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Sample records for proinflammatory cytokine gene

  1. Proinflammatory cytokines decrease the expression of genes critical for RPE function

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, William; Boyce, Kaifa; Cherukuri, Aswini; Duncan, Todd; Jaworski, Cynthia; Nagineni, Chandrasekharam N.; Redmond, T. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Proinflammatory cytokines interferon gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) secreted by infiltrating lymphocytes or macrophages may play a role in triggering RPE dysfunction associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Binding of these proinflammatory cytokines to their specific receptors residing on the RPE cell surface can activate signaling pathways that, in turn, may dysregulate cellular gene expression. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-1β have an adverse effect on the expression of genes essential for RPE function, employing the RPE cell line ARPE-19 as a model system. Methods ARPE-19 cells were cultured for 3–4 months until they exhibited epithelial morphology and expressed mRNAs for visual cycle genes. The differentiated cells were treated with IFN-γ, TNF-α, and/or IL-1β, and gene expression was analyzed with real-time PCR analysis. Western immunoblotting was employed for the detection of proteins. Results Proinflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ + TNF-α + IL-1β) greatly increased the expression of chemokines and cytokines in cultured ARPE-19 cells that exhibited RPE characteristics. However, this response was accompanied by markedly decreased expression of genes important for RPE function, such as CDH1, RPE65, RDH5, RDH10, TYR, and MERTK. This was associated with decreased expression of the genes MITF, TRPM1, and TRPM3, as well as microRNAs miR-204 and miR-211, which are known to regulate RPE-specific gene expression. The decreased expression of the epithelial marker gene CDH1 was associated with increased expression of mesenchymal marker genes (CDH2, VIM, and CCND1) and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) promoting transcription factor genes (ZEB1 and SNAI1). Conclusions RPE cells exposed to proinflammatory cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-1β showed decreased expression of key genes involved in the visual cycle, epithelial morphology

  2. Can proinflammatory cytokine gene expression explain multifidus muscle fiber changes after an intervertebral disc lesion?

    PubMed

    Hodges, Paul W; James, Gregory; Blomster, Linda; Hall, Leanne; Schmid, Annina B; Shu, Cindy; Little, Chris; Melrose, James

    2014-06-01

    Longitudinal case-controlled animal study. To investigate the effect of an intervertebral disc (IVD) lesion on the proportion of slow, fast, and intermediate muscle fiber types in the multifidus muscle in sheep, and whether muscle fiber changes were paralleled by local gene expression of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 1-β. Structure and behavior of the multifidus muscle change in acute and chronic back pain, but the mechanisms are surprisingly poorly understood and the link between structure and behavior is tenuous. Although changes in muscle fiber types have the potential to unify the observations, the effect of injury on muscle fiber distribution has not been adequately tested, and understanding of possible mechanisms is limited. The L1-L2, L3-L4, and L5-L6 IVDs of 11 castrated male sheep received anterolateral lesions. Six control sheep underwent no surgical procedures. Multifidus muscle tissue was harvested at L4 for muscle fiber analysis using immunohistochemistry and L2 for cytokine analysis with polymerase chain reaction for local gene expression of TNF-α and interleukin-1β. The proportion of slow muscle fibers in multifidus was significantly less in the lesioned animals both ipsilateral and contralateral to the IVD lesion. The greatest reduction in slow fibers was in the deep medial muscle region. A greater prevalence of intermediate fibers on the uninjured side implies a delayed fiber-type transformation on that side. TNF-α gene expression in multifidus was greater on both sides in the lesion animals than in the muscle of control animals. Interleukin-1β was increased only on the injured side. These data provide evidence of muscle fiber changes after induction of an IVD lesion and a parallel increase in TNF-α expression. Proinflammatory cytokine changes provide a novel mechanism to explain behavioral and structural changes in multifidus. N/A.

  3. Gene therapy based in antimicrobial peptides and proinflammatory cytokine prevents reactivation of experimental latent tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Espinosa, Octavio; Hernández-Bazán, Sujhey; Francisco-Cruz, Alejandro; Mata-Espinosa, Dulce; Barrios-Payán, Jorge; Marquina-Castillo, Brenda; López-Casillas, Fernando; Carretero, Marta; Del Río, Marcela; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio

    2016-10-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) latent infection can lead to reactivation. The design of new strategies to prevent it is an important subject. B6D2F1 mice were infected intratracheally with a low dose of Mtb H37Rv to induce chronic infection. After 7 months, mice were treated with one dose of recombinant adenoviruses encoding TNFα, β defensin-3 and LL37. Immunosupression was induced 1 month later with corticosterone. In comparison with the control group, mice treated with adenoviruses showed significantly less bacterial load and pneumonia, the adenoviruses encoding TNFα and LL37 being the most efficient. Gene therapy based in a proinflammatory cytokine or antimicrobial peptides is a potentially useful system to prevent reactivation of latent tuberculosis.

  4. Protease-activated receptor-2 induces proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine gene expression in canine keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Shingo; Maeda, Sadatoshi; Ohno, Koichi; Kaji, Noriyuki; Hori, Masatoshi; Fujino, Yasuhito; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2013-05-15

    Although the molecular basis of the allergenicity remains to be fully elucidated, the ability of allergens to elicit allergic responses is at least partly attributed to their proteolytic activity. Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) is a G protein-coupled receptor that is activated by site-specific proteolysis by serine proteases and is known to mediate inflammatory processes in various tissues. In this study, we investigated the effects of trypsin, a major serine protease, and a human PAR-2 agonist peptide (SLIGKV-NH2) on proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine gene expression in the canine keratinocyte cell line CPEK. The expression of PAR-2 mRNA and protein in CPEK cells was detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The localization of PAR-2 in CPEK was examined by immunofluorescence. The mRNA expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines were quantified by real-time RT-PCR. The free intracellular Ca(2+) concentration was measured using the Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent dye. CPEK cells constitutively expressed PAR-2 mRNA and protein. Stimulation of CPEK cells with trypsin induced significant upregulation of the mRNA expression levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, P<0.05), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, P<0.01), thymus and activation regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17, P<0.01), and interleukin 8 (IL-8/CXCL8, P<0.01). Similarly, the PAR-2 agonist peptide increased the mRNA expression levels of TNF-α (P<0.05), GM-CSF (P<0.05), TARC/CCL17 (P<0.05), and IL-8/CXCL8 (P<0.05) in CPEK cells. Both trypsin and the PAR-2 agonist peptide increased the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and PAR-2 internalization. These results suggest that PAR-2 activation can augment inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression in canine keratinocytes, and it may initiate allergic inflammation through the proteolytic activity of allergens in canine atopic dermatitis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Abnormal gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines and their membrane-bound receptors in the lymphocytes of depressed patients.

    PubMed

    Rizavi, Hooriyah S; Ren, Xinguo; Zhang, Hui; Bhaumik, Runa; Pandey, Ghanshyam N

    2016-06-30

    Abnormalities of protein levels of proinflammatory cytokines and their soluble receptors have been reported in plasma of depressed patients. In this study, we examined the role of cytokines and their membrane-bound receptors in major depressive disorder (MDD). We determined the protein and mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and mRNA expression of their membrane-bound receptors in the lymphocytes from 31 hospitalized MDD patients and 30 non-hospitalized normal control (NC) subjects. The subjects were diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. Protein levels of cytokines were determined by ELISA, and mRNA levels in lymphocytes were determined by the qPCR method. We found that the mean mRNA levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, their receptors, TNFR1, TNFR2, IL-1R1 and the antagonist IL-1RA were significantly increased in the lymphocytes of MDD patients compared with NC. No significant differences in the lymphocyte mRNA levels of IL-1R2, IL-6R, and Gp130 were observed between MDD patients and NC. These studies suggest abnormal gene expression of these cytokines and their membrane-bound receptors in the lymphocytes of MDD patients, and that their mRNA expression levels in the lymphocytes could be a useful biomarker for depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Conventional mechanical ventilation of healthy lungs induced pro-inflammatory cytokine gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Brégeon, Fabienne; Roch, Antoine; Delpierre, Stéphane; Ghigo, Eric; Autillo-Touati, Amapola; Kajikawa, Osamu; Martin, Thomas R; Pugin, Jérôme; Portugal, Henry; Auffray, Jean-Pierre; Jammes, Yves

    2002-08-30

    We investigated the potential inflammatory reaction induced by mechanical ventilation (MV) using 10 ml/kg tidal volume and no positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in control (C, n = 8), spontaneously breathing (SB, n = 12) and mechanically ventilated (MV, n = 12) rabbits with normal lungs. After 6 h (MV and SB groups) or immediately (C group), lungs were removed for measurement of wet-to-dry (W/D) weight ratio and for bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Pulmonary mechanics were also studied. MV animals developed a modest but significant (P < 0.01) impairment of arterial blood oxygenation and had higher W/D lung weight ratio than C ones. In MV group, BAL macrophage count was greater (P < 0.05) than in SB one. MV induced an upregulation of MCP-1, TNF-alpha, and IL-1beta gene transcription (mRNAs), without significant elevation of the corresponding protein cytokines in the BAL supernatant, except for MCP-1 (P < 0.05). These data suggest that MV, even using moderate tidal volume, elicits a pro-inflammatory stimulus to the lungs.

  7. Notochordal Cells Influence Gene Expression of Inflammatory Mediators of Annulus Fibrosus Cells in Proinflammatory Cytokines Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Hong Joo; Joe, Hoon; Kwon, Taek Hyun; Choi, Hye-Kyoung; Park, Youn Kwan

    2010-01-01

    Objective Notochordal cells in the intervertebral disc interact with nucleus pulposus (NP) cells and support the maintenance of disc homeostasis by regulation of matrix production. However, the influence of notochordal cells has not been evaluated in the annulus fibrosus (AF), which is the primary pain generator in the disc. We hypothesized that the notochordal cell has the capacity to modulate inflammatory mediators secreted by AF cells secondary to stimulation. Methods Notochordal and AF cells were isolated from adult New Zealand white rabbits. AF pellets were cultured with notochordal cell clusters or in notochordal cell-conditioned media (NCCM) for 24 or 48 hours with proinflammatory cytokines at varying concentrations. Gene expression in AF pellets were assayed for nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2, and interleukin (IL)-6 by real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results AF pellet in NCCM significantly decreased the iNOS and COX-2 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels compared to AF pellets alone and AF pellets with notochordal cells (p < 0.05). AF pellet resulted in dose-dependent iNOS and COX-2 expression in response to IL-1β, stimulation, demonstrating that 1 ng/ml for 24 hours yielded a maximal response. AF pellet in NCCM significantly decreased the expression of iNOS and COX-2 in response to 1ng/ml IL-1β, stimulation at 24 hours (p < 0.05). There was no difference in IL-6 expression compared to AF pellets alone or AF pellets with notochordal cell clusters. Conclusion We conclude that soluble factors from notochordal cells mitigate the gene expression of inflammatory mediators in stimulated AF, as expected after annular injury, suggesting that notochordal cells could serve as a novel therapeutic approach in symptomatic disc development. PMID:20717505

  8. Cold stress equally enhances in vivo pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression in chicken lines divergently selected for antibody responses.

    PubMed

    Hangalapura, Basavarajappa N; Kaiser, Michael G; Poel, Jan J van der; Parmentier, Henk K; Lamont, Susan J

    2006-01-01

    The effects of cold stress, immunization and genetic selection on the expression of mRNA for cytokine genes in poultry have not been completely elucidated. Therefore, in the present experiment, using real-time quantitative RT-PCR, we evaluated the effect of cold stress and immunization with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) on expression of mRNA for pro-inflammatory (interleukin-1beta [IL-1beta], IL-6, IL-12beta), Th(1) (IFN-gamma and IL-2), and Th(2) (IL-4 and IL-10) cytokine genes in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) of chicken lines divergently selected for either high or low antibody responses. Irrespective of the duration, cold stress enhanced expression of mRNA for IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-12beta and IL-4 cytokine genes in both selection lines. These results indicate that cold stress stimulates both the innate and parts of the adaptive cellular immune system. Immunization with CFA resulted in higher expression of mRNA for pro-inflammatory cytokines and lower expression of mRNA for both Th(1) and Th(2) cytokines.

  9. Regulation of proinflammatory cytokines gene expression by nociceptin/orphanin FQ in the spinal cord and the cultured astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Fu, X; Zhu, Z-H; Wang, Y-Q; Wu, G-C

    2007-01-05

    Peripheral inflammation induces central sensitization characterized by the development of allodynia and hyperalgesia to thermal stimuli. Recent evidence suggests that activation of glial cells and a subsequent increase in proinflammatory cytokines contribute to the development of behavioral hypersensitivity after nerve injury or peripheral inflammation. The neuropeptide nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), the endogenous agonist of the N/OFQ peptide receptor (ORL1 receptor), has been demonstrated to play an important role in modulation of nociceptive signals. In the present study, we investigated: (1) astrocyte activation and proinflammatory cytokine expression at the lumbar spinal cord following intraplantar administration of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in rats; (2) the mechanism of N/OFQ on nociception modulation, the relationship between N/OFQ and cytokines in the rat CNS in vivo and in vitro. The results showed: (1) CFA-induced peripheral inflammation evoked robust astrocyte activation and proinflammatory cytokines spinally; (2) down-regulation of cytokine mRNA transcripts by intrathecal administration of N/OFQ, the effects produced by N/OFQ were abolished by combination with ORL1 receptor-specific antagonist [Nphe(1)]N/OFQ(1-13)NH2; (3) ORL1 receptor was expressed on astrocytes of rat spinal cord; (4) cytokine gene expression was inhibited in astrocyte cultures exposed to N/OFQ, the inhibiting effects of N/OFQ were significantly blocked by [Nphe(1)]N/OFQ(1-13)NH2. The present data demonstrated that astrocyte activation and enhanced cytokine expression at the CNS had a role in eliciting behavioral hypersensitivity; the anti-nociception function of N/OFQ might be dependent on cytokines derived from astrocytes, the effects were attributable to the ORL1 receptor pathway.

  10. Abnormal gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines and their receptors in the lymphocytes of patients with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ghanshyam N; Ren, Xinguo; Rizavi, Hooriyah S; Zhang, Hui

    2015-09-01

    Abnormalities of protein levels of proinflammatory cytokines and their soluble receptors have been reported in plasma of patients with bipolar disorder (BP). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the mRNA expression of membrane-bound receptors for proinflammatory cytokines will be altered in the lymphocytes of patients with BP. We determined protein and mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, and mRNA expression of their receptors in the lymphocytes from 29 drug-free, hospitalized patients with BP and 30 drug-free normal control subjects. The subjects were diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. Plasma protein levels of cytokines were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); mRNA levels in lymphocytes were determined by the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method. We found that mean mRNA levels of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and their receptors TNFR1, IL-1R1, and the antagonist IL-1RA were significantly higher in the lymphocytes of patients with BP compared with normal controls. This study suggests that the observed abnormalities of membrane-bound cytokine receptors may alter the functional response of cytokines in BP and that the mRNA levels of these receptors could be a potential biomarker. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Dataset of proinflammatory cytokine and cytokine receptor gene expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) measured using a novel GeXP multiplex, RT-PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Kutyrev, Ivan; Cleveland, Beth; Leeds, Timothy; Wiens, Gregory D

    2017-04-01

    A GeXP multiplex, RT-PCR assay was developed and optimized that simultaneously measures expression of a suite of immune-relevant genes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), concentrating on tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 ligand/receptor systems and acute phase response genes. The dataset includes expression values for drpt, il11a, il1b1, il1b2, il1b3, il1r-like-1(e3-5), il1r-like-1(e9-11), il1r1-like-a, il1r1-like-b, il1r2, saa, tnfa1, tnfa2, tnfa3, tnfrsf1a, tnfrsf1a-like-a, tnfrsf1a-like-b, tnfrsf5, and tnfrsf9. Gene expression was measured at four time-points post-challenge in both a resistant line (ARS-Fp-R) and a susceptible line (ARS-Fp-S) of rainbow trout. In addition, fish body weight, spleen index and the Flavobacterium psychrophilum load are reported. These data are an extension of information presented and discussed in "Proinflammatory cytokine and cytokine receptor gene expression kinetics following challenge with Flavobacterium psychrophilum in resistant and susceptible lines of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)" (Kutyrev et al., 2016) [1].

  12. Brazilian red propolis effects on peritoneal macrophage activity: Nitric oxide, cell viability, pro-inflammatory cytokines and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Bueno-Silva, Bruno; Kawamoto, Dione; Ando-Suguimoto, Ellen S; Casarin, Renato C V; Alencar, Severino M; Rosalen, Pedro L; Mayer, Marcia P A

    2017-07-31

    Propolis has been used in folk medicine since ancient times and it presented inhibitory effect on neutrophil recruitment previously. However, its effect on macrophage obtained from mice remains unclear. To demonstrate BRP effects on LPS activated peritoneal macrophage. Peritoneal macrophages, obtained from C57BL6 mice and activated with LPS, were treated with 50-80µg/mL of crude extract of Brazilian red propolis (BRP) during 48h. Cell viability, levels of NO, 20 cytokines and expression of 360 genes were evaluated. BRP 60µg/mL reduced NO production by 65% without affecting the cell viability and decreased production IL1α, IL1β, IL4, IL6, IL12p40, Il12p70, IL13, MCP1 and GM-CSF. Molecular mechanism beyond the anti-inflammatory activity may be due to BRP-effects on decreasing expression of Mmp7, Egfr, Adm, Gata3, Wnt2b, Txn1, Herpud1, Axin2, Car9, Id1, Vegfa, Hes1, Hes5, Icam1, Wnt3a, Pcna, Wnt5a, Tnfsf10, Ccl5, Il1b, Akt1, Mapk1, Noxa1 and Cdkn1b and increasing expression of Cav1, Wnt6, Calm1, Tnf, Rb1, Socs3 and Dab2. Therefore, BRP has anti-inflammatory effects on macrophage activity by reducing NO levels and diminished release and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine and genes, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Proinflammatory cytokine and cytokine receptor gene expression kinetics following challenge with Flavobacterium psychrophilum in resistant and susceptible lines of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Kutyrev, Ivan; Cleveland, Beth; Leeds, Timothy; Wiens, Gregory D

    2016-11-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum (Fp) is the causative agent of bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) which causes appreciable economic losses in rainbow trout aquaculture. We previously reported development of a genetic line, designated ARS-Fp-R that exhibits higher survival relative to a susceptible line, designated ARS-Fp-S, following either laboratory or natural on-farm challenge. The objectives of this study were to determine the temporal kinetics of gene expression between experimentally-challenged ARS-Fp-R and ARS-Fp-S fish and the correlation between gene expression and pathogen load. We developed a GeXP multiplex RT-PCR assay to simultaneously examine expression of immune-relevant genes, concentrating on tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 ligand/receptor systems and acute phase response genes. Spleen tissue was sampled at 6 h, 24 h, 48 h and 144 h post-challenge and pathogen load quantified by qPCR. Transcript abundance of cytokine genes tnfa1, tnfa2, tnfa3, il1b1, il1b2, il11a; acute phase response genes saa and drtp1; and putative cytokine receptors il1r1-like-b, il1r2, tnfrsf1a, tnfrsf9, tnfrsf1a-like-b increased following challenge while the transcript abundance of il1r-like-1 and tnfrsf1a-like-a decreased compared to PBS-injected line-matched control fish. Principal component analysis identified transcript levels of genes il1r-like-1 and tnfrsf1a-like-a as exhibiting differential expression between genetic lines. In summary, Fp i.p. injection challenge elicited a proinflammatory cytokine gene expression response in the spleen, with ARS-Fp-R line fish exhibiting modestly higher basal expression levels of several putative cytokine receptors. This study furthers the understanding of the immune response following Fp challenge and differences in gene expression associated with selective breeding for disease resistance. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Gene transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines induced by IL-17A in canine keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Asahina, Ryota; Kamishina, Harumi; Kamishina, Hiroaki; Maeda, Sadatoshi

    2015-12-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines produced by activated keratinocytes play an important role in the pathogenesis of canine atopic dermatitis (AD) as well as human AD. Recent studies suggest that keratinocytes activated by IL-17A are involved in the pathogenesis of human AD. However, the role of IL-17A in canine keratinocytes is poorly understood. Interleukin-17A would induce the transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in canine keratinocytes. The transcription levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were quantified in a canine keratinocyte cell line stimulated with recombinant canine (rc) IL-17A. The transcription of GM-CSF, S100A8, IL-8 and IL-19 in cultured keratinocytes was significantly enhanced at 24 h after stimulation with rcIL-17A. Keratinocytes activated by IL-17A have the ability to produce various pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, suggesting that IL-17A may play a central role of the development of Th2-associated inflammation in canine AD. © 2015 ESVD and ACVD.

  15. Role of proinflammatory cytokines (interferon gamma) and anti-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin-10) gene polymorphisms in chronic hepatitis B infection: an Indian scenario.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Manjita; Ranjan, Arttrika; Choudhary, Jitendra K; Tripathi, Manish K; Verma, Smita; Dixit, Vinod K; Nath, Gopal; Jain, Ashok K

    2014-07-01

    Immune-mediated mechanisms have been found to play an important role in the progression of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The outcomes of infection do not appear to be determined by viral strains. Instead, allelic variants in human genome are likely to affect the disease progression. Allelic variation of proinflammatory cytokines such as interferon gamma (IFN-γ) participates in the elimination of HBV, and interleukin-10 (IL-10) helps in inhibition of Th1 effector mechanisms for host defense. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of host genetic factors in chronic HBV infection and gene promoter polymorphism or single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis of IFN-γ+874 and IL-10 (-1082, -592, and -819) on disease progression and persistence. A total of 232 patients along with 76 healthy controls were included. Allele-specific primers for IFN-γ and restriction fragment length polymorphism for IL-10 were used. The study indicated that low IFN-γ expression probably impairs host immune response to HBV, rendering these subjects more prone to HBV infection. No significant differences were detected between the 2 groups in the distributions of IL-10 genotype at the -1082, -819, and -592 positions. Odds ratio indicated that heterozygosity of genotypes -819 CT and -592 AC was more strongly associated with liver chronicity. Significantly, AA homozygous genotype was dominant in chronic hepatitis B cases in IFN-γ+874 and IL-10 (-1082 and -592) and is associated with increased risk of persistent infection.

  16. [Proinflammatory cytokines in patients with pyelonephritis].

    PubMed

    Gaĭseniuk, F Z; Driianskaia, V E; Drannik, G N; Rudenko, M Iu; Lavrenchuk, O V; Stepanova, N M; Stashevskaia, N V; Busygina, Iu S

    2013-09-01

    The antiinflammatory cytokines participate in antiinfective immunity, that is why it is advisable to study their peculiarities in determination of the role in immunologic pathogenesis of pyelonephritis. Of the work is to study the levels of pro-inflammatory blood cytokines in the patients with pyelonephritis (PN), to determine the peculiarities in acute and chronic its course in children and adults. The immuno-enzymic method ELISA and the corresponding test-systems were used to study the levels of cytokines in blood. There were studied the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF, MCP and IL-23) in blood serum of patients with acute (APN) and chronic (CPN) pyelonephritis. The analysis showed the reliable increase in levels of all studied findings in both forms of PN--both in all 173 patients and in every group--children (87) and adults (86). The MCP-1 levels in APN are reliably higher than in CPN, while in TNF-b and IL-23--do not differ. The levels of all three cytokines in blood of adults were higher than in children in APN, but TNF--in CPN as well. The high level of TNF, MCP-1 and IL-23 in blood of adults and children confirm their important role both in APN and CPN, but MCP-1 can be considered as a predictor of acute/exacerbation of chronic pyelonephritis. By the findings of the studied cytokines, more expressed immune response was noted in the adults.

  17. MicroRNA-590 attenuates lipid accumulation and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion by targeting lipoprotein lipase gene in human THP-1 macrophages.

    PubMed

    He, Ping-Ping; Ouyang, Xin-Ping; Tang, Yan-Yan; Liao, Li; Wang, Zong-Bao; Lv, Yun-Cheng; Tian, Guo-Ping; Zhao, Guo-Jun; Huang, Liang; Yao, Feng; Xie, Wei; Tang, Yu Lin; Chen, Wu-Jun; Zhang, Min; Li, Yuan; Wu, Jian-Feng; Peng, Juan; Liu, Xiang-Yu; Zheng, Xi-Long; Yin, Wei-Dong; Tang, Chao-Ke

    2014-11-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that microRNA-590 (miR-590) has protective effects on cardiovascular diseases, but the mechanism is unknown. Interestingly, previous studies from our laboratory and others have shown that macrophage-derived lipoprotein lipase (LPL) might accelerate atherosclerosis by promoting lipid accumulation and inflammatory response. However, the regulation of LPL at the post-transcriptional level by microRNAs has not been fully understood. In this study, we explored whether miR-590 affects the expression of LPL and its potential subsequent effects on lipid accumulation and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in human THP-1 macrophages. Using bioinformatics analyses and dual-luciferase reporter assays, we found that miR-590 directly inhibited LPL protein and mRNA expression by targeting LPL 3'UTR. LPL Activity Assays showed that miR-590 reduced LPL activity in the culture media. Oil Red O staining and high-performance liquid chromatography assays showed that miR-590 had inhibitory effects on the lipid accumulation in human THP-1 macrophages. We also illustrated that miR-590 alleviated pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in human THP-1 macrophages as measured by ELISA. With the method of small interfering RNA, we found that LPL siRNA can inhibit the miR-590 inhibitor-induced increase in lipid accumulation and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in oxLDL-treated human THP-1 macrophages. MiR-590 attenuates lipid accumulation and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion by targeting LPL gene in human THP-1 macrophages. Therefore, targeting miR-590 may offer a promising strategy to treat atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and Société française de biochimie et biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  18. Proinflammatory Cytokines as Regulators of Vaginal Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Kremleva, E A; Sgibnev, A V

    2016-11-01

    It was shown that IL-1β, IL-8, and IL-6 in concentrations similar to those in the vagina of healthy women stimulated the growth of normal microflora (Lactobacillus spp.) and suppressed the growth and biofilm production by S. aureus and E. coli. On the contrary, these cytokines in higher concentrations typical of vaginal dysbiosis suppressed normal microflora and stimulated the growth of opportunistic microorganisms. TGF-β1 in both doses produced a stimulating effects on study vaginal microsymbionts. It is hypothesized that pro-inflammatory cytokines serve as the molecules of interspecies communication coordinating the interactions of all components of the vaginal symbiotic system.

  19. Clostridium difficile-derived membrane vesicles induce the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes and cytotoxicity in colonic epithelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Asiimwe; Jeon, Hyejin; Selasi, Gati Noble; Na, Seok Hyeon; Kwon, Hyo Il; Kim, Yoo Jeong; Choi, Chi Won; Kim, Seung Il; Lee, Je Chul

    2017-03-09

    Clostridium difficile is the most common etiological agent of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients. This study investigated the secretion of membrane vesicles (MVs) from C. difficile and determined the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes and cytotoxicity of C. difficile MVs in epithelial cells in vitro. C. difficile ATCC 43255 and two clinical isolates secreted spherical MVs during in vitro culture. Proteomic analysis revealed that MVs of C. difficile ATCC 43255 contained a total of 262 proteins. Translation-associated proteins were the most commonly identified in C. difficile MVs, whereas TcdA and TcdB toxins were not detected. C. difficile ATCC 43255-derived MVs stimulated the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in human colorectal epithelial Caco-2 cells. Moreover, these extracellular vesicles induced cytotoxicity in Caco-2 cells. In conclusion, C. difficile MVs are important nanocomplexes that elicit a pro-inflammatory response and induce cytotoxicity in colonic epithelial cells, which may contribute, along with toxins, to intestinal mucosal injury during C. difficile infection.

  20. ALPK1 affects testosterone mediated regulation of proinflammatory cytokines production.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Tzer-Min; Yeh, Kun-Tu; Hsu, Hui-Ting; Chiang, Shang-Lun; Chang, Jan-Gowth; Huang, Chung-Ming; Tu, Hung-Pin; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2015-11-01

    Alpha-protein kinase 1, also known as alpha-kinase 1 (ALPK1), is associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD), myocardial infarction, gout and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). In addition to having an inductive effect on the proinflammatory cytokines in monocytic THP1 cells, ALPK1 is expressed abundantly in the mouse testes. Low testosterone levels are commonly associated with arthritis, CKD, type 2 DM, cardiovascular disease and inflammation. The testosterone's anti-inflammatory effect has been demonstrated to reduce proinflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules. In this study, we found that ALPK1 transgenic mice showed lower levels of testosterone in both the testes and the serum. Decreasing endogenous ALPK1 enhanced testosterone levels and transcripts of testosterone-regulated genes (P450scc, 3beta-HSD, P450C17, 17beta-HSD, StAR, and INSL3) in TM3 Leydig cells. In contrast, increasing testosterone decreased ALPK1 in both TM3 and monocytic THP1 cells. This decrease was accompanied by a reduction of the proinflammatory cytokines. Increased ALPK1 levels attenuated the testosterone effects in THP1 cells. Finally, we also found that ALPK1 increased the release of TNF-alpha and TGF-beta1 in the human embryonic kidney 293 cells, while testosterone inhibited ALPK1 in the primary kidney cells. Taken together, this data suggests that the balance between ALPK1 and testosterone plays a critical role in the testosterone-mediated inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines.

  1. Distinctive pro-inflammatory gene signatures induced in articular chondrocytes by oncostatin M and IL-6 are regulated by Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling-3.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Liu, R; Croker, B A; Lawlor, K E; Smyth, G K; Wicks, I P

    2015-10-01

    To describe gene expression in murine chondrocytes stimulated with IL-6 family cytokines and the impact of deleting Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling-3 (SOCS-3) in this cell type. Primary chondrocytes were isolated from wild type and SOCS-3-deficient (Socs3(Δ/Δcol2)) mice and stimulated with oncostatin M (OSM), IL-6 plus the soluble IL-6 receptor (IL-6/sIL-6R), IL-11 or leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) for 4 h. Total RNA was extracted and gene expression was evaluated by microarray analysis. Validation of the microarray results was performed using Taqman probes on RNA derived from chondrocytes stimulated for 1, 2, 4 or 8 h. Gene ontology was characterized using DAVID (database for annotation, visualization and integrated discovery). Multiple genes, including Bcl3, Junb, Tgm1, Angptl4 and Lrg1, were upregulated in chondrocytes stimulated with each gp130 cytokine. The gene transcription profile in response to OSM stimulation was pro-inflammatory and was highly correlated to IL-6/sIL-6R, rather than IL-11 or LIF. In the absence of SOCS-3, OSM and IL-6/sIL-6R stimulation induced an interferon (IFN)-like gene signature, including expression of IL-31ra and S100a9. While each gp130 cytokine induced a transcriptional response in chondrocytes, OSM- and IL-6/sIL-6R were the most potent members of this cytokine family. SOCS-3 plays an important regulatory role in this cell type, as it does in hematopoietic cells. Our results provide new insights into a hierarchy of gp130-induced transcriptional responses in chondrocytes that is normally restrained by SOCS-3 and suggest therapeutic inhibition of OSM may have benefit over and above antagonism of IL-6 during inflammatory arthritis. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. MicroRNA-Regulated Proinflammatory Cytokines in Sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jingjing; Kou, Xianjuan; Yang, Yi; Chen, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Sarcopenia has been defined as the aging-related disease with the declined mass, strength, and function of skeletal muscle, which is the major cause of frailty and falls in elders. The activation of inflammatory signal pathways due to diseases and aging is suggested to reveal the critical impact on sarcopenia. Several proinflammatory cytokines, especially interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), play crucial roles in modulation of inflammatory signaling pathway during the aging-related loss of skeletal muscle. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as the important regulators for the mass and functional maintenance of skeletal muscle through regulating gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines. In this paper, we have systematically discussed regulatory mechanisms of miRNAs for the expression and secretion of inflammatory cytokines during sarcopenia, which will provide some novel targets and therapeutic strategies for controlling aging-related atrophy of skeletal muscle and corresponding chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:27382188

  3. Proinflammatory Cytokines in the Prefrontal Cortex of Teenage Suicide Victims

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Ghanshyam N.; Rizavi, Hooriyah S.; Ren, Xinguo; Fareed, Jawed; Hoppensteadt, Debra A.; Roberts, Rosalinda C.; Conley, Robert R.; Dwivedi, Yogesh

    2011-01-01

    Teenage suicide is a major public health concern, but its neurobiology is not well understood. Proinflammatory cytokines play an important role in stress and in the pathophysiology of depression—two major risk factors for suicide. Cytokines are increased in the serum of patients with depression and suicidal behavior; however, it is not clear if similar abnormality in cytokines occurs in brains of suicide victims. We therefore measured the gene and protein expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tissue necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of 24 teenage suicide victims and 24 matched normal control subjects. Our results show that the mRNA and protein expression levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α were significantly increased in Brodmann area 10 (BA-10) of suicide victims compared with normal control subjects. These results suggest an important role for IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior and that proinflammatory cytokines may be an appropriate target for developing therapeutic agents. PMID:21906753

  4. Proinflammatory cytokines in the prefrontal cortex of teenage suicide victims.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ghanshyam N; Rizavi, Hooriyah S; Ren, Xinguo; Fareed, Jawed; Hoppensteadt, Debra A; Roberts, Rosalinda C; Conley, Robert R; Dwivedi, Yogesh

    2012-01-01

    Teenage suicide is a major public health concern, but its neurobiology is not well understood. Proinflammatory cytokines play an important role in stress and in the pathophysiology of depression-two major risk factors for suicide. Cytokines are increased in the serum of patients with depression and suicidal behavior; however, it is not clear if similar abnormality in cytokines occurs in brains of suicide victims. We therefore measured the gene and protein expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tissue necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of 24 teenage suicide victims and 24 matched normal control subjects. Our results show that the mRNA and protein expression levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α were significantly increased in Brodmann area 10 (BA-10) of suicide victims compared with normal control subjects. These results suggest an important role for IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior and that proinflammatory cytokines may be an appropriate target for developing therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Interactive roles of NPR1 gene-dosage and salt diets on cardiac angiotensin II, aldosterone and pro-inflammatory cytokines levels inmutantmice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Di; Das, Subhankar; Pandey, Kailash N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of the present study was to elucidate the interactive roles of guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPRA) gene (Npr1) and salt diets on cardiac angiotensin II (ANG II), aldosterone and proinflammatory cytokines levels in Npr1 gene-targeted (1-copy, 2-copy, 3-copy, 4-copy) mice. Methods Npr1 genotypes included 1-copy gene-disrupted heterozygous (+/−), 2-copy wild-type (+/+), 3-copy gene-duplicated heterozygous (++/+) and 4-copy gene-duplicated homozygous (++/++) mice. Animals were fed low, normal and high-salt diets. Plasma and cardiac levels of ANG II, aldosterone and pro-inflammatory cytokines were determined. Results With a high-salt diet, cardiac ANG II levels were increased (+) in 1-copy mice (13.7 ± 2.8 fmol/mg protein, 111%) compared with 2-copy mice (6.5 ± 0.6), but decreased (−) in 4-copy (4.0 ± 0.5, 38%) mice. Cardiac aldosterone levels were increased (+) in 1-copy mice (80 ± 4 fmol/mg protein, 79%) compared with 2-copy mice (38 ± 3). Plasma tumour necrosis factor alpha was increased (+) in 1-copy mice (30.27 ± 2.32 pg/ml, 38%), compared with 2-copy mice (19.36 ± 2.49, 24%), but decreased (−) in 3-copy (11.59 ± 1.51, 12%) and 4-copy (7.13 ± 0.52, 22%) mice. Plasma interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1α levels were also significantly increased (+) in 1-copy compared with 2-copy mice but decreased (−) in 3-copy and 4-copy mice. Conclusion These results demonstrate that a high-salt diet aggravates cardiac ANG II, aldosterone and proinflammatory cytokine levels in Npr1 gene-disrupted 1-copy mice, whereas, in Npr1 gene-duplicated (3-copy and 4-copy) mice, high salt did not render such elevation, suggesting the potential roles of Npr1 against salt loading. PMID:23188418

  6. Calcitonin gene-related peptide modulates the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines associated with periprosthetic osteolysis by THP-1 macrophage-like cells.

    PubMed

    Jablonski, Heidrun; Kauther, Max Daniel; Bachmann, Hagen Sjard; Jäger, Marcus; Wedemeyer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    An anti-resorptive impact of the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on periprosthetic osteolysis, the leading cause of early prosthesis loosening, has been shown previously. In this study, the impact of CGRP on pro-inflammatory cytokine production associated with periprosthetic osteolysis was analysed using THP-1 macrophage-like cells. Cells were stimulated with ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) particles (cell-to-particle ratios of 1:100 and 1:500) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS; 1 µg/ml) to establish osteolytic conditions, and simultaneously treated with CGRP (10(-8)M). Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK), RANK ligand (RANKL) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α mRNA expression were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. RANK protein was detected by Western blot. Secreted protein levels of TNF-α as well as interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 were quantified in cell culture supernatants by ELISA and Bio-Plex cytokine assay, respectively. Activation of macrophage-like cells failed to enhance the production of RANK but led to a dose- and time-dependent increase of TNF-α mRNA and secreted protein levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. Application of CGRP time-dependently suppressed TNF-α mRNA expression induced by low-particle concentrations and LPS, while both particle- and LPS-induced secretion of TNF-α was inhibited. A pronounced inhibitory effect of CGRP on LPS-induced cytokine production at 24 h of incubation was also observed with IL-1β and IL-6. CGRP shows a time-dependent inhibitory effect on the secretion of osteolysis-associated pro-inflammatory cytokines, indicating an indirect anti-resorptive influence of the neuropeptide on both aseptic prosthesis loosening and bacterially induced bone resorption which might enhance the life time of total joint replacements. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Tenocytes, pro-inflammatory cytokines and leukocytes: a relationship?

