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Sample records for prohormone processing sites

  1. A python analytical pipeline to identify prohormone precursors and predict prohormone cleavage sites.

    PubMed

    Southey, Bruce R; Sweedler, Jonathan V; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L

    2008-01-01

    Neuropeptides and hormones are signaling molecules that support cell-cell communication in the central nervous system. Experimentally characterizing neuropeptides requires significant efforts because of the complex and variable processing of prohormone precursor proteins into neuropeptides and hormones. We demonstrate the power and flexibility of the Python language to develop components of an bioinformatic analytical pipeline to identify precursors from genomic data and to predict cleavage as these precursors are en route to the final bioactive peptides. We identified 75 precursors in the rhesus genome, predicted cleavage sites using support vector machines and compared the rhesus predictions to putative assignments based on homology to human sequences. The correct classification rate of cleavage using the support vector machines was over 97% for both human and rhesus data sets. The functionality of Python has been important to develop and maintain NeuroPred (http://neuroproteomics.scs.uiuc.edu/neuropred.html), a user-centered web application for the neuroscience community that provides cleavage site prediction from a wide range of models, precision and accuracy statistics, post-translational modifications, and the molecular mass of potential peptides. The combined results illustrate the suitability of the Python language to implement an all-inclusive bioinformatics approach to predict neuropeptides that encompasses a large number of interdependent steps, from scanning genomes for precursor genes to identification of potential bioactive neuropeptides. PMID:19169350

  2. A python analytical pipeline to identify prohormone precursors and predict prohormone cleavage sites.

    PubMed

    Southey, Bruce R; Sweedler, Jonathan V; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L

    2008-01-01

    Neuropeptides and hormones are signaling molecules that support cell-cell communication in the central nervous system. Experimentally characterizing neuropeptides requires significant efforts because of the complex and variable processing of prohormone precursor proteins into neuropeptides and hormones. We demonstrate the power and flexibility of the Python language to develop components of an bioinformatic analytical pipeline to identify precursors from genomic data and to predict cleavage as these precursors are en route to the final bioactive peptides. We identified 75 precursors in the rhesus genome, predicted cleavage sites using support vector machines and compared the rhesus predictions to putative assignments based on homology to human sequences. The correct classification rate of cleavage using the support vector machines was over 97% for both human and rhesus data sets. The functionality of Python has been important to develop and maintain NeuroPred (http://neuroproteomics.scs.uiuc.edu/neuropred.html), a user-centered web application for the neuroscience community that provides cleavage site prediction from a wide range of models, precision and accuracy statistics, post-translational modifications, and the molecular mass of potential peptides. The combined results illustrate the suitability of the Python language to implement an all-inclusive bioinformatics approach to predict neuropeptides that encompasses a large number of interdependent steps, from scanning genomes for precursor genes to identification of potential bioactive neuropeptides.

  3. Characterization of an islet carboxypeptidase B involved in prohormone processing.

    PubMed

    Mackin, R B; Noe, B D

    1987-02-01

    An islet carboxypeptidase B-like enzyme (CP B) has been identified and characterized in secretory granules of anglerfish islets. By employing several different column chromatography methods (gel filtration, ion exchange, and hydroxylapatite), it was determined that the islet secretory granules contained only one detectable CP B. This enzyme is present in both secretory granule- and microsome-enriched subcellular fractions and is membrane associated at pH 5.2. The specific activity of the islet CP B was approximately 4-fold higher in the secretory granule- and microsome-enriched subcellular fractions than in the lysosome-enriched fraction. It is a metallo-enzyme that is stimulated by Co++, and has a pH optimum in the range of 5.2-6.2. The isoelectric point of the islet CP B is at pH 4.9. The enzyme is a glycoprotein and has an approximate molecular size of Mr 30,000 by gel filtration. The substrate analogs guanidinoethylmercaptosuccinic acid, guanidinopropylsuccinic acid, and aminopropylmercaptosuccinic acid competitively inhibited the islet CP B with inhibition constant (Ki) values of 23, 21, and 230 nM, respectively. In experiments employing purified prohormone substrates it was demonstrated that the action of a CP B-like enzyme was required for the complete processing of anglerfish proinsulin and prosomatostatin-II. These results indicate that the anglerfish islet CP B is involved in prohormone processing and has properties which are very similar to those of enkephalin convertase. PMID:3542502

  4. Role of prohormone convertases in pro-neuropeptide Y processing: coexpression and in vitro kinetic investigations.

    PubMed

    Brakch, N; Rist, B; Beck-Sickinger, A G; Goenaga, J; Wittek, R; Bürger, E; Brunner, H R; Grouzmann, E

    1997-12-23

    Proneuropeptide Y (ProNPY) undergoes cleavage at a single dibasic site Lys38-Arg39 resulting in the formation of 1-39 amino acid NPY which is further processed successively by carboxypeptidase-like and peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase enzymes. To investigate whether prohormone convertases are involved in ProNPY processing, a vaccinia virus derived expression system was used to coexpress recombinant ProNPY with each of the prohormone convertases PC1/3, PC2, furin, and PACE4 in Neuro2A and NIH 3T3 cell lines as regulated neuroendocrine and constitutive prototype cell lines, respectively. The analysis of processed products shows that only PC1/3 generates NPY in NIH 3T3 cells while both PC1/3 and PC2 are able to generate NPY in Neuro2A cells. The convertases furin and PACE4 are unable to process ProNPY in either cell line. Moreover, comparative in vitro cleavage of recombinant NPY precursor by the enzymes PC1/3, PC2 and furin shows that only PC1/3 and PC2 are involved in specific cleavage of the dibasic site. Kinetic studies demonstrate that PC1/3 cleaves ProNPY more efficiently than PC2. The main difference between the cleavage efficiency is observed in the Vmax values whereas no major difference is observed in Km values. In addition the cleavage by PC1/3 and PC2 of two peptides reproducing the dibasic cleavage site with different amino acid sequence lengths namely (20-49)-ProNPY and (28-43)-ProNPY was studied. These shortened ProNPY substrates, when recognized by the enzymes, are more efficiently cleaved than ProNPY itself. The shortest peptide is not cleaved by PC2 while it is by PC1/3. On the basis of these observations it is proposed, first, that the constitutive secreted NPY does not result from the cleavage carried out by ubiquitously expressed enzymes furin and PACE4; second, that PC1/3 and PC2 are not equipotent in the cleavage of ProNPY; and third, substrate peptide length might discriminate PC1/3 and PC2 processing activity.

  5. Processing of thyrotropin-releasing hormone prohormone (pro-TRH) generates a biologically active peptide, prepro-TRH-(160-169), which regulates TRH-induced thyrotropin secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Bulant, M.; Vaudry, H. ); Roussel, J.P.; Astier, H. ); Nicolas, P. )

    1990-06-01

    Rat thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) prohormone contains five copies of the TRH progenitor sequence Gln-His-Pro-Gly linked together by connecting sequences whose biological activity is unknown. Both the predicted connecting peptide prepro-TRH-(160-169) (Ps4) and TRH are predominant storage forms of TRH precursor-related peptides in the hypothalamus. To determine whether Ps4 is co-released with TRH, rat median eminence slices were perfused in vitro. Infusion of depolarizing concentrations of KCl induced stimulation of release of Ps4- and TRH-like immunoreactivity. The possible effect of Ps4 on thyrotropin release was investigated in vitro using quartered anterior pituitaries. Infusion of Ps4 alone had no effect on thyrotropin secretion but potentiated TRH-induced thyrotropin release in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the occurrence of specific binding sites for {sup 125}I-labeled Tyr-Ps4 in the distal lobe of the pituitary was demonstrated by binding analysis and autoradiographic localization. These findings indicate that these two peptides that arise from a single multifunctional precursor, the TRH prohormone, act in a coordinate manner on the same target cells to promote hormonal secretion. These data suggest that differential processing of the TRH prohormone may have the potential to modulate the biological activity of TRH.

  6. Structural and enzymatic characterization of a purified prohormone-processing enzyme: secreted, soluble Kex2 protease.

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, C; Fuller, R S

    1992-01-01

    The prohormone-processing Kex2 protease of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be converted from an intracellular membrane protein to a soluble, secreted, and active form by deletion of the transmembrane domain and C-terminal tail. One such molecule was purified to near homogeneity from the culture medium of an overexpressing yeast strain. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed that the N terminus of mature Kex2 protease is created by a potentially autoproteolytic cleavage at Lys108-Arg109, prior to the domain homologous to subtilisin, followed by trimming of Leu-Pro and Val-Pro dipeptides by the Ste13 dipeptidyl aminopeptidase. Kinetic parameters were examined using fluorogenic peptidyl-methylcoumarin amide substrates. Initial burst titration indicated that the preparation was entirely active. Measurements of dependence of activity on pH yielded a simple curve suggesting titration of a single ionizable group. Activity was half-maximal at pH 5.7 and nearly constant from pH 6.5 to 9.5. Discrimination between substrates was as great as 360-fold in Km and 130-fold in kcat. Substrates with a Lys-Arg dipeptide preceding the cleaved bond were preferred, having kcat/Km values up to 1.1 x 10(7) sec-1.M-1. The enzyme cleaved substrates having Arg-Arg, Pro-Arg, Ala-Arg, and Thr-Arg with increased Km but with unchanged kcat. In contrast, the enzyme displayed a dramatically lower kcat for a Lys-Lys substrate with a smaller increase in Km. Thus the two residues preceding the cleaved bond may play distinct roles in the selectivity of binding and cleavage of prohormone substrates. Images PMID:1736307

  7. Proglucagon is processed to glucagon by prohormone convertase PC2 in alpha TC1-6 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Rouillé, Y; Westermark, G; Martin, S K; Steiner, D F

    1994-01-01

    Proglucagon is processed differentially in the pancreatic alpha cells and the intestinal L cells to yield either glucagon or glucagon-like peptide 1, respectively, structurally related hormones with opposing metabolic actions. Here, we have studied the processing of proglucagon in alpha TC1-6 cells, an islet-cell line transformed by simian virus 40 large tumor (T) antigen, a model of the pancreatic alpha cell. We found that these cells process proglucagon at certain dibasic cleavage sites to release glucagon and only small amounts of glucagon-like peptide 1, as demonstrated by both continuous and pulse-chase labeling experiments. Both normal islet alpha cells and alpha TC1-6 cells were shown to express the prohormone convertase PC2 at high levels, but not the related protease PC3. Expression of PC2 antisense RNA in alpha TC1-6 cells inhibited both PC2 production and proglucagon processing concomitantly. We conclude that PC2 is the key endoprotease responsible for proglucagon processing in cells with the alpha-cell phenotype. Images PMID:8159732

  8. Cathepsin L in secretory vesicles functions as a prohormone-processing enzyme for production of the enkephalin peptide neurotransmitter

    PubMed Central

    Yasothornsrikul, Sukkid; Greenbaum, Doron; Medzihradszky, Katalin F.; Toneff, Thomas; Bundey, Richard; Miller, Ruthellen; Schilling, Birgit; Petermann, Ivonne; Dehnert, Jessica; Logvinova, Anna; Goldsmith, Paul; Neveu, John M.; Lane, William S.; Gibson, Bradford; Reinheckel, Thomas; Peters, Christoph; Bogyo, Matthew; Hook, Vivian

    2003-01-01

    Multistep proteolytic mechanisms are essential for converting proprotein precursors into active peptide neurotransmitters and hormones. Cysteine proteases have been implicated in the processing of proenkephalin and other neuropeptide precursors. Although the papain family of cysteine proteases has been considered the primary proteases of the lysosomal degradation pathway, more recent studies indicate that functions of these enzymes are linked to specific biological processes. However, few protein substrates have been described for members of this family. We show here that secretory vesicle cathepsin L is the responsible cysteine protease of chromaffin granules for converting proenkephalin to the active enkephalin peptide neurotransmitter. The cysteine protease activity was identified as cathepsin L by affinity labeling with an activity-based probe for cysteine proteases followed by mass spectrometry for peptide sequencing. Production of [Met]enkephalin by cathepsin L occurred by proteolytic processing at dibasic and monobasic prohormone-processing sites. Cellular studies showed the colocalization of cathepsin L with [Met]enkephalin in secretory vesicles of neuroendocrine chromaffin cells by immunofluorescent confocal and immunoelectron microscopy. Functional localization of cathepsin L to the regulated secretory pathway was demonstrated by its cosecretion with [Met]enkephalin. Finally, in cathepsin L gene knockout mice, [Met]enkephalin levels in brain were reduced significantly; this occurred with an increase in the relative amounts of enkephalin precursor. These findings indicate a previously uncharacterized biological role for secretory vesicle cathepsin L in the production of [Met]enkephalin, an endogenous peptide neurotransmitter. PMID:12869695

  9. Cerebrospinal fluid prohormone processing and neuropeptides stimulating feed intake of dairy cows during early lactation.

    PubMed

    Kuhla, Björn; Laeger, Thomas; Husi, Holger; Mullen, William

    2015-02-01

    After parturition, feed intake of dairy cows increases within the first weeks of lactation, but the molecular mechanisms stimulating or delaying the slope of increase are poorly understood. Some of the molecules controlling feed intake are neuropeptides that are synthesized as propeptides and subsequently processed before they bind to specific receptors in feeding centers of the brain. Cerebrospinal fluid surrounds most of the feed intake regulatory centers and contains numerous neuropeptides. In the present study, we used a proteomic approach to analyze the neuropeptide concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid taken from dairy cows between day -18 and -10, and between day +10 and +20 relative to parturition. We found 13 proteins which were only present in samples taken before parturition, 13 proteins which were only present in samples taken after parturition, and 25 proteins which were commonly present, before and after parturition. Among them, differences in pro-neuropeptide Y, proenkephalin-A, neuroendocrine convertase-2, neurosecretory protein VGF, chromogranin-A, and secretogranin-1 and -3 concentrations relative to parturition highlight propeptides and prohormone processings involved in the control of feed intake and energy homeostasis. Scaffold analysis further emphasized an increased tone of endogenous opioids associated with the postparturient increase of feed intake.

  10. Simultaneous assessment of prohormone transport and processing in four separate islet cell types: a combined autoradiographic and biochemical study.

    PubMed

    Noe, B D; Amherdt, M; Perrelet, A; Orci, L

    1988-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the relationships between prohormone transport and processing in separate cell types in pancreatic islet tissue. Anglerfish islets were subjected to pulse-chase incubation with [3H]tryptophan and/or [35S]cysteine. Tissue and media were removed at specific time points during the incubation and prepared for electron microscopic examination or biochemical analysis. Specific islet cell types were identified ultrastructurally using protein A gold immunocytochemistry. Transport of newly synthesized peptides through specific subcellular compartments was monitored using electron microscopic autoradiography. Prohormone-product ratios were established by gel filtration and high-performance liquid chromatography analyses of tissue extracts. Complete analyses were performed on A-cells (source of proglucagon-II, glucagon-II, and glucagon-like peptide-II), B-cells (proinsulin and insulin), D-cells (prosomatostatin-II and somatostatin-28), and S-cells (prosomatostatin-I and somatostatin-14). Transport of newly synthesized peptides proceeded from rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) to Golgi complex and then to mature secretory granules in all cell types. The transport rate was most rapid in A- and B-cells, slower in S-cells, and slowest in D-cells. The T1/2 for conversion of prohormone to product(s) was shortest in S-cells (150 min), slightly longer in B-cells (155 min), much longer in D-cells (259 min), and greater than 300 min in A-cells. These results demonstrate that the transport/prohormone conversion relationships are unique in each of the islet cell types monitored. PMID:2906125

  11. Prohormone processing in the trans-Golgi network: endoproteolytic cleavage of prosomatostatin and formation of nascent secretory vesicles in permeabilized cells

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Many peptide hormones are synthesized as larger precursors which undergo endoproteolytic cleavage at paired basic residues to generate a bioactive molecule. Morphological evidence from several laboratories has implicated either the TGN or immature secretory granules as the site of prohormone cleavage. To identify the site where prohormone cleavage is initiated, we have used retrovirally infected rat anterior pituitary GH3 cells which express high levels of prosomatostatin (proSRIF) (Stoller, T. J., and D. Shields. J. Cell Biol. 1988. 107:2087- 2095). By incubating these cells at 20 degrees C, a temperature that prevents exit from the Golgi apparatus, proSRIF accumulated quantitatively in the TGN and no proteolytic processing was evident; processing resumed upon shifting the cells back to 37 degrees C. After the 20 degrees C block, the cells were mechanically permeabilized and pro-SRIF processing determined. Cleavage of proSRIF to the mature hormone was approximately 35-50% efficient, required incubation at 37 degrees C and ATP hydrolysis, but was independent of GTP or cytosol. The in vitro ATP-dependent proSRIF processing was inhibited by inclusion of chloroquine, a weak base, CCCP, a protonophore, or by preincubating the permeabilized cells with low concentrations of N- ethylmaleimide, an inhibitor of vacuolar-type ATP-dependent proton pumps. These data suggest that: (a) proSRIF cleavage is initiated in the TGN, and (b) this reaction requires an acidic pH which is facilitated by a Golgi-associated vacuolar-type ATPase. A characteristic feature of polypeptide hormone-producing cells is their ability to store the mature hormone in dense core secretory granules. To investigate the mechanism of protein sorting to secretory granules, the budding of nascent secretory vesicles from the TGN was determined. No vesicle formation occurred at 20 degrees C; in contrast, at 37 degrees C, the budding of secretory vesicles was approximately 40% efficient and was dependent on ATP

  12. Interaction of Drosophila melanogaster prohormone convertase 2 and 7B2. Insect cell-specific processing and secretion.

    PubMed

    Hwang, J R; Siekhaus, D E; Fuller, R S; Taghert, P H; Lindberg, I

    2000-06-01

    The prohormone convertases (PCs) are an evolutionarily ancient group of proteases required for the maturation of neuropeptide and peptide hormone precursors. In Drosophila melanogaster, the homolog of prohormone convertase 2, dPC2 (amontillado), is required for normal hatching behavior, and immunoblotting data indicate that flies express 80- and 75-kDa forms of this protein. Because mouse PC2 (mPC2) requires 7B2, a helper protein for productive maturation, we searched the fly data base for the 7B2 signature motif PPNPCP and identified an expressed sequence tag clone encoding the entire open reading frame for this protein. dPC2 and d7B2 cDNAs were subcloned into expression vectors for transfection into HEK-293 cells; mPC2 and rat 7B2 were used as controls. Although active mPC2 was detected in medium in the presence of either d7B2 or r7B2, dPC2 showed no proteolytic activity upon coexpression of either d7B2 or r7B2. Labeling experiments showed that dPC2 was synthesized but not secreted from HEK-293 cells. However, when dPC2 and either d7B2 or r7B2 were coexpressed in Drosophila S2 cells, abundant immunoreactive dPC2 was secreted into the medium, coincident with the appearance of PC2 activity. Expression and secretion of dPC2 enzyme activity thus appears to require insect cell-specific posttranslational processing events. The significant differences in the cell biology of the insect and mammalian enzymes, with 7B2 absolutely required for secretion of dPC2 and zymogen conversion occurring intracellularly in the case of dPC2 but not mPC2, support the idea that the Drosophila enzyme has specific requirements for maturation and secretion that can be met only in insect cells. PMID:10749852

  13. Isolation of products and intermediates of pancreatic prosomatostatin processing: use of fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry as an aid in analysis of prohormone processing.

    PubMed

    Andrews, P C; Dixon, J E

    1987-07-28

    Major products and an intermediate in the proteolytic processing pathway of preprosomatostatin I from anglerfish (Lophius americanus) were purified and characterized. Proteolytic mapping by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry was used to rapidly locate regions of the peptides whose masses deviated from those deduced from the cDNA sequence. Amino acid analysis and partial Edman sequencing were also used to confirm the structures. The protein structural data indicate a Glu for Gly substitution at position 83 of preprosomatostatin I (aPPSS-I, numbering from the initiator Met) relative to the cDNA sequence. Two of the peptides isolated, aPPSS-I (26-52) (7.5 nmol X g-1) and aPPSS-I (26-92) (49.5 nmol X g-1), define signal cleavage as occurring between Cys-25 and Ser-26. A partial sequence was obtained from fragment ions in the mass spectrum of a peptide corresponding to aPPSS-I (94-105) (58 nmol X g-1). The 14-residue somatostatin [SS-14 corresponding to aPPSS-I (108-121)] has previously been isolated [Noe, B. D., Spiess, J., Rivier, J. E., & Vale, W. (1979) Endocrinology (Baltimore) 105, 1410-1415]. Taken together, these peptides suggest a pathway for prosomatostatin I processing in which the residues corresponding to SS-14 and the immediately preceding 14 residues are cleaved from the prohormone via endoproteolysis (order of cleavage not determined). The fragment aPPSS-I (94-105) was isolated in lower yield than SS-14 and may represent a secondary site of cleavage. Subsequent cleavage at arginine-53 results in the minor peptide aPPSS-I (26-52).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2889466

  14. Purification and characterization of the candidate prohormone-processing enzyme SPC3 produced in a mouse L cell line.

    PubMed

    Rufaut, N W; Brennan, S O; Hakes, D J; Dixon, J E; Birch, N P

    1993-09-25

    at either of the basic amino acids adjacent to the cleavage site were not cleaved by recombinant SPC3. Recombinant SPC3 was also able to cleave after a single arginine residue in chicken proalbumin following the Arg-Asn-Leu-Gln-Arg-Phe-Ala-Arg prosequence. These results define the primary structure requirements for cleavage by recombinant SPC3 and remain consistent with a role for SPC3 in proprotein/prohormone maturation. PMID:8376387

  15. Yeast prohormone processing enzyme (KEX2 gene product) is a Ca2+-dependent serine protease.

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, R S; Brake, A; Thorner, J

    1989-01-01

    The KEX2-encoded endoprotease was overproduced in yeast several hundred-fold and further purified to achieve a 10,000-fold enrichment in specific activity. The enzyme was (i) membrane-bound, but solubilized by detergents; (ii) able to cleave peptide substrates at both Lys-Arg and Arg-Arg sites; (iii) inhibited by EDTA and EGTA (but not o-phenanthroline), but fully reactivated by Ca2+; (iv) unaffected by 5-10 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, N alpha-(ptosyl)lysine chloromethyl ketone, or L-1-tosylamido-2-phenylethyl chloromethyl ketone, but inactivated by 1-2 microM Ala-Lys-Arg-chloromethyl ketone; (v) labeled specifically by 125I-labeled Tyr-Ala-Lys-Arg-chloromethyl ketone; and (vi) resistant to trans-epoxysuccinate compounds (which inactivate thiol proteases), but inactivated by diisopropyl fluorophosphate (a diagnostic serine protease inhibitor). Mutant enzyme molecules lacking as many as 200 C-terminal residues still retained Ca2+-dependent protease activity and were labeled by 125I-labeled Tyr-Ala-Lys-Arg-chloromethyl ketone. Images PMID:2646633

  16. amontillado, the Drosophila homolog of the prohormone processing protease PC2, is required during embryogenesis and early larval development.

    PubMed Central

    Rayburn, Lowell Y M; Gooding, Holly C; Choksi, Semil P; Maloney, Dhea; Kidd, Ambrose R; Siekhaus, Daria E; Bender, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Biosynthesis of most peptide hormones and neuropeptides requires proteolytic excision of the active peptide from inactive proprotein precursors, an activity carried out by subtilisin-like proprotein convertases (SPCs) in constitutive or regulated secretory pathways. The Drosophila amontillado (amon) gene encodes a homolog of the mammalian PC2 protein, an SPC that functions in the regulated secretory pathway in neuroendocrine tissues. We have identified amon mutants by isolating ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS)-induced lethal and visible mutations that define two complementation groups in the amon interval at 97D1 of the third chromosome. DNA sequencing identified the amon complementation group and the DNA sequence change for each of the nine amon alleles isolated. amon mutants display partial embryonic lethality, are defective in larval growth, and arrest during the first to second instar larval molt. Mutant larvae can be rescued by heat-shock-induced expression of the amon protein. Rescued larvae arrest at the subsequent larval molt, suggesting that amon is also required for the second to third instar larval molt. Our data indicate that the amon proprotein convertase is required during embryogenesis and larval development in Drosophila and support the hypothesis that AMON acts to proteolytically process peptide hormones that regulate hatching, larval growth, and larval ecdysis. PMID:12586710

  17. Differential localization of prohormone convertases PC1 and PC2 in two distinct types of secretory granules in rat pituitary gonadotrophs.

    PubMed

    Uehara, M; Yaoi, Y; Suzuki, M; Takata, K; Tanaka, S

    2001-04-01

    Prohormone convertases PC1 and PC2 are endoproteases involved in prohormone cleavage at pairs of basic amino acids. There is a report that prohormone convertase exists in the rat anterior pituitary gonadotrophs, where it had previously been considered that proprotein processing does not take place. In addition to luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone, rat pituitary gonadotrophs contain chromogranin A (CgA) and secretogranin II (SgII), two members of the family of granin proteins, which have proteolytic sites in their molecules. In the present study we examined whether there is a close correlation between subcellular localization of prohormone convertases and granin proteins. Ultrathin sections of rat anterior pituitary were immunolabeled with anti-PC1 or -PC2 antisera and then stained with immunogold. Immunogold particles for PC1 were exclusively found in large, lucent secretory granules, whereas those for PC2 were seen in both large, lucent and small, dense granules. The double-immunolabeling also demonstrated colocalization of PC2 and SgII in small, dense granules and of PC1, PC2, and CgA in large, lucent granules. These immunocytochemical results suggest that PC2 may be involved in the proteolytic processing of SgII and that both PC1 and PC2 may be necessary to process CgA. PMID:11383885

  18. Regulation of human prohormone convertase 2 promoter activity by the transcription factor EGR-1.

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, E; Ayoubi, T A; Meulemans, S M; Van De Ven, W J

    1997-01-01

    Prohormone convertases are involved in the tissue-specific endoproteolytic processing of prohormones and neuropeptide precursors within the secretory pathway. In the present study, we have isolated genomic clones comprising the 5'-terminal region of the human prohormone convertase 2 (PC2) gene and established characteristics of the PC2 promoter region. The proximal promoter region is very G+C-rich and does not contain a canonical TATA box or a CAAT box. Transient expression assays with a set of human PC2 gene fragments containing progressive 5' deletions demonstrate that the proximal promoter region is capable of directing high levels of neuroendocrine-specific expression of reporter gene constructs. In addition, we show that the transcription factor EGR-1 interacts with two distinct elements within the proximal human PC2 promoter region. Transfection experiments also demonstrate that EGR-1 is able to enhance PC2 promoter activity. PMID:9359835

  19. An internally quenched fluorogenic substrate of prohormone convertase 1 and furin leads to a potent prohormone convertase inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Jean, F; Basak, A; DiMaio, J; Seidah, N G; Lazure, C

    1995-01-01

    Based upon the observed cleavage of various peptidyl substrates by the recombinant prohormone convertases PC1 and furin, an intramolecularly quenched fluorogenic peptidyl substrate, (o-aminobenzoyl)-Lys-Glu-Arg-Ser-Lys-Arg-Ser-Ala-Leu-Arg-Asp-(3-nitro)Ty r-Ala, was synthesized. In spite of the distance (approx. 33 A) separating the fluorescent donor/acceptor pair, the highly fluorescent o-aminobenzoyl group is efficiently quenched by long-range resonance energy transfer to the (3-nitro)Tyr moiety. Both recombinant human PC1 and human furin recognize and cleave specifically this substrate at the expected Arg-Ser site in a sensitive manner. The Km values for human PC1 and human furin were 17 microM and 30 microM respectively, with Vmax. values of 6.4 microM/h and 18 microM/h. These values differ significantly from those obtained when using a 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin-containing pentapeptidyl substrate where, for similar Km values, the Vmax. values were much lower. The peptide sequence was used to synthesize another peptide incorporating a ketomethylene arginyl pseudopeptide bond. This compound proved to be a potent competitive inhibitor of both human PC1 and human furin, displaying Ki values of 7.2 microM and 2.4 microM respectively. PMID:7741698

  20. Analysis of peptides in prohormone convertase 1/3 null mouse brain using quantitative peptidomics

    PubMed Central

    Wardman, Jonathan H.; Zhang, Xin; Gagnon, Sandra; Castro, Leandro M.; Zhu, Xiaorong; Steiner, Donald F.; Day, Robert; Fricker, Lloyd D.

    2010-01-01

    Neuropeptides are produced from larger precursors by limited proteolysis, first by endopeptidases and then by carboxypeptidases. Major endopeptidases required for these cleavages include prohormone convertase (PC) 1/3 and PC2. In the present study, quantitative peptidomics analysis was used to characterize the specific role PC1/3 plays in this process. Peptides isolated from hypothalamus, amygdala, and striatum of PC1/3 null mice were compared to those from heterozygous and wild-type mice. Extracts were labeled with stable isotopic tags and fractionated by HPLC, after which relative peptide levels were determined using tandem mass spectrometry. In total, 92 peptides were found, of which 35 were known neuropeptides or related peptides derived from 15 distinct secretory pathway proteins: 7B2, chromogranin A and B, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, procholecystokinin, proenkephalin, promelanin concentrating hormone, proneurotensin, propituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide, proSAAS, prosomatosatin, provasoactive intestinal peptide, provasopressin, secretogranin III, and VGF. Among the peptides derived from these proteins, ~1/3 were decreased in the PC1/3 null mice relative to wild-type mice, ~1/3 showed no change, and ~1/3 increased in PC1/3 null. Cleavage sites were analyzed in peptides that showed no change or that decreased in PC1/3 mice, and these results were compared with peptides that showed no change or decreased in previous peptidomic studies with PC2 null mice. Analysis of these sites showed that while PC1/3 and PC2 have overlapping substrate preferences, there are particular cleavage site residues that distinguish peptides preferred by each PC. PMID:20412386

  1. Immunoreactive prohormone atrial natriuretic peptides 1-30 and 31-67 - Existence of a single circulating amino-terminal peptide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yu-Ming; Whitson, Peggy A.; Cintron, Nitza M.

    1990-01-01

    Sep-Pak C18 extraction of human plasma and radioimmunoassay using antibodies which recognize atrial natriuretic peptide (99-128) and the prohormone sequences 1-30 and 31-67 resulted in mean values from 20 normal subjects of 26.2 (+/- 9.2), 362 (+/- 173) and 368 (+/- 160) pg/ml, respectively. A high correlation coefficient between values obtained using antibodies recognizing prohormone sequences 1-30 and 31-67 was observed (R = 0.84). Extracted plasma immunoreactivity of 1-30 and 31-67 both eluted at 46 percent acetonitrile. In contrast, chromatographic elution of synthetic peptides 1-30 and 31-67 was observed at 48 and 39 percent acetonitrile, respectively. Data suggest that the radioimmunoassay of plasma using antibodies recognizing prohormone sequences 1-30 and 31-67 may represent the measurement of a unique larger amino-terminal peptide fragment containing antigenic sites recognized by both antisera.

  2. Mutant PAX6 downregulates prohormone convertase 2 expression in mouse islets.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Cao, Wenwan; Zhou, Shixin; Shen, Liang; Wen, Jinhua

    2013-11-01

    Transcriptional factor paired box 6 (PAX6) is very important for the development of the eyes, central nervous system, and pancreas. PAX6 mutations are associated with a diabetic phenotype and abnormal glucose metabolism. Our previous study showed that PAX6 directly bound to and activated the prohormone convertase 1/3 (Pc1/3) gene promoter and subsequently regulated proinsulin processing. Prohormone convertase 2 (PC2) is the essential enzyme for pancreatic proinsulin processing. To study the regulation of PAX6 in Pc2 expression, we did research on the pancreas of Pax6 R266Stop mutant mice, where truncated mutations happened in the C-terminal of the PAX6 protein. Our studies showed that the mutant PAX6 protein was stable and regulated the activity of Pc2 promoter as shown by luciferase activity assays. We found that the wild-type PAX6 protein imparts a transcriptional effect, and the mutant PAX6 can also regulate the downstream molecules. The results provide new insights into the mechanism of truncated PAX6 in regulating the functions of the pancreas and endocrine system. PMID:24047795

  3. Enzymic characterization of murine and human prohormone convertase-1 (mPC1 and hPC1) expressed in mammalian GH4C1 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Jean, F; Basak, A; Rondeau, N; Benjannet, S; Hendy, G N; Seidah, N G; Chrétien, M; Lazure, C

    1993-01-01

    Prohormone convertase-1 (PC1), an endopeptidase that is structurally related to the yeast subtilisin-like Kex2 gene product, has been proposed to be involved in mammalian tissue-specific prohormone processing at pairs of basic residues. To better study this enzyme, a rat somatomammotroph cell line, GH4C1, was infected with vaccinia virus recombinants of murine PC1 (mPC1) and human PC1 (hPC1). An enzymically active form of each protein was secreted into the cell medium and partially purified by anion-exchange chromatography. The 80-85 kDa enzyme was shown to be Ca(2+)-dependent and exhibited a pH optimum of 6.0 when assayed against a synthetic fluorogenic substrate, acetyl-Arg-Ser-Lys-Arg-4-methylcoumaryl-1-amide. mPC1 and hPC1 displayed identical cleavage selectivity towards a number of fluorogenic substrates, and those incorporating an Arg at the P4 site were most favoured. Synthetic peptides, encompassing the junction between the putative pro-region and the active enzyme, and between the pro-region and the biologically active parathyroid hormone, were shown to be recognized and cleaved specifically at the pair of basic residues by both enzymes. Group-specific proteinase inhibitors such as metal ion chelators and p-hydroxymercuribenzoate, but not phenylmethanesulphonyl fluoride and pepstatin, strongly inhibit the PC1-associated activity. In addition, it is shown that an enzyme activity displaying identical properties is present in the cell medium of uninfected corticotroph AtT-20 cells and that its level is increased following stimulation of secretion by the secretagogue 8-bromo cyclic AMP. PMID:8318017

  4. How the Prohormone Theory Solved Two Important Controversies in Hormonal and Neural Peptide Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Chrétien, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This Prohormone Theory was simultaneously proposed in 1967 by two independent groups using two different approaches and two experimental models. Donald Steiner, in elegant pulse-chase experiments, proposed the existence of proinsulin when he observed that a human insulinoma was producing higher MW forms of immunoreactive insulin, subsequently transformed into insulin-like material (1). Simultaneously and independently, Michel Chrétien, based on amino acid sequence homologies between three pituitary peptides, β-lipotropic hormone (β-LPH), γ-LPH, and β-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (β-MSH), concluded that active peptide hormones are derived from endoproteolytic cleavages of inactive precursors, apparently at pairs of basic amino acids (2). One year later, Donald Chance confirmed that the cleavage sites in proinsulin were also made of paired basic amino acids (3). This novel paradigm solved two major controversies on the biosynthesis of both insulin and neuropeptides. This short review describes how. PMID:24167501

  5. Inhibition of Prohormone Convertases PC1/3 and PC2 by 2,5-Dideoxystreptamine Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Vivoli, Mirella; Caulfield, Thomas R.; Martínez-Mayorga, Karina; Johnson, Alan T.; Jiao, Guan-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    The prohormone convertases PC1/3 and PC2 are eukaryotic serine proteases involved in the proteolytic maturation of peptide hormone precursors and are implicated in a variety of pathological conditions, including obesity, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. In this work, we screened 45 compounds obtained by derivatization of a 2,5-dideoxystreptamine scaffold with guanidinyl and aryl substitutions for convertase inhibition. We identified four promising PC1/3 competitive inhibitors and three PC2 inhibitors that exhibited various inhibition mechanisms (competitive, noncompetitive, and mixed), with sub- and low micromolar inhibitory potency against a fluorogenic substrate. Low micromolar concentrations of certain compounds blocked the processing of the physiological substrate proglucagon. The best PC2 inhibitor effectively inhibited glucagon synthesis, a known PC2-mediated process, in a pancreatic cell line; no cytotoxicity was observed. We also identified compounds that were able to stimulate both 87 kDa PC1/3 and PC2 activity, behavior related to the presence of aryl groups on the dideoxystreptamine scaffold. By contrast, inhibitory activity was associated with the presence of guanidinyl groups. Molecular modeling revealed interactions of the PC1/3 inhibitors with the active site that suggest structural modifications to further enhance potency. In support of kinetic data suggesting that PC2 inhibition probably occurs via an allosteric mechanism, we identified several possible allosteric binding sites using computational searches. It is noteworthy that one compound was found to both inhibit PC2 and stimulate PC1/3. Because glucagon acts in functional opposition to insulin in blood glucose homeostasis, blocking glucagon formation and enhancing proinsulin cleavage with a single compound could represent an attractive therapeutic approach in diabetes. PMID:22169851

  6. Synthetic Small-Molecule Prohormone Convertase 2 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Kowalska, Dorota; Liu, Jin; Appel, Jon R.; Ozawa, Akihiko; Nefzi, Adel; Mackin, Robert B.; Houghten, Richard A.; Lindberg, Iris

    2009-01-01

    The proprotein convertases are believed to be responsible for the proteolytic maturation of a large number of peptide hormone precursors. Although potent furin inhibitors have been identified, thus far, no small-molecule prohormone convertase 1/3 or prohormone convertase 2 (PC2) inhibitors have been described. After screening 38 small-molecule positional scanning libraries against recombinant mouse PC2, two promising chemical scaffolds were identified: bicyclic guanidines, and pyrrolidine bis-piperazines. A set of individual compounds was designed from each library and tested against PC2. Pyrrolidine bis-piperazines were irreversible, time-dependent inhibitors of PC2, exhibiting noncompetitive inhibition kinetics; the most potent inhibitor exhibited a Ki value for PC2 of 0.54 μM. In contrast, the most potent bicyclic guanidine inhibitor exhibited a Ki value of 3.3 μM. Cross-reactivity with other convertases was limited: pyrrolidine bis-piperazines exhibited Ki values greater than 25 μM for PC1/3 or furin, whereas the Ki values of bicyclic guanidines for these other convertases were more than 15 μM. We conclude that pyrrolidine bis-piperazines and bicyclic guanidines represent promising initial leads for the optimization of therapeutically active PC2 inhibitors. PC2-specific inhibitors may be useful in the pharmacological blockade of PC2-dependent cleavage events, such as glucagon production in the pancreas and ectopic peptide production in small-cell carcinoma, and to study PC2-dependent proteolytic events, such as opioid peptide production. PMID:19074544

  7. The CACREP Site Visit Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Courtland C.

    2013-01-01

    An important step in the CACREP review process is the campus site visit. The visit involves a team, usually from comparable institutions, coming to a campus for a review of the counselor training program(s). The role of the team is to be the CACREP Board's representative on campus to verify the self-study. In this article, the author reviews…

  8. Measurement of the pro-hormone of brain type natriuretic peptide (proBNP): methodological considerations and pathophysiological relevance.

    PubMed

    Clerico, Aldo; Vittorini, Simona; Passino, Claudio

    2011-08-26

    Recent studies demonstrated that large amounts of the pro-hormone peptide of brain natriuretic peptide (proBNP) can be detected in plasma of healthy subjects and in particular of patients with heart failure. As a result, a great part of B-type natriuretic peptides measured in patients with cardio-vascular disease may be devoid of biological activity. These findings stimulated the set up of specific immunoassay methods for the measurement of the intact proBNP peptide. The aim of this review article is to discuss the methodological characteristics and the possible clinical relevance of specific immunoassay methods for the measurement of the proBNP peptide. From an analytical point of view, a fully automated immunoassay of proBNP has some theoretical advantages (e.g., a more stable molecule with higher molecular weight than the derived peptides) compared to the active hormone BNP. Recent studies supported the concept that the precursor proBNP might be actually considered a circulating prohormone, which can be cleaved by specific plasma proteases in BNP, the active hormone, and NT-proBNP, an inactive peptide. The peripheral processing of circulating proBNP could likely be submitted to regulatory rules, which might be impaired in patients with heart failure, opening new perspectives in the treatment of heart failure (e.g., by studying drugs inducing the cleavage of the prohormone into active BNP). Furthermore, as a future perspective, the specific assay in the same plasma sample of the intact precursor proBNP and of the biologically active peptide BNP, could allow a more accurate estimation of the production/secretion of B-type related peptides from cardiomyocytes and of the global cardiac endocrine function.

  9. Phosphorylation and Alternative Splicing of 7B2 Reduce Prohormone Convertase 2 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Molina, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    FAM20C is a secretory kinase responsible for the phosphorylation of multiple secreted proteins in mammalian cells; it has been shown to phosphorylate serine residues within a variety of different bone proteins. In this work we demonstrate that FAM20C also phosphorylates threonines, specifically those within the N-terminal domain of the neuroendocrine chaperone 7B2. Analysis of the primary sequence of 7B2 revealed that three threonine residues in its N-terminal domain are located within FAM20C consensus motifs: Thr73, Thr99, and Thr111. The individual substitution of Thr73 and Thr111 residues by neutral alanines caused a marked decrease in the total phosphorylation of 7B2. Furthermore, the phosphomimetic substitution of Thr111 by Glu clearly diminished the ability of 7B2 to activate pro-prohormone convertase 2 (PC2) in 7B2-lacking SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells, suggesting that the phosphorylation of this residue critically impacts the 7B2-proPC2 interaction. However, the phosphomimetic mutation did not alter 7B2's ability to function as an antiaggregant for human islet amyloid polypeptide. FAM20C-mediated phosphorylation of a common alternatively spliced variant of human 7B2 that lacks Ala100 (thus eliminating the Thr99 phosphorylation consensus site) was similar to the Ala-containing protein, but this variant did not activate proPC2 as efficiently as the Ala-containing protein. Although threonines within 7B2 were phosphorylated efficiently, FAM20C was incapable of performing the well-known regulatory threonine phosphorylation of the molecular chaperone binding immunoglobulin protein. Taken together, these results indicate that FAM20C plays a role in 7B2-mediated proPC2 activation by phosphorylating residue Thr111; and that 7B2 function is regulated by alternative splicing. PMID:25811241

  10. Peptides derived from the prohormone proNPQ/spexin are potent central modulators of cardiovascular and renal function and nociception

    PubMed Central

    Toll, Lawrence; Khroyan, Taline V.; Sonmez, Kemal; Ozawa, Akihiko; Lindberg, Iris; McLaughlin, Jay P.; Eans, Shainnel O.; Shahien, Amir A.; Kapusta, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    Computational methods have led two groups to predict the endogenous presence of a highly conserved, amidated, 14-aa neuropeptide called either spexin or NPQ. NPQ/spexin is part of a larger prohormone that contains 3 sets of RR residues, suggesting that it could yield more than one bioactive peptide; however, no in vivo activity has been demonstrated for any peptide processed from this precursor. Here we demonstrate biological activity for two peptides present within proNPQ/spexin. NPQ/spexin (NWTPQAMLYLKGAQ-NH2) and NPQ 53-70 (FISDQSRRKDLSDRPLPE) have differing renal and cardiovascular effects when administered intracerebroventricularly or intravenously into rats. Intracerebroventricular injection of NPQ/spexin produced a 13 ± 2 mmHg increase in mean arterial pressure, a 38 ± 8 bpm decrease in heart rate, and a profound decrease in urine flow rate. Intracerebroventricular administration of NPQ 53-70 produced a 26 ± 9 bpm decrease in heart rate with no change in mean arterial pressure, and a marked increase in urine flow rate. Intraventricular NPQ/spexin and NPQ 53-70 also produced antinociceptive activity in the warm water tail withdrawal assay in mice (ED50<30 and 10 nmol for NPQ/spexin and NPQ 53-70, respectively). We conclude that newly identified peptides derived from the NPQ/spexin precursor contribute to CNS-mediated control of arterial blood pressure and salt and water balance and modulate nociceptive responses.—Toll, L., Khroyan, T. V., Sonmez, K., Ozawa, A., Lindberg, I., McLaughlin, J. P., Eans, S. O., Shahien, A. A., Kapusta, D. R. Peptides derived from the prohormone proNPQ/spexin are potent central modulators of cardiovascular and renal function and nociception. PMID:22038051

  11. Contaminant Attenuation Processes at Mining Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitored natural attenuation is sometimes used in combination with active treatment technologies to achieve site-specific remediation objectives. The global imprint of acid drainage problems at mining sites, however, is a clear reminder that in most cases natural processes are ...

  12. Options for streamlining the site assessment process

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, R.

    1996-12-31

    The current site assessment process consists of entry into the CERCLA Information System (CERCLIS) database; completion of the Preliminary Assessment (PA), Site Inspection (SI), and Hazard Ranking System (HRS) documents; and placement on the National Priorities List (NPL). The purpose behind site assessment has been to identify sites for the NPL, not identify the most appropriate means for clearup. Several developments have led EPA to consider redesigning the process, including; the need to encourage brownfields redevelopment; the unintended stigma associated with being on CERCLIS; and the increased expertise of State and some Tribal programs. (For purposes of this paper, brownfields are considered abandoned, idled, or under-used industrial and commercial facilities where expansion or redevelopment is complicated by real or perceived environmental contamination.) EPA has begun various site assessment pilots to aid in developing a more efficient and effective Superfund site assessment program. Key goals are to give States increased responsibility, encourage early/more efficient cleanups, reduce costs, and promote environmental recovery and economic revitalization. Possible components of a revised site assessment program are presented.

  13. METAL ATTENUATION PROCESSES AT MINING SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this Issue Paper is to provide scientists and engineers responsible for assessing remediation technologies with background information on MNA processes at mining-impacted sites. The global magnitude of the acid drainage problem is clear evidence that in most cases...

  14. Siting Process for HLW Repository in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Masuda, S.; Kitayama, K.; Umeki, H.; Naito, M.

    2002-02-27

    In the year 2000, the geological disposal program for high-level radioactive waste in Japan moved from the phase of generic research and development (R&D) into the phase of implementation. Following legislation entitled the ''Specified Radioactive Waste Final Disposal Act'', the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) was established as the implementing organization. The assigned activities of NUMO include selection of the repository site, demonstration of disposal technology at the site, developing relevant licensing applications and construction, operation and closure of the repository. As the first milestone of siting process, NUMO announced to the public an overall procedure for selection of preliminary investigation areas for potential candidate sites on October 29, 2001. The procedure specifies that NUMO will solicit volunteer municipalities for preliminary investigation areas with publishing four documents as an information package. These documents are tentatively entitled ''Instructions for Application'', ''Siting Factors for the Preliminary Investigation Areas'', a ''Repository Concepts'' as well as an ''Site Investigation Community Outreach Scheme''.

  15. Expression of prohormone convertase 2 and the generation of neuropeptides in the developing nervous system of the gastropod Haliotis.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Scott F; York, Patrick S; Hanna, Peter H; Degnan, Bernard M; Croll, Roger P

    2009-01-01

    Prohormone convertase 2 (PC2) belongs to a family of enzymes involved in the proteolytic maturation of neuropeptide precursors into mature peptides that act as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators or neurohormones. Here we show that a gene encoding a PC2-like enzyme (HasPC2) is expressed during larval development and in the adult ganglia of the vetigastropod Haliotis asinina. HasPC2 exhibits high sequence identity to other gastropod PC2s and thus is likely to function in peptide processing. Analysis of HasPC2 expression indicates that it is activated early in nervous system development. During trochophore and early veliger larval stages, HasPC2 is expressed in the vicinity of the forming ganglia of the central nervous system and parts of the putative peripheral nervous system. Later in larval development, at the time the veliger becomes competent to interact with the external environment and initiate metamorphosis, HasPC2 expression largely restricts to cells of the major ganglia and their commissures. Profiling of veliger larvae by bioinformatic approaches suggests the expression of a variety of peptides. Direct MALDI-MS-based peptide profiling of juvenile Haliotis cerebral ganglia (brain) reveals an abundance of neuropeptides, including FMRFamide-related peptides and APGWamide, compatible with PC2 functioning in neuropeptide processing in these regions. These results are consistent with PC2 regulating neuropeptide generation in the earliest functioning of the gastropod nervous system.

  16. Deficiency of prohormone convertase dPC2 (AMONTILLADO) results in impaired production of bioactive neuropeptide hormones in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Christian; Herbert, Henrik; Kahnt, Jörg; Bender, Michael; Rhea, Jeanne M

    2011-08-01

    Peptide hormones synthesized by secretory neurons in the CNS are important regulators of physiology, behavior, and development. Like other neuropeptides, they are synthesized from larger precursor molecules by a specific set of enzymes. Using a combination of neurogenetics, immunostainings, and direct mass spectrometric profiling, we show that the presence of Drosophila prohormone convertase 2 encoded by the gene amontillado (amon) is a prerequisite for the proper processing of neuropeptide hormones from the major neurohemal organs of the CNS. A loss of amon correlates with a loss of neuropeptide hormone signals from the larval ring gland and perisympathetic organs. Neuropeptide hormone signals were still detectable in the adult corpora cardiaca of older amon-deficient flies which were amon heat-shock-rescued until eclosion. A semiquantification by direct peptide profiling using stable isotopic standards showed, however, that their neuropeptide hormone levels are strongly reduced. Targeted expression of GFP under the control of amon regulatory regions revealed a co-localization with the investigated peptide hormones in secretory neurons of the brain and ventral nerve cord. The lack of AMON activity resulted in a deficiency of L3 larva to enter the wandering phase. In conclusion, our findings provide the first direct evidence that AMON is a key enzyme in the production of neuropeptides in the fruitfly. PMID:21138435

  17. 10 CFR 960.3-2 - Siting process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Siting process. 960.3-2 Section 960.3-2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2 Siting process. The siting process begins with site...

  18. 10 CFR 960.3-2 - Siting process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Siting process. 960.3-2 Section 960.3-2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2 Siting process. The siting process begins with site...

  19. 10 CFR 960.3-2 - Siting process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Siting process. 960.3-2 Section 960.3-2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2 Siting process. The siting process begins with site...

  20. 10 CFR 960.3-2 - Siting process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Siting process. 960.3-2 Section 960.3-2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2 Siting process. The siting process begins with site...

  1. 10 CFR 960.3-2 - Siting process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Siting process. 960.3-2 Section 960.3-2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2 Siting process. The siting process begins with site...

  2. Site formation processes at Zhoukoudian, China.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, P; Weiner, S; Bar-Yosef, O; Xu, Q; Liu, J

    2001-11-01

    Zhoukoudian is often cited for its human remains and the early evidence of fire. Yet, since its first excavations over 70 years ago, detailed studies of processes responsible for the accumulation of anthropogenic and geogenic sediments in the site have been sparse. This paper provides some details of site formation processes mainly through field observations of the extant section at Locality 1, and the use of soil micromorphology and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR) analyses of the sediments. Samples from Layers 10 through 3 show extensive water deposition of fine silt-sized material (reworked loess), including fine-grained organic matter. The dark organic-rich unit in Layer 10--often cited as one of the earliest evidence of fire--is a water-laid accumulation. Much of the fine-grained sediment was derived from outside Locality 1, implying that the site was open to varying extents throughout most of its depositional history. The 4-6 m accumulation of "ashes" in Layer 4 represents subaerial water-laid silt deposits derived from the loess-covered hillslopes surrounding the site. They presumably accumulated in an open depression that formed after the collapse of the brecciated roof deposits represented by Layer 6. Diagenesis is present in many of the Layers, and is exemplified by calcite precipitation and dissolution, and localized apatite (dahllite) replacement of calcite. In Layer 4 diagenesis is more advanced, including calcite/dahllite precipitation, subaerial weathering of the loess and associated precipitation of hematite, alteration of clay and the neoformation of quartz. Many of our conclusions concur with those of Teilhard de Chardin & Young published over 70 years ago.

  3. Immortal coils: conserved dimerization motifs of the Drosophila ovulation prohormone ovulin.

    PubMed

    Wong, Alex; Christopher, Adam B; Buehner, Norene A; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2010-04-01

    Dimerization is an important feature of the function of some proteins, including prohormones. For proteins whose amino acid sequences evolve rapidly, it is unclear how such structural characteristics are retained biochemically. Here we address this question by focusing on ovulin, a prohormone that induces ovulation in Drosophila melanogaster females after mating. Ovulin is known to dimerize, and is one of the most rapidly evolving proteins encoded by the Drosophila genome. We show that residues within a previously hypothesized conserved dimerization domain (a coiled-coil) and a newly identified conserved dimerization domain (YxxxY) within ovulin are necessary for the formation of ovulin dimers. Moreover, dimerization is conserved in ovulin proteins from non-melanogaster species of Drosophila despite up to 80% sequence divergence. We show that heterospecific ovulin dimers can be formed in interspecies hybrid animals and in two-hybrid assays between ovulin proteins that are 15% diverged, indicating conservation of tertiary structure amidst a background of rapid sequence evolution. Our results suggest that because ovulin's self-interaction requires only small conserved domains, the rest of the molecule can be relatively tolerant to mutations. Consistent with this view, in comparisons of 8510 proteins across 6 species of Drosophila we find that rates of amino acid divergence are higher for proteins with coiled-coil protein-interaction domains than for non-coiled-coil proteins.

  4. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Site Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, F.G.

    1994-02-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) mission is to receive and store spent nuclear fuels and radioactive wastes for disposition for Department of Energy (DOE) in a cost-effective manner that protects the safety of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) employees, the public, and the environment by: Developing advanced technologies to process spent nuclear fuel for permanent offsite disposition and to achieve waste minimization. Receiving and storing Navy and other DOE assigned spent nuclear fuels. Managing all wastes in compliance with applicable laws and regulations. Identifying and conducting site remediation consistent with facility transition activities. Seeking out and implementing private sector technology transfer and cooperative development agreements. Prior to April 1992, the ICPP mission included fuel reprocessing. With the recent phaseout of fuel reprocessing, some parts of the ICPP mission have changed. Others have remained the same or increased in scope.

  5. 60 YEARS OF POMC: From the prohormone theory to pro-opiomelanocortin and to proprotein convertases (PCSK1 to PCSK9).

    PubMed

    Chrétien, Michel; Mbikay, Majambu

    2016-05-01

    Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), is a polyprotein expressed in the pituitary and the brain where it is proteolytically processed into peptide hormones and neuropeptides with distinct biological activities. It is the prototype of multipotent prohormones. The prohormone theory was first suggested in 1967 when Chrétien and Li discovered γ-lipotropin and observed that (i) it was part of β-lipotropin (β-LPH), a larger polypeptide characterized 2 years earlier and (ii) its C-terminus was β-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (β-MSH). This discovery led them to propose that the lipotropins might be related biosynthetically to the biologically active β-MSH in a precursor to end product relationship. The theory was widely confirmed in subsequent years. As we celebrate the 50th anniversary of the sequencing of β-LPH, we reflect over the lessons learned from the sequencing of those proteins; we explain their extension to the larger POMC precursor; we examine how the theory of precursor endoproteolysis they inspired became relevant for vast fields in biology; and how it led, after a long and arduous search, to the novel proteolytic enzymes called proprotein convertases. This family of nine enzymes plays multifaceted functions in growth, development, metabolism, endocrine, and brain functions. Their genetics has provided many insights into health and disease. Their therapeutic targeting is foreseeable in the near future. Thus, what started five decades ago as a theory based on POMC fragments, has opened up novel and productive avenues of biological and medical research, including, for our own current interest, a highly intriguing hypocholesterolemic Gln152His PCSK9 mutation in French-Canadian families.

  6. The neuroendocrine polypeptide 7B2 is an endogenous inhibitor of prohormone convertase PC2.

    PubMed Central

    Martens, G J; Braks, J A; Eib, D W; Zhou, Y; Lindberg, I

    1994-01-01

    The subtilisin-like prohormone convertase PC2 and the polypeptide 7B2 (an intracellularly cleaved protein of unknown function) are both selectively present in the regulated secretory pathway of neurons and endocrine cells. Here we demonstrate that intact recombinant 7B2 is a potent inhibitor of PC2 and prevents proPC2 cleavage in vitro, whereas the 7B2 cleavage product is virtually inactive. The PC2-related proteinase PC1/PC3 is not inhibited by 7B2. Furthermore, the carboxyl-terminal half of the 7B2 protein sequence is distantly related to the so-called potato inhibitor I family (which includes subtilisin inhibitors). Our findings indicate that 7B2 is a physiological inhibitor of PC2 and may provide alternative avenues for the manipulation of peptide hormone levels. Images PMID:8016065

  7. The prohormone theory and the proprotein convertases: it is all about serendipity.

    PubMed

    Chrétien, Michel

    2011-01-01

    When I became a physician and an endocrinologist in the early 1960s, peptide hormone sequencing was still in its infancy; it was also far removed from my immediate interests. Through chance encounters with prominent teachers and mentors, I later became increasingly convinced that elucidation of the primary sequence of peptide hormones is key to understanding their production as well as their functions in human health and disease. My interest for pituitary hormones led me to discover that the sequence of β-melanocyte-stimulating hormone was contained within that γ and β-lipotropins and could be released from the latter by limited endoproteolysis. This prohormone theory became the leitmotiv of my career as a clinician/scientist. Through serendipity and the efforts of many laboratories including mine, this theory has now been widely confirmed, extended to various precursor proteins and implicated in many diseases. It has led to our discovery of the proprotein convertases. PMID:21805236

  8. Post-translational processing of preprosomatostatin-II examined using fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Andrews, P C; Nichols, R; Dixon, J E

    1987-09-15

    The products and an intermediate of preprosomatostatin-II processing in the anglerfish islet were purified and subjected to structural analysis. The peptides isolated identify the site of signal cleavage (between Ser-24 and Gln-25). The prohormone is further processed at Arg-97 and, to a lesser extent, at the two adjacent basic amino acid residues Lys-61 and Arg-62. A 28-residue somatostatin is also generated which can be hydroxylated at Lys-23. A proteolytic processing site which would form the 14-residue somatostatin does not appear to be used to a significant degree. Fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FABMS) was used to demonstrate that the amino-terminal residues of peptides 25-60, and 25-90 are pyroglutamic acid, a modification which precludes Edman degradation of these peptides. Analysis of the peptides and tryptic peptide maps by FABMS allowed confirmation of the sites of prohormone conversion and indicated that terminal basic residues were removed during processing. Three amino acid residues were also found to differ from the amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA and were localized to specific regions by FABMS analysis. Residues found to differ from the cDNA (cDNA in parentheses) were: Asp-77 (Thr), Val-78 (Phe), and Gly-90 (Glu). Mass assignments were confirmed by running a single cycle of Edman degradation prior to FABMS. The peptides noted above were also examined by Edman sequence analysis. The sequence of a cDNA clone to preprosomatostatin-II was re-examined in light of the observed differences at the protein level. This study emphasizes the utility of FABMS in prohormone processing studies and in identification of post-translational processing events. PMID:2887572

  9. Geographic Information Processings for Astronomical Site Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, N.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, M. Y.

    2015-01-01

    The geographic information is of great importance for the site survey of ground-based telescopes. Especially, an effective utilization of the geographic information system (GIS) has been one of the most significant methods for the remote analysis of modern site survey. The astronomical site survey should give consideration to the following geographical conditions: a large relative fall, convenient traffic conditions, and far away from populated areas. Taking into account of the convenience of construction and maintenance of the observatories as well as the living conditions of the scientists-in-residence, the optimum candidate locations may meet the conditions to be at a altitude between 3000 m and 5000 m and within one-hour drive from villages/towns. In this paper, as an example, we take the regions of the Great Baicao mountain ridge at Dayao county in Yunnan province to research the role of the GIS for site survey task. The results indicate that the GIS can provide accurate and intuitive data for us to understand the three dimensional landforms, rivers, roads, villages, and the distributions of the electric power as well as to forecast the tendency of the population and city development around. According to the analysis based on the GIS, we find that the top of the Great Baicao mountain ridge is flat and droughty. There are few inhabitants to distribute around the place while the traffic conditions are convenient. Moreover, it is a natural conservation area protected by the local government, and no industry with pollution sources exists in this region. Its top is 1500 m higher than the nearby village 10 km away, and 1800 m higher than the town center 50 km away. The Great Baicao mountain ridge is definitely an isolated peak in the area of the Yi nationality of Yunnan. Therefore, the GIS data analysis is a very useful for the remote investigation stage for site survey, and the GIS is the indispensable source for modern astronomical site survey.

  10. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: TEXACO GASIFICATION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1980, the U.S. Congress passed the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), also known as Superfund. to protect human health and the environment from uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. CERCLA was amended by the Superfund Amendments and R...

  11. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: ZENOGEM™ WASTEWATER TREATMENT PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zenon Environmental System's ZenoGem™ Wastewater Treatment Process treats aqueous media contaminated with volatile/semi-volatile organic compounds. This technology combines aerobic biological treatment to remove biodegradable organic compounds with ultrafiltration to separate res...

  12. Wind Energy Deployment Process and Siting Tools (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, S.

    2015-02-01

    Regardless of cost and performance, some wind projects cannot proceed to completion as a result of competing multiple uses or siting considerations. Wind energy siting issues must be better understood and quantified. DOE tasked NREL researchers with depicting the wind energy deployment process and researching development considerations. This presentation provides an overview of these findings and wind siting tools.

  13. Enhancing knowledge of rangeland ecological processes with benchmark ecological sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A benchmark ecological site is one that has the greatest potential to yield data and information about ecological functions, processes, and the effects of management or climate changes on a broad area or critical ecological zone. A benchmark ecological site represents other similar sites in a major ...

  14. HYNOL PROCESS ENGINEERING: PROCESS CONFIGURATION, SITE PLAN, AND EQUIPMENT DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the design of the hydropyrolysis reactor system of the Hynol process. (NOTE: A bench scale methanol production facility is being constructed to demonstrate the technical feasibility of producing methanol from biomass using the Hynol process. The plant is bein...

  15. Process for determining the remediation category of hazardous substance sites

    SciTech Connect

    Sieben, A.K.

    1994-12-31

    An evaluation process has been developed that aids in selecting the appropriate remediation category of hazardous substance sites. Three general remediation categories have been established: No further Action: Potential Early Action: and Defer for RI/FS or Transition/Decontamination and Decommissioning. This evaluation method is a preliminary screening process only and will not identify the most appropriate remediation alternative for each site. The remedy selection process can proceed only after a remediation category is determined for each site. All sites are evaluated at a preliminary screening level to determine the general remediation category. After the first screen, a secondary evaluation is performed on both the PEA sites and the DEFER sites. For PEAs, this secondary evaluation will incorporate additional specific factors, such as a screening level risk assessment. For the DEFER sites feasibility factors will be used to distinguish between the sites which should undergo a normal RI/FS and the sites which will be recommended to be remediated in association with D&D of buildings. Ultimately, all of the sites will be placed into one of four remediation categories.

  16. Correct implementation of the Argonne Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) process for preremedial site investigations.

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, J. C.; Cook, S.; Sedivy, R.; Walker, J. L.

    1997-12-12

    The Argonne Expedited Site Characterization (ANL ESC) methodology, developed by Argonne National Laboratory and popularly known as ESC, is an effective, cost- and time-saving approach for technically successful preremedial site characterizations. The major objective of the ANL ESC is to determine whether a site containing contamination requires remediation. The methodology is equivalent to a CERCLA RI/FS or a RCRA RFI/CMS investigation. The ANL ESC methodology is an interactive, integrated process emphasizing the use of existing data, multiple complementary characterization methods, and on-site decision making to optimize site investigations. The ANL ESC is the basis for the expedited site characterization standard of the ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials). The methodology has been registered under the service mark QuickSite{trademark} to offer both clients and providers a mechanism for ensuring that they receive the ANL ESC methodology developed by Argonne. The ANL ESC is a flexible process and is neither site nor contaminant dependent. It can be tailored to fit the unique characteristics that distinguish one site from the next, in contrast to the traditional approach of making all sites conform to the same rigid, inflexible investigation regimen. The ANL ESC has been applied successfully to remedial site investigations of landfills with multiple contaminants in the southwestern US for the Department of Interior (DOI), to former grain storage facilities in the Midwest for the Commodity Credit Corporation of the Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA), to weapons production facilities in Texas for the Department of Energy (DOE), and to closing and active military bases in several locations for the Department of Defense (DOD). The process can be applied both at sites that have seen little investigation and at sites that have undergone numerous previous site characterizations without reaching closure. In the latter case (e.g., at many DOE and DOD sites

  17. Correct implementation of the Argonne QuickSite{sup SM} process for preremedial site investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, J.C.; Walker, J.L.

    1997-10-01

    Expedited site characterization (ESC), developed by Argonne National Laboratory, is an interactive, integrated process emphasizing the use of existing data of sufficient quality, multiple complementary characterization methods, and on-site decision making to optimize environmental site investigations. The Argonne ESC is the basis for the provisional ESC standard guide of the ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials). QuickSite{sup SM} is the implementation package developed by Argonne to facilitate ESC of sites contaminated with hazardous wastes. At various sites, Argonne has successfully implemented QuickSite{sup SM} and demonstrated the technical superiority of the ESC process over traditional methodologies guided by statistics and random-sampling approaches. A key feature in the success of QuickSite{sup SM} investigations is achieving an understanding of the subsurface geologic and hydrogeologic controls and processes at a site before extensive sampling efforts begin. The QuickSite{sup SM} investigation at the Tustin Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) in California will be used to illustrate the importance of understanding these potential controls in minimizing sampling activities and correctly predicting potential contaminant migration patterns for risk assessment.

  18. Expedited Site Characterization: A rapid, cost-effective process for preremedial site characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, J.C.; Walker, J.L.; Jennings, T.V.; Aggarwal, P.K.; Hastings, B.; Meyer, W.T.; Rose, C.M.; Rosignolo, C.L.

    1993-11-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a unique, cost- and time-effective, technically innovative process for preremedial site characterization, referred to as Expedited Site Characterization (ESC). The cost of the ESC field sampling process ranges from 1/10 to 1/5 of the cost of traditional site characterization. The time required for this ESC field activity is approximately 1/30 of that for current methods. Argonne`s preremedial site investigations based on this approach have been accepted by the appropriate regulatory agencies. The ESC process is flexible and neither site nor contaminant dependent. The process has been successfully tested and applied in site investigations of multiple contaminated landfills in New Mexico (for the US Department of the Interior`s Bureau of Land Management [BLM]) and at former grain storage facilities in Nebraska and Kansas, contaminated with carbon tetrachloride (for the Department of Agriculture`s Commodity Credit Corporation [CCC/USDA]). A working demonstration of this process was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development as a model of the methodology needed to accelerate site characterizations at DOE facilities. This report describes the application of the process in New Mexico, Nebraska and Kansas.

  19. Expression and localization of prohormone convertase PC1 in the calcitonin-producing cells of the bullfrog ultimobranchial gland.

    PubMed

    Yaoi, Yuichi; Suzuki, Masakazu; Tomura, Hideaki; Kurabuchi, Shingo; Sasayama, Yuichi; Tanaka, Shigeyasu

    2003-11-01

    We examined the expression and localization of the prohormone convertases, PC1 and PC2, in the ultimobranchial gland of the adult bullfrog using immunohistochemical (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH) techniques. In the ultimobranchial gland, PC1-immunoreactive cells were columnar, and were present in the follicular epithelium. When serial sections were immunostained with anti-calcitonin, anti-CGRP, anti-PC1, and anti-PC2 sera, PC1 was found only in the calcitonin/CGRP-producing cells. No PC2-immunopositive cells were detected. In the ISH, PC1 mRNA-positive cells were detected in the follicle cells in the ultimobranchial gland. No PC2 mRNA-positive cells were detected. RT-PCR revealed expression of the mRNAs of PC1 and the PC2 in the ultimobranchial gland. However, very little of the PC2 mRNA is probably translated because no PC2 protein was detected either by IHC staining or by Western blotting analysis. We conclude that the main prohormone convertase that is involved in the proteolytic cleavage of procalcitonin in the bullfrog is PC1. PMID:14566018

  20. Expression and Localization of Prohormone Convertase PC1 in the Calcitonin-producing Cells of the Bullfrog Ultimobranchial Gland

    PubMed Central

    Yaoi, Yuichi; Suzuki, Masakazu; Tomura, Hideaki; Kurabuchi, Shingo; Sasayama, Yuichi; Tanaka, Shigeyasu

    2003-01-01

    We examined the expression and localization of the prohormone convertases, PC1 and PC2, in the ultimobranchial gland of the adult bullfrog using immunohistochemical (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH) techniques. In the ultimobranchial gland, PC1-immunoreactive cells were columnar, and were present in the follicular epithelium. When serial sections were immunostained with anti-calcitonin, anti-CGRP, anti-PC1, and anti-PC2 sera, PC1 was found only in the calcitonin/CGRP-producing cells. No PC2-immunopositive cells were detected. In the ISH, PC1 mRNA-positive cells were detected in the follicle cells in the ultimobranchial gland. No PC2 mRNA-positive cells were detected. RT-PCR revealed expression of the mRNAs of PC1 and the PC2 in the ultimobranchial gland. However, very little of the PC2 mRNA is probably translated because no PC2 protein was detected either by IHC staining or by Western blotting analysis. We conclude that the main prohormone convertase that is involved in the proteolytic cleavage of procalcitonin in the bullfrog is PC1. PMID:14566018

  1. Expert panel reviews of research centers: the site visit process.

    PubMed

    Lawrenz, Frances; Thao, Mao; Johnson, Kelli

    2012-08-01

    Site visits are used extensively in a variety of settings within the evaluation community. They are especially common in making summative value decisions about the quality and worth of research programs/centers. However, there has been little empirical research and guidance about how to appropriately conduct evaluative site visits of research centers. We review the processes of two site visit examples using an expert panel review: (1) a process to evaluate four university research centers and (2) a process to review a federally sponsored research center. A set of 14 categories describing the expert panel review process was obtained through content analysis and participant observation. Most categories were addressed differently through the two processes highlighting the need for more research about the most effective processes to use within different contexts. Decisions about how to structure site visits appear to depend on the research context, practical considerations, the level at which the review is being conducted and the intended impact of the report. Future research pertaining to the selection of site visitors, the autonomy of the visitors in data collection and report writing, and the amount and type of information provided would be particularly valuable.

