitatively to inform further large-scale studies. Although there is a current trend toward greater acceptance of the value of qualitative studies describing the experiences of IPC, these studies are mostly descriptive in nature. Applying a process suggested by Crotty (1998) may encourage researchers to consider the value in situating research questions within a broader theoretical framework that will inform the overall research approach including methodology and methods. This paper describes the application of a process to a research project and then illustrates how this process encouraged iterative cycles of thinking and doing. The authors describe each step of the process, shares decision-making points, as well as suggests an additional step to the process. Applying this approach to selecting data collection methods may serve to guide and support the qualitative researcher in creating a well-designed study approach.

  17. A methodology for the efficient integration of transient constraints in the design of aircraft dynamic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, Leon L.

    The motivation behind this thesis mainly stems from previous work performed at Hispano-Suiza (Safran Group) in the context of the European research project "Power Optimised Aircraft". Extensive testing on the COPPER Bird RTM, a test rig designed to characterize aircraft electrical networks, demonstrated the relevance of transient regimes in the design and development of dynamic systems. Transient regimes experienced by dynamic systems may have severe impacts on the operation of the aircraft. For example, the switching on of a high electrical load might cause a network voltage drop inducing a loss of power available to critical aircraft systems. These transient behaviors are thus often regulated by dynamic constraints, requiring the dynamic signals to remain within bounds whose values vary with time. The verification of these peculiar types of constraints, which generally requires high-fidelity time-domain simulation, intervenes late in the system development process, thus potentially causing costly design iterations. The research objective of this thesis is to develop a methodology that integrates the verification of dynamic constraints in the early specification of dynamic systems. In order to circumvent the inefficiencies of time-domain simulation, multivariate dynamic surrogate models of the original time-domain simulation models are generated, building on a nonlinear system identification technique using wavelet neural networks (or wavenets), which allow the multiscale nature of transient signals to be captured. However, training multivariate wavenets can become computationally prohibitive as the number of design variables increases. Therefore, an alternate approach is formulated, in which dynamic surrogate models using sigmoid-based neural networks are used to emulate the transient behavior of the envelopes of the time-domain response. Thus, in order to train the neural network, the envelopes are extracted by first separating the scales of the dynamic response

  18. Human factors analysis and design methods for nuclear waste retrieval systems: Human factors design methodology and integration plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, S. M.

    1980-06-01

    The nuclear waste retrieval system intended to be used for the removal of storage canisters (each canister containing a spent fuel rod assembly) located in an underground salt bed depository is discussed. The implementation of human factors engineering principles during the design and construction of the retrieval system facilities and equipment is reported. The methodology is structured around a basic system development effort involving preliminary development, equipment development, personnel subsystem development, and operational test and evaluation. Examples of application of the techniques in the analysis of human tasks, and equipment required in the removal of spent fuel canisters is provided. The framework for integrating human engineering with the rest of the system development effort is documented.

  19. Mixed culture optimization for marigold flower ensilage via experimental design and response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Navarrete-Bolaños, José Luis; Jiménez-Islas, Hugo; Botello-Alvarez, Enrique; Rico-Martínez, Ramiro

    2003-04-09

    Endogenous microorganisms isolated from the marigold flower (Tagetes erecta) were studied to understand the events taking place during its ensilage. Studies of the cellulase enzymatic activity and the ensilage process were undertaken. In both studies, the use of approximate second-order models and multiple lineal regression, within the context of an experimental mixture design using the response surface methodology as optimization strategy, determined that the microorganisms Flavobacterium IIb, Acinetobacter anitratus, and Rhizopus nigricans are the most significant in marigold flower ensilage and exhibit high cellulase activity. A mixed culture comprised of 9.8% Flavobacterium IIb, 41% A. anitratus, and 49.2% R. nigricans used during ensilage resulted in an increased yield of total xanthophylls extracted of 24.94 g/kg of dry weight compared with 12.92 for the uninoculated control ensilage.

  20. Analog design optimization methodology for ultralow-power circuits using intuitive inversion-level and saturation-level parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eimori, Takahisa; Anami, Kenji; Yoshimatsu, Norifumi; Hasebe, Tetsuya; Murakami, Kazuaki

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive design optimization methodology using intuitive nondimensional parameters of inversion-level and saturation-level is proposed, especially for ultralow-power, low-voltage, and high-performance analog circuits with mixed strong, moderate, and weak inversion metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor (MOST) operations. This methodology is based on the synthesized charge-based MOST model composed of Enz-Krummenacher-Vittoz (EKV) basic concepts and advanced-compact-model (ACM) physics-based equations. The key concept of this methodology is that all circuit and system characteristics are described as some multivariate functions of inversion-level parameters, where the inversion level is used as an independent variable representative of each MOST. The analog circuit design starts from the first step of inversion-level design using universal characteristics expressed by circuit currents and inversion-level parameters without process-dependent parameters, followed by the second step of foundry-process-dependent design and the last step of verification using saturation-level criteria. This methodology also paves the way to an intuitive and comprehensive design approach for many kinds of analog circuit specifications by optimization using inversion-level log-scale diagrams and saturation-level criteria. In this paper, we introduce an example of our design methodology for a two-stage Miller amplifier.

  1. Design methodology accounting for fabrication errors in manufactured modified Fresnel lenses for controlled LED illumination.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jongmyeong; Kim, Joongeok; Lee, Jinhyung; Park, Changsu; Cho, Eikhyun; Kang, Shinill

    2015-07-27

    The increasing demand for lightweight, miniaturized electronic devices has prompted the development of small, high-performance optical components for light-emitting diode (LED) illumination. As such, the Fresnel lens is widely used in applications due to its compact configuration. However, the vertical groove angle between the optical axis and the groove inner facets in a conventional Fresnel lens creates an inherent Fresnel loss, which degrades optical performance. Modified Fresnel lenses (MFLs) have been proposed in which the groove angles along the optical paths are carefully controlled; however, in practice, the optical performance of MFLs is inferior to the theoretical performance due to fabrication errors, as conventional design methods do not account for fabrication errors as part of the design process. In this study, the Fresnel loss and the loss area due to microscopic fabrication errors in the MFL were theoretically derived to determine optical performance. Based on this analysis, a design method for the MFL accounting for the fabrication errors was proposed. MFLs were fabricated using an ultraviolet imprinting process and an injection molding process, two representative processes with differing fabrication errors. The MFL fabrication error associated with each process was examined analytically and experimentally to investigate our methodology.

  2. Designing reasonable accommodation of the workplace: a new methodology based on risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Pigini, L; Andrich, R; Liverani, G; Bucciarelli, P; Occhipinti, E

    2010-05-01

    If working tasks are carried out in inadequate conditions, workers with functional limitations may, over time, risk developing further disabilities. While several validated risk assessment methods exist for able-bodied workers, few studies have been carried out for workers with disabilities. This article, which reports the findings of a Study funded by the Italian Ministry of Labour, proposes a general methodology for the technical and organisational re-design of a worksite, based on risk assessment and irrespective of any worker disability. To this end, a sample of 16 disabled workers, composed of people with either mild or severe motor disabilities, was recruited. Their jobs include business administration (5), computer programmer (1), housewife (1), mechanical worker (2), textile worker (1), bus driver (1), nurse (2), electrical worker (1), teacher (1), warehouseman (1). By using a mix of risk assessment methods and the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) taxonomy, their worksites were re-designed in view of a reasonable accommodation, and prospective evaluation was carried out to check whether the new design would eliminate the risks. In one case - a man with congenital malformations who works as a help-desk operator for technical assistance in the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) department of a big organisation - the accommodation was actually carried out within the time span of the study, thus making it possible to confirm the hypotheses raised in the prospective assessment.

  3. [Principles and methodology for ecological rehabilitation and security pattern design in key project construction].

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Ding; Lu, Yi-He; Tian, Hui-Ying; Shi, Qian

    2007-03-01

    Global ecological security becomes increasingly important with the intensive human activities. The function of ecological security is influenced by human activities, and in return, the efficiency of human activities will also be affected by the patterns of regional ecological security. Since the 1990s, China has initiated the construction of key projects "Yangtze Three Gorges Dam", "Qinghai-Tibet Railway", "West-to-East Gas Pipeline", "West-to-East Electricity Transmission" and "South-to-North Water Transfer" , etc. The interaction between these projects and regional ecological security has particularly attracted the attention of Chinese government. It is not only important for the regional environmental protection, but also of significance for the smoothly implementation of various projects aimed to develop an ecological rehabilitation system and to design a regional ecological security pattern. This paper made a systematic analysis on the types and characteristics of key project construction and their effects on the environment, and on the basis of this, brought forward the basic principles and methodology for ecological rehabilitation and security pattern design in this construction. It was considered that the following issues should be addressed in the implementation of a key project: 1) analysis and evaluation of current regional ecological environment, 2) evaluation of anthropogenic disturbances and their ecological risk, 3) regional ecological rehabilitation and security pattern design, 4) scenario analysis of environmental benefits of regional ecological security pattern, 5) re-optimization of regional ecological system framework, and 6) establishment of regional ecosystem management plan.

  4. Robust design of spot welds in automotive structures: A decision-making methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouisse, M.; Cogan, S.

    2010-05-01

    Automotive structures include thousands of spot welds whose design must allow the assembled vehicle to satisfy a wide variety of performance constraints including static, dynamic and crash criteria. The objective of a standard optimization strategy is to reduce the number of spot welds as much as possible while satisfying all the design objectives. However, a classical optimization of the spot weld distribution using an exhaustive search approach is simply not feasible due to the very high order of the design space and the subsequently prohibitive calculation costs. Moreover, even if this calculation could be done, the result would not necessarily be very informative with respect to the design robustness to manufacturing uncertainties (location of welds and defective welds) and to the degradation of spot welds due to fatigue effects over the lifetime of the vehicle. In this paper, a decision-making methodology is presented which allows some aspects of the robustness issues to be integrated into the spot weld design process. The starting point is a given distribution of spot welds on the structure, which is based on both engineering know-how and preliminary critical numerical results, in particular criteria such as crash behavior. An over-populated spot weld distribution is then built in order to satisfy the remaining design criteria, such as static torsion angle and modal behavior. Then, an efficient optimization procedure based on energy considerations is used to eliminate redundant spot welds while preserving as far as possible the nominal structural behavior. The resulting sub-optimal solution is then used to provide a decision indicator for defining effective quality control procedures (e.g. visual post-assembly inspection of a small number of critical spot welds) as well as designing redundancy into critical zones. The final part of the paper is related to comparing the robustness of competing designs. Some decision-making indicators are presented to help the

  5. Teaching Mathematical Modelling in a Design Context: A Methodology Based on the Mechanical Analysis of a Domestic Cancrusher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, Sydney

    2000-01-01

    Presents a methodology for teaching mathematical modeling skills to A-level students. Gives an example illustrating how mathematics teachers and design teachers can take joint perspective in devising learning opportunities that develop mathematical and design skills concurrently. (Contains 14 references.) (Author/ASK)

  6. A game-based decision support methodology for competitive systems design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briceno, Simon Ignacio

    This dissertation describes the development of a game-based methodology that facilitates the exploration and selection of research and development (R&D) projects under uncertain competitive scenarios. The proposed method provides an approach that analyzes competitor positioning and formulates response strategies to forecast the impact of technical design choices on a project's market performance. A critical decision in the conceptual design phase of propulsion systems is the selection of the best architecture, centerline, core size, and technology portfolio. This selection can be challenging when considering evolving requirements from both the airframe manufacturing company and the airlines in the market. Furthermore, the exceedingly high cost of core architecture development and its associated risk makes this strategic architecture decision the most important one for an engine company. Traditional conceptual design processes emphasize performance and affordability as their main objectives. These areas alone however, do not provide decision-makers with enough information as to how successful their engine will be in a competitive market. A key objective of this research is to examine how firm characteristics such as their relative differences in completing R&D projects, differences in the degree of substitutability between different project types, and first/second-mover advantages affect their product development strategies. Several quantitative methods are investigated that analyze business and engineering strategies concurrently. In particular, formulations based on the well-established mathematical field of game theory are introduced to obtain insights into the project selection problem. The use of game theory is explored in this research as a method to assist the selection process of R&D projects in the presence of imperfect market information. The proposed methodology focuses on two influential factors: the schedule uncertainty of project completion times and

  7. Experimental validation of an integrated controls-structures design methodology for a class of flexible space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maghami, Peiman G.; Gupta, Sandeep; Elliott, Kenny B.; Joshi, Suresh M.; Walz, Joseph E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the first experimental validation of an optimization-based integrated controls-structures design methodology for a class of flexible space structures. The Controls-Structures-Interaction (CSI) Evolutionary Model, a laboratory test bed at Langley, is redesigned based on the integrated design methodology with two different dissipative control strategies. The redesigned structure is fabricated, assembled in the laboratory, and experimentally compared with the original test structure. Design guides are proposed and used in the integrated design process to ensure that the resulting structure can be fabricated. Experimental results indicate that the integrated design requires greater than 60 percent less average control power (by thruster actuators) than the conventional control-optimized design while maintaining the required line-of-sight performance, thereby confirming the analytical findings about the superiority of the integrated design methodology. Amenability of the integrated design structure to other control strategies is considered and evaluated analytically and experimentally. This work also demonstrates the capabilities of the Langley-developed design tool CSI DESIGN which provides a unified environment for structural and control design.

  8. A Software Designed For STP Data Plot and Analysis Based on Object-oriented Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lina, L.; Murata, K.

    2006-12-01

    simply follows the present system as long as the language is object-oriented language. Researchers would want to add their data into the STARS. In this case, they simply add their own data class in the domain object model. It is because any satellite data has properties such as time or date, which are inherited from the upper class. In this way, their effort is less than in other old methodologies. In the OMT, description format of the system is rather strictly standardized. When new developers take part in STARS project, they have only to understand each model to obtain the overview of the STARS. Then they follow this designs and documents to implement the system. The OMT makes a new comer easy to join into the project already running.

  9. Methodology for Benefit Analysis of CAD/CAM (Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing) in USN Shipyards.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    D-Ri38 398 METHODOLOGY FOR BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF CAD/CAM / (COMPUTER-HIDED DESIGN/COMPUTER-AIDED MANUFACTURING) IN USN SHIPYARDS(U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE...Monterey, California DT I ~" t • EB3 1984 THESIS METHODOLOGY FOR BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF CAD/CAM IN USN SHIPYARDS by Richard B. Grahlman March 1984 Thesis...REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Methodology for Benefit Analysis of CAD/CAM Mastrch 1984 i in UM Sipyads. PERFORMIANG ORG. REPORT NUM8ER 7- AUHOW11111 4

  10. Emulating a System Dynamics Model with Agent-Based Models: A Methodological Case Study in Simulation of Diabetes Progression

    DOE PAGES

    Schryver, Jack; Nutaro, James; Shankar, Mallikarjun

    2015-10-30

    An agent-based simulation model hierarchy emulating disease states and behaviors critical to progression of diabetes type 2 was designed and implemented in the DEVS framework. The models are translations of basic elements of an established system dynamics model of diabetes. In this model hierarchy, which mimics diabetes progression over an aggregated U.S. population, was dis-aggregated and reconstructed bottom-up at the individual (agent) level. Four levels of model complexity were defined in order to systematically evaluate which parameters are needed to mimic outputs of the system dynamics model. Moreover, the four estimated models attempted to replicate stock counts representing disease statesmore » in the system dynamics model, while estimating impacts of an elderliness factor, obesity factor and health-related behavioral parameters. Health-related behavior was modeled as a simple realization of the Theory of Planned Behavior, a joint function of individual attitude and diffusion of social norms that spread over each agent s social network. Although the most complex agent-based simulation model contained 31 adjustable parameters, all models were considerably less complex than the system dynamics model which required numerous time series inputs to make its predictions. In all three elaborations of the baseline model provided significantly improved fits to the output of the system dynamics model. The performances of the baseline agent-based model and its extensions illustrate a promising approach to translate complex system dynamics models into agent-based model alternatives that are both conceptually simpler and capable of capturing main effects of complex local agent-agent interactions.« less

  11. Emulating a System Dynamics Model with Agent-Based Models: A Methodological Case Study in Simulation of Diabetes Progression

    SciTech Connect

    Schryver, Jack; Nutaro, James; Shankar, Mallikarjun

    2015-10-30

    An agent-based simulation model hierarchy emulating disease states and behaviors critical to progression of diabetes type 2 was designed and implemented in the DEVS framework. The models are translations of basic elements of an established system dynamics model of diabetes. In this model hierarchy, which mimics diabetes progression over an aggregated U.S. population, was dis-aggregated and reconstructed bottom-up at the individual (agent) level. Four levels of model complexity were defined in order to systematically evaluate which parameters are needed to mimic outputs of the system dynamics model. Moreover, the four estimated models attempted to replicate stock counts representing disease states in the system dynamics model, while estimating impacts of an elderliness factor, obesity factor and health-related behavioral parameters. Health-related behavior was modeled as a simple realization of the Theory of Planned Behavior, a joint function of individual attitude and diffusion of social norms that spread over each agent s social network. Although the most complex agent-based simulation model contained 31 adjustable parameters, all models were considerably less complex than the system dynamics model which required numerous time series inputs to make its predictions. In all three elaborations of the baseline model provided significantly improved fits to the output of the system dynamics model. The performances of the baseline agent-based model and its extensions illustrate a promising approach to translate complex system dynamics models into agent-based model alternatives that are both conceptually simpler and capable of capturing main effects of complex local agent-agent interactions.

  12. Response surface methodology and process optimization of sustained release pellets using Taguchi orthogonal array design and central composite design

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gurinder; Pai, Roopa S.; Devi, V. Kusum

    2012-01-01

    Furosemide is a powerful diuretic and antihypertensive drug which has low bioavailability due to hepatic first pass metabolism and has a short half-life of 2 hours. To overcome the above drawback, the present study was carried out to formulate and evaluate sustained release (SR) pellets of furosemide for oral administration prepared by extrusion/spheronization. Drug Coat L-100 was used within the pellet core along with microcrystalline cellulose as the diluent and concentration of selected binder was optimized to be 1.2%. The formulation was prepared with drug to polymer ratio 1:3. It was optimized using Design of Experiments by employing a 32 central composite design that was used to systematically optimize the process parameters combined with response surface methodology. Dissolution studies were carried out with USP apparatus Type I (basket type) in both simulated gastric and intestinal pH. The statistical technique, i.e., the two-tailed paired t test and one-way ANOVA of in vitro data has proposed that there was very significant (P≤0.05) difference in dissolution profile of furosemide SR pellets when compared with pure drug and commercial product. Validation of the process optimization study indicated an extremely high degree of prognostic ability. The study effectively undertook the development of optimized process parameters of pelletization of furosemide pellets with tremendous SR characteristics. PMID:22470891

  13. Progress and prospects for an IFE relevant FI point design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Key, M.; Amendt, P.; Bellei, C.; Clark, D.; Cohen, B.; Divol, L.; Ho, D.; Kemp, A.; Larson, D.; Marinak, M.; Patel, P.; Shay, H.; Strozzi, D.; Tabak, M.

    2013-11-01

    The physics issues involved in scaling from sub-ignition to high gain fast ignition are discussed. Successful point designs must collimate the electrons and minimise the standoff distance to avoid multi-megajoule ignition energies. Collimating B field configurations are identified and some initial designs are explored.

  14. "Filming in Progress": New Spaces for Multimodal Designing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Kathy A.

    2010-01-01

    Global trends call for new research to investigate multimodal designing mediated by new technologies and the implications for classroom spaces. This article addresses the relationship between new technologies, students' multimodal designing, and the social production of classroom spaces. Multimodal semiotics and sociological principles are applied…

  15. Progress and prospects for an FI relevant point design

    SciTech Connect

    Key, M; Amendt, P; Bellei, C; Clark, D; Cohen, B; Divol, L; Ho, D; Kemp, A; Larson, D; Marinak, M; Patel, P; Shay, H; Strozzi, D; Tabak, M

    2011-11-02

    The physics issues involved in scaling from sub ignition to high gain fast ignition are discussed. Successful point designs must collimate the electrons and minimize the stand off distance to avoid multi mega-joule ignition energies. Collimating B field configurations are identified and some initial designs are explored.

  16. Multi-acoustic lens design methodology for a low cost C-scan photoacoustic imaging camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinni, Bhargava; Han, Zichao; Brown, Nicholas; Vallejo, Pedro; Jacobs, Tess; Knox, Wayne; Dogra, Vikram; Rao, Navalgund

    2016-03-01

    We have designed and implemented a novel acoustic lens based focusing technology into a prototype photoacoustic imaging camera. All photoacoustically generated waves from laser exposed absorbers within a small volume get focused simultaneously by the lens onto an image plane. We use a multi-element ultrasound transducer array to capture the focused photoacoustic signals. Acoustic lens eliminates the need for expensive data acquisition hardware systems, is faster compared to electronic focusing and enables real-time image reconstruction. Using this photoacoustic imaging camera, we have imaged more than 150 several centimeter size ex-vivo human prostate, kidney and thyroid specimens with a millimeter resolution for cancer detection. In this paper, we share our lens design strategy and how we evaluate the resulting quality metrics (on and off axis point spread function, depth of field and modulation transfer function) through simulation. An advanced toolbox in MATLAB was adapted and used for simulating a two-dimensional gridded model that incorporates realistic photoacoustic signal generation and acoustic wave propagation through the lens with medium properties defined on each grid point. Two dimensional point spread functions have been generated and compared with experiments to demonstrate the utility of our design strategy. Finally we present results from work in progress on the use of two lens system aimed at further improving some of the quality metrics of our system.

  17. A Rapid Python-Based Methodology for Target-Focused Combinatorial Library Design.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiliang; Song, Yuwei; Liu, Xiaofeng; Li, Honglin

    2016-01-01

    The chemical space is so vast that only a small portion of it has been examined. As a complementary approach to systematically probe the chemical space, virtual combinatorial library design has extended enormous impacts on generating novel and diverse structures for drug discovery. Despite the favorable contributions, high attrition rates in drug development that mainly resulted from lack of efficacy and side effects make it increasingly challenging to discover good chemical starting points. In most cases, focused libraries, which are restricted to particular regions of the chemical space, are deftly exploited to maximize hit rate and improve efficiency at the beginning of the drug discovery and drug development pipeline. This paper presented a valid methodology for fast target-focused combinatorial library design in both reaction-based and production-based ways with the library creating rates of approximately 70,000 molecules per second. Simple, quick and convenient operating procedures are the specific features of the method. SHAFTS, a hybrid 3D similarity calculation software, was embedded to help refine the size of the libraries and improve hit rates. Two target-focused (p38-focused and COX2-focused) libraries were constructed efficiently in this study. This rapid library enumeration method is portable and applicable to any other targets for good chemical starting points identification collaborated with either structure-based or ligand-based virtual screening.

  18. Applications of a damage tolerance analysis methodology in aircraft design and production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, M. R.; Owens, S. D.; Law, G. E.; Mignery, L. A.

    1992-01-01

    Objectives of customer mandated aircraft structural integrity initiatives in design are to guide material selection, to incorporate fracture resistant concepts in the design, to utilize damage tolerance based allowables and planned inspection procedures necessary to enhance the safety and reliability of manned flight vehicles. However, validated fracture analysis tools for composite structures are needed to accomplish these objectives in a timely and economical manner. This paper briefly describes the development, validation, and application of a damage tolerance methodology for composite airframe structures. A closed-form analysis code, entitled SUBLAM was developed to predict the critical biaxial strain state necessary to cause sublaminate buckling-induced delamination extension in an impact damaged composite laminate. An embedded elliptical delamination separating a thin sublaminate from a thick parent laminate is modelled. Predicted failure strains were correlated against a variety of experimental data that included results from compression after impact coupon and element tests. An integrated analysis package was developed to predict damage tolerance based margin-of-safety (MS) using NASTRAN generated loads and element information. Damage tolerance aspects of new concepts are quickly and cost-effectively determined without the need for excessive testing.