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sadi, Onays; Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula; Kohl, Benjamin; Lohan, Anke; Lemke, Marion; Ertel, Wolfgang; John, Thilo

    2011-01-01

    Summary Leukocyte derived pro-inflammatory mediators could be involved in tendon healing and scar formation. Hence, the effect of autologous leukocytes (PBMCs, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and neutrophils) on primary rabbit Achilles tenocytes gene expression was tested in insert assisted co-cultures. Subsequently, tenocytes gene expression of extra-cellular matrix (ECM) components (type I collagen, decorin, fibronectin), the cell-ECM receptor β1-integrin, the angiogenic factor myodulin, ECM degrading matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP)1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, tumour necrosis factor [TNFα] and IL-6) was analysed. The only significant effect of leukocytes on tenocytes ECM genes expression was a suppression of type I collagen by neutrophils combined with TNFα stimulation. The same effect could be observed analysing the β1-integrin and myodulin gene expression. However, PBMCs up-regulated significantly cytokine and MMP1 gene expression in tenocytes. These in vitro results suggest that mononuclear cells could present an exogenic stimulus for the induction of pro-inflammatory and catabolic mediators in tendon. PMID:23738251

  8. Effects of porcine MyD88 knockdown on the expression of TLR4 pathway-related genes and proinflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Dai, Chaohui; Sun, Li; Yu, Lihuai; Zhu, Guoqiang; Wu, Shenglong; Bao, Wenbin

    2016-12-01

    As a critical adapter protein in Toll-like receptor (TLR)/Interleukin (IL)-1R signalling pathway, myeloid differentiation protein 88 (MyD88) plays an important role in immune responses and host defence against pathogens. The present study was designed to provide a foundation and an important reagent for the mechanistic study of MyD88 and its role TLR/IL-1R signalling pathways in porcine immunity. Lentivirus-mediated RNAi was used to generate a porcine PK15 cell line with a silenced MyD88 gene and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and Western blotting were used to detect changes in the expression of critical genes in the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signalling pathway. ELISA was used to measure the levels of seven proinflammatory cytokines-interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α and MIP-1β-in cell culture supernatants after MyD88 silencing. We successfully obtained a PK15 cell line with 61% MyD88 mRNA transcript down-regulated. In PK15 cells with MyD88 silencing, the transcript levels of TLR4 and IL-1β were significantly reduced, whereas there were no significant changes in the expression levels of cluster of differentiation antigen 14 (CD14), interferon-α (IFN-α) or TNF-α The ELISA results showed that the levels of most cytokines were not significantly changed apart from IL-8 without stimulation, which was significantly up-regulated. When cells were induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (0.1 μg/ml) for 6 h, the global level of seven proinflammatory cytokines up-regulated and the level of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-12 of Blank and negative control (NC) group up-regulated more significantly than RNAi group (P<0.05), which revealed that the MyD88 silencing could reduce the TLR4 signal transduction which inhibited the release of proinflammatory cytokines and finally leaded to immunosuppression.

  9. Specific Inhibition of Histone Deacetylase 8 Reduces Gene Expression and Production of Proinflammatory Cytokines in Vitro and in Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Suzhao; Fossati, Gianluca; Marchetti, Carlo; Modena, Daniela; Pozzi, Pietro; Reznikov, Leonid L.; Moras, Maria Luisa; Azam, Tania; Abbate, Antonio; Mascagni, Paolo; Dinarello, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    ITF2357 (generic givinostat) is an orally active, hydroxamic-containing histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor with broad anti-inflammatory properties, which has been used to treat children with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis. ITF2357 inhibits both Class I and II HDACs and reduces caspase-1 activity in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the secretion of IL-1β and other cytokines at 25–100 nm; at concentrations >200 nm, ITF2357 is toxic in vitro. ITF3056, an analog of ITF2357, inhibits only HDAC8 (IC50 of 285 nm). Here we compared the production of IL-1β, IL-1α, TNFα, and IL-6 by ITF2357 with that of ITF3056 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), heat-killed Candida albicans, or anti-CD3/anti-CD28 antibodies. ITF3056 reduced LPS-induced cytokines from 100 to 1000 nm; at 1000 nm, the secretion of IL-1β was reduced by 76%, secretion of TNFα was reduced by 88%, and secretion of IL-6 was reduced by 61%. The intracellular levels of IL-1α were 30% lower. There was no evidence of cell toxicity at ITF3056 concentrations of 100–1000 nm. Gene expression of TNFα was markedly reduced (80%), whereas IL-6 gene expression was 40% lower. Although anti-CD3/28 and Candida stimulation of IL-1β and TNFα was modestly reduced, IFNγ production was 75% lower. Mechanistically, ITF3056 reduced the secretion of processed IL-1β independent of inhibition of caspase-1 activity; however, synthesis of the IL-1β precursor was reduced by 40% without significant decrease in IL-1β mRNA levels. In mice, ITF3056 reduced LPS-induced serum TNFα by 85% and reduced IL-1β by 88%. These data suggest that specific inhibition of HDAC8 results in reduced inflammation without cell toxicity. PMID:25451941

  10. Specific inhibition of histone deacetylase 8 reduces gene expression and production of proinflammatory cytokines in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Li, Suzhao; Fossati, Gianluca; Marchetti, Carlo; Modena, Daniela; Pozzi, Pietro; Reznikov, Leonid L; Moras, Maria Luisa; Azam, Tania; Abbate, Antonio; Mascagni, Paolo; Dinarello, Charles A

    2015-01-23

    ITF2357 (generic givinostat) is an orally active, hydroxamic-containing histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor with broad anti-inflammatory properties, which has been used to treat children with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis. ITF2357 inhibits both Class I and II HDACs and reduces caspase-1 activity in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the secretion of IL-1β and other cytokines at 25-100 nm; at concentrations >200 nm, ITF2357 is toxic in vitro. ITF3056, an analog of ITF2357, inhibits only HDAC8 (IC50 of 285 nm). Here we compared the production of IL-1β, IL-1α, TNFα, and IL-6 by ITF2357 with that of ITF3056 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), heat-killed Candida albicans, or anti-CD3/anti-CD28 antibodies. ITF3056 reduced LPS-induced cytokines from 100 to 1000 nm; at 1000 nm, the secretion of IL-1β was reduced by 76%, secretion of TNFα was reduced by 88%, and secretion of IL-6 was reduced by 61%. The intracellular levels of IL-1α were 30% lower. There was no evidence of cell toxicity at ITF3056 concentrations of 100-1000 nm. Gene expression of TNFα was markedly reduced (80%), whereas IL-6 gene expression was 40% lower. Although anti-CD3/28 and Candida stimulation of IL-1β and TNFα was modestly reduced, IFNγ production was 75% lower. Mechanistically, ITF3056 reduced the secretion of processed IL-1β independent of inhibition of caspase-1 activity; however, synthesis of the IL-1β precursor was reduced by 40% without significant decrease in IL-1β mRNA levels. In mice, ITF3056 reduced LPS-induced serum TNFα by 85% and reduced IL-1β by 88%. These data suggest that specific inhibition of HDAC8 results in reduced inflammation without cell toxicity.

  11. Lipidomic evidence that lowering the typical dietary palmitate to oleate ratio in humans decreases the leukocyte production of proinflammatory cytokines and muscle expression of redox-sensitive genes.

    PubMed

    Kien, C Lawrence; Bunn, Janice Y; Fukagawa, Naomi K; Anathy, Vikas; Matthews, Dwight E; Crain, Karen I; Ebenstein, David B; Tarleton, Emily K; Pratley, Richard E; Poynter, Matthew E

    2015-12-01

    We recently reported that lowering the high, habitual palmitic acid (PA) intake in ovulating women improved insulin sensitivity and both inflammatory and oxidative stress. In vitro studies indicate that PA can activate both cell membrane toll-like receptor-4 and the intracellular nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptor protein (NLRP3). To gain further insight into the relevance to human metabolic disease of dietary PA, we studied healthy, lean and obese adults enrolled in a randomized, crossover trial comparing 3-week, high-PA (HPA) and low-PA/high-oleic-acid (HOA) diets. After each diet, both hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivities were measured, and we assessed cytokine concentrations in plasma and in supernatants derived from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) as well as proinflammatory gene expression in skeletal muscle. Insulin sensitivity was unaffected by diet. Plasma concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α was higher during the HPA diet. Lowering the habitually high PA intake by feeding the HOA diet resulted in lower secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α by PBMCs, as well as lower relative mRNA expression of cJun and NLRP3 in muscle. Principal components analysis of 156 total variables coupled to analysis of covariance indicated that the mechanistic pathway for the differential dietary effects on PBMCs involved changes in the PA/OA ratio of tissue lipids. Our results indicate that lowering the dietary and tissue lipid PA/OA ratio resulted in lower leukocyte production of proinflammatory cytokines and muscle expression of redox-sensitive genes, but the relevance to diabetes risk is uncertain.

  12. Proinflammatory cytokines inhibit secretion in rat bile duct epithelium.

    PubMed

    Spirlì, C; Nathanson, M H; Fiorotto, R; Duner, E; Denson, L A; Sanz, J M; Di Virgilio, F; Okolicsanyi, L; Casagrande, F; Strazzabosco, M

    2001-07-01

    Cholestatic disorders often are associated with portal inflammation, but whether or how inflammation contributes to cholestasis is unknown. Thus we studied the effects of proinflammatory cytokines on bile duct epithelia secretory mechanisms. Isolated bile duct units (IBDUs) were cultured with interleukin (IL)-6, interferon gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and IL-1 alone or in combination. Ductular secretion was measured using video-optical planimetry. Bicarbonate and Cl(-) transport were assessed microfluorimetric measuring pH(i) (BCECF) and [Cl(-)](i) transients (MEQ). Expression of Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchanger (AE-2), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), and the secretin receptor (SR) were assessed by ribonuclease protection assay. Cellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels were studied by enzymatic immunoassay. Paracellular permeability was assessed using fluorescein-labeled dextrans (FD) in cholangiocyte monolayers (NRC-1). Although not effective when given alone, each combination of IL-6, interferon gamma, IL-1, and TNF-alpha inhibited secretion in IBDU. Cytokines inhibited cAMP formation, AE-2 activity, and cyclic AMP-dependent Cl(-) efflux, but not that induced by purinergic agonists. AE-2 gene expression was unaffected by proinflammatory cytokines, whereas CFTR and SR expression was increased. In addition, paracellular transit of FD across NRC-1 monolayers was increased. Inflammatory cytokines inhibit cAMP-dependent fluid secretion in cholangiocytes and impair the barrier functions of biliary epithelia. These changes may represent the molecular mechanisms by which inflammation leads to ductular cholestasis in vivo.

  13. Replacement of dietary fish oil by vegetable oils affects humoral immunity and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines genes in gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata.

    PubMed

    Montero, D; Mathlouthi, F; Tort, L; Afonso, J M; Torrecillas, S; Fernández-Vaquero, A; Negrin, D; Izquierdo, M S

    2010-12-01

    Commercial gilthead sea bream feeds are highly energetic, fish oil traditionally being the main lipid source. But the decreased fish oil production together with the increased prices of this oil encourages its substitution by vegetable oils, imposing new nutritional habits to aquaculture species. Partial replacement of fish oil by vegetable oils in diets for marine species allows good feed utilization and growth but may affect fish health, since imbalances in dietary fatty acids may alter fish immunological status. The effect of dietary oils on different aspects of fish immune system has been reported for some species, but very little is known about the effect of dietary oils on immune-related genes expression in fish. Thus, the objective of this study was to elucidate the role of dietary oils on the expression of two pro-inflammatory cytokines, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) and Interleukine 1β (IL-1β) on intestine and head kidney after exposure to the bacterial pathogen Photobacterium damselae sp. piscicida. For that purpose, 5 iso-nitrogenous and iso-lipidic diets (45% crude protein, 22% crude lipid content) were formulated. Anchovy oil was the only lipid source used in the control diet (FO), but in the other diets, fish oil was totally (100%) or partially (70%) substituted by linseed (rich in n-3 fatty acids) or soybean (rich in n-6 fatty acids) (100L, 100S, 70L, 70S). Fish were fed experimental diets during 80 days and after this period were exposed to an experimental intestinal infection with the pathogen. Serum and tissue samples were obtained at pre-infection and after 1, 3 and 7 days of infection. RNA was extracted and cDNA was synthesized by reverse transcription from intestine and head kidney and the level expression of TNF-α and IL-1β were assayed by using quantitative real time PCR. The expression level of genes analysed was represented as relative value, using the comparative Ct method (2(-ΔΔCt)). Serum anti-bacterial activity was measured as

  14. Injection of phosphatidylcholine and deoxycholic acid regulates gene expression of lipolysis-related factors, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and hormones on mouse fat tissue.

    PubMed

    Won, Tae Joon; Nam, Yunsung; Lee, Ho Sung; Chung, Sujin; Lee, Jong Hyuk; Chung, Yoon Hee; Park, Eon Sub; Hwang, Kwang Woo; Jeong, Ji Hoon

    2013-10-01

    Injection of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and deoxycholic acid (DA) preparation is widely used as an alternative to liposuction for the reduction of subcutaneous fat. Nevertheless, its physiological effects and mechanism of action are not yet fully understood. In this report, PC and deoxycholic acid (DA) were respectively injected into adipose tissue. PC decreased tissue mass on day 7, but DA did not. On the other hand, a decrement of DNA mass was observed only in DA-injected tissue on day 7. Both PC and DA reduced the mRNA expression of adipose tissue hormones, such as adiponectin, leptin, and resistin. In lipolysis-related gene expression profiles, PC increased hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) transcription and decreased the expression other lipases, perilipin, and the lipogenic marker peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ); DA treatment diminished them all, including HSL. Meanwhile, the gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and a chemokine was greatly elevated in both PC-injected and DA-injected adipose tissue. Microscopic observation showed that PC induced lipolysis with mild PMN infiltration on day 7. However, DA treatment did not induce lipolysis but induced much amount of PMN infiltration. In conclusion, PC alone might induce lipolysis in adipose tissue, whereas DC alone might induce tissue damage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine gene expression profiles in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue depots of insulin-resistant and insulin-sensitive light breed horses.

    PubMed

    Burns, T A; Geor, R J; Mudge, M C; McCutcheon, L J; Hinchcliff, K W; Belknap, J K

    2010-01-01

    Insulin resistance has been associated with risk of laminitis in horses. Genes coding for proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines are expressed more in visceral adipose tissue than in subcutaneous adipose tissue of insulin-resistant (IR) humans and rodents. To investigate adipose depot-specific cytokine and chemokine gene expression in horses and its relationship to insulin sensitivity (SI). Eleven light breed mares. Animals were classified as IR (SI=0.58+/-0.31x10(-4) L/min/mU; n=5) or insulin sensitive (IS; SI=2.59+/-1.21x10(-4) L/min/mU; n=6) based on results of a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. Omental, retroperitoneal, and mesocolonic fat was collected by ventral midline celiotomy; incisional nuchal ligament and tail head adipose tissue biopsy specimens were collected concurrently. The expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in each depot was measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Data were analyzed by 2-way analysis of variance for repeated measures (P<.05). No differences in TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, PAI-1, or MCP-1 mRNA concentrations were noted between IR and IS groups for each depot. Concentrations of mRNA coding for IL-1beta (P=.0005) and IL-6 (P=.004) were significantly higher in nuchal ligament adipose tissue than in other depots. These data suggest that the nuchal ligament depot has unique biological behavior in the horse and is more likely to adopt an inflammatory phenotype than other depots examined. Visceral fat may not contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity-related disorders in the horse as in other species.

  16. CPU86017-RS attenuate hypoxia-induced testicular dysfunction in mice by normalizing androgen biosynthesis genes and pro-inflammatory cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guo-lin; Yu, Feng; Dai, De-zai; Cheng, Yu-si; Zhang, Can; Dai, Yin

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Downregulation of androgen biosynthesis genes StAR (steroidogenic acute regulatory) and 3β-HSD (3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) contributes to low testosterone levels in hypoxic mice and is possibly related to increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the testis. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of CPU86017-RS that block Ca2+ influx on hypoxia-induced testis insult in mice. Methods: Male ICR mice were divided into 5 groups: control group, hypoxia group, hypoxia group treated with nifedipine (10 mg/kg), hypoxia groups treated with CPU86017-RS (60 or 80 mg/kg). Hypoxia was induced by placing the mice in a chamber under 10%±0.5% O2 for 28 d (8 h per day). The mice were orally administered with drug in the last 14 d. At the end of experiment the testes of the mice were harvested. The mRNA and protein levels of StAR, 3β-HSD, connexin 43 (Cx43), matrix metalloprotease 9 (MMP9), endothelin receptor A (ETAR) and leptin receptor (OBRb) were analyzed using RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The malondialdehyde (MDA), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and acid phosphatase (ACP) levels were measured using biochemical kits. Serum testosterone concentration was measured with radioimmunoassay. Results: Hypoxia significantly increased the MDA level, and decreased the LDH, ACP and SDH activities in testes. Meanwhile, hypoxia induced significant downregulation of StAR and 3β-HSD in testes responsible for reduced testosterone biosynthesis. It decreased the expression of Cx43, and increased the expression of MMP9, ETAR and OBRb, leading to abnormal testis function and structure. These changes were effectively diminished by CPU86017-RS (80 mg/kg) or nifedipine (10 mg/kg). Conclusion: Low plasma testosterone level caused by hypoxia was due to downregulation of StAR and 3β-HSD genes, in association with an increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These changes can be alleviated by CPU86017-RS or

  17. Live and heat-killed Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG upregulate gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in 5-fluorouracil-pretreated Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shiuh-Bin; Shih, Hsin-Yu; Huang, Chih-Hung; Li, Li-Ting; Chen, Chia-Chun; Fang, Hsu-Wei

    2014-06-01

    This study investigates whether post-chemotherapeutic use of live and heat-killed Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG can modulate the expression of three pro-inflammatory cytokines in 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced intestinal mucositis in vitro. Live L. rhamnosus GG and heat-killed L. rhamnosus GG were observed using scanning electron microscopy. To establish the duration required for optimal expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and interleukin-12 (IL-12), 5 μM of 5-FU was selected to treat 10-day-old Caco-2 cells for 4, 6, 8, and 24 h. Caco-2 cells were treated with 5-FU (5 μM) for 4 h, followed by the administration of live L. rhamnosus GG (multiplicity of infection = 25), and heat-killed L. rhamnosus GG for 2 and 4 h. Finally, total cellular RNA was isolated to quantify mRNA expression of TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-12 using real-time PCR. The results demonstrated that heat-killed L. rhamnosus GG remained structurally intact with elongation. A biphasic upregulated expression of TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-12 was observed in 5-FU-treated Caco-2 cells at 4 and 24 h. Compared to non-L. rhamnosus GG controls in 5-FU-pretreated Caco-2 cells, a 2-h treatment of heat-killed L. rhamnosus GG significantly upregulated the MCP-1 expression (p < 0.05), and both live and heat-killed L. rhamnosus GG treatments lasting 4 h upregulated the TNF-α and MCP-1 expression (p < 0.05). Only live L. rhamnosus GG upregulated the IL-12 expression (p < 0.05). Post-chemotherapeutic use of live or heat-killed L. rhamnosus GG can upregulate the gene expression of 5-FU-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines in Caco-2 cells. Human intestinal epithelium may be vulnerable to the post-chemotherapeutic use of L. rhamnosus GG in 5-FU-induced mucositis that requires further in vivo studies for clarification.

  18. Rice Bran Protein Hydrolysates Improve Insulin Resistance and Decrease Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Gene Expression in Rats Fed a High Carbohydrate-High Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Boonloh, Kampeebhorn; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Kongyingyoes, Bunkerd; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Thawornchinsombut, Supawan; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan

    2015-08-03

    A high carbohydrate-high fat (HCHF) diet causes insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MS). Rice bran has been demonstrated to have anti-dyslipidemic and anti-atherogenic properties in an obese mouse model. In the present study, we investigated the beneficial effects of rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBP) in HCHF-induced MS rats. After 12 weeks on this diet, the HCHF-fed group was divided into four subgroups, which were orally administered RBP 100 or 500 mg/kg, pioglitazone 10 mg/kg, or tap water for a further 6 weeks. Compared with normal diet control group, the MS rats had elevated levels of blood glucose, lipid, insulin, and HOMA-IR. Treatment with RBP significantly alleviated all those changes and restored insulin sensitivity. Additionally, RBP treatment increased adiponectin and suppressed leptin levels. Expression of Ppar-γ mRNA in adipose tissues was significantly increased whereas expression of lipogenic genes Srebf1 and Fasn was significantly decreased. Levels of mRNA of proinflammatory cytokines, Il-6, Tnf-α, Nos-2 and Mcp-1 were significantly decreased. In conclusion, the present findings support the consumption of RBP as a functional food to improve insulin resistance and to prevent the development of metabolic syndrome.

  19. Genetic association of pro-inflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms with coronary artery disease (CAD) in a North Indian population.

    PubMed

    Mastana, Sarabjit; Prakash, Swayam; Akam, Elizabeth C; Kirby, Melissa; Lindley, Martin R; Sinha, Nakul; Agrawal, Suraksha

    2017-09-10

    Cytokines regulate the expression of inflammatory molecules which destabilize the atheromatic plaques. This study focuses on studying the association of inflammatory cytokine polymorphisms like TNF-α -308 (G/A), TNF-β +252 (A/G), IL-6 -174 (G/C) and IL-6 -597 (G/A), and IFN-ɣ +874 (T/A) with coronary artery disease (CAD) among north Indian patients. 143 CAD and 137 normal healthy controls were recruited in this study. DNA extraction was carried out by high salting out method. TNF-α -308 (G/A) (rs1800797), TNF-β +252 (A/G) (rs909253), IL-6 -174 (G/C) (rs1800795), IL6 -597 (G/A) (rs1800797), and IFN-ɣ +874 (T/A) (rs2430561) SNPs were genotyped by TaqMan®SNP genotyping assays. Different statistical analyses were performed using SPSS v 22.0 and SNPStats. p≤0.05 was considered significant. Significant risk association with CAD was found for TNF-α -308 (G/A) "A" allele (OR=5.6, CI 1.8-17.4, p=0.001) and TNF-β +252 (A/G) "G" allele (OR=3.4, CI=1.9-6.0, p<0.001). However, no statistical significance was found for IL-6 -174 (G/C) or IL6 -597 (G/A), with CAD. TNF-α -308 (G/A), and TNF-β +252 (A/G) haplotype "GG" "AG" increased CAD risk significantly (GG haplotype, adjusted OR=2.6, CI 1.4-5.0, p=0.003 and AG haplotype OR=8.5, CI 2.2-33.35, p=0.002) after adjustments for age, sex, TC, TG, HDL, APOB, smoking and diet. The present study found significant risk association for TNF-α -308 (G/A), and TNF-β +252 (A/G) genotypes, alleles and haplotypes, with CAD in a North Indian population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Targeting sortilin in immune cells reduces proinflammatory cytokines and atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Martin B.; Kjolby, Mads; Gunnersen, Stine; Larsen, Jakob V.; Palmfeldt, Johan; Falk, Erling; Nykjaer, Anders; Bentzon, Jacob F.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified a link between genetic variation at the human chromosomal locus 1p13.3 and coronary artery disease. The gene encoding sortilin (SORT1) has been implicated as the causative gene within the locus, as sortilin regulates hepatic lipoprotein metabolism. Here we demonstrated that sortilin also directly affects atherogenesis, independent of its regulatory role in lipoprotein metabolism. In a mouse model of atherosclerosis, deletion of Sort1 did not alter plasma cholesterol levels, but reduced the development of both early and late atherosclerotic lesions. We determined that sortilin is a high-affinity receptor for the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IFN-γ. Moreover, macrophages and Th1 cells (both of which mediate atherosclerotic plaque formation) lacking sortilin had reduced secretion of IL-6 and IFN-γ, but not of other measured cytokines. Transfer of sortilin-deficient BM into irradiated atherosclerotic mice reduced atherosclerosis and systemic markers of inflammation. Together, these data demonstrate that sortilin influences cytokine secretion and that targeting sortilin in immune cells attenuates inflammation and reduces atherosclerosis. PMID:25401472

  1. Comparative evaluation of immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR for measuring proinflammatory cytokines gene expression in livers of rats treated with gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Khan, Haseeb A; Ibrahim, Khalid E; Khan, Ayaat; Alrokayan, Salman H; Alhomida, Abdullah S; Lee, Yong-Kyu

    2016-08-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) possess promising applications in targeted drug delivery and controlled release of a variety of chemical agents. However, the immunocompatibility of GNPs is poorly understood. After exposure, GNPs preferentially tend to accumulate is liver, where they induce an acute phase proinflammatory response. We therefore compared the two techniques, immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR for measuring the protein and mRNA expressions of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in liver of rats after intraperitoneal injections (5μg/animal) of 10 and 50nm diameter GNPs for 1 and 5days. The results showed that both 10nm and 50nm GNPs induced an acute phase expression of proinflammatory cytokines that receded on day 5. The proinflammatory response on day 1 was comparatively more severe with 50nm GNPs than 10nm GNPs. A comparative evaluation between immunostaining and real-time PCR showed that the latter technique is more sensitive as it could detect the cytokines mRNA expression in control samples as well. This could be partly attributed to the amplification strategy used in real-time PCR and partly to the variations in the half lives of cytokines mRNA and their resulting proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Dataset of proinflammatory cytokine and cytokine receptor gene expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) measured using a novel GeXP multiplex, RT-PCR assay

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A GeXP multiplex, RT-PCR assay was developed and optimized that simultaneously measures expression of a suite of immune-relevant genes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), concentrating on tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 ligand/receptor systems and acute phase response genes. The dataset ...

  3. Effect of re-expansion after short-period lung collapse on pulmonary capillary permeability and pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression in isolated rabbit lungs.

    PubMed

    Funakoshi, T; Ishibe, Y; Okazaki, N; Miura, K; Liu, R; Nagai, S; Minami, Y

    2004-04-01

    Re-expansion pulmonary oedema is a rare complication caused by rapid re-expansion of a chronically collapsed lung. Several cases of pulmonary oedema associated with one-lung ventilation (OLV) have been reported recently. Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in pulmonary oedema fluid are suggested to play important roles in its development. Activation of cytokines after re-expansion of collapsed lung during OLV has not been thoroughly investigated. Here we investigated the effects of re-expansion of the collapsed lung on pulmonary oedema formation and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Lungs isolated from female white Japanese rabbits were perfused and divided into a basal (BAS) group (n=7, baseline measurement alone), a control (CONT) group (n=9, ventilated without lung collapse for 120 min) and an atelectasis (ATEL) group (n=9, lung collapsed for 55 min followed by re-expansion and ventilation for 65 min). Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and the coefficient of filtration (Kfc) were measured at baseline and 60 and 120 min. At the end of perfusion, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid/plasma protein ratio (B/P), wet/dry lung weight ratio (W/D) and mRNA expressions of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were determined. TNF-alpha and IL-1beta mRNA were significantly up-regulated in lungs of the ATEL group compared with BAS and CONT, though no significant differences were noted in PVR, Kfc, B/P and W/D within and between groups. MPO increased at 120 min in CONT and ATEL groups. Pro-inflammatory cytokines were up-regulated upon re-expansion and ventilation after short-period lung collapse, though no changes were noted in pulmonary capillary permeability.

  4. Proinflammatory cytokines induce amelotin transcription in human gingival fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Yohei; Takai, Hideki; Matsui, Sari; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Zhou, Liming; Kato, Ayako; Ganss, Bernhard; Ogata, Yorimasa

    2014-12-01

    Amelotin (AMTN) is a secreted protein transcribed predominantly during the maturation stage of enamel formation and localized in the junctional epithelium. We investigated differences in the levels of AMTN gene expression between non-inflamed gingiva and inflamed gingiva from patients with chronic periodontitis. Total RNAs were isolated from these tissues and their gene expression profiles were monitored by DNA microarray. The observed induction of AMTN mRNA in inflamed gingiva and cultured human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) was confirmed by real-time PCR. Transient transfection assays were performed using chimeric constructs of mouse AMTN gene promoter fragments linked to a luciferase reporter gene. Immunohistochemical localization of AMTN in inflamed and non-inflamed gingiva was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Among many differentially expressed genes, the level of AMTN mRNA was significantly increased in inflamed gingiva. Treatment of HGF with interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) induced the expression of AMTN mRNA, and increased the luciferase activities of the AMTN promoter constructs. AMTN protein was detected in inflamed gingival connective tissue and junctional epithelium. These findings demonstrate that proinflammatory cytokines induce AMTN gene expression in human gingival fibroblasts and suggest a role for AMTN in gingival inflammation.

  5. Proinflammatory cytokine levels in patients with conversion disorder.

    PubMed

    Tiyekli, Utkan; Calıyurt, Okan; Tiyekli, Nimet Dilek

    2013-06-01

    It was aimed to evaluate the relationship between proinflammatory cytokine levels and conversion disorder both commonly known as stress regulated. Baseline proinflammatory cytokine levels-[Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6)]-were evaluated with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 35 conversion disorder patients and 30 healthy controls. Possible changes in proinflammatory cytokine levels were evaluated again, after their acute phase in conversion disorder patients. Statistically significant decreased serum TNF-α levels were obtained in acute phase of conversion disorder. Those levels increased after acute conversion phase. There were no statistically significant difference observed between groups in serum IL-1β and (IL-6) levels. Stress associated with conversion disorder may suppress immune function in acute conversion phase and may have diagnostic and therapeutic value.

  6. Interleukin-33 acts as a pro-inflammatory cytokine and modulates its receptor gene expression in highly metastatic human pancreatic carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Schmieder, Annett; Multhoff, Gabriele; Radons, Jürgen

    2012-11-01

    Human pancreatic cancer is one of the most fatal of all solid tissue malignancies. Pancreatic inflammation plays a key role in the development of pancreatic malignancy mediated by pro-inflammatory signalling cascades. Despite advances in surgery and radiation oncology, no significant improvements in overall survival have yet been achieved. Recent investigations suggest a crucial role of interleukin-33 (IL-33), a novel IL-1 family cytokine, in the pathogenesis of chronic pancreatitis and possibly pancreatic cancer. However, the precise role of IL-33 in pancreatic carcinogenesis is poorly understood. As IL-33 mediates its effects via the heterodimeric ST2L/IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP) receptor complex, we investigated the influence of IL-33 alone, IL-33 combined with IL-1 and other inflammatory cytokines on IL-33 receptor/ligand mRNA expression and production of tumorigenic factors in the highly metastatic human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line Colo357. Our results demonstrated that IL-1 and IL-3 up-regulated IL-33 mRNA while IL-12 showed the opposite effect. We also detected a counter-regulatory effect of IL-33 and IL-1 on the mRNA expression of soluble IL-33 receptor ST2 and membrane-bound receptor ST2L. Furthermore, IL-33 and IL-1 acted synergistically in up-regulating secretion of pro-inflammatory IL-6. IL-33 alone stimulated spontaneous release of pro-angiogenic IL-8, but it did not affect IL-1-induced IL-8 secretion. IL-33/IL-1 effects on cytokine production appear to be mediated via NF-κB activation. These data argue for the pro-inflammatory role of IL-33 in Colo357 cells implying that IL-33 might act as a crucial mediator in inflammation-associated pancreatic carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of proinflammatory cytokines in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Fernanda Pedrotti; Cardoso, Taiane de Azevedo; Mondin, Thaíse Campos; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos; Silva, Ricardo; Jansen, Karen; Oses, Jean Pierre; Wiener, Carolina David

    2015-08-15

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating disorder and its pathophysiology is associated with deregulation of the immune system. We investigated the changes in circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines (specifically IL-6 and TNF-α) measured by the ELISA kit in two psychotherapeutic interventions for MDD: Narrative Cognitive Therapy (NCT) and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). This is a randomized clinical trial including 97 individuals (18 to 29years-old) with MDD. In CBT there was a significant difference in serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-α, therefore indicating that CBT was more effective than NCT on serum levels proinflammatory cytokines.

  8. Primary administration of Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC533 in weaning period suppresses the elevation of proinflammatory cytokines and CD86 gene expressions in skin lesions in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Ryo; Otsuka, Mai; Nishio, Ayako; Ushida, Kazunari

    2007-06-01

    The administration of probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been studied for its potential to prevent atopic dermatitis (AD). The objective of this study was to assess the inhibitory mechanism of a skin lesion by LAB using an experimental model that we previously demonstrated in NC/Nga mice. Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC533 (La1) was administered orally to the La1 group from 20 to 22 days after birth, while phosphate-buffered saline was given to the control group. After the induction of skin lesions in 6-week-old mice, the expression of genes supposedly involved in AD was evaluated. Gene expression of the proinflammatory cytokines [interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-12 and IL-23] was significantly enhanced in the lesional skin of the control group by the induction of the lesion, whereas gene expression of those in the La1 group was not elevated. Interestingly, expression of the costimulatory molecule CD86 showed a pattern similar to the expression of the cytokines in the lesional skin. Moreover, the La1 group showed a significantly lower gene expression of CD86 in Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes than the control group. The suppression of proinflammatory cytokines and CD86 by primary administration of La1 may significantly contribute to the inhibitory effect on the skin lesion.

  9. Polymorphisms of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes and the risk for acute suppurative or chronic nonsuppurative apical periodontitis in a Colombian population.

    PubMed

    Amaya, M P; Criado, L; Blanco, B; Gómez, M; Torres, O; Flórez, L; González, C I; Flórez, O

    2013-01-01

    To determine the association of functional single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-8 and interleukin-12B with the development of two clinical forms of apical periodontitis (AP): acute suppurative and chronic nonsuppurative. The study included 120 patients from Bucaramanga City, Colombia, 63 diagnosed with acute suppurative AP (ASAP) and 57 diagnosed with chronic nonsuppurative AP (CNAP). Genotyping for IL1B +3954 (rs1143634), IL8 / CXCL8 -251 (rs4073), IL12B +1188 (rs3212227) and TNFA -308 (rs1800629) was performed by the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphisms method. The statistical analysis was performed using STATA 10.0 and PLINK V1.07 software. Significant differences in the distribution of IL8 / CXCL8 -251 A allele (P adjusted = 0.041; OR adjusted = 0.41, CI adjusted = 0.31-0.97) and IL8 / CXCL -251 TT genotype (P adjusted = 0.04; OR adjusted = 2.24, CI adjusted = 1.04-4.84) were observed comparing patients diagnosed with ASAP and CNAP. No association was observed in genotype and allele distribution for other genetic polymorphisms analysed. This study provides molecular epidemiological evidence that suggests in the present cohort that IL8 / CXCL8 -251 T allele, which is associated with higher production of IL8/CXCL8, is also associated with a higher risk of developing acute suppurative form of AP, whereas IL8 / CXCL8 -251 A allele, which is associated with lower production of IL8/CXCL8, is associated with chronic nonsuppurative form of AP. This suggests a pivotal role for IL-8/CXCL8 in periapical disease because of its ability to induce chemotaxis and modulating the directed migration of neutrophils to the site of inflammation in response to microbial infection of pulp. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal.

  10. Complete artificial saliva alters expression of proinflammatory cytokines in human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Malpass, Gloria E; Arimilli, Subhashini; Prasad, Gaddamanugu L; Howlett, Allyn C

    2013-07-01

    Complete artificial saliva (CAS) is a saliva substitute often used as a vehicle for test articles, including smokeless tobacco products. In the course of a study employing normal adult human dermal fibroblasts (HDFa) as a model in vitro, we discovered that CAS as a vehicle introduced a significant change in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. To determine the effects of CAS on gene expression, real-time quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR gene array analysis was used. Results indicate that robust changes in the expression of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 8 (IL8) and the vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM1) occur within 5h of exposure to CAS. To determine whether CAS also alters cytokine release into the culture media, cytometric bead array assays for human inflammatory cytokines were performed. Analysis shows that CAS induced the release of IL8 and IL6. This study focused on determining which components in CAS were responsible for the proinflammatory response in HDFa. The following components were investigated: α-amylase, lysozyme, acid phosphatase, and urea. Results demonstrated that enzymatically active α-amylase induced gene expression for proinflammatory cytokines IL8, IL6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and IL1α and for VCAM1. Therefore, it is important to carefully evaluate the "vehicle effects" of CAS and its components in in vitro toxicology research.