  2. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: PINTAIL SYSTEMS INC'S AQUEOUS BIOCYANIDE PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field treatability study of an innovative biological treatment technology for cyanide destruction and metals immobilizaton from an aqueous mine process stream was held at the Echo Bay/McCoy Cove mine site in Nevada. The Aqueous Biocyanide Process, developed and operated by Pint...

  3. Change in plasma immunoreactive N-terminus, C-terminus, and 4,000-dalton midportion of atrial natriuretic factor prohormone with hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Winters, C J; Vesely, D L

    1991-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of the immunoreactive N-terminus, C-terminus and 4,000-dalton midportion of the N-terminus of the atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) prohormone were measured before and after hemodialysis in 13 patients with end-stage renal disease. There was a significant (p less than 0.001) fall in the mean plasma concentration of the C-terminus (i.e. ANF, amino acids 99-126 of the prohormone) from 123 +/- 25 to 80 +/- 22 fmol/ml (mean +/- SEM) with dialysis. The whole N-terminus, on the other hand, increased from 9,336 +/- 2,011 to 11,021 +/- 2,134 fmol/ml after dialysis (p less than 0.002). Pro ANF 31-67 (i.e. amino acids 31-67 of the prohormone) increased postdialysis from 27,775 +/- 4,300 to 31,040 +/- 4,840 fmol/ml (p less than 0.003). Only 1.5% of pro ANF 1-98 and pro ANF 31-67 were cleared by the dialyzer membrane while 15% of ANF crossed the membrane. Thus, with hemodialysis the C-terminus decreases while the N-terminus and pro ANF 31-67 from the midportion of the N-terminus of the ANF prohormone increase in plasma which is partially explained by their respective abilities to cross the dialyzer membrane.

  4. Facility siting as a decision process at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Wike, L.D.

    1995-12-31

    Site selection for new facilities at Savannah River Site (SRS) historically has been a process dependent only upon specific requirements of the facility. While this approach is normally well suited to engineering and operational concerns, it can have serious deficiencies in the modern era of regulatory oversight and compliance requirements. There are many issues related to the site selection for a facility that are not directly related to engineering or operational requirements; such environmental concerns can cause large schedule delays and budget impact,s thereby slowing or stopping the progress of a project. Some of the many concerns in locating a facility include: waste site avoidance, National Environmental Policy Act requirements, Clean Water Act, Clean Air Act, wetlands conservation, US Army Corps of Engineers considerations, US Fish and Wildlife Service statutes including threatened and endangered species issues, and State of South Carolina regulations, especially those of the Department of Health and Environmental Control. In addition, there are SRS restrictions on research areas set aside for National Environmental Research Park (NERP), Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Savannah River Forest Station, University of South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, Southeastern Forest Experimental Station, and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) programs. As with facility operational needs, all of these siting considerations do not have equal importance. The purpose of this document is to review recent site selection exercises conducted for a variety of proposed facilities, develop the logic and basis for the methods employed, and standardize the process and terminology for future site selection efforts.

  5. Processes Impacting Atmosphere-Surface Exchanges at Arctic Terrestrial Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, Ola; Grachev, Andrey; Konopleva, Elena; Cox, Chris; Stone, Robert; Crepinsek, Sara; Shupe, Matthew; Uttal, Taneil

    2015-04-01

    Surface energy fluxes are key to the annual cycle of near-surface and soil temperature and biologic activity in the Arctic. While these energy fluxes are undoubtedly changing to produce the changes observed in the Arctic ecosystem over the last few decades, measurements have generally not been available to quantify what processes are regulating these fluxes and what is determining the characteristics of these annual cycles. The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has established, or contributed to the establishment of, several terrestrial "supersites" around the perimeter of the Arctic Ocean at which detailed measurements of atmospheric structure, surface fluxes, and soil thermal properties are being made. These sites include Barrow, Alaska; Eureka and Alert, Canada; and Tiksi, Russia. Atmospheric structure measurements vary, but include radiosoundings at all sites and remote sensing of clouds at two sites. Additionally, fluxes of sensible heat and momentum are made at all of the sites, while fluxes of moisture and CO2 are made at two of the sites. Soil temperatures are also measured in the upper 120 cm at all sites, which is deep enough to define the soil active layer. The sites have been operating between 3 years (Tiksi) and 24 years (Barrow). While all sites are located north of 71° N, the summer vegetation range from lush tundra grasses to rocky soils with little vegetation. This presentation will illustrate some of the atmospheric processes that are key for determining the annual energy and temperature cycles at these sites, and some of the key characteristics that lead to differences in, for instance, the length of the summer soil active layer between the sites. Atmospheric features and processes such as cloud characteristics, snowfall, downslope wind events, and sea-breezes have impacts on the annual energy cycle. The presence of a "zero curtain" period, when autumn surface temperature remains approximately constant at the freezing point

  6. Description of a Multipurpose Processing and Storage Complex for the Hanford Site`s radioactive material

    SciTech Connect

    Nyman, D.H.; Wolfe, B.A.; Hoertkorn, T.R.

    1993-05-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site has changed from defense nuclear materials production to that of waste management/disposal and environmental restoration. ne Multipurpose Processing and Storage Complex (MPSC) is being designed to process discarded waste tank internal hardware contaminated with mixed wastes, failed melters from the vitrification plant, and other Hanford Site high-level solid waste. The MPSC also will provide interim storage of other radioactive materials (irradiated fuel, canisters of vitrified high-level waste [HLW], special nuclear material [SNM], and other designated radioactive materials).

  7. Choosing a municipal landfill site by analytic network process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banar, Mufide; Kose, Barbaros Murat; Ozkan, Aysun; Poyraz Acar, Ilgin

    2007-04-01

    In this study, analytic network process (ANP), one of the multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) tools has been used to choose one of the four alternative landfill sites for the city of Eskisehir, Turkey. For this purpose, Super Decision Software has been used and benefit opportunity cost and risk (BOCR) analysis has been done to apply ANP. In BOCR analysis, each alternative site has been evaluated in terms of its benefits, costs and risks; the opportunity cluster has been examined under the benefit cluster. In this context, technical, economical and social assessments have been done for the site selection of sanitary landfill. Also, results have been compared with analytic hierarchy process (AHP) which is another MCDM technique used in the study conducted before. Finally, the current site has been determined as the most appropriate site in both methods. These methods have not been commonly used in the discipline of environmental engineering but it is believed to be an important contribution for decision makers.

  8. Controllable Magnetization Processes Induced by Nucleation Sites in Permalloy Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying-Jiun Chen,; Chia-Jung Hsu,; Chun-Neng Liao,; Hao-Ting Huang,; Chiun-Peng Lee,; Yi-Hsun Chiu,; Tzu-Yun Tung,; Mei-Feng Lai,

    2010-02-01

    Different arrangements of notches as nucleation sites are demonstrated experimentally and numerically to effectively control the magnetization processes of permalloy rings. In the ring with notches at the same side with respect to field direction, two same-helicity vortex domain walls in the onion state lead to two-step switching going through flux-closure state; in the ring with diagonal notches two opposite-helicity vortex domain walls lead to one-step switching skipping flux-closure state. The switching processes are repeatable in contrast to rings without notches where helicites of two vortex domain walls are random so the switching processes can not be controlled.

  9. A new site for the astrophysical gamma-process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, W. Michael; Meyer, Bradley S.; Woosley, S. E.

    1991-01-01

    The study suggests that the requisite thermodynamic conditions may occur when carbon-oxygen white dwarfs explode by deflagration or detonation. When these stars undergo such explosive disruption, there will be a region near the surface where the burning temperature lies in the 2.4-3.2 range. To examine this astrophysical site, calculations are performed for an s-process nucleosynthesis during helium shell flashes and the nuclear transmission taking place when such mass zones are heated by the deflagration or detonation wave, and the results are compared with the solar-system distribution of the p-isotopes. It is demonstrated that Type Ia supernovas provide a viable site for the gamma process, and that the same thermodynamic conditions would also exist in Type II-p powered supernovas, provided that they are powered by detonation.

  10. Remote video radioactive process evaluation, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Heckendorn, F.M.

    1990-12-31

    Specialized miniature low cost video equipment has been effectively used in a number of remote, radioactive, and contaminated environments at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The equipment and related techniques have reduced the potential for personnel exposure to both radiation and physical hazards. The valuable process information thus provided would not have otherwise been available for use in improving the quality of operation at SRS.

  11. Remote video radioactive process evaluation, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Heckendorn, F.M.

    1990-01-01

    Specialized miniature low cost video equipment has been effectively used in a number of remote, radioactive, and contaminated environments at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The equipment and related techniques have reduced the potential for personnel exposure to both radiation and physical hazards. The valuable process information thus provided would not have otherwise been available for use in improving the quality of operation at SRS.

  12. THE COLD AND DARK PROCESS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmour, J; William Austin, W; Cathy Sizemore, C

    2007-01-31

    The deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of a facility exposes D&D workers to numerous hazards. One of the more serious hazards is coming into contact to hazardous energy sources (e.g. electrical, pressurized steam). At the Savannah River Site (SRS) a formal process for identifying and eliminating sources of hazardous energy was developed and is called ''Cold & Dark''. Several ''near miss'' events involving cutting of energized conductors during D&D work in buildings thought to be isolated identified the need to have a formal process to identify and isolate these potentially hazardous systems. This process was developed using lessons learned from D&D activities at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Rocky Flats) in Colorado. The Cold & Dark process defines an isolation boundary (usually a building perimeter) and then systematically identifies all of the penetrations through this boundary. All penetrations that involve hazardous energy sources are then physically air-gapped. The final product is a documented declaration of isolation performed by a team involving operations, engineering, and project management. Once the Cold & Dark declaration is made for a building work can proceed without the usual controls used in an operational facility (e.g. lockout/tagout, arc flash PPE). It is important to note that the Cold & Dark process does not remove all hazards from a facility. Work planning and controls still need to address hazards that can be present from such things as chemicals, radiological contamination, residual liquids, etc., as well as standard industrial hazards.

  13. Tissue-specific processing of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptides in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Thim, Lars; Kristensen, Peter; Nielsen, Per F.; Wulff, Birgitte S.; Clausen, Jes T.

    1999-01-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a recently discovered hypothalamic peptide regulated by leptin and with a potent appetite-suppressing activity. In the rat, the CART gene encodes a peptide of 116 amino acid residues (or a splice variant 13 residues longer). The predicted signal sequence is 27 amino acid residues, resulting in a prohormone of 89 residues. The CART prohormone contains several potential posttranslational processing sites in the form of mono- and dibasic sequences. In the present study we have purified CART peptides from extracts of adrenal gland, hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, and pituitary gland (anterior and neurointermediate lobe) of the rat and determined the peptide structures by using microsequencing and mass spectrometry. In none of the tissues examined the long splice variant was found. From the adrenal gland, the CART(1–89) and CART(10–89) peptides were isolated, in contrast to the hypothalamus and nucleus accumbens, from which the shorter form peptides CART(42–89) and CART(49–89) were purified. From the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, CART(42–89) was isolated, in contrast to the neurointermediate lobe, which contains only CART(49–89). This tissue-specific processing indicates that CART peptides may have different biological functions in the periphery and in the central nervous system. PMID:10077578

  14. Hanford Site Treated Effluent Disposal Facility process flow sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Bendixsen, R.B.

    1993-04-01

    This report presents a novel method of using precipitation, destruction and recycle factors to prepare a process flow sheet. The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) will treat process sewer waste water from the 300 Area of the Hanford Site, located near Richland, Washington, and discharge a permittable effluent flow into the Columbia River. When completed and operating, the TEDF effluent water flow will meet or exceed water quality standards for the 300 Area process sewer effluents. A preliminary safety analysis document (PSAD), a preconstruction requirement, needed a process flow sheet detailing the concentrations of radionuclides, inorganics and organics throughout the process, including the effluents, and providing estimates of stream flow quantities, activities, composition, and properties (i.e. temperature, pressure, specific gravity, pH and heat transfer rates). As the facility begins to operate, data from process samples can be used to provide better estimates of the factors, the factors can be entered into the flow sheet and the flow sheet will estimate more accurate steady state concentrations for the components. This report shows how the factors were developed and how they were used in developing a flow sheet to estimate component concentrations for the process flows. The report concludes with how TEDF sample data can improve the ability of the flow sheet to accurately predict concentrations of components in the process.

  15. The OSIRIS-REx Mission Sample Site Selection Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beshore, Edward C.; Lauretta, Dante

    2014-11-01

    In September of 2016, the OSIRIS-REx (Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security, REgolith eXplorer) spacecraft will depart for asteroid (101955) Bennu, and in doing so, will turn an important corner in the exploration of the solar system. After arriving at Bennu in the fall of 2018, OSIRIS-REx will undertake a program of observations designed to select a site suitable for retrieving a sample that will be returned to the Earth in 2023. The third mission in NASA’s New Frontiers program, OSIRIS-REx will return over 60 grams from Bennu’s surface.OSIRIS-REx is unique because the science team will have an operational role to play in preparing data products needed to select a sample site. These include products used to ensure flight system safety — topographic maps and shape models, temperature measurements, maps of hazards — as well as assessments of sampleability and science value. The timing and production of these will be presented, as will the high-level decision-making tools and processes for the interim and final site selection processes.

  16. Actinide solution processing at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-1039, for radioactive solution removal and processing at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, Colorado. The proposal for solution removal and processing is in response to independent safety assessments and an agreement with the State of Colorado to remove mixed residues at Rocky Flats and reduce the risk of future accidents. Monthly public meetings were held during the scoping and preparation of the EA. The scope of the EA included evaluations of alternative methods and locations of solution processing. A comment period from February 20, 1995 through March 21, 1995 was provided to the public and the State of Colorado to offer written comment on the EA. Comments were received from the State of Colorado and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A response to the agency comments is included in the Final EA.

  17. ExoMars 2018 Landing Site Selection Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vago, Jorge L.; Kminek, Gerhard; Rodionov, Daniel

    The ExoMars 2018 mission will include two science elements: a Rover and a Surface Platform. The ExoMars Rover will carry a comprehensive suite of instruments dedicated to geology and exobiology research named after Louis Pasteur. The Rover will be able to travel several kilometres searching for traces of past and present signs of life. It will do this by collecting and analysing samples from outcrops, and from the subsurface—down to 2-m depth. The very powerful combination of mobility with the ability to access locations where organic molecules can be well preserved is unique to this mission. After the Rover will have egressed, the ExoMars Surface Platform will begin its science mission to study the surface environment at the landing location. This talk will describe the landing site selection process and introduce the scientific, planetary protection, and engineering requirements that candidate landing sites must comply with in order to be considered for the mission.

  18. The Cold and Dark Process at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmour, John C.; Willis, Michael L.

    2008-01-15

    The deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) of a facility exposes D and D workers to numerous hazards. One of the more serious hazards is coming into contact to hazardous energy sources (e.g. electrical, pressurized steam). At the Savannah River Site (SRS) a formal process for identifying and eliminating sources of hazardous energy was developed and is called 'Cold and Dark'. Several 'near miss' events involving cutting of energized conductors during D and D work in buildings thought to be isolated identified the need to have a formal process to identify and isolate these potentially hazardous systems. This process was developed using lessons learned from D and D activities at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Rocky Flats) in Colorado. The Cold and Dark process defines an isolation boundary (usually a building perimeter) and then systematically identifies all of the penetrations through this boundary. All penetrations that involve hazardous energy sources are then physically air-gapped. The final product is a documented declaration of isolation performed by a team involving operations, engineering, and project management. Once the Cold and Dark declaration is made for a building work can proceed without the usual controls used in an operational facility (e.g. lockout/tag-out, arc flash PPE). It is important to note that the Cold and Dark process does not remove all hazards from a facility. Work planning and controls still need to address hazards that can be present from such things as chemicals, radiological contamination, residual liquids, etc., as well as standard industrial hazards. Savannah River Site experienced 6 electrical events prior to declaring a facility 'cold and dark' and has had zero electrical events after 'cold and dark' declaration (263 facilities to date). The formal Cold and Dark process developed at SRS has eliminated D and D worker exposures to hazardous energy sources. Since the implementation of the process there have been no

  19. EPA site demonstration of the Biotrol Soil Washing Process

    SciTech Connect

    Stinson, M.K.; Skovronek, H.S.; Ellis, W.D.

    1992-01-01

    A pilot-scale soil washing process, patented by BioTrol, was demonstrated on soil that was contaminated by wood treating waste. The BioTrol Soil Washing was demonstrated in a treatment train sequence with two other pilot-scale units of BioTrol technologies for treatment of waste streams from the soil washer. The three technologies of the treatment train were: The BioTrol Soil Washer (BSW), the BioTrol Aqueous Treatment System (BATS), and the Slurry Bioreactor (SBR). The BioTrol processes were evaluated on pentachlorophenol (PCP) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which were the primary soil contaminants at the site. The sandy site soil, consisting of less than 10% of fines, was well suited for treatment by soil washing. The BSW successfully separated the feed soil (100% by weight) into 83% of washed soil, 10% of woody residues, and 7% of fines. The soil washer achieved up to 89% removal of PCP and PAHs, based on the difference between their levels in the feed soil and in the washed soil. The BATS degraded up to 94% of PCP in the process water from soil washing. The SBR achieved over 90% removals of PCP and 70-90% removals of PAHs, respectively from the soil washing. Cost of a commercial-scale soil washing, assuming use of all three technologies, was estimated to be $168 per ton of treated soil.

  20. Processes affecting the remediation of chromium-contaminated sites.

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, C D; Wittbrodt, P R

    1991-01-01

    The remediation of chromium-contaminated sites requires knowledge of the processes that control the migration and transformation of chromium. Advection, dispersion, and diffusion are physical processes affecting the rate at which contaminants can migrate in the subsurface. Heterogeneity is an important factor that affects the contribution of each of these mechanisms to the migration of chromium-laden waters. Redox reactions, chemical speciation, adsorption/desorption phenomena, and precipitation/dissolution reactions control the transformation and mobility of chromium. The reduction of CrVI to CrIII can occur in the presence of ferrous iron in solution or in mineral phases, reduced sulfur compounds, or soil organic matter. At neutral to alkaline pH, the CrIII precipitates as amorphous hydroxides or forms complexes with organic matter. CrIII is oxidized by manganese dioxide, a common mineral found in many soils. Solid-phase precipitates of hexavalent chromium such as barium chromate can serve either as sources or sinks for CrVI. Adsorption of CrVI in soils increases with decreasing chromium concentration, making it more difficult to remove the chromium as the concentration decreases during pump-and-treat remediation. Knowledge of these chemical and physical processes is important in developing and selecting effective, cost-efficient remediation designs for chromium-contaminated sites. PMID:1935849

  1. Temporal dynamics of biogeochemical processes at the Norman Landfill site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, Bhavna; Mohanty, Binayak P.; McGuire, Jennifer T.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2013-10-01

    The temporal variability observed in redox sensitive species in groundwater can be attributed to coupled hydrological, geochemical, and microbial processes. These controlling processes are typically nonstationary, and distributed across various time scales. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate biogeochemical data sets from a municipal landfill site to identify the dominant modes of variation and determine the physical controls that become significant at different time scales. Data on hydraulic head, specific conductance, δ2H, chloride, sulfate, nitrate, and nonvolatile dissolved organic carbon were collected between 1998 and 2000 at three wells at the Norman Landfill site in Norman, OK. Wavelet analysis on this geochemical data set indicates that variations in concentrations of reactive and conservative solutes are strongly coupled to hydrologic variability (water table elevation and precipitation) at 8 month scales, and to individual eco-hydrogeologic framework (such as seasonality of vegetation, surface-groundwater dynamics) at 16 month scales. Apart from hydrologic variations, temporal variability in sulfate concentrations can be associated with different sources (FeS cycling, recharge events) and sinks (uptake by vegetation) depending on the well location and proximity to the leachate plume. Results suggest that nitrate concentrations show multiscale behavior across temporal scales for different well locations, and dominant variability in dissolved organic carbon for a closed municipal landfill can be larger than 2 years due to its decomposition and changing content. A conceptual framework that explains the variability in chemical concentrations at different time scales as a function of hydrologic processes, site-specific interactions, and/or coupled biogeochemical effects is also presented.

  2. Temporal dynamics of biogeochemical processes at the Norman Landfill site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arora, Bhavna; Mohanty, Binayak P.; McGuire, Jennifer T.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2013-01-01

    The temporal variability observed in redox sensitive species in groundwater can be attributed to coupled hydrological, geochemical, and microbial processes. These controlling processes are typically nonstationary, and distributed across various time scales. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate biogeochemical data sets from a municipal landfill site to identify the dominant modes of variation and determine the physical controls that become significant at different time scales. Data on hydraulic head, specific conductance, δ2H, chloride, sulfate, nitrate, and nonvolatile dissolved organic carbon were collected between 1998 and 2000 at three wells at the Norman Landfill site in Norman, OK. Wavelet analysis on this geochemical data set indicates that variations in concentrations of reactive and conservative solutes are strongly coupled to hydrologic variability (water table elevation and precipitation) at 8 month scales, and to individual eco-hydrogeologic framework (such as seasonality of vegetation, surface-groundwater dynamics) at 16 month scales. Apart from hydrologic variations, temporal variability in sulfate concentrations can be associated with different sources (FeS cycling, recharge events) and sinks (uptake by vegetation) depending on the well location and proximity to the leachate plume. Results suggest that nitrate concentrations show multiscale behavior across temporal scales for different well locations, and dominant variability in dissolved organic carbon for a closed municipal landfill can be larger than 2 years due to its decomposition and changing content. A conceptual framework that explains the variability in chemical concentrations at different time scales as a function of hydrologic processes, site-specific interactions, and/or coupled biogeochemical effects is also presented.

  3. Yapsin 1 immunoreactivity in alpha cells of human pancreatic Islets: Implications for the processing of human proglucagon by mammalian aspartic proteases

    PubMed Central

    Cawley, Niamh X.; Portela-Gomes, Guida; Lou, Hong; Loh, Y. Peng

    2013-01-01

    Yapsin 1 is an aspartic protease from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and belongs to a class of aspartic proteases that demonstrate specificity for basic amino acids. It is capable of processing prohormone substrates at specific basic residue cleavage sites, similar to that of the prohormone convertases, to generate bioactive peptide hormones. An antibody raised against yapsin 1 was previously shown to immuno-stain endocrine cells of rat pituitary and brain as well as lysates from bovine pituitary secretory granules demonstrating the existence of yapsin 1-like aspartic proteases in mammalian endocrine tissues, potentially involved in peptide hormone production. Here we show the specific staining of yapsin 1 immunoreactivity in the alpha cells of human pancreatic islets. No staining was observed in the beta or delta cells indicating a specificity of the staining for glucagon producing and not insulin or somatostatin producing cells. Purified yapsin 1 was also shown to process proglucagon into authentic glucagon in vitro demonstrating that the prototypical enzyme of this sub-class of enzymes can correctly process proglucagon to glucagon. These findings suggest the existence of a yapsin 1-like enzyme exclusively in the alpha cells of the islets of Langerhans in humans and may play a role in the production of glucagon in that tissue. PMID:21632904

  4. Site-specific analysis of radiological and physical parameters for cobbly soils at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The remedial action at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site is being performed under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 [Public Law (PL) 95-6041]. Under UMTRCA, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is charged with the responsibility of developing appropriate and applicable standards for the cleanup of radiologically contaminated land and buildings at 24 designated sites, including the Gunnison, Colorado, inactive processing site. The remedial action at the processing site will be conducted to remove the tailings and contaminated materials to meet the EPA bulk soil cleanup standards for surface and subsurface soils. The site areas disturbed by remedial action excavation will be either contoured or backfilled with radiologically uncontaminated soil and contoured to restore the site. The final contours will produce a final surface grade that will create positive drainage from the site.

  5. Aeolian features and processes at the Mars Pathfinder landing site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greeley, Ronald; Kraft, Michael; Sullivan, Robert; Wilson, Gregory; Bridges, Nathan; Herkenhoff, Ken; Kuzmin, Ruslan O.; Malin, Michael; Ward, Wes

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder landing site contains abundant features attributed to aeolian, or wind, processes. These include wind tails, drift deposits, duneforms of various types, ripplelike features, and ventifacts (the first clearly seen on Mars). Many of these features are consistant with formation involving sand-size particles. Although some features, such as dunes, could develop from saltating sand-size aggregates of finer grains, the discovery of ventifact flutes cut in rocks strongly suggests that at least some of the grains are crystalline, rather than aggregates. Excluding the ventifacts, the orientations of the wind-related features correlate well with the orientations of bright wind steaks seen on Viking Orbiter images in the general area. They also correlate with wind direction predictions from the NASA-Ames General Circulation Model (GCM) which show that the strongest winds in the area occur in the northern hemisphere winter and are directed toward 209°. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Aeolin Features and Processes at the Mars Pathfinder Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Kraft, Michael; Sullivan, Robert; Wilson, Gregory; Bridges, Nathan; Herkenhoff, Ken; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Malin, Michael; Ward, Wes

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder landing site contains abundant features attributed to aeolian, or wind, processes. These include wind tails, drift deposits, duneforms of various types, ripplelike features, and ventifacts (the first clearly seen on Mars). Many of these features are consistant with formation involving sand-size particles. Although some features, such as dunes, could develop from saltating sand-size aggregates of finer grains, the discovery of ventifact flutes cut in rocks strongly suggests that at least some of the grains are crystalline, rather than aggregates. Excluding the ventifacts, the orientations of the wind-related features correlate well with the orientations of bright wind steaks seen on Viking Orbiter images in the general area. They also correlate with wind direction predictions from the NASA-Ames General Circulation Model (GCM) which show that the strongest winds in the area occur in the northern hemisphere winter and are directed toward 209 degrees.

  7. Site-specific analysis of radiological and physical parameters for cobbly soils at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The remedial action at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site is being performed under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978. Under UMTRCA, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is charged with the responsibility of developing appropriate and applicable standards for the cleanup of radiologically contaminated land and buildings at 24 designated sites, including the Gunnison, Colorado, inactive processing site. Section 108 of Public Law 95-604 states that the US Department of Energy (DOE) shall ``select and perform remedial actions at the designated processing sites and disposal sites in accordance with the general standards`` prescribed by the EPA. Regulations governing the required remedial action at inactive uranium processing sites were promulgated by the EPA in 1983 and are contained in 40 CFR Part 192 (1993), Health and Environmental Protection Standards for Uranium and Thorium Mill Tailings. This document describes the radiological and physical parameters for the remedial action of the soil.

  8. Observational study of contracts processing at 29 CTSA sites.

    PubMed

    Kiriakis, James; Gaich, Nicholas; Johnston, S Claiborne; Kitterman, Darlene; Rosenblum, Daniel; Salberg, Libby; Rifkind, Adam

    2013-08-01

    We measured contracts final negotiation (FN) and full execution (FE) times using shared definitions in a prospective observational study of management of contracts for clinical trials at 29 CTSA institutions. Median FN and FE times were reached in 39 and 91 days, respectively; mean times for FN and FE were 55 and 103 days, respectively. Individual site medians ranged from 3 to 116 days for FN and 34 to 197 days for FE. The use of master agreements (MAs) and previously negotiated terms (PNTs) was associated with significant reduction of FN times by a mean of 33 days (p < 0) and 22 days (p < 0.001), respectively. PNTs, but not MAs, were associated with significantly reduced FE time (22 days, p < 0.007). Gap analysis revealed a gap of 22 days between contracts negotiation and Institutional Review Board (IRB) review and intervals of 33 days (contracts) and 48 days (IRB review) during which the process steps were being conducted alone, suggesting a potential benefit with parallel processing. These baseline data support a plan to investigate root causes of prolonged study start-up time by examining causes of variation and outliers.

  9. Fuel quality/processing study. Volume 4: On site processing studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, G. E., Jr.; Cutrone, M.; Doering, H.; Hickey, J.

    1981-01-01

    Fuel treated at the turbine and the turbine exhaust gas processed at the turbine site are studied. Fuel treatments protect the turbine from contaminants or impurities either in the upgrading fuel as produced or picked up by the fuel during normal transportation. Exhaust gas treatments provide for the reduction of NOx and SOx to environmentally acceptable levels. The impact of fuel quality upon turbine maintenance and deterioration is considered. On site costs include not only the fuel treatment costs as such, but also incremental costs incurred by the turbine operator if a turbine fuel of low quality is not acceptably upgraded.

  10. Summary of some feasibility studies for site-specific solar industrial process heat

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    Some feasibility studies for several different site specific solar industrial process heat applications are summarized. The followng applications are examined. Leather Tanning; Concrete Production: Lumber and Paper Processing; Milk Processing; Molding, Curing or Drying; Automobile Manufacture; and Food Processing and Preparation. For each application, site and process data, system design, and performance and cost estimates are summarized.

  11. Expert Panel Reviews of Research Centers: The Site Visit Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrenz, Frances; Thao, Mao; Johnson, Kelli

    2012-01-01

    Site visits are used extensively in a variety of settings within the evaluation community. They are especially common in making summative value decisions about the quality and worth of research programs/centers. However, there has been little empirical research and guidance about how to appropriately conduct evaluative site visits of research…

  12. 77 FR 38033 - Notice of Establishment of a Commodity Import Approval Process Web Site

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... Import Approval Process Web Site AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We are announcing the creation of a new Plant Protection and Quarantine Web site that will... approval process and the opportunity to comment on draft risk assessments. This Web site will make...

  13. Prohormone supplement 3β-hydroxy-5α-androst-1-en-17-one enhances resistance training gains but impairs user health.

    PubMed

    Granados, Jorge; Gillum, Trevor L; Christmas, Kevin M; Kuennen, Matthew R

    2014-03-01

    Prohormone supplements (PS) are recognized not to impart anabolic or ergogenic effects in men, but the research supporting these conclusions is dated. The Anabolic Steroid Control Act was amended in 2004 to classify androstenedione and 17 additional anabolic compounds as controlled substances. The viability of PS that entered the market after that time have not been evaluated. Seventeen resistance-trained men (23 ± 1 yr; 13.1 ± 1.5% body fat) were randomly assigned to receive either 330 mg/day of 3β-hydroxy-5α-androst-1-en-17-one (Prohormone; n = 9) or sugar (Placebo; n = 8) per os and complete a 4-wk (16 session) structured resistance-training program. Body composition, muscular strength, circulating lipids, and markers of liver and kidney dysfunction were assessed at study onset and termination. Prohormone increased lean body mass by 6.3 ± 1.2%, decreased fat body mass by 24.6 ± 7.1%, and increased their back squat one repetition maximum and competition total by 14.3 ± 1.5 and 12.8 ± 1.1%, respectively. These improvements exceeded (P < 0.05) Placebo, which increased lean body mass by 0.5 ± 0.8%, reduced fat body mass by 9.5 ± 3.6%, and increased back squat one repetition maximum and competition total by 5.7 ± 1.7 and 5.9 ± 1.7%, respectively. Prohormone also experienced multiple adverse effects. These included a 38.7 ± 4.0% reduction in HDL (P < 0.01), a 32.8 ± 15.05% elevation in LDL (P < 0.01), and elevations of 120.0 ± 22.6 and 77.4 ± 12.0% in LDL-to-HDL and cholesterol-to-HDL ratios, respectively (both P < 0.01). Prohormone also exhibited elevations in serum creatinine (19.6 ± 4.3%; P < 0.01) and aspartate transaminase (113.8 ± 61.1%; P = 0.05), as well as reductions in serum albumin (5.1 ± 1.9%; P = 0.04), alkaline phosphatase (16.4 ± 4.7%; P = 0.04), and glomerular filtration rate (18.0 ± 3.3%; P = 0.04). None of these values changed (all P > 0.05) in Placebo. The oral PS 3β-hydroxy-5α-androst-1-en-17-one improves body composition and

  14. Processing of tetraphenylborate precipitates in the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Eibling, R.E.

    1990-12-31

    The Savannah River Site has generated 77 million gallons of high level radioactive waste since the early 1950`s. By 1987, evaporation had reduced the concentration of the waste inventory to 35 million gallons. Currently, the wastes reside in large underground tanks as a soluble fraction stored, crystallized salts, and an insoluble fraction, sludge, which consists of hydrated transition metal oxides. The bulk of the radionuclides, 67 percent, are in the sludge while the crystallized salts and supernate are composed of the nitrates, nitrites, sulfates and hydroxides of sodium, potassium, and cesium. The principal radionuclide in the soluble waste is {sup 137}Cs with traces of {sup 90}Sr. The transformation of the high level wastes into a borosilicate glass suitable for permanent disposal is the goal of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). To minimize the volume of glass produced, the soluble fraction of the waste is treated with sodium tetraphenylborate and sodium titanate in the waste tanks to precipitate the radioactive cesium ion and absorb the radioactive strontium ion. The precipitate is washed in the waste tanks and is then pumped to the DWPF. The precipitate, as received, is incompatible with the vitrification process because of the high aromatic carbon content and requires further chemical treatment. Within the DWPF, the precipitate is processed in the Salt Processing Cell to remove the aromatic carbon as benzene. The precipitate hydrolysis process hydrolyzes the tetraphenylborate anion to produce borate anion and benzene. The benzene is removed by distillation, decontaminated and transferred out of the DWPF for disposal.

  15. Site selection and characterization for historic low-level radioactive wastes in Ontario, Co-operative Siting Process

    SciTech Connect

    Paktunc, A.D.

    1993-12-31

    The Co-operative Siting Process is a non-confrontational way to site a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) management facility in Ontario. The facility will be designed to accommodate approximately 880,000 m{sup 3} of LLRW. Four sets of general facility concepts, appropriate for the physical and chemical characteristics of the wastes and the general site conditions, are being considered. These include engineered mounds, shallow burial in trenches, burial in open pit with previous surround, and intermediate depth rock disposal concepts. The communities interested in offering a site are located in the Canadian Shield where the topography is dominated by rolling hills with reliefs of up to 50 meters and hydrogeological conditions are primarily controlled by fractures in the rock and by the types and distribution of glacial sediments. Climatic conditions can be classified as humid-continental. The objective of site characterization activity is to assess the suitability of potential sites for long-term containment of LLRW in the geosphere and their safe isolation from the biosphere. An initial phase involves exploratory studies designed to reduce larger areas to smaller areas and eventually to candidate sites. The second phase involves site-specific studies designed to maximize the changes of identifying more than one site for different facility requirements and complying with the regulatory requirements and performance expectations.

  16. SITE DEMONSTRATION OF THE BASIC EXTRACTIVE SLUDGE TREATMENT PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program, in cooperation with EPA Region 5, the Great Lakes National Program Office (GLNPO), and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) planned and executed a pilot-scla e evaluation of the Basic Extyractive Sludge Treatment (B...

  17. Launch Site Computer Simulation and its Application to Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sham, Michael D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of computer simulation, the Lockheed developed STS Processing Model, and the application of computer simulation to a wide range of processes. The STS Processing Model is an icon driven model that uses commercial off the shelf software and a Macintosh personal computer. While it usually takes one year to process and launch 8 space shuttles, with the STS Processing Model this process is computer simulated in about 5 minutes. Facilities, orbiters, or ground support equipment can be added or deleted and the impact on launch rate, facility utilization, or other factors measured as desired. This same computer simulation technology can be used to simulate manufacturing, engineering, commercial, or business processes. The technology does not require an 'army' of software engineers to develop and operate, but instead can be used by the layman with only a minimal amount of training. Instead of making changes to a process and realizing the results after the fact, with computer simulation, changes can be made and processes perfected before they are implemented.

  18. ECOMAT INC. BIOLOGICAL DENIFTRICATION PROCESS; SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EcoMat, Inc. of Hayward, California (EcoMat) has developed an ex situ anoxic biofilter biodenitrification (BDN) process. The process uses specific biocarriers and bacteria to treat nitrate-contaminated water and employs a patented reactor that retains biocarrier within the syste...

  19. APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT: SITE PROGRAM DEMONSTRATION TEST SOLIDITECH, INC. SOLIDIFICATION/ STABILIZATION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Applications Analysis Report evaluates the Soliditech, Inc., solidification/ stabilization process for the on-site treatment of waste materials. The Soliditech process mixes and chemically treats waste material with Urrichem (a proprietary reagent), additives, pozzolanic mat...

  20. EPA SITE DEMONSTRATION OF THE BIOTROL SOIL WASHING PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot-scale soil washing process, patented by BioTrol, Inc., was demonstrate on soil contaminated by wood treating waste, primarily pentachlorophenol (PCP) and creosote-derived polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Although soil washing was the main object of this demonstra...

  1. Process Description for the Retrieval of Earth Covered Transuranic (TRU) Waste Containers at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    DEROSA, D.C.

    2000-01-13

    This document describes process and operational options for retrieval of the contact-handled suspect transuranic waste drums currently stored below grade in earth-covered trenches at the Hanford Site. Retrieval processes and options discussed include excavation, container retrieval, venting, non-destructive assay, criticality avoidance, incidental waste handling, site preparation, equipment, and shipping.

  2. Aeolian Processes at the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, R.; Bell, J. F., III; Calvin, W.; Fike, D.; Golombek, M.; Greeley, R.; Grotzinger, J.; Herkenhoff, K.; Jerolmack, D.; Malin, M.

    2005-01-01

    The traverse of the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity across its Meridiani Planum landing site has shown that wind has affected regolith by creating drifts, dunes, and ubiquitous ripples, by sorting grains during aeolian transport, by forming bright wind streaks downwind from craters seen from orbit, and by eroding rock with abrading, wind-blown material. Pre-landing orbiter observations showed bright and dark streaks tapering away from craters on the Meridiani plains. Further analysis of orbiter images shows that major dust storms can cause bright streak orientations in the area to alternate between NW and SE, implying bright wind streak materials encountered by Opportunity are transient, potentially mobilized deposits. Opportunity performed the first in situ investigation of a martian wind streak, focusing on a bright patch of material just outside the rim of Eagle crater. Data from Pancam, the Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES), the Alpha-Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS), and the Mossbauer spectrometer either are consistent with or permit an air fall dust interpretation. We conclude that air fall dust, deposited in the partial wind shadow of Eagle crater, is responsible for the bright streak seen from orbit, consistent with models involving patchy, discontinuous deposits of air fall dust distributed behind obstacles during periods of atmospheric thermal stability during major dust storms.

  3. Stability of choice in the honey bee nest-site selection process.

    PubMed

    Nevai, Andrew L; Passino, Kevin M; Srinivasan, Parthasarathy

    2010-03-01

    We introduce a pair of compartment models for the honey bee nest-site selection process that lend themselves to analytic methods. The first model represents a swarm of bees deciding whether a site is viable, and the second characterizes its ability to select between two viable sites. We find that the one-site assessment process has two equilibrium states: a disinterested equilibrium (DE) in which the bees show no interest in the site and an interested equilibrium (IE) in which bees show interest. In analogy with epidemic models, we define basic and absolute recruitment numbers (R(0) and B(0)) as measures of the swarm's sensitivity to dancing by a single bee. If R(0) is less than one then the DE is locally stable, and if B(0) is less than one then it is globally stable. If R(0) is greater than one then the DE is unstable and the IE is stable under realistic conditions. In addition, there exists a critical site quality threshold Q(*) above which the site can attract some interest (at equilibrium) and below which it cannot. We also find the existence of a second critical site quality threshold Q(**) above which the site can attract a quorum (at equilibrium) and below which it cannot. The two-site discrimination process, in which we examine a swarm's ability to simultaneously consider two sites differing in both site quality and discovery time, has a stable DE if and only if both sites' individual basic recruitment numbers are less than one. Numerical experiments are performed to study the influences of site quality on quorum time and the outcome of competition between a lower quality site discovered first and a higher quality site discovered second. PMID:19932704

  4. TWRS tank waste pretreatment process development hot test siting report

    SciTech Connect

    Howden, G.F.; Banning, D.L.; Dodd, D.A.; Smith, D.A.; Stevens, P.F.; Hansen, R.I.; Reynolds, B.A.

    1995-02-01

    This report is the sixth in a series that have assessed the hot testing requirements for TWRS pretreatment process development and identified the hot testing support requirements. This report, based on the previous work, identifies specific hot test work packages, matches those packages to specific hot cell facilities, and provides recommendations of specific facilities to be employed for the pretreatment hot test work. Also identified are serious limitations in the tank waste sample retrieval and handling infrastructure. Recommendations are provided for staged development of 500 mL, 3 L, 25 L and 4000 L sample recovery systems and specific actions to provide those capabilities.

  5. Developing and evaluating the GriefLink web site: processes, protocols, dilemmas and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Clark, Sheila; Burgess, Teresa; Laven, Gillian; Bull, Michael; Marker, Julie; Browne, Eric

    2004-12-01

    Despite a profusion of recommendations regarding the quality of web sites and guidelines related to ethical issues surrounding health-related sites, there is little guidance for the design and evaluation of sites relating to loss and grief. This article, which addresses these deficiencies, results from a community consultation process of designing and evaluating a web site--GriefLink--for bereaved consumers and for the professionals who help them. It presents the literature review that informed the project, the recommendations for design and content, the lessons learned through the process itself, and the difficulties of evaluating the benefits of a grief-related web site. Some ethical and legal dilemmas in developing grief-related web sites are discussed and issues of design, content, process, evaluation, and general features are addressed, which may also be applied to other communication forms for loss and grief matters, such as the print media.

  6. Seismic reflection processing for characterization of a hazardous waste site

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Z.-M.; Doll, W.E.

    1997-03-01

    Seismic reflection data have been acquired by the Kansas Geological Survey near the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee, to assist in the selection of ground water monitoring well locations. The data were recorded in uncorrelated format to allow flexibility in enhancement of stacked images. During the summer of 1996, five of the thirteen seismic reflection lines acquired were processed. An unconventional correlation procedure, ``Vibroseis Whitening`` (VSW) (Coruh and Costain, 1983) has been applied to produce improved seismic sections. Refraction statics corrections, which remove the detrimental effect of an irregular weathered layer, have also been utilized to improve the seismic sections. The seismic data were stacked using the velocities obtained from a standard semblance velocity analysis tool. Locations and orientations of faults or fault zones can be interpreted from these stacked sections, and they are in agreement with the interpretations of the surface mapping in the area. This paper concludes that VSW and refraction statics can be important to near-surface swept source seismic data processing.

  7. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to the Dry Flats disposal site, 6 road miles (mi) [10 kilometers (km)] to the southeast. At the disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal site would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action activities would be conducted by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The proposed remedial action would result in the loss of approximately 162 ac (66 ha) of soils at the processing and disposal sites; however, 133 ac (55 ha) of these soils at and adjacent to the processing site are contaminated and cannot be used for other purposes. If supplemental standards are approved by the NRC and state of Colorado, approximately 112 ac (45 ha) of contaminated soils adjacent to the processing site would not be cleaned up. This area is steeply sloped. The cleanup of this contamination would have adverse environmental consequences and would be potentially hazardous to remedial action workers. Another 220 ac (89 ha) of soils would be temporarily disturbed during the remedial action. The final disposal site would result in approximately 57 ac (23 ha) being removed from livestock grazing and wildlife use.

  8. Transport processes investigation: A necessary first step in site scale characterization plans

    SciTech Connect

    Roepke, C.; Glass, R.J.; Brainard, J.; Mann, M.; Kriel, K.; Holt, R.; Schwing, J.

    1995-03-01

    We propose an approach, which we call the Transport Processes Investigation or TPI, to identify and verify site-scale transport processes and their controls. The TPI aids in the formulation of an accurate conceptual model of flow and transport, an essential first step in the development of a cost effective site characterization strategy. The TPI is demonstrated in the highly complex vadose zone of glacial tills that underlie the Fernald Environmental Remediation Project (FEMP) in Fernald, Ohio. As a result of the TPI, we identify and verify the pertinent flow processes and their controls, such as extensive macropore and fracture flow through layered clays, which must be included in an accurate conceptual model of site-scale contaminant transport. We are able to conclude that the classical modeling and sampling methods employed in some site characterization programs will be insufficient to characterize contaminant concentrations or distributions at contaminated or hazardous waste facilities sited in such media.

  9. Changes in Attitudes towards and Awareness of A Medical Waste Incinerator during the Facility Siting Process.

    PubMed

    Ostry; Hertzman; Marion

    1995-01-01

    The authors investigated the impact of the process of siting a medical waste incinerator on knowledge and attitudes among subgroups within an adjacent community using a model of risk perception that conceptually divided the community into attitudinal and behavioral subgroups based on awareness and concern in relation to the planned facility. The study design was a one-year survey and a three-year postintervention survey conducted during the siting process. The authors also documented the siting process in order to relate siting inputs to attitudinal and knowledge changes within the community. After three years of promotion, 80% of the respondents remained unaware of the site. The authors conclude that it may be very difficult to engender awareness in affected communities and more difficult still to influence attitudes towards the proposed facility.

  10. Canada's Deep Geological Repository for Used Nuclear Fuel - Geo-scientific Site Evaluation Process - 13117

    SciTech Connect

    Blyth, Alec; Ben Belfadhel, Mahrez; Hirschorn, Sarah; Hamilton, Duncan; McKelvie, Jennifer

    2013-07-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is responsible for implementing Adaptive Phased Management (APM), the approach selected by the Government of Canada for long-term management of used nuclear fuel generated by Canadian nuclear reactors. The ultimate objective of APM is the centralized containment and isolation of Canada's used nuclear fuel in a Deep Geological Repository in a suitable rock formation at a depth of approximately 500 meters (m) (1,640 feet [ft]). In May 2010, the NWMO published a nine-step site selection process that serves as the road map to decision-making on the location for the deep geological repository. The safety and appropriateness of any potential site will be assessed against a number of factors, both technical and social in nature. The selected site will be one that can be demonstrated to be able to safely contain and isolate used nuclear fuel, protecting humans and the environment over the very long term. The geo-scientific suitability of potential candidate sites will be assessed in a stepwise manner following a progressive and thorough site evaluation process that addresses a series of geo-scientific factors revolving around five safety functions. The geo-scientific site evaluation process includes: Initial Screenings; Preliminary Assessments; and Detailed Site Evaluations. As of November 2012, 22 communities have entered the site selection process (three in northern Saskatchewan and 18 in northwestern and southwestern Ontario). (authors)

  11. Two citizen task forces and the challenge of the evolving nuclear waste siting process

    SciTech Connect

    Peelle, E.B.

    1990-01-01

    Siting any nuclear waste facility is problematic in today's climate of distrust toward nuclear agencies and fear of nuclear waste. This study compares and contrasts the siting and public participation processes as two citizen task forces dealt with their difficult responsibilities. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  12. The search for the site of the r-process. [rapid neutron capture in stellar nucleosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowan, John J.; Cameron, A. G. W.; Truran, J. W.; Sneden, Christopher

    1986-01-01

    A number of sites have been suggested for the r-process, including neutronized cores of exploding supernovae, jets of neutronized matter ejected from the collapse of rotating magnetized stellar cores, the helium and carbon zones of stars undergoing supernova explosions, and helium core flashes in low-mass stars. Despite much work and many advances in nuclear physics, the site or sites of the r-process is still unknown. Observations of metal-poor stars in the halo of the Galaxy indicate r-process production early in the history of the Galaxy and provide important constraints on galactic nucleosynthesis. Further observations of metal-poor stars, along with advances in understanding the nuclear properties of neutron-rich nuclei and improved astrophysical models of stars in the late stages of evolution, should help to identify the site of the r-process.

  13. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado: Revision 5

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    Title 1 of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law (PL) 95-604, authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform remedial action at the inactive Naturita, Colorado, uranium processing site to reduce the potential health effects from the radioactive materials at the site and at vicinity properties associated with the site. Title 2 of the UMTRCA authorized the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or agreement state to regulate the operation and eventual reclamation of active uranium processing sites. The uranium mill tailings at the site were removed and reprocessed from 1977 to 1979. The contaminated areas include the former tailings area, the mill yard, the former ore storage area, and adjacent areas that were contaminated by uranium processing activities and wind and water erosion. The Naturita remedial action would result in the loss of 133 acres (ac) of contaminated soils at the processing site. If supplemental standards are approved by the NRC and the state of Colorado, approximately 112 ac of steeply sloped contaminated soils adjacent to the processing site would not be cleaned up. Cleanup of this contamination would have adverse environmental consequences and would be potentially hazardous to remedial action workers.

  14. The cold land processes experiment (CLPX) local scale observatin site (LSOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, K. C.; Hardy, J. P.; Cline, D.; Elder, K.; Davis, R.; Pomeroy, J.; Koh, G.; Armstrong, R.; Koike, T.

    2002-01-01

    The Local Scale Observation Site (LSOS) is the smallest study site of the Cold LandProcesses Experiment (CLPX) and is located within the Fraser Meso-cell Study Area (MSA), near the Fraser Experimental Forest Headquarters Facility, in Fraser, CO USA.The 100-m x 100-m site consists of a small open field, a managed dense canopy and an open, mixed age canopy. Unlike the other components of the experiment, which focus on spatial distributions at relatively brief snapshots in time, measurements at the local scale site focused on the temporal domain.

  15. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita Uranium Processing Site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law (PL) 95-604, authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform remedial action at the Naturita, Colorado, uranium processing site to reduce the potential health effects from the radioactive materials at the site and at vicinity properties associated with the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards for the UMTRCA that contain measures to control the contaminated materials and to protect groundwater quality. Remedial action at the Naturita site must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of Colorado. The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to either the Dry Flats disposal site, 6 road miles (mi) [10 kilometers (km)] to the southeast, or a licensed non-DOE disposal facility capable of handling RRM. At either disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed Dry Flats disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal site would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action would be conducted by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. This report discusses environmental impacts associated with the proposed remedial action.

  16. Depth-of-processing effects as college students use academic advising Web sites.

    PubMed

    Boatright-Horowitz, Su L; Langley, Michelle; Gunnip, Matthew

    2009-06-01

    This research examined students' cognitive and affective responses to an academic advising Web site. Specifically, we investigated whether exposure to our Web site increased student reports that they would access university Web sites to obtain various types of advising information. A depth-of-processing (DOP) manipulation revealed this effect as students engaged in semantic processing of Web content but not when they engaged in superficial examination of the physical appearance of the same Web site. Students appeared to scan online academic advising materials for information of immediate importance without noticing other information or hyperlinks (e.g., regarding internships and careers). Suggestions are presented for increasing the effectiveness of academic advising Web sites.

  17. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita Uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to the Dry Flats disposal sits, 6 road miles (mi) [10 kilometers (km)) to the southeast. At the disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal sits would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action activities would be conducted by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The proposed remedial action would result in the loss of approximately 162 ac (66 ha) of soils at the processing and disposal sites; however, 133 ac (55 ha) of these soils at and adjacent to the processing site are contaminated and cannot be used for other purposes. If supplemental standards are approved by the NRC and state of Colorado, approximately 112 ac (45 ha) of contaminated soils adjacent to the processing site would not be cleaned up. This area is steeply sloped. The cleanup of this contamination would have adverse environmental consequences and would be potentially hazardous to remedial action workers. Another 220 ac (89 ha) of soils would be temporarily disturbed during the remedial action. The final disposal site would result in approximately 57 ac (23 ha) being removed from livestock grazing and wildlife use.

  18. SITE DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN - ENHANCED IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION PROCESS, EARTH TECH, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA conducted an evaluation of the Enhanced In-situ Bioremediation process, a biostimulation technology developed by the USDOE at the Westinghouse Savannah River Plant site in Aiken, SC. DOE has licensed the process to Earth Tech, Inc. The evaluation described in this bulle...

  19. EPA SITE DEMONSTRATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL WASTE TECHNOLOGIES/GEO-CON IN SITU STABILIZATION/ SOLIDIFICATION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents an EPA evaluation of the first field demonstration of an in situ stabilization/solidification process for contaminated soil under the EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. Demonstration of this process was a joint effort of two vendors...

  20. Final Report - Independent Verification Survey Activities at the Seperations Process Research Unit Sites, Niskayuna, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Evan Harpenau

    2011-03-15

    The Separations Process Research Unit (SPRU) complex located on the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) site in Niskayuna, New York, was constructed in the late 1940s to research the chemical separation of plutonium and uranium (Figure A-1). SPRU operated as a laboratory scale research facility between February 1950 and October 1953. The research activities ceased following the successful development of the reduction oxidation and plutonium/uranium extraction processes. The oxidation and extraction processes were subsequently developed for large scale use by the Hanford and Savannah River sites (aRc 2008a). Decommissioning of the SPRU facilities began in October 1953 and continued through the 1990s.

  1. INTEGRATED PROCESS GAS MODELING FOR TRITIUM SYSTEMS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Hang, T; Anita Poore, A

    2007-08-30

    Significant savings are being realized from the consolidated tritium gas-processing operations at the Savannah River Site. However, the trade-off is some reduction of operational flexibility due to decreased storage capacity for process and waste gases. Savannah River National Laboratory researchers are developing an integrated process gas model for tritium processing using Aspen Custom Modeler{trademark} (ACM) software. The modeling involves fully characterizing process flow streams (gas composition, quantity), frequency of batch transfers, and availability of equipment in the flow stream. The model provides a valuable engineering tool to identify flow bottlenecks, thereby enabling adjustments to be made to improve process operations.

  2. Active-Site Hydration and Water Diffusion in Cytochrome P450cam: A Highly Dynamic Process

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, Yinglong; Baudry, Jerome Y

    2011-01-01

    Long-timescale molecular dynamics simulations (300 ns) are performed on both the apo- (i.e., camphor-free) and camphor-bound cytochrome P450cam (CYP101). Water diffusion into and out of the protein active site is observed without biased sampling methods. During the course of the molecular dynamics simulation, an average of 6.4 water molecules is observed in the camphor-binding site of the apo form, compared to zero water molecules in the binding site of the substrate-bound form, in agreement with the number of water molecules observed in crystal structures of the same species. However, as many as 12 water molecules can be present at a given time in the camphor-binding region of the active site in the case of apo-P450cam, revealing a highly dynamic process for hydration of the protein active site, with water molecules exchanging rapidly with the bulk solvent. Water molecules are also found to exchange locations frequently inside the active site, preferentially clustering in regions surrounding the water molecules observed in the crystal structure. Potential-of-mean-force calculations identify thermodynamically favored trans-protein pathways for the diffusion of water molecules between the protein active site and the bulk solvent. Binding of camphor in the active site modifies the free-energy landscape of P450cam channels toward favoring the diffusion of water molecules out of the protein active site.

  3. Processing Tritiated Water at the Savannah Rivver Site: A Production Scale Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Sessions, K

    2004-11-04

    The Palladium Membrane Reactor (PMR) process was installed in the Tritium Facilities at the Savannah River Site to perform a production-scale demonstration for the recovery of tritium from tritiated water adsorbed on molecular sieve (zeolite). Unlike the current recovery process that utilizes magnesium, the PMR offers a means to process tritiated water in a more cost effective and environmentally friendly manner. The design and installation of the large-scale PMR process was part of a collaborative effort between the Savannah River Site and Los Alamos National Laboratory. The PMR process operated at the Savannah River Site between May 2001 and April 2003. During the initial phase of operation the PMR processed thirty-four kilograms of tritiated water from the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The water was processed in fifteen separate batches to yield approximately 34,400 liters (STP) of hydrogen isotopes. Each batch consisted of round-the-clock operations for approximately nine days. In April 2003 the reactor's palladium-silver membrane ruptured resulting in the shutdown of the PMR process. Reactor performance, process performance and operating experiences have been evaluated and documented. A performance comparison between PMR and current magnesium process is also documented.

  4. Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, D.E.; Pechmann, J.H.K.; Knox, J.N.; Estes, R.A.; McGregor, J.H.; Bailey, K.

    1988-12-01

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory has completed 10 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) on the Savannah River Site. This progress report examines water quality studies on streams peripheral to the DWPF construction site and examines the effectiveness of refuge ponds'' in ameliorating the effects of construction on local amphibians. Individual papers on these topics are indexed separately. 93 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs. (MHB)

  5. Lessons Learned and Process Improvement for Payload Operations at the Launch Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catena, John; Gates, Donald, Jr.; Blaney, Kermit, Sr.; Obenschain, Arthur F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    For every space mission, there are challenges with the launch site/field operations process that are addressed too late in the development cycle. This potentially causes schedule delays, cost overruns, and adds risk to the mission success. This paper will discuss how a single interface, representing the payload at the launch site in all phases of development, will mitigate risk, and minimize or even alleviate potential problems later on. Experience has shown that a single interface between the project and the launch site allows for issues to be worked in a timely manner and bridges the gap between two diverse cultures.

  6. Site-specific investigations of aquifer thermal energy storage for space and process cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D R; Hattrup, M P; Watts, R L

    1991-08-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has completed three preliminary site-specific feasibility studies that investigated using aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) to reduce space and process cooling costs. Chilled water stored in an ATES system could be used to meet all or part of the process and/or space cooling loads at the three facilities investigated. The work was sponsored by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Energy Management. The ultimate goal of DOE's Thermal Energy Storage Program is to successfully transfer ATES technology to industrial and commercial sectors. The primary objective of this study was to identify prospective sites and determine the technical and economic feasibility of implementing chill ATES technology. A secondary objective was to identify site-specific factors promoting or inhibiting the application of chill ATES technology so that other potentially attractive sites could be more easily identified and evaluated. A preliminary investigation of the feasibility of commercializing chill ATES in automotive assembly facilities was completed. The results suggested that automotive assembly facilities was completed. The results suggested that automotive assembly facilities represent a good entry market for chill ATES, if the system is cost-effective. As a result, this study was undertaken to identify and evaluate prospective chill ATES applications in the automotive industry. The balance of the report contains two main sections. Section 2.0 describes the site identification process. Site feasibility is addressed in Section 3.0. Overall study conclusions and recommendations are than presented in Section 4.0.

  7. Plutonium production story at the Hanford site: processes and facilities history

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, M.S., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-20

    This document tells the history of the actual plutonium production process at the Hanford Site. It contains five major sections: Fuel Fabrication Processes, Irradiation of Nuclear Fuel, Spent Fuel Handling, Radiochemical Reprocessing of Irradiated Fuel, and Plutonium Finishing Operations. Within each section the story of the earliest operations is told, along with changes over time until the end of operations. Chemical and physical processes are described, along with the facilities where these processes were carried out. This document is a processes and facilities history. It does not deal with the waste products of plutonium production.

  8. Multi-discipline Waste Acceptance Process at the Nevada National Security Site - 13573

    SciTech Connect

    Carilli, Jhon T.; Krenzien, Susan K.

    2013-07-01

    The Nevada National Security Site low-level radioactive waste disposal facility acceptance process requires multiple disciplines to ensure the protection of workers, the public, and the environment. These disciplines, which include waste acceptance, nuclear criticality, safety, permitting, operations, and performance assessment, combine into the overall waste acceptance process to assess low-level radioactive waste streams for disposal at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site. Four waste streams recently highlighted the integration of these disciplines: the Oak Ridge Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators and Consolidated Edison Uranium Solidification Project material, West Valley Melter, and classified waste. (authors)

  9. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-B-14:1 Process Sewer, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-005

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-02-22

    The 100-B-14:1 subsite encompasses the former process sewer main associated with the 105-B Reactor Building, 108-B Chemical Pumphouse and Tritium Separation Facility, 184-B Boiler House and the 100-B water treatment facilities, as well as the feeder lines associated with the 108-B facility, formerly discharging to the 116-B-7 Outfall Structure. The subsite has been remediated to achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  10. Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Pechmann, J.H.K.; Scott, D.E.; McGregor, J.H.; Estes, R.A.; Chazal, A.C.

    1993-02-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was built on the Savannah River Site (SRS) during the mid-1980's. The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has completed 12 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF complex. Prior to construction, the 600-acre site (S-Area) contained a Carolina bay and the headwaters of a stream. Research conducted by the SREL has focused primarily on four questions related to these wetlands: (1) Prior to construction, what fauna and flora were present at the DWPF site and at similar, yet undisturbed, alternative sites (2) By comparing the Carolina bay at the DWPF site (Sun Bay) with an undisturbed control Carolina bay (Rainbow Bay), what effect is construction having on the organisms that inhabited the DWPF site (3) By comparing control streams with streams on the periphery of the DWPF site, what effect is construction having on the peripheral streams (4) How effective have efforts been to lessen the impacts of construction, both with respect to erosion control measures and the construction of refuge ponds'' as alternative breeding sites for amphibians that formerly bred at Sun Bay Through the long-term census-taking of biota at the DWPF site and Rainbow Bay, SREL has begun to evaluate the impact of construction on the biota and the effectiveness of mitigation efforts. Similarly, the effects of erosion from the DWPF site on the water quality of S-Area peripheral streams are being assessed. This research provides supporting data relevant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Executive Orders 11988 (Floodplain Management) and 11990 (Protection of Wetlands), and United States Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetland Environmental Review Requirements (10CFR1022).

  11. Analytic hierarchy process helps select site for limestone quarry expansion in Barbados.

    PubMed

    Dey, Prasanta Kumar; Ramcharan, Eugene K

    2008-09-01

    Site selection is a key activity for quarry expansion to support cement production, and is governed by factors such as resource availability, logistics, costs, and socio-economic-environmental factors. Adequate consideration of all the factors facilitates both industrial productivity and sustainable economic growth. This study illustrates the site selection process that was undertaken for the expansion of limestone quarry operations to support cement production in Barbados. First, alternate sites with adequate resources to support a 25-year development horizon were identified. Second, technical and socio-economic-environmental factors were then identified. Third, a database was developed for each site with respect to each factor. Fourth, a hierarchical model in analytic hierarchy process (AHP) framework was then developed. Fifth, the relative ranking of the alternate sites was then derived through pair wise comparison in all the levels and through subsequent synthesizing of the results across the hierarchy through computer software (Expert Choice). The study reveals that an integrated framework using the AHP can help select a site for the quarry expansion project in Barbados.

  12. Completion report for the UMTRA project Vitro processing site, Salt Lake City, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This completion report provides evidence that the final Salt Lake City, Utah, processing site property conditions are in accordance with the approval design and that all U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards have been satisfied. Included as appendixes to support the stated conclusions are the record drawings; a summary of grid test results; contract specifications and construction drawing and the EPA standards; the audit, inspection, and surveillance summary; the permit information; and project photographs. The principal objectives of remedial action at Salt Lake City were to remove the tailings from the former processing site, render the site free of contamination to EPA standards, and restore the site to the final design grade elevations. The final remedial action plan, which is approved by the U.S. Department of Energy and concurred upon by the U.S. Nuclear Regulator Commission and the state of Utah, contains the conceptual design used to develop the final approved design. During remedial action construction operations, conditions were encountered that required design features that differed form the conceptual design. These conditions and the associated design changes are noted in the record drawings. All remedial action activities were completed in conformance with the specifications and drawings. In the opinion of the state of Utah, the record drawings accurately reflect existing property conditions at the processing site.

  13. Savannah River Site Salt Processing Project: FY2002 Research and Development Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, Harry D.; Leugemors, Robert K.; Schlahta, Stephan N.; Fink, Samuel D.; Thompson, Major C.; Walker, Darrell D.

    2001-10-31

    This Plan describes the technology development program for alpha/strontium removal and Caustic Side Solvent Extraction cesium removal in FY2002. Crystalline Silicotitanate and Small Tank Tetratphenylborate Precipitation are discussed as possible backup technologies. Previous results are summarized in the Savannah River Site Salt Processing Project Research and Development Summary Report

  14. Savannah River Site Salt Processing Project: FY2002 Research and Development Program Plan, Rev. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, Harry D.; Leugemors, Robert K.; Schlahta, Stephan N.; Fink, Samuel D.; Thompson, Major C.; Walker, Darrell D.

    2001-12-10

    This Plan describes the technology development program for alpha/strontium removal and Caustic Side Solvent Extraction cesium removal in FY2002. Crystalline Silicotitanate and Small Tank Tetratphenylborate Precipitation are discussed as possible backup technologies. Previous results are summarized in the Savannah River Site Salt Processing Project Research and Development Summary Report.

  15. Process-based index modeling of landscape vulnerability to off-site agrichemical movement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    dentifying areas vulnerable to off-site agrichemical movement and surface and ground water contamination through conventional data collection is labor-intensive, costly and time-consuming. To promote efficient agrichemical use and protect water resources, a process-based index model was developed to...

  16. EPA SITE DEMONSTRATION OF THE TERRA VAC IN SITU VACUUM EXTRACTION PROCESS IN GROVELAND, MASSACHUSETTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents an EPA evaluation of the patented Terra Vac, Inc.'s in situ vacuum extraction process that was field-demonstrated on a trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated soil in Groveland, MA, under the EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. he Terra...

  17. Process-based modeling of landscape vulnerability to off-site pesticide transport

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identifying areas vulnerable to off-site agrichemical movement and surface and ground water contamination through conventional data collection is labor-intensive, costly and time-consuming. To promote efficient pesticide use and protect water resources, a process-based index model was developed to a...

  18. 77 FR 3460 - Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ... published a final rule under 10 CFR Part 765 in the Federal Register on May 23, 1994, (59 FR 26714) to carry... for reimbursement. DOE amended the final rule on June 3, 2003, (68 FR 32955) to adopt several... Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites AGENCY: Department...

  19. 75 FR 71677 - Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... published a final rule under 10 CFR Part 765 in the Federal Register on May 23, 1994, (59 FR 26714) to carry... for reimbursement. DOE amended the final rule on June 3, 2003, (68 FR 32955) to adopt several... Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites AGENCY: Department...

  20. Overview of Fiscal Year 2002 Research and Development for Savannah River Site's Salt Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    H. D. Harmon, R. Leugemors, PNNL; S. Fink, M. Thompson, D. Walker, WSRC; P. Suggs, W. D. Clark, Jr

    2003-02-26

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) high-level waste program is responsible for storage, treatment, and immobilization of high-level waste for disposal. The Salt Processing Program (SPP) is the salt (soluble) waste treatment portion of the SRS high-level waste effort. The overall SPP encompasses the selection, design, construction and operation of treatment technologies to prepare the salt waste feed material for the site's grout facility (Saltstone) and vitrification facility (Defense Waste Processing Facility). Major constituents that must be removed from the salt waste and sent as feed to Defense Waste Processing Facility include actinides, strontium, cesium, and entrained sludge. In fiscal year 2002 (FY02), research and development (R&D) on the actinide and strontium removal and Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) processes transitioned from technology development for baseline process selection to providing input for conceptual design of the Salt Waste Processing Facility. The SPP R&D focused on advancing the technical maturity, risk reduction, engineering development, and design support for DOE's engineering, procurement, and construction (EPC) contractors for the Salt Waste Processing Facility. Thus, R&D in FY02 addressed the areas of actual waste performance, process chemistry, engineering tests of equipment, and chemical and physical properties relevant to safety. All of the testing, studies, and reports were summarized and provided to the DOE to support the Salt Waste Processing Facility, which began conceptual design in September 2002.

  1. Islets of Langerhans from prohormone convertase-2 knockout mice show α-cell hyperplasia and tumorigenesis with elevated α-cell neogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Huw B; Reens, Jaimini; Brocklehurst, Simon R; Betts, Catherine J; Bickerton, Sue; Bigley, Alison L; Jenkins, Richard P; Whalley, Nicky M; Morgan, Derrick; Smith, David M

    2014-01-01

    Antagonism of the effects of glucagon as an adjunct therapy with other glucose-lowering drugs in the chronic treatment of diabetes has been suggested to aggressively control blood glucose levels. Antagonism of glucagon effects, by targeting glucagon secretion or disabling the glucagon receptor, is associated with α-cell hyperplasia. We evaluated the influence of total glucagon withdrawal on islets of Langerhans using prohormone convertase-2 knockout mice (PC2-ko), in which α-cell hyperplasia is present from a young age and persists throughout life, in order to understand whether or not sustained glucagon deficit would lead to islet tumorigenesis. PC2-ko and wild-type (WT) mice were maintained drug-free, and cohorts of these groups sampled at 3, 12 and 18 months for plasma biochemical and morphological (histological, immunohistochemical, electron microscopical and image analytical) assessments. WT mice showed no islet tumours up to termination of the study, but PC2-ko animals displayed marked changes in islet morphology from α-cell hypertrophy/hyperplasia/atypical hyperplasia, to adenomas and carcinomas, these latter being first encountered at 6–8 months. Islet hyperplasias and tumours primarily consisted of α-cells associated to varying degrees with other islet endocrine cell types. In addition to substantial increases in islet neoplasia, increased α-cell neogenesis associated primarily with pancreatic duct(ule)s was present. We conclude that absolute blockade of the glucagon signal results in tumorigenesis and that the PC2-ko mouse represents a valuable model for investigation of islet tumours and pancreatic ductal neogenesis. PMID:24456331

  2. Site-specific investigations on aquifer thermal energy storage for space and process cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D. R.

    1991-08-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has completed three preliminary site-specific feasibility studies that investigated aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) for reducing space and process cooling costs. Chilled water stored in an ATES system could be used to meet all or part of the process and/or space cooling loads at the three facilities investigated. Seasonal or diurnal chill ATES systems could be significantly less expensive than a conventional electrically-driven, load-following chiller system at one of the three sites, depending on the cooling water loop return temperature and presumed future electricity escalation rate. For the other two sites investigated, a chill ATES system would be economically competitive with conventional chillers if onsite aquifer characteristics were improved. Well flow rates at one of the sites were adequate, but the expected thermal recovery efficiency was too low. The reverse of this situation was found at the other site, where the thermal recovery efficiency was expected to be adequate, but well flow rates were too low.

