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Sample records for progressive pediatric diffuse

  1. Diffuse and uncontrolled vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation in rapidly progressing pediatric moyamoya disease.

    PubMed

    Reid, Amy J; Bhattacharjee, Meenakshi B; Regalado, Ellen S; Milewicz, Allen L; El-Hakam, Lisa M; Dauser, Robert C; Milewicz, Dianna M

    2010-09-01

    Moyamoya disease is a rare stroke syndrome of unknown etiology resulting from stenosis or occlusion of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) in association with an abnormal vascular network in the basal ganglia. Although the highest incidence of moyamoya disease is in pediatric patients, pathology reports have been primarily limited to adult samples and describe occlusive fibrocellular lesions in the intimae of affected arteries. We describe the case of a young girl with primary moyamoya disease who presented at 18 months of age with right hemiparesis following an ischemic stroke. Angiography showed stenosis of the distal left ICA, left middle cerebral artery, and right ICA. An emergent left-sided dural inversion was performed. Recurrent strokes and alternating hemiplegia necessitated a right dural inversion 6 months later. Nonetheless, her aggressive disease proved uniquely refractory to surgical revascularization, and she succumbed to recurrent strokes and neurological deterioration at 2.5 years of age. Pathological specimens revealed a striking bilateral occlusion of the anterior carotid circulation resulting from intimal proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Most strikingly, the ascending aorta and the superior mesenteric artery demonstrated similar intimal proliferation, along with SMC proliferation in the media. The systemic pathology involving multiple arteries in this extremely young child, the first case of its kind available for autopsy, suggests that globally uncontrolled SMC proliferation, in the absence of environmental risk factors and likely resulting from an underlying genetic alteration, may be a primary etiologic event leading to moyamoya disease.

  2. Phase 2 study of safety and efficacy of nimotuzumab in pediatric patients with progressive diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma

    PubMed Central

    Bartels, Ute; Wolff, Johannes; Gore, Lia; Dunkel, Ira; Gilheeney, Stephen; Allen, Jeffrey; Goldman, Stewart; Yalon, Michal; Packer, Roger J.; Korones, David N.; Smith, Amy; Cohen, Kenneth; Kuttesch, John; Strother, Douglas; Baruchel, Sylvain; Gammon, Janet; Kowalski, Mark; Bouffet, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Background The prognosis of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) remains poor, with no drug proven to be effective. Methods Patients with clinically and radiologically confirmed, centrally reviewed DIPG, who had failed standard first-line therapy were eligible for this multicenter phase II trial. The anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody, nimotuzumab (150 mg/m2), was administered intravenously once weekly from weeks 1 to 7 and once every 2 weeks from weeks 8 to 18. Response evaluation was based on clinical and MRI assessments. Patients with partial response (PR) or stable disease (SD) were allowed to continue nimotuzumab. Results Forty-four patients received at least one dose of nimotuzumab (male/female, 20/24; median age, 6.0 years; range, 3.0–17.0 years). All had received prior radiotherapy. Treatment was well tolerated. Eighteen children experienced serious adverse events (SAEs). The majority of SAEs were associated with disease progression. Nineteen patients completed 8 weeks (W8) of treatment: There were 2 PRs, 6 SDs, and 11 progressions. Five patients completed 18 weeks (W18) of treatment: 1 of 2 patients with PR at W8 remained in PR at W18, and 3 of 6 children with SD at W8 maintained SD at W18. Time to progression following initiation of nimotuzumab for the 4 patients with SD or better at W18 was 119, 157, 182 and 335 days, respectively. Median survival time was 3.2 months. Two patients lived 663 and 481 days from the start of nimotuzumab. Conclusions Modest activity of nimotuzumab in DIPG, which has been shown previously, was confirmed: A small subset of DIPG patients appeared to benefit from anti-EGFR antibody treatment. PMID:24847085

  3. Phase 2 study of safety and efficacy of nimotuzumab in pediatric patients with progressive diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Ute; Wolff, Johannes; Gore, Lia; Dunkel, Ira; Gilheeney, Stephen; Allen, Jeffrey; Goldman, Stewart; Yalon, Michal; Packer, Roger J; Korones, David N; Smith, Amy; Cohen, Kenneth; Kuttesch, John; Strother, Douglas; Baruchel, Sylvain; Gammon, Janet; Kowalski, Mark; Bouffet, Eric

    2014-11-01

    The prognosis of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) remains poor, with no drug proven to be effective. Patients with clinically and radiologically confirmed, centrally reviewed DIPG, who had failed standard first-line therapy were eligible for this multicenter phase II trial. The anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody, nimotuzumab (150 mg/m(2)), was administered intravenously once weekly from weeks 1 to 7 and once every 2 weeks from weeks 8 to 18. Response evaluation was based on clinical and MRI assessments. Patients with partial response (PR) or stable disease (SD) were allowed to continue nimotuzumab. Forty-four patients received at least one dose of nimotuzumab (male/female, 20/24; median age, 6.0 years; range, 3.0-17.0 years). All had received prior radiotherapy. Treatment was well tolerated. Eighteen children experienced serious adverse events (SAEs). The majority of SAEs were associated with disease progression. Nineteen patients completed 8 weeks (W8) of treatment: There were 2 PRs, 6 SDs, and 11 progressions. Five patients completed 18 weeks (W18) of treatment: 1 of 2 patients with PR at W8 remained in PR at W18, and 3 of 6 children with SD at W8 maintained SD at W18. Time to progression following initiation of nimotuzumab for the 4 patients with SD or better at W18 was 119, 157, 182 and 335 days, respectively. Median survival time was 3.2 months. Two patients lived 663 and 481 days from the start of nimotuzumab. Modest activity of nimotuzumab in DIPG, which has been shown previously, was confirmed: A small subset of DIPG patients appeared to benefit from anti-EGFR antibody treatment. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Parametric Response Mapping of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) as an Imaging Biomarker to Distinguish Pseudoprogression from True Tumor Progression In Peptide-Based Vaccine Therapy for Pediatric Diffuse Instrinsic Pontine Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Ceschin, Rafael; Kurland, Brenda F.; Abberbock, Shira R.; Ellingson, Benjamin M.; Okada, Hideho; Jakacki, Regina I.; Pollack, Ian F.; Panigrahy, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Immune response to cancer therapy may result in pseudoprogression, which can only be identified retrospectively and which may disrupt an effective therapy. This study assesses whether serial parametric response mapping (PRM, a voxel-by-voxel method of image analysis also known as functional diffusion mapping) analysis of ADC measurements following peptide-based vaccination may help prospectively distinguish progression from pseudoprogression in pediatric patients with diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas. Materials and Methods From 2009–2012, 21 children age 4–18 with diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas were enrolled in a serial peptide-based vaccination protocol following radiotherapy. DWI was acquired before immunotherapy and at six week intervals during vaccine treatment. Pseudoprogression was identified retrospectively based on clinical and radiographic findings, excluding DWI. Parametric response mapping was used to analyze 96 scans, comparing ADC measures at multiple time points (from first vaccine to up to 12 weeks after the vaccine was halted) to pre-vaccine baseline values. Log-transformed fractional increased ADC (fiADC), fractional decreased ADC (fdADC), and parametric response mapping ratio (fiADC/fdADC) were compared between patients with and without pseudoprogression, using generalized estimating equations with inverse weighting by cluster size. Results Median survival was 13.1 months from diagnosis (range 6.4–24.9 months). Four of 21 children (19%) were assessed as experiencing pseudoprogression. Patients with pseudoprogression had higher fitted average log-transformed parametric response mapping ratios (p=0.01) and fiADCs (p=0.0004), compared to patients without pseudoprogression. Conclusion Serial parametric response mapping of ADC, performed at multiple time points of therapy, may distinguish pseudoprogression from true progression in patients with diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas treated with peptide-based vaccination

  5. Diffusion characteristics of pediatric pineal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, Matthew T; Siddiqui, Adeel; Klimo, Paul; Boop, Frederick A

    2015-01-01

    Background Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) has been shown to be helpful in characterizing tumor cellularity, and predicting histology. Several works have evaluated this technique for pineal tumors; however studies to date have not focused on pediatric pineal tumors. Objective We evaluated the diffusion characteristics of pediatric pineal tumors to confirm if patterns seen in studies using mixed pediatric and adult populations remain valid. Materials and methods This retrospective study was performed after Institutional Review Board approval. We retrospectively evaluated all patients 18 years of age and younger with pineal tumors from a single institution where preoperative diffusion weighted imaging as well as histologic characterization was available. Results Twenty patients (13 male, 7 female) with pineal tumors were identified: seven with pineoblastoma, four with Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET), two with other pineal tumors, and seven with germ cell tumors including two germinomas, three teratomas, and one mixed germinoma-teratoma. The mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in pineoblastoma (544 ± 65 × 10–6 mm2/s) and pineoblastoma/PNET (595 ± 144 × 10–6 mm2/s) was lower than that of the germ cell tumors (1284 ± 334 × 10–6 mm2/s; p < 0.0001 vs pineoblastoma). One highly cellular germinoma had an ADC value of 694 × 10–6 mm2/s. Conclusion ADC values can aid in differentiation of pineoblastoma/PNET from germ cell tumors in a population of children with pineal masses. PMID:25963154

  6. Diffusion archeology for diffusion progression history reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Sefer, Emre; Kingsford, Carl

    2016-11-01

    Diffusion through graphs can be used to model many real-world processes, such as the spread of diseases, social network memes, computer viruses, or water contaminants. Often, a real-world diffusion cannot be directly observed while it is occurring - perhaps it is not noticed until some time has passed, continuous monitoring is too costly, or privacy concerns limit data access. This leads to the need to reconstruct how the present state of the diffusion came to be from partial diffusion data. Here, we tackle the problem of reconstructing a diffusion history from one or more snapshots of the diffusion state. This ability can be invaluable to learn when certain computer nodes are infected or which people are the initial disease spreaders to control future diffusions. We formulate this problem over discrete-time SEIRS-type diffusion models in terms of maximum likelihood. We design methods that are based on submodularity and a novel prize-collecting dominating-set vertex cover (PCDSVC) relaxation that can identify likely diffusion steps with some provable performance guarantees. Our methods are the first to be able to reconstruct complete diffusion histories accurately in real and simulated situations. As a special case, they can also identify the initial spreaders better than the existing methods for that problem. Our results for both meme and contaminant diffusion show that the partial diffusion data problem can be overcome with proper modeling and methods, and that hidden temporal characteristics of diffusion can be predicted from limited data.

  7. Challenges for the functional diffusion map in pediatric brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Grech-Sollars, Matthew; Saunders, Dawn E.; Phipps, Kim P.; Kaur, Ramneek; Paine, Simon M.L.; Jacques, Thomas S.; Clayden, Jonathan D.; Clark, Chris A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The functional diffusion map (fDM) has been suggested as a tool for early detection of tumor treatment efficacy. We aim to study 3 factors that could act as potential confounders in the fDM: areas of necrosis, tumor grade, and change in tumor size. Methods Thirty-four pediatric patients with brain tumors were enrolled in a retrospective study, approved by the local ethics committee, to examine the fDM. Tumors were selected to encompass a range of types and grades. A qualitative analysis was carried out to compare how fDM findings may be affected by each of the 3 confounders by comparing fDM findings to clinical image reports. Results Results show that the fDM in areas of necrosis do not discriminate between treatment response and tumor progression. Furthermore, tumor grade alters the behavior of the fDM: a decrease in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) is a sign of tumor progression in high-grade tumors and treatment response in low-grade tumors. Our results also suggest using only tumor area overlap between the 2 time points analyzed for the fDM in tumors of varying size. Conclusions Interpretation of fDM results needs to take into account the underlying biology of both tumor and healthy tissue. Careful interpretation of the results is required with due consideration to areas of necrosis, tumor grade, and change in tumor size. PMID:24305721

  8. Challenges for the functional diffusion map in pediatric brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Grech-Sollars, Matthew; Saunders, Dawn E; Phipps, Kim P; Kaur, Ramneek; Paine, Simon M L; Jacques, Thomas S; Clayden, Jonathan D; Clark, Chris A

    2014-03-01

    The functional diffusion map (fDM) has been suggested as a tool for early detection of tumor treatment efficacy. We aim to study 3 factors that could act as potential confounders in the fDM: areas of necrosis, tumor grade, and change in tumor size. Thirty-four pediatric patients with brain tumors were enrolled in a retrospective study, approved by the local ethics committee, to examine the fDM. Tumors were selected to encompass a range of types and grades. A qualitative analysis was carried out to compare how fDM findings may be affected by each of the 3 confounders by comparing fDM findings to clinical image reports. Results show that the fDM in areas of necrosis do not discriminate between treatment response and tumor progression. Furthermore, tumor grade alters the behavior of the fDM: a decrease in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) is a sign of tumor progression in high-grade tumors and treatment response in low-grade tumors. Our results also suggest using only tumor area overlap between the 2 time points analyzed for the fDM in tumors of varying size. Interpretation of fDM results needs to take into account the underlying biology of both tumor and healthy tissue. Careful interpretation of the results is required with due consideration to areas of necrosis, tumor grade, and change in tumor size.

  9. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in pediatric hematopoietic cell transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Heggen, Judith; West, Carla; Olson, Ellen; Olson, Thomas; Teague, Gerald; Fortenberry, James; Yeager, Andrew M

    2002-05-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is defined as a syndrome of hypoxia, dyspnea, infiltrates on chest radiograph, and bloody fluid on successive bronchoalveolar lavages without apparent infection. Minimal experience has been reported with DAH after hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) in children. We reviewed the incidence, management and outcome of DAH in a pediatric HCT population. Retrospective review of 138 patients undergoing allogeneic (n = 89) or autologous (n = 49) HCT at a referral children's medical center between January 1996 and April 2000. Seven (5.1%) of 138 patients met criteria for DAH; all were allogeneic recipients. Mean age of DAH patients was 11 years (range: 1.4-15.2). Median onset of DAH following HCT was day 24 (range: 10-50), median day of engraftment day 20 and white blood cell count 0.54 x 10(9)/L (range: < 0.1-7.03), with no difference between survivors and nonsurvivors. All patients developed clinical respiratory failure and 6 required intubation, with PaO(2)/fraction of inspired oxygen <200. Patients were intubated a median of 12 days (range: 1-75). All patients experienced >1 episode of bleeding and 3 patients required reintubation after successful extubation resulting from recurrent DAH. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cultures were negative for viruses, bacteria and fungi. All DAH patients received steroids. Three patients died with progressive pulmonary failure and other organ system involvement. Four of 7 DAH patients (57%) survived to discharge, but 3 died from disease relapse at days 116, 138, and 273 post-HCT. DAH occurred more frequently in allogeneic HCT recipients compared with autologous recipients. Onset of DAH coincided closely with white blood cell engraftment. Although associated with significant respiratory failure and need for mechanical ventilation, HCT patients can survive DAH.

  10. Diffusion tensor imaging suggests extrapontine extension of pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Matthias W.; Bell, W. Robert; Kern, Jason; Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Mhlanga, Joyce; Carson, Kathryn A.; Cohen, Kenneth J.; Raabe, Eric H.; Rodriguez, Fausto; Huisman, Thierry A.G.M.; Poretti, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To apply DTI to detect early extrapontine extension of pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma along the corticospinal tracts. Methods In children with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma, low-grade brainstem glioma, and age-matched controls, DTI metrics were measured in the posterior limb of the internal capsule and posterior centrum semiovale. Histological examination was available in one patient. Results 6 diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma, 8 low-grade brainstem glioma, and two groups of 25 controls were included. In diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma compared to controls, fractional anisotropy was lower in the bilateral posterior limb of the internal capsule, axial diffusivity was lower in the bilateral posterior centrum semiovale and posterior limb of the internal capsule, while radial diffusivity was higher in the bilateral posterior limb of the internal capsule. No significant differences were found between low-grade brainstem glioma and controls. In diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma compared to low-grade brainstem glioma, axial diffusivity was lower in the bilateral posterior limb of the internal capsule. Histological examination in one child showed tumor cells in the posterior limb of the internal capsule. Conclusion Reduction in fractional anisotropy and axial diffusivity and increase in radial diffusivity in diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma may reflect tumor extension along the corticospinal tracts as shown by histology. DTI may detect early extrapontine tumor extension in diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma before it becomes apparent on conventional MRI sequences. PMID:26971411

  11. CST recovery in pediatric hemiplegic patients: Diffusion tensor tractography study.

    PubMed

    Baek, Seung Ok; Jang, Sung Ho; Lee, Eusil; Kim, Saeyoon; Hah, Jeong Ok; Park, Yong Hoon; Lee, Jae Min; Son, Su Min

    2013-12-17

    Many diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have reported an association between corticospinal tract (CST) injury and motor dysfunction. In this study, we investigated CST recovery in 29 pediatric patients with clinical hemiplegia using DTI. We measured the fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and asymmetric anisotropy (AA) of both CSTs. The patients were classified into three groups according to severity of CST disruption of the more affected hemisphere. DTI was followed up for 9.34 ± 2.07 months after initial evaluation. The FA value of the more affected CST showed a significant decrease compared to the opposite side at initial and follow up evaluation, respectively (p<0.05). The FA value of both CSTs showed a significant increase at follow up compared to the initial evaluation, while more changes were observed on the more affected side, compared with the less affected side (p<0.05). AA showed a significant decrease at follow up, and showed significant correlation with interval change of FA value of the more affected side, not with that of the less affected side (r=0.543, p<0.05). 19 patients showed change of CST integrity. In the current study, the results of DTI showed recovery of the CST and provided radiologic evidence for a scientific basis of brain plasticity in pediatric patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pediatric drug formulations: a review of challenges and progress.

    PubMed

    Ivanovska, Verica; Rademaker, Carin M A; van Dijk, Liset; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K

    2014-08-01

    Children differ from adults in many aspects of pharmacotherapy, including capabilities for drug administration, medicine-related toxicity, and taste preferences. It is essential that pediatric medicines are formulated to best suit a child's age, size, physiologic condition, and treatment requirements. To ensure adequate treatment of all children, different routes of administration, dosage forms, and strengths may be required. Many existing formulations are not suitable for children, which often leads to off-label and unlicensed use of adult medicines. New regulations, additional funding opportunities, and innovative collaborative research initiatives have resulted in some recent progress in the development of pediatric formulations. These advances include a paradigm shift toward oral solid formulations and a focus on novel preparations, including flexible, dispersible, and multiparticulate oral solid dosage forms. Such developments have enabled greater dose flexibility, easier administration, and better acceptance of drug formulations in children. However, new pediatric formulations address only a small part of all therapeutic needs in children; moreover, they are not always available. Five key issues need to be addressed to stimulate the further development of better medicines for children: (1) the continued prioritization of unmet formulation needs, particularly drug delivery in neonates and treatment gaps in pediatric cancers and childhood diseases in developing countries; (2) a better use of existing data to facilitate pediatric formulation development; (3) innovative technologies in adults that can be used to develop new pediatric formulations; (4) clinical feedback and practice-based evidence on the impact of novel formulations; and (5) improved access to new pediatric formulations. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Basic Research and Progress against Pediatric Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    An infographic about the importance of basic research for making progress against childhood cancers. Shows the milestones that led to development and approval of dinutuximab (Unituxin®) to treat neuroblastoma, a cancer seen mainly in children.

  14. Children's Interstitial and Diffuse Lung Disease. Progress and Future Horizons.

    PubMed

    Deterding, Robin R

    2015-10-01

    Children's interstitial and diffuse lung disease (chILD) is a term that encompasses a large and diverse group of rare pediatric diseases and disorders. Significant progress has been made over the last 2 decades in classification, clinical care, research, and organizational structure to enhance the care of children with these high-morbidity and -mortality diseases. New diseases have been defined clinically and genetically, classification systems developed and applied, organizations formed such as the chILD Research Network (chILDRN) and chILD Foundation, and basic and translational science expanded to focus on chILD diseases. Multidisciplinary collaborations and efforts to advance understanding and treatment of chILD have been extended worldwide. The future horizon holds great promise to expand scientific discoveries, collaborate more broadly, and bring new treatment to these children. An overview of key historical past developments, major clinical and research updates, and opportunities for the future in chILD is reviewed in this Perspective.

  15. Pediatric abdominal masses: diagnostic accuracy of diffusion weighted MRI.

    PubMed

    Kocaoglu, Murat; Bulakbasi, Nail; Sanal, Hatice T; Kismet, Erol; Caliskan, Bahadir; Akgun, Veysel; Tayfun, Cem

    2010-06-01

    To retrospectively identify apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of pediatric abdominal mass lesions, to determine whether measured ADC of the lesions and signal intensity on diffusion-weighted (DW) images allow discrimination between benign and malignant mass lesions. Approval for this retrospective study was obtained from the institutional review board. Children with abdominal mass lesions, who were examined by DW magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were included in this study. DW MR images were obtained in the axial plane by using a non breath-hold single-shot spin-echo sequence on a 1.5-T MR scanner. ADCs were calculated for each lesion. ADC values were compared with Mann-Whitney U test. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to determine cut-off values for ADC. The results of visual assessment on b800 images and ADC map images were compared with chi-square test. Thirty-one abdominal mass lesions (16 benign, 15 malignant) in 26 patients (15 girls, 11 boys, ranging from 2 days to 17 years with 6.9 years mean) underwent MRI. Benign lesions had significantly higher ADC values than malignant ones (P < .001). The mean ADCs of malignant lesions were 0.84 +/- 1.7x10(-3) mm2/s, while the mean ADCs of the benign ones were 2.28 +/- 1.00x10(-3) mm2/s. With respect to cutoff values of ADC: 1.11x10(-3) mm2/s, sensitivity and negative predictive values were 100%, specificity was 78.6% and positive predictive value was 83.3%. For b800 and ADC map images, there were statistically significant differences on visual assessment. All malignant lesions had variable degrees of high signal intensity whereas eight of the 16 benign ones had low signal intensities on b800 images (P < .001). On ADC map images, all malignant lesions were hypointense and most of the benign ones (n=11, 68.7%) were hyperintense (P < .001). DW imaging can be used for reliable discrimination of benign and malignant pediatric abdominal mass lesions based on considerable differences in

  16. Diffusion tensor tractography imaging in pediatric epilepsy - A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Szmuda, Marta; Szmuda, Tomasz; Springer, Janusz; Rogowska, Marianna; Sabisz, Agnieszka; Dubaniewicz, Mirosława; Mazurkiewicz-Bełdzińska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Recent years brought several experimental and clinical reports applying diffusion tensor tractography imaging (DTI) of the brain in epilepsy. This study was aimed to evaluate current evidence for adding the DTI sequence to the standard diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol in pediatric epilepsy. Rapid and qualitative systematic review (RAE, Rapid Evidence Assessment), aggregating relevant studies from the recent 7 years. The PubMed database was hand searched for records containing terms "tractography AND epilepsy." Only studies referring to children were included; studies were rated using "final quality of evidence." Out of 144 screened records, relevant 101 were aggregated and reviewed. The synthesis was based on 73 studies. Case-control clinical studies were the majority of the material and comprised 43.8% of the material. Low 'confirmability' and low 'applicability' referred to 18 and 17 articles (29.5% and 27.9%), respectively. The sufficient quality of evidence supported performing DTI in temporal lobe epilepsy, malformations of cortical development and prior to a neurosurgery of epilepsy. The qualitative RAE provides an interim estimate of the clinical relevance of quickly developing diagnostic methods. Based on the critical appraisal of current knowledge, adding the DTI sequence to the standard MRI protocol may be clinically beneficial in selected patient groups with childhood temporal lobe epilepsy or as a part of planning for an epilepsy surgery. Copyright © 2015 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  17. Collaborative Efforts Driving Progress in Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Zwaan, C. Michel; Kolb, Edward A.; Reinhardt, Dirk; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Adachi, Souichi; Aplenc, Richard; De Bont, Eveline S.J.M.; De Moerloose, Barbara; Dworzak, Michael; Gibson, Brenda E.S.; Hasle, Henrik; Leverger, Guy; Locatelli, Franco; Ragu, Christine; Ribeiro, Raul C.; Rizzari, Carmelo; Rubnitz, Jeffrey E.; Smith, Owen P.; Sung, Lillian; Tomizawa, Daisuke; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.; Creutzig, Ursula; Kaspers, Gertjan J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis, treatment, response monitoring, and outcome of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have made enormous progress during the past decades. Because AML is a rare type of childhood cancer, with an incidence of approximately seven occurrences per 1 million children annually, national and international collaborative efforts have evolved. This overview describes these efforts and includes a summary of the history and contributions of each of the main collaborative pediatric AML groups worldwide. The focus is on translational and clinical research, which includes past, current, and future clinical trials. Separate sections concern acute promyelocytic leukemia, myeloid leukemia of Down syndrome, and relapsed AML. A plethora of novel antileukemic agents that have emerged, including new classes of drugs, are summarized as well. Finally, an important aspect of the treatment of pediatric AML—supportive care—and late effects are discussed. The future is bright, with a wide range of emerging innovative therapies and with more and more international collaboration that ultimately aim to cure all children with AML, with fewer adverse effects and without late effects. PMID:26304895

  18. Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage associated with progressive systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, M T; Robb, J D; Martin, J R

    1990-01-01

    A 41 year old man with an eight year history of progressive systemic sclerosis developed severe diffuse alveolar haemorrhage and died. The importance of diffuse alveolar haemorrhage as a rare but potentially serious complication of connective tissue disease should not be overlooked. Images PMID:2256025

  19. Progressive Diffuse Osteonecrosis in a Patient with Secondary Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Takashi; Rykken, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    This is a case report with serial imaging showing progression of diffuse osteonecrosis in a patient after a diagnosis of secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). While bone marrow involvement in HLH has been long noted at histological evaluation and is itself one of the diagnosis criteria, to the best of our knowledge, there has been no previous publication addressing osseous image findings in a patient with HLH. PMID:26693376

  20. Diffusion Tensor Imaging: A Review for Pediatric Researchers and Clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Heidi M.; Yeatman, Jason D.; Lee, Eliana S.; Barde, Laura H. F.; Gaman-Bean, Shayna

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a magnetic resonance imaging technique that allows for the visualization and characterization of the white matter tracts of the brain in vivo. DTI does not assess white matter directly. Rather, it capitalizes on the fact that diffusion is isotropic (equal in all directions) in cerebral spinal fluid and cell bodies but anisotropic (greater in one direction than the other directions) in axons that comprise white matter. It provides quantitative information about the degree and direction of water diffusion within individual units of volume within the magnetic resonance image, and by inference, about the integrity of white matter. Measures from DTI can be applied throughout the brain or to regions of interest. Fiber tract reconstruction, or tractography, creates continuous 3-dimensional tracts by sequentially piecing together estimates of fiber orientation from the direction of diffusion within individual volume units. DTI has increased our understanding of white matter structure and function. DTI shows nonlinear growth of white matter tracts from childhood to adulthood. Delayed maturation of the white matter in the frontal lobes may explain the continued growth of cognitive control into adulthood. Relative to good readers, adults and children who are poor readers have evidence of white matter differences in a specific region of the temporo-parietal lobe, implicating differences in connections among brain regions as a factor in reading disorder. Measures from DTI changed in poor readers who improved their reading skills after intense remediation. DTI documents injury to white matter tracts after prematurity. Measures indicative of white matter injury are associated with motor and cognitive impairment in children born prematurely. Further research on DTI is necessary before it can become a routine clinical procedure. PMID:20453582

  1. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and recombinant factor VIIa treatment in pediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a life-threatening pulmonary complication in patients with hematologic malignancies or autoimmune disorders. The current treatment options, which include corticosteroids, transfusions, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and immunosuppressants, have been limited and largely unsuccessful. Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) has been successfully administered, either systemically or bronchoscopically, to adults for the treatment of DAH, but there are few data on its use in pediatric patients. The current literature in the PubMed database was reviewed to evaluate the efficacy and risk of rFVIIa treatment for DAH in pediatric patients. This review discusses the diagnosis and treatment of DAH, as well as a new treatment paradigm that includes rFVIIa. Additionally, the risks and benefits of off-label use of rFVIIa in pediatric patients are discussed. PMID:27186216

  2. Biopsy in a series of 130 pediatric diffuse intrinsic Pontine gliomas.

    PubMed

    Puget, Stephanie; Beccaria, Kevin; Blauwblomme, Thomas; Roujeau, Thomas; James, Syril; Grill, Jacques; Zerah, Michel; Varlet, Pascale; Sainte-Rose, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is the most severe pediatric solid tumor, with no significant improvement in the past 50 years. Possible reasons for failure to make therapeutic progress include poor understanding of the underlying molecular biology due to lack of tumor material. We performed a prospective analysis of children with typical appearance of DIPG who had a stereotactic biopsy in our unit since 2002. Technical approach, complications, histopathological results, and samples processing are exposed. The literature on this subject is discussed. Reviewing our own 130 cases of DIPG biopsies and previous published data, these procedures appear to have a diagnostic yield and morbidity rates similar to those reported for other brain locations (3.9 % of transient morbidity in our series). In addition, the quality and the quantity of the material obtained allow to (1) confirm the diagnosis, (2) reveal that WHO grading was useless to predict outcome, and (3) perform an extended molecular screen, including biomarkers study and the development of preclinical models. Recent studies reveal that DIPG may comprise more than one biological entity and a unique oncogenesis involving mutations never described in other types of cancers, i.e., histones H3 K27M and activin receptor ACVR1. Stereotactic biopsies of DIPG can be considered as a safe procedure in well-trained neurosurgical teams and could be incorporated in protocols. It is a unique opportunity to integrate DIPG biopsies in clinical practice and use the biology at diagnosis to drive the introduction of innovative targeted therapies, in combination with radiotherapy.

  3. Progress and perspectives in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rotta, Alexandre Tellechea; Piva, Jefferson Pedro; Andreolio, Cinara; de Carvalho, Werther Brunow; Garcia, Pedro Celiny Ramos

    2015-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a disease of acute onset characterized by hypoxemia and infiltrates on chest radiographs that affects both adults and children of all ages. It is an important cause of respiratory failure in pediatric intensive care units and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Nevertheless, until recently, the definitions and diagnostic criteria for acute respiratory distress syndrome have focused on the adult population. In this article, we review the evolution of the definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome over nearly five decades, with a special focus on the new pediatric definition. We also discuss recommendations for the implementation of mechanical ventilation strategies in the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome in children and the use of adjuvant therapies.

  4. Evidence-Based Interventions in Pediatric Psychology: Progress Over the Decades

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This introduction to the special issue on Evidence-Based Interventions in Pediatric Psychology provides background on the process used to develop the special issue, a summary of the key findings from the series of reviews, and discussion of the implications for evidence-based practice. Authors followed a three-phase approach to develop their systematic reviews using rigorous systematic review methodology drawn heavily from the Cochrane Collaboration. The strength of the evidence for each pediatric psychology intervention was evaluated using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology. The introduction discusses the progress that has been made in the evidence base for pediatric psychology interventions since the first special series published in 1999. Recommendations to stimulate further research and expand and strengthen the quality of the evidence base are described. The introduction concludes with implications from the special issue for pediatric psychology training in evidence-based practice. PMID:24996921

  5. Diffusion-weighted imaging improves outcome prediction in pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Galloway, Nicholas R; Tong, Karen A; Ashwal, Stephen; Oyoyo, Udochukwu; Obenaus, André

    2008-10-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and consequent apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps have been used for lesion detection and as a predictor of outcome in adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI), but few studies have been reported in children. We evaluated the role of DWI and ADC for outcome prediction after pediatric TBI (n=37 TBI; n=10 controls). Fifteen regions of interest (ROIs) were manually drawn on ADC maps that were grouped for analysis into peripheral gray matter, peripheral white matter, deep gray and white matter, and posterior fossa. All ROIs excluded areas that appeared abnormal on T2-weighted images (T2WI). Acute injury severity was measured using the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, and 6-12-month outcomes were assessed using the Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category Scale (PCPCS) score. Patients were categorized into five groups: (1) controls; (2) all TBI patients; (3) mild/moderate TBI with good outcomes; (4) severe TBI with good outcomes; and (5) severe TBI with poor outcomes. ADC values in the peripheral white matter were significantly reduced in children with severe TBI with poor outcomes (72.8+/-14.4x10(-3) mm2/sec) compared to those with severe TBI and good outcomes (82.5+/-3.8x10(-3) mm2/sec; p<0.05). We also found that the average total brain ADC value alone had the greatest ability to predict outcome and could correctly predict outcome in 84% of cases. Assessment of DWI and ADC values in pediatric TBI is useful in evaluating injury, particularly in brain regions that appear normal on conventional imaging. Early identification of children at high risk for poor outcome may assist in aggressive clinical management of pediatric TBI patients.

  6. Common pediatric cerebellar tumors: correlation between cell densities and apparent diffusion coefficient metrics.

    PubMed

    Koral, Korgün; Mathis, Derek; Gimi, Barjor; Gargan, Lynn; Weprin, Bradley; Bowers, Daniel C; Margraf, Linda

    2013-08-01

    To test whether there is correlation between cell densities and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) metrics of common pediatric cerebellar tumors. This study was reviewed for issues of patient safety and confidentiality and was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center and was compliant with HIPAA. The need for informed consent was waived. Ninety-five patients who had preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and surgical pathologic findings available between January 2003 and June 2011 were included. There were 37 pilocytic astrocytomas, 34 medulloblastomas (23 classic, eight desmoplastic-nodular, two large cell, one anaplastic), 17 ependymomas (13 World Health Organization [WHO] grade II, four WHO grade III), and seven atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors. ADCs of solid tumor components and normal cerebellum were measured. Tumor-to-normal brain ADC ratios (hereafter, ADC ratio) were calculated. The medulloblastomas and ependymomas were subcategorized according to the latest WHO classification, and tumor cellularity was calculated. Correlation was sought between cell densities and mean tumor ADCs, minimum tumor ADCs, and ADC ratio. When all tumors were considered together, negative correlation was found between cellularity and mean tumor ADCs (ρ = -0.737, P < .05) and minimum tumor ADCs (ρ = -0.736, P < .05) of common pediatric cerebellar tumors. There was no correlation between cellularity and ADC ratio. Negative correlation was found between cellularity and minimum tumor ADC in atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ρ = -0.786, P < .05). In atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors, no correlation was found between cellularity and mean tumor ADC and ADC ratio. There was no correlation between the ADC metrics and cellularity of the pilocytic astrocytomas, medulloblastomas, and ependymomas. Negative correlation was found between cellularity and ADC metrics of common pediatric cerebellar tumors. Although ADC metrics are

  7. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis of diffusion-tensor imaging data in pediatric- and adult-onset multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Aliotta, Rachel; Cox, Jennifer L; Donohue, Katelyn; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Yeh, E Ann; Polak, Paul; Dwyer, Michael G; Zivadinov, Robert

    2014-01-01

    White matter (WM) microstructure may vary significantly in pediatric-onset (PO) and adult-onset (AO) patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), a difference that could be explained by the effects of an inherent plasticity in the affected pediatric brains early in the disease, and a phenomenon that does not occur later in life. This hypothesis would support the observation that disease progression is much slower in POMS compared to AOMS patients. To examine WM microstructure in the brain of adults with POMS and AOMS, using tract based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis of diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI). Adults with relapsing-remitting (RR) POMS, who were diagnosed before age of 18 years (n = 16), were compared with age-matched (AOA, n = 23) and disease duration-matched (AOD, n = 22) RR patients who developed MS after the age of 18 years. Scans were analyzed using the FSL software package (Oxford, UK) and statistics were performed using TBSS to evaluate WM microstructure between groups based on the mean fractional anisotropy (FA) values obtained from the DTI. Widespread cortical and deep WM area differences characterized by increased FA values were seen in the AOAMS compared with POMS group (P < 0.05, TFCE corrected). Significantly increased FA values of posterior WM areas were detected in the AODMS compared with POMS group (P < 0.05, TFCE corrected). Increased FA values in WM areas of the AOMS compared with the POMS patients suggest that diffuse WM microstructure changes are more attributable to age of onset than a simple function of disease duration and age. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) findings following pediatric non-penetrating TBI: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Roberts, R M; Mathias, J L; Rose, S E

    2014-01-01

    This study meta-analyzed research examining Diffusion Tensor Imaging following pediatric non-penetrating traumatic brain injury to identify the location and extent of white matter changes. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) data from 20 studies were analyzed. FA increased and ADC decreased in most white matter tracts in the short-term (moderate-to-large effects), and FA decreased and ADC increased in the medium- to long-term (moderate-to-very-large effects). Whole brain (short-term), cerebellum and corpus callosum (medium- to long-term) FA values have diagnostic potential, but the impact of age/developmental stage and injury severity on FA/ADC, and the predictive value, is unclear.

  9. Localizing Sources of Brain Disease Progression with Network Diffusion Model.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chenhui; Hua, Xue; Ying, Jun; Thompson, Paul M; Fakhri, Georges E; Li, Quanzheng

    2016-10-01

    Pinpointing the sources of dementia is crucial to the effective treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. In this paper, we propose a diffusion model with impulsive sources over the brain connectivity network to model the progression of brain atrophy. To reliably estimate the atrophy sources, we impose sparse regularization on the source distribution and solve the inverse problem with an efficient gradient descent method. We localize the possible origins of Alzheimer's disease (AD) based on a large set of repeated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. The distribution of the sources averaged over the sample population is evaluated. We find that the dementia sources have different concentrations in the brain lobes for AD patients and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects, indicating possible switch of the dementia driving mechanism. Moreover, we demonstrate that we can effectively predict changes of brain atrophy patterns with the proposed model. Our work could help understand the dynamics and origin of dementia, as well as monitor the progression of the diseases in an early stage.

  10. Motion Artifact Reduction in Pediatric Diffusion Tensor Imaging Using Fast Prospective Correction

    PubMed Central

    Alhamud, A.; Taylor, Paul A.; Laughton, Barbara; van der Kouwe, André J.W.; Meintjes, Ernesta M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the patterns of head motion in scans of young children and to examine the influence of corrective techniques, both qualitatively and quantitatively. We investigate changes that both retrospective (with and without diffusion table reorientation) and prospective (implemented with a short navigator sequence) motion correction induce in the resulting diffusion tensor measures. Materials and Methods Eighteen pediatric subjects (aged 5–6 years) were scanned using 1) a twice-refocused, 2D diffusion pulse sequence, 2) a prospectively motion-corrected, navigated diffusion sequence with reacquisition of a maximum of five corrupted diffusion volumes, and 3) a T1-weighted structural image. Mean fractional anisotropy (FA) values in white and gray matter regions, as well as tractography in the brainstem and projection fibers, were evaluated to assess differences arising from retrospective (via FLIRT in FSL) and prospective motion correction. In addition to human scans, a stationary phantom was also used for further evaluation. Results In several white and gray matter regions retrospective correction led to significantly (P < 0.05) reduced FA means and altered distributions compared to the navigated sequence. Spurious tractographic changes in the retrospectively corrected data were also observed in subject data, as well as in phantom and simulated data. Conclusion Due to the heterogeneity of brain structures and the comparatively low resolution (~2 mm) of diffusion data using 2D single shot sequencing, retrospective motion correction is susceptible to distortion from partial voluming. These changes often negatively bias diffusion tensor imaging parameters. Prospective motion correction was shown to produce smaller changes. PMID:24935904

  11. Time-dependent diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo characterization of pediatric epileptogenic brain lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Sanghoon; Ragheb, John; Bhatia, Sanjiv; Sandberg, David; Johnson, Mahlon; Fernald, Bradley; Lin, Wei-Chiang

    2008-02-01

    Optical spectroscopy for in vivo tissue diagnosis is performed traditionally in a static manner; a snap shot of the tissue biochemical and morphological characteristics is captured through the interaction between light and the tissue. This approach does not capture the dynamic nature of a living organ, which is critical to the studies of brain disorders such as epilepsy. Therefore, a time-dependent diffuse reflectance spectroscopy system with a fiber-optic probe was designed and developed. The system was designed to acquire broadband diffuse reflectance spectra (240 ~ 932 nm) at an acquisition rate of 33 Hz. The broadband spectral acquisition feature allows simultaneous monitoring of various physiological characteristics of tissues. The utility of such a system in guiding pediatric epilepsy surgery was tested in a pilot clinical study including 13 epilepsy patients and seven brain tumor patients. The control patients were children undergoing suregery for brain tumors in which measurements were taken from normal brain exposed during the surgery. Diffuse reflectance spectra were acquired for 12 seconds from various parts of the brain of the patients during surgery. Recorded spectra were processed and analyzed in both spectral and time domains to gain insights into the dynamic changes in, for example, hemodynamics of the investigated brain tissue. One finding from this pilot study is that unsynchronized alterations in local blood oxygenation and local blood volume were observed in epileptogenic cortex. These study results suggest the advantage of using a time-dependent diffuse reflectance spectroscopy system to study epileptogenic brain in vivo.

  12. Role of diffusion-weighted imaging in differentiating benign and malignant pediatric abdominal tumors.

    PubMed

    Gawande, Rakhee S; Gonzalez, Gabriel; Messing, Solomon; Khurana, Aman; Daldrup-Link, Heike E

    2013-07-01

    Solid malignant tumors are more highly cellular than benign lesions and hence have a restricted diffusion of water molecules. To evaluate whether diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) can differentiate between benign and malignant pediatric abdominal tumors. We retrospectively analyzed DWI scans of 68 consecutive children with 39 benign and 34 malignant abdominal masses. To calculate the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps and ADC values, we used 1.5-T sequences at TR/TE/b-value of 5,250-7,500/54-64/b = 0, 500 and 3-T sequences at 3,500-4,000/66-73/b = 0, 500, 800. ADC values were compared between benign and malignant and between data derived at 1.5 tesla (T) and at 3 tesla magnetic field strength, using the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test, ANOVA and a receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis. There was no significant difference in ADC values obtained at 1.5 T and 3 T (P = 0.962). Mean ADC values (× 10(-3) mm(2)/s) were 1.07 for solid malignant tumors, 1.6 for solid benign tumors, 2.9 for necrotic portions of malignant tumors and 3.1 for cystic benign lesions. The differences between malignant and benign solid tumors were statistically significant (P = 0.000025). ROC analysis revealed an optimal cut-off ADC value for differentiating malignant and benign solid tumors as 1.29 with excellent inter-observer reliability (alpha score 0.88). DWI scans and ADC values can contribute to distinguishing between benign and malignant pediatric abdominal tumors.

  13. Health economic perspectives of pediatric malnutrition: determinants of innovative progress.

    PubMed

    Spieldenner, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    Despite some improvements in recent years, extreme poverty and malnutrition remain a critical concern for developing countries. Malnutrition, and more specifically pediatric malnutrition, is a reality affecting millions of children, particularly in South Asia and Africa. It causes increased mortality and morbidity, decreased physical and intellectual development, poor productivity and a number of negative economic outcomes. Health economics data clearly demonstrate that interventions are effective and efficient, but more data are needed to measure that efficiency. Initiatives to address microdeficiencies have focused on vitamin A, iodine, zinc, iron and folate. Iodine is often used as a best practice example. Two main institutions lead the efforts to address malnutrition throughout the world: the UN with its UN Millennium Development Goal project, and the Copenhagen Consensus. We consider micronutrient deficiencies, particularly in iodine, corresponding interventions, their effects and health economic data. We discuss how developing public/private partnership could boost the effectiveness of interventions by combining the competencies of both sides: credibility, national and international buy-in, experience of public institutions, commercial competencies, high penetration rate, and product knowledge of private industry. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Evidence-based interventions in pediatric psychology: progress over the decades.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Tonya M

    2014-09-01

    This introduction to the special issue on Evidence-Based Interventions in Pediatric Psychology provides background on the process used to develop the special issue, a summary of the key findings from the series of reviews, and discussion of the implications for evidence-based practice. Authors followed a three-phase approach to develop their systematic reviews using rigorous systematic review methodology drawn heavily from the Cochrane Collaboration. The strength of the evidence for each pediatric psychology intervention was evaluated using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology. The introduction discusses the progress that has been made in the evidence base for pediatric psychology interventions since the first special series published in 1999. Recommendations to stimulate further research and expand and strengthen the quality of the evidence base are described. The introduction concludes with implications from the special issue for pediatric psychology training in evidence-based practice. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Analysis of Multiple B-Value Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in Pediatric Acute Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Tachibana, Yasuhiko; Aida, Noriko; Niwa, Tetsu; Nozawa, Kumiko; Kusagiri, Kouki; Mori, Kana; Endo, Kazuo; Obata, Takayuki; Inoue, Tomio

    2013-01-01

    Acute encephalopathy is a disease group more commonly seen in children. It is often severe and has neurological sequelae. Imaging is important for early diagnosis and prompt treatment to ameliorate an unfavorable outcome, but insufficient sensitivity/specificity is a problem. To overcome this, a new value (fraction of high b-pair (FH)) that could be processed from clinically acceptable MR diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with three different b-values was designed on the basis of a two-compartment model of water diffusion signal attenuation. The purpose of this study is to compare FH with the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) regarding the detectability of pediatric acute encephalopathy. We retrospectively compared the clinical DWI of 15 children (1–10 years old, mean 2.34, 8 boys, 7 girls) of acute encephalopathy with another 16 children (1–11 years old, mean 4.89, 9 boys, 7 girls) as control. A comparison was first made visually by mapping FH on the brain images, and then a second comparison was made on the basis of 10 regions of interest (ROIs) set on cortical and subcortical areas of each child. FH map visually revealed diffusely elevated FH in cortical and subcortical areas of the patients with acute encephalopathy; the changes seemed more diffuse in FH compared to DWI. The comparison based on ROI revealed elevated mean FH in the cortical and subcortical areas of the acute encephalopathy patients compared to control with significant difference (P<0.05). Similar findings were observed even in regions where the findings of DWI were slight. The reduction of mean ADC was significant in regions with severe findings in DWI, but it was not constant in the areas with slighter DWI findings. The detectability of slight changes of cortical and subcortical lesions in acute encephalopathy may be superior in FH compared to ADC. PMID:23755112

  16. Viral Infection in the Development and Progression of Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nye, Steven; Whitley, Richard J; Kong, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Viral infections are an important cause of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Numerous viruses, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza A (H1N1) virus, have been implicated in the progression of pneumonia to ARDS; yet the incidence of progression is unknown. Despite acute and chronic morbidity associated with respiratory viral infections, particularly in "at risk" populations, treatment options are limited. Thus, with few exceptions, care is symptomatic. In addition, mortality rates for viral-related ARDS have yet to be determined. This review outlines what is known about ARDS secondary to viral infections including the epidemiology, the pathophysiology, and diagnosis. In addition, emerging treatment options to prevent infection, and to decrease disease burden will be outlined. We focused on RSV and influenza A (H1N1) viral-induced ARDS, as these are the most common viruses leading to pediatric ARDS, and have specific prophylactic and definitive treatment options.

  17. Viral Infection in the Development and Progression of Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Nye, Steven; Whitley, Richard J.; Kong, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Viral infections are an important cause of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Numerous viruses, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza A (H1N1) virus, have been implicated in the progression of pneumonia to ARDS; yet the incidence of progression is unknown. Despite acute and chronic morbidity associated with respiratory viral infections, particularly in “at risk” populations, treatment options are limited. Thus, with few exceptions, care is symptomatic. In addition, mortality rates for viral-related ARDS have yet to be determined. This review outlines what is known about ARDS secondary to viral infections including the epidemiology, the pathophysiology, and diagnosis. In addition, emerging treatment options to prevent infection, and to decrease disease burden will be outlined. We focused on RSV and influenza A (H1N1) viral-induced ARDS, as these are the most common viruses leading to pediatric ARDS, and have specific prophylactic and definitive treatment options. PMID:27933286

  18. Pilot Study of Renal Diffusion Tensor Imaging as a Correlate to Histopathology in Pediatric Renal Allografts.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Lee, Marsha M; Worters, Pauline W; MacKenzie, John D; Laszik, Zoltan; Courtier, Jesse L

    2017-06-01

    Fractional anisotropy (FA) is a measure of molecular motion obtained from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The objective of this study was to assess the use of FA as a noninvasive correlate of renal allograft histopathology. Sixteen pediatric renal allograft recipients were imaged using DTI in a prospective study, between October 2014 and January 2016, before a same-day renal allograft biopsy. The Kendall tau correlation coefficient was used to assess the relationship between cortical and medullary FA values and several clinically important Banff renal allograft histopathology scores. The Mann-Whitney U test was also used to compare cortical and medullary FA values in the region of biopsy in patients whose biopsy results did and in those whose biopsy results did not change clinical management. Medullary FA values had direct inverse correlation with several histopathology scores: tubulitis (designated "t" score in Banff pathologic classification, p < 0.04), interstitial inflammation (i score, p < 0.005), tubular atrophy (ct score, p < 0.002), and interstitial fibrosis (ci score, p < 0.007). Cortical FA values inversely correlated with peritubular capillaritis (ptc score, p < 0.02). Neither medullary nor cortical FA values correlated with glomerulitis (g score). At a b value of 800 s/mm(2), medullary FA values of pediatric renal allograft recipients whose renal biopsies prompted a change in clinical management (mean ± SD at a b value of 800 s/mm(2) = 0.262 ± 0.07; n = 9) were statistically different compared with the group whose biopsy results did not change clinical management (mean ± SD at a b value of 800 s/mm(2) = 0.333 ± 0.06; n = 7) (p < 0.006). FA is a noninvasive correlate of several important renal allograft histopathology scores and a potential noninvasive method of assessing renal allograft health in pediatric allograft recipients.

  19. Serial MR diffusion to predict treatment response in high-grade pediatric brain tumors: a comparison of regional and voxel-based diffusion change metrics

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez Gutierrez, Daniel; Manita, Muftah; Jaspan, Tim; Dineen, Robert A.; Grundy, Richard G.; Auer, Dorothee P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Assessment of treatment response by measuring tumor size is known to be a late and potentially confounded response index. Serial diffusion MRI has shown potential for allowing earlier and possibly more reliable response assessment in adult patients, with limited experience in clinical settings and in pediatric brain cancer. We present a retrospective study of clinical MRI data in children with high-grade brain tumors to assess and compare the values of several diffusion change metrics to predict treatment response. Methods Eighteen patients (age range, 1.9–20.6 years) with high-grade brain tumors and serial diffusion MRI (pre- and posttreatment interval range, 1–16 weeks posttreatment) were identified after obtaining parental consent. The following diffusion change metrics were compared with the clinical response status assessed at 6 months: (1) regional change in absolute and normalized apparent diffusivity coefficient (ADC), (2) voxel-based fractional volume of increased (fiADC) and decreased ADC (fdADC), and (3) a new metric based on the slope of the first principal component of functional diffusion maps (fDM). Results Responders (n = 12) differed significantly from nonresponders (n = 6) in all 3 diffusional change metrics demonstrating higher regional ADC increase, larger fiADC, and steeper slopes (P < .05). The slope method allowed the best response prediction (P < .01, η2 = 0.78) with a classification accuracy of 83% for a slope of 58° using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Conclusions We demonstrate that diffusion change metrics are suitable response predictors for high-grade pediatric tumors, even in the presence of variable clinical diffusion imaging protocols. PMID:23585630

  20. Pediatrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spackman, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    The utilization of the Lixiscope in pediatrics was investigated. The types of images that can presently be obtained are discussed along with the problems encountered. Speculative applications for the Lixiscope are also presented.

  1. Degenerative changes of the corticospinal tract in pediatric patients showing deteriorated motor function: A diffusion tensor tractography study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Min Cheol; Jang, Sung Ho; Seo, Jeong Pyo; Lee, Eusil; Kim, Saeyoon; Won, Yu Hui; Son, Su Min

    2015-01-01

    We attempted to demonstrate the corresponding degenerative changes of the affected corticospinal tract (CST) in pediatric patients with deteriorated motor function using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). We recruited three pediatric patients (corrected age: 2, 6 and 47 months, respectively) who showed impaired motor function. DTT in each patient showed interruption of the CSTs of the hemisphere contralateral to the side of motor impairment. Despite motor impairment and abnormal DTT findings, none of the three patients received rehabilitative therapy. The patients (corrected age: 9, 53 and 59 months, respectively) and their parents visited our clinic again due to deterioration of motor functions. Follow-up DTT of all evaluated patients showed significant degenerative changes in the affected CSTs in accordance with the aggravation of motor impairment. We presented degenerative changes of the affected CSTs in pediatric patients according to the deterioration of motor function.

  2. Investigation of Vibration Induced Artifact in Clinical Diffusion-Weighted Imaging of Pediatric Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Berl, Madison M.; Walker, Lindsay; Modi, Pooja; Irfanoglu, M. Okan; Sarlls, Joelle; Nayak, Amritha; Pierpaoli, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported that mechanical vibrations of the MRI scanner could produce spurious signal dropouts in diffusion-weighted images resulting in artifactual anisotropy in certain regions of the brain with red appearance in the Directionally Encoded Color maps. We performed a review of the frequency of this artifact across pediatric studies, noting differences by scanner manufacturer, acquisition protocol, as well as weight and position of the subject. We also evaluated the ability of automated and quantitative methods to detect this artifact. We found that the artifact may be present in over 50% of data in certain protocols and is not limited to one scanner manufacturer. While a specific scanner had the highest incidence, low body weight and positioning were also associated with appearance of the artifact for both scanner types evaluated, making children potentially more susceptible than adults. Visual inspection remains the best method for artifact identification. Software for automated detection showed very low sensitivity (10%). The artifact may present inconsistently in longitudinal studies. We discuss a published case report that has been widely cited and used as evidence to set policy about diagnostic criteria for determining vegetative state. That report attributed longitudinal changes in anisotropy to white matter plasticity without considering the possibility that the changes were caused by this artifact. Our study underscores the need to check for the presence of this artifact in clinical studies, analyzes circumstances for when it may be more likely to occur, and suggests simple strategies to identify and potentially avoid its effects. PMID:26350492

  3. Progression of Microstructural Degeneration in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy and Corticobasal Syndrome: A Longitudinal Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Rudolph; Ng, Peter; Luong, Phi N.; Dutt, Shubir; Heuer, Hilary; Rojas-Rodriguez, Julio C.; Tsai, Richard; Litvan, Irene; Dickerson, Bradford C.; Tartaglia, Maria Carmela; Rabinovici, Gil; Miller, Bruce L.; Rosen, Howard J.

    2016-01-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal syndrome (CBS) are both 4 microtubule binding repeat tauopathy related disorders. Clinical trials need new biomarkers to assess the effectiveness of tau-directed therapies. This study investigated the regional distribution of longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging changes, measured by fractional anisotropy, radial and axial diffusivity over 6 months median interval, in 23 normal control subjects, 35 patients with PSP, and 25 patients with CBS. A mixed-effects framework was used to test longitudinal changes within and between groups. Correlations between changes in diffusion variables and clinical progression were also tested. The study found that over a 6 month period and compared to controls, the most prominent changes in PSP were up to 3±1% higher rates of FA reduction predominantly in superior cerebellar peduncles, and up to 18±6% higher rates of diffusivity increases in caudate nuclei. The most prominent changes in CBS compared to controls were up to 4±1% higher rates of anisotropy reduction and 18±6% higher rates of diffusivity increase in basal ganglia and widespread white matter regions. Compared to PSP, CBS was mainly associated with up to 3±1% greater rates of anisotropy reduction around the central sulci, and 11±3% greater rates of diffusivity increase in superior fronto-occipital fascicules. Rates of diffusivity increases in the superior cerebellar peduncle correlated with rates of ocular motor decline in PSP patients. This study demonstrated that longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging measurement is a promising surrogate marker of disease progression in PSP and CBS over a relatively short period. PMID:27310132

  4. Discordant Impact of HLA on Viral Replicative Capacity and Disease Progression in Pediatric and Adult HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Adland, Emily; Paioni, Paolo; Thobakgale, Christina; Laker, Leana; Mori, Luisa; Muenchhoff, Maximilian; Csala, Anna; Clapson, Margaret; Flynn, Jacquie; Novelli, Vas; Hurst, Jacob; Naidoo, Vanessa; Shapiro, Roger; Huang, Kuan-Hsiang Gary; Frater, John; Prendergast, Andrew; Prado, Julia G.; Ndung’u, Thumbi; Walker, Bruce D.; Carrington, Mary; Jooste, Pieter; Goulder, Philip J. R.

    2015-01-01

    HLA class I polymorphism has a major influence on adult HIV disease progression. An important mechanism mediating this effect is the impact on viral replicative capacity (VRC) of the escape mutations selected in response to HLA-restricted CD8+ T-cell responses. Factors that contribute to slow progression in pediatric HIV infection are less well understood. We here investigate the relationship between VRC and disease progression in pediatric infection, and the effect of HLA on VRC and on disease outcome in adult and pediatric infection. Studying a South African cohort of >350 ART-naïve, HIV-infected children and their mothers, we first observed that pediatric disease progression is significantly correlated with VRC. As expected, VRCs in mother-child pairs were strongly correlated (p = 0.004). The impact of the protective HLA alleles, HLA-B*57, HLA-B*58:01 and HLA-B*81:01, resulted in significantly lower VRCs in adults (p<0.0001), but not in children. Similarly, in adults, but not in children, VRCs were significantly higher in subjects expressing the disease-susceptible alleles HLA-B*18:01/45:01/58:02 (p = 0.007). Irrespective of the subject, VRCs were strongly correlated with the number of Gag CD8+ T-cell escape mutants driven by HLA-B*57/58:01/81:01 present in each virus (p = 0.0002). In contrast to the impact of VRC common to progression in adults and children, the HLA effects on disease outcome, that are substantial in adults, are small and statistically insignificant in infected children. These data further highlight the important role that VRC plays both in adult and pediatric progression, and demonstrate that HLA-independent factors, yet to be fully defined, are predominantly responsible for pediatric non-progression. PMID:26076345

  5. Nocturnal hypoxia-induced oxidative stress promotes progression of pediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Shikha S; Halbower, Ann; Pan, Zhaoxing; Robbins, Kristen; Capocelli, Kelley E; Klawitter, Jelena; Shearn, Colin T; Sokol, Ronald J

    2016-09-01

    Oxidative stress is proposed as a central mediator in NAFLD pathogenesis, but the specific trigger for reactive oxygen species generation has not been clearly delineated. In addition, emerging evidence shows that obesity related obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and nocturnal hypoxia are associated with NAFLD progression in adults. The aim of this study was to determine if OSA/nocturnal hypoxia-induced oxidative stress promotes the progression of pediatric NAFLD. Subjects with biopsy proven NAFLD and lean controls were studied. Subjects underwent polysomnograms, liver histology scoring, laboratory testing, urine F(2)-isoprostanes (measure of lipid peroxidation) and 4-hydroxynonenal liver immunohistochemistry (in situ hepatic lipid peroxidation). We studied 36 adolescents with NAFLD and 14 lean controls. The OSA/hypoxia group (69% of NAFLD subjects) had more severe fibrosis (64% stage 0-2; 36% stage 3) than those without OSA/hypoxia (100% stage 0-2), p=0.03. Higher F(2)-isoprostanes correlated with apnea/hypoxia index (r=0.39, p=0.03), % time SaO2 <90% (r=0.56, p=0.0008) and inversely with SaO2 nadir (r=-0.46, p=0.008). OSA/hypoxia was most severe in subjects with the greatest 4HNE staining (p=0.03). Increasing F(2)-isoprostanes(r=0.32, p=0.04) and 4HNE hepatic staining (r=0.47, p=0.007) were associated with worsening steatosis. Greater oxidative stress occurred in subjects with definite NASH as measured by F(2)-isoprostanes (p=0.06) and hepatic 4HNE (p=0.03) compared to those with borderline/not NASH. These data support the role of nocturnal hypoxia as a trigger for localized hepatic oxidative stress, an important factor associated with the progression of NASH and hepatic fibrosis in obese pediatric patients. Obstructive sleep apnea and low nighttime oxygen are associated with NAFLD progression in adults. In this study, we show that adolescents with NAFLD who have OSA and low oxygen have significant scar tissue in their livers. NAFLD subjects affected by OSA and low

  6. [Nutritional status in pediatric intermediate care: Assessment at admission, progression during the stay and after discharge].

    PubMed

    Hubert, A; Ford-Chessel, C; Berthiller, J; Peretti, N; Javouhey, E; Valla, F V

    2016-04-01

    Malnutrition, known as a cause of morbidity, has not been studied in children admitted to pediatric intermediate care units. This study aimed to describe the association between patients' nutritional status and the relative severity of illness that characterizes this population. In this prospective longitudinal study, a dedicated nutrition support team assessed the nutritional status of all children, aged 5 days to 18 years, admitted to our university pediatric intermediate care unit (Hôpital Femme-Mère-Enfants, Lyon, France) over one year (2012-2013). Weight, height, body mass index, weight-for-age ratio, height-for-age ratio, and the analysis of growth curves were collected at admission. We monitored patients' weight, which allowed us to detect malnutrition occurrence during the stay, and its progression up to 3 months after discharge. A total of 459 patients were enrolled. Based on the analysis integrating all nutritional indices and the progression of growth curves, malnutrition at admission was detected in 23.8% of children (20.5% and 6.8% suffered from acute and chronic malnutrition, respectively). Based only on the body mass index, malnutrition was detected in 15.5% of children. Chronic disease appeared as a risk factor for malnutrition at admission (P=0.0001) and young age for acute malnutrition (P=0.04). The incidence of acquired malnutrition during the stay (in children with a length of stay > 5 days) was up to 26%, and dyspnea was the only risk factor identified. This population recovered with a normal nutritional status late (66% after 2 months and 16% after 3 months). The prevalence of malnutrition is high in our pediatric intermediate care unit. The occurrence of acquired malnutrition during the stay is frequent. All children should benefit from systematic nutritional assessment at admission as well as careful monitoring during the stay and after discharge, to adapt early and individualized nutritional support. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS

  7. Cognard Type V intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula presenting in a pediatric patient with rapid, progressive myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Jermakowicz, Walter J; Weil, Alexander G; Vlasenko, Artyom; Bhatia, Sanjiv; Niazi, Toba N

    2017-08-01

    Cognard Type V dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) are a unique type of cranial vascular malformation characterized by congestion of the perimedullary venous system that may lead to devastating spinal cord pathology if left untreated. The authors present the first known case of a pediatric patient diagnosed with a Type V dAVF. A 14-year-old girl presented with a 3-week history of slowly progressive unilateral leg weakness that quickly progressed to bilateral leg paralysis, sphincter dysfunction, and complete sensory loss the day of her presentation. MRI revealed an extensive T2 signal change in the cervical spine and tortuous perimedullary veins along the entire length of the cord. An emergency cranial angiogram showed a Type V dAVF fed by the posterior meningeal artery with drainage into the perimedullary veins of the cervical spine. The fistula was not amenable to embolization because vascular access was difficult; therefore, the patient underwent urgent suboccipital craniotomy and ligation of the arterialized venous drainage from the fistula. The patient's clinical course immediately reversed; she had a complete recovery over the course of a year, and she remains asymptomatic at the 2-year follow-up. This report adds to a growing body of evidence that describes the diverse and unpredictable nature of Type V dAVFs and highlights the need to obtain a cranial angiogram in pediatric patients with unexplained myelopathy and cervical cord T2 signal change on MRI.

  8. Pediatric Targeted Therapy: Clinical Feasibility of Personalized Diagnostics in Children with Relapsed and Progressive Tumors.

    PubMed

    Selt, Florian; Deiß, Alica; Korshunov, Andrey; Capper, David; Witt, Hendrik; van Tilburg, Cornelis M; Jones, David T W; Witt, Ruth; Sahm, Felix; Reuss, David; Kölsche, Christian; Ecker, Jonas; Oehme, Ina; Hielscher, Thomas; von Deimling, Andreas; Kulozik, Andreas E; Pfister, Stefan M; Witt, Olaf; Milde, Till

    2016-07-01

    The "pediatric targeted therapy" (PTT) program aims to identify the presence and activity of druggable targets and evaluate the clinical benefit of a personalized treatment approach in relapsed or progressive tumors on an individual basis. 10 markers (HDAC2, HR23B, p-AKT, p-ERK, p-S6, p-EGFR, PDGFR-alpha/beta, p53 and BRAFV600E) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Pediatric patients with tumors independent of the histological diagnosis, with relapse or progression after treatment according to standard protocols were included. N = 61/145 (42%) cases were eligible for analysis between 2009 and 2013, the most common entities being brain tumors. Immunohistochemical stainings were evaluated by the H-Score (0-300). In 93% of the cases potentially actionable targets were identified. The expressed or activated pathways were histone deacetylase (HDACs; 83.0% of cases positive), EGFR (87.2%), PDGFR (75.9%), p53 (50.0%), MAPK/ERK (43.3%) and PI3K/mTOR (36.1%). Follow-up revealed partial or full implementation of PTT results in treatment decision-making in 41% of the cases. Prolonged disease stabilization responses in single cases were noticed, however, response rates did not differ from cases treated with other modalities. Further studies evaluating the feasibility and clinical benefit of personalized diagnostic approaches using paraffin material are warranted.

  9. Inter- and intra-rater reliability of diffusion tensor imaging parameters in the normal pediatric spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Barakat, Nadia; Shah, Pallav; Faro, Scott H; Gaughan, John P; Middleton, Devon; Mulcahey, MJ; Mohamed, Feroze B

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess inter- and intra-rater reliability (agreement) between two region of interest (ROI) methods in pediatric spinal cord diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). METHODS: Inner-Field-of-View DTI data previously acquired from ten pediatric healthy subjects (mean age = 12.10 years) was used to assess for reliability. ROIs were drawn by two neuroradiologists on each subject data twice within a 3-mo interval. ROIs were placed on axial B0 maps along the cervical spine using free-hand and fixed-size ROIs. Agreement analyses for fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity, radial diffusivity and mean diffusivity were performed using intra-class-correlation (ICC) and Cronbach’s alpha statistical methods. RESULTS: Inter- and intra-rater agreement between the two ROI methods showed moderate (ICC = 0.5) to strong (ICC = 0.84). There were significant differences between raters in the number of pixels selected using free-hand ROIs (P < 0.05). However, no significant differences were observed in DTI parameter values. FA showed highest variability in ICC values (0.10-0.87). Cronbach’s alpha showed moderate-high values for raters and ROI methods. CONCLUSION: The study showed that high reproducibility in spinal cord DTI can be achieved, and demonstrated the importance of setting detailed methodology for post-processing DTI data, specifically the placement of ROIs. PMID:26435778

  10. Reaction and diffusion in turbulent combustion. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, S.B.

    1993-06-18

    A class of turbulent combustion models known as PDF methods has been developed. These methods have the important virtue that both convection and reaction can be treated without turbulence-modelling assumptions. However, a mixing model is required to account for the effects of molecular diffusion. Currently, the available mixing models are known to have some significant defects. Motivation of the project is to seek a better understanding of molecular diffusion in turbulent reactive flows; and thereby to provide guidance to the development of improved mixing models. Principal approach taken in the research is to use Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) to study the coupled processes of reaction and molecular mixing in turbulent combustion. Because of inevitable computational limitations, it is impossible to simulate turbulent combustion in the parameter range of practical interest. Instead, our approach is to study very simple turbulent reactive flows that contain qualitatively some of the same phenomena as real flames. Statistical models will be developed that are applicable to practical combustion devices. The DNS studies related to non-premixed combustion are described. An additional topic studied, was mixing from the viewpoint of relative molecular motion.