  11. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and their epistatic interactions in genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, Lekshmy; Vellichirammal, Neetha N; Alex, Ann Mary; Nair, Chandrasekharan; Nair, Indu V; Banerjee, Moinak

    2016-05-13

    In schizophrenia, genetic background may provide a substrate for intrinsic maldevelopment of the brain through environmental influences, by recruiting neurotrophic factors and cytokines, to trigger the changes that lead to impaired neuronal functions. Cytokines being the key regulators of immune/inflammatory reactions are also known to influence the dopaminergic, noradrenergic, and serotonergic neurotransmission. Therefore, functional polymorphisms in cytokine genes may result in imbalances in the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production. We screened polymorphisms in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes using a case-control association study in a South Indian population. The role of allele, genotype, haplotype, and diplotypes of these cytokine genes and their epistatic interactions were assessed in contributing to the risk of developing schizophrenia. Meta-analysis for the reported associations was also monitored for global significance. The pro-inflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms in IL1Ars1800587, IL6rs1800796, TNFArs361525, and IFNGrs2069718 were associated with schizophrenia. The study also provides significant evidence for strong epistatic interactions among pro-inflammatory cytokine genes IL6 and IFNG in the development of schizophrenia. In silico analysis suggested that associated risk variants were indicative of altered transcriptional activity with higher production of IL1α, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-ɤ cytokines. Meta-analysis indicated heterogeneity among study population while IL1Ars1800587 was found to be globally significant. It is important to identify the nature of inflammatory response that can be amplified by the environment, to influence either Th1 response or Th2 response. The associated functional variants in the study are involved with increased expression resulting in higher production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1α, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ. The interaction of immunological stressors with these high producer alleles of

  12. Entada africana fraction CH2Cl2/MEOH 5% inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase and pro-inflammatory cytokines gene expression induced by lipopolysaccharide in microglia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Inflammatory response in the CNS mediated by microglia cells play an important role in host defense and is implicated in the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases. We investigated the capacity of Entada africana to protect microglia from inflammatory insults by exploring the effect of the CH2Cl2/MEOH 5% fraction (Ea5) on pro-inflammatory cytokines mRNA expression. Finally, we studied the effect of Ea5 on the inhibition of p38 MAPK Kinase. The results were compared to those obtained with Baicalin, a well reported anti-inflammatory flavonoid. Methods Barks from E. africana were harvested in 2010, in the west region of Cameroon. A crude extract was prepared using CH2Cl2/MEOH 1:1 V/V. The crude extract obtained was further fractionated by flash chromatography. A mouse microglia cell line (N9) was stimulated by LPS with or without different concentrations of Baicalin and Ea5. The release of NO was evaluated using the Griess method. The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines mRNA (TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6) and iNOS/NO were measured by RT- PCR. The inhibition of p38 MAPK Kinase was assessed using ELISA. Results We found that Ea5, as well as Baicalin inhibited LPS-induced NO production in a dose dependent manner. Ea5 was most active in term of NO inhibition (87.07%), in comparison to Baicalin (70.85%). The expression of TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6 and iNOS was strongly suppressed by Ea5 in microglia. Ea5 also inhibited the activity of p38MAPK Kinase, up to 30% for the concentrations tested, whereas a prominent inhibition was obtained with Baicalin. Conclusion These results suggest that E. africana may contain promising compounds useful for the treatment of diseases cause by over-activation of microglia such as Alzheimer disease and other neurological diseases. PMID:24089706

  13. [Pro-inflammatory serum cytokines in diabetic retinopathy].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Da Mota, Sergio Eustolio; Soto-Bahena, José Juan; Viveros-Sandoval, Martha Eva; Cardiel-Ríos, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines play an important role in diabetic retinopathy. There is conflicting evidence about their serum elevation in this condition and that they also may be possible serum inflammatory biomarkers of diabetic retinopathy. To evaluate the presence of serum pro-inflammatory cytokines and acute phase reactants in the serum of patients with and without diabetic retinopathy. Comparative case series with 36 patients divided into three groups were included: 12 patients with diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy (group 1), 12 diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy (group 2), and 12 healthy patients as a control group. Serum levels of the following pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured in all patients: TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. Pro-inflammatory biomarkers measurements were also performed, such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein. The levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were higher in group 1 (TNF-α: 19.4 ± 10.9 pg/ml, IL-6: 5.75 ± 7 pg/ml) compared to the other two groups, although the difference was statistically significant only in the case of TNF-α (group 1: 19.4 ± 10.9 pg/ml, group 2: 14 ± 4.3 pg/ml and control: 8.49 ± 3.69 pg/ml, p = 0.001). There were no differences among pro-inflammatory biomarkers such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C reactive protein. among the three groups (p > 0.05). Pro-- inflammatory serum cytokine levels were higher in the diabetes mellitus with diabetic retinopathy group. Larger studies are warranted to establish the real impact of this finding. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Acanthopanax senticosus Polysaccharide Supplementation on Growth Performance, Immunity, Blood Parameters and Expression of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines Genes in Challenged Weaned Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jie; Bian, Lianquan; Liu, Xianjun; Zhang, Fei; Zhang, Yiran; Yu, Ning

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effect of dietary Acanthopanax senticosus polysaccharide (ASPS) on growth performance, immunity, blood parameters and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in immunologically challenged piglets, an experiment employing 2×2 factorial arrangement concerning dietary ASPS treatment (0 or 800 mg/kg) and immunological challenge (lipopolysaccharide [LPS] or saline injection) was conducted with 64 crossbred piglets (weaned at 28 d of age, average initial body weight of 7.25±0.21 kg) assigned to two dietary ASPS treatments with 8 replicates of 4 pigs each. Half of the piglets of per dietary treatment were injected with LPS or saline on d 14. Blood samples were obtained at 3 h after immunological injection on d 14 and piglets were slaughtered to obtain spleen samples on d 21. Dietary ASPS did not affect average daily gain (ADG) (p = 0.634), average daily feed intake (ADFI) (p = 0.655), and gain:feed (p = 0.814) prior to LPS challenge. After LPS challenge, for LPS-challenged pigs those fed ASPS had higher ADG and ADFI than the non-supplemented group (p<0.05), and an interaction between LPS×ASPS was observed on the two indices (p<0.05). Dietary ASPS improved lymphocyte proliferation among saline-injected and LPS-injected pigs (p<0.05). Interaction between LPS×ASPS was also revealed on lymphocyte proliferation (p<0.05). Circulatory concentration of IgG was influenced neither by ASPS (p = 0.803) or LPS (p = 0.692), nor their interaction (p = 0.289). Plasma concentration and spleen mRNA expression of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were induced to increase (p<0.05) by LPS challenge, in contrast, these indices were decreased by dietary ASPS (p<0.05), and interactions were found on these cytokines (p<0.05). For LPS-challenged pigs, dietary ASPS also reduced the circulating concentration and spleen mRNA expression of IL-1β, IL-6 as well as TNF-α (p<0.05). The interaction between LPS×ASPS was also

  15. [Interleukins network in rheumatoid arthritis pathophysiology: beyond proinflammatory cytokines].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ramón, Silvia; López-Longo, Francisco Javier; Carreño, Luis

    2011-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by synovitis and progressive destruction of the joint cartilage and underlying bone, together with diverse extra-articular manifestations. Cytokines act as soluble effector mediators of the inflammatory process. Therapeutic neutralization with monoclonal antibodies against the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and interleukin 1 (IL-1) has shown a clear efficacy on inflammation and clinical manifestations of RA, although a percentage of patients do not respond. This review covers new relevant cytokines in the RA physiopathology and potential biomarkers of inflammation. The current challenge is to develop biomarkers that enable an earlier diagnosis, as well as prognostic markers and new therapeutic candidates. Combined administration of several of these cytokines could eventually address a personalized treatment approach for each patient.

  16. Nicotinamide is a potent inhibitor of proinflammatory cytokines

    PubMed Central

    UNGERSTEDT, J S; BLOMBÄCK, M; SöDERSTRÖM, T

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigates the modulating effects of nicotinamide on the cytokine response to endotoxin. In an in vitro model of endotoxaemia, human whole blood was stimulated for two hours with endotoxin at 1 ng/ml, achieving high levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNFα. When coincubating whole blood, endotoxin and the vitamin B3 derivative nicotinamide, all four cytokines measured were inhibited in a dose dependent manner. Inhibition was observed already at a nicotinamide concentration of 2 mmol/l. At a concentration of 40 mmol/l, the IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα responses were reduced by more than 95% and the IL-8 levels reduced by 85%. Endotoxin stimulation activates poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP), a nuclear DNA repair enzyme. It has been hypothesized that the anti-inflammatory properties of nicotinamide are due to PARP inhibition. In the present study, the endotoxin induced PARP activation was dose dependently decreased with 4–40 mmol/l nicotinamide or 4–100 µmol/l 6(5H) phenanthridinone, a specific PARP inhibitor. 6(5H)phenanthridinone however, failed to inhibit the proinflammatory cytokines. Thus, the mechanism behind the cytokine inhibition in our model seems not to be due to PARP inhibition. In conclusion, the present study could not only confirm previous reports of a down-regulatory effect on TNFα, but demonstrates that nicotinamide is a potent modulator of several proinflammatory cytokines. These findings demonstrate that nicotinamide has a potent immunomodulatory effect in vitro, and may have great potential for treatment of human inflammatory disease. PMID:12519385

  17. [Methotrexate as inducer of proinflammatory cytokines by epithelial cells].

    PubMed

    Morón-Medina, Alejandra; Viera, Ninoska; de Morales, Thaís Rojas; Alcocer, Sirley; Bohorquez, Dinorath

    2014-03-01

    Methotrexate (MTX), a drug commonly used in childhood cancer, has also been indicated as a cytotoxic agent of the oral mucosa, which can trigger the inflammatory process and increase the vascularity of epithelial tissues during the early stages of oral mucositis. The aim of this study was to determine the production of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta, IL-6 y TNF-alpha in epithelial cell cultures treated with MTX. Epithelial cells of human larynx, obtained from the cell line Hep-2, were cultured with different doses of MTX during different incubation times. The drug cytotoxicity was analyzed by means of the colorimetric test, which is based on the metabolic reduction of the bromide of 3-(4, 5-dimetiltiazol-2-ilo)-2,5-difeniltetrazol (MTT); and the proinflammatory cytokines production by the test enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cultures of HEp-2 cells showed increased production of proinflammatory cytokines at 72 hours with 0.32 microM of MTX. These results suggest that depending on the dose and exposure time, MTX alters the physiology of human epithelial cells, which may play an important role during the phases of initiation and development of oral mucositis.

  18. Proinflammatory cytokines and procalcitonin in children with acute pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Gürgöze, Metin Kaya; Akarsu, Saadet; Yilmaz, Erdal; Gödekmerdan, Ahmet; Akça, Zehra; Ciftçi, Ismail; Aygün, A Denizmen

    2005-10-01

    This prospective study, performed in 76 children with a urinary tract infection (UTI), evaluates the diagnostic value of procalcitonin (PCT) and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha) in children with acute pyelonephritis documented by dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy (DMSA). Renal parenchymal involvement was assessed by (99m )Tc-DMSA scintigraphy within 7 days of admission. The diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis was confirmed only in patients with reversible lesions on scintigraphy. According to DMSA scan results, patients were divided into two groups, lower UTI or acute pyelonephritis. In acute pyelonephritis, serum PCT level was found to be significantly higher than it is in the lower UTI (p <0.001). Also, significantly higher serum proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha) levels were detected in those with acute pyelonephritis than those with lower UTI (p <0.001). We conclude that both serum PCT and proinflammatory cytokine levels may be used as accurate markers for diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis.

  19. Rhesus macaque θ-defensin RTD-1 inhibits proinflammatory cytokine secretion and gene expression by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB and MAPK pathways

    PubMed Central

    Tongaonkar, Prasad; Trinh, Katie K.; Schaal, Justin B.; Tran, Dat; Gulko, Percio S.; Ouellette, André J.; Selsted, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    θ-Defensins are pleiotropic, macrocyclic peptides that are expressed uniquely in Old World monkeys. The peptides are potent, broad-spectrum microbicides that also modulate inflammatory responses in vitro and in animal models of viral infection and polymicrobial sepsis. θ-Defensins suppress proinflammatory cytokine secretion by leukocytes stimulated with diverse Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands. Studies were performed to delineate anti-inflammatory mechanisms of rhesus θ-defensin 1 (RTD-1), the most abundant θ-defensin isoform in macaque granulocytes. RTD-1 reduced the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-8 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human blood monocytes and THP-1 macrophages, and this was accompanied by inhibition of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Peptide inhibition of NF-κB activation occurred following stimulation of extracellular (TLRs 1/2 and 4) and intracellular (TLR9) receptors. Although RTD-1 did not inhibit MAPK in unstimulated cells, it induced phosphorylation of Akt in otherwise untreated monocytes and THP-1 cells. In the latter, this occurred within 10 min of RTD-1 treatment and produced a sustained elevation of phosphorylated Akt (pAkt) for at least 4 h. pAkt is a negative regulator of MAPK and NF-κB activation. RTD-1 inhibited IκBα degradation and p38 MAPK phosphorylation, and stimulated Akt phosphorylation in LPS-treated human primary monocytes and THP-1 macrophages. Specific inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) blocked RTD-1-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and reversed the suppression of NF-κB activation by the peptide. These studies indicate that the anti-inflammatory properties of θ-defensins are mediated by activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway and suppression of proinflammatory signals in immune-stimulated cells. PMID:26269197

  20. Suppression of proinflammatory cytokines in monocytes by a tetravalent guanylhydrazone

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    An overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines by activated macrophages/monocytes mediates the injurious sequelae of inflammation, septic shock, tissue injury, and cachexia. We recently synthesized a tetravalent guanylhydrazone compound (CNI-1493) that inhibits cytokine- inducible arginine transport and nitric oxide (NO) production in macrophages, and protects mice against lethal endotoxemia and carrageenan-induced inflammation. During these investigations we noticed that CNI-1493 effectively prevented lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- induced NO production, even when added in concentrations 10-fold less than required to competitively inhibit L-arginine uptake, suggesting that the suppressive effects of this guanylhydrazone compound might extend to other LPS-induced responses. Here, we report that CNI-1493 suppressed the LPS-stimulated production of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor [TNF], interleukins 1beta and 6, macrophage inflammatory proteins 1alpha and 1beta) from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Cytokine suppression was specific, in that CNI-1493 did not inhibit either the constitutive synthesis of transforming growth factor beta or the upregulation of major histocompatibility complex class II by interferon gamma (IFN-gamma). In contrast to the macrophage suppressive actions of dexamethasone, which are overridden in the presence of IFN-gamma, CNI-1493 retained its suppressive effects even in the presence of IFN-gamma. The mechanism of cytokine- suppressive action by CNI-1493 was independent of extracellular L- arginine content and NO production and is not restricted to induction by LPS. As a selective inhibitor of macrophage activation that prevents TNF production, this tetravalent guanylhydrazone could be useful in the development of cytokine-suppressive agents for the treatment of diseases mediated by overproduction of cytokines. PMID:8642296

  1. Glucosamine Downregulates the IL-1β-Induced Expression of Proinflammatory Cytokine Genes in Human Synovial MH7A Cells by O-GlcNAc Modification-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Ikegami, Takako; Sakamoto, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the major joint diseases, and the synovial inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of OA. Glucosamine (GlcN) is widely used as a dietary supplement for OA, and is expected to exert the antiinflammatory action in OA. However, the detailed mechanism for the antiinflammatory action of GlcN remains poorly understood. In this study, to elucidate the molecular mechanism involved in the GlcN-medicated regulation of synovial cell activation, we comprehensively analyzed the effect of GlcN on the gene expression using a human synovial cell line MH7A by DNA microarray. The results indicated that GlcN significantly downregulates the expression of 187 genes (≤1/1.5-fold) and upregulates the expression of 194 genes (≥1.5-fold) in IL-1β-stimulated MH7A cells. Interestingly, pathway analysis indicated that among the 10 pathways into which the GlcN-regulated genes are categorized, the 4 pathways are immune-related. Furthermore, GlcN suppressed the expression of proinflammatory cytokine genes (such as IL-6, IL-8, IL-24 and TNF-α genes). In addition, GlcN-mediated O-GlcNAc modification was involved in the downregulation of TNF-α and IL-8 genes but not IL-6 and IL-24 genes, based on the effects of alloxan, an O-GlcNAc transferase inhibitor. Thus, GlcN likely exerts an antiinflammatroy action in OA by suppressing the expression of proinflammatory cytokine genes in synovial MH7A cells by O-GlcNAc modification-dependent and -independent mechanisms. PMID:27776166

  2. Proinflammatory cytokines and their membrane-bound receptors are altered in the lymphocytes of schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ghanshyam N; Ren, Xinguo; Rizavi, Hooriyah S; Zhang, Hui

    2015-05-01

    Abnormalities of protein levels of proinflammatory cytokines and their soluble receptors have been reported in the plasma/serum of schizophrenia (SZ) patients. To examine if SZ is also associated with the abnormal gene expression of cytokines and their membrane-bound receptors, we studied mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines and their receptors in lymphocytes of SZ patients and normal control (NC) subjects. We determined the protein and mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines and mRNA expression of their receptors in lymphocytes from 30 SZ patients and 30 drug-free NC subjects. The subjects were diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. Protein levels of cytokines were determined by ELISA, and mRNA levels in lymphocytes were determined by the qPCR method. We found that the mRNA levels of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1R1, TNFR1, and TNFR2, but not IL-1β, IL-1R2, IL-1RA, IL-6R, or GP130 were significantly increased in lymphocytes of SZ patients compared with NC subjects. We also found that the protein expression of IL-6 and TNF-α, but not IL-1β, was also significantly increased in SZ patients compared with NC subjects. These studies suggest that in addition to the reported abnormalities of proinflammatory cytokines and their soluble receptors in the plasma of SZ patients, an abnormal gene expression of these cytokines and their membrane-bound receptors may be involved in the pathogenesis of SZ.

  3. Hemocyanins Stimulate Innate Immunity by Inducing Different Temporal Patterns of Proinflammatory Cytokine Expression in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Ta-Ying; Arancibia, Sergio; Born, Raimundo; Tampe, Ricardo; Villar, Javiera; Del Campo, Miguel; Manubens, Augusto

    2016-01-01

    Hemocyanins induce a potent Th1-dominant immune response with beneficial clinical outcomes when used as a carrier/adjuvant in vaccines and nonspecific immunostimulant in cancer. However, the mechanisms by which hemocyanins trigger innate immune responses, leading to beneficial adaptive immune responses, are unknown. This response is triggered by a proinflammatory signal from various components, of which macrophages are an essential part. To understand how these proteins influence macrophage response, we investigated the effects of mollusks hemocyanins with varying structural and immunological properties, including hemocyanins from Concholepas concholepas, Fissurella latimarginata, and Megathura crenulata (keyhole limpet hemocyanin), on cultures of peritoneal macrophages. Hemocyanins were phagocytosed and slowly processed. Analysis of this process showed differential gene expression along with protein levels of proinflammatory markers, including IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12p40, and TNF-α. An extended expression analysis of 84 cytokines during a 24-h period showed a robust proinflammatory response for F. latimarginata hemocyanin in comparison with keyhole limpet hemocyanin and C. concholepas hemocyanin, which was characterized by an increase in the transcript levels of M1 cytokines involved in leukocyte recruitment. These cytokine genes included chemokines (Cxcl1, Cxcl3, Cxcl5, Ccl2, and Ccl3), ILs (Il1b and Ifng), growth factors (Csf2 and Csf3), and TNF family members (Cd40lg). The protein levels of certain cytokines were increased. However, every hemocyanin maintains downregulated key M2 cytokine genes, including Il4 and Il5. Collectively, our data demonstrate that hemocyanins are able to trigger the release of proinflammatory factors with different patterns of cytokine expression, suggesting differential signaling pathways and transcriptional network mechanisms that lead to the activation of M1-polarized macrophages. PMID:27183578

  4. House dust mite major allergen Der f 1 enhances proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine gene expression in a cell line of canine epidermal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Shingo; Maeda, Sadatoshi; Shibata, Sanae; Chimura, Naoki; Fukata, Tsuneo

    2009-10-15

    House dust mite (HDM) allergens are the most common allergens involved in the induction of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity. Recently, epicutaneous sensitization with HDM allergens has been emphasized in the development of atopic dermatitis (AD); however, direct stimulation of canine keratinocytes by mite allergens has not been well investigated. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Der f 1, a major allergen of Dermatophagoides farinae, on cytokine and chemokine gene expression in a canine keratinocyte cell line, CPEK. CPEK constitutively expressed mRNA for TNF-alpha, IL-12p35, IL-18, GM-CSF, TGF-beta, IL-8/CXCL8, TARC/CCL17, CTACK/CCL27 and MEC/CCL28. Of all the cytokines and chemokines investigated in CPEK, transcription levels of GM-CSF, IL-8/CXCL8 and TNF-alpha mRNA were significantly enhanced by stimulation with Der f 1. The present results suggest that Der f 1 can directly augment inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production from keratinocytes, and may initiate allergic inflammation independently of Type-I hypersensitivity.

  5. Fusobacterium nucleatum-Induced Impairment of Autophagic Flux Enhances the Expression of Proinflammatory Cytokines via ROS in Caco-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yin-ping; Zhu, Pan; Fang, Yao; Zhang, Zhu-jun; Mao, Xu-hu; Li, Qian; Zeng, Dong-Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum) plays a critical role in gastrointestinal inflammation. However, the exact mechanism by which F. nucleatum contributes to inflammation is unclear. In the present study, it was revealed that F. nucleatum could induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Caco-2 colorectal) adenocarcinoma cells. Furthermore, ROS scavengers (NAC or Tiron) could decrease the production of proinflammatory cytokines during F. nucleatum infection. In addition, we observed that autophagy is impaired in Caco-2 cells after F. nucleatum infection. The production of proinflammatory cytokines and ROS induced by F. nucleatum was enhanced with either autophagy pharmacologic inhibitors (3-methyladenine, bafilomycin A1) or RNA interference in essential autophagy genes (ATG5 or ATG12) in Caco-2 cells. Taken together, these results indicate that F. nucleatum-induced impairment of autophagic flux enhances the expression of proinflammatory cytokines via ROS in Caco-2 Cells. PMID:27828984

  6. Tumour necrosis factor receptor trafficking dysfunction opens the TRAPS door to pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Mark D.; Chaudhry, Anupama; Nedjai, Belinda

    2011-01-01

    Cytokines are secreted from macrophages and other cells of the immune system in response to pathogens. Additionally, in autoinflammatory diseases cytokine secretion occurs in the absence of pathogenic stimuli. In the case of TRAPS [TNFR (tumour necrosis factor receptor)-associated periodic syndrome], inflammatory episodes result from mutations in the TNFRSF1A gene that encodes TNFR1. This work remains controversial, however, with at least three distinct separate mechanisms of receptor dysfunction having been proposed. Central to these hypotheses are the NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) and MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) families of transcriptional activators that are able to up-regulate expression of a number of genes, including pro-inflammatory cytokines. The present review examines each proposed mechanism of TNFR1 dysfunction, and addresses how these processes might ultimately impact upon cytokine secretion and disease pathophysiology. PMID:22115362

  7. Proinflammatory cytokines in injured rat brain following perinatal asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Maślińska, Danuta; Laure-Kamionowska, Milena; Kaliszek, Agnieszka; Makarewicz, Dorota

    2002-01-01

    In contrast to astrogliosis, which is common to injuries of the adult CNS, in the developing brain this process is minimal. Reasons postulated for this include the relative immaturity of the immune system and the consequent insufficient production of cytokines to evoke astrogliosis. To explore this hypothesis, the study was undertaken to detect the presence of some proinflammatory cytokines in the injured rat brain following perinatal asphyxia (ischaemia/hypoxia). The localisation of TNF-alpha, IL-15, IL-17 and IL-17 receptors was visualised by means of immunohistochemistry. In numerous neurones of the rat brain, the IL-17 appeared to be constitutively expressed. In the early period of inflammation the IL-15 was produced mainly by the blood cells penetrating the injured brain but later it was synthesised also by reactive astrocytes surrounding brain cysts and forming dense astrogliosis around necrotic brain regions. The direct effect on astrogliosis of other estimated cytokines seems to be negligible. All the results lead to the conclusion that from all cytokines identified in the injured immature rat brain the IL-15 plays the most important role during inflammatory response and participates in the gliosis of reactive astrocytes.

  8. Cytotoxicity of probiotics from Philippine commercial dairy products on cancer cells and the effect on expression of cfos and cjun early apoptotic-promoting genes and Interleukin-1 β and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α proinflammatory cytokine genes.

    PubMed

    Shyu, Peter T; Oyong, Glenn G; Cabrera, Esperanza C

    2014-01-01

    This study determined cytotoxicity of probiotic Lactobacillus spp. from Philippine dairy products on cancer cells and normal fibroblasts and their effects on expression of early apoptotic-promoting cfos, cjun and proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β, TNF-α genes. Cultures were from Yakult, Bear Brand Probiotic Drink, Nido3+ Powdered Milk. Filter-sterilized supernatants from cultures of Lactobacillus spp. were evaluated for cytotoxicity to colon cancer cells (HT-29 and HCT116), leukemia cells (THP-1), and normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDFn) using PrestoBlue. Bleomycin was the positive control. Absolute quantification of transcript levels was conducted using qRT-PCR. Cytotoxicity index profiles on HDFn, THP-1 of all probiotic supernatants and negative controls suggest nontoxicity to the cells when compared to bleomycin, whereas all probiotic supernatants were found to be cytotoxic to HT-29 and HCT-116 colon cancer cell lines. Expression of cfos, cjun transcripts was significantly upregulated in HT-29 and HCT116 cells treated with probiotic supernatants compared to untreated baseline levels (P < 0.05). Expression of IL-1β and TNF-α by lipopolysaccharide-treated macrophages was significantly downregulated in cells with probiotic supernatants compared to those exposed to MRS medium (P < 0.05). Results provide strong support for the role of Lactobacillus spp. studied in anticancer therapy and in prevention of inflammation that may act as precursor to carcinogenesis.

  9. Inflammatory Response to Burn Trauma: Nicotine Attenuates Proinflammatory Cytokine Levels

    PubMed Central

    Papst, S.; Reimers, K.; Stukenborg-Colsman, C.; Steinstraesser, L.; Vogt, P. M.; Kraft, T.; Niederbichler, A. D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The immune response to an inflammatory stimulus is balanced and orchestrated by stimulatory and inhibitory factors. After a thermal trauma, this balance is disturbed and an excessive immune reaction with increased production and release of proinflammatory cytokines results. The nicotine-stimulated anti-inflammatory reflex offsets this. The goal of this study was to verify that transdermal administration of nicotine downregulates proinflammatory cytokine release after burn trauma. Methods: A 30% total body surface area full-thickness rat burn model was used in Sprague Dawley rats (n = 35, male). The experimental animals were divided into a control group, a burn trauma group, a burn trauma group with additional nicotine treatment, and a sham + nicotine group with 5 experimental animals per group. The last 2 groups received a transdermal nicotine administration of 1.75 mg. The concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1 beta, and interleukin 6 were determined in homogenates of hearts, livers, and spleens 12 or 24 hours after burn trauma. Results: Experimental burn trauma resulted in a significant increase in cytokine levels in hearts, livers, and spleens. Nicotine treatment led to a decrease of the effect of the burn trauma with significantly lower concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1 beta, and interleukin 6 compared to the trauma group. Conclusions: This study confirms in a standardized burn model that stimulation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is involved in the regulation of effectory molecules of the immune response. Looking at the results of our study, further experiments designed to explore and evaluate the potency and mechanisms of the immunomodulating effects of this receptor system are warranted. PMID:25671045

  10. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Hyperbaric Oxygenation during DSS-Induced Colitis in BALB/c Mice Include Changes in Gene Expression of HIF-1α, Proinflammatory Cytokines, and Antioxidative Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitrogen species have an indispensable role in regulating cell signalling pathways, including transcriptional control via hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). Hyperbaric oxygenation treatment (HBO2) increases tissue oxygen content and leads to enhanced ROS production. In the present study DSS-induced colitis has been employed in BALB/c mice as an experimental model of gut mucosa inflammation to investigate the effects of HBO2 on HIF-1α, antioxidative enzyme, and proinflammatory cytokine genes during the colonic inflammation. Here we report that HBO2 significantly reduces severity of DSS-induced colitis, as evidenced by the clinical features, histological assessment, impaired immune cell expansion and mobilization, and reversal of IL-1β, IL-2, and IL-6 gene expression. Gene expression and antioxidative enzyme activity were changed by the HBO2 and the inflammatory microenvironment in the gut mucosa. Strong correlation of HIF-1α mRNA level to GPx1, SOD1, and IL-6 mRNA expression suggests involvement of HIF-1α in transcriptional regulation of these genes during colonic inflammation and HBO2. This is further confirmed by a strong correlation of HIF-1α with known target genes VEGF and PGK1. Results demonstrate that HBO2 has an anti-inflammatory effect in DSS-induced colitis in mice, and this effect is at least partly dependent on expression of HIF-1α and antioxidative genes. PMID:27656047

  11. Indole derivatives inhibit hepatitis C virus replication through induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Lee, S; Jin, G; Kim, D; Son, S; Lee, K; Lee, C

    2015-03-01

    Previously, we discovered a series of indole derivatives as a new class of hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication inhibitors by using a target-free chemical genetic strategy. Through a structure-activity relationship study, the compound 12e was identified as the most potent inhibitor of this class (EC50 = 1.1 μmol/l) with minimal cytotoxicity (CC50 = 61.8 μmol/l). In order to gain insight into its detailed antiviral mechanism of action, we performed PCR array analyses and found that 12e was able to activate transcription of a number of pro-inflammatory as well as antiviral cytokine genes including CXCL-8, IL-1α, TNF-α, IL-3, IRAK-1, and DDX58. Their induction by 12e was verified by individual RT-PCR analyses. In addition, 12e was found to stimulate secretion of soluble factors with anti-HCV replication activity. Among the 12e-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines, CXCL-8 showed a strong positive correlation between its transcriptional activation and antiviral potency. Interestingly, a recombinant CXCL-8 protein also reduced HCV replication, though only moderately. In conclusion, we found a novel mode of action of indole derivatives in inhibiting HCV replication, particularly the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  12. Circulating cytokines reflect the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in atherosclerotic plaques.

    PubMed

    Edsfeldt, Andreas; Grufman, Helena; Asciutto, Giuseppe; Nitulescu, Mihaela; Persson, Ana; Nilsson, Marie; Nilsson, Jan; Gonçalves, Isabel

    2015-08-01

    Inflammation is a key factor in the development of plaque rupture and acute cardiovascular events. Although imaging techniques can be used to identify vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques, we are lacking non-invasive methods, such as plasma markers of plaque inflammation that could help to identify presence of vulnerable plaques. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether increased plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines reflects inflammatory activity within atherosclerotic plaques. Cytokines were measured using Luminex immunoassay in 200 homogenized plaque extracts and plasma, obtained from 197 subjects undergoing carotid surgery. Plasma levels of macrophage inflammatory protein-1β (MIP-1β), tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α) and fractalkine correlated significantly, not only with plaque levels of the same cytokines but also with the abundance of several pro-inflammatory and atherogenic cytokines assessed in plaque tissue. High plasma levels (upper tertile) of MIP-1β, TNF-α and fractalkine identified the presence of a plaque with high inflammation (above median of a score based on the plaque content of MIP-1β, TNF-α, interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and fractalkine) with a sensitivity between 65 and 67% and a specificity between 78 and 83%. Furthermore, this study shows that high plasma levels of MIP-1β, TNF-α and fractalkine predict future transient ischemic attacks. Our findings show that the plasma levels of MIP-1β, TNF-α and fractalkine reflect the levels of several pro-atherogenic cytokines in plaque tissue and might be possible plasma markers for a vulnerable atherosclerotic disease. We thereby propose that these cytokines can be used as surrogate markers for the identification of patients with high-risk plaques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Anti- and proinflammatory cytokine gene polymorphism and genetic predisposition: association with smoking, tumor stage and grade, and bacillus Calmette-Guérin immunotherapy in bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Ahirwar, Dinesh; Kesarwani, Pravin; Manchanda, Parmeet Kaur; Mandhani, Anil; Mittal, Rama Devi

    2008-07-01

    Cytokines mediate many immune and inflammatory responses contributing to tumorigenesis. The present study evaluated polymorphisms of IL4, IL6, and TNF (previously TNFA) genes influencing risk in development of transitional cell carcinoma of bladder and recurrence after bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy. The study included 136 unrelated histopathologically confirmed cases and 200 population-based controls. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral leukocytes and genotyped for polymorphism in IL4 intron 3, with point mutations identified by amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR) in IL6-174 G/C and by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis in TNF-308 G/A. The IL6 variant C/C exhibited significant association with bladder cancer risk (odds ratio OR = 2.811, P = 0.004), but IL4 and TNF genetic variants did not. Significant association was observed for IL4 (B1/B2+B2/B2) with high-grade or late-stage tumor for TaG3+T1 and T2+ (OR = 5.950, and 6.342 respectively) and with smoking (P = 0.004, OR = 4.202). Low recurrence risk was observed in BCG-treated patients carrying C/C genotype of IL6 (hazard ratio = 0.298, P = 0.03), and also higher recurrence-free survival (log rank P = 0.021). TNF and IL4 demonstrated no association of bladder cancer risk and BCG therapy. The low-producing variant C/C of IL6 may be a risk factor for bladder cancer, whereas high-producing genotypes of IL4 (B1/B2+B2/B2) may predispose to higher risk in patients with high-grade or late-stage tumor and smoking habits. The low-producing C/C IL6 genotype, which favors Th1 response, may be a beneficial prognostic indicator for treatment and survival of BCG-treated patients.

  14. IL-37 ameliorates the inflammatory process in psoriasis by suppressing proinflammatory cytokine production.

    PubMed

    Teng, Xiu; Hu, Zhonglan; Wei, Xiaoqiong; Wang, Zhen; Guan, Ting; Liu, Ning; Liu, Xiao; Ye, Ning; Deng, Guohua; Luo, Can; Huang, Nongyu; Sun, Changyan; Xu, Minyan; Zhou, Xikun; Deng, Hongxin; Edwards, Carl Keith; Chen, Xiancheng; Wang, Xiaoxia; Cui, Kaijun; Wei, Yuquan; Li, Jiong

    2014-02-15

    IL-37 is a potent inhibitor of innate immunity by shifting the cytokine equilibrium away from excessive inflammation. Psoriasis is thought to be initiated by abnormal interactions between the cutaneous keratinocytes and systemic immune cells, triggering keratinocyte hyperproliferation. In the current study, we assessed IL-37 in two well-known psoriasis models: a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) and the keratin 14 VEGF-A-transgenic mouse model. First, we used the HaCaT cell line, which was transiently transfected with an overexpressing IL-37 vector, and tested the effect of IL-37 on these cells using a mixture of five proinflammatory cytokines. IL-37 was effective in suppressing the production of CXCL8, IL-6, and S100A7, which were highly upregulated by the mixture of five proinflammatory cytokines. Keratin 14 VEGF-A-transgenic mice were treated with plasmid coding human IL-37 sequence-formulated cationic liposomes, and we observed potent immunosuppressive effects over the 18-d period. In this model, we observed reduced systemic IL-10 levels, local IFN-γ gene transcripts, as well as mild mast cell infiltration into the psoriatic lesions of the mice. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that IL-37 was expressed by effector memory T cells, as well as macrophages, in human psoriatic plaques. In conclusion, our studies strongly indicate that IL-37 plays a potent immunosuppressive role in the pathogenesis of both experimental psoriasis models in vitro and in vivo by downregulating proinflammatory cytokines. Importantly, our findings highlight new therapeutic strategies that can be designed to use this immunosuppressive anti-inflammatory cytokine in psoriasis and other inflammatory cutaneous diseases.

  15. Pro-inflammatory cytokines: Useful markers for the diagnosis of canine mammary tumours?

    PubMed

    Andaluz, Ana; Yeste, Marc; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E; Rigau, Teresa; García, Félix; Rivera del Álamo, Maria Montserrat

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the expression of 60 pro-inflammatory cytokines as possible markers of malignancy in canine mammary tumours using a human cytokine antibody array. The cytokines were grouped into two different categories: (1) cytokines in which expression indicated the presence of a mammary tumour and (2) cytokines in which expression differentiated between simple mammary adenoma, tubulopapillary carcinoma or complex carcinoma. These data suggest that specific pro-inflammatory cytokines could be useful as tools for the diagnosis of canine mammary tumours. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The proinflammatory cytokine-induced IRG1 protein associates with mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Degrandi, Daniel; Hoffmann, Reinhard; Beuter-Gunia, Cornelia; Pfeffer, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) are essential cytokines for successful clearance of microbial infections. Activation of macrophages by synergistic effects of these cytokines leads to induction of antimicrobial effector systems like reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen intermediates. Strikingly, IFN-gammaR(-/-) and TNFRp55(-/-) mice are considerably more susceptible to infections than inducible nitric oxide synthase(-/-) and p47phox(-/-) mice. Thus we applied transcriptome-profiling studies to identify genes synergistically upregulated by IFN-gamma and TNF in macrophages which are potentially involved in the defense against intracellular pathogens. From a total of 234 regulated genes we found 35 genes that were upregulated by combined effects of IFN-gamma and TNF and were at least 2-fold induced. The majority of these genes are involved in signal transduction and transcriptional regulation. However, we found several genes were poorly characterized with regard to immunological functions. As a prototypic TNF- and IFN-gamma-coregulated gene we characterized the expression and the subcellular localization of immunoresponsive gene 1 (IRG1) in murine macrophages. IRG1 is highly upregulated in murine ANA-1 macrophages by several proinflammatory cytokines and Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists, as well as in spleen and lung of Listeria monocytogenes or Toxoplasma gondii infected mice, respectively. Furthermore, this study identifies 35 genes that constitute the IFN-gamma/TNF-triggered effector program in innate immunity.

  17. The Role of Proinflammatory Cytokine Interleukin-18 in Radiation Injury

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Mang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Massive radiation-induced inflammatory factors released from injured cells may cause innate and acquired immune reactions that can further result in stress response signal activity-induced local and systemic damage. IL‐1 family members IL‐1β, IL‐18, and IL‐33 play key roles in inflammatory and immune responses and have been recognized to have significant influences on the pathogenesis of diseases. IL‐1β, IL‐18, and IL‐33 share similarities of cytokine biology, but differences exist in signaling pathways. A key component of the inflammatory reaction is the inflammasome, which is a caspase‐1‐containing multiprotein oligomer. Pathological stimuli such as radiation can induce inflammasome and caspase‐1 activation, and subsequently cause maturation (activation) of pro-forms of IL‐1 and IL‐18 upon caspase‐1 cleavage. This caspase‐1 dependent and IL‐1 and IL‐18 associated cell damage is defined as pyroptosis. Activated IL‐1 and IL‐18 as proinflammatory cytokines drive pathology at different immune and inflammatory disorders through Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. While the mechanisms of IL‐1β-induced pathophysiology of diseases have been well studied, IL‐18 has received less attention. The author recently reported that gamma radiation highly increased IL‐1β, IL‐18 and IL‐33 expression in mouse thymus, spleen and/or bone marrow cells; also circulating IL‐18 can be used as a radiation biomarker to track radiation injury in mice, minipigs, and nonhuman primates. This mini-review focuses on the role of IL‐18 in response to gamma radiation-induced injury. PMID:27356067

  18. Postoperative pain management and proinflammatory cytokines: animal and human studies.

    PubMed

    Shavit, Yehuda; Fridel, Keren; Beilin, Benzion

    2006-12-01

    The postoperative period is associated with neuroendocrine, metabolic, and immune alterations, which are the combined result of tissue damage, anesthesia, postoperative pain, and psychological stress. Limited evidence indicates that pain management in the postoperative period can affect the outcome of the surgery, reducing cardiac, pulmonary, and metabolic complications. Recent evidence indicates that pain and immune factors, especially proinflammatory cytokines, mutually interact and influence each other. A series of animal studies demonstrates that effective preemptive analgesia improved postoperative recovery, and this effect was enhanced by coadministration of IL-1ra together with the preemptive analgesics. Furthermore, preemptive analgesia attenuated surgery-induced PGE(2) production in the amygdala and the activation of the HPA axis. IL-1 signaling is required for the production of amygdala PGE(2) in response to surgical stress, and may thus affect the physiological and psychological aspects of surgical stress. These reports suggest that short-term effective analgesia can have long-lasting beneficial effects on surgery recovery. They further suggest that IL-1 blockade should be considered in the clinical management of pain associated with peripheral or nerve injury. Another series of human studies describes an interaction between the effectiveness of postoperative pain relief and surgery-associated immune alterations: In three separate studies, the more effective pain management technique was associated with diminished surgery-induced immune alterations, especially diminished elevation of IL-1. Reduced elevation of postoperative IL-1 and effective pain relief may both contribute to an attenuated illness response and a better surgery outcome.