  19. The Component Packaging Problem: A Vehicle for the Development of Multidisciplinary Design and Analysis Methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fadel, Georges; Bridgewood, Michael; Figliola, Richard; Greenstein, Joel; Kostreva, Michael; Nowaczyk, Ronald; Stevenson, Steve

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes academic research which has resulted in an increased appreciation for multidisciplinary efforts among our students, colleagues and administrators. It has also generated a number of research ideas that emerged from the interaction between disciplines. Overall, 17 undergraduate students and 16 graduate students benefited directly from the NASA grant: an additional 11 graduate students were impacted and participated without financial support from NASA. The work resulted in 16 theses (with 7 to be completed in the near future), 67 papers or reports mostly published in 8 journals and/or presented at various conferences (a total of 83 papers, presentations and reports published based on NASA inspired or supported work). In addition, the faculty and students presented related work at many meetings, and continuing work has been proposed to NSF, the Army, Industry and other state and federal institutions to continue efforts in the direction of multidisciplinary and recently multi-objective design and analysis. The specific problem addressed is component packing which was solved as a multi-objective problem using iterative genetic algorithms and decomposition. Further testing and refinement of the methodology developed is presently under investigation. Teaming issues research and classes resulted in the publication of a web site, (http://design.eng.clemson.edu/psych4991) which provides pointers and techniques to interested parties. Specific advantages of using iterative genetic algorithms, hurdles faced and resolved, and institutional difficulties associated with multi-discipline teaming are described in some detail.

  20. Progress in the planar CPn SOFC system design verification

    SciTech Connect

    Elangovan, S.; Hartvigsen, J.; Khandkar, A.

    1996-04-01

    SOFCo is developing a high efficiency, modular and scaleable planar SOFC module termed the CPn design. This design has been verified in a 1.4 kW module test operated directly on pipeline natural gas. The design features multistage oxidation of fuel wherein the fuel is consumed incrementally over several stages. High efficiency is achieved by uniform current density distribution per stage, which lowers the stack resistance. Additional benefits include thermal regulation and compactness. Test results from stack modules operating in pipeline natural gas are presented.

  1. A methodology for system-of-systems design in support of the engineering team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridolfi, G.; Mooij, E.; Cardile, D.; Corpino, S.; Ferrari, G.

    2012-04-01

    Space missions have experienced a trend of increasing complexity in the last decades, resulting in the design of very complex systems formed by many elements and sub-elements working together to meet the requirements. In a classical approach, especially in a company environment, the two steps of design-space exploration and optimization are usually performed by experts inferring on major phenomena, making assumptions and doing some trial-and-error runs on the available mathematical models. This is done especially in the very early design phases where most of the costs are locked-in. With the objective of supporting the engineering team and the decision-makers during the design of complex systems, the authors developed a modelling framework for a particular category of complex, coupled space systems called System-of-Systems. Once modelled, the System-of-Systems is solved using a computationally cheap parametric methodology, named the mixed-hypercube approach, based on the utilization of a particular type of fractional factorial design-of-experiments, and analysis of the results via global sensitivity analysis and response surfaces. As an applicative example, a system-of-systems of a hypothetical human space exploration scenario for the support of a manned lunar base is presented. The results demonstrate that using the mixed-hypercube to sample the design space, an optimal solution is reached with a limited computational effort, providing support to the engineering team and decision makers thanks to sensitivity and robustness information. The analysis of the system-of-systems model that was implemented shows that the logistic support of a human outpost on the Moon for 15 years is still feasible with currently available launcher classes. The results presented in this paper have been obtained in cooperation with Thales Alenia Space—Italy, in the framework of a regional programme called STEPS. STEPS—Sistemi e Tecnologie per l'EsPlorazione Spaziale is a research

  2. Flexible energy-storage devices: design consideration and recent progress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianfu; Lu, Xihong; Liu, Bin; Chen, Di; Tong, Yexiang; Shen, Guozhen

    2014-07-23

    Flexible energy-storage devices are attracting increasing attention as they show unique promising advantages, such as flexibility, shape diversity, light weight, and so on; these properties enable applications in portable, flexible, and even wearable electronic devices, including soft electronic products, roll-up displays, and wearable devices. Consequently, considerable effort has been made in recent years to fulfill the requirements of future flexible energy-storage devices, and much progress has been witnessed. This review describes the most recent advances in flexible energy-storage devices, including flexible lithium-ion batteries and flexible supercapacitors. The latest successful examples in flexible lithium-ion batteries and their technological innovations and challenges are reviewed first. This is followed by a detailed overview of the recent progress in flexible supercapacitors based on carbon materials and a number of composites and flexible micro-supercapacitors. Some of the latest achievements regarding interesting integrated energy-storage systems are also reviewed. Further research direction is also proposed to surpass existing technological bottle-necks and realize idealized flexible energy-storage devices.

  3. Science Underpinning TBC Design to Overcome the CMAS Threat to Progress in Gas Turbine Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    Science Underpinning TBC Design to Overcome the CMAS Threat to Progress in Gas Turbine Technology Sb. GRANT NUMBER NOOO 14-08-1-0522 Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT...degradation in current and future gas turbine engines with expected material temperatures :::=:: 1300°C. The overarching goal was to elucidate the...Z39.1t Final Report on ONR Grant No. N00014-08-1-0522 SCIENCE UNDERPINNING TBC DESIGN TO OVERCOME THE CMAS THREAT TO PROGRESS IN GAS TURBINE

  4. Progress Toward Efficient Laminar Flow Analysis and Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Richard L.; Campbell, Matthew L.; Streit, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A multi-fidelity system of computer codes for the analysis and design of vehicles having extensive areas of laminar flow is under development at the NASA Langley Research Center. The overall approach consists of the loose coupling of a flow solver, a transition prediction method and a design module using shell scripts, along with interface modules to prepare the input for each method. This approach allows the user to select the flow solver and transition prediction module, as well as run mode for each code, based on the fidelity most compatible with the problem and available resources. The design module can be any method that designs to a specified target pressure distribution. In addition to the interface modules, two new components have been developed: 1) an efficient, empirical transition prediction module (MATTC) that provides n-factor growth distributions without requiring boundary layer information; and 2) an automated target pressure generation code (ATPG) that develops a target pressure distribution that meets a variety of flow and geometry constraints. The ATPG code also includes empirical estimates of several drag components to allow the optimization of the target pressure distribution. The current system has been developed for the design of subsonic and transonic airfoils and wings, but may be extendable to other speed ranges and components. Several analysis and design examples are included to demonstrate the current capabilities of the system.

  5. Design of clinical trials in acute kidney injury: report from an NIDDK workshop on trial methodology.

    PubMed

    Palevsky, Paul M; Molitoris, Bruce A; Okusa, Mark D; Levin, Adeera; Waikar, Sushrut S; Wald, Ron; Chertow, Glenn M; Murray, Patrick T; Parikh, Chirag R; Shaw, Andrew D; Go, Alan S; Faubel, Sarah G; Kellum, John A; Chinchilli, Vernon M; Liu, Kathleen D; Cheung, Alfred K; Weisbord, Steven D; Chawla, Lakhmir S; Kaufman, James S; Devarajan, Prasad; Toto, Robert M; Hsu, Chi-yuan; Greene, Tom; Mehta, Ravindra L; Stokes, John B; Thompson, Aliza M; Thompson, B Taylor; Westenfelder, Christof S; Tumlin, James A; Warnock, David G; Shah, Sudhir V; Xie, Yining; Duggan, Emily G; Kimmel, Paul L; Star, Robert A

    2012-05-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) remains a complex clinical problem associated with significant short-term morbidity and mortality and lacking effective pharmacologic interventions. Patients with AKI experience longer-term risks for progressive chronic ESRD, which diminish patients' health-related quality of life and create a larger burden on the healthcare system. Although experimental models have yielded numerous promising agents, translation into clinical practice has been unsuccessful, possibly because of issues in clinical trial design, such as delayed drug administration, masking of therapeutic benefit by adverse events, and inadequate sample size. To address issues of clinical trial design, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases sponsored a workshop titled "Clinical Trials in Acute Kidney Injury: Current Opportunities and Barriers" in December 2010. Workshop participants included representatives from academia, industry, and government agencies whose areas of expertise spanned basic science, clinical nephrology, critical care medicine, biostatistics, pharmacology, and drug development. This document summarizes the discussions of collaborative workgroups that addressed issues related to patient selection, study endpoints, the role of novel biomarkers, sample size and power calculations, and adverse events and pilot/feasibility studies in prevention and treatment of AKI. Companion articles outline the discussions of workgroups for model trials related to prevention or treatment of established AKI in different clinical settings, such as in patients with sepsis.

  6. Progress and Design Concerns of Nanostructured Solar Energy Harvesting Devices.

    PubMed

    Leung, Siu-Fung; Zhang, Qianpeng; Tavakoli, Mohammad Mahdi; He, Jin; Mo, Xiaoliang; Fan, Zhiyong

    2016-05-01

    Integrating devices with nanostructures is considered a promising strategy to improve the performance of solar energy harvesting devices such as photovoltaic (PV) devices and photo-electrochemical (PEC) solar water splitting devices. Extensive efforts have been exerted to improve the power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of such devices by utilizing novel nanostructures to revolutionize device structural designs. The thicknesses of light absorber and material consumption can be substantially reduced because of light trapping with nanostructures. Meanwhile, the utilization of nanostructures can also result in more effective carrier collection by shortening the photogenerated carrier collection path length. Nevertheless, performance optimization of nanostructured solar energy harvesting devices requires a rational design of various aspects of the nanostructures, such as their shape, aspect ratio, periodicity, etc. Without this, the utilization of nanostructures can lead to compromised device performance as the incorporation of these structures can result in defects and additional carrier recombination. The design guidelines of solar energy harvesting devices are summarized, including thin film non-uniformity on nanostructures, surface recombination, parasitic absorption, and the importance of uniform distribution of photo-generated carriers. A systematic view of the design concerns will assist better understanding of device physics and benefit the fabrication of high performance devices in the future.

  7. Design and progress report for compact cryocooled sapphire oscillator 'VCSO'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, G. John; Wang, Rabi T.; Tjoelker, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    We report on the development of a compact cryocooled sapphiere oscillator 'VCSO', designed as a higher-performance replacement for ultra-stable quartz oscillators in local oscillator, cleanup, and flywheel applications in the frequency generation and distribution subsystems of NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN).

  8. Progress in Conceptual Design and Analysis of Advanced Rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamauchi, Gloria K.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation will give information on Multi-Disciplinary Analysis and Technology Development, including it's objectives and how they will be met. In addition, it will also present recent highlights including the Lift-Offset Civil Design and it's study conclusions, as well as, the LCTR2 Propulsion Concept's study conclusions. Recent publications and future publications will also be discussed.

  9. Design, methodology, and baseline data of the Personalized Addition Lenses Clinical Trial (PACT)

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xinping; Zhang, Binjun; Bao, Jinhua; Zhang, Junxiao; Wu, Ge; Xu, Jinling; Zheng, Jingwei; Drobe, Björn; Chen, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to describe the design, methods, and baseline characteristics of children enrolled in the Personalized Addition lenses Clinical Trial (PACT). PACT aims to test the myopia control efficacy of progressive addition lenses (PALs) with personalized addition values compared with standard (+2.00 D) addition PALs and single vision lenses (SVLs). Methods: PACT is a randomized, controlled, double-masked clinical trial. Two hundred eleven myopic Chinese children (7–12 years) were enrolled and randomized into 1 of the 3 following groups: personalized addition PALs; +2.00 addition PALs; and SVLs. Personalized addition values were determined based on the highest addition that satisfied Sheard criterion. Axial length and other biometric data were also recorded. Results: At baseline, no differences were found between the right and left eyes for any of the main parameters. The enrolled children were 9.7 ± 1.1 years’ old with cycloplegic autorefraction (right eye [OD]: −2.36 ± 0.64 D), near phoria (1.0 ± 5.0 prism diopter esophoria), lag of accommodation (1.40 ± 0.50 D) and axial length (OD: 24.58 ± 0.74 mm). The personalized addition values ranged from +0.75 to +3.00 (average ± SD: 2.19 ± 0.73 D). Conclusion: PACT is a clinical trial evaluating whether myopia progression in children can be slowed by wearing personalized addition PALs compared with fixed addition PALs and SVLs as measured by cycloplegic autorefraction and axial length. Baseline data were comparable with those of previous myopia control studies in children. Subjects will be followed up every 6 months for 2 years. PMID:28296722

  10. Optimization of Cu(II) biosorption onto Ascophyllum nodosum by factorial design methodology.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Olga; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Boaventura, Rui

    2009-08-15

    A Box-Behnken factorial design coupled with surface response methodology was used to evaluate the effects of temperature, pH and initial concentration in the Cu(II) sorption process onto the marine macro-algae Ascophyllum nodosum. The effect of the operating variables on metal uptake capacity was studied in a batch system and a mathematical model showing the influence of each variable and their interactions was obtained. Study ranges were 10-40 degrees C for temperature, 3.0-5.0 for pH and 50-150 mg L(-1) for initial Cu(II) concentration. Within these ranges, the biosorption capacity is slightly dependent on temperature but markedly increases with pH and initial concentration of Cu(II). The uptake capacities predicted by the model are in good agreement with the experimental values. Maximum biosorption capacity of Cu(II) by A. nodosum is 70 mg g(-1) and corresponds to the following values of those variables: temperature=40 degrees C, pH=5.0 and initial Cu(II) concentration=150 mg L(-1).

  11. Optimization of Chitinase Production by Bacillus pumilus Using Plackett-Burman Design and Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Tasharrofi, Noshin; Adrangi, Sina; Fazeli, Mehdi; Rastegar, Hossein; Khoshayand, Mohammad Reza; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali

    2011-01-01

    A soil bacterium capable of degrading chitin on chitin agar plates was isolated and identified as Bacillus pumilus isolate U5 on the basis of 16S rDNA sequence analysis. In order to optimize culture conditions for chitinase production by this bacterium, a two step approach was employed. First, the effects of several medium components were studied using the Plackett-Burman design. Among various components tested, chitin and yeast extract showed positive effect on enzyme production while MgSO4 and FeSO4 had negative effect. However, the linear model proved to be insufficient for determining the optimum levels for these components due to a highly significant curvature effect. In the second step, Box-Behnken response surface methodology was used to determine the optimum values. It was noticed that a quadratic polynomial equation fitted he experimental data appropriately. The optimum concentrations for chitin, yeast extract, MgSO4 and FeSO4 were found to be 4.76, 0.439, 0.0055 and 0.019 g/L, respectively, with a predicted value of chitinase production of 97.67 U/100 mL. Using this statistically optimized medium, the practical chitinase production reached 96.1 U/100 mL. PMID:24250411

  12. Methodological and ethical considerations in designing an Internet study of quality of life: a discussion paper.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Susan

    2009-03-01

    Use of the Internet in research is a relatively new phenomenon offering a potentially valuable research resource that, although increasingly used, appears largely untapped in nursing and healthcare more generally. This paper discusses methodological and ethical issues that need consideration when designing an Internet-based study concluding that, in general, online research methods are simply adaptations of traditional methods of data collection. Issues such as the representativeness of the data and ethical concerns are discussed. It considers whether the ethical dilemmas faced by online researchers differ from those faced by those seeking to use other, more 'traditional' approaches. Using the example of a study that employed the Internet as a means of distributing questionnaires, this paper shows that this can be an efficient and effective means of gathering data from a geographically dispersed sample. Furthermore, since typewritten data is obtained in the same format from all respondents, the need for transcription and the potential for error are reduced potentially enhancing the quality of any such study.

  13. A methodology for formulating a minimal uncertainty model for robust control system design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Chang, B.-C.; Fischl, Robert

    1989-01-01

    In the design and analysis of robust control systems for uncertain plants, the technique of formulating what is termed an M-delta model has become widely accepted and applied in the robust control literature. The M represents the transfer function matrix M(s) of the nominal system, and delta represents an uncertainty matrix acting on M(s). The uncertainty can arise from various sources, such as structured uncertainty from parameter variations or multiple unstructured uncertainties from unmodeled dynamics and other neglected phenomena. In general, delta is a block diagonal matrix, and for real parameter variations the diagonal elements are real. As stated in the literature, this structure can always be formed for any linear interconnection of inputs, outputs, transfer functions, parameter variations, and perturbations. However, very little of the literature addresses methods for obtaining this structure, and none of this literature addresses a general methodology for obtaining a minimal M-delta model for a wide class of uncertainty. Since have a delta matrix of minimum order would improve the efficiency of structured singular value (or multivariable stability margin) computations, a method of obtaining a minimal M-delta model would be useful. A generalized method of obtaining a minimal M-delta structure for systems with real parameter variations is given.

  14. Application-specific coarse-grained reconfigurable array: architecture and design methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Li; Liu, Dongpei; Zhang, Jianfeng; Liu, Hengzhu

    2015-06-01

    Coarse-grained reconfigurable arrays (CGRAs) have shown potential for application in embedded systems in recent years. Numerous reconfigurable processing elements (PEs) in CGRAs provide flexibility while maintaining high performance by exploring different levels of parallelism. However, a difference remains between the CGRA and the application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC). Some application domains, such as software-defined radios (SDRs), require flexibility with performance demand increases. More effective CGRA architectures are expected to be developed. Customisation of a CGRA according to its application can improve performance and efficiency. This study proposes an application-specific CGRA architecture template composed of generic PEs (GPEs) and special PEs (SPEs). The hardware of the SPE can be customised to accelerate specific computational patterns. An automatic design methodology that includes pattern identification and application-specific function unit generation is also presented. A mapping algorithm based on ant colony optimisation is provided. Experimental results on the SDR target domain show that compared with other ordinary and application-specific reconfigurable architectures, the CGRA generated by the proposed method performs more efficiently for given applications.

  15. Online Intelligent Controllers for an Enzyme Recovery Plant: Design Methodology and Performance

    PubMed Central

    Leite, M. S.; Fujiki, T. L.; Silva, F. V.; Fileti, A. M. F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development of intelligent controllers for use in a process of enzyme recovery from pineapple rind. The proteolytic enzyme bromelain (EC 3.4.22.4) is precipitated with alcohol at low temperature in a fed-batch jacketed tank. Temperature control is crucial to avoid irreversible protein denaturation. Fuzzy or neural controllers offer a way of implementing solutions that cover dynamic and nonlinear processes. The design methodology and a comparative study on the performance of fuzzy-PI, neurofuzzy, and neural network intelligent controllers are presented. To tune the fuzzy PI Mamdani controller, various universes of discourse, rule bases, and membership function support sets were tested. A neurofuzzy inference system (ANFIS), based on Takagi-Sugeno rules, and a model predictive controller, based on neural modeling, were developed and tested as well. Using a Fieldbus network architecture, a coolant variable speed pump was driven by the controllers. The experimental results show the effectiveness of fuzzy controllers in comparison to the neural predictive control. The fuzzy PI controller exhibited a reduced error parameter (ITAE), lower power consumption, and better recovery of enzyme activity. PMID:21234106

  16. A methodology for using nonlinear aerodynamics in aeroservoelastic analysis and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.

    1991-01-01

    A methodology is presented for using the Volterra-Wiener theory of nonlinear systems in aeroservoelastic (ASE) analyses and design. The theory is applied to the development of nonlinear aerodynamic response models that can be defined in state-space form and are, therefore, appropriate for use in modern control theory. The theory relies on the identification of nonlinear kernels that can be used to predict the response of a nonlinear system due to an arbitrary input. A numerical kernel identification technique, based on unit impulse responses, is presented and applied to a simple bilinear, single-input single-output (SISO) system. The linear kernel (unit impulse response) and the nonlinear second-order kernel of the system are numerically-identified and compared with the exact, analytically-defined and linear and second-order kernels. This kernel identification technique is then applied to the CAP-TSD (Computational Aeroelasticity Program-Transonic Small Disturbance) code for identification of the linear and second-order kernels of a NACA64A010 rectangular wing undergoing pitch at M = 0.5, M = 8.5 (transonic), and M = 0.93 (transonic). Results presented demonstrate the feasibility of this approach for use with nonlinear, unsteady aerodynamic responses.

  17. [Variations in the epidemiolgy of adverse events: methodology of the Harvard Medical Practice Design].

    PubMed

    Lessing, C; Schmitz, A; Schrappe, M

    2012-02-01

    The Harvard Medical Practice (HMP) Design is based on a multi-staged retrospective review of inpatient records and is used to assess the frequency of (preventable) adverse events ([P]AE) in large study populations. Up to now HMP studies have been conducted in 9 countries. Results differ largely from 2.9% to 3.7% of patients with AE in the USA up to 16.6% in Australia. In our analysis we systematically compare the methodology of 9 HMP studies published in the English language and discuss possible impacts on reported frequencies. Modifications in HMP studies can be individualised from each stage of planning, conducting, and reporting results. In doing so 2 studies from the USA with lowest rates of AE can be characterised by their context of liability and the absence of screening for nosocomial infections. Studies with a high proportion of AE are marked by an intense training of reviewers. Further conclusions are hindered by divergences in defining periods of observation, by presenting frequencies as cumulative prevalences, and differences in the reporting of study results. As a consequence future HMP studies should go for complete, consistent and transparent coverage. Further research should concentrate on advancing methods for collecting data on (P)AE.

  18. Design, Development and Optimization of S (-) Atenolol Floating Sustained Release Matrix Tablets Using Surface Response Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Gunjal, P. T.; Shinde, M. B.; Gharge, V. S.; Pimple, S. V.; Gurjar, M. K.; Shah, M. N.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this present investigation was to develop and formulate floating sustained release matrix tablets of s (-) atenolol, by using different polymer combinations and filler, to optimize by using surface response methodology for different drug release variables and to evaluate the drug release pattern of the optimized product. Floating sustained release matrix tablets of various combinations were prepared with cellulose-based polymers: Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, sodium bicarbonate as a gas generating agent, polyvinyl pyrrolidone as a binder and lactose monohydrate as filler. The 32 full factorial design was employed to investigate the effect of formulation variables on different properties of tablets applicable to floating lag time, buoyancy time, % drug release in 1 and 6 h (D1 h,D6 h) and time required to 90% drug release (t90%). Significance of result was analyzed using analysis of non variance and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. S (-) atenolol floating sustained release matrix tablets followed the Higuchi drug release kinetics that indicates the release of drug follows anomalous (non-Fickian) diffusion mechanism. The developed floating sustained release matrix tablet of improved efficacy can perform therapeutically better than a conventional tablet. PMID:26798171

  19. A methodology for using nonlinear aerodynamics in aeroservoelastic analysis and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.

    1991-01-01

    A methodology is presented for using the Volterra-Wiener theory of nonlinear systems in aeroservoelastic (ASE) analyses and design. The theory is applied to the development of nonlinear aerodynamic response models that can be defined in state-space form and are, therefore, appropriate for use in modern control theory. The theory relies on the identification of nonlinear kernels that can be used to predict the response of a nonlinear system due to an arbitrary input. A numerical kernel identification technique, based on unit impulse responses, is presented and applied to a simple bilinear, single-input-single-output system. The linear kernel (unit impulse response) and the nonlinear second-order kernel of the system are numerically-identified and compared with the exact, analytically-defined linear and second-order kernels. This kernel identification technique is then applied to the CAP-TSD code for identification of the linear and second-order kernels of a NACA64A010 rectangular wing undergoing pitch at M = 0.5, M = 0.85 (transonic), and M = 0.93 (transonic). Results presented demonstrate the feasibility of this approach for use with nonlinear, unsteady aerodynamic responses.