  11. A geo-computational algorithm for exploring the structure of diffusion progression in time and space.

    PubMed

    Chin, Wei-Chien-Benny; Wen, Tzai-Hung; Sabel, Clive E; Wang, I-Hsiang

    2017-10-03

    A diffusion process can be considered as the movement of linked events through space and time. Therefore, space-time locations of events are key to identify any diffusion process. However, previous clustering analysis methods have focused only on space-time proximity characteristics, neglecting the temporal lag of the movement of events. We argue that the temporal lag between events is a key to understand the process of diffusion movement. Using the temporal lag could help to clarify the types of close relationships. This study aims to develop a data exploration algorithm, namely the TrAcking Progression In Time And Space (TaPiTaS) algorithm, for understanding diffusion processes. Based on the spatial distance and temporal interval between cases, TaPiTaS detects sub-clusters, a group of events that have high probability of having common sources, identifies progression links, the relationships between sub-clusters, and tracks progression chains, the connected components of sub-clusters. Dengue Fever cases data was used as an illustrative case study. The location and temporal range of sub-clusters are presented, along with the progression links. TaPiTaS algorithm contributes a more detailed and in-depth understanding of the development of progression chains, namely the geographic diffusion process.

  12. Relationship Between Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) Findings and Cognition Following Pediatric TBI: A Meta-Analytic Review

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Rachel M.; Mathias, Jane L.; Rose, Stephen E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study meta-analyzed research examining relationships between diffusion tensor imaging and cognition following pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). Data from 14 studies that correlated fractional anisotropy (FA) or apparent diffusion coefficient/mean diffusivity with cognition were analyzed. Short-term (<4 weeks post-TBI) findings were inconsistent, but, in the medium to long term, FA values for numerous large white matter tracts and the whole brain were related to cognition. However, the analyses were limited by the diversity of brain regions and cognitive outcomes that have been examined; all in relatively small samples. Moreover, additional data are needed to investigate the impact of age and injury severity on these findings. PMID:27232263

  13. Relationship Between Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) Findings and Cognition Following Pediatric TBI: A Meta-Analytic Review.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Rachel M; Mathias, Jane L; Rose, Stephen E

    2016-04-01

    This study meta-analyzed research examining relationships between diffusion tensor imaging and cognition following pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). Data from 14 studies that correlated fractional anisotropy (FA) or apparent diffusion coefficient/mean diffusivity with cognition were analyzed. Short-term (<4 weeks post-TBI) findings were inconsistent, but, in the medium to long term, FA values for numerous large white matter tracts and the whole brain were related to cognition. However, the analyses were limited by the diversity of brain regions and cognitive outcomes that have been examined; all in relatively small samples. Moreover, additional data are needed to investigate the impact of age and injury severity on these findings.

  14. Primary Lateral Sclerosis as Progressive Supranuclear Palsy: Diagnosis by Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Coon, Elizabeth A.; Whitwell, Jennifer L.; Jack, Clifford R.; Josephs, Keith A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Evaluating the integrity of white matter tracts with diffusion tensor imaging may differentiate primary lateral sclerosis from progressive supranuclear palsy. Methods Thirty-three prospectively recruited subjects had standardized evaluations and diffusion tensor imaging: 3 with primary lateral sclerosis who presented with features suggestive of progressive supranuclear palsy, 10 with probable or definite progressive supranuclear palsy, and 20 matched controls. We compared fractional anisotropy of the corticospinal tract, superior cerebellar peduncle and body of the corpus callosum between groups. Results Both the primary lateral sclerosis and progressive supranuclear palsy subjects showed reduced fractional anisotropy in superior cerebellar peduncles and body of the corpus callosum compared to controls, but only primary lateral sclerosis subjects showed reductions in the corticospinal tracts. A ratio of corticospinal tract/superior cerebellar peduncle best distinguished the disorders (p<0.02). Conclusions The corticospinal tract/superior cerebellar peduncle ratio is a marker to differentiate primary lateral sclerosis from progressive supranuclear palsy. PMID:22517038

  15. Single- and Multivoxel Proton Spectroscopy in Pediatric Patients With Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Steffen-Smith, Emilie A.; Venzon, David J.; Bent, Robyn S.; Hipp, Sean J.; Warren, Katherine E.

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of two magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) techniques for treating pediatric patients with diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) and to evaluate the relationship of metabolic profiles determined by each technique. Utility of each technique for improving patient management is also discussed. Methods and Materials: Children with DIPG (n = 36) were evaluated using single-voxel spectroscopy (SVS) and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) during the same imaging session. Patients were followed longitudinally (n = 150 total studies). Technical feasibility was defined by sufficient water and lipid suppression for detection of metabolites. Correlation of metabolic data obtained by SVS and MRSI was determined using the Spearman rank method. Metabolite ratios, including choline:N-acetyl-aspartate (Cho:NAA) and Cho:creatine (Cho:Cr), were obtained from SVS and MRSI. Results: SVS and MRSI acquisitions were feasible in >90% of studies. Maximum Cho:NAA and Cho:Cr from MRSI analysis were strongly associated with Cho:NAA and Cho:Cr obtained by SVS (r = 0.67 and 0.76, respectively). MRSI Cho:NAA values were more heterogeneous than Cho:Cr values within the same lesion, and a strong linear relationship between the range and maximum Cho:NAA values was observed. Conclusions: SVS and MRSI acquisitions were feasible, with a strong correlation in metabolic data. Both techniques may improve diagnostic evaluation and management of DIPG. SVS is recommended for global assessment of tumor metabolism before and after therapy. MRSI showed heterogeneous patterns of metabolic activity within these tumors and is recommended for planning and monitoring targeted therapies and evaluating nearby tissue for tumor invasion.

  16. White matter and reading deficits after pediatric traumatic brain injury: A diffusion tensor imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Chad Parker; Juranek, Jenifer; Swank, Paul R.; Kramer, Larry; Cox, Charles S.; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric traumatic brain injury often results in significant long-term deficits in mastery of reading ability. This study aimed to identify white matter pathways that, when damaged, predicted reading deficits in children. Based on the dual-route model of word reading, we predicted that integrity of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus would be related to performance in sight word identification while integrity of the superior longitudinal fasciculus would be related to performance in phonemic decoding. Reading fluency and comprehension were hypothesized to relate to the superior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and cingulum bundle. The connectivity of white matter pathways was used to predict reading deficits in children aged 6 to 16 years with traumatic brain injury (n = 29) and those with orthopedic injury (n = 27) using tract-based spatial statistics. Results showed that children with traumatic brain injury and reduced microstructural integrity of the superior longitudinal fasciculus demonstrated reduced word-reading ability on sight word and phonemic decoding tasks. Additionally, children with traumatic brain injury and microstructural changes involving the cingulum bundle demonstrated reduced reading fluency. Results support the association of a dorsal pathway via the superior longitudinal fasciculus with both sight word reading and phonemic decoding. No association was identified between the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and sight word reading or phonemic decoding. Reading fluency was associated with the integrity of the cingulum bundle. These findings support dissociable pathways predicting word reading and fluency using Diffusion Tensor Imaging and provide additional information for developing models of acquired reading deficits by specifying areas of brain damage which may predict reading deficits following recovery from the acute phase of TBI. PMID:26740920

  17. White matter and reading deficits after pediatric traumatic brain injury: A diffusion tensor imaging study.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Chad Parker; Juranek, Jenifer; Swank, Paul R; Kramer, Larry; Cox, Charles S; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric traumatic brain injury often results in significant long-term deficits in mastery of reading ability. This study aimed to identify white matter pathways that, when damaged, predicted reading deficits in children. Based on the dual-route model of word reading, we predicted that integrity of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus would be related to performance in sight word identification while integrity of the superior longitudinal fasciculus would be related to performance in phonemic decoding. Reading fluency and comprehension were hypothesized to relate to the superior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and cingulum bundle. The connectivity of white matter pathways was used to predict reading deficits in children aged 6 to 16 years with traumatic brain injury (n = 29) and those with orthopedic injury (n = 27) using tract-based spatial statistics. Results showed that children with traumatic brain injury and reduced microstructural integrity of the superior longitudinal fasciculus demonstrated reduced word-reading ability on sight word and phonemic decoding tasks. Additionally, children with traumatic brain injury and microstructural changes involving the cingulum bundle demonstrated reduced reading fluency. Results support the association of a dorsal pathway via the superior longitudinal fasciculus with both sight word reading and phonemic decoding. No association was identified between the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and sight word reading or phonemic decoding. Reading fluency was associated with the integrity of the cingulum bundle. These findings support dissociable pathways predicting word reading and fluency using Diffusion Tensor Imaging and provide additional information for developing models of acquired reading deficits by specifying areas of brain damage which may predict reading deficits following recovery from the acute phase of TBI.

  18. Investigation of vibration-induced artifact in clinical diffusion-weighted imaging of pediatric subjects.

    PubMed

    Berl, Madison M; Walker, Lindsay; Modi, Pooja; Irfanoglu, M Okan; Sarlls, Joelle E; Nayak, Amritha; Pierpaoli, Carlo

    2015-12-01

    It has been reported that mechanical vibrations of the magnetic resonance imaging scanner could produce spurious signal dropouts in diffusion-weighted images resulting in artifactual anisotropy in certain regions of the brain with red appearance in the Directionally Encoded Color maps. We performed a review of the frequency of this artifact across pediatric studies, noting differences by scanner manufacturer, acquisition protocol, as well as weight and position of the subject. We also evaluated the ability of automated and quantitative methods to detect this artifact. We found that the artifact may be present in over 50% of data in certain protocols and is not limited to one scanner manufacturer. While a specific scanner had the highest incidence, low body weight and positioning were also associated with appearance of the artifact for both scanner types evaluated, making children potentially more susceptible than adults. Visual inspection remains the best method for artifact identification. Software for automated detection showed very low sensitivity (10%). The artifact may present inconsistently in longitudinal studies. We discuss a published case report that has been widely cited and used as evidence to set policy about diagnostic criteria for determining vegetative state. That report attributed longitudinal changes in anisotropy to white matter plasticity without considering the possibility that the changes were caused by this artifact. Our study underscores the need to check for the presence of this artifact in clinical studies, analyzes circumstances for when it may be more likely to occur, and suggests simple strategies to identify and potentially avoid its effects. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Diffusion tensor imaging study of pediatric patients with congenital hydrocephalus: 1-year postsurgical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mangano, Francesco T; Altaye, Mekibib; McKinstry, Robert C; Shimony, Joshua S; Powell, Stephanie K; Phillips, Jannel M; Barnard, Holly; Limbrick, David D; Holland, Scott K; Jones, Blaise V; Dodd, Jonathan; Simpson, Sarah; Mercer, Deanna; Rajagopal, Akila; Bidwell, Sarah; Yuan, Weihong

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to investigate white matter (WM) structural abnormalities using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in children with hydrocephalus before CSF diversionary surgery (including ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion and endoscopic third ventriculostomy) and during the course of recovery after surgery in association with neuropsychological and behavioral outcome. METHODS This prospective study included 54 pediatric patients with congenital hydrocephalus (21 female, 33 male; age range 0.03-194.5 months) who underwent surgery and 64 normal controls (30 female, 34 male; age range 0.30-197.75 months). DTI and neurodevelopmental outcome data were collected once in the control group and 3 times (preoperatively and at 3 and 12 months postoperatively) in the patients with hydrocephalus. DTI measures, including fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD) values were extracted from the genu of the corpus callosum (gCC) and the posterior limb of internal capsule (PLIC). Group analysis was performed first cross-sectionally to quantify DTI abnormalities at 3 time points by comparing the data obtained in the hydrocephalus group for each of the 3 time points to data obtained in the controls. Longitudinal comparisons were conducted pairwise between different time points in patients whose data were acquired at multiple time points. Neurodevelopmental data were collected and analyzed using the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition, and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Third Edition. Correlation analyses were performed between DTI and behavioral measures. RESULTS Significant DTI abnormalities were found in the hydrocephalus patients in both the gCC (lower FA and higher MD, AD, and RD) and the PLIC (higher FA, lower AD and RD) before surgery. The DTI measures in the gCC remained mostly abnormal at 3 and 12 months after surgery. The DTI abnormalities in the PLIC were

  20. Perfusion and diffusion MRI of glioblastoma progression in a four-year prospective temozolomide clinical trial

    SciTech Connect

    Leimgruber, Antoine; Ostermann, Sandrine; Yeon, Eun Jo; Buff, Evelyn; Maeder, Philippe P.; Stupp, Roger; Meuli, Reto A. . E-mail: Reto.Meuli@chuv.ch

    2006-03-01

    Purpose: This study was performed to determine the impact of perfusion and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences on patients during treatment of newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Special emphasis has been given to these imaging technologies as tools to potentially anticipate disease progression, as progression-free survival is frequently used as a surrogate endpoint. Methods and Materials: Forty-one patients from a phase II temolozomide clinical trial were included. During follow-up, images were integrated 21 to 28 days after radiochemotherapy and every 2 months thereafter. Assessment of scans included measurement of size of lesion on T1 contrast-enhanced, T2, diffusion, and perfusion images, as well as mass effect. Classical criteria on tumor size variation and clinical parameters were used to set disease progression date. Results: A total of 311 MRI examinations were reviewed. At disease progression (32 patients), a multivariate Cox regression determined 2 significant survival parameters: T1 largest diameter (p < 0.02) and T2 size variation (p < 0.05), whereas perfusion and diffusion were not significant. Conclusion: Perfusion and diffusion techniques cannot be used to anticipate tumor progression. Decision making at disease progression is critical, and classical T1 and T2 imaging remain the gold standard. Specifically, a T1 contrast enhancement over 3 cm in largest diameter together with an increased T2 hypersignal is a marker of inferior prognosis.

  1. Reaction and diffusion in turbulent combustion. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, S.B.

    1992-10-02

    Progress was made on the following: Development of two-variable ({xi} - y) thermochemistry suitable for DNS (direct numerical simulation) studies; determination of laminar flame properties based on this thermochemistry; determination of the parameter range that can be accessed by DNS with good resolution; implementation of the thermochemistry in the DNS code; performance of exploratory simulations, and the development of techniques of relating Eulerian DNS data to turbulent combustion theories; implementation of the DNS code on parallel and distributed computers, and the study of relative molecular motion in turbulence.

  2. Coastal-shelf transport and diffusion. Annual progress report, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Csanady, G. T.

    1981-11-01

    Progress is reported in theoretical and observational studies of the physics of continental shelf circulation, the mechanics of the coastal boundary layer, and the pathways of mass exchange between the coastal waters and the deep sea. Attempts were also made to develop the engineering science of pollution prediction under the complex circumstances prevailing in the coastal ocean. The report is organized into the following five sections: dynamics of shelf circulation; coastal boundary layer; the water side of the air-sea interface; disposal of contaminants; and cross-shelf mass exchange.

  3. Epstein-Barr virus presence in pediatric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma reveals a particular association and latency patterns: analysis of viral role in tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Melina; De Matteo, Elena; Narbaitz, Marina; Carreño, Fernanda Agost; Preciado, Maria V; Chabay, Paola A

    2013-04-01

    Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma represents 6-10% of pediatric malignancies, and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is one of the three major subtypes. The 2008 WHO classification included a new entity, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive DLBCL of the elderly, affecting patients >50 years. It has been demonstrated that EBV may play a role in tumor microenvironment composition, disturbing antitumor immune response and disease progression. As most studies were performed in adults, our aim was to assess EBV presence and latency pattern, as well as T-cell microenvironment in a pediatric DLBCL series of Argentina. The study was conducted on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded biopsies from 25 DLBCL patients. EBV-encoded small nuclear early regions (EBERs) expression was performed by in situ hybridization, whereas EBV gene expression was analyzed using real-time PCR. Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane proteins (LMP)1, LMP2A, CD3, CD4, CD8 and Foxp3 expression were assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Forty percent of cases showed EBV expression, with a significantly higher incidence among patients <10 years (p = 0.018), and with immunosuppressed (p = 0.023). T-cell subsets were not altered by EBV presence. Full EBV latency antigen expression (latency type III) was the most frequently pattern observed, together with BZLF1 lytic gene expression. One patient showed II-like pattern (LMP1 without LMP2A expression). Based exclusively on IHC, some patients showed latency II/III (EBERs and LMP1 expression) or I (EBERs only). These findings suggest that EBV association in our series was higher than the previously demonstrated for elderly DLBCL and that EBV latency pattern could be more complex from those previously observed. Therefore, EBV could be an important cofactor in pediatric DLBCL lymphomagenesis. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  4. Genomic analysis of diffuse pediatric low-grade gliomas identifies recurrent oncogenic truncating rearrangements in the transcription factor MYBL1.

    PubMed

    Ramkissoon, Lori A; Horowitz, Peleg M; Craig, Justin M; Ramkissoon, Shakti H; Rich, Benjamin E; Schumacher, Steven E; McKenna, Aaron; Lawrence, Michael S; Bergthold, Guillaume; Brastianos, Priscilla K; Tabak, Barbara; Ducar, Matthew D; Van Hummelen, Paul; MacConaill, Laura E; Pouissant-Young, Tina; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Taha, Hala; Mahmoud, Madeha; Bowers, Daniel C; Margraf, Linda; Tabori, Uri; Hawkins, Cynthia; Packer, Roger J; Hill, D Ashley; Pomeroy, Scott L; Eberhart, Charles G; Dunn, Ian F; Goumnerova, Liliana; Getz, Gad; Chan, Jennifer A; Santagata, Sandro; Hahn, William C; Stiles, Charles D; Ligon, Azra H; Kieran, Mark W; Beroukhim, Rameen; Ligon, Keith L

    2013-05-14

    Pediatric low-grade gliomas (PLGGs) are among the most common solid tumors in children but, apart from BRAF kinase mutations or duplications in specific subclasses, few genetic driver events are known. Diffuse PLGGs comprise a set of uncommon subtypes that exhibit invasive growth and are therefore especially challenging clinically. We performed high-resolution copy-number analysis on 44 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded diffuse PLGGs to identify recurrent alterations. Diffuse PLGGs exhibited fewer such alterations than adult low-grade gliomas, but we identified several significantly recurrent events. The most significant event, 8q13.1 gain, was observed in 28% of diffuse astrocytoma grade IIs and resulted in partial duplication of the transcription factor MYBL1 with truncation of its C-terminal negative-regulatory domain. A similar recurrent deletion-truncation breakpoint was identified in two angiocentric gliomas in the related gene v-myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog (MYB) on 6q23.3. Whole-genome sequencing of a MYBL1-rearranged diffuse astrocytoma grade II demonstrated MYBL1 tandem duplication and few other events. Truncated MYBL1 transcripts identified in this tumor induced anchorage-independent growth in 3T3 cells and tumor formation in nude mice. Truncated transcripts were also expressed in two additional tumors with MYBL1 partial duplication. Our results define clinically relevant molecular subclasses of diffuse PLGGs and highlight a potential role for the MYB family in the biology of low-grade gliomas.

  5. Genomic analysis of diffuse pediatric low-grade gliomas identifies recurrent oncogenic truncating rearrangements in the transcription factor MYBL1

    PubMed Central

    Ramkissoon, Lori A.; Horowitz, Peleg M.; Craig, Justin M.; Ramkissoon, Shakti H.; Rich, Benjamin E.; Schumacher, Steven E.; McKenna, Aaron; Lawrence, Michael S.; Bergthold, Guillaume; Brastianos, Priscilla K.; Tabak, Barbara; Ducar, Matthew D.; Van Hummelen, Paul; MacConaill, Laura E.; Pouissant-Young, Tina; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Taha, Hala; Mahmoud, Madeha; Bowers, Daniel C.; Margraf, Linda; Tabori, Uri; Hawkins, Cynthia; Packer, Roger J.; Hill, D. Ashley; Pomeroy, Scott L.; Eberhart, Charles G.; Dunn, Ian F.; Goumnerova, Liliana; Getz, Gad; Chan, Jennifer A.; Santagata, Sandro; Hahn, William C.; Stiles, Charles D.; Ligon, Azra H.; Kieran, Mark W.; Beroukhim, Rameen; Ligon, Keith L.

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric low-grade gliomas (PLGGs) are among the most common solid tumors in children but, apart from BRAF kinase mutations or duplications in specific subclasses, few genetic driver events are known. Diffuse PLGGs comprise a set of uncommon subtypes that exhibit invasive growth and are therefore especially challenging clinically. We performed high-resolution copy-number analysis on 44 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded diffuse PLGGs to identify recurrent alterations. Diffuse PLGGs exhibited fewer such alterations than adult low-grade gliomas, but we identified several significantly recurrent events. The most significant event, 8q13.1 gain, was observed in 28% of diffuse astrocytoma grade IIs and resulted in partial duplication of the transcription factor MYBL1 with truncation of its C-terminal negative-regulatory domain. A similar recurrent deletion-truncation breakpoint was identified in two angiocentric gliomas in the related gene v-myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog (MYB) on 6q23.3. Whole-genome sequencing of a MYBL1-rearranged diffuse astrocytoma grade II demonstrated MYBL1 tandem duplication and few other events. Truncated MYBL1 transcripts identified in this tumor induced anchorage-independent growth in 3T3 cells and tumor formation in nude mice. Truncated transcripts were also expressed in two additional tumors with MYBL1 partial duplication. Our results define clinically relevant molecular subclasses of diffuse PLGGs and highlight a potential role for the MYB family in the biology of low-grade gliomas. PMID:23633565

  6. Preliminary experience with diffusion tensor imaging before and after re-irradiation treatments in children with progressive diffuse pontine glioma.

    PubMed

    Khatua, Soumen; Hou, Ping; Bodiwala, Ravi; Wolff, Johannes; Hamilton, Jackson; Patil, Shekhar; Zaky, Wafik; Mahajan, Anita; Ketonen, Leena

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate quantitative changes in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography and fractional anisotropy (FA) of the pons along with clinical correlation, in patients who receive re-irradiation for progressive diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG). A retrospective case review of children with progressive DIPG who received re-irradiation at our institution from 2007 to 2011 after approval from the Institutional Review Board was performed. Tractography analysis and FA were analyzed pre and post-re-irradiation, and correlation with clinical features and MR imaging was performed. DTI analysis showed reduced values of FA on tumor progression. Increase in the FA values was noted after re-irradiation in these patients. This correlated with clinical improvement. These changes were concordant with the 3D tractography analysis which showed better visualization of the corticospinal tracts as they course through brainstem and posterior transverse pontine fibers following re-irradiation. Serial changes in the FA values using DTI could provide clinically more correlative information in patients with progressive DIPG, who receive re-irradiation. Though the use and results of this modality has been reported in the newly diagnosed DIPG before, evaluation of DTI in children who receive re-irradiation for progressive DIPG has not been reported earlier. Though limited by the small sample size and treatment variability, this study for the first time shows the preliminary experience, potential, and likely efficacy of complementing DTI analysis to routine neuroimaging also in patients re-irradiated for progressive DIPG to better assess treatment response.

  7. Motor function outcomes of pediatric patients with hemiplegic cerebral palsy after rehabilitation treatment: a diffusion tensor imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Hyun; Kwon, Yong Min; Son, Su Min

    2015-01-01

    Previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies regarding pediatric patients with motor dysfunction have confirmed the correlation between DTI parameters of the injured corticospinal tract and the severity of motor dysfunction. There is also evidence that DTI parameters can help predict the prognosis of motor function of patients with cerebral palsy. But few studies are reported on the DTI parameters that can reflect the motor function outcomes of pediatric patients with hemiplegic cerebral palsy after rehabilitation treatment. In the present study, 36 pediatric patients with hemiplegic cerebral palsy were included. Before and after rehabilitation treatment, DTI was used to measure the fiber number (FN), fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of bilateral corticospinal tracts. Functional Level of Hemiplegia scale (FxL) was used to assess the therapeutic effect of rehabilitative therapy on clinical hemiplegia. Correlation analysis was performed to assess the statistical interrelationship between the change amount of DTI parameters and FxL. DTI findings obtained at the initial and follow-up evaluations demonstrated that more affected corticospinal tract yielded significantly decreased FN and FA values and significantly increased ADC value compared to the less affected corticospinal tract. Correlation analysis results showed that the change amount of FxL was positively correlated to FN and FA values, and the correlation to FN was stronger than the correlation to FA. The results suggest that FN and FA values can be used to evaluate the motor function outcomes of pediatric patients with hemiplegic cerebral palsy after rehabilitation treatment and FN is of more significance for evaluation. PMID:26170825

  8. Sequencing-based diagnostics for pediatric genetic diseases: progress and potential

    PubMed Central

    Tayoun, Ahmad Abou; Krock, Bryan; Spinner, Nancy B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The last two decades have witnessed revolutionary changes in clinical diagnostics, fueled by the Human Genome Project and advances in high throughput, Next Generation Sequencing (NGS). We review the current state of sequencing-based pediatric diagnostics, associated challenges, and future prospects. Areas Covered We present an overview of genetic disease in children, review the technical aspects of Next Generation Sequencing and the strategies to make molecular diagnoses for children with genetic disease. We discuss the challenges of genomic sequencing including incomplete current knowledge of variants, lack of data about certain genomic regions, mosaicism, and the presence of regions with high homology. Expert Commentary NGS has been a transformative technology and the gap between the research and clinical communities has never been so narrow. Therapeutic interventions are emerging based on genomic findings and the applications of NGS are progressing to prenatal genetics, epigenomics and transcriptomics. PMID:27388938

  9. [Research progresses of the completed pediatrics projects funded by National Natural Science Foundation of China from 2002 to 2006].

    PubMed

    Xu, Ling; Hao, Jie; Deng, Min; Xu, Yan-ying

    2009-05-01

    To understand the projects completion and research progresses in pediatrics which were funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), and evaluate the accomplishment objectively and justly. The completion status of projects in pediatrics funded by department of clinical medicine II from 2002 to 2006 was analysed retrospectively, and important research achievement and outstanding development in some projects were reported. During the period between 2002 and 2006, 420 articles were published, and the average was 8.1 papers per project, which included 56 papers that were published in journals indexed by SCI (the average was 1.1 papers per project). The completion of general project was better than that of "the Young Researchers Fund" and small grant project. Ten post-doctors, 102 doctors and 109 masters were trained. Two projects were awarded with the first grade prize and another 2 with the second grade prize at the provincial and ministerial level, 4 items applied for patent and 1 was granted. These completed projects, which were mainly related to 7 of 12 subspecialties in the field of pediatrics, such as the respiratory disease, nephrology, neurology, cardiology, endocrinology, hematology, neonatology, are the major portion of the application projects and subsidized projects funded by NSFC, and achieved great research progresses. During the period between 2002 and 2006, the 52 completed projects in pediatrics showed difference in the distribution and quality of accomplishment among subspecialties and among types of supported projects; there are some gaps between pediatrics and some other clinical basic subspecialties II, this situation released the research status and problems in development of pediatrics in China. The general projects completion was good, and many projects obtained research achievements, which reflect the leading function of NSFC in pediatric research.

  10. Activation of less affected corticospinal tract and poor motor outcome in hemiplegic pediatric patients: a diffusion tensor tractography imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Hyun; Son, Su Min

    2015-01-01

    The less affected hemisphere is important in motor recovery in mature brains. However, in terms of motor outcome in immature brains, no study has been reported on the less affected corticospinal tract in hemiplegic pediatric patients. Therefore, we examined the relationship between the condition of the less affected corticospinal tract and motor function in hemiplegic pediatric patients. Forty patients with hemiplegia due to perinatal or prenatal injury (13.7 ± 3.0 months) and 40 age-matched typically developing controls were recruited. These patients were divided into two age-matched groups, the high functioning group (20 patients) and the low functioning group (20 patients) using functional level of hemiplegia scale. Diffusion tensor tractography images showed that compared with the control group, the patient group of the less affected corticospinal tract showed significantly increased fiber number and significantly decreased fractional anisotropy value. Significantly increased fiber number and significantly decreased fractional anisotropy value in the low functioning group were observed than in the high functioning group. These findings suggest that activation of the less affected hemisphere presenting as increased fiber number and decreased fractional anisotropy value is related to poor motor function in pediatric hemiplegic patients. PMID:26889198

  11. Activation of less affected corticospinal tract and poor motor outcome in hemiplegic pediatric patients: a diffusion tensor tractography imaging study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hyun; Son, Su Min

    2015-12-01

    The less affected hemisphere is important in motor recovery in mature brains. However, in terms of motor outcome in immature brains, no study has been reported on the less affected corticospinal tract in hemiplegic pediatric patients. Therefore, we examined the relationship between the condition of the less affected corticospinal tract and motor function in hemiplegic pediatric patients. Forty patients with hemiplegia due to perinatal or prenatal injury (13.7 ± 3.0 months) and 40 age-matched typically developing controls were recruited. These patients were divided into two age-matched groups, the high functioning group (20 patients) and the low functioning group (20 patients) using functional level of hemiplegia scale. Diffusion tensor tractography images showed that compared with the control group, the patient group of the less affected corticospinal tract showed significantly increased fiber number and significantly decreased fractional anisotropy value. Significantly increased fiber number and significantly decreased fractional anisotropy value in the low functioning group were observed than in the high functioning group. These findings suggest that activation of the less affected hemisphere presenting as increased fiber number and decreased fractional anisotropy value is related to poor motor function in pediatric hemiplegic patients.

  12. Intensity-Corrected Dual-Echo Echo-Planar Imaging (DE-EPI) for Improved Pediatric Brain Diffusion Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Straka, Matus; Iv, Michael; Moseley, Michael E.; Barnes, Patrick D.; Skare, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Here we investigate the utility of a dual-echo Echo-Planar Imaging (DE-EPI) Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI) approach to improve lesion conspicuity in pediatric imaging. This method delivers two ‘echo images’ for one diffusion-preparation period. We also demonstrate how the echoes can be utilized to remove transmit/receive coil-induced and static magnetic field intensity modulations on both echo images, which often mimic pathology and thereby pose diagnostic challenges. DE-EPI DWI data were acquired in 18 pediatric patients with abnormal diffusion lesions, and 46 pediatric patient controls at 3T. Echo1 [TE = 45ms] and Echo2 [TE = 86ms] were corrected for signal intensity variation across the images by exploiting the images equivalent coil-sensitivity and susceptibility-induced modulations. Two neuroradiologists independently reviewed Echo1 and Echo2 and their intensity-corrected variants (cEcho1 and cEcho2) on a 7-point Likert scale, with grading on lesion conspicuity diagnostic confidence. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map from Echo1 was used to validate presence of true pathology. Echo2 was unanimously favored over Echo1 for its sensitivity for detecting acute brain injury, with a mean respective lesion conspicuity of 5.7/4.4 (p < 0.005) and diagnostic confidence of 5.1/4.3 (p = 0.025). cEcho2 was rated higher than cEcho1, with a mean respective lesion conspicuity of 5.5/4.3 (p < 0.005) and diagnostic confidence of 5.4/4.4 (p < 0.005). cEcho2 was favored over all echoes for its diagnostic reliability, particularly in regions close to the head coil. This work concludes that DE-EPI DWI is a useful alternative to conventional single-echo EPI DWI, whereby Echo2 and cEcho2 allows for improved lesion detection and overall higher diagnostic confidence. PMID:26069959

  13. Progression of diffuse esophageal spasm to achalasia: incidence and predictive factors.

    PubMed

    Fontes, L H S; Herbella, F A M; Rodriguez, T N; Trivino, T; Farah, J F M

    2013-07-01

    The progression of certain primary esophageal motor disorders to achalasia has been documented; however, the true incidence of this decay is still elusive. This study aims to evaluate: (i) the incidence of the progression of diffuse esophageal spasm to achalasia, and (ii) predictive factors to this progression. Thirty-five patients (mean age 53 years, 80% females) with a manometric picture of diffuse esophageal spasm were followed for at least 1 year. Patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease confirmed by pH monitoring or systemic diseases that may affect esophageal motility were excluded. Esophageal manometry was repeated in all patients. Five (14%) of the patients progressed to achalasia at a mean follow-up of 2.1 (range 1-4) years. Demographic characteristics were not predictive of transition to achalasia, while dysphagia (P= 0.005) as the main symptom and the wave amplitude of simultaneous waves less than 50 mmHg (P= 0.003) were statistically significant. In conclusion, the transition of diffuse esophageal spasm to achalasia is not frequent at a 2-year follow-up. Dysphagia and simultaneous waves with low amplitude are predictive factors for this degeneration.

  14. White matter damage in primary progressive aphasias: a diffusion tensor tractography study.

    PubMed

    Galantucci, Sebastiano; Tartaglia, Maria Carmela; Wilson, Stephen M; Henry, Maya L; Filippi, Massimo; Agosta, Federica; Dronkers, Nina F; Henry, Roland G; Ogar, Jennifer M; Miller, Bruce L; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2011-10-01

    Primary progressive aphasia is a clinical syndrome that encompasses three major phenotypes: non-fluent/agrammatic, semantic and logopenic. These clinical entities have been associated with characteristic patterns of focal grey matter atrophy in left posterior frontoinsular, anterior temporal and left temporoparietal regions, respectively. Recently, network-level dysfunction has been hypothesized but research to date has focused largely on studying grey matter damage. The aim of this study was to assess the integrity of white matter tracts in the different primary progressive aphasia subtypes. We used diffusion tensor imaging in 48 individuals: nine non-fluent, nine semantic, nine logopenic and 21 age-matched controls. Probabilistic tractography was used to identify bilateral inferior longitudinal (anterior, middle, posterior) and uncinate fasciculi (referred to as the ventral pathway); and the superior longitudinal fasciculus segmented into its frontosupramarginal, frontoangular, frontotemporal and temporoparietal components, (referred to as the dorsal pathway). We compared the tracts' mean fractional anisotropy, axial, radial and mean diffusivities for each tract in the different diagnostic categories. The most prominent white matter changes were found in the dorsal pathways in non-fluent patients, in the two ventral pathways and the temporal components of the dorsal pathways in semantic variant, and in the temporoparietal component of the dorsal bundles in logopenic patients. Each of the primary progressive aphasia variants showed different patterns of diffusion tensor metrics alterations: non-fluent patients showed the greatest changes in fractional anisotropy and radial and mean diffusivities; semantic variant patients had severe changes in all metrics; and logopenic patients had the least white matter damage, mainly involving diffusivity, with fractional anisotropy altered only in the temporoparietal component of the dorsal pathway. This study demonstrates

  15. White matter damage in primary progressive aphasias: a diffusion tensor tractography study

    PubMed Central

    Galantucci, Sebastiano; Tartaglia, Maria Carmela; Wilson, Stephen M.; Henry, Maya L.; Filippi, Massimo; Agosta, Federica; Dronkers, Nina F.; Henry, Roland G.; Ogar, Jennifer M.; Miller, Bruce L.

    2011-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia is a clinical syndrome that encompasses three major phenotypes: non-fluent/agrammatic, semantic and logopenic. These clinical entities have been associated with characteristic patterns of focal grey matter atrophy in left posterior frontoinsular, anterior temporal and left temporoparietal regions, respectively. Recently, network-level dysfunction has been hypothesized but research to date has focused largely on studying grey matter damage. The aim of this study was to assess the integrity of white matter tracts in the different primary progressive aphasia subtypes. We used diffusion tensor imaging in 48 individuals: nine non-fluent, nine semantic, nine logopenic and 21 age-matched controls. Probabilistic tractography was used to identify bilateral inferior longitudinal (anterior, middle, posterior) and uncinate fasciculi (referred to as the ventral pathway); and the superior longitudinal fasciculus segmented into its frontosupramarginal, frontoangular, frontotemporal and temporoparietal components, (referred to as the dorsal pathway). We compared the tracts’ mean fractional anisotropy, axial, radial and mean diffusivities for each tract in the different diagnostic categories. The most prominent white matter changes were found in the dorsal pathways in non-fluent patients, in the two ventral pathways and the temporal components of the dorsal pathways in semantic variant, and in the temporoparietal component of the dorsal bundles in logopenic patients. Each of the primary progressive aphasia variants showed different patterns of diffusion tensor metrics alterations: non-fluent patients showed the greatest changes in fractional anisotropy and radial and mean diffusivities; semantic variant patients had severe changes in all metrics; and logopenic patients had the least white matter damage, mainly involving diffusivity, with fractional anisotropy altered only in the temporoparietal component of the dorsal pathway. This study demonstrates

  16. A Child's Health Is the Public's Health: Progress and Gaps in Addressing Pediatric Needs in Public Health Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Dziuban, Eric J; Peacock, Georgina; Frogel, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Children are the most prevalent vulnerable population in US society and have unique needs during the response to and recovery from public health emergencies. The physiological, behavioral, developmental, social, and mental health differences of children require specific attention in preparedness efforts. Despite often being more severely affected in disasters, children's needs are historically underrepresented in preparedness. Since 2001, much progress has been made in addressing this disparity through better pediatric incorporation in preparedness planning from national to local levels. Innovative approaches, policies, and collaborations contribute to these advances. However, many gaps remain in the appropriate and proportional inclusion of children in planning for public health emergencies. Successful models of pediatric planning can be developed, evaluated, and widely disseminated to ensure that further progress can be achieved.

  17. Working memory and corpus callosum microstructural integrity after pediatric traumatic brain injury: a diffusion tensor tractography study.

    PubMed

    Treble, Amery; Hasan, Khader M; Iftikhar, Amal; Stuebing, Karla K; Kramer, Larry A; Cox, Charles S; Swank, Paul R; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda

    2013-10-01

    Deficits in working memory (WM) are a common consequence of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) and are believed to contribute to difficulties in a range of cognitive and academic domains. Reduced integrity of the corpus callosum (CC) after TBI may disrupt the connectivity between bilateral frontoparietal neural networks underlying WM. In the present investigation, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography of eight callosal subregions (CC1-CC8) was examined in relation to measures of verbal and visuospatial WM in 74 children sustaining TBI and 49 typically developing comparison children. Relative to the comparison group, children with TBI demonstrated poorer visuospatial WM, but comparable verbal WM. Microstructure of the CC was significantly compromised in brain-injured children, with lower fractional anisotropy (FA) and higher axial and radial diffusivity metrics in all callosal subregions. In both groups of children, lower FA and/or higher radial diffusivity in callosal subregions connecting anterior and posterior parietal cortical regions predicted poorer verbal WM, whereas higher radial diffusivity in callosal subregions connecting anterior and posterior parietal, as well as temporal, cortical regions predicted poorer visuospatial WM. DTI metrics, especially radial diffusivity, in predictive callosal subregions accounted for significant variance in WM over and above remaining callosal subregions. Reduced microstructural integrity of the CC, particularly in subregions connecting parietal and temporal cortices, may act as a neuropathological mechanism contributing to long-term WM deficits. The future clinical use of neuroanatomical biomarkers may allow for the early identification of children at highest risk for WM deficits and earlier provision of interventions for these children.

  18. Working Memory and Corpus Callosum Microstructural Integrity after Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury: A Diffusion Tensor Tractography Study

    PubMed Central

    Treble, Amery; Hasan, Khader M.; Iftikhar, Amal; Stuebing, Karla K.; Kramer, Larry A.; Cox, Charles S.; Swank, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Deficits in working memory (WM) are a common consequence of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) and are believed to contribute to difficulties in a range of cognitive and academic domains. Reduced integrity of the corpus callosum (CC) after TBI may disrupt the connectivity between bilateral frontoparietal neural networks underlying WM. In the present investigation, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography of eight callosal subregions (CC1–CC8) was examined in relation to measures of verbal and visuospatial WM in 74 children sustaining TBI and 49 typically developing comparison children. Relative to the comparison group, children with TBI demonstrated poorer visuospatial WM, but comparable verbal WM. Microstructure of the CC was significantly compromised in brain-injured children, with lower fractional anisotropy (FA) and higher axial and radial diffusivity metrics in all callosal subregions. In both groups of children, lower FA and/or higher radial diffusivity in callosal subregions connecting anterior and posterior parietal cortical regions predicted poorer verbal WM, whereas higher radial diffusivity in callosal subregions connecting anterior and posterior parietal, as well as temporal, cortical regions predicted poorer visuospatial WM. DTI metrics, especially radial diffusivity, in predictive callosal subregions accounted for significant variance in WM over and above remaining callosal subregions. Reduced microstructural integrity of the CC, particularly in subregions connecting parietal and temporal cortices, may act as a neuropathological mechanism contributing to long-term WM deficits. The future clinical use of neuroanatomical biomarkers may allow for the early identification of children at highest risk for WM deficits and earlier provision of interventions for these children. PMID:23627735

  19. Locoregional Tumor Progression After Radiation Therapy Influences Overall Survival in Pediatric Patients With Neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Pai Panandiker, Atmaram S.; McGregor, Lisa; Krasin, Matthew J.; Wu Shengjie; Xiong Xiaoping; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: There is renewed attention to primary site irradiation and local control for patients with high-risk neuroblastoma (NB). We conducted a retrospective review to identify factors that might predict for locoregional tumor control and its impact on overall survival. Methods and Materials: Between July 2000 through August 2006, a total of 44 pediatric patients with NB received radiation therapy (RT) with curative intent using computed tomography (CT)-based treatment planning. The median age was 3.4 years and the median cumulative dose was 23.4 Gy. Overall survival and locoregional tumor control were measured from the start of RT to the date of death or event as determined by CT/magnetic resonance imaging/meta-iodobenzylguanidine. The influence of age at irradiation, gender, race, cumulative radiation dose, International Neuroblastoma Staging System stage, treatment protocol and resection status was determined with respect to locoregional tumor control. Results: With a median follow-up of 34 months +- 21 months, locoregional tumor progression was observed in 11 (25%) and was evenly divided between primary site and adjacent nodal/visceral site failure. The influence of locoregional control reached borderline statistical significance (p = 0.06). Age (p = 0.5), dose (p = 0.6), resection status (p = 0.7), and International Neuroblastoma Staging System stage (p = 0.08) did not influence overall survival. Conclusions: Overall survival in high-risk neuroblastoma is influenced by locoregional tumor control. Despite CT-based planning, progression in adjacent nodal/visceral sites appears to be common; this requires further investigation regarding target volume definitions, dose, and the effects of systemic therapy.

  20. The Digital Road to Scientific Knowledge Diffusion; A Faster, Better Way to Scientific Progress?

    SciTech Connect

    Wojick, D E; Warnick, W L; Carroll, B C; Crowe, J

    2006-06-01

    With the United States federal government spending billions annually for research and development, ways to increase the productivity of that research can have a significant return on investment. The process by which science knowledge is spread is called diffusion. It is therefore important to better understand and measure the benefits of this diffusion of knowledge. In particular, it is important to understand whether advances in Internet searching can speed up the diffusion of scientific knowledge and accelerate scientific progress despite the fact that the vast majority of scientific information resources continue to be held in deep web databases that many search engines cannot fully access. To address the complexity of the search issue, the term global discovery is used for the act of searching across heterogeneous environments and distant communities. This article discusses these issues and describes research being conducted by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI).

  1. Effect of number of acquisitions in diffusion tensor imaging of the pediatric brain: optimizing scan time and diagnostic experience.

    PubMed

    Soman, Salil; Holdsworth, Samantha J; Skare, Stefan; Andre, Jalal B; Van, Anh T; Aksoy, Murat; Bammer, Roland; Rosenberg, Jarrett; Barnes, Patrick D; Yeom, Kristen W

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is useful for multiple clinical applications, but its routine implementation for children may be difficult due to long scan times. This study evaluates the impact of decreasing the number of DTI acquisitions (NEX) on interpretability of pediatric brain DTI. 15 children with MRI-visible neuropathologies were imaged at 3T using our motion-corrected, parallel imaging- accelerated DT-EPI technique with 3 NEX (scan time 8.25 min). Using these acquisitions, NEX = 1 (scan time 2.75 min) and NEX = 2 (scan time 5.5 min) images were simulated. Two neuroradiologists scored diffusion-weighted images (DWI), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), fractional anisotropy (FA), and first eigenvector color-encoded (EV) images from each NEX for perceived SNR, lesion conspicuity and clinical confidence. ROI FA/ADC and image SNR values were also compared across NEX. NEX = 2 perceived SNR, lesion conspicuity, and clinical confidence were not inferior to NEX = 3 images. NEX = 1 images showed comparable lesion conspicuity and clinical confidence as NEX = 3, but inferior perceived SNR. FA and ADC ROI measurements demonstrated no significant difference across NEX. The greatest SNR increase was seen between NEX = 1 and NEX = 2. Reducing NEX to shorten imaging time may impact clinical utility in a manner that does not directly correspond with SNR changes. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  2. Clinical outcome, valve dysfunction, and progressive aortic dilation in a pediatric population with isolated bicuspid aortic valve.

    PubMed

    Spaziani, Gaia; Ballo, Piercarlo; Favilli, Silvia; Fibbi, Veronica; Buonincontri, Lorenzo; Pollini, Iva; Zuppiroli, Alfredo; Chiappa, Enrico

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the medium-term clinical outcome and the risk of progression of aortic valve disease and aortic dilation in pediatric patients with isolated bicuspid aortic valve (BAV). 179 pediatric patients with isolated BAV were prospectively followed from January 1995 to December 2010. Patients with severe valve dysfunction at baseline were excluded. Clinical outcome included cardiac death, infective endocarditis, aortic complications, cardiac surgery and percutaneous valvuloplasty. Echocardiographic endpoints were: progression of aortic stenosis (AS) or regurgitation (AR) and progressive aortic enlargement at different levels of the aortic root, evaluated as z-score. The median age at diagnosis was 7.8 [2.7-12.0] years. After a median followup of 5.4 [2.3-9.2] years, all patients were alive. The clinical endpoint occurred in 4 (2.2 %) patients (0.41 events per 100 patient-years). A progression of AS and AR was observed in 9 (5.0 %) and 29 (16.2 %) patients, respectively. The z-scores at the end of follow-up were not significantly different from baseline at the annulus, Valsalva sinuses and sinotubular junction, whereas a slight increase was observed at the level of the ascending aorta (1.9 vs 1.5, p = 0.046). Significant progressive aortic dilation occurred in a minority of patients (10.6, 5.6, 9.5, and 19.0 % respectively). The clinical outcome in pediatric patients with isolated BAV is favourable and the progression of aortic valve dysfunction and aortic dilation is relatively slow. These findings may be taken into account to better guide risk assessment and clinical follow-up in these patients.

  3. Longitudinal Diffusion Tensor Imaging Shows Progressive Changes in White Matter in Huntington's Disease.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Sarah; Cole, James H; Farmer, Ruth E; Rees, Elin M; Roos, Raymund A C; Sprengelmeyer, Reiner; Durr, Alexandra; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Zhang, Hui; Scahill, Rachael I; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Frost, Chris; Hobbs, Nicola Z

    2015-01-01

    Huntington's disease is marked by progressive neuroanatomical changes, assumed to underlie the development of the disease's characteristic symptoms. Previous work has demonstrated longitudinal macrostructural white-matter atrophy, with some evidence of microstructural change focused in the corpus callosum. To more accurately characterise longitudinal patterns, we examined white matter microstructural change using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data from three timepoints over a 15 month period. In 48 early-stage HD patients and 36 controls from the multi-site PADDINGTON project, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was employed to measure changes in fractional anisotropy (FA) and axial (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) in 24 white matter regions-of-interest (ROIs). Cross-sectional analysis indicated widespread baseline between-group differences, with significantly decreased FA and increased AD and RD found in HD patients across multiple ROIs. Longitudinal rates of change differed significantly between HD patients and controls in the genu and body of corpus callosum, corona radiata and anterior limb of internal capsule. Change in RD in the body of the corpus callosum was significantly associated with baseline disease burden, but other clinical associations were not significant. We detected subtle longitudinal white matter changes in early HD patients. Progressive white matter abnormalities in HD may not be uniform throughout the brain, with some areas remaining static in the early symptomatic phase. Longer assessment periods across disease stages will help map this progressive trajectory.

  4. Measurements of the pons as a biomarker of progression for pediatric DIPG.

    PubMed

    Steffen-Smith, Emilie A; Baker, Eva H; Venzon, David; Shandilya, Shaefali; Bent, Robyn S; Warren, Katherine E

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) remains challenging, and reliable biomarkers of response are lacking. Radiographic response is a primary endpoint in many investigational studies of brain tumors, but there is no standard method of tumor measurement for DIPG, significant inter-observer variability exists given the invasive nature of these tumors, and tumor measurements are not predictive of outcome. Because DIPGs involve a significant portion of the pons, we evaluated the reliability and prognostic value of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) pons measurements using anatomical landmarks rather than tumor boundaries. Patients with DIPG (n = 75) were evaluated longitudinally at our institution using MRI. Four readers independently performed 1D and 2D measurements of the pons using FLAIR images. Agreement and inter-reader variability were evaluated using differences among the six reader pairs and the coefficient of variation (CV). Prognostic value of pons measurements was calculated using Cox proportional hazards models, where relative hazard (RH) represents risk of death. Readers evaluated 384 exams. Agreement of readers' 1D and 2D measurements was strong (median difference between reader pairs 3.1 and 5.4%, respectively), with low inter-reader variability (median CV = 3.1% and median CV = 4.8%, respectively). Increases in 1D and 2D pons measurements over time indicated poorer prognosis (RH = 2.29, p = 0.0025 and RH = 1.13, p = 0.0016, respectively), with shorter overall survival. Pons measurements had low inter-reader variability compared to previously reported tumor measurement techniques and correlated with outcome in children with DIPG. Measurements of the pons (as opposed to direct measurements of tumor) are a viable in vivo biomarker for DIPG.

  5. Progress Report for Diffusion Welding of the NGNP Process Application Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    R.E. Mizia; D.E. Clark; M.V. Glazoff; T.E. Lister; T.L. Trowbridge

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy selected the high temperature gas-cooled reactor as the basis for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity, hydrogen production, and process heat applications. The NGNP Project is currently investigating the use of metallic, diffusion welded, compact heat exchangers to transfer heat from the primary (reactor side) heat transport system to the secondary heat transport system. An intermediate heat exchanger will transfer this heat to downstream applications such as hydrogen production, process heat, and electricity generation. The channeled plates that make up the heat transfer surfaces of the intermediate heat exchanger will have to be assembled into an array by diffusion welding. This report describes the preliminary results of a scoping study that evaluated the diffusion welding process parameters and the resultant mechanical properties of diffusion welded joints using Alloy 800H. The long-term goal of the program is to progress towards demonstration of small heat exchanger unit cells fabricated with diffusion welds. Demonstration through mechanical testing of the unit cells will support American Society of Mechanical Engineers rules and standards development, reduce technical risk, and provide proof of concept for heat exchanger fabrication methods needed to deploy heat exchangers in several potential NGNP configurations.1 Researchers also evaluated the usefulness of modern thermodynamic and diffusion computational tools (Thermo-Calc and Dictra) in optimizing the parameters for diffusion welding of Alloy 800H. The modeling efforts suggested a temperature of 1150 C for 1 hour with an applied pressure of 5 MPa using 15 {micro}m nickel foil as joint filler to reduce chromium oxidation on the welded surfaces. Good agreement between modeled and experimentally determined concentration gradients was achieved

  6. Progress of the National Pediatric Free Antiretroviral Therapy program in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Sun, Xin; He, Yun; Tang, Zhirong; Peng, Guoping; Liu, Aiwen; Qiao, Xiaochun; Li, Huiqin; Chen, Zhiqiang; Dou, Zhihui; Ma, Ye; Liu, Zhongfu; Zhang, Fujie

    2010-10-01

    In 2003, the Chinese Government initiated a free antiretroviral therapy (ART) program focusing on adult AIDS patients. Pediatric antiretroviral (ARV) formulations were yet unavailable. It was not until July 2005, with the initiation of a two-stage program implemented by the Chinese Ministry of Health, that pediatric formulations became accessible in China. Initially, the pediatric ART program was piloted in six provinces with the highest incidences of pediatric HIV/AIDS. The pilot stage allowed the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CCDC) to finalize entry criteria, treatment regimen, and patient monitoring and follow-up procedures. The second stage commenced at the end of 2006 when the program was scaled-up nationally. In order to guarantee treatment of pediatric patients, extensive training in the selection of appropriate ARV drug regimen and dosage was provided to doctors, often through on-site collaboration with domestic and international experts. The CCDC simultaneously established a pediatric ARV management system and a pediatric ART information system. CD4 count and other laboratory tests are being routinely performed on these pediatric patients. By the end of June 2009, 1529 pediatric patients had received ARV under the national program. However, challenges remain. Firstly, many children infected with HIV/AIDS live in rural areas where the treatment quality is hindered by the limited number of medical facilities and skilled medical workers. Secondly, much of the pediatric ARV drug supply depends on donation. An effort needs to be made by the Chinese Government to establish China's own drug procurement and supply system.

  7. Progression of Regional Microstructural Degeneration in Parkinson’s Disease: A Multicenter Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, I-Wei; Tosun, Duygu; Foster, Eric

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the utility of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in measuring the regional distribution of abnormal microstructural progression in patients with Parkinson’s disease who were enrolled in the Parkinson's progression marker initiative (PPMI). One hundred and twenty two de-novo PD patients (age = 60.5±9) and 50 healthy controls (age = 60.6±11) had DTI scans at baseline and 12.6±1 months later. Automated image processing included an intra-subject registration of all time points and an inter-subjects registration to a brain atlas. Annualized rates of DTI variations including fractional anisotropy (FA), radial (rD) and axial (aD) diffusivity were estimated in a total of 118 white matter and subcortical regions of interest. A mixed effects model framework was used to determine the degree to which DTI changes differed in PD relative to changes in healthy subjects. Significant DTI changes were also tested for correlations with changes in clinical measures, dopaminergic imaging and CSF biomarkers in PD patients. Compared to normal aging, PD was associated with higher rates of FA reduction, rD and aD increases predominantly in the substantia nigra, midbrain and thalamus. The highest rates of FA reduction involved the substantia nigra (3.6±1.4%/year from baseline, whereas the highest rates of increased diffusivity involved the thalamus (rD: 8.0±2.9%/year, aD: 4.0±1.5%/year). In PD patients, high DTI changes in the substantia nigra correlated with increasing dopaminergic deficits as well as with declining α-synuclein and total tau protein concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid. Increased DTI rates in the thalamus correlated with progressive decline in global cognition in PD. The results suggest that higher rates of regional microstructural degeneration are potential markers of PD progression. PMID:27798653

  8. Pediatric hematology and oncology in Italy: half a century of progress, an ongoing search for improvement.

    PubMed

    Massimo, L M

    1995-01-01

    Pediatric hematology and oncology has been a well-organized specialty throughout Italy only since 1974. However, it seemed interesting and fitting to review some of the milestones lying at the base of the development of this field of medicine: the first Italian Children's Hospital created in Florence in the fifteenth century; the first textbook of pediatrics, De Morbis Puerorum, by G. Mercuriale of Bologna; the first hematologic breakthroughs in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries; and the paramount achievements in pediatric hematology and oncology over the last 50 years.

  9. Diffuse damage in pediatric traumatic brain injury: a comparison of automated versus operator-controlled quantification methods.

    PubMed

    Bigler, Erin D; Abildskov, Tracy J; Wilde, Elisabeth A; McCauley, Stephen R; Li, Xiaoqi; Merkley, Tricia L; Fearing, Michael A; Newsome, Mary R; Scheibel, Randall S; Hunter, Jill V; Chu, Zili; Levin, Harvey S

    2010-04-15

    This investigation had two main objectives: 1) to assess the comparability of volumes determined by operator-controlled image quantification with automated image analysis in evaluating atrophic brain changes related to traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children, and 2) to assess the extent of diffuse structural changes throughout the brain as determined by reduced volume of a brain structure or region of interest (ROI). Operator-controlled methods used ANALYZE software for segmentation and tracing routines of pre-defined brain structures and ROIs. For automated image analyses, the open-access FreeSurfer program was used. Sixteen children with moderate-to-severe TBI were compared to individually matched, typically developing control children and the volumes of 18 brain structures and/or ROIs were compared between the two methods. Both methods detected atrophic changes but differed in the magnitude of the atrophic effect with the best agreement in subcortical structures. The volumes of all brain structures/ROIs were smaller in the TBI group regardless of method used; overall effect size differences were minimal for caudate and putamen but moderate to large for all other measures. This is reflective of the diffuse nature of TBI and its widespread impact on structural brain integrity, indicating that both FreeSurfer and operator-controlled methods can reliably assess cross-sectional volumetric changes in pediatric TBI. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Emphysema Distribution and Diffusion Capacity Predict Emphysema Progression in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Janice M; Malagoli, Andrea; Santoro, Antonella; Besutti, Giulia; Ligabue, Guido; Scaglioni, Riccardo; Dai, Darlene; Hague, Cameron; Leipsic, Jonathon; Sin, Don D.; Man, SF Paul; Guaraldi, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema are common amongst patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We sought to determine the clinical factors that are associated with emphysema progression in HIV. Methods 345 HIV-infected patients enrolled in an outpatient HIV metabolic clinic with ≥2 chest computed tomography scans made up the study cohort. Images were qualitatively scored for emphysema based on percentage involvement of the lung. Emphysema progression was defined as any increase in emphysema score over the study period. Univariate analyses of clinical, respiratory, and laboratory data, as well as multivariable logistic regression models, were performed to determine clinical features significantly associated with emphysema progression. Results 17.4% of the cohort were emphysema progressors. Emphysema progression was most strongly associated with having a low baseline diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO) and having combination centrilobular and paraseptal emphysema distribution. In adjusted models, the odds ratio (OR) for emphysema progression for every 10% increase in DLCO percent predicted was 0.58 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.41–0.81). The equivalent OR (95% CI) for centrilobular and paraseptal emphysema distribution was 10.60 (2.93–48.98). Together, these variables had an area under the curve (AUC) statistic of 0.85 for predicting emphysema progression. This was an improvement over the performance of spirometry (forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity ratio), which predicted emphysema progression with an AUC of only 0.65. Conclusion Combined paraseptal and centrilobular emphysema distribution and low DLCO could identify HIV patients who may experience emphysema progression. PMID:27902753

  11. Commentary: Progress and Challenges in Evidence-based Family Assessment in Pediatric Psychology

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    It is widely accepted that families are integral to biopsychosocial, social ecological, and other systemic approaches for understanding families and pediatric health. Pediatric psychologists are among the strongest advocates for families. At the same time, families pose challenges that we (pediatric psychology as a field) struggle with in terms of theoretical conceptualizations, assessment and intervention approaches, and training. We primarily use individual frameworks in our practice and research. In this brief commentary, prompted by the report of accomplishments in evidence-based family assessment in pediatric psychology (Alderfer et al., 2007), I outline some of the background for an implicit “challenge” to our field to advance our family orientation and provide some concrete ideas about next steps.

  12. Is seborrhoeic dermatitis associated with a diffuse, low-grade folliculitis and progressive cicatricial alopecia?

    PubMed

    Pitney, Lucy; Weedon, David; Pitney, Michael

    2016-08-01

    An association between adult scalp seborrhoeic dermatitis and cicatricial hair loss has not previously been convincingly established. This study seeks to demonstrate a unique relationship between a clinically identifiable chronic scalp dermatitis-folliculitis with the characteristic histological features of low-grade inflammatory fibrosing alopecia, resulting in a distinctive progressive cicatricial alopecia which we believe is prevalent and hitherto unrecognised, and befits the description of seborrhoeic folliculitis. The clinical, epidemiological and histopathological features of seborrhoeic folliculitis are demonstrated to establish its unique status among the disorders of adult diffuse cicatricial alopecia. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  13. Morphologic MRI features, diffusion tensor imaging and radiation dosimetric analysis to differentiate pseudo-progression from early tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ajay; Kumar, Sanath; Narang, Jayant; Schultz, Lonni; Mikkelsen, Tom; Wang, Sumei; Siddiqui, Sarmad; Poptani, Harish; Jain, Rajan

    2013-05-01

    Pseudo-progression (PsP) refers to the paradoxical increase of contrast enhancement within 12 weeks of chemo-radiation therapy in gliomas attributable to treatment effects rather than early tumor progression (ETP). This study was performed to evaluate the utility of morphologic imaging features, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and radiation dosimetric analysis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes in differentiating PsP from ETP. Serial MRI examinations of 163 patients treated for high-grade glioma were reviewed. 46 patients showed a recurrent or progressive enhancing lesion within 12 weeks of radiotherapy. We used an in-house modified scoring system based on 20 different morphologic features (modified VASARI features) to assess the MRI studies. DTI analyses were performed in 24 patients. MRI changes were defined as recurrent volume (Vrec) and registered with pretreatment computed tomography dataset, and the actual dose received by the Vrec during treatment was calculated using dose-volume histograms. Bidimensional product of T2-FLAIR signal abnormality and enhancing component was larger in the ETP group. DTI metrics revealed no significant difference between the two groups. There was no statistically significant difference in the location of Vrec between PsP and ETP groups. Morphologic MRI features and DTI have a limited role in differentiating between PsP and ETP. The larger sizes of the T2-FLAIR signal abnormality and the enhancing component of the lesion favor ETP. There was no correlation between the pattern of MRI changes and radiation dose distribution between PsP and ETP groups.

  14. Combined MicroRNA-340 and ROCK1 mRNA Profiling Predicts Tumor Progression and Prognosis in Pediatric Osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Haiqing; Lin, Lijun; Cai, Haikang; Tang, Mingjie; Wang, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association of combined microRNA-340 (miR-340) and ROCK1 mRNA profiling with clinicopathologic features and prognosis in pediatric patients with osteosarcoma. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed to detect expression levels of miR-340 and ROCK1 mRNA in cancerous and noncancerous bone tissues from 92 children treated for primary osteosarcomas. Compared with noncancerous bone tissues, the expression levels of miR-340 and ROCK1 mRNA were, respectively, downregulated and upregulated in osteosarcoma tissues (both p < 0.001), which was consistent with the results of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry analysis. The downregulation of miR-340 was negatively correlated with the upregulation of ROCK1 mRNA in osteosarcoma tissues (r = −0.78, p = 0.001). In addition, the combined miR-340 downregulation and ROCK1 upregulation (miR-340-low/ROCK1-high) occurred more frequently in osteosarcoma tissues with positive metastasis (p < 0.001) and poor response to pre-operative chemotherapy (p = 0.002). Moreover, miR-340-low/ROCK1-high expression was significantly associated with both shortest overall survival (p < 0.001) and progression-free survival (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis further confirmed that miR-340-low/ROCK1-high expression was an independent prognostic factor of unfavorable survival in pediatric osteosarcoma (for overall survival: p = 0.006, for progression-free survival: p = 0.008). Our data offer convincing evidence, for the first time, that the combined miR-340 downregulation and ROCK1 upregulation may be linked to tumor progression and adverse prognosis in pediatric osteosarcoma. PMID:24398981

  15. Anatomical and diffusion MRI of deep gray matter in pediatric spina bifida

    PubMed Central

    Ware, Ashley L.; Juranek, Jenifer; Williams, Victoria J.; Cirino, Paul T.; Dennis, Maureen; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) exhibit brain abnormalities in cortical thickness, white matter integrity, and cerebellar structure. Little is known about deep gray matter macro- and microstructure in this population. The current study utilized volumetric and diffusion-weighted MRI techniques to examine gray matter volume and microstructure in several subcortical structures: basal ganglia nuclei, thalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala. Sixty-six children and adolescents (ages 8–18; M = 12.0, SD = 2.73) with SBM and typically developing (TD) controls underwent T1- and diffusion-weighted neuroimaging. Microstructural results indicated that hippocampal volume was disproportionately reduced, whereas the putamen volume was enlarged in the group with SBM. Microstructural analyses indicated increased mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the gray matter of most examined structures (i.e., thalamus, caudate, hippocampus), with the putamen exhibiting a unique pattern of decreased MD and increased FA. These results provide further support that SBM differentially disrupts brain regions whereby some structures are volumetrically normal whereas others are reduced or enlarged. In the hippocampus, volumetric reduction coupled with increased MD may imply reduced cellular density and aberrant organization. Alternatively, the enlarged volume and significantly reduced MD in the putamen suggest increased density. PMID:25057465

  16. Correlation of (18)F-FDG PET and MRI Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Histogram Metrics with Survival in Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma: A Report from the Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium.

    PubMed

    Zukotynski, Katherine A; Vajapeyam, Sridhar; Fahey, Frederic H; Kocak, Mehmet; Brown, Douglas; Ricci, Kelsey I; Onar-Thomas, Arzu; Fouladi, Maryam; Poussaint, Tina Young

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe baseline (18)F-FDG PET voxel characteristics in pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) and to correlate these metrics with baseline MRI apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram metrics, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival. Methods: Baseline brain (18)F-FDG PET and MRI scans were obtained in 33 children from Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium clinical DIPG trials. (18)F-FDG PET images, postgadolinium MR images, and ADC MR images were registered to baseline fluid attenuation inversion recovery MR images. Three-dimensional regions of interest on fluid attenuation inversion recovery MR images and postgadolinium MR images and (18)F-FDG PET and MR ADC histograms were generated. Metrics evaluated included peak number, skewness, and kurtosis. Correlation between PET and MR ADC histogram metrics was evaluated. PET pixel values within the region of interest for each tumor were plotted against MR ADC values. The association of these imaging markers with survival was described. Results: PET histograms were almost always unimodal (94%, vs. 6% bimodal). None of the PET histogram parameters (skewness or kurtosis) had a significant association with PFS, although a higher PET postgadolinium skewness tended toward a less favorable PFS (hazard ratio, 3.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75-16.28 [P = 0.11]). There was a significant association between higher MR ADC postgadolinium skewness and shorter PFS (hazard ratio, 2.56; 95% CI, 1.11-5.91 [P = 0.028]), and there was the suggestion that this also led to shorter overall survival (hazard ratio, 2.18; 95% CI, 0.95-5.04 [P = 0.067]). Higher MR ADC postgadolinium kurtosis tended toward shorter PFS (hazard ratio, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.98-1.74 [P = 0.073]). PET and MR ADC pixel values were negatively correlated using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Further, the level of PET and MR ADC correlation was significantly positively associated with PFS; tumors with higher

  17. Methylene blue treatment delays progression of perfusion-diffusion mismatch to infarct in permanent ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Pavel; Jiang, Zhao; Huang, Shiliang; Shen, Qiang; Duong, Timothy Q

    2014-11-07

    Stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Low-dose methylene blue (MB), which has been used safely to treat methemoglobinemia and cyanide poisoning in humans, has energy enhancing and antioxidant properties. We tested the hypothesis that methylene blue treatment delays progression of at-risk tissue (ca. perfusion-diffusion mismatch) to infarct in permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats at two MB treatment doses. Serial MRI was used to evaluate MB treatment efficacy. The major findings were: (i) MB significantly prolonged the perfusion-diffusion mismatch, (ii) MB mildly increased the CBF in the hypoperfused tissue, (iii) MB did not change the final infarct volume in permanent ischemic stroke, and (iv) there were no dose-dependent effects on mismatch progression for the 1 and 3mg/kg doses studied. This neuroprotective effect is likely the result of sustained ATP production and increased CBF to tissue at risk. This work has the potential to readily lead to clinical stroke trials given MB's excellent safety profile.

  18. Physiologic abnormalities of cardiac function in progressive systemic sclerosis with diffuse scleroderma

    SciTech Connect

    Follansbee, W.P.; Curtiss, E.I.; Medsger, T.A. Jr.; Steen, V.D.; Uretsky, B.F.; Owens, G.R.; Rodnan, G.P.

    1984-01-19

    To investigate cardiopulmonary function in progressive systemic sclerosis with diffuse scleroderma, we studied 26 patients with maximal exercise and redistribution thallium scans, rest and exercise radionuclide ventriculography, pulmonary-function testing, and chest roentgenography. Although only 6 patients had clinical evidence of cardiac involvement, 20 had abnormal thallium scans, including 10 with reversible exercise-induced defects and 18 with fixed defects (8 had both). Seven of the 10 patients who had exercise-induced defects and underwent cardiac catheterization had normal coronary angiograms. Mean resting left ventricular ejection fraction and mean resting right ventricular ejection fraction were lower in patients with post-exercise left ventricular thallium defect scores above the median (59 +/- 13 per cent vs. 69 +/- 6 per cent, and 36 +/- 12 per cent vs. 47 +/- 7 per cent, respectively). The authors conclude that in progressive systemic sclerosis with diffuse scleroderma, abnormalities of myocardial perfusion are common and appear to be due to a disturbance of the myocardial microcirculation. Both right and left ventricular dysfunction appear to be related to this circulatory disturbance, suggesting ischemically mediated injury.