  19. Epigenetic synergies between biotin and folate in the regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and repeats.

    PubMed

    Xue, J; Zempleni, J

    2013-11-01

    The protein biotin ligase, holocarboxylase synthetase (HLCS), is a chromatin protein that interacts physically with the DNA methyltransferase DNMT1, the methylated cytosine-binding protein MeCP2 and the histone H3 K9-methyltransferase EHMT1, all of which participate in folate-dependent gene repression. Here we tested the hypothesis that biotin and folate synergize in the repression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and long-terminal repeats (LTRs), mediated by interactions between HLCS and other chromatin proteins. Biotin and folate supplementation could compensate for each other's deficiency in the repression of LTRs in Jurkat and U937 cells. For example, when biotin-deficient Jurkat cells were supplemented with folate, the expression of LTRs decreased by >70%. Epigenetic synergies were more complex in the regulation of cytokines compared with LTRs. For example, the abundance of TNF-α was 100% greater in folate- and biotin-supplemented U937 cells compared with biotin-deficient and folate-supplemented cells. The NF-κB inhibitor curcumin abrogated the effects of folate and biotin in cytokine regulation, suggesting that transcription factor signalling adds an extra layer of complexity to the regulation of cytokine genes by epigenetic phenomena. We conclude that biotin and folate synergize in the repression of LTRs and that these interactions are probably mediated by HLCS-dependent epigenetic mechanisms. In contrast, synergies between biotin and folate in the regulation of cytokines need to be interpreted in the context of transcription factor signalling.

  20. The novel chicken interleukin 26 protein is overexpressed in T cells and induces proinflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Truong, Anh Duc; Park, Boyeong; Ban, Jihye; Hong, Yeong Ho

    2016-06-16

    In the present study, we describe the cloning and functional characterization of chicken interleukin 26 (ChIL-26). ChIL-26, a member of the IL-10 cytokine family, induces the production of proinflammatory cytokines by T cells. The ChIL-26 cDNA encodes an 82-amino-acid protein whose amino acid sequence has 22.63, 46.31 and 43.15% homology with human IL-26, pig IL-26 and canary IL-26, respectively. ChIL-26 signals through a heterodimeric receptor complex composed of the IL-20R1 and IL-10R2 chains, which are expressed primarily in the CU91 T cell line as well as CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Recombinant ChIL-26 protein induced Th1 cytokines (IL-16 and IFN-γ), Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10), Th17 cytokines (IL-17A, IL-17D, and IL-17F), and chemokine transcripts (mainly CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL20 and CXCL13) in the CU91 T cell line and in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, however IL-18 was not expressed in the CU91 T cell line. Taken together, the data demonstrates that T cells express the functional ChIL-26 receptor complex and that ChIL-26 modulates T cell proliferation and proinflammatory gene expression. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of cloned ChIL-26. We evaluated its functional roles, particularly in the pathogenic costimulation of T cells, which may be significantly associated with the induction of cytokines.

  1. Diclofenac enhances proinflammatory cytokine-induced nitric oxide production through NF-{kappa}B signaling in cultured astrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kakita, Hiroki; Aoyama, Mineyoshi Hussein, Mohamed Hamed; Kato, Shin; Suzuki, Satoshi; Ito, Tetsuya; Togari, Hajime; Asai, Kiyofumi

    2009-07-01

    Recently, the number of reports of encephalitis/encephalopathy associated with influenza virus has increased. In addition, the use of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, diclofenac sodium (DCF), is associated with a significant increase in the mortality rate of influenza-associated encephalopathy. Activated astrocytes are a source of nitric oxide (NO), which is largely produced by inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in response to proinflammatory cytokines. Therefore, we investigated whether DCF enhances nitric oxide production in astrocytes stimulated with proinflammatory cytokines. We stimulated cultured rat astrocytes with three cytokines, interleukin-1{beta}, tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} and interferon-{gamma}, and then treated the astrocytes with DCF or acetaminophen (N-acetyl-p-aminophenol: APAP). iNOS and NO production in astrocyte cultures were induced by proinflammatory cytokines. The addition of DCF augmented NO production, but the addition of APAP did not. NF-{kappa}B inhibitors SN50 and MG132 inhibited iNOS gene expression in cytokine-stimulated astrocytes with or without DCF. Similarly, NF-{kappa}B p65 Stealth small interfering RNA suppressed iNOS gene expression in cytokine-stimulated astrocytes with or without DCF. LDH activity and DAPI staining showed that DCF induces cell damage in cytokine-stimulated astrocytes. An iNOS inhibitor, L-NMMA, inhibited the cytokine- and DCF-induced cell damage. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that iNOS and NO are induced in astrocyte cultures by proinflammatory cytokines. Addition of DCF further augments NO production. This effect is mediated via NF-{kappa}B signaling and leads to cell damage. The enhancement of DCF on NO production may explain the significant increase in the mortality rate of influenza-associated encephalopathy in patients treated with DCF.

  2. Ex vivo and in vitro production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in Blau syndrome.

    PubMed

    Galozzi, P; Negm, O; Greco, E; Alkhattabi, N; Gava, A; Sfriso, P; Fairclough, L; Todd, I; Tighe, P; Punzi, L

    2015-03-31

    The objective was to study both ex vivo and in vitro secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in patients affected by Blau syndrome (BS) and carrying p.E383K mutation in the CARD15/NOD2 gene associated with the disease. For ex vivo studies, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), serum from three patients and healthy controls have been collected. PBMCs have been cultured in the presence or absence of inflammatory enhancers, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and muramyl dipeptide (MDP). The levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ were assayed by either immunoassay or array-based system. For in vitro studies, different constructs were created cloning human wild-type and p.E383K-mutated NOD2 cDNA into the expression vector pCMV-Tag2c. HEK293 cell lines were stably transfected, cultured with or without MDP and IL-8 level was assayed in their surnatants. Statistical analysis in both studies was performed using non-parametric tests. Both ex vivo and in vitro studies have not identified a significant increase in secretion of the analyzed proinflammatory cytokines. p.E383K-mutated NOD2 transfected cells express low level of IL-8. The ex vivo basal level results from both serum and PBMCs surnatants present similar levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and IFN-γ in patients and controls. The presence of the stimulant agents (LPS and MDP), either individual or paired, does not lead to significant increases in all cytokines concentrations in patients compared to controls. Taken together, the ex vivo and in vitro data suggest that there is not a primary mediation of IL-1β and other pro-inflammatory cytokines in BS patients carrying p.E383K.

  3. Differential gene expression of proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines in lungs of ascites-resistant and -susceptible broiler chickens following intravenous cellulose microparticle injection.

    PubMed

    Hamal, Krishna R; Wideman, Robert F; Anthony, Nicholas B; Erf, Gisela F

    2010-02-15

    Intravenous injection of microparticles (MPs) is a tool to reveal susceptibility to pulmonary hypertension (PH) syndrome (PHS, ascites) in broilers. After injection MPs get lodged in pulmonary arterioles and cause localized inflammation. To examine the expression of chemokines/cytokines during the MP-induced pulmonary inflammatory response, lungs were collected from 4-week-old broilers (6/line/time point) from the PHS-resistant (RES) and -susceptible (SUS) broilers before (0h) and after (2, 6, 12, 24, and 48h) MP injection and analyzed using quantitative RT-PCR. In both lines, expression of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, IL-8, and K60 increased from 0 to 6h, reached peak levels at 6 and 12h, and decreased thereafter, whereas IL-4 and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) expression remained elevated past 12h. Lungs from the RES line broilers had higher expression (P<0.05) of IL-1beta and IL-6 at 2, 6, and 12h; higher IL-8 at 6 and 12h; higher K60 at 6, 12, and 24h; higher IL-4 at 12, 24, and 48h and higher IFN-gamma expression at 6 and 48h post-MP injection than SUS line broilers. Higher expression of chemokines/cytokines in RES compared to SUS line lungs may explain the ability of RES line broilers to effectively counteract the MP-induced PH and resolve the vascular occlusion.

  4. Pro-inflammatory cytokine predicts reduced rejection of unfair financial offers.

    PubMed

    Ohira, Hideki; Osumi, Takahiro; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Yamakawa, Kaori

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine one of biological correlates, pro-inflammatory cytokine, in rejection of unfair financial offers in the Ultimatum Game (UG), where the division of a sum of money is proposed and the player can accept or reject this offer. Nineteen participants played 20 trials of the UG as responders, and they were proposed unfair offers in a half of the trials. Baseline levels of several pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, subjective happiness, and depression of them were measured. Participants with higher levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-6 rejected fewer unfair offers. This effect of IL-6 levels on decision-making was independent from other pro-inflammatory cytokines, anti-inflammatory cytokines, subjective happiness, and depression. These results suggested that chronic higher levels of IL-6 might affect functions of neural regions related to decision making, and thus can modulate rejection of unfair offers.

  5. Panax ginseng induces production of proinflammatory cytokines via toll-like receptor.

    PubMed

    Nakaya, Taka-Aki; Kita, Masakazu; Kuriyama, Hiroko; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Imanishi, Jiro

    2004-02-01

    Ginseng radix, the dried root of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, has been shown to enhance the ability to resist microbial infections. Proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) are produced by macrophages treated with ginseng radix extract (GRE) in vitro as well as in vivo. However, the molecular mechanisms of the production are still not clear. In the present study, we demonstrated that production of TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma was induced by GRE in spleen cells and peritoneal macrophages from C3H/HeN mice but was impaired in C3H/HeJ mice carrying a defective toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) gene. In addition to these cytokines, the expression of IFN-beta and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNAs was also increased in GRE-treated C3H/HeN spleen cells. We investigated the possibility that GRE contains a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-like component. However, GRE induced production of TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma in the presence of polymyxin B, an LPS inhibitor. Furthermore, a Limulus amebocyte lysate assay showed that the endotoxin content of GRE was below the threshold level of 1 ng/ml LPS. These results suggest that GRE contains a non-LPS agent that enhances innate immunity through production of proinflammatory cytokines via TLR-4.

  6. Immunostimulatory oligonucleotides inhibit colonic proinflammatory cytokine production in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Rachmilewitz, Daniel; Karmeli, Fanny; Shteingart, Shimon; Lee, Jongdae; Takabayashi, Kenji; Raz, Eyal

    2006-05-01

    We previously showed that Toll-like receptor-9 (TLR-9) ligands ameliorate experimental colitis. In this study, we evaluated the effect of TLR-9 ligands on the generation of proinflammatory cytokines by human colonic mucosa. Colonoscopic biopsies were obtained from patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC) and from normal subjects. The tissue was organ cultured for 24 hours in the presence or absence of different types of immunostimulatory (ISS) (CpG)-oligonucleotides (ODNs). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) levels in the medium were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In active UC, hTNF-alpha and hIL-lbeta generation by inflamed colonic mucosa is 7- and 3-fold higher, respectively, than their generation by normal mucosa. Class B CpG ODNs inhibited colonic TNF-alpha and IL-1beta generation by 50%, whereas class A or C ODNs had a partial or no effect, respectively. A novel class of ODNs that is based on multiple TCG repeats was as effective as class B ODNs. This inhibition resulted from the transcriptional suppression of IL-1beta that occurred within the first 2 hours after ISS-ODN incubation. The addition of chloroquine abolished the inhibitory effects of ISS-ODNs on colonic TNF-alpha and IL-1beta generation. Only certain classes of ISS-ODNs inhibit the enhanced TNF-alpha and IL-1beta generated ex vivo by inflamed colonic mucosa of patients with UC. The effect of ISS-ODNs is mediated by triggering of TLR-9. These results suggest a potential therapeutic value for ISS-ODNs in UC.

  7. Diclofenac enhances proinflammatory cytokine-induced phagocytosis of cultured microglia via nitric oxide production

    SciTech Connect

    Kakita, Hiroki; Aoyama, Mineyoshi; Nagaya, Yoshiaki; Asai, Hayato; Hussein, Mohamed Hamed; Suzuki, Mieko; Kato, Shin; Saitoh, Shinji; Asai, Kiyofumi

    2013-04-15

    Influenza-associated encephalopathy (IAE) is a central nervous system complication with a high mortality rate, which is increased significantly by the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium (DCF). In the present study, we investigated the effects of DCF on brain immune cells (i.e. microglia) stimulated with three proinflammatory cytokines, namely tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interferon-γ. Similar to previous findings in astrocytes, all three cytokines induced the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), as well as NO production, in microglia. The addition of DCF to the culture system augmented iNOS expression and NO production. Immunocytochemical analysis and the phagocytosis assay revealed that cytokine treatment induced morphological changes to and phagocytosis by the microglia. The addition of DCF to the culture system enhanced microglial activation, as well as the phagocytic activity of cytokine-stimulated microglia. Inhibitors of nuclear factor (NF)-κB inhibited iNOS gene expression in cytokine-stimulated microglia with or without DCF, suggesting that the NF-κB pathway is one of the main signaling pathways involved. The iNOS inhibitor N{sup G}-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) reduced both cytokine-induced phagocytosis and phagocytosis induced by the combination of cytokines plus DCF. Furthermore, the NO donor sodium nitroprusside induced phagocytosis, indicating that NO production is a key regulator of microglial phagocytosis. In conclusion, DCF acts synergistically with proinflammatory cytokines to increase the production of NO in microglia, leading to phagocytic activity of the activated microglia. These findings, together with previous observations regarding astrocytes, may explain the significant increase in mortality of IAE patients treated with DCF. - Highlights: ► Influenza-associated encephalopathy (IAE) is associated with a high mortality rate. ► Hyperimmunization in the brain is believed to be responsible for

  8. Cytosolic dsDNA triggers apoptosis and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in normal human melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Suiquan; Liu, Dongyin; Ning, Weixuan; Xu, Aie

    2015-04-01

    Considerable evidence implicates that viral infection might be a participant factor in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. However, it is still unclear how viral infection leads to the melanocyte destruction. To elucidate the effects of viral dsDNA on the viability and cytokine synthesis of normal human melanocytes and to explore the underlying mechanisms, primary cultured normal human melanocytes were transfected with poly(dA:dT). The results demonstrated that poly(dA:dT) triggered apoptosis instead of pyroptosis in melanocytes. Knocking down AIM2 or RIG-I by RNA interference partially reduced the poly(dA:dT)-induced LDH release, suggesting the involvement of both nucleic acid sensors in the process of melanocyte death. Poly(dA:dT) induced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes including IFN-β, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 as well, whereas the pro-inflammatory cytokine production was suppressed by RIG-I siRNA, but not by AIM2 siRNA. Poly(dA:dT) treatment increased the phosphorylation of p38 and JNK and NFκB. Accordingly, NFκB inhibitor Bay 11-7082 and JNK inhibitor SP600125 blocked the induction of the cytokine genes except IFN-β. The production of IL6 and IL8 was also suppressed by p38 inhibitor SB203580. On the contrary, the Poly(dA:dT)-induced melanocyte death was only decreased by SP600125. This study provides the possible mechanism of melanocyte destruction and immuno-stimulation in vitiligo by innate immune response following viral infection.

  9. Perilla frutescens leaf extract inhibits mite major allergen Der p 2-induced gene expression of pro-allergic and pro-inflammatory cytokines in human bronchial epithelial cell BEAS-2B.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jer-Yuh; Chen, Yi-Ching; Lin, Chun-Hsiang; Kao, Shao-Hsuan

    2013-01-01

    Perilla frutescens has been used in traditional medicine for respiratory diseases due to its anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activity. This study aimed to investigate effects of Perilla frutescens leaf extract (PFE) on expression of pro-allergic and pro-inflammatory cytokines in airway epithelial cells exposed to mite major allergen Der p 2 (DP2) and the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that PFE up to 100 µg/mL had no cytotoxic effect on human bronchial epithelial cell BEAS-2B. Further investigations revealed that PFE dose-dependently diminished mRNA expression of pro-allergic cytokine IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and GM-CSF, as well as pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 in BEAS-2B cells treated with DP2. In parallel to mRNA, the DP-2-elevated levels of the tested cytokines were decreased. Further investigation showed that DP2-indued phosphorylation of p38 MAPK (P38) and JNK, but not Erk1/2, was also suppressed by PFE. In addition, PFE elevated cytosolic IκBα level and decreased nuclear NF-κB level in DP2-stimulated BEAS-2B cells. Taken together, these findings revealed that PFE significantly diminished both mRNA expression and protein levels of pro-allergic and pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to DP2 through inhibition of P38/JNK and NK-κB activation. These findings suggest that PFE should be beneficial to alleviate both allergic and inflammatory responses on airway epithelium in response to aeroallergens.

  10. Perilla frutescens Leaf Extract Inhibits Mite Major Allergen Der p 2-induced Gene Expression of Pro-Allergic and Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell BEAS-2B

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jer-Yuh; Chen, Yi-Ching; Lin, Chun-Hsiang; Kao, Shao-Hsuan

    2013-01-01

    Perilla frutescens has been used in traditional medicine for respiratory diseases due to its anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activity. This study aimed to investigate effects of Perilla frutescens leaf extract (PFE) on expression of pro-allergic and pro-inflammatory cytokines in airway epithelial cells exposed to mite major allergen Der p 2 (DP2) and the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that PFE up to 100 µg/mL had no cytotoxic effect on human bronchial epithelial cell BEAS-2B. Further investigations revealed that PFE dose-dependently diminished mRNA expression of pro-allergic cytokine IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and GM-CSF, as well as pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 in BEAS-2B cells treated with DP2. In parallel to mRNA, the DP-2-elevated levels of the tested cytokines were decreased. Further investigation showed that DP2-indued phosphorylation of p38 MAPK (P38) and JNK, but not Erk1/2, was also suppressed by PFE. In addition, PFE elevated cytosolic IκBα level and decreased nuclear NF-κB level in DP2-stimulated BEAS-2B cells. Taken together, these findings revealed that PFE significantly diminished both mRNA expression and protein levels of pro-allergic and pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to DP2 through inhibition of P38/JNK and NK-κB activation. These findings suggest that PFE should be beneficial to alleviate both allergic and inflammatory responses on airway epithelium in response to aeroallergens. PMID:24204835

  11. EXTRINSIC COAGULATION BLOCKADE ATTENUATES LUNG INJURY AND PROINFLAMMATORY CYTOKINE RELEASE AFTER INTRATRACHEAL LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Initiation of coagulation by tissue factor (TF) is a potentially powerful regulator of local inflammatory responses. We hypothesized that blockade of TF-factor VIIa (FVIIa) complex would decrease lung inflammation and proinflammatory cytokine release after tracheal instillation o...

  12. EXTRINSIC COAGULATION BLOCKADE ATTENUATES LUNG INJURY AND PROINFLAMMATORY CYTOKINE RELEASE AFTER INTRATRACHEAL LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Initiation of coagulation by tissue factor (TF) is a potentially powerful regulator of local inflammatory responses. We hypothesized that blockade of TF-factor VIIa (FVIIa) complex would decrease lung inflammation and proinflammatory cytokine release after tracheal instillation o...

  13. Proinflammatory Cytokine IL-6 and JAK-STAT Signaling Pathway in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Čokić, Vladan P.; Mitrović-Ajtić, Olivera; Beleslin-Čokić, Bojana B.; Marković, Dragana; Buač, Marijana; Diklić, Miloš; Kraguljac-Kurtović, Nada; Damjanović, Svetozar; Milenković, Pavle; Gotić, Mirjana; Raj, Puri K.

    2015-01-01

    The recent JAK1/2 inhibitor trial in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) showed that reducing inflammation can be more beneficial than targeting gene mutants. We evaluated the proinflammatory IL-6 cytokine and JAK-STAT signaling pathway related genes in circulating CD34+ cells of MPNs. Regarding laboratory data, leukocytosis has been observed in polycythemia vera (PV) and JAK2V617F mutation positive versus negative primary myelofibrosis (PMF) patients. Moreover, thrombocytosis was reduced by JAK2V617F allele burden in essential thrombocythemia (ET) and PMF. 261 significantly changed genes have been detected in PV, 82 in ET, and 94 genes in PMF. The following JAK-STAT signaling pathway related genes had augmented expression in CD34+ cells of MPNs: CCND3 and IL23A regardless of JAK2V617F allele burden; CSF3R, IL6ST, and STAT1/2 in ET and PV with JAK2V617F mutation; and AKT2, IFNGR2, PIM1, PTPN11, and STAT3 only in PV. STAT5A gene expression was generally reduced in MPNs. IL-6 cytokine levels were increased in plasma, as well as IL-6 protein levels in bone marrow stroma of MPNs, dependent on JAK2V617F mutation presence in ET and PMF patients. Therefore, the JAK2V617F mutant allele burden participated in inflammation biomarkers induction and related signaling pathways activation in MPNs. PMID:26491227

  14. Diminished Production of Monocyte Proinflammatory Cytokines during Human Immunodeficiency Virus Viremia Is Mediated by Type I Interferons▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Tilton, John C.; Johnson, Alison J.; Luskin, Marlise R.; Manion, Maura M.; Yang, Jun; Adelsberger, Joseph W.; Lempicki, Richard A.; Hallahan, Claire W.; McLaughlin, Mary; Mican, JoAnn M.; Metcalf, Julia A.; Iyasere, Christiana; Connors, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and high-level HIV replication on the function of monocytes was investigated. HIV-positive patients had elevated levels of spontaneous production of some or all of the monocyte proinflammatory cytokines measured (interleukin-1β [IL-1β], IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α]) compared to uninfected controls. In patients on therapy with high frequencies of monocytes producing proinflammatory cytokines, this frequency was diminished in the context of viremia during an interruption of therapy. Diminished production of proinflammatory cytokines during viremia was restored by culture with autologous CD4+ T cells or monocytes from an on-therapy time point or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Microarray analysis demonstrated that diminished monocyte production of proinflammatory cytokines was correlated with elevated type I interferon-stimulated gene transcripts. The addition of exogenous alpha 2A interferon diminished the spontaneous production of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α but did not affect responses to LPS, recapitulating the changes observed for HIV-viremic patients. These results suggest that monocyte function is diminished during high-level HIV viremia and that this effect is mediated by chronic stimulation by type I interferons. This effect on monocytes during viremia may play a role in diminished innate or adaptive immune system functions in HIV-infected patients. In addition, the restoration of these functions may also play a role in some immune reconstitution syndromes observed during initiation of therapy. PMID:17005663

  15. Hedgehog Signaling Non-Canonical Activated by Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuqiong; Jin, Gang; Li, Quanjiang; Wang, Zhiping; Hu, Weimin; Li, Ping; Li, Shude; Wu, Hongyu; Kong, Xiangyu; Gao, Jun; Li, Zhaoshen

    2016-01-01

    Hedgehog(HH) pathway is found to be activated through a manner of canonical, or the non-canonical HH pathways. Distinct hyperplasia stroma around tumor cells is supposed to express pro-inflammatory cytokines abundantly, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), etc. in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) tissues. In this study we observed the effects of TNF-α and IL-1β on HH pathway activation in PDAC cells, and explored their activation manners. Our results showed that pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-1β, could up-regulate the expression of GLI1 gene, increase its nuclear protein expression and promote malignant cell behaviors including migration, invasion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and drug resistance as well. Moreover, GLI1 promoter-reporter assay in combination with blocking either NF-κB or Smoothened (SMO) suggested that TNF-α and IL-1β could transcriptionally up-regulate expression of GLI1 completely via NF-κB, whereas ablation of SMO could not completely attenuate the regulation effects of TNF-α and IL-1β on GLI1 expression. Collectively, our results indicated that TNF-α and IL-1β in hyperplasia stroma can promote the PDAC cell development by activating HH pathway, through both the canonical and non-canonical HH activation ways. PMID:27877222

  16. Recombinant bovine respiratory syncytial virus with deletion of the SH gene induces increased apoptosis and pro-inflammatory cytokines in vitro, and is attenuated and induces protective immunity in calves.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Geraldine; Wyld, Sara; Valarcher, Jean-Francois; Guzman, Efrain; Thom, Michelle; Widdison, Stephanie; Buchholz, Ursula J

    2014-06-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) causes inflammation and obstruction of the small airways, leading to severe respiratory disease in young calves. The virus is closely related to human (H)RSV, a major cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in young children. The ability to manipulate the genome of RSV has provided opportunities for the development of stable, live attenuated RSV vaccines. The role of the SH protein in the pathogenesis of BRSV was evaluated in vitro and in vivo using a recombinant (r)BRSV in which the SH gene had been deleted. Infection of bovine epithelial cells and monocytes with rBRSVΔSH, in vitro, resulted in an increase in apoptosis, and higher levels of TNF-α and IL-1β compared with cells infected with parental, wild-type (WT) rBRSV. Although replication of rBRSVΔSH and WT rBRSV, in vitro, were similar, the replication of rBRSVΔSH was moderately reduced in the lower, but not the upper, respiratory tract of experimentally infected calves. Despite the greater ability of rBRSVΔSH to induce pro-inflammatory cytokines, in vitro, the pulmonary inflammatory response in rBRSVΔSH-infected calves was significantly reduced compared with that in calves inoculated with WT rBRSV, 6 days previously. Virus lacking SH appeared to be as immunogenic and effective in inducing resistance to virulent virus challenge, 6 months later, as the parental rBRSV. These findings suggest that rBRSVΔSH may be an ideal live attenuated virus vaccine candidate, combining safety with a high level of immunogenicity.

  17. The Transcription Factor ZNF395 Is Required for the Maximal Hypoxic Induction of Proinflammatory Cytokines in U87-MG Cells.

    PubMed

    Herwartz, Christine; Castillo-Juárez, Paola; Schröder, Linda; Barron, Blanca L; Steger, Gertrud

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia activates the expression of proangiogenic and survival promoting factors as well as proinflammatory cytokines that support tissue inflammation. Hypoxia and inflammation are associated with tumor progression. The identification of the factors participating in the hypoxia associated inflammation is essential to develop strategies to control tumor hypoxia. The transcription factor ZNF395 was found to be overexpressed in various tumors including glioblastomas particularly in the network of a hypoxic response pointing to a functional role of ZNF395. On the other hand, ZNF395 was suggested to have tumor suppressor activities which may rely on its repression of proinflammatory factors. To address these conflictive observations, we investigated the role of ZNF395 in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in the astrocytoma cell line U87-MG under hypoxia. We show that ZNF395 is a target gene of the hypoxia inducible factor HIF-1α. By gene expression analysis, RT-PCR and ELISA, we demonstrated that the siRNA-mediated suppression of ZNF395 impairs the hypoxic induction of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and LIF in U87-MG cells. At ambient oxygen concentrations, ZNF395 had no enhancing effect, indicating that this transcriptional activation by ZNF395 is restricted to hypoxic conditions. Our results suggest that ZNF395 contributes to hypoxia associated inflammation by superactivating proinflammatory cytokines.

  18. The Transcription Factor ZNF395 Is Required for the Maximal Hypoxic Induction of Proinflammatory Cytokines in U87-MG Cells

    PubMed Central

    Herwartz, Christine; Castillo-Juárez, Paola; Schröder, Linda; Barron, Blanca L.; Steger, Gertrud

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia activates the expression of proangiogenic and survival promoting factors as well as proinflammatory cytokines that support tissue inflammation. Hypoxia and inflammation are associated with tumor progression. The identification of the factors participating in the hypoxia associated inflammation is essential to develop strategies to control tumor hypoxia. The transcription factor ZNF395 was found to be overexpressed in various tumors including glioblastomas particularly in the network of a hypoxic response pointing to a functional role of ZNF395. On the other hand, ZNF395 was suggested to have tumor suppressor activities which may rely on its repression of proinflammatory factors. To address these conflictive observations, we investigated the role of ZNF395 in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in the astrocytoma cell line U87-MG under hypoxia. We show that ZNF395 is a target gene of the hypoxia inducible factor HIF-1α. By gene expression analysis, RT-PCR and ELISA, we demonstrated that the siRNA-mediated suppression of ZNF395 impairs the hypoxic induction of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and LIF in U87-MG cells. At ambient oxygen concentrations, ZNF395 had no enhancing effect, indicating that this transcriptional activation by ZNF395 is restricted to hypoxic conditions. Our results suggest that ZNF395 contributes to hypoxia associated inflammation by superactivating proinflammatory cytokines. PMID:26229239

  19. Manumycin A downregulates release of proinflammatory cytokines from TNF alpha stimulated human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Cecrdlova, Eva; Petrickova, Katerina; Kolesar, Libor; Petricek, Miroslav; Sekerkova, Alena; Svachova, Veronika; Striz, Ilja

    2016-01-01

    Macrolide antibiotics such as azithromycin or clarithromycin are known to have potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects but these properties cannot be widely used due to a risk of bacterial resistance. We studied another polyketide antibiotic, structurally related manumycin A known as a streptomycete derived farnesyltransferase inhibitor with limited antibacterial effects, with respect to its potential regulation of mRNA expression of several genes associated with proinflammatory responses. Downregulation of mRNA for IL-6, TLR-8, IL-1 beta and IL-10 was found in THP-1 cells after 4h stimulation with TNF alpha in the presence of manumycin A and downregulated TLR-8 and EGR-1 genes were observed after 8h. Among the genes upregulated in response to manumycin were HMOX-1, TNFRSF10A, IL-1R1, TICAM2, NLRP12 after 4h and only IL-1R1 after 8h. Furthermore, manumycin A was found to inhibit IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-8 production in TNF alpha stimulated THP-1 cells and peripheral blood monocytes in a dose dependent manner (0.25-1 μM of manumycin A) without affecting cell viability. Cell viability of blood monocytes decreased by about 30% at manumycin A doses of 2-5 μM. Manumycin A also inhibited IL-18 release from THP-1 cells, while in cultures of blood monocytes, this cytokine was not detectable. That manumycin A mediated downregulation of proinflammatory genes in human monocytes confirmed by a measurement of cytokine levels in culture supernatants, together with a very limited effect on cell viability, might suggest potential anti-inflammatory properties of this polyketide antibiotic.

  20. Proinflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases in CSF of patients with VZV vasculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Dallas; Alvarez, Enrique; Selva, Sean; Gilden, Don

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the CSF of patients with virologically verified varicella zoster virus (VZV) vasculopathy. Methods: CSF from 30 patients with virologically verified VZV vasculopathy was analyzed for levels of proinflammatory cytokines and MMPs using the Meso Scale Discovery multiplex ELISA platform. Positive CNS inflammatory disease controls were provided by CSF from 30 patients with multiple sclerosis. Negative controls were provided by CSF from 20 healthy controls. Results: Compared to multiple sclerosis CSF and CSF from healthy controls, levels of interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6, and MMP-2 were significantly elevated in VZV vasculopathy CSF. Conclusions: CSF of patients with VZV vasculopathy revealed a unique profile of elevated proinflammatory cytokines, IL-8 and IL-6, along with elevated MMP-2. The relevance of these cytokines to the pathogenesis of VZV vasculopathy requires further study. PMID:27340684

  1. Abrupt reflow enhances cytokine-induced proinflammatory activation of endothelial cells during simulated shock and resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Li, Ranran; Zijlstra, Jan G; Kamps, Jan A A M; van Meurs, Matijs; Molema, Grietje

    2014-10-01

    Circulatory shock and resuscitation are associated with systemic hemodynamic changes, which may contribute to the development of MODS (multiple organ dysfunction syndrome). In this study, we used an in vitro flow system to simulate the consecutive changes in blood flow as occurring during hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation in vivo. We examined the kinetic responses of different endothelial genes in human umbilical vein endothelial cells preconditioned to 20 dyne/cm unidirectional laminar shear stress for 48 h to flow cessation and abrupt reflow, respectively, as well as the effect of flow cessation and reflow on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced endothelial proinflammatory activation. Endothelial CD31 and VE-cadherin were not affected by the changes in flow in the absence or presence of TNF-α. The messenger RNA levels of proinflammatory molecules E-selectin, VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule 1), and IL-8 (interleukin 8) were significantly induced by flow cessation respectively acute reflow, whereas ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule 1) was downregulated on flow cessation and induced by subsequent acute reflow. Flow cessation also affected the Ang/Tie2 (Angiopoietin/Tie2 receptor tyrosine kinase) system by downregulating Tie2 and inducing its endothelial ligand Ang2, an effect that was further extended on acute reflow. Furthermore, the induction of proinflammatory adhesion molecules by TNF-α under flow cessation was significantly enhanced on subsequent acute reflow. This study demonstrated that flow alterations per se during shock and resuscitation contribute to endothelial activation and that these alterations interact with proinflammatory factors coexisting in vivo such as TNF-α. The abrupt reflow-related enhancement of cytokine-induced endothelial proinflammatory activation supports the concept that sudden regain of flow during resuscitation has an aggravating effect on endothelial activation, which may play a significant role in vascular

  2. Effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on proinflammatory cytokines: protocol for systematic review.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Tábata Cristina do Carmo; Figueiredo, Francisco Winter Dos Santos; Barbosa Filho, Valter Cordeiro; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso; Adami, Fernando

    2017-07-11

    Pain reduction can be achieved by lowering proinflammatory cytokine levels in the blood. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a non-invasive physiotherapeutic resource for pain management, but evidence on the effectiveness of this device at reducing proinflammatory cytokines in the blood is unclear. This study systematically reviews the literature on the effect of TENS on proinflammatory cytokines. A systematic review protocol was developed based on searches of articles in six electronic databases and references of retrieved articles, contact with authors, and repositories of clinical trials. Eligibility criteria: publication in peer-reviewed journals, randomized clinical trials, use of TENS in the experimental group, and pre- and post-measurements of proinflammatory cytokines in the blood. Selection of the studies and extraction of the data will be carried out by two reviewers independently. Characteristics of the study, participants, interventions and outcomes were extracted and described. Assessments were performed on the risk of bias, level of evidence and the size of the intervention effect in the studies, according to GRADE guidelines and the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews. Clinical and statistical assessments compared the effects of the interventions (meta-analysis), taking into consideration any influencing characteristics of the studies (e.g., methods and application sites). We anticipate that this review will strengthen evidence-based knowledge of the effect of TENS on proinflammatory cytokines and, as a result, direct new studies to benefit patients with specific pathologies. PROSPERO, CRD42017060379 .

  3. Pro-inflammatory cytokines can act as intracellular modulators of commensal bacterial virulence

    PubMed Central

    Mahdavi, Jafar; Royer, Pierre-Joseph; Sjölinder, Hong S.; Azimi, Sheyda; Self, Tim; Stoof, Jeroen; Wheldon, Lee M.; Brännström, Kristoffer; Wilson, Raymond; Moreton, Joanna; Moir, James W. B.; Sihlbom, Carina; Borén, Thomas; Jonsson, Ann-Beth; Soultanas, Panos; Ala'Aldeen, Dlawer A. A.

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between commensal pathogens and hosts are critical for disease development but the underlying mechanisms for switching between the commensal and virulent states are unknown. We show that the human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis, the leading cause of pyogenic meningitis, can modulate gene expression via uptake of host pro-inflammatory cytokines leading to increased virulence. This uptake is mediated by type IV pili (Tfp) and reliant on the PilT ATPase activity. Two Tfp subunits, PilE and PilQ, are identified as the ligands for TNF-α and IL-8 in a glycan-dependent manner, and their deletion results in decreased virulence and increased survival in a mouse model. We propose a novel mechanism by which pathogens use the twitching motility mode of the Tfp machinery for sensing and importing host elicitors, aligning with the inflamed environment and switching to the virulent state. PMID:24107297

  4. Proinflammatory Cytokines Activate the Intrinsic Apoptotic Pathway in β-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Grunnet, Lars G.; Aikin, Reid; Tonnesen, Morten F.; Paraskevas, Steven; Blaabjerg, Lykke; Størling, Joachim; Rosenberg, Lawrence; Billestrup, Nils; Maysinger, Dusica; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Proinflammatory cytokines are cytotoxic to β-cells and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes and islet graft failure. The importance of the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in cytokine-induced β-cell death is unclear. Here, cytokine activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and the role of the two proapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins, Bad and Bax, were examined in β-cells. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Human and rat islets and INS-1 cells were exposed to a combination of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β, interferon-γ, and/or tumor necrosis factor-α). Activation of Bad was determined by Ser136 dephosphorylation, mitochondrial stress by changes in mitochondrial metabolic activity and cytochrome c release, downstream apoptotic signaling by activation of caspase-9 and -3, and DNA fragmentation. The inhibitors FK506 and V5 were used to investigate the role of Bad and Bax activation, respectively. RESULTS We found that proinflammatory cytokines induced calcineurin-dependent dephosphorylation of Bad Ser136, mitochondrial stress, cytochrome c release, activation of caspase-9 and -3, and DNA fragmentation. Inhibition of Bad Ser136 dephosphorylation or Bax was found to inhibit cytokine-induced intrinsic proapoptotic signaling. CONCLUSIONS Our findings demonstrate that the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway contributes significantly to cytokine-induced β-cell death and suggest a functional role of calcineurin-mediated Bad Ser136 dephosphorylation and Bax activity in cytokine-induced apoptosis. PMID:19470609

  5. Are the Adaptogenic Effects of Omega 3 Fatty Acids Mediated via Inhibition of Proinflammatory Cytokines?

    PubMed Central

    Bradbury, Joanne; Brooks, Lyndon; Myers, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    The study was undertaken to estimate the size of the impact of n-3 fatty acids in psychological stress and the extent to which it is mediated via proinflammatory cytokines. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to analyze data from 194 healthy Australians. Biomarkers used were erythrocyte polyunsaturated fatty acids (docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA)), ex-vivo stimulated secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukins (IL-1 and IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)). Stress was measured with the perceived stress scale (PSS-10), found to comprise three factors: Coping (items 4, 7, 5), Overwhelm (2, 10, 6 and 8), and Emotional (1, 9 and 3). This modeling demonstrated that the effects of DHA on coping are largely direct effects (0.26, t = 2.05) and were not significantly mediated via the suppression of proinflammatory cytokines. Future modeling should explore whether adding EPA to the model would increase the significance of the mediation pathways. PMID:22007258

  6. Attenuation of neutrophil infiltration and proinflammatory cytokines by Cissus quadrangularis: a possible prevention against gastric ulcerogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jainu, Mallika; Shyamala Devi, Chennam Srinivasulu

    2005-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species, neutrophil infiltration and proinflammatory cytokines play an important role in the pathogenesis of gastric ulcers caused by aspirin. The present study demonstrates the healing effect of Cissus quadrangularis extract (CQE) through inhibitory action on generation of lipid peroxidation, proinflammatory cytokines and neutrophil infiltration. The concentration ofmalondialdehye (MDA), protein carbonyl content, conjugated dienes, mucosal (SH) sulphydryls, uric acid, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and activities of myeloperoxidase (MPO), xanthine oxidase (XO) and antioxidative enzymes were determined in the gastric mucosa. Administration of CQE significantly attenuated the gastric lesions induced by aspirin and this was accompanied by the rise in uric acid, antioxidative enzymes, SH groups, and a significant decrease in lipid peroxidase, TNF-alpha, MPO and XO activities. These findings suggest that the significant gastroprotective activity could be mediated by the antioxidant activity as well as by the attenuation of oxidative mechanism and proinflammatory cytokines.