  20. Hybrid intelligent methodology to design translation invariant morphological operators for Brazilian stock market prediction.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Ricardo de A

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents a hybrid intelligent methodology to design increasing translation invariant morphological operators applied to Brazilian stock market prediction (overcoming the random walk dilemma). The proposed Translation Invariant Morphological Robust Automatic phase-Adjustment (TIMRAA) method consists of a hybrid intelligent model composed of a Modular Morphological Neural Network (MMNN) with a Quantum-Inspired Evolutionary Algorithm (QIEA), which searches for the best time lags to reconstruct the phase space of the time series generator phenomenon and determines the initial (sub-optimal) parameters of the MMNN. Each individual of the QIEA population is further trained by the Back Propagation (BP) algorithm to improve the MMNN parameters supplied by the QIEA. Also, for each prediction model generated, it uses a behavioral statistical test and a phase fix procedure to adjust time phase distortions observed in stock market time series. Furthermore, an experimental analysis is conducted with the proposed method through four Brazilian stock market time series, and the achieved results are discussed and compared to results found with random walk models and the previously introduced Time-delay Added Evolutionary Forecasting (TAEF) and Morphological-Rank-Linear Time-lag Added Evolutionary Forecasting (MRLTAEF) methods.

  1. Rationale, design, and methodology for the optimizing outcomes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus and their infants study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Women who are diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at increased risk for developing prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To date, there have been few interdisciplinary interventions that target predominantly ethnic minority low-income women diagnosed with GDM. This paper describes the rationale, design and methodology of a 2-year, randomized, controlled study being conducted in North Carolina. Methods/Design Using a two-group, repeated measures, experimental design, we will test a 14- week intensive intervention on the benefits of breastfeeding, understanding gestational diabetes and risk of progression to prediabetes and T2DM, nutrition and exercise education, coping skills training, physical activity (Phase I), educational and motivational text messaging and 3 months of continued monthly contact (Phase II). A total of 100 African American, non-Hispanic white, and bilingual Hispanic women between 22–36 weeks of pregnancy who are diagnosed with GDM and their infants will be randomized to either the experimental group or the wait-listed control group. The first aim of the study is to determine the feasibility of the intervention. The second aim of study is to test the effects of the intervention on maternal outcomes from baseline (22–36 weeks pregnant) to 10 months postpartum. Primary maternal outcomes will include fasting blood glucose and weight (BMI) from baseline to 10 months postpartum. Secondary maternal outcomes will include clinical, adiposity, health behaviors and self-efficacy outcomes from baseline to 10 months postpartum. The third aim of the study is to quantify the effects of the intervention on infant feeding and growth. Infant outcomes will include weight status and breastfeeding from birth through 10 months of age. Data analysis will include general linear mixed-effects models. Safety endpoints include adverse event reporting. Discussion Findings from this trial may lead to an effective

  2. Optimizing spacecraft design - optimization engine development : progress and plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornford, Steven L.; Feather, Martin S.; Dunphy, Julia R; Salcedo, Jose; Menzies, Tim

    2003-01-01

    At JPL and NASA, a process has been developed to perform life cycle risk management. This process requires users to identify: goals and objectives to be achieved (and their relative priorities), the various risks to achieving those goals and objectives, and options for risk mitigation (prevention, detection ahead of time, and alleviation). Risks are broadly defined to include the risk of failing to design a system with adequate performance, compatibility and robustness in addition to more traditional implementation and operational risks. The options for mitigating these different kinds of risks can include architectural and design choices, technology plans and technology back-up options, test-bed and simulation options, engineering models and hardware/software development techniques and other more traditional risk reduction techniques.

  3. Innovative Mixed-Methods Research: Moving beyond Design Technicalities to Epistemological and Methodological Realizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riazi, A. Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Mixed-methods research (MMR), as an inter-discourse (quantitative and qualitative) methodology, can provide applied linguistics researchers the opportunity to draw on and integrate the strengths of the two research methodological approaches in favour of making more rigorous inferences about research problems. In this article, the argument is made…

  4. Methodological, Theoretical, Infrastructural, and Design Issues in Conducting Good Outcome Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Michael P.; Moore, Tessa A.

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines a set of methodological, theoretical, and other issues relating to the conduct of good outcome studies. The article begins by considering the contribution of evidence-based medicine to the methodology of outcome research. The lessons which can be applied in outcome studies in nonmedical settings are described. The article…

  5. LOX/hydrocarbon rocket engine analytical design methodology development and validation. Volume 1: Executive summary and technical narrative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieper, Jerry L.; Walker, Richard E.

    1993-01-01

    During the past three decades, an enormous amount of resources were expended in the design and development of Liquid Oxygen/Hydrocarbon and Hydrogen (LOX/HC and LOX/H2) rocket engines. A significant portion of these resources were used to develop and demonstrate the performance and combustion stability for each new engine. During these efforts, many analytical and empirical models were developed that characterize design parameters and combustion processes that influence performance and stability. Many of these models are suitable as design tools, but they have not been assembled into an industry-wide usable analytical design methodology. The objective of this program was to assemble existing performance and combustion stability models into a usable methodology capable of producing high performing and stable LOX/hydrocarbon and LOX/hydrogen propellant booster engines.

  6. Introduction to the Design and Optimization of Experiments Using Response Surface Methodology. A Gas Chromatography Experiment for the Instrumentation Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Patricia L.; Miller, Benjamin I.; Nowak, Abigail Tuttle

    2006-01-01

    The study describes how to design and optimize an experiment with multiple factors and multiple responses. The experiment uses fractional factorial analysis as a screening experiment only to identify important instrumental factors and does not use response surface methodology to find the optimal set of conditions.

  7. A Review of Three Decades of Doctoral Studies Using the Principal Instructional Management Rating Scale: A Lens on Methodological Progress in Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Background: This report continues in the lineage of reviews of research in educational leadership and management by examining methodological approaches used by doctoral researchers in studying principal instructional leadership. Research Design: The article reviews the full set of 130 doctoral dissertations completed over the past three decades…

  8. The Discovery Channel Telescope: Construction and Design Progress, June 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bida, Thomas A.; Smith, B. W.; Millis, R. L.; Dunham, E. W.; Wiecha, O. M.; Marshall, H.

    2006-06-01

    The Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) is a 4.2m telescope under construction in northern Arizona. The DCT is located at a new site near Happy Jack at 2361m elevation, which was selected following a lengthy site testing campaign that demonstrated median ground-level seeing of 0.84-arcsec FWHM. The DCT science mission includes targeted studies of astrophysical and solar system objects utilizing RC and Nasmyth-mounted imaging and spectroscopic instrumentation, and wide-field surveys of KBO’s, Centaurs, NEA’s, and other time-variable objects with a 2-degree FOV prime focus camera.The DCT facility enclosure and control building will be completed this year, including the supports for the telescope mount and dome, the major infrastructure for facility machinery, the instrument laboratory, control and computer rooms, and the auxiliary building for the mirror coating facility. Meanwhile, the 4.3m ULE meniscus primary mirror blank was completed at Corning, Inc., in October 2005, and the 2-3 year mirror figuring effort is due to begin June 2006. The primary mirror and its design support, and the preliminary integrated telescope mount model, were finite-element analyzed to optimize the design of the mirror and top-end support configurations. The prime focus camera design has been refined to achieve atmospheric dispersion-compensated 0.25-arcsec images at 1-degree field radius, from B to I-band, at reduced cost through simplification of glasses to standard types and utilization of spheres on all but two lens surfaces.The Discovery Channel Telescope is a project of the Lowell Observatory with major financial support from Discovery Communications, Inc. (DCI). DCI plans ongoing television programming featuring the construction of the telescope and the research ultimately conducted with the DCT. Lowell Observatory is actively seeking additional partners in the project; interested parties should contact R. L. Millis, Director.

  9. Progress in developing HCPV modules of SMALFOC-design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumyantsev, V. D.; Andreev, V. M.; Chekalin, A. V.; Davidyuk, N. Yu.; Im, O. A.; Khazova, E. V.; Sadchikov, N. A.

    2013-09-01

    This work presents a module generation which has been named as "SMALFOC module design". The abbreviation reflects the main features of the modules: Small-size concentrators; Multi-junction cells; "All-glass" structure; Lamination technology; Fresnel Optics for Concentration. Investigated modules have revealed a quite low over-heating temperature of cells in the MPP regime of operation and a real way for increasing the PV efficiency, if the rear glass base is supplied with an antireflection coating. Outdoor and high/low temperature tests have shown a good potential for long-term operation of such a type of modules.

  10. Methodology for the preliminary design of high performance schools in hot and humid climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Piljae

    A methodology to develop an easy-to-use toolkit for the preliminary design of high performance schools in hot and humid climates was presented. The toolkit proposed in this research will allow decision makers without simulation knowledge easily to evaluate accurately energy efficient measures for K-5 schools, which would contribute to the accelerated dissemination of energy efficient design. For the development of the toolkit, first, a survey was performed to identify high performance measures available today being implemented in new K-5 school buildings. Then an existing case-study school building in a hot and humid climate was selected and analyzed to understand the energy use pattern in a school building and to be used in developing a calibrated simulation. Based on the information from the previous step, an as-built and calibrated simulation was then developed. To accomplish this, five calibration steps were performed to match the simulation results with the measured energy use. The five steps include: (1) Using an actual 2006 weather file with measured solar radiation, (2) Modifying lighting & equipment schedule using ASHRAE's RP-1093 methods, (3) Using actual equipment performance curves (i.e., scroll chiller), (4) Using the Winkelmann's method for the underground floor heat transfer, and (5) Modifying the HVAC and room setpoint temperature based on the measured field data. Next, the calibrated simulation of the case-study K-5 school was compared to an ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 code-compliant school. In the next step, the energy savings potentials from the application of several high performance measures to an equivalent ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 code-compliant school. The high performance measures applied included the recommendations from the ASHRAE Advanced Energy Design Guides (AEDG) for K-12 and other high performance measures from the literature review as well as a daylighting strategy and solar PV and thermal systems. The results show that the net

  11. A computer modeling methodology and tool for assessing design concepts for the Space Station Data Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R.

    1986-01-01

    A computer modeling tool is being developed to assess candidate designs for the Space Station Data Management System (DMS). The DMS is to be a complex distributed computer system including the processor, storage devices, local area networks, and software that will support all processing functions onboard the Space Station. The modeling tool will allow a candidate design for the DMS, or for other subsystems that use the DMS, to be evaluated in terms of parameters. The tool and its associated modeling methodology are intended for use by DMS and subsystem designers to perform tradeoff analyses between design concepts using varied architectures and technologies.

  12. Design methodology for integrated downstream separation systems in an ethanol biorefinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadzadeh Rohani, Navid

    and obtaining energy security. On the other hand, Process Integration (PI) as defined by Natural Resource Canada as the combination of activities which aim at improving process systems, their unit operations and their interactions in order to maximize the efficiency of using water, energy and raw materials can also help biorefineries lower their energy consumptions and improve their economics. Energy integration techniques such as pinch analysis adopted by different industries over the years have ensured using heat sources within a plant to supply the demand internally and decrease the external utility consumption. Therefore, adopting energy integration can be one of the ways biorefinery technology owners can consider in their process development as well as their business model in order to improve their overall economics. The objective of this thesis is to propose a methodology for designing integrated downstream separation in a biorefinery. This methodology is tested in an ethanol biorefinery case study. Several alternative separation techniques are evaluated in their energy consumption and economics in three different scenarios; stand-alone without energy integration, stand-alone with internal energy integration and integrated-with Kraft. The energy consumptions and capital costs of separation techniques are assessed in each scenario and the cost and benefit of integration are determined and finally the best alternative is found through techno-economic metrics. Another advantage of this methodology is the use of a graphical tool which provides insights on decreasing energy consumption by modifying the process condition. The pivot point of this work is the use of a novel energy integration method called Bridge analysis. This systematic method which originally is intended for retrofit situation is used here for integration with Kraft process. Integration potentials are identified through this method and savings are presented for each design. In stand-alone with

  13. The Discovery Channel Telescope: Construction and Design Progress, January 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bida, Thomas A.; Millis, R. L.; Smith, B. W.; Dunham, E. W.; Marshall, H.

    2006-12-01

    The Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) is a 4.2m telescope under construction in northern Arizona. The DCT is located at a new site near Happy Jack at 2361m elevation, which was selected following a lengthy site testing campaign that demonstrated DIMM-characterized median ground-level seeing of 0.84-arcsec FWHM. The DCT science mission includes targeted studies of astrophysical and solar system objects utilizing RC and Nasmyth-mounted imaging and spectroscopic instrumentation, and wide-field surveys of KBO’s, NEA’s, and astrophysical objects with a 2-degree FOV prime focus camera. The DCT facility enclosure and control buildings will be completed soon, including the telescope mount and dome supports, major machinery infrastructure, the instrument laboratory, control and computer rooms, and the auxiliary building for the mirror coating plant. Meanwhile, the effort for final figuring and polishing of the 4.3m ULE meniscus primary mirror blank began in August 2006 at the University of Arizona College of Optical Sciences. The primary mirror and its design support, and the integrated telescope mount model, were finite-element analyzed to optimize the design of the mirror and top-end support configurations. The primary mirror axial and tangential actuators will be fabricated in early 2007 and utilized in the final figure and polish cycle. The prime focus camera design has been refined to achieve atmospheric dispersion-compensated 0.25-arcsec images at 1-degree field radius, from B to I-band, at reduced cost through simplification of glasses to standard types and utilization of spheres on all but two lens surfaces. The Discovery Channel Telescope is a project of the Lowell Observatory with major financial support from Discovery Communications, Inc. (DCI). DCI plans ongoing television programming featuring the construction of the telescope and the research ultimately conducted with the DCT. Lowell Observatory and Discovery Communications are actively seeking additional

  14. GOING UNDERGROUND IN FINLAND: DESIGN OF ONKALO IN PROGRESS

    SciTech Connect

    Dikds, T.; Ikonen, A.; Niiranen, S.; Hansen, J.

    2003-02-27

    The long-term program aimed at selection of a site for a deep repository was initiated in Finland in 1983. This program has come to end in 2001 and a new phase aimed at implementation of the geological disposal of spent fuel has been started. In this new phase the first milestone is the application for a construction license for the disposal facility around 2010. To fulfill the needs for detailed design of the disposal system, an underground rock characterization facility (URCF) will be constructed at the representative depth at Olkiluoto. The excavation of this facility will start the work for underground characterization, testing and demonstration, which is planned to be a continuous activity throughout the whole life cycle of the deep repository. The overall objectives for the underground site characterization are (1) verification of the present conclusions on site suitability, (2) definition and identification of suitable rock volumes for repository space and (3) characterization of planned host rock for detailed design, safety assessment and construction planning. The objective for verification aims at assessing that the Olkiluoto site meets the basic criteria for long-term safety and as well the basic requirements for construction and thus justifies the site selection. The two other main objectives are closely related to design of the repository and assessing the long-term safety of the site-specific disposal system. The most important objective of ONKALO should allow an in-depth investigation of the geological environment and to provide the opportunity to allow validation of models at more appropriate scales and conditions than can be achieved from the surface. In some areas, such as in demonstrating operational safety, in acquiring geological information at a repository scale and in constructional and operational feasibility, the ONKALO will provide the only reliable source of in situ data. The depth range envisaged for URCF called ONKALO is between 400 and

  15. PROGRESS IN DESIGN OF THE INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL OF THE TOKAMAK COOLING WATER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Korsah, Kofi; DeVan, Bill; Ashburn, David; Crotts, Brad; Smith, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses progress in the design of the control, interlock and safety systems of the Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS) for the ITER fusion reactor. The TCWS instrumentation and control (I&C) is one of approximately 200 separate plant I&C systems (e.g., vacuum system I&C, magnets system I&C) that interface to a common central I&C system through standardized networks. Several aspects of the I&C are similar to the I&C of fission-based power plants. However, some of the unique features of the ITER fusion reactor and the TCWS (e.g., high quasi-static magnetic field, need for baking and drying as well as cooling operations), also demand some unique safety and qualification considerations. The paper compares the design strategy/guidelines of the TCWS I&C and the I&C of conventional nuclear power plants. Issues such as safety classifications, independence between control and safety systems, sensor sharing, redundancy, voting schemes, and qualification methodologies are discussed. It is concluded that independence and separation requirements are similar in both designs. However, the voting schemes for safety systems in nuclear power plants typically use 2oo4 (i.e., 4 divisions of safety I&C, any 2 of which is sufficient to trigger a safety action), while 2oo3 voting logic - within each of 2 independent trains - is used in the TCWS I&C. It is also noted that 2oo3 voting is also acceptable in nuclear power plants if adequate risk assessment and reliability is demonstrated. Finally, while qualification requirements provide similar guidance [e.g., both IEC 60780 (invoked in ITER-space), and IEEE 323 (invoked in fission power plant space) provide similar guidance], an important qualification consideration is the susceptibility of I&C to the magnetic fields of ITER. Also, the radiation environments are different. In the case of magnetic fields the paper discusses some options that are being considered.

  16. Tornado missile simulation and design methodology. Volume 2: model verification and data base updates. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Twisdale, L.A.; Dunn, W.L.

    1981-08-01

    A probabilistic methodology has been developed to predict the probabilities of tornado-propelled missiles impacting and damaging nuclear power plant structures. Mathematical models of each event in the tornado missile hazard have been developed and sequenced to form an integrated, time-history simulation methodology. The models are data based where feasible. The data include documented records of tornado occurrence, field observations of missile transport, results of wind tunnel experiments, and missile impact tests. Probabilistic Monte Carlo techniques are used to estimate the risk probabilities. The methodology has been encoded in the TORMIS computer code to facilitate numerical analysis and plant-specific tornado missile probability assessments.

  17. The Trial of Mid-Urethral Slings (TOMUS): Design and Methodology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective Mid-urethral slings (MUS) are increasingly common surgical procedures for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women. There are currently no adequately powered trials with sufficient length of follow-up comparing the efficacy or safety of the transobturator and retropubic MUS. As a result, no selection criteria are available to guide surgeons or patients. This article describes the methodology and rationale for the Trial Of Mid-Urethral Slings (TOMUS). Patients and Methods The primary aims of this randomized controlled trial is to compare subjective and objective success rates for urinary incontinence (UI) at 12 and 24 months following retropubic and transobturator MUS procedures. Secondary aims are to compare the resolution of overall and stress-specific UI, morbidity, the time to adequate voiding, satisfaction, and quality of life in the two groups. TOMUS will also assess the clinical utility of pre-operative urodynamics in women undergoing MUS procedures. The primary outcome will be obtained at 12 months and 24 months. The definition of treatment success is two-fold. Objective treatment success is defined by a negative stress test, a negative 24-hour pad test and no retreatment for SUI. Subjective treatment success is defined by no self-reported leakage on 3-day diary and no self-reported SUI symptoms. Enrollment began April 2006 and is expected to be complete in 2 years. Conclusions The TOMUS trial is designed to provide outcome and safety information to pelvic surgeons and their patients on the two most commonly performed MUS techniques. PMID:24772006

  18. Rationale, Design, Methodology and Hospital Characteristics of the First Gulf Acute Heart Failure Registry (Gulf CARE)

    PubMed Central

    Sulaiman, Kadhim J.; Panduranga, Prashanth; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi; Al-Habib, Khalid; Al-Suwaidi, Jassim; Al-Mahmeed, Wael; Al-Faleh, Husam; El-Asfar, Abdelfatah; Al-Motarreb, Ahmed; Ridha, Mustafa; Bulbanat, Bassam; Al-Jarallah, Mohammed; Bazargani, Nooshin; Asaad, Nidal; Amin, Haitham

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is paucity of data on heart failure (HF) in the Gulf Middle East. The present paper describes the rationale, design, methodology and hospital characteristics of the first Gulf acute heart failure registry (Gulf CARE). Materials and Methods: Gulf CARE is a prospective, multicenter, multinational registry of patients >18 year of age admitted with diagnosis of acute HF (AHF). The data collected included demographics, clinical characteristics, etiology, precipitating factors, management and outcomes of patients admitted with AHF. In addition, data about hospital readmission rates, procedures and mortality at 3 months and 1-year follow-up were recorded. Hospital characteristics and care provider details were collected. Data were entered in a dedicated website using an electronic case record form. Results: A total of 5005 consecutive patients were enrolled from February 14, 2012 to November 13, 2012. Forty-seven hospitals in 7 Gulf States (Oman, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Kuwait, United Gulf Emirates, Qatar and Bahrain) participated in the project. The majority of hospitals were community hospitals (46%; 22/47) followed by non-University teaching (32%; 15/47 and University hospitals (17%). Most of the hospitals had intensive or coronary care unit facilities (93%; 44/47) with 59% (28/47) having catheterization laboratory facilities. However, only 29% (14/47) had a dedicated HF clinic facility. Most patients (71%) were cared for by a cardiologist. Conclusions: Gulf CARE is the first prospective registry of AHF in the Middle East, intending to provide a unique insight into the demographics, etiology, management and outcomes of AHF in the Middle East. HF management in the Middle East is predominantly provided by cardiologists. The data obtained from this registry will help the local clinicians to identify the deficiencies in HF management as well as provide a platform to implement evidence based preventive and treatment strategies to reduce the burden of HF in

  19. Computer-Aided Drug Design (CADD): Methodological Aspects and Practical Applications in Cancer Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianti, Eleonora

    Computer-Aided Drug Design (CADD) has deservedly gained increasing popularity in modern drug discovery (Schneider, G.; Fechner, U. 2005), whether applied to academic basic research or the pharmaceutical industry pipeline. In this work, after reviewing theoretical advancements in CADD, we integrated novel and stateof- the-art methods to assist in the design of small-molecule inhibitors of current cancer drug targets, specifically: Androgen Receptor (AR), a nuclear hormone receptor required for carcinogenesis of Prostate Cancer (PCa); Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 5 (STAT5), implicated in PCa progression; and Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen-1 (EBNA1), essential to the Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) during latent infections. Androgen Receptor. With the aim of generating binding mode hypotheses for a class (Handratta, V.D. et al. 2005) of dual AR/CYP17 inhibitors (CYP17 is a key enzyme for androgens biosynthesis and therefore implicated in PCa development), we successfully implemented a receptor-based computational strategy based on flexible receptor docking (Gianti, E.; Zauhar, R.J. 2012). Then, with the ultimate goal of identifying novel AR binders, we performed Virtual Screening (VS) by Fragment-Based Shape Signatures, an improved version of the original method developed in our Laboratory (Zauhar, R.J. et al. 2003), and we used the results to fully assess the high-level performance of this innovative tool in computational chemistry. STAT5. The SRC Homology 2 (SH2) domain of STAT5 is responsible for phospho-peptide recognition and activation. As a keystone of Structure-Based Drug Design (SBDD), we characterized key residues responsible for binding. We also generated a model of STAT5 receptor bound to a phospho-peptide ligand, which was validated by docking publicly known STAT5 inhibitors. Then, we performed Shape Signatures- and docking-based VS of the ZINC database (zinc.docking.org), followed by Molecular Mechanics Generalized Born Surface Area (MMGBSA

  20. Generic design methodology for the development of three-dimensional structured-light sensory systems for measuring complex objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, Veronica E.; Chang, Wei Hao Wayne; Nejat, Goldie

    2014-11-01

    Structured-light (SL) techniques are emerging as popular noncontact approaches for obtaining three-dimensional (3-D) measurements of complex objects for real-time applications in manufacturing, bioengineering, and robotics. The performance of SL systems is determined by the emitting (i.e., projector) and capturing (i.e., camera) hardware components and the triangulation configuration between them and an object of interest. A generic design methodology is presented to determine optimal triangulation configurations for SL systems. These optimal configurations are determined with respect to a set of performance metrics: (1) minimizing the 3-D reconstruction errors, (2) maximizing the pixel-to-pixel correspondence between the projector and camera, and (3) maximizing the dispersion of the measured 3-D points within a measurement volume, while satisfying design constraints based on hardware and user-defined specifications. The proposed methodology utilizes a 3-D geometric triangulation model based on ray-tracing geometry and pin-hole models for the projector and camera. Using the methodology, a set of optimal system configurations can be determined for a given set of hardware components. The design methodology was applied to a real-time SL system for surface profiling of complex objects. Experiments were conducted with an optimal sensor configuration and its performance verified with respect to a nonoptimal hardware configuration.