  19. Molecular Profiling Reveals Biologically Discrete Subsets and Pathways of Progression in Diffuse Glioma.

    PubMed

    Ceccarelli, Michele; Barthel, Floris P; Malta, Tathiane M; Sabedot, Thais S; Salama, Sofie R; Murray, Bradley A; Morozova, Olena; Newton, Yulia; Radenbaugh, Amie; Pagnotta, Stefano M; Anjum, Samreen; Wang, Jiguang; Manyam, Ganiraju; Zoppoli, Pietro; Ling, Shiyun; Rao, Arjun A; Grifford, Mia; Cherniack, Andrew D; Zhang, Hailei; Poisson, Laila; Carlotti, Carlos Gilberto; Tirapelli, Daniela Pretti da Cunha; Rao, Arvind; Mikkelsen, Tom; Lau, Ching C; Yung, W K Alfred; Rabadan, Raul; Huse, Jason; Brat, Daniel J; Lehman, Norman L; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Zheng, Siyuan; Hess, Kenneth; Rao, Ganesh; Meyerson, Matthew; Beroukhim, Rameen; Cooper, Lee; Akbani, Rehan; Wrensch, Margaret; Haussler, David; Aldape, Kenneth D; Laird, Peter W; Gutmann, David H; Noushmehr, Houtan; Iavarone, Antonio; Verhaak, Roel G W

    2016-01-28

    Therapy development for adult diffuse glioma is hindered by incomplete knowledge of somatic glioma driving alterations and suboptimal disease classification. We defined the complete set of genes associated with 1,122 diffuse grade II-III-IV gliomas from The Cancer Genome Atlas and used molecular profiles to improve disease classification, identify molecular correlations, and provide insights into the progression from low- to high-grade disease. Whole-genome sequencing data analysis determined that ATRX but not TERT promoter mutations are associated with increased telomere length. Recent advances in glioma classification based on IDH mutation and 1p/19q co-deletion status were recapitulated through analysis of DNA methylation profiles, which identified clinically relevant molecular subsets. A subtype of IDH mutant glioma was associated with DNA demethylation and poor outcome; a group of IDH-wild-type diffuse glioma showed molecular similarity to pilocytic astrocytoma and relatively favorable survival. Understanding of cohesive disease groups may aid improved clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Skin thickness progression rate: a predictor of mortality and early internal organ involvement in diffuse scleroderma

    PubMed Central

    Domsic, Robyn T; Rodriguez-Reyna, Tatiana; Lucas, Mary; Fertig, Noreen; Medsger, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of skin thickness progression rate (STPR) with mortality, and as a predictor of future internal organ involvement in an inception cohort of diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients. Methods Diffuse cutaneous SSc patients older than 16 years of age evaluated at the University of Pittsburgh within 2 years of the first evidence of skin thickening between 1980 and 2005 were eligible. The authors calculated the STPR on these patients, and examined the relationship of this variable to the development of early internal organ involvement and short-term mortality using logistic regression. Results 826 patients were included in the analysis. Patients with a rapid STPR experienced significantly reduced short-term survival at 1 and 2 years from the time of first Pittsburgh evaluation (p=0.002). Patients with a rapid STPR were more likely to develop renal crisis within 1–2 years of follow-up. Rapid STPR was found to be an independent predictor of both mortality (OR 1.72; 95% CI 1.13 to 2.62; p=0.01) and ‘renal crisis’ (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.10 to 3.85; p=0.02) within 2 years from first evaluation. Conclusion The STPR is an easy measure to perform at the time of initial evaluation for identifying those diffuse cutaneous SSc patients who are at increased risk of mortality and the development of renal crisis during the following 2 years. PMID:20679474

  1. Skin thickness progression rate: a predictor of mortality and early internal organ involvement in diffuse scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Domsic, Robyn T; Rodriguez-Reyna, Tatiana; Lucas, Mary; Fertig, Noreen; Medsger, Thomas A

    2011-01-01

    To examine the association of skin thickness progression rate (STPR) with mortality, and as a predictor of future internal organ involvement in an inception cohort of diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients. Diffuse cutaneous SSc patients older than 16 years of age evaluated at the University of Pittsburgh within 2 years of the first evidence of skin thickening between 1980 and 2005 were eligible. The authors calculated the STPR on these patients, and examined the relationship of this variable to the development of early internal organ involvement and short-term mortality using logistic regression. 826 patients were included in the analysis. Patients with a rapid STPR experienced significantly reduced short-term survival at 1 and 2 years from the time of first Pittsburgh evaluation (p=0.002). Patients with a rapid STPR were more likely to develop renal crisis within 1-2 years of follow-up. Rapid STPR was found to be an independent predictor of both mortality (OR 1.72; 95% CI 1.13 to 2.62; p=0.01) and 'renal crisis' (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.10 to 3.85; p=0.02) within 2 years from first evaluation. The STPR is an easy measure to perform at the time of initial evaluation for identifying those diffuse cutaneous SSc patients who are at increased risk of mortality and the development of renal crisis during the following 2 years.

  2. Automatic classification of patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy using diffusion MRI datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talai, Sahand; Boelmans, Kai; Sedlacik, Jan; Forkert, Nils D.

    2017-03-01

    Parkinsonian syndromes encompass a spectrum of neurodegenerative diseases, which can be classified into various subtypes. The differentiation of these subtypes is typically conducted based on clinical criteria. Due to the overlap of intra-syndrome symptoms, the accurate differential diagnosis based on clinical guidelines remains a challenge with failure rates up to 25%. The aim of this study is to present an image-based classification method of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), an atypical variant of PD. Therefore, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) parameter maps were calculated based on diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) datasets. Mean ADC values were determined in 82 brain regions using an atlas-based approach. The extracted mean ADC values for each patient were then used as features for classification using a linear kernel support vector machine classifier. To increase the classification accuracy, a feature selection was performed, which resulted in the top 17 attributes to be used as the final input features. A leave-one-out cross validation based on 56 PD and 21 PSP subjects revealed that the proposed method is capable of differentiating PD and PSP patients with an accuracy of 94.8%. In conclusion, the classification of PD and PSP patients based on ADC features obtained from diffusion MRI datasets is a promising new approach for the differentiation of Parkinsonian syndromes in the broader context of decision support systems.

  3. The US Network of Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Centers: Development, Progress, and Next Steps.

    PubMed

    Casper, T Charles; Rose, John W; Roalstad, Shelly; Waubant, Emmanuelle; Aaen, Gregory; Belman, Anita; Chitnis, Tanuja; Gorman, Mark; Krupp, Lauren; Lotze, Timothy E; Ness, Jayne; Patterson, Marc; Rodriguez, Moses; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Browning, Brittan; Graves, Jennifer; Tillema, Jan-Mendelt; Benson, Leslie; Harris, Yolanda

    2015-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating diseases in the pediatric population have received an increasing level of attention by clinicians and researchers. The low incidence of these diseases in children creates a need for the involvement of multiple clinical centers in research efforts. The Network of Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Centers was created initially in 2006 to improve the diagnosis and care of children with demyelinating diseases. In 2010, the Network shifted its focus to multicenter research while continuing to advance the care of patients. The Network has obtained support from the National Multiple Sclerosis Society, the Guthy-Jackson Charitable Foundation, and the National Institutes of Health. The Network will continue to serve as a platform for conducting impactful research in pediatric demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system. This article provides a description of the history and development, organization, mission, research priorities, current studies, and future plans of the Network. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. The US Network of Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Centers: Development, Progress, and Next Steps

    PubMed Central

    Casper, T. Charles; Rose, John W.; Roalstad, Shelly; Waubant, Emmanuelle; Aaen, Gregory; Belman, Anita; Chitnis, Tanuja; Gorman, Mark; Krupp, Lauren; Lotze, Timothy E.; Ness, Jayne; Patterson, Marc; Rodriguez, Moses; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Browning, Brittan; Graves, Jennifer; Tillema, Jan-Mendelt; Benson, Leslie; Harris, Yolanda

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating diseases in the pediatric population have received an increasing level of attention by clinicians and researchers. The low incidence of these diseases in children creates a need for the involvement of multiple clinical centers in research efforts. The Network of Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Centers was created initially in 2006 to improve the diagnosis and care of children with demyelinating diseases. In 2010, the Network shifted its focus to multicenter research while continuing to advance the care of patients. The Network has obtained support from the National Multiple Sclerosis Society, the Guthy-Jackson Charitable Foundation, and the National Institutes of Health. The Network will continue to serve as a platform for conducting impactful research in pediatric demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system. This article provides a description of the history and development, organization, mission, research priorities, current studies, and future plans of the Network. PMID:25270659

  5. Pediatric brain tumor consortium multisite assessment of apparent diffusion coefficient z-axis variation assessed with an ice-water phantom.

    PubMed

    Mulkern, Robert V; Ricci, Kelsey I; Vajapeyam, Sridhar; Chenevert, Thomas L; Malyarenko, Dariya I; Kocak, Mehmet; Poussaint, Tina Young

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic resonance diffusion imaging can characterize physiologic characteristics of pediatric brain tumors used to assess therapy response. The purpose of this study was to assess the variability of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) along z-axis of scanners in the multicenter Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium (PBTC). Ice-water diffusion phantoms for each PBTC site were distributed with a specific diffusion imaging protocol. The phantom was scanned four successive times to 1) confirm water in the tube reached thermal equilibrium and 2) allow for assessment of intra-examination ADC repeatability. ADC profiles across slice positions for each vendor and institution combination were characterized using linear regression modeling with a quadratic fit. Eleven sites collected data with a high degree of compliance to the diffusion protocol for each scanner. The mean ADC value at slice position zero for vendor A was 1.123 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s, vendor B was 1.0964 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s, and vendor C was 1.110 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s. The percentage coefficient of variation across all sites was 0.309% (standard deviation = 0.322). The ADC values conformed well to a second-order polynomial along the z-axis, (ie, following a linear model pattern with quadratic fit) for vendor-institution combinations and across vendor-institution combinations as shown in the longitudinal model. Assessment of the variability of diffusion metrics is essential for establishing the validity of using these quantitative metrics in multicenter trials. The low variability in ADC values across vendors and institutions and validates the use of ADC as a quantitative tumor marker in pediatric multicenter trials. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Integrated Molecular Meta-Analysis of 1,000 Pediatric High-Grade and Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Alan; Burford, Anna; Carvalho, Diana; Izquierdo, Elisa; Fazal-Salom, Janat; Taylor, Kathryn R; Bjerke, Lynn; Clarke, Matthew; Vinci, Mara; Nandhabalan, Meera; Temelso, Sara; Popov, Sergey; Molinari, Valeria; Raman, Pichai; Waanders, Angela J; Han, Harry J; Gupta, Saumya; Marshall, Lynley; Zacharoulis, Stergios; Vaidya, Sucheta; Mandeville, Henry C; Bridges, Leslie R; Martin, Andrew J; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Chandler, Christopher; Ng, Ho-Keung; Li, Xingang; Mu, Kun; Trabelsi, Saoussen; Brahim, Dorra H'mida-Ben; Kisljakov, Alexei N; Konovalov, Dmitry M; Moore, Andrew S; Carcaboso, Angel Montero; Sunol, Mariona; de Torres, Carmen; Cruz, Ofelia; Mora, Jaume; Shats, Ludmila I; Stavale, João N; Bidinotto, Lucas T; Reis, Rui M; Entz-Werle, Natacha; Farrell, Michael; Cryan, Jane; Crimmins, Darach; Caird, John; Pears, Jane; Monje, Michelle; Debily, Marie-Anne; Castel, David; Grill, Jacques; Hawkins, Cynthia; Nikbakht, Hamid; Jabado, Nada; Baker, Suzanne J; Pfister, Stefan M; Jones, David T W; Fouladi, Maryam; von Bueren, André O; Baudis, Michael; Resnick, Adam; Jones, Chris

    2017-09-26

    We collated data from 157 unpublished cases of pediatric high-grade glioma and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma and 20 publicly available datasets in an integrated analysis of >1,000 cases. We identified co-segregating mutations in histone-mutant subgroups including loss of FBXW7 in H3.3G34R/V, TOP3A rearrangements in H3.3K27M, and BCOR mutations in H3.1K27M. Histone wild-type subgroups are refined by the presence of key oncogenic events or methylation profiles more closely resembling lower-grade tumors. Genomic aberrations increase with age, highlighting the infant population as biologically and clinically distinct. Uncommon pathway dysregulation is seen in small subsets of tumors, further defining the molecular diversity of the disease, opening up avenues for biological study and providing a basis for functionally defined future treatment stratification. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Progressive halftoning by Perona-Malik error diffusion and stochastic flipping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jianhong

    2006-02-01

    Halftoning has been a significant topic in image processing due to many emerging applications, various diversified approaches, and challenging theoretical analysis. Inspired by the wealthy literature on halftoning, as well as the recent PDE (partial differential equations) approach in image processing, the current work proposes a novel progressive halftoning algorithm by empolying the celebrated anisotropic diffusion model of Perona and Malik (IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell., 12:629-639, 1990), and a properly designed stochastic strategy for binary flipping. The halftone outputs from the proposed model are typical samples of some random fields, which share many virtues of existent deterministic halftone algorithms, as well as show many interesting features like the blue noise behavior. The new model is independent of traditional windows, tiles, or paths, and allows direct parallel implementation.

  8. Spatially selective 2D RF inner field of view (iFOV) diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) of the pediatric spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Conklin, Chris J.; Middleton, Devon M.; Alizadeh, Mahdi; Finsterbusch, Jürgen; Raunig, David L.; Faro, Scott H.; Shah, Pallav; Krisa, Laura; Sinko, Rebecca; Delalic, Joan Z.; Mulcahey, M.J.; Mohamed, Feroze B.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance based diffusion imaging has been gaining more utility and clinical relevance over the past decade. Using conventional echo planar techniques, it is possible to acquire and characterize water diffusion within the central nervous system (CNS); namely in the form of Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). While each modality provides valuable clinical information in terms of the presence of diffusion and its directionality, both techniques are limited to assuming an ideal Gaussian distribution for water displacement with no intermolecular interactions. This assumption neglects pathological processes that are not Gaussian therefore reducing the amount of potentially clinically relevant information. Additions to the Gaussian distribution measured by the excess kurtosis, or peakedness, of the probabilistic model provide a better understanding of the underlying cellular structure. The objective of this work is to provide mathematical and experimental evidence that Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging (DKI) can offer additional information about the micromolecular environment of the pediatric spinal cord. This is accomplished by a more thorough characterization of the nature of random water displacement within the cord. A novel DKI imaging sequence based on a tilted 2D spatially selective radio frequency pulse providing reduced field of view (FOV) imaging was developed, implemented, and optimized on a 3 Tesla MRI scanner, and tested on pediatric subjects (healthy subjects: 15; patients with spinal cord injury (SCI):5). Software was developed and validated for post processing of the DKI images and estimation of the tensor parameters. The results show statistically significant differences in mean kurtosis (p < 0.01) and radial kurtosis (p < 0.01) between healthy subjects and subjects with SCI. DKI provides incremental and novel information over conventional diffusion acquisitions when coupled with higher order estimation algorithms

  9. The emerging role of NG2 in pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma

    PubMed Central

    Yadavilli, Sridevi; Scafidi, Joseph; Becher, Oren J.; Saratsis, Amanda M.; Hiner, Rebecca L.; Kambhampati, Madhuri; Mariarita, Santi; MacDonald, Tobey J.; Codispoti, Kari-Elise; Magge, Suresh N.; Jaiswal, Jyoti K.; Packer, Roger J.; Nazarian, Javad

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) have a dismal prognosis and are poorly understood brain cancers. Receptor tyrosine kinases stabilized by neuron-glial antigen 2 (NG2) protein are known to induce gliomagenesis. Here, we investigated NG2 expression in a cohort of DIPG specimens (n= 50). We demonstrate NG2 expression in the majority of DIPG specimens tested and determine that tumors harboring histone 3.3 mutation express the highest NG2 levels. We further demonstrate that microRNA 129-2 (miR129-2) is downregulated and hypermethylated in human DIPGs, resulting in the increased expression of NG2. Treatment with 5-Azacytidine, a methyltransferase inhibitor, results in NG2 downregulation in DIPG primary tumor cells in vitro. NG2 expression is altered (symmetric segregation) in mitotic human DIPG and mouse tumor cells. These mitotic cells co-express oligodendrocyte (Olig2) and astrocyte (glial fibrillary acidic protein, GFAP) markers, indicating lack of terminal differentiation. NG2 knockdown retards cellular migration in vitro, while NG2 expressing neurospheres are highly tumorigenic in vivo, resulting in rapid growth of pontine tumors. NG2 expression is targetable in vivo using miR129-2 indicating a potential avenue for therapeutic interventions. This data implicates NG2 as a molecule of interest in DIPGs especially those with H3.3 mutation. PMID:25987129

  10. Influence of Water and Ion Diffusion on Generation and Progress of Bow-tie Tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumazawa, Takao; Nakagawa, Wataru; Tsurumaru, Hidekazu

    Bow-tie tree(BTT) generated from contaminant, e.g., metal, carbon, amber(over cured resin) or void is a deterioration factor of XLPE cable. In particular, BTT in contact with inner or outer semi-conductive shield could significantly lower residual AC breakdown voltage of HV power cable. To evaluate influence of water and ion diffusion on generation and progress of BTT, we investigated relationship between water content of XLPE and the generation of BTT by various accelerated aging. The number of BTT in XLPE samples with accelerated aging under open condition, involving evaporation of water in which samples were immersed, was very large compared with closed condition. Furthermore, when samples were intermittently immersed in water, the number of BTT in samples was large compared with samples immersed continuously. In these experiments the generation of BTT seemed to have nothing to do with changes in water content before and after accelerated aging. Therefore, it was suggested that diffusion of ions rather than water in XLPE played an important role in the generation of BTT.

  11. Progress and outcomes of the first high-volume pediatric liver transplantation program in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Fayyad, Asma; Shagrani, Mohammad; AlGoufi, Talal; ElSheikh, Yasser; Murray, Jessica; Elgohary, Ahmad; AlSebayel, Mohamed; Burdelski, Martin; Broering, Dieter C

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, established a dedicated Organ Transplant Center to overcome the inadequacy in transplantation care in the region. Due to the high need for solid organ transplantation in children, this center focused on pediatric transplantation. Between 2011 and 2013, a total of 112 pediatric liver transplantations have been performed in our center, mostly from living donors (n=103, 92%). Eight percent of transplants were performed from deceased donors (n=9). Of the 112 transplants, 38.4% of children were below one year of age. There was a predominance of genetic-metabolic disorders (48.2%) as indications for transplant. Extra-hepatic biliary atresia was the indication in only 29.5% of transplant cases. End-stage liver disease of unknown origin accounted for 7.1% of cases. The actuarial recipient and graft survival are 93% and 89%, respectively. In-hospital morbidities amounted to 17% for surgical complications (n=19) and 18% for medical complications (n=20). Seven percent of recipients developed biopsy proven rejection during hospital stay. Five patients died late after discharge suddenly at home or at peripheral hospitals for unknown reasons. Overall, this newly established pediatric liver transplantation program could develop into a high-volume pediatric liver transplantation center in a short period of time due to the high need for liver transplantation in the country. In contrast to the experience in western or eastern countries, there is a high rate of indications for metabolic/genetic disorders. The early results of patient and graft survival are convincing. The long-term outcomes were compromised by an insufficient general healthcare system and cultural barriers.

  12. Insights into pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma through proteomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid

    PubMed Central

    M. Saratsis, Amanda; Yadavilli, Sridevi; Magge, Suresh; Rood, Brian R.; Perez, Jennifer; Hill, D. Ashley; Hwang, Eugene; Kilburn, Lindsay; Packer, Roger J.; Nazarian, Javad

    2012-01-01

    Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a leading cause of brain tumor–related death in children. DIPG is not surgically resectable, resulting in a paucity of tissue available for molecular studies. As such, tumor biology is poorly understood, and, currently, there are no effective treatments. In the absence of frozen tumor specimens, body fluids—such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), serum, and urine—can serve as more readily accessible vehicles for detecting tumor-secreted proteins. We analyzed a total of 76 specimens, including CSF, serum, urine, and normal and tumor brainstem tissue. Protein profiling of CSF from patients with DIPG was generated by mass spectrometry using an LTQ-Orbitrap-XL and database search using the Sequest algorithm. Quantitative and statistical analyses were performed with ProteoIQ and Partek Genomics Suite. A total of 528 unique proteins were identified, 71% of which are known secreted proteins. CSF proteomic analysis revealed selective upregulation of Cyclophillin A (CypA) and dimethylarginase 1 (DDAH1) in DIPG (n = 10), compared with controls (n = 4). Protein expression was further validated with Western blot analysis and immunohistochemical assays using CSF, brain tissue, serum, and urine from DIPG and control specimens. Immunohistochemical staining showed selective upregulation of secreted but not cytosolic CypA and DDAH1 in patients with DIPG. In this study, we present the first comprehensive protein profile of CSF specimens from patients with DIPG to demonstrate selective expression of tumor proteins potentially involved in brainstem gliomagenesis. Detection of secreted CypA and DDAH1 in serum and urine has potential clinical application, with implications for assessing treatment response and detecting tumor recurrence in patients with DIPG. PMID:22492959

  13. Diagnostic Value of Diffusion-Weighted MRI for Tumor Characterization, Differentiation and Monitoring in Pediatric Patients with Neuroblastic Tumors.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Henning; Li, Mengxia; Müller, Verena Rabea; Pabst, Thomas; Beer, Meinrad

    2017-07-01

    Purpose We explored the diagnostic value of diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) for tumor characterization, differentiation and therapy monitoring in pediatric patients with extracranial neuroblastic tumors. Materials and Methods All 29 patients (14 girls, median age: 3 years) with neuroblastoma (NB, n = 19), ganglioneuroblastoma (GNB, n = 4) and ganglioneuroma (GN, n = 6) who had had at least one in-house DWI examination since 2005 were identified and retrospectively analyzed. Two independent blinded readers measured ADC values (unit: 10-3 mm(2)/s) and signal intensity ratios (SIRs) of the primary tumor and, if applicable, of the tumor after chemotherapy, metastases and tumor relapse. Results The pre-treatment ADC was 0.90 ± 0.23 in NB/GNB and 1.70 ± 0.36 in GN without overlap between the two entities for both readers, 0.67 ± 0.14 in metastases and 0.72 ± 0.18 in tumor relapse. With chemotherapy, mean ADC increased to 1.54 ± 0.33 in NB/GNB and to 1.23 ± 0.27 in metastases (p < 0.05). The median SIRs of various tumor lesions vs. liver, vs. muscle tissue and vs. adjacent tissue were significantly higher on DWI (range: 2.4 - 9.9) than on ce-T1w (range: 1.0 - 1.8, all p < 0.05). The coefficient of variation (CV) was ≤ 8.0 % for ADC and ≤ 16.4 % for signal intensity data. Conclusion Based on mean ADC, DWI distinguishes between NB/GNB and GN with high certainty and provides plausible quantitative data on tumor response to therapy. Lesion conspicuity, as measured by SIR, is superior on DWI, compared to ce-T1w. DWI as a noninvasive, radiation-free and widely available imaging technique should be an integral part of MR imaging for neuroblastic tumors and should undergo prospective evaluation in multicenter studies. Key Points  · DWI reliably distinguishes neuroblastoma/ganglioneuroblastoma from ganglioneuroma, based on the mean ADC.. · DWI provides plausible quantitative data on tumor

  14. Differentiation of Low- and High-Grade Pediatric Brain Tumors with High b-Value Diffusion-weighted MR Imaging and a Fractional Order Calculus Model

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Yi; Wang, He; Liu, Guanzhong; Damen, Frederick W.; Wanamaker, Christian; Li, Yuhua

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate that a new set of parameters (D, β, and μ) from a fractional order calculus (FROC) diffusion model can be used to improve the accuracy of MR imaging for differentiating among low- and high-grade pediatric brain tumors. Materials and Methods The institutional review board of the performing hospital approved this study, and written informed consent was obtained from the legal guardians of pediatric patients. Multi-b-value diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed in 67 pediatric patients with brain tumors. Diffusion coefficient D, fractional order parameter β (which correlates with tissue heterogeneity), and a microstructural quantity μ were calculated by fitting the multi-b-value diffusion-weighted images to an FROC model. D, β, and μ values were measured in solid tumor regions, as well as in normal-appearing gray matter as a control. These values were compared between the low- and high-grade tumor groups by using the Mann-Whitney U test. The performance of FROC parameters for differentiating among patient groups was evaluated with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results None of the FROC parameters exhibited significant differences in normal-appearing gray matter (P ≥ .24), but all showed a significant difference (P < .002) between low- (D, 1.53 μm2/msec ± 0.47; β, 0.87 ± 0.06; μ, 8.67 μm ± 0.95) and high-grade (D, 0.86 μm2/msec ± 0.23; β, 0.73 ± 0.06; μ, 7.8 μm ± 0.70) brain tumor groups. The combination of D and β produced the largest area under the ROC curve (0.962) in the ROC analysis compared with individual parameters (β, 0.943; D,0.910; and μ, 0.763), indicating an improved performance for tumor differentiation. Conclusion The FROC parameters can be used to differentiate between low- and high-grade pediatric brain tumor groups. The combination of FROC parameters or individual parameters may serve as in vivo, noninvasive, and quantitative imaging markers for classifying

  15. Mesenchymal transition and PDGFRA amplification/mutation are key distinct oncogenic events in pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas.

    PubMed

    Puget, Stephanie; Philippe, Cathy; Bax, Dorine A; Job, Bastien; Varlet, Pascale; Junier, Marie-Pierre; Andreiuolo, Felipe; Carvalho, Dina; Reis, Ricardo; Guerrini-Rousseau, Lea; Roujeau, Thomas; Dessen, Philippe; Richon, Catherine; Lazar, Vladimir; Le Teuff, Gwenael; Sainte-Rose, Christian; Geoerger, Birgit; Vassal, Gilles; Jones, Chris; Grill, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is one of the most frequent malignant pediatric brain tumor and its prognosis is universaly fatal. No significant improvement has been made in last thirty years over the standard treatment with radiotherapy. To address the paucity of understanding of DIPGs, we have carried out integrated molecular profiling of a large series of samples obtained with stereotactic biopsy at diagnosis. While chromosomal imbalances did not distinguish DIPG and supratentorial tumors on CGHarrays, gene expression profiling revealed clear differences between them, with brainstem gliomas resembling midline/thalamic tumours, indicating a closely-related origin. Two distinct subgroups of DIPG were identified. The first subgroup displayed mesenchymal and pro-angiogenic characteristics, with stem cell markers enrichment consistent with the possibility to grow tumor stem cells from these biopsies. The other subgroup displayed oligodendroglial features, and appeared largely driven by PDGFRA, in particular through amplification and/or novel missense mutations in the extracellular domain. Patients in this later group had a significantly worse outcome with an hazard ratio for early deaths, ie before 10 months, 8 fold greater that the ones in the other subgroup (p = 0.041, Cox regression model). The worse outcome of patients with the oligodendroglial type of tumors was confirmed on a series of 55 paraffin-embedded biopsy samples at diagnosis (median OS of 7.73 versus 12.37 months, p = 0.045, log-rank test). Two distinct transcriptional subclasses of DIPG with specific genomic alterations can be defined at diagnosis by oligodendroglial differentiation or mesenchymal transition, respectively. Classifying these tumors by signal transduction pathway activation and by mutation in pathway member genes may be particularily valuable for the development of targeted therapies.

  16. Mesenchymal Transition and PDGFRA Amplification/Mutation Are Key Distinct Oncogenic Events in Pediatric Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Bax, Dorine A.; Job, Bastien; Varlet, Pascale; Junier, Marie-Pierre; Andreiuolo, Felipe; Carvalho, Dina; Reis, Ricardo; Guerrini-Rousseau, Lea; Roujeau, Thomas; Dessen, Philippe; Richon, Catherine; Lazar, Vladimir; Le Teuff, Gwenael; Sainte-Rose, Christian; Geoerger, Birgit; Vassal, Gilles; Jones, Chris; Grill, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is one of the most frequent malignant pediatric brain tumor and its prognosis is universaly fatal. No significant improvement has been made in last thirty years over the standard treatment with radiotherapy. To address the paucity of understanding of DIPGs, we have carried out integrated molecular profiling of a large series of samples obtained with stereotactic biopsy at diagnosis. While chromosomal imbalances did not distinguish DIPG and supratentorial tumors on CGHarrays, gene expression profiling revealed clear differences between them, with brainstem gliomas resembling midline/thalamic tumours, indicating a closely-related origin. Two distinct subgroups of DIPG were identified. The first subgroup displayed mesenchymal and pro-angiogenic characteristics, with stem cell markers enrichment consistent with the possibility to grow tumor stem cells from these biopsies. The other subgroup displayed oligodendroglial features, and appeared largely driven by PDGFRA, in particular through amplification and/or novel missense mutations in the extracellular domain. Patients in this later group had a significantly worse outcome with an hazard ratio for early deaths, ie before 10 months, 8 fold greater that the ones in the other subgroup (p = 0.041, Cox regression model). The worse outcome of patients with the oligodendroglial type of tumors was confirmed on a series of 55 paraffin-embedded biopsy samples at diagnosis (median OS of 7.73 versus 12.37 months, p = 0.045, log-rank test). Two distinct transcriptional subclasses of DIPG with specific genomic alterations can be defined at diagnosis by oligodendroglial differentiation or mesenchymal transition, respectively. Classifying these tumors by signal transduction pathway activation and by mutation in pathway member genes may be particularily valuable for the development of targeted therapies. PMID:22389665

  17. Pulmonary involvement in diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis: broncheoalveolar fluid granulocytosis predicts progression of fibrosing alveolitis

    PubMed Central

    Witt, C.; Borges, A.; John, M.; Fietze, I.; Baumann, G.; Krause, A.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—The clinical course of fibrosing alveolitis (FA) in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) may vary considerably from stable condition for years to continuous fatal progression. This prospective study aimed at identifying the prognostic value of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) analysis in FASSc.
METHODS—Seventy three consecutive patients with SSc and clinical signs of pulmonary involvement were enrolled. Every patient underwent clinical examination, lung function tests, computed tomography (CT), gallium scan, echocardiography, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Forty nine patients, 26 with pathological and 23 with normal BALF findings were prospectively followed up for two years and re-evaluated annually.
RESULTS—At baseline, 51 subjects (70%) showed radiological signs of lung fibrosis and/or alveolitis by CT and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco) was decreased in 47 patients (64%). Thirty five patients (48%) had pathological BALF findings. BALF differential counts included BALF granulocytosis in 18, BALF lymphocytosis in 12, and a mixed increase of both granulocytes and lymphocytes in five patients. On follow up, a progression of FA with a significant decrease of DLco was only observed in patients with BALF granulocytosis. In contrast, patients with BALF lymphocytosis or normal BALF cell count had stable lung funtion parameters during the study period. In none of our patients echocardiography showed evidence of pulmonary hypertension.
CONCLUSION—BALF granulocytosis predicts progression of FA with deterioration of lung function, which is most sensitively monitored by DLco. Immunosuppressive treatment is recommended in patients with granulocytic FASSc.

 PMID:10491363

  18. Progress in pediatrics in 2011. Choices in endocrinology, gastroenterology, hemato-oncology, infectious diseases, otolaryngology, pharmacotherapy and respiratory tract illnesses.

    PubMed

    Caffarelli, Carlo; Santamaria, Francesca; Cesari, Silvia; Di Giorgio, Angela; Bernasconi, Sergio

    2012-06-08

    Main progresses in endocrinology, gastroenterology, hemato-oncology, infectious diseases, otolaryngology, pharmacotherapy, and respiratory tract illnesses selected from articles published in The Italian Journal of Pediatrics in 2011 were reviewed. Risk factors for gastroenteritis and appendicitis in developing countries may be useful in improving our understanding of these diseases. Childhood hearing impairment is a world-wide problem which continues to have an high prevalence in newborns. Among the mechanisms of diseases, obese children often have asthma and high hepcidin levels that may reduce serum iron concentrations. In cystic fibrosis, 18q distal deletion has been described as a novel mutation. Hypothyroidism in children with central nervous system infections may increase mortality rates. Infrared tympanic thermometer (IRTT) in oral mode for the measurement of body temperature may be useful in fever screening in a busy setup. In newborns, the transmission of CMV infection through breast milk may be prevented through freezing or pasteurization. Recent advances in treatment of constipation, urinary tract infections, leukemia, pain in children with cancer, neonates with sepsis or difficult weaning from mechanical ventilation will likely contribute towards optimizing management of these common disorders. The work of the Family Pediatricians Medicines for Children Research Network aims to develop competence, infrastructure, networking and education for pediatric clinical trials.

  19. Energetics of silicate melts from thermal diffusion studies. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.

    1992-07-01

    Efforts are reported in the following areas: laboratory equipment (multianvils for high P/T work, pressure media, SERC/DL sychrotron), liquid-state thermal diffusion (silicate liquids, O isotopic fractionation, volatiles, tektites, polymetallic sulfide liquids, carbonate liquids, aqueous sulfate solutions), and liquid-state isothermal diffusion (self-diffusion, basalt-rhyolite interdiffusion, selective contamination, chemical diffusion).

  20. Differentiating pediatric epileptic brain tissue from normal brain tissue by using time-dependent diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in vivo: comprehensive data analysis method in the time domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Sanghoon; Fernald, Bradley; Bhatia, Sanjiv; Ragheb, John; Sandberg, David; Johnson, Mahlon; Lin, Wei-Chiang

    2009-05-01

    This research investigated the feasibility of using time-dependent diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to differentiate pediatric epileptic brain tissue from normal brain tissue. The optical spectroscopic technique monitored the dynamic optical properties of the cerebral cortex that are associated with its physiological, morphological, and compositional characteristics. Due to the transient irregular epileptic discharge activity within the epileptic brain tissue it was hypothesized that the lesion would express abnormal dynamic optical behavior that would alter normal dynamic behavior. Thirteen pediatric epilepsy patients and seven pediatric brain tumor patients (normal controls) were recruited for this clinical study. Dynamic optical properties were obtained from the cortical surface intraoperatively using a timedependent diffuse reflectance spectroscopy system. This system consisted of a fiber-optic probe, a tungsten-halogen light source, and a spectrophotometer. It acquired diffuse reflectance spectra with a spectral range of 204 nm to 932 nm at a rate of 33 spectra per second for approximately 12 seconds. Biopsy samples were taken from electrophysiologically abnormal cortex and evaluated by a neuropathologist, which served as a gold standard for lesion classification. For data analysis, spectral intensity changes of diffuse reflectance in the time domain at two different wavelengths from each investigated site were compared. Negative correlation segment, defined by the periods where the intensity changes at the two wavelengths were opposite in their slope polarity, were extracted. The total duration of negative correlation, referred to as the "negative correlation time index", was calculated by integrating the negative correlation segments. The negative correlation time indices from all investigated sites were sub-grouped according to the corresponding histological classifications. The difference between the mean indices of two subgroups was evaluated by standard

  1. Preradiation chemotherapy may improve survival in pediatric diffuse intrinsic brainstem gliomas: Final results of BSG 98 prospective trial

    PubMed Central

    Frappaz, Didier; Schell, Matthias; Thiesse, Philippe; Marec-Bérard, Perrine; Mottolese, Carmine; Perol, David; Bergeron, Christophe; Philip, Thierry; Ricci, Anne Claire; Galand-Desme, Sophie; Szathmari, Alexandru; Carrie, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Radiation therapy remains the only treatment that provides clinical benefit to children with diffuse brainstem tumors. Their median survival, however, rarely exceeds 9 months. The authors report a prospective trial of front-line chemotherapy aimed at delaying radiation until time of clinical progression. The aim was to investigate the possibility that radiotherapy would maintain its activity in children whose disease progressed after chemotherapy. Twenty-three patients took part in this protocol, the BSG 98 protocol, which consisted of frontline chemotherapy alternating hematotoxic and nonhematotoxic schedules. Each cycle included three courses delivered monthly; the first course was 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea– cisplatin, and the second and third were high-dose methotrexate. Three patients underwent one cycle; 5 patients each, two and three cycles; and 10 patients, four cycles. Twenty of the 23 patients eventually received local radiation therapy. A historical cohort of 14 patients who received at least local radiation therapy served as controls. Four patients experienced severe iatrogenic infections, and 11 patients required platelet transfusions. Median survival increased significantly in patients participating in the protocol compared to that in the historical controls (17 months, 95% confidence interval [CI], 10–23 months, vs. 9 months, 95% CI, 8–10 months; p = 0.022), though hospitalization was prolonged (57 vs. 25 days, p = 0.001). Although frontline chemotherapy alternating hematotoxic and nonhematotoxic schedules significantly increases overall median survival, its cost from infection and hospitalization deserves honest discussion with the children and their parents. PMID:18577561

  2. Impact of HLA in mother and child on disease progression of pediatric human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection.

    PubMed

    Thobakgale, Christina F; Prendergast, Andrew; Crawford, Hayley; Mkhwanazi, Nompumelelo; Ramduth, Danni; Reddy, Sharon; Molina, Claudia; Mncube, Zenele; Leslie, Alasdair; Prado, Julia; Chonco, Fundi; Mphatshwe, Wendy; Tudor-Williams, Gareth; Jeena, Prakash; Blanckenberg, Natasha; Dong, Krista; Kiepiela, Photini; Coovadia, Hoosen; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Walker, Bruce D; Goulder, Philip J R

    2009-10-01

    A broad Gag-specific CD8(+) T-cell response is associated with effective control of adult human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The association of certain HLA class I molecules, such as HLA-B*57, -B*5801, and -B*8101, with immune control is linked to mutations within Gag epitopes presented by these alleles that allow HIV to evade the immune response but that also reduce viral replicative capacity. Transmission of such viruses containing mutations within Gag epitopes results in lower viral loads in adult recipients. In this study of pediatric infection, we tested the hypothesis that children may tend to progress relatively slowly if either they themselves possess one of the protective HLA-B alleles or the mother possesses one of these alleles, thereby transmitting a low-fitness virus to the child. We analyzed HLA type, CD8(+) T-cell responses, and viral sequence changes for 61 mother-child pairs from Durban, South Africa, who were monitored from birth. Slow progression was significantly associated with the mother or child possessing one of the protective HLA-B alleles, and more significantly so when the protective allele was not shared by mother and child (P = 0.007). Slow progressors tended to make CD8(+) T-cell responses to Gag epitopes presented by the protective HLA-B alleles, in contrast to progressors expressing the same alleles (P = 0.07; Fisher's exact test). Mothers expressing the protective alleles were significantly more likely to transmit escape variants within the Gag epitopes presented by those alleles than mothers not expressing those alleles (75% versus 21%; P = 0.001). Reversion of transmitted escape mutations was observed in all slow-progressing children whose mothers possessed protective HLA-B alleles. These data show that HLA class I alleles influence disease progression in pediatric as well as adult infection, both as a result of the CD8(+) T-cell responses generated in the child and through the transmission of low-fitness viruses by the

  3. MRI diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in pediatric small bowel Crohn disease: correlation with MRI findings of active bowel wall inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ream, Justin M; Dillman, Jonathan R; Adler, Jeremy; Khalatbari, Shokoufeh; McHugh, Jonathan B; Strouse, Peter J; Dhanani, Muhammad; Shpeen, Benjamin; Al-Hawary, Mahmoud M

    2013-09-01

    Restricted diffusion on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) sequences during magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) has been shown in segments of bowel affected by Crohn disease. However, the exact meaning of this finding, particularly within the pediatric Crohn disease population, is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the significance of bowel wall restricted diffusion in children with small bowel Crohn disease by correlating apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values with other MRI markers of disease activity. A retrospective review of pediatric patients (≤ 18 years of age) with Crohn disease terminal ileitis who underwent MRE with DWI at our institution between May 1, 2009 and May 31, 2011 was undertaken. All of the children had either biopsy-proven Crohn disease terminal ileitis or clinically diagnosed Crohn disease, including terminal ileal involvement by imaging. The mean minimum ADC value within the wall of the terminal ileum was determined for each examination. ADC values were tested for correlation/association with other MRI findings to determine whether a relationship exists between bowel wall restricted diffusion and disease activity. Forty-six MRE examinations with DWI in children with terminal ileitis were identified (23 girls and 23 boys; mean age, 14.3 years). There was significant negative correlation or association between bowel wall minimum ADC value and established MRI markers of disease activity, including degree of bowel wall thickening (R = (-)0.43; P = 0.003), striated pattern of arterial enhancement (P = 0.01), degree of arterial enhancement (P = 0.01), degree of delayed enhancement (P = 0.045), amount of mesenteric inflammatory changes (P < 0.0001) and presence of a stricture (P = 0.02). ADC values were not significantly associated with bowel wall T2-weighted signal intensity, length of disease involvement or mesenteric fibrofatty proliferation. Increasing bowel wall restricted diffusion

  4. Progressive Gender Differences of Structural Brain Networks in Healthy Adults: A Longitudinal, Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yu; Lee, Renick; Chen, Yu; Collinson, Simon; Thakor, Nitish; Bezerianos, Anastasios; Sim, Kang

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in the brain maturation during childhood and adolescence has been repeatedly documented, which may underlie the differences in behaviors and cognitive performance. However, our understanding of how gender modulates the development of structural connectome in healthy adults is still not entirely clear. Here we utilized graph theoretical analysis of longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging data over a five-year period to investigate the progressive gender differences of brain network topology. The brain networks of both genders showed prominent economical “small-world” architecture (high local clustering and short paths between nodes). Additional analysis revealed a more economical “small-world” architecture in females as well as a greater global efficiency in males regardless of scan time point. At the regional level, both increased and decreased efficiency were found across the cerebral cortex for both males and females, indicating a compensation mechanism of cortical network reorganization over time. Furthermore, we found that weighted clustering coefficient exhibited significant gender-time interactions, implying different development trends between males and females. Moreover, several specific brain regions (e.g., insula, superior temporal gyrus, cuneus, putamen, and parahippocampal gyrus) exhibited different development trajectories between males and females. Our findings further prove the presence of sexual dimorphism in brain structures that may underlie gender differences in behavioral and cognitive functioning. The sex-specific progress trajectories in brain connectome revealed in this work provide an important foundation to delineate the gender related pathophysiological mechanisms in various neuropsychiatric disorders, which may potentially guide the development of sex-specific treatments for these devastating brain disorders. PMID:25742013

  5. Pharmacodynamic effect of dipyridamole on thallium-201 myocardial perfusion in progressive systemic sclerosis with diffuse scleroderma.

    PubMed Central

    Kahan, A; Devaux, J Y; Amor, B; Menkes, C J; Weber, S; Foult, J M; Venot, A; Guerin, F; Degeorges, M; Roucayrol, J C

    1986-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of dipyridamole on thallium-201 myocardial perfusion in 23 patients with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) with diffuse scleroderma. Thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed at rest and after coronary artery vasodilatation with intravenous dipyridamole (0.14 mg/kg/min for four minutes). The left myocardium was divided into nine segments; each segment was graded as 2.0, 1.5, 1.0, 0.5, 0 (zero represents no activity). Dipyridamole significantly improved resting thallium-201 myocardial perfusion: the mean (SD) number of segments with thallium defects decreased from 6.0 (2.1) at rest to 4.1 (2.5) after dipyridamole (p less than 0.0001); the mean (SD) score in segments with resting defects increased from 0.92 (0.24) at rest to 1.13 (0.38) after dipyridamole (p less than 0.0001); the mean (SD) global score per patient increased from 10.2 (1.8) at rest to 11.4 (2.1) after dipyridamole (p less than 0.02); the global score increased by at least 2.0 in 12 patients and worsened by at least 2.0 in three patients only (p = 0.05). The results of this acute study suggest that some drugs with potent vasodilator activity on small coronary arteries may be beneficial in the treatment of PSS patients with thallium-201 myocardial perfusion abnormalities. Images PMID:3490227

  6. 50 years of pediatric immunology: progress and future, a clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    Singh, Surjit; Gupta, Anju; Rawat, Amit

    2013-01-08

    Rapidly evolving advances in the field of immunology over the last few decades have impacted the practice of clinical medicine in many ways. In fact, understanding the immunological basis of disease has been pivotal in deciphering the pathogenesis of several disease processes, infective or otherwise. As of today, there is hardly any specialty of medicine which is not influenced by immunology. Pediatric rheumatological disorders, vasculitides, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases (PIDs) and autoimmune disorders fall under the domain of clinical immunology. This specialty is poised to emerge as a major clinical specialty in our country. The gulf between bench and bedside is narrowing down as our understanding of the complex immunological mechanisms gets better. However, a lot still needs to be done in this field as the morbidity and mortality of some of these conditions is unacceptably high in the Indian setup. A number of medical schools and institutes in the country now have the resources and the wherewithal to develop into specialized centres of clinical immunology. We need to concentrate on training more physicians and pediatricians in this field. The future is bright and the prospects exciting.

  7. Germinal-center type B-cell classification and clinical characteristics of Chinese pediatric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a report of 76 cases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Sun, Xiao-Fei; Zhen, Zi-Jun; Wang, Juan; Zhu, Jia; Lu, Su-Ying; Sun, Fei-Fei; Zhang, Fei; Li, Peng-Fei; Cai, Rui-Qing

    2013-10-01

    Pediatric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a highly aggressive disease with unique clinical characteristics. This study analyzed the germinal-center type B-cell (GCB) classification and clinical characteristics of Chinese pediatric DLBCL. A total of 76 patients with DLBCL newly diagnosed in Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center between February 2000 and May 2011, with an age younger than 18 years, were included in the analysis. The male/female ratio was 3.47:1. The median age was 12 years (range, 2 to 18 years), and 47 (61.8%) patients were at least 10 years old. Of the 76 patients, 48 (63.2%) had stage III/IV disease, 9 (11.8%) had bone marrow involvement, 1 (1.3%) had central nervous system (CNS) involvement, and 5 (6.6%) had bone involvement. The GCB classification was assessed in 45 patients: 26 (57.8%) were classified as GCB subtype, and 19 (42.2%) were classified as non-GCB subtype. The modified B-NHL-BFM-90/95 regimen was administered to 50 patients, and the 4-year event-free survival (EFS) rate was 85.8%. Among these 50 patients, 31 were assessed for the GCB classification: 17 (54.8%) were classified as GCB subtype, with a 4-year EFS rate of 88.2%; 14 (45.2%) were classified as non-GCB subtype, with a 4-year EFS rate of 92.9%. Our data indicate that bone marrow involvement and stage III/IV disease are common in Chinese pediatric DLBCL patients, whereas the percentage of patients with the GCB subtype is similar to that of patients with the non-GCB subtype. The modified B-NHL-BFM-90/95 protocol is an active and effective treatment protocol for Chinese pediatric patients with DLBCL.

  8. Germinal-center type B-cell classification and clinical characteristics of Chinese pediatric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a report of 76 cases

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; Sun, Xiao-Fei; Zhen, Zi-Jun; Wang, Juan; Zhu, Jia; Lu, Su-Ying; Sun, Fei-Fei; Zhang, Fei; Li, Peng-Fei; Cai, Rui-Qing

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a highly aggressive disease with unique clinical characteristics. This study analyzed the germinal-center type B-cell (GCB) classification and clinical characteristics of Chinese pediatric DLBCL. A total of 76 patients with DLBCL newly diagnosed in Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center between February 2000 and May 2011, with an age younger than 18 years, were included in the analysis. The male/female ratio was 3.47:1. The median age was 12 years (range, 2 to 18 years), and 47 (61.8%) patients were at least 10 years old. Of the 76 patients, 48 (63.2%) had stage III/IV disease, 9 (11.8%) had bone marrow involvement, 1 (1.3%) had central nervous system (CNS) involvement, and 5 (6.6%) had bone involvement. The GCB classification was assessed in 45 patients: 26 (57.8%) were classified as GCB subtype, and 19 (42.2%) were classified as non-GCB subtype. The modified B-NHL-BFM-90/95 regimen was administered to 50 patients, and the 4-year event-free survival (EFS) rate was 85.8%. Among these 50 patients, 31 were assessed for the GCB classification: 17 (54.8%) were classified as GCB subtype, with a 4-year EFS rate of 88.2%; 14 (45.2%) were classified as non-GCB subtype, with a 4-year EFS rate of 92.9%. Our data indicate that bone marrow involvement and stage III/IV disease are common in Chinese pediatric DLBCL patients, whereas the percentage of patients with the GCB subtype is similar to that of patients with the non-GCB subtype. The modified B-NHL-BFM-90/95 protocol is an active and effective treatment protocol for Chinese pediatric patients with DLBCL. PMID:23544447

  9. The Role of Serum Biomarkers in Predicting Fibrosis Progression in Pediatric and Adult Hepatitis C Virus Chronic Infection

    PubMed Central

    Valva, Pamela; Casciato, Paola; Diaz Carrasco, Juan M.; Gadano, Adrian; Galdame, Omar; Galoppo, María Cristina; Mullen, Eduardo; De Matteo, Elena; Preciado, María Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims Liver biopsy represents the gold standard for damage evaluation, but noninvasive serum markers that mirror liver fibrosis progression are actual goals both in adults and especially in children. The aim was to determine specific serum markers that correlate with liver fibrosis progression during chronic HCV infection. Methods Liver biopsies and concomitant serum samples from 22 pediatric and 22 adult HCV patients were analyzed. Histological parameters were evaluated. On serum TGF-ß1, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloprotein inhibitor-1 (TIMP-1), hyaluronic acid (HA) and aminoterminal peptide of procollagen type III (PIIINP) were tested. Results Significant fibrosis (F≥2) and advanced fibrosis (F≥3) represented 64% and 20%, respectively in children; while 54% F≥2 and 23% F≥3 in adults. Hyaluronic acid (p = 0.011) and PIIINP (p = 0.016) were related to worse fibrosis stages only in adults, along with TIMP-1 (p = 0.039) just in children; but TGF-ß1 was associated with mild fibrosis (p = 0.022) in adults. The AUROC of TIMP-1 in children to discriminate advanced fibrosis was 0.800 (95%IC 0.598–0.932). In adults, the best AUROCs were that of HA, PIIINP and TGF-ß1 [0.929 (IC95% 0.736–0.994), 0.894 (IC95% 0.689–0.984) and 0.835 (IC95% 0.617–0.957)], respectively. In children, according to the cut off (165.7 ng/mL) value for TIMP-1, biopsies could have been avoided in 72% (18/25). Considering the cut off for HA (109.7 ng/mL), PIIINP (9.1 µg/L), and TGF-ß1 (10,848.3 pg/mL), biopsies could have been avoided in 87% (19/22) of adult patients by using HA and 73% (16/22) using PIIINP or TGF-ß1. Conclusions In adults given the diagnostic accuracy of HA, PIIINP, TGF-ß1, their combination may provide a potential useful tool to assess liver fibrosis. This first pediatric study suggests that TIMP-1 is clinically useful for predicting liver fibrosis in HCV patients. PMID:21858035

  10. Diffusion of gases in porous solids - simulation and measurements. Tenth quarterly progress report, October 16, 1984-January 15, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Progress has been made on the theoretical aspects of this research. A number of Monte Carlo simulations for ordinary gas diffusion in Swiss cheese solids have now been completed. The results are plotted in the attached figure along with results for simulations of diffusion in cannonball solids which were included in last month's report. Also included in this figure are classical theoretical curves for transport in heterogeneous media. The results of the Monte Carlo simulations agree well with the classical theories. It should be noted that the simulation results and the classical theories are at odds with two frequently used correlations for the tortuosity factor, T, purporting to represent gaseous diffusion in porous solids: T = 1/E, where E = porosity and T = 1/E/sup 2/. 1 figure.

  11. Effect of statin therapy on disease progression in pediatric ADPKD: design and baseline characteristics of participants.

    PubMed

    Cadnapaphornchai, Melissa A; George, Diana M; Masoumi, Amirali; McFann, Kim; Strain, John D; Schrier, Robert W

    2011-05-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common genetic kidney condition and is associated with important renal and cardiovascular manifestations in childhood. Renal cystic disease can be documented in some cases as early as in utero. Early intervention is critical if the long-term complications of this condition, including end-stage renal disease, are to be ameliorated. Here we describe our ongoing randomized double-blind placebo-controlled phase III clinical trial to assess the effect of pravastatin treatment on renal and cardiovascular disease progression in 107 children and young adults age 8-22 years with ADPKD who are receiving the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor lisinopril. Baseline demographic and laboratory data are provided. Results of this study could markedly impact the standard of care for evaluation and treatment of ADPKD in this population.

  12. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis: rapidly progressive necrotizing glomerulonephritis in a pediatric patient

    PubMed Central

    Luna, Mariana; Bocanegra, Victoria; Vallés, Patricia G

    2014-01-01

    Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is associated with a broad range of clinical manifestations including renal disease. It is a systemic vasculitis that is rarely encountered in children. We present a 14-year-old girl who suffered from pharyngitis 1 week before admittance to hospital. She was admitted for macroscopic hematuria and oliguria, under the possibility of nephritic syndrome. Renal failure with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis occurred within 24 hours. Immunologic tests showed the presence of type-C anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (c-ANCA with antiproteinase 3 specificity) and renal biopsy revealed pauci-immune crescentic focal necrotizing glomerulonephritis. Treatment including methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide intravenous pulses allowed renal recovery after 3 weeks. The clinical, hematological, and biochemical parameters improved substantially, achieving remission. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis, although rare in children, should be considered in the above clinical scenario. This case underlines that knowledge of renal histology diagnosis and early aggressive immunosuppressive therapy are essential for the management of these patients. PMID:24790466

  13. Differentiating Tumor Progression from Pseudoprogression in Patients with Glioblastomas Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast MRI.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Martinez-Lage, M; Sakai, Y; Chawla, S; Kim, S G; Alonso-Basanta, M; Lustig, R A; Brem, S; Mohan, S; Wolf, R L; Desai, A; Poptani, H

    2016-01-01

    Early assessment of treatment response is critical in patients with glioblastomas. A combination of DTI and DSC perfusion imaging parameters was evaluated to distinguish glioblastomas with true progression from mixed response and pseudoprogression. Forty-one patients with glioblastomas exhibiting enhancing lesions within 6 months after completion of chemoradiation therapy were retrospectively studied. All patients underwent surgery after MR imaging and were histologically classified as having true progression (>75% tumor), mixed response (25%-75% tumor), or pseudoprogression (<25% tumor). Mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy, linear anisotropy coefficient, planar anisotropy coefficient, spheric anisotropy coefficient, and maximum relative cerebral blood volume values were measured from the enhancing tissue. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the best model for classification of true progression from mixed response or pseudoprogression. Significantly elevated maximum relative cerebral blood volume, fractional anisotropy, linear anisotropy coefficient, and planar anisotropy coefficient and decreased spheric anisotropy coefficient were observed in true progression compared with pseudoprogression (P < .05). There were also significant differences in maximum relative cerebral blood volume, fractional anisotropy, planar anisotropy coefficient, and spheric anisotropy coefficient measurements between mixed response and true progression groups. The best model to distinguish true progression from non-true progression (pseudoprogression and mixed) consisted of fractional anisotropy, linear anisotropy coefficient, and maximum relative cerebral blood volume, resulting in an area under the curve of 0.905. This model also differentiated true progression from mixed response with an area under the curve of 0.901. A combination of fractional anisotropy and maximum relative cerebral blood volume differentiated pseudoprogression from

  14. High-Resolution Diffusion Tensor Spinal Cord MRI Measures as Biomarkers of Disability Progression in a Rodent Model of Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Gilli, Francesca; Chen, Xi; Pachner, Andrew R.; Gimi, Barjor

    2016-01-01

    Disease in the spinal cord is a major component of disability in multiple sclerosis, yet current techniques of imaging spinal cord injury are insensitive and nonspecific. This study seeks to remove this major impediment to research in multiple sclerosis and other spinal cord diseases by identifying reliable biomarkers of disability progression using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a magnetic resonance imaging technique, to evaluate the spinal cord in a model of multiple sclerosis, i.e. the Theiler’s Murine Encephalitis Virus-Induced Demyelinating Disease (TMEV-IDD). Mice with TMEV-IDD with varying levels of clinical disease were imaged using a 9.4T small animal MRI scanner. Axial diffusivity, radial diffusivity, and fractional anisotropy were calculated. Disability was assessed periodically using Rotarod assay and data were expressed as a neurological function index. Correlation was performed between DTI measurements and disability scores. TMEV-IDD mice displayed significant increased neurological deficits over time when compared with controls (p<0.0001). Concurrently, the values of fractional anisotropy and axial diffusivity were both decreased compared to controls (both p<0.0001), while radial diffusivity was increased (p<0.0001). Overall, fractional anisotropy changes were larger in white matter than in grey matter and differences were more pronounced in the ventral region. Lower disability scores were associated with decreased fractional anisotropy values measured in the ventral (r = 0.68; p<0.0001) and ventral-lateral (r = 0.70; p<0.0001) regions of the white matter. These data demonstrate that DTI measures of the spinal cord contribute to strengthening the association between neuroradiological markers and clinical disability, and support the use of DTI measures in spinal cord imaging in MS patients. PMID:27467829

  15. Energetics of melts from thermal diffusion studies. FY 1996 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Lesher, C.E.

    1997-12-31

    This research program characterizes mass transport by diffusion in geological fluids in response to thermal, solubility, and/or chemical gradients to obtain quantitative information on the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of multicomponent systems. Silicate liquids undergo substantial thermal diffusion (Soret) differentiation, while the response in sulfide, carbonate, and aqueous fluids to an imposed temperature gradient is varied. The experimental observations of this differentiation are used to evaluate the form and quantitative values of solution parameters, and to quantify ordinary diffusion coefficients, heats of transport, and activation energies of multicomponent liquids. The diffusion, solution, and element partition coefficients determined for these geological fluids form a data base for understanding magmatic crystallization behavior and for evaluating geothermal, ore deposit, and nuclear waste isolation potentials.

  16. Progress Report for Diffusion Welding of the NGNP Process Application Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    R.E. Mizia; D.E. Clark; M.V. Glazoff; T.E. Lister; T.L. Trowbridge

    2011-04-01

    The NGNP Project is currently investigating the use of metallic, diffusion welded, compact heat exchangers to transfer heat from the primary (reactor side) heat transport system to the secondary heat transport system. The intermediate heat exchanger will transfer this heat to downstream applications such as hydrogen production, process heat, and electricity generation. The channeled plates that make up the heat transfer surfaces of the intermediate heat exchanger will have to be assembled into an array by diffusion welding.

  17. Pediatric headache.

    PubMed

    Winner, Paul

    2008-06-01

    Headaches occur frequently in the pediatric population and have a significant impact on both the patient and their family. Migraine, the most common headache disorder for which patients see a physician, still remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. Recent studies have revealed the increasing incidence of migraine and chronic migraine in the pediatric population. Limitations of the present diagnostic criteria for migraine are presented, and the proposed modifications to these criteria may assist you with early recognition and ultimate treatment. New acute and preventive migraine treatment data demonstrating statistically significant benefit for the primary endpoints will be reviewed in detail. The clinically relevant impact of migraine on the pediatric patient documented by the use of the Pediatric Migraine Disability Assessment and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory will be discussed. A comprehensive management approach blending the most current acute, preventive, and biobehavioral treatments will be reviewed. Further research, with novel study designs, in pediatric headaches is needed to help reveal additional pathophysiological mechanisms, improve diagnostic criteria, and advance optimal treatment. Prospective studies are needed to fully evaluate the efficacy of preventive management in this population and to establish whether early intervention might slow this disease progression.

  18. Ursodeoxycholic acid therapy in pediatric patients with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis.

    PubMed

    Jacquemin, E; Hermans, D; Myara, A; Habes, D; Debray, D; Hadchouel, M; Sokal, E M; Bernard, O

    1997-03-01

    Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) is a lethal inherited childhood cholestasis of hepatocellular origin. Different subtypes of PFIC have been described according to serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activity. There is currently no effective medical therapy available for children with PFIC. We report on 39 patients with PFIC who received ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) orally (20-30 mg/kg b.w./day) for a period of 2 to 4 years. Group 1 (n = 26) consisted of children with normal GGT activity, and group 2 (n = 13) of children with high GGT activity. Within group 1, liver tests normalized in 11 children, improved in 5, and stabilized or worsened in 10. Within group 2, liver tests normalized in six children, improved in four, and stabilized or worsened in three. Improvement of parameters was associated with an enrichment of the circulating pool of bile acids with UDCA. Hepatosplenomegaly and pruritus disappeared or diminished in children in whom liver tests normalized. In nine of these children, liver tests worsened and normalized again after stopping and restarting UDCA. Liver histology assessed in four children after normalization of liver tests and 2 years of treatment showed a decrease in fibrosis. We conclude that UDCA should be considered in the initial therapeutic management of children with PFIC, because it appears effective in resolving or improving the liver function and the clinical status of a fair proportion of children. Chronic UDCA therapy might thus avoid the need for liver transplantation in some children with PFIC.

  19. Differences in supratentorial damage of white matter in pediatric survivors of posterior fossa tumors with and without adjuvant treatment as detected by magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging.

    PubMed

    Rueckriegel, Stefan Mark; Driever, Pablo Hernáiz; Blankenburg, Friederike; Lüdemann, Lutz; Henze, Günter; Bruhn, Harald

    2010-03-01

    To elucidate morphologic correlates of brain dysfunction in pediatric survivors of posterior fossa tumors by using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine neuroaxonal integrity in white matter. Seventeen medulloblastoma (MB) patients who had received surgery and adjuvant treatment, 13 pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) patients who had been treated only with surgery, and age-matched healthy control subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging on a 3-Tesla system. High-resolution conventional T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and DTI data sets were obtained. Fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were analyzed using tract-based spatial statistics, a part of the Functional MRI of the Brain Software Library. Compared with control subjects, FA values of MB patients were significantly decreased in the cerebellar midline structures, in the frontal lobes, and in the callosal body. Fractional anisotropy values of the PA patients were not only decreased in cerebellar hemispheric structures as expected, but also in supratentorial parts of the brain, with a distribution similar to that in MB patients. However, the amount of significantly decreased FA was greater in MB than in PA patients, underscoring the aggravating neurotoxic effect of the adjuvant treatment. Neurotoxic mechanisms that are present in PA patients (e.g., internal hydrocephalus and damaged cerebellar structures affecting neuronal circuits) contribute significantly to the alteration of supratentorial white matter in pediatric posterior fossa tumor patients. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Differences in Supratentorial Damage of White Matter in Pediatric Survivors of Posterior Fossa Tumors With and Without Adjuvant Treatment as Detected by Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Rueckriegel, Stefan Mark; Driever, Pablo Hernaiz; Blankenburg, Friederike; Luedemann, Lutz; Henze, Guenter; Bruhn, Harald

    2010-03-01

    Purpose: To elucidate morphologic correlates of brain dysfunction in pediatric survivors of posterior fossa tumors by using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine neuroaxonal integrity in white matter. Patients and Methods: Seventeen medulloblastoma (MB) patients who had received surgery and adjuvant treatment, 13 pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) patients who had been treated only with surgery, and age-matched healthy control subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging on a 3-Tesla system. High-resolution conventional T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and DTI data sets were obtained. Fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were analyzed using tract-based spatial statistics, a part of the Functional MRI of the Brain Software Library. Results: Compared with control subjects, FA values of MB patients were significantly decreased in the cerebellar midline structures, in the frontal lobes, and in the callosal body. Fractional anisotropy values of the PA patients were not only decreased in cerebellar hemispheric structures as expected, but also in supratentorial parts of the brain, with a distribution similar to that in MB patients. However, the amount of significantly decreased FA was greater in MB than in PA patients, underscoring the aggravating neurotoxic effect of the adjuvant treatment. Conclusions: Neurotoxic mechanisms that are present in PA patients (e.g., internal hydrocephalus and damaged cerebellar structures affecting neuronal circuits) contribute significantly to the alteration of supratentorial white matter in pediatric posterior fossa tumor patients.

  1. Transepithelial corneal collagen crosslinking for progressive keratoconus in a pediatric age group.

    PubMed

    Salman, Abdelrahman G

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of transepithelial corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL) in children with keratoconus and the refractive changes induced by this treatment. Ophthalmology Department, Ain-Shams University Hospitals, Cairo, Egypt. Prospective comparative case series. Patients younger than 18 years with bilateral keratoconus had transepithelial CXL with the use of transepithelial riboflavin. The other eye was used as a control and was treated conservatively. The uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), and corneal tomography at 12 months were the main outcome measures. The mean age of the 22 patients (22 eyes) was 15.7 years ± 2.1 (SD). After transepithelial CXL, the improvement in the mean UDVA was statistically significant (from 0.95 ± 0.34 logMAR to 0.68 ± 0.45 logMAR) (P<.05). No eye lost lines of preoperative UDVA; 1 eye lost 1 line of preoperative CDVA. There was no improvement in the control group in UDVA or CDVA (P>.05). The mean simulated keratometry (K) decreased by a mean of 2.03 diopters (D), with mean flattening of the apical K by 2.20 D; both results were statistically significant (P<.05). In the control group, the simulated K increased by a mean of 0.59 D (P>.05), with mean steepening of the apical K by 2.9 D (P<.05). No significant changes occurred in the endothelial cell count in either group. Preliminary results of transepithelial CXL in children with keratoconus were encouraging, with no evidence of progression of keratoconus over 12 months. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Apparent diffusion coefficient on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in bladder cancer: relations with recurrence/progression risk.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Ken; Shigihara, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Yuko; Miyajima, Masayuki; Haga, Nobuhiro; Kojima, Yoshiyuki; Shishido, Fumio

    2017-08-09

    To evaluate the relationship between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value for bladder cancer and the recurrence/progression risk of post-transurethral resection (TUR). Forty-one patients with initial and non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer underwent MRI from 2009 to 2012. Two radiologists measured ADC values. A pathologist calculated the recurrence/progression scores, and risk was classified based on the scores. Pearson's correlation was used to analyze the correlations of ADC value with each score and with each risk group, and the optimal cut-off value was established based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Furthermore, the relationship between actual recurrence / progression of cases and ADC values was examined by Unpaird U test. There were significant correlations between ADC value and the recurrence score as well as the progression score (P<0.01, P<0.01, respectively). There were also significant correlations between ADC value and the recurrence risk group as well as progression risk group (P=0.042, P<0.01, respectively). The ADC cut-off value on ROC analysis was 1.365 (sensitivity 100%; specificity 97.4%) for the low and intermediate recurrence risk groups, 1.024 (sensitivity 47.4%; specificity 100%) for the intermediate and high recurrence risk groups, 1.252 (sensitivity 83.3%; specificity 81.3%) for the low and intermediate progression risk groups, and 0.955 (sensitivity 87.5%; specificity 63.2%) between the intermediate and high progression risk groups. The difference between the ADC values of the recurrence and nonrecurrence group in Unpaired t test was significant (P<0.05). ADC on MRI in bladder cancer could potentially be useful, non-invasive measurement for estimating the risks of recurrence and progression.

  3. Demonstration and Validation of a Regenerated-Cellulose Dialysis Membrane Diffusion Sampler for Monitoring Ground Water Quality and Remediation Progress at DoD Sites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    not equilibrate within 28 days. Equilibration times for selected explosive compounds through dialysis membranes were determined by LeBlanc... MEMBRANE DIFFUSION SAMPLER FOR MONITORING GROUND WATER QUALITY AND REMEDIATION PROGRESS AT DoD SITES (ER-0313) by Thomas E. Imbrigiotta... MEMBRANE DIFFUSION SAMPLER FOR MONITORING GROUND WATER QUALITY AND REMEDIATION PROGRESS AT DOD SITES (ER-0313) 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  4. Energetics of melts from thermal diffusion studies. FY 1993 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Lesher, C.E.