  7. Almond protein hydrolysate fraction modulates the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and enzymes in activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Udenigwe, Chibuike C; Je, Jae-Young; Cho, Young-Sook; Yada, Rickey Y

    2013-04-30

    Simulated gastrointestinal treatment of almond proteins with pepsin and pancreatic proteases resulting in 16.6% degree of hydrolysis or 1.33 milliequivalent leucine per g protein yielded a hydrolysate that modulated excessive nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW264.7 macrophages. After fractionation, a resulting fraction of molecular size > 5 kDa retained the nitric oxide modulatory effect observed initially in the crude hydrolysate. The high molecular size fraction was found to modulate levels of proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the activated cells. Immunoblotting analysis indicated that the hydrolysate fraction decreased the expression levels of inflammatory enzyme indicators, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in the activated cells. RT-PCR analysis showed that treatment of the activated cells with the hydrolysate fraction resulted in the inhibition of relative gene expressions of proinflammatory IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, iNOS and COX-2. These results indicate a potential application of almond protein hydrolysates against inflammatory conditions, and will contribute to delineating the possible contributions of proteins to health benefits attributed to almond consumption.

  8. Cellular Mechanics of Primary Human Cervical Fibroblasts: Influence of Progesterone and a Pro-inflammatory Cytokine.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Vasudha; Barnhouse, Victoria; Ackerman, William E; Summerfield, Taryn L; Powell, Heather M; Leight, Jennifer L; Kniss, Douglas A; Ghadiali, Samir N

    2017-09-22

    The leading cause of neonatal mortality, pre-term birth, is often caused by pre-mature ripening/opening of the uterine cervix. Although cervical fibroblasts play an important role in modulating the cervix's extracellular matrix (ECM) and mechanical properties, it is not known how hormones, i.e., progesterone, and pro-inflammatory insults alter fibroblast mechanics, fibroblast-ECM interactions and the resulting changes in tissue mechanics. Here we investigate how progesterone and a pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-1β, alter the biomechanical properties of human cervical fibroblasts and the fibroblast-ECM interactions that govern tissue-scale mechanics. Primary human fibroblasts were isolated from non-pregnant cervix and treated with estrogen/progesterone, IL-1β or both. The resulting changes in ECM gene expression, matrix remodeling, traction force generation, cell-ECM adhesion and tissue contractility were monitored. Results indicate that IL-1β induces a significant reduction in traction force and ECM adhesion independent of pre-treatment with progesterone. These cell level effects altered tissue-scale mechanics where IL-1β inhibited the contraction of a collagen gel over 6 days. Interestingly, progesterone treatment alone did not modulate traction forces or gel contraction but did result in a dramatic increase in cell-ECM adhesion. Therefore, the protective effect of progesterone may be due to altered adhesion dynamics as opposed to altered ECM remodeling.

  9. Proinflammatory Modulation of the Surface and Cytokine Phenotype of Monocytes in Patients With Acute Charcot Foot

    PubMed Central

    Uccioli, Luigi; Sinistro, Anna; Almerighi, Cristiana; Ciaprini, Chiara; Cavazza, Antonella; Giurato, Laura; Ruotolo, Valeria; Spasaro, Francesca; Vainieri, Erika; Rocchi, Giovanni; Bergamini, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Despite increased information on the importance of an inappropriate inflammatory response in the acute Charcot process, there has been no previous attempt to define the specific pathways that mediate its pathogenesis. Here, the role played by monocytes was analyzed. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The immune phenotype of peripheral monocytes was studied by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis comparing patients with acute Charcot (n = 10) in both the active and recovered phase, diabetic patients with neuropathy (with or without osteomyelitis), and normal control subjects. RESULTS When compared with diabetic control subjects and healthy subjects, monocytes from acute Charcot patients showed a proinflammatory immune phenotype characterized by increased production of proinflammatory cytokines, reduced secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines, increased expression of surface costimulatory molecules, and increased resistance to serum withdrawal-induced apoptosis. In addition, the pattern of circulating cytokines confirmed activation of proinflammatory cytokines. No modulation of the monocyte phenotype was documented in diabetic control subjects and healthy subjects, thus indicating that the proinflammatory alterations of monocytes are specific and causative of acute Charcot. CONCLUSIONS Together, these data provide evidence for the role of proinflammatory changes in the immune phenotype of monocytes in the pathogenesis of acute Charcot. These alterations may explain the abnormally intense and prolonged inflammatory response that characterizes this disorder and may represent a potential therapeutic target for specific pharmacological interventions. PMID:19880584

  10. The role of proinflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Murata, Y; Ishiguro, Y; Itoh, J; Munakata, A; Yoshida, Y

    1995-11-01

    We investigated the production of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-alpha) and immunoregulatory cytokines (IL-2, IFN-gamma, and IL-10) in the colonic mucosa of patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC), inactive UC, and non-inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) colitis by organ culture. The production of proinflammatory cytokines was significantly increased in all the studied groups compared with controls. In active UC, levels of these cytokines, except for IL-1 beta, were markedly increased compared with non-IBD colitis, and the levels were positively correlated with the degree of inflammation. Patients with non-refractory active UC receiving steroids showed levels of IL-1 beta and TNF-beta production similar to those in controls. IL-10 production was also significantly increased in all the studied groups, the value of being the highest in active UC. In contrast, IL-2- and IFN-gamma production was significantly decreased in both active and inactive UC compared with controls, and the values in active UC were inversely correlated with the degree of inflammation. In non-IBD colitis, decreased IL-2 production was observed, but IFN-gamma production did not differ from that in controls. In an experimental study, each of the proinflammatory cytokines was injected into the colonic mucosa of rats. All of these proinflammatory cytokines, except for IL-1 beta induced colonic mucosal damage that showed some histologic features similar to those of UC. These results suggest that the increased production of proinflammatory cytokines, particularly of IL-6 and IL-8, and the decreased production of IL-2- and IFN-gamma, probably downregulated by the enhanced production of IL-10, play an important role in the pathogenesis of UC.

  11. Reduced tissue osmolarity increases TRPV4 expression and pro-inflammatory cytokines in intervertebral disc cells.

    PubMed

    Walter, B A; Purmessur, D; Moon, A; Occhiogrosso, J; Laudier, D M; Hecht, A C; Iatridis, J C

    2016-07-19

    The mechanical behaviour and cellular metabolism of intervertebral discs (IVDs) and articular cartilage are strongly influenced by their proteoglycan content and associated osmotic properties. This osmotic environment is a biophysical signal that changes with disease and may contribute to the elevated matrix breakdown and altered biologic response to loading observed in IVD degeneration and osteoarthritis. This study tested the hypothesis that changes in osmo-sensation by the transient receptor potential vallinoid-4 (TRPV4) ion channel occur with disease and contribute to the inflammatory environment found during degeneration. Immunohistochemistry on bovine IVDs from an inflammatory organ culture model were used to investigate if TRPV4 is expressed in the IVD and how expression changes with degeneration. Western blot, live-cell calcium imaging, and qRT-PCR were used to investigate whether osmolarity changes or tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) regulate TRPV4 expression, and how altered TRPV4 expression influences calcium signalling and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. TRPV4 expression correlated with TNFα expression, and was increased when cultured in reduced medium osmolarity and unaltered with TNFα-stimulation. Increased TRPV4 expression increased the calcium flux following TRPV4 activation and increased interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6 gene expression in IVD cells. TRPV4 expression was qualitatively elevated in regions of aggrecan depletion in degenerated human IVDs. Collectively, results suggest that reduced tissue osmolarity, likely following proteoglycan degradation, can increase TRPV4 signalling and enhance pro-inflammatory cytokine production, suggesting changes in TRPV4 mediated osmo-sensation may contribute to the progressive matrix breakdown in disease.

  12. REDUCED TISSUE OSMOLARITY INCREASES TRPV4 EXPRESSION AND PRO-INFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES IN INTERVERTEBRAL DISC CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Walter, B.A.; Purmessur, D; Moon, A.; Occhiogrosso, J.; Laudier, D.M.; Hecht, A.C.; Iatridis, J.C.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical behaviour and cellular metabolism of intervertebral discs (IVDs) and articular cartilage are strongly influenced by their proteoglycan content and associated osmotic properties. This osmotic environment is a biophysical signal that changes with disease and may contribute to the elevated matrix breakdown and altered biologic response to loading observed in IVD degeneration and osteoarthritis. This study tested the hypothesis that changes in osmo-sensation by the transient receptor potential vallinoid-4 (TRPV4) ion channel occur with disease and contribute to the inflammatory environment found during degeneration. Immunohistochemistry on bovine IVDs from an inflammatory organ culture model were used to investigate if TRPV4 is expressed in the IVD and how expression changes with degeneration. Western blot, live-cell calcium imaging, and qRT-PCR were used to investigate whether osmolarity changes or tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) regulate TRPV4 expression, and how altered TRPV4 expression influences calcium signalling and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. TRPV4 expression correlated with TNFα expression, and was increased when cultured in reduced medium osmolarity and unaltered with TNFα-stimulation. Increased TRPV4 expression increased the calcium flux following TRPV4 activation and increased interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6 gene expression in IVD cells. TRPV4 expression was qualitatively elevated in regions of aggrecan depletion in degenerated human IVDs. Collectively, results suggest that reduced tissue osmolarity, likely following proteoglycan degradation, can increase TRPV4 signalling and enhance pro-inflammatory cytokine production, suggesting changes in TRPV4 mediated osmo-sensation may contribute to the progressive matrix breakdown in disease. PMID:27434269

  13. Osteoimmunology and the influence of pro-inflammatory cytokines on osteoclasts

    PubMed Central

    Zupan, Janja; Jeras, Matjaž; Marc, Janja

    2013-01-01

    Bone and immune system are functionally interconnected. Immune and bone cells derive from same progenitors in the bone marrow, they share a common microenvironment and are being influenced by similar mediators. The evidence on increased bone resorption associated with inappropriate activation of T cells such as during inflammation, is well established. However, the molecular mechanisms beyond this clinical observation have begun to be intensively studied with the advancement of osteoimmunology. Now days, we have firm evidence on the influence of numerous proinflammatory cytokines on bone cells, with the majority of data focused on osteoclasts, the bone resorbing cells. It has been shown that some proinflammatory cytokines could possess osteoclastogenic and/or anti-osteoclastogenic properties and can target osteoclasts directly or via receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK)/RANK ligand(RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) system. Several studies have reported opposing data regarding (anti)osteoclastogenic properties of these cytokines. Therefore, the first part of this review is summarizing current evidence on the influence of pro-inflammatory cytokines on osteoclasts and thus on bone resorption. In the second part, the evidence on the role of pro-inflammatory cytokines in osteoporosis and osteoarthritis is reviewed to show that unravelling the mechanisms beyond such complex bone diseases, is almost impossible without considering skeletal and immune systems as an indivisible integrated system. PMID:23457765

  14. Increased Blood Levels of Growth Factors, Proinflammatory Cytokines, and Th17 Cytokines in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Alnek, Kristi; Kisand, Kalle; Heilman, Kaire; Peet, Aleksandr; Varik, Karin; Uibo, Raivo

    2015-01-01

    The production of several cytokines could be dysregulated in type 1 diabetes (T1D). In particular, the activation of T helper (Th) type 1 (Th1) cells has been proposed to underlie the autoimmune pathogenesis of the disease, although roles for inflammatory processes and the Th17 pathway have also been shown. Nevertheless, despite evidence for the role of cytokines before and at the onset of T1D, the corresponding findings are inconsistent across studies. Moreover, conflicting data exist regarding the blood cytokine levels in T1D patients. The current study was performed to investigate genetic and autoantibody markers in association with the peripheral blood cytokine profiles by xMap multiplex technology in newly diagnosed young T1D patients and age-matched healthy controls. The onset of young-age T1D was characterized by the upregulation of growth factors, including granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-7, the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β (but not IL-6 or tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α), Th17 cytokines, and the regulatory cytokines IL-10 and IL-27. Ketoacidosis and autoantibodies (anti-IA-2 and -ZnT8), but not human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotype, influenced the blood cytokine levels. These findings broaden the current understanding of the dysregulation of systemic levels of several key cytokines at the young-age onset of T1D and provide a further basis for the development of novel immunoregulatory treatments in this disease.

  15. Proinflammatory cytokines and sickness behavior: implications for depression and cancer-related symptoms.

    PubMed

    Myers, Jamie S

    2008-09-01

    To review the relationship between proinflammatory cytokine release and resultant sickness behavior; to explore the implications of sickness behavior related to depression and cancer-related symptoms. Published articles and book chapters. Proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) are released as part of the immune response resulting in a syndrome called sickness behavior that is an adaptive and motivational reaction to disease. Sickness behavior includes lethargy, depression, anorexia, energy conservation, fever, anhedonia, cognitive impairment, hyperalgesia, and decreased social interaction. Sickness behavior is seen in patients with depression or cancer and has been described as a symptom cluster. Sickness behavior in patients with cancer may be the result of both the disease and the treatment. The related symptoms may have a profound effect on patients' quality of life. Treatment strategies that inhibit the release or activity of proinflammatory cytokines and relieve patients from symptoms of sickness behavior are being evaluated. Further research is needed to pinpoint the exact effects of specific cytokines, identify targets for therapy, and develop viable treatment strategies for preventing or minimizing the detrimental effects of cytokine-induced inflammatory responses. Sickness behavior resulting from cytokine release may provide a framework to explain many cancer-related symptoms, including depression, cognitive impairment, cachexia, fatigue, and a component of pain perception. Oncology nurses would benefit from awareness and understanding of the relationship between proinflammatory cytokine release and tissue involvement by tumors as well as some cancer-related therapies. Knowledge about the effects of cytokine release on patient behavior and the symptom experience would enhance nurses' ability to assess patients for anticipated side effects and provide appropriate education to patients and their families.

  16. Changes in DNA Methylation and Chromatin Structure of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines Stimulated by LPS in Broiler Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jing; Liu, Yanli; Ren, Xiaochun; Gao, Kang; Li, Yulong; Li, Shizhao; Yao, Junhu; Yang, Xiaojun

    2016-07-01

    The pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α mediate inflammation, which is a protective response by body to ensure removal of detrimental stimuli, as well as a healing process for repairing damaged tissue. The overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines can induce autoimmune diseases and can be fatal. The aim of this study was to investigate epigenetic mechanisms in the regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines expression after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation of broiler peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Gene expression, promoter DNA methylation, and chromatin accessibility of pro-inflammatory cytokines in untreated and LPS-treated PBMC were compared. The expression of epigenetic enzymes DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 1, histone deacetylase (HDAC), and histone acetylase (HAT) were measured after LPS stimulation. The results showed the activated gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in broiler PBMC stimulated 3 h by LPS. The demethylation of IL-6 gene - 302 and -264 cytosine-guanine (CpG) sites, as well as TNF-α gene -371 CpG site, occurred after LPS treatment (P < 0.05), whereas the methylaiton pattern in the IL-1β gene promoter region was not affected. Otherwise, LPS stimulation relaxed the chromatin structure at IL-1β and IL-6 promoter (P < 0.05). The lower expression of DNMT1 and HDAC2, and higher expression of p300-CBP-associated factor and tat-interaction protein-60, were detected in response to LPS (P < 0.05). Our data indicated that after LPS stimulation for 3 h, IL-1β and IL-6 promoter are remodeled into an accessible structure, and the IL-6 and TNF-α promoter are demethylated at special sites, which possible impact the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  17. Impact of Moderate Altitude on Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines in Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Edlinger, Christoph; Schreiber, Catharina; Goebel, Bjoern; Pistulli, Rudin; Paar, Vera; Schernthaner, Christiana; Rohm, Ilonka; Figulla, Hans-Reiner; Hoppe, Uta C; Franz, Marcus; Jung, Christian; Lichtenauer, Michael

    2017-09-01

    The induction of microvascular inflammation and the effects on cytokine production in blood due to hypoxia has been shown in the past. We have previously reported a statistically significant increase of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) in normobaric hypoxia in the setting of a hypoxia-chamber. In the present study, we sought to analyze plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines in a real-life stetting in order to foster our knowledge on hypoxia induced microvascular inflammation at moderate altitude. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-8, IL-6, TNF-α) were measured in an experimental field study, exposing 18 healthy volunteers to moderate hypoxia while staying at a mountain lodge in Diavolezza, Switzerland (2978 meters above sea level). Plasma cytokine levels were measured by ELISA. In contradiction to our results in a normobaric hypoxia-chamber, exposure to moderate hypoxia led to a significant decrease of plasma IL-8 levels in a real-life setting (from 2.902 (1.046 - 4.984) pg/mL to 1.395 (0.698 - 3.712) pg/mL, p = 0.034). Concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α did not show statistically significant changes in comparison to baseline measurements. The results of this study show a decrease of proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 in a real life setting of moderate altitude in healthy individuals. Initiation of angiogenesis or subliminal stimulus for an altitude-induced inflammatory reaction may be explanations for this unexpected finding.

  18. Origin and functions of pro-inflammatory cytokine producing Foxp3+ regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Pandiyan, Pushpa; Zhu, Jinfang

    2016-01-01

    CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory cells (Tregs) are a special lineage of cells central in the maintenance of immune homeostasis, and are targeted for human immunotherapy. They are conventionally associated with the production of classical anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10, TGF-β and IL-35, consistent to their anti-inflammatory functions. However, emerging evidence show that they also express effector cytokines such as IFN-γ and IL-17A under inflammatory conditions. While some studies reveal that these pro-inflammatory cytokine producing Foxp3+ regulatory cells retain their suppressive ability, others believe that these cells are dys-regulated and are associated with perpetuation of immunopathology. Therefore the development of these cells may challenge the efficacy of human Treg therapy. Mechanistically, toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands and the pro-inflammatory cytokine milieu have been shown to play important roles in the induction of effector cytokines in Tregs. Here we review the mechanisms of development and the possible functions of pro-inflammatory cytokine producing Foxp3+ Tregs. PMID:26165923

  19. Origin and functions of pro-inflammatory cytokine producing Foxp3+ regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Pandiyan, Pushpa; Zhu, Jinfang

    2015-11-01

    CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory cells (Tregs) are a special lineage of cells central in the maintenance of immune homeostasis, and are targeted for human immunotherapy. They are conventionally associated with the production of classical anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10, TGF-β and IL-35, consistent to their anti-inflammatory functions. However, emerging evidence show that they also express effector cytokines such as IFN-γ and IL-17A under inflammatory conditions. While some studies reveal that these pro-inflammatory cytokine producing Foxp3(+) regulatory cells retain their suppressive ability, others believe that these cells are dys-regulated and are associated with perpetuation of immunopathology. Therefore the development of these cells may challenge the efficacy of human Treg therapy. Mechanistically, toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands and the pro-inflammatory cytokine milieu have been shown to play important roles in the induction of effector cytokines in Tregs. Here we review the mechanisms of development and the possible functions of pro-inflammatory cytokine producing Foxp3+ Tregs.

  20. The killing of neurons by beta-amyloid peptides, prions, and pro-inflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Chiarini, Anna; Dal Pra, Ilaria; Whitfield, James F; Armato, Ubaldo

    2006-01-01

    Reportedly, beta-amyloid peptides (Abeta40 and Abeta42) induce the neurodegenerative changes of Alzheimer's disease (AD) both directly by interacting with components of the cell surface to trigger apoptogenic signaling and indirectly by activating astrocytes and microglia to produce excess amounts of inflammatory cytokines. A possible cell surface target for Abetas is the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)). By using SK-N-BE neuroblastoma cells without neurotrophin receptors or engineered to express the full-length p75(NTR) or various parts of it, we have proven that p75(NTR) does mediate the Abeta-induced cell killing via its intracellular death domain (DD). This signaling via the DD activates caspase-8, which then activates caspase-3 and apoptogenesis. We also found a strong cytocidal interaction of direct p75(NTR)-mediated and indirect pro-inflammatory cytokine-mediated neuronal damage induced by Abeta. In fact, pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha and IL-1beta from Abeta-activated microglia potentiated the neurotoxic action of Aalpha mediated by p75(NTR) signaling. The pro-inflammatory cytokines probably amplify neuronal damage and killing by causing astrocytes to flood their associated neurons with NO and its lethal oxidizing ONOO- derivative. Indeed, we have found that a combination of three major pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1beta+IFN-gamma+TNF-alpha, causes normal adult human astrocytes (NAHA) to express nitric oxide synthase-2 (NOS-2) and make dangerously large amounts of NO via mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Soluble Abeta40, the major amyloid precursor protein cleavage product, by itself stimulates astrocytes to express NOS-2 and make NO, possibly by activating p75(NTR) receptors, which they share with neurons, and can considerably amplify NOS-2 expression by the pro-inflammatory cytokine trio. These observations have uncovered a deadly synergistic interaction of Abeta peptides with pro-inflammatory cytokines in the neuron

  1. Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Protect Human Islets from Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Telford Y.; Seeberger, Karen L.; Kin, Tatsuya; Adesida, Adetola; Jomha, Nadr; Shapiro, A. M. James; Korbutt, Gregory S.

    2012-01-01

    Transplantation of human islets is an attractive alternative to daily insulin injections for patients with type 1 diabetes. However, the majority of islet recipients lose graft function within five years. Inflammation is a primary contributor to graft loss, and inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokine activity can reverse inflammation mediated dysfunction of islet grafts. As mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess numerous immunoregulatory properties, we hypothesized that MSCs could protect human islets from pro-inflammatory cytokines. Five hundred human islets were co-cultured with 0.5 or 1.0×106 human MSCs derived from bone marrow or pancreas for 24 hours followed by 48 hour exposure to interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin 1β. Controls include islets cultured alone (± cytokines) and with human dermal fibroblasts (± cytokines). For all conditions, glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), total islet cellular insulin content, islet β cell apoptosis, and potential cytoprotective factors secreted in the culture media were determined. Cytokine exposure disrupted human islet GSIS based on stimulation index and percentage insulin secretion. Conversely, culture with 1.0×106 bMSCs preserved GSIS from cytokine treated islets. Protective effects were not observed with fibroblasts, indicating that preservation of human islet GSIS after exposure to pro-inflammatory cytokines is MSC dependent. Islet β cell apoptosis was observed in the presence of cytokines; however, culture of bMSCs with islets prevented β cell apoptosis after cytokine treatment. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) as well as matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 were also identified as putative secreted cytoprotective factors; however, other secreted factors likely play a role in protection. This study, therefore, demonstrates that MSCs may be beneficial for islet engraftment by promoting cell survival and reduced inflammation. PMID:22666480

  2. Proinflammatory Cytokines Increase Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression in Alveolar Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Maloney, James P; Gao, Li

    2015-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an endothelial permeability mediator that is highly expressed in lung epithelium. In nonlung cells proinflammatory cytokines have been shown to increase VEGF expression, but their effects on lung epithelium remain unclear. We hypothesized that increases in alveolar epithelial cell VEGF RNA and protein expression occur after exposure to proinflammatory cytokines. We tested this using human alveolar epithelial cells (A549) stimulated with 5 proinflammatory cytokines. VEGF RNA expression was increased 1.4-2.7-fold in response to IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, or TGF-β over 6 hours, with TGF-β having the largest response. TNF-α increased VEGF RNA as early as 1 hour. A mix of IL-1, IL-6, and IL-8 had effects similar to IL-1. TNF-α increased protein expression as early as 4 hours and had a sustained effect at 16 hours, whereas IL-1 did not increase protein expression. Only VEGF165 was present in cultured A549 cells, yet other isoforms were seen in human lung tissue. Increased expression of VEGF in alveolar epithelial cells occurs in response to proinflammatory cytokines. Increased VEGF expression likely contributes to the pathogenesis of inflammatory lung diseases and to the angiogenic phenotype of lung cancer, a disease typically preceded by chronic inflammation.

  3. Blueberries inhibit proinflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha and IL-6 production in macrophages

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Blueberries (BB) have been reported to attenuate atherosclerosis in apoE deficient (ApoE-/-) mice. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, the effect of BB on proinflammatory cytokine production in macrophages was investigated. ApoE-/- mice were fed AIN-93G diet (...

  4. Selective phosphorylation of the Dlg1AB variant is critical for TCR-induced p38 activation and induction of proinflammatory cytokines in CD8+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Crocetti, Jillian; Silva, Oscar; Humphries, Lisa A; Tibbs, Michelle D; Miceli, M Carrie

    2014-09-15

    CD8(+) T cells respond to TCR stimulation by producing proinflammatory cytokines, and destroying infected or malignant cells through the production and release of cytotoxic granules. Scaffold protein Discs large homolog 1 (Dlg1) specifies TCR-dependent functions by channeling proximal signals toward the activation of p38-dependent proinflammatory cytokine gene expression and/or p38-independent cytotoxic granule release. Two Dlg1 variants are expressed in CD8(+) T cells via alternative splicing, Dlg1AB and Dlg1B, which have differing abilities coordinate TCR-dependent functions. Although both variants facilitate p38-independent cytotoxicity, only Dlg1AB coordinates p38-dependent proinflammatory cytokine expression. In this study, we identify TCR-induced Dlg1 tyrosine phosphorylation as a key regulatory step required for Dlg1AB-mediated p38-dependent functions, including proinflammatory cytokine expression. We find that Dlg1AB but not Dlg1B is tyrosine phosphorylated by proximal tyrosine kinase Lck in response to TCR stimulation. Furthermore, we identify Dlg1 tyrosine 222 (Y222) as a major site of Dlg1 phosphorylation required for TCR-triggered p38 activation and NFAT-dependent expression of proinflammatory cytokines, but not for p38-independent cytotoxicity. Taken together, our data support a model where TCR-induced phosphorylation of Dlg1 Y222 is a key point of control that endows Dlg1AB with the ability to coordinate p38 activation and proinflammatory cytokine production. We propose blocking Dlg1AB phosphorylation as a novel therapeutic target to specifically block proinflammatory cytokine production but not cytotoxicity.

  5. Stress downregulates lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of proinflammatory cytokines in the spleen, pituitary, and brain of mice.

    PubMed

    Goujon, E; Parnet, P; Laye, S; Combe, C; Kelley, K W; Dantzer, R

    1995-12-01

    Mice injected with LPS (10 mu g/mouse, sc) or saline were submitted to a 15-min restraint stress and sacrificed 1 or 2 h later to assess the effect of stress on the induction of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and other proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1alpha, IL-1ra, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) in the spleen, pituitary, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and striatum. LPS-induced cytokine gene expression, as determined by comparative RT-PCR, was lower in stressed than in nonstressed mice. LPS increased plasma and tissue levels of IL-1beta, as determined by ELISA, but this effect was less marked in stressed than in nonstressed mice. These results are discussed in relation to the modulatory effects of glucocorticoids on cytokine production.

  6. Proinflammatory cytokine levels in fibromyalgia patients are independent of body mass index

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by chronic, widespread muscular pain and tenderness and is generally associated with other somatic and psychological symptoms. Further, circulatory levels of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6) may be altered in FM patients, possibly in association with their symptoms. Recently, rises in BMI have been suggested to contribute to increased circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines in FM patients. Our aim was to measure the circulatory levels of proinflammatory cytokines to determine the influence of BMI on these levels in FM patients and healthy volunteers (HVs). In Spanish FM patients (n = 64) and HVs (n = 25), we measured BMI and serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines by capture ELISA. Findings There were significant differences in BMI levels between FM patients (26.40 ± 4.46) and HVs (23.64 ± 3.45) and significant increase in IL-6 in FM patients (16.28 ± 8.13 vs 0.92 ± 0.32 pg/ml) (P < 0.001). IL-1β and TNF-α decreased in FM patients compared with HVs. By ANCOVA, there was no significant association between BMI and TNF-α (F = 0.098, p = 0.75) or IL-6 (F = 0.221, p = 0.63) levels in FM patients. Conclusions Our analysis in FM patients of BMI as a covariate of proinflammatory cytokines levels showed that serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels are independent of BMI. Further studies are necessary to dissect these findings and their implication in future therapeutic approaches for FM patients. PMID:20525285

  7. Proinflammatory cytokines upregulate sympathoexcitatory mechanisms in the subfornical organ of the rat.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shun-Guang; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Felder, Robert B

    2015-05-01

    Our previous work indicated that the subfornical organ (SFO) is an important brain sensor of blood-borne proinflammatory cytokines, mediating their central effects on autonomic and cardiovascular function. However, the mechanisms by which SFO mediates the central effects of circulating proinflammatory cytokines remain unclear. We hypothesized that proinflammatory cytokines act within the SFO to upregulate the expression of excitatory and inflammatory mediators that drive sympathetic nerve activity. In urethane-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats, direct microinjection of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (25 ng) or interleukin (IL)-1β (25 ng) into SFO increased mean blood pressure, heart rate, and renal sympathetic nerve activity within 15 to 20 minutes, mimicking the response to systemically administered proinflammatory cytokines. Pretreatment of SFO with microinjections of the angiotensin II type-1 receptor blocker losartan (1 μg), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril (1 μg) or cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor NS-398 (2 μg) attenuated those responses. Four hours after the SFO microinjection of TNF-α (25 ng) or IL-1β (25 ng), mRNA for angiotensin-converting enzyme, angiotensin II type-1 receptor, TNF-α and the p55 TNF-α receptor, IL-1β and the IL-1R receptor, and cyclooxygenase-2 had increased in SFO, and mRNA for angiotensin-converting enzyme, angiotensin II type-1 receptor, and cyclooxygenase-2 had increased downstream in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Confocal immunofluorescent images revealed that immunoreactivity for the p55 TNF-α receptor and the IL-1 receptor accessory protein, a subunit of the IL-1 receptor, colocalized with angiotensin-converting enzyme, angiotensin II type-1 receptor-like, cyclooxygenase-2, and prostaglandin E2 EP3 receptor immunoreactivity in SFO neurons. These data suggest that proinflammatory cytokines act within the SFO to upregulate the expression of inflammatory and excitatory mediators that drive sympathetic

  8. Pro-inflammatory cytokines upregulate sympathoexcitatory mechanisms in the subfornical organ of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shun-Guang; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Felder, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Our previous work indicated that the subfornical organ (SFO) is an important brain sensor of blood-borne pro-inflammatory cytokines, mediating their central effects on autonomic and cardiovascular function. However, the mechanisms by which SFO mediates the central effects of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines remain unclear. We hypothesized that pro-inflammatory cytokines act within the SFO to upregulate the expression of excitatory and inflammatory mediators that drive sympathetic nerve activity. In urethane-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats, direct microinjection of TNF-α (25 ng) or IL-1β (25 ng) into SFO increased mean blood pressure, heart rate and renal sympathetic nerve activity within 15–20 minutes, mimicking the response to systemically administered pro-inflammatory cytokines. Pretreatment of SFO with microinjections of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) blocker losartan (1 µg), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor captopril (1 µg) or cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor NS-398 (2 µg) attenuated those responses. Four hours after the SFO microinjection of TNF-α (25 ng) or IL-1β (25 ng), mRNA for ACE, AT1R, TNF-α and the p55 TNF-α receptor TNFR1, IL-1β and the IL-1R receptor, and COX-2 had increased in SFO, and mRNA for ACE, AT1R and COX-2 had increased downstream in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Confocal immunofluorescent images revealed that immunoreactivity for TNFR1 and the IL-1 receptor accessory protein, a subunit of the IL-1 receptor, co-localized with ACE, AT1R-like, COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 EP3 receptor immunoreactivity in SFO neurons. These data suggest that pro-inflammatory cytokines act within the SFO to upregulate the expression of inflammatory and excitatory mediators that drive sympathetic excitation. PMID:25776070

  9. Ephedrine hydrochloride protects mice from LPS challenge by promoting IL-10 secretion and inhibiting proinflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yuejuan; Guo, Ziyi; He, Weigang; Yang, Yang; Li, Yuhu; Zheng, Aoxiang; Li, Ping; Zhang, Yan; Ma, Jinzhu; Wen, Mingyue; Yang, Muyi; An, Huazhang; Ji, Guang; Yu, Yizhi

    2012-05-01

    Sepsis and its derivative endotoxic shock are still serious conditions with high mortality in the intensive care unit. The mechanisms that ensure the balance of proinflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory cytokine production are of particular importance. As an active α- and β-adrenergic agonist, ephedrine hydrochloride (EH) is a widely used agent for cardiovascular diseases, especially boosting blood pressure. Here we demonstrate that EH increased Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated production of interleukin 10 (IL-10) through p38 MAPK activation. Simultaneously, EH negatively regulated the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Consistently, EH increased lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced serum IL-10 and inhibited tumor necrotic factor-α (TNFα) production in vivo. As a result, EH treatment protected mice from endotoxic shock by lethal LPS challenge. In brief, our data demonstrated that EH could contribute to immune homeostasis by balancing the production of proinflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory cytokine in TLR4 signaling. This study provides a potential usage of EH in autoimmunologic diseases or other severe inflammations.

  10. Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells and Proinflammatory Cytokines as Targets for Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Atretkhany, K-S N; Drutskaya, M S

    2016-11-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells represent a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells. Under normal conditions, these cells differentiate into macrophages, dendritic cells, and granulocytes. However, in pathological states such as inflammation, infection, or tumor growth, there is an arrest of their differentiation that results in the accumulation of immature myeloid cells in the organism. In addition, these cells acquire a suppressor phenotype, expressing anti-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and suppress T-cell immune response. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) contribute to cancerogenesis by forming a favorable microenvironment for tumor growth. Proinflammatory cytokines, secreted by tumor cells and the tumor microenvironment, induce angiogenesis and metastasis and promote tumor growth. They also provide signals necessary for survival, accumulation, and function of MDSC. Understanding the mechanisms of myeloid suppressor cell development and the use of proinflammatory cytokine inhibitors may prove beneficial for tumor therapy.

  11. Inhibition of neddylation represses lipopolysaccharide-induced proinflammatory cytokine production in macrophage cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fang-Mei; Reyna, Sara M; Granados, Jose C; Wei, Sung-Jen; Innis-Whitehouse, Wendy; Maffi, Shivani K; Rodriguez, Edward; Slaga, Thomas J; Short, John D

    2012-10-12

    Cullin-RING E3 ligases (CRLs) are a class of ubiquitin ligases that control the proteasomal degradation of numerous target proteins, including IκB, and the activity of these CRLs are positively regulated by conjugation of a Nedd8 polypeptide onto Cullin proteins in a process called neddylation. CRL-mediated degradation of IκB, which normally interacts with and retains NF-κB in the cytoplasm, permits nuclear translocation and transactivation of the NF-κB transcription factor. Neddylation occurs through a multistep enzymatic process involving Nedd8 activating enzymes, and recent studies have shown that the pharmacological agent, MLN4924, can potently inhibit Nedd8 activating enzymes, thereby preventing neddylation of Cullin proteins and preventing the degradation of CRL target proteins. In macrophages, regulation of NF-κB signaling functions as a primary pathway by which infectious agents such as lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) cause the up-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines. Here we have analyzed the effects of MLN4924, and compared the effects of MLN4924 with a known anti-inflammatory agent (dexamethasone), on certain proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) and the NF-κB signaling pathway in LPS-stimulated macrophages. We also used siRNA to block neddylation to assess the role of this molecular process during LPS-induced cytokine responsiveness. Our results demonstrate that blocking neddylation, either pharmacologically or using siRNA, abrogates the increase in certain proinflammatory cytokines secreted from macrophages in response to LPS. In addition, we have shown that MLN4924 and dexamethasone inhibit LPS-induced cytokine up-regulation at the transcriptional level, albeit through different molecular mechanisms. Thus, neddylation represents a novel molecular process in macrophages that can be targeted to prevent and/or treat the LPS-induced up-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines and the disease processes associated with their up-regulation.