  1. Fan Atomized Burner design advances & commercial development progress

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, B.; Butcher, T.A.

    1996-07-01

    As a part of the Oil Heat Research and Development program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has an on-going interest in advanced combustion technologies. This interest is aimed at: improving the initial efficiency of heating equipment, reducing long term fouling and efficiency degradation, reducing air pollutant emissions, and providing practical low-firing rate technologies which may lead to new, high efficiency oil-fired appliances. The Fan-Atomized Burner (FAB) technology is being developed at BNL as part of this general goal. The Fan-Atomized Burner uses a low pressure, air atomizing nozzle in place of the high pressure nozzle used in conventional burners. Because it is air-atomized the burner can operate at low firing rates without the small passages and reliability concerns of low input pressure nozzles. Because it uses a low pressure nozzle the burner can use a fan in place of the small compressor used in other air-atomized burner designs. High initial efficiency of heating equipment is achieved because the burner can operate at very low excess air levels. These low excess air levels also reduce the formation of sulfuric acid in flames. Sulfuric acid is responsible for scaling and fouling of heat exchanger surfaces.

  2. A Multi-Objective Advanced Design Methodology of Composite Beam-to-Column Joints Subjected to Seismic and Fire Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pucinotti, Raffaele; Ferrario, Fabio; Bursi, Oreste S.

    2008-07-01

    A multi-objective advanced design methodology dealing with seismic actions followed by fire on steel-concrete composite full strength joints with concrete filled tubes is proposed in this paper. The specimens were designed in detail in order to exhibit a suitable fire behaviour after a severe earthquake. The major aspects of the cyclic behaviour of composite joints are presented and commented upon. The data obtained from monotonic and cyclic experimental tests have been used to calibrate a model of the joint in order to perform seismic simulations on several moment resisting frames. A hysteretic law was used to take into account the seismic degradation of the joints. Finally, fire tests were conducted with the objective to evaluate fire resistance of the connection already damaged by an earthquake. The experimental activity together with FE simulation demonstrated the adequacy of the advanced design methodology.

  3. Bioslurry phase remediation of chlorpyrifos contaminated soil: process evaluation and optimization by Taguchi design of experimental (DOE) methodology.

    PubMed

    Venkata Mohan, S; Sirisha, K; Sreenivasa Rao, R; Sarma, P N

    2007-10-01

    Design of experimental (DOE) methodology using Taguchi orthogonal array (OA) was applied to evaluate the influence of eight biotic and abiotic factors (substrate-loading rate, slurry phase pH, slurry phase dissolved oxygen (DO), soil water ratio, temperature, soil microflora load, application of bioaugmentation and humic substance concentration) on the soil bound chlorpyrifos bioremediation in bioslurry phase reactor. The selected eight factors were considered at three levels (18 experiments) in the experimental design. Substrate-loading rate showed significant influence on the bioremediation process among the selected factors. Derived optimum operating conditions obtained by the methodology showed enhanced chlorpyrifos degradation from 1479.99 to 2458.33microg/g (over all 39.82% enhancement). The proposed method facilitated systematic mathematical approach to understand the complex bioremediation process and the optimization of near optimum design parameters, only with a few well-defined experimental sets.

  4. Design methodology for nano-engineered surfaces to control adhesion: Application to the anti-adhesion of particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taekyung; Min, Cheongwan; Jung, Myungki; Lee, Jinhyung; Park, Changsu; Kang, Shinill

    2016-12-01

    With increasing demand for means of controlling surface adhesion in various applications, including the semiconductor industry, optics, micro/nanoelectromechanical systems, and the medical industry, nano-engineered surfaces have attracted much attention. This study suggests a design methodology for nanostructures using the Derjaguin approximation in conjunction with finite element analysis for the control of adhesion forces. The suggested design methodology was applied for designing a nano-engineered surface with low-adhesion properties. To verify this, rectangular and sinusoidal nanostructures were fabricated and analyzed using force-distance curve measurements using atomic force microscopy and centrifugal detachment testing. For force-distance curve measurements, modified cantilevers with tips formed with atypical particles were used. Subsequently, centrifugal detachment tests were also conducted. The surface wettability of rectangular and sinusoidal nanostructures was measured and compared with the measured adhesion force and the number of particles remaining after centrifugal detachment tests.

  5. Methodology for the optimal design of an integrated first and second generation ethanol production plant combined with power cogeneration.

    PubMed

    Bechara, Rami; Gomez, Adrien; Saint-Antonin, Valérie; Schweitzer, Jean-Marc; Maréchal, François

    2016-08-01

    The application of methodologies for the optimal design of integrated processes has seen increased interest in literature. This article builds on previous works and applies a systematic methodology to an integrated first and second generation ethanol production plant with power cogeneration. The methodology breaks into process simulation, heat integration, thermo-economic evaluation, exergy efficiency vs. capital costs, multi-variable, evolutionary optimization, and process selection via profitability maximization. Optimization generated Pareto solutions with exergy efficiency ranging between 39.2% and 44.4% and capital costs from 210M$ to 390M$. The Net Present Value was positive for only two scenarios and for low efficiency, low hydrolysis points. The minimum cellulosic ethanol selling price was sought to obtain a maximum NPV of zero for high efficiency, high hydrolysis alternatives. The obtained optimal configuration presented maximum exergy efficiency, hydrolyzed bagasse fraction, capital costs and ethanol production rate, and minimum cooling water consumption and power production rate.

  6. Review of the probabilistic failure analysis methodology and other probabilistic approaches for application in aerospace structural design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, J.; Meyers, C.; Ortega, R.; Peck, J.; Rheinfurth, M.; Weinstock, B.

    1993-01-01

    Probabilistic structural analyses and design methods are steadily gaining acceptance within the aerospace industry. The safety factor approach to design has long been the industry standard, and it is believed by many to be overly conservative and thus, costly. A probabilistic approach to design may offer substantial cost savings. This report summarizes several probabilistic approaches: the probabilistic failure analysis (PFA) methodology developed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory, fast probability integration (FPI) methods, the NESSUS finite element code, and response surface methods. Example problems are provided to help identify the advantages and disadvantages of each method.

  7. Progress in the development of parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) methodology for analyzing propulsive jet mixing problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dash, S. M.; Wolf, D. E.; Sinha, N.; Lee, S. H.

    1986-01-01

    A brief review of 2D PNS methodology is first presented which describes the specialized features of supersonic shock-capturing and subsonic pressure-split models required for the analysis of aircraft, rocket and scramjet jet mixing problems. These features include techniques for dealing with various types of embedded and interfacing subsonic regions, the inclusion of finite-rate chemistry and the direct-coupling with potential flow solutions. Preliminary 3D extensions of this PNS methodology geared to supersonic and subsonic rectangular free jet mixing problems are also reviewed. New 3D PNS work will be described which includes the development of a hybrid supersonic/subsonic free jet mixing model, and, a supersonic model geared to the analysis of turbulent mixing and combustion processes occurring in scramjet combustor/nozzle flowfields.

  8. Design and construction of nanoscale material for ultrasonic assisted adsorption of dyes: Application of derivative spectrophotometry and experimental design methodology.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Ahmad Reza; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Asfaram, Arash; Jannesar, Ramin; Goudarzi, Alireza

    2017-03-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) based on central rotatable experimental design was used to investigate the effect of ultrasound assisted simultaneous adsorption process variables on Cu: ZnS-NPs-AC from aqueous solution. Cu: ZnS-NPs-AC was characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). To overcome the severe methylene blue (MB) and brilliant green (BG) dyes spectral overlapping, derivative spectrophotometric method were successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of dyes in their binary solutions. Simultaneous determination of the dyes can be carried out using the first-order and second order derivative signal at 664 and 663nm for BG and MB, respectively. The factors investigated were pH (2.5-8.5), adsorbent mass (0.006-0.030g), sonication time (1-5min) and initial MB and BG concentration (3-15mgL(-1)). Five levels, which were low level, center point, upper level and two axillar points, were considered for each of the factors. The desirability function (DF: 0.9853) on the STATISTICA version 10.0 software showed that the optimum removal (99.832 and 99.423% for MB and BG, respectively) was obtained at pH 8.0, adsorbent mass 0.024g, sonication time 4min and 9mgL(-1) initial concentration for each dye. Besides, the results show that obtained data were adequately fitted into the second-order polynomial model, since the calculated model F value (172.96 and 96.35 for MB and BG, respectively) is higher than the critical F value. The values of coefficient of determination (0.9968 and 0.9943 for MB and BG, respectively) and adjusted coefficient of determination (0.9911 and 0.9840 for MB and BG, respectively) are close to 1, indicating a high correlation between the observed and the predicted values. The ultrasonic amplitude and adsorbent mass were found to be the most effective variable influencing the adsorption process. The adsorption equilibrium was well

  9. Drift design methodology and preliminary application for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, M.P.; Bauer, S.J.

    1991-12-01

    Excavation stability in an underground nuclear waste repository is required during construction, emplacement, retrieval (if required), and closure phases to ensure worker health and safety, and to prevent development of potential pathways for radionuclide migration in the post-closure period. Stable excavations are developed by appropriate excavation procedures, design of the room shape, design and installation of rock support reinforcement systems, and implementation of appropriate monitoring and maintenance programs. In addition to the loads imposed by the in situ stress field, the repository drifts will be impacted by thermal loads developed after waste emplacement and, periodically, by seismic loads from naturally occurring earthquakes and underground nuclear events. A priori evaluation of stability is required for design of the ground support system, to confirm that the thermal loads are reasonable, and to support the license application process. In this report, a design methodology for assessing drift stability is presented. This is based on site conditions, together with empirical and analytical methods. Analytical numerical methods are emphasized at this time because empirical data are unavailable for excavations in welded tuff either at elevated temperatures or under seismic loads. The analytical methodology incorporates analysis of rock masses that are systematically jointed, randomly jointed, and sparsely jointed. In situ thermal and seismic loads are considered. Methods of evaluating the analytical results and estimating ground support requirements for all the full range of expected ground conditions are outlines. The results of a preliminary application of the methodology using the limited available data are presented. 26 figs., 55 tabs.

  10. Thermal Hydraulics Design and Analysis Methodology for a Solid-Core Nuclear Thermal Rocket Engine Thrust Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Canabal, Francisco; Chen, Yen-Sen; Cheng, Gary; Ito, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion is a leading candidate for in-space propulsion for human Mars missions. This chapter describes a thermal hydraulics design and analysis methodology developed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, in support of the nuclear thermal propulsion development effort. The objective of this campaign is to bridge the design methods in the Rover/NERVA era, with a modern computational fluid dynamics and heat transfer methodology, to predict thermal, fluid, and hydrogen environments of a hypothetical solid-core, nuclear thermal engine the Small Engine, designed in the 1960s. The computational methodology is based on an unstructured-grid, pressure-based, all speeds, chemically reacting, computational fluid dynamics and heat transfer platform, while formulations of flow and heat transfer through porous and solid media were implemented to describe those of hydrogen flow channels inside the solid24 core. Design analyses of a single flow element and the entire solid-core thrust chamber of the Small Engine were performed and the results are presented herein

  11. Contentious issues in research on trafficked women working in the sex industry: study design, ethics, and methodology.

    PubMed

    Cwikel, Julie; Hoban, Elizabeth

    2005-11-01

    The trafficking of women and children for work in the globalized sex industry is a global social problem. Quality data is needed to provide a basis for legislation, policy, and programs, but first, numerous research design, ethical, and methodological problems must be addressed. Research design issues in studying women trafficked for sex work (WTSW) include how to (a) develop coalitions to fund and support research, (b) maintain a critical stance on prostitution, and therefore WTSW (c) use multiple paradigms and methods to accurately reflect WTSW's reality, (d) present the purpose of the study, and (e) protect respondents' identities. Ethical issues include (a) complications with informed consent procedures, (b) problematic access to WTSW (c) loss of WTSW to follow-up, (d) inability to intervene in illegal acts or human rights violations, and (e) the need to maintain trustworthiness as researchers. Methodological issues include (a) constructing representative samples, (b) managing media interest, and (c) handling incriminating materials about law enforcement and immigration.

  12. Observations on computational methodologies for use in large-scale, gradient-based, multidisciplinary design incorporating advanced CFD codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, P. A.; Hou, G. J.-W.; Jones, H. E.; Taylor, A. C., III; Korivi, V. M.

    1992-01-01

    How a combination of various computational methodologies could reduce the enormous computational costs envisioned in using advanced CFD codes in gradient based optimized multidisciplinary design (MdD) procedures is briefly outlined. Implications of these MdD requirements upon advanced CFD codes are somewhat different than those imposed by a single discipline design. A means for satisfying these MdD requirements for gradient information is presented which appear to permit: (1) some leeway in the CFD solution algorithms which can be used; (2) an extension to 3-D problems; and (3) straightforward use of other computational methodologies. Many of these observations have previously been discussed as possibilities for doing parts of the problem more efficiently; the contribution here is observing how they fit together in a mutually beneficial way.

  13. Switching from usual brand cigarettes to a tobacco-heating cigarette or snus: Part 1. Study design and methodology

    PubMed Central

    Ogden, Michael W.; Marano, Kristin M.; Jones, Bobbette A.; Stiles, Mitchell F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A randomized, multi-center study was conducted to assess potential improvement in health status measures, as well as changes in biomarkers of tobacco exposure and biomarkers of biological effect, in current adult cigarette smokers switched to tobacco-heating cigarettes, snus or ultra-low machine yield tobacco-burning cigarettes (50/group) evaluated over 24 weeks. Study design, conduct and methodology are presented here along with subjects’ disposition, characteristics, compliance and safety results. This design and methodology, evaluating generally healthy adult smokers over a relatively short duration, proved feasible. Findings from this randomized study provide generalized knowledge of the risk continuum among various tobacco products (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02061917). PMID:26525849

  14. Switching from usual brand cigarettes to a tobacco-heating cigarette or snus: Part 1. Study design and methodology.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Michael W; Marano, Kristin M; Jones, Bobbette A; Stiles, Mitchell F

    2015-01-01

    A randomized, multi-center study was conducted to assess potential improvement in health status measures, as well as changes in biomarkers of tobacco exposure and biomarkers of biological effect, in current adult cigarette smokers switched to tobacco-heating cigarettes, snus or ultra-low machine yield tobacco-burning cigarettes (50/group) evaluated over 24 weeks. Study design, conduct and methodology are presented here along with subjects' disposition, characteristics, compliance and safety results. This design and methodology, evaluating generally healthy adult smokers over a relatively short duration, proved feasible. Findings from this randomized study provide generalized knowledge of the risk continuum among various tobacco products (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02061917).

  15. Progress in integrated-circuit horn antennas for receiver applications. Part 1: Antenna design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eleftheriades, George V.; Ali-Ahmad, Walid Y.; Rebeiz, Gabriel M.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to present a systematic method for the design of multimode quasi-integrated horn antennas. The design methodology is based on the Gaussian beam approach and the structures are optimized for achieving maximum fundamental Gaussian coupling efficiency. For this purpose, a hybrid technique is employed in which the integrated part of the antennas is treated using full-wave analysis, whereas the machined part is treated using an approximate method. This results in a simple and efficient design process. The developed design procedure has been applied for the design of a 20, a 23, and a 25 dB quasi-integrated horn antennas, all with a Gaussian coupling efficiency exceeding 97 percent. The designed antennas have been tested and characterized using both full-wave analysis and 90 GHz/370 GHz measurements.

  16. Methodological Complications of Matching Designs under Real World Constraints: Lessons from a Study of Deeper Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeiser, Kristina; Rickles, Jordan; Garet, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    To help researchers understand potential issues one can encounter when conducting propensity matching studies in complex settings, this paper describes methodological complications faced when studying schools using deeper learning practices to improve college and career readiness. The study uses data from high schools located in six districts…

  17. Qualitative Case Study Methodology: Study Design and Implementation for Novice Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Pamela; Jack, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Qualitative case study methodology provides tools for researchers to study complex phenomena within their contexts. When the approach is applied correctly, it becomes a valuable method for health science research to develop theory, evaluate programs, and develop interventions. The purpose of this paper is to guide the novice researcher in…

  18. Evaluation of the Probabilistic Design Methodology and Computer Code for Composite Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    conditional expectation method (CEM) to determine the failure probability of a specified failure event. This methodology was first verified by...function into several conditional failure functions. The probability of failure for each conditional failure function is first calculated using the CEM. The

  19. Impact Evaluation of Quality Assurance in Higher Education: Methodology and Causal Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiber, Theodor; Stensaker, Bjørn; Harvey, Lee

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the theoretical perspectives and general methodological elements of impact evaluation of quality assurance in higher education institutions are discussed, which should be a cornerstone of quality development in higher education and contribute to improving the knowledge about the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of quality…

  20. Future Directions in Adventure-based Therapy Research: Methodological Considerations and Design Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newes, Sandra L.

    2001-01-01

    More methodologically sound research in adventure therapy is needed if the field is to claim empirically-based efficacy as a treatment modality. Some considerations for conducting outcome studies in adventure therapy relate to standardization, multiple domain assessment, regression techniques, objective assessment of participant change, client and…

  1. Implications of Functional Analysis Methodology for the Design of Intervention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwata, Brian A.; Worsdell, April S.

    2005-01-01

    Functional analysis methodology is an assessment strategy that identifies sources of reinforcement that maintain problem behavior and prescribes individualized interventions that directly alter the conditions under which behavior occurs. In this article we describe the environmental determinants of problem behavior, methods for conducting…

  2. Design methodology for a confocal imaging system using an objective microlens array with an increased working distance

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Woojae; Shin, Ryung; Lim, Jiseok; Kang, Shinill

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a design methodology for a multi-optical probe confocal imaging system was developed. To develop an imaging system that has the required resolving power and imaging area, this study focused on a design methodology to create a scalable and easy-to-implement confocal imaging system. This system overcomes the limitations of the optical complexities of conventional multi-optical probe confocal imaging systems and the short working distance using a micro-objective lens module composed of two microlens arrays and a telecentric relay optical system. The micro-objective lens module was fabricated on a glass substrate using backside alignment photolithography and thermal reflow processes. To test the feasibility of the developed methodology, an optical system with a resolution of 1 μm/pixel using multi-optical probes with an array size of 10 × 10 was designed and constructed. The developed system provides a 1 mm × 1 mm field of view and a sample scanning range of 100 μm. The optical resolution was evaluated by conducting sample tests using a knife-edge detecting method. The measured lateral resolution of the system was 0.98 μm. PMID:27615370

  3. Design methodology for a confocal imaging system using an objective microlens array with an increased working distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woojae; Shin, Ryung; Lim, Jiseok; Kang, Shinill

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a design methodology for a multi-optical probe confocal imaging system was developed. To develop an imaging system that has the required resolving power and imaging area, this study focused on a design methodology to create a scalable and easy-to-implement confocal imaging system. This system overcomes the limitations of the optical complexities of conventional multi-optical probe confocal imaging systems and the short working distance using a micro-objective lens module composed of two microlens arrays and a telecentric relay optical system. The micro-objective lens module was fabricated on a glass substrate using backside alignment photolithography and thermal reflow processes. To test the feasibility of the developed methodology, an optical system with a resolution of 1 μm/pixel using multi-optical probes with an array size of 10 × 10 was designed and constructed. The developed system provides a 1 mm × 1 mm field of view and a sample scanning range of 100 μm. The optical resolution was evaluated by conducting sample tests using a knife-edge detecting method. The measured lateral resolution of the system was 0.98 μm.

  4. Rating the methodological quality of single-subject designs and n-of-1 trials: introducing the Single-Case Experimental Design (SCED) Scale.

    PubMed

    Tate, Robyn L; McDonald, Skye; Perdices, Michael; Togher, Leanne; Schultz, Regina; Savage, Sharon

    2008-08-01

    Rating scales that assess methodological quality of clinical trials provide a means to critically appraise the literature. Scales are currently available to rate randomised and non-randomised controlled trials, but there are none that assess single-subject designs. The Single-Case Experimental Design (SCED) Scale was developed for this purpose and evaluated for reliability. Six clinical researchers who were trained and experienced in rating methodological quality of clinical trials developed the scale and participated in reliability studies. The SCED Scale is an 11-item rating scale for single-subject designs, of which 10 items are used to assess methodological quality and use of statistical analysis. The scale was developed and refined over a 3-year period. Content validity was addressed by identifying items to reduce the main sources of bias in single-case methodology as stipulated by authorities in the field, which were empirically tested against 85 published reports. Inter-rater reliability was assessed using a random sample of 20/312 single-subject reports archived in the Psychological Database of Brain Impairment Treatment Efficacy (PsycBITE). Inter-rater reliability for the total score was excellent, both for individual raters (overall ICC = 0.84; 95% confidence interval 0.73-0.92) and for consensus ratings between pairs of raters (overall ICC = 0.88; 95% confidence interval 0.78-0.95). Item reliability was fair to excellent for consensus ratings between pairs of raters (range k = 0.48 to 1.00). The results were replicated with two independent novice raters who were trained in the use of the scale (ICC = 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.73-0.95). The SCED Scale thus provides a brief and valid evaluation of methodological quality of single-subject designs, with the total score demonstrating excellent inter-rater reliability using both individual and consensus ratings. Items from the scale can also be used as a checklist in the design, reporting and critical

  5. Applying Item Response Theory methods to design a learning progression-based science assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing

    Learning progressions are used to describe how students' understanding of a topic progresses over time and to classify the progress of students into steps or levels. This study applies Item Response Theory (IRT) based methods to investigate how to design learning progression-based science assessments. The research questions of this study are: (1) how to use items in different formats to classify students into levels on the learning progression, (2) how to design a test to give good information about students' progress through the learning progression of a particular construct and (3) what characteristics of test items support their use for assessing students' levels. Data used for this study were collected from 1500 elementary and secondary school students during 2009--2010. The written assessment was developed in several formats such as the Constructed Response (CR) items, Ordered Multiple Choice (OMC) and Multiple True or False (MTF) items. The followings are the main findings from this study. The OMC, MTF and CR items might measure different components of the construct. A single construct explained most of the variance in students' performances. However, additional dimensions in terms of item format can explain certain amount of the variance in student performance. So additional dimensions need to be considered when we want to capture the differences in students' performances on different types of items targeting the understanding of the same underlying progression. Items in each item format need to be improved in certain ways to classify students more accurately into the learning progression levels. This study establishes some general steps that can be followed to design other learning progression-based tests as well. For example, first, the boundaries between levels on the IRT scale can be defined by using the means of the item thresholds across a set of good items. Second, items in multiple formats can be selected to achieve the information criterion at all

  6. Methodology of design and analysis of external walls of space station for hypervelocity impacts by meteoroids and space debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batla, F. A.