  3. Snow Cover Depletion and Soil Moisture Recharge at Three Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX) Meteorological Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holcombe, J. D.; Elder, K.; Davis, R. E.

    2003-12-01

    With increasing concern regarding water supply in arid and semiarid regions, knowledge of water resources in the Earth's cold regions is critical. Snow-cover depletion and soil moisture recharge are elements used in hydrologic modeling and climate modeling, as well as remote sensing applications. Modeled snow-cover depletion and soil moisture recharge are important parameters in hydrologic forecasting. We evaluate the ability of a one-dimensional mass and energy balance model (SNTHERM.89) to predict snow-cover depletion and to test the accuracy of Fast All season Soil STrength (FASST) in modeling the evolution of soil moisture recharge based on data from three NASA Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX) sites. The objective is to evaluate the model's ability to predict observations at three CLPX sites: Buffalo Pass (near Steamboat Springs, CO); St. Louis Creek (in the Fraser Experimental Forest, CO); and Illinois River (located in North Park, CO). The three sites were chosen for their diverse climatic and physiographic differences. The Buffalo Pass site has a deep snowpack with discontinuous forest cover dominated by Englemann spruce (Picea englemannii) and alpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa). The St. Louis site has a moderate snowpack depth and forest cover dominated by lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). The Illinois River site is irrigated grassland with no forest cover.

  4. Progress in centralised ethics review processes: Implications for multi-site health evaluations.

    PubMed

    Prosser, Brenton; Davey, Rachel; Gibson, Diane

    2015-04-01

    Increasingly, public sector programmes respond to complex social problems that intersect specific fields and individual disciplines. Such responses result in multi-site initiatives that can span nations, jurisdictions, sectors and organisations. The rigorous evaluation of public sector programmes is now a baseline expectation. For evaluations of large and complex multi-site programme initiatives, the processes of ethics review can present a significant challenge. However in recent years, there have been new developments in centralised ethics review processes in many nations. This paper provides the case study of an evaluation of a national, inter-jurisdictional, cross-sector, aged care health initiative and its encounters with Australian centralised ethics review processes. Specifically, the paper considers progress against the key themes of a previous five-year, five nation study (Fitzgerald and Phillips, 2006), which found that centralised ethics review processes would save time, money and effort, as well as contribute to more equitable workloads for researchers and evaluators. The paper concludes with insights for those charged with refining centralised ethics review processes, as well as recommendations for future evaluators of complex multi-site programme initiatives.

  5. Canada's Deep Geological Repository For Used Nuclear Fuel -The Geoscientific Site Evaluation Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschorn, S.; Ben Belfadhel, M.; Blyth, A.; DesRoches, A. J.; McKelvie, J. R. M.; Parmenter, A.; Sanchez-Rico Castejon, M.; Urrutia-Bustos, A.; Vorauer, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is responsible for implementing Adaptive Phased Management, the approach selected by the Government of Canada for long-term management of used nuclear fuel generated by Canadian nuclear reactors. In May 2010, the NWMO published and initiated a nine-step site selection process to find an informed and willing community to host a deep geological repository for Canada's used nuclear fuel. The site selection process is designed to address a broad range of technical and social, economic and cultural factors. The suitability of candidate areas will be assessed in a stepwise manner over a period of many years and include three main steps: Initial Screenings; Preliminary Assessments; and Detailed Site Characterizations. The Preliminary Assessment is conducted in two phases. NWMO has completed Phase 1 preliminary assessments for the first eight communities that entered into this step. While the Phase 1 desktop geoscientific assessments showed that each of the eight communities contains general areas that have the potential to satisfy the geoscientific safety requirements for hosting a deep geological repository, the assessment identified varying degrees of geoscientific complexity and uncertainty between communities, reflecting their different geological settings and structural histories. Phase 2 activities will include a sequence of high-resolution airborne geophysical surveys and focused geological field mapping to ground-truth lithology and structural features, followed by limited deep borehole drilling and testing. These activities will further evaluate the site's ability to meet the safety functions that a site would need to ultimately satisfy in order to be considered suitable. This paper provides an update on the site evaluation process and describes the approach, methods and criteria that are being used to conduct the geoscientific Preliminary Assessments.

  6. Spatio-temporal evolution of biogeochemical processes at a landfill site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, B.; Mohanty, B. P.; McGuire, J. T.

    2011-12-01

    Predictions of fate and transport of contaminants are strongly dependent on spatio-temporal variability of soil hydraulic and geochemical properties. This study focuses on time-series signatures of hydrological and geochemical properties at different locations within the Norman landfill site. Norman Landfill is a closed municipal landfill site with prevalent organic contamination. Monthly data at the site include specific conductance, δ18O, δ2H, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and anions (chloride, sulfate, nitrate) from 1998-2006. Column scale data on chemical concentrations, redox gradients, and flow parameters are also available on daily and hydrological event (infiltration, drainage, etc.) scales. Since high-resolution datasets of contaminant concentrations are usually unavailable, Wavelet and Fourier analyses were used to infer the dominance of different biogeochemical processes at different spatio-temporal scales and to extract linkages between transport and reaction processes. Results indicate that time variability controls the progression of reactions affecting biodegradation of contaminants. Wavelet analysis suggests that iron-sulfide reduction reactions had high seasonal variability at the site, while fermentation processes dominated at the annual time scale. Findings also suggest the dominance of small spatial features such as layered interfaces and clay lenses in driving biogeochemical reactions at both column and landfill scales. A conceptual model that caters to increased understanding and remediating structurally heterogeneous variably-saturated media is developed from the study.

  7. Archaeological horizons and fluvial processes at the Lower Paleolithic open-air site of Revadim (Israel).

    PubMed

    Marder, Ofer; Malinsky-Buller, Ariel; Shahack-Gross, Ruth; Ackermann, Oren; Ayalon, Avner; Bar-Matthews, Miryam; Goldsmith, Yonaton; Inbar, Moshe; Rabinovich, Rivka; Hovers, Erella

    2011-04-01

    In this paper we present new data pertaining to the paleo-landscape characteristics at the Acheulian site of Revadim, on the southern coastal plain of Israel. Sedimentological, isotopic, granulometric and micromorphological studies showed that the archaeological remains accumulated in an active fluvial environment where channel action, overbank flooding and episodic inundation occurred. Measurements of total organic matter and its carbon isotopic composition indicate that the hominin activity at the site started at a period of relatively drier conditions, which coincided with erosion of the preceding soil sequence. This process led to the formation of a gently-undulating topography, as reconstructed by a GIS model. Later deposition documents relatively wetter conditions, as indicated by carbon isotopic composition. Formation processes identified at the site include fluvial processes, inundation episodes that resulted in anaerobic conditions and formation of oxide nodules, as well as small-scale bioturbation and later infiltration of carbonate-rich solutions that resulted in the formation of calcite nodules and crusts. The combination of micro-habitats created favorable conditions that repeatedly drew hominins to the area, as seen by a series of super-imposed archaeological horizons. This study shows that site-specific paleo-landscape reconstructions should play an important role in understanding regional variation among hominin occupations and in extrapolating long-term behavioral patterns during the Middle Pleistocene. PMID:20304463

  8. Process reengineering of preoperative verification, site marking and time-out for patient safety.

    PubMed

    Dayuta, Jacqueline Cristy Diaz; Ong, Lay Teng; Pang, Nguk Lan; Chia, Soon Noi; Tan, Henry Kun Kiaang; Gomez, Joseph Manuel; Tan, Kok Hian

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we describe our hospital's journey in implementing the WHO High 5s Project Correct Site Surgery Standard (CSS) protocol. We discuss how we incorporated the protocol into our system by revising the pre-existing checklist, reengineering the existing processes on preoperative verification, site marking and time-out at the Major Operating Theatre (MOT), and performing audit and feedback to ensure effective compliance. We also reflect on the importance of leadership and ministry support, benchmarking and tailoring the practice for each discipline in the pursuit of improving patient safety within the hospital. PMID:24228340

  9. Cotranslational and posttranslational proteolytic processing of preprosomatostatin-I in intact islet tissue.

    PubMed

    Noe, B D; Andrews, P C; Dixon, J E; Spiess, J

    1986-10-01

    Preprosomatostatin-I (PPSS-I) is processed in anglerfish islets to release a 14-residue somatostatin (SS-14). However, very little is known regarding other processing events that affect PPSS-I. This is the first study to identify and quantify the levels of nonsomatostatin products generated as a result of processing of this somatostatin precursor in living islet tissue. The products of PPSS-I processing in anglerfish islet tissue were identified in radiolabeling studies using a number of criteria. These criteria included immunoreactivity, specific radiolabeling by selected amino acids, radiolabel sequencing, and chromatographic comparison to isolated, structurally characterized fragments of anglerfish PPSS-I using reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Intact prosomatostatin-I (aPSS-I) was isolated from tissue incubated with [3H]tryptophan and [14C]leucine. Significant 14C radioactivity was observed in the products of 11 of the first 44 sequencer cycles in positions consistent with the generation of a 96-residue prosomatostatin. These results indicate that signal cleavage occurs after the cysteine located 25 residues from the initiator Met of PPSS-I, resulting in a signal peptide 25 amino acids in length. Nonsomatostatin-containing fragments of the precursor were also found in tissue incubated with a mixture of 3H-amino acids. Only a small quantity of the dodecapeptide representing residues 69-80 in the prohormone was found (10 nmol/g tissue). Two other fragments of aPSS-I, also observed to be present in low abundance, were found to correspond to residues 1-27 (16 nmol/g tissue) and to residues 1-67 (7 nmol/g tissue) of aPSS-I. No evidence for the presence of the fragment corresponding to residues 29-67 was found. However, large quantities of SS-14 were observed (287 nmol/g tissue), indicating that the major site of aPSS-I cleavage is at the basic dipeptide immediately preceding SS-14. Recovery of much lower levels of the nonsomatostatin fragments of

  10. Lessons learned from the Siting Process of an Interim Storage Facility in Spain - 12024

    SciTech Connect

    Lamolla, Meritxell Martell

    2012-07-01

    On 29 December 2009, the Spanish government launched a site selection process to host a centralised interim storage facility for spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. It was an unprecedented call for voluntarism among Spanish municipalities to site a controversial facility. Two nuclear municipalities, amongst a total of thirteen municipalities from five different regions, presented their candidatures to host the facility in their territories. For two years the government did not make a decision. Only in November 30, 2011, the new government elected on 20 November 2011 officially selected a non-nuclear municipality, Villar de Canas, for hosting this facility. This paper focuses on analysing the factors facilitating and hindering the siting of controversial facilities, in particular the interim storage facility in Spain. It demonstrates that involving all stakeholders in the decision-making process should not be underestimated. In the case of Spain, all regional governments where there were candidate municipalities willing to host the centralised interim storage facility, publicly opposed to the siting of the facility. (author)

  11. Inefficient processing impairs release of RNA from the site of transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Custódio, N; Carmo-Fonseca, M; Geraghty, F; Pereira, H S; Grosveld, F; Antoniou, M

    1999-01-01

    We describe here for the first time the site of retention within the nucleus of pre-mRNA processing mutants unable to be exported to the cytoplasm. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to detect transcripts from human beta-globin genes that are either normal or defective in splicing or 3' end formation. Nuclear transcripts of both wild-type and mutant RNAs are detected only as intranuclear foci that colocalize with the template gene locus. The kinetics of transcript release from the site of transcription was assessed by treatment of cells with the transcriptional inhibitors actinomycin D, alpha-amanitin and DRB. These drugs induce the rapid disappearance of nuclear foci corresponding to wild-type human beta-globin RNA. In contrast, pre-mRNA mutants defective in either splicing or 3' end formation and which fail to be transported to the cytoplasm, are retained at the site of transcription. Therefore, 3' end processing and splicing appear to be rate limiting for release of mRNA from the site of transcription. PMID:10329631

  12. Detection of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites using satellite remote sensing and digital image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrie, Robert K.

    2011-11-01

    Satellite remote sensing is playing an increasingly important role in the detection and documentation of archaeological sites. Surveying an area from the ground using traditional methods often presents challenges due to the time and costs involved. In contrast, the multispectral synoptic approach afforded by the satellite sensor makes it possible to cover much larger areas in greater spectral detail and more cost effectively. This is especially the case for larger scale regional surveys, which are helping to contribute to a better understanding of ancient Egyptian settlement patterns. This study presents an overview of satellite remote sensing data products, methodologies, and image processing techniques for detecting lost or undiscovered archaeological sites with reference to Egypt and the Near East. Key regions of the electromagnetic spectrum useful for site detection are discussed, including the visible near-infrared (VNIR), shortwave infrared (SWIR), thermal infrared (TIR), and microwave (radar). The potential of using Google Earth as both a data provider and a visualization tool is also examined. Finally, a case study is presented for detecting tell sites in Egypt using Landsat ETM+, ASTER, and Google Earth imagery. The results indicated that principal components analysis (PCA) was successfully able to detect and differentiate tell sites from modern settlements in Egypt's northwestern Nile Delta region.

  13. Finding of No Significant Impact, proposed remediation of the Maybell Uranium Mill Processing Site, Maybell, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0347) on the proposed surface remediation of the Maybell uranium mill processing site in Moffat County, Colorado. The mill site contains radioactively contaminated materials from processing uranium ore that would be stabilized in place at the existing tailings pile location. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, Public Law 91-190 (42 U.S.C. {section}4321 et seq.), as amended. Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  14. Alternative poly(A) site utilization during adenovirus infection coincides with a decrease in the activity of a poly(A) site processing factor.

    PubMed Central

    Mann, K P; Weiss, E A; Nevins, J R

    1993-01-01

    The recognition and processing of a pre-mRNA to create a poly(A) addition site, a necessary step in mRNA biogenesis, can also be a regulatory event in instances in which the frequency of use of a poly(A) site varies. One such case is found during the course of an adenovirus infection. Five poly(A) sites are utilized within the major late transcription unit to produce more than 20 distinct mRNAs during the late phase of infection. The proximal half of the major late transcription unit is also expressed during the early phase of a viral infection. During this early phase of expression, the L1 poly(A) site is used three times more frequently than the L3 poly(A) site. In contrast, the L3 site is used three times more frequently than the L1 site during the late phase of infection. Recent experiments have suggested that the recognition of the poly(A) site GU-rich downstream element by the CF1 processing factor may be a rate-determining step in poly(A) site selection. We demonstrate that the interaction of CF1 with the L1 poly(A) site is less stable than the interaction of CF1 with the L3 poly(A) site. We also find that there is a substantial decrease in the level of CF1 activity when an adenovirus infection proceeds to the late phase. We suggest that this reduction in CF1 activity, coupled with the relative instability of the interaction with the L1 poly(A) site, contributes to the reduced use of the L1 poly(A) site during the late stage of an adenovirus infection. Images PMID:8384308

  15. MEASUREMENT AND PREDICTION OF RADIOLYTIC HYDROGEN PRODUCTION IN DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING SLURRIES AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Bibler, N; John Pareizs, J; Terri Fellinger, T; Cj Bannochie, C

    2007-01-10

    This paper presents results of measurements and predictions of radiolytic hydrogen production rates from two actual process slurries in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at Savannah River Site (SRS). Hydrogen is a flammable gas and its production in nuclear facilities can be a safety hazard if not mitigated. Measurements were made in the Shielded Cells of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) using a sample of Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) currently being processed by the DWPF. Predictions were made using published values for rates of radiolytic reactions producing H{sub 2} in aqueous solutions and the measured radionuclide and chemical compositions of the two slurries. The agreement between measured and predicted results for nine experiments ranged from complete agreement to 24% difference. This agreement indicates that if the composition of the slurry being processed is known, the rate of radiolytic hydrogen production can be reasonably estimated.

  16. Use of strategic environmental assessment in the site selection process for a radioactive waste disposal facility in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Dermol, Urška; Kontić, Branko

    2011-01-01

    The benefits of strategic environmental considerations in the process of siting a repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) are presented. The benefits have been explored by analyzing differences between the two site selection processes. One is a so-called official site selection process, which is implemented by the Agency for radwaste management (ARAO); the other is an optimization process suggested by experts working in the area of environmental impact assessment (EIA) and land-use (spatial) planning. The criteria on which the comparison of the results of the two site selection processes has been based are spatial organization, environmental impact, safety in terms of potential exposure of the population to radioactivity released from the repository, and feasibility of the repository from the technical, financial/economic and social point of view (the latter relates to consent by the local community for siting the repository). The site selection processes have been compared with the support of the decision expert system named DEX. The results of the comparison indicate that the sites selected by ARAO meet fewer suitability criteria than those identified by applying strategic environmental considerations in the framework of the optimization process. This result stands when taking into account spatial, environmental, safety and technical feasibility points of view. Acceptability of a site by a local community could not have been tested, since the formal site selection process has not yet been concluded; this remains as an uncertain and open point of the comparison.

  17. Prohormone convertase 2 (PC2) null mice have increased mu opioid receptor levels accompanied by altered morphine-induced antinociception, tolerance and dependence.

    PubMed

    Lutfy, K; Parikh, D; Lee, D L; Liu, Y; Ferrini, M G; Hamid, A; Friedman, T C

    2016-08-01

    Chronic morphine treatment increases the levels of prohormone convertase 2 (PC2) in brain regions involved in nociception, tolerance and dependence. Thus, we tested if PC2 null mice exhibit altered morphine-induced antinociception, tolerance and dependence. PC2 null mice and their wild-type controls were tested for baseline hot plate latency, injected with morphine (1.25-10mg/kg) and tested for antinociception 30min later. For tolerance studies, mice were tested in the hot plate test before and 30min following morphine (5mg/kg) on day 1. Mice then received an additional dose so that the final dose of morphine was 10mg/kg on this day. On days 2-4, mice received additional doses of morphine (20, 40 and 80mg/kg on days 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively). On day 5, mice were tested in the hot plate test before and 30min following morphine (5mg/kg). For withdrawal studies, mice were treated with the escalating doses of morphine (10, 20, 40 and 80mg/kg) for 4days, implanted with a morphine pellet on day 5 and 3 days later injected with naloxone (1mg/kg) and signs of withdrawal were recorded. Morphine dose-dependently induced antinociception and the magnitude of this response was greater in PC2 null mice. Tolerance to morphine was observed in wild-type mice and this phenomenon was blunted in PC2 null mice. Withdrawal signs were also reduced in PC2 null mice. Immunohistochemical studies showed up-regulation of the mu opioid receptor (MOP) protein expression in the periaqueductal gray area, ventral tegmental area, lateral hypothalamus, medial hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, and somatosensory cortex in PC2 null mice. Likewise, naloxone specific binding was increased in the brains of these mice compared to their wild-type controls. The results suggest that the PC2-derived peptides may play a functional role in morphine-induced antinociception, tolerance and dependence. Alternatively, lack of opioid peptides led to up-regulation of the MOP and altered morphine

  18. Resolving public conflict in site selection process - a risk communication approach

    SciTech Connect

    Ishizaka, Kaoru; Tanaka, Masaru

    2003-07-01

    In Japan, conflicts regarding the siting of waste disposal facilities occur frequently. In particular, siting of incinerators and landfills has become increasingly difficult because the public is highly concerned about the dioxin issues. Inefficient siting of waste disposal facilities causes several social problems, such as the shortage of waste treatment and disposal facilities, the rising of waste management costs and an increase in the consumption of resources. While dealing with a similar situation, the Chemical Society of Japan adopted a risk communication technique successfully. Hence, the pragmatic use of a risk communication technique is proposed to avoid conflicts and for a smooth information exchange to seek cooperation in waste management. In order to achieve this, a study was conducted to resolve conflicts between residents and the municipality for the selection of site for a solid waste treatment and disposal facility. This study aims to discuss the subject of risk communication for the waste disposal system in Japan. This study is performed through personal interviews and a questionnaire covering opposing parties in the town. As a result of the survey, a risk communication approach for a waste treatment and disposal system is presented in the paper addressing issues such as building of social trust, pragmatic use of the communication process, installation of credible information sources, and environmental education and awareness.

  19. A systematic study of site-specific GalNAc-type O-glycosylation modulating proprotein convertase processing.

    PubMed

    Schjoldager, Katrine Ter-Borch Gram; Vester-Christensen, Malene B; Goth, Christoffer K; Petersen, Thomas Nordahl; Brunak, Søren; Bennett, Eric P; Levery, Steven B; Clausen, Henrik

    2011-11-18

    Site-specific GalNAc-type O-glycosylation is emerging as an important co-regulator of proprotein convertase (PC) processing of proteins. PC processing is crucial in regulating many fundamental biological pathways and O-glycans in or immediately adjacent to processing sites may affect recognition and function of PCs. Thus, we previously demonstrated that deficiency in site-specific O-glycosylation in a PC site of the fibroblast growth factor, FGF23, resulted in marked reduction in secretion of active unprocessed FGF23, which cause familial tumoral calcinosis and hyperostosis hyperphosphatemia. GalNAc-type O-glycosylation is found on serine and threonine amino acids and up to 20 distinct polypeptide GalNAc transferases catalyze the first addition of GalNAc to proteins making this step the most complex and differentially regulated steps in protein glycosylation. There is no reliable prediction model for O-glycosylation especially of isolated sites, but serine and to a lesser extent threonine residues are frequently found adjacent to PC processing sites. In the present study we used in vitro enzyme assays and ex vivo cell models to systematically address the boundaries of the region within site-specific O-glycosylation affect PC processing. The results demonstrate that O-glycans within at least ±3 residues of the RXXR furin cleavage site may affect PC processing suggesting that site-specific O-glycosylation is a major co-regulator of PC processing.

  20. A systematic study of site-specific GalNAc-type O-glycosylation modulating proprotein convertase processing.

    PubMed

    Schjoldager, Katrine Ter-Borch Gram; Vester-Christensen, Malene B; Goth, Christoffer K; Petersen, Thomas Nordahl; Brunak, Søren; Bennett, Eric P; Levery, Steven B; Clausen, Henrik

    2011-11-18

    Site-specific GalNAc-type O-glycosylation is emerging as an important co-regulator of proprotein convertase (PC) processing of proteins. PC processing is crucial in regulating many fundamental biological pathways and O-glycans in or immediately adjacent to processing sites may affect recognition and function of PCs. Thus, we previously demonstrated that deficiency in site-specific O-glycosylation in a PC site of the fibroblast growth factor, FGF23, resulted in marked reduction in secretion of active unprocessed FGF23, which cause familial tumoral calcinosis and hyperostosis hyperphosphatemia. GalNAc-type O-glycosylation is found on serine and threonine amino acids and up to 20 distinct polypeptide GalNAc transferases catalyze the first addition of GalNAc to proteins making this step the most complex and differentially regulated steps in protein glycosylation. There is no reliable prediction model for O-glycosylation especially of isolated sites, but serine and to a lesser extent threonine residues are frequently found adjacent to PC processing sites. In the present study we used in vitro enzyme assays and ex vivo cell models to systematically address the boundaries of the region within site-specific O-glycosylation affect PC processing. The results demonstrate that O-glycans within at least ±3 residues of the RXXR furin cleavage site may affect PC processing suggesting that site-specific O-glycosylation is a major co-regulator of PC processing. PMID:21937429

  1. Estimating HAPs and radionuclide emissions from a laboratory complex at a nuclear processing site

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, R.A.; Faugl, T.

    1993-10-01

    A unique methodology was developed for conducting an air emission inventory (AEI) at a DOE nuclear processing facility. This methodology involved the use of computer-assisted design (CAD) drawings to document emission points, computerized process drawings to document industrial processes leading to emissions, and a computerized data base of AEI forms to document emission estimates and related process data. A detailed air emissions inventory for operating years 1985--1991 was recently implemented for the entire site using this methodology. One industrial area at the DOE Site is comprised of laboratory facilities that provide direct support to the nuclear reactor and recovery operations, developmental studies to support reactor and separation operations, and developmental studies to support waste handling and storage. The majority of the functions are conducted in a single large building complex wherein bench scale and pilot scale experiments are carried out involving radionuclides, hazardous air pollutants (HAP), and other chemicals reportable under the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) and Superfund Amendments and Re-authorization Act (SARA) Title 111. The results of the inventory showed that HAP and radionuclide emissions from the laboratory complex were relatively minor.

  2. Hanford Integrated Planning Process: 1993 Hanford Site-specific science and technology plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This document is the FY 1993 report on Hanford Site-specific science and technology (S&T) needs for cleanup of the Site as developed via the Hanford Integrated Planning Process (HIPP). It identifies cleanup problems that lack demonstrated technology solutions and technologies that require additional development. Recommendations are provided regarding allocation of funding to address Hanford`s highest-priority technology improvement needs, technology development needs, and scientific research needs, all compiled from a Sitewide perspective. In the past, the S&T agenda for Hanford Site cleanup was sometimes driven by scientists and technologists, with minimal input from the ``problem owners`` (i.e., Westinghouse Hanford Company [WHC] staff who are responsible for cleanup activities). At other times, the problem-owners made decisions to proceed with cleanup without adequate scientific and technological inputs. Under both of these scenarios, there was no significant stakeholder involvement in the decision-making process. One of the key objectives of HIPP is to develop an understanding of the integrated S&T requirements to support the cleanup mission, (a) as defined by the needs of the problem owners, the values of the stakeholders, and the technology development expertise that exists at Hanford and elsewhere. This requires a periodic, systematic assessment of these needs and values to appropriately define a comprehensive technology development program and a complementary scientific research program. Basic to our success is a methodology that is defensible from a technical perspective and acceptable to the stakeholders.

  3. Sequence variation between 462 human individuals fine-tunes functional sites of RNA processing.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Pedro G; Oti, Martin; Barann, Matthias; Wieland, Thomas; Ezquina, Suzana; Friedländer, Marc R; Rivas, Manuel A; Esteve-Codina, Anna; Rosenstiel, Philip; Strom, Tim M; Lappalainen, Tuuli; Guigó, Roderic; Sammeth, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in the cost-efficiency of sequencing technologies enabled the combined DNA- and RNA-sequencing of human individuals at the population-scale, making genome-wide investigations of the inter-individual genetic impact on gene expression viable. Employing mRNA-sequencing data from the Geuvadis Project and genome sequencing data from the 1000 Genomes Project we show that the computational analysis of DNA sequences around splice sites and poly-A signals is able to explain several observations in the phenotype data. In contrast to widespread assessments of statistically significant associations between DNA polymorphisms and quantitative traits, we developed a computational tool to pinpoint the molecular mechanisms by which genetic markers drive variation in RNA-processing, cataloguing and classifying alleles that change the affinity of core RNA elements to their recognizing factors. The in silico models we employ further suggest RNA editing can moonlight as a splicing-modulator, albeit less frequently than genomic sequence diversity. Beyond existing annotations, we demonstrate that the ultra-high resolution of RNA-Seq combined from 462 individuals also provides evidence for thousands of bona fide novel elements of RNA processing-alternative splice sites, introns, and cleavage sites-which are often rare and lowly expressed but in other characteristics similar to their annotated counterparts. PMID:27617755

  4. Geochemical information and isotopic ratios in pinpointing the rates of contamination processes generated at mine sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turunen, Kaisa; Kittilä, Anniina; Backnäs, Soile; Pasanen, Antti; Hendriksson, Nina

    2015-04-01

    The isotopic composition of water is an important fingerprinting method for tracing recharge sources, distribution processes and possible hydraulic connections of mine waters. However, since, the isotopes alone do not indicate the contamination derived from mining activities; also a set of geochemical analysis of harmful substance in water is acquired. This complex approach will allow a detailed insight in migration of potentially harmful substances, their reactions, mixing and dilution in ground and surface waters. The data can be applied also when comparing geogenic and anthropogenic emissions. Isotopic methods are rather new approach to estimate mining related emissions in Finland and thus, a novel approach of isotopic methods for investigation and monitoring of migration of harmful substances from mine sites are tested in two mine sites in Finland. The aim of this study is to assess the emission sources, flow paths and interaction between mine waters, groundwater and surface waters. A set of isotopic data, including S, Li, Mg, U, Sr, Pb, O, and H, will be combined with chemical information and physical parameters of water in order to assess the source and extent of possible contamination as well as the rates of processes that generate or at best attenuate the contamination. The results obtained from water analyses and field measurements will be used in hydrogeochemical modelling for the prediction of chemical transformation and long-term impacts of mining at study site and its surroundings.

  5. Dynamic Disturbance Processes Create Dynamic Lek Site Selection in a Prairie Grouse.

    PubMed

    Hovick, Torre J; Allred, Brady W; Elmore, R Dwayne; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D; Hamilton, Robert G; Breland, Amber

    2015-01-01

    It is well understood that landscape processes can affect habitat selection patterns, movements, and species persistence. These selection patterns may be altered or even eliminated as a result of changes in disturbance regimes and a concomitant management focus on uniform, moderate disturbance across landscapes. To assess how restored landscape heterogeneity influences habitat selection patterns, we examined 21 years (1991, 1993-2012) of Greater Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus cupido) lek location data in tallgrass prairie with restored fire and grazing processes. Our study took place at The Nature Conservancy's Tallgrass Prairie Preserve located at the southern extent of Flint Hills in northeastern Oklahoma. We specifically addressed stability of lek locations in the context of the fire-grazing interaction, and the environmental factors influencing lek locations. We found that lek locations were dynamic in a landscape with interacting fire and grazing. While previous conservation efforts have treated leks as stable with high site fidelity in static landscapes, a majority of lek locations in our study (i.e., 65%) moved by nearly one kilometer on an annual basis in this dynamic setting. Lek sites were in elevated areas with low tree cover and low road density. Additionally, lek site selection was influenced by an interaction of fire and patch edge, indicating that in recently burned patches, leks were located near patch edges. These results suggest that dynamic and interactive processes such as fire and grazing that restore heterogeneity to grasslands do influence habitat selection patterns in prairie grouse, a phenomenon that is likely to apply throughout the Greater Prairie-Chicken's distribution when dynamic processes are restored. As conservation moves toward restoring dynamic historic disturbance patterns, it will be important that siting and planning of anthropogenic structures (e.g., wind energy, oil and gas) and management plans not view lek locations as static

  6. Dynamic Disturbance Processes Create Dynamic Lek Site Selection in a Prairie Grouse

    PubMed Central

    Hovick, Torre J.; Allred, Brady W.; Elmore, R. Dwayne; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D.; Hamilton, Robert G.; Breland, Amber

    2015-01-01

    It is well understood that landscape processes can affect habitat selection patterns, movements, and species persistence. These selection patterns may be altered or even eliminated as a result of changes in disturbance regimes and a concomitant management focus on uniform, moderate disturbance across landscapes. To assess how restored landscape heterogeneity influences habitat selection patterns, we examined 21 years (1991, 1993–2012) of Greater Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus cupido) lek location data in tallgrass prairie with restored fire and grazing processes. Our study took place at The Nature Conservancy’s Tallgrass Prairie Preserve located at the southern extent of Flint Hills in northeastern Oklahoma. We specifically addressed stability of lek locations in the context of the fire-grazing interaction, and the environmental factors influencing lek locations. We found that lek locations were dynamic in a landscape with interacting fire and grazing. While previous conservation efforts have treated leks as stable with high site fidelity in static landscapes, a majority of lek locations in our study (i.e., 65%) moved by nearly one kilometer on an annual basis in this dynamic setting. Lek sites were in elevated areas with low tree cover and low road density. Additionally, lek site selection was influenced by an interaction of fire and patch edge, indicating that in recently burned patches, leks were located near patch edges. These results suggest that dynamic and interactive processes such as fire and grazing that restore heterogeneity to grasslands do influence habitat selection patterns in prairie grouse, a phenomenon that is likely to apply throughout the Greater Prairie-Chicken’s distribution when dynamic processes are restored. As conservation moves toward restoring dynamic historic disturbance patterns, it will be important that siting and planning of anthropogenic structures (e.g., wind energy, oil and gas) and management plans not view lek locations as

  7. Evaluation of Sources of Nitrate Beneath Food Processing Wastewater-Application Sites near Umatilla, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frans, Lonna; Paulson, Anthony; Richerson, Phil; Striz, Elise; Black, Curt

    2009-01-01

    Water samples from wells were collected beneath and downgradient of two food-processing wastewater-application sites near Umatilla, Oregon. These samples were analyzed for nitrate stable isotopes, nutrients, major ions, and age-dating constituents to determine if nitrate-stable isotopes can be used to differentiate food-processing waste from other potential sources of nitrate. Major-ion data from each site were used to determine which samples were associated with the recharge of the food-processing wastewater. End-member mixing analysis was used to determine the relative amounts of each identified end member within the samples collected from the Terrace Farm site. The delta nitrogen-15 (delta 15N) of nitrate generally ranged between +2 and +9 parts per thousand and the delta oxygen-18 (delta 18O) of nitrate generally ranged between -2 and -7 parts per thousand. None of the samples that were determined to be associated with the wastewater were different from the samples that were not affected by the wastewater. The nitrate isotope values measured in this study are also characteristic of ammonium fertilizer, animal and human waste, and soil nitrate; therefore, it was not possible to differentiate between food-processing wastewater and the other nitrate sources. Values of delta 15N and delta 18O of nitrate provided no more information about the sources of nitrate in the Umatilla River basin than did a hydrologic and geochemical understanding of the ground-water system derived from interpreting water-level and major-ion chemistry data.

  8. Motors and Their Tethers: The Role of Secondary Binding Sites in Processive Motility

    PubMed Central

    Kincaid, Margaret M.; King, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    Cytoskeletal motors convert the energy from binding and hydrolyzing ATP into conformational changes that direct movement along a cytoskeletal polymer substrate. These enzymes utilize different mechanisms to generate long-range motion on the order of a micron or more that is required for functions ranging from muscle contraction to transport of growth factors along a nerve axon. Several of the individual cytoskeletal motors are processive, meaning that they have the ability to take sequential steps along their polymer substrate without dissociating from the polymer. This ability to maintain contact with the polymer allows individual motors to move cargos quickly from one cellular location to another. Many of the processive motors have now been found to utilize secondary binding sites that aid in motor processivity. PMID:17172850

  9. Assessing occupational mercury exposures during the on-site processing of spent fluorescent lamps.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Alan; Emery, Robert

    2006-03-01

    On-site processing of spent fluorescent lamps reduces storage space requirements and prevents mercury-containing lamp contents from entering the municipal waste stream, but such processing activities are typically not carried out in facilities specifically designed for the operation. This circumstance is of particular concern because lamp-handling and -crushing operations can release mercury vapors and aerosols that constitute an occupational exposure risk. In the study reported here, sampling for airborne mercury was performed during the processing of fluorescent lamps in an enclosed work area and in an open, outdoor work environment. In both enclosed and open work environments, exposures in excess of the established mercury exposure limit were detected. Simple interventions to prevent this possible unanticipated source of mercury exposure are described.

  10. A case study of optimization in the decision process: Siting groundwater monitoring wells

    SciTech Connect

    Cardwell, H.; Huff, D.; Douthitt, J.; Sale, M.

    1993-12-01

    Optimization is one of the tools available to assist decision makers in balancing multiple objectives and concerns. In a case study of the siting decision for groundwater monitoring wells, we look at the influence of the optimization models on the decisions made by the responsible groundwater specialist. This paper presents a multi-objective integer programming model for determining the location of monitoring wells associated with a groundwater pump-and-treat remediation. After presenting the initial optimization results, we analyze the actual decision and revise the model to incorporate elements of the problem that were later identified as important in the decision-making process. The results of a revised model are compared to the actual siting plans, the recommendations from the initial optimization runs, and the initial monitoring network proposed by the decision maker.

  11. Evaluation of Mineral Deposits Along the Little Wind River, Riverton, WY, Processing Site

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Sam; Dam, Wiliam

    2014-12-01

    In 2012, the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE) began reassessing the former Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site area for potential contaminant sources impacting groundwater. A flood in 2010 along the Little Wind River resulted in increases in groundwater contamination (DOE 2013).This investigation is a small part of continued efforts by DOE and other stakeholders to update human health and ecological risk assessments, to make a comprehensive examination of all exposure pathways to ensure that the site remains protective through established institutional controls. During field inspections at the Riverton Site in 2013, a white evaporitic mineral deposit was identified along the bank of the Little Wind River within the discharge zone of the groundwater contamination plume. In December 2013, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel collected a sample for analysis by X-ray fluorescence (Figure 1 shows the type of material sampled). The sample had a uranium concentration of approximately 64 to 73 parts per million. Although the uranium in this mineral deposit is within the expected range for evaporatic minerals in the western United States (SRNL 2014), DOE determined that additional assessment of the mineral deposit was warranted. In response to the initial collection and analysis of a sample of the mineral deposit, DOE developed a work plan (Work Plan to Sample Mineral Deposits Along the Little Wind River, Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site [DOE 2014]) to further define the extent of these mineral deposits and the concentration of the associated contaminants (Appendix A). The work plan addressed field reconnaissance, mapping, sampling, and the assessment of risk associated with the mineral deposits adjacent to the Little Wind River.

  12. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita Uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to the Dry Flats disposal site, 6 road miles (mi) [ 1 0 kilometers (km)] to the southeast. At the disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal site would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action activities would be conducted by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The remedial action would result in the loss of approximately 164 ac (66 ha) of soils, but 132 ac (53 ha) of these soils are contaminated and cannot be used for other purposes. Another 154 ac (62 ha) of soils would be temporarily disturbed. Approximately 57 ac (23 ha) of open range land would be permanently removed from livestock grazing and wildlife use. The removal of the contaminated materials would affect the 1 00-year floodplain of the San Miguel River and would result in the loss of riparian habitat along the river. The southwestern willow flycatcher, a Federal candidate species, may be affected by the remedial action, and the use of water from the San Miguel River ``may affect`` the Colorado squawfish, humpback chub, bonytail chub, and razorback sucker. Traffic levels on State Highways 90 and 141 would be increased during the remedial action, as would the noise levels along these transportation routes. Measures for mitigating the adverse environmental impacts of the proposed remedial action are discussed in Section 6.0 of this environmental assessment (EA).

  13. Operational Implementation of the MARSSIM Process at the Wayne Interim Storage Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, D. C. Jr.; Trujillo, P. A. IV.; Zoller, S. G.

    2002-02-27

    This paper describes the methodologies behind the operational implementation of the Multi Agency Radiation Site Survey and Investigation Manual (MARSSIM) process at the Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS). The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) and Environmental Chemical Corporation (ECC) have implemented the MARSSIM process using various surveys producing raw data. The final remedial status of a survey unit is derived through data reduction, while maintaining a high degree of efficiency in the construction aspects of the remedial action. Data reduction of field measurements is accomplished by merging the data outputs of a Digital Global Positioning System, an exposure rate meter, and laboratory analyses to produce maps which present exposure rates, elevations, survey unit boundaries, direct measurement locations, and sampling locations on a single map. The map serves as a data-posting plot and allows the project team to easily judge the survey unit's remedial status. The operational implementation of the MARSSIM process has been successful in determining the eligibility of survey units for final status surveys at the WISS and also in demonstrating final status radiological and chemical conditions while maintaining an efficient remedial action effort.

  14. Characterization of the relationship between microbial degradation processes at a hydrocarbon contaminated site using isotopic methods.

    PubMed

    Feisthauer, Stefan; Seidel, Martin; Bombach, Petra; Traube, Sebastian; Knöller, Kay; Wange, Martin; Fachmann, Stefan; Richnow, Hans H

    2012-05-15

    Decisions to employ monitored natural attenuation (MNA) as a remediation strategy at contaminated field sites require a comprehensive characterization of the site-specific biodegradation processes. In the present study, compound-specific carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis (CSIA) was used to investigate intrinsic biodegradation of benzene and ethylbenzene in an aquifer with high levels of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon contamination. Hydrochemical data and isotope fractionation analysis of sulfate and methane was used complementarily to elucidate microbial degradation processes over the course of a three year period, consisting of six sampling campaigns, in the industrial area of Weißandt-Gölzau (Saxony-Anhalt, Germany). Enrichment of (13)C and (2)H isotopes in the residual benzene and ethylbenzene pool downgradient from the pollution sources provided evidence of biodegradation of BTEX compounds at this site, targeting both compounds as the key contaminants of concern. The enrichment of heavy sulfur isotopes accompanied by decreasing sulfate concentrations and the accumulation of isotopically light methane suggested that sulfate-reducing and methanogenic processes are the major contributors to overall biodegradation in this aquifer. Along the contaminant plume, the oxidation of methane with δ(13)C(CH4) values of up to +17.5‰ was detected. This demonstrates that methane formed in the contaminant source can be transported along groundwater flow paths and be oxidized in areas with higher redox potentials, thereby competing directly with the pollutants for electron acceptors. Hydrochemical and isotope data was summarized in a conceptual model to assess whether MNA can be used as viable remediation strategy in Weißandt-Gölzau. The presented results demonstrate the benefits of combining different isotopic methods and hydrochemical approaches to evaluate the fate of organic pollutants in contaminated aquifers.

  15. OPERATIONS REVIEW OF THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INTEGRATED SALT DISPOSITION PROCESS - 11327

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Poirier, M.; Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.; Brown, S.; Geeting, M.

    2011-02-07

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is removing liquid radioactive waste from its Tank Farm. To treat waste streams that are low in Cs-137, Sr-90, and actinides, SRS developed the Actinide Removal Process and implemented the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU). The Actinide Removal Process contacts salt solution with monosodium titanate to sorb strontium and select actinides. After monosodium titanate contact, the resulting slurry is filtered to remove the monosodium titanate (and sorbed strontium and actinides) and entrained sludge. The filtrate is transferred to the MCU for further treatment to remove cesium. The solid particulates removed by the filter are concentrated to {approx} 5 wt %, washed to reduce the sodium concentration, and transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility for vitrification. The CSSX process extracts the cesium from the radioactive waste using a customized solvent to produce a Decontaminated Salt Solution (DSS), and strips and concentrates the cesium from the solvent with dilute nitric acid. The DSS is incorporated in grout while the strip acid solution is transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility for vitrification. The facilities began radiological processing in April 2008 and started processing of the third campaign ('MarcoBatch 3') of waste in June 2010. Campaigns to date have processed {approx}1.2 million gallons of dissolved saltcake. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel performed tests using actual radioactive samples for each waste batch prior to processing. Testing included monosodium titanate sorption of strontium and actinides followed by CSSX batch contact tests to verify expected cesium mass transfer. This paper describes the tests conducted and compares results from facility operations. The results include strontium, plutonium, and cesium removal, cesium concentration, and organic entrainment and recovery data. Additionally, the poster describes lessons learned during operation

  16. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite processing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota. [UMTRA Project

    SciTech Connect

    Beranich, S.; Berger, N.; Bierley, D.; Bond, T.M.; Burt, C.; Caldwell, J.A.; Dery, V.A.; Dutcher, A.; Glover, W.A.; Heydenburg, R.J.; Larson, N.B.; Lindsey, G.; Longley, J.M.; Millard, J.B.; Miller, M.; Peel, R.C.; Persson-Reeves, C.H.; Titus, F.B.; Wagner, L.

    1989-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), to clean up the Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota, uraniferous lignite processing sites to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at these sites. Remedial action at these sites must be performed in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) standards promulgated for the remedial action and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of North Dakota. The inactive Belfield uraniferous lignite processing site is one mile southeast of Belfield, North Dakota. The inactive Bowman uraniferous lignite processing site at the former town of Griffin, is seven miles northwest of Bowman, North Dakota and 65 road miles south of Belfield. Lignite ash from the processing operations has contaminated the soils over the entire 10.7-acre designated Belfield site and the entire 12.1-acre designated Bowman site. Dispersion of the ash has contaminated an additional 20.6 acres surrounding the Belfield processing site and an additional 59.2 acres surrounding the Bowman processing site. The proposed remedial action is to relocate the contaminated materials at the Belfield processing site to the Bowman processing/disposal site for codisposal with the Bowman contaminated soils. The environmental impacts assessed in this EA were evaluated for the proposed remedial action and the no action alternative and demonstrate that the proposed action would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment and would be performed in compliance with applicable environmental laws. The no action alternative would not be consistent with the intent of Public Law 95-604 and would not comply with the EPA standards. 48 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Theoretical study of catalytic mechanism for single-site water oxidation process

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiangsong; Hu, Xiangqian; Concepcion, Javier J.; Chen, Zuofeng; Liu, Shubin; Meyer, Thomas J.; Yang, Weitao

    2012-01-01

    Water oxidation is a linchpin in solar fuels formation, and catalysis by single-site ruthenium complexes has generated significant interest in this area. Combining several theoretical tools, we have studied the entire catalytic cycle of water oxidation for a single-site catalyst starting with [RuII(tpy)(bpm)(OH2)]2+ (i.e., [RuII-OH2]2+; tpy is 2,2′∶6′,2′′-terpyridine and bpm is 2,2′-bypyrimidine) as a representative example of a new class of single-site catalysts. The redox potentials and pKa calculations for the first two proton-coupled electron transfers (PCETs) from [RuII-OH2]2+ to [RuIV = O]2+ and the following electron-transfer process to [RuV = O]3+ suggest that these processes can proceed readily in acidic or weakly basic conditions. The subsequent water splitting process involves two water molecules, [RuV = O]3+ to generate [RuIII-OOH]2+, and H3O+ with a low activation barrier (∼10 kcal/mol). After the key O---O bond forming step in the single-site Ru catalysis, another PECT process oxidizes [RuIII-OOH]2+ to [RuIV-OO]2+ when the pH is lower than 3.7. Two possible forms of [RuIV-OO]2+, open and closed, can exist and interconvert with a low activation barrier (< 7 kcal/mol) due to strong spin-orbital coupling effects. In Pathway 1 at pH = 1.0, oxygen release is rate-limiting with an activation barrier ∼12 kcal/mol while the electron-transfer step from [RuIV-OO]2+ to [RuV - OO]3+ becomes rate-determining at pH = 0 (Pathway 2) with Ce(IV) as oxidant. The results of these theoretical studies with atomistic details have revealed subtle details of reaction mechanisms at several stages during the catalytic cycle. This understanding is helpful in the design of new catalysts for water oxidation. PMID:22615356

  18. Rrp5 Binding at Multiple Sites Coordinates Pre-rRNA Processing and Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Lebaron, Simon; Segerstolpe, Åsa; French, Sarah L.; Dudnakova, Tatiana; de lima Alves, Flavia; Granneman, Sander; Rappsilber, Juri; Beyer, Ann L.; Wieslander, Lars; Tollervey, David

    2013-01-01

    Summary In vivo UV crosslinking identified numerous preribosomal RNA (pre-rRNA) binding sites for the large, highly conserved ribosome synthesis factor Rrp5. Intramolecular complementation has shown that the C-terminal domain (CTD) of Rrp5 is required for pre-rRNA cleavage at sites A0–A2 on the pathway of 18S rRNA synthesis, whereas the N-terminal domain (NTD) is required for A3 cleavage on the pathway of 5.8S/25S rRNA synthesis. The CTD was crosslinked to sequences flanking A2 and to the snoRNAs U3, U14, snR30, and snR10, which are required for cleavage at A0–A2. The NTD was crosslinked to sequences flanking A3 and to the RNA component of ribonuclease MRP, which cleaves site A3. Rrp5 could also be directly crosslinked to several large structural proteins and nucleoside triphosphatases. A key role in coordinating preribosomal assembly and processing was confirmed by chromatin spreads. Following depletion of Rrp5, cotranscriptional cleavage was lost and preribosome compaction greatly reduced. PMID:24239293

  19. hUTP24 is essential for processing of the human rRNA precursor at site A1, but not at site A0.

    PubMed

    Tomecki, Rafal; Labno, Anna; Drazkowska, Karolina; Cysewski, Dominik; Dziembowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Production of ribosomes relies on more than 200 accessory factors to ensure the proper sequence of steps and faultless assembly of ribonucleoprotein machinery. Among trans-acting factors are numerous enzymes, including ribonucleases responsible for processing the large rRNA precursor synthesized by RNA polymerase I that encompasses sequences corresponding to mature 18S, 5.8S, and 25/28S rRNA. In humans, the identity of most enzymes responsible for individual processing steps, including endoribonucleases that cleave pre-rRNA at specific sites within regions flanking and separating mature rRNA, remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role of hUTP24 in rRNA maturation in human cells. hUTP24 is a human homolog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae putative PIN domain-containing endoribonuclease Utp24 (yUtp24), which was suggested to participate in the U3 snoRNA-dependent processing of yeast pre-rRNA at sites A0, A1, and A2. We demonstrate that hUTP24 interacts to some extent with proteins homologous to the components of the yeast small subunit (SSU) processome. Moreover, mutation in the putative catalytic site of hUTP24 results in slowed growth of cells and reduced metabolic activity. These effects are associated with a defect in biogenesis of the 40S ribosomal subunit, which results from decreased amounts of 18S rRNA as a consequence of inaccurate pre-rRNA processing at the 5'-end of the 18S rRNA segment (site A1). Interestingly, and in contrast to yeast, site A0 located upstream of A1 is efficiently processed upon UTP24 dysfunction. Finally, hUTP24 inactivation leads to aberrant processing of 18S rRNA 2 nucleotides downstream of the normal A1 cleavage site.

  20. Biogeochemical Process Comparison of the Five USGS Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budget (WEBB) Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanley, J. B.; Peters, N. E.; Aulenbach, B. T.; Blum, A. E.; Campbell, D. H.; Clow, D. W.; Larsen, M. C.; Mast, M. A.; Stallard, R. F.; Troester, J. W.; Walker, J. F.; Webb, R. M.; White, A. F.

    2001-12-01

    Input - output budgets (in wet deposition and streamwater) have been constructed for water and major solutes at the five USGS Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budget (WEBB) sites for the period 1992-97 (Peters et al., 2000). In this poster we interpret the net chemical fluxes to identify the controlling biogeochemical processes, as influenced by the strong physical and biological contrasts (climate, geology, physiography, and vegetation types) in the five diverse environments. The five sites are: Allequash Creek, Wisconsin (low-relief humid continental forest); Andrews Creek, Colorado (cold alpine, taiga/tundra, and subalpine boreal forest); Icacos River, Puerto Rico (lower montane, wet tropical forest); Panola Mountain, Georgia (humid subtropical piedmont forest); and Sleepers River, Vermont (humid northern hardwood forest). Base cations and Si produced by chemical weathering displayed a net export at each site. The magnitude and stoichiometry of export reflects mineralogy, climate (temperature and rainfall), and water residence time in the subsurface. The lowest and highest mass export generally was for Andrews Creek and Icacos River, respectively, consistent with their extreme mean annual temperatures (0/degC in Colorado to 21/degC in Puerto Rico) and the limited residence time of meltwater at Andrews Creek. Calcite in bedrock at the three coldest watersheds caused somewhat higher relative export of Ca, especially at Sleepers River where calcite weathering is a dominant control on stream chemistry. In contrast, the high Mg content of the volcaniclastic rocks at Icacos River and glacial deposits at Allequash Creek caused disproportionately high Mg export relative to the other sites. Relatively high Na export at Panola Mountain and K export at Sleepers River are probably caused by plagioclase and biotite weathering, respectively. SO4 is retained at the two warmest sites, Panola Mountain and Icacos River. SO4 adsorption is known to limit SO4- export in highly

  1. Remedial investigation of the High-Explosives (HE) Process Area, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    Crow, N.B.; Lamarre, A.L.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents the results of a Remedial Investigation (RI) to define the extent of high explosives (HE) compounds and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found in the soil, rocks, and ground water of the HE Process Area of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Site 300 Facility. The report evaluates potential public health environmental risks associated with these compounds. Hydrogeologic information available before February 15, 1990, is included; however, chemical analyses and water-level data are reported through March 1990. This report is intended to assist the California Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB)--Central Valley Region and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in evaluating the extent of environmental contamination of the LLNL HE Process Area and ultimately in designing remedial actions. 90 refs., 20 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Critical Protection Item Classification for a waste processing facility at Savannah River Site. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Ades, M.J.; Garrett, R.J.

    1993-12-31

    As a part of its compliance with the Department of Energy requirements for safety of nuclear facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS), Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) assigns functional classifications to structures, systems and components (SSCs). As a result, changes in design, operations, maintenance, testing, and inspections of SSCs are performed and backfit requirements are established. This paper describes the Critical Protection Item (CPI) Classification for waste processing facility (WPF) at SRS. The descriptions of the WPF and the processes considered are provided elsewhere. The proposed CPI classification methodology includes the evaluation of the onsite radiological consequences, and the onsite and offsite non-radiological consequences from postulated accidents at the WPF, and comparison of these consequences with allowable frequency-dependent limits. When allowable limits are exceeded, CPIs are identified for accident mitigation.

  3. Natural attenuation processes in landfill leachate plumes at three Danish sites.

    PubMed

    Bjerg, Poul L; Tuxen, Nina; Reitzel, Lotte Ask; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an overview of comprehensive core and fringe field studies at three Danish landfill sites. The goal of the research activities is to provide a holistic description of core and fringe attenuation processes for xenobiotic organic compounds in landfill leachate plumes. The approach used is cross-disciplinary, encompassing integration of field-scale observations at different scales, field injection experiments, laboratory experiments, and reactive solute transport modeling. This is illustrated in examples from the most recently investigated site-the Sjoelund Landfill. The research performed serves as good case studies to conceptualize natural attenuation processes in landfill leachate plumes and also supports the notion that monitored natural attenuation (MNA) may be a possible remediation strategy at landfills. However, landfill leachate plumes challenge traditional approaches and tools used in the application of MNA. In particular, the use of in situ indicators to document mass removal in landfill leachate plumes is emphasized. In this article, we advocate the application of conceptual and numerical models as tools for the integration of data and testing of hypotheses.

  4. Estimated costs of implementation of membrane processes for on-site greywater recycling.

    PubMed

    Humeau, P; Hourlier, F; Bulteau, G; Massé, A; Jaouen, P; Gérente, C; Faur, C; Le Cloirec, P

    2011-01-01

    Greywater reuse inside buildings is a possible way to preserve water resources and face up to water scarcity. This study is focused on a technical-economic analysis of greywater treatment by a direct nanofiltration (NF) process or by a submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) for on-site recycling. The aim of this paper is to analyse the cost of recycled water for two different configurations (50 and 500 inhabitants) in order to demonstrate the relevance of the implementation of membrane processes for greywater recycling, depending on the production capacity of the equipment and the price of drinking water. The first step was to define a method to access the description of the cost of producing recycled water. The direct costs were defined as a sum of fixed costs due to equipment, maintenance and depreciation, and variable costs generated by chemical products and electricity consumptions. They were estimated from an experimental approach and from data found in literature, enabling operating conditions for greywater recycling to be determined. The cost of treated water by a SMBR unit with a processing capacity of 500 persons is close to 4.40 euros m(-3), while the cost is 4.81 euros m(-3) with a NF process running in the same conditions. These costs are similar to the price of drinking water in some European countries. PMID:22049724

  5. Estimated costs of implementation of membrane processes for on-site greywater recycling.

    PubMed

    Humeau, P; Hourlier, F; Bulteau, G; Massé, A; Jaouen, P; Gérente, C; Faur, C; Le Cloirec, P

    2011-01-01

    Greywater reuse inside buildings is a possible way to preserve water resources and face up to water scarcity. This study is focused on a technical-economic analysis of greywater treatment by a direct nanofiltration (NF) process or by a submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) for on-site recycling. The aim of this paper is to analyse the cost of recycled water for two different configurations (50 and 500 inhabitants) in order to demonstrate the relevance of the implementation of membrane processes for greywater recycling, depending on the production capacity of the equipment and the price of drinking water. The first step was to define a method to access the description of the cost of producing recycled water. The direct costs were defined as a sum of fixed costs due to equipment, maintenance and depreciation, and variable costs generated by chemical products and electricity consumptions. They were estimated from an experimental approach and from data found in literature, enabling operating conditions for greywater recycling to be determined. The cost of treated water by a SMBR unit with a processing capacity of 500 persons is close to 4.40 euros m(-3), while the cost is 4.81 euros m(-3) with a NF process running in the same conditions. These costs are similar to the price of drinking water in some European countries.

  6. Use of a marker organism in poultry processing to identify sites of cross-contamination and evaluate possible control measures.

    PubMed

    Mead, G C; Hudson, W R; Hinton, M H

    1994-07-01

    1. Nine different sites at a poultry processing plant were selected in the course of a hazard analysis to investigate the degree of microbial cross-contamination that could occur during processing and the effectiveness of possible control measures. 2. At each site, carcases, equipment or working surfaces were inoculated with a non-pathogenic strain of nalidixic acid-resistant Escherichia coli K12; transmission of the organism among carcases being processed was followed qualitatively and, where appropriate, quantitatively. 3. The degree of cross-contamination and the extent to which it could be controlled by the proposed measures varied from one site to another. PMID:7953779

  7. Proteasome-mediated effects on amyloid precursor protein processing at the γ-secretase site

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Aβ (β-amyloid) peptides are found aggregated in the cortical amyloid plaques associated with Alzheimer's disease neuropathology. Inhibition of the proteasome alters the amount of Aβ produced from APP (amyloid precursor protein) by various cell lines in vitro. Proteasome activity is altered during aging, a major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, a human neuroblastoma cell line expressing the C-terminal 100 residues of APP (SH-SY5Y-SPA4CT) was used to determine the effect of proteasome inhibition, by lactacystin and Bz-LLL-COCHO (benzoyl-Leu-Leu-Leu-glyoxal), on APP processing at the γ-secretase site. Proteasome inhibition caused a significant increase in Aβ peptide levels in medium conditioned by SH-SY5Y-SPA4CT cells, and was also associated with increased cell death. APP is a substrate of the apoptosis-associated caspase 3 protease, and we therefore investigated whether the increased Aβ levels could reflect caspase activation. We report that caspase activation was not required for proteasome-inhibitor-mediated effects on APP (SPA4CT) processing. Cleavage of Ac-DEVD-AMC (N-acetyl-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin), a caspase substrate, was reduced following exposure of SH-SY5Y-SPA4CT cells to lactacystin, and co-treatment of cells with lactacystin and a caspase inhibitor [Z-DEVD-FMK (benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-DL-Asp-fluoromethylketone)] resulted in higher Aβ levels in medium, augmenting those seen with lactacystin alone. This study indicated that proteasome inhibition could increase APP processing specifically at the γ-secretase site, and increase release of Aβ, in the absence of caspase activation. This indicates that the decline in proteasome function associated with aging would contribute to increased Aβ levels. PMID:15473868

  8. 10 CFR Appendix III to Part 960 - Application of the System and Technical Guidelines During the Siting Process

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application of the System and Technical Guidelines During the Siting Process III Appendix III to Part 960 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Pt. 960, App. III Appendix III to...

  9. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of...

  10. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of...

  11. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of...

  12. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of...

  13. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of...

  14. Critical Protection Item classification for a waste processing facility at Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Ades, M.J.; Garrett, R.J.

    1993-10-01

    This paper describes the methodology for Critical Protection Item (CPI) classification and its application to the Structures, Systems and Components (SSC) of a waste processing facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The WSRC methodology for CPI classification includes the evaluation of the radiological and non-radiological consequences resulting from postulated accidents at the waste processing facility and comparison of these consequences with allowable limits. The types of accidents considered include explosions and fire in the facility and postulated accidents due to natural phenomena, including earthquakes, tornadoes, and high velocity straight winds. The radiological analysis results indicate that CPIs are not required at the waste processing facility to mitigate the consequences of radiological release. The non-radiological analysis, however, shows that the Waste Storage Tank (WST) and the dike spill containment structures around the formic acid tanks in the cold chemical feed area and waste treatment area of the facility should be identified as CPIs. Accident mitigation options are provided and discussed.

  15. Slopes from Photoclinometry for the Mars InSight Landing Site Selection Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    Evaluating meter-scale slopes on the Martian surface continues to be an important activity for ascertaining the safety of potential landing sites and for characterizing terrains and their formation and modification processes. The Mars InSight lander is targeting a landing site in Elysium Planitia and the application of the point photoclinometry algorithm that correctly estimated the slope parameters for MER (Beyer et al., 2003) and for MSL (Beyer and Kirk, 2012) is also being applied to HiRISE imagery within the potential landing ellipses being considered. This allows rapid evaluation of slope parameters and also provides a consistency check with terrain models derived from stereo data. The largest source of error in the photoclinometry estimates of slope is the value of the atmospheric haze to subtract for each image. When a stereo-derived terrain model (either from HiRISE or CTX) is present, the slope statistics from that terrain model are used to help 'tune' the photoclinometry-derived slopes for images that overlap that terrain model. In this way better slope data can be extrapolated into nearby regions than the photoclinometry technique alone would be able to accomplish.

  16. Sequence variation between 462 human individuals fine-tunes functional sites of RNA processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-09-01

    Recent advances in the cost-efficiency of sequencing technologies enabled the combined DNA- and RNA-sequencing of human individuals at the population-scale, making genome-wide investigations of the inter-individual genetic impact on gene expression viable. Employing mRNA-sequencing data from the Geuvadis Project and genome sequencing data from the 1000 Genomes Project we show that the computational analysis of DNA sequences around splice sites and poly-A signals is able to explain several observations in the phenotype data. In contrast to widespread assessments of statistically significant associations between DNA polymorphisms and quantitative traits, we developed a computational tool to pinpoint the molecular mechanisms by which genetic markers drive variation in RNA-processing, cataloguing and classifying alleles that change the affinity of core RNA elements to their recognizing factors. The in silico models we employ further suggest RNA editing can moonlight as a splicing-modulator, albeit less frequently than genomic sequence diversity. Beyond existing annotations, we demonstrate that the ultra-high resolution of RNA-Seq combined from 462 individuals also provides evidence for thousands of bona fide novel elements of RNA processing—alternative splice sites, introns, and cleavage sites—which are often rare and lowly expressed but in other characteristics similar to their annotated counterparts.

  17. Sequence variation between 462 human individuals fine-tunes functional sites of RNA processing

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Pedro G.; Oti, Martin; Barann, Matthias; Wieland, Thomas; Ezquina, Suzana; Friedländer, Marc R.; Rivas, Manuel A.; Esteve-Codina, Anna; Estivill, Xavier; Guigó, Roderic; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil; Antonarakis, Stylianos; Meitinger, Thomas; Strom, Tim M; Palotie, Aarno; François Deleuze, Jean; Sudbrak, Ralf; Lerach, Hans; Gut, Ivo; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Gyllensten, Ulf; Schreiber, Stefan; Rosenstiel, Philip; Brunner, Han; Veltman, Joris; Hoen, Peter A.C.T; Jan van Ommen, Gert; Carracedo, Angel; Brazma, Alvis; Flicek, Paul; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne; Mangion, Jonathan; Bentley, David; Hamosh, Ada; Rosenstiel, Philip; Strom, Tim M; Lappalainen, Tuuli; Guigó, Roderic; Sammeth, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in the cost-efficiency of sequencing technologies enabled the combined DNA- and RNA-sequencing of human individuals at the population-scale, making genome-wide investigations of the inter-individual genetic impact on gene expression viable. Employing mRNA-sequencing data from the Geuvadis Project and genome sequencing data from the 1000 Genomes Project we show that the computational analysis of DNA sequences around splice sites and poly-A signals is able to explain several observations in the phenotype data. In contrast to widespread assessments of statistically significant associations between DNA polymorphisms and quantitative traits, we developed a computational tool to pinpoint the molecular mechanisms by which genetic markers drive variation in RNA-processing, cataloguing and classifying alleles that change the affinity of core RNA elements to their recognizing factors. The in silico models we employ further suggest RNA editing can moonlight as a splicing-modulator, albeit less frequently than genomic sequence diversity. Beyond existing annotations, we demonstrate that the ultra-high resolution of RNA-Seq combined from 462 individuals also provides evidence for thousands of bona fide novel elements of RNA processing—alternative splice sites, introns, and cleavage sites—which are often rare and lowly expressed but in other characteristics similar to their annotated counterparts. PMID:27617755

  18. Tracing long-term vadose zone processes at the Nevada Test Site, USA

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, James R.; Tompson, Andrew F. B.

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear weapons testing programme of the USA has released radionuclides to the subsurface at the Nevada Test Site. One of these tests has been used to study the hydrological transport of radionuclides for over 25 years in groundwater and the deep unsaturated zone. Ten years after the weapon’s test, a 16 year groundwater pumping experiment was initiated to study the mobility of radionuclides from that test in an alluvial aquifer. The continuously pumped groundwater was released into an unlined ditch where some of the water infiltrated into the 200 m deep vadose zone. The pumped groundwater had well-characterized tritium activities that were utilized to trace water migration in the shallow and deep vadose zones. Within the near-surface vadose zone, tritium levels in the soil water are modelled by a simple one-dimensional, analytical wetting front model. In the case of the near-surface soils at the Cambric Ditch experimental site, water flow and salt accumulation appear to be dominated by rooted vegetation, a mechanism not included within the wetting front model. Simulation results from a two-dimensional vadose groundwater flow model illustrate the dominance of vertical flow in the vadose zone and the recharge of the aquifer with the pumped groundwater. The long-time series of hydrological data provides opportunities to understand contaminant transport processes better in the vadose zone with an appropriate level of modelling. PMID:21785525

  19. CHEMICAL STABILIZATION OF MIXED ORGANIC AND METAL COMPOUNDS - EPA SITE PROGRAM DEMONSTRATION OF THE SILICATE TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In November 1990, the Silicate Technology Corporation`s (STC) proprietary process for treating soil contaminated with toxic semivolatile organic and inorganic contaminants was evaluated in a Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) field demonstration at the Selma Pressu...

  20. Tritium processing at the Savannah River Site (SRS): Present and future

    SciTech Connect

    Ortman, M.S.; Heung, L.K.; Nobile, A.; Rabun, R.L. III.

    1989-01-01

    Tritium handling equipment and methods at the Savannah River Site Tritium Facilities have been continually improved since tritium processing operations began in 1955. Several new technologies were introduced into the Tritium Facilities in the 1980's. One of these is the use of fluidless, mechanical pumps (Normetex and Metal Bellows) to replace mercury pumps. A second is the use of metal hydride technology to store, purify, isotopically separate, pump, and compress hydrogen isotopes. Metal hydrides, such as La-Ni-Al alloys and Pd loaded on kieselguhr, offer significant flexibility and size advantages compared with conventional tritium handling technology, such as gas tanks, thermal diffusion columns, and mechanical compressors. Metal hydrides have been used in the Tritium Facilities since 1984 with the most important application of this technology being planned for the Replacement Tritium Facility, a $140 million facility scheduled for completion in 1990 and startup in 1991. 11 refs., 9 figs.

  1. Processing of peptide and hormone precursors at the dibasic cleavage sites.

    PubMed

    Rholam, Mohamed; Fahy, Christine

    2009-07-01

    Many functionally important cellular peptides and proteins, including hormones, neuropeptides, and growth factors, are synthesized as inactive precursor polypeptides, which require post-translational proteolytic processing to become biologically active polypeptides. This is achieved by the action of a relatively small number of proteases that belong to a family of seven subtilisin-like proprotein convertases (PCs) including furin. In view of this, this review focuses on the importance of privileged secondary structures and of given amino acid residues around basic cleavage sites in substrate recognition by these endoproteases. In addition to their participation in normal cell functions, PCs are crucial for the initiation and progress of many important diseases. Hence, these proteases constitute potential drug targets in medicine. Accordingly, this review also discusses the approaches used to shed light on the cleavage preference and the substrate specificity of the PCs, a prerequisite to select which PCs are promising drug targets in each disease. PMID:19300906

  2. Geochemical and radiological characterization of soils from former radium processing sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.

    1984-01-01

    Soil samples were collected from former radium processing sites in Denver, CO, and East Orange, NJ. Particle-size separations and radiochemical analyses of selected samples showed that while the greatest contents of both 226Ra and U were generally found in the finest (< 45 ??m) fraction, the pattern was not always of progressive increase in radionuclide content with decreasing particle size. Leaching tests on these samples showed a large portion of the 225Ra and U to be soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid. Radon-emanation coefficients measured for bulk samples of contaminated soil were about 20%. Recovery of residual uranium and vanadium, as an adjunct to any remedial action program, appears unlikely due to economic considerations.

  3. Processing of peptide and hormone precursors at the dibasic cleavage sites.

    PubMed

    Rholam, Mohamed; Fahy, Christine

    2009-07-01

    Many functionally important cellular peptides and proteins, including hormones, neuropeptides, and growth factors, are synthesized as inactive precursor polypeptides, which require post-translational proteolytic processing to become biologically active polypeptides. This is achieved by the action of a relatively small number of proteases that belong to a family of seven subtilisin-like proprotein convertases (PCs) including furin. In view of this, this review focuses on the importance of privileged secondary structures and of given amino acid residues around basic cleavage sites in substrate recognition by these endoproteases. In addition to their participation in normal cell functions, PCs are crucial for the initiation and progress of many important diseases. Hence, these proteases constitute potential drug targets in medicine. Accordingly, this review also discusses the approaches used to shed light on the cleavage preference and the substrate specificity of the PCs, a prerequisite to select which PCs are promising drug targets in each disease.

  4. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-C-9:1 Main Process Sewer Collection Line, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-012

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-06-11

    The 100-C-9:1 main process sewer pipeline, also known as the twin box culvert, was a dual reinforced process sewer that collected process effluent from the 183-C and 190-C water treatment facilities, discharging at the 132-C-2 Outfall. For remedial action purposes, the 100-C-9:1 waste site was subdivided into northern and southern sections. The 100-C-9:1 subsite has been remediated to achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  5. Physical oceanographic processes at candidate dredged-material disposal sites B1B and 1M offshore San Francisco

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwood, C.R.; Denbo, D.W.; Downing, J.P. ); Coats, D.A. )

    1990-10-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, has identified two candidate sites for ocean disposal of material from several dredging projects in San Francisco Bay. The disposal site is to be designated under Section 103 of the Ocean Dumping Act. One of the specific criteria in the Ocean Dumping Act is that the physical environments of the candidate sites be considered. Toward this goal, the USACE requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conduct a study of physical oceanographic and sediment transport processes at the candidate sites, B1B and 1M. The results of that study are presented in this report. 40 refs., 27 figs., 10 tabs.