  12. Elevated serum titers of proinflammatory cytokines and CNS autoantibodies in patients with chronic spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Hayes, K C; Hull, T C L; Delaney, G A; Potter, P J; Sequeira, K A J; Campbell, K; Popovich, P G

    2002-06-01

    This study characterized the proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), the antiinflammatory cytokines, IL-4 and IL-10, autoantibodies specific for GM1 ganglioside (anti-GM1), IgG and IgM, and myelin-associated glycoprotein (anti-MAG), in the sera of infection-free, chronic (>12 months), traumatically injured SCI patients (n = 24). Healthy able-bodied subjects (n = 26) served as controls. The proinflammatory cytokines and anti-GM1 antibodies were of particular interest as they have been implicated in an autoimmune "channelopathy" component to central and peripheral conduction deficits in various chronic neuroinflammatory diseases. Antibody and cytokine titers were established using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The mean anti-GM(1) (IgM) titer value for the SCI group was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than controls. The SCI group also demonstrated significantly higher titers (p < 0.05) of IL-2 and TNF alpha than controls. No differences were found between the SCI group and control group mean levels of IL-4 or IL-10. Overall, the serum of 57% of SCI patients contained increased levels of autoantibodies or proinflammatory cytokines relative to control values. These results provide preliminary support for the hypothesis that chronic immunological activation in the periphery occurs in a subpopulation of chronic SCI patients. It remains to be established whether elevated serum titers of proinflammatory cytokines and autoantibodies against GM1 are beneficial to the patients or whether they are surrogate markers of a channelopathy that compounds the neurological impairment associated with traumatic axonopathy or myelinopathy.

  13. Effects of intrauterine infusion of Trueperella pyogenes on endometrial mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines and luteolytic cascade genes and their association with luteal life span in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lima, F S; Greco, L F; Bisinotto, R S; Ribeiro, E S; Martinez, N M; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P; Reinhard, M K; Galvão, K N

    2015-11-01

    Objectives were to determine the effects of intrauterine infusion (IUI) of Trueperella pyogenes on endometrial expression of proinflammatory cytokines and luteal life span. Holstein cows (n = 32) were allocated randomly, in two replicates (15 then 17 cows), to receive one of three treatments on Day 5 of the estrous cycle: TP (n = 13), IUI containing 10(9) colony-forming units/mL of T. pyogenes; tumor necrosis factor (TNF; n = 9), IUI containing 1 μg of TNFα; and control (n = 10), IUI of saline solution. Five cows per treatment had uterine biopsies collected at 6, 12, and 24 hours after treatment to evaluate the endometrial messenger RNA expression of TNFα (TNF), interleukin-1β (IL1B), IL6, IL8, prostaglandin E synthase (PGES), prostaglandin F synthase (PGFS), and oxytocin receptor (OXR), and histologic evidence of inflammation. Messenger RNA expression was measured using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The remaining cows had ovaries scanned and blood collected for progesterone evaluation; however, only seven, four, and three cows in the TP, TNF, and control groups were used for comparison in replicate 2. The GLIMMIX procedure of SAS was used for statistical analysis. All TP and TNF cows had moderate to severe endometrial inflammation, whereas only one control had mild inflammation. Premature luteolysis occurred in three, one, and zero cows in the TP, TNF and control groups, respectively. Delayed luteolysis occurred in one TP and one TNF cow. Interleukin-1β expression was greater in the TP cows than in the TNF cows at 24 hours after IUI. Moreover, IL6 expression tended to be greater for the TP cows than for the control cows at 12 hours after IUI. Interleukin 8 expression was greater in the TP cows than in the control and TNF cows at 24 hours after IUI. Oxytocin receptor expression tended to be greater for the TP cows and was greater for the TNF cows than for the control cows at 12 hours. The messenger RNA expressions of TNF, PGES

  14. Mycoplasma membrane lipoproteins induced proinflammatory cytokines by a mechanism distinct from that of lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Rawadi, G; Roman-Roman, S

    1996-01-01

    To gain a clear understanding of the mechanisms by which mycoplasmas induced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in monocytic cells, we have studied the induction of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), tumor necrosis factor alpha, and IL-6 by mycoplasmas in three distinct human myelomonocytic cell lines in comparison with induction by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). HL-60 cell line did not release cytokines when induced with either LPS or mycoplasmas. In contrast to LPS, mycoplasmas failed to increase the weak levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha secreted by phorbol myristate acetate-differentiated U937 cells. In addition, Northern (RNA) blot analysis of cytokine expression in these cells showed that the induction of IL-1 beta by mycoplasmas involves, unlike that by LPS, posttranscriptional events. Interestingly, in THP-1 cells, cytokine induction pathways triggered by mycoplasmas remained operational under conditions where LPS pathways were abolished, suggesting functional independence. The study of cytokine-inducing activity displayed by distinct fractions derived from a series of different mycoplasma species demonstrated that lipid membrane constituents were largely responsible for these effects. Finally, we have demonstrated that tyrosine phosphorylation is a crucial event in the mycoplasma-mediated induction of proinflammatory cytokines in either THP-1 cells or human monocytes. PMID:8550219

  15. Neutralization Versus Reinforcement of Proinflammatory Cytokines to Arrest Autoimmunity in Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kaminitz, Ayelet; Ash, Shifra; Askenasy, Nadir

    2016-09-27

    As physiological pathways of intercellular communication produced by all cells, cytokines are involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory insulitis as well as pivotal mediators of immune homeostasis. Proinflammatory cytokines including interleukins, interferons, transforming growth factor-β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and nitric oxide promote destructive insulitis in type 1 diabetes through amplification of the autoimmune reaction, direct toxicity to β-cells, and sensitization of islets to apoptosis. The concept that neutralization of cytokines may be of therapeutic benefit has been tested in few clinical studies, which fell short of inducing sustained remission or achieving disease arrest. Therapeutic failure is explained by the redundant activities of individual cytokines and their combinations, which are rather dispensable in the process of destructive insulitis because other cytolytic pathways efficiently compensate their deficiency. Proinflammatory cytokines are less redundant in regulation of the inflammatory reaction, displaying protective effects through restriction of effector cell activity, reinforcement of suppressor cell function, and participation in islet recovery from injury. Our analysis suggests that the role of cytokines in immune homeostasis overrides their contribution to β-cell death and may be used as potent immunomodulatory agents for therapeutic purposes rather than neutralized.

  16. The diagnostic accuracy of acute phase proteins and proinflammatory cytokines in sheep with pneumonic pasteurellosis

    PubMed Central

    Elmoslemany, Ahmed M.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of acute phase proteins and proinflammatory cytokines in sheep with pneumonic pasteurellosis. Blood samples were collected from 56 sheep (36 naturally infected with Pasteurella multocida and 20 healthy controls) belonging to one farm in Eastern region, Saudi Arabia. Serum samples were evaluated for acute phase proteins (Haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA) and fibrinogen (Fb)), and the proinflammatory cytokines (interleukins (IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interferon-gamma (IFN-ϒ)). Additionally, nasopharyngeal swabs and bronchoalveolar lavages were collected from all animals for bacteriological examinations. Receiver operating characteristic curve was used to assess the diagnostic performance of each parameter. All parameters showed moderate to high degree of positive correlation with case-control status. There was no significant difference in the area under the curve (AUC) among acute phase proteins; however, both Hp and SAA showed better sensitivity and specificity than Fb. The proinflammatory cytokines (IL1-α, IL1-β, and IL6) showed similar and highly accurate diagnostic performance (AUC > 0.9), whereas IFN-ϒ was moderately accurate (AUC = 0.79). In conclusion, this study confirms the value of acute phase proteins and cytokines as diagnostic biomarkers of naturally occuring pneumonic pasteurellosis in sheep. PMID:27547520

  17. Ndfip1 restricts Th17 cell potency by limiting lineage stability and proinflammatory cytokine production

    PubMed Central

    Kesewa Layman, Awo Akosua; L. Sprout, Stephanie; Phillips, Dylan; Oliver, Paula M.

    2017-01-01

    While Th17 cells can protect against colonization by pathogenic organisms, they also have the potential to become pathogenic and promote autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Mechanisms that control their pathogenic potential remain poorly understood. Here we show that Ndfip1, a co-activator of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Itch, restricts the frequency and pathogenicity of Th17 cells. Mice lacking Ndfip1 have increased numbers of Th17 cells, and this increase is cell intrinsic. We found that Ndfip1 restricts production of the proinflammatory cytokines in Th17 cells. Increased cytokine production correlated with reduced degradation and accumulation of RORγT. When transferred in vivo, Th17 cells lacking Ndfip1 were more likely to maintain their ability to make IL-17, were more potent proinflammatory cytokine producers, and were powerful inducers of colitis. Together our data support an essential role for Ndfip1 in degrading RORγT and suppressing Th17 lineage stability, proinflammatory cytokine production, and pathogenicity. PMID:28051111

  18. Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine-Mediated Anemia: Regarding Molecular Mechanisms of Erythropoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Morceau, F.; Dicato, M.; Diederich, M.

    2009-01-01

    Anemia of cancer and chronic inflammatory diseases is a frequent complication affecting quality of life. For cancer patients it represents a particularly bad prognostic. Low level of erythropoietin is considered as one of the causes of anemia in these pathologies. The deficiency in erythropoietin production results from pro-inflammatory cytokines effect. However, few data is available concerning molecular mechanisms involved in cytokine-mediated anemia. Some recent publications have demonstrated the direct effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines on cell differentiation towards erythroid pathway, without erythropoietin defect. This suggested that pro-inflammatory cytokine-mediated signaling pathways affect erythropoietin activity. They could interfere with erythropoietin-mediated signaling pathways, inducing early apoptosis and perturbing the expression and regulation of specific transcription factors involved in the control of erythroid differentiation. In this review we summarize the effect of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), and interferon (IFN)-γ on erythropoiesis with a particular interest for molecular feature. PMID:20204172

  19. Intermittent fasting during Ramadan attenuates proinflammatory cytokines and immune cells in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Faris, Mo'ez Al-Islam E; Kacimi, Safia; Al-Kurd, Ref'at A; Fararjeh, Mohammad A; Bustanji, Yasser K; Mohammad, Mohammad K; Salem, Mohammad L

    2012-12-01

    Intermittent fasting and caloric restriction have been shown to extend life expectancy and reduce inflammation and cancer promotion in animal models. It was hypothesized that intermittent prolonged fasting practiced during the month of Ramadan (RIF) could positively affect the inflammatory state. To investigate this hypothesis, a cross-sectional study was designed to investigate the impact of RIF on selected inflammatory cytokines and immune biomarkers in healthy subjects. Fifty (21 men and 29 women) healthy volunteers who practiced Ramadan fasting were recruited for the investigation of circulating proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor α), immune cells (total leukocytes, monocytes, granulocytes, and lymphocytes), and anthropometric and dietary assessments. The investigations were conducted 1 week before Ramadan fasting, at the end of the third week of Ramadan, and 1 month after the cessation of Ramadan month. The proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor α; systolic and diastolic blood pressures; body weight; and body fat percentage were significantly lower (P < .05) during Ramadan as compared with before Ramadan or after the cessation of Ramadan fasting. Immune cells significantly decreased during Ramadan but still remained within the reference ranges. These results indicate that RIF attenuates inflammatory status of the body by suppressing proinflammatory cytokine expression and decreasing body fat and circulating levels of leukocytes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Continuous infusion of proinflammatory cytokines into the brain to study brain cytokine induced local and systemic immune effects.

    PubMed

    Schöning, B; Elepfandt, P; Lanksch, W R; Volk, H D; Woiciechowsky, C

    1999-07-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines are produced in the brain after various kinds of insult (ischemia, trauma, infection). In this process interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha are most important. These cytokines are key mediators of inflammation. Furthermore, these cytokines can act as neurotransmitters and develop direct effects on the central nervous system (CNS) including fever, sleep and stimulation of the neuroendocrine as well as sympathetic nervous system. Moreover, IL-1beta and TNF-alpha may also be involved in brain repair and regenerating processes. However, most of the data about the role of cytokines in the brain have been obtained from either in vitro studies or bolus injections into the brain parenchyma or cerebroventricular system. On the other hand, it is known that cytokines are released continuously into the brain after a cerebral insult over a period of 24 to 48 h. In order to further complete the knowledge about the interactions between neural and immune cells to overcome the primary insult and initiate repair and regeneration in the CNS, a new animal model of local inflammation reaction was established using chronic intracerebral infusion of rat recombinant cytokines.

  1. The Cytotoxic Enterotoxin of Aeromonas hydrophila Induces Proinflammatory Cytokine Production and Activates Arachidonic Acid Metabolism in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, A. K.; Xu, X.-J.; Ribardo, D.; Gonzalez, M.; Kuhl, K.; Peterson, J. W.; Houston, C. W.

    2000-01-01

    An aerolysin-related cytotoxic enterotoxin (Act) of Aeromonas hydrophila possesses multiple biological activities, which include its ability to lyse red blood cells, destroy tissue culture cell lines, evoke a fluid secretory response in ligated intestinal loop models, and induce lethality in mice. The role of Act in the virulence of the organism has been demonstrated. In this study, we evaluated the potential of Act to induce production of proinflammatory cytokines associated with Act-induced tissue injury and Act's capacity to activate in macrophages arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism that leads to production of eicosanoids (e.g., prostaglandin E2 [PGE2]). Our data indicated that Act stimulated the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha and upregulated the expression of genes encoding interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6 in the murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7. Act also activated transcription of the gene encoding inducible nitric oxide synthase. Act evoked the production of PGE2 coupled to the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) pathway. AA is a substrate for PGE2, and Act produced AA from phospholipids by inducing group V secretory phospholipase A2. We also demonstrated that Act increased cyclic AMP (cAMP) production in macrophages. cAMP, along with PGE2, could potentiate fluid secretion in animal models because of infiltration and activation of macrophages resulting from Act-induced tissue injury. After Act treatment of RAW cells, we detected an increased translocation of NF-κB and cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) to the nucleus using gel shift assays. Act also upregulated production of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 in macrophages, suggesting a protective role for Bcl-2 against cell death induced by proinflammatory cytokines. The increased expression of genes encoding the proinflammatory cytokines, COX-2, and Bcl-2 appeared correlated with the activation of NF-κB and CREB. This is the first report of the detailed mechanisms of action of Act from A

  2. The role of reactive oxygen species and proinflammatory cytokines in type 1 diabetes pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Padgett, Lindsey E; Broniowska, Katarzyna A; Hansen, Polly A; Corbett, John A; Tse, Hubert M

    2013-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a T cell–mediated autoimmune disease characterized by the destruction of insulin-secreting pancreatic β cells. In humans with T1D and in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice (a murine model for human T1D), autoreactive T cells cause β-cell destruction, as transfer or deletion of these cells induces or prevents disease, respectively. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells use distinct effector mechanisms and act at different stages throughout T1D to fuel pancreatic β-cell destruction and disease pathogenesis. While these adaptive immune cells employ distinct mechanisms for β-cell destruction, one central means for enhancing their autoreactivity is by the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-1. In addition to their production by diabetogenic T cells, proinflammatory cytokines are induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) via redox-dependent signaling pathways. Highly reactive molecules, proinflammatory cytokines are produced upon lymphocyte infiltration into pancreatic islets and induce disease pathogenicity by directly killing β cells, which characteristically possess low levels of antioxidant defense enzymes. In addition to β-cell destruction, proinflammatory cytokines are necessary for efficient adaptive immune maturation, and in the context of T1D they exacerbate autoimmunity by intensifying adaptive immune responses. The first half of this review discusses the mechanisms by which autoreactive T cells induce T1D pathogenesis and the importance of ROS for efficient adaptive immune activation, which, in the context of T1D, exacerbates autoimmunity. The second half provides a comprehensive and detailed analysis of (1) the mechanisms by which cytokines such as IL-1 and IFN-γ influence islet insulin secretion and apoptosis and (2) the key free radicals and transcription factors that control these processes. PMID:23323860

  3. Chemokine-cytokine cross-talk. The ELR+ CXC chemokine LIX (CXCL5) amplifies a proinflammatory cytokine response via a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-NF-kappa B pathway.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekar, Bysani; Melby, Peter C; Sarau, Henry M; Raveendran, Muthuswamy; Perla, Rao P; Marelli-Berg, Federica M; Dulin, Nickolai O; Singh, Ishwar S

    2003-02-14

    It is well established that cytokines can induce the production of chemokines, but the role of chemokines in the regulation of cytokine expression has not been fully investigated. Exposure of rat cardiac-derived endothelial cells (CDEC) to lipopolysaccharide-induced CXC chemokine (LIX), and to a lesser extent to KC and MIP-2, activated NF-kappaB and induced kappaB-driven promoter activity. LIX did not activate Oct-1. LIX-induced interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha promoter activity, and up-regulated mRNA expression. Increased transcription and mRNA stability both contributed to cytokine expression. LIX-mediated cytokine gene transcription was inhibited by interleukin-10. Transient overexpression of kinase-deficient NF-kappaB-inducing kinase (NIK) and IkappaB kinase (IKK), and dominant negative IkappaB significantly inhibited LIX-mediated NF-kappaB activation in rat CDEC. Inhibition of G(i) protein-coupled signal transduction, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and the 26 S proteasome significantly inhibited LIX-mediated NF-kappaB activation and cytokine gene transcription. Blocking CXCR2 attenuated LIX-mediated kappaB activation and kappaB-driven promoter activity in rat CDEC that express both CXCR1 and -2, and abrogated its activation in mouse CDEC that express only CXCR2. These results indicate that LIX activates NF-kappaB and induces kappaB-responsive proinflammatory cytokines via either CXCR1 or CXCR2, and involved phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, NIK, IKK, and IkappaB. Thus, in addition to attracting and activating neutrophils, the ELR(+) CXC chemokines amplify the inflammatory cascade, stimulating local production of cytokines that have negative inotropic and proapoptotic effects.

  4. Mild hyperhomocysteinemia increases brain acetylcholinesterase and proinflammatory cytokine levels in different tissues.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Emilene B S; Loureiro, Samanta O; Vuaden, Fernanda C; da Cunha, Aline A; Schmitz, Felipe; Kolling, Janaína; Savio, Luiz Eduardo B; Bogo, Maurício R; Bonan, Carla D; Netto, Carlos A; Wyse, Angela T S

    2014-10-01

    Mild hyperhomocysteinemia is considered to be a risk factor for cerebral and cardiovascular disorders and can be modeled in experimental rats. Inflammation has been implicated in the toxic effects of homocysteine. Cholinergic signaling controls cytokine production and inflammation through the "cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway," and brain acetylcholinesterase activity plays a role in this regulation. The aim of this present study is to investigate the effect of mild chronic hyperhomocysteinemia on proinflammatory cytokine levels in the brain, heart, and serum of rats. Activity, immunocontent, and gene expression of acetylcholinesterase in the brain and butyrylcholinesterase activity in serum were also evaluated. Mild hyperhomocysteinemia was induced in Wistar rats by homocysteine administration (0.03 μmol/g of body weight) twice a day, from the 30th to the 60th days of life. Controls received saline in the same volumes. Results demonstrated an increase in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in the hippocampus, as well as an increase in IL-1β and IL-6 levels in cerebral cortex. Acetylcholinesterase activity was increased in rats subjected to mild hyperhomocysteinemia in both cerebral structures tested; the immunocontent of this enzyme was also increased in the cerebral cortex and decreased in the hippocampus. Levels of acetylcholinesterase mRNA transcripts were not altered. Peripherally, homocysteine increased TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1 levels in the heart and IL-6 levels in serum. Taken altogether, these findings suggest that homocysteine promotes an inflammatory status that can contribute, at least in part, to neuronal and cardiovascular dysfunctions observed in mild hyperhomocysteinemia.

  5. Proinflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokine levels in complicated and noncomplicated parapneumonic pleural effusions.

    PubMed

    Marchi, Evaldo; Vargas, Francisco S; Acencio, Milena M; Sigrist, Rosa M S; Biscaro, Marjourie D A; Antonangelo, Leila; Teixeira, Lisete R; Light, Richard W

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate a panel of proinflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokines in noncomplicated and complicated parapneumonic pleural effusions and to correlate their levels with pleural fluid biochemical parameters. Serum and pleural effusion were collected from 60 patients with noncomplicated (n = 26) or complicated (n = 34) parapneumonic effusions and assayed for cytologic, biochemical, and proinflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokines. Student t test was used to compare serum and pleural fluid values, Spearman correlation to analyze the relationship between pleural fluid cytokines and biochemical parameters, and accuracy of pleural fluid cytokine levels to determine the optimal cutoff value for identification of complicated effusions. Corrections for multiple comparisons were applied and a P value < .05 was accepted as significant. Serum and pleural fluid cytokine levels of IL-8, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) soluble receptor (sR) II were similar between groups. In contrast, complicated effusions had higher levels of pleural fluid IL-1β, IL-1 receptor antagonist (ra), and TNF sRI. Negative correlations were found between pleural fluid glucose with IL-1β and TNF sRI and positive correlations between lactic dehydrogenate (LDH) with IL-1β, IL-8, and VEGF. Pleural fluid levels of IL-1β, IL-1ra, and TNF sRI were more accurate than IL-8, VEGF, IL-10, and TNF sRII in discriminating complicated effusions. Both proinflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokine levels in pleural fluid are elevated in complicated in comparison with noncomplicated parapneumonic pleural effusions, and they correlate with both pleural fluid glucose and LDH levels. IL-1β, IL-1ra, and TNF sRI had higher sensitivity and specificity than IL-8, VEGF, IL-10, and TNF sRII in discriminating complicated effusions.

  6. A review of the relationship between proinflammatory cytokines and major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Young, Juan Joseph; Bruno, Davide; Pomara, Nunzio

    2014-12-01

    Determining etiological factors and reviewing advances in diagnostic modalities sensitive and specific to Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is of importance in its evaluation and treatment. The inflammatory hypothesis is one of the most prevalent topics concerning MDD and may provide insight into the pathogenesis of depression, development of biomarkers, and ultimately production of more effective depression therapies. We reviewed several studies to evaluate contemporary concepts concerning proinflammatory cytokines and their relationship to various depressive disorders, the use of anti-inflammatory therapies in MDD treatment, and the application of neuroimaging in conjunction with cytokine profiles from both plasma and CSF as possible diagnostic tools. Proinflammatory cytokines in both plasma and CSF have been found to influence the progression and severity of depressive disorders in different populations. Studies have shown elevated serum levels of IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, CRP, and MCP-1 in depressed patients, but have presented mixed results with IL-8 serum levels, and with IL-6 and MCP-1 CSF levels. Anti-inflammatory treatment of MDD may have adjuvant properties with current depression medications. MRI and NIRS neuroimaging confirm neurological abnormalities in the presence of elevated proinflammatory cytokines in depressed or stressed patients. Heterogeneity of MDD and limited CSF cytokine research complicate the study of MDD pathogenesis. There is significant evidence that inflammatory processes influence the development and progression of MDD. Future studies with larger arrays of cytokine profiles aided by neuroimaging may provide more sensitive and specific modes of diagnostics in determining MDD etiology and provide guidance in individual therapies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Electroacupuncture downregulates TLR2/4 and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression after surgical trauma stress without adrenal glands involvement.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Zhao, Hui; Mao-Ying, Qi-Liang; Cao, Xiao-Ding; Wang, Yan-Qing; Wu, Gen-Cheng

    2009-08-28

    Cumulative evidences suggest that electroacupuncture (EA) can modulate immune function, but the mechanism needs further study. In the present study, the contribution of EA on toll-like receptors 2 and 4 (TLR2/TLR4) and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression after surgical trauma stress were investigated. The mRNA level of both TLR2/4 and pro-inflammatory cytokine was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. ELISA and Western blot assay were chosen for TLR2/TLR4 protein expression and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, respectively. The results showed that surgical trauma stress increased TLR2 mRNA and TLR2/4 proteins in the spleen and augmented pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL-1beta) mRNA and protein expression in the spleen and plasma. These effects could be deteriorated by adrenalectomy (ADX). EA at "Zusanli" acupoint significantly inhibited surgical trauma-induced TLR2 mRNA and TLR2/4 protein expression in spleen and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in the spleen and plasma. ADX, however, could not block the effect of EA. These results suggested that surgical trauma stress primes the innate immune system for enhanced TLR2 expression and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. EA inhibits TLR2/4 and pro-inflammatory cytokines to produce an anti-inflammatory effect in a surgical trauma stress model, without adrenal gland involvement.

  8. Fatigue in primary Sjögren's syndrome is associated with lower levels of proinflammatory cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Howard Tripp, Nadia; Tarn, Jessica; Natasari, Andini; Gillespie, Colin; Mitchell, Sheryl; Hackett, Katie L; Bowman, Simon J; Price, Elizabeth; Pease, Colin T; Emery, Paul; Lanyon, Peter; Hunter, John; Gupta, Monica; Bombardieri, Michele; Sutcliffe, Nurhan; Pitzalis, Costantino; McLaren, John; Cooper, Annie; Regan, Marian; Giles, Ian; Isenberg, David A; Saravanan, Vadivelu; Coady, David; Dasgupta, Bhaskar; McHugh, Neil; Young-Min, Steven; Moots, Robert; Gendi, Nagui; Akil, Mohammed; Griffiths, Bridget; Lendrem, Dennis W; Ng, Wan-Fai

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This article reports relationships between serum cytokine levels and patient-reported levels of fatigue, in the chronic immunological condition primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Methods Blood levels of 24 cytokines were measured in 159 patients with pSS from the United Kingdom Primary Sjögren's Syndrome Registry and 28 healthy non-fatigued controls. Differences between cytokines in cases and controls were evaluated using Wilcoxon test. Patient-reported scores for fatigue were evaluated, classified according to severity and compared with cytokine levels using analysis of variance. Logistic regression was used to determine the most important predictors of fatigue levels. Results 14 cytokines were significantly higher in patients with pSS (n=159) compared to non-fatigued healthy controls (n=28). While serum levels were elevated in patients with pSS compared to healthy controls, unexpectedly, the levels of 4 proinflammatory cytokines—interferon-γ-induced protein-10 (IP-10) (p=0.019), tumour necrosis factor-α (p=0.046), lymphotoxin-α (p=0.034) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) (p=0.022)—were inversely related to patient-reported levels of fatigue. A regression model predicting fatigue levels in pSS based on cytokine levels, disease-specific and clinical parameters, as well as anxiety, pain and depression, revealed IP-10, IFN-γ (both inversely), pain and depression (both positively) as the most important predictors of fatigue. This model correctly predicts fatigue levels with reasonable (67%) accuracy. Conclusions Cytokines, pain and depression appear to be the most powerful predictors of fatigue in pSS. Our data challenge the notion that proinflammatory cytokines directly mediate fatigue in chronic immunological conditions. Instead, we hypothesise that mechanisms regulating inflammatory responses may be important. PMID:27493792

  9. Proinflammatory cytokines differentially influence adult hippocampal cell proliferation depending upon the route and chronicity of administration.

    PubMed

    Seguin, Julie Anne; Brennan, Jordan; Mangano, Emily; Hayley, Shawn

    2009-01-01

    Disturbances of hippocampal plasticity, including impaired dendritic branching and reductions of neurogenesis, are provoked by stressful insults and may occur in depression. Although corticoids likely contribute to stressor-induced reductions of neurogenesis, other signaling messengers, including pro-inflammatory cytokines might also be involved. Accordingly, the present investigation assessed whether three proinflammatory cytokines, namely interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) (associated with depression) influenced cellular proliferation within the hippocampus. In this regard, systemic administration of TNF-alpha reduced 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling within the hippocampus, whereas IL-1beta and IL-6 had no such effect. However, repeated but not a single intra-hippocampal infusion of IL-6 and IL-1beta actually increased cellular proliferation and IL-6 infusion also enhanced microglial staining within the hippocampus. Yet, no changes in doublecortin expression were apparent, suggesting that the cytokine did not influence the birth of cells destined to become neurons. Essentially, the route of administration and chronicity of cytokine administration had a marked influence upon the nature of hippocampal alterations provoked, suggesting that cytokines may differentially regulate hippocampal plasticity in neuropsychiatric conditions.

  10. LPS priming potentiates and prolongs proinflammatory cytokine response to the trichothecene deoxynivalenol in the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Islam, Zahidul; Pestka, James J. . E-mail: pestka@msu.edu

    2006-02-15

    Simultaneous exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) markedly amplifies induction of proinflammatory cytokine expression as well as IL-1-driven lymphocyte apoptosis by trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON) in the mouse. The purpose of this research was to test the hypothesis that LPS priming will sensitize a host to DON-induced proinflammatory cytokine induction and apoptosis. In mice primed with LPS (1 mg/kg bw) ip. and treated 8 h later with DON po., the minimum DON doses for inducing IL-1{alpha}, IL-1{beta}, IL-6 and TNF-{alpha} serum proteins and splenic mRNAs were significantly lower than the DON doses required for vehicle-primed mice. LPS priming also decreased onset time and dramatically increased magnitude and duration of cytokine responses. LPS-primed mice maintained heightened sensitivity to DON for up to 24 h. LPS priming doses as low as 50 {mu}g/kg bw evoked sensitization. DNA fragmentation analysis and flow cytometry also revealed that mice primed with LPS (1 mg/kg) for 8 h and exposed to DON (12.5 mg/kg) exhibited massive thymocyte loss by apoptosis 12 h later compared to mice exposed to DON or LPS alone. LPS priming decreased DON-induced p38 and ERK 1/2 phosphorylation suggesting that enhanced mitogen-activated protein kinase activation was not involved in increased cytokine responses. Taken together, exposure to LPS rendered mice highly susceptible to DON induction of cytokine expression and this correlated with increased apoptosis in the thymus.

  11. Interleukin 10 inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokine responses and killing of Burkholderia pseudomallei

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Bianca; Rinchai, Darawan; Kewcharoenwong, Chidchamai; Nithichanon, Arnone; Biggart, Rachael; Hawrylowicz, Catherine M.; Bancroft, Gregory J.; Lertmemongkolchai, Ganjana

    2017-01-01

    Melioidosis, caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is endemic in northeastern Thailand and Northern Australia. Severe septicemic melioidosis is associated with high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and is correlated with poor clinical outcomes. IL-10 is an immunoregulatory cytokine, which in other infections can control the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, but its role in melioidosis has not been addressed. Here, whole blood of healthy seropositive individuals (n = 75), living in N. E. Thailand was co-cultured with B. pseudomallei and production of IL-10 and IFN-γ detected and the cellular sources identified. CD3− CD14+ monocytes were the main source of IL-10. Neutralization of IL-10 increased IFN-γ, IL-6 and TNF-α production and improved bacteria killing. IFN-γ production and microbicidal activity were impaired in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM). In contrast, IL-10 production was unimpaired in individuals with DM, resulting in an IL-10 dominant cytokine balance. Neutralization of IL-10 restored the IFN-γ response of individuals with DM to similar levels observed in healthy individuals and improved killing of B. pseudomallei in vitro. These results demonstrate that monocyte derived IL-10 acts to inhibit potentially protective cell mediated immune responses against B. pseudomallei, but may also moderate the pathological effects of excessive cytokine production during sepsis. PMID:28216665

  12. Increased levels of HMGB1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines in children with febrile seizures.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jieun; Min, Hyun Jin; Shin, Jeon-Soo

    2011-10-11

    Febrile seizures are the most common form of childhood seizures. Fever is induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines during infection, and pro-inflammatory cytokines may trigger the development of febrile seizures. In order to determine whether active inflammation, including high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) and pro-inflammatory cytokines, occurs in children with febrile seizures or epilepsy, we analyzed cytokine profiles of patients with febrile seizures or epilepsy. Forty-one febrile seizure patients who visited the emergency department of Seoul National University Boramae Hospital from June 2008 to May 2009 were included in this study. Blood was obtained from the febrile seizure child patients within 30 minutes of the time of the seizure; subsequently, serum cytokine assays were performed. Control samples were collected from children with febrile illness without convulsion (N = 41) and similarly analyzed. Serum samples from afebrile status epilepticus attacks in intractable epilepsy children (N = 12), afebrile seizure attacks in generalized epilepsy with febrile seizure plus (GEFSP) children (N = 6), and afebrile non-epileptic controls (N = 7) were also analyzed. Serum HMGB1 and IL-1β levels were significantly higher in febrile seizure patients than in fever only controls (p < 0.05). Serum IL-6 levels were significantly higher in typical febrile seizures than in fever only controls (p < 0.05). Serum IL-1β levels were significantly higher in status epilepticus attacks in intractable epilepsy patients than in fever only controls (p < 0.05). Serum levels of IL-1β were significantly correlated with levels of HMGB1, IL-6, and TNF-α (p < 0.05). HMGB1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines were significantly higher in febrile seizure children. Although it is not possible to infer causality from descriptive human studies, our data suggest that HMGB1 and the cytokine network may contribute to the generation of febrile seizures in children. There may be a potential role for anti

  13. Increased levels of HMGB1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines in children with febrile seizures

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective Febrile seizures are the most common form of childhood seizures. Fever is induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines during infection, and pro-inflammatory cytokines may trigger the development of febrile seizures. In order to determine whether active inflammation, including high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) and pro-inflammatory cytokines, occurs in children with febrile seizures or epilepsy, we analyzed cytokine profiles of patients with febrile seizures or epilepsy. Methods Forty-one febrile seizure patients who visited the emergency department of Seoul National University Boramae Hospital from June 2008 to May 2009 were included in this study. Blood was obtained from the febrile seizure child patients within 30 minutes of the time of the seizure; subsequently, serum cytokine assays were performed. Control samples were collected from children with febrile illness without convulsion (N = 41) and similarly analyzed. Serum samples from afebrile status epilepticus attacks in intractable epilepsy children (N = 12), afebrile seizure attacks in generalized epilepsy with febrile seizure plus (GEFSP) children (N = 6), and afebrile non-epileptic controls (N = 7) were also analyzed. Results Serum HMGB1 and IL-1β levels were significantly higher in febrile seizure patients than in fever only controls (p < 0.05). Serum IL-6 levels were significantly higher in typical febrile seizures than in fever only controls (p < 0.05). Serum IL-1β levels were significantly higher in status epilepticus attacks in intractable epilepsy patients than in fever only controls (p < 0.05). Serum levels of IL-1β were significantly correlated with levels of HMGB1, IL-6, and TNF-α (p < 0.05). Conclusions HMGB1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines were significantly higher in febrile seizure children. Although it is not possible to infer causality from descriptive human studies, our data suggest that HMGB1 and the cytokine network may contribute to the generation of febrile seizures in children

  14. Follistatin-like protein 1 suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokines expression during neuroinflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kai-Yuan; Liu, Yi; Han, Ying-Guang; Li, Jing-Kun; Jia, Jia-Lin; Chen, Bin; Yao, Zhi-Xiao; Nie, Lin; Cheng, Lei

    2017-04-01

    Follistain-like protein 1 (FSTL1), has been recently demonstrated to be involved in the embryo development of nervous system and glioblastoma. However, the role of FSTL1 in neuroinflammation remains unexplored. In this study, the expression of FSTL1 in astrocytes was verified and its role was studied in neuroinflammation induced by in vivo intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or LPS treatment to astrocytes in vitro. FSTL1 was significantly induced after ICV LPS injection or LPS treatment. FSTL1 suppressed upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in astrocytes after LPS treatment. Moreover, FSTL1 downregulated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines through suppressing MAPK/p-ERK1/2 pathway in astrocytes. Our results suggest that FSTL1 may play an anti-inflammatory role in neuroinflammation mediated by astrocytes.

  15. A novel pro-inflammatory protein of Streptococcus suis 2 induces the Toll-like receptor 2-dependent expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in RAW 264.7 macrophages via activation of ERK1/2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Yang, Yujie; Yan, Shuxian; Liu, Jiantao; Xu, Zhongmin; Yu, Junping; Song, Yajing; Zhang, Anding; Jin, Meilin

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus suis 2 is an important swine pathogen and an emergent zoonotic pathogen. Excessive inflammation caused by S. suis is responsible for the high levels of early mortality observed in septic shock-like syndrome cases. However, the mechanisms through which S. suis 2 (SS2) causes excessive inflammation remain unclear. Thus, this study aimed to identify novel pro-inflammatory mediators that play important roles in the development of therapies against SS2 infection. In this study, the novel pro-inflammatory protein HP0459, which was encoded by the SSUSC84_0459 gene, was discovered. The stimulation of RAW 264.7 macrophages with recombinant HP0459 protein induced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, MCP-1 and TNF-α). Compared with the wild-type (WT) strain, the isogenic knockout of HP0459 in SS2 led to reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in RAW264.7 macrophages and in vivo. The pro-inflammatory activity of HP0459 was significantly reduced by an antibody against Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in RAW264.7 macrophages and was lower in TLR2-deficient (TLR2-/-) macrophages than in WT macrophages. Furthermore, specific inhibitors of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathways significantly decreased the HP0459-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and a western blot assay showed that HP0459 stimulation induced the activation of the ERK1/2 pathway. Taken together, our data indicate that HP0459 is a novel pro-inflammatory mediator of SS2 and induces TLR2-dependent pro-inflammatory activity in RAW264.7 macrophages through the ERK1/2 pathway.

  16. Subfornical Organ Mediates Sympathetic and Hemodynamic Responses to Blood-borne Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shun-Guang; Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Beltz, Terry G.; Yu, Yang; Johnson, Alan Kim; Felder, Robert B.