    1986-01-01

    The development of criteria and methodology for the design and analysis of Space Station wall elements for collisions with meteoroids and space debris at hypervelocities is discussed. These collisions will occur at velocities of 10 km/s or more and can be damaging to the external wall elements of the Space Station. The wall elements need to be designed to protect the pressurized modules of the Space Station from functional or structural failure due to these collisions at hypervelocities for a given environment and population of meteoroids and space debris. The design and analysis approach and the associated computer program presented is to achieve this objective, including the optimization of the design for a required overall probability of no penetration. The approach is based on the presently available experimental and actual data on meteoroids and space debris flux and damage assessments and the empirical relationships resulting from the hypervelocity impact studies in laboratories.

  7. A methodology to optimize design pattern context size for higher sensitivity to hotspot detection using pattern association tree (PAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somani, Shikha; Pathak, Piyush; Verma, Piyush; Madhavan, Sriram; Capodieci, Luigi

    2015-03-01

    Pattern based design rule checks have emerged as an alternative to the traditional rule based design rule checks in the VLSI verification flow [1]. Typically, the design-process weak-points, also referred as design hotspots, are classified into patterns of fixed size. The size of the pattern defines the radius of influence for the process. These fixed sized patterns are used to search and detect process weak points in new designs without running computationally expensive process simulations. However, both the complexity of the pattern and different kinds of physical processes affect the radii of influence. Therefore, there is a need to determine the optimal pattern radius (size) for efficient hotspot detection. The methodology described here uses a combination of pattern classification and pattern search techniques to create a directed graph, referred to as the Pattern Association Tree (PAT). The pattern association tree is then filtered based on the relevance, sensitivity and context area of each pattern node. The critical patterns are identified by traversing the tree and ranking the patterns. This method has plausible applications in various areas such as process characterization, physical design verification and physical design optimization. Our initial experiments in the area of physical design verification confirm that a pattern deck with the radius optimized for each pattern is significantly more accurate at predicting design hotspots when compared to a conventional deck of fixed sized patterns.

  8. Biomarker-Guided Non-Adaptive Trial Designs in Phase II and Phase III: A Methodological Review

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Miranta; Kolamunnage-Dona, Ruwanthi; Jorgensen, Andrea L.

    2017-01-01

    Biomarker-guided treatment is a rapidly developing area of medicine, where treatment choice is personalised according to one or more of an individual’s biomarker measurements. A number of biomarker-guided trial designs have been proposed in the past decade, including both adaptive and non-adaptive trial designs which test the effectiveness of a biomarker-guided approach to treatment with the aim of improving patient health. A better understanding of them is needed as challenges occur both in terms of trial design and analysis. We have undertaken a comprehensive literature review based on an in-depth search strategy with a view to providing the research community with clarity in definition, methodology and terminology of the various biomarker-guided trial designs (both adaptive and non-adaptive designs) from a total of 211 included papers. In the present paper, we focus on non-adaptive biomarker-guided trial designs for which we have identified five distinct main types mentioned in 100 papers. We have graphically displayed each non-adaptive trial design and provided an in-depth overview of their key characteristics. Substantial variability has been observed in terms of how trial designs are described and particularly in the terminology used by different authors. Our comprehensive review provides guidance for those designing biomarker-guided trials. PMID:28125057

  9. Grounded Theory as a Methodology to Design Teaching Strategies for Historically Informed Musical Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mateos-Moreno, Daniel; Alcaraz-Iborra, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Our work highlights the necessity of revising the materials employed in instrumental education, which are systematically based on a progressive development of technical abilities and, though only transversely, without a structured sequence of contents, on issues referring to the interpretation of different periods and styles. In order to elaborate…

  10. An optimization-based integrated controls-structures design methodology for flexible space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maghami, Peiman G.; Joshi, Suresh M.; Armstrong, Ernest S.

    1993-01-01

    An approach for an optimization-based integrated controls-structures design is presented for a class of flexible spacecraft that require fine attitude pointing and vibration suppression. The integrated design problem is posed in the form of simultaneous optimization of both structural and control design variables. The approach is demonstrated by application to the integrated design of a generic space platform and to a model of a ground-based flexible structure. The numerical results obtained indicate that the integrated design approach can yield spacecraft designs that have substantially superior performance over a conventional design wherein the structural and control designs are performed sequentially. For example, a 40-percent reduction in the pointing error is observed along with a slight reduction in mass, or an almost twofold increase in the controlled performance is indicated with more than a 5-percent reduction in the overall mass of the spacecraft (a reduction of hundreds of kilograms).

  11. Design Methodology and Life Analysis of Postbuckled Metal and Composite Panels. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    long fatigue lives at panel design limit load. In these designs, the panels were prevented from buckling during the level flight condition of a ...design of postbuckled panels where the operating strain levels are of the order of 2500-3500 pin/in. As a design tool, the semiempirical method- ology is...Figure 2.4. Therefore, composite compres- sion panel fatigue does not appear to be a concern in the 2500-3500 pin/in operating strain level typically

  12. A Sizing Methodology for the Conceptual Design of Blended-Wing-Body Transports. Degree awarded by George Washington Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimmel, William M. (Technical Monitor); Bradley, Kevin R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a methodology for sizing Blended-Wing-Body (BWB) transports and how the capabilities of the Flight Optimization System (FLOPS) have been expanded using that methodology. In this approach, BWB transports are sized based on the number of passengers in each class that must fit inside the centerbody or pressurized vessel. Weight estimation equations for this centerbody structure were developed using Finite Element Analysis (FEA). This paper shows how the sizing methodology has been incorporated into FLOPS to enable the design and analysis of BWB transports. Previous versions of FLOPS did not have the ability to accurately represent or analyze BWB configurations in any reliable, logical way. The expanded capabilities allow the design and analysis of a 200 to 450-passenger BWB transport or the analysis of a BWB transport for which the geometry is already known. The modifications to FLOPS resulted in differences of less than 4 percent for the ramp weight of a BWB transport in this range when compared to previous studies performed by NASA and Boeing.

  13. The dementia and disability project in Thai elderly: rational, design, methodology and early results

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    were free of chronic diseases. Treatment gap (indicating those who have untreated or inadequate treatment) of diabetes mellitus and hypertension in Thai elders in this study was 37% and 55.5% respectively. 62.6% of Thai elders have ApoE3E3 allele. Prevalence of positive ApoE4 gene in this study is 22.85%. 38.6% of Thai elders who had MRI brain study have moderate to severe white matter lesions. Conclusion The large and comprehensive set of measurements in DDP allows a wide-ranging explanation of the functional and clinical features to be investigated in relation to white matter lesions or cortical atrophy of the brain in Thai elderly population. An almost 2 year follow up was made available to those with MCI and dementia and some of the cognitively normal elderly. The longitudinal design will provide great understanding of the possible contributors to disability in the elderly and to the progression of cognitive decline in Thai elders. PMID:23305293

  14. The research progress on Hodograph Method of aerodynamic design at Tsinghua University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Zuoyi; Guo, Jingrong

    1991-01-01

    Progress in the use of the Hodograph method of aerodynamic design is discussed. It was found that there are some restricted conditions in the application of Hodograph design to transonic turbine and compressor cascades. The Hodograph method is suitable not only to the transonic turbine cascade but also to the transonic compressor cascade. The three dimensional Hodograph method will be developed after obtaining the basic equation for the three dimensional Hodograph method. As an example of the Hodograph method, the use of the method to design a transonic turbine and compressor cascade is discussed.

  15. Discovering Actionable Knowledge about Community Telecommunications Systems: Concepts and Case Applications of Design Studio Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Kimberly; Horan, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Explores the potential utility of design principles and the design studio for enacting information infrastructures essential for individuals and communities to thrive in the knowledge economy. The proposed approach, Digital Places Design, furnishes those engaged in planning and managing telecommunications infrastructure with a tool to realize…

  16. Design methodology for micro-discrete planar optics with minimum illumination loss for an extended source.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jongmyeong; Park, Changsu; Lee, Jinhyung; Kang, Shinill

    2016-08-08

    Recently, studies have examined techniques for modeling the light distribution of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for various applications owing to their low power consumption, longevity, and light weight. The energy mapping technique, a design method that matches the energy distributions of an LED light source and target area, has been the focus of active research because of its design efficiency and accuracy. However, these studies have not considered the effects of the emitting area of the LED source. Therefore, there are limitations to the design accuracy for small, high-power applications with a short distance between the light source and optical system. A design method for compensating for the light distribution of an extended source after the initial optics design based on a point source was proposed to overcome such limits, but its time-consuming process and limited design accuracy with multiple iterations raised the need for a new design method that considers an extended source in the initial design stage. This study proposed a method for designing discrete planar optics that controls the light distribution and minimizes the optical loss with an extended source and verified the proposed method experimentally. First, the extended source was modeled theoretically, and a design method for discrete planar optics with the optimum groove angle through energy mapping was proposed. To verify the design method, design for the discrete planar optics was achieved for applications in illumination for LED flash. In addition, discrete planar optics for LED illuminance were designed and fabricated to create a uniform illuminance distribution. Optical characterization of these structures showed that the design was optimal; i.e., we plotted the optical losses as a function of the groove angle, and found a clear minimum. Simulations and measurements showed that an efficient optical design was achieved for an extended source.

  17. Games and Diabetes: A Review Investigating Theoretical Frameworks, Evaluation Methodologies, and Opportunities for Design Grounded in Learning Theories.

    PubMed

    Lazem, Shaimaa; Webster, Mary; Holmes, Wayne; Wolf, Motje

    2015-09-02

    Here we review 18 articles that describe the design and evaluation of 1 or more games for diabetes from technical, methodological, and theoretical perspectives. We undertook searches covering the period 2010 to May 2015 in the ACM, IEEE, Journal of Medical Internet Research, Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, and Google Scholar online databases using the keywords "children," "computer games," "diabetes," "games," "type 1," and "type 2" in various Boolean combinations. The review sets out to establish, for future research, an understanding of the current landscape of digital games designed for children with diabetes. We briefly explored the use and impact of well-established learning theories in such games. The most frequently mentioned theoretical frameworks were social cognitive theory and social constructivism. Due to the limitations of the reported evaluation methodologies, little evidence was found to support the strong promise of games for diabetes. Furthermore, we could not establish a relation between design features and the game outcomes. We argue that an in-depth discussion about the extent to which learning theories could and should be manifested in the design decisions is required.

  18. Application of modern control design methodology to oblique wing research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, James H.

    1991-01-01

    A Linear Quadratic Regulator synthesis technique was used to design an explicit model following control system for the Oblique Wing Research Aircraft (OWRA). The forward path model (Maneuver Command Generator) was designed to incorporate the desired flying qualities and response decoupling. The LQR synthesis was based on the use of generalized controls, and it was structured to provide a proportional/integral error regulator with feedforward compensation. An unexpected consequence of this design approach was the ability to decouple the control synthesis into separate longitudinal and lateral directional designs. Longitudinal and lateral directional control laws were generated for each of the nine design flight conditions, and gain scheduling requirements were addressed. A fully coupled 6 degree of freedom open loop model of the OWRA along with the longitudinal and lateral directional control laws was used to assess the closed loop performance of the design. Evaluations were performed for each of the nine design flight conditions.

  19. Methodology for the conceptual design of a robust and opportunistic system-of-systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talley, Diana Noonan

    Systems are becoming more complicated, complex, and interrelated. Designers have recognized the need to develop systems from a holistic perspective and design them as Systems-of-Systems (SoS). The design of the SoS, especially in the conceptual design phase, is generally characterized by significant uncertainty. As a result, it is possible for all three types of uncertainty (aleatory, epistemic, and error) and the associated factors of uncertainty (randomness, sampling, confusion, conflict, inaccuracy, ambiguity, vagueness, coarseness, and simplification) to affect the design process. While there are a number of existing SoS design methods, several gaps have been identified: the ability to modeling all of the factors of uncertainty at varying levels of knowledge; the ability to consider both the pernicious and propitious aspects of uncertainty; and, the ability to determine the value of reducing the uncertainty in the design process. While there are numerous uncertainty modeling theories, no one theory can effectively model every kind of uncertainty. This research presents a Hybrid Uncertainty Modeling Method (HUMM) that integrates techniques from the following theories: Probability Theory, Evidence Theory, Fuzzy Set Theory, and Info-Gap theory. The HUMM is capable of modeling all of the different factors of uncertainty and can model the uncertainty for multiple levels of knowledge. In the design process, there are both pernicious and propitious characteristics associated with the uncertainty. Existing design methods typically focus on developing robust designs that are insensitive to the associated uncertainty. These methods do not capitalize on the possibility of maximizing the potential benefit associated with the uncertainty. This research demonstrates how these deficiencies can be overcome by identifying the most robust and opportunistic design. In a design process it is possible that the most robust and opportunistic design will not be selected from the set

  20. The theory and methodology of capturing and representing the design process and its application to the task of rapid redesign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nii, Kendall M.

    The paradigm under which engineering design is being performed in the Aerospace industry is changing. There is an increased emphasis on a "faster, better, and cheaper" way of doing business. Designers are tasked with developing a better product, in a shorter time, with less money. Engineers are continually trying to improve their products, lower their costs, and reduce their schedules. So at first glance, it might seem difficult if not impossible to perform these three tasks simultaneously and attempt to achieve order of magnitude improvements in each area. Indeed it might well be impossible for an engineer using only traditional tools and techniques. However, there is a new tool, known as design capture, available to the designer. A design capture system, can aid the designer in a variety of ways. One specific use for a design capture system is to aid the designer in performing rapid redesign. This thesis presents a new methodology for a Design Capture System (DCS) which can aid the designer with performing rapid redesign. The Design Capture for Rapid Redesign (DCARRD) method facilitates rapid redesign in three ways: it allows the designer to assess the impact of changing an initial requirement, it allows the designer to assess the impact of changing a decision, and it enhances the ability of the designer to assess the impact of a completely new requirement. The DCARRD method was implemented into an html-based design capture system accessible through a Web browser. This implementation demonstrates the feasibility of the DCARRD method. The most important features of DCARRD are that it is focused an performing rapid redesign, it places the design decisions within the framework of the design process, it is simple to use and implement, and it has the ability to track subsystem baselines. The many complex issues surrounding testing of design tools in general, and DCARRD in particular, are discussed at length. There are a number of complex issues which must be addressed

  1. Duct injection technology prototype development: Scale-up methodology and engineering design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    The objective of the Duct Injection Technology Prototype Development project is to develop a sound design basis for applying duct injection technology as a post-combustion SO{sub 2} emissions control method to existing, pre-NSPS, coal-fired power plants. This report is divided into five major topics: (1) design criteria; (2) engineering drawings; (3) equipment sizing and design; (4) plant and equipment arrangement considerations; and (5) equipment bid specification guidelines.

  2. Multi-variable control of the GE T700 engine using the LQG/LTR design methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfeil, W. H.; Athans, M.; Spang, H. A., III

    1986-01-01

    The design of scalar and multi-variable feedback control systems for the GET700 turboshaft engine coupled to a helicopter rotor system is examined. A series of linearized models are presented and analyzed. Robustness and performance specifications are posed in the frequency domain. The linear-quadratic-Gaussian with loop-transfer-recovery (LQG/LTR) methodology is used to obtain a sequence of three feedback designs. Even in the single-input/single-output case, comparison of the current control system with that derived from the LQG/LTR approach shows significant performance improvement. The multi-variable designs, evaluated using linear and nonlinear simulations, show even more potential for performance improvement.

  3. The Study of Pathogen Resistance and Antimicrobial Use in Dementia: Study Design and Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Susan L.; Shaffer, Michele L.; Kiely, Dan K; Givens, Jane L.; D'Agata, Erika

    2012-01-01

    Advanced dementia is characterized by the onset of infections and antimicrobial use is extensive. The extent to which this antimicrobial use is appropriate and contributes to the emergence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria is not known. The object of this report is to present the methodology established in the Study of Pathogen Resistance and Exposure to Antimicrobials in Dementia (SPREAD), and describe how challenges specific to this research were met. SPREAD is an ongoing, federally-funded, 5-year prospective cohort study initiated in September 2009. Subjects include nursing home residents with advanced dementia and their proxies recruited from 31 Boston-area facilities. The recruitment and data collection protocols are described. Characteristics of participant facilities are presented and compared to those nationwide. To date, 295 resident/proxy dyads have been recruited. Baseline and selected follow-up data demonstrate successful recruitment of subjects and repeated collection of complex data documenting infections, decision-making for these infections, and antimicrobial bacteria resistance among the residents. SPREAD integrates methods in dementia, palliative care and infectious diseases research. Its successful implementation further establishes the feasibility of conducting rigorous, multi-site NH research in advanced dementia, and the described methodology serves as a detailed reference for subsequent publications emanating from the study. PMID:22925431

  4. Application of the MIAS methodology in design of the data acquisition system for wastewater treatment plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćwikła, G.; Krenczyk, D.; Kampa, A.; Gołda, G.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents application of MIAS (Manufacturing Information Acquisition System) methodology to develop customized data acquisition system supporting management of the Central Wastewater Treatment Plant (CWWTP) in Gliwice, Poland, being example of production systems leading continuous flow, automated production processes. Access to current data on the state of production system is a key to efficient management of a company, allowing fast reaction or even anticipation of future problems with equipment and reduction of waste. Overview of both analysis and synthesis of organisational solutions, data sources, data pre-processing and communication interfaces, realised according to proposed MIAS methodology, had been presented. The stage of analysis covered i.e.: organisational structure of the company, IT systems used in the company, specifics of technological processes, machines and equipment, structure of control systems, assignments of crew members, materials used in the technological processes. This paper also presents results of the stage of synthesis of technical and organisational solutions of MIAS for CWWTP, including proposed solutions covering MIAS architecture and connections with other IT systems, data sources in production system that are currently available and newly created, data preprocessing procedures, and necessary communication interfaces.

  5. Design and application of complementary educational resources for self-learning methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrés Gilarranz Casado, Carlos; Rodriguez-Sinobas, Leonor

    2016-04-01

    The main goal of this work is enhanced the student`s self-learning in subjects regarding irrigation and its technology. Thus, the use of visual media (video recording) during the lectures (master classes and practicum) will help the students in understanding the scope of the course since they can watch the recorded material at any time and as many times they wish. The study comprised two parts. In the first, lectures were video filmed inside the classroom during one semester (16 weeks and four hours per week) in the course "Irrigation Systems and Technology" which is taught at the Technical University of Madrid. In total, 200 videos, approximated 12 min long, were recorded. Since the You tube platform is a worldwide platform and since it is commonly used by students and professors, the videos were uploaded in it. Then, the URL was inserted in the Moodle platform which contains the materials for the course. In the second part, the videos were edited and formatted. Special care was taking to maintain image and audio quality. Finally, thirty videos were developed which focused on the different main areas of the course and containing a clear and brief explanation of their basis. Each video lasted between 30 and 45 min Finally, a survey was handled at the end of the semester in order to assess the students' opinion about the methodology. In the questionnaire, the students highlighted the key aspects during the learning process and in general, they were very satisfied with the methodology.

  6. Optimization of chitosan nanoparticles for colon tumors using experimental design methodology.

    PubMed

    Jain, Anekant; Jain, Sanjay K

    2016-12-01

    Purpose Colon-specific drug delivery systems (CDDS) can improve the bio-availability of drugs through the oral route. A novel formulation for oral administration using ligand coupled chitosan nanoparticles bearing 5-Flurouracil (5FU) encapsulated in enteric coated pellets has been investigated for CDDS. Method The effect of polymer concentration, drug concentration, stirring time and stirring speed on the encapsulation efficiency, and size of nanoparticles were evaluated. The best (or optimum) formulation was obtained by response surface methodology. Using the experimental data, analysis of variance has been carried out to evolve linear empirical models. Using a new methodology, polynomial models have been evolved and the parametric analysis has been carried out. In order to target nanoparticles to the hyaluronic acid (HA) receptors present on colon tumors, HA coupled nanoparticles were tested for their efficacy in vivo. The HA coupled nanoparticles were encapsulated in pellets and were enteric coated to release the drug in the colon. Results Drug release studies under conditions of mimicking stomach to colon transit have shown that the drug was protected from being released in the physiological environment of the stomach and small intestine. The relatively high local drug concentration with prolonged exposure time provides a potential to enhance anti-tumor efficacy with low systemic toxicity for the treatment of colon cancer. Conclusions Conclusively, HA coupled nanoparticles can be considered as the potential candidate for targeted drug delivery and are anticipated to be promising in the treatment of colorectal cancer.

  7. Optical binary de Bruijn networks for massively parallel computing: design methodology and feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louri, Ahmed; Sung, Hongki

    1995-10-01

    The interconnection network structure can be the deciding and limiting factor in the cost and the performance of parallel computers. One of the most popular point-to-point interconnection networks for parallel computers today is the hypercube. The regularity, logarithmic diameter, symmetry, high connectivity, fault tolerance, simple routing, and reconfigurability (easy embedding of other network topologies) of the hypercube make it a very attractive choice for parallel computers. Unfortunately the hypercube possesses a major drawback, which is the links per node increases as the network grows in size. As an alternative to the hypercube, the binary de Bruijn (BdB) network has recently received much attention. The BdB not only provides a logarithmic diameter, fault tolerance, and simple routing but also requires fewer links than the hypercube for the same network size. Additionally, a major advantage of the BdB edges per node is independent of the network size. This makes it very desirable for large-scale parallel systems. However, because of its asymmetrical nature and global connectivity, it poses a major challenge for VLSI technology. Optics, owing to its three-dimensional and global-connectivity nature, seems to be very suitable for implementing BdB networks. We present an implementation methodology for optical BdB networks. The distinctive feature of the proposed implementation methodology is partitionability of the network into a few primitive operations that can be implemented efficiently. We further show feasibility of the

  8. A Design Heritage-Based Forecasting Methodology for Risk Informed Management of Advanced Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maggio, Gaspare; Fragola, Joseph R.

    1999-01-01

    The development of next generation systems often carries with it the promise of improved performance, greater reliability, and reduced operational costs. These expectations arise from the use of novel designs, new materials, advanced integration and production technologies intended for functionality replacing the previous generation. However, the novelty of these nascent technologies is accompanied by lack of operational experience and, in many cases, no actual testing as well. Therefore some of the enthusiasm surrounding most new technologies may be due to inflated aspirations from lack of knowledge rather than actual future expectations. This paper proposes a design heritage approach for improved reliability forecasting of advanced system components. The basis of the design heritage approach is to relate advanced system components to similar designs currently in operation. The demonstrated performance of these components could then be used to forecast the expected performance and reliability of comparable advanced technology components. In this approach the greater the divergence of the advanced component designs from the current systems the higher the uncertainty that accompanies the associated failure estimates. Designers of advanced systems are faced with many difficult decisions. One of the most common and more difficult types of these decisions are those related to the choice between design alternatives. In the past decision-makers have found these decisions to be extremely difficult to make because they often involve the trade-off between a known performing fielded design and a promising paper design. When it comes to expected reliability performance the paper design always looks better because it is on paper and it addresses all the know failure modes of the fielded design. On the other hand there is a long, and sometimes very difficult road, between the promise of a paper design and its fulfillment; with the possibility that sometimes the reliability

  9. Theories and Research Methodologies for Design-Based Implementation Research: Examples from Four Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Jennifer Lin; Jackson, Kara; Krumm, Andrew E.; Frank, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Design-Based Implementation Research is the process of engaging "learning scientists, policy researchers, and practitioners in a model of collaborative, iterative, and systematic research and development" designed to address persistent problems of teaching and learning. Addressing persistent problems of teaching and learning requires…

  10. Addressing risk in the design of new healthcare services: a step-by-step methodology.

    PubMed

    Remus, Beth

    2008-01-01

    New service design can be done effectively through enterprise risk management (ERM) by identifying the clinical and administrative risks within the new service design. This article proposes a 10-step process describing the business team's tasks and integrating risk management, quality management and patient safety concepts.