    1994-12-31

    This research program characterizes diffusional mass transport in geological fluids in response to thermal, solubility and chemical gradients using tools of experimental petrology. Quantitative information is obtained on the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of multicomponent systems that are the basis for predictive models of chemical diffusion, mineral dissolution, and complexing in synthetic and natural silicate systems. Among the technical accomplishments related to establishing the UCD experimental petrology laboratory in the last year has been the design and construction of two compact piston-cylinder devices capable of achieving 40 kb using 1/2-in. pressure vessels (also capable of accommodating 3/4-in. vessels). These machines are now on-line and performing thermal diffusion experiments. In addition to establishing the new laboratory at UCD, the PI began studies of molecular diffusion in the absence of a thermal gradient with results published on the chemical and self diffusion of Sr and Nd in naturally-occurring silicate liquids, and self diffusivities of Si and O in basaltic liquid.

  5. Demonstration and Validation of a Regenerated Cellulose Dialysis Membrane Diffusion Sampler for Monitoring Groundwater Quality and Remediation Progress at DoD Sites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    trace elements that did not equilibrate within 28 days. Equilibration times for selected explosive compounds through dialysis membranes were...PROTOCOL Demonstration and Validation of a Regenerated Cellulose Dialysis Membrane Diffusion Sampler for Monitoring Groundwater Quality and...Demonstration and Validation of a Regenerated Cellulose Dialysis Membrane Diffusion Sampler for Monitoring Groundwater Quality and Remediation Progress at DoD

  6. Progressive Volume Loss and White Matter Degeneration in Cstb-Deficient Mice: A Diffusion Tensor and Longitudinal Volumetry MRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Manninen, Otto; Laitinen, Teemu; Lehtimäki, Kimmo K.; Tegelberg, Saara; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina; Gröhn, Olli; Kopra, Outi

    2014-01-01

    Unverricht-Lundborg type progressive myoclonus epilepsy (EPM1, OMIM 254800) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by onset at the age of 6 to 16 years, incapacitating stimulus-sensitive myoclonus and tonic-clonic epileptic seizures. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding cystatin B. Previously, widespread white matter changes and atrophy has been detected both in adult EPM1 patients and in 6-month-old cystatin B–deficient mice, a mouse model for the EPM1 disease. In order to elucidate the spatiotemporal dynamics of the brain atrophy and white matter changes in EPM1, we conducted longitudinal in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and ex vivo diffusion tensor imaging accompanied with tract-based spatial statistics analysis to compare volumetric changes and fractional anisotropy in the brains of 1 to 6 months of age cystatin B–deficient and control mice. The results reveal progressive but non-uniform volume loss of the cystatin B–deficient mouse brains, indicating that different neuronal populations possess distinct sensitivity to the damage caused by cystatin B deficiency. The diffusion tensor imaging data reveal early and progressive white matter alterations in cystatin B–deficient mice affecting all major tracts. The results also indicate that the white matter damage in the cystatin B–deficient brain is most likely secondary to glial activation and neurodegenerative events rather than a primary result of CSTB deficiency. The data also show that diffusion tensor imaging combined with TBSS analysis provides a feasible approach not only to follow white matter damage in neurodegenerative mouse models but also to detect fractional anisotropy changes related to normal white matter maturation and reorganisation. PMID:24603771

  7. Fractional Progress Toward Understanding the Fractional Diffusion Limit: The Electromagnetic Response of Spatially Correlated Geomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, C. J.; Beskardes, G. D.; Everett, M. E.

    2016-12-01

    In this presentation we review the observational evidence for anomalous electromagnetic diffusion in near-surface geophysical exploration and how such evidence is consistent with a detailed, spatially-correlated geologic medium. To date, the inference of multi-scale geologic correlation is drawn from two independent methods of data analysis. The first of which is analogous to seismic move-out, where the arrival time of an electromagnetic pulse is plotted as a function of transmitter/receiver separation. The "anomalous" diffusion is evident by the fractional-order power law behavior of these arrival times, with an exponent value between unity (pure diffusion) and 2 (lossless wave propagation). The second line of evidence comes from spectral analysis of small-scale fluctuations in electromagnetic profile data which cannot be explained in terms of instrument, user or random error. Rather, the power-law behavior of the spectral content of these signals (i.e., power versus wavenumber) and their increments reveals them to lie in a class of signals with correlations over multiple length scales, a class of signals known formally as fractional Brownian motion. Numerical results over simulated geology with correlated electrical texture - representative of, for example, fractures, sedimentary bedding or metamorphic lineation - are consistent with the (albeit limited, but growing) observational data, suggesting a possible mechanism and modeling approach for a more realistic geology. Furthermore, we show how similar simulated results can arise from a modeling approach where geologic texture is economically captured by a modified diffusion equation containing exotic, but manageable, fractional derivatives. These derivatives arise physically from the generalized convolutional form for the electromagnetic constitutive laws and thus have merit beyond mere mathematical convenience. In short, we are zeroing in on the anomalous, fractional diffusion limit from two converging

  8. Diffuse myocardial fibrosis among healthy pediatric heart transplant recipients: Correlation of histology, cardiovascular magnetic resonance, and clinical phenotype.

    PubMed

    Feingold, Brian; Salgado, Cláudia M; Reyes-Múgica, Miguel; Drant, Stacey E; Miller, Susan A; Kennedy, Mark; Kellman, Peter; Schelbert, Erik B; Wong, Timothy C

    2017-08-01

    Fibrosis is commonly described in heart allografts lost late after transplantation. CMR-derived ECV is a validated measure of DMF in native adult hearts that may predict heart failure and mortality. We explored associations of ECV with histologic myocardial fibrosis and clinical features after pediatric heart transplantation. Twenty-five recipients (7.0±6.3 years at transplant and 10.7±6.5 years post-transplant) were prospectively recruited for CMR and BNP measurement at the time of surveillance biopsy. All had normal ejection fractions and lacked heart failure symptoms. Fibrosis was quantified on biopsy after picrosirius red staining as CVF. ECV was quantified using contemporaneous hematocrit on basal and mid-short-axis slices. ECV was moderately correlated with CVF (r=.47; P=.019). We found no associations of ECV with hemodynamics, ischemic time, time since transplantation, or number of prior biopsies or acute rejections. Compared to healthy non-transplant controls, there was no significant difference in ECV (25.1±3.0 vs 23.7±2.0%, P=.09). Log-transformed BNP was correlated with ECV (recipients: r=.46, P=.02; recipients and controls: r=.45, P=.006). These findings suggest ECV quantifies DMF and relates to biological indicators of cardiac function after pediatric heart transplantation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Genetic loci associated with renal function measures and chronic kidney disease in children: the Pediatric Investigation for Genetic Factors Linked with Renal Progression Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Wuttke, Matthias; Wong, Craig S.; Wühl, Elke; Epting, Daniel; Luo, Li; Hoppmann, Anselm; Doyon, Anke; Li, Yong; Sözeri, Betül; Thurn, Daniela; Helmstädter, Martin; Huber, Tobias B.; Blydt-Hansen, Tom D.; Kramer-Zucker, Albrecht; Mehls, Otto; Melk, Anette; Querfeld, Uwe; Furth, Susan L.; Warady, Bradley A.; Schaefer, Franz; Köttgen, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children is characterized by rapid progression and a high incidence of end-stage renal disease and therefore constitutes an important health problem. While unbiased genetic screens have identified common risk variants influencing renal function and CKD in adults, the presence and identity of such variants in pediatric CKD are unknown. Methods The international Pediatric Investigation for Genetic Factors Linked with Renal Progression (PediGFR) Consortium comprises three pediatric CKD cohorts: Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD), Effect of Strict Blood Pressure Control and ACE Inhibition on the Progression of CRF in Pediatric Patients (ESCAPE) and Cardiovascular Comorbidity in Children with CKD (4C). Clean genotype data from >10 million genotyped or imputed single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were available for 1136 patients with measurements of serum creatinine at study enrolment. Genome-wide association studies were conducted to relate the SNPs to creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFRcrea) and proteinuria (urinary albumin- or protein-to-creatinine ratio ≥300 and ≥500 mg/g, respectively). In addition, European-ancestry PediGFR patients (cases) were compared with 1347 European-ancestry children without kidney disease (controls) to identify genetic variants associated with the presence of CKD. Results SNPs with suggestive association P-values <1×10−5 were identified in 10 regions for eGFRcrea, four regions for proteinuria and six regions for CKD including some plausible biological candidates. No SNP was associated at genome-wide significance (P < 5×10−8). Investigation of the candidate genes for proteinuria in adults from the general population provided support for a region on chromosome 15 near RSL24D1/UNC13C/RAB27A. Conversely, targeted investigation of genes harboring GFR-associated variants in adults from the general population did not reveal significantly associated SNPs in

  10. Application of diffusion-reaction equations to model carious lesion progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowska, Katarzyna D.; Kosztołowicz, Tadeusz

    2012-04-01

    Nonlinear equations that describe the diffusion-reaction process with one static and one mobile substance are used to model a carious lesion process. The system under consideration consists of two initially separated substances A (an acid causing caries) and C (a static enamel mineral) which react chemically according to the formula A+C→0̸(inert). The so-called surface layer, which is formed in this process and in which chemical reactions can be neglected, is also included in this model. Changes in the substance concentrations are calculated approximately using the perturbation method. We show that the experimental data on the enamel mineral concentrations are well described by the analytical solutions of the diffusion-reaction equations.

  11. Progress in Pediatrics in 2012: choices in allergy, endocrinology, gastroenterology, hematology, infectious diseases, neurology, nutrition and respiratory tract illnesses.

    PubMed

    Caffarelli, Carlo; Santamaria, Francesca; Vottero, Alessandra; Bernasconi, Sergio

    2013-05-08

    In this review, we summarize the progresses in allergy, endocrinology, gastroenterology, hematology, infectious diseases, neurology, nutrition and respiratory tract illnesses that have been published in The Italian Journal of Pediatrics in 2012. The induction of Treg activity by probiotics might be effective for promoting tolerance towards food allergens. Nasal cytology is useful in patients with rhinitis for diagnosing chronic non-allergic non-infectious diseases. Atopic eczema is associated both with an aberrant skin matrix and impaired systemic immune response. Therefore, isolated topical treatment may have suboptimal effect. Diagnostic work-up of exercise-induced anaphylaxis, including exercise challenge test, is necessary to reach a diagnosis. Studies may support a role for nutrition on prevention of asthma and cardiovascular diseases. Clinicians need to early identify adolescent menstrual abnormalities to minimize sequelae, and to promote health information. In Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 2B investigations include acetylcholinesterase study of rectal mucosa followed by the molecular analysis of RET mutation. Low adherence to gluten-free diet and osteopenia are common problems in children with diabetes mellitus type 1 and celiac disease. In infantile colic, laboratory tests are usually unnecessary and the treatment is based on reassurance. Prevalence of obesity and stunting is elucidated by several studies. Evidences are growing that dietetic measures are needed to prevent obesity in children with acute leukemia. Treatment studies for infectious diseases show promise for probiotics along with standard triple therapy in children with Helicobacter pilori infection, while zinc has no effect on pneumonia. Educational programs about the proper management of the febrile child are warranted. A new hour-specific total serum bilirubin nomogram has been shown to be able to predict newborns without hyperbilirubinemia after 48 to 72 hours of life. Newborns with

  12. [Diffusion/dispersion transport of chemically reacting species]. Progress report, FY 1992--1993

    SciTech Connect

    Helgeson, H.C.

    1993-07-01

    Progress is reported on the following: calculation of activity coefficients for aqueous silica in alkali metal chloride solutions; calculation of degrees of formation of polyatomic clusters of Al in alkali chloride solutions; bulk composition-pH diagrams for arkosic sediments; and chemical interaction of petroleum, oil field brines, and authigenic mineral assemblages. Plans for future research are given.

  13. Pediatric patients demonstrate progressive T1-weighted hyperintensity in the dentate nucleus following multiple doses of gadolinium-based contrast agent

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Donna R.; Chatterjee, Rano; Yazdani, Milad; Marebwa, Barbara; Brown, Truman; Collins, Heather; Bolles, Genevieve; Jenrette, Joseph M.; Nietert, Paul J.; Zhu, Xun

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose While there have been recent reports of brain retention of gadolinium following gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) administration in adults, a retrospective series of pediatric patients has not previously been reported. We investigated the relationship between the number of prior GBCA doses and increasing T1 signal in the dentate nucleus on unenhanced T1-weighted MR imaging. We hypothesized that, despite differences in pediatric physiology and the smaller GBCA doses pediatric patients are typically administered based on weighted-adjusted dosing, the pediatric brain would also demonstrate dose dependent increasing T1 signal in the dentate nucleus. Materials and methods We included children with multiple GBCA administrations at our institution. A blinded-reader placed regions of interest (ROIs) within the dentate nucleus and adjacent cerebellar white matter. To eliminate reader bias, automated ROI delineation of the dentate nucleus, cerebellar white matter, and pons was also performed. Dentate to cerebellar white matter (DN/C) and dentate to pons (DN/P) ratios were compared to the number of GBCA administrations. Results Over 20 years at our institution, 280 patients received at least 5 GBCA doses with one patient receiving 38 doses. Sixteen patients met inclusion/exclusion criteria for ROI analysis. Blinded-reader DN/C ratios were significantly associated with GBCA doses (rs=0.77, p=0.001). DN/P and DN/C ratios based on automated ROI placement were also significantly correlated with GBCA doses (t=4.98, p<0.0001 and t=2.73, p<0.02 respectively). Conclusion In pediatric patients, the number of prior GBCA doses is significantly correlated with progressive T1-weighted dentate hyperintensity. Definitive confirmation of gadolinium deposition requires tissue analysis. Any potential clinical sequelae of gadolinium retention in the developing brain are unknown. Given this uncertainty, we suggest taking a cautious stance including the use in

  14. Pediatric Patients Demonstrate Progressive T1-Weighted Hyperintensity in the Dentate Nucleus following Multiple Doses of Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agent.

    PubMed

    Roberts, D R; Chatterjee, A R; Yazdani, M; Marebwa, B; Brown, T; Collins, H; Bolles, G; Jenrette, J M; Nietert, P J; Zhu, X

    2016-12-01

    While there have been recent reports of brain retention of gadolinium following gadolinium-based contrast agent administration in adults, a retrospective series of pediatric patients has not previously been reported, to our knowledge. We investigated the relationship between the number of prior gadolinium-based contrast agent doses and increasing T1 signal in the dentate nucleus on unenhanced T1-weighted MR imaging. We hypothesized that despite differences in pediatric physiology and the smaller gadolinium-based contrast agent doses that pediatric patients are typically administered based on weighted-adjusted dosing, the pediatric brain would also demonstrate dose-dependent increasing T1 signal in the dentate nucleus. We included children with multiple gadolinium-based contrast agent administrations at our institution. A blinded reader placed ROIs within the dentate nucleus and adjacent cerebellar white matter. To eliminate reader bias, we also performed automated ROI delineation of the dentate nucleus, cerebellar white matter, and pons. Dentate-to-cerebellar white matter and dentate-to pons ratios were compared with the number of gadolinium-based contrast agent administrations. During 20 years at our institution, 280 patients received at least 5 gadolinium-based contrast agent doses, with 1 patient receiving 38 doses. Sixteen patients met the inclusion/exclusion criteria for ROI analysis. Blinded reader dentate-to-cerebellar white matter ratios were significantly associated with gadolinium-based contrast agent doses (rs = 0.77, P = .001). The dentate-to-pons ratio and dentate-to-cerebellar white matter ratios based on automated ROI placement were also significantly correlated with gadolinium-based contrast agent doses (t = 4.98, P < .0001 and t = 2.73, P < .02, respectively). In pediatric patients, the number of prior gadolinium-based contrast agent doses is significantly correlated with progressive T1-weighted dentate hyperintensity. Definitive confirmation of

  15. DWI in Pediatric Small-Bowel Crohn Disease: Are Apparent Diffusion Coefficients Surrogates for Disease Activity in Patients Receiving Infliximab Therapy?

    PubMed

    Dillman, Jonathan R; Smith, Ethan A; Sanchez, Ramon; Adler, Jeremy; Fazeli, Soudabeh; Zhang, Bin; Davenport, Matthew S

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine prospectively whether bowel wall apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements can be used to monitor treatment response to infliximab therapy in the setting of pediatric small-bowel Crohn disease. Twenty-eight pediatric subjects with newly diagnosed biopsy-proven Crohn disease of the distal or terminal ileum treated with infliximab were enrolled. Subjects underwent MR enterography at baseline, 1 month after therapy, and 6 months after therapy. Imaging features were documented, including bowel wall ADC and arterial or enteric phase contrast-enhanced signal intensity normalized to that of unenhanced imaging. A linear mixed model assessed the relationship between ADC and time; patient age and sex and azathioprine combination therapy were covariates. The diagnostic performance (with 95% CIs) of an increase in bowel wall ADC of 20% or more for identifying response to infliximab was calculated using a decrease in normalized contrast-enhanced bowel wall signal intensity of 20% or more as the reference standard. Bowel wall ADC increased over time (mean [± SD], 1180 ± 200 × 10(-6) mm(2)/s at baseline, 1420 ± 420 × 10(-6) mm(2)/s at 1 month, and 1450 ± 450 × 10(-6) mm(2)/s at 6 months; p = 0.0003); azathioprine therapy modulated this rate of change (p = 0.003). There was a statistically significant negative correlation between change in ADC and change in normalized contrast-enhanced signal intensity over time (ρ = -0.36; p < 0.001). The diagnostic performance of change in ADC for identifying response to infliximab therapy was sensitivity of 0.58 (95% CI, 0.34-0.80), specificity of 0.52 (95% CI, 0.31-0.72), positive predictive value of 0.48 (95% CI, 0.27-0.69), and negative predictive value of 0.62 (95% CI, 0.38-0.82). Bowel wall ADC increases over time in pediatric subjects receiving infliximab, but the diagnostic performance of ADC is likely insufficient for reliable treatment monitoring.

  16. Atypical choroid plexus papilloma: spontaneous resolution of diffuse leptomeningeal contrast enhancement after primary tumor removal in 2 pediatric cases.

    PubMed

    Scala, Marcello; Morana, Giovanni; Milanaccio, Claudia; Pavanello, Marco; Nozza, Paolo; Garrè, Maria Luisa

    2017-09-01

    Atypical choroid plexus papillomas can metastasize in the form of leptomeningeal seeding. Postoperative chemotherapy is the recommended first-line treatment when gross-total removal is not achieved or in cases of disseminated disease. Here the authors report on 2 children with atypical choroid plexus papillomas and MRI findings of diffuse leptomeningeal enhancement at diagnosis, later presenting with spontaneous resolution of the leptomeningeal involvement after removal of the primary lesions. Observations in this report expand our knowledge about the natural history and biological behavior of these tumors and highlight the role of close neuroimaging surveillance in the management of atypical choroid plexus papillomas in cases with MRI evidence of diffuse leptomeningeal enhancement at presentation.

  17. Progress in p(+)n InP solar cells fabricated by thermal diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faur, Mircea; Faur, Maria; Flood, D. J.; Brinker, D. J.; Weinberg, I.; Fatemi, N. S.; Vargas-Aburto, Carlos; Goradia, C.; Goradia, Manju

    1992-01-01

    In SPRAT XI, we proposed that p(sup +)n diffused junction InP solar cells should exhibit a higher conversion efficiency than their n(sup +)p counterparts. This was mainly due to the fact that our p(sup +)n (Cd,S) cell structures consistently showed higher V (sub OC) values than our n(sup +)p (S,Cd) structures. The highest V(sub OC) obtained with the p(sup +)n (Cd,S) cell configuration was 860 mV, as compared to the highest V(sub OC) 840 mV obtained with the n(sup +)p (S,Cd) configuration (AMO, 25 C). In this work, we present the performance results of our most recent thermally diffused cells using the p(sup +)n (Cd,S) structure. We have been able to fabricate cells with V(sub OC) values approaching 880 mV. Our best cell with an unoptimized front contact grid design (GS greater than or equal to 10%) showed a conversion efficiency of 13.4% (AMO, 25 C) without an AR coating layer. The emitter surface was passivated by a -50A P rich oxide. Achievement of such high V(sub OC) values was primarily due to the fabrication of emitter surfaces, having EPD densities as low as 2E2 cm(sup -2) and N(sub a)N(sub d) of about 3E18 cm (sup -3). In addition, our preliminary investigation of p(sup +)n structures seem to suggest that Cd-doped emitter cells are more radiation resistant than Zn-doped emitter cells against both high energy electron and proton irradiation.

  18. Characterization of Degradation Progressive in Composite Laminates Subjected to Thermal Fatigue and Moisture Diffusion by Lamb Waves

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weibin; Xu, Chunguang; Cho, Younho

    2016-01-01

    Laminate composites which are widely used in the aeronautical industry, are usually subjected to frequency variation of environmental temperature and excessive humidity in the in-service environment. The thermal fatigue and moisture absorption in composites may induce material degradation. There is a demand to investigate the coupling damages mechanism and characterize the degradation evolution of composite laminates for the particular application. In this paper, the degradation evolution in unidirectional carbon/epoxy composite laminates subjected to thermal fatigue and moisture absorption is characterized by Lamb waves. The decrease rate of Lamb wave velocity is used to track the degradation evolution in the specimens. The results show that there are two stages for the progressive degradation of composites under the coupling effect of thermal cyclic loading and moisture diffusion. The present work provides an alternative to monitoring the degradation evolution of in-service aircraft composite Laminates. PMID:26907283

  19. Characterization of Degradation Progressive in Composite Laminates Subjected to Thermal Fatigue and Moisture Diffusion by Lamb Waves.

    PubMed

    Li, Weibin; Xu, Chunguang; Cho, Younho

    2016-02-19

    Laminate composites which are widely used in the aeronautical industry, are usually subjected to frequency variation of environmental temperature and excessive humidity in the in-service environment. The thermal fatigue and moisture absorption in composites may induce material degradation. There is a demand to investigate the coupling damages mechanism and characterize the degradation evolution of composite laminates for the particular application. In this paper, the degradation evolution in unidirectional carbon/epoxy composite laminates subjected to thermal fatigue and moisture absorption is characterized by Lamb waves. The decrease rate of Lamb wave velocity is used to track the degradation evolution in the specimens. The results show that there are two stages for the progressive degradation of composites under the coupling effect of thermal cyclic loading and moisture diffusion. The present work provides an alternative to monitoring the degradation evolution of in-service aircraft composite Laminates.

  20. Pediatric vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Barut, Kenan; Sahin, Sezgin; Kasapcopur, Ozgur

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to define childhood vasculitis and to highlight new causative factors and treatment modalities under the guidance of recently published studies. Childhood vasculitis is difficult to diagnose because of the wide variation in the symptoms and signs. New nomenclature and classification criteria were proposed for the diagnosis of pediatric vasculitis. Recently, progress has been made toward understanding the genetic susceptibility to pediatric vasculitis as it was in other diseases. Various radiological techniques provide great opportunities in establishing the diagnosis of pediatric vasculitis. Mild central nervous system disease can accompany Henoch-Schonlein purpura and can go unnoticed. Antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis is rare in children. Increased severity of the disease, subglottic stenosis, and renal disease are described more frequently among children. Biological therapies are used with success in children as in adults. Future studies, whose aims are to evaluate treatment responses, prognosis and to design guidelines for activity, and damage index of vasculitis for children are required. Henoch-Schonlein purpura and Kawasaki disease are the most frequent vasculitides of children. Experience from adult studies for treatment and prognosis are usually used because of low incidence of other vasculitides in children. Multicenter studies of pediatric vasculitis should be conducted to detail treatment responses and prognosis in children.

  1. Recent progress in noninvasive diabetes screening by diffuse reflectance near-infrared skin spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heise, H. M.; Haiber, S.; Licht, M.; Ihrig, D. F.; Moll, C.; Stuecker, M.

    2006-02-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy exhibits a tremendous potential for clinical chemistry and tissue pathology. Owing to its penetration depth into human skin, near infrared radiation can probe chemical and structural information non-invasively. Metabolic diseases such as diabetes mellitus increase nonenzymatic glycation with the effect of glucose molecules bonding chemically to proteins. In addition, glycation accumulates on tissue proteins with the clearest evidence found in extracellular skin collagen, affecting also covalent crosslinking between adjacent protein strands, which reduces their flexibility, elasticity, and functionality. Non-enzymatically glycated proteins in human skin and following chemical and structural skin changes were our spectroscopic target. We carried out measurements on 109 subjects using two different NIR-spectrometers equipped with diffuse reflection accessories. Spectra of different skin regions (finger and hand/forearm skin) were recorded for comparison with clinical blood analysis data and further patient information allowing classification into diabetics and non-diabetics. Multivariate analysis techniques for supervised classification such as linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were applied using broad spectral interval data or a number of optimally selected wavelengths. Based on fingertip skin spectra recorded by fiber-optics, it was possible to classify diabetics and non-diabetics with a maximum accuracy of 87.8 % using leave-5-out cross-validation (sensitivity of 87.5. %, specificity of 88.2 %). With the results of this study, it can be concluded that ageing and glycation at elevated levels cannot always be separated from each other.

  2. Evidence that MR diffusion tensor imaging (tractography) predicts the natural history of regional progression in patients irradiated conformally for primary brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Anitha Priya; Asher, Isaac M; Davis, Delphine; Okunieff, Paul; O'Dell, Walter G

    2008-08-01

    Stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) is fast becoming the method of choice for treatment of nonsuperficial brain lesions. SRT treatment plans of malignant brain tumors typically incorporate a 20-mm isotropic margin to account for microscopic tumor spread; however, distant or progressive tumors occur outside this margin. Our hypothesis is that paths of elevated water diffusion may provide a preferred route for transport or migration of cancer cells. If our hypothesis is correct, then future SRT treatment volumes could be modified to provide elongated treatment margins along the paths of elevated water diffusion, thereby creating a biologically better treatment plan that may reduce the incidence of progression. Magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) datasets were acquired on patient subjects before the appearance of >5 mm diameter progressive lesions or secondary tumors. DTI was performed using an echo-planar imaging sequence on a 1.5T clinical General Electric scanner with voxel dimensions of 0.98 x 0.98 x 6 mm. After SRT, patients were given repeated magnetic resonance imaging follow-ups at regular intervals to identify early tumor progression. When progressive disease was detected, DTIstudio and FMRIB Software Library software was used to compute paths of preferred water diffusion through the primary tumor site and the site of progression. Our preliminary results on 14 patient datasets suggest a strong relationship between routes of elevated water diffusion from the primary tumor and the location of tumor progression. Further investigation is therefore warranted. Future work will employ more sophisticated fiber analysis in a prospective study.

  3. Evidence That MR Diffusion Tensor Imaging (Tractography) Predicts the Natural History of Regional Progression in Patients Irradiated Conformally for Primary Brain Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Anitha Priya; Asher, Isaac M.; Davis, Delphine; Okunieff, Paul; O'Dell, Walter G.

    2008-08-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) is fast becoming the method of choice for treatment of nonsuperficial brain lesions. SRT treatment plans of malignant brain tumors typically incorporate a 20-mm isotropic margin to account for microscopic tumor spread; however, distant or progressive tumors occur outside this margin. Our hypothesis is that paths of elevated water diffusion may provide a preferred route for transport or migration of cancer cells. If our hypothesis is correct, then future SRT treatment volumes could be modified to provide elongated treatment margins along the paths of elevated water diffusion, thereby creating a biologically better treatment plan that may reduce the incidence of progression. Methods and Materials: Magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) datasets were acquired on patient subjects before the appearance of >5 mm diameter progressive lesions or secondary tumors. DTI was performed using an echo-planar imaging sequence on a 1.5T clinical General Electric scanner with voxel dimensions of 0.98 x 0.98 x 6 mm. After SRT, patients were given repeated magnetic resonance imaging follow-ups at regular intervals to identify early tumor progression. When progressive disease was detected, DTIstudio and FMRIB Software Library software was used to compute paths of preferred water diffusion through the primary tumor site and the site of progression. Results: Our preliminary results on 14 patient datasets suggest a strong relationship between routes of elevated water diffusion from the primary tumor and the location of tumor progression. Conclusions: Further investigation is therefore warranted. Future work will employ more sophisticated fiber analysis in a prospective study.

  4. Myocardial function and perfusion in the CREST syndrome variant of progressive systemic sclerosis. Exercise radionuclide evaluation and comparison with diffuse scleroderma

    SciTech Connect

    Follansbee, W.P.; Curtiss, E.I.; Medsger, T.A. Jr.; Owens, G.R.; Steen, V.D.; Rodnan, G.P.

    1984-09-01

    Myocardial function and perfusion were evaluated in 22 patients with progressive systemic sclerosis with the CREST syndrome using exercise and radionuclide techniques, pulmonary function testing, and chest roentgenography. The results were compared with a similar study of 26 patients with progressive systemic sclerosis with diffuse scleroderma. The prevalence of thallium perfusion abnormalities was similar in the groups with CREST syndrome and diffuse scleroderma, (64 percent versus 77 percent), but the defects were significantly smaller in the CREST syndrome (p less than 0.01). Reperfusion thallium defects in the absence of extramural coronary artery disease were seen in 38 percent of patients with diffuse scleroderma. This finding was not seen in any of the patients with the CREST syndrome. In diffuse scleroderma, abnormalities of both right and left ventricular function were related to larger thallium perfusion defects. In the CREST syndrome, abnormalities of left ventricular function were minor, were seen only during exercise, and were unrelated to thallium perfusion defects. Abnormal resting right ventricular function was seen in 36 percent of the patients with the CREST syndrome and was associated with an isolated decrease in diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide. It is concluded that the cardiac manifestations of the CREST syndrome are distinct from those found in diffuse scleroderma. Unlike diffuse scleroderma, abnormalities of left ventricular function in the CREST syndrome are minor and are unrelated to abnormalities of coronary perfusion. Right ventricular dysfunction in the CREST syndrome appears to be primarily related to pulmonary vascular disease.

  5. Progress in p(+)n InP solar cells fabricated by thermal diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, D. J.; Brinker, D. J.; Weinberg, I.; Vargas, C.; Faur, Mircea; Faur, Maria; Goradia, C.; Goradia, M.; Fatemi, N. S.

    1993-01-01

    The performance results of our most recently thermally diffused InP solar cells using the p(+)n (Cd,S) structures are presented. We have succeeded in fabricating cells with measured AMO, 25 C V(sub oc) exceeding 880 mV (bare cells) which to the best of our knowledge is higher than previously reported V(sub oc) values for any InP homojunction solar cells. The cells were fabricated by thinning the emitter, after Au-Zn front contacting, from its initial thickness of about 4.5 microns to about 0.6 microns. After thinning, the exposed surface of the emitter was passivated by a thin (approximately 50A) P-rich oxide. Based on the measured EQY and J(sub sc)-V(sub oc) characteristics of our experimental high V(sub oc) p(+)n InP solar cells, we project that reducing the emitter thickness to 0.3 microns, using an optimized AR coating, maintaining the surface hole concentration of 3 x 10(exp 18)cm(sup -3), reducing the grid shadowing from actual 10.55 percent to 6 percent and reducing the contact resistance will increase the actual measured 12.57 percent AMO 25 C efficiency to about 20.1 percent. By using our state-of-the-art p(+)n structures which have a surface hole concentration of 4 x 10(exp 18)cm(sup -3) and slightly improving the front surface passivation, an even higher practically achievable AMO, 25 C efficiency of 21.3 percent is projected.

  6. q-Space diffusion MRI (QSI) of the disease progression in the spinal cords of the Long Evans shaker: diffusion time and apparent anisotropy

    PubMed Central

    Anaby, Debbie; Duncan, Ian D.; Smith, Chelsey M.; Cohen, Yoram

    2014-01-01

    q-Space diffusion MRI (QSI) was used to study the spinal cords of Long Evans shaker (les) rats, a model of dysmyelination, and their age-matched controls at different maturation stages. Diffusion was measured parallel and perpendicular to the fibers of the spinal cords of the two groups and at different diffusion times. The results showed that QSI is able to detect the dysmyelination process that occurs in this model in the different stages of the disease. The differences in the diffusion characteristics of the spinal cords of the two groups were found to be larger when the diffusion time was increased from 22 to 100 ms. We found that the radial mean displacement is a much better parameter than the QSI fractional anisotropy (FA) to document the differences between the two groups. We observed that the degree of myelination affects the diffusion characteristics of the tissues, but has a smaller effect on FA. All of the extracted diffusion parameters that are affected by the degree of myelination are affected in a diffusion time-dependent fashion, suggesting that the terms apparent anisotropy, apparent fractional anisotropy and even apparent root-mean-square displacement (rmsD) are more appropriate. PMID:24123305

  7. HS1,2 Ig enhancer alleles association to AIDS progression in a pediatric cohort infected with a monophyletic HIV-strain.

    PubMed

    Montesano, Carla; Giambra, Vincenzo; Frezza, Domenico; Palma, Paolo; Serone, Eliseo; Gattinara, Guido Castelli; Mattei, Maurizio; Mancino, Giorgio; Colizzi, Vittorio; Amicosante, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Alteration in the humoral immune response has been observed during HIV infection. The polymorphisms of enhancer HS1,2, member of the 3(') regulatory region of the Ig heavy chain cluster, may play a role in the variation of the humoral response leading to pathological conditions. To assess the role of the HS1,2 polymorphic variants in the progression of AIDS, the HS1,2-A allelic frequencies were investigated in a cohort of HIV infected pediatric subjects from a nosocomial outbreak with a monophyletic strain of HIV. From a total group of 418 HIV infected children in the outbreak cohort, 42 nonprogressors and 31 progressors without bias due to antiretroviral therapy were evaluated. HS1,2 allele (∗)1 has been associated with nonprogressors (allelic frequency: 51.19% versus 33.87% in progressors, OR 0.5, and P = 0.0437), while allele (∗)2 has been associated with progression (allelic frequency: 48.39% versus 30.95% in nonprogressors, OR 2.1, and P = 0.0393). Further, only subjects carrying allele (∗)2 in absence of allele (∗)1, either in homozygous condition for allele (∗)2 [nonprogressors 2/42 (4.76%), Progressors 7/31 (22.58%), OR 5.8, and P = 0.0315] or in combination with other allelic variants [nonprogressors 7/42 (16.67%), Progressors 13/31 (41.93%), OR 3.61, and P = 0.0321], have been associated with HIV progression to AIDS. In conclusion, while the HS1,2 allele (∗)1 has a protective effect on HIV progression when present, allele (∗)2 is associated with progression toward AIDS when allele (∗)1 is absent.

  8. Configurational diffusion of asphaltenes in fresh and aged catalyst extrudates. Quarterly progress report, March 20, 1995--June 20, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Guin, J.A.

    1995-09-01

    The objective of this research is to determine the relationship between the size and shape of coal and petroleum macromolecules and their diffusion rates i.e., effective diffusivities, in catalyst pore structures. That is, how do the effective intrapore diffusivities depend on molecule configuration and pore geometry.

  9. Configurational diffusion of asphaltenes in fresh and aged catalyst extrudates. Quarterly progress report, March 20, 1994--June 20, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Guin, J.A.; Tarrer, A.R.

    1994-08-01

    The objective of this research is to determine the relationship between the size and shape of coal and petroleum macromolecules and their diffusion rates in catalyst pore structures. This quarter, the authors developed a mathematical diffusion model for catalysts with a nonuniform pore structure during the adsorptive diffusion process due to the adsorbed layer of solute molecules on the catalyst pore walls. Diffusion experiments with quinoline and polystyrene were performed. Effective diffusivities were obtained by fitting the experimental data with a diffusion model. Results showed that the uniform pore model did not satisfactorily represent the diffusion behavior of larger polystyrene molecules, which gave rise to very high tortuosity values. The shrinking pore model better represented the adsorptive diffusion uptake behavior of a solute from the surrounding bath, especially for a diffusing solute with larger molecular size. Adsorption of solute molecules on the catalyst pore walls further restricts the diffusion rate due to increased steric and hydrodynamic hindrance factors. The tortuosity factor could also increase during adsorptive diffusion processes due to the increased constrictions caused by the adsorbed solute molecules.

  10. Phase II trial of lapatinib in adult and pediatric patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 and progressive vestibular schwannomas

    PubMed Central

    Karajannis, Matthias A.; Legault, Geneviève; Hagiwara, Mari; Ballas, Marc S.; Brown, Krysten; Nusbaum, Annette O.; Hochman, Tsivia; Goldberg, Judith D.; Koch, Kevin M.; Golfinos, John G.; Roland, J. Thomas; Allen, Jeffrey C.

    2012-01-01

    This single-institution phase II study was performed to estimate the response rate to lapatinib in neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients with progressive vestibular schwannoma (VS). Twenty-one eligible patients were enrolled. Brain and spine MRIs, including 3-dimensional volumetric tumor analysis, and audiograms were performed once at baseline and again every 12 weeks. The primary response end point was evaluable in 17 patients and defined as ≥15% decrease in VS volume. Hearing was evaluable as a secondary end point in 13 patients, with responses defined as an improvement in the pure tone average of at least 10 dB  or a statistically significant increase in word recognition scores. Four of 17 evaluable patients experienced an objective volumetric response (23.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 10%–47%), with median time to response of 4.5 months (range, 3–12). In responders, reduction in VS volumes ranged from −15.7% to −23.9%. Four of 13 patients evaluable for hearing met hearing criteria for response (30.8%; 95% CI, 13%–58%). One sustained response exceeded 9 months in duration. Median time to overall progression (ie, volumetric progression or hearing loss) was 14 months. The estimated overall progression-free survival and volumetric progression-free survival at 12 months were 64.2% (95% CI, 36.9%–82.1%) and 70.6% (95% CI, 43.1%–86.6%), respectively. Toxicity was generally minor, and no permanent dose modifications were required. Lapatinib carries minor toxicity and has objective activity in NF2 patients with progressive VS, including volumetric and hearing responses. Future studies could explore combination therapy with other molecular targeted agents such as bevacizumab. PMID:22844108

  11. Effect of the cold pressor test on diffusing capacity. Comparison of normal subjects and those with Raynaud's disease and progressive systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Miller, M J

    1983-09-01

    Single-breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (Dsb) was measured before and during immersion of one hand in ice water (cold pressor test) in the following three groups of subjects: (1) normal subjects; (2) patients with isolated Raynaud's disease; and (3) patients with Raynaud's phenomenon and progressive systemic sclerosis. No change in Dsb was found in normal subjects or patients with progressive systemic sclerosis. Patients with isolated Raynaud's disease showed a rise in Dsb during cold pressor testing, the mean increase being 8 percent. These results suggest that a rise in Dsb during exposure to cold is a response unique to patients with isolated Raynaud's disease or Raynaud's phenomenon without progressive systemic sclerosis, and not a normal physiologic response to cold. The lack of change in Dsb in response to cold in progressive systemic sclerosis, interpreted by other authors as an indicator of pulmonary vascular disease, resembles the normal response to a challenge with cold.

  12. Early and progressive microstructural brain changes in mice overexpressing human α-Synuclein detected by diffusion kurtosis imaging.

    PubMed

    Khairnar, Amit; Ruda-Kucerova, Jana; Szabó, Nikoletta; Drazanova, Eva; Arab, Anas; Hutter-Paier, Birgit; Neddens, Joerg; Latta, Peter; Starcuk, Zenon; Rektorova, Irena

    2017-03-01

    Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) is sensitive in detecting α-Synuclein (α-Syn) accumulation-associated microstructural changes at late stages of the pathology in α-Syn overexpressing TNWT-61 mice. The aim of this study was to perform DKI in young TNWT-61 mice when α-Syn starts to accumulate and to compare the imaging results with an analysis of motor and memory impairment and α-Syn levels. Three-month-old (3mo) and six-month-old (6mo) mice underwent DKI scanning using the Bruker Avance 9.4T magnetic resonance imaging system. Region of interest (ROI) analyses were performed in the gray matter; tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analyses were performed in the white matter. In the same mice, α-Syn expression was evaluated using quantitative immunofluorescence. Mean kurtosis (MK) was the best differentiator between TNWT-61 mice and wildtype (WT) mice. We found increases in MK in 3mo TNWT-61 mice in the striatum and thalamus but not in the substantia nigra (SN), hippocampus, or sensorimotor cortex, even though the immunoreactivity of human α-Syn was similar or even higher in the latter regions. Increases in MK in the SN were detected in 6mo mice. These findings indicate that α-Syn accumulation-associated changes may start in areas with a high density of dopaminergic nerve terminals. We also found TBSS changes in white matter only at 6mo, suggesting α-Syn accumulation-associated changes start in the gray matter and later progress to the white matter. MK is able to detect microstructural changes induced by α-Syn overexpression in TNWT-61 mice and could be a useful clinical tool for detecting early-stage Parkinson's disease in human patients.

  13. Stratification of pseudoprogression and true progression of glioblastoma multiform based on longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging without segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xiaohua; Tan, Hua; Zhang, Jian; Zhao, Weilin; Chan, Michael D.; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Pseudoprogression (PsP) can mimic true tumor progression (TTP) on magnetic resonance imaging in patients with glioblastoma multiform (GBM). The phenotypical similarity between PsP and TTP makes it a challenging task for physicians to distinguish these entities. So far, no approved biomarkers or computer-aided diagnosis systems have been used clinically for this purpose. Methods: To address this challenge, the authors developed an objective classification system for PsP and TTP based on longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging. A novel spatio-temporal discriminative dictionary learning scheme was proposed to differentiate PsP and TTP, thereby avoiding segmentation of the region of interest. The authors constructed a novel discriminative sparse matrix with the classification-oriented dictionary learning approach by excluding the shared features of two categories, so that the pooled features captured the subtle difference between PsP and TTP. The most discriminating features were then identified from the pooled features by their feature scoring system. Finally, the authors stratified patients with GBM into PsP and TTP by a support vector machine approach. Tenfold cross-validation (CV) and the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC) were used to assess the robustness of the developed system. Results: The average accuracy and AUC values after ten rounds of tenfold CV were 0.867 and 0.92, respectively. The authors also assessed the effects of different methods and factors (such as data types, pooling techniques, and dimensionality reduction approaches) on the performance of their classification system which obtained the best performance. Conclusions: The proposed objective classification system without segmentation achieved a desirable and reliable performance in differentiating PsP from TTP. Thus, the developed approach is expected to advance the clinical research and diagnosis of PsP and TTP. PMID:27806598

  14. Preclinical evaluation of convection-enhanced delivery of liposomal doxorubicin to treat pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma and thalamic high-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Sewing, A Charlotte P; Lagerweij, Tonny; van Vuurden, Dannis G; Meel, Michaël H; Veringa, Susanna J E; Carcaboso, Angel M; Gaillard, Pieter J; Peter Vandertop, W; Wesseling, Pieter; Noske, David; Kaspers, Gertjan J L; Hulleman, Esther

    2017-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Pediatric high-grade gliomas (pHGGs) including diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) are primary brain tumors with high mortality and morbidity. Because of their poor brain penetrance, systemic chemotherapy regimens have failed to deliver satisfactory results; however, convection-enhanced delivery (CED) may be an alternative mode of drug delivery. Anthracyclines are potent chemotherapeutics that have been successfully delivered via CED in preclinical supratentorial glioma models. This study aims to assess the potency of anthracyclines against DIPG and pHGG cell lines in vitro and to evaluate the efficacy of CED with anthracyclines in orthotopic pontine and thalamic tumor models. METHODS The sensitivity of primary pHGG cell lines to a range of anthracyclines was tested in vitro. Preclinical CED of free doxorubicin and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) to the brainstem and thalamus of naïve nude mice was performed. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was determined based on the observation of clinical symptoms, and brains were analyzed after H & E staining. Efficacy of the MTD was tested in adult glioma E98-FM-DIPG and E98-FM-thalamus models and in the HSJD-DIPG-007-Fluc primary DIPG model. RESULTS Both pHGG and DIPG cells were sensitive to anthracyclines in vitro. Doxorubicin was selected for further preclinical evaluation. Convection-enhanced delivery of the MTD of free doxorubicin and PLD in the pons was 0.02 mg/ml, and the dose tolerated in the thalamus was 10 times higher (0.2 mg/ml). Free doxorubicin or PLD via CED was ineffective against E98-FM-DIPG or HSJD-DIPG-007-Fluc in the brainstem; however, when applied in the thalamus, 0.2 mg/ml of PLD slowed down tumor growth and increased survival in a subset of animals with small tumors. CONCLUSIONS Local delivery of doxorubicin to the brainstem causes severe toxicity, even at doxorubicin concentrations that are safe in the thalamus. As a consequence, the authors could not establish a therapeutic

  15. Configurational diffusion of asphaltenes in fresh and aged catalyst extrudates. Quarterly progress report, December 20, 1995--March 20, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Guin, J.A.

    1996-07-01

    The objective of this research is to determine the relationship between the size and shape of coal and petroleum macromolecules and their diffusion rates i.e., effective diffusivities, in catalyst pore structures. That is, how do the effective intrapore diffusivities depend on molecule configuration and pore geometry? This quarter, adsorptive diffusion of both coal and petroleum asphaltenes in THF into porous catalysts were performed. A mathematical model with linear adsorption isotherm for asphaltene diffusion was developed. The molecular weight distribution of both asphaltenes were ascertained by GPC using polystyrene standards. The asphaltene diffusion data were simulated fairly well by the mathematical model, and linear adsorption constants were obtained for asphaltene fractions with different equivalent polystyrene molecular weights.

  16. Radiological and Pathological Correlation in Anti-MDA5 Antibody-positive Interstitial Lung Disease: Rapidly Progressive Perilobular Opacities and Diffuse Alveolar Damage.

    PubMed

    Chino, Haruka; Sekine, Akimasa; Baba, Tomohisa; Iwasawa, Tae; Okudela, Koji; Takemura, Tamiko; Itoh, Harumi; Sato, Shinji; Suzuki, Yasuo; Ogura, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    We herein present the first case of rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease (RP-ILD) with anti-melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5) antibody evaluated by surgical lung biopsy (SLB). High-resolution CT scan revealed perilobular opacities, which rapidly became thicker and formed consolidation, resulting in remarkable loss of lung volume. Specimens taken from SLB revealed membranous organization with alveolar occlusion, dilation of alveolar ducts, and sacs with collapsed alveoli, which are typical features of diffuse alveolar damage (DAD). Rapidly progressive perilobular opacities may be characteristic of RP-ILD with anti-MDA5 antibody and DAD.

  17. Progress in pediatrics in 2013: choices in allergology, endocrinology, gastroenterology, hypertension, infectious diseases, neonatology, neurology, nutrition and respiratory tract illnesses.

    PubMed

    Caffarelli, Carlo; Santamaria, Francesca; Vottero, Alessandra; Dascola, Carlotta Povesi; Mirra, Virginia; Sperli, Francesco; Bernasconi, Sergio

    2014-07-12

    This review will provide new information related to pathophysiology and management of specific diseases that have been addressed by selected articles published in the Italian Journal of Pediatrics in 2013, focusing on allergology, endocrinology, gastroenterology, hypertension, infectious diseases, neonatology, neurology, nutrition and respiratory tract illnesses in children. Recommendations for interpretation of skin prick test to foods in atopic eczema, management of allergic conjunctivitis, hypertension and breastfeeding in women treated with antiepileptic drugs and healthy breakfast have been reported. Epidemiological studies have given emphasis to high incidence of autoimmune disorders in patients with Turner syndrome, increasing prevalence of celiac disease, frequency of hypertension in adolescents, incidence and risk factor for retinopathy of prematurity. Advances in prevention include elucidation of the role of probiotics in reducing occurrence of allergies and feeding intolerance, and events of foetal life that influence later onset of diseases. Mechanistic studies suggested a role for vitamin D deficiency in asthma and type 1 diabetes and for reactivation of Varicella-Zoster virus in aseptic meningitis. Regarding diagnosis, a new mean for the diagnosis of hyperbilirubinaemia in newborns, a score for recognition of impaired nutritional status and growth and criteria for early Dyke-Davidoff-Masson Syndrome have been suggested. New therapeutic approaches consist of use of etanercept for reducing insulin dose in type 1 diabetes, probiotics in atopic eczema, and melatonin in viral infections.

  18. Progress in pediatrics in 2013: choices in allergology, endocrinology, gastroenterology, hypertension, infectious diseases, neonatology, neurology, nutrition and respiratory tract illnesses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This review will provide new information related to pathophysiology and management of specific diseases that have been addressed by selected articles published in the Italian Journal of Pediatrics in 2013, focusing on allergology, endocrinology, gastroenterology, hypertension, infectious diseases, neonatology, neurology, nutrition and respiratory tract illnesses in children. Recommendations for interpretation of skin prick test to foods in atopic eczema, management of allergic conjunctivitis, hypertension and breastfeeding in women treated with antiepileptic drugs and healthy breakfast have been reported. Epidemiological studies have given emphasis to high incidence of autoimmune disorders in patients with Turner syndrome, increasing prevalence of celiac disease, frequency of hypertension in adolescents, incidence and risk factor for retinopathy of prematurity. Advances in prevention include elucidation of the role of probiotics in reducing occurrence of allergies and feeding intolerance, and events of foetal life that influence later onset of diseases. Mechanistic studies suggested a role for vitamin D deficiency in asthma and type 1 diabetes and for reactivation of Varicella-Zoster virus in aseptic meningitis. Regarding diagnosis, a new mean for the diagnosis of hyperbilirubinaemia in newborns, a score for recognition of impaired nutritional status and growth and criteria for early Dyke-Davidoff-Masson Syndrome have been suggested. New therapeutic approaches consist of use of etanercept for reducing insulin dose in type 1 diabetes, probiotics in atopic eczema, and melatonin in viral infections. PMID:25015124

  19. Headache attack followed by rapid disease progression in pediatric moyamoya disease--how should we manage it?

    PubMed

    Vuignier, Sandra; Akioka, Naoki; Hamada, Hideo; Kashiwazaki, Daina; Kuroda, Satoshi

    2014-10-01

    A 4-year-old female was presented at our hospital with frequent right frontal headache attack. She was diagnosed with moyamoya disease and was conservatively followed up. One year later, the frequency of headache gradually decreased. However, follow-up MR imaging revealed that the disease stage markedly progressed in the right side and cerebral infarction occurred in the temporal lobe with atrophy of the right frontal lobe. She underwent direct and indirect revascularization on the right side. Aware of this case, we would like to emphasize that headache may be one subtype of ischemic attacks and require frequent MR follow-up to see the disease course. If there is any sign of disease progression, immediate surgical intervention should be indicated to avoid irreversible brain damage.

  20. Configurational diffusion of asphaltenes in fresh and aged catalyst extrudates. Quarterly progress report, June 20, 1995--September 20, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Guin, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this research is to determine the relationship between the size and shape of coal and petroleum macromolecules and their diffusion rates i.e., effective diffusivities, in catalyst pore structures. This quarter, three petroleum and two coal asphaltenes were prepared from petroleum asphalts and coal derived solids separately by solvent extraction.

  1. Progressive Fibrosis Is Driven by Genetic Predisposition, Allo-immunity, and Inflammation in Pediatric Liver Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Varma, S; Ambroise, J; Komuta, M; Latinne, D; Baldin, P; Reding, R; Smets, F; Stephenne, X; Sokal, E M

    2016-07-01

    To determine predisposing factors of idiopathic allograft fibrosis among pediatric liver transplant recipients. Protocol biopsies (PB) from stable liver transplant (LT) recipient children frequently exhibit idiopathic fibrosis. The relation between allograft inflammation, humoral immune response and fibrosis is uncertain. Also the role of HLA-DRB1 genotype has not been evaluated, though it's associated with fibrosis in autoimmune hepatitis. This observational study, included 89 stable LT recipient transplanted between 2004-2012 with mean follow-up of 4.3years, 281 serial PBs (3.1 biopsy/child) and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibody data. PBs were taken 1-2, 2-3, 3-5, 5-7, and 7-10years post-LT, and evaluated for inflammation and fibrosis using liver allograft fibrosis score (LAFSc). The evolution of fibrosis, inflammation and related predisposing factors were analysed. HLA-DRB1*03/04 allele and Class II DSA were significantly associated with portal fibrosis (p=0.03; p=0.03, respectively). Portal inflammation was predisposed by Class II DSA (p=0.02) and non-HLA antibody presence (p=0.01). Non-portal fibrosis wasn't predisposed by inflammation. Lobular inflammation was associated with non-HLA antibodies. We conclusively demonstrated that allograft inflammation results in fibrosis and is associated with post-LT Class II DSA and non-HLA antibodies. The HLA-DRB1*03/04 allele caused genetic predisposition for fibrosis. None. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Pediatric Specialists

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & ... is a Pediatric Rheumatologist? What is a Pediatric Sports Medicine Specialist? What is a Pediatric Surgeon? What is a Pediatric Transport ... Find Us Donate Contact ...

  3. Intraspinal Pathology Associated With Pediatric Scoliosis: A Ten-year Review Analyzing the Effect of Neurosurgery on Scoliosis Curve Progression.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Pawel P; Bastrom, Tracey; Ciacci, Joseph D; Yaszay, Burt; Levy, Michael L; Newton, Peter O

    2016-10-15

    This was a retrospective study of patients with Chiari I (CM I) and Chiari II (CM II) malformations, tethered cord syndrome, and syringomyelia examining the effect of neurosurgery on scoliosis. The aim of this study was to determine the factors affecting spinal deformity progression in patients with diseases of the neural axis following neurosurgical management. There have been attempts to explain which factors influence the spinal deformity in diseases of the neural axis with varying results. Debate still exists as to the effectiveness of neurosurgery in curve stabilization. The medical records for patients treated over the past 10 years were reviewed. The spinal deformity surgical group consisted of patients who received surgery or progressed to surgical range (50°) and the nonsurgical group those who did not undergo fusion. Fifteen patients (eight females and seven males) with scoliosis who underwent neurosurgical intervention were identified. Ten had tethered cord, six CM II, four CM I, and 11 syrinx. Average age at the time of neurosurgery was 7 ± 4 years (range 0.7-14 yrs). Following neurosurgery, no patients experienced improvement in their curves (defined as >10° decrease in Cobb angle), eight patients experienced stabilization (<10° decrease), and seven experienced worsening (>10° increase). The group that went on to spinal deformity surgery possessed larger curves before neurosurgery (mean 42°, range 20°-63°) than the nonsurgical group (19°, range 15°-26°; P = 0.004). CM II patients had the greatest magnitude of curve progression, mean of 49°, compared with patients with CM I (6°) or tether cord without CM I or II (11°, P = 0.01). Neurosurgical intervention may prevent curve progression in patients with scoliosis and Cobb angles < 30° if they do not have a complex CM II malformation. Patients with CM II are at a higher risk of curve progression and undergoing spinal fusion than patients with CM I, tethered cord syndrome, or

  4. Characteristics of lesional and extra-lesional cortical grey matter in relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: A magnetisation transfer and diffusion tensor imaging study.

    PubMed

    Yaldizli, Özgür; Pardini, Matteo; Sethi, Varun; Muhlert, Nils; Liu, Zheng; Tozer, Daniel J; Samson, Rebecca S; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia Am; Yousry, Tarek A; Miller, David H; Chard, Declan T

    2016-02-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS), diffusion tensor and magnetisation transfer imaging are both abnormal in lesional and extra-lesional cortical grey matter, but differences between clinical subtypes and associations with clinical outcomes have only been partly assessed. To compare mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy and magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) in cortical grey matter lesions (detected using phase-sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR) imaging) and extra-lesional cortical grey matter, and assess associations with disability in relapse-onset MS. Seventy-two people with MS (46 relapsing-remitting (RR), 26 secondary progressive (SP)) and 36 healthy controls were included in this study. MTR, mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy were measured in lesional and extra-lesional cortical grey matter. Mean fractional anisotropy was higher and MTR lower in lesional compared with extra-lesional cortical grey matter. In extra-lesional cortical grey matter mean fractional anisotropy and MTR were lower, and mean diffusivity was higher in the MS group compared with controls. Mean MTR was lower and mean diffusivity was higher in lesional and extra-lesional cortical grey matter in SPMS when compared with RRMS. These differences were independent of disease duration. In multivariate analyses, MTR in extra-lesional more so than lesional cortical grey matter was associated with disability. Magnetic resonance abnormalities in lesional and extra-lesional cortical grey matter are greater in SPMS than RRMS. Changes in extra-lesional compared with lesional cortical grey matter are more consistently associated with disability. © The Author(s), 2015.

  5. Progress in pediatrics in 2015: choices in allergy, endocrinology, gastroenterology, genetics, haematology, infectious diseases, neonatology, nephrology, neurology, nutrition, oncology and pulmonology.

    PubMed

    Caffarelli, Carlo; Santamaria, Francesca; Di Mauro, Dora; Mastrorilli, Carla; Mirra, Virginia; Bernasconi, Sergio

    2016-08-27

    This review focuses key advances in different pediatric fields that were published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics and in international journals in 2015. Weaning studies continue to show promise for preventing food allergy. New diagnostic tools are available for identifying the allergic origin of allergic-like symptoms. Advances have been reported in obesity, short stature and autoimmune endocrine disorders. New molecules are offered to reduce weight gain and insulin-resistance in obese children. Regional investigations may provide suggestions for preventing short stature. Epidemiological studies have evidenced the high incidence of Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis in patients with Down syndrome. Documentation of novel risk factors for celiac disease are of use to develop strategies for prevention in the population at-risk. Diagnostic criteria for non-celiac gluten sensitivity have been reported. Negative effect on nervous system development of the supernumerary X chromosome in Klinefelter syndrome has emerged. Improvements have been made in understanding rare diseases such as Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome. Eltrombopag is an effective therapy for immune trombocytopenia. Children with sickle-cell anemia are at risk for nocturnal enuresis. Invasive diseases caused by Streptococcus pyogenes are still common despite of vaccination. No difference in frequency of antibiotic prescriptions for acute otitis media between before the publication of the national guideline and after has been found. The importance of timing of iron administration in low birth weight infants, the effect of probiotics for preventing necrotising enterocolitis and perspectives for managing jaundice and cholestasis in neonates have been highlighted. New strategies have been developed to reduce the risk for relapse in nephrotic syndrome including prednisolone during upper respiratory infection. Insights into the pathophysiology of cerebral palsy, arterial ischemic stroke and acute encephalitis

  6. [Anthropometric evaluation of pediatric patients with non-progressive chronic encephalopathy according to different methods of classification].

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Jéssica Socas; Gomes, Mirian Martins

    2014-09-01

    To perform anthropometric assessment of patients with quadriplegic, chronic non-progressive encephalopathy, comparing two distinct references of nutritional classification, and to compare the estimated height to the length measured by stadiometer. Cross-sectional study including 0-3-year children with quadriplegic, chronic non-progressive encephalopathy in secondary public hospital. Length, weight, arm circumference, triceps skinfold and knee height were measured. The arm muscle circumference and estimated height were calculated. The following relations were evaluated: weight-for-age, length-for-age and weight-for-length, using as reference the charts of the the World Health Organization (WHO) and those proposed by Krick et al. Fourteen children with a mean age of 21 months were evaluated. Assessment of anthropometric indicators showed significant difference between the two classification methods to assess nutritional indicators length/age (p=0.014), weight/age (p=0.014) and weight/length (p=0.001). There was significant correlation between measured length and estimated height (r=0.796, p=0.001). Evaluation of arm circumference and triceps skinfold showed that most patients presented some degree of malnutrition. According to arm muscle circumference, most were eutrophic. Specific curves for children with chronic non-progressive encephalopathy appear to underestimate malnutrition when one takes into account indicators involving weight. Curves developed for healthy children can be a good option for clinical practice and weight-for-length indicator and body composition measurements should be considered as complementary tools. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Quarterly progress report on configurational diffusion of asphaltenes in fresh and aged catalyst extrudates, September 20, 1995--December 20, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Guin, J.A.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this research is to determine the relationship between the size and shape of coal and petroleum macromolecules and their diffusion rates i.e., effective diffusivities, in catalyst pore structures. That is, how do the effective intrapore diffusivities depend on molecule configuration and pore geometry. The research is divided into the following tasks: (1) relationship between effective intrapore diffusion coefficients, molecular size and pore geometry; (2) effects of solvent composition, solute concentration, and temperature on the molecular configuration and diffusion rate of coal and petroleum asphaltenes in catalysts pore; and (3) assessment of diffusional limitations in aged catalysts. This quarter, the GPC column efficiency was rechecked by using acetone injection. The calibration curve for the GPC was rechecked through polystyrene standards with narrow molecular weight distributions. Some experiments on adsorption and diffusion of coal asphaltenes through porous catalysts were performed. The asphaltenes were grouped into nine fractions with the concentration being determined via GPC. It was found that the uptake rate for one asphaltene fraction is different from those for other fractions. Comparison of experimental uptake data shows a difference in hindered diffusion behavior between petroleum asphaltenes and coal asphaltenes.

  8. [Isotope tracer studies of diffusion in silicates and of geological transport processes using actinide elements]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Wasserburg, G.J.

    1991-12-31

    This report consists of sections entitled resonance ionization mass spectrometry of Os, Mg self-diffusion in spinel and silicate melts, neotectonics: U-Th ages of solitary corals from the California coast, uranium-series evidence on diagenesis and hydrology of carbonates of Barbados, diffusion of H{sub 2}O molecules in silicate glasses, and development of an extremely high abundance sensitivity mass spectrometer.

  9. Configurational diffusion of asphaltenes in fresh and aged catalyst extrudates. Quarterly progress report, June 20--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Guin, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this research is to determine the relationship between the size and shape of coal and petroleum macromolecules and their diffusion rates i.e., effective diffusivities, in catalyst pore structures. That is, how do the effective intrapore diffusivities depend on molecule configuration and pore geometry. The study involves three tasks: Relationship between effective intrapore diffusion coefficients, molecular size, and pore geometry; Effects of solvent composition, solute concentration, and temperature on the molecular configuration and diffusion rate of coal and petroleum asphaltenes in catalyst pores; and Assessment of diffusional limitations in aged catalysts. This quarter, uptake experiments of coal and petroleum asphaltenes into porous catalyst were performed using different initial concentrations, temperatures, and solvents. The adsorption-diffusion parameters were obtained by simulating the experimental data with the mathematical model. The results showed that the adsorption constants for coal asphaltene fractions at 0.5 mg/cm{sup 3} initial concentration are less than those at 0.05 mg/cm{sup 3}, indicating the non-linearity of coal asphaltene adsorption on porous catalyst. Comparison of uptake results using different solvents showed that the adsorption constants with solvent toluene are much larger than those with THF solvent. The effect of temperature on the adsorptive uptake was complex, with the adsorptivity for coal asphaltenes at 35 C exceeding that at 25 C in the lower (< 10{sup 3}) molecular weight region; while the adsorptivities for petroleum asphaltenes are about the same at 20, 35, and 50 C.

  10. Weight as predictors of clinical progression and treatment failure: results from the TREAT Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database.

    PubMed

    Kariminia, Azar; Durier, Nicolas; Jourdain, Gonzague; Saghayam, Suneeta; Do, Chau V; Nguyen, Lam Van; Hansudewechakul, Rawiwan; Lumbiganon, Pagakrong; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Truong, Khanh Huu; Sirisanthana, Virat; Ung, Vibol; Vonthanak, Saphonn; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Nik Yusoff, Nik Khairulddin; Kurniati, Nia; Azahar Razali, Kamarul; Fong, Moy Siew; Nallusamy, Revathy; Wati, Dewi Kumara

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the value of time-updated weight and height in predicting clinical progression, and immunological and virological failure in children receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). We used Cox regression to analyze data of a cohort of Asian children. A total of 2608 children were included; median age at cART was 5.7 years. Time-updated weight for age z score < -3 was associated with mortality (P < 0.001) independent of CD4% and < -2 was associated with immunological failure (P ≤ 0.03) independent of age at cART. Weight monitoring provides useful data to inform clinical management of children on cART in resource-limited settings.

  11. Functional diffusion maps (fDMs) evaluated before and after radiochemotherapy predict progression-free and overall survival in newly diagnosed glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Ellingson, Benjamin M; Cloughesy, Timothy F; Zaw, Taryar; Lai, Albert; Nghiemphu, Phioanh L; Harris, Robert; Lalezari, Shadi; Wagle, Naveed; Naeini, Kourosh M; Carrillo, Jose; Liau, Linda M; Pope, Whitney B

    2012-03-01

    Functional diffusion mapping (fDM) has shown promise as a sensitive imaging biomarker for predicting survival in initial studies consisting of a small number of patients, mixed tumor grades, and before routine use of anti-angiogenic therapy. The current study tested whether fDM performed before and after radiochemotherapy could predict progression-free and overall survival in 143 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma from 2007 through 2010, many treated with anti-angiogenic therapy after recurrence. Diffusion and conventional MRI scans were obtained before and 4 weeks after completion of radiotherapy and concurrent temozolomide treatment. FDM was created by coregistering pre- and posttreatment apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps and then performing voxel-wise subtraction. FDMs were categorized according to the degree of change in ADC in pre- and posttreatment fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and contrast-enhancing regions. The volume fraction of fDM-classified increasing ADC(+), decreasing ADC(-), and change in ADC(+/-) were tested to determine whether they were predictive of survival. Both Bonferroni-corrected univariate log-rank analysis and Cox proportional hazards modeling demonstrated that patients with decreasing ADC in a large volume fraction of pretreatment FLAIR or contrast-enhancing regions were statistically more likely to progress earlier and expire sooner than in patients with a lower volume fraction. The current study supports the hypothesis that fDM is a sensitive imaging biomarker for predicting survival in glioblastoma.

  12. Pediatric sedation.

    PubMed

    Daud, Yasmeen N; Carlson, Douglas W

    2014-08-01

    Pediatric sedation is an evolving field performed by an extensive list of specialties. Well-defined sedation systems within pediatric facilities are paramount to providing consistent, safe sedation. Pediatric sedation providers should be trained in the principles and practice of sedation, which include patient selection, pre-sedation assessment to determine risks during sedation, selection of optimal sedation medication, monitoring requirements, and post-sedation care. Training, credentialing, and continuing sedation education must be incorporated into sedation systems to verify and monitor the practice of safe sedation. Pediatric hospitalists represent a group of providers with extensive pediatric knowledge and skills who can safely provide pediatric sedation.

  13. Whole Exome Sequencing Reveals a BSCL2 Mutation Causing Progressive Encephalopathy with Lipodystrophy (PELD) in an Iranian Pediatric Patient

    PubMed Central

    Alaei, Mohammad Reza; Talebi, Saeed; Ghofrani, Mohammad; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Keramatipour, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Progressive encephalopathy with or without lipodystrophy is a rare autosomal recessive childhood-onset seipin-associated neurodegenerative syndrome, leading to developmental regression of motor and cognitive skills. In this study, we introduce a patient with developmental regression and autism. The causative mutation was found by exome sequencing. Methods: The proband showed a generalized hypertonia and regression of all developmental milestones. Based on the advantages of next-generation sequencing (NGS), whole exome sequencing (WES) was requested. The functional significance of variants was evaluated by NGS-specific prediction servers. Sanger sequencing was used for segregation analysis in the family. Results: There was no specific sign in the clinical and paraclinical investigations of the patient to establish a conclusive clinical diagnosis. WES detected a known homozygous nonsense mutation in BSCL2 (NM_001122955.3:c. 985C>T; p.Arg329*). The variant is segregating in the pedigree with an autosomal recessive pattern. Conclusion: Exome sequencing is a robust method for identifying the candidate gene variants in Mendelian traits. PMID:27452399

  14. Pediatric Extranodal Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ellen M; Pavio, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Lymphoma is the third most common pediatric neoplasm. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) accounts for nearly half of cases and commonly involves extranodal sites. Compared with adults, this histologic spectrum of pediatric NHL is very narrow and consists of aggressive tumors. Patients typically present with widespread disease. Generally, NHL occurring in children includes Burkitt lymphoma, lymphoblastic lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Staging and assessment of therapeutic response are usually based on FDG-PET/CT. Due to the increased susceptibility of young patients to the effects of ionizing radiation, alternative methods of imaging are being explored. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Configurational diffusion of asphaltenes in fresh and aged catalysts extrudates. Quarterly progress report, June 20, 1992--September 20, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Guin, J.A.; Tarrer, A.R.