    2013-01-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines play an important role in regulating autonomic and cardiovascular function in hypertension and heart failure. Peripherally administered pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) act upon the brain to increase blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and sympathetic nerve activity. These molecules are too large to penetrate blood brain barrier (BBB), and so the mechanisms by which they elicit these responses remain unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the subfornical organ (SFO), a forebrain circumventricular organ that lacks a BBB, plays a major role in mediating the sympathetic and hemodynamic responses to circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines. Intracarotid artery (ICA) injection of TNF-α (200 ng) or IL-1β (200 ng) dramatically increased mean BP (MBP), HR and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in rats with sham lesions of the SFO (SFO-s). These excitatory responses to ICA TNF-α and IL-1β were significantly attenuated in SFO-lesioned (SFO-x) rats. Similarly, the increases in MBP, HR and RSNA in response to intravenous (IV) injections of TNF-α (500 ng) or IL-1β (500 ng) in SFO-s rats were significantly reduced in the SFO-x rats. Immunofluorescent staining revealed a dense distribution of the p55 TNF-α receptor and the IL-1 receptor accessory protein, a subunit of the IL-1 receptor, in the SFO. These data suggest that SFO is a predominant site in the brain at which circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines act to elicit cardiovascular and sympathetic responses. PMID:23670302

  17. Subfornical organ mediates sympathetic and hemodynamic responses to blood-borne proinflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shun-Guang; Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Beltz, Terry G; Yu, Yang; Johnson, Alan Kim; Felder, Robert B

    2013-07-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines play an important role in regulating autonomic and cardiovascular function in hypertension and heart failure. Peripherally administered proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), act on the brain to increase blood pressure, heart rate, and sympathetic nerve activity. These molecules are too large to penetrate the blood-brain barrier, and so the mechanisms by which they elicit these responses remain unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the subfornical organ (SFO), a forebrain circumventricular organ that lacks a blood-brain barrier, plays a major role in mediating the sympathetic and hemodynamic responses to circulating proinflammatory cytokines. Intracarotid artery injection of TNF-α (200 ng) or IL-1β (200 ng) dramatically increased mean blood pressure, heart rate, and renal sympathetic nerve activity in rats with sham lesions of the SFO (SFO-s). These excitatory responses to intracarotid artery TNF-α and IL-1β were significantly attenuated in SFO-lesioned (SFO-x) rats. Similarly, the increases in mean blood pressure, heart rate, and renal sympathetic nerve activity in response to intravenous injections of TNF-α (500 ng) or IL-1β (500 ng) in SFO-s rats were significantly reduced in the SFO-x rats. Immunofluorescent staining revealed a dense distribution of the p55 TNF-α receptor and the IL-1 receptor accessory protein, a subunit of the IL-1 receptor, in the SFO. These data suggest that SFO is a predominant site in the brain at which circulating proinflammatory cytokines act to elicit cardiovascular and sympathetic responses.

  18. Immune mechanisms in the pathogenesis of cerebral palsy: implication of proinflammatory cytokines and T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Kadhim, Hazim; Sébire, Guillaume

    2002-01-01

    Beyond the already known aetiopathogenic factors linked to periventricular leukomalacia, a major pathological substrate in cerebral palsy, immune-inflammatory mechanisms have recently been implicated. Thus proinflammatory cytokines have been shown to be involved very early in the course of this disorder. Additionally, markers of T-lymphocyte activation were upregulated. These findings provide new insight into mechanisms underlying neural cell death in this condition and might open new horizons for preventive and therapeutic strategies.

  19. SCIMP is a transmembrane non-TIR TLR adaptor that promotes proinflammatory cytokine production from macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Lin; Bokil, Nilesh J.; Wall, Adam A.; Kapetanovic, Ronan; Lansdaal, Natalie M.; Marceline, Faustine; Burgess, Belinda J.; Tong, Samuel J.; Guo, Zhong; Alexandrov, Kirill; Ross, Ian L.; Hibbs, Margaret L.; Stow, Jennifer L.; Sweet, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    Danger signals activate Toll-like receptors (TLRs), thereby initiating inflammatory responses. Canonical TLR signalling, via Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor domain (TIR)-containing adaptors and proinflammatory transcription factors such as NF-κB, occurs in many cell types; however, additional mechanisms are required for specificity of inflammatory responses in innate immune cells. Here we show that SCIMP, an immune-restricted, transmembrane adaptor protein (TRAP), promotes selective proinflammatory cytokine responses by direct modulation of TLR4. SCIMP is a non-TIR-containing adaptor, binding directly to the TLR4-TIR domain in response to lipopolysaccharide. In macrophages, SCIMP is constitutively associated with the Lyn tyrosine kinase, is required for tyrosine phosphorylation of TLR4, and facilitates TLR-inducible production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-12p40. Point mutations in SCIMP abrogating TLR4 binding also prevent SCIMP-mediated cytokine production. SCIMP is, therefore, an immune-specific TLR adaptor that shapes host defence and inflammation. PMID:28098138

  20. SCIMP is a transmembrane non-TIR TLR adaptor that promotes proinflammatory cytokine production from macrophages.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lin; Bokil, Nilesh J; Wall, Adam A; Kapetanovic, Ronan; Lansdaal, Natalie M; Marceline, Faustine; Burgess, Belinda J; Tong, Samuel J; Guo, Zhong; Alexandrov, Kirill; Ross, Ian L; Hibbs, Margaret L; Stow, Jennifer L; Sweet, Matthew J

    2017-01-18

    Danger signals activate Toll-like receptors (TLRs), thereby initiating inflammatory responses. Canonical TLR signalling, via Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor domain (TIR)-containing adaptors and proinflammatory transcription factors such as NF-κB, occurs in many cell types; however, additional mechanisms are required for specificity of inflammatory responses in innate immune cells. Here we show that SCIMP, an immune-restricted, transmembrane adaptor protein (TRAP), promotes selective proinflammatory cytokine responses by direct modulation of TLR4. SCIMP is a non-TIR-containing adaptor, binding directly to the TLR4-TIR domain in response to lipopolysaccharide. In macrophages, SCIMP is constitutively associated with the Lyn tyrosine kinase, is required for tyrosine phosphorylation of TLR4, and facilitates TLR-inducible production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-12p40. Point mutations in SCIMP abrogating TLR4 binding also prevent SCIMP-mediated cytokine production. SCIMP is, therefore, an immune-specific TLR adaptor that shapes host defence and inflammation.

  1. Host Intracellular Signaling Events and Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Production in African Trypanosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Kuriakose, Shiby M.; Singh, Rani; Uzonna, Jude E.

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens, such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites, possess specific molecules or proteins that are recognized by several host innate immune receptors, leading to the activation of several intracellular signaling molecules and pathways. The magnitude and quality of these events significantly affect the outcome of infection. African trypanosomes, including Trypanosoma congolense, are capable of manipulating the host immune response, including the activity of macrophages, which are the key immune cells that contribute to the immunopathogenesis of African trypanosomiasis. Although it is known that immune hyperactivation and excessive pro-inflammatory cytokine production are the hallmarks of African trypanosomiasis, the mechanisms through which these events are triggered are poorly defined. However, it is known that macrophages may play a significant role in these processes, because phagocytosis of trypanosomes by macrophages initiates intracellular signal transduction cascades that lead to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and alteration in cell function. This review highlights recent progress in our understanding of the innate immune receptors, signaling pathways, and transcription factors involved in T. congolense-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in macrophages. It will reveal the existence of complex signaling events through which the parasite modulates the host immune response, thus identifying novel targets that could aid in designing strategies to effectively control the disease. PMID:27242788

  2. Atypical antipsychotics induce both proinflammatory and adipogenic gene expression in human adipocytes in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Sárvári, Anitta K.; Veréb, Zoltán; Uray, Iván P.; Fésüs, László; Balajthy, Zoltán

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • Antipsychotics modulate the expression of adipogenic genes in human adipocytes. • Secretion of proinflammatory cytokine IL8 and MCP-1 is induced by antipsychotics. • Adipocyte-dependent inflammatory abnormality could develop during chronic treatment. • Infiltrated macrophages would further enhance proinflammatory cytokine production. - Abstract: Schizophrenia requires lifelong treatment, potentially causing systemic changes in metabolic homeostasis. In the clinical setting, antipsychotic treatment may differentially lead to weight gain among individual patients, although the molecular determinants of such adverse effects are currently unknown. In this study, we investigated changes in the expression levels of critical regulatory genes of adipogenesis, lipid metabolism and proinflammatory genes during the differentiation of primary human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). These cells were isolated from patients with body mass indices <25 and treated with the second-generation antipsychotics olanzapine, ziprasidone, clozapine, quetiapine, aripiprazole and risperidone and the first-generation antipsychotic haloperidol. We found that antipsychotics exhibited a marked effect on key genes involved in the regulation of cell cycle, signal transduction, transcription factors, nuclear receptors, differentiation markers and metabolic enzymes. In particular, we observed an induction of the transcription factor NF-KB1 and NF-KB1 target genes in adipocytes in response to these drugs, including the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8 and MCP-1. In addition, enhanced secretion of both IL8 and MCP-1 was observed in the supernatant of these cell cultures. In addition to their remarkable stimulatory effects on proinflammatory gene transcription, three of the most frequently prescribed antipsychotic drugs, clozapine, quetiapine and aripiprazole, also induced the expression of essential adipocyte differentiation genes and the adipocyte hormones leptin

  3. Proinflammatory cytokines provoke oxidative damage to actin in neuronal cells mediated by Rac1 and NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Barth, Brian M; Stewart-Smeets, Shelli; Kuhn, Thomas B

    2009-06-01

    The proinflammatory cytokines TNFalpha and Il-1beta orchestrate the progression of CNS inflammation, which substantially contributes to neurodegeneration in many CNS pathologies. TNFalpha and Il-1beta stimulate actin filament reorganization in non-neuronal cells often accompanied by the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Actin filament dynamics is vital for cellular plasticity, mitochondrial function, and gene expression despite being highly susceptible to oxidative damage. We demonstrated that, in neuronal cells, TNFalpha and Il-1beta stimulate a transient, redox-dependent reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton into lamellipodia under the regulation of Rac1 and a neuronal NADPH oxidase as the source of ROS. The persistent presence of intracellular ROS provoked oxidative damage (carbonylation) to actin coinciding with the loss of lamellipodia and arrest of cellular plasticity. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity or Rac1 abolished the adverse effects of cytokines. These findings suggest that oxidative damage to the neuronal actin cytoskeleton could represent a key step in CNS neurodegeneration.

  4. Chemically Modified N-Acylated Hyaluronan Fragments Modulate Proinflammatory Cytokine Production by Stimulated Human Macrophages*

    PubMed Central

    Babasola, Oladunni; Rees-Milton, Karen J.; Bebe, Siziwe; Wang, Jiaxi; Anastassiades, Tassos P.

    2014-01-01

    Low molecular mass hyaluronans are known to induce inflammation. To determine the role of the acetyl groups of low molecular mass hyaluronan in stimulating the production of proinflammatory cytokines, partial N-deacetylation was carried out by hydrazinolysis. This resulted in 19.7 ± 3.5% free NH2 functional groups, which were then acylated by reacting with an acyl anhydride, including acetic anhydride. Hydrazinolysis resulted in bond cleavage of the hyaluronan chain causing a reduction of the molecular mass to 30–214 kDa. The total NH2 and N-acetyl moieties in the reacetylated hyaluronan were 0% and 98.7 ± 1.5% respectively, whereas for butyrylated hyaluronan, the total NH2, N-acetyl, and N-butyryl moieties were 0, 82.2 ± 4.6, and 22.7 ± 3.8%, respectively, based on 1H NMR. We studied the effect of these polymers on cytokine production by cultured human macrophages (THP-1 cells). The reacetylated hyaluronan stimulated proinflammatory cytokine production to levels similar to LPS, whereas partially deacetylated hyaluronan had no stimulatory effect, indicating the critical role of the N-acetyl groups in the stimulation of proinflammatory cytokine production. Butyrylated hyaluronan significantly reduced the stimulatory effect on cytokine production by the reacetylated hyaluronan or LPS but had no stimulatory effect of its own. The other partially N-acylated hyaluronan derivatives tested showed smaller stimulatory effects than reacetylated hyaluronan. Antibody and antagonist experiments suggest that the acetylated and partially butyrylated lower molecular mass hyaluronans exert their effects through the TLR-4 receptor system. Selectively N-butyrylated lower molecular mass hyaluronan shows promise as an example of a novel semisynthetic anti-inflammatory molecule. PMID:25053413

  5. Exosomes from HIV-1-infected Cells Stimulate Production of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines through Trans-activating Response (TAR) RNA.

    PubMed

    Sampey, Gavin C; Saifuddin, Mohammed; Schwab, Angela; Barclay, Robert; Punya, Shreya; Chung, Myung-Chul; Hakami, Ramin M; Zadeh, Mohammad Asad; Lepene, Benjamin; Klase, Zachary A; El-Hage, Nazira; Young, Mary; Iordanskiy, Sergey; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2016-01-15

    HIV-1 infection results in a chronic illness because long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy can lower viral titers to an undetectable level. However, discontinuation of therapy rapidly increases virus burden. Moreover, patients under highly active antiretroviral therapy frequently develop various metabolic disorders, neurocognitive abnormalities, and cardiovascular diseases. We have previously shown that exosomes containing trans-activating response (TAR) element RNA enhance susceptibility of undifferentiated naive cells to HIV-1 infection. This study indicates that exosomes from HIV-1-infected primary cells are highly abundant with TAR RNA as detected by RT-real time PCR. Interestingly, up to a million copies of TAR RNA/μl were also detected in the serum from HIV-1-infected humanized mice suggesting that TAR RNA may be stable in vivo. Incubation of exosomes from HIV-1-infected cells with primary macrophages resulted in a dramatic increase of proinflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-β, indicating that exosomes containing TAR RNA could play a direct role in control of cytokine gene expression. The intact TAR molecule was able to bind to PKR and TLR3 effectively, whereas the 5' and 3' stems (TAR microRNAs) bound best to TLR7 and -8 and none to PKR. Binding of TAR to PKR did not result in its phosphorylation, and therefore, TAR may be a dominant negative decoy molecule in cells. The TLR binding through either TAR RNA or TAR microRNA potentially can activate the NF-κB pathway and regulate cytokine expression. Collectively, these results imply that exosomes containing TAR RNA could directly affect the proinflammatory cytokine gene expression and may explain a possible mechanism of inflammation observed in HIV-1-infected patients under cART. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Exosomes from HIV-1-infected Cells Stimulate Production of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines through Trans-activating Response (TAR) RNA*

    PubMed Central

    Sampey, Gavin C.; Saifuddin, Mohammed; Schwab, Angela; Barclay, Robert; Punya, Shreya; Chung, Myung-Chul; Hakami, Ramin M.; Asad Zadeh, Mohammad; Lepene, Benjamin; Klase, Zachary A.; El-Hage, Nazira; Young, Mary; Iordanskiy, Sergey; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 infection results in a chronic illness because long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy can lower viral titers to an undetectable level. However, discontinuation of therapy rapidly increases virus burden. Moreover, patients under highly active antiretroviral therapy frequently develop various metabolic disorders, neurocognitive abnormalities, and cardiovascular diseases. We have previously shown that exosomes containing trans-activating response (TAR) element RNA enhance susceptibility of undifferentiated naive cells to HIV-1 infection. This study indicates that exosomes from HIV-1-infected primary cells are highly abundant with TAR RNA as detected by RT-real time PCR. Interestingly, up to a million copies of TAR RNA/μl were also detected in the serum from HIV-1-infected humanized mice suggesting that TAR RNA may be stable in vivo. Incubation of exosomes from HIV-1-infected cells with primary macrophages resulted in a dramatic increase of proinflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-β, indicating that exosomes containing TAR RNA could play a direct role in control of cytokine gene expression. The intact TAR molecule was able to bind to PKR and TLR3 effectively, whereas the 5′ and 3′ stems (TAR microRNAs) bound best to TLR7 and -8 and none to PKR. Binding of TAR to PKR did not result in its phosphorylation, and therefore, TAR may be a dominant negative decoy molecule in cells. The TLR binding through either TAR RNA or TAR microRNA potentially can activate the NF-κB pathway and regulate cytokine expression. Collectively, these results imply that exosomes containing TAR RNA could directly affect the proinflammatory cytokine gene expression and may explain a possible mechanism of inflammation observed in HIV-1-infected patients under cART. PMID:26553869

  7. Effects of hemorrhage on cytokine gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Shenkar, R; Abraham, E

    1993-08-01

    Injury and blood loss are often followed by infection and the rapid development of organ system dysfunction, frequently involving mucosal sites, such as the lung and intestine. To examine possible mechanisms contributing to these conditions, we used semiquantitative polymerase chain reactions to determine cytokine mRNA expression among cellular populations isolated from mucosal and systemic anatomic sites of mice at predetermined time points following 30% blood volume hemorrhage with resuscitation 1 hr later. Within 1 hr after hemorrhage, significant increases were observed in mRNA levels for IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-5, and TGF-beta in intraparenchymal pulmonary mononuclear cells. The levels of TGF-beta transcripts among alveolar macrophages were increased 1 hr following blood loss, and increase in IL-1 alpha transcripts was found starting 2 hr posthemorrhage. Cells from Peyer's patches showed significant increases in mRNA levels for IL-1 beta, IL-2, IL-5, IL-6, IFN-gamma, and TGF-beta during the 4 hr following hemorrhage. Significant increases in mRNA levels for IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha, and TGF-beta were present within 4 hr of blood loss among cells isolated from mesenteric lymph nodes. The expression of mRNA for most cytokines was not significantly altered in splenocytes or peripheral blood mononuclear cells at any time point following hemorrhage. These experiments demonstrate that blood loss, even if resuscitated, produces significant increases in proinflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokine gene transcription as early as 1 hr following hemorrhage. These posthemorrhage alterations in cytokine mRNA expression were particularly prominent at mucosal sites, suggesting a mechanism for the increased incidence of pulmonary and intestinal involvement in organ system failure following severe blood loss and injury.

  8. A proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-32beta promotes the production of an anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jeong-Woo; Choi, Seung-Chul; Cho, Min-Chul; Kim, Hee-Jong; Kim, Jae-Hwa; Lim, Jong-Seok; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Han, Jae-Yong; Yoon, Do-Young

    2009-09-01

    A new proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-32 (IL-32) has six isoforms. Although IL-32 can be detected in sera from patients suffering from Crohn's disease and rheumatoid arthritis, it is unclear which isoforms are involved. To this end, we investigated the functions of the most abundant IL-32beta by generating K562-IL-32beta stable cell lines. This report confirms, using IL-32 small interfering RNA, that IL-32beta induces an anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in K562-IL-32beta cells and U937 promonocytic cells, which express endogenous IL-32beta upon phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) treatment, and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment. Interleukin-32beta was induced in monocyte-derived macrophages by LPS and in monocyte-derived DC by LPS, poly(I:C), or anti-CD40 antibody, but was not induced by PMA. We showed that IL-32beta expression was increased in a time-dependent manner in monocyte-derived DC upon LPS treatment and peaked at 24 hr. Production of IL-10 was exactly coincident with IL-32beta expression, but IL-1beta and tumour necrosis factor-alpha production peaked at 6 hr after LPS treatment, then steeply declined. Interleukin-12 p40 was induced at 9 hr and gradually increased until 48 hr, at which time IL-32beta and IL-10 were no longer increased. Knock-down of IL-32beta by IL-32 small interfering RNA led to the decrease of IL-10, but the increase of IL-12 in monocyte-derived DC, which means that IL-32beta promotes IL-10 production, but limits IL-12 production. We also showed that IL-10 neutralization increases IL-12, IL-1beta and tumour necrosis factor-alpha production, which implies that IL-10 suppresses such proinflammatory cytokines. Taken together, our results suggest that IL-32beta upregulates the production of an anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, and then IL-10 suppresses proinflammatory cytokines.

  9. Rapid glia expression and release of proinflammatory cytokines in experimental Klebsiella pneumoniae meningoencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Wen, Li-Li; Chiu, Chien-Tsai; Huang, Ya-Ni; Chang, Che-Feng; Wang, Jia-Yi

    2007-05-01

    The host immune/inflammatory response following CNS infection by Klebsiella pneumoniae remains poorly understood. Using a rat model of K. pneumoniae meningoencephalitis, we investigated the temporal profiles of brain proinflammatory cytokines and their cellular sources. Leukocyte counts significantly increased in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at 2 h after K. pneumoniae inoculation into the rat brain but were still much lower than blood leukocyte counts. However, concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), and IL-6 in CSF were much higher than the simultaneously collected serum levels. The rapid increase in brain expression of these cytokines at the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels occurred earlier than the onset of leukocytosis. Double immunofluorescence staining revealed the presence of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 in astrocytes and microglia. Exposure of primary culture of glial cells to K. pneumoniae also resulted in time-dependent increases in the concentration of these cytokines in the culture media. Taken together, our results suggest that glial cells are an important early source of proinflammatory cytokines during K. pneumonia infection of CNS.

  10. Reduced expression of monocyte CD200R is associated with enhanced proinflammatory cytokine production in sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Simon D.; Sadofsky, Laura R.; Kaye, Paul M.; Hart, Simon P.

    2016-01-01

    In sarcoidosis, the proinflammatory cytokines interferon gamma, tumour necrosis factor and interleukin-6 are released by monocyte-derived macrophages and lymphocytes in the lungs and other affected tissues. Regulatory receptors expressed on monocytes and macrophages act to suppress cytokine production, and reduced expression of regulatory receptors may thus promote tissue inflammation. The aim of this study was to characterise the role of regulatory receptors on blood monocytes in patients with sarcoidosis. Cytokine release in response to stimulation of whole blood was measured in healthy controls and Caucasian non-smoking patients with sarcoidosis who were not taking disease modifying therapy. Expression of the regulatory molecules IL-10R, SIRP-α/β, CD47, CD200R, and CD200L was measured by flow cytometry, and functional activity was assessed using blocking antibodies. Stimulated whole blood and monocytes from patients with sarcoidosis produced more TNF and IL-6 compared with healthy controls. 52.9% of sarcoidosis patients had monocytes characterised by low expression of CD200R, compared with 11.7% of controls (p < 0.0001). Patients with low monocyte CD200R expression produced higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines. In functional studies, blocking the CD200 axis increased production of TNF and IL-6. Reduced expression of CD200R on monocytes may be a mechanism contributing to monocyte and macrophage hyper-activation in sarcoidosis. PMID:27929051

  11. Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) induce proinflammatory cytokines in the CNS via Wnt5a signaling.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting; Zhang, Juan; Geng, Mingxing; Tang, Shao-Jun; Zhang, Wenping; Shu, Jianhong

    2017-06-23

    HAART is very effective in suppressing HIV-1 replication in patients. However, patients staying on long-term HAART still develop various HIV-associated neurological disorders, even when the viral load is low. The underlying pathogenic mechanisms are largely unknown. Emerging evidence implicated that persistent neuroinflammation plays an important role in NeuroAIDS. Although residual virus or viral proteins are commonly thought as the causal factors, we are interested in the alternative possibility that HAART critically contributes to the neuroinflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). To test this hypothesis, we have determined the effect of NRTIs on the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in the various CNS regions. Mice (C57Bl/6) were administered with AZT (Zidovudine 100 mg/kg/day), 3TC (Lamivudine 50 mg/kg/day) or D4T (Stavudine 10 mg/kg/day) for 5 days, and cortices, hippocampi and spinal cords were collected for immunoblotting. Our results showed that NRTI administration up-regulated cytokines, including IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 in various CNS regions. In addition, we found that NRTIs also up-regulated Wnt5a protein. Importantly, BOX5 attenuated NRTI-induced cytokine up-regulation. These results together suggest that NRTIs up-regulate proinflammatory cytokines via a Wnt5a signaling-dependent mechanism. Our findings may help understand the potential pathogenic mechanisms of HAART-associated NeuroAIDS and design effective adjuvants.

  12. Geranylgeranylacetone suppresses noise-induced expression of proinflammatory cytokines in the cochlea.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Tetsuya; Mikuriya, Takefumi; Sugahara, Kazuma; Hirose, Yoshinobu; Hashimoto, Tomoko; Shimogori, Hiroaki; Takii, Ryosuke; Nakai, Akira; Yamashita, Hiroshi

    2012-06-01

    Heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) is a master regulator of heat shock response, and also inhibits expression of inflammatory cytokines directly or indirectly. Here, we examined effects of HSF1 activation on the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in mouse cochlea after exposure to noise. Male CBA/N mice with normal Preyer's reflex were exposed to intense noise for 3h. Three hours after noise exposure, bilateral cochleae were removed and expression of major inflammatory cytokines was examined. We found that interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) expression increased significantly after noise exposure, and the expression was suppressed significantly in mice administered with geranylgeranylacetone (GGA), which activates HSF1. Seven days after noise exposure, thresholds for auditory brainstem response were elevated, and GGA administration significantly suppressed this elevation. These results suggest that HSF1-mediated suppression of proinflammatory cytokines in the cochlea by GGA administration could be an important means of inner ear protection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prebiotic oligosaccharides reduce proinflammatory cytokines in intestinal Caco-2 cells via activation of PPARγ and peptidoglycan recognition protein 3.

    PubMed

    Zenhom, Marwa; Hyder, Ayman; de Vrese, Michael; Heller, Knut J; Roeder, Thomas; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen

    2011-05-01

    Prebiotic oligosaccharides modulate the intestinal microbiota and beneficially affect the human body by reducing intestinal inflammation. This immunomodulatory effect was assumed to be bacterial in origin. However, some observations suggest that oligosaccharides may exert an antiinflammatory effect per se. We hypothesized that oligosaccharides affect the intestinal immunity via activation of peptidoglycan recognition protein 3 (PGlyRP3), which reduces the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Caco-2 cells were treated with the oligosaccharides, α3-sialyllactose, or fructooligosaccharides (Raftilose p95), and the effects of these treatments on PGlyRP3 and PPARγ expression, the release and expression of some proinflammatory cytokines, and NF-κB translocation were tested. Both oligosaccharides had antiinflammatory activity; they significantly reduced IL-12 secretion in Caco-2 cells and gene expression of IL-12p35, IL-8, and TNFα. They also reduced the gene expression and nuclear translocation of NF-κB. Both oligosaccharides dose and time dependently induced the production of PGlyRP3, the silencing of which by transfection of Caco-2 cells with specific small interfering RNA targeting PGlyRP3 abolished the antiinflammatory role of both oligosaccharides. Incubation of Caco-2 cells with both oligosaccharides induced PPARγ. Antagonizing PPARγ by culturing the cells with GW9662 for 24 h inhibited the oligosaccharide-induced PGlyRP3 production and the antiinflammatory effect of the oligosaccharides. We conclude that oligosaccharides may exert an antiinflammatory effect by inducing the nuclear receptor PPARγ, which regulates the antiinflammatory PGlyRP3.

  14. Induction of protective therapy for autoimmune diseases by targeted DNA vaccines encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines.

    PubMed

    Karin, Nathan

    2004-02-01

    T-cell-mediated autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis or type 1 diabetes result from an aggressive attack of self-components by autoimmune T-cells. Pro-inflammatory mediators, particularly cytokines and chemokines, direct the homing and effectorfunction of these cells. It has recently been demonstrated that the immune system, which can attack self-components, also generates 'beneficial' autoimmunity against pro-inflammatory mediators. During the course of an autoimmune condition, and to a much lesser extent in response to microbial inflammation, the immune system produces auto-antibodies to pro-inflammatory mediators. This reduces the harm from these diseases. We also discovered that targeted DNA vaccines could effectively amplify these responses to provide protective immunity. The underlying mechanism is partially understood. At the site of immunization, the relevant gene product is produced and then presented by dendritic cells/macrophages, which undergo activation due to an interaction of plasmid CpG with toll-like receptor 9 on the dendritic cell. This then activates CD4+ T-cells, which help the production of T-cell-dependent antibodies against the gene product of the vaccines. These antibodies neutralize their target product and suppress inflammation. This review explores this interesting concept and its therapeutic implications.

  15. Interplay between pro-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors in depressive illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Audet, Marie-Claude; Anisman, Hymie

    2013-01-01

    The development of depressive disorders had long been attributed to monoamine variations, and pharmacological treatment strategies likewise focused on methods of altering monoamine availability. However, the limited success achieved by treatments that altered these processes spurred the search for alternative mechanisms and treatments. Here we provide a brief overview concerning a possible role for pro-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors in major depression, as well as the possibility of targeting these factors in treating this disorder. The data suggest that focusing on one or another cytokine or growth factor might be counterproductive, especially as these factors may act sequentially or in parallel in affecting depressive disorders. It is also suggested that cytokines and growth factors might be useful biomarkers for individualized treatments of depressive illnesses. PMID:23675319

  16. Interleukin 17 induces cartilage collagen breakdown: novel synergistic effects in combination with proinflammatory cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Koshy, P; Henderson, N; Logan, C; Life, P; Cawston, T; Rowan, A

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether interleukin 17 (IL17), derived specifically from T cells, can promote type II collagen release from cartilage. The ability of IL17 to synergise with other proinflammatory mediators to induce collagen release from cartilage, and what effect anti-inflammatory agents had on this process, was also assessed. Methods: IL17 alone, or in combination with IL1, IL6, oncostatin M (OSM), or tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα), was added to bovine nasal cartilage explant cultures. Proteoglycan and collagen release were determined. Collagenolytic activity was determined by bioassay. Chondroprotective effects of IL4, IL13, transforming growth factor ß1 (TGFß1) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) were assessed by inclusion in the explant cultures. Results: IL17 alone stimulated a dose dependent release of proteoglycan and type II collagen from bovine nasal cartilage explants. Suboptimal doses of IL17 synergised potently with TNFα, IL1, OSM, and IL6 to promote collagen degradation. This collagen release was completely inhibited by tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and BB-94 (a synthetic metalloproteinase inhibitor), and was significantly reduced by IL4, IL13, TGFß1, and IGF1. In IL17 treated chondrocytes, mRNA expression for matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, MMP-3, and MMP-13 was detected. Moreover, a synergistic induction of these MMPs was seen when IL17 was combined with other proinflammatory cytokines. Conclusions: IL17 can, alone and synergistically in combination with other proinflammatory cytokines, promote chondrocyte mediated MMP dependent type II collagen release from cartilage. Because levels of all these proinflammatory cytokines are raised in rheumatoid synovial fluids, this study suggests that IL17 may act as a potent upstream mediator of cartilage collagen breakdown in inflammatory joint diseases. PMID:12117676

  17. Effect of walnut oil on hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines production.

    PubMed

    Laubertová, Lucia; Koňariková, Katarína; Gbelcová, Helena; Ďuračková, Zdeňka; Žitňanová, Ingrid

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we focused on the effect of hyperglycemia on the generation of reactive oxygen species and on the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the human monocytic cell line (U937). We also monitored potential anti-inflammatory effects of walnut oil as well as its protective effect against oxidative damage to biopolymers (DNA and proteins). We cultured U937 cells under normoglycemic or hyperglycemic conditions for 72 h, in the absence or presence of walnut oil. We detected cell proliferation by the MTT test. To determine the antioxidant status of cells, we used the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity method. We determined the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) spectrophotometrically, the oxidative damage to DNA by an enzyme-modified comet assay, and the oxidative damage to proteins by the marker-protein carbonyls and the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines by the ELISA method. Hyperglycemia reduced the antioxidant capacity of cells, induced oxidative damage to DNA, and increased the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. It had no effect on cell proliferation, SOD activity, nor oxidative damage to proteins. Walnut oil significantly increased the antioxidant capacity of cells as well as SOD activity on the second and third day of incubation, but had no effect on cell proliferation and showed no protective effect against oxidative damage to DNA and proteins. The walnut oil showed both anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory properties depending on its concentration and time of its incubation with the monocytic cell line. Our in vitro results indicate that walnut oil can diminish oxidative stress with its antioxidant properties. However, we could not confirm its protective effect against oxidative damage to DNA and proteins.

  18. Induction of cytokines and ICAM-1 by proinflammatory cytokines in primary rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts and inhibition by N-acetyl-L-cysteine and aspirin.

    PubMed

    Sakurada, S; Kato, T; Okamoto, T

    1996-10-01

    The role of transcription factor NF-kappa B in the induction of cytokines and ICAM-1 upon stimulation with proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha was investigated in primary synovial fibroblasts obtained from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Nuclear translocation of NF-kappa B was demonstrated after 30 min of treatment with IL-1 or TNF-alpha. Thereafter, the production of several cytokines including granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor, IL-6 and IL-8, that are known to be abundantly produced in the synovial cavity of RA patients, was greatly augmented. Similarly, cell surface expression of ICAM-1 was induced by the IL-1 or TNF-alpha treatment. Since expression of these genes is induced in rheumatoid synovial tissue, this experimental system is considered to represent the in vivo situation of RA pathophysiology. Using this cell culture system we attempted to modulate the intracellular signaling cascade for NF-kappa B activation and examined the effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), which were previously reported to inhibit NF-kappa B activation. Pretreatment of the primary synovial fibroblasts with NAC inhibited nuclear translocation of NF-kappa B. Subsequently, the induction of these cytokines and ICAM-1 was considerably suppressed. On the other hand, pretreatment with aspirin blocked these phenomena only partially. These observations indicate the pivotal role of NF-kappa B in RA pathogenesis thus highlighting the possibility of a novel therapeutic strategy.

  19. The proinflammatory cytokine network: interactions in the CNS and blood of rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Reyes, T M; Coe, C L

    1998-01-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1 and -6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha] function within a complex network, stimulating the release of one another, as well as other cytokine agonists and antagonists. These interactions have not been as widely studied in vivo. Therefore, the following studies measured cytokines in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from juvenile rhesus monkeys after intravenous administration of cytokines. IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta were equally effective in elevating blood levels of IL-6. In contrast, IL-1 beta was the only cytokine that significantly elevated IL-6 levels in the CSF. Interestingly, both IL-1 and IL-6 increased levels of IL-1 receptor antagonist in the blood and comparably stimulated the release of cortisol. A second study confirmed that the IL-1-induced IL-6 in CSF was brain derived and not a result of diffusion from blood. This research extends studies of the cytokine cascade to the central nervous system (CNS), highlighting the brain response to peripheral activation.

  20. Regulatory and Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines in Brazilian Living-Related Renal Transplant Recipients According to Creatinine Plasma Levels.

    PubMed

    Mota, Ana Paula Lucas; Menezes, Cristiane Alves da Silva; Alpoim, Patrícia Nessralla; Cardoso, Carolina Neris; Martins, Suellen Rodrigues; Alves, Lorraine Vieira; de Assis Martins-Filho, Olindo; Braga Gomes Borges, Karina; Dusse, Luci Maria SantAna

    2017-07-13

    The maintenance of stable graft function in renal transplanted recipients (RTR) is a challenge for healthcare staff. The ideal biomarkers must have significative predictive values to monitor the intricate renal function response triggered after renal transplantation. The main purpose in this study was to evaluate the regulatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines as biomarkers of allograft function in living-related renal transplant patients. Regulatory and pro-inflammatory cytokine plasma levels were measured by flow cytometry in 120 living-related renal transplanted patients categorized into three groups according to creatinine plasma levels: creatinine less than 1.4 mg/dL (C1), creatinine within 1.4-2.0mg/dL (C2) and more than 2.0 mg/dL (C3). Patients were also classified as "low" or "high" cytokine producers. Clinical data were obtained from patients' medical record. We have found a peak of regulatory cytokines in RTR with low creatinine levels as well as a peak of IL-6 pro-inflammatory cytokine in patients with high creatinine levels. C1 and C3 groups showed a mixed pro-inflammatory (IL-8, IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-12 and IFN-γ) and regulatory (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10) cytokine pattern and C2 had a predominant pro-inflammatory profile. C3 group showed a higher frequency of high pro-inflammatory cytokine producers compared to C1. Our data suggest that regulatory cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 could be good biomarkers associated with stable renal function, while pro-inflammatory cytokines seems to be potential markers in RTR related to high creatinine plasma levels, specially IL-6 despite of its borderline values. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. A novel immune-to-CNS communication pathway: cells of the meninges surrounding the spinal cord CSF space produce proinflammatory cytokines in response to an inflammatory stimulus.

    PubMed

    Wieseler-Frank, Julie; Jekich, Brian M; Mahoney, John H; Bland, Sondra T; Maier, Steven F; Watkins, Linda R

    2007-07-01

    Pain is enhanced in response to elevations of proinflammatory cytokines in spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), following either intrathecal injection of these cytokines or intrathecal immune challenge with HIV-1 gp120 that induces cytokine release. Spinal cord glia have been assumed to be the source of endogenous proinflammatory cytokines that enhance pain. However, assuming that spinal cord glia are the sole source of CSF cytokines may be an underestimate, as the cellular composition of the meninges surrounding the spinal cord CSF space includes several cell types known to produce proinflammatory cytokines. The present experiments provide the first investigation of the immunocompetent nature of the spinal cord meninges. Here, we explore whether rat meninges are responsive to intrathecal gp120. These studies demonstrate that: (a) intrathecal gp120 upregulates meningeal gene expression of proinflammatory signals, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and (b) intrathecal gp120 induces meningeal release of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6. In addition, stimulation of isolated meninges in vitro with gp120 induced the release of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta, indicating that the resident cells of the meninges are able to respond without immune cell recruitment. Taken together, these data document that the meninges are responsive to immunogenic stimuli in the CSF and that the meninges may be a source of immune products detected in CSF. The ability of the meninges to release to proinflammatory signals suggests a potential role in the modulation of pain.

  2. Effect of titanium surface topography on macrophage activation and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines.