  11. MODeLeR: A Virtual Constructivist Learning Environment and Methodology for Object-Oriented Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffey, John W.; Koonce, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This article contains a description of the organization and method of use of an active learning environment named MODeLeR, (Multimedia Object Design Learning Resource), a tool designed to facilitate the learning of concepts pertaining to object modeling with the Unified Modeling Language (UML). MODeLeR was created to provide an authentic,…

  12. Production of laccase from Pleurotus florida NCIM 1243 using Plackett-Burman design and response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Palvannan, T; Sathishkumar, P

    2010-08-01

    Statistically-based experimental designs were applied to optimize the fermentation for the production of laccase by Pleurotus florida NCIM 1243. Eleven components were screened for their significant effect on laccase production using Plackett-Burman factorial design. Glucose (carbon source), asparagine (nitrogen source), CuSO(4)(inducer) and incubation period were found to have highest positive influence on the laccase production. The combined effect of these factors on laccase production was studied using central composite design of Response surface methodology. The optimal point of variables for maximum laccase production using Response surface methodology are glucose (15.21 g/l), asparagine (6.40 g/l), CuSO(4) (91.78 microM) and incubation period (178.55 h), respectively. The maximum enzyme activity predicted by the model was 5.0 U/ml which was in perfect agreement with the actual experimental value (4.8 U/ml). Further, partially purified laccase from the optimized cultural condition was used for the decolorization of reactive dyes, Reactive Blue 198 and Reactive Red 35.

  13. Design of Economic Evaluations of Mindfulness-Based Interventions: Ten Methodological Questions of Which to Be Mindful.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor; Bryning, Lucy; Crane, Rebecca

    Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) are being increasingly applied in a variety of settings. A growing body of evidence to support the effectiveness of these interventions exists and there are a few published cost-effectiveness studies. With limited resources available within public sectors (health care, social care, and education), it is necessary to build in concurrent economic evaluations alongside trials in order to inform service commissioning and policy. If future research studies are well-designed, they have strong potential to investigate the economic impact of MBIs. The particular challenge to the health economist is how best to capture the ways that MBIs help people adjust to or build resilience to difficult life circumstances, and to disseminate effectively to enable policy makers to judge the value of the contribution that MBIs can make within the context of the limited resourcing of public services. In anticipation of more research worldwide evaluating MBIs in various settings, this article suggests ten health economics methodological design questions that researchers may want to consider prior to conducting MBI research. These questions draw on both published standards of good methodological practice in economic evaluation of medical interventions, and on the authors' knowledge and experience of mindfulness-based practice. We argue that it is helpful to view MBIs as both complex interventions and as public health prevention initiatives. Our suggestions for well-designed economic evaluations of MBIs in health and other settings, mirror current thinking on the challenges and opportunities of public health economics.

  14. The inclusion of ergonomic tools in the informational, conceptual and preliminary phases of the product design methodology.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Ivan Luiz de; Batiz, Eduardo Concepción

    2012-01-01

    The process of product development has received special attention as it is being recognized as a source of competitive gain. Through its systematic use companies reduce costs, increase quality and decrease development time. However, one can find products being launched on the market that cause dissatisfaction to its users, and in consequence if the customer feels harmed or injured he will no longer purchase a product from the same brand. This in regard only to the commercial aspect; usually the danger of an accident or injury is not even thought about. This paper is the basis of the dissertation master's degree and used a literature research to build the repertoire, analyzing the methodologies applied by product design engineers, designers and ergonomists. The analysis results demonstrate the inefficiency of the design methodologies ergonomic issues. The contribution of this work lies in the suggestion to include ergonomic tools in all phases of product development and the presentation of a table with the tools that points out its most suitable time of application and results.

  15. Specification and Design Methodologies for High-Speed Fault-Tolerant Array Algorithms and Structures for VLSI.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    A182 772 SPECIFICATION AND DESIGN METHODOLOGIES FOR NIGH-SPEED 11 FAULT-TOLERANT ARRA.. CU) CALIFORNIA UNIY LOS ANGELES DEPT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE M D ...ERCEGOVAC ET AL. JUN 0? UNLASSIFIED N611-03--K-S49 F/ 91 ML Ji 1 2. ~ iiii -i ’IfIhIN I_______ IIIII .l n. ’ 3 ’ 3 .3 .5 *. .. w w, - .. .J’. ~ d ...STRUCTURES FOR VLSI Office of Naval Research Contract No. N00014-83-K-0493 Principal Investigator Milo D . Ercegovac ELECTE Co-Principal Ivestigator S AUG 0

  16. Progress on the RF Coupling Coil Module Design for the MICEChannel

    SciTech Connect

    Li, D.; Green, M.A.; Virostek, S.P.; Zisman, M.S.; Lau, W.; White, A.E.; Yang, S.Q.

    2005-05-08

    We describe the progress on the design of the RF coupling coil (RFCC) module for the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the UK. The MICE cooling channel design consists of one SFOFO cell that is similar to that of the US Study-II of a neutrino factory. The MICE RFCC module comprises a superconducting solenoid, mounted around four normal conducting 201.25-MHz RF cavities. Each cavity has a pair of thin curved beryllium windows to close the conventional open beam irises, which allows for independent control of the phase in each cavity and for the RF power to be fed separately. The coil package that surrounds the RF cavities is mounted on a vacuum vessel. The RF vacuum is shared between the cavities and the vacuum vessel around the cavities such that there is no differential pressure on the thin beryllium windows. This paper discusses the design progress of the RFCC module and the fabrication progress of a prototype 201.25-MHz cavity.

  17. Combat Systems Vision 2030 Combat System Architecture: Design Principles and Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    infrastructure to support it. Currently, industry activity in the area of information system development is high. In essence, corporations have automated their...lifecycle costs , etc., and distributes or allocates them to the subsystems of the functional architecture. At this point, the functional architecture... cost , etc., to the combat system elements. The third step in developing a feasibility design is that of tradeoff and optimization. The best design is

  18. Methodology for the structural design of single spoke accelerating cavities at Fermilab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passarelli, Donato; Wands, Robert H.; Merio, Margherita; Ristori, Leonardo

    2016-10-01

    Fermilab is planning to upgrade its accelerator complex to deliver a more powerful and intense proton-beam for neutrino experiments. In the framework of the so-called Proton Improvement Plan-II (PIP-II), we are designing and developing a cryomodule containing superconducting accelerating cavities, the Single Spoke Resonators of type 1 (SSR1). In this paper, we present the sequence of analysis and calculations performed for the structural design of these cavities, using the rules of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC). The lack of an accepted procedure for addressing the design, fabrication, and inspection of such unique pressure vessels makes the task demanding and challenging every time. Several factors such as exotic materials, unqualified brazing procedures, limited nondestructive examination, and the general R&D nature of these early generations of cavity design, conspire to make it impractical to obtain full compliance with all ASME BPVC requirements. However, the presented approach allowed us to validate the design of this new generation of single spoke cavities with values of maximum allowable working pressure that exceeds the safety requirements. This set of rules could be used as a starting point for the structural design and development of similar objects.

  19. Theoretical and experimental investigation of design for multioptical-axis freeform progressive addition lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, HuaZhong; Chen, JiaBi; Zhu, TianFen; Wei, YeFei; Fu, DongXiang

    2015-11-01

    A freeform progressive addition lens (PAL) provides a good solution to correct presbyopia and prevent juvenile myopia by distributing pupils' optical powers of distance zone, near zone, and intermediate zone and is more widely adopted in the present optometric study. However, there is still a lack of a single-optical-axis system for the design of a PAL. This paper focuses on the research for an approach for designing a freeform PAL. A multioptical-axis system based on real viewing conditions using the eyes is employed for the representation of the freeform surface. We filled small pupils in the intermediate zone as a progressive corridor and the distance- and near-vision portions were defined as the standard spherical surfaces delimited by quadratic curves. Three freeform PALs with a spherical surface as the front side and a freeform surface as the backside were designed. We demonstrate the fabrication and measurement technologies for the PAL surface using computer numerical control machine tools from Schneider Smart and a Visionix VM-2000 Lens Power Mapper. Surface power and astigmatic values were obtained. Preliminary results showed that the approach for the design and fabrication is helpful to advance the design procedure optimization and mass production of PALs in optometry.

  20. Progress in cavity and cryomodule design for the Project X linac

    SciTech Connect

    Champion, M.; Barbanotti, S.; Foley, M.; Ginsburg, S.; Gonin, I; Grimm, C.; Kerby, J.; Nagaitsev, S.; Nicol, T.; Peterson, T.; Ristori, L.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The continuous wave 3 GeV Project X Linac requires the development of two families of cavities and cryomodules at 325 and 650 MHz. The baseline design calls for three types of superconducting single-spoke resonators at 325 MHz having betas of 0.11, 0.22, and 0.42 and two types of superconducting five-cell elliptical cavities having betas of 0.61 and 0.9. These cavities shall accelerate a 1 mA H- beam initially and must support eventual operation at 4 mA. The electromagnetic and mechanical designs of the cavities are in progress and acquisition of prototypes is planned. The heat load to the cryogenic system is up to 25 W per cavity in the 650 MHz section, thus segmentation of the cryogenic system is a major issue in the cryomodule design. Designs for the two families of cryomodules are underway.

  1. A methodology for aeroelastic constraint analysis in a conceptual design environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Baets, Peter Wilfried Gaston

    The objective of this study is the infusion of aeroelastic constraint knowledge into the design space. The mapping of such aeroelastic information in the conceptual design space has long been a desire of the design community. The conceptual design phase of an aircraft is a multidisciplinary environment and has the most influence on the future design of the vehicle. However, sufficient results cannot he obtained in a timely enough manner to materially contribute to early design decisions. Furthermore, the natural division of the engineering team into specialty groups is not well supported by the monolithic aerodynamic-structures codes typically used in modern aeroelastic analysis. The research examines how the Bi-Level Integrated System Synthesis decomposition technique can be adapted to perform as the conceptual aeroelastic design tool. The study describes a comprehensive solution of the aeroelastic coupled problem cast in this decomposition format and implemented in an integrated framework. The method is supported by application details of a proof of concept high speed vehicle. Physics-based codes such as finite element and an aerodynamic panel method are used to model the high-definition geometric characteristics of the vehicle. A synthesis and sizing code was added to referee the conflicts that arise between the two disciplines. This research's novelty lies in four points. First is the use of physics-based tools at the conceptual design phase to calculate the aeroelastic properties. Second is the projection of flutter and divergence velocity constraint lines in a power loading versus wing loading graph. Third is the aeroelastic assessment time reduction, which has moved from a matter of years to months. Lastly, this assessment allowed verification of the impact of changing velocity, altitude, and angle of attack on the aeroelastic properties. This then allowed identification of robust design space with respect to these three mission properties. The method

  2. Optimizing an experimental design for a CSEM experiment: methodology and synthetic tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roux, E.; Garcia, X.

    2014-04-01

    Optimizing an experimental design is a compromise between maximizing information we get about the target and limiting the cost of the experiment, providing a wide range of constraints. We present a statistical algorithm for experiment design that combines the use of linearized inverse theory and stochastic optimization technique. Linearized inverse theory is used to quantify the quality of one given experiment design while genetic algorithm (GA) enables us to examine a wide range of possible surveys. The particularity of our algorithm is the use of the multi-objective GA NSGA II that searches designs that fit several objective functions (OFs) simultaneously. This ability of NSGA II is helping us in defining an experiment design that focuses on a specified target area. We present a test of our algorithm using a 1-D electrical subsurface structure. The model we use represents a simple but realistic scenario in the context of CO2 sequestration that motivates this study. Our first synthetic test using a single OF shows that a limited number of well-distributed observations from a chosen design have the potential to resolve the given model. This synthetic test also points out the importance of a well-chosen OF, depending on our target. In order to improve these results, we show how the combination of two OFs using a multi-objective GA enables us to determine an experimental design that maximizes information about the reservoir layer. Finally, we present several tests of our statistical algorithm in more challenging environments by exploring the influence of noise, specific site characteristics or its potential for reservoir monitoring.

  3. Operationalising the Lean principles in maternity service design using 3P methodology.

    PubMed

    Smith, Iain

    2016-01-01

    The last half century has seen significant changes to Maternity services in England. Though rates of maternal and infant mortality have fallen to very low levels, this has been achieved largely through hospital admission. It has been argued that maternity services may have become over-medicalised and service users have expressed a preference for more personalised care. NHS England's national strategy sets out a vision for a modern maternity service that continues to deliver safe care whilst also adopting the principles of personalisation. Therefore, there is a need to develop maternity services that balance safety with personal choice. To address this challenge, a maternity unit in North East England considered improving their service through refurbishment or building new facilities. Using a design process known as the production preparation process (or 3P), the Lean principles of understanding user value, mapping value-streams, creating flow, developing pull processes and continuous improvement were applied to the design of a new maternity department. Multiple stakeholders were engaged in the design through participation in a time-out (3P) workshop in which an innovative pathway and facility for maternity services were co-designed. The team created a hybrid model that they described as "wrap around care" in which the Lean concept of pull was applied to create a service and facility design in which expectant mothers were put at the centre of care with clinicians, skills, equipment and supplies drawn towards them in line with acuity changes as needed. Applying the Lean principles using the 3P method helped stakeholders to create an innovative design in line with the aspirations and objectives of the National Maternity Review. The case provides a practical example of stakeholders applying the Lean principles to maternity services and demonstrates the potential applicability of the Lean 3P approach to design healthcare services in line with policy requirements.

  4. Operationalising the Lean principles in maternity service design using 3P methodology

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Iain

    2016-01-01

    The last half century has seen significant changes to Maternity services in England. Though rates of maternal and infant mortality have fallen to very low levels, this has been achieved largely through hospital admission. It has been argued that maternity services may have become over-medicalised and service users have expressed a preference for more personalised care. NHS England's national strategy sets out a vision for a modern maternity service that continues to deliver safe care whilst also adopting the principles of personalisation. Therefore, there is a need to develop maternity services that balance safety with personal choice. To address this challenge, a maternity unit in North East England considered improving their service through refurbishment or building new facilities. Using a design process known as the production preparation process (or 3P), the Lean principles of understanding user value, mapping value-streams, creating flow, developing pull processes and continuous improvement were applied to the design of a new maternity department. Multiple stakeholders were engaged in the design through participation in a time-out (3P) workshop in which an innovative pathway and facility for maternity services were co-designed. The team created a hybrid model that they described as “wrap around care” in which the Lean concept of pull was applied to create a service and facility design in which expectant mothers were put at the centre of care with clinicians, skills, equipment and supplies drawn towards them in line with acuity changes as needed. Applying the Lean principles using the 3P method helped stakeholders to create an innovative design in line with the aspirations and objectives of the National Maternity Review. The case provides a practical example of stakeholders applying the Lean principles to maternity services and demonstrates the potential applicability of the Lean 3P approach to design healthcare services in line with policy requirements

  5. Crossing Active Faults on the Sakhalin II Onshore Pipeline Route: Analysis Methodology and Basic Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitali, Luigino; Mattiozzi, Pierpaolo

    2008-07-01

    Twin oil (20 & 24 inch) and gas (20 & 48 inch) pipeline systems stretching 800 km are being constructed to connect offshore hydrocarbon deposits from the Sakhalin II concession in the North to an LNG plant and oil export terminal in the South of Sakhalin island. The onshore pipeline route follows a regional fault zone and crosses individual active faults at 19 locations. Sakhalin Energy, Design and Construction companies took significant care to ensure the integrity of the pipelines, should large seismic induced ground movements occur during the Operational life of the facilities. Complex investigations including the identification of the active faults, their precise location, their particular displacement values and assessment of the fault kinematics were carried out to provide input data for unique design solutions. Lateral and reverse offset displacements of 5.5 and 4.5 m respectively were determined as the single-event values for the design level earthquake (DLE)—the 1000-year return period event. Within the constraints of a pipeline route largely fixed, the underground pipeline fault crossing design was developed to define the optimum routing which would minimize stresses and strain using linepipe materials which had been ordered prior to the completion of detailed design, and to specify requirements for pipe trenching shape, materials, drainage system, etc. This Paper describes the steps followed to formulate the concept of the special trenches and the analytical characteristics of the Model.

  6. Methodology for the structural design of single spoke accelerating cavities at Fermilab

    DOE PAGES

    Passarelli, Donato; Wands, Robert H.; Merio, Margherita; ...

    2016-10-01

    Fermilab is planning to upgrade its accelerator complex to deliver a more powerful and intense proton-beam for neutrino experiments. In the framework of the so-called Proton Improvement Plan-II (PIP-II), we are designing and developing a cryomodule containing superconducting accelerating cavities, the Single Spoke Resonators of type 1 (SSR1). In this paper, we present the sequence of analysis and calculations performed for the structural de- sign of these cavities, using the rules of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC). The lack of an accepted procedure for addressing the design, fabrication, and inspection of suchmore » unique pressure vessels makes the task demanding and challenging every time. Several factors such as exotic materials, unqualified brazing procedures, limited nondestructive examination, and the general R&D nature of these early generations of cavity design, conspire to make it impractical to obtain full compliance with all ASME BPVC requirements. However, the presented approach allowed us to validate the design of these new generation of single spoke cavities with values of maximum allowable working pressure that exceed the safety requirements. This set of rules could be used as a starting point for the structural design and development of similar objects.« less

  7. Methodology for the structural design of single spoke accelerating cavities at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Passarelli, Donato; Wands, Robert H.; Merio, Margherita; Ristori, Leonardo

    2016-10-01

    Fermilab is planning to upgrade its accelerator complex to deliver a more powerful and intense proton-beam for neutrino experiments. In the framework of the so-called Proton Improvement Plan-II (PIP-II), we are designing and developing a cryomodule containing superconducting accelerating cavities, the Single Spoke Resonators of type 1 (SSR1). In this paper, we present the sequence of analysis and calculations performed for the structural de- sign of these cavities, using the rules of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC). The lack of an accepted procedure for addressing the design, fabrication, and inspection of such unique pressure vessels makes the task demanding and challenging every time. Several factors such as exotic materials, unqualified brazing procedures, limited nondestructive examination, and the general R&D nature of these early generations of cavity design, conspire to make it impractical to obtain full compliance with all ASME BPVC requirements. However, the presented approach allowed us to validate the design of these new generation of single spoke cavities with values of maximum allowable working pressure that exceed the safety requirements. This set of rules could be used as a starting point for the structural design and development of similar objects.

  8. Crossing Active Faults on the Sakhalin II Onshore Pipeline Route: Analysis Methodology and Basic Design

    SciTech Connect

    Vitali, Luigino; Mattiozzi, Pierpaolo

    2008-07-08

    Twin oil (20 and 24 inch) and gas (20 and 48 inch) pipeline systems stretching 800 km are being constructed to connect offshore hydrocarbon deposits from the Sakhalin II concession in the North to an LNG plant and oil export terminal in the South of Sakhalin island. The onshore pipeline route follows a regional fault zone and crosses individual active faults at 19 locations. Sakhalin Energy, Design and Construction companies took significant care to ensure the integrity of the pipelines, should large seismic induced ground movements occur during the Operational life of the facilities. Complex investigations including the identification of the active faults, their precise location, their particular displacement values and assessment of the fault kinematics were carried out to provide input data for unique design solutions. Lateral and reverse offset displacements of 5.5 and 4.5 m respectively were determined as the single-event values for the design level earthquake (DLE)--the 1000-year return period event. Within the constraints of a pipeline route largely fixed, the underground pipeline fault crossing design was developed to define the optimum routing which would minimize stresses and strain using linepipe materials which had been ordered prior to the completion of detailed design, and to specify requirements for pipe trenching shape, materials, drainage system, etc. This Paper describes the steps followed to formulate the concept of the special trenches and the analytical characteristics of the Model.

  9. French investigations of high burnup effect on LOCA thermomechanical behavior: Part 1. Experimental programmes in support of LOCA design methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    Waeckel, N.; Cauvin, R.; Lebuffe, C.

    1997-01-01

    Within the framework of Burn-Up extension request, EDF, FRAMATOME, CEA and IPSN have carried out experimental programmes in order to provide the design of fuel rods under LOCA conditions with relevant data. The design methods used in France for LOCA are based on standard Appendix K methodology updated to take into account some penalties related to the actual conditions of the Nuclear Power Plant. Best-Estimate assessments are used as well. Experimental programmes concern plastic deformation and burst behavior of advanced claddings (EDGAR) and thermal shock quenching behavior of highly irradiated claddings (TAGCIR). The former reveals the important role played by the {alpha}/{beta} transformation kinetics related to advanced alloys (Niobium alloys) and the latter the significative impact of hydrogen charged during in-reactor corrosion on oxidation kinetics and failure behavior in terms of cooling rates.

  10. A new design methodology of obtaining wide band high gain broadband parametric source for infrared wavelength applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maji, Partha Sona; Roy Chaudhuri, Partha

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we have presented a new design methodology of obtaining wide band parametric sources based on highly nonlinear chalcogenide material of As2S3. The dispersion profile of the photonic crystal fiber (PCF) has been engineered wisely by reducing the diameter of the second air-hole ring to have a favorable higher order dispersion parameter. The parametric gain dependence upon fiber length, pump power, and different pumping wavelengths has been investigated in detail. Based upon the nonlinear four wave mixing phenomenon, we are able to achieve a wideband parametric amplifier with peak gain of 29 dB with FWHM of ≈2000 nm around the IR wavelength by proper tailoring of the dispersion profile of the PCF with a continuous wave Erbium (Er3+)-doped ZBLAN fiber laser emitting at 2.8 μm as the pump source with an average power of 5 W. The new design methodology will unleash a new dimension to the chalcogenide material based investigation for wavelength translation around IR wavelength band.

  11. Verification of SMART Neutronics Design Methodology by the MCNAP Monte Carlo Code

    SciTech Connect

    Jong Sung Chung; Kyung Jin Shim; Chang Hyo Kim; Chungchan Lee; Sung Quun Zee

    2000-11-12

    SMART is a small advanced integral pressurized water reactor (PWR) of 330 MW(thermal) designed for both electricity generation and seawater desalinization. The CASMO-3/MASTER nuclear analysis system, a design-basis of Korean PWR plants, has been employed for the SMART core nuclear design and analysis because the fuel assembly (FA) characteristics and reactor operating conditions in temperature and pressure are similar to those of PWR plants. However, the SMART FAs are highly poisoned with more than 20 Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-B{sub 4}C plus additional Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}/UO{sub 2} BPRs each FA. The reactor is operated with control rods inserted. Therefore, the flux and power distribution may become more distorted than those of commercial PWR plants. In addition, SMART should produce power from room temperature to hot-power operating condition because it employs nuclear heating from room temperature. This demands reliable predictions of core criticality, shutdown margin, control rod worth, power distributions, and reactivity coefficients at both room temperature and hot operating condition, yet no such data are available to verify the CASMO-3/MASTER (hereafter MASTER) code system. In the absence of experimental verification data for the SMART neutronics design, the Monte Carlo depletion analysis program MCNAP is adopted as near-term alternatives for qualifying MASTER neutronics design calculations. The MCNAP is a personal computer-based continuous energy Monte Carlo neutronics analysis program written in C++ language. We established its qualification by presenting its prediction accuracy on measurements of Venus critical facilities and core neutronics analysis of a PWR plant in operation, and depletion characteristics of integral burnable absorber FAs of the current PWR. Here, we present a comparison of MASTER and MCNAP neutronics design calculations for SMART and establish the qualification of the MASTER system.