  6. Independent assessment to continue improvement: Implementing statistical process control at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, T.A.; Lo, J.C.

    1994-11-01

    A Quality Assurance independent assessment has brought about continued improvement in the PUREX Plant surveillance program at the Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. After the independent assessment, Quality Assurance personnel were closely involved in improving the surveillance program, specifically regarding storage tank monitoring. The independent assessment activities included reviewing procedures, analyzing surveillance data, conducting personnel interviews, and communicating with management. Process improvement efforts included: (1) designing data collection methods; (2) gaining concurrence between engineering and management, (3) revising procedures; and (4) interfacing with shift surveillance crews. Through this process, Statistical Process Control (SPC) was successfully implemented and surveillance management was improved. The independent assessment identified several deficiencies within the surveillance system. These deficiencies can be grouped into two areas: (1) data recording and analysis and (2) handling off-normal conditions. By using several independent assessment techniques, Quality Assurance was able to point out program weakness to senior management and present suggestions for improvements. SPC charting, as implemented by Quality Assurance, is an excellent tool for diagnosing the process, improving communication between the team members, and providing a scientific database for management decisions. In addition, the surveillance procedure was substantially revised. The goals of this revision were to (1) strengthen the role of surveillance management, engineering and operators and (2) emphasize the importance of teamwork for each individual who performs a task. In this instance we believe that the value independent assessment adds to the system is the continuous improvement activities that follow the independent assessment. Excellence in teamwork between the independent assessment organization and the auditee is the key to continuing improvement.

  7. Landfill site selection using geographic information system and analytical hierarchy process: A case study Al-Hillah Qadhaa, Babylon, Iraq.

    PubMed

    Chabuk, Ali; Al-Ansari, Nadhir; Hussain, Hussain Musa; Knutsson, Sven; Pusch, Roland

    2016-05-01

    Al-Hillah Qadhaa is located in the central part of Iraq. It covers an area of 908 km(2) with a total population of 856,804 inhabitants. This Qadhaa is the capital of Babylon Governorate. Presently, no landfill site exists in that area based on scientific site selection criteria. For this reason, an attempt has been carried out to find the best locations for landfills. A total of 15 variables were considered in this process (groundwater depth, rivers, soil types, agricultural land use, land use, elevation, slope, gas pipelines, oil pipelines, power lines, roads, railways, urban centres, villages and archaeological sites) using a geographic information system. In addition, an analytical hierarchy process was used to identify the weight for each variable. Two suitable candidate landfill sites were determined that fulfil the requirements with an area of 9.153 km(2) and 8.204 km(2) These sites can accommodate solid waste till 2030.

  8. LLRW disposal site selection process. Southeast Compact -- State of North Carolina: A combined technical and public information approach

    SciTech Connect

    Snider, F.G.; Amick, D.C.; Khoury, S.G.; Stowe, C.H.; Guichard, P.

    1989-11-01

    The State of North Carolina has been designated to host the second commercial low level radioactive waste disposal facility for the Southeast Compact. The North Carolina facility is to be operational on January 1, 1993, concurrent with the closing of the present facility in Barnwell, South Carolina. The NC Low Level Radioactive Waste Management Authority and its contractor, Ebasco Services Incorporated, initiated the site selection process in July of 1988. The present schedule calls for the identification of two or more sites for detailed characterization in the latter half of 1989. The site selection process is following two concurrent and parallel paths. The first is the technical site screening process, which is focusing the search for a suitable site by the systematic application of state and federal laws and regulations regarding exclusion and suitability factors. In a parallel effort, the NCLL Radioactive Waste Management Authority has embarked on an extensive public information program. In addition to newsletters, fact sheets, brochures, video tapes, and news releases, a total of six regional meetings and 26 public forums have been held across the state. A total of 4,764 people attended the forums, 1,241 questions were asked, and 243 public statements were made. The combination of a systematic, defensible technical siting process and the concurrent release of information and numerous statewide public meetings and forums is proving to be an effective strategy for the eventual identification of sites that are both technically suitable and publicly acceptable.

  9. Report of ground water monitoring for expansion of the golf course, Salt Lake City, Utah, vitro processing site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    To determine the potential impacts of the proposed golf course expansion on the south side of the Vitro site, ground water data from the UMTRA Vitro processing site were evaluated in response to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office request. Golf in the Round, Inc., has proposed an expansion of the present driving range to include a 9-hole golf course on the UMTRA Vitro processing site, which is owned by the Central Valley Water Reclamation Facility (CVWRF). An expanded golf course would increase irrigation and increase the amount of water that could infiltrate the soil, recharging the unconfined aquifer. Increased water levels in the aquifer could alter the ground water flow regime; contaminants in the shallow ground water could then migrate off the site or discharge to surface water in the area. Dewatering of the unconfined aquifer on CVWRF property could also impact site contaminant migration; a significant amount of ground water extraction at CVWRF could reduce the amount of contaminant migration off the site. Since 1978, data have been collected at the site to determine the distribution of tailings materials (removed from the site from 1985 to 1987) and to characterize the presence and migration of contaminants in sediments, soils, surface water, and ground water at the former Vitro processing site. Available data suggest that irrigating an expanded golf course may cause contamination to spread more rapidly within the unconfined aquifer. The public is not at risk from current Vitro processing site activities, nor is risk expected due to golf course expansion. However, ecological risk could increase with increased surface water contamination and the development of ground water seeps.

  10. Chemistry of proposed calcination/dissolution processing of Hanford Site tank wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    Plans exist to separate radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site in south central Washington State into low-level and high-level fractions, and to immobilize the separate fractions in high-integrity vitrified forms for long-term disposal. Calcination with water dissolution has been proposed as a possible treatment for achieving low/high-level separation. Chemistry development activities conducted since 1992 with simulated and genuine tank waste show that calcination/dissolution destroys organic carbon and converts nitrate and nitrite to hydroxide and benign offgases. The process also dissolves significant quantities of bulk chemicals (aluminum, chromium, and phosphate), allowing their redistribution from the high-level to the low-level fraction. Present studies of the chemistry of calcination/dissolution processing of genuine wastes, conducted in the period October 1993 to September 1994, show the importance of sodium fluoride phosphate double salt in controlling phosphate dissolution. Peptization of waste solids is of concern if extensive washing occurs. Strongly oxidizing conditions imposed by calcination reactions were found to convert transition metals to soluble anions in the order chromate > manganate > > ferrate. In analogy with manganese behavior, plutonium dissolution, presumably by oxidation to more soluble anionic species, also occurs by calcination/dissolution. Methods to remove plutonium from the product low-level solution stream must be developed.

  11. Chemical and mineralogical characterization of chromite ore processing residue from two recent Indian disposal sites.

    PubMed

    Matern, Katrin; Kletti, Holger; Mansfeldt, Tim

    2016-07-01

    Chromite ore processing residue (COPR) is a hazardous waste. Nevertheless, deposition of COPR in uncontrolled surface landfills is still common practice in some countries. Whereas old (between at least 40 and 180 years) COPR from the temperate zone has been intensively investigated, information on COPR in other regions is restricted. Relatively young (<25 years) COPR samples obtained from two abandoned landfill sites in India were investigated by a modified total microwave digestion method, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in order to determine their chemical and mineralogical nature. By the use of microwave digestion with acid mixtures of HNO3, H3PO4, and HBF4 (5:3:2 vol), COPR was completely dissolved and element contents similar to those obtained by X-ray fluorescence were found. Total Cr contents of the two COPR accounted for 81 and 74 g kg(-1), of which 20 and 13% were present in the carcinogenic hexavalent form (CrVI). Apart from the common major mineral phases present in COPR reported earlier, a further Cr host mineral, grimaldiite [CrO(OH)], could be identified by XRPD and SEM. Additionally, well soluble Na2CrO4 was present. Improving the effectiveness of chromite ore processing and preventing the migration of Cr(VI) into water bodies are the main challenges when dealing with these COPR. PMID:27111471

  12. Surface and subsurface cleanup protocol for radionuclides, Gunnison, Colorado, UMTRA project processing site. Final [report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Surface and subsurface soil cleanup protocols for the Gunnison, Colorado, processing sits are summarized as follows: In accordance with EPA-promulgated land cleanup standards (40 CFR 192), in situ Ra-226 is to be cleaned up based on bulk concentrations not exceeding 5 and 15 pCi/g in 15-cm surface and subsurface depth increments, averaged over 100-m{sup 2} grid blocks, where the parent Ra-226 concentrations are greater than, or in secular equilibrium with, the Th-230 parent. A bulk interpretation of these EPA standards has been accepted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and while the concentration of the finer-sized soil fraction less than a No. 4 mesh sieve contains the higher concentration of radioactivity, the bulk approach in effect integrates the total sample radioactivity over the entire sample mass. In locations where Th-230 has differentially migrated in subsoil relative to Ra-226, a Th-230 cleanup protocol has been developed in accordance with Supplemental Standard provisions of 40 CFR 192 for NRC/Colorado Department of Health (CDH) approval for timely implementation. Detailed elements of the protocol are contained in Appendix A, Generic Protocol from Thorium-230 Cleanup/Verification at UMTRA Project Processing Sites. The cleanup of other radionuclides or nonradiological hazards that pose a significant threat to the public and the environment will be determined and implemented in accordance with pathway analysis to assess impacts and the implications of ALARA specified in 40 CFR 192 relative to supplemental standards.

  13. Preliminary Safety Analysis of the Gorleben Site: Safety Concept and Application to Scenario Development Based on a Site-Specific Features, Events and Processes (FEP) Database - 13304

    SciTech Connect

    Moenig, Joerg; Beuth, Thomas; Wolf, Jens; Lommerzheim, Andre; Mrugalla, Sabine

    2013-07-01

    Based upon the German safety criteria, released in 2010 by the Federal Ministry of the Environment (BMU), a safety concept and a safety assessment concept for the disposal of heat-generating high-level waste have both been developed in the framework of the preliminary safety case for the Gorleben site (Project VSG). The main objective of the disposal is to contain the radioactive waste inside a defined rock zone, which is called containment-providing rock zone. The radionuclides shall remain essentially at the emplacement site, and at the most, a small defined quantity of material shall be able to leave this rock zone. This shall be accomplished by the geological barrier and a technical barrier system, which is required to seal the inevitable penetration of the geological barrier by the construction of the mine. The safe containment has to be demonstrated for probable and less probable evolutions of the site, while evolutions with very low probability (less than 1 % over the demonstration period of 1 million years) need not to be considered. Owing to the uncertainty in predicting the real evolution of the site, plausible scenarios have been derived in a systematic manner. Therefore, a comprehensive site-specific features, events and processes (FEP) data base for the Gorleben site has been developed. The safety concept was directly taken into account, e.g. by identification of FEP with direct influence on the barriers that provide the containment. No effort was spared to identify the interactions of the FEP, their probabilities of occurrence, and their characteristics (values). The information stored in the data base provided the basis for the development of scenarios. The scenario development methodology is based on FEP related to an impairment of the functionality of a subset of barriers, called initial barriers. By taking these FEP into account in their probable characteristics the reference scenario is derived. Thus, the reference scenario describes a

  14. US Department of Energy wind turbine candidate site program: the regulatory process

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, M.R.; York, K.R.

    1982-06-01

    Sites selected in 1979 as tentative sites for installation of a demonstration MOD-2 turbine are emphasized. Selection as a candidate site in this program meant that the US Department of Energy (DOE) designated the site as eligible for a DOE-purchased and installed meteorological tower. The regulatory procedures involved in the siting and installation of these meteorological towers at the majority of the candidate sites are examined. An attempt is also made, in a preliminary fashion, to identify the legal and regulatory procedures that would be required to put up a turbine at each of these candidate sites. The information provided on each of these sites comes primarily from utility representatives, supplemented by conversations with state and local officials. The major findings are summarized on the following: federal requirements, state requirements, local requirements, land ownership, wind rights, and public attitudes.

  15. ASSESSMENT OF SUBSURFACE FATE OF MONOETHANOLAMINE AT SOUR GAS PROCESSING PLANT SITES-PHASE III

    SciTech Connect

    James A. Sorensen

    1999-02-01

    Alkanolamines are commonly used by the natural gas industry to remove hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and other acid gases from the natural gas in which they occur (''sour'' gas if hydrogen sulfide is present). At sour gas-processing plants, as at all plants that use alkanolamines for acid gas removal (AGR), spills and on-site management of wastes containing alkanolamines and associated reaction products have occasionally resulted in subsurface contamination that is presently the focus of some environmental concern. In 1994, the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) initiated a three-phase program to investigate the natural attenuation processes that control the subsurface transport and fate of the most commonly used alkanolamine in Canada, monoethanolamine (MEA). Funding for the MEA research program was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP), Canadian Occidental Petroleum Ltd. (CanOxy), Gas Research Institute (GRI), Environment Canada, and the National Energy Board of Canada. The MEA research program focused primarily on examining the biodegradability of MEA and MEA-related waste materials in soils and soil-slurries under a variety of environmentally relevant conditions, evaluating the mobility of MEA in soil and groundwater and the effectiveness of bioremediation techniques for removing contaminants and toxicity from MEA-contaminated soil. The presently inactive Okotoks sour gas-processing plant, owned by CanOxy in Alberta, Canada, was the source of samples and field data for much of the laboratory-based experimental work and was selected to be the location for the field-based efforts to evaluate remediation techniques. The objective of the research program is to provide the natural gas industry with ''real world'' data and insights developed under laboratory and field conditions regarding the effective and environmentally sound use of biological methods for the remediation of soil

  16. Deciphering site formation processes through soil micromorphology at Contrebandiers Cave, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Aldeias, Vera; Goldberg, Paul; Dibble, Harold L; El-Hajraoui, Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    Contrebandiers Cave preserves a Late Pleistocene sequence containing Middle Stone Age (MSA) so-called Maghrebian Mousterian and Aterian occupations, spanning from ∼126 to 95 ka (thousands of years ago), followed by spatially restricted Iberomaurusian industries. Micromorphological analyses, complemented by instrumental mineralogical identification and fabric orientation, allowed for the reconstruction of the main site formation processes at the site. Initial deposition is characterized by local reworking of marine shelly sands dating to Marine Isotopic Stage 5e (MIS5e). The subsequent stratification reveals sedimentary dynamics predominantly associated with gravity-driven inputs and contributions from weathering of the encasing bedrock, at the same time that anthropogenic sediments were being accumulated. The allochthonous components reflect soil degradation and vegetation changes around the cave during the last interglacial. Human occupations seems to be somewhat ephemeral in nature, with some stratigraphic units apparently lacking archaeological components, while in others the human-associated deposits (e.g., burned bones, charcoal, and ashes) can be substantial. Ephemeral breaks in sedimentation and/or erosion followed by stabilization are mainly discernible microscopically by the presence of phosphatic-rich laminae interpreted as short-lived surfaces, peaks of increased humidity and colonization by plants. More substantial erosion affects the uppermost Aterian layers, presumably due to localized reconfigurations of the cave's roof. The subsequent Iberomaurusian deposits are not in their primary position and are associated with well-sorted silts of aeolian origin. While the effects of chemical diagenesis are limited throughout the whole stratigraphic sequence, physical bioturbation (e.g., by wasps, rodents, and earthworms) is more pervasive and leads to localized movement of the original sedimentary particles. PMID:24650737

  17. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium processing site at Naturita, Colorado. Remedial action selection report, Attachment 2, Geology report: Preliminary final

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado, is one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be cleaned up by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), Public Law 95-604. Part of the UMTRCA requires that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE`s remedial action plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Included in the RAP is this Remedial Action Selection Report (RAS), which serves two purposes. First, it describes the activities that are proposed by the DOE to accomplish remediation and long-term stabilization and control of the radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Second, this document and the rest of the RAP, upon concurrence and execution by the DOE, the state of Colorado, and the NRC, become Appendix B of the cooperative agreement between the DOE and the State of Colorado.

  18. Hydrological Perturbations Drive Biogeochemical Processes in Experimental Soil Columns from the Norman Landfill Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, B.; Mohanty, B. P.; McGuire, J. T.

    2010-12-01

    Fate and transport of contaminants in saturated and unsaturated zones is governed by biogeochemical processes that are complex and non-linearly coupled to each other. A fundamental understanding of the interactions between transport and reaction processes is essential to better characterize contaminant movement in the subsurface. The objectives of this study are to: i) develop quantitative relationships between hydrological (initial and boundary conditions, hydraulic conductivity ratio, and soil layering), geochemical (mineralogy, surface area, redox potential, and organic matter) and microbiological factors (MPN) that alter the biogeochemical processes, and ii) characterize the effect of hydrologic perturbations on coupled processes occurring at the column scale. The perturbations correspond to rainfall intensity, duration of wet and dry conditions, and water chemistry (pH). Soils collected from two locations with significantly different geochemistry at the Norman landfill site are used in this study. Controlled flow experiments were conducted on: i) two homogeneous soil columns, ii) a layered soil column, iii) a soil column with embedded clay lenses, and iv) a soil column with embedded clay lenses and one central macropore. Experimental observations showed enhanced biogeochemical activity at the interface of the layered and lensed columns over the texturally homogeneous soil columns. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that the most important processes were microbial reduction of Fe(III) and SO42-, and oxidation of reduced products in the columns. Modeling results from HP1 indicate least redox activity in the homogeneous sand column while the structurally heterogeneous columns utilize oxygen and nitrate from recharge as well as iron sulfide minerals already present in the columns as electron acceptors. Furthermore, the interface of the layered and lensed soil columns acts as a hotspot of biogeochemical activity due to increased transport timescale as a

  19. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-26:12, 1.8-m (72-in.) Main Process Sewer Pipeline, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-034

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Capron

    2008-04-29

    The 100-F-26:12 waste site was an approximately 308-m-long, 1.8-m-diameter east-west-trending reinforced concrete pipe that joined the North Process Sewer Pipelines (100-F-26:1) and the South Process Pipelines (100-F-26:4) with the 1.8-m reactor cooling water effluent pipeline (100-F-19). In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  20. 15 CFR 713.2 - Annual declaration requirements for plant sites that produce, process or consume Schedule 2...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... same plant through chemical reaction, including any associated processes (e.g., purification... plant sites that produce, process or consume Schedule 2 chemicals in excess of specified thresholds. 713... (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION...

  1. 15 CFR 713.2 - Annual declaration requirements for plant sites that produce, process or consume Schedule 2...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... same plant through chemical reaction, including any associated processes (e.g., purification... plant sites that produce, process or consume Schedule 2 chemicals in excess of specified thresholds. 713... (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION...

  2. 15 CFR 713.2 - Annual declaration requirements for plant sites that produce, process or consume Schedule 2...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... same plant through chemical reaction, including any associated processes (e.g., purification... plant sites that produce, process or consume Schedule 2 chemicals in excess of specified thresholds. 713... (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION...

  3. 15 CFR 713.2 - Annual declaration requirements for plant sites that produce, process or consume Schedule 2...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... same plant through chemical reaction, including any associated processes (e.g., purification... plant sites that produce, process or consume Schedule 2 chemicals in excess of specified thresholds. 713... (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION...

  4. 15 CFR 713.2 - Annual declaration requirements for plant sites that produce, process or consume Schedule 2...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... same plant through chemical reaction, including any associated processes (e.g., purification... plant sites that produce, process or consume Schedule 2 chemicals in excess of specified thresholds. 713... (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION...

  5. Stress-induced nuclear bodies are sites of accumulation of pre-mRNA processing factors.

    PubMed

    Denegri, M; Chiodi, I; Corioni, M; Cobianchi, F; Riva, S; Biamonti, G

    2001-11-01

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) HAP (hnRNP A1 interacting protein) is a multifunctional protein with roles in RNA metabolism, transcription, and nuclear structure. After stress treatments, HAP is recruited to a small number of nuclear bodies, usually adjacent to the nucleoli, which consist of clusters of perichromatin granules and are depots of transcripts synthesized before stress. In this article we show that HAP bodies are sites of accumulation for a subset of RNA processing factors and are related to Sam68 nuclear bodies (SNBs) detectable in unstressed cells. Indeed, HAP and Sam68 are both present in SNBs and in HAP bodies, that we rename "stress-induced SNBs." The determinants required for the redistribution of HAP lie between residue 580 and 788. Different portions of this region direct the recruitment of the green fluorescent protein to stress-induced SNBs, suggesting an interaction of HAP with different components of the bodies. With the use of the 580-725 region as bait in a two-hybrid screening, we have selected SRp30c and 9G8, two members of the SR family of splicing factors. Splicing factors are differentially affected by heat shock: SRp30c and SF2/ASF are efficiently recruited to stress-induced SNBs, whereas the distribution of SC35 is not perturbed. We propose that the differential sequestration of splicing factors could affect processing of specific transcripts. Accordingly, the formation of stress-induced SNBs is accompanied by a change in the splicing pattern of the adenovirus E1A transcripts.

  6. Aeolian processes at the Mars Exploration Rover Meridiani Planum landing site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, R.; Banfield, D.; Bell, J.F.; Calvin, W.; Fike, D.; Golombek, M.; Greeley, R.; Grotzinger, J.; Herkenhoff, K.; Jerolmack, D.; Malin, M.; Ming, D.; Soderblom, L.A.; Squyres, S. W.; Thompson, S.; Watters, W.A.; Weitz, C.M.; Yen, A.

    2005-01-01

    The martian surface is a natural laboratory for testing our understanding of the physics of aeolian (wind-related) processes in an environment different from that of Earth. Martian surface markings and atmospheric opacity are time-variable, indicating that fine particles at the surface are mobilized regularly by wind. Regolith (unconsolidated surface material) at the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's landing site has been affected greatly by wind, which has created and reoriented bedforms, sorted grains, and eroded bedrock. Aeolian features here preserve a unique record of changing wind direction and wind strength. Here we present an in situ examination of a martian bright wind streak, which provides evidence consistent with a previously proposed formational model for such features. We also show that a widely used criterion for distinguishing between aeolian saltation- and suspension-dominated grain behaviour is different on Mars, and that estimated wind friction speeds between 2 and 3 m s-1, most recently from the northwest, are associated with recent global dust storms, providing ground truth for climate model predictions.

  7. Aeolian processes at the Mars Exploration Rover Meridiani Planum landing site.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, R; Banfield, D; Bell, J F; Calvin, W; Fike, D; Golombek, M; Greeley, R; Grotzinger, J; Herkenhoff, K; Jerolmack, D; Malin, M; Ming, D; Soderblom, L A; Squyres, S W; Thompson, S; Watters, W A; Weitz, C M; Yen, A

    2005-07-01

    The martian surface is a natural laboratory for testing our understanding of the physics of aeolian (wind-related) processes in an environment different from that of Earth. Martian surface markings and atmospheric opacity are time-variable, indicating that fine particles at the surface are mobilized regularly by wind. Regolith (unconsolidated surface material) at the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's landing site has been affected greatly by wind, which has created and reoriented bedforms, sorted grains, and eroded bedrock. Aeolian features here preserve a unique record of changing wind direction and wind strength. Here we present an in situ examination of a martian bright wind streak, which provides evidence consistent with a previously proposed formational model for such features. We also show that a widely used criterion for distinguishing between aeolian saltation- and suspension-dominated grain behaviour is different on Mars, and that estimated wind friction speeds between 2 and 3 m s(-1), most recently from the northwest, are associated with recent global dust storms, providing ground truth for climate model predictions.

  8. Site selection and preliminary evaluation of potential solar-industrial-process-heat applications for federal buildings in Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Branz, M A

    1980-09-30

    The potential for solr process heat applications for federal buildings in Texas is assessed. The three sites considered are Reese Air Force Base, Lubbock; Fort Bliss, El Paso; and Dyess Air Force Base, Abilene. The application at Lubbock is an electroplating and descaling facility for aircraft maintenance. The one at El Paso is a laundry facility. The Abilene system would use solar heat to preheat boiler feedwater makeup for the base hospital boiler plant. The Lubbock site is found to be the most appropriate one for a demonstration plant, with the Abilene site as an alternate. The processes at each site are described. A preliminary evaluation of the potential contribution by solar energy to the electroplating facility at Reese AFB is included. (LEW)

  9. Fluvial processes in Ma'adim Vallis and the potential of Gusev crater as a high priority site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabrol, Nathalie; Landheim, Ragnild; Greeley, Ronald; Farmer, Jack

    1994-01-01

    According to exobiology site selection criteria for Mars, the search for potential extinct/extant water dependent life should focus on sites were water flowed and ponded. The Ma'adim Vallis/Gusev crater system is of high priority for exobiology research, because it appears to have involved long term flooding, different periods and rates of sedimentation, and probable episodic ponding. The topics covered include the following: evidence of nonuniform fluvial processes and early overflooding of the plateau and ponding.

  10. Low temperature adsorption and site-conversion process of CO on the Ni(111) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beniya, Atsushi; Isomura, Noritake; Hirata, Hirohito; Watanabe, Yoshihide

    2012-12-01

    Low-temperature (25 K) adsorption states and the site conversion of adsorbed CO between the ontop and the hollow sites on Ni(111) were studied by means of temperature programmed desorption and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy. The activation energy and pre-exponential factor of desorption were estimated to be 1.2 eV and 2.6 × 1013 s- 1, respectively, in the limit of zero coverage. At low coverage, CO molecules preferentially adsorbed at the hollow sites below 100 K. With increasing temperature, the ontop sites were also occupied. Using a van't Hoff plot, the enthalpy and the entropy differences between the hollow and ontop CO were estimated to be 36 meV and 0.043 meV K- 1, respectively, and the vibrational entropy difference was estimated to be 0.085 meV K- 1. The positive entropy difference was the result of the low-energy frustrated translational mode of the ontop CO, which was estimated to be 4.6 ± 0.3 meV. With the harmonic approximation, the upper limit of the activation energy of site hopping from ontop sites to hollow sites was estimated to be 61 meV. In addition, it was suggested that the activation energy of hollow-to-hollow site hopping via a bridge site was less than 37 meV.

  11. Temperature-induced conformational changes in prosomatostatin-II: implications for processing.

    PubMed

    Mitra, J; Tang, X; Almo, S C; Shields, D

    1998-08-15

    Somatostatin (SRIF) is a 14-residue peptide hormone synthesized in the hypothalamus and pancreatic islets. SRIF-14 and an N-terminally extended form, SRIF-28, are generated by the proteolytic processing of an approx. 102-residue precursor prosomatostatin (proSRIF) at a single set of paired basic residues (Arg-Lys) and at a monobasic (Arg) site respectively. Previous work in our laboratory demonstrated that the propeptide of SRIF mediates intracellular sorting; we suggested that this information resides in the prohormone structure. To identify putative sorting domains we have investigated structural features of recombinant anglerfish proSRIF-II purified from Escherichia coli. Two species of proSRIF-II were obtained: a monomeric form and a disulphide-linked dimer. CD analyses revealed that monomeric proSRIF-II lacks appreciable periodic secondary structure; however, on slow heating (2 degrees C/min) and cooling, it assumed a predominantly alpha-helical conformation. When subjected to a second heating-and-cooling cycle, the alpha-helical conformation was maintained. In contrast, the dimeric form of proSRIF-II was predominantly alpha-helical and its helicity did not increase in response to heating and recooling. Our results suggest that proSRIF-II might exist in several different folding intermediate states. PMID:9693130

  12. Temperature-induced conformational changes in prosomatostatin-II: implications for processing.

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, J; Tang, X; Almo, S C; Shields, D

    1998-01-01

    Somatostatin (SRIF) is a 14-residue peptide hormone synthesized in the hypothalamus and pancreatic islets. SRIF-14 and an N-terminally extended form, SRIF-28, are generated by the proteolytic processing of an approx. 102-residue precursor prosomatostatin (proSRIF) at a single set of paired basic residues (Arg-Lys) and at a monobasic (Arg) site respectively. Previous work in our laboratory demonstrated that the propeptide of SRIF mediates intracellular sorting; we suggested that this information resides in the prohormone structure. To identify putative sorting domains we have investigated structural features of recombinant anglerfish proSRIF-II purified from Escherichia coli. Two species of proSRIF-II were obtained: a monomeric form and a disulphide-linked dimer. CD analyses revealed that monomeric proSRIF-II lacks appreciable periodic secondary structure; however, on slow heating (2 degrees C/min) and cooling, it assumed a predominantly alpha-helical conformation. When subjected to a second heating-and-cooling cycle, the alpha-helical conformation was maintained. In contrast, the dimeric form of proSRIF-II was predominantly alpha-helical and its helicity did not increase in response to heating and recooling. Our results suggest that proSRIF-II might exist in several different folding intermediate states. PMID:9693130

  13. Interrelation of technologies for RW preparation and sites for final isolation of the wastes from pyrochemical processing of SNF

    SciTech Connect

    Gupalo, V.S.; Chistyakov, V.N.; Kormilitsyn, M.V.; Kormilitsyna, L.A.

    2013-07-01

    For the justification of engineering solutions and practical testing of the radiochemical component of the perspective nuclear power complex with on-site variant of nuclear fuel cycle (NFC), it is planned to establish a multi-functional research-development complex (MFCRC) for radiochemical processing of spent nuclear fuels (SNF) from fast reactors. MFCRC is being established at the NIIAR site, it comprises technological process lines, where innovation pyro-electrochemical and hydrometallurgical technologies are realized, with an option for closing the inter-chain material flows for testing the combined radiochemically converted materials. The technological flowchart for processing at the MFCRC is subdivided into 3 segments: -) complex of the lead operations for dismantling the fuel elements (FE) and fuel assemblies (FA), -) pyrochemical extraction flowchart for processing SNF, and -) hydrometallurgical flowchart for processing SNF. The engineered solutions for the management and disposition of the radioactive wastes from MFCRC are reviewed.

  14. Establishing Junior-Level Colleges in Developing Nations: A Site Selection Process Using Data from Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iaeger, Paula Irene

    2012-01-01

    This research synthesizes data and presents it using mapping software to help to identify potential site locations for community-centered higher education alternatives and more traditional junior-level colleges in Uganda. What factors can be used to quantify one site over another for the location of such an institution and if these factors can be…

  15. Investigation of flow and transport processes at the MADE site using ensemble Kalman filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gaisheng; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Dongxiao

    2008-07-01

    In this work the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is applied to investigate the flow and transport processes at the macro-dispersion experiment (MADE) site in Columbus, MS. The EnKF is a sequential data assimilation approach that adjusts the unknown model parameter values based on the observed data with time. The classic advection-dispersion (AD) and the dual-domain mass transfer (DDMT) models are employed to analyze the tritium plume during the second MADE tracer experiment. The hydraulic conductivity ( K), longitudinal dispersivity in the AD model, and mass transfer rate coefficient and mobile porosity ratio in the DDMT model, are estimated in this investigation. Because of its sequential feature, the EnKF allows for the temporal scaling of transport parameters during the tritium concentration analysis. Inverse simulation results indicate that for the AD model to reproduce the extensive spatial spreading of the tritium observed in the field, the K in the downgradient area needs to be increased significantly. The estimated K in the AD model becomes an order of magnitude higher than the in situ flowmeter measurements over a large portion of media. On the other hand, the DDMT model gives an estimation of K that is much more comparable with the flowmeter values. In addition, the simulated concentrations by the DDMT model show a better agreement with the observed values. The root mean square (RMS) between the observed and simulated tritium plumes is 0.77 for the AD model and 0.45 for the DDMT model at 328 days. Unlike the AD model, which gives inconsistent K estimates at different times, the DDMT model is able to invert the K values that consistently reproduce the observed tritium concentrations through all times.

  16. Investigation of flow and transport processes at the MADE site using ensemble Kalman filter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Gaisheng; Chen, Y.; Zhang, Dongxiao

    2008-01-01

    In this work the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is applied to investigate the flow and transport processes at the macro-dispersion experiment (MADE) site in Columbus, MS. The EnKF is a sequential data assimilation approach that adjusts the unknown model parameter values based on the observed data with time. The classic advection-dispersion (AD) and the dual-domain mass transfer (DDMT) models are employed to analyze the tritium plume during the second MADE tracer experiment. The hydraulic conductivity (K), longitudinal dispersivity in the AD model, and mass transfer rate coefficient and mobile porosity ratio in the DDMT model, are estimated in this investigation. Because of its sequential feature, the EnKF allows for the temporal scaling of transport parameters during the tritium concentration analysis. Inverse simulation results indicate that for the AD model to reproduce the extensive spatial spreading of the tritium observed in the field, the K in the downgradient area needs to be increased significantly. The estimated K in the AD model becomes an order of magnitude higher than the in situ flowmeter measurements over a large portion of media. On the other hand, the DDMT model gives an estimation of K that is much more comparable with the flowmeter values. In addition, the simulated concentrations by the DDMT model show a better agreement with the observed values. The root mean square (RMS) between the observed and simulated tritium plumes is 0.77 for the AD model and 0.45 for the DDMT model at 328 days. Unlike the AD model, which gives inconsistent K estimates at different times, the DDMT model is able to invert the K values that consistently reproduce the observed tritium concentrations through all times. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Physical oceanographic processes at candidate dredged-material disposal sites B1B and 1M offshore San Francisco

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwood, C.R.; Denbo, D.W.; Downing, J.P. ); Coats, D.A. )

    1990-10-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, has identified two candidate sites for ocean disposal of material from several dredging projects in San Francisco Bay. The disposal site is to be designated under Section 103 of the Ocean Dumping Act. One of the specific criteria in the Ocean Dumping Act is that the physical environments of the candidate sites be considered. Toward this goal, the USACE requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conduct studies of physical oceanographic and sediment transport processes at the candidate sites. Details of the methods and complete listing or graphical representation of the results are contained in this second volume of the two-volume report. Appendix A describes the methods and results of a pre-disposal bathymetric survey of Site B1B, and provides an analysis of the accuracy and precision of the survey. Appendix B describes the moorings and instruments used to obtain physical oceanographic data at the candidate sites, and also discussed other sources of data used in the analyses. Techniques used to analyze the formation, processed data, and complete results of various analyses are provided in tabular and graphical form. Appendix C provides details of the sediment transport calculations. Appendix D describes the format of the archived current meter data, which is available through the National Oceanographic Data Center. 43 refs., 54 figs., 58 tabs.

  18. Independent technical evaluation and recommendations for contaminated groundwater at the department of energy office of legacy management Riverton processing site

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, Brain B.; Denham, Miles E.; Eddy-Dilek, Carol A.

    2014-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (DOE-LM) manages the legacy contamination at the Riverton, WY, Processing Site – a former uranium milling site that operated from 1958 to 1963. The tailings and associated materials were removed in 1988-1989 and contaminants are currently flushing from the groundwater. DOE-LM commissioned an independent technical team to assess the status of the contaminant flushing, identify any issues or opportunities for DOE-LM, and provide key recommendations. The team applied a range of technical frameworks – spatial, temporal, hydrological and geochemical – in performing the evaluation. In each topic area, an in depth evaluation was performed using DOE-LM site data (e.g., chemical measurements in groundwater, surface water and soil, water levels, and historical records) along with information collected during the December 2013 site visit (e.g., plant type survey, geomorphology, and minerals that were observed, collected and evaluated).

  19. Demonstration of Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation Process Using Savannah River Site High Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.B.

    2001-09-10

    This report details the experimental effort to demonstrate the continuous precipitation of cesium from Savannah River Site High Level Waste using sodium tetraphenylborate. In addition, the experiments examined the removal of strontium and various actinides through addition of monosodium titanate.

  20. Cotranslational and posttranslational proteolytic processing of preprosomatostatin-I in intact islet tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Noe, B.D.; Andrews, P.C.; Dixon, J.E.; Spiess, J.

    1986-10-01

    Preprosomatostatin-I (PPSS-I) is processed by anglerfish islets to release a 14-residue somatostatin (SS-14). However, very little is known regarding other processing events that affect PPSS-I. This is the first study to identify and quantify the levels of non-somatostatin products generated as a result of processing of this somatostatin precursor in living islet tissue. The products of PPSS-I processing in anglerfish islet tissue were identified in radiolabeling studies using a number of criteria. These criteria included immunoreactivity, specific radiolabeling by selected amino acids, radiolabel sequencing, and chromatographic comparison to isolated, structurally characterized fragments of anglerfish PPSS-I using reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Intact prosomatostatin-I (aPSS-I) was isolated from tissue incubated with (/sup 3/H)tryptophan and (/sup 14/C)leucine. Significant /sup 14/C radioactivity was observed in the products of 11 of the first 44 sequencer cycles in positions consistent with the generation of a 96-residue prosomatostatin. These results indicate that signal cleavage occurs after the cysteine located 25 residues from the initiator Met of PPSS-I, resulting in a signal peptide 25 amino acids in length. Nonsomatostatin-containing fragments of the precursor were also found in tissue incubated with a mixture of /sup 3/H-amino acids. Large quantities of SS-14 were observed (287 nmol/g tissue), indicating that the major site of aPSS-I cleavage is at the basic dipeptide immediately preceding SS-14. Recovery of much lower levels of the nonsomatostatin fragments of aPSS-I suggests that prohormone processing at the secondary sites identified in this study occurs at a low rate relative to release of SS-14 from aPSS-I.

  1. SITE PROGRAM DEMONSTRATION ECO LOGIC INTERNATIONAL GAS-PHASE CHEMICAL REDUCTION PROCESS, BAY CITY, MICHIGAN TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The SITE Program funded a field demonstration to evaluate the Eco Logic Gas-Phase Chemical Reduction Process developed by ELI Eco Logic International Inc. (ELI), Ontario, Canada. The Demonstration took place at the Middleground Landfill in Bay City, Michigan using landfill wa...

  2. Blogs and Social Network Sites as Activity Systems: Exploring Adult Informal Learning Process through Activity Theory Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heo, Gyeong Mi; Lee, Romee

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses an Activity Theory framework to explore adult user activities and informal learning processes as reflected in their blogs and social network sites (SNS). Using the assumption that a web-based space is an activity system in which learning occurs, typical features of the components were investigated and each activity system then…

  3. 78 FR 21352 - Update on Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... CFR Part 765 in the Federal Register on May 23, 1994, (59 FR 26714) to carry out the requirements of... amended the final rule on June 3, 2003, (68 FR 32955) to adopt several technical and ] administrative... on Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites...

  4. Use of Modeling for Prevention of Solids Formation During Canyon Processing of Legacy Nuclear Materials at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, W. D.; Crooks III, W. J.; Christian, J. D.

    2002-02-26

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Environmental Management (EM) nuclear material stabilization program includes the dissolution and processing of legacy materials from various DOE sites. The SRS canyon facilities were designed to dissolve and process spent nuclear fuel and targets. As the processing of typical materials is completed, unusual and exotic nuclear materials are being targeted for stabilization. These unusual materials are often difficult to dissolve using historical flowsheet conditions and require more aggressive dissolver solutions. Solids must be prevented in the dissolver to avoid expensive delays associated with the build-up of insoluble material in downstream process equipment. Moreover, it is vital to prevent precipitation of all solids, especially plutonium-bearing solids, since their presence in dissolver solutions raises criticality safety issues. To prevent precipitation of undesirable solids in aqueous process solutions, the accuracy of computer models to predict precipitate formation requires incorporation of plant specific fundamental data. These data are incorporated into a previously developed thermodynamic computer program that applies the Pitzer correlation to derive activity coefficient parameters. This improved predictive model will reduce unwanted precipitation in process solutions at DOE sites working with EM nuclear materials in aqueous solutions.

  5. Mixture models of nucleotide sequence evolution that account for heterogeneity in the substitution process across sites and across lineages.

    PubMed

    Jayaswal, Vivek; Wong, Thomas K F; Robinson, John; Poladian, Leon; Jermiin, Lars S

    2014-09-01

    Molecular phylogenetic studies of homologous sequences of nucleotides often assume that the underlying evolutionary process was globally stationary, reversible, and homogeneous (SRH), and that a model of evolution with one or more site-specific and time-reversible rate matrices (e.g., the GTR rate matrix) is enough to accurately model the evolution of data over the whole tree. However, an increasing body of data suggests that evolution under these conditions is an exception, rather than the norm. To address this issue, several non-SRH models of molecular evolution have been proposed, but they either ignore heterogeneity in the substitution process across sites (HAS) or assume it can be modeled accurately using the distribution. As an alternative to these models of evolution, we introduce a family of mixture models that approximate HAS without the assumption of an underlying predefined statistical distribution. This family of mixture models is combined with non-SRH models of evolution that account for heterogeneity in the substitution process across lineages (HAL). We also present two algorithms for searching model space and identifying an optimal model of evolution that is less likely to over- or underparameterize the data. The performance of the two new algorithms was evaluated using alignments of nucleotides with 10 000 sites simulated under complex non-SRH conditions on a 25-tipped tree. The algorithms were found to be very successful, identifying the correct HAL model with a 75% success rate (the average success rate for assigning rate matrices to the tree's 48 edges was 99.25%) and, for the correct HAL model, identifying the correct HAS model with a 98% success rate. Finally, parameter estimates obtained under the correct HAL-HAS model were found to be accurate and precise. The merits of our new algorithms were illustrated with an analysis of 42 337 second codon sites extracted from a concatenation of 106 alignments of orthologous genes encoded by the nuclear

  6. Landfill site selection using geographic information system and analytical hierarchy process: A case study Al-Hillah Qadhaa, Babylon, Iraq.

    PubMed

    Chabuk, Ali; Al-Ansari, Nadhir; Hussain, Hussain Musa; Knutsson, Sven; Pusch, Roland

    2016-05-01

    Al-Hillah Qadhaa is located in the central part of Iraq. It covers an area of 908 km(2) with a total population of 856,804 inhabitants. This Qadhaa is the capital of Babylon Governorate. Presently, no landfill site exists in that area based on scientific site selection criteria. For this reason, an attempt has been carried out to find the best locations for landfills. A total of 15 variables were considered in this process (groundwater depth, rivers, soil types, agricultural land use, land use, elevation, slope, gas pipelines, oil pipelines, power lines, roads, railways, urban centres, villages and archaeological sites) using a geographic information system. In addition, an analytical hierarchy process was used to identify the weight for each variable. Two suitable candidate landfill sites were determined that fulfil the requirements with an area of 9.153 km(2) and 8.204 km(2) These sites can accommodate solid waste till 2030. PMID:26965404

  7. In vivo expression of mutant preproendothelins: hierarchy of processing events but no strict requirement of Trp-Val at the processing site.

    PubMed Central

    Fabbrini, M S; Vitale, A; Pedrazzini, E; Nitti, G; Zamai, M; Tamburin, M; Caiolfa, V R; Patrono, C; Benatti, L

    1993-01-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a 21-residue vasoconstrictor peptide, originates in human cells from a 212-amino acid precursor (preproET-1). Big ET-1, an intermediate form of 38 amino acids, is generated by cleavage at basic-pair residues of proET-1, while a specific "ET-converting enzyme" was proposed to process the unusual Trp-Val site at positions 21 and 22 of big ET-1. We have previously shown that expression of synthetic RNA encoding human preproET-1 in Xenopus oocytes results in secretion of putative ET-1 and big ET-1. Here, to further dissect the processing pathway of preproET-1, we designed and expressed in oocytes a set of preproET-1 mutants. Four mutants affecting the Trp-Val site always originated putative ET-1(s) at levels comparable to the wild type, suggesting that there is only a conformational requirement for cleavage at this site. An Arg-->Ile mutation at the basic-pair site after the C terminus of big ET-1 fully inhibited the formation of both big ET-1 and ET-1, indicating that processing at this site is an early event and that big ET-1 is an obligate intermediate for the synthesis of ET-1 in vivo. Also, a truncated mutant bearing a stop codon after the C terminus of the big ET-1 sequence was totally stable and further processed into mature big ET-1 and ET-1, indicating that the second part of the precursor is not necessary for maturation. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8483912

  8. GIS and the analytic hierarchy process for regional landfill site selection in transitional countries: a case study from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Zelenović Vasiljević, Tamara; Srdjević, Zorica; Bajčetić, Ratko; Vojinović Miloradov, Mirjana

    2012-02-01

    The Serbian National Waste Management Strategy for the Period 2010-2019, harmonized with the European Union Directives, mandates new and very strict requirements for landfill sites. To enable analysis of a number of required qualitative and quantitative factors for landfill site selection, the traditional method of site selection must be replaced with a new approach. The combination of GIS and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was selected to solve this complex problem. The Srem region in northern Serbia, being one of the most environmentally sensitive areas, was chosen as a case study. Seventeen factors selected as criteria/sub-criteria were recognized as most important, divided into geo-natural, environmental, social and techno-economic factors, and were evaluated by experts from different fields using an AHP extension in Arc GIS. Weighted spatial layers were combined into a landfill suitability map which was then overlapped with four restriction maps, resulting in a final suitability map. According to the results, 82.65% of the territory of Srem is unsuitable for regional landfill siting. The most suitable areas cover 9.14%, suitable areas 5.24%, while areas with low and very low suitability cover 2.21 and 0.76% of the territory, respectively. Based on these findings, five sites close to two large urban agglomerations were suggested as possible locations for a regional landfill site in Srem. However, the final decision will require further field investigation, a public acceptance survey, and consideration of ownership status and price of the land.

  9. GIS and the Analytic Hierarchy Process for Regional Landfill Site Selection in Transitional Countries: A Case Study From Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenović Vasiljević, Tamara; Srdjević, Zorica; Bajčetić, Ratko; Vojinović Miloradov, Mirjana

    2012-02-01

    The Serbian National Waste Management Strategy for the Period 2010-2019, harmonized with the European Union Directives, mandates new and very strict requirements for landfill sites. To enable analysis of a number of required qualitative and quantitative factors for landfill site selection, the traditional method of site selection must be replaced with a new approach. The combination of GIS and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was selected to solve this complex problem. The Srem region in northern Serbia, being one of the most environmentally sensitive areas, was chosen as a case study. Seventeen factors selected as criteria/sub-criteria were recognized as most important, divided into geo-natural, environmental, social and techno-economic factors, and were evaluated by experts from different fields using an AHP extension in Arc GIS. Weighted spatial layers were combined into a landfill suitability map which was then overlapped with four restriction maps, resulting in a final suitability map. According to the results, 82.65% of the territory of Srem is unsuitable for regional landfill siting. The most suitable areas cover 9.14%, suitable areas 5.24%, while areas with low and very low suitability cover 2.21 and 0.76% of the territory, respectively. Based on these findings, five sites close to two large urban agglomerations were suggested as possible locations for a regional landfill site in Srem. However, the final decision will require further field investigation, a public acceptance survey, and consideration of ownership status and price of the land.

  10. DNA polymerase from temperate phage Bam35 is endowed with processive polymerization and abasic sites translesion synthesis capacity

    PubMed Central

    Berjón-Otero, Mónica; Villar, Laurentino; de Vega, Miguel; Salas, Margarita; Redrejo-Rodríguez, Modesto

    2015-01-01

    DNA polymerases (DNAPs) responsible for genome replication are highly faithful enzymes that nonetheless cannot deal with damaged DNA. In contrast, translesion synthesis (TLS) DNAPs are suitable for replicating modified template bases, although resulting in very low-fidelity products. Here we report the biochemical characterization of the temperate bacteriophage Bam35 DNA polymerase (B35DNAP), which belongs to the protein-primed subgroup of family B DNAPs, along with phage Φ29 and other viral and mobile element polymerases. B35DNAP is a highly faithful DNAP that can couple strand displacement to processive DNA synthesis. These properties allow it to perform multiple displacement amplification of plasmid DNA with a very low error rate. Despite its fidelity and proofreading activity, B35DNAP was able to successfully perform abasic site TLS without template realignment and inserting preferably an A opposite the abasic site (A rule). Moreover, deletion of the TPR2 subdomain, required for processivity, impaired primer extension beyond the abasic site. Taken together, these findings suggest that B35DNAP may perform faithful and processive genome replication in vivo and, when required, TLS of abasic sites. PMID:26100910

  11. Ferromanganese nodules from MANOP Sites H, S, and R-Control of mineralogical and chemical composition by multiple accretionary processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dymond, J.; Lyle, M.; Finney, B.; Piper, D.Z.; Murphy, K.; Conard, R.; Pisias, N.

    1984-01-01

    The chemical composition of ferromanganese nodules from the three nodule-bearing MANOP sites in the Pacific can be accounted for in a qualitative way by variable contributions of distinct accretionary processes. These accretionary modes are: 1. (1) hydrogenous, i.e., direct precipitation or accumulation of colloidal metal oxides in seawater, 2. (2) oxic diagenesis which refers to a variety of ferromanganese accretion processes occurring in oxic sediments; and 3. (3) suboxic diagenesis which results from reduction of Mn+4 by oxidation of organic matter in the sediments. Geochemical evidence suggests processes (1) and (2) occur at all three MANOP nodule-bearing sites, and process (3) occurs only at the hemipelagic site, H, which underlies the relatively productive waters of the eastern tropical Pacific. A normative model quantitatively accounts for the variability observed in nearly all elements. Zn and Na, however, are not well explained by the three end-member model, and we suggest that an additional accretionary process results in greater variability in the abundances of these elements. Variable contributions from the three accretionary processes result in distinct top-bottom compositional differences at the three sites. Nodule tops from H are enriched in Ni, Cu, and Zn, instead of the more typical enrichments of these elements in nodule bottoms. In addition, elemental correlations typical of most pelagic nodules are reversed at site H. The three accretionary processes result in distinct mineralogies. Hydrogenous precipitation produces ??MnO2. Oxic diagenesis, however, produces Cu-Ni-rich todorokite, and suboxic diagenesis results in an unstable todorokite which transforms to a 7 A?? phase ("birnessite") upon dehydration. The presence of Cu and Ni as charge-balancing cations influence the stability of the todorokite structure. In the bottoms of H nodules, which accrete dominantly by suboxic diagenesis, Na+ and possibly Mn+2 provide much of the charge balance for

  12. Getting to Yes or Bailing on No: The Site Selection Process of Ethanol Plants in Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tigges, Leann M.; Noble, Molly

    2012-01-01

    Prior studies of ethanol location rest on the assumption that ethanol producers are economic free agents--evaluating sites as if all counties are contenders for their business, weighing the availability of feedstocks along with their infrastructure needs, operating without ties to localities, and being subject to enticement from policy incentives.…

  13. Deep borehole disposition of surplus fissile materials-The site selection process

    SciTech Connect

    Heiken, G.; WoldeGabriel, G.; Morley, R.; Plannerer, H

    1996-05-01

    One option for disposing of excess weapons plutonium is to place it near the base of deep boreholes in stable crystalline rocks. The technology exists to immediately begin the design of this means of disposition and there are many attractive sites available within the conterminous US. The borehole system utilizes mainly natural barriers to preven migration of Pu and U to the Earth`s surface. Careful site selection ensures favorable geologic conditions that provide natural long-lived migration barriers; they include deep, extremely stable rock formations, strongly reducing brines that exhibit increasing salinity with depth, and most importantly, demonstrated isolation or non-communication of deep fluids with the biosphere for millions of years. This isolation is the most important characteristic, with the other conditions mainly being those that will enhance the potential of locating and maintaining the isolated zones. Candidate sites will probably be located on the craton in very old Precambrian crystalline rocks, most likely the center of a granitic pluton. The sites will be located in tectonically stable areas with no recent volcanic or seismic activity, and situated away from tectonic features that might become active in the near geologic future.

  14. Integrated system for gathering, processing, and reporting data relating to site contamination

    DOEpatents

    Long, D.D.; Goldberg, M.S.; Baker, L.A.

    1997-11-11

    An integrated screening system comprises an intrusive sampling subsystem, a field mobile laboratory subsystem, a computer assisted design/geographical information subsystem, and a telecommunication linkup subsystem, all integrated to provide synergistically improved data relating to the extent of site soil/groundwater contamination. According to the present invention, data samples related to the soil, groundwater or other contamination of the subsurface material are gathered and analyzed to measure contaminants. Based on the location of origin of the samples in three-dimensional space, the analyzed data are transmitted to a location display. The data from analyzing samples and the data from the locating the origin are managed to project the next probable sample location. The next probable sample location is then forwarded for use as a guide in the placement of ensuing sample location, whereby the number of samples needed to accurately characterize the site is minimized. 10 figs.

  15. Integrated system for gathering, processing, and reporting data relating to site contamination

    DOEpatents

    Long, Delmar D.; Goldberg, Mitchell S.; Baker, Lorie A.

    1997-01-01

    An integrated screening system comprises an intrusive sampling subsystem, a field mobile laboratory subsystem, a computer assisted design/geographical information subsystem, and a telecommunication linkup subsystem, all integrated to provide synergistically improved data relating to the extent of site soil/groundwater contamination. According to the present invention, data samples related to the soil, groundwater or other contamination of the subsurface material are gathered and analyzed to measure contaminants. Based on the location of origin of the samples in three-dimensional space, the analyzed data are transmitted to a location display. The data from analyzing samples and the data from the locating the origin are managed to project the next probable sample location. The next probable sample location is then forwarded for use as a guide in the placement of ensuing sample location, whereby the number of samples needed to accurately characterize the site is minimized.

  16. FACILITY UPGRADES FOR RECEIPT FROM ACTINIDE REMOVAL AND MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Fellinger, T; Stephen Phillips, S; Benjamin Culbertson, B; Beverly02 Davis, B; Aaron Staub, A

    2007-02-13

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently on an aggressive program to empty its High Level Waste (HLW) tanks and immobilize its radioactive waste into a durable borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). As a part of that program, two new processes will be brought on-line to assist in emptying the HLW tanks. These processes are in addition to the current sludge removal process and are called the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (MCU) Process. In order to accept and process the streams generated from these two new processes, several facility modifications are required and are broken down into several projects. These projects are handling the facility modifications required for the Tank Farm (241-96H), and DWPF vitrification facility (221-S), and DWPF ancillary facilities (511-S, and 512-S). Additional modifications to the 221-S building were required to address the flammability concern from the solvent carryover from the MCU process. This paper will describe a summary of the modifications impacting the 511-S, 512-S, and the 221-S facilities in order to receive the new streams from the ARP and MCU processes at the DWPF.

  17. Assessment of microbial processes on gas production at radioactive low-level waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, A.J.; Tate, R.L. III; Colombo, P.

    1982-05-01

    Factors controlling gaseous emanations from low level radioactive waste disposal sites are assessed. Importance of gaseous fluxes of methane, carbon dioxide, and possible hydrogen from the site, stems from the inclusion of tritium and/or carbon-14 into the elemental composition of these compounds. In that the primary source of these gases is the biodegradation of organic components of the waste material, primary emphasis of the study involved an examination of the biochemical pathways producing methane, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen, and the environmental parameters controlling the activity of the microbial community involved. Initial examination of the data indicates that the ecosystem is anaerobic. As the result of the complexity of the pathway leading to methane production, factors such as substrate availability, which limit the initial reaction in the sequence, greatly affect the overall rate of methane evolution. Biochemical transformations of methane, hydrogen and carbon dioxide as they pass through the soil profile above the trench are discussed. Results of gas studies performed at three commercial low level radioactive waste disposal sites are reviewed. Methods used to obtain trench and soil gas samples are discussed. Estimates of rates of gas production and amounts released into the atmosphere (by the GASFLOW model) are evaluated. Tritium and carbon-14 gaseous compounds have been measured in these studies; tritiated methane is the major radionuclide species in all disposal trenches studied. The concentration of methane in a typical trench increases with the age of the trench, whereas the concentration of carbon dioxide is similar in all trenches.

  18. Lessons learned from evaluating launch-site processing problems of Space Shuttle payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flores, Carlos A.; Heuser, Robert E.; Sales, Johnny R.; Smith, Anthony M.

    1992-01-01

    The authors discuss a trend analysis program that is being conducted on the problem reports written during the processing of Space Shuttle payloads at Kennedy Space Center. The program is aimed at developing lessons learned that can both improve the effectiveness of the current payload processing cycles as well as help to guide the processing strategies for Space Station Freedom. The payload processing reports from STS 26R and STS 41 are used. A two-tier evaluation activity is described, and some typical results from the tier one analyses are presented.

  19. The implications of integrated assessment and modelling studies for the future remediation of chromite ore processing residue disposal sites.

    PubMed

    Farmer, J G; Paterson, E; Bewley, R J F; Geelhoed, J S; Hillier, S; Meeussen, J C L; Lumsdon, D G; Thomas, R P; Graham, M C

    2006-05-01

    Chromite ore processing residue (COPR) waste from a former chromium chemical works (1830-1968) is still contaminating groundwater in Glasgow, Scotland, with carcinogenic hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI). An integrated analytical, experimental and modelling approach has identified and accounted for mineral phases and processes responsible for the retention and release of Cr(VI) under prevailing field conditions. Both the nature of mineral phase retention and the buffered high pH of the sites, however, militate against direct remediative treatment of the source material, for example by the application of generic methods (e.g. FeSO4) that have been successfully employed elsewhere for the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in other matrices. The interception and treatment of groundwater to remove Cr(VI) and the capping of sites to reduce human exposure to airborne Cr(VI)-contaminated dust may well be more realistic and effective, at least in the short to medium term.

  20. A sliding-bulge structure at the Dicer processing site of pre-miRNAs regulates alternative Dicer processing to generate 5'-isomiRs.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongming; Wu, Yonggan; Niu, Qi; Zhang, Junli; Jia, Gengxiang; Manjunath, N; Wu, Haoquan

    2016-09-01

    5'-isomiRs expand the repertoire of miRNA targets. However, how they are generated is not well understood. Previously, we showed that for some miRNAs in mammalian cells, Drosha cleaves at multiple sites to generate multiple pre-miRNAs that give rise to multiple 5'-isomiRs. Here, we showed that for some other miRNAs, 5'-isomiRs are generated by alternative Dicer processing. In addition, we showed that in miR-203, alternative Dicer processing is regulated by a conserved sliding-bulge structure at the Dicer processing site, which allows the pre-miRNA molecule to fold into two different structures that are processed differently by Dicer. So far no RNA motif that slides to change conformation and alter a protein-RNA interaction has been reported. Thus, our study revealed a novel RNA motif that regulates 5'-isomiR generation in some miRNAs. It might also contribute to regulating protein-RNA interactions in other biological processes, since it takes only one point mutation to generate the sliding bulge, and there are a large number of different RNAs in the cell. PMID:27656682

  1. An approach for sampling solid heterogeneous waste at the Hanford Site waste receiving and processing and solid waste projects

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, R.A.

    1993-03-01

    This paper addresses the problem of obtaining meaningful data from samples of solid heterogeneous waste while maintaining sample rates as low as practical. The Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, Module 1, at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State will process mostly heterogeneous solid wastes. The presence of hazardous materials is documented for some packages and unknown for others. Waste characterization is needed to segregate the waste, meet waste acceptance and shipping requirements, and meet facility permitting requirements. Sampling and analysis are expensive, and no amount of sampling will produce absolute certainty of waste contents. A sampling strategy is proposed that provides acceptable confidence with achievable sampling rates.

  2. Investigation of processes controlling summertime gaseous elemental mercury oxidation at midlatitudinal marine, coastal, and inland sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Zhuyun; Mao, Huiting; Lin, Che-Jen; Kim, Su Youn

    2016-07-01

    A box model incorporating a state-of-the-art chemical mechanism for atmospheric mercury (Hg) cycling was developed to investigate the oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) at three locations in the northeastern United States: Appledore Island (AI; marine), Thompson Farm (TF; coastal, rural), and Pack Monadnock (PM; inland, rural, elevated). The chemical mechanism in this box model included the most up-to-date Hg and halogen chemistry. As a result, the box model was able to simulate reasonably the observed diurnal cycles of gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) and chemical speciation bearing distinct differences between the three sites. In agreement with observations, simulated GOM diurnal cycles at AI and TF showed significant daytime peaks in the afternoon and nighttime minimums compared to flat GOM diurnal cycles at PM. Moreover, significant differences in the magnitude of GOM diurnal amplitude (AI > TF > PM) were captured in modeled results. At the coastal and inland sites, GEM oxidation was predominated by O3 and OH, contributing 80-99 % of total GOM production during daytime. H2O2-initiated GEM oxidation was significant (˜ 33 % of the total GOM) at the inland site during nighttime. In the marine boundary layer (MBL) atmosphere, Br and BrO became dominant GEM oxidants, with mixing ratios reaching 0.1 and 1 pptv, respectively, and contributing ˜ 70 % of the total GOM production during midday, while O3 dominated GEM oxidation (50-90 % of GOM production) over the remaining day when Br and BrO mixing ratios were diminished. The majority of HgBr produced from GEM+Br was oxidized by NO2 and HO2 to form brominated GOM species. Relative humidity and products of the CH3O2+BrO reaction possibly significantly affected the mixing ratios of Br or BrO radicals and subsequently GOM formation. Gas-particle partitioning could potentially be important in the production of GOM as well as Br and BrO at the marine site.

  3. Study of launch site processing and facilities for future launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaffer, Rex

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to provide innovative and creative approaches to assess the impact to the Kennedy Space Center and other launch sites for a range of candidate manned and unmanned space transportation systems. The general scope of the research includes the engineering activities, analyses, and evaluations defined in the four tasks below: (1) development of innovative approaches and computer aided tools; (2) operations analyses of launch vehicle concepts and designs; (3) assessment of ground operations impacts; and (4) development of methodologies to identify promising technologies.

  4. Study of launch site processing and facilities for future launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffer, Rex

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to provide innovative and creative approaches to assess the impact to the Kennedy Space Center and other launch sites for a range of candidate manned and unmanned space transportation systems. The general scope of the research includes the engineering activities, analyses, and evaluations defined in the four tasks below: (1) development of innovative approaches and computer aided tools; (2) operations analyses of launch vehicle concepts and designs; (3) assessment of ground operations impacts; and (4) development of methodologies to identify promising technologies.

  5. EPA site demonstration of the international waste technologies/Geo-Con in-situ stabilization/solidification process

    SciTech Connect

    Stinson, M.K.

    1990-11-01

    The paper presents an EPA evaluation of the first field demonstration of an in situ stabilization/solidification process for contaminated soil under the EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. Demonstration of the process was a joint effort of two vendors: International Waste Technologies' (IWT) of Wichita, Kansas, who provided the treatment process, specifically the proprietary additive called HWT-20, and Geo-Con, Inc., of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, who provided both engineering and hardware for the in situ soil treatment. The field demonstration took place in April, 1988 at a site contaminated mainly with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). EPA tested the soil before and after treatment and the EPA evaluation of the process is based on results from the testing. A year later, in April 1989, EPA tested again the treated soil and results of that testing were compared to those of the demonstration. Results of the EPA evaluation of the IWT process, the Geo-Con performance, and treatment costs are discussed separately.

  6. Advanced technologies for maintenance of electrical systems and equipment at the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Husler, R.O. ); Weir, T.J. )

    1991-01-01

    An enhanced maintenance program is being established to characterize and monitor cables, components, and process response at the Savannah River Site, Defense Waste Processing Facility. This facility was designed and constructed to immobilize the radioactive waste currently stored in underground storage tanks and is expected to begin operation in 1993. The plant is initiating the program to baseline and monitor instrument and control (I C) and electrical equipment, remote process equipment, embedded instrument and control cables, and in-cell jumper cables used in the facility. This program is based on the electronic characterization and diagnostic (ECAD) system which was modified to include process response analysis and to meet rigid Department of Energy equipment requirements. The system consists of computer-automated, state-of-the-art electronics. The data that are gathered are stored in a computerized database for analysis, trending, and troubleshooting. It is anticipated that the data which are gathered and trended will aid in life extension for the facility.

  7. Uncertainties in Eddy Covariance fluxes due to post-field data processing: a multi-site, full factorial analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbatini, S.; Fratini, G.; Arriga, N.; Papale, D.

    2012-04-01

    Eddy Covariance (EC) is the only technologically available direct method to measure carbon and energy fluxes between ecosystems and atmosphere. However, uncertainties related to this method have not been exhaustively assessed yet, including those deriving from post-field data processing. The latter arise because there is no exact processing sequence established for any given situation, and the sequence itself is long and complex, with many processing steps and options available. However, the consistency and inter-comparability of flux estimates may be largely affected by the adoption of different processing sequences. The goal of our work is to quantify the uncertainty introduced in each processing step by the fact that different options are available, and to study how the overall uncertainty propagates throughout the processing sequence. We propose an easy-to-use methodology to assign a confidence level to the calculated fluxes of energy and mass, based on the adopted processing sequence, and on available information such as the EC system type (e.g. open vs. closed path), the climate and the ecosystem type. The proposed methodology synthesizes the results of a massive full-factorial experiment. We use one year of raw data from 15 European flux stations and process them so as to cover all possible combinations of the available options across a selection of the most relevant processing steps. The 15 sites have been selected to be representative of different ecosystems (forests, croplands and grasslands), climates (mediterranean, nordic, arid and humid) and instrumental setup (e.g. open vs. closed path). The software used for this analysis is EddyPro™ 3.0 (www.licor.com/eddypro). The critical processing steps, selected on the basis of the different options commonly used in the FLUXNET community, are: angle of attack correction; coordinate rotation; trend removal; time lag compensation; low- and high- frequency spectral correction; correction for air density

  8. Artificial marsh treatment of non-process water for reuse in site steam boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.M.; Card, S.W.

    1997-09-01

    An artificial marsh has been constructed to treat surface water at a Magnolia, Arkansas production facility. The artificial marsh water treatment system utilizes aquatic plants and bacteria to treat up to one million gallons (4,000 m{sup 3}) per day of non-contact water and storm water runoff from within the main plant and adjacent areas. To protect the ecological balance of the marsh, the cooling tower biocide was switched from an organic biocide to a program that uses sodium bromide. Sample analyses have demonstrated that the water quality existing the marsh meets or exceeds permit requirements including bio-assay. The water after removal of suspended solids by sand filtration is suitable for reuse as fed to the water softeners which supply water to the site steam boilers. By diverting this water into the plant, the amount of fresh well water required at the site and the amount of non-contact water exiting the facility has been reduced.

  9. Decision tree approach to evaluating inactive uranium processing sites for liner requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Relyea, J.F.

    1983-03-01

    Recently, concern has been expressed about potential toxic effects of both radon emission and release of toxic elements in leachate from inactive uranium mill tailings piles. Remedial action may be required to meet disposal standards set by the states and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In some cases, a possible disposal option is the exhumation and reburial (either on site or at a new location) of tailings and reliance on engineered barriers to satisfy the objectives established for remedial actions. Liners under disposal pits are the major engineered barrier for preventing contaminant release to ground and surface water. The purpose of this report is to provide a logical sequence of action, in the form of a decision tree, which could be followed to show whether a selected tailings disposal design meets the objectives for subsurface contaminant release without a liner. This information can be used to determine the need and type of liner for sites exhibiting a potential groundwater problem. The decision tree is based on the capability of hydrologic and mass transport models to predict the movement of water and contaminants with time. The types of modeling capabilities and data needed for those models are described, and the steps required to predict water and contaminant movement are discussed. A demonstration of the decision tree procedure is given to aid the reader in evaluating the need for the adequacy of a liner.

  10. Methane emissions from process equipment at natural gas production sites in the United States: pneumatic controllers.

    PubMed

    Allen, David T; Pacsi, Adam P; Sullivan, David W; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Harrison, Matthew; Keen, Kindal; Fraser, Matthew P; Daniel Hill, A; Sawyer, Robert F; Seinfeld, John H

    2015-01-01

    Emissions from 377 gas actuated (pneumatic) controllers were measured at natural gas production sites and a small number of oil production sites, throughout the United States. A small subset of the devices (19%), with whole gas emission rates in excess of 6 standard cubic feet per hour (scf/h), accounted for 95% of emissions. More than half of the controllers recorded emissions of 0.001 scf/h or less during 15 min of measurement. Pneumatic controllers in level control applications on separators and in compressor applications had higher emission rates than controllers in other types of applications. Regional differences in emissions were observed, with the lowest emissions measured in the Rocky Mountains and the highest emissions in the Gulf Coast. Average methane emissions per controller reported in this work are 17% higher than the average emissions per controller in the 2012 EPA greenhouse gas national emission inventory (2012 GHG NEI, released in 2014); the average of 2.7 controllers per well observed in this work is higher than the 1.0 controllers per well reported in the 2012 GHG NEI.

  11. GIS and the analytic hierarchy process for regional landfill site selection in transitional countries: a case study from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Zelenović Vasiljević, Tamara; Srdjević, Zorica; Bajčetić, Ratko; Vojinović Miloradov, Mirjana

    2012-02-01

    The Serbian National Waste Management Strategy for the Period 2010-2019, harmonized with the European Union Directives, mandates new and very strict requirements for landfill sites. To enable analysis of a number of required qualitative and quantitative factors for landfill site selection, the traditional method of site selection must be replaced with a new approach. The combination of GIS and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was selected to solve this complex problem. The Srem region in northern Serbia, being one of the most environmentally sensitive areas, was chosen as a case study. Seventeen factors selected as criteria/sub-criteria were recognized as most important, divided into geo-natural, environmental, social and techno-economic factors, and were evaluated by experts from different fields using an AHP extension in Arc GIS. Weighted spatial layers were combined into a landfill suitability map which was then overlapped with four restriction maps, resulting in a final suitability map. According to the results, 82.65% of the territory of Srem is unsuitable for regional landfill siting. The most suitable areas cover 9.14%, suitable areas 5.24%, while areas with low and very low suitability cover 2.21 and 0.76% of the territory, respectively. Based on these findings, five sites close to two large urban agglomerations were suggested as possible locations for a regional landfill site in Srem. However, the final decision will require further field investigation, a public acceptance survey, and consideration of ownership status and price of the land. PMID:22134738

  12. A New Tool for Automated Data Collection and Complete On-site Flux Data Processing for Eddy Covariance Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begashaw, I. G.; Kathilankal, J. C.; Li, J.; Beaty, K.; Ediger, K.; Forgione, A.; Fratini, G.; Johnson, D.; Velgersdyk, M.; Hupp, J. R.; Xu, L.; Burba, G. G.