    1992-12-01

    The objective of this research is to determine the relationship between the size and shape of coal and petroleum macromolecules and their diffusion rates i.e., effective diffusivities, in catalyst pore structures. That is, how do the effective intrapore diffusivities depend on molecule configuration and pore geometry. Based on the work done, the following conclusions can be drawn: The intrapore diffusional model can be set up mathematically based on certain assumptions, and the mathematical model can be solved numberically; the numerical solution discussed in this quarterly report can be used for typical situations given suitable values for parameters E, R and n; comparison with known solutions for special cases shows the numerical solution to be accurate.

  16. Diffusion tensor MRI shows progressive changes in the hippocampus and dentate gyrus after status epilepticus in rat - histological validation with Fourier-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Salo, Raimo A; Miettinen, Tuukka; Laitinen, Teemu; Gröhn, Olli; Sierra, Alejandra

    2017-03-04

    Imaging markers for monitoring disease progression, recovery, and treatment efficacy are a major unmet need for many neurological diseases, including epilepsy. Recent evidence suggests that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides high microstructural contrast even outside major white matter tracts. We hypothesized that in vivo DTI could detect progressive microstructural changes in the dentate gyrus and the hippocampal CA3bc in the rat brain after status epilepticus (SE). To test this hypothesis, we induced SE with systemic kainic acid or pilocarpine in adult male Wistar rats and subsequently scanned them using in vivo DTI at five time-points: prior to SE, and 10, 20, 34, and 79 days post SE. In order to tie the DTI findings to changes in the tissue microstructure, myelin- and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-stained sections from the same animals underwent Fourier analysis. We compared the Fourier analysis parameters, anisotropy index and angle of myelinated axons or astrocyte processes, to corresponding DTI parameters, fractional anisotropy (FA) and the orientation angle of the principal eigenvector. We found progressive detectable changes in DTI parameters in both the dentate gyrus (FA, axial diffusivity [D||], linear anisotropy [CL] and spherical anisotropy [CS], p<0.001, linear mixed-effects model [LMEM]) and the CA3bc (FA, D||, CS, and angle, p<0.001, LMEM; CL and planar anisotropy [CP], p<0.01, LMEM) post SE. The Fourier analysis revealed that both myelinated axons and astrocyte processes played a role in the water diffusion anisotropy changes detected by DTI in individual portions of the dentate gyrus (suprapyramidal blade, mid-portion, and infrapyramidal blade). In the whole dentate gyrus, myelinated axons markedly contributed to the water diffusion changes. In CA3bc as well as in CA3b and CA3c, both myelinated axons and astrocyte processes contributed to water diffusion anisotropy and orientation. Our study revealed that DTI is a promising method

  17. Pediatric MS

    MedlinePlus

    ... is diagnosed with MS. Learn More Learn More Network of Pediatric MS Centers The National MS Society ... MS Study Group (2004) and established a nationwide network of six Pediatric MS Centers of Excellence (2006) ...

  18. Pediatric Asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research & Science Education & Training Home Conditions Asthma (Pediatric) Asthma (Pediatric) Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask ... Ask a Question The first symptoms of childhood asthma – heavy wheezing, tight chest and shortness of breath – ...

  19. Myocarditis - pediatric

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007307.htm Myocarditis - pediatric To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Pediatric myocarditis is inflammation of the heart muscle in ...

  20. Functional state of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes and their role in the slow progression of HIV infection in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Alfonzo, Miguel Antonio; Diaz, Alexandra; Siciliano, Luigina; López, Maria Graciela; Hung, Alida; Garcia, Juan Felix

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate simultaneously the functional state of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes from Venezuelan HIV-1-infected pediatric patients. Children were assigned to subgroups of rapid progressors (RPs) and slow progressors (SPs), based on clinical features. To determine the degree of CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocyte functionality, flow cytometry techniques were used, and diverse parameters of the functionality of these cells were characterized by ex vivo tests, such as expression of CD95/Fas and CD127, and frequency of apoptosis. In addition, we determined, in cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells, HIV-specific proliferation and the production of interleukin-10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), besides measuring intracellular IFN-gamma in CD4+ T cells. Our results indicate that several molecular and cellular mechanisms of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes are deteriorated in RPs in comparison with SPs and controls. Indeed, both types of T lymphocytes from RPs exhibited an increased expression of CD95/Fas (p < 0.01), a significantly reduced expression of CD127 (p < 0.01), and an augmented frequency of apoptosis (p < 0.01). Furthermore, T cells from these patients displayed a diminished capacity of mitogen proliferation (p < 0.05), a reduced percentage of IFN-gamma producing CD4+ T lymphocytes (p < 0.05), and a smaller capacity of IL-10, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma production (p < 0.01) in comparison with SP and control patients. Our findings indicate that the decline of the normal T lymphocyte molecular and cellular responses is related to a rapid progression and a decreased resistance to HIV-1 infection in children.

  1. Isotope tracer studies of diffusion in silicates and of geological transport processes using actinide elements. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Wasserburg, G.J.

    1992-12-31

    The following are reported: high abundance sensitivity mass spectrometer for U-Th studies; {sup 238}U-{sup 230}Th disequilibrium in recent lavas from Iceland; water-rock interaction from U-Th studies; resonance ionization mass spectrometry of Os and Ti isotopes; and self-diffusion of Mg.

  2. Macromolecular coal structure as revealed by novel diffusion tests: Quarterly technical progress report, September 15, 1988--January 15, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Peppas, N.A.

    1989-01-01

    New experimental studies are reported of diffusion in thin sections of various coal samples. Data are presented of the transport of acetone, cyclohexane, methanol, methyl ethyl ketone, toluene and methylene chloride in coals PSOC 418, 853 and 384. These results are compared to swelling of some of these solvents in crosslinked poly(methyl methacrylate). 2 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Serial Lung Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Monitor Disease Progression in a Child With a Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kaleel, Mohammed; Schramm, Craig; Pascal, Melanie; O’Louglin, Michael; Collins, Melanie Sue

    2015-01-01

    Serial lung magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in a child with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH). To minimize radiation exposure with conventional serial chest computerized tomography (CT), serial MRIs of the lungs were used. This effectively monitored her disease process as well as detected acute hemorrhage after 5 years remission. PMID:25699125

  4. A case of hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids caused by a de novo mutation in CSF1R masquerading as primary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Ban-yu; Yamasaki, Ryo; Hayashi, Shintaro; Yoshimura, Satoshi; Tateishi, Takahisa; Ohyagi, Yasumasa; Murai, Hiroyuki; Iwaki, Toru; Yoshida, Kunihiro; Kira, Jun-ichi

    2013-09-01

    We report a sporadic case of hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids (HDLS) confirmed by biopsy and colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) sequencing. A 28-year-old woman developed progressive spastic gait and dysarthria. Brain T2/FLAIR-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral high signal intensity lesions in the parietal deep white matter, which subsequently extended anteriorly. Biopsied brain specimens demonstrated demyelinated white matter tissue with axonal spheroids infiltrated with foamy macrophages, and CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells. She had a heterozygous mutation, c.2381T>C (p.782 Ile>Thr), in CSF1R. This is the first genetically proven case of HDLS mimicking primary progressive multiple sclerosis.

  5. Pediatric Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... Control and Prevention’s Safe Child website . What is pediatric critical care? Children who have severe or life-threatening injuries ... are staffed by physicians with specialized training in pediatric critical care medicine ("pediatric intensivists"). Because children can experience a ...

  6. Probabilistic diffusion tractography: a potential tool to assess the rate of disease progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ciccarelli, O; Behrens, T E; Altmann, D R; Orrell, R W; Howard, R S; Johansen-Berg, H; Miller, D H; Matthews, P M; Thompson, A J

    2006-07-01

    The goal of probabilistic tractography is to obtain a connectivity index along a white matter pathway that reflects fibre organization and is sensitive to pathological abnormalities contributing to disability. Here, we present the development of voxel-based connectivity measures along the tractography-derived corticospinal tract (CST). We investigated whether these connectivity measures are different in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and correlate with the rate of disease progression. We also investigated whether fractional anisotropy (FA), which reflects directional coherence of fibre tracts, is reduced in the CST of ALS patients and relates to disease progression rate. Thirteen patients with probable or definite ALS and 19 healthy subjects were studied. The probabilistic tractography algorithm segmented the bilateral CST, along which FA and connectivity values were obtained. To take into account the asymmetric distribution of connectivity values, two summary statistic measures that focused on voxels with higher connectivity values were selected and then used in the analysis, together with the mean connectivity and the mean FA. To complete the analysis, the same summary measures for FA were included. Differences in all these indices between patients with moderate or rapid disease progression rate and controls were investigated using linear regression, adjusted for age and white matter fraction. The association between FA or connectivity in the CST and the disease progression rate was assessed using linear regression. Patients with a rapid disease progression rate had significantly lower summary connectivity measures than controls in the left CST, but there was only a borderline statistical difference in mean connectivity. Patients with rapid progression had a significantly lower mean FA, and any other FA measure, in both CSTs than controls. When only patients were considered, strong associations between the rate of disease progression and all

  7. Dysregulated CXCR4 expression promotes lymphoma cell survival and independently predicts disease progression in germinal center B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Lijuan; Shen, Qi; Manyam, Ganiraju C.; Martinez-Lopez, Azahara; Zhang, Li; Montes-Moreno, Santiago; Visco, Carlo; Tzankov, Alexandar; Yin, Lihui; Dybkaer, Karen; Chiu, April; Orazi, Attilio; Zu, Youli; Bhagat, Govind; Richards, Kristy L.; Hsi, Eric D.; Choi, William W.L.; van Krieken, J. Han; Huh, Jooryung; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Ferreri, Andrés J.M.; Zhao, Xiaoying; Møller, Michael B.; Farnen, John P.; Winter, Jane N.; Piris, Miguel A.; Pham, Lan; Young, Ken H.

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 plays an essential role in tumor cell dissemination and disease progression. However, the significance of CXCR4 overexpression in de novo diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is unknown. In 743 patients with de novo diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) who received standard Rituximab-CHOP immunochemotherapy, we assessed the expression of CXCR4 and dissected its prognostic significance in various DLBCL subsets. Our results showed that CXCR4+ patients was associated with male, bulky tumor, high Ki-67 index, activated B-cell-like (ABC) subtype, and Myc, Bcl-2 or p53 overexpression. Moreover, CXCR4+ was an independent factor predicting poorer progression-free survival in germinal-center B-cell-like (GCB)-DLBCL, but not in ABC-DLBCL; and in patients with an IPI of ≤2, but not in those with an IPI>2. The lack of prognostic significance of CXCR4 in ABC-DLBCL was likely due to the activation of p53 tumor suppressor attenuating CXCR4 signaling. Furthermore, concurrent CXCR4+ and BCL2 translocation showed dismal outcomes resembling but independent of MYC/BCL2 double-hit DLBCL. Gene expression profiling suggested that alterations in the tumor microenvironment and immune responses, increased tumor proliferation and survival, and the dissemination of CXCR4+ tumor cells to distant organs or tissues were underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for the CXCR4+ associated poor prognosis. PMID:25704881

  8. The nature and timing of specific copy number changes in the course of molecular progression in diffuse gliomas: further elucidation of their genetic "life story".

    PubMed

    Jeuken, Judith W M; Sijben, Angelique; Bleeker, Fonnet E; Boots-Sprenger, Sandra H E; Rijntjes, Jos; Gijtenbeek, Johanna M M; Mueller, Wolf; Wesseling, Pieter

    2011-05-01

    Up till now, typing and grading of diffuse gliomas is based on histopathological features. However, more objective tools are needed to improve reliable assessment of their biological behavior. We evaluated 331 diffuse gliomas for copy number changes involving 1p, 19q, CDKN2A, PTEN and EGFR(vIII) by Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA®, Amsterdam, The Netherlands). Specifically based on the co-occurrence of these aberrations we built a model for the timing of the different events and their exact nature (hemi- → homozygous loss; low-level gain → (high-copy) amplification) in the course of molecular progression. The mutation status of IDH1 and TP53 was also evaluated and shown to correlate with the level of molecular progression. The relevance of the proposed model was confirmed by analysis of 36 sets of gliomas and their 39 recurrence(s) whereas survival analysis for anaplastic gliomas confirmed the actual prognostic relevance of detecting molecular malignancy. Moreover, based on our results, molecular diagnostic analysis of 1p/19q can be further improved as different aberrations were identified, some of them being indicative for advanced molecular malignancy rather than for favorable tumor behavior. In conclusion, identification of molecular malignancy as proposed will aid in establishing a risk profile for individual patients and thereby in therapeutic decision making.

  9. Configurational diffusion of asphaltenes in fresh and aged catalyst extrudates. Quarterly progress report, March 20, 1996--June 20, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Guin, J.A.

    1996-10-01

    This quarter, hindered diffusion of one coal and two petroleum asphaltenes was studied by adsorptive uptake in THF from a bath surrounding a commercial NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. Several asphaltene fractions were defined via SEC (size exclusion chromatography), with the molecular weight of each fraction being determined by its elution characteristics using polystyrene standards. It was found that both the coal and petroleum asphaltenes have very broad molecular weight distributions; however, the molecular weights of the coal asphaltenes (50--1000) were much smaller than those of the two petroleum asphaltenes (300--10000 and 300--20000 respectively). Simulation results showed that even though the properties of coal and petroleum asphaltenes were quite different, the values of model parameters for the fractions of the three asphaltenes had the same trend; with increasing molecular weight of the fraction, the adsorption constant monotonically increases, and the effective diffusivity decreases. The experimental diffusion data of the three asphaltenes were well represented by similar mathematical models.

  10. Improved spatial regression analysis of diffusion tensor imaging for lesion detection during longitudinal progression of multiple sclerosis in individual subjects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bilan; Qiu, Xing; Zhu, Tong; Tian, Wei; Hu, Rui; Ekholm, Sven; Schifitto, Giovanni; Zhong, Jianhui

    2016-03-21

    Subject-specific longitudinal DTI study is vital for investigation of pathological changes of lesions and disease evolution. Spatial Regression Analysis of Diffusion tensor imaging (SPREAD) is a non-parametric permutation-based statistical framework that combines spatial regression and resampling techniques to achieve effective detection of localized longitudinal diffusion changes within the whole brain at individual level without a priori hypotheses. However, boundary blurring and dislocation limit its sensitivity, especially towards detecting lesions of irregular shapes. In the present study, we propose an improved SPREAD (dubbed improved SPREAD, or iSPREAD) method by incorporating a three-dimensional (3D) nonlinear anisotropic diffusion filtering method, which provides edge-preserving image smoothing through a nonlinear scale space approach. The statistical inference based on iSPREAD was evaluated and compared with the original SPREAD method using both simulated and in vivo human brain data. Results demonstrated that the sensitivity and accuracy of the SPREAD method has been improved substantially by adapting nonlinear anisotropic filtering. iSPREAD identifies subject-specific longitudinal changes in the brain with improved sensitivity, accuracy, and enhanced statistical power, especially when the spatial correlation is heterogeneous among neighboring image pixels in DTI.

  11. Improved spatial regression analysis of diffusion tensor imaging for lesion detection during longitudinal progression of multiple sclerosis in individual subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bilan; Qiu, Xing; Zhu, Tong; Tian, Wei; Hu, Rui; Ekholm, Sven; Schifitto, Giovanni; Zhong, Jianhui

    2016-03-01

    Subject-specific longitudinal DTI study is vital for investigation of pathological changes of lesions and disease evolution. Spatial Regression Analysis of Diffusion tensor imaging (SPREAD) is a non-parametric permutation-based statistical framework that combines spatial regression and resampling techniques to achieve effective detection of localized longitudinal diffusion changes within the whole brain at individual level without a priori hypotheses. However, boundary blurring and dislocation limit its sensitivity, especially towards detecting lesions of irregular shapes. In the present study, we propose an improved SPREAD (dubbed improved SPREAD, or iSPREAD) method by incorporating a three-dimensional (3D) nonlinear anisotropic diffusion filtering method, which provides edge-preserving image smoothing through a nonlinear scale space approach. The statistical inference based on iSPREAD was evaluated and compared with the original SPREAD method using both simulated and in vivo human brain data. Results demonstrated that the sensitivity and accuracy of the SPREAD method has been improved substantially by adapting nonlinear anisotropic filtering. iSPREAD identifies subject-specific longitudinal changes in the brain with improved sensitivity, accuracy, and enhanced statistical power, especially when the spatial correlation is heterogeneous among neighboring image pixels in DTI.

  12. Pediatric palliative care.

    PubMed

    Moody, Karen; Siegel, Linda; Scharbach, Kathryn; Cunningham, Leslie; Cantor, Rabbi Mollie

    2011-06-01

    Progress in pediatric palliative care has gained momentum, but there remain significant barriers to the appropriate provision of palliative care to ill and dying children, including the lack of properly trained health care professionals, resources to finance such care, and scientific research, as well as a continued cultural denial of death in children. This article reviews the epidemiology of pediatric palliative care, special communication concerns, decision making, ethical and legal considerations, symptom assessment and management, psychosocial issues, provision of care across settings, end-of-life care, and bereavement. Educational and supportive resources for health care practitioners and families, respectively, are included.

  13. White matter degeneration with Unverricht-Lundborg progressive myoclonus epilepsy: a translational diffusion-tensor imaging study in patients and cystatin B-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Manninen, Otto; Koskenkorva, Päivi; Lehtimäki, Kimmo K; Hyppönen, Jelena; Könönen, Mervi; Laitinen, Teemu; Kalimo, Hannu; Kopra, Outi; Kälviäinen, Reetta; Gröhn, Olli; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina; Vanninen, Ritva

    2013-10-01

    To study white matter (WM) changes in patients with Unverricht-Lundborg progressive myoclonus epilepsy (EPM1) caused by mutations in the cystatin B gene and in the cystatin B-deficient (Cstb-/-) mouse model and to validate imaging findings with histopathologic analysis of mice. Informed consent was obtained and the study was approved by an institutional ethics committee. Animal work was approved by the Animal Experiment Board of Finland. Diffusion-tensor imaging and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) were used to compare fractional anisotropic (FA) results and axial, radial, and mean diffusion among patients with EPM1 (n = 19) and control subjects (n = 18). Ex vivo diffusion-tensor imaging and TBSS were used to compare Cstb-/- mice (n = 9) with wild controls (n = 4). Areas of FA decrease in mice were characterized by means of immunohistochemical analysis and transmission electron microscopy. Student t test statistics were applied to report significant findings (threshold-free cluster enhancement, P < .05). Patients with EPM1 showed significantly (P < .05) reduced FA and increased radial and mean diffusion in all major WM tracts compared with those of control subjects, shown as global FA decrease along the TBSS skeleton (0.41 ± 0.03 vs 0.45 ± 0.02, respectively; P < 5 × 10(-6)). Cstb-/- mice exhibited significantly reduced FA (P < .05) and antimyelin basic protein staining. Transmission electron microscopy revealed degenerating axons in Cstb-/- mice vs controls (979 axons counted, 51 degenerating axons; 2.09 ± 0.29 per field vs 1072 axons counted, nine degenerating axons; 0.48 ± 0.19 per field; P = .002). EPM1 is characterized by widespread alterations in subcortical WM, the thalamocortical system, and the cerebellum, which result in axonal degeneration and WM loss. These data suggest that motor disturbances and other symptoms in patients with EPM1 involve not only the cortical system but also the thalamocortical system and cerebellum. © RSNA, 2013.

  14. [Pediatric residency programs in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Mendoza, H

    1991-01-01

    Prior to 1960 pediatric hospital residency programs were scarce in Latin America, but at present only one country lacks such a program. The first push for development of pediatric residency programs began in the 1960s and was aided by visits of Latin American medical professionals to the US under sponsorship of the Committee for Development of Pediatric Residency Programs (COPREP) of the American Academy of Pediatrics. COPREP meetings in Colombia in 1970 and in Brazil in 1975 coincided with a stage of accelerated progress in establishing and improving pediatric residency programs. After the 1975 meeting, COPREP activity declined, probably because of loss of financial support from the American Academy of Pediatrics. The Pediatric Residency Committee of the Latin American Pediatric Association (ALAPE) met in Santo Domingo in 1981 to approve an outline of objectives and activities, set minimum requirements for pediatric residency programs, and establish elements for quality control. The ALAPE Pediatric Residency Committee has also been greatly weakened since 1981, probably because of inadequate financial assistance and an overly ambitious program. The weakness of the Pediatric Residency Committees has impeded development of programs in Latin America. Pediatric residency programs in the region are heterogeneous in objectives and structure because of the differing national health structures in which they are embedded. Periodic exchanges of experience at the national and regional levels might help strengthen the pediatric residency programs.

  15. Lagrangian and Eulerian diffusion study in the coastal surface layers. Progress report, July 1, 1979-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, H H; Okubo, A; Wilson, R E; Sanderson, B; Pritchard, D W

    1980-07-01

    This research project addresses a fundamental problem in turbulence theory, the relation between Lagrangian and Eulerian statistics, by carrying out, analyzing, and interpreting a set of field experiments in the coastal waters off the south shore of Long Island. The study will not only provide information on the relation between the Lagrangian and Eulerian autocorrelations but also between the various experimental methods for quantitatively estimating turbulent diffusion. Two experiments, one in summer and one in winter, consisting of simultaneous measurements of dye diffusion, drogue dispersion, and Eulerian current velocities in a typical coastal locale were planned. In order to ensure a match between the Lagrangian (drogues, dye) scales of motion and the Eulerian (current meters) scales, however, a preliminary experiment, consisting of a 6 mooring current meter array and a short (approx. 3 hours) drogue experiment, was conducted during March 1980. Results of this preliminary experiment and their implications to the experimental program are discussed. The principal results were an improved design of our current meter array, and a wider variety of drogue experiments, i.e., multi-level, multi-scale, and continuous source simulation.

  16. Disseminated oligodendroglial-like leptomeningeal tumor with anaplastic progression and presumed extraneural disease: case report.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Brice A; Bookhout, Christine; Jaikumar, Sivakumar; Hipps, John; Lee, Yueh Z

    2015-01-01

    We report the neuroimaging and histopathologic findings of a 12-year-old female patient with a disseminated oligodendroglial-like leptomeningeal tumor with anaplastic progression and presumed extraneural metastatic disease. These tumors may represent distinct pathology primarily seen in pediatric patients. Neuroimaging demonstrates diffuse, progressive enhancement of the leptomeninges often with interval development of intraparenchymal lesions on follow-up. Disease is typically confined to the central nervous system, though diffuse peritoneal disease was seen in our case, possibly through metastatic seeding of the abdomen via ventriculoperitoneal shunt.

  17. Group-Level Progressive Alterations in Brain Connectivity Patterns Revealed by Diffusion-Tensor Brain Networks across Severity Stages in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rasero, Javier; Alonso-Montes, Carmen; Diez, Ibai; Olabarrieta-Landa, Laiene; Remaki, Lakhdar; Escudero, Iñaki; Mateos, Beatriz; Bonifazi, Paolo; Fernandez, Manuel; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos; Stramaglia, Sebastiano; Cortes, Jesus M.

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a chronically progressive neurodegenerative disease highly correlated to aging. Whether AD originates by targeting a localized brain area and propagates to the rest of the brain across disease-severity progression is a question with an unknown answer. Here, we aim to provide an answer to this question at the group-level by looking at differences in diffusion-tensor brain networks. In particular, making use of data from Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), four different groups were defined (all of them matched by age, sex and education level): G1 (N1 = 36, healthy control subjects, Control), G2 (N2 = 36, early mild cognitive impairment, EMCI), G3 (N3 = 36, late mild cognitive impairment, LMCI) and G4 (N4 = 36, AD). Diffusion-tensor brain networks were compared across three disease stages: stage I (Control vs. EMCI), stage II (Control vs. LMCI) and stage III (Control vs. AD). The group comparison was performed using the multivariate distance matrix regression analysis, a technique that was born in genomics and was recently proposed to handle brain functional networks, but here applied to diffusion-tensor data. The results were threefold: First, no significant differences were found in stage I. Second, significant differences were found in stage II in the connectivity pattern of a subnetwork strongly associated to memory function (including part of the hippocampus, amygdala, entorhinal cortex, fusiform gyrus, inferior and middle temporal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus and temporal pole). Third, a widespread disconnection across the entire AD brain was found in stage III, affecting more strongly the same memory subnetwork appearing in stage II, plus the other new subnetworks, including the default mode network, medial visual network, frontoparietal regions and striatum. Our results are consistent with a scenario where progressive alterations of connectivity arise as the disease severity increases and provide the brain areas

  18. Recent developments in pediatric headache.

    PubMed

    Hershey, Andrew D

    2010-06-01

    This review will focus on some of the recent findings in pediatric headache including headache characteristics, epidemiology, comorbid associations and treatment updates. Pediatric headache remains a frequent health problem for children and their families, yet there remain many gaps in our knowledge. This review will broadly address some of the recent findings and highlight the gaps in our understanding and treatment of pediatric headache. There will be a focus on pediatric migraine as this has been the best characterized and studied. Our understanding of pediatric headache is improving with increased recognition of the characteristics and associated symptomology. This should further guide the individualized treatment approaches for improved outcome and reduction of progression into adulthood.

  19. Pediatric Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Prusakowski, Melanie K; Chen, Audrey P

    2017-02-01

    Pediatric sepsis is distinct from adult sepsis in its definitions, clinical presentations, and management. Recognition of pediatric sepsis is complicated by the various pediatric-specific comorbidities that contribute to its mortality and the age- and development-specific vital sign and clinical parameters that obscure its recognition. This article outlines the clinical presentation and management of sepsis in neonates, infants, and children, and highlights some key populations who require specialized care.

  20. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of diffusion-weighted imaging of gestational trophoblastic disease: Can it predict progression of molar pregnancy to persistent form of disease?

    PubMed

    Sefidbakht, Sepideh; Hosseini, Fatemeh; Bijan, Bijan; Hamedi, Bahareh; Azizi, Tayyebeh

    2017-03-01

    To describe the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) appearance of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) and to determine its apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. To evaluate the feasibility of DWI to predict progression of hydatidiform mole (HM) to persistent disease. During a period of 6 months, women with preliminary diagnosis of GTD, based on ultrasound and ßhCG levels, underwent 1.5T MRI (T2 high-resolution and DWI; b values 50, 400, 800; sagittal and perpendicular to the endometrium; and T1, T2 Turbo Spin Echo [TSE] axial images). Patients were followed for 6-12 months to monitor progression to persistent form of the disease. ADC values and image characteristics were compared between HM and persistent neoplasia and between GTD and non-molar pregnancy using Mann-Whitney U and Fisher's exact tests, respectively. Among the 23 studied patients, 19 (83%) were classified as molar and 4 (17%) as non-molar, based on pathology reports. After 6-12 months of follow-up, 5 (26%) cases progressed to persistent disease and 14 (74%) cases were benign HM. There was no significant difference between ADC values for HM (1.93±0.33×10(-3)mm(2)/s) and persistent neoplasia (2.03±0.28×10(-3)mm(2)/s) (P=0.69). The ADC of non-molar pregnancies was (0.96±0.46×10(-3)mm(2)/s), which was significantly different from GTD (1.96 ±0.32×10(-3)mm(2)/s) (P=0.001). Heterogeneous snowstorm appearance, focal intratumoral hemorrhage, myometrial contraction, and prominent myometrial vascularity were more common in GTD compared to non-molar pregnancy (P<0.05). Heterogeneous snowstorm appearance, focal intratumoral hemorrhage, myometrial contraction, and prominent myometrial vascularity are among the imaging characteristics of GTD. We cannot use ADC values to predict progression to persistent disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. [History of pediatric anesthesiology].

    PubMed

    Simić, Dusica; Dragović, Simon; Budić, Ivana

    2007-01-01

    Among advances in medicine during the past 150 years, certainly the introduction of surgical anesthesia must be considered the greatest gifts of medical profession to mankind, especially to children. Pediatric anesthesia has progressed rapidly throughout the years. Since the first recorded case of pediatric anesthesia in 1842 to the latest advancement in training, technology, medicine and equipment in the last decades of this century, many historic moments have been following each other. Throughout the first decades of 20th century, most physicians treated children as miniature adults. It is believed that the development of modern pediatric anesthesia started in 1930. To offer a historic perspective, the evolution of new field through its rapid growth was divided into two chronologic categories: first (1930-1950) and second (1950-present). During the first period (1930-1950), the anesthesia techniques and equipment adjusted to different children's age were developed. In the second, together with further technique and equipment refinement, modern anesthetics and vital system surveillance (monitoring) were introduced into everyday practice. The keyto the advances in pediatric anesthesiology was difficulties leading to new inventions with consequent improvement of techniques and methods. This article reviews the origins and development of anesthesia for infants and children in the world and Serbia, emphasizing the contributions of many devoted physicians that represented the major force leading to inevitable evolution of pediatric anesthesia.

  2. Does active dissemination of evidence result in faster knowledge transfer than passive diffusion?: An analysis of trends of the management of pediatric asthma and croup in US emergency departments from 1995 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Jane F; Simon, Stephen D; Sharma, Vidya

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to compare knowledge transfer (KT) in the emergency department (ED) management of pediatric asthma and croup by measuring trends in corticosteroid use for both conditions in EDs. A retrospective, cross-sectional study of the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey data between 1995 and 2009 of corticosteroid use at ED visits for asthma or croup was conducted. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated using logistic regression. Trends over time were compared using an interaction term between disease and year and were adjusted for all other covariates in the model. We included children aged 2 to 18 years with asthma who received albuterol and were triaged emergent/urgent. Children aged between 3 months to 6 years with croup were included. The main outcome measure was the administration of corticosteroids in the ED or as a prescription at the ED visit. The corticosteroid use in asthma visits increased from 44% to 67% and from 32% to 56% for croup. After adjusting for patient and hospital factors, this trend was significant both for asthma (OR, 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.10) and croup (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.03-1.12). There was no statistical difference between the 2 trends (P = 0.69). Hospital location in a metropolitan statistical area was associated with increased corticosteroid use in asthma (OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.10-2.82). Factors including sex, ethnicity, insurance, or region of the country were not significantly associated with corticosteroid use. During a 15-year period, knowledge transfer by passive diffusion or active guideline dissemination resulted in similar trends of corticosteroid use for the management of pediatric asthma and croup.

  3. DTI assessment of the brainstem white matter tracts in pediatric BSG before and after therapy: a report from the Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Sanjay P; Ng, Sarah; Vajapeyam, Sridhar; Kieran, Mark W; Pollack, Ian F; Geyer, Russell; Haas-Kogan, Daphne; Boyett, James M; Kun, Larry; Poussaint, Tina Young

    2011-01-01

    To assess changes in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values in brainstem gliomas (BSG) in children and to observe the temporal evolution of changes in the white matter tracts following therapy using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis. Serial ADC and FA measurements were obtained in three patients with newly diagnosed BSG on two approved treatment protocols. Values were compared with a set of normative ADC, FA, and eigenvalues of age-matched children of the corticospinal, transverse pontine and medial lemniscal tracts. Fiber tracking of the tracts coursing through the brainstem was performed using standard diffusion tractography analysis. We found increased ADC values within tumor at baseline compared to age-matched controls, with subsequent drop following treatment and subsequent increase with recurrence. Correspondingly, FA values were reduced at presentation, but transiently recovered during the phase of tumor response to treatment, and finally decreased significantly during tumor progression. These changes were concordant with the tractography analysis of white matter tracts in the brainstem. Based on these results, we suggest that initial changes in ADC and FA values reflects tract infiltration by tumor, but not complete disruption, whereas tumor progression results in complete loss of anisotropy possibly due to tract disruption. Serial changes in ADC and FA values and tractography data in pediatric BSG suggest initial tumor infiltration, with transient improvement on treatment and subsequent loss of tract anisotropy during tumor progression. This technique may have potential use in assessing response to treatment regimens for pediatric BSG.

  4. [Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated rapid progressive glomerulonephritis complicated with both limited and diffuse scleroderma].

    PubMed

    Miyata, Naoko; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Matsukawa, Yoshihiro; Sawada, Shigemasa; Nishinarita, Susumu; Horie, Takashi

    2002-12-01

    We report two patients with scleroderma, 73-year-old female and 67-year-old female, who developed anti neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA) associated rapid progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN). Both patients have had a long history of scleroderma (23 and 14 years, respectively) when ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis occurred. In the first patient, scleroderma was localized in both fingers. She has been followed-up as CREST syndrome rather than systemic sclerosis. The complaints on admission were leg edema and left chest pain in the first patient, and a pyrexia and dyspnea in the second patient. Both patients showed pulmonary manifestation (pleural effusion in the first patient, interstitial pneumonia and alveolar hemorrhage in the second patient, respectively) and rapid progressive glomerulonephritis. Both patients died in spite of corticosteroid therapy. Autopsy findings in the second patient demonstrated crescentic glomerulonephritis and alveolar hemorrhage. Our cases demonstrated that MPO-ANCA associated glomerulonephritis could be associated with limited scleroderma as well as systemic scleroderma. In these condition, the prognosis will be poor if scleroderma seemed to be stable.

  5. [Pediatric neurology and genetics: introduction].

    PubMed

    Castro-Gago, M

    Heredity plays a role in a large proportion of pediatric neurologic disorders, and the spectacular recent developments in molecular genetics have contributed to improved understanding of the basic causes of many diseases and neurodevelopmental abnormalities. To provide a brief introduction to certain genetic aspects of neuropediatrics. We consider the following aspects: 1) The importance of hereditary factors in pediatric neurology; 2) The different types of inheritance relevant in this context; 3) Nosologic, diagnostic and therapeutic implications of recent advances in molecular genetics; 4) Bioethical implications of the application of this new understanding. Independently of enhanced treatment prospects, progress in molecular genetics has improved the nosology and diagnosis of many pediatric neurological disorders.

  6. Pediatric MS

    MedlinePlus

    ... video) Watch Video Students with MS and the Academic Setting: A Handbook for School Personnel (.pdf) Download Brochure Managing School-Related Issues: A Guide for Parents with a Child or Teen Living with MS (.pdf) Download Brochure Network of Pediatric MS Centers Learn More Pediatric MS ...

  7. Pembrolizumab in Treating Younger Patients With Recurrent, Progressive, or Refractory High-Grade Gliomas, Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Gliomas, or Hypermutated Brain Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-12

    Constitutional Mismatch Repair Deficiency Syndrome; Lynch Syndrome; Malignant Glioma; Recurrent Brain Neoplasm; Recurrent Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma; Refractory Brain Neoplasm; Refractory Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma

  8. NOTCH1, TP53, and MAP2K1 Mutations in Splenic Diffuse Red Pulp Small B-cell Lymphoma Are Associated With Progressive Disease.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Daniel; Navarro, Alba; Martinez-Trillos, Alejandra; Molina-Urra, Ricardo; Gonzalez-Farre, Blanca; Salaverria, Itziar; Nadeu, Ferran; Enjuanes, Anna; Clot, Guillem; Costa, Dolors; Carrio, Ana; Villamor, Neus; Colomer, Dolors; Martinez, Antonio; Bens, Susanne; Siebert, Reiner; Wotherspoon, Andrew; Beà, Sílvia; Matutes, Estella; Campo, Elias

    2016-02-01

    Splenic diffuse red pulp small B-cell lymphoma (SDRPL) is considered an indolent neoplasm and its pathogenesis is not well known. We investigated the molecular characteristics of 19 SDRPL patients, 5 of them with progressive disease. IGHV genes were mutated in 9/13 (69%). Cytogenetic and molecular studies identified complex karyotypes in 2 cases, and IGH rearrangements in 3, with PAX5 and potentially TCL1 as partners in each one of them. Copy number arrays showed aberrations in 69% of the tumors, including recurrent losses of 10q23, 14q31-q32, and 17p13 in 3, and 9p21 in 2 cases. Deletion of 7q31.3-q32.3 was present in only 1 case and no trisomies 3 or 18 were detected. NOTCH1 and MAP2K1 were mutated in 2 cases each, whereas BRAF, TP53, and SF3B1 were mutated each in single cases. No mutations were found in NOTCH2 or MYD88. Four of the 5 patients with aggressive disease had mutations in NOTCH1 (2 cases), TP53 (1 case), and MAP2K1 (1 case). The progression-free survival of patients with mutated genes was significantly shorter than in the unmutated (P=0.011). These findings show that SDRPL share some mutated genes but not chromosomal alterations, with other splenic lymphomas, that may confer a more aggressive behavior.

  9. Virtual Pediatric Hospital

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thoracopaedia - An Imaging Encyclopedia of Pediatric Thoracic Disease Virtual Pediatric Hospital is the Apprentice's Assistant™ Last revised ... pediatric resources: GeneralPediatrics.com | PediatricEducation.org | SearchingPediatrics.com Virtual Pediatric Hospital is curated by Donna M. D' ...

  10. The Role of the Corpus Callosum in Pediatric Dysphagia: Preliminary Findings from a Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study in Children with Unilateral Spastic Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Mourão, Lucia Figueiredo; Friel, Kathleen M; Sheppard, Justine Joan; Kuo, Hsing-Ching; Luchesi, Karen Fontes; Gordon, Andrew M; Malandraki, Georgia A

    2017-06-08

    The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between the structural integrity of the corpus callosum (CC) and clinical feeding/swallowing performance in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy (USCP). Twenty children with USCP, (11 males, 5.11-17.6 yoa) were assessed via the Dysphagia Disorder Survey (DDS) and diffusion tensor imaging. Children were grouped into left hemisphere lesion (LHL; n = 13) and right hemisphere lesion (RHL; n = 7) groups. DTI variables analyzed for three CC regions (anterior, middle, posterior) were: fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), mean diffusivity (MD), and fibers count. Children with RHL presented with higher clinical dysphagia severity (p = 0.03). Six of seven children with RHL had lesions affecting periventricular/subcortical areas, and 8/13 children with LHL had lesions affecting the sensorimotor cortex. In the LHL group, as FA and fiber count of the anterior CC decreased and RD increased (all indicating reduced CC structural integrity), signs of dysphagia increased (r = -0.667, p = 0.013; r = -0.829, p ≤ 0.001; r = 0.594, p = 0.032, respectively). Reduced fiber count in the middle and posterior CC was also significantly associated with increased DDS scores (r = -0.762, p = 0.002; r = -0.739, p = 0.004, respectively). For the RHL group no significant correlations were observed. We provide preliminary evidence that corpus callosum integrity correlates with feeding/swallowing performance in children with USCP, especially when cortical sensorimotor areas of the left hemisphere are impacted. In this sample, CC integrity appeared to enable interhemispheric cortical plasticity for swallowing, but was not as critical when intrahemispheric connections were disrupted, as seen in the RHL group.

  11. Diffuse Elevated Abdominal Activity on 99mTc-Labeled Red Blood Cell Imaging in a Pediatric Patient With Klippel Trenaunay Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Summer L; Zhuang, Hongming

    2016-11-01

    Klippel Trenaunay syndrome commonly manifests as lower limb hypertrophy where vascular malformation occurs. However, up to 20% of patients with Klippel Trenaunay syndrome can have gastrointestinal involvement. An 18-year-old man with known Klippel Trenaunay syndrome in the left lower extremity underwent Tc-labeled red blood cell imaging to determine the site of gastrointestinal bleeding. The images did not reveal the site of active bleeding. However, diffuse non-moving activity in the left abdomen and pelvis was noted, which corresponded to hypertrophied colon and related blood vessels, consistent with intestinal involvement of Klippel Trenaunay syndrome.

  12. Microfoci of malignant progression in diffuse low-grade gliomas: towards the creation of an intermediate grade in glioma classification?

    PubMed

    Pedeutour-Braccini, Zoé; Burel-Vandenbos, Fanny; Gozé, Catherine; Roger, Coralie; Bazin, Audrey; Costes-Martineau, Valérie; Duffau, Hugues; Rigau, Valérie

    2015-04-01

    Low-grade gliomas (GII) inescapably progress to high-grade gliomas (GIII). The duration of this transition is highly variable between patients and reliable predictive markers do not exist. We noticed in a subset of cases of GII, obtained by awake neurosurgery, the presence of microfoci with high cellular density, high vascular density, or minimal endothelial proliferation, which we called GII+. Our aim was to investigate whether these foci display immunohistochemical and molecular characteristics similar to GIII and whether their presence is correlated to poor prognosis. We analyzed cell proliferation, hypoxia, vascularization, and alterations of tumorigenic pathways by immunohistochemistry (Ki-67, CD31, HIF-1-alpha, EGFR, P-AKT, P53, MDM2) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (EGFR, MDM2, PDGFRA) in the hypercellular foci of 16 GII+ cases. We compared overall survival between GII, GII+, and GIII. Ki-67, and CD31 expression was higher in the foci than in the tumor background in all cases. Aberrant expression of protein markers and genomic aberrations were also observed in some foci, distinct from the tumor background. Survival was shorter in GII+ than in GII cases. Our results suggest that these foci are the early histological hallmark of anaplastic transformation, which is supported by molecular aberrations. Our study is the first to demonstrate intratumoral morphological, immunohistochemical, and molecular heterogeneity in resection specimens of GII, the presence of which is correlated to shorter survival. Our findings question the discriminative capacity of the current glioma classification and provide arguments in favor of the creation of a grade intermediate between GII and GIII, to optimize the treatment strategy of GII.

  13. Pediatric Cardiomyopathies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Teresa M; Hsu, Daphne T; Kantor, Paul; Towbin, Jeffrey A; Ware, Stephanie M; Colan, Steven D; Chung, Wendy K; Jefferies, John L; Rossano, Joseph W; Castleberry, Chesney D; Addonizio, Linda J; Lal, Ashwin K; Lamour, Jacqueline M; Miller, Erin M; Thrush, Philip T; Czachor, Jason D; Razoky, Hiedy; Hill, Ashley; Lipshultz, Steven E

    2017-09-15

    Pediatric cardiomyopathies are rare diseases with an annual incidence of 1.1 to 1.5 per 100 000. Dilated and hypertrophic cardiomyopathies are the most common; restrictive, noncompaction, and mixed cardiomyopathies occur infrequently; and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy is rare. Pediatric cardiomyopathies can result from coronary artery abnormalities, tachyarrhythmias, exposure to infection or toxins, or secondary to other underlying disorders. Increasingly, the importance of genetic mutations in the pathogenesis of isolated or syndromic pediatric cardiomyopathies is becoming apparent. Pediatric cardiomyopathies often occur in the absence of comorbidities, such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, renal dysfunction, and diabetes mellitus; as a result, they offer insights into the primary pathogenesis of myocardial dysfunction. Large international registries have characterized the epidemiology, cause, and outcomes of pediatric cardiomyopathies. Although adult and pediatric cardiomyopathies have similar morphological and clinical manifestations, their outcomes differ significantly. Within 2 years of presentation, normalization of function occurs in 20% of children with dilated cardiomyopathy, and 40% die or undergo transplantation. Infants with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy have a 2-year mortality of 30%, whereas death is rare in older children. Sudden death is rare. Molecular evidence indicates that gene expression differs between adult and pediatric cardiomyopathies, suggesting that treatment response may differ as well. Clinical trials to support evidence-based treatments and the development of disease-specific therapies for pediatric cardiomyopathies are in their infancy. This compendium summarizes current knowledge of the genetic and molecular origins, clinical course, and outcomes of the most common phenotypic presentations of pediatric cardiomyopathies and highlights key areas where additional research is required. URL: http

  14. Update on Pediatric Perfusion Practice in North America: 2005 Survey

    PubMed Central

    Groom, Robert C.; Froebe, Shane; Martin, Janine; Manfra, Michael J.; Cormack, John E.; Morse, Catherine; Taenzer, Andreas H.; Quinn, Reed D.

    2005-01-01

    %). This survey provides an overview of clinical practice in 2004. The series of surveys document the historical progression of clinical practice over the past 16 years. Practice surveys may also be useful for identifying gaps between evidence-based knowledge and clinical practice. These surveys document the diffusion of innovation related to CPB during the past 16 years and areas of variation in practice that need further study. PMID:16524149

  15. Apparent diffusion coefficient measurements of the middle cerebellar peduncle differentiate the Parkinson variant of MSA from Parkinson's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy.

    PubMed

    Nicoletti, Giuseppe; Lodi, Raffaele; Condino, Francesca; Tonon, Caterina; Fera, Francesco; Malucelli, Emil; Manners, David; Zappia, Mario; Morgante, Letterio; Barone, Paolo; Barbiroli, Bruno; Quattrone, Aldo

    2006-10-01

    Clinical differentiation of parkinsonian syndromes such as the Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy (MSA-P) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) from Parkinson's disease is difficult in the early stage of the disease. In order to identify objective markers for differential diagnosis, we studied these three groups of patients with diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI). Sixteen MSA-P patients, 16 with PSP, 16 with Parkinson's disease and 15 healthy volunteers were studied. Regional apparent diffusion coefficients (rADC) were determined in different brain regions including basal ganglia, thalamus, white matter, pons and middle cerebellar peduncles (MCPs). rADC calculated in the MCP completely differentiated MSA-P patients (median: 0.93 x 10(-3) mm2/s) from PSP patients (median: 0.82 x 10(-3) mm2/s, P < 0.001), Parkinson's disease patients (median: 0.79 x 10(-3) mm2/s, P < 0.001) and healthy volunteers (median: 0.81 x 10(-3) mm2/s, P < 0.001). Other regions considered showed an overlapping among groups. DWI discriminates MSA-P from PSP and Parkinson's disease and healthy volunteers on the basis of MCP rADC values. These in vivo results confirm the pathological findings that the majority of MSA-P patients have moderate or severe degenerative changes not only in the nigrostriatal but also in the olivopontocerebellar systems. Our findings indicate that, in order to substantially contribute to the in vivo differential diagnosis of MSA-P, PSP and Parkinson's disease, rADC measurements should not be limited to the basal ganglia but should also include the MCP.

  16. Pediatric Terminology

    Cancer.gov

    The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) is working with NCI Enterprise Vocabulary Services (EVS) to provide standardized terminology for coding pediatric clinical trials and other resea

  17. Pediatric Headaches.

    PubMed

    Slover, Robin; Kent, Sheryl

    2015-08-01

    Pediatric headaches are common, and many may never require intervention by a health care provider. However, migraines can become more difficult to treat, especially if they become chronic daily headaches. Pediatric headache is a subjective and unique experience that requires attention to both psychological and physiologic components in diagnosis and treatment. A biopsychosocial, multidisciplinary approach, including both medication management and psychological treatment, is considered essential for effective management.

  18. Pediatric Anthropometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinich, Kathleen D.; Reed, Matthew P.

    Anthropometry is the measurement of human size, shape, and physical capabilities. Most pediatric anthropometry data are gathered to describe child growth patterns, but data on body size, mass distribution, range of motion, and posture are used to develop crash test dummies and computational models of child occupants. Pediatric anthropometry data are also used to determine child restraint dimensions, so they will accommodate the applicable population of child occupants.

  19. Pediatric melanoma.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Elisabeth T; Aldrink, Jennifer H

    2016-10-01

    Childhood melanoma is a rare pediatric malignancy, with fewer than 500 new diagnoses annually. The incidence is increasing, particularly in the adolescent population. This review highlights the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and histopathologic challenges of pediatric melanoma. Surgical resection remains the cornerstone for localized and regionally advanced disease. Adjuvant therapies, including current options and potential novel therapeutics for this unique population will be discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Apparent diffusion coefficient histogram analysis stratifies progression-free and overall survival in patients with recurrent GBM treated with bevacizumab: a multi-center study.

    PubMed

    Pope, Whitney B; Qiao, Xin Joe; Kim, Hyun J; Lai, Albert; Nghiemphu, Phioanh; Xue, Xi; Ellingson, Benjamin M; Schiff, David; Aregawi, Dawit; Cha, Soonmee; Puduvalli, Vinay K; Wu, Jing; Yung, Wai-Kwan A; Young, Geoffrey S; Vredenburgh, James; Barboriak, Dan; Abrey, Lauren E; Mikkelsen, Tom; Jain, Rajan; Paleologos, Nina A; Rn, Patricia Lada; Prados, Michael; Goldin, Jonathan; Wen, Patrick Y; Cloughesy, Timothy

    2012-07-01

    We have tested the predictive value of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis in stratifying progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in bevacizumab-treated patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) from the multi-center BRAIN study. Available MRI's from patients enrolled in the BRAIN study (n = 97) were examined by generating ADC histograms from areas of enhancing tumor on T1 weighted post-contrast images fitted to a two normal distribution mixture curve. ADC classifiers including the mean ADC from the lower curve (ADC-L) and the mean lower curve proportion (LCP) were tested for their ability to stratify PFS and OS by using Cox proportional hazard ratios and the Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test. Mean ADC-L was 1,209 × 10(-6)mm(2)/s ± 224 (SD), and mean LCP was 0.71 ± 0.23 (SD). Low ADC-L was associated with worse outcome. The hazard ratios for 6-month PFS, overall PFS, and OS in patients with less versus greater than mean ADC-L were 3.1 (95 % confidence interval: 1.6, 6.1; P = 0.001), 2.3 (95 % CI: 1.3, 4.0; P = 0.002), and 2.4 (95 % CI: 1.4, 4.2; P = 0.002), respectively. In patients with ADC-L <1,209 and LCP >0.71 versus ADC-L >1,209 and LCP <0.71, there was a 2.28-fold reduction in the median time to progression, and a 1.42-fold decrease in the median OS. The predictive value of ADC histogram analysis, in which low ADC-L was associated with poor outcome, was confirmed in bevacizumab-treated patients with recurrent GBM in a post hoc analysis from the multi-center (BRAIN) study.

  1. Diffusion tensor imaging and MR spectroscopy of microstructural alterations and metabolite concentration changes in the auditory neural pathway of pediatric congenital sensorineural hearing loss patients.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunxiao; Huang, Lexing; Tan, Hui; Wang, Yanting; Zheng, Hongyi; Kong, Lingmei; Zheng, Wenbin

    2016-05-15

    Our objective was to evaluate age-dependent changes in microstructure and metabolism in the auditory neural pathway, of children with profound sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), and to differentiate between good and poor surgical outcome cochlear implantation (CI) patients by using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Ninety-two SNHL children (49 males, 43 females; mean age, 4.9 years) were studied by conventional MR imaging, DTI and MRS. Patients were divided into three groups: Group A consisted of children≤1 years old (n=20), Group B consisted of children 1-3 years old (n=31), and group C consisted of children 3-14 years old (n=41). Among the 31 patients (19 males and 12 females, 12m- 14y ) with CI, 18 patients (mean age 4.8±0.7 years) with a categories of auditory performance (CAP) score over five were classified into the good outcome group and 13 patients (mean age, 4.4±0.7 years) with a CAP score below five were classified into the poor outcome group. Two DTI parameters, fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), were measured in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and auditory radiation. Regions of interest for metabolic change measurements were located inside the STG. DTI values were measured based on region-of-interest analysis and MRS values for correlation analysis with CAP scores. Compared with healthy individuals, 92 SNHL patients displayed decreased FA values in the auditory radiation and STG (p<0.05). Only decreased FA values in the auditory radiation was observed in Group A. Decreased FA values in the auditory radiation and STG were both observed in B and C groups. However, in Group C, the N-acetyl aspartate/creatinine ratio in the STG was also significantly decreased (p<0.05). Correlation analyses at 12 months post-operation revealed strong correlations between the FA, in the auditory radiation, and CAP scores (r=0.793, p<0.01). DTI and MRS can be used to evaluate microstructural

  2. Progressive dysphagia and neck pain due to diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis of the cervical spine: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Ruan, Dike; He, Qing; Wen, Tianyong; Yang, Pushan

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is considered an underdiagnosed and mostly asymptomatic nonprimary osteoarthritis. The etiology of DISH remains unknown and the validated diagnostic criteria are absent. This condition is still recognized radiologically only. Rarely, large projecting anterior osteophytes result in esophageal impingement and distortion leading to dysphagia. We report the case of progressive dysphagia and neck pain due to DISH of the cervical spine in a 70-year-old man, which was surgically removed with excellent postoperative results and complete resolution of symptoms. Imaging studies, surgical findings, and histopathological examinations were used to support the diagnosis. The patient was successfully treated with total excision of the anterior osteophytes with no evidence of recurrence 12 months after surgery. In this report, we also discuss the clinical features and perioperative considerations in combination with a literature review. Our patient illustrates that clinicians should be aware of this rare clinical manifestation as the presenting feature of DISH in cervical spine. Surgical decompression through osteophytectomy is effective for patients who fail conservative treatment. PMID:24729695

  3. A systematic evaluation of intraoperative white matter tract shift in pediatric epilepsy surgery using high-field MRI and probabilistic high angular resolution diffusion imaging tractography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Joseph Yuan-Mou; Beare, Richard; Seal, Marc L; Harvey, A Simon; Anderson, Vicki A; Maixner, Wirginia J

    2017-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Characterization of intraoperative white matter tract (WMT) shift has the potential to compensate for neuronavigation inaccuracies using preoperative brain imaging. This study aimed to quantify and characterize intraoperative WMT shift from the global hemispheric to the regional tract-based scale and to investigate the impact of intraoperative factors (IOFs). METHODS High angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) diffusion-weighted data were acquired over 5 consecutive perioperative time points (MR1 to MR5) in 16 epilepsy patients (8 male; mean age 9.8 years, range 3.8-15.8 years) using diagnostic and intraoperative 3-T MRI scanners. MR1 was the preoperative planning scan. MR2 was the first intraoperative scan acquired with the patient's head fixed in the surgical position. MR3 was the second intraoperative scan acquired following craniotomy and durotomy, prior to lesion resection. MR4 was the last intraoperative scan acquired following lesion resection, prior to wound closure. MR5 was a postoperative scan acquired at the 3-month follow-up visit. Ten association WMT/WMT segments and 1 projection WMT were generated via a probabilistic tractography algorithm from each MRI scan. Image registration was performed through pairwise MRI alignments using the skull segmentation. The MR1 and MR2 pairing represented the first surgical stage. The MR2 and MR3 pairing represented the second surgical stage. The MR3 and MR4 (or MR5) pairing represented the third surgical stage. The WMT shift was quantified by measuring displacements between a pair of WMT centerlines. Linear mixed-effects regression analyses were carried out for 6 IOFs: head rotation, craniotomy size, durotomy size, resected lesion volume, presence of brain edema, and CSF loss via ventricular penetration. RESULTS The average WMT shift in the operative hemisphere was 2.37 mm (range 1.92-3.03 mm) during the first surgical stage, 2.19 mm (range 1.90-3.65 mm) during the second surgical stage, and 2.92 mm

  4. Pediatric rehabilitation psychology: Rehabilitating a moving target.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Jacqueline N; Lahey, Sarah; Slomine, Beth S

    2017-08-01

    The current special section includes manuscripts focusing on four aspects of pediatric rehabilitation psychology that are unique to this practice area. The first domain addressed is natural developmental progression in the context of a disability (i.e., habilitation). The next domain addressed in this special section is pediatric rehabilitation; pediatric rehabilitation psychology addresses the reacquisition of previously attained skills and abilities within the context of the natural developmental milieu. This special section also highlights the inherently interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary nature of pediatric rehabilitation psychology given the complex environment in which children exist. Finally, the special section includes illustrations of the crucial role pediatric rehabilitation psychologists play in facilitating transitions through major milestones, particularly from pediatrics to adulthood when living with a disability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Pediatric Cervicofacial Necrotizing Fasciitis

    PubMed Central

    King, Ericka; Chun, Robert; Sulman, Cecille

    2015-01-01

    Objective To present a case of a pediatric cervicofacial necrotizing fasciitis (NF), a rapidly progressive infection, and a review of a 10-year pediatric inpatient database. Design Case report and review. Setting Pediatric intensive care unit. Patients A healthy 5-year-old male who developed NF of the lower lip 36 hours following minor trauma. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, code 728.86 (NF), was the inclusion criteria for the Kids’ Inpatient Database (KID) in 1997 and 2006. Results A pediatric case is presented with a thorough photographic record demonstrating the need for rapid diagnosis and treatment. In a review of the KID from 1997 and 2006, the relative risk of being discharged with NF in 2006 vs 1997 was 1.4 (95% CI, 9.95-2.28). Age at diagnosis of NF was older in 2006 compared with 1997 (11.5 years vs 8.05 years; P<.001). Deaths with a diagnosis of NF increased from 1997 compared with 2006: from 3.9% to 5.4%. In 2006, the odds of death were 15.1 times higher in pediatric discharges with a diagnosis of NF compared with discharges without a diagnosis of NF (P<.001; 95% CI, 9.3-23.1). Conclusions Even with the advent of new treatments and antibiotics, the incidence and death rates of NF have changed little over the past 10 years. While it is still a rare diagnosis, knowledge and awareness of necrotizing fasciitis with aggressive medical and surgical treatment are still the foundation in disease survival. PMID:22508620

  6. Pediatric dermatology.

    PubMed

    Baruch, K

    1986-07-01

    Dr. Baruch presents some of the most common pediatric lower extremity skin conditions seen in clinical practice. The conditions that he discusses appear to be relatively easy to diagnose in the early stages; however, some of them, such as contact dermatitis and atopic dermatitis, may be hard to distinguish from one another. I have to admit that I have never seen lichen planus in the pediatric age group; I will need to keep looking. I agree with Dr. Baruch that classification of lesions into either the primary and secondary groups will aid in diagnosis and treatment. It also seems that the ever-present verrucae is the most common pediatric condition seen in our office, and we have taken similar steps in treating this condition with blunt dissection with excellent results.

  7. Pediatric photosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Grossberg, Anna L

    2012-08-01

    Photosensitivity is a rarely encountered problem in the pediatric population. It may be caused by a diverse group of primary, idiopathic photosensitivity conditions, or may reflect photoexacerbation of an existing dermatosis. In addition, there are several genodermatoses, metabolic disorders, and connective tissue disorders that can present with photosensitivity, usually in addition to other extracutaneous clinical and laboratory findings. It is important that both dermatologic and pediatric practitioners be able to recognize the various causes of photosensitivity, as well as be familiar with the associated stigmata and necessary workup, if needed, of each particular disorder. This review offers an approach to the pediatric patient who presents with photosensitivity, with emphasis on arriving at the proper diagnosis, necessary evaluations, and management strategies. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. History of German pediatric cardiology.

    PubMed

    Heintzen, P

    2002-01-01

    Due to the isolation of German medicine in World War II accompanied by the destruction of many hospitals, German pediatricians did not show any serious interest in the treatment of children with congenital heart diseases, nor did they take notice of the progress achieved by Helen Taussig, Alfred Blalock and other cardiologists and surgeons in the western world. This problem was even worse in East Germany. Only a few German internists and forward-looking surgeons were able and ready to take care of this group of principally operable children in places like Bonn/Düsseldorf, Marburg/Munich, Berlin, and Hamburg. However, in the early 1950s some directors of pediatrics at university hospitals--largely motivated by the cardiac surgeons--allowed or even encouraged younger colleagues to concentrate on pediatric cardiology and to begin application of heart catheterization and angiocardiography. In 1960 a group of colleagues interested in pediatric cardiology met for the first time in Frankfurt and became the nucleus of the future "working group" (1969) and finally the "German Society of Pediatric Cardiology" (1974). By 1972 pediatric cardiology had been approved as an independent (sub)specialty. Colleagues and friends from surrounding countries (Austria, Great Britain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the Netherlands) and also from the US and some eastern countries were either members or regular guests during or between the meetings. Pediatric cardiology is now represented in Germany by specialized practitioners, trainees and assistants who work in both community and university hospitals, and in specialized departments. Due to the foresightedness of the Chief of Pediatrics, Prof. G. Joppich, the first Chair of Pediatric Cardiology was founded in Göttingen in 1960 under the direction of A. Beuren. Another model of interdisciplinary cooperation between pediatric cardiologists, bioengineers, mathematicians and computer scientists was established in Kiel in 1966. In other places

  9. FDA's pediatric device consortia: national program fosters pediatric medical device development.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Linda C; Joseph, Francesca D; Lewis, Debra Y; Koenig, Robert L

    2013-05-01

    This article reports on the progress made in addressing pediatric medical device needs through the establishment of the Pediatric Device Consortia Grant Program. Pediatric practitioners should be aware of both the imperative for well-studied devices for children and the existence of recently created resources to help foster the development of such products. This article discusses some of the challenges associated with pediatric device development and describes the implementation of section 305 of the Pediatric Medical Device Safety and Improvement Act of 2007. This statute called for the creation of nonprofit consortia to facilitate the development, production, and distribution of pediatric medical devices. A summary of the accomplishments of the pediatric device consortia is presented. Eleven million dollars have been awarded to 5 consortia since 2009. As of July 2012, they have collectively assisted in the development of 219 pediatric device ideas. The consortia provide innovators with both mentorship and services to help advance proposed pediatric device projects, including assistance with prototyping, identification of potential funding sources, preclinical and clinical trial design, and introductions to potential manufacturers. Currently, 5 federally funded pediatric device consortia exist to help advance the development of potential pediatric devices. These consortia serve as a national resource for those with ideas for medical devices that may advance the health and well-being of children.

  10. Pediatric Sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Williams, Regan F; Fernandez-Pineda, Israel; Gosain, Ankush

    2016-10-01

    Pediatric sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of tumors accounting for approximately 10% of childhood solid tumors. Treatment is focused on multimodality therapy, which has improved the prognosis over the past two decades. Current regimens focus on decreasing treatment for low-risk patients to decrease the long-term side effects while maximizing therapy for patients with metastatic disease to improve survival. Pediatric sarcomas can be divided into soft tissue sarcomas and osseous tumors. Soft tissue sarcomas are further delineated into rhabdomyosarcomas, which affect young children and nonrhabdomyosarcomas, which are most common in adolescents. The most common bone sarcomas are osteosarcomas and Ewing's sarcoma.

  11. Pediatric rosacea.

    PubMed

    Kellen, Roselyn; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2016-07-01

    Because rosacea is uncommon in the pediatric population, care must be taken to exclude other papulopustular disorders. Children can present with vascular, papulopustular, and/or ocular findings. Importantly, ocular symptoms can appear before the cutaneous symptoms of rosacea, leading to misdiagnosis. Rosacea is a clinical diagnosis, but histopathologic examination typically reveals dilated vessels, perivascular lymphohistiocytic infiltrates in the upper dermis, elastosis, and disorganization of the upper dermal connective tissue. Treatment involves avoiding known triggers and utilizing topical and/or systemic therapies. Although treatment can control flares, pediatric rosacea often persists into adulthood.

  12. Pediatric Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Skin changes are common in children. Common concerns are birthmarks (e.g., hemangiomas and port wine stains), atopic and contact dermatitis, acne, and alopecia areata. The authors review advances in common and not so common skin changes in pediatric patients. PMID:28360970

  13. Pediatric ultrasonography

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden, C.K. Jr.; Swischuk, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    Two leading experts explore the benefits and limitations of pediatric ultrasonography, explaining the latest techniques for optimal imaging of specific body regions: the head, chest, abdomen, pelvis, extremities, and soft tissues. Numerous illustrations emphasize significant points and combine with the text to show specifically what to look for when imaging children.

  14. Incarcerated Pediatric Hernias.

    PubMed

    Abdulhai, Sophia A; Glenn, Ian C; Ponsky, Todd A

    2017-02-01

    Indirect inguinal hernias are the most commonly incarcerated hernias in children, with a higher incidence in low birth weight and premature infants. Contralateral groin exploration to evaluate for a patent processus vaginalis or subclinical hernia is controversial, given that most never progress to clinical hernias. Most indirect inguinal hernias can be reduced nonoperatively. It is recommended to repair them in a timely fashion, even in premature infants. Laparoscopic repair of incarcerated inguinal hernia repair is considered a safe and effective alternative to conventional open herniorrhaphy. Other incarcerated pediatric hernias are extremely rare and may be managed effectively with laparoscopy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fluid Therapy for Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Justine A; Cohn, Leah A

    2017-03-01

    Young puppies and kittens have unique physiologic needs in regards to fluid therapy, which must address hydration, vascular fluid volume, electrolyte disturbances, or hypoglycemia. Pediatric patients have a higher fluid requirement compared with adults and can rapidly progress from mild dehydration to hypovolemia. Simultaneously, their small size makes overhydration a real possibility. Patient size complicates fluid administration because catheters used in larger pets may be difficult to place. Routes of fluid administration used in the neonate or pediatric patient include oral, subcutaneous, intraperitoneal, intraosseous, and intravenous. Clinicians should be aware of the pros and cons of each route. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The partnership of the American Burn Association, Children's Burn Foundation, and the Pediatric Burn Team in Vellore, India - a progress report.

    PubMed

    Light, Timothy D; Latenser, Barbara A; Heinle, Jackie A; Stolpen, Margeret S; Quinn, Keely A; Ravindarin, Vinitha; Chacko, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Foreign medical service trips, though worthy, raise questions about efficacy, durability, and cultural sensitivity. A structured intervention by a multidisciplinary team can lead to sustained and integrated changes in the delivery of burn care. The American Burn Association, Children's Burn Foundation, and other donors have sponsored four interventions with the Pediatric Burn Center at Christian Medical Center in Vellore, India. Using qualitative research methods, we report our interventions and changes in burn care in Vellore. Using a multifaceted intervention over 2 years, there are skilled and practiced changes in burn care in Vellore, India. These changes involved changes in medical care, nursing care, wound care, operative timing, patient activity, and rehabilitation. Protocols and student and staff education tools have been developed and implemented. Major changes in burn care were observed by the visiting burn team. These skills are practiced and routinely used. The Vellore burn team reports an improvement in nursing satisfaction, patient tolerance, cleanliness, decreased antibiotic use, earlier excision and grafting, and more efficient care. Educational partnerships to improve burn care can induce durable changes, regardless of local language, culture, resources, technology, and skill.

  17. Contributions of pediatrics and pediatric pathology to the body of knowledge regarding human disease.

    PubMed

    Nezelof, Christian; Seemayer, Thomas A; Bridge, Julia A

    2010-03-01

    A century or so ago, pediatrics and pediatric pathology did not exist. Then, many fetuses/newborns died in utero or shortly after birth. With time, the issue of sepsis was addressed, and a greater number of newborns survived. Gradually, in this soil, the disciplines of pediatrics and pediatric nursing arose, as some recognized that infants were not merely small adults but were, in fact, quite different. Years later, pediatric pathology developed as a field of exploration. Today, pediatric pathology is a specialty, as witnessed by training programs, societies devoted to research and education, an expanding number of textbooks and innovative research. Pediatric pathology is distinct from adult pathology, as seen by the diversity of malformations and metabolic diseases stemming from mutations, the immaturity of the newborn's immune system, and the types of neoplasms germane to infants and children. Much of the progress in these areas was facilitated by the simultaneous emergence of cytogenetics and molecular biology and their powerful tools of investigation. The latter were applied in a synergistic fashion to a major extent in maternity clinics and children's hospitals by, among others, molecular biologists, clinical geneticists, cytogeneticists, pediatricians, and pediatric pathologists. This article describes a select but small number of the many contributions of pediatrics and pediatric pathology to the current body of medical knowledge.

  18. Pediatric sleep apnea

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep apnea - pediatric; Apnea - pediatric sleep apnea syndrome; Sleep-disordered breathing - pediatric ... During sleep, all of the muscles in the body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep ...

  19. Tropical pediatrics: 2002 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Santos Ocampo, Perla D; Santos Ocampo-Padilla, Cynthia

    2003-01-01

    It also presents the challenges that confront children in the tropics and their effects on the health of these children. These challenges include the technology divide, economic disparity, ecological changes, urbanization and industrialization, globalization, political instability, population explosion, and gender inequality. The paper paints a scenario of tropical pediatrics into the year 2015. Problems brought about by both underdevelopment and modernization, with urbanization and industrialization, will persist. Infectious diseases will continue to be the leading causes of deaths. The paper presents some significant achievements in the fight against tropical diseases and tries to predict what future progress will contribute to the alleviation of such diseases. The paper also outlines the commitment of the International Society of Tropical Pediatrics (ISTP) to improve the state of tropical pediatrics in the next 15 years.