  12. Design of measurement methodology for the evaluation of human exposure to vibration in residential environments.

    PubMed

    Sica, G; Peris, E; Woodcock, J S; Moorhouse, A T; Waddington, D C

    2014-06-01

    Exposure-response relationships are important tools for policy makers to assess the impact of an environmental stressor on the populace. Their validity lies partly in their statistical strength which is greatly influenced by the size of the sample from which the relationship is derived. As such, the derivation of meaningful exposure-response relationships requires estimates of vibration exposure at a large number of receiver locations. In the United Kingdom a socio-vibrational survey has been conducted with the aim of deriving exposure-response relationships for annoyance due to vibration from (a) railway traffic and (b) the construction of a new light rail system. Response to vibration was measured via a questionnaire conducted face-to-face with residents in their own homes and vibration exposure was estimated using data from a novel measurement methodology. In total, 1281 questionnaires were conducted: 931 for vibration from railway traffic and 350 for vibration from construction sources. Considering the interdisciplinary nature of this work along with the volume of experimental data required, a number of significant technical and logistical challenges needed to be overcome through the planning and implementation of the fieldwork. Four of these challenges are considered in this paper: the site identification for providing a robust sample of the residents affected, the strategies used for measuring both exposure and response and the coordination between the teams carrying out the social survey and the vibration measurements.

  13. A Methodology for the Design and Verification of Globally Asynchronous/Locally Synchronous Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven P.; Whalen, Mike W.; O'Brien, Dan; Heimdahl, Mats P.; Joshi, Anjali

    2005-01-01

    Recent advanced in model-checking have made it practical to formally verify the correctness of many complex synchronous systems (i.e., systems driven by a single clock). However, many computer systems are implemented by asynchronously composing several synchronous components, where each component has its own clock and these clocks are not synchronized. Formal verification of such Globally Asynchronous/Locally Synchronous (GA/LS) architectures is a much more difficult task. In this report, we describe a methodology for developing and reasoning about such systems. This approach allows a developer to start from an ideal system specification and refine it along two axes. Along one axis, the system can be refined one component at a time towards an implementation. Along the other axis, the behavior of the system can be relaxed to produce a more cost effective but still acceptable solution. We illustrate this process by applying it to the synchronization logic of a Dual Fight Guidance System, evolving the system from an ideal case in which the components do not fail and communicate synchronously to one in which the components can fail and communicate asynchronously. For each step, we show how the system requirements have to change if the system is to be implemented and prove that each implementation meets the revised system requirements through modelchecking.

  14. Materials by design: methodological developments in the calculation of excited-state properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govoni, Marco

    Density functional theory (DFT) is one of the main tools used in first principle simulations of materials; however several of the current approximations of exchange and correlation functionals do not provide the level of accuracy required for predictive calculations of excited state properties. The application to heterogeneous systems of more accurate post-DFT approaches such as Many-Body Perturbation Theory (MBPT) - for example to nanostructured, disordered, and defective materials - has been hindered by high computational costs. In this talk recent methodological developments in MBPT calculations will be discussed, as recently implemented in the open source code WEST, which efficiently exploits HPC architectures. Results using a formulation that does not require the explicit calculation of virtual states, nor the storage and inversion of large dielectric matrices will be presented; these results include quasi particle energies for systems with thousands of electrons and encompass the electronic structure of aqueous solutions, spin defects in insulators, and benchmarks for molecules and solids containing heavy elements. Simplifications of MBPT calculations based on the use of static response properties, such as dielectric-dependent hybrid functionals, will also be discussed. Work done in collaboration with Hosung Seo, Peter Scherpelz, Ikutaro Hamada, Jonathan Skone, Alex Gaiduk, T. Anh Pham, and Giulia Galli. Supported by DOE-BES.

  15. Methodology for sensitivity analysis, approximate analysis, and design optimization in CFD for multidisciplinary applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Arthur C., III; Hou, Gene W.

    1993-01-01

    In this study involving advanced fluid flow codes, an incremental iterative formulation (also known as the delta or correction form) together with the well-known spatially-split approximate factorization algorithm, is presented for solving the very large sparse systems of linear equations which are associated with aerodynamic sensitivity analysis. For smaller 2D problems, a direct method can be applied to solve these linear equations in either the standard or the incremental form, in which case the two are equivalent. Iterative methods are needed for larger 2D and future 3D applications, however, because direct methods require much more computer memory than is currently available. Iterative methods for solving these equations in the standard form are generally unsatisfactory due to an ill-conditioning of the coefficient matrix; this problem can be overcome when these equations are cast in the incremental form. These and other benefits are discussed. The methodology is successfully implemented and tested in 2D using an upwind, cell-centered, finite volume formulation applied to the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations. Results are presented for two sample airfoil problems: (1) subsonic low Reynolds number laminar flow; and (2) transonic high Reynolds number turbulent flow.

  16. Probabilistic design analysis using Composite Loads Spectra (CLS) coupled with Probabilistic Structural Analysis Methodologies (PSAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newell, J. F.; Rajagopal, K. R.; Ho, H.

    1989-01-01

    Composite loads spectra (CLS) were applied to generate probabilistic loads for use in the PSAM nonlinear evaluation of stochastic structures under stress (NESSUS) finite element code. The CLS approach allows for quantifying loads as mean values and distributions around a central value rather than maximum or enveloped values typically used in deterministic analysis. NESSUS uses these loads to determine mean and perturbation responses. These results are probabilistically evaluated with the distributional information from CLS using a fast probabilistic integration (FPI) technique to define response distributions. The main example discussed describes a method of obtaining load descriptions and stress response of the second-stage turbine blade of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) high-pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP). Additional information is presented on the on-going analysis of the high pressure oxidizer turbopump discharge duct (HPOTP) where probabilistic dynamic loads have been generated and are in the process of being used for dynamic analysis. Example comparisons of load analysis and engine data are furnished for partial verification and/or justification for the methodology.

  17. The Telehealth Enhancement of Adherence to Medication in Pediatric IBD (TEAM) Trial: Design and Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Hommel, Kevin A.; Gray, Wendy N.; Hente, Elizabeth; Loreaux, Katherine; Ittenbach, Richard F.; Maddux, Michele; Baldassano, Robert; Sylvester, Francisco; Crandall, Wallace; Doarn, Charles; Heyman, Melvin B.; Keljo, David; Denson, Lee A.

    2015-01-01

    Medication nonadherence is a significant health care issue requiring regular behavioral treatment. Lack of sufficient health care resources and patient/family time commitment for weekly treatment are primary barriers to receiving appropriate self-management support. We describe the methodology of the Telehealth Enhancement of Adherence to Medication (TEAM) trial for medication nonadherence in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). For this trial, participants 11–18 years of age will be recruited from seven pediatric hospitals and will complete an initial 4-week run in to assess adherence to a daily medication. Those who take less than 90% of their prescribed medication will be randomized. A total of 194 patients with IBD will be randomized to either a telehealth behavioral treatment (TBT) arm or education only (EO) arm. All treatment will be delivered via telehealth video conferencing. Patients will be assessed at baseline, post-treatment, 3-, 6-, and 12-months. We anticipate that participants in the TBT arm will demonstrate a statistically significant improvement at post-treatment and 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up compared to participants in the EO arm for both medication adherence and secondary outcomes (i.e., disease severity, patient quality of life, and health care utilization). If efficacious, the TEAM intervention could be disseminated broadly and reduce health care access barriers so that patients could receive much needed self-management intervention. PMID:26003436

  18. PROLIFERATION RESISTANCE AND PHYSICAL PROTECTION WORKING GROUP: METHODOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Bari R. A.; Whitlock, J.; Therios, I.U.; Peterson, P.F.

    2012-11-14

    We summarize the technical progress and accomplishments on the evaluation methodology for proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR and PP) of Generation IV nuclear energy systems. We intend the results of the evaluations performed with the methodology for three types of users: system designers, program policy makers, and external stakeholders. The PR and PP Working Group developed the methodology through a series of demonstration and case studies. Over the past few years various national and international groups have applied the methodology to nuclear energy system designs as well as to developing approaches to advanced safeguards.

  19. Design of integrated pitch axis for autopilot/autothrottle and integrated lateral axis for autopilot/yaw damper for NASA TSRV airplane using integral LQG methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaminer, Isaac; Benson, Russell A.; Coleman, Edward E.; Ebrahimi, Yaghoob S.

    1990-01-01

    Two designs are presented for control systems for the NASA Transport System Research Vehicle (TSRV) using integral Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) methodology. The first is an integrated longitudinal autopilot/autothrottle design and the second design is an integrated lateral autopilot/yaw damper/sideslip controller design. It is shown that a systematic top-down approach to a complex design problem combined with proper application of modern control synthesis techniques yields a satisfactory solution in a reasonable period of time.

  20. Multivariable control of a twin lift helicopter system using the LQG/LTR design methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, A. A.; Athans, M.

    1986-01-01

    Guidelines for developing a multivariable centralized automatic flight control system (AFCS) for a twin lift helicopter system (TLHS) are presented. Singular value ideas are used to formulate performance and stability robustness specifications. A linear Quadratic Gaussian with Loop Transfer Recovery (LQG/LTR) design is obtained and evaluated.

  1. Optimization of fermentation conditions for P450 BM-3 monooxygenase production by hybrid design methodology*

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yan; Mei, Le-he

    2007-01-01

    Factorial design and response surface techniques were used to design and optimize increasing P450 BM-3 expression in E. coli. Operational conditions for maximum production were determined with twelve parameters under consideration: the concentration of FeCl3, induction at OD578 (optical density measured at 578 nm), induction time and inoculum concentration. Initially, Plackett-Burman (PB) design was used to evaluate the process variables relevant in relation to P450 BM-3 production. Four statistically significant parameters for response were selected and utilized in order to optimize the process. With the 416C model of hybrid design, response surfaces were generated, and P450 BM-3 production was improved to 57.90×10−3 U/ml by the best combinations of the physicochemical parameters at optimum levels of 0.12 mg/L FeCl3, inoculum concentration of 2.10%, induction at OD578 equal to 1.07, and with 6.05 h of induction. PMID:17173359

  2. Sample size calculations for the design of cluster randomized trials: A summary of methodology.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fei; Earnest, Arul; Matchar, David B; Campbell, Michael J; Machin, David

    2015-05-01

    Cluster randomized trial designs are growing in popularity in, for example, cardiovascular medicine research and other clinical areas and parallel statistical developments concerned with the design and analysis of these trials have been stimulated. Nevertheless, reviews suggest that design issues associated with cluster randomized trials are often poorly appreciated and there remain inadequacies in, for example, describing how the trial size is determined and the associated results are presented. In this paper, our aim is to provide pragmatic guidance for researchers on the methods of calculating sample sizes. We focus attention on designs with the primary purpose of comparing two interventions with respect to continuous, binary, ordered categorical, incidence rate and time-to-event outcome variables. Issues of aggregate and non-aggregate cluster trials, adjustment for variation in cluster size and the effect size are detailed. The problem of establishing the anticipated magnitude of between- and within-cluster variation to enable planning values of the intra-cluster correlation coefficient and the coefficient of variation are also described. Illustrative examples of calculations of trial sizes for each endpoint type are included.

  3. Experimental Methodology in English Teaching and Learning: Method Features, Validity Issues, and Embedded Experimental Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jang Ho

    2012-01-01

    Experimental methods have played a significant role in the growth of English teaching and learning studies. The paper presented here outlines basic features of experimental design, including the manipulation of independent variables, the role and practicality of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in educational research, and alternative methods…

  4. Developing a User Oriented Design Methodology for Learning Activities Using Boundary Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fragou, ?lga; Kameas, Achilles

    2013-01-01

    International Standards in High and Open and Distance Education are used for developing Open Educational Resources (OERs). Current issues in e-learning community are the specification of learning chunks and the definition of describing designs for different units of learning (activities, units, courses) in a generic though expandable format.…

  5. Investigating an Open Methodology for Designing Domain-Specific Language Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Alannah; Wu, Shaoqun; Barge, Martin

    2014-01-01

    With this research and design paper, we are proposing that Open Educational Resources (OERs) and Open Access (OA) publications give increasing access to high quality online educational and research content for the development of powerful domain-specific language collections that can be further enhanced linguistically with the Flexible Language…

  6. Single Group, Pre- and Post-Test Research Designs: Some Methodological Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, Emma; Torgerson, Carole J.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides two illustrations of some of the factors that can influence findings from pre- and post-test research designs in evaluation studies, including regression to the mean (RTM), maturation, history and test effects. The first illustration involves a re-analysis of data from a study by Marsden (2004), in which pre-test scores are…

  7. Applications of different design methodologies in navigation systems and development at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurman, S. W.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA/JPL deep space navigation system consists of a complex array of measurement systems, data processing systems, and support facilities, with components located both on the ground and on-board interplanetary spacecraft. From its beginings nearly 30 years ago, this system has steadily evolved and grown to meet the demands for ever-increasing navigation accuracy placed on it by a succession of unmanned planetary missions. Principal characteristics of this system are its capabilities and great complexity. Three examples in the design and development of interplanetary space navigation systems are examined in order to make a brief assessment of the usefulness of three basic design theories, known as normative, rational, and heuristic. Evaluation of the examples indicates that a heuristic approach, coupled with rational-based mathematical and computational analysis methods, is used most often in problems such as orbit determination strategy development and mission navigation system design, while normative methods have seen only limited use is such applications as the development of large software systems and in the design of certain operational navigation subsystems.

  8. Optimal groundwater remediation design: Methodologies and software for contaminated aquifers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, D.E.

    1994-10-31

    This document comprises the final report of work performed under sub-contract B-239648 between the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the University of Vermont (UVM). This contract was subsidiary to one between LLNL and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This project had the goal of developing tools and strategies regarding how and where and when to apply the environmental restoration (ER) technologies that are under development. The development of decision support software for advanced environmental remediation technologies is tentative; many of the ER technologies are poorly understood, the applicability of methods to new untested sites is questionable, the ability to predict the effects of alternative remediation designs is very limited, and there are a large number of uncertainties associated with processes and parameters (physical, chemical, and biological), contaminants (distribution and type), and sociopolitical environment. Nevertheless, the potential for significant savings by using optimal design methods and the need to make decisions regardless of uncertainties has made this project worthy. A stop-work order was received in September 1994. An additional upper limit of $15,000 was provided for project termination activities, including report preparation. One of four deliverables was completed and provided to LLNL. MODLP is a computational tool for use in groundwater remediation design. It is a FORTRAN program that incorporates the well known and widely used MODFLOW simulator to represent flow of water in a saturated natural porous medium. MODLP is designed to allow the user to create and solve optimization problems for hydraulic control in groundwater systems. Inasmuch as environmental restoration costs are very large, savings of on the order of ten percent represent significant amounts, and optimal design has been demonstrated to help produce savings larger than ten percent, these activities have an important role to play within DOE.

  9. A methodology of evaluation and design of fields of focusing heliostats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennet, J.-C.

    Numerical models for the representation of a field of focusing heliostats, for performance optimization, and for computer-aided design of heliostat fields are presented. A simplified global analysis is used, together with the physical properties of concentrated solar energy. Attention is given to design constraints caused by physics and economics, the efficiency, and the availability of the system. Precise quantification of the solar flux produced by the heliostat field is undertaken, regarding each reflected ray as a primary component surrounded by a conic envelope. Approximations are formulated for the effects of shade and blockage between the heliostats. A performance matrix is devised to predict annual output based on a branch and bound method. Finally, optimization is described in terms of a triangular-block structure and the performance matrix as bases for a parametric analysis.

  10. Fiber Trajectories Design of Ellipsoid Component Based on Topological Mapping Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Rong; Liu, Bin

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a topological mapping algorithm for ellipsoid component winding trajectory. The sphere with double opposite holes was used as initial winding trajectory design model. The double opposite holes ellipsoid winding trajectory was obtained form that of the double-holes-sphere based on topological mapping algorithm. The basic equation of equilibrium for ellipsoidal mapping trajectory was given and its slippage coefficients were calculated using the non-geodesic law and differential geometry. The variation of slippage coefficients with holes-radius and ellipsoid rate were analyzed. The results show that, when ellipsoidal rate get close to 1 gradually, the better stability of fiber trajectories was obtained by topological mapping function. The ellipsoid component with lager holes-radius requires lower coefficient of friction between the fiber bundle and the ellipsoid surface. This fiber trajectory mapping function in the paper presents a useful tool for designing the double opposite holes ellipsoid filament-wound component trajectory.

  11. Agent-based Cyber Control Strategy Design for Resilient Control Systems: Concepts, Architecture and Methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Rieger; Milos Manic; Miles McQueen

    2012-08-01

    The implementation of automated regulatory control has been around since the middle of the last century through analog means. It has allowed engineers to operate the plant more consistently by focusing on overall operations and settings instead of individual monitoring of local instruments (inside and outside of a control room). A similar approach is proposed for cyber security, where current border-protection designs have been inherited from information technology developments that lack consideration of the high-reliability, high consequence nature of industrial control systems. Instead of an independent development, however, an integrated approach is taken to develop a holistic understanding of performance. This performance takes shape inside a multiagent design, which provides a notional context to model highly decentralized and complex industrial process control systems, the nervous system of critical infrastructure. The resulting strategy will provide a framework for researching solutions to security and unrecognized interdependency concerns with industrial control systems.

  12. Experimental design methodologies to optimise the spectrofluorimetric determination of Losartan and Valsartan in human urine.

    PubMed

    Cagigal, E; González, L; Alonso, R M; Jiménez, R M

    2001-07-06

    A spectrofluorimetric method has been developed for the determination of two angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARA II): Losartan and Valsartan. A fractional factorial design and a central composite design were used. The key factors considered in the optimization process were pH, temperature and emission slit width. Maximum fluorescent intensity was established as response for each experiment. The response surfaces confirmed the robustness of the method. A clean-up procedure was used for urine samples that consisted of a solid-phase extraction using C8 cartridges. The total analysis time was lower than 30 min. This method proved to be accurate (RE, 8%), precise (intra- and inter-day coefficients of variation were lower than 8% and sensitive enough (LOQ c.a. 0.5 mug ml(-1)) to be applied to the determination of Losartan and Valsartan in urine samples.

  13. A Methodology for the Optimization of Disaggregated Space System Conceptual Designs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-18

    system: A business case tool for DARPA’s F6 program.," in Aerospace Conference, Big Sky, 2012, pp. 1-20. [10] R Thompson, J Colombi, J Black, and B...and Brad Ayres, "Computer Aided Design of Disaggregate Systems," in IEEE Aerospace, Big Sky, MT, 2014. [30] Azad M Madni, "Generating Novel Options...Thompson, John Colombi, and Jonathan Black, "Computer-Aided Architecting of Disaggregated Space Systems," in IEEE Aerospace Conference, Big Sky, MT

  14. Reliability Sensitivity Analysis and Design Optimization of Composite Structures Based on Response Surface Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rais-Rohani, Masoud

    2003-01-01

    This report discusses the development and application of two alternative strategies in the form of global and sequential local response surface (RS) techniques for the solution of reliability-based optimization (RBO) problems. The problem of a thin-walled composite circular cylinder under axial buckling instability is used as a demonstrative example. In this case, the global technique uses a single second-order RS model to estimate the axial buckling load over the entire feasible design space (FDS) whereas the local technique uses multiple first-order RS models with each applied to a small subregion of FDS. Alternative methods for the calculation of unknown coefficients in each RS model are explored prior to the solution of the optimization problem. The example RBO problem is formulated as a function of 23 uncorrelated random variables that include material properties, thickness and orientation angle of each ply, cylinder diameter and length, as well as the applied load. The mean values of the 8 ply thicknesses are treated as independent design variables. While the coefficients of variation of all random variables are held fixed, the standard deviations of ply thicknesses can vary during the optimization process as a result of changes in the design variables. The structural reliability analysis is based on the first-order reliability method with reliability index treated as the design constraint. In addition to the probabilistic sensitivity analysis of reliability index, the results of the RBO problem are presented for different combinations of cylinder length and diameter and laminate ply patterns. The two strategies are found to produce similar results in terms of accuracy with the sequential local RS technique having a considerably better computational efficiency.

  15. General Matthew B. Ridgway and Army Design Methodology during the Korean War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    Forces Far East exemplify the practical application of operational art and design. The monograph concludes with a discussion on the importance of the...authorizing the creation and staffing of the Korean Military Advisory Group (KMAG) by U.S. Army personnel.19 After the NKPA’s invasion of South Korea, the...MacArthur Controversy and the Korean War, 88. 9 After receiving direction from so many interested groups , MacArthur found loopholes within his strategic

  16. A logical approach to optimize the nanostructured lipid carrier system of irinotecan: efficient hybrid design methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan Negi, Lalit; Jaggi, Manu; Talegaonkar, Sushama

    2013-01-01

    Development of an effective formulation involves careful optimization of a number of excipient and process variables. Sometimes the number of variables is so large that even the most efficient optimization designs require a very large number of trials which put stress on costs as well as time. A creative combination of a number of design methods leads to a smaller number of trials. This study was aimed at the development of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) by using a combination of different optimization methods. A total of 11 variables were first screened using the Plackett-Burman design for their effects on formulation characteristics like size and entrapment efficiency. Four out of 11 variables were found to have insignificant effects on the formulation parameters and hence were screened out. Out of the remaining seven variables, four (concentration of tween-80, lecithin, sodium taurocholate, and total lipid) were found to have significant effects on the size of the particles while the other three (phase ratio, drug to lipid ratio, and sonication time) had a higher influence on the entrapment efficiency. The first four variables were optimized for their effect on size using the Taguchi L9 orthogonal array. The optimized values of the surfactants and lipids were kept constant for the next stage, where the sonication time, phase ratio, and drug:lipid ratio were varied using the Box-Behnken design response surface method to optimize the entrapment efficiency. Finally, by performing only 38 trials, we have optimized 11 variables for the development of NLCs with a size of 143.52 ± 1.2 nm, zeta potential of -32.6 ± 0.54 mV, and 98.22 ± 2.06% entrapment efficiency.

  17. A new methodology for energy-based seismic design of steel moment frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezgebo, Mebrahtom Gebrekirstos; Lui, Eric M.

    2017-01-01

    A procedure is proposed whereby input and hysteretic energy spectra developed for single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) systems are applied to multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) steel moment resisting frames. The proposed procedure is verified using four frames, viz., frame with three-, five-, seven- and nine-stories, each of which is subjected to the fault-normal and fault-parallel components of three actual earthquakes. A very good estimate for the three- and five-story frames, and a reasonably acceptable estimate for the seven-, and nine-story frames, have been obtained. A method for distributing the hysteretic energy over the frame height is also proposed. This distribution scheme allows for the determination of the energy demand component of a proposed energy-based seismic design (EBSD) procedure for each story. To address the capacity component of EBSD, a story-wise optimization design procedure is developed by utilizing the energy dissipating capacity from plastic hinge formation/rotation for these moment frames. The proposed EBSD procedure is demonstrated in the design of a three-story one-bay steel moment frame.