    2014-12-01

    The eddy covariance method is widely used for direct measurements of turbulent exchange of gases and energy between the surface and atmosphere. In the past, raw data were collected first in the field and then processed back in the laboratory to achieve fully corrected publication-ready flux results. This post-processing consumed significant amount of time and resources, and precluded researchers from accessing near real-time final flux results. A new automated measurement system with novel hardware and software designs was developed, tested, and deployed starting late 2013. The major advancements with this automated flux system include: 1) Enabling logging high-frequency, three-dimensional wind speeds and multiple gas densities (CO2, H2O and CH4), low-frequency meteorological data, and site metadata simultaneously through a specially designed file format 2) Conducting fully corrected, real-time on-site flux computations using conventional as well as user-specified methods, by implementing EddyPro Software on a small low-power microprocessor 3) Providing precision clock control and coordinate information for data synchronization and inter-site data comparison by incorporating a GPS and Precision Time Protocol. Along with these innovations, a data management server application was also developed to chart fully corrected real-time fluxes to assist remote system monitoring, to send e-mail alerts, and to automate data QA/QC, transfer and archiving at individual stations or on a network level. Combination of all of these functions was designed to help save substantial amount of time and costs associated with managing a research site by eliminating the post-field data processing, reducing user errors and facilitating real-time access to fully corrected flux results. The design, functionality, and test results from this new eddy covariance measurement tool will be presented.

  13. Processivity and Subcellular Localization of Glycogen Synthase Depend on a Non-catalytic High Affinity Glycogen-binding Site*

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Adelaida; Martínez-Pons, Carlos; Fita, Ignacio; Ferrer, Juan C.; Guinovart, Joan J.

    2011-01-01

    Glycogen synthase, a central enzyme in glucose metabolism, catalyzes the successive addition of α-1,4-linked glucose residues to the non-reducing end of a growing glycogen molecule. A non-catalytic glycogen-binding site, identified by x-ray crystallography on the surface of the glycogen synthase from the archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi, has been found to be functionally conserved in the eukaryotic enzymes. The disruption of this binding site in both the archaeal and the human muscle glycogen synthases has a large impact when glycogen is the acceptor substrate. Instead, the catalytic efficiency remains essentially unchanged when small oligosaccharides are used as substrates. Mutants of the human muscle enzyme with reduced affinity for glycogen also show an altered intracellular distribution and a marked decrease in their capacity to drive glycogen accumulation in vivo. The presence of a high affinity glycogen-binding site away from the active center explains not only the long-recognized strong binding of glycogen synthase to glycogen but also the processivity and the intracellular localization of the enzyme. These observations demonstrate that the glycogen-binding site is a critical regulatory element responsible for the in vivo catalytic efficiency of GS. PMID:21464127

  14. Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site. Annual report, FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    Construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) on the Savannah River Site (SRS) began during FY-1984. The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has completed 15 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF complex. Prior to construction, the 600-acre site (S-Area) contained a Carolina bay and the headwaters of a stream. Through the long-term census taking of biota at the DWPF site and Rainbow Bay, SREL has been evaluating the impact of construction on the biota and the effectiveness of mitigation efforts. similarly, the effects of erosion from the DWPF site on the water quality of S-Area peripheral streams are being assessed. This research provides supporting data relevant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Executive orders 11988 (Floodplain Management) and 11990 (Protection of Wetlands), and United States Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetland Environmental Review Requirements (10 CFR 1022).

  15. Processing and geologic analysis of conventional cores from well ER-20-6 No. 1, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Prothro, L.B., Townsend, M.J.; Drellack, S.L. Jr.

    1997-09-01

    In 1996, Well Cluster ER-20-6 was drilled on Pahute Mesa in Area 20, in the northwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The three wells of the cluster are located from 166 to 296 meters (m) (544 to 971 feet [ft]) southwest of the site of the underground nuclear test code-named BULLION, conducted in 1990 in Emplacement Hole U-20bd. The well cluster was planned to be the site of a forced-gradient experiment designed to investigate radionuclide transport in groundwater. To obtain additional information on the occurrence of radionuclides, nature of fractures, and lithology, a portion of Well ER-20-6 No. 1, the hole closest to the explosion cavity, was cored for later analysis. Bechtel Nevada (BN) geologists originally prepared the geologic interpretation of the Well Cluster ER-20-6 site and documented the geology of each well in the cluster. However, the cores from Well ER-20-6 No. 1 were not accessible at the time of that work. As the forced-gradient experiment and other radio nuclide migration studies associated with the well cluster progressed, it was deemed appropriate to open the cores, describe the geology, and re-package the core for long-term air-tight storage. This report documents and describes the processing, geologic analysis, and preservation of the conventional cores from Well ER20-6 No. 1.

  16. US Department of Energy response to standards for remedial actions at inactive uranium processing sites: Proposed rule

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-29

    The Title I groundwater standards for inactive uranium mill tailings sites, which were promulgated on January 5, 1983, by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, were remanded to the EPA on September 3, 1985, by the US Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals. The Court instructed the EPA to compile general groundwater standards for all Title I sites. On September 24, 1987, the EPA published proposed standards (52FR36000-36008) in response to the remand. This report includes an evaluation of the potential effects of the proposed EPA groundwater standards on the UMTRA Project, as well as a discussion of the DOE's position on the proposed standards. The report also contains and appendix which provides supporting information and cost analyses. In order to assess the impacts of the proposed EPA standards, this report summarizes the proposed EPA standards in Section 2.0. The next three sections assess the impacts of the three parts of the EPA standards: Subpart A considers disposal sites; Subpart B is concerned with restoration at processing sites; and Subpart C addresses supplemental standards. Section 6.0 integrates previous sections into a recommendations section. Section 7.0 contains the DOE response to questions posed by the EPA in the preamble to the proposed standards. 6 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Energy from true in situ processing of antrim shale: Extraction trials in an explosively fractured site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderploeg, M. L.; Peil, C. A.; Kinkel, C. G.; Pihlaja, R. K.; Murdick, D. A.; Frost, J. R.; Lund, M. M.

    1980-08-01

    Three in situ energy extraction trials were conducted at an oil shale site in Michigan. Here the Antrim shale layer occurs between 1200 and 1400 feet underground. The three trials, lasting 7, 60 and 17 days respectively, were conducted in a formation prepared by explosive fracturing. Ignition energy was generated with a methane burner. Some energy in the form of a dilute fuel gas was recovered in each trial but upon ignition drastic decreases in flow communication occurred between injection and production wells. That problem prevented the planned exploration of techniques which would raise the energy value of the production gas. Upon cool down of the formation after each trial, air permeability tests showed inter-well communication levels returning to near preburn levels. Thermal expansion is the most likely cause of the reduced permeability experienced under retorting conditions.

  18. Ultrafast electronic processes in an insulator: The Be and O sites in BeO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiwietz, G.; Beye, M.; Czerski, K.; Föhlisch, A.; Könnecke, R.; Roth, M.; Schlappa, J.; Staufenbiel, F.; Suljoti, E.; Kuusik, I.; Grande, P. L.

    2013-12-01

    The short-time dynamics of amorphous beryllium oxide (a-BeO) has been investigated for electronic excitation/ionization by fast incident electrons, as well as by Ar7+, Ar15+, Xe15+, and Xe31+ ions at velocities of 6-10% the speed of light. Site specific Auger-electron spectra induced by fast heavy ions are the central point of this investigation. Electron induced Auger spectra serve as a reference and electron-energy loss (EELS) spectroscopy as well as resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) are invoked for quantitative understanding. For the heavy-ion case, we observe strong variations in the corresponding spectral distributions of Be-K and O-K Auger lines. These are related to local changes of the electron density, of the electron temperature and even of the electronic band structure of BeO on a femtosecond time scale after the passage of highly charged heavy ions.

  19. Mars-GRAM Applications for Mars Science Laboratory Mission Site Selection Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, Hilary; Justus, C. G.

    2007-01-01

    An overview is presented of the Mars-Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2005) and its new features. One important new feature is the "auxiliary profile" option, whereby a simple input file is used to replace mean atmospheric values from Mars-GRAM's conventional (General Circulation Model) climatology. An auxiliary profile can be generated from any source of data or alternate model output. Results are presented using auxiliary profiles produced from mesoscale model output (Southwest Research Institute's Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS) model and Oregon State University's Mars mesoscale model (MMM5) model) for three candidate Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) landing sites (Terby Crater, Melas Chasma, and Gale Crater). A global Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) database has also been generated for purposes of making 'Mars-GRAM auxiliary profiles. This data base contains averages and standard deviations of temperature, density, and thermal wind components, averaged over 5-by-5 degree latitude bins and 15 degree L(sub S) bins, for each of three Mars years of TES nadir data. Comparisons show reasonably good consistency between Mars-GRAM with low dust optical depth and both TES observed and mesoscale model simulated density at the three study sites. Mean winds differ by a more significant degree. Comparisons of mesoscale and TES standard deviations' with conventional Mars-GRAM values, show that Mars-GRAM density perturbations are somewhat conservative (larger than observed variability), while mesoscale-modeled wind variations are larger than Mars-GRAM model estimates. Input parameters rpscale (for density perturbations) and rwscale (for wind perturbations) can be used to "recalibrate" Mars-GRAM perturbation magnitudes to better replicate observed or mesoscale model variability.

  20. Supplemental characterization of the inactive uraniferous lignite processing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    Additional characterization was performed at the Belfield and Bowman sites to resolve issues raised at the preliminary design meetings held in San Francisco in May and July, 1988. The characterization was performed in September of 1988. Radiation surveys were performed at the grain elevator at Bowman, and the Dakota Honey building and the kiln foundation at Belfield. The exterior of the grain elevator at Bowman was surveyed for both total and removable alpha contamination. Measurements were made on the exterior of the vertical elevator walls and on the horizontal foundation slab. Soil samples were taken at six locations around the immediate perimeter of the grain elevator. Interior measurements at the grain elevator consisted of both alpha and gamma radiation surveys. Both total and removable alpha measurements were performed on the interior walls and floors. Gamma measurements were made at the floor surface and at one meter above the floor surface. The Dakota Honey building at Belfield was also surveyed for total alpha contamination, removable alpha contamination, and gamma radiation. Alpha measurements were performed at specific locations on the concrete slab floor. Soil samples were taken from beneath the slab to a depth of approximately three feet and were analyzed for Ra-226. The visible kiln foundation at the Belfield site was surveyed for total and removable alpha contamination. Alpha measurements were performed on the vertical kiln foundation walls and the horizontal surfaces. Soil samples were taken from a hole in the center of the foundation to a depth of 18 inches and were analyzed for Ra-226. Also, a sample of the concrete surface of the foundation was taken and analyzed for Ra-226.

  1. Sequence motif upstream of the Hendra virus fusion protein cleavage site is not sufficient to promote efficient proteolytic processing

    SciTech Connect

    Craft, Willie Warren; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis . E-mail: rdutc2@uky.edu

    2005-10-10

    The Hendra virus fusion (HeV F) protein is synthesized as a precursor, F{sub 0}, and proteolytically cleaved into the mature F{sub 1} and F{sub 2} heterodimer, following an HDLVDGVK{sub 109} motif. This cleavage event is required for fusogenic activity. To determine the amino acid requirements for processing of the HeV F protein, we constructed multiple mutants. Individual and simultaneous alanine substitutions of the eight residues immediately upstream of the cleavage site did not eliminate processing. A chimeric SV5 F protein in which the furin site was substituted for the VDGVK{sub 109} motif of the HeV F protein was not processed but was expressed on the cell surface. Another chimeric SV5 F protein containing the HDLVDGVK{sub 109} motif of the HeV F protein underwent partial cleavage. These data indicate that the upstream region can play a role in protease recognition, but is neither absolutely required nor sufficient for efficient processing of the HeV F protein.

  2. Analysis of launch site processing effectiveness for the Space Shuttle 26R payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flores, Carlos A.; Heuser, Robert E.; Pepper, Richard E., Jr.; Smith, Anthony M.

    1991-01-01

    A trend analysis study has been performed on problem reports recorded during the Space Shuttle 26R payload's processing cycle at NASA-Kennedy, using the defect-flow analysis (DFA) methodology; DFA gives attention to the characteristics of the problem-report 'population' as a whole. It is established that the problem reports contain data which distract from pressing problems, and that fully 60 percent of such reports were caused during processing at NASA-Kennedy. The second major cause of problem reports was design defects.

  3. Ground water elevation monitoring at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Salt Lake City, Utah, Vitro processing site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    In February 1994, a ground water level monitoring program was begun at the Vitro processing site. The purpose of the program was to evaluate how irrigating the new golf driving range affected ground water elevations in the unconfined aquifer. The program also evaluated potential impacts of a 9-hole golf course planned as an expansion of the driving range. The planned golf course expansion would increase the area to be irrigated and, thus, the water that could infiltrate the processing site soil to recharge the unconfined aquifer. Increased water levels in the aquifer could alter the ground water flow regime; contaminants in ground water could migrate off the site or could discharge to bodies of surface water in the area. The potential effects of expanding the golf course have been evaluated, and a report is being prepared. Water level data obtained during this monitoring program indicate that minor seasonal mounding may be occurring in response to irrigation of the driving range. However, the effects of irrigation appear small in comparison to the effects of precipitation. There are no monitor wells in the area that irrigation would affect most; that data limitation makes interpretations of water levels and the possibility of ground water mounding uncertain. Limitations of available data are discussed in the conclusion.

  4. Using quantitative analysis to understand the current and past physical processes that sculpted the Philae landing site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulet, Francois; Lucchetti, Alice; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Langevin, Yves; Carter, John; Delbo, Marco; Eng, Pascal; Gondet, Brigitte; Jorda, Laurent; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Mottola, Stefano; Pilorget, Cédric; Vincendon, Mathieu; Cremonese, Gabriele

    2015-11-01

    The CIVA cameras onboard PHILAE provided the first ever in situ images of the surface of a comet (Bibring et al., Science, 2015). The panorama acquired by CIVA at the landing site on the 67P comet reveals a rough terrain dominated by fractures and agglomerates of consolidated materials. While the composition of these materials is unknown, they provide unique structures to constrain the conditions prevailing at the surface of a comet. A quantitative analysis of the microscopic structures (grains that look like pebbles and fractures) will be presented. The pebble size distribution will be compared to the size distribution of other cometary materials such as boulders at the touchdown site (Mottola et al. Science, 2015), boulders surrounding the landing site (Lucchetti et al., A&A, submitted), >7m sized boulders globally distributed on the comet (Pajola et al., A&A, 2015), grains collected by the COSIMA experiment onboard Rosetta (Langevin et al., JGR, submitted) as well as population of grains remotely observed in coma and jets of other comets. The nature of the pebbles will be then discussed in relation to both endogenic and exogenic processes that could explain their formation. The fractures exhibit two different size distributions that are correlated to the texture of the landscape. Among different physical processes, we will evaluate whether thermal fatigue induced by diurnal temperature variations (Delbo et al. Nature, 2014) could be a mechanism of surficial fragmentation.

  5. Solar feasibility study for site-specific industrial-process-heat applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, O.L.

    1980-03-18

    This study addresses the technical feasibility of solar energy in industrial process heat (IPH) applications in Mid-America. The study was one of two contracted efforts covering the MASEC 12-state region comprised of: Illinois, Michigan, North Dakota, Indiana, Minnesota, Ohio, Iowa, Missouri, South Dakota, Kansas, Nebraska, Wisconsin. The results of our study are encouraging to the potential future role of solar energy in supplying process heat to a varied range of industries and applications. We identified and developed Case Study documentation of twenty feasible solar IPH applications covering eight major SIC groups within the Mid-American region. The geographical distribution of these applications for the existing range of solar insolation levels are shown and the characteristics of the applications are summarized. The results of the study include process identification, analysis of process heat requirements, selection of preliminary solar system characteristics, and estimation of system performance and cost. These are included in each of the 20 Case Studies. The body of the report is divided into two primary discussion sections dealing with the Study Methodology employed in the effort and the Follow-On Potential of the identified applications with regard to possible demonstration projects. The 20 applications are rated with respect to their relative overall viability and procedures are discussed for possible demonstration project embarkment. Also, a possible extension of this present feasibility study for late-comer industrial firms expressing interest appears worthy of consideration.

  6. ORNL ADCP POST-PROCESSING GUIDE AND MATLAB ALGORITHMS FOR MHK SITE FLOW AND TURBULENCE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Gunawan, Budi; Neary, Vincent S

    2011-09-01

    Standard methods, along with guidance for post-processing the ADCP stationary measurements using MATLAB algorithms that were evaluated and tested by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), are presented following an overview of the ADCP operating principles, deployment methods, error sources and recommended protocols for removing and replacing spurious data.

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF INDIVIDUAL CHEMICAL REACTIONS CONSUMING ACID DURING NUCLEAR WASTE PROCESSING AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE - 136B

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D.; Pickenheim, B.; Lambert, D.; Newell, J.; Stone, M.

    2009-09-02

    Conversion of legacy radioactive high-level waste at the Savannah River Site into a stable glass waste form involves a chemical pretreatment process to prepare the waste for vitrification. Waste slurry is treated with nitric and formic acids to achieve certain goals. The total quantity of acid added to a batch of waste slurry is constrained by the catalytic activity of trace noble metal fission products in the waste that can convert formic acid into hydrogen gas at many hundreds of times the radiolytic hydrogen generation rate. A large block of experimental process simulations were performed to characterize the chemical reactions that consume acid prior to hydrogen generation. The analysis led to a new equation for predicting the quantity of acid required to process a given volume of waste slurry.

  8. Process for carbonaceous material conversion and recovery of alkali metal catalyst constituents held by ion exchange sites in conversion residue

    DOEpatents

    Sharp, David W.

    1980-01-01

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered for the particles by contacting or washing them with an aqueous solution containing calcium or magnesium ions in an alkali metal recovery zone at a low temperature, preferably below about 249.degree. F. During the washing or leaching process, the calcium or magnesium ions displace alkali metal ions held by ion exchange sites in the particles thereby liberating the ions and producing an aqueous effluent containing alkali metal constituents. The aqueous effluent from the alkali metal recovery zone is then recycled to the conversion process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst.

  9. SCALE-UP OF CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR REMOVAL OF CESIUM AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Geeting, M

    2007-10-19

    In 2004, the Department of Energy (DOE) directed Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) to develop a Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process at the Savannah River Site (SRS) capable of removing cesium from 1 million gallons a year of dissolved salt solution. This facility would provide interim processing for cesium containing salt solution until the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) comes on-line. The DOE design inputs1 were to utilize contactors similar in design to those to be used in the SWPF, assume class C waste with less than 0.5 Ci/gal Cs-137, achieve a Decontamination Factor (DF) greater than 12, include the ability to clean the contactors in place, and assume an operating life of three years. WSRC embarked on a design, test, and build program to achieve these criteria as described in the following text. All DOE design criteria have been met or exceeded by WSRC.

  10. Finding of no significant impact proposed remedial action at two uranium processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0339) of the proposed remedial action at two uranium processing sites near Slick Rock in San Miguel County, Colorado. These sites contain radioactively contaminated materials that would be removed and stabilized at a remote location. Based on the information and analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), as amended. Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and the DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (ONSI).

  11. Audit Report on "Waste Processing and Recovery Act Acceleration Efforts for Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste at the Hanford Site"

    SciTech Connect

    2010-05-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management's (EM), Richland Operations Office (Richland), is responsible for disposing of the Hanford Site's (Hanford) transuranic (TRU) waste, including nearly 12,000 cubic meters of radioactive contact-handled TRU wastes. Prior to disposing of this waste at the Department's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), Richland must certify that it meets WIPP's waste acceptance criteria. To be certified, the waste must be characterized, screened for prohibited items, treated (if necessary) and placed into a satisfactory disposal container. In a February 2008 amendment to an existing Record of Decision (Decision), the Department announced its plan to ship up to 8,764 cubic meters of contact-handled TRU waste from Hanford and other waste generator sites to the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) at Idaho's National Laboratory (INL) for processing and certification prior to disposal at WIPP. The Department decided to maximize the use of the AMWTP's automated waste processing capabilities to compact and, thereby, reduce the volume of contact-handled TRU waste. Compaction reduces the number of shipments and permits WIPP to more efficiently use its limited TRU waste disposal capacity. The Decision noted that the use of AMWTP would avoid the time and expense of establishing a processing capability at other sites. In May 2009, EM allocated $229 million of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) funds to support Hanford's Solid Waste Program, including Hanford's contact-handled TRU waste. Besides providing jobs, these funds were intended to accelerate cleanup in the short term. We initiated this audit to determine whether the Department was effectively using Recovery Act funds to accelerate processing of Hanford's contact-handled TRU waste. Relying on the availability of Recovery Act funds, the Department changed course and approved an alternative plan that could increase costs by about $25 million

  12. Processing of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UNH) at DOE`s Fernald Site: Success and pitfalls

    SciTech Connect

    Luken, D.W.; Brettschneider, D.J.; Heck, R.P. III; White, C.A.

    1996-02-01

    After 36 years of operation, uranium production at the Department of Energy Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) was halted in 1989. Uranyl Nitrate Hexahydrate (UNH) had been produced during the uranium refining. In June 1991, DOE determined the UNH to be a mixed hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. A UNH Neutralization Project began processing UNH stored in stainless steel tanks located in various areas within the Fernald Plant 2/3 Complex. It was discovered that the valves, flanges, and other fittings of the UNH storage tanks were leaking. This made processing the UNH a high priority and Comprehensive, Environmental, Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Removal Action No. 20, Stabilization of UNH Inventories, was initiated. This report presents the successes and pitfalls of the cleanup of UNH.

  13. ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF METALS IN STREAMS ON A DEFENSE MATERIALS PROCESSING SITE IN SOUTH CAROLINA, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M.; Dyer, S.

    2009-09-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a 780 km{sup 2} U.S. Department of Energy facility near Aiken SC established in 1950 to produce nuclear materials. SRS streams are 'integrators' that potentially receive water transportable contaminants from all sources within their watersheds necessitating a GIS-based watershed approach to organize contaminant distribution data and accurately characterize the effects of multiple contaminant sources on aquatic organisms. Concentrations of metals in sediments, fish, and water were elevated in streams affected by SRS operations, but contaminant exposure models for Lontra Canadensis and Ceryle alcyon indicated that toxicological reference values were exceeded only by Hg and Al. Macroinvertebrate community structure was unrelated to sediment metal concentrations. This study indicated that (1) modeling studies and field bioassessments provide a complementary basis for addressing the individual and cumulative effects of contaminants, (2) habitat effects must be controlled when assessing contaminant impacts, (3) sensitivity analyses of contaminant exposure models are helpful in apportioning sampling effort, and (4) contaminants released during fifty years of industrial operations have not resulted in demonstrable harm to aquatic organisms in SRS streams.

  14. Energy from true in situ processing of Antrim Shale: extraction trials in an explosively fractured site

    SciTech Connect

    VanDerPloeg, M.L.; Peil, C.A.; Kinkel, C.G.; Pihlaja, R.K.; Murdick, D.A.; Frost, J.R.; Lund, M.M.

    1980-08-01

    Three in situ energy extraction trials were conducted at The Dow Chemical Company's oil shale site, in Michigan's Sanilac County, near the town of Peck. Here the Antrim shale layer occurs between 1200 and 1400 feet underground. The trials began on October 14, 1979, and ended on April 1, 1980. The three trials, lasting 7, 60 and 17 days respectively, were conducted in a formation prepared by explosive fracturing. Ignition energy was generated with a methane burner. Some energy in the form of a dilute fuel gas (5 to 50 btu/scf) was recovered in each trial but upon ignition drastic decreases in flow communication occurred between injection and production wells. That problem prevented the planned exploration of techniques which would raise the energy value of the production gas. Upon cool down of the formation after each trial, air permeability tests showed inter-well communication levels returning to near preburn levels. Thermal expansion is the most likely cause of the reduced permeability experienced under retorting conditions.

  15. The conservation of the Shahr-e-Zohak archaeological site (central Afghanistan): Geomorphological processes and ecosystem-based mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margottini, Claudio; Fidolini, Francesco; Iadanza, Carla; Trigila, Alessandro; Ubelmann, Yves

    2015-06-01

    The archaeological remains of Shahr-e Zohak are part of the Bamiyan valley, which has been recognized by UNESCO as World Heritage and is famous for hosting the main heritage of the Buddhist culture in Afghanistan. The site comprises the remains of the Zohak fortress, which is placed on a steep hill at the confluence of the Bamiyan and Kalu rivers. The fortress is protected by ramparts, built along the steep cliffs bounding the site, which are equipped with several watchtowers. The citadel is protected by three more orders of walls and is located on the topmost part of the hill. All the structures are made of mudbricks placed on top of stony foundations. Due to the prolonged exposure to weathering, the lack of conservation measures and the misuse during war periods, many constructions collapsed or are prone to collapse. A new topography (1 m contour lines) of the site was produced using drone-derived 3D photogrammetry combined with GPS data. Then a detailed geomorphological survey of the whole site was carried out in order to identify the main geomorphic processes acting on the land surface and structures. GIS analysis allowed defining the internal drainage system of the studied area. The site is affected by incised erosional phenomena on the eastern side, while the hilltop is mainly hit by diffuse erosion and soil mobilization during snowmelt. Monument deterioration is coupled with the lack of an adequate drainage system to collect runoff. Ramparts located on the steep hillslopes are severely affected by gully erosion and siphoning, which cause depressions infilled by eroded and weathered building material. The access path is locally eroded or buried by debris cones. The western margin of the plateau has been rapidly retreating due to collapses, while the citadel is in danger due to diffuse or gully erosional processes developed on all its sides. A mitigation strategy with low environmental impact (ecosystem-based approach) is proposed in order to adopt sustainable

  16. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium processing site at Naturita, Colorado. Appendix B of Attachment 3: Groundwater hydrology report, Attachment 4: Water resources protection strategy, Final

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    Attachment 3 Groundwater Hydrology Report describes the hydrogeology, water quality, and water resources at the processing site and Dry Flats disposal site. The Hydrological Services calculations contained in Appendix A of Attachment 3, are presented in a separate report. Attachment 4 Water Resources Protection Strategy describes how the remedial action will be in compliance with the proposed EPA groundwater standards.

  17. Priorities determination using novel analytic hierarchy process and median ranked sample set, case study of landfill siting criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younes, Mohammad K.; Nopiah, Z. M.; Basri, N. E. Ahmad; Basri, H.

    2015-02-01

    Integrating environmental, social, political, and economical attributes enhances the decision making process. Multi criteria decision making (MCDM) involves ambiguity and uncertainty due to various preferences. This study presents a model to minimize the uncertainty and ambiguity of human judgments by means of integrating the counter stakeholders with median ranked sample set (MRSS) and Analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The model uses landfill site selection as a MCDM problem. Sixteen experts belong to four clusters that are government, private, institution, and non-governmental organisations participated and their preferences were ranked in four by four matrix. Then the MRSS and the AHP were used to obtain the priorities of landfill siting criteria. Environmental criteria have the highest priority that equals to 48.1% and the distance from surface water, and the faults zones are the most important factors with priorities equal to 18% and 13.7% respectively. In conclusion, the hybrid approach that integrates counter stakeholders MRSS, and AHP is capable of being applied to complex decision making process and its outputs are justified.

  18. An Expert Elicitation Process in Support of Groundwater Model Evaluation for Frenchman Flat, Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman Jenny,Pohlmann Karl

    2011-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is implementing corrective actions at facilities where nuclear-related operations were conducted in Nevada. Among the most significant sites being addressed are the locations of underground nuclear tests on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The process for implementing corrective actions for the Underground Test Area (UGTA) locations is defined in Appendix VI of a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (1996, as amended). In broad terms, Appendix VI describes a Corrective Action Investigation followed by a Corrective Action Decision, and implementation of a Corrective Action Plan prior to closure. The Frenchman Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU) is farthest along in the UGTA corrective action process. It includes ten underground tests within the Frenchman Flat topographic basin, in the southeastern portion of the NNSS. Data have been collected from drilling exploration, hydrologic testing, and field and laboratory studies. Modeling has been completed at a variety of scales and focusing on a variety of flow and transport aspects ranging from regional boundary conditions to process dynamics within a single nuclear cavity. The culmination of the investigations is a transport model for the Frenchman Flat CAU (Stoller Navarro Joint Venture, 2009) that has undergone rigorous peer review and been accepted by the State of Nevada, setting the stage for the Corrective Action Decision and progression from the investigation phase to the corrective action phase of the project.

  19. Dust Seds And Processing Near Sites Of High Mass Star Formation In The LMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hony, Sacha; Galliano, F.; Madden, S. M.; SAGE Consortium

    2010-01-01

    We present a study into the properties of the dust and complex molecules in and around selected HII regions in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The analysis is based on the Spitzer program SAGE (Surveying the Agents of a Galaxy's Evolution). Because of the lower metallicity environment, dust shielding is reduced and the effects of the ultraviolet radiation carry further than in the Milky way. Because of this these HII regions may better represent star forming regions in the more distant universe. We present the near- to far-IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs) as a function of radial distance to the center of the several clusters. The regions span a wide range in luminosities. We have developed a self consistent spherical clumpy dust radiative transfer model to interpret the observed trends. The model treats the detailed dust optical properties and transient grain heating as well as IR absorption and reprocession. This allows us to interpret the observed variations in SED in terms of the clumpiness, varying incident radiation-field and changing abundances of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), transiently heated very small grains (VSG) to submicron-sized grains in thermal equilibrium, i.e. in terms of the varying grain-size distribution. We find that the LMC massive star forming sites are typified by a several parsec sized void and clumpiness and PAH abundance which increases with distance from the central illuminating source. The inner void may be the result of massive star winds. The observed flat mid-IR SEDs require a grain-size distribution skewed to a higher fraction of smaller grains compared to the Milky Way dust.

  20. BEHAVIORAL PATTERNS AND LESION SITES ASSOCIATED WITH IMPAIRED PROCESSING OF LEXICAL AND CONCEPTUAL KNOWLEDGE OF ACTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Kemmerer, David; Rudrauf, David; Manzel, Ken; Tranel, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    To further investigate the neural substrates of lexical and conceptual knowledge of actions, we administered a battery of six tasks to 226 brain-damaged patients with widely distributed lesions in the left and right cerebral hemispheres. The tasks probed lexical and conceptual knowledge of actions in a variety of verbal and non-verbal ways, including naming, word-picture matching, attribute judgments involving both words and pictures, and associative comparisons involving both words and pictures. Of the 226 patients who were studied, 61 failed one or more of the six tasks, with four patients being impaired on the entire battery, and varied numbers of patients being impaired on varied combinations of tasks. Overall, the 61 patients manifested a complex array of associations and dissociations across the six tasks. The lesion sites of 147 of the 226 patients were also investigated, using formal methods for lesion-deficit statistical mapping and power analysis of lesion overlap maps. Significant effects for all six tasks were found in the following left-hemisphere regions: the inferior frontal gyrus; the ventral precentral gyrus, extending superiorly into what are likely to be hand-related primary motor and premotor areas; and the anterior insula. In addition, significant effects for 4-5 tasks were found in not only the regions just mentioned, but also in several other left-hemisphere areas: the ventral postcentral gyrus; the supramarginal gyrus; and the posterior middle temporal gyrus. These results converge with previous research on the neural underpinnings of action words and concepts. However, the current study goes considerably beyond most previous investigations by providing extensive behavioral and lesion data for an unusually large and diverse sample of brain-damaged patients, and by incorporating multiple measures of verb comprehension. Regarding theoretical implications, the study provides new support for the Embodied Cognition Framework, which maintains that

  1. DEPLOYMENT OF INNOVATIVE CHARACTERIZATION TECHNOLOGIES AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MARSSIM PROCESS AT RADIOLOGICALLY CONTAMINATED SITES.

    SciTech Connect

    KALB,P.D.; MILIAN,L.; LUCKETT,L.; WATTERS,D.; MILLER,K.M.; GOGOLAK,C.

    2001-05-01

    The success of this Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) project is measured on several levels. First, the deployment of this innovative approach using in situ characterization, portable field laboratory measurements, and implementation of MARSSIM was successfully established for all three phases of D and D characterization, i.e., pre-job scoping, on-going disposition of waste, and final status surveys upon completion of the activity. Unlike traditional D and D projects, since the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor Decommissioning Project (BGRR-DP) is operating on an accelerated schedule, much of the work is being carried out simultaneously. Rather than complete a full characterization of the facility before D and D work begins, specific removal actions require characterization as the activity progresses. Thus, the need for rapid and cost-effective techniques for characterization is heightened. Secondly, since the approach used for this ASTD project was not thoroughly proven prior to deployment, a large effort was devoted to demonstrating technical comparability to project managers, regulators and stakeholders. During the initial phases, large numbers of replicate samples were taken and analyzed by conventional baseline techniques to ensure that BGRR-DP quality assurance standards were met. ASTD project staff prepared comparisons of data gathered using ISOCS and BetaScint with traditional laboratory methods and presented this information to BGRR-DP staff and regulators from EPA Region II, NYS Department of Environmental Conservation, and the Suffolk County Board of Health. As the results of comparability evaluations became available, approval for these methods was received and the techniques associated with in situ characterization, portable field laboratory measurements, and implementation of MARSSIM were gradually integrated into BGRR-DP procedures.

  2. Simulation-based process optimization for surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation at heterogeneous DNAPL-contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Qin, X S; Huang, G H; Chakma, A; Chen, B; Zeng, G M

    2007-08-01

    Widespread use of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) such as TCE and PCE has resulted in contamination of enormous valuable groundwater resources and become high-priority environmental problems. However, experiences from the past decades have demonstrated that DNAPL-contaminated sites were difficult to investigate and challenging to remediate. In this study, a simulation-based process optimization system was developed through integrating a multidimensional simulator, a multivariate statistical tool and an optimization model within a general framework for supporting decisions of surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR). A 3D multiphase and multi-component subsurface model was first provided to simulate SEAR process; dual-response surface models were then established to build a bridge between remediation actions and system performance; a nonlinear optimization model was then formulated for identifying optimal operating conditions for SEAR operations. The results in simulating a typical PCE spill event and the associated SEAR remediation operations in a heterogeneous subsurface indicated that SEAR would be capable of cleaning up the contaminated aquifer with improved efficiencies and cost-effectiveness compared with direct pump-and-treat actions. The regression-analysis results demonstrated that the proposed dual-response surface models were able to predict system responses under given operating conditions. The optimization results demonstrated that the developed simulation-optimization approach was effective in seeking cost-effective SEAR strategies for DNAPL-contaminated sites. With the developed method, optimum operation conditions under various environmental and economic considerations could be compiled into a database that would supports further studies of on-site process-control with injection and extraction rates being the main control variables.

  3. Environmental tracers for elucidating the weathering process in a phosphogypsum disposal site: Implications for restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-López, Rafael; Nieto, José M.; de la Rosa, Jesús D.; Bolívar, Juan P.

    2015-10-01

    This study provides geochemical data with the aim of identifying and tracing the weathering of phosphogypsum wastes stack-piled directly on salt-marshes of the Tinto River (Estuary of Huelva, SW Spain). With that purpose, different types of highly-polluted acid solutions were collected in the stack. Connection between these solutions and the estuarine environment was studied by geochemical tracers, such as rare earth elements (REE) and their North American Shale Composite (NASC)-normalized patterns and Cl/Br ratios. Phosphogypsum-related wastewaters include process water stored on the surface, pore-water contained in the phosphogypsum profile and edge outflow water emerging from inside the stack. Edge outflow waters are produced by waterlogging at the contact between phosphogypsum and the nearly impermeable marsh surface and discharge directly into the estuary. Process water shows geochemical characteristics typical of phosphate fertilizers, i.e. REE patterns with an evident enrichment of heavy-REE (HREE) with respect to middle-REE (MREE) and light-REE (LREE). By contrast, REE patterns of deeper pore-water and edge outflows are identical to those of Tinto River estuary waters, with a clear enrichment of MREE relative to LREE and HREE denoting influence of acid mine drainage. Cl/Br ratios of these solutions are very close to that of seawater, which also supports its estuarine origin. These findings clearly show that process water is not chemically connected with edge outflows through pore-waters, as was previously believed. Phosphogypsum weathering likely occurs by an upward flow of seawater from the marsh because of overpressure and permeability differences. Several recommendations are put forward in this study to route restoration actions, such as developing treatment systems to improve the quality of the edge outflow waters before discharging to the receiving environment.

  4. Studies on the rain scavenging process of tritium in a tropical site in India.

    PubMed

    Nankar, D P; Patra, A K; Ravi, P M; Joshi, C P; Hegde, A G; Sarkar, P K

    2012-02-01

    This study presents the results of one of the first systematic experiments on tritium ((3)H) concentrations in ground level air against that in rainwater near a pressurized heavy water reactor in a tropical region. The samples were collected over the rainy season of three years (2007, 2008 and 2010). For this study, 31 data sets were collected and interpreted based on the theoretical information available in the literature. The specific activity ratio of (3)H between rainwater and air moisture at ground level was calculated for each data set. The average specific activity ratio was found to be 1.96 ± 2.72. A correlation (r = 0.82, p < 0.001) was observed between the total rain hours in a day and the rainwater (3)H activity. Higher rain duration with slower rain rate yielded higher (3)H concentrations as more time was available for the scavenging/wash out process to take effect together with lower dilution. The present data also suggested the need to further investigate the influence of raindrop distribution and other local meteorological parameters on the (3)H wash out process. An attempt was also made to predict the (3)H concentration in air moisture samples using a Gaussian plume dispersion model and the values were compared with the measured (3)H activity. The measured values were generally lower than the predictions.

  5. Characterization of a site contaminated by waste from a monazite ore processing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lauria, D.C.; Reis, V.R.; Nouailhetas, Y.; Godoy, J.M.; Agudo, E.G.

    1993-12-31

    A radiological survey of an area of 60,000 m{sup 2}, previously occupied by the Usina de Interlagos (USIN), a branch of the Brazilian State Monazite Company was conducted. External exposure gamma rates, surface soil, subsurface soil and groundwater concentration of the long-life radionuclides from the uranium and thorium decay chain were determined. Two areas, one of 4,800 m{sup 2} and other of 1,750 m{sup 2}, were found to be contaminated with different radioactive materials, originating from the chemical and physical processing of the monazite sand. {sup 228}Ra is present up to 2.2 {times} 10{sup 4} Bq/kg in soil and 93 Bq/l in groundwater. Based on future scenarios, an allowable residual contamination level of {sup 232}Th and {sup 226}Ra of around 200 Bq/kg was derived. Clean-up actions are suggested.

  6. Combined QM/MM calculations of active-site vibrations in binding process of P450cam to putidaredoxin.

    PubMed

    Freindorf, Marek; Shao, Yihan; Kong, Jing; Furlani, Thomas R

    2008-03-01

    Combined QM/MM calculations of the active-site of cytochrome P450cam have been performed before and after the binding of P450cam to putidaredoxin. The calculations were carried out for both a 5-coordinated and a 6-coordinated active-site of cytochrome P450cam, with either a water molecule or a carbon monoxide molecule as a 6th distal ligand. An experimentally observed increase in the Fe-S stretching frequency that occurs after cytochrome P450cam binds to putidaredoxin, has been reproduced in our study. Experimentally observed changes in the Fe-C and C-O vibration frequencies that occur after binding of both proteins, have also been reproduced in our study. The computed increase of the Fe-S and Fe-C stretching frequencies is correlated with a corresponding decrease of the Fe-S and Fe-C interatomic distances. According to our calculations, for the active-site with carbon monoxide in the triplet electronic state, the binding process increases the spin densities on the iron and sulfur atoms, which changes the Fe-C and C-O stretching frequencies in opposite directions, in agreement with experimental data.

  7. Pulsed-Neutron-Gamma (PNG) saturation monitoring at the Ketzin pilot site considering displacement and evaporation/precipitation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Gunther; Henninges, Jan

    2013-04-01

    monitoring. Within the framework of the EU project CO2CARE, funded by the European Commission (FP7) and by industrial partners, an extended saturation model is developed. This extended saturation model, including both the displacement and evaporation/precipitation process, is applied to the PNG monitoring data of the injection well at the Ketzin pilot site. For the PNG monitoring data of the observation wells the conventional saturation model based on the displacement process is applied, because the arriving CO2 is already water saturated and no water can be evaporated anymore. The methodological background of the extended saturation model and results of the PNG saturation monitoring program at the Ketzin pilot site are presented.

  8. Ionic milieu controls the compartment-specific activation of pro-opiomelanocortin processing in AtT-20 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, W K; Moore, H P

    1995-01-01

    Newly synthesized prohormones and their processing enzymes transit through the same compartments before being packaged into regulated secretory granules. Despite this coordinated intracellular transport, prohormone processing does not occur until late in the secretory pathway. In the mouse pituitary AtT-20 cell line, conversion of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) to mature adrenocorticotropic hormone involves the prohormone convertase PC1. The mechanism by which this proteolytic processing is restricted to late secretory compartments is unknown; PC1 activity could be regulated by compartment-specific activators/inhibitors, or through changes in the ionic milieu that influence its activity. By arresting transport in a semi-intact cell system, we have addressed whether metabolically labeled POMC trapped in early secretory compartments can be induced to undergo conversion if the ionic milieu in these compartments is experimentally manipulated. Prolonged incubation of labeled POMC trapped in the endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi/trans-Golgi network did not result in processing, thereby supporting the theory that processing is normally a post-Golgi/trans-Golgi network event. However, acidification of these compartments allowed effective processing of POMC to the intermediate and mature forms. The observed processing increased sharply at a pH below 6.0 and required millimolar calcium, regardless of the compartment in which labeled POMC resided. These conditions also resulted in the coordinate conversion of PC1 from the 84/87 kDa into the 74-kDa and 66-kDa forms. We propose that POMC processing is predominantly restricted to acidifying secretory granules, and that a change in pH within these granules is both necessary and sufficient to activate POMC processing. Images PMID:8573786

  9. Leaching tendencies of uranium and regulated trace metals from the Hanford Site 300 Area North Process Pond sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R.J.; LeGore, V.L.; Mattigod, S.V.

    1994-09-01

    Data are presented that address the leaching tendencies and the total chemical composition of metals in feed materials and soil-washed fines generated by Alternative Remediation Technology, Inc. during a pilot-scale soil physical separation test performed at the 300 Area North Process Pond (Facility 316-2) on the Hanford Site in the spring of 1994. Four 300 Area North Process Pond sediments and one sediment from outside the pond`s fenced area were leach-tested using the Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP) and other modified US Environmental Protection Agency and American Society for Testing and Materials protocols. Finally, leachate from the most contaminated sediment was used to load the Hanford sediment obtained outside the facility to evaluate the potential for contaminant adsorption onto natural sediments. The sediment characterization, leach, and adsorption results will be used in the evaluation of remedial alternatives in the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study.

  10. Surface and subsurface cleanup protocol for radionuclides Gunnison, Colorado, UMTRA Project Processing Site. Revision 3, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The supplemental standards provisions of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 192 (40 CFR Part 192) require the cleanup of radionuclides other than radium-226 (Ra-226) to levels ``as low as reasonably achievable`` (ALARA), taking into account site-specific conditions, if sufficient quantities and concentrations are present to constitute a significant radiation hazard. In this context, thorium-230 (Th-230) at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site will require remediation. However, a seasonally fluctuating groundwater table at the site significantly complicates conventional remedial action with respect to cleanup. Characterization data indicate that in the offpile areas, the removal of residual in situ bulk Ra-226 and Th-230 such that the 1000-year projected Ra-226 concentration (Ra-226 concentration in 1000 years due to the decay of in situ Ra-226 and the in-growth of Ra-226 from in situ Th-230) complies with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) cleanup standard for in situ Ra-226 and the cleanup protocol for in situ Th-230 can be readily achieved using conventional excavation techniques for bulk contamination without encountering significant impacts due to groundwater. The EPA cleanup standard and criterion for Ra-226 and the 1000-year projected Ra-226 are 5 and 15 picocuries per gram (pCi/g) above background, respectively, averaged over 15-centimeter (cm) deep surface and subsurface intervals and 100-square-meter (m{sup 2}) grid areas. Significant differential migration of Th-230 relative to Ra-226 has occurred over 40 percent of the subpile area. To effectively remediate the site with respect to Ra-226 and Th-230, supplemental standard is proposed and discussed in this report.

  11. Assessment of aircraft impact possibilities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant on the INEL Site

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, L.G.; Mines, J.M.; Webb, B.B.

    1993-08-01

    The concern of this study was the possibility of an aircraft collision with facilities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Two sets of data were combined in calculating the probability of this event. The first was from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission data is used to check the adequacy of nuclear power plant location relative to aircraft crashes. For neighboring airport scenarios, the accepted rate unit is fatal crashes per square mile. For in-flight crash scenarios, a total loss of control crash rate (where the pilot was completely out of control) is used for evaluating nuclear reactors. Numbers were given per linear mile of flight. The other set of data was obtained from the National Transportation Safety Board`s annual review. These data points show higher crash frequencies because crashes in which the pilot maintained some control have not been excluded. By including this data set, the evaluation gained two advantages. First, the data are separated by type of aircraft, which makes frequencies for specific flight paths more meaningful. Second, the data are given year by year over a ten-year time span. Therefore, it is possible to gain a sense of the variability in crash frequencies from one year to another.

  12. On-site installation and shielding of a mobile electron accelerator for radiation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catana, Dumitru; Panaitescu, Julian; Axinescu, Silviu; Manolache, Dumitru; Matei, Constantin; Corcodel, Calin; Ulmeanu, Magdalena; Bestea, Virgil

    1995-05-01

    The development of radiation processing of some bulk products, e.g. grains or potatoes, would be sustained if the irradiation had been carried out at the place of storage, i.e. silo. A promising solution is proposed consisting of a mobile electron accelerator, installed on a couple of trucks and traveling from one customer to another. The energy of the accelerated electrons was chosen at 5 MeV, with 10 to 50 kW beam power. The irradiation is possible either with electrons or with bremsstrahlung. A major problem of the above solution is the provision of adequate shielding at the customer, with a minimum investment cost. Plans for a bunker are presented, which houses the truck carrying the radiation head. The beam is vertical downwards, through the truck floor, through a transport pipe and a scanning horn. The irradiation takes place in a pit, where the products are transported through a belt. The belt path is so chosen as to minimize openings in the shielding. Shielding calculations are presented supposing a working regime with 5 MeV bremsstrahlung. Leakage and scattered radiation are taken into account.

  13. Ultrafast Nanocrystals Decorated Micromotors for On-Site Dynamic Chemical Processes.

    PubMed

    Jurado-Sánchez, B; Wang, J; Escarpa, A

    2016-08-01

    CdS-polyaniline-Pt and ZnS-polyaniline-Pt micromotors have been synthesized and characterized. The nanocrystals are generated "in situ" during the template electrosynthesis of the micromotors while being simultaneously trapped in the polymeric network, generating a hybrid structure. The presence of nanocrystal "edges" in the inner polyaniline layer result in a rough Pt catalytic surface and enhanced electron transfer for highly efficient bubble propulsion at remarkable speeds of over 2500 μm/s. The incorporation of CdS and ZnS nanocrystals impart several attractive functions, including cation-exchange based chemical transformation capabilities and enhanced photocatalytic performance. The remarkable ion-exchange properties of ZnS-polyaniline (PANI)-Pt micromotors are illustrated for the cation exchange of heavy metals cations. The superior photocatalytic performance of CdS-PANI-Pt micromotors is used for the enhanced photocatalytic oxidation of bisphenol A. Such self-propelled micromotors act as highly efficient dynamic platforms that offer significantly shorter and more efficient processes as compared with common static operations. The attractive properties of these micromotors will pave the way for diverse sensing, decontamination, energy generation, or electronic applications. PMID:27387459

  14. Hydrology of a nuclear-processing plant site, Rocky Flats, Jefferson County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hurr, R. Theodore

    1976-01-01

    Accidental releases of contaminants resulting from the operation of the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration's nuclear-processing and recovery plant located on Rocky Flats will move at different rates through -different parts of the hydrologic system. Rates of movement are dependent upon the magnitude of the accidental release and the hydrologic conditions at the time of the release. For example, during wet periods, a contaminant resulting from a 5,000-gallon (19,000-1itre) release on the land surface would enter the ground-water system in about 2 to 12 hours. Ground-water flow in the Rocky Flats Alluvium might move the contaminant eastward at a rate of about 3 to 11 feet (0.9 to 3.4 metres) per day, if it remains dissolved. Maximum time to a point of discharge would be about 3 years; minimum time could be a few days. A contaminant entering a stream would then move at a rate of about 60 feet (18 metres) per minute under pool-and-riffle conditions. The rate of movement might be about 420 feet (128 metres) per minute under open-channel-flow conditions following intense thunderstorms.

  15. Analysis of cobbly soils for cobbles-to-fines corrections to radionuclide concentrations at the New Rifle, Colorado, processing site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    A contamination depth and cobbly soil characterization study was performed in November and December 1993 at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Projects`s New Rifle, Colorado, processing site. This study was initiated due to a concurrence by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) clarifying that the allowable residual contamination in soil should be averaged over the total mass of the soil volume, including cobbles and gravels (i.e., bulk concentration). The New Rifle processing site has a high percentage of cobbles and gravels underlying the pile and other contaminated areas, which preliminary excavation designs have identified for removal and disposal. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative mass percentage and radionuclide concentrations of cobbles and gravels in order to determine the bulk contamination concentrations, revise the underlying excavation design depths, and improve verification methods. Another important goal of the study was to acquire more accurate contamination depth data (profile) for the subpile material. In summary, this recharacterization study will probably reduce the volume of material for excavation/disposal by several hundred thousand cubic yards and significantly reduce the amount of ground water expected to be pumped out of the excavation during cleanup.

  16. Full scale remediation of an explosives-contaminated site at Yorktown Naval Weapons Station using the SABRE{trademark} process

    SciTech Connect

    Kaake, R.H.; Bono, J.; Yergovich, T.

    1997-12-31

    Characterization of a former weapons loading and assembly facility identified soil contaminated with the explosives TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) and RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine). The site contains of a variety of discrete soil types that include clay, sand, and humus. A portion of the site is also periodically submerged due to tidal action. Treatability studies were performed in conjunction with the Army Corps of Engineers Waterways Experiment Station. Studies indicated the SABRE Process could successfully treat the soil to the specified treatment goals. A full scale demonstration of the Simplot Anaerobic Biological Remediation (SABRE{trademark}) Process was carried out at the Yorktown, Virginia Naval Weapons Station. Over 650 yd{sup 3} of soil was treated to less than 2.5 mg/kg TNT in approximately 30 days. Initial concentrations were estimated to be 450 mg/kg. The soil was screened and placed into an in-ground, double-lined biocell using a soil fluidizing system.

  17. Treatment of plutonium contaminated soil/sediment from the Mound site using the ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} process

    SciTech Connect

    Negri, M.C.; Swift, N.A.; North, J.P.

    1996-10-01

    The removal and/or treatment of contaminated soil is a major problem facing the US DOE. The EG&G Mound Applied Technologies site in Miamisburg, Ohio, has an estimated 1.5 million cubic feet of soils from past disposal and waste burial practices awaiting remediation from plutonium contamination. This amount includes sediment from the Miami-Erie Canal that was contaminated in 1969 following a pipe- rupture accident. Conventional soil washing techniques that use particle separation would generate too large a waste volume to be economically feasible. Therefore, innovative technologies are needed for the cleanup. The ACT*DE*CON process was developed by SELENTEC for washing soils to selectively dissolve and remove heavy metals and radionuclides. ACT*DE*CON chemically dissolves and removes heavy metals and radionuclides from soils and sediments into an aqueous medium. The ACT*DE*CON process uses oxidative carbonate/chelant chemistry to dissolve the contaminant from the sediment and hold the contaminant in solution. The objective of recent work was to document the proves conditions necessary to achieve the Mound-site and regulatory-cleanup goals using the ACT*DE*CON technology.

  18. Fugitive dust emission source profiles and assessment of selected control strategies for particulate matter at gravel processing sites in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chang-Tang; Chang, Yu-Min; Lin, Wen-Yinn; Wu, Ming-Ching

    2010-10-01

    Particles emitted from gravel processing sites are one contributor to worsening air quality in Taiwan. Major pollution sources at gravel processing sites include gravel and sand piles, unpaved roads, material crushers, and bare ground. This study analyzed fugitive dust emission characteristics at each pollution source using several types of particle samplers, including total suspended particulates (TSP), suspended particulate (PM10), fine suspended particulate (PM2.5), particulate sizer, and dust-fall collectors. Furthermore, silt content and moisture in the gravel were measured to develop particulate emission factors. The results showed that TSP (< 100 microm) concentrations at the boundary of gravel sites ranged from 280 to 1290 microg/m3, which clearly exceeds the Taiwan hourly air quality standard of 500 microg/m3. Moreover, PM10 concentrations, ranging from 135 to 550 microg/m3, were also above the daily air quality standard of 125 microg/m3 and approximately 1.2 and 1.5 times the PM2.5 concentrations, ranging from 105 to 470 microg/m3. The size distribution analysis reveals that mass mean diameter and geometric standard deviation ranged from 3.2 to 5.7 microm and from 2.82 to 5.51, respectively. In this study, spraying surfactant was the most effective control strategy to abate windblown dust from unpaved roads, having a control efficiency of approximately 93%, which is significantly higher than using paved road strategies with a control efficiency of approximately 45%. For paved roads, wet suppression provided the best dust control efficiencies ranging from 50 to 83%. Re-vegetation of disturbed ground had dust control efficiencies ranging from 48 to 64%.

  19. Fluid expulsion sites on the Cascadia accretionary prism: mapping diagenetic deposits with processed GLORIA imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carson, Bobb; Seke, Erol; Paskevich, Valerie F.; Holmes, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

     Point-discharge fluid expulsion on accretionary prisms is commonly indicated by diagenetic deposition of calcium carbonate cements and gas hydrates in near-surface (<10 m below seafloor; mbsf) hemipelagic sediment. The contrasting clastic and diagenetic lithologies should be apparent in side scan images. However, sonar also responds to variations in bottom slope, so unprocessed images mix topographic and lithologic information. We have processed GLORIA imagery from the Oregon continental margin to remove topographic effects. A synthetic side scan image was created initially from Sea Beam bathymetric data and then was subtracted iteratively from the original GLORIA data until topographic features disappeared. The residual image contains high-amplitude backscattering that we attribute to diagenetic deposits associated with fluid discharge, based on submersible mapping, Ocean Drilling Program drilling, and collected samples. Diagenetic deposits are concentrated (1) near an out-of-sequence thrust fault on the second ridge landward of the base of the continental slope, (2) along zones characterized by deep-seated strikeslip faults that cut transversely across the margin, and (3) in undeformed Cascadia Basin deposits which overlie incipient thrust faults seaward of the toe of the prism. There is no evidence of diagenetic deposition associated with the frontal thrust that rises from the dècollement. If the dècollement is an important aquifer, apparently the fluids are passed either to the strike-slip faults which intersect the dècollement or to the incipient faults in Cascadia Basin for expulsion. Diagenetic deposits seaward of the prism toe probably consist dominantly of gas hydrates

  20. The prolactin gene is expressed in the hypothalamic-neurohypophyseal system and the protein is processed into a 14-kDa fragment with activity like 16-kDa prolactin.

    PubMed Central

    Clapp, C; Torner, L; Gutiérrez-Ospina, G; Alcántara, E; López-Gómez, F J; Nagano, M; Kelly, P A; Mejía, S; Morales, M A; Martínez de la Escalera, G

    1994-01-01

    The 23-kDa form of prolactin (PRL) has been proposed to function as both a mature hormone and a prohormone precursor for different uniquely bioactive forms of the molecule. We have shown that the 16-kDa N-terminal fragment of PRL (16K PRL) inhibits angiogenesis via a specific receptor. In addition, 16K PRL stimulates natriuresis and diuresis in the rat, and kidney membranes contain high-affinity specific binding sites for this PRL fragment. 16K PRL can be derived from an enzymatically cleaved form of PRL (cleaved PRL). With the use of a specific 16K PRL antiserum, we have localized a 14-kDa immunoreactive protein in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus and in the neurohypophysis. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of RNA from isolated paraventricular nuclei showed the expression of the full-length PRL mRNA. The neurohypophysis was found to contain the enzymes that produce cleaved PRL, small amounts of PRL, and cleaved PRL. Medium conditioned by neurohypophyseal cultures, enriched with the 14-kDa immunoreactive protein, has antiangiogenic effects that are blocked by the 16K PRL antiserum. These results are consistent with the expression of PRL in the hypothalamic-neurohypophyseal system, and the preferential processing of the protein into a 14-kDa fragment with biological and immunological properties of 16K PRL. Images PMID:7937959

  1. Modeling two-rate adsorption kinetics: Two-site, two-species, bilayer and rearrangement adsorption processes.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Sumit; Tabor, Rico F

    2016-08-15

    The adsorption kinetics of many systems show apparent two-rate processes, where there appears to be resolved fast and slow adsorption steps. Such non-standard adsorption processes cannot be accounted for by conventional modeling methods, motivating new approaches. In this work, we present four different models that can account for two-rate adsorption and are based upon physically realistic processes - two adsorbing species, two surface sites having different energies, bilayer formation and molecular rearrangement modes. Each model is tested using a range of conditions, and the characteristic behavior is explored and compared. In these models, the effects of mass transport and bulk concentration are also accounted for, making them applicable in systems which are transport-limited or attachment-limited, or intermediate between the two. The applicability of these models is demonstrated by fitting exemplar experimental data for each of the four models, selecting the model on the basis of the known physical behavior of the adsorption kinetics. These models can be applied in a wide range of systems, from stagnant adsorption in large volume water treatment to highly dynamic flow conditions relevant to printing, coating and processing applications. PMID:27209397

  2. Advanced technologies for maintenance of electrical systems and equipment at the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Husler, R.O.; Weir, T.J.

    1991-12-31

    An enhanced maintenance program is being established to characterize and monitor cables, components, and process response at the Savannah River Site, Defense Waste Processing Facility. This facility was designed and constructed to immobilize the radioactive waste currently stored in underground storage tanks and is expected to begin operation in 1993. The plant is initiating the program to baseline and monitor instrument and control (I&C) and electrical equipment, remote process equipment, embedded instrument and control cables, and in-cell jumper cables used in the facility. This program is based on the electronic characterization and diagnostic (ECAD) system which was modified to include process response analysis and to meet rigid Department of Energy equipment requirements. The system consists of computer-automated, state-of-the-art electronics. The data that are gathered are stored in a computerized database for analysis, trending, and troubleshooting. It is anticipated that the data which are gathered and trended will aid in life extension for the facility.

  3. Hydrochemical field investigations at a potential CO2 storage site - analysis of natural salinisation processes as an indicator for deep reaching flow processes in Eastern Brandenburg (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endler, Ricarda; Jahnke, Christoph; Ludwig, Oliver

    2013-04-01

    The storage of CO2 in deep saline aquifers may cause an upward brine migration as a result of the pressure increase and brine displacement in the reservoir. With regard to a possible endangerment for regional freshwater resources the understanding of natural and induced migration processes of brines is therefore of great importance for the evaluation of potential storage sites. Within the framework of the BMBF project 'brine - CO2 storage in Eastern Brandenburg' (Germany), hydrochemical investigations were carried out to get an idea of the sources of salinisation, the migration pathways and the current processes and interactions between salt- and freshwater aquifers above a potential CO2 storage reservoir. This reservoir is located at a salt anticline structure in a Lower Triassic sandstone formation at a depth of about 1000 m. Since the 19th century freshwater salinisation and salinised soils in part with populations of halophytes were observed in Brandenburg. Both, fault zones in the Mesozoic/Tertiary and Pleistocene erosion processes led locally to a leakage of the Oligocene Rupelian clay formation, the most important confining layer between Mesozoic saltwater and Cenozoic freshwater aquifers, and thus potential migration pathways for brines. Possible sources for the salinisation are the leaching of deep Permian salt structures as well as in situ brackish or marine waters from Tertiary and Mesozoic sediments. Still unclear is especially the timescale of the salinisation processes in the shallow aquifers. To answer these questions, extensive groundwater samples from Pleistocene, Tertiary and Mesozoic aquifers down to depths of 450 m were taken in an investigation area of 50 x 50 km2 surrounding the potential storage site. In addition, deep thermal waters in Brandenburg in depths down to 1700 m were sampled to have comparable data for the storage reservoir and the deep caprock formations. Field parameters and a wide range of hydrochemical indicators (anions

  4. The consideration of geological uncertainty in the siting process for a Geological Disposal Facility for radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathers, Steve; McEvoy, Fiona; Shaw, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Any decision about the site of a Geological Disposal Facility at depth for medium to high level radioactive waste is based on a safety case which in turn is based on an understanding of the geological environment which enables, for example, understanding groundwater flows and groundwater chemical composition. Because the information on which geological understanding is based cannot be fully understood, it is important to ensure that: i. Inferences are made from data in a way that is consistent with the data. ii. The uncertainty in the inferred information is described, quantitatively where this is appropriate. Despite these uncertainties decisions can and must be made, and so the implications of the uncertainty need to be understood and quantified. To achieve this it is important to ensure that: i. An understanding of how error propagates in all models and decision tools. Information which is collected to support the decision-making process may be used as input into models of various kinds to generate further information. For example, a process model may be used to predict groundwater flows, so uncertainty in the properties which are input to the model (e.g. on rock porosity and structure) will give rise to uncertainty in the model predictions. Understanding how this happens is called the analysis of error propagation. It is important that there is an understanding of how error propagates in all models and decision tools, and therefore knowledge of how much uncertainty remains in the process at any stage. As successive phases of data collection take place the analysis of error propagation shows how the uncertainty in key model outputs is gradually reduced. ii. The implications of all uncertainties can be traced through the process. A clear analysis of the decision-making process is necessary so that the implications of all uncertainties can be traced through the process. This means that, when a final decision is made, one can state with a high level of confidence

  5. Environmental assessment on a soil washing process of a Pb-contaminated shooting range site: a case study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Hyung; Hwang, Bo-Ram; Moon, Deok-Hyun; Kim, Yong-Seok; Baek, Kitae

    2013-12-01

    In this study, an environmental assessment on a soil washing process for the remediation of a Pb-contaminated shooting range site was conducted, using a green and sustainable remediation tool, i.e., SiteWise ver. 2, based on data relating specifically to the actual remediation project. The entire soil washing process was classified into four major stages, consisting of soil excavation (stage I), physical separation (stage II), acid-based (0.2 N HCl) chemical extraction (stage III), and wastewater treatment (stage IV). Environmental footprints, including greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy consumption, water consumption, and critical air pollutant productions such as PM10, NO x , and SO x , were calculated, and the relative contribution of each stage was analyzed in the environmental assessment. In stage I, the relative contribution of the PM10 emissions was 55.3 % because the soil excavation emitted the fine particles. In stage II, the relative contribution of NO x and SO x emissions was 42.5 and 52.5 %, respectively, which resulted from electricity consumption for the operation of the separator. Stage III was the main contributing factor to 63.1 % of the GHG emissions, 67.5 % of total energy used, and 37.4 % of water consumptions. The relatively high contribution of stage III comes from use of consumable chemicals such as HCl and water-based extraction processes. In stage IV, the relative contributions of GHG emissions, total energy used, and NO x and SO x emissions were 23.2, 19.4, 19.5, and 25.3 %, respectively, which were caused by chemical and electricity demands for system operation. In conclusion, consumable chemicals such as HCl and NaOH, electric energy consumption for system operation, and equipment use for soil excavation were determined to be the major sources of environmental pollution to occur during the soil washing process. Especially, the acid-based chemical extraction process should be avoided in order to improve the sustainability of soil

  6. Processing capabilties for the elimination of contaminated metal scrapyards at DOE/ORO-managed sites. [Metal smelting facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, J.E.; Williams, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Capabilities exist for reducing all the contaminated nickel, aluminum, and copper scrap to ingot form by smelting. Processing these metals at existing facilities could be completed in about 5 or 6 years. However, these metals represent only about 20% of the total metal inventories currently on hand at the DOE/ORO-managed sites. No provisions have been made for the ferrous scrap. Most of the ferrous scrap is unclassified and does not require secured storage. Also, the potential resale value of the ferrous scrap at about $100 per ton is very low in comparison. Consequently, this scrap has been allowed to accumulate. With several modifications and equipment additions, the induction melter at PGDP could begin processing ferrous scrap after its commitment to nickel and aluminum. The PGDP smelter is a retrofit installation, and annual throughput capabilities are limited. Processing of the existing ferrous scrap inventories would not be completed until the FY 1995-2000 time frame. An alternative proposal has been the installation of induction melters at the other two enrichment facilities. Conceptual design of a generic metal smelting facility is under way. The design study includes capital and operating costs for scrap preparation through ingot storage at an annual throughput of 10,000 tons per year. Facility design includes an induction melter with the capability of melting both ferrous and nonferrous metals. After three years of operation with scrapyard feed, the smelter would have excess capacity to support on-site decontamination and decomissioning projects or upgrading programs. The metal smelting facility has been proposed for FY 1984 line item funding with start-up operations in FY 1986.

  7. The Effect on the Flow Conditions of Chinese Sturgeons’ Spawning Sites in the Process of Peak Regulation between the Three Gorges Dam and Gezhou Dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Guo; Minghai, Huang; Feng, Jin

    Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis Gray) is a kind of key protected fish in ChangJiang river. Recently the Three Gorges dam has run, the peak regulation process between the two dams has serious effect on the formed spawning sites. Based on the previous research results of suitable flow conditions about the spawning sites, this article builds a 2-D shallow water numerical model, calculates the flow conditions of the spawning sites in the process of peak regulation. The results show that the water depth and velocity are various and affect the spawning sites in one 24-hours process of peak regulation, as a whole, when the discharge is below 9000 m3/s and 7500 m3/s respectively, the two spawning sites will be affected seriously.

  8. Remediation of acid mine drainage at the friendship hill national historic site with a pulsed limestone bed process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sibrell, P.L.; Watten, B.; Boone, T.; ,

    2003-01-01

    A new process utilizing pulsed fluidized limestone beds was tested for the remediation of acid mine drainage at the Friendship Hill National Historic Site, in southwestern Pennsylvania. A 230 liter-per-minute treatment system was constructed and operated over a fourteen-month period from June 2000 through September 2001. Over this period of time, 50,000 metric tons of limestone were used to treat 50 million liters of water. The influent water pH was 2.5 and acidity was 1000 mg/L as CaCO3. Despite the high potential for armoring at the site, effluent pH during normal plant operation ranged from 5.7 to 7.8 and averaged 6.8. As a result of the high influent acidity, sufficient CO2 was generated and recycled to provide a net alkaline discharge with about 50 mg/L as CaCO3 alkalinity. Additions of commercial CO2 increased effluent alkalinity to as high as 300 mg/L, and could be a useful process management tool for transient high flows or acidities. Metal removal rates were 95% for aluminum (60 mg/L in influent), 50 to 90% for iron (Fe), depending on the ratio of ferrous to ferric iron, which varied seasonally (200 mg/L in influent), and <10% of manganese (Mn) (10 mg/L in influent). Ferrous iron and Mn removal was incomplete because of the high pH required for precipitation of these species. Iron removal could be improved by increased aeration following neutralization, and Mn removal could be effected by a post treatment passive settling/oxidation pond. Metal hydroxide sludges were settled in settling tanks, and then hauled from the site for aesthetic purposes. Over 450 metric tons of sludge were removed from the water over the life of the project. The dried sludge was tested by the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Protocol (TCLP) and was found to be non-hazardous. Treatment costs were $43,000 per year and $1.08 per m 3, but could be decreased to $22,000 and $0.51 per m3 by decreasing labor use and by onsite sludge handling. These results confirm the utility of the new

  9. Conservation of the prohormone convertase gene family in metazoa: analysis of cDNAs encoding a PC3-like protein from hydra.