  20. Pediatric obesity & type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Dea, Tara L

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on (a) identifying obesity and other risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes, (b) differentiating between pediatric type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes, and (c) treating pediatric type 2 diabetes. Obesity has significant implications on a child's health, including an increased risk for insulin resistance and progression to type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes in children, characterized by insulin resistance and relative pancreatic b-cell failure due to the increased demand for insulin production, has now reached epidemic proportions. Longitudinal research on pediatric type 2 diabetes, however, is lacking because this epidemic is relatively new. Treatment of type 2 diabetes in children is focused on lifestyle modification with weight management/increased physical activity, and pharmacological management through oral medication or insulin therapy. Because children with type 2 diabetes are at risk for developing diabetes-related complications earlier in life, they need to be closely monitored for comorbidities.

  1. Update on pediatric sepsis: a review.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Tatsuya

    2017-01-01

    Sepsis is one of the leading causes of mortality among children worldwide. Unfortunately, however, reliable evidence was insufficient in pediatric sepsis and many aspects in clinical practice actually depend on expert consensus and some evidence in adult sepsis. More recent findings have given us deep insights into pediatric sepsis since the publication of the Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines 2012. New knowledge was added regarding the hemodynamic management and the timely use of antimicrobials. Quality improvement initiatives of pediatric "sepsis bundles" were reported to be successful in clinical outcomes by several centers. Moreover, a recently published global epidemiologic study (the SPROUT study) did not only reveal the demographics, therapeutic interventions, and prognostic outcomes but also elucidated the inappropriateness of the current definition of pediatric sepsis. With these updated knowledge, the management of pediatric sepsis would be expected to make further progress. In addition, it is meaningful that the fundamental data on which future research should be based were established through the SPROUT study.

  2. Pediatric tracheostomy.

    PubMed

    Campisi, Paolo; Forte, Vito

    2016-06-01

    Tracheotomy refers to a surgical incision made into a trachea. Tracheostomy, on the other hand, refers to a surgical procedure whereby the tracheal lumen is positioned in close proximity to the skin surface. Tracheostomy is an uncommon procedure in the pediatric population. When required tracheostomy is typically performed as an open surgical procedure under general anesthesia with the patient intubated. However, it may need to be performed under local anesthesia or over a rigid bronchoscope in the patient with a precarious airway. Over the past half century, the primary indication for pediatric tracheostomy has shifted from acute infectious airway compromise to the need for prolonged ventilatory support in neurologically compromised children. The surgical technique, choice of tracheostomy tube, and post-operative care requires a nuanced approach in infants and young children. This article will review these topics in a comprehensive fashion.

  3. Pediatric parasomnias.

    PubMed

    Mason, Thornton B A; Pack, Allan I

    2007-02-01

    Parasomnias in childhood are common, and often more frequent than in adults. The large number of parasomnias underscore that sleep is not simply a quiescent state, but can involve complex episodes of movement, ranging from subtle to dramatic and complex. Clinicians should be aware that many pediatric parasomnias are benign, self-limited, and may not persist into late childhood or adolescence. Importantly, parasomnias in childhood often differ in type from adults. Nevertheless, parasomnias across ages can be classified as: 1) disorders of arousal (from non-rapid eye movement, or NREM, sleep); 2) parasomnias usually associated with REM sleep; and 3) other parasomnias. We detail here issues in the clinical diagosis, evaluation, and management of multiple pediatric parasomnias. The further study of parasomnias in children may help elucidate the multi-factorial etiologies of these fascinating conditions, shedding light on the potential genetic bases as well as environmental contributions.

  4. Pediatric stridor.

    PubMed

    Ida, Jonathan B; Thompson, Dana Mara

    2014-10-01

    Pediatric stridor is an important symptom of upper airway obstruction, and must be recognized early by evaluating physicians. Proper evaluation and management, both acutely and chronically, can provide improved outcomes and better quality of life for patients. This article discusses the physiology of stridor and its intimate relation to airway anatomy, the work-up of the stridorous child, and recent advances in treatment, and provides illustrative examples of common lesions.

  5. Pediatric Virology

    PubMed Central

    Portnoy, Bernard

    1965-01-01

    Pediatric virology is not an isolàted discipline. Rather, the syndromes associated with viral infection are modified by the unique characteristics of infancy and childhood. Fortunately for the pediatrician, and certainly for children, viral infections in childhood are rarely fatal, and are almost never serious. Future efforts of the pediatrician and virologist should be directed toward increased fetal salvage as with rubella and the prevention of severe, viral lower respiratory tract disease. PMID:14298871

  6. Pediatric sialendoscopy.

    PubMed

    Bruch, Jean M; Setlur, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Sialendoscopy was introduced in the early 1990s as a minimally invasive alternative to standard methods for diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory and obstructive salivary gland disease. The technique was pioneered in adults; however, advances in instrumentation have allowed this to be adapted to the smaller salivary ductal anatomy found in the pediatric population. In this chapter, the technique of sialendoscopy for parotid and submandibular glands is described.

  7. The clinical significance of preoperative brain magnetic resonance imaging in pediatric cochlear implant recipients.

    PubMed

    Moon, Il Joon; Kim, Eun Yeon; Park, Ga-Young; Jang, Min Seok; Kim, Ji Hye; Lee, Jeehun; Chung, Won-Ho; Cho, Yang-Sun; Hong, Sung Hwa

    2012-01-01

    Although central nervous system abnormalities are incidentally detected in preoperative brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in pediatric cochlear implant (CI) candidates, the clinical significance of the abnormalities remains unclear. We aimed to assess post-implantation auditory and speech performance in patients with brain lesions seen on MRI. Pediatric CI recipients (n = 177) who underwent preoperative MRI scans of the brain between January 2002 and June 2009 were included in this study. Patients with brain lesions on MRI were reviewed and categorized into the following groups: brain parenchymal lesions (focal vs. diffuse), ventriculomegaly, and extra-axial lesion. The main communication mode as well as progress in auditory perception and speech production were evaluated preoperatively and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively. Performance in patients with brain lesions was compared with the age- and sex-matched control group. Various brain lesions were found in 27 out of 177 patients. Children with brain lesions who received CIs showed gradual progress in auditory and speech outcomes for 2 years, though performance was reduced compared with the control group. In addition, there was a significant difference in the main communication mode between the two groups at 2 years following cochlear implantation. This difference was especially significant in patients with diffuse brain parenchymal lesions after further stratification of the brain lesion group. Preoperative brain MRI may have a role in improving the prediction of adverse outcomes in pediatric CI recipients. In particular, children with diffuse brain parenchymal lesions should be counseled regarding the poor prognosis preoperatively, and followed up with special attention.

  8. Quality improvement in pediatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Danielle B; Rangel, Shawn J

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this review is to provide updates on the evolution of conceptual definitions as they relate to quality in healthcare, existing measurement platforms for performance benchmarking in pediatric surgery, and available tools for quality improvement that are relevant to care of the pediatric surgical patient. The American College of Surgeon's National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-Pediatric has continued to evolve, now providing risk-adjusted safety outcomes data to over 70 hospitals and broadening its scope of quality measurement to include resource utilization and value-based metrics. Increasing use of checklists and other team-based communication tools show potential for making surgical care safer for children, and thoughtful application of quality improvement methods such as Lean methodology, six-sigma and others are helping to improve efficiency and increase healthcare value. Finally, efforts to define minimal resource standards for pediatric surgical care holds promise to improve outcomes for neonates and other children with complex surgical needs. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made in our ability to measure, benchmark and improve quality in pediatric surgery. Future efforts will need to facilitate broader participation in benchmarking programs and knowledge-sharing collaboratives, and to develop multidisciplinary, 'disease-specific' longitudinal care models where quality measurement extends before and beyond the 'traditional' 30-day perioperative period.

  9. DTI Assessment of the Brainstem White Matter Tracts in Pediatric BSG Before and After Therapy: A Report from the Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, Sanjay P; Ng, Sarah; Vajapeyam, Sridhar; Kieran, Mark W.; Pollack, Ian F.; Geyer, Russell; Haas-Kogan, Daphne; Boyett, James M.; Kun, Larry; Poussaint, Tina Young

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To assess changes in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values in brainstem gliomas in children and to observe the temporal evolution of changes in the white matter tracts following therapy using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis. Methods Serial ADC and FA measurements were obtained in 3 patients with newly diagnosed brainstem gliomas on two approved treatment protocols. Values were compared with a set of normative ADC, FA, and eigenvalues of age-matched children of the corticospinal, transverse pontine and medial lemniscal tracts. Fiber tracking of the tracts coursing through the brainstem was performed using standard diffusion tractography analysis. Results We found increased ADC values within tumor at baseline compared to age-matched controls, with subsequent drop following treatment and subsequent increase with recurrence. Correspondingly, FA values were reduced at presentation, but transiently recovered during the phase of tumor response to treatment, and finally decreased significantly during tumor progression. These changes were concordant with the tractography analysis of white matter tracts in the brainstem. Based on these results, we suggest that initial changes in ADC and FA values reflects tract infiltration by tumor, but not complete disruption, whereas tumor progression results in complete loss of anisotropy possibly due to tract disruption. Conclusion Serial changes in ADC and FA values and tractography data in pediatric brainstem gliomas suggest initial tumor infiltration, with transient improvement on treatment and subsequent loss of tract anisotropy during tumor progression. This technique may have potential use in assessing response to treatment regimens for pediatric brainstem gliomas. PMID:21052693

  10. Liver Transplantation as a Treatment for Severe Refractory Vitamin E Deficiency Related to Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis Type 2 in a Pediatric Patient.

    PubMed

    Collyer, Elizabeth; Hupertz, Vera; Eghtesad, Bijan; Radhakrishnan, Kadakkal

    2016-08-01

    Refractory vitamin E deficiency is thought to have irreversible effects on neurologic function. We report an adolescent boy with severe refractory vitamin E deficiency due to progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) type 2. His consequent neurologic dysfunction included severe ataxia, dysmetria, dysarthria, and cranial nerve VI palsy. He underwent liver transplantation at age 13 due to his neurologic dysfunction; and afterward, he had marked improvement in neurologic function. We demonstrate that in a patient with PFIC 2 and severe refractory vitamin E deficiency, liver transplant can improve vitamin E absorption, prevent further neurological sequelae, and reverse prior neurologic dysfunction.

  11. Liver Transplantation as a Treatment for Severe Refractory Vitamin E Deficiency Related to Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis Type 2 in a Pediatric Patient

    PubMed Central

    Hupertz, Vera; Eghtesad, Bijan; Radhakrishnan, Kadakkal

    2016-01-01

    Refractory vitamin E deficiency is thought to have irreversible effects on neurologic function. We report an adolescent boy with severe refractory vitamin E deficiency due to progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) type 2. His consequent neurologic dysfunction included severe ataxia, dysmetria, dysarthria, and cranial nerve VI palsy. He underwent liver transplantation at age 13 due to his neurologic dysfunction; and afterward, he had marked improvement in neurologic function. We demonstrate that in a patient with PFIC 2 and severe refractory vitamin E deficiency, liver transplant can improve vitamin E absorption, prevent further neurological sequelae, and reverse prior neurologic dysfunction. PMID:28119944

  12. Pediatric lymphomas in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gualco, Gabriela; Klumb, Claudete E; Barber, Glen N; Weiss, Lawrence M; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study provides the clinical pathological characteristics of 1301 cases of pediatric/adolescent lymphomas in patients from different geographic regions of Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective analyses of diagnosed pediatric lymphoma cases in a 10‐year period was performed. We believe that it represents the largest series of pediatric lymphomas presented from Brazil. RESULTS: Non‐Hodgkin lymphomas represented 68% of the cases, including those of precursor (36%) and mature (64%) cell origin. Mature cell lymphomas comprised 81% of the B‐cell phenotype and 19% of the T‐cell phenotype. Hodgkin lymphomas represented 32% of all cases, including 87% of the classical type and 13% of nodular lymphocyte predominant type. The geographic distribution showed 38.4% of the cases in the Southeast region, 28.7% in the Northeast, 16.1% in the South, 8.8% in the North, and 8% in the Central‐west region. The distribution by age groups was 15–18 years old, 33%; 11–14 years old, 26%; 6–10 years old, 24%; and 6 years old or younger, 17%. Among mature B‐cell lymphomas, most of the cases were Burkitt lymphomas (65%), followed by diffuse large B‐cell lymphomas (24%). In the mature T‐cell group, anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK‐positive was the most prevalent (57%), followed by peripheral T‐cell lymphoma, then not otherwise specified (25%). In the group of classic Hodgkin lymphomas, the main histological subtype was nodular sclerosis (76%). Nodular lymphocyte predominance occurred more frequently than in other series. CONCLUSION: Some of the results found in this study may reflect the heterogeneous socioeconomical status and environmental factors of the Brazilian population in different regions. PMID:21340214

  13. Weight as predictors of clinical progression and treatment failure: Results from the TREAT Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database (TApHOD)

    PubMed Central

    Kariminia, Azar; Durier, Nicolas; Jourdain, Gonzague; Saghayam, Suneeta; Do, Chau V.; Van Nguyên, Lam; Hansudewechakul, Rawiwan; Lumbiganon, Pagakrong; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Truong, Khanh Huu; Sirisanthana, Virat; Ung, Vibol; Vonthanak, Saphonn; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Yusoff, Nik Khairulddin N.; Kurniati, Nia; Razali, Kamarul Azahar; Fong, Moy Siew; Nallusamy, Revathy; Wati, Dewi Kumara

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the value of time-updated weight and height in predicting clinical progression, immunological and virological failure in children receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Methods We used Cox regression to analyse data of a cohort of Asian children. Results 2608 children were included; median age at cART was 5.7 years. Time-updated weight for age Z score <−3 was associated with mortality (P < 0.001) independent of CD4%; and <−2 was associated with immunological failure (P ≤ 0.03) independent of age at cART. Conclusion Weight monitoring provides useful data to inform clinical management of children on cART in resource-limited settings. PMID:24872132

  14. A review of pediatric palliative care service utilization in children with a progressive neuromuscular disease who died on a palliative care program.

    PubMed

    Ho, Charles; Straatman, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies and consensus statements have expressed the need to involve palliative care services in the care of children with progressive neuromuscular diseases (PMD), yet there have been no reviews of the utilization of palliative care services by children who died on a palliative care program. We conducted a retrospective chart review of all children who had a PMD who died on a single-center palliative care program. Twenty cases were identified. Services utilized by these patients included respite care, transition services, pain and symptom management, and end-of-life care. Prominent symptoms in the last 24 hours of life included respiratory distress, pain, nausea/vomiting, and anxiety; however, symptom management was very good. Utilization of services differed depending on the disease trajectory, with respite playing a critical role in the care of children with PMD. Good symptom management can be achieved.

  15. Pediatric nutrition.

    PubMed

    Greco, Deborah S

    2014-03-01

    This article discusses pediatric nutrition in puppies and kittens. Supplementation of basic nutrients such as fat, protein, minerals, vitamins, and essential fatty acids of the bitch is essential for the proper growth and development of puppies during the lactation period. Milk replacers are compared for use in puppies and kittens. Supplements such as colostrum and probiotics for promotion of a healthy immune system and prevention or treatment of stress-induced and weaning diarrhea are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Pediatric Appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Rentea, Rebecca M; St Peter, Shawn D

    2017-02-01

    Appendicitis is one of the most common surgical pathologies in children. It can present with right lower quadrant pain. Scoring systems in combination with selective imaging and surgical examination will diagnose most children with appendicitis. Clinical pathways should be used. Most surgical interventions for appendicitis are now almost exclusively laparoscopic, with trials demonstrating better outcomes for children who undergo index hospitalization appendectomies when perforated. Nonoperative management has a role in the treatment of both uncomplicated and complicated appendicitis. This article discusses the workup and management, modes of treatment, and continued areas of controversy in pediatric appendicitis.

  17. Pediatric urticaria.

    PubMed

    Tsakok, Teresa; Du Toit, George; Flohr, Carsten

    2014-02-01

    Although urticaria is not a life-threatening disease, its impact on quality of life in children should not be overlooked. A systematic search of online databases, including Medline, was performed to inform a review aiming to equip clinicians with an evidence-based approach to all aspects of pediatric urticaria. This review hinges on an illustrative case and includes a summary table of studies pertaining to disease management in children. The multiple issues faced by patients, their families, and treating clinicians are highlighted, and the current literature on the presentation, natural history, investigation, and management of this poorly understood condition is assessed.

  18. Pediatric vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, Nanette B

    2014-04-01

    Vitiligo is a disease of pigment loss. Most investigators currently consider vitiligo to be a disorder that occurs as a result of autoimmune destruction of melanocytes, supported by identification of antimelanocyte antibodies in many patients, and the presence of comorbid autoimmune disease in patients with and family members of individuals with vitiligo. One-half of vitiligo cases are of childhood onset. This article presents a current overview of pediatric vitiligo including comorbidities of general health, psychological factors, therapeutic options, and long-term health considerations.

  19. Pediatric vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Pamela F

    2012-04-01

    Childhood vasculitis is a challenging and complex group of conditions that are multisystem in nature and often require integrated care from multiple subspecialties, including rheumatology, dermatology, cardiology, nephrology, neurology, and gastroenterology. Vasculitis is defined as the presence of inflammation in the blood vessel wall. The site of vessel involvement, size of the affected vessels, extent of vascular injury, and underlying pathology determine the disease phenotype and severity. This article explores the classification and general features of pediatric vasculitis, as well as the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and therapeutic options for the most common vasculitides.

  20. A Rare Case of Painful Goiter Secondary to Pediatric Hashimoto's Thyroiditis Requiring Thyroidectomy for Pain Control.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Liladhar; Alsaheel, Abdulhameed; Walvekar, Rohan; Simon, Lawrence; Gomez, Ricardo

    2015-09-28

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) usually presents as painless thyroid swelling. Painful pediatric HT is a rare condition with limited literature on pain management. We report a 15-year-old female who presented with 4 weeks history of fatigue, malaise and progressive, painful midline thyroid swelling. There was no difficulty in swallowing, no fever or recent upper respiratory infection symptoms. Exam was remarkable for diffusely enlarged, very tender, and non-nodular thyroid. Thyroid function tests, C-reactive protein, and complete blood count were normal. Ultrasound revealed diffusely enlarged non-nodular, non-cystic gland with mild increased vascularity. Diagnosis of HT was confirmed by biopsy and thyroid antibodies. Over a 6 week period, pain management with ibuprofen, levothyroxine, corticosteroid, gabapentin and amitriptyline was unsuccessful. Ultimately, total thyroidectomy resulted in complete resolution of thyroid pain. We can conclude that thyroidectomy may be considered for the rare case of painful HT in children.

  1. Pediatric Rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Badr, Dana T; Gaffin, Jonathan M; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2016-09-01

    Rhinosinusitis, is defined as an inflammation of the paranasal and nasal sinus mucosae. Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS)is a common problem in the pediatric age group and the diagnosis and treatment are challenging due to the chronicity and similarity of symptoms with allergic rhinitis and adenoid hypertrophy. Although it is less common than acute rhinosinusitis, CRS is becoming more frequent and significantly affects the quality of life in children and can substantially impair daily function. CRS is characterized by sinus symptoms lasting more than 3 months despite medical therapy. Many factors are involved in the pathogenesis of this disease and include a primary insult with a virus followed bybacterial infection and mucosal inflammation, along with predisposition to allergies. The standard treatment of pediatricacute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS) is nasal irrigation and antibiotic use. Medical treatment of pediatric CRS includes avoidance of allergens in allergic patients (environmental or food) and therapy with nasal irrigation, nasal corticosteroids sprays, nasal decongestants, and antibiotics directed at the most common sinonasalorganisms (Haemophilusinfluenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Moraxella catarrhalis). Surgical therapy is rarely needed after appropriate medical therapy. Referral to an otolaryngologist and allergy specialist is recommended in case of failure of medical treatment.

  2. Pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Bozic, Molly A; Subbarao, Girish; Molleston, Jean P

    2013-08-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the pediatric population. Increased recognition of this form of liver disease parallels the dramatic rise in childhood and adolescent obesity over the past 2 decades. Like adults, most children with NAFLD are obese, and comorbidities include insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Unfortunately, pediatric NAFLD is not always a benign condition, with some children progressing to hepatic fibrosis and even cirrhosis in severe cases. The etiology of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is not yet fully understood; however, hepatic steatosis in the context of insulin resistance and increased oxidative stress may lead to progressive disease. Although physical examination, laboratory evaluation, and radiographic findings provide clues to the potential presence of fatty liver disease, liver biopsy remains the gold standard for diagnosis. Lifestyle modification, including slow and steady weight loss, improved dietary habits, and increased daily, aerobic physical activity, remains the first-line approach in treating pediatric fatty liver disease. Antioxidant pharmacologic therapy such as use of vitamin E has shown some benefit in patients with biopsy-proven steatohepatitis. Nutrition plays an essential role not only in the development of fatty liver disease but also potentially in the treatment and prevention of progression to more severe disease.

  3. There is no role for hyperfractionated radiotherapy in the management of children with newly diagnosed diffuse intrinsic brainstem tumors: results of a Pediatric Oncology Group phase III trial comparing conventional vs. hyperfractionated radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Mandell, L R; Kadota, R; Freeman, C; Douglass, E C; Fontanesi, J; Cohen, M E; Kovnar, E; Burger, P; Sanford, R A; Kepner, J; Friedman, H; Kun, L E

    1999-03-15

    In June 1992, POG began accrual to a phase III study, POG-9239, designed to compare the time to disease progression, overall survival, and toxicities observed in children with newly diagnosed brainstem tumor treated with 100 mg/m2 of infusional cisplatin and randomized to either conventional vs. hyperfractionated radiotherapy. Patients eligible for study were those between 3 and 21 years of age with previously untreated tumors arising in the pons. Histologic confirmation of diagnosis was not mandatory, provided that the clinical and MRI scan findings were typical for a diffusely infiltrating pontine lesion. Treatment consisted of a six-week course of local field radiotherapy with either once a day treatment of 180 cGy per fraction to a total dose of 5400 cGy (arm 1) or a twice a day regimen of 117 cGy per fraction to a total dose of 7020 cGy (the second of the three hyperfractionated dose escalation levels of POG-8495) (arm 2). Because of previously reported poor results with conventional radiotherapy alone, cisplatin was included as a potential radiosensitizer in an attempt to improve progression-free and ultimate survival rates. Based on results of the phase I cisplatin dose escalation trial, POG-9139, 100 mg/m2 was chosen for this trial and was delivered by continuous infusion over a 120-hour period, beginning on the first day of radiotherapy and repeated during weeks 3 and 5. One hundred thirty eligible patients were treated on protocol, 66 on arm 1 and 64 on arm 2. The results we report are from time of diagnosis through October 1997. For patients treated on arm 1, the median time to disease progression (defined as time to off study) was 6 months (range 2-15 months) and the median time to death 8.5 months (range 3-24 months); survival at 1 year was 30.9% and at 2 years, 7.1%. For patients treated on arm 2, the corresponding values were 5 months (range 1-12 months) and 8 months (range 1-23 months), with 1- and 2-year survival rates at 27.0% and 6

  4. Combustor diffuser interaction program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, Ram; Thorp, Daniel

    1986-01-01

    Advances in gas turbine engine performance are achieved by using compressor systems with high stage loading and low part count, which result in high exit Mach numbers. The diffuser and combustor systems in such engines should be optimized to reduce system pressure loss and to maximize the engine thrust-to-weight ratio and minimize length. The state-of-the-art combustor-diffuser systems do not meet these requirements. Detailed understanding of the combustor-diffuser flow field interaction is required for designing advanced gas turbine engines. An experimental study of the combustor-diffuser interaction (CDI) is being conducted to obtain data for the evaluation and improvement of analytical models applicable to a wide variety of diffuser designs. The CDI program consists of four technical phases: Literature Search; Baseline Configuration; Parametric Configurations; and Performance Configurations. Phase 2 of the program is in progress.

  5. A case of composite classical and nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma with progression to diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma: Diagnostic difficulty in fine-needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Das, Dilip K; Sheikh, Zafar A; Al-Shama'a, Mariam H; John, Bency; Alawi, Abdulla M S; Junaid, Thamradeen A

    2017-03-01

    A small percentage of nodular lymphocytic predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) progresses to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). There have also been rare reports of gray zone lymphoma with features intermediate between classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) and DLBCL. We report a very rare case of composite lymphoma (CHL and NLPHL) progressing to DLBCL, and highlight the diagnostic difficulty faced during its fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology diagnosis. A 65-year-old woman presented with a right axillary swelling which was subjected to FNA cytology. The routine FNA cytology diagnosis was anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) but immunocytochemistry did not support this diagnosis completely. The histopathological diagnosis of the excised lymph node was NLPHL with progression to DLBCL in our hospital but in a hospital abroad where the patient was treated, the reviewed diagnosis was CHL. The patient had a rapid downhill course with development of terminal pleural effusion and died approximately one year from initial diagnosis.The review of the cyto-histologic material along with additional immunocyto/histochemical studies and the clinical course of the disease support the diagnosis of a composite lymphoma (CHL and NLPHL) with progression to DLBCL. It is suggested that all the three lesions were clonally related. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:262-266. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Pediatric tracheomalacia.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Jose Carlos; Jennings, Russell W; Kim, Peter C W

    2016-06-01

    Tracheomalacia (TM) is defined as an increased collapsibility of the trachea due to structural anomalies of the tracheal cartilage and/or posterior membrane. Tracheomalacia has a wide range of etiologies but is most commonly present in children born with esophageal atresia and tracheal esophageal fistula. Clinical symptoms can range from minor expiratory stridor with typical barking cough to severe respiratory distress episodes to acute life-threatening events (ALTE). Although the majority of children have mild-to-moderate symptoms and will not need surgical intervention, some will need life-changing surgical treatment. This article examines the published pediatric literature on TM, discusses the details of clinical presentation, evaluation, diagnosis, and a variety of treatments.

  7. Pediatric anthrax clinical management.

    PubMed

    Bradley, John S; Peacock, Georgina; Krug, Steven E; Bower, William A; Cohn, Amanda C; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Pavia, Andrew T

    2014-05-01

    Anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, which has multiple routes of infection in humans, manifesting in different initial presentations of disease. Because B anthracis has the potential to be used as a biological weapon and can rapidly progress to systemic anthrax with high mortality in those who are exposed and untreated, clinical guidance that can be quickly implemented must be in place before any intentional release of the agent. This document provides clinical guidance for the prophylaxis and treatment of neonates, infants, children, adolescents, and young adults up to the age of 21 (referred to as "children") in the event of a deliberate B anthracis release and offers guidance in areas where the unique characteristics of children dictate a different clinical recommendation from adults. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Contemporary pediatric gynecologic imaging.

    PubMed

    Servaes, Sabah; Victoria, Teresa; Lovrenski, Jovan; Epelman, Monica

    2010-04-01

    Ultrasound is the primary screening modality for the evaluation of pediatric gynecologic maladies. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used progressively more in this field, particularly for the evaluation of complex pelvic masses and congenital anomalies. However, ultrasound remains the preferred modality due to the excellent visualization, the dynamic nature of the examination modality, lack of ionizing radiation and sedation risks, and comparatively lower cost. MRI is generally a second-line examination and is preferred over computed tomography as it does not involve the use of ionizing radiation. Additionally, visualization of the female reproductive system anatomy with MRI is superior to computed tomography, the latter being reserved generally for tumor staging. Fluoroscopic examinations and abdominal radiographs can provide additional information that may support a diagnosis. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pediatric solid tumor genomics and developmental pliancy.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Pappo, A; Dyer, M A

    2015-10-08

    Pediatric solid tumors are remarkably diverse in their cellular origins, developmental timing and clinical features. Over the last 5 years, there have been significant advances in our understanding of the genetic lesions that contribute to the initiation and progression of pediatric solid tumors. To date, over 1000 pediatric solid tumors have been analyzed by Next-Generation Sequencing. These genomic data provide the foundation to launch new research efforts to address one of the fundamental questions in cancer biology-why are some cells more susceptible to malignant transformation by particular genetic lesions at discrete developmental stages than others? Because of their developmental, molecular, cellular and genetic diversity, pediatric solid tumors provide an ideal platform to begin to answer this question. In this review, we highlight the diversity of pediatric solid tumors and provide a new framework for studying the cellular and developmental origins of pediatric cancer. We also introduce a new unifying concept called cellular pliancy as a possible explanation for susceptibility to cancer and the developmental origins of pediatric solid tumors.

  10. Diffusion in A and B stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landstreet, J. D.

    2014-11-01

    This paper first summarise the basic physics underlying diffusion in stars, and then reviews some important recent progress in both computation and observation of diffusion in tepid stars on and off the main sequence.

  11. Adsorption and diffusion of fluids in well-characterized adsorbent materials. Renewal progress report, August 1, 1995 to January 31, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Gubbins, Keith E.; Cracknell, R.F.; Maddox, M.; Nicholson, D.

    1999-08-01

    This is an invited review paper describing recent advances in molecular simulation and theory of fluids confined within well-characterized porous materials. Methods and intermolecular potential models are described. This is followed by showing results for several examples, including supercritical methane adsorption in carbons, adsorption and diffusion of argon in VPI-5, adsorption of argon in silicalite-1, nitrogen adsorption in MCM-41, and adsorption of argon and nitrogen in carbon nanotubes.

  12. [The choice of a pediatric anesthesia ventilator].

    PubMed

    Kern, D; Larcher, C; Cottron, N; Ait Aissa, D; Fesseau, R; Alacoque, X; Delort, F; Masquère, P; Agnès, E; Visnadi, G; Fourcade, O

    2013-12-01

    The technology of anesthesia ventilators has substantially progressed during last years. The choice of a pediatric anesthesia ventilator needs to be led by multiple parameters: requirement, technical (pneumatic performance, velocity of halogenated or oxygen delivery), cost (purchase, in operation, preventive and curative maintenance), reliability, ergonomy, upgradability, and compatibility. The demonstration of the interest of pressure support mode during maintenance of spontaneous ventilation anesthesia makes this mode essential in pediatrics. In contrast, the financial impact of target controlled inhalation of halogenated has not be studied in pediatrics. Paradoxically, complex and various available technologies had not been much prospectively studied. Anesthesia ventilators performances in pediatrics need to be clarified in further clinical and bench test studies. Copyright © 2013 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. BK virus nephropathy: a pediatric nephrologist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Hymes, Leonard

    2010-01-01

    Polyomavirus (BK)-associated nephropathy (BKVN) is now recognized as significant problem in pediatric renal transplants that may lead to progressive allograft dysfunction. BKVN was first recognized in 1999 in adult renal transplant recipients, and most data have been obtained from this patient population. Today, there is an increasing number of publications pertaining to children with BKVN that allows for a selective analysis of the pediatric population. Most early pediatric publications were predominantly cases reports. However, several retrospective and prospective studies are now available that provide important insights with respect to the incidence of BKVN in the pediatric transplant population, the efficacy of treatment strategies, and the risk factors for developing BKVN. This review analyzes several of the most significant studies that address these issues.

  14. Vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy in pediatric cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Erika; Smith, Ellen M Lavoie; Donohoe, Clare; Hertz, Daniel L

    2016-01-01

    Vincristine is a chemotherapeutic agent that is a component of many combination regimens for a variety of malignancies, including several common pediatric tumors. Vincristine treatment is limited by a progressive sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy. Vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy (VIPN) is particularly challenging to detect and monitor in pediatric patients, in whom the side effect can diminish long term quality of life. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding VIPN, focusing on its description, assessment, prediction, prevention, and treatment. Significant progress has been made in our knowledge about VIPN incidence and progression, and tools have been developed that enable clinicians to reliably measure VIPN in pediatric patients. Despite these successes, little progress has been made in identifying clinically useful predictors of VIPN or in developing effective approaches for VIPN prevention or treatment in either pediatric or adult patients. Further research is needed to predict, prevent, and treat VIPN to maximize therapeutic benefit and avoid unnecessary toxicity from vincristine treatment. PMID:27904761

  15. Pediatric Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Davidoff, Andrew M.

    2010-01-01

    Cancer is a disease whose progression is driven by a series of accumulating genetic and epigenetic changes influenced by hereditary factors and the somatic environment. These changes result in individual cells acquiring a phenotype that provides those cells with a survival advantage over surrounding normal cells. Our understanding of the processes that occur in malignant transformation is increasing, with many discoveries in cancer cell biology having been made through the study of childhood tumors. The processes involved in oncogenesis and cancer progression will be discussed in this review. PMID:20610196

  16. Pediatric MATCH Infographic

    Cancer.gov

    Infographic explaining NCI-COG Pediatric MATCH, a cancer treatment clinical trial for children and adolescents, from 1 to 21 years of age, that is testing the use of precision medicine for pediatric cancers.

  17. Pediatric Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Pediatric Thyroid Cancer Pediatric Thyroid Cancer Patient Health Information News media ... and neck issues, should be consulted. Types of thyroid cancer in children: Papillary : This form of thyroid cancer ...

  18. Pediatric diagnostic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Gyll, C.; Blake, N.S.

    1986-01-01

    This book treats the practical problems of pediatric radiography and radiological procedures. Written jointly by a radiographer and a radiologist, it covers pediatric positioning and procedures. An extended chapter covers neonatal radiography and radiology.

  19. American Pediatric Surgical Association

    MedlinePlus

    American Pediatric Surgical Association Search for: Login Resources + For Members For Professionals For Training Program Directors For Media For ... Surgical Outcomes Surveys & Results Publications Continuing Education + ExPERT Pediatric Surgery NaT Annual Meeting CME MOC Requirements Residents / ...

  20. Nuances in pediatric trauma.

    PubMed

    Kenefake, Mary Ella; Swarm, Matthew; Walthall, Jennifer

    2013-08-01

    Pediatric trauma evaluation mimics adult stabilization in that it is best accomplished with a focused and systematic approach. Attention to developmental differences, anatomic and physiologic nuances, and patterns of injury equip emergency physicians to stabilize and manage pediatric injury.

  1. Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... you insights into your child's treatment. LEARN MORE Brain tumors and their treatment can be deadly so ... Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation Board Read more >> Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation 302 Ridgefield Court, Asheville, NC 28806 ...

  2. Nuclear imaging in pediatrics

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    The author's intent is to familiarize practicing radiologists with the technical aspects and interpretation of nuclear medicine procedures in children and to illustrate the indications for nuclear medicine procedures in pediatric problems. Pediatric doses, dosimetry, sedation, and injection techniques, organ systems, oncology and infection, testicular scanning and nuclear crystography, pediatric endocrine and skeletal systems, ventilation and perfusion imaging of both congenital and acquired pediatric disorders, cardiovascular problems, gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary, reticuloendothelial studies, and central nervous system are all topics which are included and discussed.

  3. Pediatric electrocardiographic imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jennifer N A

    2015-03-01

    Noninvasive electrocardiographic imaging (ECGI) has been used in pediatric and congenital heart patients to better understand their electrophysiologic substrates. In this article we focus on the 4 subjects related to pediatric ECGI: (1) ECGI in patients with congenital heart disease and Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome, (2) ECGI in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and preexcitation, (3) ECGI in pediatric patients with Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome, and (4) ECGI for pediatric cardiac resynchronization therapy.

  4. The Diffuse Sclerosing Variant of Papillary Thyroid Cancer Presenting as Innumerable Diffuse Microcalcifications in Underlying Adolescent Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Sun Hye; Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, Eun Hye; Kwak, Jeong Ja

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hashimoto's thyroiditis is the most common diffuse thyroid disease and is characterized by diffuse lymphocytic infiltration. However, the ultrasonographic findings of papillary thyroid carcinomas that arise from Hashimoto's thyroiditis in the pediatric and adolescent population are not well known. We report a rare ultrasonographic finding in a 22-year-old woman diagnosed with the diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma that arose from underlying Hashimoto's thyroiditis: innumerable diffuse microcalcifications instead of a typical malignant-appearing nodule. PMID:27015194

  5. Diffusion MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuyama, Hidenao

    Recent advances of magnetic resonance imaging have been described, especially stressed on the diffusion sequences. We have recently applied the diffusion sequence to functional brain imaging, and found the appropriate results. In addition to the neurosciences fields, diffusion weighted images have improved the accuracies of clinical diagnosis depending upon magnetic resonance images in stroke as well as inflammations.

  6. Pediatric Gastroenterology in Cuba: Evolution and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Castañeda-Guillot, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    INTRODUCTION The professional practice of pediatric gastroenterology arose in Cuba as an expression of the specialty's development internationally and Cuba's new strategies in public health, and in response to national needs for health care expertise in digestive diseases of infants, older children and adolescents. OBJECTIVES Describe the history of pediatric gastroenterology's development in Cuba since its inception at the National Gastroenterology Institute in the early 1970s, its contributions, and efforts to extend it to pediatric hospitals throughout Cuba. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION This is a historical review based on document analysis. Institutional sources from the National Gastroenterology Institute and Ministry of Public Health were reviewed, as well as international and national literature on the history of pediatric gastroenterology and unpublished texts since its emergence in 1972. DEVELOPMENT Although pediatric gastroenterology has not been formally recognized as a medical specialty in Cuba, there have been important achievements in establishing a network of specialized health care services for digestive diseases of children and adolescents. Gastrointestinal endoscopy and other auxiliary diagnostic modalities have been introduced for children and play a major role in clinical trials and research. This article describes the international context that promoted the specialty's development in Cuba. Reference is made to specialized training from its initial stages in 1972, its consolidation as an emerging discipline in Cuban medicine, and its diffusion in Latin American and Caribbean countries. Professional development and specialized training to meet health human resource needs in pediatric hospitals are described, as well as Cuban participation in the Latin American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition. National and international milestones, publications, awards and recognitions that indicate advances despite difficulties are also

  7. Value of Minimum Apparent Diffusion Coefficient on Magnetic Resonance Imaging as a Biomarker for Predicting Progression of Disease Following Surgery and Radiotherapy in Glial Tumors from a Tertiary Care Center in Northern India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Pramod Kumar; Awasthi, Rishi; Singh, Shalini; Behari, Sanjay; Maria Das, K. J.; Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Shaleen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Studies have shown that cellularity of glial tumors are inversely correlated to minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values derived on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). The purpose of this prospective exploratory study was to evaluate whether temporal change in “minimum ADC” values during follow-up predict progressive disease in glial tumors post radiotherapy and surgery. Materials and Methods: Adult patients of glial tumors, subjected to surgery followed by Radiotherapy (RT), were included in the study. Serial conventional magnetic resonance imaging with DWI at the following time points – presurgery, pre-RT, post-RT imaging at 3, 7, and 15 months were done. For “minimum ADC” values, multiple regions of interest (ROI) were identified on ADC maps derived from DWI. A mean of 5 minimum ADC values was chosen as “minimum ADC” value. The correlation was drawn between histology and minimum ADC values and time trends were studied. Results: Fourteen patients were included in this study. Histologies were low-grade glioma (LGG) – 5, anaplastic oligodendroglioma (ODG) -5, and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) – 4. Minimum ADC values were significantly higher in LGG and GBM than ODG. Presurgery, the values were 0.812, 0.633, and 0.787 × 10−3 mm2/s for LGG, ODG, and GBM, respectively. DWI done at the time of RT planning showed values of 0.786, 0.636, 0.869 × 10−3 mm2/s, respectively. During follow-up, the increasing trend of minimum ADC was observed in LGG (P = 0.02). All these patients were clinically and radiologically stable. Anaplastic ODGs, however, showed an initial increase followed by the fall of minimum ADC in all the 5 cases (P = 0.00). Four of the five cases developed progressive disease subsequently. In all the 4 GBM cases, a consistent fall of minimum ADC values was observed (P = 0.00), and they all progressed in spite of RT. Conclusions: The DWI-derived minimum ADC values are an important yet simple quantitative tool to assess

  8. Plasmapause diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horwitz, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    The Bohm diffusion coefficient and observed electrostatic wave scattering are used as the bases of estimates of the smoothing effect that diffusion may have on steep plasmapause density gradients. The estimate for diffusion resulting from scattering by observed electrostatic waves is found to be much lower than that of the perpendicular Bohm diffusion coefficient for characteristic plasma temperatures and magnetic fields. This diffusion rate estimate may be too small, however, if the wave amplitudes are significantly higher for steep plasmapauses. The effects are therefore negligible for most considerations of macroscopic plasmapause dynamics, but may be significant in limiting drift wave instabilities and similar phenomena driven by the steepness of the plasmapause density gradient.

  9. Pediatric oncology in Morocco: achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Hessissen, Laila; Madani, Abdellah

    2012-03-01

    Cancer in children is quickly becoming one of the leading causes of non traumatic death among children. In pediatric oncology, palliative care is a primary component of the cancer control plan. In low income countries also known as emerging nations or developing countries access to adequate care remains a challenge for most pediatric oncology patients. In Morocco the situation has dramatically improved in the last few years as both the government and NGOs have become more aware of the importance and urgency of the issue. The incidence of cancer in patients under 15 years of age in Morocco is estimated to be 1000 new cases per year and the incidence of leukemia to be 100 new cases diagnosed per year. Pediatric cancer patients are mostly managed by public hospitals. Thus they are highly influenced by the Moroccan public health system, which is now considering cancer management a priority. Since health cover is very limited, most chemotherapy drugs were purchased by local parent associations. Recently, a new large Moroccan NGO (ALSC) provides anti-cancer drugs to all government-run oncology units. Despite all the progress, Morocco has witnessed in the pediatric oncology field, the palliative aspect of the care is not yet organized. Pediatric oncology is supported by the work of the National Society of Pediatric Oncolgy. The opioide therapy is available. However its use is strongly limited by the current restrictive and obsolete legislation which represents a major barrier to care. Despite the latest progress, pediatric oncology in Morocco still needs to improve in order to achieve performances comparable to those of the developed world. These improvements include better survival rates, less treatment abandonment, developing new techniques, improving quality of life and creating data collection teams. In order for this action to succeed all the stakeholders (government, NGOs, medical societies, oncology teams) must work together and coordinate their efforts.

  10. [Pediatric neuroimaging emergencies].

    PubMed

    Adamsbaum, C; Rolland, Y; Husson, B

    2004-09-01

    The notion of emergency with regards to pediatric neuroimaging requires a strong knowledge of clinical indications. In children under 2 years of age, head trauma requires a CT scan in case of repeated or prolonged or rapidly increasing vomiting, focal signs, loss of consciousness, unusual behavior, seizures, clinical signs of skull fracture or polytrauma. The "shaken baby syndrome" is usually suspected in case of loss of consciousness or seizures before 8 months of age. The hematomas that are observed are subdural in location, diffuse and deeply located. Imaging is only mandatory for headache suggesting underlying space occupying lesion: permanent or increasing pain, nocturnal headache, headache during postural changes or efforts, associated to seizures or abnormal neurological examination. No imaging is indicated in case of first epileptic seizure associated to normal neurological examination and without any particular context. The presence of trauma, intracranial hypertension, persisting disturbances of consciousness or associated focal sign necessitates urgent neuroimaging. No imaging is indicated in case of typical febrile seizures, i.e. generalized, brief and occurring between 1 and 5 years of age. Spinal cord symptoms require immediate MRI evaluation. The most frequent tumor is neuroblastoma. In the absence of spinal tumor, brain abnormalities must be excluded (inflammatory disease). In neonates, CT scan or MRI must be readily performed in case of seizures or loss of consciousness to exclude ischemic, traumatic or infectious lesions.

  11. Recommendations for meeting the pediatric patient's need for a clinical pharmacist: a joint opinion of the Pediatrics Practice and Research Network of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy and the Pediatric Pharmacy Advocacy Group.

    PubMed

    Bhatt-Mehta, Varsha; Buck, Marcia L; Chung, Allison M; Farrington, Elizabeth A; Hagemann, Tracy M; Hoff, David S; LaRochelle, Joseph M; Pettit, Rebecca S; Phan, Hanna; Potts, Amy L; Smith, Katherine P; Parrish, Richard H

    2013-02-01

    Children warrant access to care from clinical pharmacists trained in pediatrics. The American College of Clinical Pharmacy Pediatrics Practice and Research Network (ACCP Pediatrics PRN) released an opinion paper in 2005 with recommendations for improving the quality and quantity of pediatric pharmacy education in colleges of pharmacy, residency programs, and fellowships. Although progress has been made in increasing the availability of pediatric residencies, there is still much to be done to meet the direct care needs of pediatric patients. The purpose of this joint opinion paper is to outline strategies and recommendations for expanding the quality and capacity of pediatric clinical pharmacy practitioners by elevating the minimum expectations for pharmacists entering pediatric practice, standardizing pediatric pharmacy education, expanding the current number of pediatric clinical pharmacists, and creating an infrastructure for development of pediatric clinical pharmacists and clinical scientists. These recommendations may be used to provide both a conceptual framework and action items for schools of pharmacy, health care systems, and policymakers to work together to increase the quality and quantity of pediatric training, practice, and research initiatives.

  12. Innovations in pediatric cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Khokhar, Sudarshan Kumar; Pillay, Ganesh; Agarwal, Esha; Mahabir, Manish

    2017-01-01

    Advances in technology have made surgery in children safer and faster. The management of pediatric cataract has made rapid progress in the past decade with the availability of safer anesthesia, newer technique's, more predictable intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation, a better understanding of neurobiology, genetics, amblyopia management, improved IOL designs for preventing visual axis opacification, and adjuvant postoperative care. Modern vitrectomy machines with minimally invasive instruments, radiofrequency, diathermy, and plasma blades help immensely in complicated cases. Preoperative evaluation with ultrasound biomicroscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows better planning of surgical procedure. The future holds good for stem cell research, customized OCT, and Zepto (precision pulse capsulotomy). PMID:28440249

  13. Innovations in pediatric cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Khokhar, Sudarshan Kumar; Pillay, Ganesh; Agarwal, Esha; Mahabir, Manish

    2017-03-01

    Advances in technology have made surgery in children safer and faster. The management of pediatric cataract has made rapid progress in the past decade with the availability of safer anesthesia, newer technique's, more predictable intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation, a better understanding of neurobiology, genetics, amblyopia management, improved IOL designs for preventing visual axis opacification, and adjuvant postoperative care. Modern vitrectomy machines with minimally invasive instruments, radiofrequency, diathermy, and plasma blades help immensely in complicated cases. Preoperative evaluation with ultrasound biomicroscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows better planning of surgical procedure. The future holds good for stem cell research, customized OCT, and Zepto (precision pulse capsulotomy).

  14. Yin Yang 1 overexpression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is associated with B-cell transformation and tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Castellano, Giancarlo; Torrisi, Elena; Ligresti, Giovanni; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Malaponte, Grazia; Traval, Salvatore; McCubrey, James A; Canevari, Silvana; Libra, Massimo

    2010-02-01

    Yin Yang 1 (YY1), a multifunctional transcription factor, has been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of several cancer types. However, its role in hematological malignancies has not yet been fully investigated. In the present study, using computational methods, we showed that YY1 transcript levels were significantly increased in the high-grade lymphomas, including Burkitt's lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), compared with those of both low-grade lymphomas and normal B-cells. The significant increase in gene expression resulted in a significant increase also at protein level in three NHL cell lines. The association of YY1 expression with some clinical-pathological features in DLBCL showed a positive correlation between a high level of YY1 mRNA and high levels of BCL-6 protein. Moreover, by analyzing the large series of DLBCL in the Hummel dataset, we identified the transcription factor PAX-5 among the top 50 genes positively correlated with YY1. These findings are also supported by the biological network analysis in which the top network, with the highest score, associated with YY1 expression levels in DLBCL is cellular movement, hematological system development and function, and immune response. overall these data suggest that YY1 is involved in B cells transformation which gives rise to high-grade lymphomas through a dysregulation in the normal development of B cells affecting cell cycle and cellular motility.

  15. Pediatric intensivist extenders in the pediatric ICU.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Cheryl L; Orlowski, James P; DeNicola, Lucian K

    2008-06-01

    This article explores the use of physician extenders in the pediatric ICU setting. The Libby Zion case is highlighted because of its impact on the use of manpower in the hospital setting. The history of physician extenders, including the hospitalist, physician assistant (PA), and nurse practitioner (NP), is discussed. Findings indicate a positive impact within the pediatric intensive care setting with the use of NPs and PAs. The American Academy of Pediatrics has supported the use of physician extenders in the care of hospitalized children.

  16. The history of pediatric surgery in France.

    PubMed

    Prévot, J

    1986-01-01

    In 1741, Nicolas Andry, counsellor of King Louis XV, published a book about "orthopedics," inventing this word. The book is interesting as the author refers to beliefs and habits of the time. In 1864, Guersant published Notes About Pediatric Surgery, a real textbook which was translated into English and German and dealt with the importance of children's psychological training, anesthesia, and water or mother's milk after the operation, and also described tracheotomy, draining of cervical adenitis, and lithotrity. The classification of bone affections was still very confused. Tuberculosis and syphilis have an important place; hypospadias is not treated by surgery. In 1905, Froehlich published Pediatric Surgery Studies dealing exclusively with visceral surgery and demonstrating progress compared to Guersant's study. In 1906, Kirmisson published Pediatric Surgical Textbook, containing the first discussion of radiology and the description of the pathology of the omphalomesenteric duct and of other congenital malformations. Osteomyelitis was given its proper name, and cervical fistulas were explained. In 1914, A. Broca achieved further progress describing treatments of megacolon, intussusception, and the operation of Fredet Ramstedt. The book by Ombredanne, already out of date at the time of its publication, showed that he was not aware of the wartime, progress achieved by Ladd and Gross in the USA. French publications have diminished since then, and French pediatric surgery is still trying to find a precise identity.

  17. Pediatric Liver Transplantation: Our Experiences.

    PubMed

    Basturk, Ahmet; Yılmaz, Aygen; Sayar, Ersin; Dinçhan, Ayhan; Aliosmanoğlu, İbrahim; Erbiş, Halil; Aydınlı, Bülent; Artan, Reha

    2016-10-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate our liver transplant pediatric patients and to report our experience in the complications and the long-term follow-up results. Patients between the ages of 0 and 18 years, who had liver transplantation in the organ transplantation center of our university hospital between 1997 and 2016, were included in the study. The age, sex, indications for the liver transplantation, complications after the transplantation, and long-term follow-up findings were retrospectively evaluated. The obtained results were analyzed with statistical methods. In our organ transplantation center, 62 pediatric liver transplantations were carried out since 1997. The mean age of our patients was 7.3 years (6.5 months-17 years). The 4 most common reasons for liver transplantation were: Wilson's disease (n=10; 16.3%), biliary atresia (n=9; 14.5%), progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (n=8; 12.9%), and cryptogenic cirrhosis (n=7; 11.3%). The mortality rate after transplantation was 19.6% (12 of the total 62 patients). The observed acute and chronic rejection rates were 34% and 4.9%, respectively. Thrombosis (9.6%) was observed in the hepatic artery (4.8%) and portal vein (4.8%). Bile leakage and biliary stricture rates were 31% and 11%, respectively. 1-year and 5-year survival rates of our patients were 87% and 84%, respectively. The morbidity and mortality rates in our organ transplantation center, regarding pediatric liver transplantations, are consistent with the literature.

  18. Pediatric anesthesia in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Bösenberg, Adrian T

    2007-06-01

    To highlight the problems faced in developing countries where healthcare resources are limited, with particular emphasis on pediatric anesthesia. The fact that very few publications address pediatric anesthesia in the developing world is not surprising given that most anesthetics are provided by nonphysicians, nurses or unqualified personnel. In compiling this article information is drawn from pediatric surgical, anesthetic and related texts. In a recent survey more than 80% of anesthesia providers in a poor country acknowledged that with the limited resources available they could not provide basic anesthesia for children less than 5 years. Although many publications could be regarded as anecdotal, the similarities to this survey suggest that the lack of facilities is more generalized than we would like to believe. The real risk of anesthesia in comparison to other major health risks such as human immunodeficiency virus, malaria, tuberculosis and trauma remains undetermined. The critical shortage of manpower remains a barrier to progress. Despite erratic electrical supplies, inconsistent oxygen delivery, paucity of drugs or equipment and on occasion even lack of running water, many provide life-saving anesthesia. Perioperative morbidity and mortality is, however, understandably high by developed world standards.

  19. Priorities in pediatric epilepsy research

    PubMed Central

    Baca, Christine B.; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Vickrey, Barbara G.; Dlugos, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    The Priorities in Pediatric Epilepsy Research workshop was held in the spirit of patient-centered and patient-driven mandates for developing best practices in care, particularly for epilepsy beginning under age 3 years. The workshop brought together parents, representatives of voluntary advocacy organizations, physicians, allied health professionals, researchers, and administrators to identify priority areas for pediatric epilepsy care and research including implementation and testing of interventions designed to improve care processes and outcomes. Priorities highlighted were 1) patient outcomes, especially seizure control but also behavioral, academic, and social functioning; 2) early and accurate diagnosis and optimal treatment; 3) role and involvement of parents (communication and shared decision-making); and 4) integration of school and community organizations with epilepsy care delivery. Key factors influencing pediatric epilepsy care included the child's impairments and seizure presentation, parents, providers, the health care system, and community systems. Care was represented as a sequential process from initial onset of seizures to referral for comprehensive evaluation when needed. We considered an alternative model in which comprehensive care would be utilized from onset, proactively, rather than reactively after pharmacoresistance became obvious. Barriers, including limited levels of evidence about many aspects of diagnosis and management, access to care—particularly epilepsy specialty and behavioral health care—and implementation, were identified. Progress hinges on coordinated research efforts that systematically address gaps in knowledge and overcoming barriers to access and implementation. The stakes are considerable, and the potential benefits for reduced burden of refractory epilepsy and lifelong disabilities may be enormous. PMID:23966254

  20. Griffith diffusers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T.-T.; Nelson, C. D.

    1979-01-01

    Contoured wall diffusers are designed by using an inverse method. The prescribed wall velocity distribution(s) was taken from the high lift airfoil designed by A. A. Griffith in 1938; therefore, such diffusers are named Griffith diffusers. First the formulation of the inverse problem and the method of solution are outlined. Then the typical contour of a two-dimensional diffuser and velocity distributions across the flow channel at various stations are presented. For a Griffith diffuser to operate as it is designed, boundary layer suction is necessary. Discussion of the percentage of through-flow required to be removed for the purpose of boundary layer control is given. Finally, reference is made to the latest version of a computer program for a two-dimensional diffuser requiring only area ratio, nondimensional length and suction percentage as inputs.

  1. Griffith diffusers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T.-T.; Nelson, C. D.

    1979-01-01

    Contoured wall diffusers are designed by using an inverse method. The prescribed wall velocity distribution(s) was taken from the high lift airfoil designed by A. A. Griffith in 1938; therefore, such diffusers are named Griffith diffusers. First the formulation of the inverse problem and the method of solution are outlined. Then the typical contour of a two-dimensional diffuser and velocity distributions across the flow channel at various stations are presented. For a Griffith diffuser to operate as it is designed, boundary layer suction is necessary. Discussion of the percentage of through-flow required to be removed for the purpose of boundary layer control is given. Finally, reference is made to the latest version of a computer program for a two-dimensional diffuser requiring only area ratio, nondimensional length and suction percentage as inputs.

  2. Diffuse abdominal gallium-67 citrate uptake in salmonella infections

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, I.; Koren, A.

    1987-11-01

    Two pediatric patients with salmonella infections (one with typhoid fever and the second with salmonella C2 gastroenteritis), had a diffuse abdominal uptake of Ga-67 citrate. The possible explanation for this finding is discussed. Salmonella infection should be included as a cause in the differential diagnosis of diffuse accumulation of Ga-67 citrate.

  3. Progressive increase of T1 signal intensity in the dentate nucleus and globus pallidus on unenhanced T1-weighted MR images in the pediatric brain exposed to multiple doses of gadolinium contrast.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Donna R; Holden, Kenton R

    2016-03-01

    Recently, there have been reports of gadolinium accumulation in the brain and bone of adult patients with normal renal function who have undergone multiple gadolinium contrast administrations. This case report gives the first description of a pediatric patient who, following multiple contrasted MRI exams, demonstrated abnormal signal on unenhanced T1-weighted imaging involving the dentate nucleus and globus pallidus, a finding which has previously been shown to represent gadolinium deposition in adults. The patient presented here had no history of intracranial pathology which would alter the blood brain barrier or abnormal renal function. The clinical significance of gadolinium accumulation in the human body is currently unknown but is of concern, particularly in pediatric patients who have a lifetime to manifest any potential adverse consequences. Therefore, research is needed to address the clinical significance, if any, of gadolinium deposition in the developing pediatric brain. Given these current uncertainties, clinicians should continue to use prudence in selecting pediatric patients to undergo contrasted MRI and in selecting the appropriate contrast agents to use.

  4. Advanced manufacturing: Technology diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Tesar, A.

    1995-12-01

    In this paper we examine how manufacturing technology diffuses rom the developers of technology across national borders to those who do not have the capability or resources to develop advanced technology on their own. None of the wide variety of technology diffusion mechanisms discussed in this paper are new, yet the opportunities to apply these mechanisms are growing. A dramatic increase in technology diffusion occurred over the last decade. The two major trends which probably drive this increase are a worldwide inclination towards ``freer`` markets and diminishing isolation. Technology is most rapidly diffusing from the US In fact, the US is supplying technology for the rest of the world. The value of the technology supplied by the US more than doubled from 1985 to 1992 (see the Introduction for details). History shows us that technology diffusion is inevitable. It is the rates at which technologies diffuse to other countries which can vary considerably. Manufacturers in these countries are increasingly able to absorb technology. Their manufacturing efficiency is expected to progress as technology becomes increasingly available and utilized.

  5. Helium diffusion in carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amidon, W. H.; Cherniak, D. J.; Watson, E. B.; Hobbs, D.

    2013-12-01

    directions and the maximum interstitial apertures in each 'slice' in the structure are identified. Preliminary results show that observed differences in diffusivities are consistent with the size of the smallest maximum aperture along each diffusion direction. In calcite, the smallest maximum apertures are ~0.92 and ~0.66 angstroms for cleavage-normal and c-axis parallel directions respectively. In dolomite, the smallest maximum aperture is ~0.78 angstroms for the cleavage normal direction. Work is in progress on characterizing helium diffusion for other orientations in dolomite, and in other carbonates, including aragonite and magnesite, and in implementing these diffusion findings in the interpretation and modeling of bulk volume diffusion in heterogeneous calcite crystals common in many geologic applications. Copeland et al. (2007) GCA 71, 4488-4511 Cherniak and Watson, (2011) Chem. Geo. 288, 149-161

  6. Age Limit of Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Hardin, Amy Peykoff; Hackell, Jesse M

    2017-09-01

    Pediatrics is a multifaceted specialty that encompasses children's physical, psychosocial, developmental, and mental health. Pediatric care may begin periconceptionally and continues through gestation, infancy, childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood. Although adolescence and young adulthood are recognizable phases of life, an upper age limit is not easily demarcated and varies depending on the individual patient. The establishment of arbitrary age limits on pediatric care by health care providers should be discouraged. The decision to continue care with a pediatrician or pediatric medical or surgical subspecialist should be made solely by the patient (and family, when appropriate) and the physician and must take into account the physical and psychosocial needs of the patient and the abilities of the pediatric provider to meet these needs. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. What is Pediatric Palliative Care?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Families Take the Quiz What Is Pediatric Palliative Care? Pediatric Palliative care (pronounced pal-lee-uh-tiv) is specialized ... for both the child and the family. Pediatric palliative care is provided by a team of doctors, ...

  8. What Is a Pediatric Gastroenterologist?

    MedlinePlus

    ... in adults. Specialized training and experience in pediatric gastroenterology are important. Pediatric gastroenterologists treat children from the ... training Three years of additional training in pediatric gastroenterology, hepatology, and nutrition, including medical research and treatment ...

  9. Enhancing clinical trial development for pediatric kidney diseases.

    PubMed

    Schnaper, H William; Flynn, Joseph T; Gross, Coleman; Cropp, Anne B; Dehmel, Bastian; Patel, Leah B; Greenbaum, Larry A; Houtsmuller, Elisabeth; Kaskel, Frederick; Moxey-Mims, Marva; Nowak, Karen; Silverstein, Douglas; Thompson, Aliza; Yao, Lynne; Darsey, Edress; Smoyer, William E

    2017-08-30

    The conduct of clinical trials in small pediatric subspecialties such as pediatric nephrology is hampered by both clinical demands on the pediatric nephrologist and the small number of appropriate patients available for such studies. The American Society of Pediatric Nephrology Therapeutics Development Committee (TDC) was established to (1) identify the various stakeholders with interests and/or expertise related to clinical trials in children with kidney disease and (2) develop more effective partnerships among all parties regarding strategies for successful clinical trial development and execution. This article discusses the rationale, structure, and function of the TDC, the status of progress toward its goals, and the insights gained to date that may be useful for other subspecialties that face similar challenges.Pediatric Research advance online publication, 30 August 2017; doi:10.1038/pr.2017.180.

  10. Pediatric Endocrinology Nurses Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2018! Wednesday, May 16, 2018 ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ Journal of Pediatric Nursing The Journal of Pediatric Nursing provides original, peer-reviewed research that is based on the philosophy that pediatric nursing incorporates a family-centered approach. PENS Executive Office • ...

  11. Laser gingivectomy for pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Kelman, Michelle M; Poiman, David J; Jacobson, Barry L

    2010-01-01

    Traditional gingivectomy procedures have been a challenge for pediatric dentists who confront issues of patient cooperation and discomfort. Treatment of pediatric patients must involve minimal operative and postoperative discomfort. Laser soft-tissue surgery has been shown to be well accepted by children. For the pediatric patient, the greatest advantage of the laser is the lack of local anesthesia injection and the associated pre- and postoperative discomfort. The following case report describes a gingivectomy procedure performed on a 14-year-old female.

  12. Toward creating family-friendly work environments in pediatrics: baseline data from pediatric department chairs and pediatric program directors.

    PubMed

    McPhillips, Heather A; Burke, Ann E; Sheppard, Kate; Pallant, Adam; Stapleton, F Bruder; Stanton, Bonita

    2007-03-01

    The objective was to determine baseline characteristics of pediatric residency training programs and academic departments in regard to family-friendly work environments as outlined in the Report of the Task Force on Women in Pediatrics. We conducted Web-based anonymous surveys of 147 pediatric department chairs and 203 pediatric program directors. The chair's questionnaire asked about child care, lactation facilities, family leave policies, work-life balance, and tenure and promotion policies. The program director's questionnaire asked about family leave, parenting, work-life balance, and perceptions of "family-friendliness." The response rate was 52% for program directors and 51% for chairs. Nearly 60% of chairs reported some access to child care or provided assistance locating child care; however, in half of these departments, demand almost always exceeded supply. Lactation facilities were available to breastfeeding faculty in 74% of departments, although only 57% provided access to breast pumps. A total of 78% of chairs and 90% of program directors reported written maternity leave policies with slightly fewer reporting paternity leave policies. The majority (83%) of chairs reported availability of part-time employment, whereas only 27% of program directors offered part-time residency options. Most departments offered some flexibility in promotion and tenure. Although progress has been made, change still is needed in many areas in pediatric departments and training programs, including better accessibility to quality child care; improved lactation facilities for breastfeeding mothers; clear, written parental leave policies; and flexible work schedules to accommodate changing demands of family life.

  13. Sedation for Pediatric Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    It is more difficult to achieve cooperation when conducting endoscopy in pediatric patients than adults. As a result, the sedation for a comfortable procedure is more important in pediatric patients. The sedation, however, often involves risks and side effects, and their prediction and prevention should be sought in advance. Physicians should familiarize themselves to the relevant guidelines in order to make appropriate decisions and actions regarding the preparation of the sedation, patient monitoring during endoscopy, patient recovery, and hospital discharge. Furthermore, they have to understand the characteristics of the pediatric patients and different types of endoscopy. The purpose of this article is to discuss the details of sedation in pediatric endoscopy. PMID:24749082

  14. Physical activity and pediatric multiple sclerosis: Developing a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Yeh, E Ann; Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominique; Grover, Stephanie A; Motl, Robert W

    2015-11-01

    Three-quarters of children with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience fatigue or depression, and progressive neurocognitive decline may be seen as early as two years after MS diagnosis. Furthermore, a higher magnetic resonance imaging disease burden is seen in pediatric-onset MS compared with adult-onset MS. To date, limited knowledge exists regarding behavioral methods for managing symptoms and disease progression in pediatric MS. To that end, this paper builds an evidence-based argument for the possible symptomatic and disease-modifying effects of exercise and physical activity in pediatric MS. This will be accomplished through: (a) a review of pediatric MS and its consequences; (b) a brief overview of physical activity and its consequences in children and adults with MS; and (c) a selective review of research on the neurological benefits of physical activity in pediatric populations. This topical review concludes with a list of 10 questions to guide future research on physical activity and pediatric MS. The objective of this paper is the provision of a research interest, focus and agenda involving pediatric MS and its lifelong management though exercise and physical activity behavior. Such an agenda is critical as the effects and maintenance of physical activity and exercise track across the lifespan, particularly when developed in the early stages of life.

  15. Morbidity: Changing the Outcome Paradigm for Pediatric Critical Care.

    PubMed

    Heneghan, Julia A; Pollack, Murray M

    2017-10-01

    The focus of critical care has evolved from saving lives to preservation of function. Morbidity rates in pediatric critical care are approximately double mortality rates. Morbidity includes complications of disease and medical care. In pediatric critical care, functional status morbidity is an intermediate outcome in the progression toward death and is the result of the same factors associated with mortality, including physiologic profiles and case-mix factors. The Functional Status Scale developed by Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network is a validated, granular, age-independent measure of functional status that has proved valuable and practical even in large outcome studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Spinal cord infarction due to fibrocartilaginous embolization: the role of diffusion weighted imaging and short-tau inversion recovery sequences.

    PubMed

    Manara, Renzo; Calderone, Milena; Severino, Maria Savina; Citton, Valentina; Toldo, Irene; Laverda, Anna Maria; Sartori, Stefano

    2010-08-01

    Fibrocartilaginous embolization is a rare cause of ischemic myelopathy caused by embolization of intersomatic disk nucleus pulposus into spinal vasculature during Valsalva-like maneuvers. Diagnostic criteria are based on patient's clinical history, magnetic resonance evidence of T2-hyperintense spinal cord lesion, and exclusion of other causes of ischemic myelopathy. These criteria do not take into account the development of magnetic resonance techniques able to enhance signal abnormalities within the neighboring intersomatic disc or vertebral body and to early characterize central nervous system lesions according to the presence of cytotoxic edema. We present 2 pediatric cases of progressive paraplegia attributed to fibrocartilaginous embolization in which short-tau inversion recovery and diffusion-weighted imaging sequences played a pivotal role showing the ischemic nature of spinal cord lesions. Due to its specificity, diffusion-weighted imaging should be included in the magnetic resonance criteria of fibrocartilaginous embolization and in standard magnetic resonance analysis when dealing with acute transverse myelopathy.