  18. Optimization of arsenic extraction in rice samples by Plackett-Burman design and response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Wang, Lin; Tang, Jie; Yang, Zhaoguang

    2016-08-01

    Statistical experimental designs were employed to optimize the extraction condition of arsenic species (As(III), As(V), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsonic acid (DMA)) in paddy rice by a simple solvent extraction using water as an extraction reagent. The effect of variables were estimated by a two-level Plackett-Burman factorial design. A five-level central composite design was subsequently employed to optimize the significant factors. The desirability parameters of the significant factors were confirmed to 60min of shaking time and 85°C of extraction temperature by compromising the experimental period and extraction efficiency. The analytical performances, such as linearity, method detection limits, relative standard deviation and recovery were examined, and these data exhibited broad linear range, high sensitivity and good precision. The proposed method was applied for real rice samples. The species of As(III), As(V) and DMA were detected in all the rice samples mostly in the order As(III)>As(V)>DMA.

  19. Design progress of the solar UV-Vis-IR telescope (SUVIT) aboard SOLAR-C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsukawa, Y.; Ichimoto, K.; Suematsu, Y.; Hara, H.; Kano, R.; Shimizu, T.; Matsuzaki, K.

    2013-09-01

    We present a design progress of the Solar UV-Vis-IR Telescope (SUVIT) aboard the next Japanese solar mission SOLAR-C. SUVIT has an aperture diameter of ~1.4 m for achieving spectro-polarimetric observations with spatial and temporal resolution exceeding the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT). We have studied structural and thermal designs of the optical telescope as well as the optical interface between the telescope and the focal plane instruments. The focal plane instruments are installed into two packages, filtergraph and spectrograph packages. The spectropolarimeter is the instrument dedicated to accurate polarimetry in the three spectrum windows at 525 nm, 854 nm, and 1083 nm for observing magnetic fields at both the photospheric and chromospheric layers. We made optical design of the spectrograph accommodating the conventional slit spectrograph and the integral field unit (IFU) for two-dimensional coverage. We are running feasibility study of the IFU using fiber arrays consisting of rectangular cores.

  20. Life prediction methodology for thermal-mechanical fatigue and elevated temperature creep design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annigeri, Ravindra

    Nickel-based superalloys are used for hot section components of gas turbine engines. Life prediction techniques are necessary to assess service damage in superalloy components resulting from thermal-mechanical fatigue (TMF) and elevated temperature creep. A new TMF life model based on continuum damage mechanics has been developed and applied to IN 738 LC substrate material with and without coating. The model also characterizes TMF failure in bulk NiCoCrAlY overlay and NiAl aluminide coatings. The inputs to the TMF life model are mechanical strain range, hold time, peak cycle temperatures and maximum stress measured from the stabilized or mid-life hysteresis loops. A viscoplastic model is used to predict the stress-strain hysteresis loops. A flow rule used in the viscoplastic model characterizes the inelastic strain rate as a function of the applied stress and a set of three internal stress variables known as back stress, drag stress and limit stress. Test results show that the viscoplastic model can reasonably predict time-dependent stress-strain response of the coated material and stress relaxation during hold times. In addition to the TMF life prediction methodology, a model has been developed to characterize the uniaxial and multiaxial creep behavior. An effective stress defined as the applied stress minus the back stress is used to characterize the creep recovery and primary creep behavior. The back stress has terms representing strain hardening, dynamic recovery and thermal recovery. Whenever the back stress is greater than the applied stress, the model predicts a negative creep rate observed during multiple stress and multiple temperature cyclic tests. The model also predicted the rupture time and the remaining life that are important for life assessment. The model has been applied to IN 738 LC, Mar-M247, bulk NiCoCrAlY overlay coating and 316 austenitic stainless steel. The proposed model predicts creep response with a reasonable accuracy for wide range of

  1. Strain-Based Design Methodology of Large Diameter Grade X80 Linepipe

    SciTech Connect

    Lower, Mark D.

    2014-04-01

    Continuous growth in energy demand is driving oil and natural gas production to areas that are often located far from major markets where the terrain is prone to earthquakes, landslides, and other types of ground motion. Transmission pipelines that cross this type of terrain can experience large longitudinal strains and plastic circumferential elongation as the pipeline experiences alignment changes resulting from differential ground movement. Such displacements can potentially impact pipeline safety by adversely affecting structural capacity and leak tight integrity of the linepipe steel. Planning for new long-distance transmission pipelines usually involves consideration of higher strength linepipe steels because their use allows pipeline operators to reduce the overall cost of pipeline construction and increase pipeline throughput by increasing the operating pressure. The design trend for new pipelines in areas prone to ground movement has evolved over the last 10 years from a stress-based design approach to a strain-based design (SBD) approach to further realize the cost benefits from using higher strength linepipe steels. This report presents an overview of SBD for pipelines subjected to large longitudinal strain and high internal pressure with emphasis on the tensile strain capacity of high-strength microalloyed linepipe steel. The technical basis for this report involved engineering analysis and examination of the mechanical behavior of Grade X80 linepipe steel in both the longitudinal and circumferential directions. Testing was conducted to assess effects on material processing including as-rolled, expanded, and heat treatment processing intended to simulate coating application. Elastic-plastic and low-cycle fatigue analyses were also performed with varying internal pressures. Proposed SBD models discussed in this report are based on classical plasticity theory and account for material anisotropy, triaxial strain, and microstructural damage effects

  2. Development of next generation digital flat panel catheterization system: design principles and validation methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belanger, B.; Betraoui, F.; Dhawale, P.; Gopinath, P.; Tegzes, Pal; Vagvolgyi, B.

    2006-03-01

    The design principles that drove the development of a new cardiovascular x-ray digital flat panel (DFP) detector system are presented, followed by assessments of imaging and dose performance achieved relative to other state of the art FPD systems. The new system (GE Innova 2100 IQ TM) incorporates a new detector with substantially improved DQE at fluoroscopic (73%@1μR) and record (79%@114uR) doses, an x-ray tube with higher continuous fluoro power (3.2kW), a collimator with a wide range of copper spectral filtration (up to 0.9mm), and an improved automatic x-ray exposure management system. The performance of this new system was compared to that of the previous generation GE product (Innova 2000) and to state-of-the art cardiac digital x-ray flat panel systems from two other major manufacturers. Performance was assessed with the industry standard Cardiac X-ray NEMA/SCA and I phantom, and a new moving coronary artery stent (MCAS) phantom, designed to simulate cardiac clinical imaging conditions, composed of an anthropomorphic chest section with stents moving in a manner simulating normal coronary arteries. The NEMA/SCA&I phantom results showed the Innova 2100 IQ to exceed or equal the Innova 2000 in all of the performance categories, while operating at 28% lower dose on average, and to exceed the other DFP systems in most of the performance categories. The MCAS phantom tests showed the Innova 2100 IQ to be significantly better (p << 0.05) than the Innova 2000, and significantly better than the other DFP systems in most cases at comparable or lower doses, thereby verifying excellent performance against design goals.

  3. A methodology for the design and evaluation of user interfaces for interactive information systems. Ph.D. Thesis Final Report, 1 Jul. 1985 - 31 Dec. 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Farooq, Mohammad U.

    1986-01-01

    The definition of proposed research addressing the development and validation of a methodology for the design and evaluation of user interfaces for interactive information systems is given. The major objectives of this research are: the development of a comprehensive, objective, and generalizable methodology for the design and evaluation of user interfaces for information systems; the development of equations and/or analytical models to characterize user behavior and the performance of a designed interface; the design of a prototype system for the development and administration of user interfaces; and the design and use of controlled experiments to support the research and test/validate the proposed methodology. The proposed design methodology views the user interface as a virtual machine composed of three layers: an interactive layer, a dialogue manager layer, and an application interface layer. A command language model of user system interactions is presented because of its inherent simplicity and structured approach based on interaction events. All interaction events have a common structure based on common generic elements necessary for a successful dialogue. It is shown that, using this model, various types of interfaces could be designed and implemented to accommodate various categories of users. The implementation methodology is discussed in terms of how to store and organize the information.

  4. A straightforward methodology for designing continuous monoclonal antibody capture multi-column chromatography processes.

    PubMed

    Gjoka, Xhorxhi; Rogler, Karl; Martino, Richard Alexander; Gantier, Rene; Schofield, Mark

    2015-10-16

    A simple process development strategy for continuous capture multi-column chromatography (MCC) is described. The approach involves a few single column breakthrough experiments, based on several simplifying observations that enable users to rapidly convert batch processes into well-designed multi-column processes. The method was validated using a BioSMB(®) (Pall Life Sciences) lab scale multi-column system and a mAb capture process employing Protein A resin. The approach enables users to optimize MCC processes based on their internal preferences and constraints without requiring any mathematical modeling expertise.

  5. Qualitative Knowledge Construction for Engineering Systems: Extending the Design Structure Matrix Methodology in Scope and Procedure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    1: Interview with: Jane Doe ACME Corporation Chief Engineer Date: 11/2/01 Q: What are some of your challenges in coordinating design activities? Codes...Canwnentfl Jb3r ATh level yet so obviously it wasn’t an R, an A-5-R issue)......... Stakeholders. MD> comunicates with> Q. Do you have contact with any...some ways, the goal was to develop a suite of systems that were akin to the weapons of corporate warfare, the Blackberry and Treo (other multipurpose

  6. Hi-alpha forebody design. Part 1: Methodology base and initial parametrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, William H.; Ravi, R.

    1992-01-01

    The use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been investigated for the analysis and design of aircraft forebodies at high angle of attack combined with sideslip. The results of the investigation show that CFD has reached a level of development where computational methods can be used for high angle of attack aerodynamic design. The classic wind tunnel experiment for the F-5A forebody directional stability has been reproduced computationally over an angle of attack range from 10 degrees to 45 degrees, and good agreement with experimental data was obtained. Computations have also been made at combined angle of attack and sideslip over a chine forebody, demonstrating the qualitative features of the flow, although not producing good agreement with measured experimental pressure distributions. The computations were performed using the code known as cfl3D for both the Euler equations and the Reynolds equations using a form of the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model. To study the relation between forebody shape and directional stability characteristics, a generic parametric forebody model has been defined which provides a simple analytic math model with flexibility to capture the key shape characteristics of the entire range of forebodies of interest, including chines.

  7. Sweetener blend optimization by using mixture design methodology and the electronic tongue.

    PubMed

    Waldrop, Megan E; Ross, Carolyn F

    2014-09-01

    Utilizing more than one sweetener has been shown to be an effective way to substitute sucrose in food products. The objective of this study was to apply the augmented simplex-centroid mixture design for the optimization of acceptable sweetener blends using coconut sugar, agave, and stevia. Sweetener blends were evaluated in aqueous solutions and gluten-free granola bars by a trained panel and consumers (n = 60). Significant differences were found between sweetener mixtures in solutions by both panelists and consumers (P < 0.05). Taste profiles for the sweetener solutions were also generated using the electronic tongue. Most consumer and trained intensity ratings were highly correlated (R(2) ≥ 0.79) with the electronic tongue taste profile analysis. Granola bars were also found to be significantly different (P < 0.05), with consumers preferring coconut sugar mixtures. Using contour plots and desirability function analysis, an optimal sweetener combination was found for a granola bar formulation of 89.9% coconut sugar, 6.1% agave, and 4% stevia. These results indicate that a mixture design can be a reliable way to develop new sweetener blends for product development.

  8. A Design Methodology for Rapid Implementation of Active Control Systems Across Lean Direct Injection Combustor Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, William T.; Saunders, William R.; Vandsburger, Uri; Saus, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The VACCG team is comprised of engineers at Virginia Tech who specialize in the subject areas of combustion physics, chemical kinetics, dynamics and controls, and signal processing. Currently, the team's work on this NRA research grant is designed to determine key factors that influence combustion control performance through a blend of theoretical and experimental investigations targeting design and demonstration of active control for three different combustors. To validiate the accuracy of conclusions about control effectiveness, a sequence of experimental verifications on increasingly complex lean, direct injection combustors is underway. During the work period January 1, 2002 through October 15, 2002, work has focused on two different laboratory-scale combustors that allow access for a wide variety of measurements. As the grant work proceeds, one key goal will be to obtain certain knowledge about a particular combustor process using a minimum of sophisticated measurements, due to the practical limitations of measurements on full-scale combustors. In the second year, results obtained in the first year will be validated on test combustors to be identified in the first quarter of that year. In the third year, it is proposed to validate the results at more realistic pressure and power levels by utilizing the facilities at the Glenn Research Center.

  9. Systematic defect filtering and data analysis methodology for design based metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hyunjo; Kim, Jungchan; Lee, Taehyeong; Jung, Areum; Yoo, Gyun; Yim, Donggyu; Park, Sungki; Hasebe, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Cai, Jun

    2009-03-01

    Recently several Design Based Metrologies (DBMs) are introduced and being in use for wafer verification. The major applications of DBM are OPC accuracy improvement, DFM feed-back through Process Window Qualification (PWQ) and advanced process control. In general, however, the amount of output data from DBM is normally so large that it is very hard to handle the data for valuable feed-back. In case of PWQ, more than thousands of hot spots are detected on a single chip at the edge of process window. So, it takes much time and labor to review and analyze all the hot spots detected at PWQ. Design-related systematic defects, however, will be found repeatedly and if they can be classified into groups, it would be possible to save a lot of time for the analysis. We have demonstrated an EDA tool which can handle the large amount of output data from DBM by reducing pattern defects to groups. It can classify millions of patterns into less than thousands of pattern groups. It has been evaluated on the analysis of PWQ of metal layer in NAND Flash memory device and random contact hole patterns in a DRAM device. The result shows that this EDA tool can handle the CD measurement data easily and can save us a lot of time and labor for the analysis. The procedures of systematic defect filtering and data handling using an EDA tool are presented in detail

  10. Methodology for the design, production, and test of plastic optical displacement sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahlves, Maik; Kelb, Christian; Reithmeier, Eduard; Roth, Bernhard

    2016-08-01

    Optical displacement sensors made entirely from plastic materials offer various advantages such as biocompatibility and high flexibility compared to their commonly used electrical and glass-based counterparts. In addition, various low-cost and large-scale fabrication techniques can potentially be utilized for their fabrication. In this work we present a toolkit for the design, production, and test of such sensors. Using the introduced methods, we demonstrate the development of a simple all-optical displacement sensor based on multimode plastic waveguides. The system consists of polymethylmethacrylate and cyclic olefin polymer which serve as cladding and core materials, respectively. We discuss several numerical models which are useful for the design and simulation of the displacement sensors as well as two manufacturing methods capable of mass-producing such devices. Prior to fabrication, the sensor layout and performance are evaluated by means of a self-implemented ray-optical simulation which can be extended to various other types of sensor concepts. Furthermore, we discuss optical and mechanical test procedures as well as a high-precision tensile testing machine especially suited for the characterization of the opto-mechanical performance of such plastic optical displacement sensors.

  11. Estimation of design space for an extrusion-spheronization process using response surface methodology and artificial neural network modelling.

    PubMed

    Sovány, Tamás; Tislér, Zsófia; Kristó, Katalin; Kelemen, András; Regdon, Géza

    2016-09-01

    The application of the Quality by Design principles is one of the key issues of the recent pharmaceutical developments. In the past decade a lot of knowledge was collected about the practical realization of the concept, but there are still a lot of unanswered questions. The key requirement of the concept is the mathematical description of the effect of the critical factors and their interactions on the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of the product. The process design space (PDS) is usually determined by the use of design of experiment (DoE) based response surface methodologies (RSM), but inaccuracies in the applied polynomial models often resulted in the over/underestimation of the real trends and changes making the calculations uncertain, especially in the edge regions of the PDS. The completion of RSM with artificial neural network (ANN) based models is therefore a commonly used method to reduce the uncertainties. Nevertheless, since the different researches are focusing on the use of a given DoE, there is lack of comparative studies on different experimental layouts. Therefore, the aim of present study was to investigate the effect of the different DoE layouts (2 level full factorial, Central Composite, Box-Behnken, 3 level fractional and 3 level full factorial design) on the model predictability and to compare model sensitivities according to the organization of the experimental data set. It was revealed that the size of the design space could differ more than 40% calculated with different polynomial models, which was associated with a considerable shift in its position when higher level layouts were applied. The shift was more considerable when the calculation was based on RSM. The model predictability was also better with ANN based models. Nevertheless, both modelling methods exhibit considerable sensitivity to the organization of the experimental data set, and the use of design layouts is recommended, where the extreme values factors are more represented.

  12. Some Thoughts on "Using Learning Progressions to Design Vertical Scales That Support Coherent Inferences about Student Growth"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Neal M.; Broaddus, Angela; Lao, Hongling

    2015-01-01

    Briggs and Peck (2015) have written a thought-provoking article on the use of learning progressions in the design of vertical scales that support inferences about student growth. Organized learning models, including learning trajectories, learning progressions, and learning maps have been the subject of research for many years, but more recently…

  13. Acoustic propagation in viscous fluid with uniform flow and a novel design methodology for ultrasonic flow meter.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Huang, Yiyong; Chen, Xiaoqian

    2013-02-01

    Ultrasonic flow meter with non-invasive no-moving-parts construction has good prospective application for space on-orbit fluid gauging. In traditional pulse transit time flow meter, inconsistency of ultrasonic transducers leads to measurement error and plane wave theory, bases of transit time flow meter, is valuable only for low-frequency wave propagation in inviscid fluid and will lose feasibility when fluid viscosity is considered. In this paper, based on the hydrodynamics of viscous fluid, wave propagation with uniform flow profile is mathematically formulated and a novel solution for viscous fluid using potential theory is firstly presented. Then a novel design methodology of continuous ultrasonic flow meter is proposed, where high measurement rangeability and accuracy are guaranteed individually by solving the integral ambiguity using multi-tone wide laning strategy and the fractional phase shift using phase lock loop tracking method. A comparison with transit time ultrasonic flow meter shows the advantage of proposed methodology. In the end, parametric analysis of viscosity on wave propagation and ultrasonic flow meter is compressively investigated.

  14. Methodology to make a robust estimation of the carbon steel overpack lifetime with respect to the Belgian Supercontainer design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kursten, B.; Druyts, F.

    2008-09-01

    The Supercontainer (SC) design is the preferred Belgian option for the final disposal of vitrified high-level waste (VHLW) and spent fuel (SF) in deep underground clay layers. The SC consists of a carbon steel overpack, containing VHLW canisters or SF assemblies, surrounded by a thick concrete buffer, which in turn, is entirely encased in a stainless steel envelope. An integrated R&D strategy is developed to demonstrate and defend that the integrity of the carbon steel overpack can be ensured at least during the thermal phase. This integrated approach, proposed to estimate the lifetime of the carbon steel overpack, consists of three steps: lifetime prediction, validation, and confidence building. Under the predicted conditions within the SC (highly alkaline concrete buffer), the carbon steel overpack is expected to undergo uniform corrosion (passive dissolution). The methodology exists in demonstrating that corrosion forms other than uniform corrosion (e.g. localised corrosion such as pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking) cannot occur ('exclusion principle'). This paper elaborates on how this methodology is implemented.

  15. Optimization of a supercritical fluid extraction/reaction methodology for the analysis of castor oil using experimental design.

    PubMed

    Turner, Charlotta; Whitehand, Linda C; Nguyen, Tasha; McKeon, Thomas

    2004-01-14

    The aim of this work was to optimize a supercritical fluid extraction (SFE)/enzymatic reaction process for the determination of the fatty acid composition of castor seeds. A lipase from Candida antarctica (Novozyme 435) was used to catalyze the methanolysis reaction in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)). A Box-Behnken statistical design was used to evaluate effects of various values of pressure (200-400 bar), temperature (40-80 degrees C), methanol concentration (1-5 vol %), and water concentration (0.02-0.18 vol %) on the yield of methylated castor oil. Response surfaces were plotted, and these together with results from some additional experiments produced optimal extraction/reaction conditions for SC-CO(2) at 300 bar and 80 degrees C, with 7 vol % methanol and 0.02 vol % water. These conditions were used for the determination of the castor oil content expressed as fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) in castor seeds. The results obtained were similar to those obtained using conventional methodology based on solvent extraction followed by chemical transmethylation. It was concluded that the methodology developed could be used for the determination of castor oil content as well as composition of individual FAMEs in castor seeds.

  16. Progress in antiandrogen design targeting hormone binding pocket to circumvent mutation based resistance

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xiaohong; He, Yang; Zhou, Jinming

    2015-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) plays a critical role in the development and progression of prostate cancer (PCa). Current clinically used antiandrogens such as flutamide, bicalutamide, and newly approved enzalutamide mainly target the hormone binding pocket (HBP) of AR. However, over time, drug resistance invariably develops and switches these antiandrogens from antagonist to agonist of the AR. Accumulated evidence indicates that AR mutation is an important cause for the drug resistance. This review will give an overview of the mutation based resistance of the current clinically used antiandrogens and the rational drug design to overcome the resistance, provides a promising strategy for the development of the new generation of antiandrogens targeting HBP. PMID:25852559

  17. Creationism and intelligent design are incompatible with scientific progress: A response to Shanta and Vêdanta.

    PubMed

    Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    In a recent opinion paper, B.K. Shanta claims science leaves no room for the subjective aspect of consciousness, and in doing so, attacks both origin of life and evolutionary research. He claims Vêdanta, one of the 6 orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy, offers an explanation: "the origin of everything material and nonmaterial is sentient and absolute." Here I discuss how the pseudoscience of these creationist views, which are aligned with Intelligent Design, are incompatible with scientific progress and should not be published in scientific journals.

  18. Creationism and intelligent design are incompatible with scientific progress: A response to Shanta and Vêdanta

    PubMed Central

    Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In a recent opinion paper, B.K. Shanta claims science leaves no room for the subjective aspect of consciousness, and in doing so, attacks both origin of life and evolutionary research. He claims Vêdanta, one of the 6 orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy, offers an explanation: “the origin of everything material and nonmaterial is sentient and absolute.” Here I discuss how the pseudoscience of these creationist views, which are aligned with Intelligent Design, are incompatible with scientific progress and should not be published in scientific journals. PMID:27066185

  19. Methodology to improve design of accelerated life tests in civil engineering projects.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jing; Yuan, Yongbo; Zhou, Jilai; Gao, Jie

    2014-01-01

    For reliability testing an Energy Expansion Tree (EET) and a companion Energy Function Model (EFM) are proposed and described in this paper. Different from conventional approaches, the EET provides a more comprehensive and objective way to systematically identify external energy factors affecting reliability. The EFM introduces energy loss into a traditional Function Model to identify internal energy sources affecting reliability. The combination creates a sound way to enumerate the energies to which a system may be exposed during its lifetime. We input these energies into planning an accelerated life test, a Multi Environment Over Stress Test. The test objective is to discover weak links and interactions among the system and the energies to which it is exposed, and design them out. As an example, the methods are applied to the pipe in subsea pipeline. However, they can be widely used in other civil engineering industries as well. The proposed method is compared with current methods.

  20. Basis of human factors methodology applied in the Westinghouse AP600 design

    SciTech Connect

    Carrera, J.P.; Easter, J.R. )

    1992-01-01

    The incident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 brought about an awareness that there is a need for a new perspective on nuclear power plant operator performance. It was discerned that besides executing control actions, the operator needs an additional role, that of systems supervisor-someone who considers plant health at the functional level of how all the plant processes are related and how they perform with regard to the high-level operational goals of the plant. Westinghouse has taken the initiative to apply these ideas in dealing with the operator by studying the work of Rasmussen of Denmark's Riso Laboratory, regarding knowledge-based behavior and the requirements for supporting the cognitive processes required of an operator. This has led to the Westinghouse Man-Machine-Interface System (MMIS) design process.