    PubMed Central

    Chan, S J; Oliva, A A; LaMendola, J; Grens, A; Bode, H; Steiner, D F

    1992-01-01

    A subclass of proteolytic enzymes that correctly cleave precursor proteins at paired basic residues and are structurally related to the bacterial subtilisins has recently been identified. In yeast, a single membrane-bound proteolytic processing enzyme encoded by the kex2 gene has been found, whereas in higher vertebrates cDNAs encoding four distinct enzymes (PC2, PC3, furin, and PACE 4) have been identified. Like kex2, furin (also known as PACE) contains a hydrophobic transmembrane domain, but PC2, PC3, and PACE 4 lack this feature. All five enzymes exhibit striking similarities in their catalytic domains, and this suggests that they have arisen from a common ancestral subtilisin-like gene. We report here the identification of cDNAs encoding a protein that is similar in structure to PC3 from a simple metazoan, Hydra vulgaris (formerly Hydra attenuata). cDNAs encoding two isoforms of this PC3-like enzyme were obtained that differ only in their carboxyl-terminal sequences, probably due to alternative splicing of a common pre-mRNA. Neither form contains a transmembrane domain. Predicted amino acid sequence comparisons revealed that the hydra PC3-like enzyme is 55.4% and 56.7% identical in the catalytic domain to mouse PC3 and human furin, respectively. RNA blot analyses revealed that the PC3-like RNA is expressed predominantly in the hydra body column and not in the head region, although the hydra head contains a high density of nerve cells, which synthesize a variety of neuropeptides. For this reason, we suspect that another proprotein cleavage enzyme isoform may be expressed in head nerve cells. The isolation of a PC3-like cDNA from hydra is consistent with the presence of neuroendocrine cells and indicates that the PC/furin gene family has been well conserved in all metazoa. A simplified nomenclature for the group of mammalian processing proteases is proposed. Images PMID:1495957

  10. Pilot-scale ISCO treatment of a MtBE contaminated site using a Fenton-like process.

    PubMed

    Innocenti, Ivan; Verginelli, Iason; Massetti, Felicia; Piscitelli, Daniela; Gavasci, Renato; Baciocchi, Renato

    2014-07-01

    This paper reports about a pilot-scale feasibility study of In-Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) application based on the use of stabilized hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by naturally occurring iron minerals (Fenton-like process) to a site formerly used for fuel storage and contaminated by MtBE. The stratigraphy of the site consists of a 2-3 meter backfill layer followed by a 3-4 meter low permeability layer, that confines the main aquifer, affected by a widespread MtBE groundwater contamination with concentrations up to 4000 μg/L, also with the presence of petroleum hydrocarbons. The design of the pilot-scale treatment was based on the integration of the results obtained from experimental and numerical modeling accounting for the technological and regulatory constraints existing in the site to be remediated. In particular, lab-scale batch tests allowed the selection of the most suitable operating conditions. Then, this information was implemented in a numerical software that allowed to define the injection and monitoring layout and to predict the propagation of hydrogen peroxide in groundwater. The pilot-scale field results confirmed the effective propagation of hydrogen peroxide in nearly all the target area (around 75 m(2) using 3 injection wells). As far as the MtBE removal is concerned, the ISCO application allowed us to meet the clean-up goals in an area of 60 m(2). Besides, the concentration of TBA, i.e. a potential by-product of MtBE oxidation, was actually reduced after the ISCO treatment. The results of the pilot-scale test suggest that ISCO may be a suitable option for the remediation of the groundwater plume contaminated by MtBE, providing the background data for the design and cost-estimate of the full-scale treatment. PMID:24518270

  11. Pilot-scale ISCO treatment of a MtBE contaminated site using a Fenton-like process.

    PubMed

    Innocenti, Ivan; Verginelli, Iason; Massetti, Felicia; Piscitelli, Daniela; Gavasci, Renato; Baciocchi, Renato

    2014-07-01

    This paper reports about a pilot-scale feasibility study of In-Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) application based on the use of stabilized hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by naturally occurring iron minerals (Fenton-like process) to a site formerly used for fuel storage and contaminated by MtBE. The stratigraphy of the site consists of a 2-3 meter backfill layer followed by a 3-4 meter low permeability layer, that confines the main aquifer, affected by a widespread MtBE groundwater contamination with concentrations up to 4000 μg/L, also with the presence of petroleum hydrocarbons. The design of the pilot-scale treatment was based on the integration of the results obtained from experimental and numerical modeling accounting for the technological and regulatory constraints existing in the site to be remediated. In particular, lab-scale batch tests allowed the selection of the most suitable operating conditions. Then, this information was implemented in a numerical software that allowed to define the injection and monitoring layout and to predict the propagation of hydrogen peroxide in groundwater. The pilot-scale field results confirmed the effective propagation of hydrogen peroxide in nearly all the target area (around 75 m(2) using 3 injection wells). As far as the MtBE removal is concerned, the ISCO application allowed us to meet the clean-up goals in an area of 60 m(2). Besides, the concentration of TBA, i.e. a potential by-product of MtBE oxidation, was actually reduced after the ISCO treatment. The results of the pilot-scale test suggest that ISCO may be a suitable option for the remediation of the groundwater plume contaminated by MtBE, providing the background data for the design and cost-estimate of the full-scale treatment.

  12. A novel fixed fibre biofilm membrane process for on-site greywater reclamation requiring no fouling control.

    PubMed

    Jabornig, Simon; Podmirseg, Sabine Marie

    2015-03-01

    On-site greywater treatment and reuse in urban areas bears the potential to reduce huge quantities of wastewater and lower freshwater shortages. Until now dissemination of small, single household applications has been rather limited as simple and high quality water producing, but also cost-effective treatment units have not been developed so far. This paper proposes a new process, based on a concurrently working hollow-fibre membrane as fixed biofilm support and filtration device. Bioreactor characteristics, influence of different aeration rates, membrane flux development, as well as structure and composition of biofilm were monitored to evaluate the performance of the tested pilot unit. The introduced process achieved international water reuse guidelines, worked soundly and could, compared to conventional micro MBR, significantly reduce energy demand (<1.4 kWh m(-3)). Fouling control by air scouring and chemical cleaning was not required once flux had stabilized. The biofilm analysis showed a porous, spongy-like structure. Microbiological investigation revealed a community of sheathed bacteria and nematodes that could play an important role in the flux stabilisation effect. In general, the study confirmed the suitability of the presented process for greywater treatment and provides valuable design data for future optimization and systematic analysis. PMID:25220525

  13. A novel fixed fibre biofilm membrane process for on-site greywater reclamation requiring no fouling control.

    PubMed

    Jabornig, Simon; Podmirseg, Sabine Marie

    2015-03-01

    On-site greywater treatment and reuse in urban areas bears the potential to reduce huge quantities of wastewater and lower freshwater shortages. Until now dissemination of small, single household applications has been rather limited as simple and high quality water producing, but also cost-effective treatment units have not been developed so far. This paper proposes a new process, based on a concurrently working hollow-fibre membrane as fixed biofilm support and filtration device. Bioreactor characteristics, influence of different aeration rates, membrane flux development, as well as structure and composition of biofilm were monitored to evaluate the performance of the tested pilot unit. The introduced process achieved international water reuse guidelines, worked soundly and could, compared to conventional micro MBR, significantly reduce energy demand (<1.4 kWh m(-3)). Fouling control by air scouring and chemical cleaning was not required once flux had stabilized. The biofilm analysis showed a porous, spongy-like structure. Microbiological investigation revealed a community of sheathed bacteria and nematodes that could play an important role in the flux stabilisation effect. In general, the study confirmed the suitability of the presented process for greywater treatment and provides valuable design data for future optimization and systematic analysis.

  14. The removal of odors and pyrophorics from produced water sites, sour water tanks, and process equipment using potassium permanganate

    SciTech Connect

    Vella, P.

    1996-12-31

    In the production of oil, the water that is generated contains a number of different organic and inorganic compounds. The compounds that commonly cause problems are those having an odor such as mercaptans and hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S). Disposal of this water is becoming increasingly difficult due to environmental restrictions, especially concerning sulfides. Previous methods for disposal, such as deep well injection, are no longer acceptable. Other alternatives must be found. A similar problem exists at a refinery with respect to sour water. Sour water is defined as any water, process or otherwise, that is contaminated with H{sub 2}S. The sour water is usually cycled between a sour water tank and the unit process requiring the water. At some point in time, the water becomes too contaminated for use in the process, and must be discharged. The water is usually stored in a sour water tank, which can also contain organic sludge, suspended solids, dissolved organics, and other hazardous materials. This paper describes the use of potassium permanganate for the removal of odors at production/refining sites.

  15. Feasibility study for the processing of Hanford Site cesium and strontium isotopic sources in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Anantatmula, R.P.; Watrous, R.A.; Nelson, J.L.; Perez, J.M.; Peters, R.D.; Peterson, M.E.

    1991-09-01

    The final environmental impact statement for the disposal of defense-related wastes at the Hanford Site (Final Environmental Impact Statement: Disposal of Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic and Tank Wastes [HDW-EIS] [DOE 1987]) states that the preferred alternative for disposal of cesium and strontium wastes at the Hanford Site will be to package and ship these wastes to the commercial high-level waste repository. The Record of Decision for this EIS states that before shipment to a geologic repository, these wastes will be packaged in accordance with repository waste acceptance criteria. However, the high cost per canister for repository disposal and uncertainty about the acceptability of overpacked capsules by the repository suggest that additional alternative means of disposal be considered. Vitrification of the cesium and strontium salts in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) has been identified as a possible alternative to overpacking. Subsequently, Westinghouse Hanford Company`s (Westinghouse Hanford) Projects Technical Support Office undertook a feasibility study to determine if any significant technical issues preclude the vitrification of the cesium and strontium salts. Based on the information presented in this report, it is considered technically feasible to blend the cesium chloride and strontium fluoride salts with neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) and/or complexant concentrate (CC) waste feedstreams, or to blend the salts with fresh frit and process the waste through the HWVP.

  16. Sulfates on Mars as Markers of Aqueous Processes: An Integrated Multidisciplinary Study of Minerals, Mars Analog sites and Recent Mission Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, J. L.; Lane, M. D.; Dyar, M. D.; Brown, A. J.; Parente, M.

    2006-01-01

    Our analyses of sulfate minerals, analog sites, and Martian spectra and spectral images is focused on characterization of the Martian surface and in particular identification of aqueous processes there.

  17. Evaluation by N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide concentrations and ross scoring of the efficacy of digoxin in the treatment of heart failure secondary to congenital heart disease with left-to-right shunts.

    PubMed

    Elkiran, Ozlem; Sandikkaya, Ayse; Kocak, Gulendam; Karakurt, Cemsit; Taskapan, Cagatay; Yologlu, Saim

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of digoxin in children with heart failure secondary to left-to-right shunt lesions and normal left ventricular systolic function. The study registered 37 such patients (ages 10 days to 24 months, groups 1 and 2) and used 20 healthy children as a control group (group 3). Left ventricular systolic function, as assessed by conventional echocardiography, was normal in all the subjects. Congestive heart failure was diagnosed by clinical evaluation and modified Ross scoring. Plasma N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentrations and complete blood counts were assessed in all the children. Group 1 was treated with digoxin, enalapril, and furosemide and group 2 with enalapril and furosemide. Approximately 1 month after starting treatment, the patients were reevaluated by physical and echocardiographic examinations, modified Ross scoring, plasma NT-proBNP concentrations, and complete blood counts. The pre- and posttreatment Ross scores of group 1 (p = 0.377) and group 2 (p = 0.616) did not differ significantly. The NT-proBNP values in both groups decreased after treatment (p = 0.0001). The pre- and posttreatment NT-proBNP values did not differ significantly in group 1 (p = 0.094)) and group 2 (p = 0.372). The pretreatment NT-proBNP values in groups 1 and 2 (p = 0.0001) were significantly higher than in the control group (p = 0.003). A smaller difference was observed between posttreatment NT-proBNP values in group 1 and the control group (p = 0.045). We found no significant difference between the posttreatment NT-proBNP values of group 2 and those of the control group (p = 0.271). The study showed that both treatments currently used to treat heart failure secondary to congenital heart disease with left-to-right shunts and preserved left ventricular systolic function are effective and do not differ significantly. Thus, digoxin does not provide any extra benefit in the treatment of such patients.

  18. Spatio-temporal modelling of electrical supply systems to optimize the site planning process for the "power to mobility" technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karl, Florian; Zink, Roland

    2016-04-01

    The transformation of the energy sector towards decentralized renewable energies (RE) requires also storage systems to ensure security of supply. The new "Power to Mobility" (PtM) technology is one potential solution to use electrical overproduction to produce methane for i.e. gas vehicles. Motivated by these fact, the paper presents a methodology for a GIS-based temporal modelling of the power grid, to optimize the site planning process for the new PtM-technology. The modelling approach is based on a combination of the software QuantumGIS for the geographical and topological energy supply structure and OpenDSS for the net modelling. For a case study (work in progress) of the city of Straubing (Lower Bavaria) the parameters of the model are quantified. The presentation will discuss the methodology as well as the first results with a view to the application on a regional scale.

  19. Report of ground water monitoring for expansion of the golf course, Salt Lake City, Utah, Vitro Processing Site. Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    Ground water elevations of the shallow unconfined aquifer have been monitored at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, Vitro Processing site, Salt Lake City, Utah, for the purposes of characterizing ground water flow conditions and evaluating the effects of irrigation of the golf driving range. Data collected, to date, show that the water table reached its highest level for the year during March and April 1995. From May through July 1995, the water table elevations decreased in most monitor wells due to less precipitation and higher evapotranspiration. Review and evaluation of collected data suggest that irrigation of the golf driving range will have negligible effects on water levels and ground water flow patterns if rates of irrigation do not significantly exceed future rates of evapotranspiration.

  20. Splice acceptor site mutation of the transporter associated with antigen processing-1 gene in human bare lymphocyte syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Hiroshi; Murata, Shigeo; Yabe, Toshio; Shimbara, Naoki; Keicho, Naoto; Kashiwase, Kouichi; Watanabe, Kaoru; Ishikawa, Yoshihide; Akaza, Tatsuya; Tadokoro, Kenji; Tohma, Shigeto; Inoue, Tetsufumi; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Tanaka, Keiji; Juji, Takeo

    1999-01-01

    Expression of histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules on the cell surface depends on the heterodimer of the transporter associated with antigen processing 1 and 2 (TAP1 and TAP2), which transport peptides cleaved by proteasome to the class I molecules. Defects in the TAP2 protein have been reported in two families with HLA class I deficiency, the so-called bare lymphocyte syndrome (BLS) type I. We have, to our knowledge, identified for the first time a splice site mutation in the TAP1 gene of another BLS patient. In addition, class I heavy chains (HCs) did not form the normal complex with tapasin in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of the cells of our patient. J. Clin. Invest. 103:649–652 (1999) PMID:10074494

  1. Concentrations and forms of heavy metals around two ore processing sites in Katanga, Democratic Republic of Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mees, F.; Masalehdani, M. N. N.; De Putter, T.; D'Hollander, C.; Van Biezen, E.; Mujinya, B. B.; Potdevin, J. L.; Van Ranst, E.

    2013-01-01

    The concentration of heavy metals and the forms in which they occur were determined for tailings and derived deposits of two major processing sites of Cu-Co and Cu-Zn-(Pb) ores in the Katanga Copperbelt (Kipushi, Likasi). They were studied by a combination of methods, focussed on the nature of water- and EDTA-extractable compounds, the mineralogical composition of tailings and associated secondary minerals, and textural features of metal-bearing efflorescences. For the Kipushi area, sulfide minerals in tailings of decantation basins are identified as the source of extractable metals they contain, but input from an external source rather than local oxidation of substrate components is responsible for high levels of contamination in the Likasi area. Contaminated areas around Likasi are characterized by an abundance of Mg-sulfate efflorescences with high concentrations of cobalt and other metals, acting as an important vector for further dispersion of contaminants by wind and water.

  2. Processes and Parameters Controlling the Extent of Methanogenic Conditions in the Unsaturated Zone of a Crude Oil Spill Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molins, S.; Mayer, K.

    2007-12-01

    Gas concentrations measured in the vadose zone at a crude oil spill site near Bemidji, MN, show that a large area near the oil body is currently dominated by methanogenic conditions. Away from the oil body methane concentrations decrease as it is degraded by methanotrophic bacteria under aerobic conditions. Numerical simulations have been conducted to quantify the contributions of the relevant transport and reaction processes to the production and attenuation of methane in the vadose zone. Methane is generated in the vadose zone by anaerobic degradation of oil and is also added by fluxes from the capillary fringe and the saturated zone. Gas diffusion and advection contribute to the transport of methane in the lateral direction and towards the ground surface. Attenuation of methane concentrations occurs through aerobic oxidation in the presence of methanotrophic bacteria. Critical parameters were varied within bounds provided by field data and previous studies. Simulation results confirm that the layered sediment structure present at the site plays a significant role in explaining the observed distribution of gases in the vadose zone. The presence of a low permeability lens in the area upgradient from the source results in higher moisture contents, limiting diffusion of oxygen into the zone of methane production, and contributes to the spread of methane. Diffusion was identified as the most significant transport mechanism for gases in the vadose zone. However, field-observed zones of depleted and enriched N2 and Ar concentrations could only be explained by the development of advective fluxes induced by reactive processes (methanogenesis and methanotrophy). The zones of gas production are characterized by slightly increased total gas pressures and low concentrations of N2 and Ar, while zones of gas consumption show slightly depressed total gas pressures and high concentrations of N2 and Ar. The simulations suggest that the advective flux that develops between these

  3. TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE AS SITES OF THE p-PROCESS: TWO-DIMENSIONAL MODELS COUPLED TO NUCLEOSYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect

    Travaglio, C.; Gallino, R.; Roepke, F. K.; Hillebrandt, W. E-mail: claudia.travaglio@b2fh.org

    2011-10-01

    Beyond Fe, there is a class of 35 proton-rich nuclides, between {sup 74}Se and {sup 196}Hg, called p-nuclei. They are bypassed by the s and r neutron capture processes and are typically 10-1000 times less abundant than the s- and/or r-isotopes in the solar system. The bulk of p-isotopes is created in the 'gamma processes' by sequences of photodisintegrations and beta decays in explosive conditions in both core collapse supernovae (SNe II) and in Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). SNe II contribute to the production of p-nuclei through explosive neon and oxygen burning. However, the major problem in SN II ejecta is a general underproduction of the light p-nuclei for A < 120. We explore SNe Ia as p-process sites in the framework of a two-dimensional SN Ia delayed detonation model as well as pure deflagration models. The white dwarf precursor is assumed to have reached the Chandrasekhar mass in a binary system by mass accretion from a giant/main-sequence companion. We use enhanced s-seed distributions, with seeds directly obtained from a sequence of thermal pulse instabilities both in the asymptotic giant branch phase and in the accreted material. We apply the tracer-particle method to reconstruct the nucleosynthesis by the thermal histories of Lagrangian particles, passively advected in the hydrodynamic calculations. For each particle, we follow the explosive nucleosynthesis with a detailed nuclear reaction network for all isotopes up to {sup 209}Bi. We select tracers within the typical temperature range for p-process production, (1.5-3.7) x 10{sup 9} K, and analyze in detail their behavior, exploring the influence of different s-process distributions on the p-process nucleosynthesis. In addition, we discuss the sensitivity of p-process production to parameters of the explosion mechanism, taking into account the consequences on Fe and alpha elements. We find that SNe Ia can produce a large amount of p-nuclei, both the light p-nuclei below A = 120 and the heavy-p nuclei, at

  4. Salt Processing Through Ion Exchange at the Savannah River Site Selection of Exchange Media and Column Configuration - 9198

    SciTech Connect

    Spires, Renee; Punch, Timothy; McCabe, Daniel

    2009-02-11

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed, modeled, and tested several different ion exchange media and column designs for cesium removal. One elutable resin and one non-elutable resin were considered for this salt processing application. Deployment of non-elutable Crystalline Silicotitanate and elutable Resorcinol Formaldehyde in several different column configurations were assessed in a formal Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE). Salt solutions were selected that would allow a grouping of non-compliant tanks to be closed. Tests were run with the elutable resin to determine compatibility with the resin configuration required for an in-tank ion exchange system. Models were run to estimate the ion exchange cycles required with the two resins in several column configurations. Material balance calculations were performed to estimate the impact on the High Level Waste (HLW) system at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Conceptual process diagrams were used to support the hazard analysis. Data from the hazard analysis was used to determine the relative impact on safety. This report will discuss the technical inputs, SEE methods, results and path forward to complete the technical maturation of ion exchange.

  5. QUALIFICATION OF A RADIOACTIVE HIGH ALUMINUM GLASS FOR PROCESSINGIN THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Bibler, N; John Pareizs, J; Tommy Edwards,T; Charles02 Coleman, C; Charles Crawford, C

    2008-01-29

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS) the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has been immobilizing SRS's radioactive high level waste (HLW) sludge into a borosilicate glass for approximately eleven years. Currently the DWPF is immobilizing HLW sludge in Sludge Batch 4 (SB4). Each sludge batch is nominally two million liters of HLW and produces nominally five hundred stainless steel canisters 0.6 meters in diameter and 3 meters tall filled with the borosilicate glass. In SB4 and earlier sludge batches, the Al concentration has always been rather low, (less than 9.5 weight percent based on total dried solids). It is expected that in the future the Al concentrations will increase due to the changing composition of the HLW. Higher Al concentrations could introduce problems because of its known effect on the viscosity of glass melts and increase the possibility of the precipitation of nepheline in the final glass and decrease its durability. In 2006 Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) used DWPF processes to immobilize a radioactive HLW slurry containing 14 weight percent Al to ensure that this waste is viable for future DWPF processing. This paper presents results of the characterization of the high Al glass prepared in that demonstration. At SRNL, a sample of the processed high Al HLW slurry was mixed with an appropriate glass frit as performed in the DWPF to make a waste glass containing nominally 30% waste oxides. The glass was prepared by melting the frit and waste remotely at 1150 C. The glass was then characterized by: (1) determining the chemical composition of the glass including the concentrations of several actinide and U-235 fission products; (2) calculating the oxide waste loading of the glass based on the chemical composition and comparing it to that of the target; (3) determining if the glass composition met the DWPF processing constraints such as glass melt viscosity and liquidus temperature along with a waste form affecting constraint that

  6. Integrating ecosystems measurements from multiple eddy-covariance sites to a simple model of ecosystem process - Are there possibilities for a uniform model calibration?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minunno, Francesco; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Launiainen, Samuli; Mäkelä, Annikki

    2014-05-01

    Biogeochemical models quantify the material and energy flux exchanges between biosphere, atmosphere and soil, however there is still considerable uncertainty underpinning model structure and parametrization. The increasing availability of data from of multiple sources provides useful information for model calibration and validation at different space and time scales. We calibrated a simplified ecosystem process model PRELES to data from multiple sites. In this work we had the following objective: to compare a multi-site calibration and site-specific calibrations, in order to test if PRELES is a model of general applicability, and to test how well one parameterization can predict ecosystem fluxes. Model calibration and evaluation were carried out by the means of the Bayesian method; Bayesian calibration (BC) and Bayesian model comparison (BMC) were used to quantify the uncertainty in model parameters and model structure. Evapotranspiration (ET) and gross primary production (GPP) measurements collected in 9 sites of Finland and Sweden were used in the study; half dataset was used for model calibrations and half for the comparative analyses. 10 BCs were performed; the model was independently calibrated for each of the nine sites (site-specific calibrations) and a multi-site calibration was achieved using the data from all the sites in one BC. Then 9 BMCs were carried out, one for each site, using output from the multi-site and the site-specific versions of PRELES. Similar estimates were obtained for the parameters at which model outputs are most sensitive. Not surprisingly, the joint posterior distribution achieved through the multi-site calibration was characterized by lower uncertainty, because more data were involved in the calibration process. No significant differences were encountered in the prediction of the multi-site and site-specific versions of PRELES, and after BMC, we concluded that the model can be reliably used at regional scale to simulate carbon and

  7. TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF BULK VITRIFICATION PROCESS & PRODUCT FOR TANK WASTE TREATMENT AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    SCHAUS, P.S.

    2006-07-21

    At the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) is being constructed to immobilize both high-level waste (IUW) for disposal in a national repository and low-activity waste (LAW) for onsite, near-surface disposal. The schedule-controlling step for the WTP Project is vitrification of the large volume of LAW, current capacity of the WTP (as planned) would require 50 years to treat the Hanford tank waste, if the entire LAW volume were to be processed through the WTP. To reduce the time and cost for treatment of Hanford Tank Waste, and as required by the Tank Waste Remediation System Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision and the Hanford Federal Facility Consent Agreement (Tn-Party Agreement), DOE plans to supplement the LAW treatment capacity of the WTP. Since 2002, DOE, in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency and State of Washington Department of Ecology has been evaluating technologies that could provide safe and effective supplemental treatment of LAW. Current efforts at Hanford are intended to provide additional information to aid a joint agency decision on which technology will be used to supplement the WTP. A Research, Development and Demonstration permit has been issued by the State of Washington to build and (for a limited time) operate a Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) facility to provide information for the decision on a supplemental treatment technology for up to 50% of the LAW. In the Bulk Vitrification (BV) process, LAW, soil, and glass-forming chemicals are mixed, dried, and placed in a refractory-lined box, Electric current, supplied through two graphite electrodes in the box, melts the waste feed, producing a durable glass waste-form. Although recent modifications to the process have resulted in significant improvements, there are continuing technical concerns.

  8. Sea surface carbon dioxide at the Georgia time series site (2006-2007): Air-sea flux and controlling processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Liang; Cai, Wei-Jun; Hu, Xinping; Sabine, Christopher; Jones, Stacy; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Jiang, Li-Qing; Reimer, Janet J.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) in surface seawater was continuously recorded every three hours from 18 July 2006 through 31 October 2007 using a moored autonomous pCO2 (MAPCO2) system deployed on the Gray's Reef buoy off the coast of Georgia, USA. Surface water pCO2 (average 373 ± 52 μatm) showed a clear seasonal pattern, undersaturated with respect to the atmosphere in cold months and generally oversaturated in warm months. High temporal resolution observations revealed important events not captured in previous ship-based observations, such as sporadically occurring biological CO2 uptake during April-June 2007. In addition to a qualitative analysis of the primary drivers of pCO2 variability based on property regressions, we quantified contributions of temperature, air-sea exchange, mixing, and biological processes to monthly pCO2 variations using a 1-D mass budget model. Although temperature played a dominant role in the annual cycle of pCO2, river inputs especially in the wet season, biological respiration in peak summer, and biological production during April-June 2007 also substantially influenced seawater pCO2. Furthermore, sea surface pCO2 was higher in September-October 2007 than in September-October 2006, associated with increased river inputs in fall 2007. On an annual basis this site was a moderate atmospheric CO2 sink, and was autotrophic as revealed by monthly mean net community production (NCP) in the mixed layer. If the sporadic short productive events during April-May 2007 were missed by the sampling schedule, one would conclude erroneously that the site is heterotrophic. While previous ship-based pCO2 data collected around this buoy site agreed with the buoy CO2 data on seasonal scales, high resolution buoy observations revealed that the cruise-based surveys undersampled temporal variability in coastal waters, which could greatly bias the estimates of air-sea CO2 fluxes or annual NCP, and even produce contradictory results.

  9. Establishment of a Cost-Effective and Robust Planning Basis for the Processing of M-91 Waste at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Wayne L.; Parker, Brian M.

    2004-07-30

    This report identifies and evaluates viable alternatives for the accelerated processing of Hanford Site transuranic (TRU) and mixed low-level wastes (MLLW) that cannot be processed using existing site capabilities. Accelerated processing of these waste streams will lead to earlier reduction of risk and considerable life-cycle cost savings. The processing need is to handle both oversized MLLW and TRU containers as well as containers with surface contact dose rates greater than 200 mrem/hr. This capability is known as the ''M-91'' processing capability required by the Tri-Party Agreement milestone M-91--01. The new, phased approach proposed in this evaluation would use a combination of existing and planned processing capabilities to treat and more easily manage contact-handled waste streams first and would provide for earlier processing of these wastes.

  10. Position paper on the applicability of supplemental standards to the uppermost aquifer at the Uranium Mill Tailings Vitro Processing Site, Salt Lake City, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This report documents the results of the evaluation of the potential applicability of supplemental standards to the uppermost aquifer underlying the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, Vitro Processing Site, Salt Lake City, Utah. There are two goals for this evaluation: provide the landowner with information to make an early qualitative decision on the possible use of the Vitro property, and evaluate the proposed application of supplemental standards as the ground water compliance strategy at the site. Justification of supplemental standards is based on the contention that the uppermost aquifer is of limited use due to wide-spread ambient contamination not related to the previous site processing activities. In support of the above, this report discusses the site conceptual model for the uppermost aquifer and related hydrogeological systems and establishes regional and local background water quality. This information is used to determine the extent of site-related and ambient contamination. A risk-based evaluation of the contaminants` effects on current and projected land uses is also provided. Reports of regional and local studies and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site investigations provided the basis for the conceptual model and established background ground water quality. In addition, a limited field effort (4 through 28 March 1996) was conducted to supplement existing data, particularly addressing the extent of contamination in the northwestern portion of the Vitro site and site background ground water quality. Results of the field investigation were particularly useful in refining the conceptual site model. This was important in light of the varied ground water quality within the uppermost aquifer. Finally, this report provides a critical evaluation, along with the related uncertainties, of the applicability of supplemental standards to the uppermost aquifer at the Salt Lake City Vitro processing site.

  11. REVISED FINAL REPORT – INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION SURVEY ACTIVITIES AT THE SEPARATIONS PROCESS RESEARCH UNIT SITES, NISKAYUNA, NEW YORK – DCN 0496-SR-06-1

    SciTech Connect

    Evan Harpenau

    2011-10-10

    The Separations Process Research Unit (SPRU) complex located on the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) site in Niskayuna, New York, was constructed in the late 1940s to research the chemical separation of plutonium and uranium (Figure A-1). SPRU operated as a laboratory scale research facility between February 1950 and October 1953. The research activities ceased following the successful development of the reduction oxidation and plutonium/uranium extraction processes. The oxidation and extraction processes were subsequently developed for large scale use by the Hanford and Savannah River sites (aRc 2008a). Decommissioning of the SPRU facilities began in October 1953 and continued through the 1990s.

  12. Environmental impacts of unmanaged solid waste at a former base metal mining and ore processing site (Kirki, Greece).

    PubMed

    Liakopoulos, Alexandros; Lemière, Bruno; Michael, Konstantinos; Crouzet, Catherine; Laperche, Valérie; Romaidis, Ioannis; Drougas, Iakovos; Lassin, Arnault

    2010-11-01

    The Kirki project aimed to identify, among the mining waste abandoned at a mine and processing plant, the most critical potential pollution sources, the exposed milieus and the main pathways for contamination of a littoral area. This was accompanied by the definition of a monitoring network and remedial options. For this purpose, field analytical methods were extensively used to allow a more precise identification of the source, to draw relevant conceptual models and outline a monitoring network. Data interpretation was based on temporal series and on a geographical model. A classification method for mining waste was established, based on data on pollutant contents and emissions, and their long-term pollution potential. Mining waste present at the Kirki mine and plant sites comprises (A) extraction waste, mainly metal sulfide-rich rocks; (B) processing waste, mainly tailings, with iron and sulfides, sulfates or other species, plus residues of processing reagents; and (C) other waste, comprising leftover processing reagents and Pb-Zn concentrates. Critical toxic species include cadmium and cyanide. The stormy rainfall regime and hilly topography favour the flush release of large amounts of pollutants. The potential impacts and remedial options vary greatly. Type C waste may generate immediate and severe chemical hazards, and should be dealt with urgently by careful removal, as it is localised in a few spots. Type B waste has significant acid mine drainage potential and contains significant amounts of bioavailable heavy metals and metalloids, but they may also be released in solid form into the surface water through dam failure. The most urgent action is thus dams consolidation. Type A waste is by far the most bulky, and it cannot be economically removed. Unfortunately, it is also the most prone to acid mine drainage (seepage pH 1 to 2). This requires neutralisation to prevent acid water accelerating heavy metals and metalloids transfer. All waste management options

  13. Environmental impacts of unmanaged solid waste at a former base metal mining and ore processing site (Kirki, Greece).

    PubMed

    Liakopoulos, Alexandros; Lemière, Bruno; Michael, Konstantinos; Crouzet, Catherine; Laperche, Valérie; Romaidis, Ioannis; Drougas, Iakovos; Lassin, Arnault

    2010-11-01

    The Kirki project aimed to identify, among the mining waste abandoned at a mine and processing plant, the most critical potential pollution sources, the exposed milieus and the main pathways for contamination of a littoral area. This was accompanied by the definition of a monitoring network and remedial options. For this purpose, field analytical methods were extensively used to allow a more precise identification of the source, to draw relevant conceptual models and outline a monitoring network. Data interpretation was based on temporal series and on a geographical model. A classification method for mining waste was established, based on data on pollutant contents and emissions, and their long-term pollution potential. Mining waste present at the Kirki mine and plant sites comprises (A) extraction waste, mainly metal sulfide-rich rocks; (B) processing waste, mainly tailings, with iron and sulfides, sulfates or other species, plus residues of processing reagents; and (C) other waste, comprising leftover processing reagents and Pb-Zn concentrates. Critical toxic species include cadmium and cyanide. The stormy rainfall regime and hilly topography favour the flush release of large amounts of pollutants. The potential impacts and remedial options vary greatly. Type C waste may generate immediate and severe chemical hazards, and should be dealt with urgently by careful removal, as it is localised in a few spots. Type B waste has significant acid mine drainage potential and contains significant amounts of bioavailable heavy metals and metalloids, but they may also be released in solid form into the surface water through dam failure. The most urgent action is thus dams consolidation. Type A waste is by far the most bulky, and it cannot be economically removed. Unfortunately, it is also the most prone to acid mine drainage (seepage pH 1 to 2). This requires neutralisation to prevent acid water accelerating heavy metals and metalloids transfer. All waste management options

  14. Identification of a site critical for kinase regulation on the central processing unit (CPU) helix of the aspartate receptor.

    PubMed

    Trammell, M A; Falke, J J

    1999-01-01

    Ligand binding to the homodimeric aspartate receptor of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium generates a transmembrane signal that regulates the activity of a cytoplasmic histidine kinase, thereby controlling cellular chemotaxis. This receptor also senses intracellular pH and ambient temperature and is covalently modified by an adaptation system. A specific helix in the cytoplasmic domain of the receptor, helix alpha6, has been previously implicated in the processing of these multiple input signals. While the solvent-exposed face of helix alpha6 possesses adaptive methylation sites known to play a role in kinase regulation, the functional significance of its buried face is less clear. This buried region lies at the subunit interface where helix alpha6 packs against its symmetric partner, helix alpha6'. To test the role of the helix alpha6-helix alpha6' interface in kinase regulation, the present study introduces a series of 13 side-chain substitutions at the Gly 278 position on the buried face of helix alpha6. The substitutions are observed to dramatically alter receptor function in vivo and in vitro, yielding effects ranging from kinase superactivation (11 examples) to complete kinase inhibition (one example). Moreover, four hydrophobic, branched side chains (Val, Ile, Phe, and Trp) lock the kinase in the superactivated state regardless of whether the receptor is occupied by ligand. The observation that most side-chain substitutions at position 278 yield kinase superactivation, combined with evidence that such facile superactivation is rare at other receptor positions, identifies the buried Gly 278 residue as a regulatory hotspot where helix packing is tightly coupled to kinase regulation. Together, helix alpha6 and its packing interactions function as a simple central processing unit (CPU) that senses multiple input signals, integrates these signals, and transmits the output to the signaling subdomain where the histidine kinase is bound. Analogous CPU

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF REMOTE HANFORD CONNECTOR GASKET REPLACEMENT TOOLING FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE'S DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Krementz, D

    2007-11-27

    The Savannah River Site's (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) requested development of tooling for remote replacement of gaskets in mechanical Hanford connectors. The facility has compressed air supply, two master-slave manipulators (MSM's) and a lightweight robotic arm for operation of the remote tools. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed and tested multiple tools to perform the gasket replacement tasks. Separate pneumatic snap-ring removal tools that use the connector skirt as a reaction surface were developed for removal of the snap ring and spent gasket on both vertical and horizontal Hanford connectors. A pneumatic tool that clamps and centers on the jumper pipe ID was developed to simultaneously install the new gasket and snap ring. A pneumatic snap-ring-loading tool was developed that compresses the snap ring and places it in a groove in the installation tool. All of the tools are located on a custom work table with a pneumatic valve station that directs compressed air to the desired tool and vents the tools as needed. The entire system has been successfully tested using MSM's to manipulate the various tools. Deployment of the entire system is expected during FY08. The Hanford connector gasket replacement tooling has been successfully tested using MSM's to manipulate the various tools. Nitric acid is used in many of the decontamination processes performed in the REDC, where the tooling will be deployed. Although most of the tool components were fabricated/purchased with nitric acid and radioactive service in mind, some of the prototype parts must be replaced with parts that are more compatible with nitric acid/radioactive service. Several modifications to the various tools are needed to facilitate maintenance and replacement of failed components. Development of installation tools for replacement of 1-inch, 2-inch and multi-hole gaskets is being considered. Deployment of the existing system in the DWPF REDC is expected during FY

  16. Improved Detection of Microearthquakes in Geothermal Areas - Applying Empirical Matched Field Processing to Traditional and EGS sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templeton, D. C.; Wang, J.; Harris, D. B.

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this project is to increase the amount of information that can be extracted from seismic data collected in EGS or traditional geothermal areas. To accomplish our objective, we develop a seismic imaging technique that can map seismicity from discrete microearthquake sources using the Matched Field Processing (MFP) method. We use data from the Salton Sea geothermal field available from the Southern California Earthquake Data Center. Data between November 2009 and December 2010 was downloaded off the web and 231 high-quality master events were identified from the online catalog. This time period included two robust earthquake swarms. We created matched field steering vector calibrations for 7 three-component stations within the Salton Sea Geothermal Field. The official earthquake catalog identified 1536 events. When we applied the empirical MFP technique to the same data, we identified 5357 events. We then compare the results from this traditional geothermal area with results obtained from an Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) site. Finally, we compare the number of events in the improved earthquake catalogs with available fluid injection data. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  17. The Drosophila Dicer-1 Partner Loquacious Enhances miRNA Processing from Hairpins with Unstable Structures at the Dicing Site.

    PubMed

    Lim, Mandy Yu Theng; Ng, Alvin Wei Tian; Chou, Yuting; Lim, Teck Por; Simcox, Amanda; Tucker-Kellogg, Greg; Okamura, Katsutomo

    2016-05-24

    In Drosophila, Dicer-1 binds Loquacious-PB (Loqs-PB) as its major co-factor. Previous analyses indicated that loqs mutants only partially impede miRNA processing, but the activity of minor isoforms or maternally deposited Loqs was not eliminated in these studies. We addressed this by generating a cell line from loqs-null embryos and found that only ∼40% of miRNAs showed clear Loqs dependence. Genome-wide comparison of the hairpin structure and Loqs dependence suggested that Loqs substrates are influenced by base-pairing status at the dicing site. Artificial alteration of base-pairing stability at this position in model miRNA hairpins resulted in predicted changes in Loqs dependence, providing evidence for this hypothesis. Finally, we found that evolutionarily young miRNA genes tended to be Loqs dependent. We propose that Loqs may have roles in assisting the de novo emergence of miRNA genes by facilitating dicing of suboptimal hairpin substrates. PMID:27184838

  18. Characterization of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Environmental Assessment (EA) glass standard reference material. [Site Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Bibler, N.E.; Beam, D.C.

    1992-09-30

    Liquid high-level nuclear waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be immobilized by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be produced and poured into stainless steel canisters in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Other waste form producers, such as West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS) and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP), will also immobilize high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass. The canistered waste will be stored temporarily at each facility for eventual permanent disposal in a geologic repository. The Department of Energy has defined a set of requirements for the canistered waste forms, the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS). The current Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specification (WAPS) 1.3, the product consistency specification, requires the waste form producers to demonstrate control of the consistency of the final waste form using a crushed glass durability test, the Product Consistency Test (PCT). In order to be acceptable, a waste glass must be more durable during PCT analysis than the waste glass identified in the DWPF Envirorunental Assessment (EA). In order to supply all the waste form producers with the same standard benchmark glass, 1000 pounds of the EA glass was fabricated. The chemical analyses and characterization of the benchmark EA glass are reported. This material is now available to act as a durability, analytic, and/or redox Standard Reference Material (SRM) for all waste form producers.

  19. The ATP-binding Cassette Transporter-2 (ABCA2) Promotes Amyloidogenic Processing of Amyloid Precursor Protein by Glu11 Site Cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Warren

    2011-01-01

    The ATP binding cassette transporter-2 (ABCA2) has been genetically linked to Alzheimer’s disease but the molecular mechanisms are unknown. In this study, the effects of expression of human ABCA2 on endogenous amyloid precursor protein (APP) expression, trafficking and processing were examined in mouse N2a neuronal cells. ABCA2 expression increased the steady-state APP mRNA levels through transcription. ABCA2 also induced increased synthesis of APP holoprotein and altered APP processing and metabolite generation. ABCA2 expression promoted β-secretase (BACE1) cleavage of APP not at the common Asp1 amino acid site (β-site) of Aβ in APP but at the Glu11 site (β'-site) to increase C89 carboxyl-terminal fragment levels (β'-CTF/C89). The levels of N-terminally truncated Aβ11–40 peptides were also increased by ABCA2 expression. The delivery of newly synthesized APP to the cell surface through the secretary pathway was not perturbed by ABCA2 expression; however, ABCA2 expression increased the amount of APP in early-endosomal compartments, which also contained the highest levels of β'-CTF/C89 and is likely the site of increased BACE1 processing of APP. This report identifies ABCA2 as a key regulator of endogenous APP expression and processing and suggests a possible biochemical mechanism linking ABCA2 expression, APP processing and Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:20704561

  20. Remedial action plan for the inactive Uranium Processing Site at Naturita, Colorado. Remedial action plan: Attachment 2, Geology report, Attachment 3, Ground water hydrology report: Working draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado, is one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be cleaned up by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), 42 USC {section}7901 et seq. Part of the UMTRCA requires that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE`s remedial action plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This RAP serves two purposes. First, it describes the activities that are proposed by the DOE to accomplish remediation and long-term stabilization and control of the radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Second, this RAP, upon concurrence and execution by the DOE, the state of Colorado, and the NRC, become Appendix B of the cooperative agreement between the DOE and the state of Colorado.

  1. Biological inventory of the proposed site of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Plant in Aiken, South Carolina. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Vitt, L.J.

    1981-10-01

    Continued inventories of biota at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) site have resulted in the identification of indicator species (Representative Important Species) in addition to adding to our long-term data base on biota of the site. A large number of plant, insect, miscellaneous invertebrate, fish, amphibian, reptile, bird, and mammal species occur on the DWPF site. Of these, there are no nationally Threatened or Endangered species. Three plant species considered Threatened by the State of South Carolina occur on the DWPF site, and one of these, the spathulate seed box is known on the SRP only from Sun Bay, the Carolina bay located directly on the DWPF site. Mitigation attempts to relocate species are discussed. Monitoring will continue. (PSB)

  2. Plant species potentially useful in the phytostabilization process for the abandoned CMC mining site in northern Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Cetinkaya, Gulay; Sozen, Nur

    2011-08-01

    The Cupper Mining Company (CMC)'s site located in Lefke-Gemikonagi, Northern Cyprus has been a continuous source of highly dangerous contamination for the surrounding environment, the Lefke region, and the neighboring ecosystems and settlements. Rehabilitation and reuse possibilities of the CMC site due to its vital importance have kept its place in the agenda of Northern Cyprus. Phytostabilization appears to be a convenient and less expensive method that can immediately be used for reducing the negative impacts of the mining site on the region. The main purpose of this study is to identify potential candidate plant species, adapted to grow on polluted sites, for revegetation in the CMC site. Within this context, the method of the study can be summarized as follows: literature review for examining potential candidate plant species for pyhtostabilization in arid and semiarid regions, especially the ones suitable both for the existing ecological and present conditions of Cyprus; identification of native and/or cultural plant species survived in the heavily polluted mining site, and definition of a number of candidate plant species for the study site. The result of sampling revealed that 23 plant species thrive well in the contaminated site. As a result of the literature review and considering drought, metal, salt tolerant features of semiarid environment in the region, 5 tree, 4 shrub, and 23 herbaceous plant species were proposed for starting revegetation with the purpose of phytostabilization on the CMC mining site.

  3. Plant species potentially useful in the phytostabilization process for the abandoned CMC mining site in northern Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Cetinkaya, Gulay; Sozen, Nur

    2011-08-01

    The Cupper Mining Company (CMC)'s site located in Lefke-Gemikonagi, Northern Cyprus has been a continuous source of highly dangerous contamination for the surrounding environment, the Lefke region, and the neighboring ecosystems and settlements. Rehabilitation and reuse possibilities of the CMC site due to its vital importance have kept its place in the agenda of Northern Cyprus. Phytostabilization appears to be a convenient and less expensive method that can immediately be used for reducing the negative impacts of the mining site on the region. The main purpose of this study is to identify potential candidate plant species, adapted to grow on polluted sites, for revegetation in the CMC site. Within this context, the method of the study can be summarized as follows: literature review for examining potential candidate plant species for pyhtostabilization in arid and semiarid regions, especially the ones suitable both for the existing ecological and present conditions of Cyprus; identification of native and/or cultural plant species survived in the heavily polluted mining site, and definition of a number of candidate plant species for the study site. The result of sampling revealed that 23 plant species thrive well in the contaminated site. As a result of the literature review and considering drought, metal, salt tolerant features of semiarid environment in the region, 5 tree, 4 shrub, and 23 herbaceous plant species were proposed for starting revegetation with the purpose of phytostabilization on the CMC mining site. PMID:21972495

  4. Relaxase DNA binding and cleavage are two distinguishable steps in conjugative DNA processing that involve different sequence elements of the nic site.

    PubMed

    Lucas, María; González-Pérez, Blanca; Cabezas, Matilde; Moncalian, Gabriel; Rivas, Germán; de la Cruz, Fernando

    2010-03-19

    TrwC, the relaxase of plasmid R388, catalyzes a series of concerted DNA cleavage and strand transfer reactions on a specific site (nic) of its origin of transfer (oriT). nic contains the cleavage site and an adjacent inverted repeat (IR(2)). Mutation analysis in the nic region indicated that recognition of the IR(2) proximal arm and the nucleotides located between IR(2) and the cleavage site were essential for supercoiled DNA processing, as judged either by in vitro nic cleavage or by mobilization of a plasmid containing oriT. Formation of the IR(2) cruciform and recognition of the distal IR(2) arm and loop were not necessary for these reactions to take place. On the other hand, IR(2) was not involved in TrwC single-stranded DNA processing in vitro. For single-stranded DNA nic cleavage, TrwC recognized a sequence embracing six nucleotides upstream of the cleavage site and two nucleotides downstream. This suggests that TrwC DNA binding and cleavage are two distinguishable steps in conjugative DNA processing and that different sequence elements are recognized by TrwC in each step. IR(2)-proximal arm recognition was crucial for the initial supercoiled DNA binding. Subsequent recognition of the adjacent single-stranded DNA binding site was required to position the cleavage site in the active center of the protein so that the nic cleavage reaction could take place.

  5. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium processing site at Naturita, Colorado. Appendix A of Attachment 3: Calculations, Final

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This report contains calculations for: hydraulic gradients for Alluvial Aquifer and Salt Wash Aquifer; slug test analysis to determine hydraulic conductivity for Alluvial Aquifer and Salt Wash Aquifer; average linear groundwater velocity for Alluvial Aquifer and Salt Wash Aquifer; statistical analysis of the extent of existing groundwater contamination; hydraulic gradients for Dakota/Burro Canyon Formation and Salt Wash Aquifer; slug test analysis to determine hydraulic conductivity for Dakota/Burro Canyon Formation and Perched Salt Wash Aquifer; determination of hydraulic conductivity of the Dakota/Burro Canyon Formation from Packer Tests; average linear groundwater velocity for Dakota/Burro Canyon and Salt Wash Aquifer; chemical and mineralogical characterization of core samples from the Dry Flats Disposal Site; and demonstration of low groundwater yield from Uppermost Aquifer.

  6. Fate and transport processes controlling the migration of hazardous and radioactive materials from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Estrella, R.

    1994-10-01

    Desert vadose zones have been considered as suitable environments for the safe and long-term isolation of hazardous wastes. Low precipitation, high evapotranspiration and thick unsaturated alluvial deposits commonly found in deserts make them attractive as waste disposal sites. The fate and transport of any contaminant in the subsurface is ultimately determined by the operating retention and transformation processes in the system and the end result of the interactions among them. Retention (sorption) and transformation are the two major processes that affect the amount of a contaminant present and available for transport. Retention processes do not affect the total amount of a contaminant in the soil system, but rather decrease or eliminate the amount available for transport at a given point in time. Sorption reactions retard the contaminant migration. Permanent binding of solute by the sorbent is also possible. These processes and their interactions are controlled by the nature of the hazardous waste, the properties of the porous media and the geochemical and environmental conditions (temperature, moisture and vegetation). The present study summarizes the available data and investigates the fate and transport processes that govern the migration of contaminants from the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). While the site is currently used only for low-level radioactive waste disposal, past practices have included burial of material now considered hazardous. Fundamentals of chemical and biological transformation processes are discussed subsequently, followed by a discussion of relevant results.

  7. A MULTI-SCALE SCREENING PROCESS TO IDENTIFY LEAST-DISTURBED STREAM SITES FOR USE IN WATER QUALITY MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed a four-step screening procedure to identify least-disturbed stream sites for an EPA Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) pilot project being conducted in twelve western states. In this project, biological attributes at least-disturbed sites are use...

  8. Biogeochemical Processes Related to Metal Removal and Toxicity Reduction in the H-02 Constructed Wetland, Savannah River Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, E. A.; Mills, G. L.; Harmon, M.; Samarkin, V.

    2011-12-01

    The H-02 wetland system was designed to treat building process water and storm water runoff from multiple sources associated with the Tritium Facility at the DOE-Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC. The wetland construction included the addition of gypsum (calcium sulfate) to foster a sulfate-reducing bacterial population. Conceptually, the wetland functions as follows: ? Cu and Zn initially bind to both dissolved and particulate organic detritus within the wetland. ? A portion of this organic matter is subsequently deposited into the surface sediments within the wetland. ? The fraction of Cu and Zn that is discharged in the wetland effluent is organically complexed, less bioavailable, and consequently, less toxic. ? The Cu and Zn deposited in the surface sediments are eventually sequestered into insoluble sulfide minerals in the wetland. Development of the H-02 system has been closely monitored; sampling began in August 2007, shortly after its construction. This monitoring has included the measurement of water quality parameters, Cu and Zn concentrations in surface water and sediments, as well as, characterization of the prokaryotic (e.g., bacterial) component of wetland biogeochemical processes. Since the beginning of the study, the mean influent Cu concentration was 31.5±12.1 ppb and the mean effluent concentration was 11.9±7.3 ppb, corresponding to an average Cu removal of 64%. Zn concentrations were more variable, averaging 39.2±13.8 ppb in the influent and 25.7±21.3 ppb in the effluent. Average Zn removal was 52%. The wetland also ameliorated high pH values associated with influent water to values similar to those measured at reference sites. Seasonal variations in DOC concentration corresponded to seasonal variations in Cu and Zn removal efficiency. The concentration of Cu and Zn in the surface layer of the sediments has increased over the lifetime of the wetland and, like removal efficiency, demonstrated seasonal variation. Within its first year, the H-02

  9. Improving LiDAR Data Post-Processing Techniques for Archaeological Site Management and Analysis: A Case Study from Canaveral National Seashore Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griesbach, Christopher

    Methods used to process raw Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data can sometimes obscure the digital signatures indicative of an archaeological site. This thesis explains the negative effects that certain LiDAR data processing procedures can have on the preservation of an archaeological site. This thesis also presents methods for effectively integrating LiDAR with other forms of mapping data in a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) environment in order to improve LiDAR archaeological signatures by examining several pre-Columbian Native American shell middens located in Canaveral National Seashore Park (CANA).

  10. Full scale field test of the in situ air stripping process at the Savannah River integrated demonstration test site

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B.B.; Hazen, T.C.; Kaback, D.S.; Eddy, C.A.

    1991-06-29

    Under sponsorship from the US Department of Energy, technical personnel from the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) and other DOE laboratories, universities and private industry have completed a full scale demonstration of environmental remediation using horizontal wells. This demonstration was performed as Phase I of an Integrated Demonstration Project designed to evaluate innovative remediation technologies for environmental restoration of sites contaminated with organic contaminants. The demonstration utilized two directionally drilled horizontal wells to deliver gases and extract contaminants from the subsurface. The resulting in situ air stripping process was designed to remediate soils and sediments above and below the water table as well as groundwater contaminated with volatile organic contaminants. The 139 day long test successfully removed volatile chlorinated solvents from the subsurface using the two horizontal wells. One well, approximately 300 ft (90m) long and 165 ft (50m) deep drilled below a contaminant plume in the groundwater, was used to inject air and strip the contaminants from the groundwater. A second horizontal well, approximately 175 ft (53m) long and 75 ft (23m) deep in the vadose zone, was used to extract residual contamination in the vadose zone along with the material purged from the groundwater. Pretest and posttest characterization data and monitoring data during the demonstration were collected to aid in interpretation of the test and to provide the information needed for future environmental restoration that employ directionally drilled wells as extraction or delivery systems. Contaminant concentration data and microbiological monitoring data are summarized in this report; the characterization data and geophysical monitoring data are documented in a series of related project reports.

  11. Efficacy of a Process Improvement Intervention on Inmate Awareness of HIV Services: A Multi-Site Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hiller, Matthew L.; Albizu-García, Carmen E.; Pich, Michele; Patterson, Yvonne; O’Connell, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of HIV among U.S. inmates is much greater than in the general population, creating public health concerns and cost issues for the criminal justice system. The HIV Services and Treatment Implementation in Corrections protocol of the NIDA funded Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies cooperative tested the efficacy of an organizational process improvement strategy on improving HIV services in correctional facilities. For this paper, we analyzed efficacy of this strategy on improving inmate awareness and perceptions of HIV services. The study used a multi-site (n=28) clustered randomized trial approach. Facilities randomized to the experimental condition used a coach-driven local change team approach to improve HIV services at their facility. Facilities in the control condition were given a directive to improve HIV services on their own. Surveys about awareness and perceptions of HIV services were administered anonymously to inmates who were incarcerated in study facilities at baseline (n=1253) and follow-up (n=1048). A series of one-way ANOVAs were run to test whether there were differences between inmates in the experimental and control facilities at baseline and follow-up. Differences were observed at baseline, with the experimental group having significantly lower scores than the control group on key variables. But, at post-test, following the intervention, these differences were no longer significant. Taken in context of the findings from the main study, these results suggest that the change team approach to improving HIV services in correctional facilities is efficacious for improving inmates’ awareness and perceptions of HIV services. PMID:26203411

  12. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-D-50:5 Process Sewers (183-DR Sedimentation Basin Drains), Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-025

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-11-06

    The 100-D-50:5 subsite encompasses the southern process sewers formerly servicing the 183-DR coagulation and sedimentation basins and proximate surface runoff collection drains. The results of confirmatory sampling of pipeline sediments and underlying soils at the 100-D-50:5 subsite demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  13. Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site. FY 1989--1990 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Pechmann, J.H.K.; Scott, D.E.; McGregor, J.H.; Estes, R.A.; Chazal, A.C.

    1993-02-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was built on the Savannah River Site (SRS) during the mid-1980`s. The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has completed 12 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF complex. Prior to construction, the 600-acre site (S-Area) contained a Carolina bay and the headwaters of a stream. Research conducted by the SREL has focused primarily on four questions related to these wetlands: (1) Prior to construction, what fauna and flora were present at the DWPF site and at similar, yet undisturbed, alternative sites? (2) By comparing the Carolina bay at the DWPF site (Sun Bay) with an undisturbed control Carolina bay (Rainbow Bay), what effect is construction having on the organisms that inhabited the DWPF site? (3) By comparing control streams with streams on the periphery of the DWPF site, what effect is construction having on the peripheral streams? (4) How effective have efforts been to lessen the impacts of construction, both with respect to erosion control measures and the construction of ``refuge ponds`` as alternative breeding sites for amphibians that formerly bred at Sun Bay? Through the long-term census-taking of biota at the DWPF site and Rainbow Bay, SREL has begun to evaluate the impact of construction on the biota and the effectiveness of mitigation efforts. Similarly, the effects of erosion from the DWPF site on the water quality of S-Area peripheral streams are being assessed. This research provides supporting data relevant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Executive Orders 11988 (Floodplain Management) and 11990 (Protection of Wetlands), and United States Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetland Environmental Review Requirements (10CFR1022).

  14. Ecological studies related to the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site. Annual report, FY-1991 and FY-1992

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, D.E.; Chazel, A.C.; Pechmann, J.H.K.; Estes, R.A.

    1993-06-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was built on the Savannah River Site (SRS) during the mid-1980`s. The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has completed 14 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF complex. Prior to construction, the 600-acre site (S-Area) contained a Carolina bay and the headwaters of a stream. Research conducted by the SREL has focused primarily on four questions related to these wetlands: (1) Prior to construction, what fauna and flora were present at the DWPF site and at similar, yet undisturbed, alternative sites? (2) By comparing the Carolina bay at the DWPF site (Sun Bay) with an undisturbed control Carolina bay (Rainbow Bay), what effect is construction having on the organisms that inhabited the DWPF site? (3) By comparing control streams with streams on the periphery of the DWPF site, what effect is construction having on the peripheral streams? (4) How effective have efforts been to lessen the impacts of construction, both with respect to erosion control measures and the construction of ``refuge ponds`` as alternative breeding sites for amphibians that formerly bred at Sun Bay? Through the long-term census-taking of biota at the DWPF site and Rainbow Bay, SREL has begun to evaluate the impact of construction on the biota and the effectiveness of mitigation efforts. Similarly, the effects of erosion from the DWPF site on the water quality of S-Area peripheral streams are being assessed. This research provides supporting data relevant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Executive Orders 11988 (Floodplain Management) and 11990 (Protection of Wetlands), and United States Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetland Environmental Review Requirements (10 CFR 1022).

  15. Municipal solid waste landfill site selection with geographic information systems and analytical hierarchy process: a case study in Mahshahr County, Iran.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Nadali; Goudarzi, Gholamreza; Babaei, Ali Akbar; Jaafarzadeh, Nemat; Hosseinzadeh, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Landfill siting is a complicated process because it must combine social, environmental and technical factors. In this study, in order to consider all factors and rating criteria, a combination of geographic information systems and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was used to determine the best sites for disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Mahshahr County, Iran. In order to the decision making for landfill siting a structural hierarchy formed and the most important criteria: surface water, sensitive ecosystems, land cover, urban and rural areas, land uses, distance to roads, slope and land type were chosen according to standards and regulations. Each criterion was evaluated by rating methods. In the next step the relative importance of criteria to each other was determined by AHP. Land suitability for landfill was evaluated by simple additive weighting method. According to the landfill suitability map, the study area classified to four categories: high, moderate, low and very low suitability areas, which represented 18.6%, 20.3%, 1.6 and 0.8% of the study area respectively. The other 58.7% of the study area was determined to be completely unsuitable for landfill. By considering the parameters, such as the required area for landfill, distance to MSW generation points, and political and management issues, and consulting with municipalities managers in the study area, six sites were chosen for site visiting. The result of field study showed that it is a supplementary, and necessary, step in finding the best candidate landfill site from land with high suitability.

  16. Molecular Study of the Effects of Chemical Processing on Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation: Role of Active Sites and Product Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sihvonen, S.; Schill, G. P.; Murphy, K. A.; Mueller, K.; Tolbert, M. A.; Freedman, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Mineral dust aerosol is the largest global source of ice nuclei, but the identity of the active sites for nucleation is unknown. During atmospheric transport, mineral dust aerosol can encounter and react with sulfuric acid, which affects the ice nucleation activity either due to changes to reactive surface sites or product formation. In this study, we reacted two types of clays found in mineral dust, kaolinite and montmorillonite, with sulfuric acid. Variation in the mineral due to acid treatment was separated from product formation through rinsing techniques. The samples were subsequently reacted with a probe molecule, (3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)dimethylchlorosilane, that selectively binds to edge hydroxyl groups that are bonded to a silicon atom with three bridging oxygens. Hydroxyl groups are considered potential active sites, because they can hydrogen bond with water and facilitate ice nucleation. Attachment to these sites was quantified by 19F magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) of the 19F atoms on the probe molecule, which provided a direct correlation of the number of hydroxyl groups. Our results indicate that the number of edge-site hydroxyl groups increases with exposure to acid. Ice nucleation measurements indicate that the sulfuric acid-treated mineral is less ice active than the untreated mineral. Surprisingly, no difference between the nucleation activity of the untreated mineral and acid-treated, rinsed mineral is observed. As a result, we hypothesize that once a critical density of active sites is reached for ice nucleation, there is no further change in nucleation activity despite a continued increase in active sites. We additionally propose that the reduced activity of the acid-treated mineral is due to product formation that blocks active sites on the mineral, rather than changes to active sites.

  17. F-Tank Farm Performance Assessment Updates through the Special Analysis Process at Savannah River Site - 12169

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, Mark H.

    2012-07-01

    The F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) is owned by the U.S. Department of Energy and operated by Savannah River Remediation, LLC (SRR), Liquid Waste Operations contractor at DOE's Savannah River Site (SRS). The FTF is in the north-central portion of the SRS and occupies approximately 22 acres within F-Area. The FTF is an active radioactive waste storage facility consisting of 22 carbon steel waste tanks and ancillary equipment such as transfer lines, evaporators and pump tanks. An FTF Performance Assessment (PA) was prepared to support the eventual closure of the FTF underground radioactive waste tanks and ancillary equipment. The PA provides the technical basis and results to be used in subsequent documents to demonstrate compliance with the pertinent requirements identified below for final closure of FTF. The FTank Farm is subject to a state industrial waste water permit and Federal Facility Agreement. Closure documentation will include an F-Tank Farm Closure Plan and tank-specific closure modules utilizing information from the performance assessment. For this reason, the State of South Carolina and the Environmental Protection Agency must be involved in the performance assessment review process. The residual material remaining after tank cleaning is also subject to reclassification prior to closure via a waste determination pursuant to Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act of Fiscal Year 2005. The projected waste tank inventories in the FTF PA provide reasonably bounding FTF inventory projections while taking into account uncertainties in the effectiveness of future tank cleaning technologies. As waste is removed from the FTF waste tanks, the residual contaminants will be sampled and the remaining residual inventory is characterized. In this manner, tank specific data for the tank inventories at closure will be available to supplement the waste tank inventory projections currently used in the FTF PA. For FTF, the new tank specific data will

  18. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium processing site at Naturita, Colorado. Remedial Action Selection Report, Appendix B of Attachment 2: Geology report, Final

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado, is one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be cleaned up by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), 42 USC {section} 7901 et seq. Part of the UMTRCA requires that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE`s remedial action plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Included in the RAP is this Remedial Action Selection Report (RAS), which describes the proposed remedial action for the Naturita site. An extensive amount of data and supporting information has been generated and evaluated for this remedial action. These data and supporting information are not incorporated into this single document but are included or referenced in the supporting documents. The RAP consists of this RAS and four supporting documents or attachments. This Attachment 2, Geology Report describes the details of geologic, geomorphic, and seismic conditions at the Dry Flats disposal site.

  19. Site 1 protease is required for proteolytic processing of the glycoproteins of the South American hemorrhagic fever viruses Junin, Machupo, and Guanarito.

    PubMed

    Rojek, Jillian M; Lee, Andrew M; Nguyen, NgocThao; Spiropoulou, Christina F; Kunz, Stefan

    2008-06-01

    The cellular proprotein convertase site 1 protease (S1P) has been implicated in the proteolytic processing of the glycoproteins (GPs) of Old World arenaviruses. Here we report that S1P is also involved in the processing of the GPs of the genetically more-distant South American hemorrhagic fever viruses Guanarito, Machupo, and Junin. Efficient cleavage of Guanarito virus GP, whose protease recognition sites deviate from the reported S1P consensus sequence, indicates a broader specificity of S1P than anticipated. Lack of GP processing of Junin virus dramatically reduced production of infectious virus and prevented cell-to-cell propagation. Infection of S1P-deficient cells resulted in viral persistence over several weeks without the emergence of escape variants able to use other cellular proteases for GP processing.

  20. Rigorous Photogrammetric Processing of HiRISE Stereo Images for Topographic and Geomorphologic Analysis at MER landing sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R.; di, K.; Hwangbo, J.; Chen, Y.

    2007-12-01

    High-precision topographic information is critical to Mars surface exploration. Such information can be derived from both orbital and ground rover data. The availability of HiRISE stereo images makes a great progress in high resolution imaging and topographic and morphological information derivation. This presentation gives the necessary rigorous photogrammetric model for HiRISE stereo image processing and results achieved at the Mars Exploration Rover mission sites. HiRISE is a push-broom imaging sensor. For short segments of the orbital trajectory, 2nd-order polynomials can be used to model change in the exterior orientation (EO) parameters with respect to time. Since all of the 14 CCD lines (10 red, 2 blue-green and 2 NIR) share the same EO parameters at a specific time, only one set of polynomial parameters is needed to model the EO parameters for all the CCD arrays. The orbit's initial position and pointing angles are provided in the SPICE kernels. For any given ephemeris time, the EO parameters can be retrieved by interpolating the spacecraft's trajectory and pointing vectors. Based on the developed rigorous sensor model, we have developed a method for bundle adjustment (BA) of HiRISE stereo images that removes or reduces measurement inconsistency and improves mapping precision. We have also developed a hierarchical stereo matching process. Based on the original images, an image pyramid with 5 levels is constructed by sub-sampling of each previous level. Interest points are generated by Foerstner operator at every image scale. Matching starts from the images of the lowest resolution; results are transferred to the next higher level, with more interest points being extracted and matched. After matching the highest resolution images, evenly distributed matched interest points are selected as tie points between the stereo images. In the end, grid points (4-pixel spacing) are defined and matched to generate a DTM of the terrain. Using the HiRISE images TRA_000873

  1. THE DEACTIVATION DECONTAMINATION & DECOMMISSIONING OF THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) A FORMER PLUTONIUM PROCESSING FACILITY AT DOE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    CHARBONEAU, S.L.

    2006-02-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) was constructed as part of the Manhattan Project during World War II. The Manhattan Project was developed to usher in the use of nuclear weapons to end the war. The primary mission of the PFP was to provide plutonium used as special nuclear material (SNM) for fabrication of nuclear devices for the war effort. Subsequent to the end of World War II, the PFP's mission expanded to support the Cold War effort through plutonium production during the nuclear arms race and later the processing of fuel grade mixed plutonium-uranium oxide to support DOE's breeder reactor program. In October 1990, at the close of the production mission for PFP, a shutdown order was prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) in Washington, DC and issued to the Richland DOE field office. Subsequent to the shutdown order, a team from the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) analyzed the hazards at PFP associated with the continued storage of certain forms of plutonium solutions and solids. The assessment identified many discrete actions that were required to stabilize the different plutonium forms into stable form and repackage the material in high integrity containers. These actions were technically complicated and completed as part of the PFP nuclear material stabilization project between 1995 and early 2005. The completion of the stabilization project was a necessary first step in deactivating PFP. During stabilization, DOE entered into negotiations with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the State of Washington and established milestones for the Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D) of the PFP. The DOE and its contractor, Fluor Hanford (Fluor), have made great progress in deactivating, decontaminating and decommissioning the PFP at the Hanford Site as detailed in this paper. Background information covering the PFP D&D effort includes descriptions of negotiations with the State of Washington concerning consent-order milestones

  2. Scatterhoarding rodents favor higher predation risks for cache sites: The potential for predators to influence the seed dispersal process.

    PubMed

    Steele, Michael A; Rompré, Ghislain; Stratford, Jeffrey A; Zhang, Hongmao; Suchocki, Matthew; Marino, Shealyn

    2015-05-01

    Scatterhoarding rodents often place caches in the open where pilferage rates are reduced, suggesting that they tradeoff higher risks of predation for more secure cache sites. We tested this hypothesis in two study systems by measuring predation risks inferred from measures of giving-up densities (GUDs) at known cache sites and other sites for comparison. Rodent GUDs were measured with small trays containing 3 L of fine sand mixed with sunflower seeds. In the first experiment, we relied on a 2-year seed dispersal study in a natural forest to identify caches of eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) and then measured GUDs at: (i) these caches; (ii) comparable points along logs and rocks where rodent activity was assumed highest; and (iii) a set of random points. We found that GUDs and, presumably, predation risks, were higher at both cache and random points than those with cover. At the second site, we measured GUDs of eastern gray squirrels in an open park system and found that GUDs were consistently lowest at the base of the tree compared to more open sites, where previous studies show caching by squirrels to be highest and pilferage rates by naïve competitors to be lowest. These results confirm that predation risks can influence scatterhoarding decisions but that they are also highly context dependent, and that the landscape of fear, now so well documented in the literature, could potentially shape the temporal and spatial patterns of seedling establishment and forest regeneration in systems where scatterhoarding is common.

  3. Scatterhoarding rodents favor higher predation risks for cache sites: The potential for predators to influence the seed dispersal process.