  17. Enhancing the Pediatric Drug Development Framework to Deliver Better Pediatric Therapies Tomorrow.

    PubMed

    Bucci-Rechtweg, Christina

    2017-08-14

    Health care professionals involved in the clinical management of children have long appreciated the limited number of therapies suitably evaluated for their optimal use in the pediatric population. In the past century, advances in regulatory policy significantly evolved adult drug evaluation. The scarcity of available patient populations, practical complexities of drug development research, and minimal financial returns have hampered pharmaceutical investment in the study of therapies for children. More recently, pediatric policy and legislation in the United States and Europe have instituted a system of obligations and incentives to stimulate investment in pediatric drug development. These initiatives, in conjunction with a more sophisticated process of drug discovery and development, have led to significant advancements in the labeling of drugs for pediatric use. Facilitated by the emergence of new targets, precision medicine, and innovations in regulatory science, there is now a subtle shift in focus toward drug development research for children rather than simply in children. Although there has been an increase in pediatric studies of investigational agents and labeling of pediatric information for use, there have been unintended consequences of existing policies. As a result, limited progress has been made in certain therapeutic areas and for off-patent therapies. Future policy reform to enhance the availability and accessibility of pediatric medicines should not only reflect an understanding not only of the successes of existing policy and legislative initiatives but also constructively address failures and unintended consequences. Taken together, policy reform, global cooperation, and innovation in regulatory science will more ably deliver better pediatric therapies tomorrow. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. An assessment of academic productivity in pediatric neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Ricky R; Kestle, John R W

    2013-09-01

    Various bibliometric indices are now commonly used to assess academic productivity in medicine. Some evidence suggests that these measures are specific to subspecialty areas. The authors' goal was to measure the h index of academic pediatric neurosurgeons and compare it with previously reported results for academic neurosurgeons in general. Programs with an Accreditation Council for Pediatric Neurosurgery Fellowships-approved fellowship were identified, and the h and g indices of each of their surgeons were calculated. These were correlated with academic rank and compared with published literature on academic neurosurgical departments. Seventy-two pediatric neurosurgeons had a mean h index of 16.6 and a mean g index of 29.5. Both indices increased with progressive academic rank. The rank-specific mean index for academic pediatric neurosurgeons was similar to that of neurosurgeons from academic departments in general. Overall, the authors conclude that the h index metric is a reasonable measure of academic productivity in the pediatric neurosurgery arena that provides a robust measure of an individual's contribution to the pediatric neurosurgery literature. Like its counterpart in neurosurgery in general, the h index for pediatric neurosurgeons correlates with institutional rank. The h index calculation also reveals the productivity of the pediatric neurosurgeons to be on par with the productivity of neurosurgeons in general.

  19. Pediatric brain death: updated guidelines.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Jodi E

    2013-01-01

    Logan, a 5-year-old boy, was riding his bike with his 7-year-old brother when he was struck from behind by a car traveling at approximately 40 mph. The driver indicated that she did not see the riders until she hit Logan, who was not wearing a helmet at the time of the accident. Logan was thrown from his bike and was found at the side of the road, unresponsive and posturing. Although he was uninjured, Logan's brother witnessed the incident.Emergency medical services arrived and placed Logan on a backboard with a c-collar. Because he was not protecting his airway, he was intubated and then given sodium chloride fluids and brought to the pediatric emergency department. Upon arrival, his Glasgow Coma Scale score was 5, and his right pupil was 6 mm and not reactive.Logan's initial head computed tomographic scan showed diffuse brain edema, with early downward transtentorial brain herniation. The pediatric neurosurgeon determined that no operative management was appropriate for Logan. Besides a small laceration on his forehead, Logan had no other injuries. At this time, he was taking a few spontaneous respirations and had occasional posturing of his extremities.

  20. Pediatric Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Devasenathipathy; Goyal, Ankur; Sharma, Raju; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a radiation-free imaging modality with excellent contrast resolution and multiplanar capabilities. Since ionizing radiation is an important concern in the pediatric population, MRI serves as a useful alternative to computed tomography (CT) and also provides additional clues to diagnosis, not discernible on other investigations. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), urography, angiography, enterography, dynamic multiphasic imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging provide wealth of information. The main limitations include, long scan time, need for sedation/anesthesia, cost and lack of widespread availability. With the emergence of newer sequences and variety of contrast agents, MRI has become a robust modality and may serve as a one-stop shop for both anatomical and functional information.

  1. Pediatric intensive care.

    PubMed

    Macintire, D K

    1999-07-01

    To provide optimal care, a veterinarian in a pediatric intensive care situation for a puppy or kitten should be familiar with normal and abnormal vital signs, nursing care and monitoring considerations, and probable diseases. This article is a brief discussion of the pediatric intensive care commonly required to treat puppies or kittens in emergency situations and for canine parvovirus type 2 enteritis.

  2. Pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Orlowski, J P

    1983-04-01

    Pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation refers to those measures used to restore ventilation and circulation in children. This article defines how cardiopulmonary resuscitation in infants, children, and adolescents differs from cardiopulmonary resuscitation in adults and delineates the drugs and dosages to be used in the resuscitation of pediatric patients.

  3. Pediatric endocrine surgery.

    PubMed

    Telander, R L; Zimmerman, D; Kaufman, B H; van Heerden, J A

    1985-12-01

    The pediatric surgeon is in a unique position to understand endocrine surgery and, therefore, is expected to develop considerable expertise in this area. In recent years numerous advances and changes have occurred in pediatric endocrine surgery that have led to greater understanding of the disease processes and syndromes and the development of new diagnostic techniques and surgical approaches.

  4. Teaching Prevention in Pediatrics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Tina L.; Greenberg, Larrie; Loeser, Helen; Keller, David

    2000-01-01

    Reviews methods of teaching preventive medicine in pediatrics and highlights innovative programs. Methods of teaching prevention in pediatrics include patient interactions, self-directed learning, case-based learning, small-group learning, standardized patients, computer-assisted instruction, the Internet, student-centered learning, and lectures.…

  5. Economics of pediatric burns.

    PubMed

    Bass, Michael J; Phillips, Linda G

    2008-07-01

    Sustaining a burn injury sets in motion a cycle of pain, disfigurement, and a search for survival. In pediatric burns, the injury extends to the parents where fear, ignorance, and helplessness forever change their lives. Pediatric burn injuries are caused by fire, hot liquids, clothing irons, hair curlers, caustic substances like drain cleaner, the grounding of an electrical source, and exposure to radiation. Efficiency in the delivery of pediatric burn care is critical. Maximizing resource utilization means continual self-evaluation and economic analysis of therapeutic modalities. Griffiths et al found that most childhood burns are due to scalds, which can be treated for $1061 per percent burn. Paddock et al reduced the cost of treating superficial pediatric burns and reduced the length of stay in hospital using silver-impregnated gauze over traditional methods. Barrett et al found improved cosmesis of skin grafts using cultured epithelial autografts but at a substantially increased cost. Corpron et al showed that pediatric burn units that treat burns >10% total body surface area and operative treatment of pediatric burns regardless of size generate positive revenue. There is a paucity of evidentiary pediatric burn economic data. More research is needed to address areas of pediatric burn care inefficiency. Improving knowledge of cost in all health care endeavors will create competition and drive down expenditures.

  6. Teaching Prevention in Pediatrics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Tina L.; Greenberg, Larrie; Loeser, Helen; Keller, David

    2000-01-01

    Reviews methods of teaching preventive medicine in pediatrics and highlights innovative programs. Methods of teaching prevention in pediatrics include patient interactions, self-directed learning, case-based learning, small-group learning, standardized patients, computer-assisted instruction, the Internet, student-centered learning, and lectures.…

  7. [Research in pediatrics].

    PubMed

    Herrera-Márquez, Julia Rocío; González-Cabello, Héctor Jaime

    2015-01-01

    In the interest of encouraging the promotion of research done by physicians of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, in this supplement we publish articles written by residents of different specialties related to critical themes on pediatrics. These residents are guided by affiliated physicians from the Hospital de Pediatría del Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI.

  8. Diffusion barriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolet, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    The choice of the metallic film for the contact to a semiconductor device is discussed. One way to try to stabilize a contact is by interposing a thin film of a material that has low diffusivity for the atoms in question. This thin film application is known as a diffusion barrier. Three types of barriers can be distinguished. The stuffed barrier derives its low atomic diffusivity to impurities that concentrate along the extended defects of a polycrystalline layer. Sacrificial barriers exploit the fact that some (elemental) thin films react in a laterally uniform and reproducible fashion. Sacrificial barriers have the advantage that the point of their failure is predictable. Passive barriers are those most closely approximating an ideal barrier. The most-studied case is that of sputtered TiN films. Stuffed barriers may be viewed as passive barriers whose low diffusivity material extends along the defects of the polycrystalline host.

  9. Diffuse radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A diffuse celestial radiation which is isotropic at least on a course scale were measured from the soft X-ray region to about 150 MeV, at which energy the intensity falls below that of the galactic emission for most galactic latitudes. The spectral shape, the intensity, and the established degree of isotropy of this diffuse radiation already place severe constraints on the possible explanations for this radiation. Among the extragalactic theories, the more promising explanations of the isotropic diffuse emission appear to be radiation from exceptional galaxies from matter antimatter annihilation at the boundaries of superclusters of galaxies of matter and antimatter in baryon symmetric big bang models. Other possible sources for extragalactic diffuse gamma radiation are discussed and include normal galaxies, clusters of galaxies, primordial cosmic rays interacting with intergalactic matter, primordial black holes, and cosmic ray leakage from galaxies.

  10. Advanced MRI for Pediatric Brain Tumors with Emphasis on Clinical Benefits.

    PubMed

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Ra, Young-Shin

    2017-01-01

    Conventional anatomic brain MRI is often limited in evaluating pediatric brain tumors, the most common solid tumors and a leading cause of death in children. Advanced brain MRI techniques have great potential to improve diagnostic performance in children with brain tumors and overcome diagnostic pitfalls resulting from diverse tumor pathologies as well as nonspecific or overlapped imaging findings. Advanced MRI techniques used for evaluating pediatric brain tumors include diffusion-weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, functional MRI, perfusion imaging, spectroscopy, susceptibility-weighted imaging, and chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging. Because pediatric brain tumors differ from adult counterparts in various aspects, MRI protocols should be designed to achieve maximal clinical benefits in pediatric brain tumors. In this study, we review advanced MRI techniques and interpretation algorithms for pediatric brain tumors.

  11. Advanced MRI for Pediatric Brain Tumors with Emphasis on Clinical Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Ra, Young-Shin

    2017-01-01

    Conventional anatomic brain MRI is often limited in evaluating pediatric brain tumors, the most common solid tumors and a leading cause of death in children. Advanced brain MRI techniques have great potential to improve diagnostic performance in children with brain tumors and overcome diagnostic pitfalls resulting from diverse tumor pathologies as well as nonspecific or overlapped imaging findings. Advanced MRI techniques used for evaluating pediatric brain tumors include diffusion-weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, functional MRI, perfusion imaging, spectroscopy, susceptibility-weighted imaging, and chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging. Because pediatric brain tumors differ from adult counterparts in various aspects, MRI protocols should be designed to achieve maximal clinical benefits in pediatric brain tumors. In this study, we review advanced MRI techniques and interpretation algorithms for pediatric brain tumors. PMID:28096729

  12. Pediatric Care Online: A Pediatric Point-of-Care Tool.

    PubMed

    Vardell, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric Care Online is the American Academy of Pediatrics' point-of-care tool designed for health care providers. Pediatric Care Online builds on content from Red Book Online and Pediatric Patient Education and features Quick Reference topic pages for more than 250 pediatric health care topics. The multitude of resources available within Pediatric Care Online will be reviewed in this column, and a sample search will be used to illustrate the type of information available within this point-of-care pediatric resource.

  13. Social pediatrics: weaving horizontal and vertical threads through pediatric residency.

    PubMed

    van den Heuvel, Meta; Martimianakis, Maria Athina Tina; Levy, Rebecca; Atkinson, Adelle; Ford-Jones, Elizabeth; Shouldice, Michelle

    2017-01-13

    Social pediatrics teaches pediatric residents how to understand disease within their patients' social, environmental and political contexts. It's an essential component of pediatric residency training; however there is very little literature that addresses how such a broad-ranging topic can be taught effectively. The aim of this study was to determine and characterize social pediatric education in our pediatric residency training in order to identify strengths and gaps. A social pediatrics curriculum map was developed, attending to 3 different dimensions: (1) the intended curriculum as prescribed by the Objectives of Training for Pediatrics of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC), (2) the formal curriculum defined by rotation-specific learning objectives, and (3) the informal/hidden curriculum as reflected in resident and teacher experiences and perceptions. Forty-one social pediatric learning objectives were extracted from the RCPSC Objectives of Training for Pediatrics, most were listed in the Medical Expert (51%) and Health Advocate competencies (24%). Almost all RCPSC social pediatric learning objectives were identified in more than one rotation and/or seminar. Adolescent Medicine (29.2%), Pediatric Ambulatory Medicine (26.2%) and Developmental Pediatrics (25%) listed the highest proportion of social pediatric learning objectives. Four (10%) RCPSC social pediatric objectives were not explicitly named within learning objectives of the formal curriculum. The informal curriculum revealed that both teachers and residents viewed social pediatrics as integral to all clinical encounters. Perceived barriers to teaching and learning of social pediatrics included time constraints, particularly in a tertiary care environment, and the value of social pediatrics relative to medical expert knowledge. Despite the lack of an explicit thematic presentation of social pediatric learning objectives by the Royal College and residency training program

  14. The Diffuse Sclerosing Variant of Papillary Thyroid Cancer Presenting as Innumerable Diffuse Microcalcifications in Underlying Adolescent Hashimoto's Thyroiditis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sun Hye; Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, Eun Hye; Kwak, Jeong Ja

    2016-03-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis is the most common diffuse thyroid disease and is characterized by diffuse lymphocytic infiltration. However, the ultrasonographic findings of papillary thyroid carcinomas that arise from Hashimoto's thyroiditis in the pediatric and adolescent population are not well known.We report a rare ultrasonographic finding in a 22-year-old woman diagnosed with the diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma that arose from underlying Hashimoto's thyroiditis: innumerable diffuse microcalcifications instead of a typical malignant-appearing nodule.

  15. Pediatric Liver Transplantation: Our Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Basturk, Ahmet; Yılmaz, Aygen; Sayar, Ersin; Dinçhan, Ayhan; Aliosmanoğlu, İbrahim; Erbiş, Halil; Aydınlı, Bülent; Artan, Reha

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of our study was to evaluate our liver transplant pediatric patients and to report our experience in the complications and the long-term follow-up results. Materials and Methods: Patients between the ages of 0 and 18 years, who had liver transplantation in the organ transplantation center of our university hospital between 1997 and 2016, were included in the study. The age, sex, indications for the liver transplantation, complications after the transplantation, and long-term follow-up findings were retrospectively evaluated. The obtained results were analyzed with statistical methods. Results: In our organ transplantation center, 62 pediatric liver transplantations were carried out since 1997. The mean age of our patients was 7.3 years (6.5 months–17 years). The 4 most common reasons for liver transplantation were: Wilson’s disease (n=10; 16.3%), biliary atresia (n=9; 14.5%), progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (n=8; 12.9%), and cryptogenic cirrhosis (n=7; 11.3%). The mortality rate after transplantation was 19.6% (12 of the total 62 patients). The observed acute and chronic rejection rates were 34% and 4.9%, respectively. Thrombosis (9.6%) was observed in the hepatic artery (4.8%) and portal vein (4.8%). Bile leakage and biliary stricture rates were 31% and 11%, respectively. 1-year and 5-year survival rates of our patients were 87% and 84%, respectively. Conclusion: The morbidity and mortality rates in our organ transplantation center, regarding pediatric liver transplantations, are consistent with the literature. PMID:28149148

  16. Diffuser Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-09-13

    Tests begun at Stennis Space Center's E Complex Sept. 13 evaluated a liquid oxygen lead for engine start performance, part of the A-3 Test Facility Subscale Diffuser Risk Mitigation Project at SSC's E-3 Test Facility. Phase 1 of the subscale diffuser project, completed Sept. 24, was a series of 18 hot-fire tests using a 1,000-pound liquid oxygen and gaseous hydrogen thruster to verify maximum duration and repeatability for steam generation supporting the A-3 Test Stand project. The thruster is a stand-in for NASA's developing J-2X engine, to validate a 6 percent scale version of A-3's exhaust diffuser. Testing the J-2X at altitude conditions requires an enormous diffuser. Engineers will generate nearly 4,600 pounds per second of steam to reduce pressure inside A-3's test cell to simulate altitude conditions. A-3's exhaust diffuser has to be able to withstand regulated pressure, temperatures and the safe discharge of the steam produced during those tests. Before the real thing is built, engineers hope to work out any issues on the miniature version. Phase 2 testing is scheduled to begin this month.

  17. Pediatric palliative care.

    PubMed

    Klick, Jeffrey C; Hauer, Julie

    2010-07-01

    Palliative care has always been a part of the care of children. It includes any intervention that focuses on relieving suffering, slowing the progression of disease, and improving quality of life at any stage of disease. In addition, for even the child with the most unpredictable disease, there are predictable times in this child's life when the child, family, and care team will be suffering in ways that can be mitigated by specific interventions. Rather than defining pediatric palliative care in terms of a patient base, severity of disease, or even a general philosophy of care, palliative care can best be understood as a specific set of tasks directed at mitigating suffering. By understanding these tasks; learning to identify predictable times and settings of suffering; and learning to collaborate with multidisciplinary specialists, use communication skills, and identify clinical resources, the pediatrician can more effectively support children with life-threatening illnesses and their families. In this article, we define palliative care as a focus of care integrated in all phases of life and as a set of interventions aimed at easing suffering associated with life-threatening conditions. We detail an approach to these interventions and discuss how they can be implemented by the pediatrician with the support of specialists in hospice and palliative medicine. We discuss common and predictable times of suffering when these interventions become effective ways to treat suffering and improve quality of life. Finally, we discuss those situations that pediatricians most commonly and intensely interface with palliative care-the care of the child with complex, chronic conditions and severe neurologic impairment (SNI).

  18. Pediatric ventricular assist devices

    PubMed Central

    Burki, Sarah; Zafar, Farhan; Morales, David Luis Simon

    2015-01-01

    The domain of pediatric ventricular assist device (VAD) has recently gained considerable attention. Despite the fact that, historically, the practice of pediatric mechanical circulatory support (MCS) has lagged behind that of adult patients, this gap between the two groups is narrowing. Currently, the Berlin EXCOR VAD is the only pediatric-specific durable VAD approved by the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The prospective Berlin Heart trial demonstrated a successful outcome, either bridge to transplantation (BTT), or in rare instances, bridge to recovery, in approximately 90% of children. Also noted during the trial was, however, a high incidence of adverse events such as embolic stroke, bleeding and infection. This has incentivized some pediatric centers to utilize adult implantable continuous-flow devices, for instance the HeartMate II and HeartWare HVAD, in children. As a result of this paradigm shift, the outlook of pediatric VAD support has dramatically changed: Treatment options previously unavailable to children, including outpatient management and even destination therapy, have now been becoming a reality. The sustained demand for continued device miniaturization and technological refinements is anticipated to extend the range of options available to children—HeartMate 3 and HeartWare MVAD are two examples of next generation VADs with potential pediatric application, both of which are presently undergoing clinical trials. A pediatric-specific continuous-flow device is also on the horizon: the redesigned Infant Jarvik VAD (Jarvik 2015) is undergoing pre-clinical testing, with a randomized clinical trial anticipated to follow thereafter. The era of pediatric VADs has begun. In this article, we discuss several important aspects of contemporary VAD therapy, with a particular focus on challenges unique to the pediatric population. PMID:26793341

  19. Pediatric scleroderma: systemic or localized forms.

    PubMed

    Torok, Kathryn S

    2012-04-01

    Pediatric scleroderma includes 2 major groups of clinical entities, systemic sclerosis (SSc) and localized scleroderma (LS). Although both share a common pathophysiology, their clinical manifestations differ. LS is typically confined to the skin and underlying subcutis, with up to a quarter of patients showing extracutaneous disease manifestations such as arthritis and uveitis. Vascular, cutaneous, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, and musculoskeletal involvement are most commonly seen in children with SSc. Treatment of both forms targets the active inflammatory stage and halts disease progression; however, progress needs to be made toward the development of more effective antifibrotic therapy to help reverse disease damage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pediatric Palliative Care

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Donna L.; Hentz, Tracy A.; Friedman, Debra L.

    2005-01-01

    Pediatric palliative care provides benefit to children living with life-threatening or terminal conditions. Palliative care should be available to all seriously ill children. Palliative care includes the treatment of symptoms such as pain, nausea, dyspnea, constipation, anorexia, and sialorrhea. This care can occur in a variety of settings, from home to hospice to hospital, and must include bereavement care and follow up after the death of a child. There are many challenges in pediatric palliative care, but continued research into this important area of pediatrics will lead to improvements in the care of children with life-threatening illnesses. PMID:23118638

  1. Pediatric uveitis: An update

    PubMed Central

    Majumder, Parthopratim Dutta; Biswas, Jyotirmay

    2013-01-01

    Because of their varied spectrum of clinical presentation and difficulty in management, pediatric uveitis remains a challenge to the ophthalmologist. Variations in clinical presentation, difficulties in eye examination, extended burden of the inflammation over quality of life, limited treatment modalities, risk of amblyopia are the main challenges in the management of pediatric uveitis. Pediatric uveitis is a cause of significant ocular morbidity and severe vision loss is found in 25-33% of such cases. This article summarizes the common causes of uveitis in children with special approach to the evaluation and diagnosis of each clinical entity. PMID:24379547

  2. Pediatric body MR angiography.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Rajesh; Muthupillai, Raja; Chung, Taylor

    2009-02-01

    Vascular pathology in children is commonplace and involves every organ system; however, the powerful, noninvasive, and rapid three-dimensional imaging capability offered by MR angiography is underutilized in children. The success of pediatric MR angiography depends on modifying the MR angiography on the basis of patient size, hemodynamic status, and clinical indications in children, and requires an adequate understanding of pediatric-specific hardware, software, and equipment requirements. This article provides an overview of general pediatric MR angiography techniques, common indications for body MR angiography in children, and the complementary role of MR angiography to other vascular imaging modalities in children, including CT angiography, Doppler ultrasound, and catheter angiography.

  3. Pediatric facial nerve rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Banks, Caroline A; Hadlock, Tessa A

    2014-11-01

    Facial paralysis is a rare but severe condition in the pediatric population. Impaired facial movement has multiple causes and varied presentations, therefore individualized treatment plans are essential for optimal results. Advances in facial reanimation over the past 4 decades have given rise to new treatments designed to restore balance and function in pediatric patients with facial paralysis. This article provides a comprehensive review of pediatric facial rehabilitation and describes a zone-based approach to assessment and treatment of impaired facial movement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Robotics in pediatric surgery].

    PubMed

    Camps, J I

    2011-10-01

    Despite the extensive use of robotics in the adult population, the use of robotics in pediatrics has not been well accepted. There is still a lack of awareness from pediatric surgeons on how to use the robotic equipment, its advantages and indications. Benefit is still controversial. Dexterity and better visualization of the surgical field are one of the strong values. Conversely, cost and a lack of small instruments prevent the use of robotics in the smaller patients. The aim of this manuscript is to present the controversies about the use of robotics in pediatric surgery.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of pediatric muscular disorders: recent advances and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Lindquist, Diana M; Serai, Suraj D; Mariappan, Yogesh K; Wang, Lily L; Merrow, Arnold C; McGee, Kiaran P; Ehman, Richard L; Laor, Tal

    2013-07-01

    This review describes various quantitative magnetic resonance imaging techniques that can be used to objectively analyze the composition (T2 relaxation time mapping, Dixon imaging, and diffusion-weighted imaging), architecture (diffusion tensor imaging), mechanical properties (magnetic resonance elastography), and function (magnetic resonance spectroscopy) of normal and pathologic skeletal muscle in the pediatric population.

  6. Imaging Pediatric Vascular Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tuyet A.; Krakowski, Andrew C.; Naheedy, John H.; Kruk, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular anomalies are commonly encountered in pediatric and dermatology practices. Most of these lesions are benign and easy to diagnose based on history and clinical exam alone. However, in some cases the diagnosis may not be clear. This may be of particular concern given that vascular anomalies may occasionally be associated with an underlying syndrome, congenital disease, or serious, life-threatening condition. Defining the type of vascular lesion early and correctly is particularly important to determine the optimal approach to management and treatment of each patient. The care of pediatric patients often requires collaboration from a multitude of specialties including pediatrics, dermatology, plastic surgery, radiology, ophthalmology, and neurology. Although early characterization of vascular lesions is important, consensus guidelines regarding the evaluation and imaging of vascular anomalies does not exist to date. Here, the authors provide an overview of pediatric vascular lesions, current classification systems for characterizing these lesions, the various imaging modalities available, and recommendations for appropriate imaging evaluation. PMID:26705446

  7. Pediatric inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Diefenbach, Karen A; Breuer, Christopher K

    2006-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is an important cause of gastrointestinal pathology in children and adolescents. The incidence of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease is increasing; therefore, it is important for the clinician to be aware of the presentation of this disease in the pediatric population. Laboratory tests, radiology studies, and endoscopic procedures are helpful in diagnosing inflammatory bowel disease and differentiating between Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Once diagnosed, the goal of medical management is to induce remission of disease while minimizing the side effects of the medication. Specific attention needs to be paid to achieving normal growth in this susceptible population. Surgical management is usually indicated for failure of medical management, complication, or malignancy. Algorithms for diagnostic evaluation and treatment of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease are presented. The specific psychosocial issues facing these patients are also discussed in this review as are the future goals of research in the complex problem of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:16718840

  8. Pediatric cancer genetics.

    PubMed

    Dean, Sarah J; Farmer, Meagan

    2017-10-04

    The current review will focus on the current knowledge of the contribution of both germline and somatic mutations to the development and management of cancer in pediatric patients. It has long been thought that genetic mutations in both germline and somatic cells can contribute to the development of cancer in pediatric patients. With the recent advances in genomic technologies, there are now over 500 known cancer predisposition genes. Recent studies have confirmed an 8.5-14% germline mutation rate in cancer predisposition genes in pediatric cancer patients. The discovery of both germline and somatic cells mutation(s) in pediatric cancer patients not only aids in the management of current disease, but can also have direct implications for future management as well as the medical management of family members.

  9. Defusing Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dou, Remy; Hogan, DaNel; Kossover, Mark; Spuck, Timothy; Young, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion has often been taught in science courses as one of the primary ways by which molecules travel, particularly within organisms. For years, classroom teachers have used the same common demonstrations to illustrate this concept (e.g., placing drops of food coloring in a beaker of water). Most of the time, the main contributor to the motion…

  10. Demonstrating Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Barry G.

    1977-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described. Materials and instructions for demonstrating movement of molecules into cytoplasm using agar blocks, phenolphthalein, and sodium hydroxide are given. A simple method for demonstrating that the rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to its molecular weight is also presented. (AJ)

  11. Defusing Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dou, Remy; Hogan, DaNel; Kossover, Mark; Spuck, Timothy; Young, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion has often been taught in science courses as one of the primary ways by which molecules travel, particularly within organisms. For years, classroom teachers have used the same common demonstrations to illustrate this concept (e.g., placing drops of food coloring in a beaker of water). Most of the time, the main contributor to the motion…

  12. Demonstrating Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Barry G.

    1977-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described. Materials and instructions for demonstrating movement of molecules into cytoplasm using agar blocks, phenolphthalein, and sodium hydroxide are given. A simple method for demonstrating that the rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to its molecular weight is also presented. (AJ)

  13. Pediatric Salivary Gland Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Ord, Robert A; Carlson, Eric R

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric malignant salivary gland tumors are extremely rare. The percentage of malignant tumors is higher than that seen in adults, although the outcomes in terms of survival are better in pediatric patients. The mainstay of treatment is surgical excision with negative margins. This article reviews current concepts in demographics, etiology, management, and outcomes of malignant salivary tumors in children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Advances in pediatric anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Burns, L S

    1997-03-01

    Advances in many aspects of pediatric anesthesia have resulted in a significant reduction in morbidity and mortality in children. Research and development have created vast improvements in pharmacology. Sophisticated monitoring and improvements in equipment evolved from advances made in scientific technology. Recognition of the psychological needs of children of all ages likely has reduced the incidence of lasting psychological effects after hospitalization. Finally, these important advances have made pediatric anesthesia a safer and more compassionate specialty.

  15. Diagnosis and treatment of pediatric osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Bachrach, Laura K

    2014-12-01

    Progress toward identifying and treating disorders of bone fragility in pediatric patients has been considerable in recent years. This article will summarize several key advances in the management of osteoporosis in children and adolescents. Recommendations from the 2013 pediatric Position Development Conference provide expert guidance for evaluating bone health in younger patients. The diagnosis of pediatric osteoporosis can be made in a child with low-trauma vertebral fractures or a combination of low bone mass and long bone fractures. Management of bone fragility includes optimizing nutrition, activity, and treatment of the underlying disease. Pharmacologic agents can be considered if these measures fail to prevent further bone loss or fractures. Although the efficacy and safety of several intravenous and oral bisphosphonates have been examined, there is still no consensus on the optimal drug, dose, or duration of treatment. Observational studies of children with secondary osteoporosis provide insight into risk factors for fracture or the potential for recovery. Despite advances in the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric osteoporosis, more research is needed. Randomized controlled trials of pharmacologic agents should be defined to target those identified at the highest risk by observational studies. http://links.lww.com/COE/A9

  16. Referral to pediatric surgical specialists.

    PubMed

    Klein, Michael D

    2014-02-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics, with the collaboration of the Surgical Sections of the American Academy of Pediatrics, has created referral recommendations intended to serve as voluntary practice parameters to assist general pediatricians in determining when and to whom to refer their patients for pediatric surgical specialty care. It is recognized that these recommendations may be difficult to implement, because communities vary in terms of access to major pediatric medical centers. Limited access does not negate the value of the recommendations, however, because the child who needs specialized surgical and anesthetic care is best served by the skills of the appropriate pediatric surgical team. Major congenital anomalies, malignancies, major trauma, and chronic illnesses (including those associated with preterm birth) in infants and children should be managed by pediatric medical subspecialists and pediatric surgical specialists at pediatric referral centers that can provide expertise in many areas, including the pediatric medical subspecialties and surgical specialties of pediatric radiology, pediatric anesthesiology, pediatric pathology, and pediatric intensive care. The optimal management of the child with complex problems, chronic illness, or disabilities requires coordination, communication, and cooperation of the pediatric surgical specialist with the child's primary care pediatrician or physician.

  17. Preliminary report on the diffusion of solids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Orstrand, C. E.; Dewey, F.P.

    1916-01-01

    Although 19 years has elapsed since Roberts-Austen published his classical paper on the diffusion of solid metals, no attempt seems to have been made to verify his important results and conclusions or to extend the investigations to minerals and to the great number of solids in which diffusion may be expected to occur. Progress has been made by means of chemical and electrical methods in the detection of diffusion in a number of metals in the solid state, some progress has been made in explaining the phenomena of diffusion on the basis of osmotic pressure and the kinetic theory, and recent measurements of the vapor pressures of solids have contributed indirectly to the progress of the science, but investigators have not undertaken the difficult and essential task of making definitive determinations of the coefficients of diffusivity at various pressures and temperatures.

  18. Pioneers in Pediatric Psychology: Smashing Silos and Breaking Boundaries.

    PubMed

    Wertlieb, Donald

    2016-11-01

    As part of the Pioneers in Pediatric Psychology series, this article provides a brief personal account of my career as a pediatric psychologist. Educational and professional experiences often involved confrontations with silos and boundaries set by traditions limiting understanding and impact on children's healthy development. A pedigree in developmental psychology clashed with identity, guild, and loyalty dimensions of clinical psychology. A research emphasis challenged the emergent harmony of the scientist-practitioner models. The medical center and its silos collided with those of arts and sciences academia. Evolving as an applied developmental scientist specializing in pediatric psychology allowed for a gratifying and meaningful career with a range of scientific, pedagogical, and policy contributions. An abiding orientation toward human rights and social justice sustained progress and generativity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Innovation in pediatric clinical education: application of the essential competencies.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Lisa K; Birkmeier, Marisa; Anderson, Deborah K; Martin, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    At the Section on Pediatrics Education Summit in July 2012, consensus was achieved on 5 essential core competencies (ECCs) that represent a knowledge base essential to all graduates of professional physical therapist education programs. This article offers suggestions for how clinical instructors (CIs) might use the ECCs to identify student needs and guide student learning during a pediatric clinical education experience. Pediatric CIs potentially might choose to use the ECCs as a reference tool in clinical education to help (1) organize and develop general, clinic-specific clinical education objectives, (2) develop and plan individualized student learning experiences, (3) identify student needs, and (4) show progression of student learning from beginner to intermediate to entry level. The ECCs may offer CIs insights into the role of pediatric clinical education in professional physical therapist education.

  20. Pediatric oncology in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kebudi, Rejin

    2012-03-01

    The survival of children with cancer has increased dramatically in the last decades, as a result of advances in diagnosis, treatment and supportive care. Each year in Turkey, 2500-3000 new childhood cancer cases are expected. According to the Turkish Pediatric Oncology Group and Turkish Pediatric Hematology Societies Registry, about 2000 new pediatric cancer cases are reported each year. The population in Turkey is relatively young. One fourth of the population is younger than 15 years of age. According to childhood mortality, cancer is the fourth cause of death (7.2%) after infections, cardiac deaths and accidents. The major cancers in children in Turkey are leukemia (31%), lymphoma (19%), central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms (13%), neuroblastomas (7%), bone tumors (6.1%), soft tissue sarcomas (6%), followed by renal tumors, germ cell tumors, retinoblastoma, carcinomas-epithelial neoplasms, hepatic tumors and others. Lymphomas rank second in frequency as in many developing countries in contrast to West Europe or USA, where CNS neoplasms rank second in frequency. The seven-year survival rate in children with malignancies in Turkey is 65.8%. The history of modern Pediatric Oncology in Turkey dates back to the 1970's. Pediatric Oncology has been accepted as a subspecialty in Turkey since 1983. Pediatric Oncologists are all well trained and dedicated. All costs for the diagnosis and treatment of children with cancer is covered by the government. Education and infrastructure for palliative care needs improvement.

  1. Pediatric enteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Axelrod, David; Kazmerski, Kimberly; Iyer, Kishore

    2006-01-01

    Common to all pediatric patients receiving enteral nutrition is the inability to consume calories orally. This is often secondary to issues of inadequate weight gain, inadequate growth, prolonged feeding times, weight loss, a decrease in weight/age or weight/height ratios, or a persistent triceps skinfold thickness <5% for age. Enteral nutrition requires enteral access. In the neonatal period the nasoenteric route is usually used. In pediatric patients requiring long-term enteral access, surgically, endoscopically, or radiologically placed percutaneous feeding tubes are common. Jejunal feeding tubes are used in pediatric patients with gastric feeding intolerance or persistent gastroesophageal reflux. Low-profile enteral access devices are preferred by most pediatric patients because of their cosmetic appearance. For most children, a standard pediatric polypeptide enteral formula is well tolerated. There are specialized pediatric enteral formulas available for patients with decreased intestinal length, altered intestinal absorptive capacity, or altered pancreatic function. Weaning patients from tube feeding to oral nutrition is the ultimate nutrition goal. A multidisciplinary approach to patients with short bowel syndrome will maximize the use of enteral nutrition while preserving parenteral nutrition for patients with true enteral nutrition therapy failure.

  2. Pediatric integrative medicine: pediatrics' newest subspecialty?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Integrative medicine is defined as relationship-centered care that focuses on the whole person, is informed by evidence, and makes use of all appropriate therapeutic approaches, healthcare professionals and disciplines to achieve optimal health and healing, including evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine. Pediatric integrative medicine (PIM) develops and promotes this approach within the field of pediatrics. We conducted a survey to identify and describe PIM programs within academic children’s hospitals across North America. Key barriers and opportunities were identified for the growth and development of academic PIM initiatives in the US and Canada. Methods Academic PIM programs were identified by email and eligible for inclusion if they had each of educational, clinical, and research activities. Program directors were interviewed by telephone regarding their clinical, research, educational, and operational aspects. Results Sixteen programs were included. Most (75%) programs provided both inpatient and outpatient services. Seven programs operated with less than 1 FTE clinical personnel. Credentialing of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) providers varied substantially across the programs and between inpatient and outpatient services. Almost all (94%) programs offered educational opportunities for residents in pediatrics and/or family medicine. One fifth (20%) of the educational programs were mandatory for medical students. Research was conducted in a range of topics, but half of the programs reported lack of research funding and/or time. Thirty-one percent of the programs relied on fee-for-service income. Conclusions Pediatric integrative medicine is emerging as a new subspecialty to better help address 21st century patient concerns. PMID:22894682

  3. Modeling of hydrogen-air diffusion flame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isaac, K. M.

    1988-01-01

    Work performed during the first six months of the project duration for NASA Grant (NAG-1-861) is reported. An analytical and computational study of opposed jet diffusion flame for the purpose of understanding the effects of contaminants in the reactants and thermal diffusion of light species on extinction and reignition of diffusion flames is in progress. The methodologies attempted so far are described.

  4. Diffusion bonding

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Robert C.

    1976-06-22

    1. A method for joining beryllium to beryllium by diffusion bonding, comprising the steps of coating at least one surface portion of at least two beryllium pieces with nickel, positioning a coated surface portion in a contiguous relationship with an other surface portion, subjecting the contiguously disposed surface portions to an environment having an atmosphere at a pressure lower than ambient pressure, applying a force upon the beryllium pieces for causing the contiguous surface portions to abut against each other, heating the contiguous surface portions to a maximum temperature less than the melting temperature of the beryllium, substantially uniformly decreasing the applied force while increasing the temperature after attaining a temperature substantially above room temperature, and maintaining a portion of the applied force at a temperature corresponding to about maximum temperature for a duration sufficient to effect the diffusion bond between the contiguous surface portions.

  5. Pediatric craniofacial surgery: a review for the multidisciplinary team.

    PubMed

    Taub, Peter J; Lampert, Joshua A

    2011-11-01

    Pediatric craniofacial surgery is a specialty that grew dramatically in the 20th century and continues to evolve today. Out of the efforts to correct facial deformities encountered during World War II, the techniques of modern craniofacial surgery developed. An analysis of the relevant literature allowed the authors to explore this historical progression. Current advances in technology, tissue engineering, and molecular biology have further refined pediatric craniofacial surgery. The development of distraction osteogenesis and the progressive study of craniosynostosis provide remarkable examples of this momentum. The growing study of genetics, biotechnology, the influence of growth factors, and stem cell research provide additional avenues of innovation for the future. The following article is intended to reveal a greater understanding of pediatric craniofacial surgery by examining the past, present, and possible future direction. It is intended both for the surgeon, as well as for the nonsurgical individual specialists vital to the multidisciplinary craniofacial team.

  6. Adolescent and Pediatric Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children Pediatric Brain Tumor Diagnosis Family Impact Late Effects After Treatment Returning to School Pediatric Caregiver Resource Center About Us Our Founders Board of Directors Staff Leadership Strategic Plan Financials ...

  7. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Martin; Zong, Wenjing; Biank, Vincent F; Hageman, Joseph R

    2016-02-01

    A 16-year-old Hispanic girl with an elevated body mass index in an otherwise normal state of health presented for her well-child examination. She had signs of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance including increased waist circumference and acanthosis nigricans. Laboratory results revealed elevated transaminases with otherwise normal hepatic function. Based on the physical examination and laboratory results, she was diagnosed with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). After further evaluation, she eventually underwent a liver biopsy. The biopsy revealed nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with stage 2 fibrosis. This article reviews the definition of NAFLD and NASH, an increasingly prevalent cause of pediatric chronic liver disease associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. The article also outlines the epidemiology, risk factors, and natural history of NAFLD, which may help identify and prevent high-risk pediatric patients from progressing to irreversible liver disease. Understanding the diagnostic and treatment options offers the best chance at preventing and reversing the early stages of this disease.

  8. Current considerations in pediatric speech audiometry.

    PubMed

    Mendel, Lisa Lucks

    2008-09-01

    Current considerations in pediatric speech perception assessment are highlighted in this article with a focus on specific test principles and variables that must be addressed when evaluating speech perception performance in children. Existing test materials are reviewed with an emphasis on the level of sensitivity and standardization that they have for accurate assessment of a child's speech perception performance. A test battery approach is advocated because speech perception is an abstract construct, and in order to provide a comprehensive assessment of a child's capabilities, information is needed from several sources of concrete data. The importance of ongoing speech perception assessment in children is also emphasized because a child's progress over time must be monitored to determine if improvements need to be made with amplification and intervention efforts. Results from pediatric speech perception assessments can provide practical information regarding the prognosis of speech, language, reading, and cognitive abilities of children as well as steps that need to be taken in the intervention process.

  9. Barriers to effective pediatric asthma care.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Martha K; Banasiak, Nancy Cantey; Meadows-Oliver, Mikki

    2005-01-01

    Although progress has been made in understanding the pathophysiology of asthma and identifying key features of quality asthma care, the prevalence of childhood asthma remains high. Barriers to effective asthma care that currently exist include the persistence of environmental risk factors, disparities in care that stem from poverty and cultural differences, and inconsistencies in the quality of asthma care provided by clinicians. Pediatric nurse practitioners at Yale New Haven Children's Hospital have actively implemented the recommended guidelines for asthma care and addressed causes for some of the disparities in asthma health care. Two major initiatives are described: the Asthma Care Coordination Project at Yale New Haven Hospital Pediatric Primary Care Center, and the establishment of an Asthma Outreach Program. Recommended resources and Web sites for the practitioner are also provided.

  10. Moving toward a paradigm shift in the regulatory requirements for pediatric medicines.

    PubMed

    Chin, William Wei Lim; Joos, Angelika

    2016-12-01

    Over the past two decades, there has been growing concern over the lack of proper medication for children. This review attempts to evaluate the current progress of EU Pediatric Regulation made since 2007. The lack of properly evaluated pediatric medication has for long been a source of concern in the European Union. The drugs that were used in the past were often not properly evaluated, and dosage was arbitrarily calculated. Therefore, it was necessary to establish the Pediatric Regulation (EC no. 1901/2006) in the EU which would mandate research for pediatric drugs. Current legislations in place not only require mandatory research by pharma industry but also have guidelines to direct the quality of pediatric research performed. The main aim of this regulation was to advance high-quality research and development of pediatric drugs, thereby increasing the availability of safe and effective drugs for children. It also aimed to improve the information available on existing pediatric drugs. It has been 9 years since the pediatric regulation was framed. The pharma industry now sees pediatric research as an integral process of development. Drug companies which develop plans for a new drug, new form of drug, new indication, or new route of administration for adults are obliged to integrate in their development plan similar research for pediatric populations as well.

  11. Pediatric Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Kristen; Stoffella, Sylvia; Meyers, Rachel; Girotto, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    The frequent use of antimicrobials in pediatric patients has led to a significant increase in multidrug-resistant bacterial infections among children. Antimicrobial stewardship programs have been created in many hospitals in an effort to curtail and optimize the use of antibiotics. Pediatric-focused programs are necessary because of the differences in antimicrobial need and use among this patient population, unique considerations and dosing, vulnerability for resistance due to a lifetime of antibiotic exposure, and the increased risk of adverse events. This paper serves as a position statement of the Pediatric Pharmacy Advocacy Group (PPAG) who supports the implementation of antimicrobial stewardship programs for all pediatric patients. PPAG also believes that a pediatric pharmacy specialist should be included as part of that program and that services be covered by managed care organizations and government insurance entities. PPAG also recommends that states create legislation similar to that in existence in California and Missouri and that a federal Task Force for Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria be permanently established. PPAG also supports post-doctoral pharmacy training programs in antibiotic stewardship.

  12. Pediatric Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Ievers-Landis, Carolyn E.; Redline, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, the prevalence of overweight across all pediatric age groups and ethnicities has increased substantially, with the current prevalence of overweight among adolescents estimated to be approximately 30%. Current evidence suggests that overweight is modestly associated with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) among young children, but strongly associated with OSAS in older children and adolescents. The rising incidence of pediatric overweight likely will impact the prevalence, presentation, and treatment of childhood OSAS. The subgroup of children who may be especially susceptible include ethnic minorities and those from households with caregivers from low socioeconomic groups. OSAS, by exposing children to recurrent intermittent hypoxemia or oxidative stress, may amplify the adverse effects of adiposity on systemic inflammation and metabolic perturbations associated with vascular disease and diabetes. When these conditions manifest early in life, they have the potential to alter physiology at critical developmental stages, or, if persistent, provide cumulative exposures that may powerfully alter long-term health profiles. An increased prevalence of overweight also may impact the response to adenotonsillectomy as a primary treatment for childhood OSAS. The high and anticipated increased prevalence of pediatric OSAS mandates assessment of optimal approaches for preventing and treating both OSAS and overweight across the pediatric age range. In this Pulmonary Perspective, the interrelationships between pediatric OSAS and overweight are reviewed, and the implications of the overweight epidemic on childhood OSAS are discussed. PMID:17158283

  13. Pediatric Electrocardiographic Imaging (ECGI) Applications

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Jennifer N. A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Noninvasive electrocardiographic imaging (ECGI) has been used in pediatric and congenital heart patients to better understand their electrophysiologic substrates. In this article we focus on the 4 subjects related to pediatric ECGI: 1) ECGI in patients with congenital heart disease and Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, 2) ECGI in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and pre-excitation, 3) ECGI in pediatric patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, and 4) ECGI for pediatric cardiac resynchronization therapy. PMID:25722754

  14. Failed Pediatric Drug Development Trials.

    PubMed

    Momper, J D; Mulugeta, Y; Burckart, G J

    2015-09-01

    Pediatric product development initiatives have stimulated the development of therapies for children, resulting in improved product labeling, increased identification of adverse events, and development of new pediatric formulations. However, 42% of recently completed pediatric trials have failed to establish either safety or efficacy, leading to an inability to label the product for use in children.(1) Characterizing these failed trials, including common contributing factors, is imperative to designing better pediatric trials in the future. © 2015 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  15. Vitritis in pediatric genetic retinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Stunkel, Maria; Bhattarai, Sajag; Kemerley, Andrew; Stone, Edwin M; Wang, Kai; Mullins, Robert F; Drack, Arlene V

    2015-01-01

    To determine which types of pediatric retinal degeneration are associated with inflammatory cells in the anterior vitreous. Retrospective, observational study in humans. Retrospective chart review was performed for pediatric patients with suspected retinal degeneration presenting to a single examiner from 2008 to 2013. Age, visual acuity (VA), slit-lamp examination of anterior vitreous (SLAV), and clinical and molecular genetic diagnoses were documented. Anterior vitreous cells were graded clinically with SLAV from rare cells (1-4) to 1+ (5-9), 2+ (10-30), or 3+ (>30). Cells were also counted in magnified slit beam photographs masked to molecular diagnosis when obtainable. Cell counts in SLAV, best-corrected VA, and molecular and clinical diagnoses. We evaluated 105 charts, 68 of which (64.8%) included SLAV data. Numerous (1+ or greater) cells were present in 22 of 68 patients (32.4%), whereas 4 of 68 (5.9%) had rare cells and 42 of 68 (61.8%) had no cells. The average age between patients with cells, no cells, and rare cells did not differ significantly (P = 0.25). The VA averaged 20/124 in patients with cells, 20/143 in patients with no cells, and 20/68 in patients with rare cells (P = 0.70). The most frequent diagnoses with cells included Bardet Biedl syndrome (BBS), Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), and retinitis pigmentosa. The most frequent diagnoses without cells included congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB), LCA, Stargardt disease, and blue cone monochromacy. A nonrandom subset of pediatric retinal degenerations exhibit vitritis. Cells were present in 5 of 5 BBS patients (a progressive degeneration), whereas cells were not detected in any of the 12 patients with CSNB (a stable dysfunction). Studying vitritis in pediatric retinal degenerations may reveal whether inflammation accompanies progressive vision loss in certain subtypes. Potentially, inflammation could be treated. In addition, SLAV may aid in clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 American

  16. What Is a Pediatric Endocrinologist?

    MedlinePlus

    ... dealing with children and in treating children with endocrine disorders and hormonal problems. If your pediatrician suggests that your child see a pediatric endocrinologist, you can be assured that your child will receive the best possible care. To find a pediatrician or pediatric specialist in ... © Copyright 2017 American Academy of Pediatrics. All rights reserved.

  17. Physician Requirements-1990. For Pediatrics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudzinski, Karen; Thorner, Robert N.

    Professional requirements for physicians specializing in pediatrics were estimated to assist policymakers in developing guidelines for graduate medical education. In estimating service requirements for pediatrics, the pediatrics Delphi panel reviewed reference and incidence-prevalence and utilization data for 230 conditions that affect the…

  18. What's new in pediatric orthopaedics.

    PubMed

    Sanders, James O; Otsuka, Norman Y; Martus, Jeffrey E

    2015-02-18

    This past year has seen an increase in the quality of studies in pediatric orthopaedics, and the completion of BrAIST demonstrated that high-level studies of important questions can be addressed in pediatric orthopaedics. The current commitment of improving quality of care for children promises a healthy future for pediatric orthopaedics.

  19. Revealing mesoscopic structural universality with diffusion.

    PubMed

    Novikov, Dmitry S; Jensen, Jens H; Helpern, Joseph A; Fieremans, Els

    2014-04-08

    Measuring molecular diffusion is widely used for characterizing materials and living organisms noninvasively. This characterization relies on relations between macroscopic diffusion metrics and structure at the mesoscopic scale commensurate with the diffusion length. Establishing such relations remains a fundamental challenge, hindering progress in materials science, porous media, and biomedical imaging. Here we show that the dynamical exponent in the time dependence of the diffusion coefficient distinguishes between the universality classes of the mesoscopic structural complexity. Our approach enables the interpretation of diffusion measurements by objectively selecting and modeling the most relevant structural features. As an example, the specific values of the dynamical exponent allow us to identify the relevant mesoscopic structure affecting MRI-measured water diffusion in muscles and in brain, and to elucidate the structural changes behind the decrease of diffusion coefficient in ischemic stroke.

  20. Integrative Pediatrics: Looking Forward

    PubMed Central

    McClafferty, Hilary

    2015-01-01

    Increase in the prevalence of disease and illness has dramatically altered the landscape of pediatrics. As a result, there is a demand for pediatricians with new skills and a sharper focus on preventative health. Patient demand and shifting pediatric illness patterns have accelerated research in the field of pediatric integrative medicine. This emerging field can be defined as healing-oriented medicine that considers the whole child, including all elements of lifestyle and family health. It is informed by evidence and carefully weighs all appropriate treatment options. This Special Issue of Children, containing a collection of articles written by expert clinicians, represents an important educational contribution to the field. The goal of the edition is to raise awareness about integrative topics with robust supporting evidence, and to identify areas where more research is needed. PMID:27417349

  1. Pediatric nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This symposium presented the latest techniques and approaches to the proper medical application of radionuclides in pediatrics. An expert faculty, comprised of specialists in the field of pediatric nuclear medicine, discussed the major indications as well as the advantages and potential hazards of nuclear medicine procedures compared to other diagnostic modalities. In recent years, newer radiopharmaceuticals labeled with technetium-99m and other short-lived radionuclides with relatively favorable radiation characteristics have permitted a variety of diagnostic studies that are very useful clinically and carry a substantially lower radiation burden then many comparable X-ray studies. This new battery of nuclear medicine procedures is now widely available for diagnosis and management of pediatric patients. Many recent research studies in children have yielded data concerning the effacacy of these procedures, and current recommendations will be presented by those involved in conducting such studies. Individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  2. Sleeping beauties in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Završnik, Jernej; Kokol, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Sleeping beauties (SBs) in science have been known for few decades; however, it seems that only recently have they become popular. An SB is a publication that "sleeps" for a long time and then almost suddenly awakes and becomes highly cited. SBs present interesting findings in science. Pediatrics research literature has not yet been analyzed for their presence, and 5 pediatrics SBs were discovered in this research. Their prevalence was approximately 0.011%. Some environments or periods are more "SB fertile" than others: 3 of 5 SBs were published in the journal Pediatrics, 4 originated from the United States, and 4 were published in the period from 1992 to 1993. No institutions or authors published more than 1 SB.

  3. Sleeping beauties in pediatrics

    PubMed Central

    Završnik, Jernej; Kokol, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Sleeping beauties (SBs) in science have been known for few decades; however, it seems that only recently have they become popular. An SB is a publication that “sleeps” for a long time and then almost suddenly awakes and becomes highly cited. SBs present interesting findings in science. Pediatrics research literature has not yet been analyzed for their presence, and 5 pediatrics SBs were discovered in this research. Their prevalence was approximately 0.011%. Some environments or periods are more “SB fertile” than others: 3 of 5 SBs were published in the journal Pediatrics, 4 originated from the United States, and 4 were published in the period from 1992 to 1993. No institutions or authors published more than 1 SB. PMID:27822155

  4. Pediatric considerations in homecare.

    PubMed

    Petit de Mange, E A

    1998-09-01

    "If I had known beforehand how difficult, demanding, time consuming, and exhausting it would be--having my child home on a ventilator--I would never have agreed to bring her home" (personal communication with a parent, 1994). This mother's statement strikes at the heart of pediatric high-tech homecare. Parents assume caregiver roles that professional health providers have taken years to develop. Nurses, as strangers, intrude into intimate family relationships that have cultivated over years. Pioneering agencies attempt to fill a gap in pediatric care using guidelines that have been entrenched in the medical and economic models for years. The multiple dimensions of high-tech pediatric homecare require more than provision of technical nursing services. In homecare, nurses are challenged by cultural differences, language barriers, loss of control, family dynamics, practicing in unfamiliar environments, and new technology. To ensure quality nursing care, all professional dimensions need to be considered to be of equal importance.

  5. Pediatric Integrative Medicine.

    PubMed

    McClafferty, Hilary; Vohra, Sunita; Bailey, Michelle; Brown, Melanie; Esparham, Anna; Gerstbacher, Dana; Golianu, Brenda; Niemi, Anna-Kaisa; Sibinga, Erica; Weydert, Joy; Yeh, Ann Ming

    2017-09-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics is dedicated to optimizing the well-being of children and advancing family-centered health care. Related to this mission, the American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes the increasing use of complementary and integrative therapies for children and the subsequent need to provide reliable information and high-quality clinical resources to support pediatricians. This Clinical Report serves as an update to the original 2008 statement on complementary medicine. The range of complementary therapies is both extensive and diverse. Therefore, in-depth discussion of each therapy or product is beyond the scope of this report. Instead, our intentions are to define terms; describe epidemiology of use; outline common types of complementary therapies; review medicolegal, ethical, and research implications; review education and training for select providers of complementary therapies; provide educational resources; and suggest communication strategies for discussing complementary therapies with patients and families. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. DIFFUSION PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Levenson, L.

    1963-09-01

    A high-vacuum diffusion pump is described, featuring a novel housing geometry for enhancing pumping speed. An upright, cylindrical lower housing portion is surmounted by a concentric, upright, cylindrical upper housing portion of substantially larger diameter; an uppermost nozzle, disposed concentrically within the upper portion, is adapted to eject downwardly a conical sheet of liquid outwardly to impinge upon the uppermost extremity of the interior wall of the lower portion. Preferably this nozzle is mounted upon a pedestal rising coaxially from within the lower portion and projecting up into said upper portion. (AEC)

  7. Pediatric Hodgkin Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Cristina; Niccoli Asabella, Artor; Merenda, Nunzio; Altini, Corinna; Fanelli, Margherita; Muggeo, Paola; De Leonardis, Francesco; Perillo, Teresa; Santoro, Nicola; Rubini, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the prognostic value of interim 18F-FDG PET/CT (PET-2) in pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma (pHL), evaluating both visual and semiquantitative analysis. Thirty pHL patients (age ≤16) underwent serial 18F-FDG PET/CT: at baseline (PET-0), after 2 cycles of chemotherapy (PET-2) and at the end of first-line chemotherapy (PET-T). PET response assessment was carried out visually according to the Deauville Score (DS), as well as semiquantitatively by using the semiquantitative parameters reduction from PET-0 to PET-2 (ΔΣSUVmax0–2, ΔΣSUVmean0–2). Final clinical response assessment (outcome) at the end of first-line chemotherapy was the criterion standard, considering patients as responders (R) or nonresponders (NR). Disease status was followed identifying patients with absence or relapsed/progression disease (mean follow-up: 24 months, range 3–78). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of visual and semiquantitative assessment were calculated; furthermore, Fisher exact test was performed to evaluate the association between both visual and semiquantitative assessment and outcome at the end of the first-line chemotherapy. The prognostic capability of PET-2 semiquantitative parameters was calculated by ROC analysis and expressed as area under curve (AUC). Finally, progression-free survival (PFS) was analyzed according to PET-2 results based on the 5-point scale and semiquantitative criteria, using the Kaplan–Meier method. Based on the outcome at the end of first-line chemotherapy, 5 of 30 patients were NR, the remnant 25 of 30 were R. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of visual analysis were 60%,72%,30%,90%,70%; conversely, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of semiquantitative assessment were 80%, 92%, 66.7%, 95.8%, 90%. The highest AUC resulted for ΔΣSUVmax0–2 (0.836; cut-off <12.5; sensitivity 80%; specificity 91%). The association between

  8. Pediatric thoracoabdominal biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Kent, Richard; Salzar, Robert; Kerrigan, Jason; Parent, Daniel; Lessley, David; Sochor, Mark; Luck, Jason F; Loyd, Andre; Song, Yin; Nightingale, Roger; Bass, Cameron R; Maltese, Matthew R

    2009-11-01

    No experimental data exist quantifying the force-deformation behavior of the pediatric chest when subjected to non-impact, dynamic loading from a diagonal belt or a distributed loading surface. Kent et al. (2006) previously published juvenile abdominal response data collected using a porcine model. This paper reports on a series of experiments on a 7-year-old pediatric post-mortem human subject (PMHS) undertaken to guide the scaling of existing adult thoracic response data for application to the child and to assess the validity of the porcine abdominal model. The pediatric PMHS exhibited abdominal response similar to the swine, including the degree of rate sensitivity. The upper abdomen of the PMHS was slightly stiffer than the porcine behavior, while the lower abdomen of the PMHS fit within the porcine corridor. Scaling of adult thoracic response data using any of four published techniques did not successfully predict the pediatric behavior. All of the scaling techniques intrinsically reduce the stiffness of the adult response, when in reality the pediatric subject was as stiff as, or slightly more stiff than, published adult corridors. An assessment of age-related changes in thoracic stiffness indicated that for both a CPR patient population and dynamic diagonal belt loading on a PMHS population, the effective stiffness of the chest increases through the fourth decade of life and then decreases, resulting in stiffness values approximately the same for children and for elderly adults. Additional research is needed to elucidate the generality of this finding and to assess its significance for scaling adult data to represent pediatric responses.

  9. Pediatric bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Carbray, M Julie A; McGuinness, Teena

    2009-12-01

    Pediatric bipolar disorder differs from the adult form of the disorder, marked by longer episodes, rapid cycling, prominent irritability, and high rates of comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and anxiety disorders. A careful assessment by families of children's symptoms, including their duration and intensity, helps with accurate diagnosis. After the diagnosis is made and careful psychopharmacological intervention is initiated, psychiatric nursing treatment of children and adolescents with pediatric bipolar disorder should involve child-and family-focused cognitive-behavioral therapies, family support, and psychoeducation.

  10. Children's rights in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Streuli, Jürg C; Michel, Margot; Vayena, Effy

    2011-01-01

    The United Nations Convention of Children's Rights (UNCRC) introduced in 1989 has generated a global movement for the protection of children's rights and has brought about a paradigm change in how children are perceived. Pediatric healthcare professionals are interacting with children and therefore with children's rights on a daily basis. However, although at least 18 of the 54 articles are relevant for pediatric practice, there is limited systematic training on how pediatricians can support children's rights in the clinical setting. This article discusses the principles and aims of the UNCRC and proposes a comprehensive checklist of rights vis-à-vis issues that arise in clinical practice.

  11. Pediatric Gastric Teratoma

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela-Ramos, Marco Cesar; Mendizábal-Méndez, Ana Luisa; Ríos-Contreras, Carlos Alberto; Rodríguez-Montes, Claudia Esther

    2010-01-01

    Neoplasms from germ cell origin are a heterogeneous group of tumors rarely seen in the pediatric population, teratoma is the most frequent among them. They can occur in either gonadal or extragonadal locations. Extragonadal teratoma arising from abdominal viscera is very unusual. There are less than a hundred reported cases of gastric teratoma in the worldwide literature. Since the occurrence of this pathology in the pediatric age group is quite rare, we describe a case of a teratoma located in the lesser curvature of the stomach in an infant with an emphasis in radiologic-pathologic correlation. PMID:22470691

  12. Pediatric Orbital Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Oppenheimer, Adam J.; Monson, Laura A.; Buchman, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    It is wise to recall the dictum “children are not small adults” when managing pediatric orbital fractures. In a child, the craniofacial skeleton undergoes significant changes in size, shape, and proportion as it grows into maturity. Accordingly, the craniomaxillofacial surgeon must select an appropriate treatment strategy that considers both the nature of the injury and the child's stage of growth. The following review will discuss the management of pediatric orbital fractures, with an emphasis on clinically oriented anatomy and development. PMID:24436730

  13. Orthobiologics in Pediatric Orthopedics.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Robert F; Mooney, James F

    2017-07-01

    Orthobiologics are biologic devices or products used in orthopedic surgery to augment or enhance bone formation. The use of orthobiologics in pediatric orthopedics is less frequent than in other orthopedic subspecialties, mainly due to the naturally abundant healing potential and bone formation in children compared with adults. However, orthobiologics are used in certain situations in pediatric orthopedics, particularly in spine and foot surgery. Other uses have been reported in conjunction with specific procedures involving the tibia and pelvis. The use of bioabsorable implants to stabilize children's fractures is an emerging concept but has limited supporting data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Tracheostomy: pediatric considerations.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Ellen S

    2010-08-01

    Pediatric patients for whom tracheotomy is a consideration have different anatomy, medical conditions, and prognoses than adults; even the tracheotomy tubes are different. Indications for pediatric tracheotomy generally include bypassing airway obstruction, providing access for prolonged mechanical ventilation, and facilitating tracheobronchial toilet. Subglottic stenosis is an important indication for tracheotomy in children; its etiology, prevention, and alternative options for management are presented. Discussion includes the benefits, risks, impact on families, techniques for tracheotomy tube changes, and alternatives to tracheotomy, with illustrative photographs and diagrams.

  15. Development of a Pediatric Fall Risk And Injury Reduction Program.

    PubMed

    Kramlich, Debra L; Dende, Denise

    2016-01-01

    Fall prevention programs that include reliable, valid, and clinically tested screening tools have demonstrated more positive effects for adult and geriatric populations than those not including such assessment. In contrast, because falling is a natural part of growth and development for pediatric patients, progression toward effective prevention programs for this population has proven to be a challenge; a significant impediment is the lack of definition regarding what constitutes a reportable fall. This project explored pediatric health care providers' perceptions of patient falls in order to define a reportable pediatric fall and inform development of a prevention program. A concept analysis of defining attributes, antecedents, and consequences of pediatric falls from literature formed the basis for a set of questions; a convenience sample of 28 pediatric health care providers in an acute care hospital in New England participated in six moderated focus groups. Constant comparison method was used to code the qualitative data and develop themes. Participants unanimously agreed on several points; as expected, their years of experience in pediatric practice provided valuable insight. Three major themes emerged: patient characteristics, caregiver characteristics, and environmental characteristics. Based on factors identified by staff, a screening tool was adopted and integrated into the electronic medical record. Staff were actively engaged in developing definitions, selecting tools, and identifying next steps toward a comprehensive fall reduction program for their patients. As a result, they have embraced changes and advocated successfully for endorsement by the organization.

  16. Fellowship training in pediatric pathology: a guide for program directors.

    PubMed

    Rabah, Raja M; Somers, Gino R; Comstock, Jessica M; Buchino, John J; Timmons, Charles F

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) has provided guidance for specialty and subspecialty fellowship training programs by defining 6 core competencies that must be met. Furthermore, the ACGME has defined several program requirements for pathology training, including those applicable to several pathology subspecialties. However, the requirements are broad and lack specific details, particularly as they pertain to the unique nature of pediatric pathology. The Fellowship Committee of the Society for Pediatric Pathology examined the ACGME requirements and interpreted the guidelines with respect to their application to training in pediatric pathology. The Committee worked within the ACGME guidelines to provide an expanded and more comprehensive set of guidelines for use by pediatric pathology fellowship directors and trainees. The resultant document lists the educational goals, core competencies, and program requirements with specific application to pediatric pathology. In addition, methods for assessing and documenting the progress of the individual trainees as they progress through each requirement are provided. It is to be emphasized that many of the guidelines set forthwith are flexible, and allowances should be made for individual differences of each training program.

  17. Nuclear Medicine in Pediatric Cardiology.

    PubMed

    Milanesi, Ornella; Stellin, Giovanni; Zucchetta, Pietro

    2017-03-01

    Accurate cardiovascular imaging is essential for the successful management of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). Echocardiography and angiography have been for long time the most important imaging modalities in pediatric cardiology, but nuclear medicine has contributed in many situations to the comprehension of physiological consequences of CHD, quantifying pulmonary blood flow symmetry or right-to-left shunting. In recent times, remarkable improvements in imaging equipments, particularly in multidetector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, have led to the progressive integration of high resolution modalities in the clinical workup of children affected by CHD, reducing the role of diagnostic angiography. Technology has seen a parallel evolution in the field of nuclear medicine, with the advent of hybrid machines, as SPECT/CT and PET/CT scanners. Improved detectors, hugely increased computing power, and new reconstruction algorithms allow for a significant reduction of the injected dose, with a parallel relevant decrease in radiation exposure. Nuclear medicine retains its distinctive capability of exploring at the tissue level many functional aspects of CHD in a safe and reproducible way. The lack of invasiveness, the limited need for sedation, the low radiation burden, and the insensitivity to body habitus variations make nuclear medicine an ideal complement of echocardiography. This is particularly true during the follow-up of patients with CHD, whose increasing survival represent a great medical success and a challenge for the health system in the next decades. Metabolic imaging using (18)FDG PET/CT has expanded its role in the management of infection and inflammation in adult patients, particularly in cardiology. The same expansion is observed in pediatric cardiology, with an increasing rate of studies on the use of FDG PET for the evaluation of children with vasculitis, suspected valvular infection or infected prosthetic devices. The

  18. Pediatric Readiness and Facility Verification.

    PubMed

    Remick, Katherine; Kaji, Amy H; Olson, Lenora; Ely, Michael; Schmuhl, Patricia; McGrath, Nancy; Edgerton, Elizabeth; Gausche-Hill, Marianne

    2016-03-01

    We perform a needs assessment of pediatric readiness, using a novel scoring system in California emergency departments (EDs), and determine the effect of pediatric verification processes on pediatric readiness. ED nurse managers from all 335 acute care hospital EDs in California were sent a 60-question Web-based assessment. A weighted pediatric readiness score (WPRS), using a 100-point scale, and gap analysis were calculated for each participating ED. Nurse managers from 90% (300/335) of EDs completed the Web-based assessment, including 51 pediatric verified EDs, 67 designated trauma centers, and 31 EDs assessed for pediatric capabilities. Most pediatric visits (87%) occurred in nonchildren's hospitals. The overall median WPRS was 69 (interquartile ratio [IQR] 57.7, 85.9). Pediatric verified EDs had a higher WPRS (89.6; IQR 84.1, 94.1) compared with nonverified EDs (65.5; IQR 55.5, 76.3) and EDs assessed for pediatric capabilities (70.7; IQR 57.4, 88.9). When verification status and ED volume were controlled for, trauma center designation was not predictive of an increase in the WPRS. Forty-three percent of EDs reported the presence of a quality improvement plan that included pediatric elements, and 53% reported a pediatric emergency care coordinator. When coordinator and quality improvement plan were controlled for, the presence of at least 1 pediatric emergency care coordinator was associated with a higher WPRS (85; IQR 75, 93.1) versus EDs without a coordinator (58; IQR 50.1, 66.9), and the presence of a quality improvement plan was associated with a higher WPRS (88; IQR 76.7, 95) compared with that of hospitals without a plan (62; IQR 51.2, 68.7). Of pediatric verified EDs, 92% had a quality improvement plan for pediatric emergency care and 96% had a pediatric emergency care coordinator. We report on the first comprehensive statewide assessment of "pediatric readiness" in EDs according to the 2009 "Guidelines for Care of Children in the Emergency Department

  19. Configurational diffusion of coal macromolecules

    SciTech Connect

    Guin, J.A.; Curtis, C.W.; Tarrer, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    During this quarter, progress has been made in two areas: (1) preparation of the calibration curve for gel permeation chromatography analysis of coal asphaltene; (2) preliminary measurements of the effective diffusion coefficients of coal asphaltene fractions. A calibration curve was prepared with standard compounds including polystyrenes, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and tetraphenylporphine in GPC analysis. A correlation equation was obtained from the calibration curve to estimate the molecular weights of coal asphaltene fractions. Based on this GPC analysis, effective diffusion coefficients of coal asphaltene fractions were measured.

  20. Modeling of hydrogen-air diffusion flame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isaac, K. M.

    1989-01-01

    An analytical and computational study of opposed jet diffusion flame for the purpose of understanding the effects of contaminants in the reactants and thermal diffusion of light species on extinction and reignition of diffusion flames is in progress. The methodologies that have been attempted so far are described. Results using a simple, one-step reaction for the hydrogen-air counterflow diffusion flame are presented. These results show the correct trends in the profiles of chemical species and temperature. The extinction limit can be clearly seen in the plot of temperature vs. Damkohler number.

  1. Pediatric brain injury: Can DTI scalars predict functional outcome?

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Duan; Mukherjee, Pratik; Barkovich, A James

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion imaging has made significant inroads into the clinical diagnosis of a variety of diseases by inferring changes in microstructure, namely cell membranes, myelin sheath and other structures that inhibit water diffusion. This review discusses recent progress in the use of diffusion parameters in predicting functional outcome. Studies in the literature using only scalar parameters from diffusion measurements, such as apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA), are summarized. Other more complex mathematical models and post-processing uses are also discussed briefly. PMID:23288477

  2. Myeloablative chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with relapsed or progressed central nervous system germ cell tumors: results of Korean Society of Pediatric Neuro-Oncology (KSPNO) S-053 study.

    PubMed

    Baek, Hee Jo; Park, Hyeon Jin; Sung, Ki Woong; Lee, Soo Hyun; Han, Jung Woo; Koh, Kyung Nam; Im, Ho Joon; Kang, Hyoung Jin; Park, Kyung Duk

    2013-09-01

    The present study evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of myeloablative high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with relapsed or progressed central nervous system germ cell tumors (CNS-GCTs). Eleven patients with non-germinomatous germ cell tumors and nine patients with germinomas were enrolled. Patients received between two and eight cycles of conventional chemotherapy prior to HDCT/autoSCT with or without radiotherapy. Overall, 16 patients proceeded to the first HDCT/autoSCT, and nine proceeded to the second HDCT/autoSCT. CTE (carboplatin-thiotepa-etoposide) and cyclophosphamide-melphalan (CM) regimens were used for the first and second HDCT, respectively. Toxicities during HDCT/autoSCT were acceptable, and there were no treatment-related deaths. Twelve patients experienced relapse or progression; however, four patients with germinomas remain alive after subsequent RT. Therefore, a total of 12 patients (four NGGCTs and eight germinomas) remain alive with a median follow-up of 47 months (range 22-90) after relapse or progression. The probability of 3-year overall survival was 59.1 ± 11.2 % (36.4 ± 14.5 % for NGGCTs vs. 88.9 ± 10.5 % for germinomas, P = 0.028). RT, particularly craniospinal RT, was associated with a better tumor response prior to HDCT/autoSCT and a better final outcome. In conclusion, HDCT/autoSCT was feasible, and survival rates were encouraging. Further study with a larger cohort of patients is needed to elucidate the role of HDCT/autoSCT in the treatment of relapsed or progressed CNS-GCTs.

  3. The future of pediatric research.

    PubMed

    Boat, Thomas F

    2007-11-01

    The future of pediatric research will be enhanced by strengthening traditional biomedical approaches and embracing emerging opportunities. Biomedical discovery and translation of new knowledge, concepts, and devices into better diagnostic and therapeutic options will require more pediatric physician-scientists, rapid adoption of enabling technologies, increased funding for research and research training (including the creation of federally funded pediatric translational research centers), and a broader distribution of research activities across the academic pediatric community. Rapid improvement of child health outcomes also will be realized through robust health services research in pediatrics, including the application of rigorous quality improvement science that documents and disseminates successful interventions, leading to better access and effectiveness of care. Improving the value of pediatric care is a realistic goal. Achieving better outcomes through individually tailored (personalized) care for children should be tested experimentally. The future of pediatrics is bright, but will depend on the recognition of and response to a growing array of exciting opportunities.

  4. An Assessment of Publication Status of Pediatric Liver Transplantation Studies.

    PubMed

    Breil, Thomas; Wenning, Daniel; Teufel, Ulrike; Hoffmann, Georg F; Ries, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric liver transplantation is a highly specialized, challenging field. Selective reporting may introduce bias into evidence based clinical decision making, but the precise extent of unpublished data in pediatric liver transplantation is unknown today. We therefore assessed the public availability of completed clinical trials in pediatric liver transplantation. We determined the proportion of published and unpublished pre-registered, completed pediatric liver transplantation studies on ClinicalTrials.gov. The major trial and literature databases, i.e., clinicaltrials.gov, Pubmed, and Google Scholar were searched for publications. In addition, principal investigators or sponsors were contacted directly. STROBE criteria were applied for the descriptive analysis. Out of N = 33 studies focusing on pediatric liver transplantation registered as completed until March 2014 on clinicaltrials.gov, N = 19 (58%) studies were published until February 2015, whereas N = 14 (42%) studies remained unpublished. The unpublished trials contain data from N = 2105 (35%) patients out of a total population of N = 6044 study participants. Median time-to-publication, i.e., the period from completion of the trial until public availability of the data was 23 IQR 10 to 28 months. Most pertinent key questions in pediatric liver transplantation, i.e., surgical procedures, immunosuppression, concomitant infections, and graft rejection were addressed in 48% of studies (N = 16/33), half of which were published. Half of the clinical trials in pediatric liver transplantation focused on key questions such as surgical procedures, immunosuppression, concomitant infections, and graft rejection. There is still a considerable amount of unpublished studies results in pediatric liver transplantation. Time from study completion to publication was almost twice as long as the 12 months mandatory FDAAA-timeline with a trend towards acceleration over time. The data should serve as a baseline for future

  5. An Assessment of Publication Status of Pediatric Liver Transplantation Studies

    PubMed Central

    Breil, Thomas; Wenning, Daniel; Teufel, Ulrike; Hoffmann, Georg F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pediatric liver transplantation is a highly specialized, challenging field. Selective reporting may introduce bias into evidence based clinical decision making, but the precise extent of unpublished data in pediatric liver transplantation is unknown today. We therefore assessed the public availability of completed clinical trials in pediatric liver transplantation. Methods We determined the proportion of published and unpublished pre-registered, completed pediatric liver transplantation studies on ClinicalTrials.gov. The major trial and literature databases, i.e., clinicaltrials.gov, Pubmed, and Google Scholar were searched for publications. In addition, principal investigators or sponsors were contacted directly. STROBE criteria were applied for the descriptive analysis. Results Out of N = 33 studies focusing on pediatric liver transplantation registered as completed until March 2014 on clinicaltrials.gov, N = 19 (58%) studies were published until February 2015, whereas N = 14 (42%) studies remained unpublished. The unpublished trials contain data from N = 2105 (35%) patients out of a total population of N = 6044 study participants. Median time-to-publication, i.e., the period from completion of the trial until public availability of the data was 23 IQR 10 to 28 months. Most pertinent key questions in pediatric liver transplantation, i.e., surgical procedures, immunosuppression, concomitant infections, and graft rejection were addressed in 48% of studies (N = 16/33), half of which were published. Conclusion Half of the clinical trials in pediatric liver transplantation focused on key questions such as surgical procedures, immunosuppression, concomitant infections, and graft rejection. There is still a considerable amount of unpublished studies results in pediatric liver transplantation. Time from study completion to publication was almost twice as long as the 12 months mandatory FDAAA-timeline with a trend towards acceleration over time. The data

  6. Pediatric case of crescentic post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis with myeloperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody.

    PubMed

    Kanai, Hiroaki; Sawanobori, Emi; Koizumi, Keiichi; Ohashi, Ryuji; Higashida, Kosuke

    2015-04-01

    Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN) generally has a good renal prognosis, and immunosuppressive therapies are not needed. However, a few patients present with severe acute kidney injury and extensive crescent formations. The etiology of such patients is not well known, and involvement of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies is rarely reported. A 9-year-old girl with rapidly progressive nephritic syndrome was diagnosed with PSGN. A biopsy showed diffuse crescentic glomerulonephritis with immunoglobulin G and C3 deposits; moreover, humps were observed on electron microscopy. After she was administered methylprednisolone pulse therapy and intravenous cyclophosphamide, followed by prednisolone and azathioprine therapy, her urinary abnormalities improved and renal function normalized. However, the myeloperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA) titers gradually increased. We speculated that PSGN may be augmented by increased MPO-ANCA levels. Therefore, the patient is currently being treated with losartan, enalapril, azathioprine, and prednisolone. Although the MPO-ANCA titer remains high, urinary findings show mild proteinuria and her renal function has been norma for 18 months since onset. A progressive clinical course and severe histological findings may indicate the involvement of ANCA in deterioration of condition in patients with PSGN. Furthermore, in such cases immunosuppressive therapies should be considered even in pediatric PSGN.

  7. Intestinal obstruction (pediatric) - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100165.htm Intestinal obstruction (pediatric) - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Intestinal Obstruction A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  8. Pharmacotherapy of Pediatric Insomnia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Judith A.

    2009-01-01

    General guidelines for the use of medication to treat pediatric insomnia are presented. It should be noted that medication is not the first treatment choice and should be viewed within the context of a more comprehensive treatment plan. The pharmacological and clinical properties of over the counter medications and FDA-approved insomnia drugs are…

  9. Pharmacotherapy of Pediatric Insomnia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Judith A.

    2009-01-01

    General guidelines for the use of medication to treat pediatric insomnia are presented. It should be noted that medication is not the first treatment choice and should be viewed within the context of a more comprehensive treatment plan. The pharmacological and clinical properties of over the counter medications and FDA-approved insomnia drugs are…

  10. The pediatric red eye.

    PubMed

    Wong, Melissa M; Anninger, William

    2014-06-01

    There is a broad differential for the pediatric red eye, which may range from benign conditions to vision- and/or life-threatening conditions. This article presents a systematic differential, red flags for referral, and treatment options. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Pediatric Glaucoma: Pharmacotherapeutic Options.

    PubMed

    Samant, Monica; Medsinge, Anagha; Nischal, Ken K

    2016-06-01

    Childhood glaucoma is a major therapeutic challenge for pediatric ophthalmologists and glaucoma specialists worldwide. Management depends on the etiology and age at presentation. A variety of drugs are available for the control of intraocular pressure in children; however, none of these drugs have been licensed by the regulatory agencies for use in children. Furthermore, evidence gained from randomized controlled trials in the pediatric population is sparse, and little is known regarding the use of newer anti-glaucoma preparations. This evidence-based review aims to discuss the available pharmacotherapeutic options for glaucoma in children. Topical adrenoceptor blockers, topical and systemic carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, prostaglandin (PG) analogs, adrenoceptor agonists, parasympathomimetics, and combined preparations are available for use in children, but usually as an off-label indication. Therefore, it is important to recognize that serious side effects have been reported, even with topical drops, and measures to reduce systemic absorption should be taken. Most drugs have been shown to have comparable ocular hypotensive effects, with the lowest occurrence of systemic side effects with PG analogs. Whereas a newly introduced prostaglandin analog, tafluprost, and some other preservative-free preparations have shown promising results in adult glaucoma patients, no pediatric reports are available as yet. Future studies may describe their role in treating pediatric glaucoma. This review also shares some suggested treatment pathways for primary congenital glaucoma (PCG), juvenile open angle glaucoma (JOAG), developmental glaucoma, aphakic/pseudophakic glaucoma, and uveitic glaucoma.

  12. Pediatric primary gastric lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Harris, G J; Laszewski, M J

    1992-04-01

    Primary gastric lymphoma in the pediatric population is rare. We have described a case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (Burkitt's type) manifested as a gastric mass. Despite its rarity in children, this tumor should be treated aggressively, since long-term survival has been reported.

  13. Pediatric sleep pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Pelayo, Rafael; Yuen, Kin

    2012-10-01

    This article reviews common sleep disorders in children and pharmacologic options for them. Discussions of pediatric sleep pharmacology typically focus on treatment of insomnia. Although insomnia is a major concern in this population, other conditions of concern in children are presented, such as narcolepsy, parasomnias, restless legs syndrome, and sleep apnea.

  14. Pediatric functional gastrointestinal disorders

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders continue to be a prevalent set of conditions faced by the healthcare team and have a significant emotional and economic impact. In this review, the authors highlight some of the common functional disorders seen in pediatric patients (functional dyspepsia, irrita...

  15. Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

    MedlinePlus

    SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Catheterization in Children with Neurogenic Bladder and ... To protect the kidneys from damage – By preventing urinary tract infections (UTI) – By identifying and treating vesicoureteral remux (VUR). ...

  16. Update on pediatric hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Jennifer R S; Hill, Samantha E

    2013-01-01

    Hyperhidrosis is a common and under-recognized disease in the pediatric population that has a significant impact on quality of life. Focal and generalized forms of hyperhidrosis exist, which can be idiopathic or secondary to underlying medical conditions or medications. Treatment is tailored to the specific patient needs, characteristics and goals. These include topical preparations, iontophoresis, botulinum toxin and anticholinergic medications.

  17. Pediatric heart surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Heart surgery - pediatric; Heart surgery for children; Acquired heart disease; Heart valve surgery - children ... There are many kinds of heart defects. Some are minor, and others are more serious. Defects can occur inside the heart or in the large blood vessels ...

  18. [Pediatric cerebrovascular accident secondary to fibromuscular dysplasia].

    PubMed

    Escalona, A Olloqui; Pradel, Z Galve; Pisón, J López; Oguiza, A García; Montañés, N Clavero; Delgado, R Pérez; Hidalgo, M Lafuente; Guelbenzu, S; Segura, J L Peña

    2009-10-01

    We present the case of a 13 year-old patient diagnosed with fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) by angiographic study, with "string of beads" image of internal carotid, after undergoing two ischemic strokes in nine days. Conservative treatment with acetylsalicylic acid at antiaggregant doses was decided. Twenty months later the clinical progress is favorable without presenting any new episodes. FMD is a very uncommon cause of stroke in childhood. Little is known about its etiology. In spite of it usually being an asymptomatic disease, it must be considered in cases of repeated or inexplicable strokes. Its prognosis and treatment is controversial, due to the limited number of pediatric patients with this pathology.

  19. Pediatric Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    PubMed

    Jani-Acsadi, Agnes; Ounpuu, Sylvia; Pierz, Kristan; Acsadi, Gyula

    2015-06-01

    Heritable diseases of the peripheral nerves (Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease [CMT]) affect the motor units and sensory nerves, and they are among the most prevalent genetic conditions in the pediatric patient population. The typical clinical presentation includes distal muscle weakness and atrophy, but the severity and progression are largely variable. Improvements in supportive treatment have led to better preservation of patients' motor functions. More than 80 genes have been associated with CMT. These genetic discoveries, along with the developments of cellular and transgenic disease models, have allowed clinicians to better understand the disease mechanisms, which should lead to more specific treatments.

  20. [Pulmonary surfactant protein gene mutation associated with pediatric interstitial lung disease: a case study and the review of related literature].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chun-mei; Cao, Ling; Huang, Rong-yan; Wang, Ya-jun; Zou, Ji-zhen; Yuan, Xin-yu; Song, Fang; Chen, Hui-zhong

    2013-02-01

    To report a case of pulmonary surfactant protein (SP) gene mutation associated with pediatric interstitial lung disease, and study the clinical diagnosis process and review of related literature, to understand the relationship between interstitial lung disease and SP gene mutation in infants and children. The clinical, radiological, histological, and genetic testing information of a case of SP gene mutation related pediatric interstitial lung disease were analyzed and related literature was reviewed. A 2-year-old girl without a history of serious illness was hospitalized because of the shortness of breath, cough, excessive sputum, and the progressive dyspnea. Physical examination on admission revealed tachypnea, slight cyanosis, and the retraction signs were positive, respiratory rate of 60 times/minute, fine crackles could be heard through the lower lobe of both lungs; heart rate was 132 beats/minute. No other abnormalities were noted, no clubbing was found. Laboratory test results: pathologic examination was negative, multiple blood gas analysis suggested hypoxemia. Chest CT showed ground-glass like opacity, diffused patchy infiltration. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid had a large number of neutrophils, and a few tissue cells. Eosinophil staining: negative. Fluconazole and methylprednisolone were given after admission, pulmonary symptoms and signs did not improve, reexamination showed no change in chest CT. Then lung biopsy was carried out through thoracoscopy. Histopathology suggested chronic interstitial pneumonia with fibrosis. The heterozygous mutation of R219W in the SFPTA1 and the S186N in SFTPC were identified by SP-related gene sequencing. The review of related literature showed that polymorphisms at the 219th amino acid in SP-A1 allele were found in adults with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), but there is no related literature in pediatric cases. The patient in this report had a mutation at the SP-A1 allele consistent with related literature. Data of

  1. [Principles of plastic pediatric surgery: Thirty years of surgical practice].

    PubMed

    Magalon, G

    2016-10-01

    In this document, Pr Guy Magalon presents a reflection on the plastic pediatric surgery drawn from 30 years of surgical practice. His thinking is supported by several examples of plastic surgery results from children reviewed in adulthood. These cases highlight the evolution of surgical practices and the need for continuing education for surgeons to adapt to technical progress. Professor Magalon honors his masters and shares his personal vision of the principles of pediatric plastic surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. A case study of pediatric pneumonia with empyema.

    PubMed

    Waldrep, Vanessa B; Sloand, Elizabeth

    2013-04-01

    This case study provides a discussion of the diagnosis, management and comprehensive plan of care for empyema in children for the advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) working in primary care. The incidence of complicated pneumonias including those progressing to empyema is on the rise among pediatric patients. The ambiguous signs and symptoms of complicated pneumonias create a challenge for the provider when developing an accurate diagnosis and plan of care. Pediatric nurse practitioners must be cognizant of the increased incidence of complicated pneumonias and manage their patients accordingly. If left untreated, empyema may result in severe pulmonary complications.

  3. Pediatric minimally invasive surgery in Africa: limitations and current situation.

    PubMed

    Loveland, Jerome; Numanoglu, Alp; Hay, Sameh Abdel

    2012-05-01

    The second largest and most populous continent, with an exploding pediatric population, Africa has an overwhelming burden on its very limited pediatric surgical services. In an international environment of progressively advancing endoscopic and robotic surgical techniques, the authors focus on the current role of endoscopic surgery on the continent and explore the potential reasons for its delayed acceptance and implementation. They proceed to document the spectrum of what is available and, using their "African experience," expand on financially viable models of further rolling out these techniques, including discussion around suitable training models for surgeons and their teams. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Aberrant nigral diffusion in Parkinson's disease: A longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging study.

    PubMed

    Loane, Clare; Politis, Marios; Kefalopoulou, Zinovia; Valle-Guzman, Natalie; Paul, Gesine; Widner, Hakan; Foltynie, Thomas; Barker, Roger A; Piccini, Paola

    2016-07-01

    Measuring microstructure alterations with diffusion tensor imaging in PD is potentially a valuable tool to use as a biomarker for early diagnosis and to track disease progression. Previous studies have reported a specific decrease of nigral fractional anisotropy in PD. However, to date the effect of disease progression on nigral or striatal diffusion indices has not been fully explored. We have conducted a cross-sectional and longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging study in 18 early stage, treated PD patients and 14 age-matched controls. PD patients were scanned on 2 occasions OFF medication, 19.3 months apart (standard deviation = 3.1 months). Longitudinal change of regional nigral and striatal measures of fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity were calculated using a region-of-interest approach. Region-of-interest analysis demonstrated that at baseline, PD patients and controls did not differ in regard to diffusion indices in any region assessed. A significant difference of nigral fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity between controls and PD patients at follow-up was detected and confirmed with longitudinal analysis within PD patients. Alterations in striatal regions were not detected in either group or over time. Our findings indicate that nigral diffusion measure may be a valuable measure of disease progression. In the future, larger longitudinal studies will confirm whether diffusion indices may serve as sensitive and clinically meaningful measures of disease progression in PD. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  5. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rosario-Filho, Nelson A; Jacob, Cristina M; Sole, Dirceu; Condino-Neto, Antonio; Arruda, Luisa K; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz; Cocco, Renata R; Camelo-Nunes, Inês; Chong-Neto, Herberto J; Wandalsen, Gustavo F; Castro, Ana P M; Yang, Ariana C; Pastorino, Antonio C; Sarinho, Emanuel S

    2013-06-01

    The subspecialty of pediatric allergy and immunology in Brazil is in its early years and progressing steadily. This review highlights the research developed in the past years aiming to show the characteristics of allergic and immunologic diseases in this vast country. Epidemiologic studies demonstrated the high prevalence of asthma in infants, children, and adolescents. Mortality rates and average annual variation of asthma hospitalization have reduced in all pediatric age groups. Indoor aeroallergen exposure is excessively high and contributes to the high rates of allergy sensitization. Prevalence of food allergy has increased to epidemic levels. Foods (35%), insect stings (30%), and drugs (23%) are the main etiological agents of anaphylaxis in children and adolescents. Molecular diagnosis of primary immunodeficiencies (PID) showed a high incidence of fungal infections including paracoccidioidomycosis in X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome, and the occurrence of BCG adverse reactions or other mycobacterial infections in patients with chronic granulomatous disease. Education in pediatric allergy and immunology is deficient for medical students, but residency programs are effective in training internists and pediatricians for the practice of allergy. The field of PID requires further training. Last, this review is a tribute to Prof. Dr. Charles Naspitz, one of the pioneers of our specialty in Brazil.

  6. Pediatric robotic urologic surgery-2014.

    PubMed

    Kearns, James T; Gundeti, Mohan S

    2014-07-01

    We seek to provide a background of the current state of pediatric urologic surgery including a brief history, procedural outcomes, cost considerations, future directions, and the state of robotic surgery in India. Pediatric robotic urology has been shown to be safe and effective in cases ranging from pyeloplasty to bladder augmentation with continent urinary diversion. Complication rates are in line with other methods of performing the same procedures. The cost of robotic surgery continues to decrease, but setting up pediatric robotic urology programs can be costly in terms of both monetary investment and the training of robotic surgeons. The future directions of robot surgery include instrument and system refinements, augmented reality and haptics, and telesurgery. Given the large number of children in India, there is huge potential for growth of pediatric robotic urology in India. Pediatric robotic urologic surgery has been established as safe and effective, and it will be an important tool in the future of pediatric urologic surgery worldwide.

  7. Pediatric robotic urologic surgery-2014

    PubMed Central

    Kearns, James T.; Gundeti, Mohan S.

    2014-01-01

    We seek to provide a background of the current state of pediatric urologic surgery including a brief history, procedural outcomes, cost considerations, future directions, and the state of robotic surgery in India. Pediatric robotic urology has been shown to be safe and effective in cases ranging from pyeloplasty to bladder augmentation with continent urinary diversion. Complication rates are in line with other methods of performing the same procedures. The cost of robotic surgery continues to decrease, but setting up pediatric robotic urology programs can be costly in terms of both monetary investment and the training of robotic surgeons. The future directions of robot surgery include instrument and system refinements, augmented reality and haptics, and telesurgery. Given the large number of children in India, there is huge potential for growth of pediatric robotic urology in India. Pediatric robotic urologic surgery has been established as safe and effective, and it will be an important tool in the future of pediatric urologic surgery worldwide. PMID:25197187

  8. An update on pediatric endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Friedt, Michael; Welsch, Simon

    2013-07-25

    Advances in endoscopy and anesthesia have enabled gastrointestinal endoscopy for children since 1960. Over the past decades, the number of endoscopies has increased rapidly. As specialized teams of pediatric gastroenterologists, pediatric intensive care physicians and pediatric endoscopy nurses are available in many medical centers, safe and effective procedures have been established. Therefore, diagnostic endoscopies in children are routine clinical procedures. The most frequently performed endoscopies are esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), colonoscopy and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography (ERCP). Therapeutic interventions include variceal bleeding ligation, foreign body retrieval and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy. New advances in pediatric endoscopy have led to more sensitive diagnostics of common pediatric gastrointestinal disorders, such as Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and celiac disease; likewise, new diseases, such as eosinophilic esophagitis, have been brought to light.Upcoming modalities, such as capsule endoscopy, double balloon enteroscopy and narrow band imaging, are being established and may contribute to diagnostics in pediatric gastroenterology in the future.

  9. What Is a Pediatric Critical Care Specialist?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Email Print Share What is a Pediatric Critical Care Specialist? Page Content Article Body If your child ... PICU. What Kind of Training Do Pediatric Critical Care Specialists Have? Pediatric critical care specialists are medical ...

  10. What Is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size Email Print Share What is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist? Page Content Article Body If your child ... teen years. What Kind of Training Do Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialists Have? Pediatric infectious diseases specialists are medical ...

  11. Pediatric trauma care in Africa: the evolution and challenges.

    PubMed

    Abdur-Rahman, Lukman O; van As, A B Sebastian; Rode, Heinz

    2012-05-01

    Childhood trauma is one of the major health problems in the world. Although pediatric trauma is a global phenomenon in low- and middle-income countries, sub-Saharan countries are disproportionally affected. We reviewed the available literature relevant to pediatric trauma in Africa using the MEDLINE database, local libraries, and personal contacts. A critical review of all cited sources was performed with an emphasis on the progress made over the past decades as well as the ongoing challenges in the prevention and management of childhood trauma. After discussing the epidemiology and spectrum of pediatric trauma, we focus on the way forward to reduce the burden of childhood injuries and improve the management and outcome of injured children in Africa.

  12. Pediatric drug development programs for type 2 diabetes: A review.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Michael L; Franklin, Brandi E; Momper, Jeremiah D; Reed, Michael D

    2015-07-01

    Considerable progress has been made in pediatric drug development. Despite these gains there remain certain therapeutic areas where a high percentage of drugs approved for use in adults do not gain approval for use in children. Lack of sufficient US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved labeling correlates with diminished therapeutic efficacy and increased risk for adverse drug reactions. Despite the increasing prevalence and important clinical challenge with pediatric type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), only 1 drug (metformin) of the first 4 T2DM drugs to complete testing in children gained FDA approval. This analysis reviews 4 pediatric drug development programs for orally administered antidiabetic agents that have undergone FDA review and discusses factors influencing failure to meet specified end points for approval. Recommendations to guide future study are also provided. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  13. Acupuncture for Pediatric Pain

    PubMed Central

    Golianu, Brenda; Yeh, Ann Ming; Brooks, Meredith

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain is a growing problem in children, with prevalence as high as 30.8%. Acupuncture has been found to be useful in many chronic pain conditions, and may be of clinical value in a multidisciplinary treatment program. The basic principles of acupuncture are reviewed, as well as studies exploring basic mechanisms of acupuncture and clinical efficacy. Conditions commonly treated in the pediatric pain clinic, including headache, abdominal pain, fibromyalgia, juvenile arthritis, complex regional pain syndrome, cancer pain, as well as perioperative pain studies are reviewed and discussed. Areas in need of further research are identified, and procedural aspects of acupuncture practice and safety studies are reviewed. Acupuncture can be an effective adjuvant in the care of pediatric patients with painful conditions, both in a chronic and an acute setting. Further studies, including randomized controlled trials, as well as trials of comparative effectiveness are needed. PMID:27417472

  14. Hippocrates on Pediatric Dermatology.

    PubMed

    Sgantzos, Markos; Tsoucalas, Gregory; Karamanou, Marianna; Giatsiou, Styliani; Tsoukalas, Ioannis; Androutsos, George

    2015-01-01

    Hippocrates of Kos is well known in medicine, but his contributions to pediatric dermatology have not previously been examined. A systematic study of Corpus Hippocraticum was undertaken to document references of clinical and historical importance of pediatric dermatology. In Corpus Hippocraticum, a variety of skin diseases are described, along with proposed treatments. Hippocrates rejected the theory of the punishment of the Greek gods and supported the concept that dermatologic diseases resulted from a loss of balance in the body humors. Many of the terms that Hippocrates and his pupils used are still being used today. Moreover, he probably provided one of the first descriptions of skin findings in smallpox, Henoch-Schönlein purpura (also known as anaphylactoid purpura, purpura rheumatica, allergic purpura), and meningococcal septicemia.

  15. Recurrent Pediatric Perianal Swelling.

    PubMed

    Cordova, Jonathan; Chugh, Ankur; Rivera Rivera, Edgardo D; Young, Sona

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic gastrointestinal disease consisting of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Both disease processes can share similar clinical symptoms including abdominal pain, diarrhea, hematochezia, and weight loss; CD can also be complicated by penetrating and fistulizing disease. Perianal skin tags, perianal abscesses, recto-cutaneous fistulae, and rectal stenosis are among the phenotypic characteristics of perianal CD. Current treatment strategies are focused on the surgical drainage of abscesses and the closure of fistulous tracts as well as controlling intestinal inflammation with the use of immunomodulators (6-mercaptopurine and methotrexate) and biologics (infliximab and adalimumab). Current guidelines by the American Gastroenterology Association and the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition recommend a combination of surgical intervention and medical management for the treatment of perianal CD.

  16. Pediatric Stroke: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Tsze, Daniel S.; Valente, Jonathan H.

    2011-01-01

    Stroke is relatively rare in children, but can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Understanding that children with strokes present differently than adults and often present with unique risk factors will optimize outcomes in children. Despite an increased incidence of pediatric stroke, there is often a delay in diagnosis, and cases may still remain under- or misdiagnosed. Clinical presentation will vary based on the child's age, and children will have risk factors for stroke that are less common than in adults. Management strategies in children are extrapolated primarily from adult studies, but with different considerations regarding short-term anticoagulation and guarded recommendations regarding thrombolytics. Although most recommendations for management are extrapolated from adult populations, they still remain useful, in conjunction with pediatric-specific considerations. PMID:22254140

  17. Pediatric Palatal Fibroma

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Tayyeb S; Ajaz, Tarannum; Agarwal, Mamta

    2017-01-01

    Fibroma is one of the most common soft tissue benign tumors of the oral cavity. These masses represent hyperplasias instead of true neoplasm, which develop due to irritation to the mucosal tissue resulting in proliferation of the cells. Although so common in the oral cavity, its occurrence on the palate is rare, mainly due to fewer chances of trauma. Here, we report a case of palatal fibroma in a child diagnosed on the basis of clinical, radiological, and histological features. The case represents an extremely rare occurrence as unusual trauma due to thumb sucking seemed to be the only apparent traumatic factor in the palatal region. How to cite this article Mishra R, Khan TS, Ajaz T, Agarwal M. Pediatric Palatal Fibroma. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017; 10(1):96-98. PMID:28377663

  18. Pediatric obesity. An introduction.

    PubMed

    Yanovski, Jack A

    2015-10-01

    The prevalence of child and adolescent obesity in the United States increased dramatically between 1970 and 2000, and there are few indications that the rates of childhood obesity are decreasing. Obesity is associated with myriad medical, psychological, and neurocognitive abnormalities that impact children's health and quality of life. Genotypic variation is important in determining the susceptibility of individual children to undue gains in adiposity; however, the rapid increase in pediatric obesity prevalence suggests that changes to children's environments and/or to their learned behaviors may dramatically affect body weight regulation. This paper presents an overview of the epidemiology, consequences, and etiopathogenesis of pediatric obesity, serving as a general introduction to the subsequent papers in this Special Issue that address aspects of childhood obesity and cognition in detail.

  19. [Pediatric adamantinoma. Case report].

    PubMed

    Cafferata, Constanza; Galluzzo, Laura; Cacciavillano, Walter; Innocenti, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Adamantinoma is a primary tumor of long bones, which affects mainly the shaft of the tibia, and is extremely rare in pediatrics. It frequently presents during the second decade of life, with a slight predominance in males. It is a low grade tumor, with local aggressiveness and low rate of metastasis and recurrence once it is completely removed. Its diagnosis is difficult, not only because it is a rare disease in children, but also because of the difficulty in the differential diagnosis with other benign lesions. We report the case of a 15-year-old patient with a painless swelling of the distal tibia, whose diagnosis was confirmed with the piece of amputation, as imaging features and both initial biopsies were not enough to achieve diagnosis. Though most of the literature consists of case reports, and very few in pediatric patients, they all agree on the difficulty in achieving the diagnosis of adamantinoma.

  20. Online resources in pediatrics

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Ran D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Question In the past few years, parents of children seen in my clinic are frequently conducting online searches relating to medical questions. How reliable are online resources in pediatrics and what guidance can I provide parents when searching online about their children’s health? Answer The use of the Internet to gather medical information has increased dramatically over the past decade, including in the field of pediatrics. The enormous amount of information is confusing to parents and providers alike, and general search engines have not done enough to distinguish reliable from biased information. Physicians can develop websites with reliable content, advise parents on how to identify reliable sources of information, and give examples of websites to review child health–related topics. PMID:24829005

  1. Pediatric head injury.

    PubMed

    Tulipan, N

    1998-01-01

    Pediatric head injury is a public health problem that exacts a high price from patients, their families and society alike. While much of the brain damage in head-injured patients occurs at the moment of impact, secondary injuries can be prevented by aggressive medical and surgical intervention. Modern imaging devices have simplified the task of diagnosing intracranial injuries. Recent advances in monitoring technology have made it easier to assess the effectiveness of medical therapy. These include intracranial pressure monitoring devices that are accurate and safe, and jugular bulb monitoring which provides a continuous, qualitative measure of cerebral blood flow. The cornerstones of treatment remain hyperventilation and osmotherapy. Despite maximal treatment, however, the mortality and morbidity associated with pediatric head injury remains high. Reduction of this mortality and morbidity will likely depend upon prevention rather than treatment.

  2. Ethics, genetics and pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Souza, Ricardo Timm de; Goldim, José Roberto

    2008-08-01

    To reflect on the nature of ethics, from a contemporary perspective, and also on which features of the family relationship have an impact on the interface between genetics and pediatrics. The data used are the fruit of the authors' own intellectual production plus other bibliographic references. Genetics has presented ethics with new challenges. Particularly in pediatrics, where caring for patients is almost indivisible from a continuous relationship with their families, these issues are amplified even further, generating new questions that health professionals have not previously had to face. Based on the reflections outlined here, emphasis can be placed on the importance of actively recognizing the Other in its multiple dimensions and on the repercussions that this perspective has for the physician-patient-family relationship.

  3. Pediatric rhinitis risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yaofeng; Liu, Yin; Yang, Na

    2016-01-01

    Rhinitis is a common global disorder that impacts on the quality of life of the sufferer and caregivers. Treatment for pediatric rhinitis is empirical and does not include a detailed history of the allergy triggers or allergy testing. Thus, allergen avoidance advice is not tailored to the child's sensitivities, which may result in adenoid hypertrophy. However, infant onset rhinitis, especially its relationship with respiratory viruses, remains to be further clarified. Rhinitis basically involves inflammation of the upper nasal lining, presenting typically with symptoms of runny nose (rhinorrhea), nasal blockage, and/or sneezing. While not typically fatal, it does impose significant health, psychological, and monetary burden to its sufferers, and is thus considered a global health problem. Previous findings showed that immunotherapy had significant clinical efficacy in children with allergic rhinitis. The present review article aims to highlight recent perspectives pertaining to the rhinitis risk factors especially in pediatric patients. PMID:27698737

  4. Demonstration and Validation of a Regenerated Cellulose Dialysis Membrane Diffusion Sampler for Monitoring Ground Water Quality and Remediation Progress at DoD Sites for Perchlorate and Explosives Compounds (ER-0313)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-30

    24  5.5.1 Field Demonstration Preparation and Mobilization ...1701. 4 2.0 TECHNOLOGY 2.1 TECHONOLOGY DESCRIPTION Most of the diffusion membrane samplers developed to date involve suspending a container...and Mobilization Access to and integrity of the wells to be sampled at each field demonstration site was checked one month prior to the start of the

  5. Pediatric nail diseases: clinical pearls.

    PubMed

    Oberlin, Kate E

    2017-02-01

    This article highlights pearls shared during a unique and enlightening lecture by Antonella Tosti, MD, a professor at the University of Miami Health System, Florida, on the presentation and management of common pediatric nail diseases. These clinical pearls are shared to help deliver utmost care to our pediatric patients presenting with nail pathology and may help shed light on the management of pediatric nail diseases.

  6. Benign Pediatric Salivary Gland Lesions.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Eric R; Ord, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Salivary gland lesions are rare in pediatric patients. In addition, the types of salivary gland tumors are different in their distribution in specific sites in the major and minor salivary glands in children compared with adults. This article reviews benign neoplastic and nonneoplastic salivary gland disorders in pediatric patients to help clinicians to develop an orderly differential diagnosis that will lead to expedient treatment of pediatric patients with salivary gland lesions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Managing the Pediatric Facial Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Patrick; Kaufman, Yoav; Hollier, Larry H.

    2009-01-01

    Facial fracture management is often complex and demanding, particularly within the pediatric population. Although facial fractures in this group are uncommon relative to their incidence in adult counterparts, a thorough understanding of issues relevant to pediatric facial fracture management is critical to optimal long-term success. Here, we discuss several issues germane to pediatric facial fractures and review significant factors in their evaluation, diagnosis, and management. PMID:22110800

  8. Pacific Pediatric Advanced Care Initiative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Benefits of a virtual play rehabilitation environment for children with cerebral palsy on perceptions of self-efficacy: a pilot study. Pediatr Rehabil...et al: Cerebral saturations trend with mixed venous saturations in patients undergoing extracorporeal life support. Perfusion. 2004 May;19(3):171-6...Seidel K, et al: Cerebral oxygenation in neonatal and pediatric patients during veno-arterial extracorporeal life support. Pediatr Crit Care Med

  9. [What’s new in pediatric dermatology?].

    PubMed

    Lacour, J-Ph

    2013-11-01

    This article is a selection of the most significant developments in the field of pediatric dermatology through an analysis of the articles published between October 2012 and October 2013. In the field of vascular anomalies, propranolol remains a topic of interest for infantile hemangiomas. New clinical concepts appear in the field of vascular malformations in parallel to genetic progress in this area. New epidemiological data or new pathophysiological concepts apply to atopic dermatitis. Congenital or atypical nevi of the child benefit from genetic progress or improvement of clinical knowledge. Although rare, melanoma of the child concerns by its increasing incidence and its misleadingclinical characteristics. Other data reported here relate to infectious skin of the child, morpheas, neurofibromatosis type 1, psoriasis and other commonly seen dermatoses in children.

  10. MR in pediatric neuroimaging

    SciTech Connect

    Wolpert, S.M. ); Barnes, P.; Strand, R. )

    1990-01-01

    The multitude of modern imaging techniques has made pediatric neuroradiology increasingly complex. The practitioner must have a thorough understanding of each possible diagnostic study in order to achieve the best results at the least expense and with minimal risk. In this book, MRI is emphasized; correlative CT, ultrasound, angiographic, and conventional x-ray studies assist in establishing effective diagnostic protocols and reaching accurate diagnoses.

  11. Introduction to pediatric oncology

    SciTech Connect

    McWhirter, W.R.; Masel, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    This book covers the varied and complex aspects of management in pediatric oncology. Emphasis is placed on a team approach and on establishing and maintaining an individualized, humanistic relationships with the patient. Numerous illustrations show modern imaging techniques that are proving most valuable in the investigation of suspected or confirmed childhood cancer. Physical and psychological side effects of short-term and long-term treatment are also discussed.

  12. Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Aravind, V. K.; Krishnaram, V. D.

    2009-01-01

    Clinicians are less sensitive in considering the diagnosis of mania in children because of the variations in clinical presentation and because of the high comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders. More often than the elated and expansive mood, irritability and significant aggression may be the presenting symptoms in these cases. One such case report is discussed highlighting the clinical aspects of pediatric bipolar disorder. PMID:21938101

  13. Immunology of pediatric HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Nicole H; Aldrovandi, Grace M

    2013-07-01

    Most infants born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women escape HIV infection. Infants evade infection despite an immature immune system and, in the case of breastfeeding, prolonged repetitive exposure. If infants become infected, the course of their infection and response to treatment differs dramatically depending upon the timing (in utero, intrapartum, or during breastfeeding) and potentially the route of their infection. Perinatally acquired HIV infection occurs during a critical window of immune development. HIV's perturbation of this dynamic process may account for the striking age-dependent differences in HIV disease progression. HIV infection also profoundly disrupts the maternal immune system upon which infants rely for protection and immune instruction. Therefore, it is not surprising that infants who escape HIV infection still suffer adverse effects. In this review, we highlight the unique aspects of pediatric HIV transmission and pathogenesis with a focus on mechanisms by which HIV infection during immune ontogeny may allow discovery of key elements for protection and control from HIV. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Immunology of Pediatric HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, Nicole H.; Aldrovandi, Grace M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Most infants born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women escape HIV infection. Infants evade infection despite an immature immune system and, in the case of breastfeeding, prolonged repetitive, exposure. If infants become infected, the course of their infection and response to treatment differs dramatically depending upon the timing (in utero, intrapartum, or during breastfeeding) and potentially the route of their infection. Perinatally acquired HIV infection occurs during a critical window of immune development. HIV’s perturbation of this dynamic process may account for the striking age-dependent differences in HIV disease progression. HIV infection also profoundly disrupts the maternal immune system upon which infants rely for protection and immune instruction. Therefore, it is not surprising that infants who escape HIV infection still suffer adverse effects. In this review, we highlight the unique aspects of pediatric HIV transmission and pathogenesis with a focus on mechanisms by which HIV infection during immune ontogeny may allow discovery of key elements for protection and control from HIV. PMID:23772619

  15. Nutritional assessment in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, M R; Zemel, B; Stallings, V A

    1998-01-01

    Nutritional status affects every pediatric patient's response to illness. Good nutrition is important for achieving normal growth and development. Nutritional assessment therefore should be an integral part of the care for every pediatric patient. Routine screening measures for abnormalities of growth should be performed on all pediatric patients. Those patients with chronic illness and those at risk for malnutrition should have detailed nutritional assessments done. Components of a complete nutritional assessment include a medical history, nutritional history including dietary intake, physical examination, anthropometrics (weight, length or stature, head circumference, midarm circumference, and triceps skinfold thickness), pubertal staging, skeletal maturity staging, and biochemical tests of nutritional status. Alternative measures for linear growth assessment (e.g., lower leg and upper arm measures) can be performed on patients unable to stand or who have musculoskeletal deformities. Bone densitometry can be used to assess bone mineralization and the risk of fracture. Nutritionally at risk patients may benefit from determination of resting energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry. The use of age, gender, and disease-specific growth charts is essential in assessing nutritional status and monitoring nutrition interventions. The importance of accurate measurements using trained personnel and appropriate equipment cannot be overemphasized.

  16. Nutrition in Pediatric Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Tracie L.; Neri, Daniela; Extein, Jason; Somarriba, Gabriel; Strickman-Stein, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Pediatric cardiomyopathies are heterogeneous groups of serious disorders of the heart muscle and are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality among children who have the disease. While enormous improvements have been made in the treatment and survival of children with congenital heart disease, parallel strides have not been made in the outcomes for cardiomyopathies. Thus, ancillary therapies, such as nutrition and nutritional interventions, that may not cure but may potentially improve cardiac function and quality of life, are imperative to consider in children with all types of cardiomyopathy. Growth failure is one of the most significant clinical problems of children with cardiomyopathy with nearly one-third of children with this disorder manifesting some degree of growth failure during the course of their illness. Optimal intake of macronutrients can help improve cardiac function. In addition, several specific nutrients have been shown to correct myocardial abnormalities that often occur with cardiomyopathy and heart failure. In particular, antioxidants that can protect against free radical damage that often occurs in heart failure and nutrients that augment myocardial energy production are important therapies that have been explored more in adults with cardiomyopathy than in the pediatric population. Future research directions should pay particular attention to the effect of overall nutrition and specific nutritional therapies on clinical outcomes and quality of life in children with pediatric cardiomyopathy. PMID:18159216

  17. Obesity in pediatric trauma.

    PubMed

    Witt, Cordelie E; Arbabi, Saman; Nathens, Avery B; Vavilala, Monica S; Rivara, Frederick P

    2017-04-01

    The implications of childhood obesity on pediatric trauma outcomes are not clearly established. Anthropomorphic data were recently added to the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) Research Datasets, enabling a large, multicenter evaluation of the effect of obesity on pediatric trauma patients. Children ages 2 to 19years who required hospitalization for traumatic injury were identified in the 2013-2014 NTDB Research Datasets. Age and gender-specific body mass indices (BMI) were calculated. Outcomes included injury patterns, operative procedures, complications, and hospital utilization parameters. Data from 149,817 pediatric patients were analyzed; higher BMI percentiles were associated with significantly more extremity injuries, and fewer injuries to the head, abdomen, thorax and spine (p values <0.001). On multivariable analysis, higher BMI percentiles were associated with significantly increased likelihood of death, deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolus and pneumonia; although there was no difference in risk of overall complications. Obese children also had significantly longer lengths of stay and more frequent ventilator requirement. Among children admitted after trauma, increased BMI percentile is associated with increased risk of death and potentially preventable complications. These findings suggest that obese children may require different management than nonobese counterparts to prevent complications. Level III; prognosis study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Issues in Pediatric Craniofacial Trauma.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Srinivasa R; Zemplenyi, Karen S

    2017-11-01

    Pediatric maxillofacial fractures are rare owing to anatomic differences between juvenile and adult skulls. Children's bone is less calcified, allowing for "greenstick fractures." The overall ratio of cranial to facial volume decreases with age. In children, tooth buds comprise the majority of mandibular volume. The most common pediatric craniomaxillofacial fractures for children ages 0 to 18 years old are mandible, nasal bone, and maxilla and zygoma. Growth potential must be considered when addressing pediatric trauma and often a less-is-more approach is best when considering open versus closed treatment. Regardless of treatment, pediatric trauma cases must be followed through skeletal maturity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Moral Dilemmas in Pediatric Orthopedics.

    PubMed

    Mercuri, John J; Vigdorchik, Jonathan M; Otsuka, Norman Y

    2015-12-01

    All orthopedic surgeons face moral dilemmas on a regular basis; however, little has been written about the moral dilemmas that are encountered when providing orthopedic care to pediatric patients and their families. This article aims to provide surgeons with a better understanding of how bioethics and professionalism apply to the care of their pediatric patients. First, several foundational concepts of both bioethics and professionalism are summarized, and definitions are offered for 16 important terms within the disciplines. Next, some of the unique aspects of pediatric orthopedics as a subspecialty are reviewed before engaging in a discussion of 5 common moral dilemmas within the field. Those dilemmas include the following: (1) obtaining informed consent and assent for either surgery or research from pediatric patients and their families; (2) performing cosmetic surgery on pediatric patients; (3) caring for pediatric patients with cognitive or physical impairments; (4) caring for injured pediatric athletes; and (5) meeting the demand for pediatric orthopedic care in the United States. Pertinent considerations are reviewed for each of these 5 moral dilemmas, thereby better preparing surgeons for principled moral decision making in their own practices. Each of these dilemmas is inherently complex with few straightforward answers; however, orthopedic surgeons have an obligation to take the lead and better define these kinds of difficult issues within their field. The lives of pediatric patients and their families will be immeasurably improved as a result.

  20. Advances in Pediatric Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Loomba, Rohit; Sirlin, Claude B.; Schwimmer, Jeffrey B.; Lavine, Joel E.

    2009-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as the leading cause of chronic liver disease in children and adolescents in the United States. A two- to three-fold rise in the rates of obesity and overweight in children over the last 2 decades is probably responsible for the epidemic of NAFLD. Emerging data suggest that children with NASH progress to cirrhosis which may ultimately increase liver-related mortality. More worrisome is the recognition that cardiovascular risk and morbidity in children and adolescents is associated with fatty liver. Pediatric fatty liver disease often displays a histologic pattern distinct from that found in adults. Liver biopsy remains the gold standard for diagnosis of NASH. Non-invasive biomarkers are needed to identify individuals with progressive liver injury. Targeted therapies to improve liver histology and metabolic abnormalities associated with fatty liver are needed. Currently, randomized-controlled trials are underway in the pediatric population to define pharmacologic therapy for NAFLD. Public health awareness and intervention are needed to promote healthy diet, exercise, and lifestyle modifications to prevent and reduce the burden of disease in the community. PMID:19637286

  1. NIST Diffusion Data Center

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Diffusion Data Center (Web, free access)   The NIST Diffusion Data Center is a collection of over 14,100 international papers, theses, and government reports on diffusion published before 1980.

  2. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    1984-08-07

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  3. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  4. A Segmental Approach to Imaging of Sports-Related Injuries of the Pediatric Elbow

    PubMed Central

    Dwek, Jerry R.

    2012-01-01

    Context: The imaging of pediatric sports injuries of the elbow requires an understanding of the interaction between biomechanical forces common in sports and the developing skeleton. Evidence Acquisition: A PubMed search was performed using the terms elbow, radiology, and sports with the search limited to children up to 18 years of age. No limits were set on the range of years searched. Articles were reviewed for relevance with an emphasis of the changing nature of sports injuries about the pediatric elbow. Results: A clear progression of injuries about the elbow can be identified as the skeleton matures. Sports most commonly associated with injuries in the pediatric age group were baseball and gymnastics. Conclusions: Most pediatric sports injuries result from overhand throwing, especially in baseball or gymnastics. The manifestation of the injuries shifts as the physes progress toward closure. PMID:23016119

  5. Comparative Evaluation of Remineralizing Potential of Three Pediatric Dentifrices

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Ashna; Indushekar, KR; Saraf, Bhavna G; Sheoran, Neha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dentifrices are available in different formulations and more commonly a single dentifrice is used by whole family; be it an adult or child. However, concerns over high fluoride in pediatric formulations coupled with inability of the children to spit have led to recommendations to minimize fluoride ingestion during toothbrushing by using a small amount of toothpaste by children and incorporating minimal quantity of fluoride in the toothpastes. Literature is scarce on the remineralization potential of popularly known Indian pediatric dentifrices; hence, pediatric dentifrices containing lesser concentration of fluoride have been marketed relatively recently for the benefit of children without posing a threat of chronic fluoride toxicity at the same time. Aim and objectives The present study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the remineralization potential of three commercially available Indian pediatric dentifrices with different compositions on artificially induced carious lesions in vitro through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Materials and methods The present in vitro study was conducted on 45 sound extracted primary molar surfaces divided into three groups (15 each). Artificial demineralization was carried out, followed by remineralization using dentifrice slurry as per the group allocation. All the samples were studied for remineralization using SEM and the results statistically compared. Results All three dentifrices tested showed remineralization; although insignificantly different from each other but significantly higher compared to the demineralizing surface. Conclusion One can use pediatric dentifrices for preventing dental caries and decelerating lesion progression with an added advantage of lower fluoride toxicity risk. How to cite this article Kapoor A, Indushekar KR, Saraf BG, Sheoran N, Sardana D. Comparative Evaluation of Remineralizing Potential of Three Pediatric Dentifrices. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(3):186-191. PMID

  6. Laryngeal sarcoidosis: presentation and management in the pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Strychowsky, Julie E; Vargas, Sara O; Cohen, Ezra; Vielman, Rene; Son, Mary Beth; Rahbar, Reza

    2015-09-01

    Sarcoidosis is a disease characterized by systemic non-necrotizing granulomas of unknown etiology. Laryngeal sarcoidosis is extremely uncommon, especially among pediatric patients. The clinical presentation and management of this entity in the pediatric population are poorly understood. A comprehensive search in PubMed was conducted to identify all cases in the published literature. We also present a case of isolated pediatric laryngeal sarcoidosis and outline the multidisciplinary approach to evaluation and management. A previously healthy 13-year-old female presented with a five-month history of mild dysphonia, dyspnea on exertion, and diffuse supraglottic edema. Biopsy showed non-necrotizing granulomas. Treatment with methotrexate led to marked improvement. The literature search identified seven previously published cases of pediatric laryngeal sarcoidosis, four in which disease was isolated to the larynx. All patients presented with a symptomatic and diffusely edematous supraglottis. Diagnoses were based on supraglottic biopsies showing non-necrotizing granulomas; all other possible etiopathologies were excluded. Three patients responded to corticosteroid therapy alone, one patient to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor and methotrexate, and the remainder to a combination of corticosteroid therapy and surgical debulking. Laryngeal sarcoidosis in the pediatric population is challenging to diagnose and manage. When epithelioid granulomas are encountered histologically, other causes of granulomatous inflammation must be ruled out before a diagnosis of sarcoidosis can be made. Corticosteroid therapy alone may be ineffective. Medical therapy with methotrexate alone or in combination with TNF inhibitors versus surgical debulking alone or as part of multimodality treatment should be considered. A multidisciplinary approach with involvement of an otolaryngologist, pathologist, and rheumatologist is suggested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  7. FRACTIONAL PEARSON DIFFUSIONS.

    PubMed

    Leonenko, Nikolai N; Meerschaert, Mark M; Sikorskii, Alla

    2013-07-15

    Pearson diffusions are governed by diffusion equations with polynomial coefficients. Fractional Pearson diffusions are governed by the corresponding time-fractional diffusion equation. They are useful for modeling sub-diffusive phenomena, caused by particle sticking and trapping. This paper provides explicit strong solutions for fractional Pearson diffusions, using spectral methods. It also presents stochastic solutions, using a non-Markovian inverse stable time change.

  8. FRACTIONAL PEARSON DIFFUSIONS

    PubMed Central

    Leonenko, Nikolai N.; Meerschaert, Mark M.

    2013-01-01

    Pearson diffusions are governed by diffusion equations with polynomial coefficients. Fractional Pearson diffusions are governed by the corresponding time-fractional diffusion equation. They are useful for modeling sub-diffusive phenomena, caused by particle sticking and trapping. This paper provides explicit strong solutions for fractional Pearson diffusions, using spectral methods. It also presents stochastic solutions, using a non-Markovian inverse stable time change. PMID:23626377

  9. Diffusion in Altered Tonalite Sample Using Time Domain Diffusion Simulations in Tomographic Images Combined with Lab-scale Diffusion Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voutilainen, M.; Sardini, P.; Togneri, L.; Siitari-Kauppi, M.; Timonen, J.

    2010-12-01

    In this work an effect of rock heterogeneity on diffusion was investigated. Time domain diffusion simulations were used to compare behavior of diffusion in homogeneous and heterogeneous 3D media. Tomographic images were used as heterogeneous rock media. One altered tonalite sample from Sievi, Finland, was chosen as test case for introduced analysis procedure. Effective diffusion coefficient of tonalite sample was determined with lab-scale experiments and the same coefficient was used also for homogeneous media. Somewhat technically complicated mathematical solution for analysis of through diffusion experiment is shortly described. Computed tomography (CT) is already quite widely used in many geological, petrological, and paleontological applications when the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the material is of interest, and is an excellent method for gaining information especially about its heterogeneity, grain size, or porosity. In addition to offering means for quantitative characterization, CT provides a lot of qualitative information [1]. A through -diffusion laboratory experiment using radioactive tracer was fitted using the Time Domain Diffusion (TDD) method. This rapid particle tracking method allows simulation of the heterogeneous diffusion based on pore-scale images and local values of diffusivities [2]. As a result we found out that heterogeneity has only a small effect to diffusion coefficient and in-diffusion profile for used geometry. Also direction dependency was tested and was found to be negligible. Whereas significant difference between generally accepted value and value obtained from simulations for constant m in Archie’s law was found. [1] Voutilainen, M., Siitari-Kauppi, M., Sardini, P., and Timonen, J., (2010). On pore-space characterization of an altered tonalite by X-ray µCT and the 14C-PMMA method (in progress). [2] Sardini, P., Robinet, J., Siitari-Kauppi, M., Delay, F., and Hellmuth, K-H, (2007). On direct simulation of heterogeneous

  10. Tales from previous times: important eponyms in pediatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Berger, Michael; Muensterer, Oliver; Harmon, Carroll M

    2014-01-01

    The use of eponyms in medicine has a long and captivating tradition, which applies to pediatric surgery as well. Unfortunately, even though these eponyms are widely used, oftentimes the fascinating personalities and lives behind these names remain unrecognized or underappreciated, especially among residents, fellows and younger-generation pediatric surgeons. Therefore, in this article, we review 15 names that are frequently used as eponyms in modern pediatric surgery and hereby enlighten the personalities behind them. Given their particular frequency, we choose the following eponyms: Ramstedt pylorotomy, Nissen fundoplication, Murphy's sign and sequence, McBurney's sign and incision, Meckel's diverticulum, Kasai portoenterostomy, Ladd's procedure, Morgagni and Bochdalek hernia, Ravitch operation, Nuss procedure, Hirschsprung disease, Swenson pullthrough, Peña procedure and Wilms tumor. A detailed description of the historical importance of these personalities and their contribution to our field is given. Without the appropriate historical background, it is difficult for the current younger and next generation pediatric surgeons to grasp the full spectrum of the ongoing progress in our field. Therefore, our article conveys not only important insight into the past, but also provides young surgeons with an important historical perspective essential to understand the current and future developments in modern pediatric surgery.

  11. Mifepristone Treatment of Cushing's Syndrome in a Pediatric Patient.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Ronadip R; Marina, Neyssa; Katznelson, Laurence; Feldman, Brian J

    2015-11-01

    Cushing's syndrome (CS) in the pediatric population is challenging to diagnose and treat. Although next-generation medical therapies are emerging for adults with CS, none are currently approved or used in children. Here we describe the first use of mifepristone, a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, to treat CS in a pediatric subject. The patient, a 14-year-old girl with an 18-month history of metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma, suffered from fatigue, profound myopathy, irritability, and depression. She was found to have hypertension, hypokalemia, and worsening control of her preexisting type 1 diabetes. In this report, we detail our clinical evaluation that confirmed CS caused by an ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone secreting tumor. Surgical and radiation therapies were not pursued because of her poor functional status and limited life expectancy, and medical treatment of CS was indicated for symptom relief. Mifepristone treatment provided rapid improvement in glycemic control, insulin resistance, and hypertension as well as significant diminishment of her myopathy and fatigue. Hypokalemia was managed with an oral potassium replacement and dose escalation of spironolactone; no other significant adverse effects were observed. Despite successful palliation of Cushing's signs and symptoms, the patient died of progression of her cancer. This case demonstrates the safety and efficacy of mifepristone treatment in a pediatric patient with symptomatic, ectopic CS. We conclude that, in appropriate pediatric patients with CS, glucocorticoid receptor antagonism with mifepristone should be considered to control the effects of hypercortisolism and to improve quality of life. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Pediatric Nurse Practitioner Program: Theories for Extended Pediatric Nursing Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Margaret A.

    A description is provided of "Theories for Extended Pediatric Nursing Practice," a required course for pediatric and family nurse practitioner students in a California state university program. The course description presents information on the curricular placement of the course, prerequisites, in-class time allotments, and the focus of the course…

  13. Pediatric nurses' attitudes toward hospice and pediatric palliative care.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Caprice A; Madden, Vanessa; Wang, Hua; Kassing, Kristin; Curtis, Charlotte; Sloyer, Phyllis; Shenkman, Elizabeth A

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have investigated nurses' attitudes toward hospice and palliative care for adults, yet little information exists about pediatrics. Assessing pediatric nurses' attitudes is especially important in Florida, where a publicly funded pediatric palliative care program operates in eight cities across the State. The aims of this study were 1) to assess the attitudes toward hospice and palliative care, and 2) to examine the associations between sociodemographic and nursing care factors and nurses' attitudes toward hospice and palliative care. A cross-sectional research design using online and mail-in survey data was used to address the study aims. Surveys were conducted with 279 pediatric nurses across Florida. Bivariate results showed there were significant differences between the attitudes of pediatric nurses employed in a city with a pediatric palliative care program versus those not employed in a program site (p = 0.05). Multivariate analyses also showed that being employed in a program site increased attitudinal scores toward hospice and pediatric palliative care by 0.6 points. Beyond being employed in an area city where a pediatric palliative care program operates, results also suggest that having prior training in palliative care could alter nurses' attitudes, which might subsequently lead to increased referrals and improved outcomes for children and families.

  14. Long-term follow-up and late complications following treatment of pediatric urologic disorders.

    PubMed

    Akhavan, Ardavan; Stock, Jeffrey A

    2011-01-01

    Many pediatric urologic disorders have sequelae that may affect patients well into adulthood. Despite adequate treatment, many patients are at risk for progressive urologic deterioration years after surgical reconstruction. While many pediatric urologists follow their patients years after surgery, screening for late complications is a shared responsibility with primary care providers. This article discusses potential late complications and appropriate follow-up for patients who have a history of ureteral reimplantation, pyeloplasty, hypospadias repair, posterior urethral valve ablation, and intestinal interposition.

  15. [Acute respiratory distress syndrome in childhood: Changing definition and news from the Pediatric Consensus Conference].

    PubMed

    Dauger, S; Le Bourgeois, F; Guichoux, J; Brissaud, O

    2017-03-23

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a rapidly progressive hypoxemic respiratory insufficiency induced by alveolar filling mainly caused by alveolocapillary wall disruption, following direct or indirect pulmonary injury. Much less frequent in children than in adults, pediatric intensivists had long applied adult guidelines to their daily practice. In 2015, experts from the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference (PALICC) published the first international guidelines specifically dedicated to pediatric ARDS. After a short summary of the history of the ARDS definition since its first report in 1967, we describe the main diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines for PALICC.

  16. Assessment of the Contralesional Corticospinal Tract in Early-Onset Pediatric Hemiplegia: Preliminary Findings

    PubMed Central

    Hawe, Rachel L.; Dewald, Jules P.A.

    2015-01-01

    While pediatric hemiplegia results from a unilateral lesion, the immature state of the brain at the time of injury increases the likelihood of observing changes in the non-lesioned hemisphere as well. The purpose of this preliminary study was to use diffusion tensor imaging to evaluate the contralesional corticospinal tracts in individuals with early-onset pediatric hemiplegia. Twelve individuals with pediatric hemiplegia and ten age-matched controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Corticospinal projections were reconstructed using probabilistic tractography for both the lesioned and contralesional side in pediatric hemiplegia as well as the dominant and non-dominant sides in control subjects. The contralesional tract was found to have decreased white matter integrity relative to control subjects. Compared to controls, the contralesional tract also showed increased tract volume. The increase in volume suggests the presence of ipsilateral corticospinal projections from the contralesional hemisphere that are maintained during development to control the paretic extremities. Decreases in integrity may be explained by diffuse damage or incomplete maturation. The findings of this study support the notion of bilateral motor involvement in pediatric hemiplegia, and the need to address bilateral neural changes as well as motor deficits in this population. PMID:25571199

  17. Assessment of the contralesional corticospinal tract in early-onset pediatric hemiplegia: Preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Hawe, Rachel L; Dewald, Jules P A

    2014-01-01

    While pediatric hemiplegia results from a unilateral lesion, the immature state of the brain at the time of injury increases the likelihood of observing changes in the non-lesioned hemisphere as well. The purpose of this preliminary study was to use diffusion tensor imaging to evaluate the contralesional corticospinal tracts in individuals with early-onset pediatric hemiplegia. Twelve individuals with pediatric hemiplegia and ten age-matched controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Corticospinal projections were reconstructed using probabilistic tractography for both the lesioned and contralesional side in pediatric hemiplegia as well as the dominant and non-dominant sides in control subjects. The contralesional tract was found to have decreased white matter integrity relative to control subjects. Compared to controls, the contralesional tract also showed increased tract volume. The increase in volume suggests the presence of ipsilateral corticospinal projections from the contralesional hemisphere that are maintained during development to control the paretic extremities. Decreases in integrity may be explained by diffuse damage or incomplete maturation. The findings of this study support the notion of bilateral motor involvement in pediatric hemiplegia, and the need to address bilateral neural changes as well as motor deficits in this population.

  18. Pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A clinical and laboratory challenge

    PubMed Central

    Pacifico, Lucia; Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Cantisani, Vito; Menichini, Guendalina; Ricci, Paolo; Ferraro, Flavia; Chiesa, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    The true prevalence of pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is unknown. Challenges in determining the population prevalence of NAFLD include the type of test (and the reference intervals used to define normal and abnormal), the type of population (general population, hospital series), the demographic characteristics of the population sampled, and the nature of the study design. The natural history of pediatric NAFLD remains uncertain. The issue of when to perform a liver biopsy in children with suspected NAFLD remains controversial. Children with NAFLD but normal alanine aminotransferase are rarely investigated. However, evidence of alterations in glucose metabolism parameters should prompt a better understanding of the natural history of pediatric NAFLD not only in terms of the progression of liver disease but also regarding its potential relationship with other health outcomes such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. This evidence could make liver biopsy mandatory in the majority of cases at risk of progressive and severe hepatic and extrahepatic disease. This conclusion, however, raises the question of the feasibility of liver biopsy assessment in an extremely large at risk population, and of the cost/effectiveness of this policy. There is a considerable, continuous interest in reliable, noninvasive alternatives that will allow the prognosis of pediatric NAFLD to be followed in large community or population-based studies. PMID:21161009

  19. Pediatric nuclear medicine in acute care.

    PubMed

    Shammas, Amer; Vali, Reza; Charron, Martin

    2013-03-01

    Various radiopharmaceuticals are available for imaging pediatric patients in an acute care setting. This article focuses on the common applications used on a pediatric patient in acute care. To confirm the clinical diagnosis of brain death, brain scintigraphy is considered accurate and has been favorably compared with other methods of detecting the presence or absence of cerebral blood flow. Ventilation-perfusion lung scans are easy and safe to perform with less radiation exposure than computed tomography pulmonary angiography and remain an appropriate procedure to perform on children with suspected pulmonary embolism as a first imaging test in a hemodynamically stable patient with no history of lung disease and normal chest radiograph. (99m)Tc pertechnetate scintigraphy (Meckel's scan) is the best noninvasive procedure to establish the diagnosis of ectopic gastric mucosa in Meckel's diverticulum. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy is the most accurate diagnostic imaging modality for acute cholecystitis. (99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy is the simplest, and the most reliable and sensitive method for the early diagnosis of focal or diffuse functional cortical damage. Bone scintigraphy is a sensitive and noninvasive technique for the diagnosis of bone disorders such as osteomyelitis and fracture. Of recent, positron emission tomography imaging using (18)F-NaF has been introduced as an alternative to bone scintigraphy. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography has the potential to replace other imaging modalities, such as the evaluation of fever of unknown origin in pediatric patients, with better sensitivity and significantly less radiation exposure than gallium scan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Drug repurposing in pediatrics and pediatric hematology oncology.

    PubMed

    Blatt, Julie; Corey, Seth J

    2013-01-01

    Drug 'repurposing', that is, using old drugs for new indications, has been proposed as a more efficient strategy for drug development than the current standard of beginning with novel agents. In this review, we explore the scope of drug repurposing in pediatric hematology oncology and in pediatrics in general. Drugs commonly used in children were identified using the Harriet Lane Handbook (HLH) and searched in PubMed for different uses. Additional drugs were identified by searching PubMed and Google.com for 'drug repurposing' or 'drug repositioning'. Almost 10% of drugs with primary uses in pediatrics have been repurposed in pediatric hematology oncology or pediatrics. The observant clinician, pharmacologist and translational bioinformatician, as well as structural targeting, will have a role in discovering new repurposing opportunities.