    PubMed

    Steele, Michael A; Rompré, Ghislain; Stratford, Jeffrey A; Zhang, Hongmao; Suchocki, Matthew; Marino, Shealyn

    2015-05-01

    Scatterhoarding rodents often place caches in the open where pilferage rates are reduced, suggesting that they tradeoff higher risks of predation for more secure cache sites. We tested this hypothesis in two study systems by measuring predation risks inferred from measures of giving-up densities (GUDs) at known cache sites and other sites for comparison. Rodent GUDs were measured with small trays containing 3 L of fine sand mixed with sunflower seeds. In the first experiment, we relied on a 2-year seed dispersal study in a natural forest to identify caches of eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) and then measured GUDs at: (i) these caches; (ii) comparable points along logs and rocks where rodent activity was assumed highest; and (iii) a set of random points. We found that GUDs and, presumably, predation risks, were higher at both cache and random points than those with cover. At the second site, we measured GUDs of eastern gray squirrels in an open park system and found that GUDs were consistently lowest at the base of the tree compared to more open sites, where previous studies show caching by squirrels to be highest and pilferage rates by naïve competitors to be lowest. These results confirm that predation risks can influence scatterhoarding decisions but that they are also highly context dependent, and that the landscape of fear, now so well documented in the literature, could potentially shape the temporal and spatial patterns of seedling establishment and forest regeneration in systems where scatterhoarding is common. PMID:25827710

  4. Accelerated processing of solitary and clustered abasic site DNA damage lesions by APE1 in the presence of aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Bhavini; DAS, Prolay; Kumari, Rekha

    2016-06-01

    The stimulatory effect of the aqueous extract of G. lucidum, a basidiomycetes class fungus in the APE1-enzyme-mediated processing of solitary and bistranded clustered abasic sites DNA damages is presented. Abasic sites are considered the most common type of DNA damage lesions. Our study shows enhanced activity of APE1 in the processing of abasic sites in the presence of the polysaccharides fraction of G. lucidum. Remarkable increase in the amount of single-strand breaks (SSBs) and double-strand breaks (DSBs) from solitary and bistranded clustered abasic sites respectively with APE1 in the presence of the extract was found. This trend is maintained when abasic sites in DNA oligomers are exposed to fibroblast cell extracts in the presence of the extract. While DNA conformational alteration is negligible, APE1 enzyme shows characteristic changes in the alpha helix and beta strand ratio after incubation with G. lucidum extract. The enhanced reactivity of APE1 at the molecular level in the presence of G. lucidium is attributed to this effect. This study potentially amplifies the scope of the use of G. lucidum, which was earlier shown to have only reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging properties with regards to DNA damage inhibition. PMID:27240987

  5. Accelerated processing of solitary and clustered abasic site DNA damage lesions by APE1 in the presence of aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Bhavini; DAS, Prolay; Kumari, Rekha

    2016-06-01

    The stimulatory effect of the aqueous extract of G. lucidum, a basidiomycetes class fungus in the APE1-enzyme-mediated processing of solitary and bistranded clustered abasic sites DNA damages is presented. Abasic sites are considered the most common type of DNA damage lesions. Our study shows enhanced activity of APE1 in the processing of abasic sites in the presence of the polysaccharides fraction of G. lucidum. Remarkable increase in the amount of single-strand breaks (SSBs) and double-strand breaks (DSBs) from solitary and bistranded clustered abasic sites respectively with APE1 in the presence of the extract was found. This trend is maintained when abasic sites in DNA oligomers are exposed to fibroblast cell extracts in the presence of the extract. While DNA conformational alteration is negligible, APE1 enzyme shows characteristic changes in the alpha helix and beta strand ratio after incubation with G. lucidum extract. The enhanced reactivity of APE1 at the molecular level in the presence of G. lucidium is attributed to this effect. This study potentially amplifies the scope of the use of G. lucidum, which was earlier shown to have only reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging properties with regards to DNA damage inhibition.

  6. Radiological surveillance of Remedial Action activities at the processing site, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, April 12--16, 1993. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-04-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project`s Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) performed a radiological surveillance of the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC), MK-Ferguson and CWM Federal Environmental Services, Inc., at the processing site in Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. The requirements and attributes examined during the audit were developed from reviewing working-level procedures developed by the RAC. Objective evidence, comments, and observations were verified based on investigating procedures, documentation, records located at the site, personal interviews, and tours of the site. No findings were identified during this audit. Ten site-specific observations, three good practice observations, and five programmatic observations are presented in this report. The overall conclusion from the surveillance is that the radiological aspects of the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, remedial action program are performed adequately. The results of the good practice observations indicate that the site health physics (HP) staff is taking the initiative to address and resolve potential issues, and implement suggestions useful to the UMTRA Project. However, potential exists for improving designated storage areas for general items, and the RAC Project Office should consider resolving site-specific and procedural inconsistencies.

  7. The operation of cost-effective on-site process for the bio-treatment of mixed municipal solid waste in rural areas.

    PubMed

    Wu, Duo; Zhang, Chunyan; Lü, Fan; Shao, Liming; He, Pinjing

    2014-06-01

    The application of on-site waste treatment significantly reduces the need for expensive waste collection and transportation in rural areas; hence, it is considered of fundamental importance in developing countries. In this study, the effects of in-field operation of two types of mini-scale on-site solid waste treatment facilities on de-centralized communities, one using mesophilic two-phase anaerobic digestion combined with composting (TPAD, 50 kg/d) and another using decentralized composting (DC, 0.6-2 t/d), were investigated. Source-separated collection was applied to provide organic waste for combined process, in which the amount of waste showed significant seasonal variation. The highest collection amount was 0.18 kg/capital day and 0.6 kg/household day. Both sites showed good performance after operating for more than 6 months, with peak waste reduction rates of 53.5% in TPAD process and 63.2% in DC process. Additionally, the windrow temperature exceeded 55 °C for >5 days, indicating that the composting products from both facilities were safe. These results were supported by 4 days aerobic static respiration rate tests. The emissions were low enough to avoid any impact on nearby communities (distance <100 m). Partial energy could be recovered by the combined process but with complicated operation. Hence, the choice of process must be considered in case separately.

  8. The operation of cost-effective on-site process for the bio-treatment of mixed municipal solid waste in rural areas.

    PubMed

    Wu, Duo; Zhang, Chunyan; Lü, Fan; Shao, Liming; He, Pinjing

    2014-06-01

    The application of on-site waste treatment significantly reduces the need for expensive waste collection and transportation in rural areas; hence, it is considered of fundamental importance in developing countries. In this study, the effects of in-field operation of two types of mini-scale on-site solid waste treatment facilities on de-centralized communities, one using mesophilic two-phase anaerobic digestion combined with composting (TPAD, 50 kg/d) and another using decentralized composting (DC, 0.6-2 t/d), were investigated. Source-separated collection was applied to provide organic waste for combined process, in which the amount of waste showed significant seasonal variation. The highest collection amount was 0.18 kg/capital day and 0.6 kg/household day. Both sites showed good performance after operating for more than 6 months, with peak waste reduction rates of 53.5% in TPAD process and 63.2% in DC process. Additionally, the windrow temperature exceeded 55 °C for >5 days, indicating that the composting products from both facilities were safe. These results were supported by 4 days aerobic static respiration rate tests. The emissions were low enough to avoid any impact on nearby communities (distance <100 m). Partial energy could be recovered by the combined process but with complicated operation. Hence, the choice of process must be considered in case separately. PMID:24369844

  9. Cold and dry processes in the Martian Arctic: Geomorphic observations at the Phoenix landing site and comparisons with terrestrial cold desert landforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Joseph S.; Head, James W.; Marchant, David R.

    2009-11-01

    We analyze Surface Stereo Imager observations of rocks, sediments, and permafrost-related landforms in the vicinity of the Phoenix lander, comparing the imaged features to analogous examples of physical weathering and periglacial processes observed in the Antarctic Dry Valleys. Observations at the Phoenix landing site of pitted rocks, “puzzle rocks” undergoing in-situ breakdown, perched clasts, and thermal contraction crack polygon morphologies strikingly similar to terrestrial sublimation polygons, all strongly suggest that stable (non-churning) permafrost processes dominate the Phoenix landing site. Morphological evidence suggests that cold-desert processes, in the absence of wet active-layer cryoturbation, and largely driven by sublimation of buried ice (either pore ice, excess ice, or both) are shaping the landscape.

  10. Identification of Process Hazards and Accident Scenarios for Site 300 B-Division Firing Areas, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, H; Johnson, G

    2001-05-04

    This report describes a hazard and accident analysis conducted for Site 300 operations to support update of the ''Site 300 B-Division Firing Areas Safety Analysis Report'' (SAR) [LLNL 1997]. A significant change since the previous SAR is the construction and the new Contained Firing Facility (CFF). Therefore, this hazard and accident analysis focused on the hazards associated with bunker operations to ensure that the hazards at CFF are properly characterized in the updated SAR. Hazard tables were created to cover both the CFF and the existing bunkers with ''open air'' firing tables.

  11. Peptide Synthesis through Cell-Free Expression of Fusion Proteins Incorporating Modified Amino Acids as Latent Cleavage Sites for Peptide Release.

    PubMed

    Liutkus, Mantas; Fraser, Samuel A; Caron, Karine; Stigers, Dannon J; Easton, Christopher J

    2016-05-17

    Chlorinated analogues of Leu and Ile are incorporated during cell-free expression of peptides fused to protein, by exploiting the promiscuity of the natural biosynthetic machinery. They then act as sites for clean and efficient release of the peptides simply by brief heat treatment. Dehydro analogues of Leu and Ile are similarly incorporated as latent sites for peptide release through treatment with iodine under cold conditions. These protocols complement enzyme-catalyzed methods and have been used to prepare calcitonin, gastrin-releasing peptide, cholecystokinin-7, and prolactin-releasing peptide prohormones, as well as analogues substituted with unusual amino acids, thus illustrating their practical utility as alternatives to more traditional chemical peptide synthesis. PMID:26918308

  12. Process for Transition of Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act Title II Disposal Sites to the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management for Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    2012-03-01

    This document presents guidance for implementing the process that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) will use for assuming perpetual responsibility for a closed uranium mill tailings site. The transition process specifically addresses sites regulated under Title II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) but is applicable in principle to the transition of sites under other regulatory structures, such as the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program.

  13. Metaproteomics and metabolomics analyses of chronically petroleum‐polluted sites reveal the importance of general anaerobic processes uncoupled with degradation

    PubMed Central

    Bargiela, Rafael; Herbst, Florian‐Alexander; Martínez‐Martínez, Mónica; Seifert, Jana; Rojo, David; Cappello, Simone; Genovese, María; Crisafi, Francesca; Denaro, Renata; Chernikova, Tatyana N.; Barbas, Coral; von Bergen, Martin; Yakimov, Michail M.; Golyshin, Peter N.

    2015-01-01

    Crude oil is one of the most important natural assets for humankind, yet it is a major environmental pollutant, notably in marine environments. One of the largest crude oil polluted areas in the word is the semi‐enclosed Mediterranean Sea, in which the metabolic potential of indigenous microbial populations towards the large‐scale chronic pollution is yet to be defined, particularly in anaerobic and micro‐aerophilic sites. Here, we provide an insight into the microbial metabolism in sediments from three chronically polluted marine sites along the coastline of Italy: the Priolo oil terminal/refinery site (near Siracuse, Sicily), harbour of Messina (Sicily) and shipwreck of MT Haven (near Genoa). Using shotgun metaproteomics and community metabolomics approaches, the presence of 651 microbial proteins and 4776 metabolite mass features have been detected in these three environments, revealing a high metabolic heterogeneity between the investigated sites. The proteomes displayed the prevalence of anaerobic metabolisms that were not directly related with petroleum biodegradation, indicating that in the absence of oxygen, biodegradation is significantly suppressed. This suppression was also suggested by examining the metabolome patterns. The proteome analysis further highlighted the metabolic coupling between methylotrophs and sulphate reducers in oxygen‐depleted petroleum‐polluted sediments. PMID:26201687

  14. Conditions and processes affecting sand resources at archeological sites in the Colorado River corridor below Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    East, Amy E.; Collins, Brian D.; Sankey, Joel B.; Corbett, Skye C.; Fairley, Helen C.; Caster, Joshua

    2016-05-17

    We conclude that most of the river-corridor archeological sites are at elevated risk of net erosion under present dam operations. In the present flow regime, controlled floods do not simulate the magnitude or frequency of natural floods, and are not large enough to deposit sand at elevations that were flooded at annual to decadal inte

  15. 77 FR 56870 - New Process Gear, a Division of Magna Powertrain, Including On-Site Leased Workers From ABM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... automotive components. The notice was published in the Federal Register on January 26, 2011 (75 FR 77669... Leased Workers From ABM Janitorial Service Northeast, Inc., and IS One, Inc., East Syracuse, NY; Amended... firm. The company reports that workers leased from IS One, Inc. were employed on-site at the...

  16. Metaproteomics and metabolomics analyses of chronically petroleum-polluted sites reveal the importance of general anaerobic processes uncoupled with degradation.

    PubMed

    Bargiela, Rafael; Herbst, Florian-Alexander; Martínez-Martínez, Mónica; Seifert, Jana; Rojo, David; Cappello, Simone; Genovese, María; Crisafi, Francesca; Denaro, Renata; Chernikova, Tatyana N; Barbas, Coral; von Bergen, Martin; Yakimov, Michail M; Ferrer, Manuel; Golyshin, Peter N

    2015-10-01

    Crude oil is one of the most important natural assets for humankind, yet it is a major environmental pollutant, notably in marine environments. One of the largest crude oil polluted areas in the word is the semi-enclosed Mediterranean Sea, in which the metabolic potential of indigenous microbial populations towards the large-scale chronic pollution is yet to be defined, particularly in anaerobic and micro-aerophilic sites. Here, we provide an insight into the microbial metabolism in sediments from three chronically polluted marine sites along the coastline of Italy: the Priolo oil terminal/refinery site (near Siracuse, Sicily), harbour of Messina (Sicily) and shipwreck of MT Haven (near Genoa). Using shotgun metaproteomics and community metabolomics approaches, the presence of 651 microbial proteins and 4776 metabolite mass features have been detected in these three environments, revealing a high metabolic heterogeneity between the investigated sites. The proteomes displayed the prevalence of anaerobic metabolisms that were not directly related with petroleum biodegradation, indicating that in the absence of oxygen, biodegradation is significantly suppressed. This suppression was also suggested by examining the metabolome patterns. The proteome analysis further highlighted the metabolic coupling between methylotrophs and sulphate reducers in oxygen-depleted petroleum-polluted sediments.

  17. Evidence of a novel dipeptidyl aminopeptidase in mammalian GH(3) cells: new insights into the processing of peptide hormone precursors.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Kwang Ho; Lee, Myung Ae; Han, Sang Yeol; Shields, Dennis; Park, Sang Dai; Hong, Seung Hwan

    2002-06-01

    We investigated whether yeast signals could regulate hormone processing in mammalian cells. Chmeric genes coding for the prepro region of yeast alpha-factor and the functional hormone region of anglerfish somatostatin was expressed in rat pituitary GH(3) cells. The nascent prepro-alpha-factor-somatostatin peptides disappeared from cells with a half-life of 30 min, and about 20% of unprocessed precursors remained intracellular after a 2 h chase period. Disappearance of propeptide was insensitive to lysosomotropic agents, but was inhibited at 15 degrees C or 20 degrees C, suggesting that the hybrid propeptides were not degraded in the secretory pathway to the trans Golgi network or in lysosomes. It appeared that while most unprocessed precursors were constitutively secreted into the medium, a small portion were processed at their paired dibasic sites by prohormone-processing enzymes located in trans Golgi network/secretory vesicles, resulting in the production of mature somatostatin peptides. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the processing pattern of two different hybrid precursors: the 52-1 hybrid precursor, which has a Glu-Ala spacer between the prepro region of alpha-factor and somatostatin, and the 58-1 hybrid precursor, which lacks the Glu-Ala spacer. Processing of metabolically labeled hybrid propeptides to smaller somatostatin peptides was assessed by HPLC. When pulse-labeled cells were chased for up to 2 h, 68% of the initially synthesized propeptides were secreted constitutively. About 22% of somatostatin-related products were proteolytically processed to mature somatostatin, of which 38.7% were detected intracellularly after 2 h. From N-terminal peptide sequence determination of somatostatin-related products in GH(3)-52 and GH(3)-58 cells, we found that both hybrid precursors were accurately cleaved at their dibasic amino acid sites. Notably, we also observed that the Glu-Ala spacer sequence was removed from 52-1 hybrid precursors. The latter result

  18. Microbiological, Geochemical and Hydrologic Processes Controlling Uranium Mobility: An Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Site at Rifle, Colorado, Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-01-07

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is cleaning up and/or monitoring large, dilute plumes contaminated by metals, such as uranium and chromium, whose mobility and solubility change with redox status. Field-scale experiments with acetate as the electron donor have stimulated metal-reducing bacteria to effectively remove uranium [U(VI)] from groundwater at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Rifle, Colorado. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and a multidisciplinary team of national laboratory and academic collaborators has embarked on a research proposed for the Rifle site, the object of which is to gain a comprehensive and mechanistic understanding of the microbial factors and associated geochemistry controlling uranium mobility so that DOE can confidently remediate uranium plumes as well as support stewardship of uranium-contaminated sites. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Rifle Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Project.

  19. Investigation of Aluminum Site Changes of Dehydrated Zeolite H-Beta during a Rehydration Process by High Field Solid State NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Zhenchao; Xu, Suochang; Hu, Mary Y.; Bao, Xinhe; Peden, Charles HF; Hu, Jian Z.

    2015-01-22

    Aluminum site changes for dehydrated H-Beta zeolite during rehydration process are systematically investigated by ²⁷Al MAS and MQ MAS NMR at high magnetic fields up to 19.9 T. Benefiting from the high magnetic field, more detailed information is obtained from the considerably broadened and overlapped spectra of dehydrated H-beta zeolite. Dynamic changes of aluminum sites are demonstrated during rehydration process. In completely dehydrated H-Beta, invisible aluminum can reach 29%. The strength of quadrupole interactions for framework aluminum sites decreases gradually during water adsorption processes. The number of extra-framework aluminum (EFAL) species, i.e., penta- (34 ppm) and octa- (4 ppm) coordinated aluminum atoms rises initially with increasing water adsorption, and finally change into either tetra-coordinated framework or extra-framework aluminum in saturated water adsorption samples, with the remaining octa-coordinated aluminum lying at 0 and -4 ppm, respectively. Quantitative ²⁷Al MAS NMR analysis combined with ¹H MAS NMR indicates that some active EFAL species formed during calcination can reinsert into the framework during this hydration process. The assignment of aluminum at 0 ppm to EFAL cation and -4 ppm to framework aluminum is clarified for H-Beta zeolite.

  20. Municipal solid waste landfill site selection with geographic information systems and analytical hierarchy process: a case study in Mahshahr County, Iran.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Nadali; Goudarzi, Gholamreza; Babaei, Ali Akbar; Jaafarzadeh, Nemat; Hosseinzadeh, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Landfill siting is a complicated process because it must combine social, environmental and technical factors. In this study, in order to consider all factors and rating criteria, a combination of geographic information systems and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was used to determine the best sites for disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Mahshahr County, Iran. In order to the decision making for landfill siting a structural hierarchy formed and the most important criteria: surface water, sensitive ecosystems, land cover, urban and rural areas, land uses, distance to roads, slope and land type were chosen according to standards and regulations. Each criterion was evaluated by rating methods. In the next step the relative importance of criteria to each other was determined by AHP. Land suitability for landfill was evaluated by simple additive weighting method. According to the landfill suitability map, the study area classified to four categories: high, moderate, low and very low suitability areas, which represented 18.6%, 20.3%, 1.6 and 0.8% of the study area respectively. The other 58.7% of the study area was determined to be completely unsuitable for landfill. By considering the parameters, such as the required area for landfill, distance to MSW generation points, and political and management issues, and consulting with municipalities managers in the study area, six sites were chosen for site visiting. The result of field study showed that it is a supplementary, and necessary, step in finding the best candidate landfill site from land with high suitability. PMID:22878933

  1. Mature clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats RNA (crRNA) length is measured by a ruler mechanism anchored at the precursor processing site.

    PubMed

    Hatoum-Aslan, Asma; Maniv, Inbal; Marraffini, Luciano A

    2011-12-27

    Precise RNA processing is fundamental to all small RNA-mediated interference pathways. In prokaryotes, clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) loci encode small CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) that protect against invasive genetic elements by antisense targeting. CRISPR loci are transcribed as a long precursor that is cleaved within repeat sequences by CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins. In many organisms, this primary processing generates crRNA intermediates that are subject to additional nucleolytic trimming to render mature crRNAs of specific lengths. The molecular mechanisms underlying this maturation event remain poorly understood. Here, we defined the genetic requirements for crRNA primary processing and maturation in Staphylococcus epidermidis. We show that changes in the position of the primary processing site result in extended or diminished maturation to generate mature crRNAs of constant length. These results indicate that crRNA maturation occurs by a ruler mechanism anchored at the primary processing site. We also show that maturation is mediated by specific cas genes distinct from those genes involved in primary processing, showing that this event is directed by CRISPR/Cas loci.

  2. Precise localization of m6A in Rous sarcoma virus RNA reveals clustering of methylation sites: implications for RNA processing.

    PubMed

    Kane, S E; Beemon, K

    1985-09-01

    N6-methyladenosine (m6A) residues are present as internal base modifications in most higher eucaryotic mRNAs; however, the biological function of this modification is not known. We describe a method for localizing and quantitating m6A within a large RNA molecule, the genomic RNA of Rous sarcoma virus. Specific fragments of 32P-labeled Rous sarcoma virus RNA were isolated by hybridization with complementary DNA restriction fragments spanning nucleotides 6185 to 8050. RNA was digested with RNase and finger-printed, and individual oligonucleotides were analyzed for the presence of m6A by paper electrophoresis and thin-layer chromatography. With this technique, seven sites of methylation in this region of the Rous sarcoma virus genome were localized at nucleotides 6394, 6447, 6507, 6718, 7414, 7424, and 8014. Further, m6A was observed at two additional sites whose nucleotide assignments remain ambiguous. A clustering of two or more m6A residues was seen at three positions within the RNA analyzed. Modification at certain sites was found to be heterogeneous, in that different molecules of RNA appeared to be methylated differently. Previous studies have determined that methylation occurs only in the sequences Gm6AC and Am6AC. We observed a high frequency of methylation at PuGm6ACU sequences. The possible involvement of m6A in RNA splicing events is discussed. PMID:3016525

  3. New insights into the QuikChange™ process guide the use of Phusion DNA polymerase for site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yongzhen; Chu, Wenqiao; Qi, Qingsheng; Xun, Luying

    2015-01-01

    The QuikChange™ site-directed mutagenesis method is popular but imperfect. An improvement by using partially overlapping primers has been reported several times; however, it is incompatible with the proposed mechanism. The QuikChange™ method using complementary primers is proposed to linearly amplify a target plasmid with the products annealing to produce double-stranded DNA molecules with 5'-overhangs. The overhang annealing is supposed to form circular plasmids with staggered breaks, which can be repaired in Escherichia coli after transformation. Here, we demonstrated that the PCR enzyme fills the 5'-overhangs in the early cycles, and the product is then used as the template for exponential amplification. The linear DNA molecules with homologous ends are joined to generate the plasmid with the desired mutations through homologous recombination in E. coli. The correct understanding is important to method improvements, guiding us to use partially overlapping primers and Phusion DNA polymerase for site-directed mutagenesis. Phusion did not amplify a plasmid with complementary primers but used partially overlapping primers to amplify the plasmid, producing linear DNA molecules with homologous ends for site-directed mutagenesis. PMID:25399421

  4. Post-mitotic assembly of the nucleolus. I. The internal matrix network is a recruitment site for processing nucleolar components in prenucleolar bodies.

    PubMed

    Moreno Díaz de la Espina, S; Minguez, A

    1996-02-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate whether the nuclear matrix could provide the nucleation sites for dispersed parental nucleolar components to form post-mitotic prenucleolar bodies (PNBs). For this purpose, nuclear matrices from asynchronous populations of onion cells were fractionated, and the distribution of the insoluble components of the nucleolar processing complexes in the matrices were analysed by fibrillarin immunolabelling. The ultra-structural organization of the nuclear matrix of cells from late telophase to late G1, corresponding to the period of nucleolar reassembly and activation, was also analysed. Our results demonstrate that PNBs are structural components of the telophasic nuclear matrix and that this structure provides recruitment and assembly sites for the components of the nucleolar processing machinery, and suggests that the telophasic matrix network is involved in the early steps of post-mitotic nucleologenesis. PMID:8785603

  5. DOWNSTREAM IMPACTS OF SLUDGE MASS REDUCTION VIA ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION ON DWPF PROCESSING OF SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE - 9382

    SciTech Connect

    Pareizs, J; Cj Bannochie, C; Michael Hay, M; Daniel McCabe, D

    2009-01-14

    The SRS sludge that was to become a major fraction of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) contained a large fraction of H-Modified PUREX (HM) sludge, containing a large fraction of aluminum compounds that could adversely impact the processing and increase the vitrified waste volume. It is beneficial to reduce the non-radioactive fraction of the sludge to minimize the number of glass waste canisters that must be sent to a Federal Repository. Removal of aluminum compounds, such as boehmite and gibbsite, from sludge can be performed with the addition of NaOH solution and heating the sludge for several days. Preparation of SB5 involved adding sodium hydroxide directly to the waste tank and heating the contents to a moderate temperature through slurry pump operation to remove a fraction of this aluminum. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with demonstrating this process on actual tank waste sludge in our Shielded Cells Facility. This paper evaluates some of the impacts of aluminum dissolution on sludge washing and DWPF processing by comparing sludge processing with and without aluminum dissolution. It was necessary to demonstrate these steps to ensure that the aluminum removal process would not adversely impact the chemical and physical properties of the sludge which could result in slower processing or process upsets in the DWPF.

  6. Obese carboxypeptidase E knockout mice exhibit multiple defects in peptide hormone processing contributing to low bone mineral density

    PubMed Central

    Cawley, Niamh X.; Yanik, Tulin; Woronowicz, Alicja; Chang, Weizhong; Marini, Joan C.

    2010-01-01

    Carboxypeptidase E (CPE) is a prohormone/proneuropeptide processing enzyme, and mice bearing CPE mutations exhibit an obese and diabetic phenotype. Studies on CPE knockout (KO) mice revealed poor prohormone processing, resulting in deficiencies in peptide hormones/neuropeptides such as insulin, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART). Here, we show that CPE KO mice, an obese animal model, have low bone mineral density (BMD) accompanied by elevated plasma CTX-1 (carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks), and osteocalcin, indicators of increased bone turnover. Receptor activator for NF-κB ligand (RANKL) expression was elevated ∼2-fold relative to osteoprotegerin in the femur of KO animals, suggesting increased osteoclastic activity in the KO mice. In the hypothalamus, mature CART, a peptide involved in eating behavior and implicated in bone metabolism, was undetectable. The melanocortin and neuropeptide Y (NPY) systems in the hypothalamus have also been implicated in bone remodeling, since MC4R KO and NPY KO mice have increased BMD. However, reduction of α-MSH, the primary ligand of MC4R by up to 94% and the lack of detectable NPY in the hypothalamus of CPE KO do not recapitulate the single-gene KO phenotypes. This study highlights the complex physiological interplay between peptides involved in energy metabolism and bone formation and furthermore suggests the possibility that patients, bearing CPE and CART mutations leading to inactive forms of these molecules, may be at a higher risk of developing osteoporosis. PMID:20460579

  7. Applying a process based erosion model to assess off-site effects of soil erosion from the regional scale to the measure level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindewolf, Marcus; Arevalo, Annika; Saathoff, Ulfert; Käpermann, Philipp; Schmidt, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    Since soil erosion is one of the most important issues of global soil degradation, great effort was put into the application of erosion models for the assessment and prevention of on-site damages. Beside the primary impact of soil loss in decreasing soil fertility, erosion can cause significant impacts if transported sediments are entering downslope ecosystems, settlements, infrastructure or traffic routes. These off-site damages can be very costly, affect a lot of people and contaminate water-resources. The analysis of these problems is intensified by the requirements of new legislation, such as the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD), providing new challenges for planning authorities in order to combat off-site damage. Hence there is strong public and scientific interest in understanding the processes of sediment as well as particle attached nutrient and pollutant transport. Predicting the frequency, magnitude and extent of off-site impacts of water erosion is a necessary precondition for adequate risk assessments and mitigation measures. Process based models are increasingly used for the simulation of soil erosion. Regarding the requirements of the WFD, these models need to deliver comparable estimates from the regional scale to the level of mitigation measures. This study aims on the application of the process based model EROSION 3D for off-site risk assessment on different scales for the German federal state of Saxony using available geo data, data base applications and GIS-routines. Following issues were investigated: - Where are the expected sediment deposition areas? - Which settlements, infrastructures and traffic routes are affected by sediment fluxes? - Which river sections are affected by sediment inputs? - Which river sections are affected by nutrient and heavy metal inputs? The model results identify the Saxon loess belt as highly endangered by off-site damages although hotspots can be found in the northern flatlands and the southern mountain range as

  8. A Process-based, Climate-Sensitive Model to Derive Methane Emissions from Natural Wetlands: Application to 5 Wetland Sites, Sensitivity to Model Parameters and Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Bernadette P.; Heimann, Martin

    1999-01-01

    Methane emissions from natural wetlands constitutes the largest methane source at present and depends highly on the climate. In order to investigate the response of methane emissions from natural wetlands to climate variations, a 1-dimensional process-based climate-sensitive model to derive methane emissions from natural wetlands is developed. In the model the processes leading to methane emission are simulated within a 1-dimensional soil column and the three different transport mechanisms diffusion, plant-mediated transport and ebullition are modeled explicitly. The model forcing consists of daily values of soil temperature, water table and Net Primary Productivity, and at permafrost sites the thaw depth is included. The methane model is tested using observational data obtained at 5 wetland sites located in North America, Europe and Central America, representing a large variety of environmental conditions. It can be shown that in most cases seasonal variations in methane emissions can be explained by the combined effect of changes in soil temperature and the position of the water table. Our results also show that a process-based approach is needed, because there is no simple relationship between these controlling factors and methane emissions that applies to a variety of wetland sites. The sensitivity of the model to the choice of key model parameters is tested and further sensitivity tests are performed to demonstrate how methane emissions from wetlands respond to climate variations.

  9. Conditions and processes affecting sand resources at archeological sites in the Colorado River corridor below Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    East, Amy E.; Collins, Brian D.; Sankey, Joel B.; Corbett, Skye C.; Fairley, Helen C.; Caster, Joshua

    2016-05-17

    We conclude that most of the river-corridor archeological sites are at elevated risk of net erosion under present dam operations. In the present flow regime, controlled floods do not simulate the magnitude or frequency of natural floods, and are not large enough to deposit sand at elevations that were flooded at annual to decadal intervals in predam time. For archeological sites that depend upon river-derived sand, we infer elevated erosion risk owing to a combination of reduced sand supply (both fluvial and aeolian) through (1) the lower-than-natural flood magnitude, frequency, and sediment supply of the controlled-flooding protocol; (2) reduction of open, dry sand area available for wind redistribution under current normal (nonflood) dam operations, which do not include flows as low as natural seasonal low flows and do include substantial daily flow fluctuations; and (3) impeded aeolian sand entrainment and transport owing to increased riparian vegetation growth in the absence of larger, more-frequent floods. If dam operations were to increase the supply of sand available for windblown transport—for example, through larger floods, sediment augmentation, or increased fluvial sandbar exposure by low flows—and also decrease riparian vegetation, the prevalence of active aeolian sand could increase over time, and the propensity for unmitigated gully erosion could decrease. Although the evolution of river-corridor landscapes and archeological sites has been altered fundamentally by the lack of large, sediment-rich floods (flows on the order of 5,000 m3/s), some combination of sediment-rich flows above 1,270 m3/s, seasonal flows below 226 m3/s, and riparian-vegetation removal might increase the preservation potential for sand-dependent archeological resources in the Colorado River corridor.

  10. Multi-criteria site selection for fire services: the interaction with analytic hierarchy process and geographic information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erden, T.; Coşkun, M. Z.

    2010-10-01

    This study combines AHP and GIS to provide decision makers with a model to ensure optimal site location(s) for fire stations selected. The roles of AHP and GIS in determining optimal locations are explained, criteria for site selection are outlined, and case study results for finding the optimal fire station locations in Istanbul, Turkey are included. The city of Istanbul has about 13 million residents and is the largest and most populated city in Turkey. The rapid and constant growth of Istanbul has resulted in the increased number of fire related cases. Fire incidents tend to increase year by year in parallel with city expansion, population and hazardous material facilities. Istanbul has seen a rise in reported fire incidents from 12 769 in 1994 to 30 089 in 2009 according to the interim report of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality Department of Fire Brigade. The average response time was approximately 7 min 3 s in 2009. The goal of this study is to propose optimal sites for new fire station creation to allow the Fire Brigade in Istanbul to reduce the average response time to 5 min or less. After determining the necessity of suggesting additional fire stations, the following steps are taken into account: six criteria are considered in this analysis. They are: High Population Density (HPD); Proximity to Main Roads (PMR); Distance from Existing Fire Stations (DEF); Distance from Hazardous Material Facilities (DHM); Wooden Building Density (WBD); and Distance from the Areas Subjected to Earthquake Risk (DER). DHM criterion, with the weight of 40%, is the most important criterion in this analysis. The remaining criteria have a weight range from 9% to 16%. Moreover, the following steps are performed: representation of criterion map layers in GIS environment; classification of raster datasets; calculating the result raster map (suitability map for potential fire stations); and offering a model that supports decision makers in selecting fire station sites. The existing

  11. Site Formation Processes and Hunter-Gatherers Use of Space in a Tropical Environment: A Geo-Ethnoarchaeological Approach from South India

    PubMed Central

    Friesem, David E.; Lavi, Noa; Madella, Marco; Ajithprasad, P.; French, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Hunter-gatherer societies have distinct social perceptions and practices which are expressed in unique use of space and material deposition patterns. However, the identification of archaeological evidence associated with hunter-gatherer activity is often challenging, especially in tropical environments such as rainforests. We present an integrated study combining ethnoarchaeology and geoarchaeology in order to study archaeological site formation processes related to hunter-gatherers’ ways of living in tropical forests. Ethnographic data was collected from an habitation site of contemporary hunter-gatherers in the forests of South India, aimed at studying how everyday activities and way of living dictate patterns of material deposition. Ethnoarchaeological excavations of abandoned open-air sites and a rock-shelter of the same group located deep in the forests, involved field observations and sampling of sediments from the abandoned sites and the contemporary site. Laboratory analyses included geochemical analysis (i.e., FTIR, ICP-AES), phytolith concentration analysis and soil micromorphology. The results present a dynamic spatial deposition pattern of macroscopic, microscopic and chemical materials, which stem from the distinctive ways of living and use of space by hunter-gatherers. This study shows that post-depositional processes in tropical forests result in poor preservation of archaeological materials due to acidic conditions and intensive biological activity within the sediments. Yet, the multiple laboratory-based analyses were able to trace evidence for activity surfaces and their maintenance practices as well as localized concentrations of activity remains such as the use of plants, metals, hearths and construction materials. PMID:27783683

  12. Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2005) Applications for Mars Science Laboratory Mission Site Selection Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, H. L.; Justus, C. G.

    2007-01-01

    The new Mars-GRAM auxiliary profile capability, using data from TES observations, mesoscale model output, or other sources, allows a potentially higher fidelity representation of the atmosphere, and a more accurate way of estimating inherent uncertainty in atmospheric density and winds. Figure 3 indicates that, with nominal value rpscale=1, Mars-GRAM perturbations would tend to overestimate observed or mesoscale-modeled variability. To better represent TES and mesoscale model density perturbations, rpscale values as low as about 0.4 could be used. Some trajectory model implementations of Mars-GRAM allow the user to dynamically change rpscale and rwscale values with altitude. Figure 4 shows that an mscale value of about 1.2 would better replicate wind standard deviations from MRAMS or MMM5 simulations at the Gale, Terby, or Melas sites. By adjusting the rpscale and rwscale values in Mars-GRAM based on figures such as Figure 3 and 4, we can provide more accurate end-to-end simulations for EDL at the candidate MSL landing sites.

  13. Continued Trenchward Procession of Upper Plate GPS Sites Following the 2012 Mw 7.6 Nicoya Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, T. E.; Newman, A. V.; Protti, M.

    2015-12-01

    When studying subduction zone deformation one is often forced to consider a region significantly landward of the trench. The Nicoya Peninsula in Costa Rica presents a unique opportunity to obtain rich datasets from land in relatively close proximity to an active megathrust. A recent moment magnitude (Mw) 7.6 earthquake in September 2012 on this portion of the Middle America Trench affords an opportunity to constrain the ongoing postseismic deformation on the subduction interface between the Cocos and Caribbean plates. GPS campaigns occupying 22 sites were undertaken immediately following the earthquake in September-December 2012 and most recently in March 2015. Combined with data from a network of 17 continuous GPS in the region, we analyze the spatial and temporal changes in the postseismic velocity field. Another campaign is planned for 2017, in conjunction with our ongoing analysis of the continuous GPS network. After 2.5 years, campaign GPS results indicate significant trenchward motion of at least 7 cm, relative to a fixed Caribbean plate, for all sites up to the volcanic chain. Maximum values of 22 cm are observed above and updip of the coseismic rupture zone. The trench-parallel component of the displacement field is small, with few deviations between sites. Together these observations are substantially more self-similar over a larger region than what was observed for the coseismic offset. This implies that there may be a low stress differential across the upper plate, suggesting that the subduction interface environment, including the mainshock and surrounding area, has remained relatively weak following the earthquake. By utilizing a dense and long-term geodetic network we will report on initial modeling that aims to characterize the evolution of afterslip. The effect of regional aftershocks, including an Mw 6.5 in October 2012, and viscoelastic mantle relaxation will be considered to establish the necessity of such effects in robustly accounting for

  14. Local atomic structure and oxidation processes of Cu(I) binding site in amyloid beta peptide: XAS Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremennaya, M. A.; Soldatov, M. A.; Stretsov, V. A.; Soldatov, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    There are two different motifs of X-ray absorption spectra for Cu(I) K-edge in amyloid-β peptide which could be due to two different configurations of local Cu(I) environment. Two or three histidine ligands can coordinate copper ion in varying conformations. On the other hand, oxidation of amyloid-β peptide could play an additional role in local copper environment. In order to explore the peculiarities of local atomic and electronic structure of Cu(I) binding sites in amyloid-β peptide the x-ray absorption spectra were simulated for various Cu(I) environments including oxidized amyloid-β and compared with experimental data.

  15. Fluorophenyl-substituted Fe-only hydrogenases active site ADT models: different electrocatalytic process for proton reduction in HOAc and HBF4/Et2O.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Guang; Wang, Hong-Yan; Si, Gang; Tung, Chen-Ho; Wu, Li-Zhu

    2009-04-21

    A set of fluorophenyl-substituted adt-bridged Fe2S2 active site models of Fe-only hydrogenase, [(micro-SCH2)2NR]Fe2(CO)6 (, R=C6F4CF3-p; , R=C6H4CF3-p) and [(micro-SCH2)2NR]Fe2(CO)5(PPh3) (, R=C6F4CF3-p; , R=C6H4CF3-p), have been synthesized and well characterized. Spectroscopic and electrochemical studies demonstrate that the aryl-substituted complexes are stable toward a strong acid HBF4/Et2O, and electrocatalytic process for the hydrogen production is mostly dependent on the strength of the available proton source. When CH3COOH is used as the proton source, the electrocatalytic process begins with successively two one-electron reduction processes to produce H2 at Fe(0)Fe(0) (E2pc); whereas in the presence of strong acid, HBF4/Et2O, the process is initiated by protonation of a N-bridged atom followed by reduction of the protonated N-bridged atom around -1.29 V, and then release of H2 at Fe(0)Fe(I) (E1pc). Varying the strength of acid leads to the initial electron-transfer step from the reduction of a protonated N-bridged atom to the active site of [Fe(I)Fe(I)].

  16. Influenza Vaccine Manufacturing: Effect of Inactivation, Splitting and Site of Manufacturing. Comparison of Influenza Vaccine Production Processes

    PubMed Central

    Kon, Theone C.; Onu, Adrian; Berbecila, Laurentiu; Lupulescu, Emilia; Ghiorgisor, Alina; Kersten, Gideon F.; Cui, Yi-Qing; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Van der Pol, Leo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different inactivation and splitting procedures on influenza vaccine product composition, stability and recovery to support transfer of process technology. Four split and two whole inactivated virus (WIV) influenza vaccine bulks were produced and compared with respect to release criteria, stability of the bulk and haemagglutinin recovery. One clarified harvest of influenza H3N2 A/Uruguay virus prepared on 25.000 fertilized eggs was divided equally over six downstream processes. The main unit operation for purification was sucrose gradient zonal ultracentrifugation. The inactivation of the virus was performed with either formaldehyde in phosphate buffer or with beta-propiolactone in citrate buffer. For splitting of the viral products in presence of Tween®, either Triton™ X-100 or di-ethyl-ether was used. Removal of ether was established by centrifugation and evaporation, whereas removal of Triton-X100 was performed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. All products were sterile filtered and subjected to a 5 months real time stability study. In all processes, major product losses were measured after sterile filtration; with larger losses for split virus than for WIV. The beta-propiolactone inactivation on average resulted in higher recoveries compared to processes using formaldehyde inactivation. Especially ether split formaldehyde product showed low recovery and least stability over a period of five months. PMID:26959983

  17. Influenza Vaccine Manufacturing: Effect of Inactivation, Splitting and Site of Manufacturing. Comparison of Influenza Vaccine Production Processes.

    PubMed

    Kon, Theone C; Onu, Adrian; Berbecila, Laurentiu; Lupulescu, Emilia; Ghiorgisor, Alina; Kersten, Gideon F; Cui, Yi-Qing; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Van der Pol, Leo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different inactivation and splitting procedures on influenza vaccine product composition, stability and recovery to support transfer of process technology. Four split and two whole inactivated virus (WIV) influenza vaccine bulks were produced and compared with respect to release criteria, stability of the bulk and haemagglutinin recovery. One clarified harvest of influenza H3N2 A/Uruguay virus prepared on 25.000 fertilized eggs was divided equally over six downstream processes. The main unit operation for purification was sucrose gradient zonal ultracentrifugation. The inactivation of the virus was performed with either formaldehyde in phosphate buffer or with beta-propiolactone in citrate buffer. For splitting of the viral products in presence of Tween®, either Triton™ X-100 or di-ethyl-ether was used. Removal of ether was established by centrifugation and evaporation, whereas removal of Triton-X100 was performed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. All products were sterile filtered and subjected to a 5 months real time stability study. In all processes, major product losses were measured after sterile filtration; with larger losses for split virus than for WIV. The beta-propiolactone inactivation on average resulted in higher recoveries compared to processes using formaldehyde inactivation. Especially ether split formaldehyde product showed low recovery and least stability over a period of five months.

  18. ''History of Theatre'' Web Sites: A Brief History of the Writing Process in a High School ESL Language Arts Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Susan; Huot, Diane; Hamers, Josiane; Lemonnier, France H.

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on how Quebec Francophone high school students, enrolled in a program which featured an environment rich in information and communication technologies (ICTs), appropriated the writing process over a four-year period (Grades 7-10) in the context of their ESL language arts courses. Data for the study were obtained using…

  19. 77 FR 41807 - New Gear Process, a Division of Magna Powertrain, Including On-Site Leased Workers From ABM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... Gear, a Division of Magna Powertrain, East Syracuse, New York. The workers produce automotive components. The Notice was published in the Federal Register on January 26, 2011 (75 FR 77669). At the... Employment and Training Administration New Gear Process, a Division of Magna Powertrain, Including On-...

  20. Influenza Vaccine Manufacturing: Effect of Inactivation, Splitting and Site of Manufacturing. Comparison of Influenza Vaccine Production Processes.

    PubMed

    Kon, Theone C; Onu, Adrian; Berbecila, Laurentiu; Lupulescu, Emilia; Ghiorgisor, Alina; Kersten, Gideon F; Cui, Yi-Qing; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Van der Pol, Leo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different inactivation and splitting procedures on influenza vaccine product composition, stability and recovery to support transfer of process technology. Four split and two whole inactivated virus (WIV) influenza vaccine bulks were produced and compared with respect to release criteria, stability of the bulk and haemagglutinin recovery. One clarified harvest of influenza H3N2 A/Uruguay virus prepared on 25.000 fertilized eggs was divided equally over six downstream processes. The main unit operation for purification was sucrose gradient zonal ultracentrifugation. The inactivation of the virus was performed with either formaldehyde in phosphate buffer or with beta-propiolactone in citrate buffer. For splitting of the viral products in presence of Tween®, either Triton™ X-100 or di-ethyl-ether was used. Removal of ether was established by centrifugation and evaporation, whereas removal of Triton-X100 was performed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. All products were sterile filtered and subjected to a 5 months real time stability study. In all processes, major product losses were measured after sterile filtration; with larger losses for split virus than for WIV. The beta-propiolactone inactivation on average resulted in higher recoveries compared to processes using formaldehyde inactivation. Especially ether split formaldehyde product showed low recovery and least stability over a period of five months. PMID:26959983

  1. Electro-Mechanical Manipulator for Use in the Remote Equipment Decontamination Cell at the Defense Waste Processing Facility, Savannah River Site - 12454

    SciTech Connect

    Lambrecht, Bill; Dixon, Joe; Neuville, John R.

    2012-07-01

    One of the legacies of the cold war is millions of liters of radioactive waste. One of the locations where this waste is stored is at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. A major effort to clean up this waste is on-going at the defense waste processing facility (DWPF) at SRS. A piece of this effort is decontamination of the equipment used in the DWPF to process the waste. The remote equipment decontamination cell (REDC) in the DWPF uses electro-mechanical manipulators (EMM) arms manufactured and supplied by PaR Systems to decontaminate DWPF process equipment. The decontamination fluid creates a highly corrosive environment. After 25 years of operational use the original EMM arms are aging and need replacement. To support continued operation of the DWPF, two direct replacement EMM arms were delivered to the REDC in the summer of 2011. (authors)

  2. Evaluation of ocean color data processing schemes for VIIRS sensor using in-situ data of coastal AERONET-OC sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, S.; Gilerson, A.; Hlaing, S.; Weidemann, A.; Arnone, R.; Wang, M.

    2013-10-01

    In the processing of Ocean Color (OC) data from sensor data recorded by Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard JPSS-Suomi satellite, NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG) is deriving a continuous temporal calibration based on the on-board calibration measurements for the visible bands, and then reprocessing the full mission to produce a continuously calibrated sensor data record (SDR) product. In addition, a vicarious calibration during SDR to OC Level-2 processing is applied. In the latest processing the vicarious calibration is derived from the Marine Optical Buoy (MOBY) data, whereas in the initial processing it was derived from a sea surface reflectance model and a climatology of chlorophyll-a concentration. Furthermore, NASA has recently reprocessed the OC data for the entire VIIRS mission with lunar-based temporal calibration and updated vicarious gains. On the other hand, in fulfilling the mission of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS) developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems, for the processing of the environmental data products from sensor data records, has gained beta status for evaluation. As these processing schemes continue to evolve, monitoring the validity and assessments of the related VIIRS ocean color products are necessary, especially for coastal waters, to evaluate the consistency of these processing and calibration schemes. The ocean color component of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET-OC) has been designed to support long-term satellite ocean color investigations through cross-site measurements collected by autonomous multispectral radiometer systems deployed above water. As part of this network, the Long Island Sound Coastal Observatory (LISCO) near New York City and WaveCIS in the Gulf of Mexico expand those observational capabilities with continuous monitoring as well as (for the LISCO site) additional assessment of the

  3. Synaptic vesicles in electromotoneurones. I. Axonal transport, site of transmitter uptake and processing of a core proteoglycan during maturation.

    PubMed Central

    Kiene, M L; Stadler, H

    1987-01-01

    We were able by using an in vivo pulse-label technique to trace part of the life cycle of a secretory organelle, the acetylcholine-storing synaptic vesicle from electromotoneurones of Torpedo marmorata. This technique uses [35S]sulphate incorporation into the cell bodies of the electromotoneurones which results in radioactive labelling of a synaptic vesicle heparansulphate proteoglycan--a major core component. Vesicles are anterogradely transported in the axons at a fast rate as 'empty' organelles (VP0 population). In the nerve terminal, maturation of the granule to a population (VP1) fully charged with acetylcholine and ATP occurs. Finally after a longer time interval a change to a third population (VP2) is observed. This population is reduced in diameter as compared to VP0 and VP1 suggesting, in agreement with earlier reports, that it has undergone exo-endocytosis. The changes from VP0 to VP1 and VP2 are accompanied by a degradation of the core proteoglycan as measured by gel filtration of the 35S-labelled compound. The results show that vesicles are axonally transported as preformed organelles, exist in the neurone at least in three different populations and that the nerve terminal is the major site of transmitter uptake. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. PMID:2444433

  4. Surface albedo changes with time on Titan's possible cryovolcanic sites: Cassini/VIMS processing and geophysical implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomonidou, A.; Coustenis, A.; Hirtzig, M.; Bratsolis, E.; Drossart, P.; Bampasidis, G.; Kyriakopoulos, K.; Le Mouélic, S.; Rodriguez, S.; Stephan, K.; Jaumann, R.; Sohl, F.; Wagner, F. W.; Hussmann, H.; Lopes, R. M. C.; Sotin, C.; Brown, R. H.; Stamatelopoulou-Seymour, K.; Moussas, X.

    2013-09-01

    We present a study on Titan's possibly cryovolcanic and varying regions as suggested from previous studies [e.g. 1;2;7]. These regions, which are potentially subject to change over time in brightness and are located close to the equator, are Tui Regio, Hotei Regio, and Sotra Patera. We apply two methods on Cassini/VIMS data in order to retrieve their surface properties and monitor any temporal variations. First, we apply a statistical method, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) [3;4] where we manage to isolate regions of distinct and diverse chemical composition called 'Region of interest - RoI'. Then, we focus on retrieving the spectral differences (with respect to the Huygens landing site albedo) among the RoIs by applying a radiative transfer code (RT) [5;3]. Hence, we are able to view the dynamical range and evaluate the differences in surface albedo within the RoIs of the three regions. In addition, using this double procedure, we study the temporal surface variations of the three regions witnessing albedo changes with time for Tui Regio from 2005-2009 (darkening) and Sotra Patera from 2005-2006 (brightening) at all wavelengths [3]. The surface albedo variations and the presence of volcanic-like features within the regions in addition to a recent study [6] that calculates Titan's tidal response are significant indications for the connection of the interior with the cryovolcanic candidate features with implications for the satellite's astrobiological potential.

  5. Rare earth elements of seep carbonates: Indication for redox variations and microbiological processes at modern seep sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Dong; Lin, Zhijia; Bian, Youyan; Chen, Duofu; Peckmann, Jörn; Bohrmann, Gerhard; Roberts, Harry H.

    2013-03-01

    At marine seeps, methane is microbially oxidized resulting in the precipitation of carbonates close to the seafloor. Methane oxidation leads to sulfate depletion in sediment pore water, which induces a change in redox conditions. Rare earth element (REE) patterns of authigenic carbonate phases collected from modern seeps of the Gulf of Mexico, the Black Sea, and the Congo Fan were analyzed. Different carbonate minerals including aragonite and calcite with different crystal habits have been selected for analysis. Total REE content (ΣREE) of seep carbonates varies widely, from 0.1 ppm to 42.5 ppm, but a common trend is that the ΣREE in microcrystalline phases is higher than that of the associated later phases including micospar, sparite and blocky cement, suggesting that ΣREE may be a function of diagenesis. The shale-normalized REE patterns of the seep carbonates often show different Ce anomalies even in samples from a specific site, suggesting that the formation conditions of seep carbonates are variable and complex. Overall, our results show that apart from anoxic, oxic conditions are at least temporarily common in seep environments.

  6. Simple processes drive unpredictable differences in estuarine fish assemblages: Baselines for understanding site-specific ecological and anthropogenic impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheaves, Marcus

    2016-03-01

    Predicting patterns of abundance and composition of biotic assemblages is essential to our understanding of key ecological processes, and our ability to monitor, evaluate and manage assemblages and ecosystems. Fish assemblages often vary from estuary to estuary in apparently unpredictable ways, making it challenging to develop a general understanding of the processes that determine assemblage composition. This makes it problematic to transfer understanding from one estuary situation to another and therefore difficult to assemble effective management plans or to assess the impacts of natural and anthropogenic disturbance. Although system-to-system variability is a common property of ecological systems, rather than being random it is the product of complex interactions of multiple causes and effects at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. I investigate the drivers of differences in estuary fish assemblages, to develop a simple model explaining the diversity and complexity of observed estuary-to-estuary differences, and explore its implications for management and conservation. The model attributes apparently unpredictable differences in fish assemblage composition from estuary to estuary to the interaction of species-specific, life history-specific and scale-specific processes. In explaining innate faunal differences among estuaries without the need to invoke complex ecological or anthropogenic drivers, the model provides a baseline against which the effects of additional natural and anthropogenic factors can be evaluated.

  7. Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956)- An Assessment of Quantities released, Off-Site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Apostoaei, A.I.; Burns, R.E.; Hoffman, F.O.; Ijaz, T.; Lewis, C.J.; Nair, S.K.; Widner, T.E.

    1999-07-01

    In the early 1990s, concern about the Oak Ridge Reservation's past releases of contaminants to the environment prompted Tennessee's public health officials to pursue an in-depth study of potential off-site health effects at Oak Ridge. This study, the Oak Ridge dose reconstruction, was supported by an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Tennessee, and was overseen by a 12-member panel appointed by Tennessee's Commissioner of Health. One of the major contaminants studied in the dose reconstruction was radioactive iodine, which was released to the air by X-10 (now called Oak Ridge National Laboratory) as it processed spent nuclear reactor fuel from 1944 through 1956. The process recovered radioactive lanthanum for use in weapons development. Iodine concentrates in the thyroid gland so health concerns include various diseases of the thyroid, such as thyroid cancer. The large report, ''Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956) - An Assessment of Quantities Released, Off-site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer,'' is in two volumes. Volume 1 is the main body of the report, and Volume 1A, which has the same title, consists of 22 supporting appendices. Together, these reports serve the following purposes: (1) describe the methodologies used to estimate the amount of iodine-131 (I-131) released; (2) evaluate I-131's pathway from air to vegetation to food to humans; (3) estimate doses received by human thyroids; (4) estimate excess risk of acquiring a thyroid cancer during ones lifetime; and (5) provide equations, examples of historical documents used, and tables of calculated values. Results indicate that females born in 1952 who consumed milk from a goat pastured a few miles east of X-10 received the highest doses from I-131 and would have had the highest risks of contracting thyroid cancer. Doses from cow's milk are considerably less . Detailed

  8. Quality assessment of Isfahan Medical Faculty web site electronic services and prioritizing solutions using analytic hierarchy process approach

    PubMed Central

    Hajrahimi, Nafiseh; Dehaghani, Sayed Mehdi Hejazi; Hajrahimi, Nargess; Sarmadi, Sima

    2014-01-01

    Context: Implementing information technology in the best possible way can bring many advantages such as applying electronic services and facilitating tasks. Therefore, assessment of service providing systems is a way to improve the quality and elevate these systems including e-commerce, e-government, e-banking, and e-learning. Aims: This study was aimed to evaluate the electronic services in the website of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in order to propose solutions to improve them. Furthermore, we aim to rank the solutions based on the factors that enhance the quality of electronic services by using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method. Materials and Methods: Non-parametric test was used to assess the quality of electronic services. The assessment of propositions was based on Aqual model and they were prioritized using AHP approach. The AHP approach was used because it directly applies experts’ deductions in the model, and lead to more objective results in the analysis and prioritizing the risks. After evaluating the quality of the electronic services, a multi-criteria decision making frame-work was used to prioritize the proposed solutions. Statistical Analysis Used: Non-parametric tests and AHP approach using Expert Choice software. Results: The results showed that students were satisfied in most of the indicators. Only a few indicators received low satisfaction from students including, design attractiveness, the amount of explanation and details of information, honesty and responsiveness of authorities, and the role of e-services in the user's relationship with university. After interviewing with Information and Communications Technology (ICT) experts at the university, measurement criteria, and solutions to improve the quality were collected. The best solutions were selected by EC software. According to the results, the solution “controlling and improving the process in handling users complaints” is of the utmost importance and authorities

  9. Development of a Performance and Processing Property Acceptance Region for Cementitious Low-Level Waste Forms at Savannah River Site - 13174

    SciTech Connect

    Staub, Aaron V.; Reigel, Marissa M.

    2013-07-01

    The Saltstone Production and Disposal Facilities (SPF and SDF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have been treating decontaminated salt solution, a low-level aqueous waste stream (LLW) since facility commissioning in 1990. In 2012, the Saltstone Facilities implemented a new Performance Assessment (PA) that incorporates an alternate design for the disposal facility to ensure that the performance objectives of DOE Order 435.1 and the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) of Fiscal Year 2005 Section 3116 are met. The PA performs long term modeling of the waste form, disposal facility, and disposal site hydrogeology to determine the transport history of radionuclides disposed in the LLW. Saltstone has been successfully used to dispose of LLW in a grout waste form for 15 years. Numerous waste form property assumptions directly impact the fate and transport modeling performed in the PA. The extent of process variability and consequence on performance properties are critical to meeting the assumptions of the PA. The SPF has ensured performance property acceptability by way of implementing control strategies that ensure the process operates within the analyzed limits of variability, but efforts continue to improve the understanding of facility performance in relation to the PA analysis. A similar understanding of the impact of variability on processing parameters is important from the standpoint of the operability of the production facility. The fresh grout slurry properties (particularly slurry rheology and the rate of hydration and structure formation) of the waste form directly impact the pressure and flow rates that can be reliably processed. It is thus equally important to quantify the impact of variability on processing parameters to ensure that the design basis assumptions for the production facility are maintained. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has been pursuing a process that will ultimately establish a property acceptance region (PAR) to incorporate

  10. Process design and economics of on-site cellulase production on various carbon sources in a softwood-based ethanol plant.

    PubMed

    Barta, Zsolt; Kovacs, Krisztina; Reczey, Kati; Zacchi, Guido

    2010-06-28

    On-site cellulase enzyme fermentation in a softwood-to-ethanol process, based on SO(2)-catalysed steam pretreatment followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, was investigated from a techno-economic aspect using Aspen Plus© and Aspen Icarus Process Evaluator© softwares. The effect of varying the carbon source of enzyme fermentation, at constant protein and mycelium yields, was monitored through the whole process. Enzyme production step decreased the overall ethanol yield (270 L/dry tonne of raw material in the case of purchased enzymes) by 5-16 L/tonne. Capital cost was found to be the main cost contributor to enzyme fermentation, constituting to 60-78% of the enzyme production cost, which was in the range of 0.42-0.53 SEK/L ethanol. The lowest minimum ethanol selling prices (4.71 and 4.82 SEK/L) were obtained in those scenarios, where pretreated liquid fraction supplemented with molasses was used as carbon source. In some scenarios, on-site enzyme fermentation was found to be a feasible alternative.

  11. Process Design and Economics of On-Site Cellulase Production on Various Carbon Sources in a Softwood-Based Ethanol Plant

    PubMed Central

    Barta, Zsolt; Kovacs, Krisztina; Reczey, Kati; Zacchi, Guido

    2010-01-01

    On-site cellulase enzyme fermentation in a softwood-to-ethanol process, based on SO2-catalysed steam pretreatment followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, was investigated from a techno-economic aspect using Aspen Plus© and Aspen Icarus Process Evaluator© softwares. The effect of varying the carbon source of enzyme fermentation, at constant protein and mycelium yields, was monitored through the whole process. Enzyme production step decreased the overall ethanol yield (270 L/dry tonne of raw material in the case of purchased enzymes) by 5–16 L/tonne. Capital cost was found to be the main cost contributor to enzyme fermentation, constituting to 60–78% of the enzyme production cost, which was in the range of 0.42–0.53 SEK/L ethanol. The lowest minimum ethanol selling prices (4.71 and 4.82 SEK/L) were obtained in those scenarios, where pretreated liquid fraction supplemented with molasses was used as carbon source. In some scenarios, on-site enzyme fermentation was found to be a feasible alternative. PMID:21048869

  12. Evapotranspiration And Geochemical Controls On Groundwater Plumes At Arid Sites: Toward Innovative Alternate End-States For Uranium Processing And Tailings Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.; Eddy-Dilek, Carol A.; Millings, Margaret R.; Kautsky, Mark

    2014-01-08

    Management of legacy tailings/waste and groundwater contamination are ongoing at the former uranium milling site in Tuba City AZ. The tailings have been consolidated and effectively isolated using an engineered cover system. For the existing groundwater plume, a system of recovery wells extracts contaminated groundwater for treatment using an advanced distillation process. The ten years of pump and treat (P&T) operations have had minimal impact on the contaminant plume – primarily due to geochemical and hydrological limits. A flow net analysis demonstrates that groundwater contamination beneath the former processing site flows in the uppermost portion of the aquifer and exits the groundwater as the plume transits into and beneath a lower terrace in the landscape. The evaluation indicates that contaminated water will not reach Moenkopi Wash, a locally important stream. Instead, shallow groundwater in arid settings such as Tuba City is transferred into the vadose zone and atmosphere via evaporation, transpiration and diffuse seepage. The dissolved constituents are projected to precipitate and accumulate as minerals such as calcite and gypsum in the deep vadose zone (near the capillary fringe), around the roots of phreatophyte plants, and near seeps. The natural hydrologic and geochemical controls common in arid environments such as Tuba City work together to limit the size of the groundwater plume, to naturally attenuate and detoxify groundwater contaminants, and to reduce risks to humans, livestock and the environment. The technical evaluation supports an alternative beneficial reuse (“brownfield”) scenario for Tuba City. This alternative approach would have low risks, similar to the current P&T scenario, but would eliminate the energy and expense associated with the active treatment and convert the former uranium processing site into a resource for future employment of local citizens and ongoing benefit to the Native American Nations.

  13. Impact of rock heterogeneity in matrix diffusion process : a single fracture case at the Äspö granitic site (Sweden)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenier, C.; Fourno, A.; Mouche, E.; Benabderrahmane, H.

    2003-04-01

    Within the framework of nuclear spent fuel storage, special concern is put on experimentation and modelling work to improve the modelling capacities for the transfers of radionuclides within natural fractured media. Several aspects make it a challenging task, among which the heterogeneity of the system, the scarcity of the available information, the strong contrasts in the parameter values between mobile and immobile zones. One of the key retention process is related with diffusion in immobile zones within the fractured medium (fractions of the plume are temporally retained from the main flow paths by diffusion processes into these zones). The importance of this mechanism increases with the contact time of the plume with these zones. This means that for a post closure situation matrix diffusion plays the larger role. We provide here with results obtained within the SKB Task Force (Task6) in relation with the single fracture tracer experiments (TRUE1 Project - feature A at Äspö site in Sweden). The purpose of this task, involving several other modelling teams, is to provide a bridge between detailed SC (Site Characterization) models operating at experimental time scale and more simple PA (Performance Assessment) models operating at large time scales. A good level of realism is obtained in the definition of the task by relying on the very extensive and valuable Äspö site data base. We conducted the study with different representations of the system (involving deterministic and stochastic approaches). Our simulation code is Cast3M with a mixed and hybrid finite element scheme. We show here our main conclusions concerning the role played by different matrix zones (fracture coating, fracture infilling, altered and non altered rock ), the ability to identify the heterogeneous matrix zone properties from tracer tests or independent measurements, the type of zones accessed by the plume as a function of the time scale of the test, the homogenisation of transport

  14. Assessment of microbial quality of fish processing industrial effluent in bar-mouth at Bhidia landing site, Veraval, Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Sivaraman, G K; Visnuvinayagam, S; Jha, Ashish Kumar; Renuka, V; Remya, S; Vanik, Deesha

    2016-07-01

    The present study was carried out to assess the microbial quality of fish processing industries effluent at Bhidia bar-mouth, Veraval, Gujarat during April, 2012 to March 2013. The total viable bacterial count (TVBC), total Enterobacteriaceae count, E. coli count (EC), Staphylococcus aureus and Fecal Streptococcal count in effluent ranged from 3.0 x 10(-1) to 6.8 x 10(6), 9.0 x 10(1) to 2.9 x 10(4), 0 to 0. 5 x 10(4), 0 to 0. 4 x 102 and 0.3 x 10(1) to 0. 1 x 10(4) cfu.(-1)respectively. Significantly higher load of TEC, E. coli, S.aureus, Fecal Streptococci, Total coliforms and Fecal coliforms were higher during summer whereas, TVBC was higher in the month of Sept.-Oct. Furthermore, the total coliform and fecal coliform counts were found to be higher with 1400+ /100 ml MPN value throughout the year of the study, except in the month of August. Overall occurrence of pathogenic strains of E. coli, S. aureus and Fecal streptococci were 41.67%, 25.00% and 66.67% respectively during this period. The antibiogram of the isolated E. coli isolates show that almost 50% were resistant to Cefazidime/Clavulanic acid (CAC), Amoxyclav (AMC), Ciprofloxacin (CIF) and Ampicillin (AMP). The present study indicated that the effluent of fish processing industry was heavily contaminated with E. coli, S. aureus and Fecal Streptococci which confirmed improper treatment of fish processing effluent. Moreover, the precedence of antibiotic resistant E. coli may pose threat to public health safety. PMID:27498498

  15. Assessment of microbial quality of fish processing industrial effluent in bar-mouth at Bhidia landing site, Veraval, Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Sivaraman, G K; Visnuvinayagam, S; Jha, Ashish Kumar; Renuka, V; Remya, S; Vanik, Deesha

    2016-07-01

    The present study was carried out to assess the microbial quality of fish processing industries effluent at Bhidia bar-mouth, Veraval, Gujarat during April, 2012 to March 2013. The total viable bacterial count (TVBC), total Enterobacteriaceae count, E. coli count (EC), Staphylococcus aureus and Fecal Streptococcal count in effluent ranged from 3.0 x 10(-1) to 6.8 x 10(6), 9.0 x 10(1) to 2.9 x 10(4), 0 to 0. 5 x 10(4), 0 to 0. 4 x 102 and 0.3 x 10(1) to 0. 1 x 10(4) cfu.(-1)respectively. Significantly higher load of TEC, E. coli, S.aureus, Fecal Streptococci, Total coliforms and Fecal coliforms were higher during summer whereas, TVBC was higher in the month of Sept.-Oct. Furthermore, the total coliform and fecal coliform counts were found to be higher with 1400+ /100 ml MPN value throughout the year of the study, except in the month of August. Overall occurrence of pathogenic strains of E. coli, S. aureus and Fecal streptococci were 41.67%, 25.00% and 66.67% respectively during this period. The antibiogram of the isolated E. coli isolates show that almost 50% were resistant to Cefazidime/Clavulanic acid (CAC), Amoxyclav (AMC), Ciprofloxacin (CIF) and Ampicillin (AMP). The present study indicated that the effluent of fish processing industry was heavily contaminated with E. coli, S. aureus and Fecal Streptococci which confirmed improper treatment of fish processing effluent. Moreover, the precedence of antibiotic resistant E. coli may pose threat to public health safety.

  16. Geochemical Processes Data Package for the Vadose Zone in the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Zachara, John M.; Dresel, P. Evan; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2007-09-28

    This data package discusses the geochemistry of vadose zone sediments beneath the single-shell tank farms at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Hanford Site. The purpose of the report is to provide a review of the most recent and relevant geochemical process information available for the vadose zone beneath the single-shell tank farms and the Integrated Disposal Facility. Two companion reports to this one were recently published which discuss the geology of the farms (Reidel and Chamness 2007) and groundwater flow and contamination beneath the farms (Horton 2007).

  17. Environmental assessment operation of the HB-Line facility and frame waste recovery process for production of Pu-238 oxide at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0948, addressing future operations of the HB-Line facility and the Frame Waste Recovery process at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, DOE has concluded that, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

  18. Concentrations and solubility of trace elements in fine particles at a mountain site, southern China: regional sources and cloud processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, T.; Wang, Y.; Li, W. J.; Chen, J. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, W. X.

    2015-08-01

    The concentrations and solubility of twelve trace elements in PM2.5 at Mt. Lushan, southern China, were investigated during the summer of 2011 and the spring of 2012. The average PM2.5 mass was 55.2 ± 20.1 μg m-3 during the observation period. Temporal variations of all trace elements including total and water-soluble fractions with several dust storm spikes in total fractions of Al and Fe were observed. The enrichment factor (EF) values were 1 order of magnitude higher for the water-soluble fractions versus the total fractions of trace elements. Four major emission sources, namely nonferrous metal mining and smelting (for Cr, As, Ba and parts of Zn), coal combustion (for Pb, Zn, Se, Cu and Mn), crustal materials (for Al and Fe) and municipal solid waste incineration (for Cd and Mo), were classified by principal component analysis (PCA). Trajectory cluster analysis and the potential source contribution function (PSCF) consistently identified the Yangtze River delta (YRD), the Pearl River delta (PRD), and the neighbouring provinces of Mt. Lushan as the major source regions and transport pathways for anthropogenic elements. Northern China was identified as a major source region for crustal elements. It should be noted that apart from the YRD, the area around Mt. Lushan has become the most significant contributor to the solubility of most trace elements. Element solubility can be partially determined by emission sources. However, enhanced solubility of trace elements corresponding to increased concentrations of sulfate after the occurrence of cloud events indicated significant effects of cloud processing on aerosol element dissolution. Metal particles mixed with sulfate in cloud droplet residues were further investigated through transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Irreversible alteration of particle morphology by cloud processing was confirmed to be highly responsible for the enhancement of trace element solubility. The findings from this study imply an

  19. Coracoid Process Avulsion Fracture at the Coracoclavicular Ligament Attachment Site in an Osteoporotic Patient with Acromioclavicular Joint Dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Umemoto, Takahisa; Fukuda, Kimitaka; Kajino, Tomomichi

    2016-01-01

    Coracoid fractures are uncommon, mostly occur at the base or neck of the coracoid process (CP), and typically present with ipsilateral acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) dislocation. However, CP avulsion fractures at the coracoclavicular ligament (CCL) attachment with ACJ dislocation have not been previously reported. A 59-year-old woman receiving glucocorticoid treatment fell from bed and complained of pain in her shoulder. Radiographs revealed an ACJ dislocation with a distal clavicle fracture. Three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) reconstruction showed a small bone fragment at the medial apex of the CP. She was treated conservatively and achieved a satisfactory outcome. CP avulsion fractures at the CCL attachment can occur in osteoporotic patients with ACJ dislocations. Three-dimensional computed tomography is useful for identifying this fracture type. CP avulsion fractures should be suspected in patients with ACJ dislocations and risk factors for osteoporosis or osteopenia. PMID:27493819

  20. An Exploration of Decision-Making Processes on Infant Delivery Site from the Perspective of Pregnant Women, New Mothers, and Their Families in Northern Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Andrea Katryn; Bruce, Sharon Gail; Jayanna, Krishnamurthy; Gurav, Kaveri; Mohan, Haranahalli L; Avery, Lisa; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James Frederick; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to explore the decision-making processes regarding sites for delivery of infants among women, their husbands, and mothers-in-law in a rural area of northern Karnataka state, south India. Qualitative semi-structured, individual in-depth interviews were conducted in 2010 among 110 pregnant women, new mothers, husbands and mothers-in-law. Interviews were conducted by trained local researchers in participants' languages and then translated into English. Decisions were made relationally, as family members weighed their collective attitudes and experiences towards a home, private or public delivery. Patterns of both concordance and discordance between women and their families' preferences for delivery site were present. The voice of pregnant women and new mothers was not always subordinate to that of other family members. Still, the involvement of husbands and mothers-in-law was important in decision-making, indicating the need to consider the influence of household gender and power dynamics. All respondent types also expressed shifts in social context and cultural attitudes towards increasing preference for hospital delivery. An appreciation of the interdependence of family members' roles in delivery site decision-making, and how they are influenced by the socio-cultural context, must be considered in frameworks used to guide the development of relevant interventions to improve the utilization and quality of maternal, neonatal and child health services.

  1. Effect of Biogeochemical Redox Processes on the Fate and Transport of As and U at an Abandoned Uranium Mine Site: an X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Study

    SciTech Connect

    Troyer, Lyndsay D.; Stone, James J.; Borch, Thomas

    2014-01-28

    Although As can occur in U ore at concentrations up to 10 wt-%, the fate and transport of both U and As at U mine tailings have not been previously investigated at a watershed scale. The major objective of this study was to determine primary chemical and physical processes contributing to transport of both U and As to a down gradient watershed at an abandoned U mine site in South Dakota. Uranium is primarily transported by erosion at the site, based on decreasing concentrations in sediment with distance from the tailings. equential extractions and U X-ray absorption near-edge fine structure (XANES) fitting indicate that U is immobilised in a near-source sedimentation pond both by prevention of sediment transport and by reduction of UVI to UIV. In contrast to U, subsequent release of As to the watershed takes place from the pond partially due to reductive dissolution of Fe oxy(hydr)oxides. However, As is immobilised by adsorption to clays and Fe oxy(hydr)oxides in oxic zones and by formation of As–sulfide mineral phases in anoxic zones down gradient, indicated by sequential extractions and As XANES fitting. This study indicates that As should be considered during restoration of uranium mine sites in order to prevent transport.

  2. Use of chemical modification and mass spectrometry to identify substrate-contacting sites in proteinaceous RNase P, a tRNA processing enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tien-Hao; Tanimoto, Akiko; Shkriabai, Nikoloz; Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka; Wysocki, Vicki; Gopalan, Venkat

    2016-01-01

    Among all enzymes in nature, RNase P is unique in that it can use either an RNA- or a protein-based active site for its function: catalyzing cleavage of the 5′-leader from precursor tRNAs (pre-tRNAs). The well-studied catalytic RNase P RNA uses a specificity module to recognize the pre-tRNA and a catalytic module to perform cleavage. Similarly, the recently discovered proteinaceous RNase P (PRORP) possesses two domains – pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) and metallonuclease (NYN) – that are present in some other RNA processing factors. Here, we combined chemical modification of lysines and multiple-reaction monitoring mass spectrometry to identify putative substrate-contacting residues in Arabidopsis thaliana PRORP1 (AtPRORP1), and subsequently validated these candidate sites by site-directed mutagenesis. Using biochemical studies to characterize the wild-type (WT) and mutant derivatives, we found that AtPRORP1 exploits specific lysines strategically positioned at the tips of it's V-shaped arms, in the first PPR motif and in the NYN domain proximal to the catalytic center, to bind and cleave pre-tRNA. Our results confirm that the protein- and RNA-based forms of RNase P have distinct modules for substrate recognition and cleavage, an unanticipated parallel in their mode of action. PMID:27166372

  3. Concentrations and solubility of trace elements in fine particles at a mountain site, southern China: regional sources and cloud processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, T.; Wang, Y.; Li, W. J.; Chen, J. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, W. X.

    2015-05-01

    The concentrations and solubility of twelve trace elements in PM2.5 at Mt. Lushan, southern China, were investigated during the summer of 2011 and the spring of 2012. The average PM2.5 mass was 55.2 ± 20.1 μg m-3 during the observation period. Temporal variations of all trace elements including total and water-soluble fractions with several dust storm spikes for total fraction Al and Fe were observed. The enrichment factor (EF) values were one order of magnitude higher for the water-soluble fractions vs. the total fractions of trace elements. Four major emission sources were classified by principal component analysis (PCA), namely nonferrous metal mining and smelting (for Cr, As, Ba and parts of Zn), coal combustion (for Pb, Zn, Se, Cu and Mn), crustal materials (for Al and Fe) and municipal solid waste incineration (for Cd and Mo). Trajectory cluster analysis and the potential source contribution function (PSCF) consistently identified the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), the Pearl River Delta (PRD) and parts of Hunan and Jiangxi as the major source regions and pathways for anthropogenic elements, while northern China was identified for crustal elements. In contrast, the local Jiangxi area has become the most significant contributor to the solubility of most trace elements, apart from the YRD with severe air pollution. In addition, the solubility alteration of trace elements in cloud events was investigated and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis indicated that the irreversible alteration of particle morphology by cloud processing was highly responsible for the enhancement of element solubility. Our work implies an important role of regional anthropogenic pollution and cloud processing in the evolution of trace element solubility during transport.

  4. Evidence of uranium and associated trace element mobilization and retention processes at Oklo (Gabon), a naturally radioactive site.

    PubMed

    Casas, Ignasi; de Pablo, Joan; Pérez, Isabel; Giménez, Javier; Duro, Lara; Bruno, Jordi

    2004-06-15

    The processes that affect the mobility of uranium and other radionuclides in the environment have been largely studied at both the laboratory and the field scales. The natural reactors found at the Oklo uranium mine in Gabon constitute a unique investigation setting as spontaneous fission reactions occurred two billion years ago. Oklo uraninites contain a large amount of other radionuclides as a result of the fission process. We have investigated the dissolution behavior of four uraninite samples from Oklo as a function of temperature (25 and 60 degrees C) and bicarbonate concentration (2.7-30 mmol/L). We have also investigated the dissolution behavior of minor components of the uraninites (i.e., Nd, Cs, Mo, Yb, and Sb) in relation to the dissolution of uranium. The results of the reported work are in good agreement with the kinetic rate laws derived from other uranium(IV) dioxide studies. Some of the minor components are found to be congruently released from the uraninite phase, while it is postulated that dissolution from segregated phases might affect the final concentrations of some of the rare earth elements, i.e., Nd and Yb. In addition, we have performed dissolution studies at 60 degrees C with two uraninites representative of different geochemical environments at Oklo, to study the uranium dissolution rates as a function of the temperature. This has allowed derivation of apparent activation energies for the bicarbonate-promoted oxidative dissolution of the Oklo uraninites. The dissolution behavior of the minor components of the uraninites at 60 degrees C was found to closely follow the behavior observed at 25 degrees C. This indicates that similar codissolution mechanisms operate in the temperature range studied. The implications for the mobility of uranium and other radionuclides in natural and anthropogenic environments are discussed.

  5. Altered RNA processing and export lead to retention of mRNAs near transcription sites and nuclear pore complexes or within the nucleolus.

    PubMed

    Paul, Biplab; Montpetit, Ben

    2016-09-01

    Many protein factors are required for mRNA biogenesis and nuclear export, which are central to the eukaryotic gene expression program. It is unclear, however, whether all factors have been identified. Here we report on a screen of >1000 essential gene mutants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for defects in mRNA processing and export, identifying 26 mutants with defects in this process. Single-molecule FISH data showed that the majority of these mutants accumulated mRNA within specific regions of the nucleus, which included 1) mRNAs within the nucleolus when nucleocytoplasmic transport, rRNA biogenesis, or RNA processing and surveillance was disrupted, 2) the buildup of mRNAs near transcription sites in 3'-end processing and chromosome segregation mutants, and 3) transcripts being enriched near nuclear pore complexes when components of the mRNA export machinery were mutated. These data show that alterations to various nuclear processes lead to the retention of mRNAs at discrete locations within the nucleus.

  6. Remote engineering for a cheese whey biorefinery: an Internet-based application for process design, economic analysis, monitoring, and control of multiple plant sites.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Gilson A; Giordano, Raquel L C; Giordano, Roberto C

    2009-01-01

    The proteolysis of cheese whey with the aid of immobilized enzymes is an attractive alternative for this by-product of the dairy industry. Among some possible applications for whey protein hydrolysates, one may cite their use as protein source for individuals with reduced capacity of digestion, or with genetic metabolic disorders (phenylketonuria patients, for instance). The multipurpose plant that processes whey is named here as a cheese whey biorefinery. This work presents the remote control and monitoring of the whey biorefineries using the Internet. In an integrated environment, the web application also enables simulation and economic analyses of the process. This technology might allow small companies to access a remote "engineering centre", with know-how on plant design and advanced control techniques. The idea can also be extended to large dairy companies, providing the remote control of geographically spread sites of production. PMID:18431600

  7. Remote engineering for a cheese whey biorefinery: an Internet-based application for process design, economic analysis, monitoring, and control of multiple plant sites.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Gilson A; Giordano, Raquel L C; Giordano, Roberto C

    2009-01-01

    The proteolysis of cheese whey with the aid of immobilized enzymes is an attractive alternative for this by-product of the dairy industry. Among some possible applications for whey protein hydrolysates, one may cite their use as protein source for individuals with reduced capacity of digestion, or with genetic metabolic disorders (phenylketonuria patients, for instance). The multipurpose plant that processes whey is named here as a cheese whey biorefinery. This work presents the remote control and monitoring of the whey biorefineries using the Internet. In an integrated environment, the web application also enables simulation and economic analyses of the process. This technology might allow small companies to access a remote "engineering centre", with know-how on plant design and advanced control techniques. The idea can also be extended to large dairy companies, providing the remote control of geographically spread sites of production.

  8. SUCCESSES AND EMERGING ISSUES IN SIMULATING THE PROCESSING BEHAVIOR OF LIQUID-PARTICLE NUCLEAR WASTE SLURRIES AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE - 205E

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D.; Lambert, D.; Stone, M.

    2009-09-02

    Slurries of inorganic solids, containing both stable and radioactive elements, were produced during the cold war as by-products of the production of plutonium and enriched uranium and stored in large tanks at the Savannah River Site. Some of this high level waste is being processed into a stable glass waste form today. Waste processing involves various large scale operations such as tank mixing, inter-tank transfers, washing, gravity settling and decanting, chemical adjustment, and vitrification. The rheological properties of waste slurries are of particular interest. Methods for modeling flow curve data and predicting the properties of slurry blends are particularly important during certain operational phases. Several methods have been evaluated to predict the rheological properties of sludge slurry blends from the data on the individual slurries. These have been relatively successful.

  9. Impact of climate warming on snow processes in Ny-Ålesund, a polar maritime site at Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Moreno, J. I.; Boike, J.; Sanchez-Lorenzo, A.; Pomeroy, J. W.

    2016-11-01

    The impact of observed changes in air temperature and precipitation from 1969 to 2013 and climate projections for 2050 and 2080 at Ny-Ålesund, an arctic research station on Spitzbergen Island in the Svalbard Archipelago on snow hydrological processes, were analyzed using snow accumulation and ablation algorithms in the physically based Cold Regions Hydrological Modelling platform (CRHM). The climate projections were obtained from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), with a focus on the snow-dominated period (October to June). To identify the potential effects of increasing temperature and precipitation, a model sensitivity analysis (1 °C to 5 °C), with and without a 25% increase in precipitation, was run on CRHM snow processes. The results indicated that the greatest observed warming was during the early snow season (October-February), with increases of 0.8 and 0.9 °C decade- 1 for maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) temperatures, respectively. There was also a significant increase in annual and winter precipitation (24 mm decade- 1). The late snow season (March-June) also had a marked increase in temperature (0.5 and 0.69 °C decade- 1 for Tmax and Tmin respectively), but no significant change in precipitation. These changes lead to a significant increase in the number of days with rainfall rather than snowfall. The sensitivity analysis indicated that mean snow water equivalent snowpack will decrease by 10.2% (early snow season) and 11.1% (late snow season) per degree of increased air temperature. For each degree of temperature increase, the modelled peak snow-water-equivalent (SWE) declined by 6.9%, duration of snowpack declined 11 days, and the number of days with rain increased 43% for the early snow season and 12.8% for the late snow season. A warmer climate also leads to markedly decreased surface snow sublimation and the fraction of snowfall eroded and transported by blowing snow. For most snowpack parameters analyzed, the response

  10. Chemical composition, sources and evolution processes of aerosol at an urban site in Yangtze River Delta, China during wintertime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunjiang; Tang, Lili; Yu, Hongxia; Wang, Zhuang; Sun, Yele; Qin, Wei; Chen, Wentai; Chen, Changhong; Ding, Aijun; Wu, Jing; Ge, Shun; Chen, Cheng; Zhou, Hong-cang

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the composition, sources and evolution processes of submicron aerosol during wintertime, a field experiment was conducted during December 1-31, 2013 in urban Nanjing, a megacity in Yangtze River Delta of China. Non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1) species were measured with an Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor. NR-PM1 is dominated by secondary inorganic aerosol (55%) and organic aerosol (OA, 42%) during haze periods. Six OA components were identified by positive matrix factorization of the OA mass spectra. The hydrocarbon-like OA and cooking-related OA represent the local traffic and cooking sources, respectively. A highly oxidized factor related to biomass burning OA accounted for 15% of the total OA mass during haze periods. Three types of oxygenated OA (OOA), i.e., a less-oxidized OOA (LO-OOA), a more-oxidized OOA (MO-OOA), and a low-volatility OOA (LV-OOA), were identified. LO-OOA is likely associated with fresh urban secondary OA. MO-OOA likely represents photochemical products showing a similar diurnal cycle to nitrate with a pronounced noon peak. LV-OOA appears to be a more oxidized factor with a pronounced noon peak. The OA composition is dominated by secondary species, especially during haze events. LO-OOA, MO-OOA and LV-OOA on average account for 11%, (18%), 24% (21%) and 23% (18%) of the total OA mass for the haze (clean) periods respectively. Analysis of meteorological influence suggested that regional transport from the northern and southeastern areas of the city is responsible for large secondary and low-volatility aerosol formation.

  11. Hanford Site Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Hathaway, H.B.; Daly, K.S.; Rinne, C.A.; Seiler, S.W.

    1993-05-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (HSDP) provides an overview of land use, infrastructure, and facility requirements to support US Department of Energy (DOE) programs at the Hanford Site. The HSDP`s primary purpose is to inform senior managers and interested parties of development activities and issues that require a commitment of resources to support the Hanford Site. The HSDP provides an existing and future land use plan for the Hanford Site. The HSDP is updated annually in accordance with DOE Order 4320.1B, Site Development Planning, to reflect the mission and overall site development process. Further details about Hanford Site development are defined in individual area development plans.

  12. Impact of synoptic controls and boundary layer processes on ground-level ozone evolution at an urban site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haman, Christine Lanier

    Houston, Texas frequently exceeds the standard for ground-level ozone during the spring and fall. The large commuting population and vast number of industrial sources provide the necessary ingredients for photochemical ozone production in the presence of favorable meteorological conditions. The lack of continuous boundary layer (BL) observations prevents a comprehensive understanding of its role in ozone evolution. In this study, almost two years of BL observations are utilized to investigate the impacts of synoptic and micrometeorological-scale forcings on ozone. Aerosol gradients derived from ceilometer backscatter retrievals are used to identify the BL and residual layers (RL). Overall agreement is found between ceilometer and sonde estimates of the RL and BL heights (BLH), but difficulty detecting the layers occurs during cloud periods or immediately following precipitation. Large monthly variability is present in the peak afternoon BLH (e.g. mean August and December peaks are ˜2000 and 1100 m, respectively). Monthly nocturnal BLHs display much smaller differences. The majority of ozone exceedances occur during large-scale subsidence and weak winds in a postfrontal environment. These conditions result in turbulent kinetic energy, mechanical mixing, and ventilation processes that are 2--3 times weaker on exceedance days, which inhibit morning BL growth by an average of ˜100 m·hr-1 compared to low ozone days. The spring has higher nocturnal ozone levels, which is likely attributable to longer day lengths (˜78 minutes), stronger winds (˜0.78 m·s -1), and higher background ozone (˜5 ppbv) compared to the fall. Boundary layer entrainment plays an important role in ozone evolution. Exceedance days show a characteristic early morning rapid rise of ozone. Vertical ozone profiles indicate the RL ozone peak is ˜60 ppbv on exceedance days, which is ˜25 ppbv (+/- 10 ppbv) greater than low ozone days. The Integrated Profile Mixing (IPM) and Photochemical Budget (PB

  13. Experimental evidence of site specific preferential processing of either ice algae or phytoplankton by benthic macroinfauna in Lancaster Sound and North Water Polynyas, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkelä, Anni; Witte, Ursula; Archambault, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Rapid warming is dramatically reducing the extent and thickness of summer sea ice of the Arctic Ocean, changing both the quantity and type of marine primary production as the longer open water period favours phytoplankton growth and reduces ice algal production. The benthic ecosystem is dependent on this sinking organic matter for source of energy, and ice algae is thought to be a superior quality food source due to higher essential fatty acid content. The resilience of the benthos to changing quality and quantity of food was investigated through sediment incubation experiments in the summer 2013 in two highly productive Arctic polynyas in the North Water and Lancaster Sound, Canada. The pathways of organic matter processing and contribution of different organisms to these processes was assessed through 13C and 15N isotope assimilation into macroinfaunal tissues. In North Water Polynya, the total and biomass specific uptake of ice algal derived C and N was higher than the uptake of phytoplankton, whereas an opposite trend was observed in Lancaster Sound. Polychaetes, especially individuals of families Sabellidae and Spionidae, unselectively ingested both algal types and were significant in the overall organic matter processing at both sites. Feeding preference was observed in crustaceans, which preferentially fed on ice algae at Lancaster Sound, but preferred phytoplankton in North Water Polynya. Bivalves also had a significant role in the organic matter processing overall, but only showed preferential feeding on phytoplankton at Lancaster Sound polynya. Overall the filter feeders and surface deposit feeders occupying lowest trophic levels were responsible for majority of the processing of both algal types. The results provide direct evidence of preferential resource utilisation by benthic macrofauna and highlight spatial differences in the processes. This helps to predict future patterns of nutrient cycling in Arctic sediments, with implications to benthic

  14. A framework for modelling species-specific site quality index based on data generated from remote sensing imagery and a process-based model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Quazi Khalid

    This Thesis presents a framework for modelling species-specific site quality index (SQI) at a spatial resolution of 250 m by integrating biophysical variables of growing degree days (ODD), soil water content (SWC), and incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in descriptions of potential tree growth. Development of ODD maps is based on processing and blending remotely-sensed data acquired with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on the Terra satellite and ETM+ sensor on Landsat-7 satellite at spatial resolutions of 250 m and 28.5 m. Descriptions of SWC are based on a temperature-vegetation wetness index (TVWI) that relies on MODIS-based optical and thermal image products. PAR is estimated with an existing solar-radiation distribution model. SQI is defined as a function of species vital attributes and species environmental response to ODD, TVWI, and PAR. The methods are applied to a balsam fir [bF; Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.] dominated region in northwest New Brunswick. Comparisons between SQI and field-based estimates of site index and enhanced vegetation index showed that about 66 and 88% of the values corresponding to a series of Forest Development Survey lines (691 in total) were within 16% of SQI values. On average 92.1% of high bF-content stands (> 50% composition) in the area fell on medium-to-very high SQI values (> 0.50). Based on these agreements, SQI can be perceived as a good predictor of potential tree-species growth in the selection of optimal sites for biomass and wood fibre production

  15. Development and evaluation of wastewater-treatment processes at the H-Coal site in Catlettsburg, Kentucky. Volume I. Design summary and R and D task identification

    SciTech Connect

    Oswald, G.E.; Walker, J.F.; Brown, C.H.; Klein, J.A.; Genung, R.K.

    1982-04-01

    The design of a mobile process development unit (PDU) for coal conversion wastewater treatment and an overview of the associated R and D program for its use are described. The PDU consists of three modular units, which can be arranged in various sequences: carbon adsorption, ozonation, and reverse osmosis. Each of the units has a nominal flow capacity of approx. 60 mL of wastewater feed per second (1 gpm). The feed to the PDU will be taken as a sidestream from the existing wastewater treatment system at the H-Coal site. It will have been processed through oil-water separation and distillation stripping, and can be taken both before and after bio-oxidation by an activated sludge process. The ozonation system experimental parameters are ozone contact time, ozone treatment rate, column pressure, and pH. The system will be analyzed as a continuous stirred tank reactor. The calculated results will include ozone reaction, treatment, and absorption rates, contaminant depletion and reaction rates, ozone absorption and contaminant removal efficiencies, and ozone volumetric mass-transfer coefficients. The carbon adsorption system will be operated to obtain bed-depth-service-time (BDST) data for various carbons and operating conditions. The BDST method will yield the rate of carbon exhaustion as well as the minimum depth of carbon required to remove contaminants. Reverse osmosis will be studied to measure dissolved solids rejection efficiency, permeate recovery, and fouling characteristics of various commercially available membranes.

  16. Process performance of the pilot-scale in situ vitrification of a simulated waste disposal site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, J.G.; Koegler, S.S.; Bates, S.O.

    1988-06-01

    Process feasibility studies have been successfully performed on three developmental scales to determine the potential for applying in situ vitrification to intermediate-level (low-level) waste placed in seepage pits and trenches at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In the laboratory, testing was performed in crucibles containing a mixture of 50% ORNL soil and 50% limestone. In an engineering-scale test at Pacific Northwest Laboratory a /1/12/-scale simulation of an ORNL waste trench was constructed and vitrified, resulting in a waste product containing soil and limestone concentrations of 68 wt % and 32 wt %, respectively. In the pilot-scale test a /3/8/-scale simulation of the same trench was constructed and vitrified at ORNL, resulting in soil and limestone concentrations of 80% and 20%, respectively, in the waste product. Results of the three scales of testing indicate that the ORNL intermediate-level (low-level) waste sites can be successfully processed by in situ vitrification; the waste form will retain significant quantities of the cesium and strontium. Because cesium-137 and strontium-90 are the major components of the radionuclide inventory in the ORNL seepage pits and trenches, final field process decontamination factors (i.e., losses to the off-gas system relative to the waste inventory) of 1.0 E + 4 are desired to minimize activity buildup in the off-gas system. 17 refs., 34 figs., 13 tabs.

  17. Demonstration of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process for the Removal of 137-Cs from Savannah River Site High Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Norato, M.A.

    2002-03-07

    This paper describes a demonstration of a solvent extraction process for removal of 137Cs from alkaline high level radioactive waste (HLW) solutions from the Savannah River Site (SRS) tank farm. The process employed a calix[4]arene-crown-6 extractant dissolved in an inert hydrocarbon matrix, along with an alkylphenoxy alcohol modifier, and an additional additive, trioctylamine, to improve stripping performance and mitigate the effects of organic anions present in the feed stream. Testing included washing and recycle of the solvent. Tests conducted with two non-radioactive simulants of SRS tank waste verified proper hydraulic operation prior to the radioactive experiments. An additional 12-hour demonstration used simulated SRS tank waste spiked with 137Cs to confirm proper hydraulic operation, decontamination and volume reduction factors following installation of the equipment in a shielded cell facility. Finally, a 48-hour demonstration was performed employing a composite waste from SRS tank farms. Approximately 106 liters of waste (1.5E+09 d/min/mL 137Cs activity) was processed through the test unit. Average 137Cs decontamination factors for the decontaminated waste streams in all tests exceeded the target value of 40,000. Concentration factors in the strip section agreed to within 5 percent of the target value of 15.

  18. Multiple phosphorylation sites at the C-terminus regulate nuclear import of HCMV DNA polymerase processivity factor ppUL44

    SciTech Connect

    Alvisi, Gualtiero; Marin, Oriano; Pari, Gregory; Mancini, Manuela; Avanzi, Simone; Loregian, Arianna; Jans, David A.; Ripalti, Alessandro

    2011-09-01

    The processivity factor of human cytomegalovirus DNA polymerase, phosphoprotein ppUL44, is essential for viral replication. During viral infection ppUL44 is phosphorylated by the viral kinase pUL97, but neither the target residues on ppUL44 nor the effect of phosphorylation on ppUL44's activity are known. We report here that ppUL44 is phosphorylated when transiently expressed in mammalian cells and coimmunoprecipitates with cellular kinases. Of three potential phosphorylation sites (S413, S415, S418) located upstream of ppUL44's nuclear localization signal (NLS) and one (T427) within the NLS itself, protein kinase CK2 (CK2) specifically phosphorylates S413, to trigger a cascade of phosphorylation of S418 and S415 by CK1 and CK2, respectively. Negative charge at the CK2/CK1 target serine residues facilitates optimal nuclear accumulation of ppUL44, whereas negative charge on T427, a potential cyclin-dependent 1 phosphorylation site, strongly decreases nuclear accumulation. Thus, nuclear transport of ppUL44 is finely tuned during viral infection through complex phosphorylation events.

  19. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in surface dust at an E-waste processing site in Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Leung, Anna O W; Zheng, Jinshu; Yu, Chik Kin; Liu, Wing Keung; Wong, Chris K C; Cai, Zongwei; Wong, Ming H

    2011-07-01

    Surface dust collected from printed circuit board recycling workshop floors, roads, a schoolyard, and an outdoor food market in Guiyu, China, a village intensely involved in e-waste processing, were investigated for levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). PBDE concentrations in dust from workshop-floors (14,800 ± 5130 ng/g) and on adjacent roads to the workshops (24,900 ± 31,600 ng/g) were highest among the study sites whereas PCDD/F concentrations were highest at the schoolyard (1316 pg/g) and in a workshop (1264 pg/g). Analyses of <2 mm and <53 μm dust particle sizes did not show any significant differences in PBDE concentrations. The cytotoxicity was investigated using two bioassays: 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD-TEQ) and MTT. EROD-TEQ values ranged from 260 to 432 pg/g, with the highest in dust collected from a street lined with workshops. Using the MTT assay, cytoxicity of dust from the plastic chips drying district in Guiyu was higher than dust from the other sites investigated. This study showed that the primitive recycling of e-waste introduced toxic pollutants into the environment which are potentially harmful to the health of e-waste workers and local residents, especially children, and warrants an urgent investigation into POPs related health impacts.

  20. Experimental and modeling study of adsorption-desorption processes with application to a deep-well injection radioactive waste disposal site.

    PubMed

    Rumynin, V G; Konosavsky, P K; Hoehn, E

    2005-01-01

    Radionuclide (Sr-90 and Cs-137) behavior in the subsurface environment was evaluated with respect to natural attenuation, sorption and desorption kinetics, and equilibrium. Batch experiments were conducted with synthesized groundwater or acid (NaNO3; pH approximately 3) solutions under different temperature (T=20 and 70 degrees C) and pressure (P=Patm and P=3 MPa) conditions. Samples of sedimentary rock were selected as the solid phase from a radioactively contaminated site associated with deep-well injection of the radioactive waste. Groundwater and a NaNO3 waste-brine solution were used as the liquid phase. All experiments revealed hysteresis in radionuclide adsorption. Moreover, some of the experiments indicated that the adsorption process may be irreversible. A simultaneous temperature and pressure increase leads to anomalous behavior of the adsorption kinetics: a period of a rapid concentration drop of the radionuclides in solution, which is caused by their sorption uptake, is changed by a stage of a gradual increase in the corresponding concentrations. To explain the observed phenomena, several hypotheses were examined. Thus, an analytical model describing the mutual interference of adsorption kinetics and dissolution of carbonate minerals was developed resulting in a nonmonotonic behavior of the concentration curves obtained at the adsorption stage. For the description of the batch experiments with radionuclides at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, a dual-site adsorption model has been used.

  1. An assessment and evaluation for recycle/reuse of contaminated process and metallurgical equipment at the DOE Rocky Flats Plant Site -- Building 865. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    An economic analysis of the potential advantages of alternatives for recycling and reusing equipment now stored in Building 865 at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Colorado has been conducted. The inventory considered in this analysis consists primarily of metallurgical and process equipment used before January 1992, during development and production of nuclear weapons components at the site. The economic analysis consists of a thorough building inventory and cost comparisons for four equipment dispositions alternatives. The first is a baseline option of disposal at a Low Level Waste (LLW) landfill. The three alternatives investigated are metal recycling, reuse with the government sector, and release for unrestricted use. This report provides item-by-item estimates of value, disposal cost, and decontamination cost. The economic evaluation methods documented here, the simple cost comparisons presented, and the data provided as a supplement, should provide a foundation for D&D decisions for Building 865, as well as for similar D&D tasks at RFP and at other sites.

  2. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in surface dust at an E-waste processing site in Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Leung, Anna O W; Zheng, Jinshu; Yu, Chik Kin; Liu, Wing Keung; Wong, Chris K C; Cai, Zongwei; Wong, Ming H

    2011-07-01

    Surface dust collected from printed circuit board recycling workshop floors, roads, a schoolyard, and an outdoor food market in Guiyu, China, a village intensely involved in e-waste processing, were investigated for levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). PBDE concentrations in dust from workshop-floors (14,800 ± 5130 ng/g) and on adjacent roads to the workshops (24,900 ± 31,600 ng/g) were highest among the study sites whereas PCDD/F concentrations were highest at the schoolyard (1316 pg/g) and in a workshop (1264 pg/g). Analyses of <2 mm and <53 μm dust particle sizes did not show any significant differences in PBDE concentrations. The cytotoxicity was investigated using two bioassays: 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD-TEQ) and MTT. EROD-TEQ values ranged from 260 to 432 pg/g, with the highest in dust collected from a street lined with workshops. Using the MTT assay, cytoxicity of dust from the plastic chips drying district in Guiyu was higher than dust from the other sites investigated. This study showed that the primitive recycling of e-waste introduced toxic pollutants into the environment which are potentially harmful to the health of e-waste workers and local residents, especially children, and warrants an urgent investigation into POPs related health impacts. PMID:21639085

  3. Ultra Efficient CHHP Using a High Temperature Fuel Cell to Provide On-Site Process Reducing Gas, Clean Power, and Heat

    SciTech Connect

    Jahnke, Fred C.

    2015-06-30

    FuelCell Energy and ACuPowder investigated and demonstrated the use of waste anode exhaust gas from a high temperature fuel cell for replacing the reducing gas in a metal processing furnace. Currently companies purchase high pressure or liquefied gases for the reducing gas which requires substantial energy in production, compression/liquefaction, and transportation, all of which is eliminated by on-site use of anode exhaust gas as reducing gas. We performed research on the impact of the gas composition on product quality and then demonstrated at FuelCell Energy’s manufacturing facility in Torrington, Connecticut. This demonstration project continues to operate even though the research program is completed as it provides substantial benefits to the manufacturing facility by supplying power, heat, and hydrogen.

  4. Future-oriented maintenance strategy based on automated processes is finding its way into large astronomical facilities at remote observing sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silber, Armin; Gonzalez, Christian; Pino, Francisco; Escarate, Patricio; Gairing, Stefan

    2014-08-01

    With expanding sizes and increasing complexity of large astronomical observatories on remote observing sites, the call for an efficient and recourses saving maintenance concept becomes louder. The increasing number of subsystems on telescopes and instruments forces large observatories, like in industries, to rethink conventional maintenance strategies for reaching this demanding goal. The implementation of full-, or semi-automatic processes for standard service activities can help to keep the number of operating staff on an efficient level and to reduce significantly the consumption of valuable consumables or equipment. In this contribution we will demonstrate on the example of the 80 Cryogenic subsystems of the ALMA Front End instrument, how an implemented automatic service process increases the availability of spare parts and Line Replaceable Units. Furthermore how valuable staff recourses can be freed from continuous repetitive maintenance activities, to allow focusing more on system diagnostic tasks, troubleshooting and the interchanging of line replaceable units. The required service activities are decoupled from the day-to-day work, eliminating dependencies on workload peaks or logistic constrains. The automatic refurbishing processes running in parallel to the operational tasks with constant quality and without compromising the performance of the serviced system components. Consequentially that results in an efficiency increase, less down time and keeps the observing schedule on track. Automatic service processes in combination with proactive maintenance concepts are providing the necessary flexibility for the complex operational work structures of large observatories. The gained planning flexibility is allowing an optimization of operational procedures and sequences by considering the required cost efficiency.

  5. Posttranslational processing of endogenous and of baculovirus-expressed human gastrin-releasing peptide precursor.

    PubMed Central

    Lebacq-Verheyden, A M; Kasprzyk, P G; Raum, M G; Van Wyke Coelingh, K; Lebacq, J A; Battey, J F

    1988-01-01

    The 27-amino-acid gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP1-27) is a neuropeptide and growth factor that is synthesized by various neural and neuroendocrine cells. The major pro-GRP hormone (isoform I) contains both GRP1-27 and a novel C-terminal extension peptide termed pro-GRP31-125. In order to define potentially active neuropeptides that could be generated from this novel protein domain, we analyzed the posttranslational processing of endogenous human pro-GRP1-125 in a small-cell lung cancer cell line. Because such studies are much easier in an overexpression system, we investigated at the same time the posttranslational processing of baculovirus-expressed human pro-GRP1-125 in an insect ovary cell line. In the small-cell lung cancer cell line, GRP1-27 was cleaved as expected from the endogenous prohormone at a pair of basic amino acids (29 and 30) and alpha-amidated at its C-terminal methionine; however, a number of novel peptides were generated by additional cleavages in the pro-GRP31-125 domain. In the insect ovary cell line, GRP1-27 was cleaved from the expressed prohormone by a different mechanism, as were a number of other peptides that appeared to be similar in size to those produced by the human neuroendocrine tumor cell line. These data show for the first time that an insect ovary cell line that is widely used to overexpress proteins can process a human neuropeptide precursor. They also reveal the existence of novel pro-GRP-derived peptides that are candidates for biologically active ligands. Images PMID:3211139

  6. DARPA/USAF/USN J-UCAS X-45A System Demonstration Program: A Review of Flight Test Site Processes and Personnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosentino, Gary B.

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Unmanned Combat Air Systems (J-UCAS) program is a collaborative effort between the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA), the US Air Force (USAF) and the US Navy (USN). Together they have reviewed X-45A flight test site processes and personnel as part of a system demonstration program for the UCAV-ATD Flight Test Program. The goal was to provide a disciplined controlled process for system integration and testing and demonstration flight tests. NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) acted as the project manager during this effort and was tasked with the responsibilities of range and ground safety, the provision of flight test support and infrastructure and the monitoring of technical and engineering tasks. DFRC also contributed their engineering knowledge through their contributions in the areas of autonomous ground taxi control development, structural dynamics testing and analysis and the provision of other flight test support including telemetry data, tracking radars, and communications and control support equipment. The Air Force Flight Test Center acted at the Deputy Project Manager in this effort and was responsible for the provision of system safety support and airfield management and air traffic control services, among other supporting roles. The T-33 served as a J-UCAS surrogate aircraft and demonstrated flight characteristics similar to that of the the X-45A. The surrogate served as a significant risk reduction resource providing mission planning verification, range safety mission assessment and team training, among other contributions.

  7. Footprint Reduction Process: Using Remote Sensing and GIS Technologies to Identify Non-Contaminated Land Parcels on the Oak Ridge Reservation National Priorities List Site

    SciTech Connect

    Halsey, P.A.; Kendall, D.T.; King, A.L.; Storms, R.A.

    1998-12-09

    In 1989, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry evaluated the entire 35,000-acre U. S: Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR, located in Oak Ridge, TN) and placed it on the National Priorities List (NPL), making the ORR subject to Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) regulations. Although much of the ORR has not been impacted by previous federal activities, without investigation it is difficult to discern which parcels of land are free of surface contamination. In 1996, the DOE Oak Ridge Environmental Management Program (EM) funded the Footprint Reduction Project to: 1) develop a process to study the large areas of the ORR that are believed to be free of surface contamination and 2) initiate the delisting of the "clean" areas from the NPL. Although this project's goals do not include the transfer of federal property to non-federal entities, the process development team aimed to provide a final product with multiple uses. Therefore, the process was developed to meet the requirements of NPL delisting and the transfer of non- contaminated federal lands to future land users. Section 120 (h) of the CERCLA law identifies the requirements for the transfer of federal property that is currently part of an NPL site. Reviews of historical information (including aerial photography), field inspections, and the recorded chain of title documents for the property are required for the delisting of property prior to transfer from the federal government. Despite the widespread availability of remote sensing and other digital geographic data and geographic information systems (GIS) for the analysis of such data, historical aerial photography is the only geographic data source required for review under the CERCLA 120 (h) process. However, since the ORR Environmental Management Program had an established Remote Sensing Program, the Footprint Reduction Project included the development and application of a methodology

  8. Conceptual Design of a Simplified Skid-Mounted Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process for Removal of Cesium from Savannah Rive Site High-Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Birdwell, JR.J.F.

    2004-05-12

    This report presents the results of a conceptual design of a solvent extraction process for the selective removal of {sup 137}Cs from high-level radioactive waste currently stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). This study establishes the need for and feasibility of deploying a simplified version of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process; cost/benefit ratios ranging from 33 to 55 strongly support the considered deployment. Based on projected compositions, 18 million gallons of dissolved salt cake waste has been identified as having {sup 137}Cs concentrations that are substantially lower than the worst-case design basis for the CSSX system that is to be deployed as part of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) but that does not meet the waste acceptance criteria for immobilization as grout in the Saltstone Manufacturing and Disposal Facility at SRS. Absent deployment of an alternative cesium removal process, this material will require treatment in the SWPF CSSX system, even though the cesium decontamination factor required is far less than that provided by that system. A conceptual design of a CSSX processing system designed for rapid deployment and having reduced cesium decontamination factor capability has been performed. The proposed accelerated-deployment CSSX system (CSSX-A) has been designed to have a processing rate of 3 million gallons per year, assuming 90% availability. At a more conservative availability of 75% (reflecting the novelty of the process), the annual processing capacity is 2.5 million gallons. The primary component of the process is a 20-stage cascade of centrifugal solvent extraction contactors. The decontamination and concentration factors are 40 and 15, respectively. The solvent, scrub, strip, and wash solutions are to have the same compositions as those planned for the SWPF CSSX system. As in the SWPF CSSX system, the solvent and scrub flow rates are equal. The system is

  9. Modeling sugarcane yield with a process-based model from site to continental scale: uncertainties arising from model structure and parameter values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valade, A.; Ciais, P.; Vuichard, N.; Viovy, N.; Caubel, A.; Huth, N.; Marin, F.; Martiné, J.-F.

    2014-06-01

    Agro-land surface models (agro-LSM) have been developed from the integration of specific crop processes into large-scale generic land surface models that allow calculating the spatial distribution and variability of energy, water and carbon fluxes within the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. When developing agro-LSM models, particular attention must be given to the effects of crop phenology and management on the turbulent fluxes exchanged with the atmosphere, and the underlying water and carbon pools. A part of the uncertainty of agro-LSM models is related to their usually large number of parameters. In this study, we quantify the parameter-values uncertainty in the simulation of sugarcane biomass production with the agro-LSM ORCHIDEE-STICS, using a multi-regional approach with data from sites in Australia, La Réunion and Brazil. In ORCHIDEE-STICS, two models are chained: STICS, an agronomy model that calculates phenology and management, and ORCHIDEE, a land surface model that calculates biomass and other ecosystem variables forced by STICS phenology. First, the parameters that dominate the uncertainty of simulated biomass at harvest date are determined through a screening of 67 different parameters of both STICS and ORCHIDEE on a multi-site basis. Secondly, the uncertainty of harvested biomass attributable to those most sensitive parameters is quantified and specifically attributed to either STICS (phenology, management) or to ORCHIDEE (other ecosystem variables including biomass) through distinct Monte Carlo runs. The uncertainty on parameter values is constrained using observations by calibrating the model independently at seven sites. In a third step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out by varying the most sensitive parameters to investigate their effects at continental scale. A Monte Carlo sampling method associated with the calculation of partial ranked correlation coefficients is used to quantify the sensitivity of harvested biomass to input

  10. Modeling sugar cane yield with a process-based model from site to continental scale: uncertainties arising from model structure and parameter values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valade, A.; Ciais, P.; Vuichard, N.; Viovy, N.; Huth, N.; Marin, F.; Martiné, J.-F.

    2014-01-01

    Agro-Land Surface Models (agro-LSM) have been developed from the integration of specific crop processes into large-scale generic land surface models that allow calculating the spatial distribution and variability of energy, water and carbon fluxes within the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. When developing agro-LSM models, a particular attention must be given to the effects of crop phenology and management on the turbulent fluxes exchanged with the atmosphere, and the underlying water and carbon pools. A part of the uncertainty of Agro-LSM models is related to their usually large number of parameters. In this study, we quantify the parameter-values uncertainty in the simulation of sugar cane biomass production with the agro-LSM ORCHIDEE-STICS, using a multi-regional approach with data from sites in Australia, La Réunion and Brazil. In ORCHIDEE-STICS, two models are chained: STICS, an agronomy model that calculates phenology and management, and ORCHIDEE, a land surface model that calculates biomass and other ecosystem variables forced by STICS' phenology. First, the parameters that dominate the uncertainty of simulated biomass at harvest date are determined through a screening of 67 different parameters of both STICS and ORCHIDEE on a multi-site basis. Secondly, the uncertainty of harvested biomass attributable to those most sensitive parameters is quantified and specifically attributed to either STICS (phenology, management) or to ORCHIDEE (other ecosystem variables including biomass) through distinct Monte-Carlo runs. The uncertainty on parameter values is constrained using observations by calibrating the model independently at seven sites. In a third step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out by varying the most sensitive parameters to investigate their effects at continental scale. A Monte-Carlo sampling method associated with the calculation of Partial Ranked Correlation Coefficients is used to quantify the sensitivity of harvested biomass to input

  11. Field study for disposal of solid wastes from Advanced Coal Processes: Ohio LIMB Site Assessment. Final report, April 1986--November 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberg, A.; Coel, B.J.; Butler, R.D.

    1994-10-01

    New air pollution regulations will require cleaner, more efficient processes for converting coal to electricity, producing solid byproducts or wastes that differ from conventional pulverized-coal combustion ash. Large scale landfill test cells containing byproducts were built at 3 sites and are to be monitored over at least 3 years. This report presents results of a 3-y field test at an ash disposal site in northern Ohio; the field test used ash from a combined lime injection-multistage burner (LIMB) retrofit at the Ohio Edison Edgewater plant. The landfill test cells used LIMB ash wetted only to control dusting in one cell, and LIMB ash wetted to optimize compaction density in the other cell. Both test cells had adequate load-bearing strength for landfill stability but had continuing dimensional instability. Heaving and expansion did not affect the landfill stability but probably contributed to greater permeability to infiltrating water. Leachate migration occurred from the base, but effects on downgradient groundwater were limited to increased chloride concentration in one well. Compressive strength of landfilled ash was adequate to support equipment, although permeability was higher and strength was lower than anticipated. Average moisture content has increased to about 90% (dry weight basis). Significant water infiltration has occurred; the model suggests that as much as 20% of the incident rainfall will pass through and exit as leachate. However, impacts on shallow ground water is minimal. Results of this field study suggest that LIMB ash from combustion of moderate to high sulfur coals will perform acceptably if engineering controls are used to condition and compact the materials, reduce water influx to the landfill, and minimize leachate production. Handling of the ash did not pose serious problems during cell construction; steaming and heat buildup were moderate.

  12. A Conceptual Model of Coupled Biogeochemical and Hydrogeological Processes Affected by In Situ Cr(VI) Bioreduction in Groundwater at Hanford 100H Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faybishenko, B.; Long, P. E.; Hazen, T. C.; Hubbard, S. S.; Williams, K. H.; Peterson, J. E.; Chen, J.; Volkova, E. V.; Newcomer, D. R.; Resch, C. T.; Cantrell, K.; Conrad, M. S.; Brodie, E. L.; Joyner, D. C.; Borglin, S. E.; Chakraborty, R. C.

    2007-05-01

    The overall objective of this presentation is to demonstrate a conceptual multiscale, multidomain model of coupling of biogeochemical and hydrogeological processes during bioremediation of Cr(VI) contaminated groundwater at Hanford 100H site. A slow release polylactate, Hydrogen Release Compound (HRCTM), was injected in Hanford sediments to stimulate immobilization of Cr(VI). The HRC injection induced a 2-order-of- magnitude increase in biomass and the onset of reducing biogeochemical conditions [e.g., redox potential decreased from +240 to -130 mV and dissolved oxygen (DO) was completely removed]. A three-well system, comprised of an injection well and upgradient and downgradient monitoring wells, was used for conducting the in situ biostimulation, one regional flow (no-pumping) tracer test, and five pumping tests along with the Br-tracer injection. Field measurements were conducted using a Br ion-selective electrode and a multiparameter flow cell to collect hourly data on temperature, pH, redox potential, electrical conductivity, and DO. Groundwater sampling was conducted by pumping through specially designed borehole water samplers. Cross-borehole radar tomography and seismic measurements were carried out to assess the site background lithological heterogeneity and the migration pathways of HRC byproducts through groundwater after the HRC injection. Several alternative approaches, including conventional and fractional advective dispersion equations and geostatistical analysis, were used to characterize hydraulic and biogeochemical transport parameters. The results of a joint inversion of cross-borehole geophysical tomography and flow-rate measurements in boreholes indicate the presence of a bimodal distribution of hydraulic conductivity for Hanford sediments. The Br- concentration double-peak BTCs curves indicate that HRC injection caused an increase in the tracer travel time (mainly in the low-permeability zone) over the period of observations of about 2 years

  13. Sources and atmospheric processes impacting oxalate at a suburban coastal site in Hong Kong: Insights inferred from 1 year hourly measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yang; Huang, Xiaohui Hilda; Bian, Qijing; Griffith, Stephen M.; Louie, Peter K. K.; Yu, Jian Zhen

    2015-09-01

    Oxalic acid is one of the most abundant dicarboxylic acids in the atmosphere, receiving a great deal of attention due to its potential influence on cloud condensation nucleus activities. In this work, we report 10 months of hourly oxalate measurements in particulate matter of less than 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) by a Monitor for Aerosols and Gases in ambient Air at a suburban coastal site in Hong Kong from April 2012 to February 2013. A total of more than 6000 sets of oxalate and inorganic ion data were obtained. The mean (±SD) oxalate concentration was 0.34 (±0.18) µg m-3, accounting for 2.8% of the total ion mass and 1.5% of the PM2.5 mass. Seasonal variation showed higher concentrations in fall and winter (0.54 and 0.36 µg m-3, respectively) and lower concentrations in spring and summer (~0.26 µg m-3). Different from the inorganic ions, a shallow dip in the oxalate concentration consistently occurred in the morning after sunrise (around 9:00 A.M.) throughout all seasons. Our analysis suggests that this was likely due to photolysis of oxalate-Fe (III) complex under sunlight. In summer, a small daytime peak was discernable for oxalate and nitrate. This characteristic, together with a more evident diurnal variation of O3, indicates comparatively more active photochemical oxidation in summer than other seasons. High correlations were observed between oxalate and non-sea-salt SO42- (NSS) (R2 = 0.63) and Ox (O3 + NO2) (R2 = 0.48), indicating significant commonality in their secondary formation. Positive matrix factorization analysis of oxalate and other real-time gas and particle-phase component data estimates that secondary formation processes, including secondary gas or aqueous oxidation processes (49%), oxidation processes of biomass burning emissions (37%), accounted for the majority of PM2.5 oxalate. A backward trajectories cluster analysis found that higher oxalate/NSS ratios were associated with low pollution samples under the influence of

  14. MEASUREMENT AND CALCULATION OF RADIONUCLIDE ACTIVITIES IN SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE FOR ACCEPTANCE OF DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY GLASS IN A FEDERAL REPOSITORY

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C; David Diprete, D; Ned Bibler, N

    2008-12-31

    This paper describes the results of the analyses of High Level Waste (HLW) sludge slurry samples and of the calculations necessary to decay the radionuclides to meet the reporting requirement in the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) [1]. The concentrations of 45 radionuclides were measured. The results of these analyses provide input for radioactive decay calculations used to project the radionuclide inventory at the specified index years, 2015 and 3115. This information is necessary to complete the Production Records at Savannah River Site's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) so that the final glass product resulting from Macrobatch 5 (MB5) can eventually be submitted to a Federal Repository. Five of the necessary input radionuclides for the decay calculations could not be measured directly due to their low concentrations and/or analytical interferences. These isotopes are Nb-93m, Pd-107, Cd-113m, Cs-135, and Cm-248. Methods for calculating these species from concentrations of appropriate other radionuclides will be discussed. Also the average age of the MB5 HLW had to be calculated from decay of Sr-90 in order to predict the initial concentration of Nb-93m. As a result of the measurements and calculations, thirty-one WAPS reportable radioactive isotopes were identified for MB5. The total activity of MB5 sludge solids will decrease from 1.6E+04 {micro}Ci (1 {micro}Ci = 3.7E+04 Bq) per gram of total solids in 2008 to 2.3E+01 {micro}Ci per gram of total solids in 3115, a decrease of approximately 700 fold. Finally, evidence will be given for the low observed concentrations of the radionuclides Tc-99, I-129, and Sm-151 in the HLW sludges. These radionuclides were reduced in the MB5 sludge slurry to a fraction of their expected production levels due to SRS processing conditions.

  15. Deriving site-specific soil clean-up values for metals and metalloids: rationale for including protection of soil microbial processes.

    PubMed

    Kuperman, Roman G; Siciliano, Steven D; Römbke, Jörg; Oorts, Koen

    2014-07-01

    Although it is widely recognized that microorganisms are essential for sustaining soil fertility, structure, nutrient cycling, groundwater purification, and other soil functions, soil microbial toxicity data were excluded from the derivation of Ecological Soil Screening Levels (Eco-SSL) in the United States. Among the reasons for such exclusion were claims that microbial toxicity tests were too difficult to interpret because of the high variability of microbial responses, uncertainty regarding the relevance of the various endpoints, and functional redundancy. Since the release of the first draft of the Eco-SSL Guidance document by the US Environmental Protection Agency in 2003, soil microbial toxicity testing and its use in ecological risk assessments have substantially improved. A wide range of standardized and nonstandardized methods became available for testing chemical toxicity to microbial functions in soil. Regulatory frameworks in the European Union and Australia have successfully incorporated microbial toxicity data into the derivation of soil threshold concentrations for ecological risk assessments. This article provides the 3-part rationale for including soil microbial processes in the development of soil clean-up values (SCVs): 1) presenting a brief overview of relevant test methods for assessing microbial functions in soil, 2) examining data sets for Cu, Ni, Zn, and Mo that incorporated soil microbial toxicity data into regulatory frameworks, and 3) offering recommendations on how to integrate the best available science into the method development for deriving site-specific SCVs that account for bioavailability of metals and metalloids in soil. Although the primary focus of this article is on the development of the approach for deriving SCVs for metals and metalloids in the United States, the recommendations provided in this article may also be applicable in other jurisdictions that aim at developing ecological soil threshold values for protection of

  16. Deriving site-specific soil clean-up values for metals and metalloids: rationale for including protection of soil microbial processes.

    PubMed

    Kuperman, Roman G; Siciliano, Steven D; Römbke, Jörg; Oorts, Koen

    2014-07-01

    Although it is widely recognized that microorganisms are essential for sustaining soil fertility, structure, nutrient cycling, groundwater purification, and other soil functions, soil microbial toxicity data were excluded from the derivation of Ecological Soil Screening Levels (Eco-SSL) in the United States. Among the reasons for such exclusion were claims that microbial toxicity tests were too difficult to interpret because of the high variability of microbial responses, uncertainty regarding the relevance of the various endpoints, and functional redundancy. Since the release of the first draft of the Eco-SSL Guidance document by the US Environmental Protection Agency in 2003, soil microbial toxicity testing and its use in ecological risk assessments have substantially improved. A wide range of standardized and nonstandardized methods became available for testing chemical toxicity to microbial functions in soil. Regulatory frameworks in the European Union and Australia have successfully incorporated microbial toxicity data into the derivation of soil threshold concentrations for ecological risk assessments. This article provides the 3-part rationale for including soil microbial processes in the development of soil clean-up values (SCVs): 1) presenting a brief overview of relevant test methods for assessing microbial functions in soil, 2) examining data sets for Cu, Ni, Zn, and Mo that incorporated soil microbial toxicity data into regulatory frameworks, and 3) offering recommendations on how to integrate the best available science into the method development for deriving site-specific SCVs that account for bioavailability of metals and metalloids in soil. Although the primary focus of this article is on the development of the approach for deriving SCVs for metals and metalloids in the United States, the recommendations provided in this article may also be applicable in other jurisdictions that aim at developing ecological soil threshold values for protection of

  17. Validation of Individual-Based Markov-Like Stochastic Process Model of Insect Behavior and a “Virtual Farm” Concept for Enhancement of Site-Specific IPM

    PubMed Central

    Lux, Slawomir A.; Wnuk, Andrzej; Vogt, Heidrun; Belien, Tim; Spornberger, Andreas; Studnicki, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports application of a Markov-like stochastic process agent-based model and a “virtual farm” concept for enhancement of site-specific Integrated Pest Management. Conceptually, the model represents a “bottom-up ethological” approach and emulates behavior of the “primary IPM actors”—large cohorts of individual insects—within seasonally changing mosaics of spatiotemporally complex faming landscape, under the challenge of the local IPM actions. Algorithms of the proprietary PESTonFARM model were adjusted to reflect behavior and ecology of R. cerasi. Model parametrization was based on compiled published information about R. cerasi and the results of auxiliary on-farm experiments. The experiments were conducted on sweet cherry farms located in Austria, Germany, and Belgium. For each farm, a customized model-module was prepared, reflecting its spatiotemporal features. Historical data about pest monitoring, IPM treatments and fruit infestation were used to specify the model assumptions and calibrate it further. Finally, for each of the farms, virtual IPM experiments were simulated and the model-generated results were compared with the results of the real experiments conducted on the same farms. Implications of the findings for broader applicability of the model and the “virtual farm” approach—were discussed.

  18. Creation of a data base for sequences of ribosomal nucleic acids and detection of conserved restriction endonucleases sites through computerized processing.

    PubMed Central

    Patarca, R; Dorta, B; Ramirez, J L

    1982-01-01

    As part of a project pertaining the organization of ribosomal genes in Kinetoplastidae, we have created a data base for published sequences of ribosomal nucleic acids, with information in Spanish. As a first step in their processing, we have written a computer program which introduces the new feature of determining the length of the fragments produced after single or multiple digestion with any of the known restriction enzymes. With this information we have detected conserved SAU 3A sites: (i) at the 5' end of the 5.8S rRNA and at the 3' end of the small subunit rRNA, both included in similar larger sequences; (ii) in the 5.8S rRNA of vertebrates (a second one), which is not present in lower eukaryotes, showing a clear evolutive divergence; and, (iii) at the 5' terminal of the small subunit rRNA, included in a larger conserved sequence. The possible biological importance of these sequences is discussed. PMID:6278402

  19. Role of re-growth interface preparation process for spectral line-width reduction of single InAs site-controlled quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Herranz, Jesús; Wewior, Lukasz; Alén, Benito; Fuster, David; González, Luisa; González, Yolanda

    2015-05-15

    We present growth and optical characterization measurements of single InAs site-controlled quantum dots (SCQDs) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs (001) patterned substrates by atomic force microscopy oxidation lithography. InAs SCQDs directly grown on the patterned surface were used as a seed layer and strain template for the nucleation of optically active single InAs SCQDs. The preservation of the initial geometry of the engraved pattern motifs after the re-growth interface preparation process, the lack of buffer layer growth prior to InAs seed layer deposition and the development of suitable growth conditions provide us an improvement of the SCQDs' active layer optical properties while retaining a high ratio of single occupation (89%). In this work a fivefold reduction of the average optical line-width from 870 μeV to 156 μeV for InAs SCQDs located 15 nm from the re-growth interface is obtained by increasing the temperature of the initial thermal treatment step of the re-growth interface from 490 °C to 530 °C. PMID:25895541

  20. Validation of Individual-Based Markov-Like Stochastic Process Model of Insect Behavior and a “Virtual Farm” Concept for Enhancement of Site-Specific IPM

    PubMed Central

    Lux, Slawomir A.; Wnuk, Andrzej; Vogt, Heidrun; Belien, Tim; Spornberger, Andreas; Studnicki, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports application of a Markov-like stochastic process agent-based model and a “virtual farm” concept for enhancement of site-specific Integrated Pest Management. Conceptually, the model represents a “bottom-up ethological” approach and emulates behavior of the “primary IPM actors”—large cohorts of individual insects—within seasonally changing mosaics of spatiotemporally complex faming landscape, under the challenge of the local IPM actions. Algorithms of the proprietary PESTonFARM model were adjusted to reflect behavior and ecology of R. cerasi. Model parametrization was based on compiled published information about R. cerasi and the results of auxiliary on-farm experiments. The experiments were conducted on sweet cherry farms located in Austria, Germany, and Belgium. For each farm, a customized model-module was prepared, reflecting its spatiotemporal features. Historical data about pest monitoring, IPM treatments and fruit infestation were used to specify the model assumptions and calibrate it further. Finally, for each of the farms, virtual IPM experiments were simulated and the model-generated results were compared with the results of the real experiments conducted on the same farms. Implications of the findings for broader applicability of the model and the “virtual farm” approach—were discussed. PMID:27602000

  1. Full-Time, Eye-Safe Cloud and Aerosol Lidar Observation at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Sites: Instruments and Data Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, James R.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Flynn, Christopher J.; Turner, David D. ); Spinhirne, James D.; Scott, III, V. S.; Hwang, I. H.

    2002-04-01

    Atmospheric radiative forcing, surface radiation budget, and top of the atmosphere radiance interpretation involve knowledge of the vertical height structure of overlying cloud and aerosol layers. During the last decade, the U.S. Department of Energy through the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program, has constructed four long-term atmospheric observing sites in strategic climate regimes (north central Oklahoma, Barrow, Alaska, and Nauru and Manus Islands in the tropical western Pacific). Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL) systems provide continuous, autonomous observation of nearly all significant atmospheric cloud and aerosol at each of the central ARM facilities. Systems are compact and transmitted pulses are eye-safe. Eye-safety is achieved by expanding relatively low-powered outgoing pulse energy through a shared, coaxial transmit/receive telescope. ARM MPL system specifications, and specific unit optical designs are discussed. Data normalization and calibration techniques are presented. These techniques in tandem represent an operational value added processing package used to produce normalized data products for ARM cloud and aerosol research.

  2. Validation of Individual-Based Markov-Like Stochastic Process Model of Insect Behavior and a "Virtual Farm" Concept for Enhancement of Site-Specific IPM.

    PubMed

    Lux, Slawomir A; Wnuk, Andrzej; Vogt, Heidrun; Belien, Tim; Spornberger, Andreas; Studnicki, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports application of a Markov-like stochastic process agent-based model and a "virtual farm" concept for enhancement of site-specific Integrated Pest Management. Conceptually, the model represents a "bottom-up ethological" approach and emulates behavior of the "primary IPM actors"-large cohorts of individual insects-within seasonally changing mosaics of spatiotemporally complex faming landscape, under the challenge of the local IPM actions. Algorithms of the proprietary PESTonFARM model were adjusted to reflect behavior and ecology of R. cerasi. Model parametrization was based on compiled published information about R. cerasi and the results of auxiliary on-farm experiments. The experiments were conducted on sweet cherry farms located in Austria, Germany, and Belgium. For each farm, a customized model-module was prepared, reflecting its spatiotemporal features. Historical data about pest monitoring, IPM treatments and fruit infestation were used to specify the model assumptions and calibrate it further. Finally, for each of the farms, virtual IPM experiments were simulated and the model-generated results were compared with the results of the real experiments conducted on the same farms. Implications of the findings for broader applicability of the model and the "virtual farm" approach-were discussed. PMID:27602000

  3. Role of re-growth interface preparation process for spectral line-width reduction of single InAs site-controlled quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Herranz, Jesús; Wewior, Lukasz; Alén, Benito; Fuster, David; González, Luisa; González, Yolanda

    2015-05-15

    We present growth and optical characterization measurements of single InAs site-controlled quantum dots (SCQDs) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs (001) patterned substrates by atomic force microscopy oxidation lithography. InAs SCQDs directly grown on the patterned surface were used as a seed layer and strain template for the nucleation of optically active single InAs SCQDs. The preservation of the initial geometry of the engraved pattern motifs after the re-growth interface preparation process, the lack of buffer layer growth prior to InAs seed layer deposition and the development of suitable growth conditions provide us an improvement of the SCQDs' active layer optical properties while retaining a high ratio of single occupation (89%). In this work a fivefold reduction of the average optical line-width from 870 μeV to 156 μeV for InAs SCQDs located 15 nm from the re-growth interface is obtained by increasing the temperature of the initial thermal treatment step of the re-growth interface from 490 °C to 530 °C.

  4. Site formation processes at Pinnacle Point Cave 13B (Mossel Bay, Western Cape Province, South Africa): resolving stratigraphic and depositional complexities with micromorphology.

    PubMed

    Karkanas, Panagiotis; Goldberg, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Site PP13B is a cave located on the steep cliffs of Pinnacle Point near Mossel Bay in Western Cape Province, South Africa. The depositional sequence of the cave, predating Marine Isotopic Stage 11 (MIS 11) and continuing to present, is in the form of isolated sediment exposures with different depositional facies and vertical and lateral variations. Micromorphological analysis demonstrated that a suite of natural sedimentation processes operated during the development of the sequence ranging from water action to aeolian activity, and from speleothem formations to plant colonization and root encrustation. At the same time, anthropogenic sediments that are mainly in the form of burnt remains from combustion features (e.g., wood ash, charcoal, and burnt bone) were accumulating. Several erosional episodes have resulted in a complicated stratigraphy, as discerned from different depositional and post-depositional features. The cave is associated with a fluctuating coastal environment, frequent changes in sea level and climate controlled patterns of sedimentation, and the presence or absence of humans.

  5. Small Wind Site Assessment Guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Tim; Preus, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Site assessment for small wind energy systems is one of the key factors in the successful installation, operation, and performance of a small wind turbine. A proper site assessment is a difficult process that includes wind resource assessment and the evaluation of site characteristics. These guidelines address many of the relevant parts of a site assessment with an emphasis on wind resource assessment, using methods other than on-site data collection and creating a small wind site assessment report.

  6. Soil use and hydraulic systems in the Terramara S. Rosa (Poviglio, northern Italy). The role of micromorphology in decrypting site formation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremaschi, Mauro; Chiara, Pizzi

    2010-05-01

    The S. Rosa moated site (Terramara), which dates back to the Middle-Recent Bronze age, is under excavation since 1984, by the Soprintendenza ai Beni Archeologici dell Emilia Romagna, in cooperation with the Università degli Studi di Milano, CNR-IDPA of Milano, and the sponsorship of the Comune di Poviglio and Coopsette. The field seasons of the last ten years were concentrated in the south-western part of the fringe of the site and the adjoining ditch, and unearthed a complex hydraulic system composed of several wells, the moat, a canal converging to it, and minor ditches connecting these structure to the countryside surrounding the Terramara. During the early phase of occupation (late Middle Bronze age), a large number of wells, located at the fringe of the village, in coincidence with the fence were dug to reach the water table. They were kept in use for a long time and the water extracted from them was not directed to the interior of the village but it was carried inside the moat throughout a system of ditches. Outside the moat, a large canal has been recently discovered. Its large size and the sophisticated knowledge in hydraulic engineering that its construction required, make it the first archaeological proof of a large scale water management during the Bronze Age. During the last phase of the village (late Recent Bronze age) the wells of the fence and the canal were deactivated and the flow inside the moat interrupted. Consequently, more wells were excavated in a very short time at the bottom of the moat, as indicated by refitting of the potsherds included in the fill. These wells are surrounded by reservoirs connected by small ditches to make the extracted water available to be used at the outer fringe of the moat. An intensive program of micromorphological studies has been undertaken to reconstruct the formation processes of the excavated deposits. Thin section study led to the differentiation of long lasting phases of use, maintenance and abandonment on

  7. Searching for Clues to the Processes and Conditions of Past Martian Environments: The Roles of Episodic Solutions, Analog Sites and Fe-O(-H) Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, P. L.; De Deckker, P.

    2012-12-01

    are common, and these salts may form eolian dunes with fine particles. We may expect similar processes and mineral and chemical gradients in craters/basins on Mars like Gale Crater, the site of the Mars Science Laboratory mission. ROLE OF Fe-O(-H) PHASES: Nanophase Fe-O(-H)-phases are abundant on Mars and their precipitation results in an Fe-poor solution and salts (like Lake Tyrrell). Fe-O(-H) phases precipitate most readily at near-neutral pH; however, the high Fe of Mars' surface allows for pH>1. Nanophase Fe-O(-H)-phases have surface species that promote adsorption; which may be important in dry conditions like Mars. If we take goethite (FeO(OH)), the surface species and aqueous ions in solution are Fe3+ (pH<~2); Fe(OH)2+ (pH~2-3.5); Fe(OH)2+ (pH~3.5-~8); and FeOH4- (pH>~8). Other Fe-O(-H) phases have slightly different pH limits. Thus, at pH<~8, Fe-O(-H) surfaces sequester anions in surface complexes or in Fe-bearing salts (e.g. Fe3+-phosphate and sulfates, especially at pH<4). PO43- species have high adsorption affinity, followed by SO42-, Cl-(O) and Br-(O) species. At pH>~8, adsorption and exchange of cations are likely. These chemical variations may provide us with clues of the past pH on Mars.

  8. Interdisciplinary study of atmospheric processes and constituents of the mid-Atlantic coastal region. Attachment 4: Data set for background investigation of atmospheric constituents for Nansemond River site. [a proposed oil refinery site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kindle, E. C.; Bandy, E. C.; Copeland, G.; Blais, R.; Levy, G.; Sonenshine, D.; Adams, D.; Maier, G.

    1975-01-01

    Background data was provided for the assessment of the environmental impact of a proposed oil refinery location. Climatic background, particulate data, digitized portrayal of site molecular and meteorological data, graphical portrayal of molecular data, hourly meteorological data, and streamflow charts and radiosonde data are given

  9. Ecological survey for the siting of the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility and the Idaho Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hoskinson, R.L.

    1994-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of field ecological surveys conducted by the Center for Integrated Environmental Technologies (CIET) on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) at four candidate locations for the siting of the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility (MLLWTF) and the Idaho Waste Processing Facility (IWPF). The purpose of these surveys was to comply with all Federal laws and Executive Orders to identify and evaluate any potential environmental impacts because of the project. The boundaries of the candidate location were marked with blaze-orange lath survey marker stakes by the project management. Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements of the marker stakes were made, and input to the Arc/Info{reg_sign} geographic information system (GIS). Field surveys were conducted to assess any potential impact to any important species, important habitats, and to any environmental study areas. The GIS location data was overlayed onto the INEL vegetation map and an analysis of vegetation classes on the locations was done. Results of the field surveys indicate use of Candidate Location {number_sign}1 by pygmy rabbits (Sylvilagus idahoensis) and expected use by them of Candidate Locations {number_sign}3 and {number_sign}9. Pygmy rabbits are categorized as a C2 species by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). Two other C2 species, the ferruginous hawk (Buteo regalis) and the loggerhead shrike (Lanius ludovicianus) would also be expected to frequent the candidate locations. Candidate Location {number_sign}5 at the north end of the INEL is in the winter range of a large number of pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana).

  10. Characterization of an acromesomelic dysplasia, Grebe type case: novel mutation affecting the recognition motif at the processing site of GDF5.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Garcia, Monica; Garcia-Canto, Eva; Fenollar-Cortes, Maria; Aytes, Antonio Perez; Trujillo-Tiebas, María José

    2016-09-01

    Acromesomelic dysplasia, Grebe type is a very rare skeletal dysplasia characterized by severe dwarfism with marked micromelia and deformation of the upper and lower limbs, with a proximodistal gradient of severity. CDMP1 gene mutations have been associated with Grebe syndrome, Hunter-Thompson syndrome, Du Pan syndrome and brachydactyly type C. The proband is a 4-year-old boy, born of consanguineous Pakistani parents. Radiographic imaging revealed features typical of Grebe syndrome: severe shortening of the forearms with an acromesomelic pattern following a proximodistal gradient, with distal parts more severely affected than medial parts; hypoplastic hands, with the phalangeal zone more affected than the metacarpal zone; and severe hypoplastic tibial/femoral zones in both limbs. After molecular analyses, the p.Arg377Trp variant in a homozygous pattern was identified in the CDMP1 gene in the affected child. In silico and structural analyses predicted the p.Arg377Trp amino acid change to be pathogenic. Of the 34 mutations described in the CDMP1 gene, four different missense mutations have been associated with Grebe syndrome. The CDMP1 gene encodes growth differentiation factor 5 (GDF5), which plays a role in regulation of limb patterning, joint formation and distal bone growth. Homozygous mutations in the mature domain of GDF5 result in severe limb malformations such as the Grebe type or the Hunter-Thompson type of acromesomelic chondrodysplasia. The p.Arg377Trp