    PubMed

    Refai, Ali K; Textor, Marcus; Brunette, Donald M; Waterfield, J Douglas

    2004-08-01

    The macrophage has a major role in normal wound healing and the reparative process around implants. Murine macrophage-like cells RAW 264.7 were used to investigate the effect of titanium surfaces on macrophage activation and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha] and chemokines (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha). Four topographies were used: those produced by mechanically polishing, coarse sand blasting, acid etching, and sandblasting and acid etching (SLA). Macrophages were plated on the four titanium surfaces at a population density of 5 x 10(5) cells/mL/well. Tissue culture plastic and tissue culture plastic plus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) served as negative and positive control, respectively. In addition, all surfaces were tested for their effects on macrophages in the presence of LPS. Supernatants were collected for assays after 6, 24, and 48 h and the numbers of macrophages attached to the surfaces were quantified using the DAPI (4,6-di-amidino-2-phenylindole) assay. Cytokine and chemokine levels were measured with sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Statistical comparison between the surfaces and the controls was determined by using the two-way analysis of variance including interaction effect (two tailed and p < or = 0.05). Unstimulated macrophages increased their secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine (TNF-alpha) when attached to rough surfaces (acid etching and SLA, p < or = 0.05). In macrophages stimulated with LPS, the roughest surface SLA produced higher levels of IL-1 beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha at 24 and 48 h than all other surfaces (p < or = 0.05). Surface topography also modulated the secretion of the chemokines monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha by macrophages. Unstimulated macrophages attached to the SLA surface down-regulated their production of chemokines (p < or = 0.05) whereas

  3. Allograft Inflammatory Factor 1 Functions as a Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine in the Oyster, Crassostrea ariakensis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ting; Liu, Xiao; Wu, Xinzhong

    2014-01-01

    The oyster Crassostrea ariakensis is an economically important bivalve species in China, unfortunately it has suffered severe mortalities in recent years caused by rickettsia-like organism (RLO) infection. Prevention and control of this disease is a priority for the development of oyster aquaculture. Allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) was identified as a modulator of the immune response during macrophage activation and a key gene in host immune defense reaction and inflammatory response. Therefore we investigated the functions of C. ariakensis AIF-1 (Ca-AIF1) and its antibody (anti-CaAIF1) in oyster RLO/LPS-induced disease and inflammation. Ca-AIF1 encodes a 149 amino acid protein containing two typical Ca2+ binding EF-hand motifs and shares a 48–95% amino acid sequence identity with other animal AIF-1s. Tissue-specific expression analysis indicates that Ca-AIF1 is highly expressed in hemocytes. Significant and continuous up-regulation of Ca-AIF1 is detected when hemocytes are stimulated with RLO/LPS (RLO or LPS). Treatment with recombinant Ca-AIF1 protein significantly up-regulates the expression levels of LITAF, MyD88 and TGFβ. When anti-CaAIF1 antibody is added to RLO/LPS-challenged hemocyte monolayers, a significant reduction of RLO/LPS-induced LITAF is observed at 1.5–12 h after treatment, suggesting that interference with Ca-AIF1 can suppress the inflammatory response. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis indicated that anti-CaAIF1 administration reduces RLO/LPS-induced apoptosis and necrosis rates of hemocytes. Collectively these findings suggest that Ca-AIF1 functions as a pro-inflammatory cytokine in the oyster immune response and is a potential target for controlling RLO infection and LPS-induced inflammation. PMID:24759987

  4. Blunted IL17/IL22 and pro-inflammatory cytokine responses in the genital tract and blood of HIV-exposed, seronegative female sex workers in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Chege, Duncan; Chai, Yijie; Huibner, Sanja; Kain, Taylor; Wachihi, Charles; Kimani, Makubo; Barasa, Samson; McKinnon, Lyle R; Muriuki, Festus K; Kariri, Anthony; Jaoko, Walter; Anzala, Omu; Kimani, Joshua; Ball, T Blake; Plummer, Francis A; Kaul, Rupert

    2012-01-01

    Identifying the immune correlates of reduced susceptibility to HIV remains a key goal for the HIV vaccine field, and individuals who are HIV-exposed, seronegative (HESN) may offer important clues. Reduced systemic immune activation has been described in HESN individuals. Conversely, pro-inflammatory T cell subsets, particularly CD4+ T cells producing the cytokine IL17 (Th17 cells), may represent a highly susceptible target for HIV infection after sexual exposure. Therefore, we characterized the cellular pro-inflammatory and IL17/IL22 cytokine immune milieu in the genital mucosa and blood of HESN female sex workers (FSWs). Blinded lab personnel characterized basal and mitogen-induced gene and cytokine immune responses in the cervix and blood of HESN FSWs (n = 116) and non-FSW controls (n = 17) using qPCR and ELISA. IL17 and IL22 production was significantly reduced in both the cervix and blood of HESNs, both in resting cells and after mitogen stimulation. In addition, HESN participants demonstrated blunted production of both pro-inflammatory cytokines and β-chemokines. We conclude that HIV exposure without infection was associated with blunted IL17/IL22 and pro-inflammatory responses, both systemically and at the site of mucosal HIV exposure. It will be important for further studies to examine the causal nature of the association and to define the cell subsets responsible for these differences.

  5. Alpha/Beta Interferon Receptor Signaling Amplifies Early Proinflammatory Cytokine Production in the Lung during Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Goritzka, Michelle; Durant, Lydia R.; Pereira, Catherine; Salek-Ardakani, Samira; Openshaw, Peter J. M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Type I interferons (IFNs) are produced early upon virus infection and signal through the alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/β) receptor (IFNAR) to induce genes that encode proteins important for limiting viral replication and directing immune responses. To investigate the extent to which type I IFNs play a role in the local regulation of inflammation in the airways, we examined their importance in early lung responses to infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). IFNAR1-deficient (IFNAR1−/−) mice displayed increased lung viral load and weight loss during RSV infection. As expected, expression of IFN-inducible genes was markedly reduced in the lungs of IFNAR1−/− mice. Surprisingly, we found that the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the lungs of RSV-infected mice were also greatly reduced in the absence of IFNAR signaling. Furthermore, low levels of proinflammatory cytokines were also detected in the lungs of IFNAR1−/− mice challenged with noninfectious innate immune stimuli such as selected Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists. Finally, recombinant IFN-α was sufficient to potentiate the production of inflammatory mediators in the lungs of wild-type mice challenged with innate immune stimuli. Thus, in addition to its well-known role in antiviral resistance, type I IFN receptor signaling acts as a central driver of early proinflammatory responses in the lung. Inhibiting the effects of type I IFNs may therefore be useful in dampening inflammation in lung diseases characterized by enhanced inflammatory cytokine production. IMPORTANCE The initial response to viral infection is characterized by the production of interferons (IFNs). One group of IFNs, the type I IFNs, are produced early upon virus infection and signal through the IFN-α/β receptor (IFNAR) to induce proteins important for limiting viral replication and directing immune responses. Here we examined the importance of type I IFNs in early responses to respiratory

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyls induce proinflammatory cytokine release and dopaminergic dysfunction: protection in interleukin-6 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Goodwill, Meleik Hebert; Lawrence, David A; Seegal, Richard F

    2007-02-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines are not only important mediators of brain development, but also pose an increased risk for neurodegeneration following exposure to neurotoxicants or trauma. We have used the ubiquitous environmental and occupational neurotoxicant polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to investigate the putative role of inflammatory agents in mediating processes involved in basal ganglia dysfunctions. PCBs induced inflammatory responses in C57BL/6 adult male mice, significantly elevating serum levels of IL-6 (31%), IL-1beta (71%) and TNF-alpha (22%) and significantly reducing striatal dopamine (DA, 21%), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, 26%), dopamine transporter (DAT, 39%), and synaptophysin (29%) concentrations. We also exposed mice deficient in the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6-/-) to PCBs, to explore the role of this specific cytokine in mediating PCB-induced DA neurodegeneration. Not only did the PCB-treated IL-6-/- mice exhibit a decrease in serum levels of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha, but they were also protected from PCB-induced striatal dopaminergic dysfunction, displaying no signs of toxicant-induced reductions in DA levels, or TH, DAT or synaptophysin expression. Taken together, these results suggest that: (1) PCB exposure results in a peripheral inflammatory response associated with striatal terminal degeneration; and (2) the absence of IL-6 prevents PCB-induced dopaminergic losses in the striatum.

  7. Bromelain Treatment Decreases Secretion of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines and Chemokines by Colon Biopsies In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Onken, Jane E.; Greer, Paula K.; Calingaert, Brian; Hale, Laura P.

    2008-01-01

    Oral bromelain has been anecdotally reported to decrease inflammation in ulcerative colitis (UC). Proteolytically active bromelain is known to decrease expression of mRNAs encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines by human leukocytes in vitro. To assess the effect of bromelain on mucosal secretion of cytokines in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), endoscopic colon biopsies from patients with UC, Crohn’s disease (CD), and non-IBD controls were treated in vitro with bromelain or media, then cultured. Secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines was measured. Significant increases in granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) were detected in the media from actively inflamed areas in UC and CD as compared with non-inflamed IBD tissue and non-IBD controls. In vitro bromelain treatment decreased secretion of G-CSF, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IFN-γ, CCL4/macrophage inhibitory protein (MIP)-1β, and TNF by inflamed tissue in IBD. Bromelain may be a novel therapy for IBD. PMID:18160345

  8. Mutually exclusive redox forms of HMGB1 promote cell recruitment or proinflammatory cytokine release

    PubMed Central

    Venereau, Emilie; Casalgrandi, Maura; Schiraldi, Milena; Antoine, Daniel J.; Cattaneo, Angela; De Marchis, Francesco; Liu, Jaron; Antonelli, Antonella; Preti, Alessandro; Raeli, Lorenzo; Shams, Sara Samadi; Yang, Huan; Varani, Luca; Andersson, Ulf; Tracey, Kevin J.; Bachi, Angela; Uguccioni, Mariagrazia

    2012-01-01

    Tissue damage causes inflammation, by recruiting leukocytes and activating them to release proinflammatory mediators. We show that high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) orchestrates both processes by switching among mutually exclusive redox states. Reduced cysteines make HMGB1 a chemoattractant, whereas a disulfide bond makes it a proinflammatory cytokine and further cysteine oxidation to sulfonates by reactive oxygen species abrogates both activities. We show that leukocyte recruitment and activation can be separated. A nonoxidizable HMGB1 mutant in which serines replace all cysteines (3S-HMGB1) does not promote cytokine production, but is more effective than wild-type HMGB1 in recruiting leukocytes in vivo. BoxA, a HMGB1 inhibitor, interferes with leukocyte recruitment but not with activation. We detected the different redox forms of HMGB1 ex vivo within injured muscle. HMGB1 is completely reduced at first and disulfide-bonded later. Thus, HMGB1 orchestrates both key events in sterile inflammation, leukocyte recruitment and their induction to secrete inflammatory cytokines, by adopting mutually exclusive redox states. PMID:22869893

  9. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) accelerates cutaneous wound healing and inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Gürgen, Seren Gülşen; Sayın, Oya; Cetin, Ferihan; Tuç Yücel, Ayşe

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and other common treatment methods used in the process of wound healing in terms of the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In the study, 24 female and 24 male adult Wistar-Albino rats were divided into five groups: (1) the non-wounded group having no incision wounds, (2) the control group having incision wounds, (3) the TENS (2 Hz, 15 min) group, (4) the physiological saline (PS) group and (5) the povidone iodine (PI) group. In the skin sections, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were assessed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemical methods. In the non-wounded group, the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α signaling molecules was weaker in the whole tissue; however, in the control group, significant inflammatory response occurred, and strong cytokine expression was observed in the dermis, granulation tissue, hair follicles, and sebaceous glands (P < 0.05). In the TENS group, the decrease in TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 immunoreaction in the skin was significant compared to the other forms of treatment (P < 0.05). Distinctive decreases of pro-inflammatory cytokines observed in the dermis in the TENS group suggest that TENS shortened the healing process by inhibating the inflammation phase.

  10. Bromelain treatment decreases secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines by colon biopsies in vitro.

    PubMed

    Onken, Jane E; Greer, Paula K; Calingaert, Brian; Hale, Laura P

    2008-03-01

    Oral bromelain has been anecdotally reported to decrease inflammation in ulcerative colitis (UC). Proteolytically active bromelain is known to decrease expression of mRNAs encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines by human leukocytes in vitro. To assess the effect of bromelain on mucosal secretion of cytokines in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), endoscopic colon biopsies from patients with UC, Crohn's disease (CD), and non-IBD controls were treated in vitro with bromelain or media, then cultured. Secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines was measured. Significant increases in granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) were detected in the media from actively inflamed areas in UC and CD as compared with non-inflamed IBD tissue and non-IBD controls. In vitro bromelain treatment decreased secretion of G-CSF, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IFN-gamma, CCL4/macrophage inhibitory protein (MIP)-1beta, and TNF by inflamed tissue in IBD. Bromelain may be a novel therapy for IBD.

  11. Melatonin enhances pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and protects against Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Santello, Fabricia Helena; Frare, Eduardo Osório; Caetano, Leony Cristina; AlonsoToldo, Míriam Paula; do Prado, José Clóvis

    2008-08-01

    Pro-inflammatory and modulatory cytokines have an essential role in host defense against human and murine Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Control of T. cruzi parasitism during the acute phase of infection is considered to be critically dependent on direct macrophage activation by cytokines. Melatonin has been proposed to regulate the immune system by affecting cytokine production in immunocompetent cells, enhancing the production of several T helper (Th)1 cytokines. The aims of this work were to evaluate in rats, the influences of exogenous melatonin treatment on T. cruzi-infected host's immune responses. With this in mind, several immunological parameters were analyzed, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha, gamma-interferon, interleukin-12, nitric oxide (NO) and macrophage count. The melatonin therapy was provided in one of two different treatment regimens, that is, either beginning 7 days prior to infection or concomitant with the infection. Both treatments triggered an up-regulation of the immune response, with the concomitant treatment being more effective; in this case all cytokines studied, with exception of NO, displayed enhanced concentrations and there was a higher number of peritoneal macrophages, which displayed reduced concentrations under melatonin therapy. We conclude that melatonin plays a pivotal role in up-regulating the Th1 immune response thus controlling parasite replication.

  12. Proinflammatory cytokines in breast cancer: mechanisms of action and potential targets for therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Jodi E; Schwertfeger, Kathryn L

    2010-09-01

    Inflammation within the tumor microenvironment correlates with increased invasiveness and poor prognosis in many types of cancer, including breast cancer. The cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) are critical mediators of the inflammatory response. Numerous studies have also linked these cytokines to breast cancer progression. As a result, the mechanisms by which these cytokines promote breast cancer have been recently explored using both in vitro and in vivo models. The results from these studies have led to speculation regarding the possible usefulness of targeting these cytokines in breast cancer patients. This review summarizes the most recent studies pertaining to the mechanisms by which proinflammatory cytokines promote breast cancer. Furthermore, the possibilities of targeting these inflammatory mediators in breast cancer patients using inhibitors that are currently being used in the clinic for other inflammatory conditions are discussed. Understanding both the mechanisms by which inflammatory mediators promote breast cancer and the effectiveness of anti-inflammatory drugs in treating breast cancer will lead to novel therapeutic regimens to treat this devastating disease.

  13. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers enhance the production of proinflammatory cytokines by the placenta.

    PubMed

    Peltier, M R; Klimova, N G; Arita, Y; Gurzenda, E M; Murthy, A; Chawala, K; Lerner, V; Richardson, J; Hanna, N

    2012-09-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether(s) (PBDE) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that bind and cross the placenta but their effects on pregnancy outcome are unclear. It is possible that environmental contaminants increase the risk of inflammation-mediated pregnancy complications such as preterm birth by promoting a proinflammatory environment at the maternal-fetal interface. We hypothesized that PBDE would reduce IL-10 production and enhance the production of proinflammatory cytokines associated with preterm labor/birth by placental explants. Second-trimester placental explants were cultured in either vehicle (control) or 2 μM PBDE mixture of congers 47, 99 and 100 for 72 h. Cultures were then stimulated with 10(6) CFU/ml heat-killed Escherichia coli for a final 24 h incubation and conditioned medium was harvested for quantification of cytokines and PGE(2). COX-2 content and viability of the treated tissues were then quantified by tissue ELISA and MTT reduction activity, respectively. PBDE pre-treatment reduced E. coli-stimulated IL-10 production and significantly increased E. coli-stimulated IL-1β secretion. PBDE exposure also increased basal and bacteria-stimulated COX-2 expression. Basal, but not bacteria-stimulated PGE(2), was also enhanced by PBDE exposure. No effect of PBDE on viability of the explants cultures was detected. In summary, pre-exposure of placental explants to congers 47, 99, and 100 enhanced the placental proinflammatory response to infection. This may increase the risk of infection-mediated preterm birth by lowering the threshold for bacteria to stimulate a proinflammatory response(s).

  14. Infection with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus directly induces proinflammatory cytokines in primary astrocytes via NF-kappaB activation: potential role for the initiation of demyelinating disease.

    PubMed

    Palma, JoAnn P; Kwon, Daeho; Clipstone, Neil A; Kim, Byung S

    2003-06-01

    Theiler's virus infection in the central nervous system (CNS) induces a demyelinating disease very similar to human multiple sclerosis. We have assessed cytokine gene activation upon Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) infection and potential mechanisms in order to delineate the early events in viral infection that lead to immune-mediated demyelinating disease. Infection of SJL/J primary astrocyte cultures induces selective proinflammatory cytokine genes (interleukin-12p40 [IL-12p40], IL-1, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and beta interferon [IFN-beta]) important in the innate immune response to infection. We find that TMEV-induced cytokine gene expression is mediated by the NF-kappaB pathway based on the early nuclear NF-kappaB translocation and suppression of cytokine activation in the presence of specific inhibitors of the NF-kappaB pathway. Further studies show this to be partly independent of dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) and IFN-alpha/beta pathways. Altogether, these results demonstrate that infection of astrocytes and other CNS-resident cells by TMEV provides the early NF-kappaB-mediated signals that directly activate various proinflammatory cytokine genes involved in the initiation and amplification of inflammatory responses in the CNS known to be critical for the development of immune-mediated demyelination.

  15. In vivo expression of proinflammatory cytokines in HIV encephalitis: an analysis of 11 autopsy cases.

    PubMed

    Xing, Hui Qin; Hayakawa, Hitoshi; Izumo, Kimiko; Kubota, Ryuji; Gelpi, Ellen; Budka, Herbert; Izumo, Shuji

    2009-08-01

    As the pathogenesis of AIDS dementia complex (ADC), cytokines such as TNF-alpha and IL-1beta have been thought to have toxic effects on CNS cells and induce neuronal cell death. However, many of the discussions have been based on the studies done by in vitro experiments. There are only a few reports which demonstrate proinflammatory cytokines directly in vivo in HIV encephalitis (HIVE) brains, and roles of these cytokines with relation to HIV-1 infection are not yet clarified. In the present study, we examined 11 autopsy cases of HIVE using immunohistochemistry, and explored which cell types expressed these cytokines and whether expression of cytokines was related to viral infection. IL-1beta was detected in the frontal white matter of all 11 cases where microglial nodules were observed to varying degrees, whereas TNF-alpha was detected in seven cases. IL-1beta- or TNF-alpha-positive cells were almost restricted to CD68-positive macrophages/microglia and mild expression of these cytokines by astrocytes was observed in two cases with severe HIVE. IL-1beta was detected in some HIVp24-positive multinucleated giant cells. However, we could not detect TNF-alpha expression in the HIVp24-positive cells, which indicates that IL-1beta is induced by HIV-1 infection. In conclusion, a macrophage/microglia lineage is the main cell type to release cytokines in HIVE, and IL-1beta expression by HIV-1-infected cells may be one of the important factors for induction of HIVE. In addition, many non-infected macrophages/microglia as well as some astrocytes express IL-1beta and TNF-alpha, which might contribute to pathogenesis of ADC.

  16. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine gene expression in subcutaneous and visceral fat in severe obesity.

    PubMed

    Spoto, B; Di Betta, E; Mattace-Raso, F; Sijbrands, E; Vilardi, A; Parlongo, R M; Pizzini, P; Pisano, A; Vermi, W; Testa, A; Cutrupi, S; D'Arrigo, G; Lonardi, S; Tripepi, G; Cancarini, G; Zoccali, C

    2014-10-01

    Pro-inflammatory molecules produced by adipose tissue have been implicated in the risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease in obesity. We investigated the expression profile of 19 pro-inflammatory and seven anti-inflammatory genes in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in 44 severely obese individuals who underwent bariatric surgery. SAT and VAT expressed an identical series of pro-inflammatory genes. Among these genes, 12 were significantly more expressed in SAT than in VAT while just one (IL18) was more expressed in VAT. The remaining genes were equally expressed. Among pro-inflammatory cytokines, both IL6 and IL8 were about 20 times more intensively expressed in SAT than in VAT. The expression of nine genes was highly associated in SAT and VAT. Only for three pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL8, IL18, SAA1) in SAT the gene expression in adipose tissue associated with the circulating levels of the corresponding gene products while no such an association was found as for VAT. The expression of critical pro-inflammatory genes is substantially higher in SAT than in VAT in individuals with morbid obesity. The variability in circulating levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines is, in small part and just for three pro-inflammatory cytokines, explained by underlying gene expression in SAT but not in VAT. These results point to a compartment-specific adipose tissue contribution to inflammation in obesity and indicate that abdominal SAT contributes more than VAT to the pro-inflammatory milieu associated with severe obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Retracted: Effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines on mineralization potential of rat dental pulp stem cells.

    PubMed

    2011-10-01

    The following article from the Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, 'Effects of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines on Mineralization Potential of Rat Dental Pulp Stem Cells' by Yang X, Walboomers XF, Bian Z, Jansen JA, Fan M, published online on 11 July 2011 in Wiley Online Library (onlinelibrary.wiley.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor-in-Chief, and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The retraction has been agreed due to two authors (Walboomers XF, and Jansen JA) not having been involved in the research described, nor made aware of their names being listed on the manuscript, nor told of its submission to the journal.

  18. Cervical cerclage placement decreases local levels of proinflammatory cytokines in patients with cervical insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Monsanto, Stephany P; Daher, Silvia; Ono, Erika; Pendeloski, Karen Priscilla Tezotto; Trainá, Évelyn; Mattar, Rosiane; Tayade, Chandrakant

    2017-06-30

    Cervical insufficiency is characterized by premature, progressive dilation and shortening of the cervix during pregnancy. If left unattended, this can lead to the prolapse and rupture of the amniotic membrane, which usually results in midtrimester pregnancy loss or preterm birth. Previous studies have shown that proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and tumor necrosis factor alpha are up-regulated in normal parturition but are also associated with preterm birth. Studies evaluating such markers in patients with cervical insufficiency have evaluated only their diagnostic potential. Even fewer studies have studied them within the context of cerclage surgery. The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of local and systemic inflammatory markers on the pathogenesis of cervical insufficiency and the effect of cerclage surgery on the local immune microenvironment of women with cervical insufficiency. We recruited 28 pregnant women (12-20 weeks' gestation) diagnosed with insufficiency and referred for cerclage surgery and 19 gestational age-matched normal pregnant women as controls. Serum and cervicovaginal fluid samples were collected before and after cerclage surgery and during a routine checkup for normal women and analyzed using a targeted 13-plex proinflammatory cytokine assay. Before surgery, patients with cervical insufficiency had higher levels of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, interleukin-12, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha in cervicovaginal fluid compared to controls, but after surgery, these differences disappeared. No differences were found in serum of insufficiency versus control women. In patients with insufficiency, the levels of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and interferon gamma in cervicovaginal fluid declined significantly after cerclage compared with before intervention, but these changes were not detected in serum

  19. Systemic pro-inflammatory cytokine status following therapeutic hypothermia in a piglet hypoxia-ischemia model.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Ferreira, Eridan; Kelen, Dorottya; Faulkner, Stuart; Broad, Kevin D; Chandrasekaran, Manigandan; Kerenyi, Áron; Kato, Takenori; Bainbridge, Alan; Golay, Xavier; Sullivan, Mark; Kramer, Boris W; Robertson, Nicola J

    2017-03-03

    Inflammatory cytokines are implicated in the pathogenesis of perinatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). The influence of hypothermia (HT) on cytokines after HI is unclear. Our aim was to assess in a piglet asphyxia model, under normothermic (NT) and HT conditions: (i) the evolution of serum cytokines over 48 h and (ii) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytokine levels at 48 h; (iii) serum pro/anti-inflammatory cytokine profile over 48 h and (iv) relation between brain injury measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and brain TUNEL positive cells with serum cytokines, serum pro/anti-inflammatory cytokines and CSF cytokines. Newborn piglets were randomized to NT (n = 5) or HT (n = 6) lasting 2-26 h after HI. Serum samples were obtained 4-6 h before, during and at 6-12 h intervals after HI; CSF was obtained at 48 h. Concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, -4, -6, -8, -10 and TNF-α were measured and pro/anti-inflammatory status compared between groups. White matter and thalamic voxel lactate/N-acetyl aspartate (Lac/NAA) (a measure of both oxidative metabolism and neuronal loss) were acquired at baseline, after HI and at 24 and 36 h. Lac/NAA was reduced at 36 h with HT compared to NT (p = 0.013 basal ganglia and p = 0.033 white matter). HT showed lower serum TNF-α from baseline to 12 h (p < 0.05). Time-matched (acquired within 5 h of each other) serum cytokine and MRS showed correlations between Lac/NAA and serum IL-1β and IL-10 (all p < 0.01). The pro/anti-inflammatory ratios IL-1β/IL-10, IL-6/IL-10, IL-4/IL-10 and IL-8/IL-10 were similar in NT and HT groups until 36 h (24 h for IL-6/IL-10); after this, 36 h pro/anti-inflammatory cytokine ratios in the serum were higher in HT compared to NT (p < 0.05), indicating a pro-inflammatory cytokine surge after rewarming in the HT group. In the CSF at 48 h, IL-8 was lower in the HT group (p < 0.05). At 48 h, CSF TNF-α correlated with Lac/NAA (p = 0.02) and CSF IL-8 correlated with

  20. Microencapsulated drug delivery: a new approach to pro-inflammatory cytokine inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Oettinger, Carl W.; D'Souza, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    Context: This article reviews the use of albumin microcapsules 3–4 mm in size containing cytokine inhibiting drugs which include neutralizing antibodies to TNF and IL1, CNI-1493, antisense oligonucleotides to TNF and NF-kappaB, and the antioxidant catalase. Objective: Describe the effects, cellular uptake and distribution of microencapsulated drugs and the effect in both a peritonitis model of infection and a model of adjuvant-induced arthritis. Methods: The studies performed by our group are reviewed, the only such studies available. Results: Microencapsulation of these compounds produced high intracellular drug concentrations due to rapid uptake by phagocytic cells, including endothelial cells, without toxicity. All compounds produced excellent inhibition of TNF and IL1 resulting in improved animal survival in a peritonitis model of septic shock and inflammation in an arthritis model. Conclusion: Albumin microencapsulated pro-inflammatory cytokine inhibiting compounds are superior to equivalent concentration of these compounds administered in solution form. PMID:22348221

  1. Suppressing IL-32 in monocytes impairs the induction of the proinflammatory cytokines TNFalpha and IL-1beta.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jaewoo; Bae, Suyoung; Kang, Youngsun; Yoon, Doyoung; Bai, Xiyuan; Chan, Edward D; Azam, Tania; Dinarello, Charles A; Lee, Siyoung; Her, Erk; Rho, Gyujin; Kim, Soohyun

    2010-02-01

    Targeting major proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1beta and TNFalpha is of great interest in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, colitis, and psoriasis. The cytokine Interleukin (IL)-32 induces proinflammatory cytokines such as TNFalpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, and chemokines. We previously used an IL-32 ligand-affinity column to purify proteinase 3, which is abundantly expressed in neutrophil and monocytic leukocytes but not in other cell types, and found that IL-32 is mainly produced by monocytic leukocytes. This evidence suggested that silencing endogenous IL-32 by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in monocytic cells might reveal the precise function of endogenous IL-32. Indeed, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-induced proinflammatory cytokine production was significantly inhibited in shRNA/IL-32 stable clones as compared to control clones. Furthermore, macrophages in PMA-differentiated shRNA/IL-32 stable clones displayed remarkably impaired LPS- and IL-1beta-induced proinflammatory cytokine production. These data suggest that IL-32 is not only involved in host defense against pathogens, but also might play a role in chronic inflammatory diseases. IL-32 production leads to major proinflammatory cytokine production during the initial immune response.

  2. The Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine, Interleukin-6, Enhances the Polarization of Alternatively Activated Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Fernando, Maria Ruweka; Reyes, Jose Luis; Iannuzzi, Jordan; Leung, Gabriella; McKay, Derek Mark

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages are important innate immune cells that are associated with two distinct phenotypes: a pro-inflammatory (or classically activated) subset with prototypic macrophage functions such as inflammatory cytokine production and bactericidal activity, and an anti-inflammatory (or alternatively activated (AAM)) subset linked with wound healing and tissue repair processes. In this study, we examined the effect of interlukein-6 on human and murine macrophage polarization. The results indicate that despite being commonly associated with pro-inflammatory functions and being implicated in the pathogenesis/pathophysiology of numerous inflammatory diseases, interleukin-6 can enhance the polarization of AAMs, based on increased expression of hallmark markers: arginase-1, Ym1 and CD206; this effect required the AAM differentiating cytokines, IL-4 and IL-13. Co-treatment of AAMs with IL-6 resulted in spontaneous release of IL-10, suppressed LPS-induced nitric oxide production and inhibited cytokine production by activated CD4+ T cells – immunoregulatory features not observed in the ‘parent’ IL-4+IL-13-induced AAM. The effect of IL-6 required signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3, was partially dependent on up-regulation of the IL4Rα chain, and was independent of autocrine IL-10. In the presence of IFNγ, IL-6 promoted the production of IL-1β and TNFα suggesting that this cytokine can enhance the phenotype to which a macrophage has committed. This finding may explain the pleiotrophic nature of IL-6, where it is associated with the perpetuation and enhancement of disease in inflammatory situations, but is also necessary for resolution of inflammation and adequate wound healing to occur in others. Thus, the potential benefit of IL-6 in promoting an AAM, with its’ anti-inflammatory and wound healing ability, may need to be considered in immunotherapies aimed at in vivo modulation or inhibition of IL-6. PMID:24736635

  3. The pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6, enhances the polarization of alternatively activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Maria Ruweka; Reyes, Jose Luis; Iannuzzi, Jordan; Leung, Gabriella; McKay, Derek Mark

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages are important innate immune cells that are associated with two distinct phenotypes: a pro-inflammatory (or classically activated) subset with prototypic macrophage functions such as inflammatory cytokine production and bactericidal activity, and an anti-inflammatory (or alternatively activated (AAM)) subset linked with wound healing and tissue repair processes. In this study, we examined the effect of interlukein-6 on human and murine macrophage polarization. The results indicate that despite being commonly associated with pro-inflammatory functions and being implicated in the pathogenesis/pathophysiology of numerous inflammatory diseases, interleukin-6 can enhance the polarization of AAMs, based on increased expression of hallmark markers: arginase-1, Ym1 and CD206; this effect required the AAM differentiating cytokines, IL-4 and IL-13. Co-treatment of AAMs with IL-6 resulted in spontaneous release of IL-10, suppressed LPS-induced nitric oxide production and inhibited cytokine production by activated CD4+ T cells - immunoregulatory features not observed in the 'parent' IL-4+IL-13-induced AAM. The effect of IL-6 required signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3, was partially dependent on up-regulation of the IL4Rα chain, and was independent of autocrine IL-10. In the presence of IFNγ, IL-6 promoted the production of IL-1β and TNFα suggesting that this cytokine can enhance the phenotype to which a macrophage has committed. This finding may explain the pleiotrophic nature of IL-6, where it is associated with the perpetuation and enhancement of disease in inflammatory situations, but is also necessary for resolution of inflammation and adequate wound healing to occur in others. Thus, the potential benefit of IL-6 in promoting an AAM, with its' anti-inflammatory and wound healing ability, may need to be considered in immunotherapies aimed at in vivo modulation or inhibition of IL-6.

  4. [Urinary excretion of proinflammatory cytokines and transforming growth factor beta at early stages of diabetic nephropathy].

    PubMed

    Bondar', I A; Klimontov, V V; Nadeev, A P

    2008-01-01

    To examine correlations between urine excretion of proinflammatory cytokines, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-b) and changes in renal structure and function, quality of glycemia control in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Urinary excretion of interleukine 1-beta (IL-1b), monocytic chemoattractive protein-1 (MCP-1), RANTES and TGF-b was measured with enzyme immunoassay in 57 patients including 22 patients with normal albuminuria, 23--with microalbuminuria, 12--with macroalbuminuria. Creatinine clearance was subnormal in 8 patients with macroalbuminuria. The control group consisted of 10 healthy persons. Morphological examination of renal biopsies was performed in 8 patients with normoalbuminuria and 10 patients with microalbuminuria. Patients with normoalbuminuria had excretion of MCP-1 significantly higher than in controls. Microalbuminuria patients showed high excretion of IL-1b, MCP-1 and TGF-b. Excretion of IL-1b, MCP-1, RANTES and TGF-b in patients with macroalbuminuria was higher than in controls and other groups of patients. Excretion of cytokines and TGFb correlated inversely with glomerular filtration rate and hemoglobin level. Positive correlations were detected between excretion of IL-1b, MCP-1, TGFb and glycated hemoglobin A(1c). In patients with normo- and microalbuminuria cytokine and TGFb excretion correlated with thickness of glomerular and glomerular basal membrane. CD68-positive macrophages were detected in the intersticium of 1 patient with normoalbuminuria and 6 patients with microalbuminuria. Urinary excretion of proinflammatory cytokines and TGF-b was elevated in patients with DM-1 having micro- and macroalbuminuria suggesting participation of inflammation in development of diabetic nephropathy.

  5. Control of pro-inflammatory cytokine release from human monocytes with the use of an interleukin-10 monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Patel, Hardik; Davidson, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    The monocytes (MONOs) can be considered as "double-edge swords"; they have both important pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory functions manifested in part by cytokine production and release. Although MONOs are circulating cells, they are the major precursors of a variety of tissue-specific immune cells such as the alveolar macrophage, dendritic cells, microglial cells, and Kupffer cells. Unlike the polymorphonuclear leukocyte, which produces no or very little interleukin-10 (IL-10), the monocyte can produce this potent anti-inflammatory cytokine to control inflammation. IL-10, on an equimolar basis, is a more potent inhibitor of pro-inflammatory cytokines produced by monocytes than many anti-inflammatory glucocorticoids which are used clinically. This chapter describes how to isolate monocytes from human blood and the use of IL-10 monoclonal antibody to determine the effect and timing of endogenous IL-10 release on the production and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  6. Red Blood Cell Supernatant Potentiates LPS-Induced Proinflammatory Cytokine Response From Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nydam, Trevor L.; Clarke, Jason H.; Banerjee, Anirban; Silliman, Christopher C.; McCarter, Martin D.

    2009-01-01

    Allogeneic blood transfusion has an immunomodulatory capacity on its recipients through accumulation of immunologically active substances with blood storage, and prestorage leukoreduction reduces many of these mediators. We investigated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) exposed to packed red blood cell (PRBC) supernatants from leukoreduced (LR) or non-leukoreduced (NLR) units with variable duration of storage. PRBC units were collected with or without leukoreduction on Day 0 before routine storage. The plasma fraction (supernatant) was isolated from LR and NLR units after 1 day (D1) or 42 days (D42) of storage and exposed to PBMCs versus control media for 24 h, then with LPS for an additional 24 h. Cell supernatants were analyzed for IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α by cytokine bead array. IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 were significantly elevated in PRBC groups versus control. D42 NLR PRBC supernatant significantly increased secretion of IL-1β and IL-6 compared to D1 NLR PRBC supernatant. LR significantly attenuated the cytokine response of IL-1β. Thus, PRBC supernatant potentiates proinflammatory LPS-induced cytokine secretion from PBMCs. This response is accentuated with storage duration and partially attenuated with leukoreduction. These findings may partially explain the immune activation seen clinically after blood transfusion. PMID:19441884

  7. Feline polymorphonuclear neutrophils produce pro-inflammatory cytokines following exposure to Microsporum canis.

    PubMed

    Cambier, Ludivine; Mathy, Anne; Baldo, Aline; Bagut, Elena Tatiana; Tabart, Jérémy; Antoine, Nadine; Mignon, Bernard

    2013-03-23

    The mechanisms involved in the establishment of the specific immune response against dermatophytes remain unknown. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are recruited early during the infection process and participate in the elimination of dermatophytes. They could therefore be involved in the induction of the immune response during dermatophytoses by producing specific cytokines. The aim of this work was to assess the in vitro cytokine production by feline PMNs exposed to living arthroconidia from the dermatophyte species Microsporum canis or stimulated with either a secreted or a structural component of M. canis, the latter consisting of heat-killed arthroconidia. The levels of specific cytokines produced by PMNs were determined by capture ELISA and/or quantitative RT-PCR. Results showed that PMNs secrete TNFα, IL-1β and IL-8 following exposure to M. canis living arthroconidia and stimulation with both a secreted component and heat-killed arthroconidia. The level of IL-8 mRNA was also increased in PMNs stimulated with M. canis living arthroconidia. In conclusion, infective M. canis arthroconidia induce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by feline PMNs that can be activated either by secreted or structural fungal components. Our results suggest that these granulocytes are involved in the initiation of the immune response against M. canis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of sodium acetate on cell proliferation and induction of proinflammatory cytokines: a preliminary evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Juan; Bi, Lifu; Chi, Yaojun; Aoki, Kazuo; Misumi, Junichi

    2005-12-01

    We have studied the effect of sodium acetate exposure on the viability and proliferative activity of cultured human gastric adenocarcinoma epithelial (AGS) cells and changes in the release of proinflammatory cytokines. We evaluated the levels of IL-6, TNF-alpha, IL-8, and IL-1beta in cell culture supernatants using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and cytokine mRNA levels were measured in whole cells using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. We also measured cytokine levels in mice using immunohistochemistry. In vitro studies demonstrated that incubation with sodium acetate (up to 12.5 mM) for 72 h stimulated AGS cell viability and proliferation in a dose-dependent manner; however, incubation with >12.5 mM sodium acetate inhibited cell growth, also in a dose-dependent manner (the largest decrease in viability was >50%). Incubation with sodium acetate for 24 h increased the levels of IL-1beta, IL-8, and TNF-alpha protein and mRNAs (IL-6 was detected but its mRNA was not). The effect of sodium acetate on the expression of these cytokines in cell culture was verified in mice. Our data suggest that ingestion of high concentrations of sodium acetate in food has cytotoxic effects.

  9. In vitro and in vivo effects of clove on pro-inflammatory cytokines production by macrophages.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, T G; Fernandes, A; Sousa, J P B; Bastos, J K; Sforcin, J M

    2009-01-01

    Biological properties of clove have been reported, but little is known about its effect on the immune system. This work was aimed to investigate the effect in vivo of a water-soluble part of hydroalcoholic extract of clove on pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta and IL-6) production by macrophages of BALB/c mice. The action of the essential oil of clove on the production of these cytokines macrophages was also investigated in vitro. The chemical compositions of the extract and of the oil were also investigated. Treatment of mice with water extract of clove was found to inhibit macrophages to produce both IL-1beta and IL-6. The essential oil of clove also inhibited the production of these cytokines in vitro. Eugenol was found to be the major component of the clove extract and essential oil, and probably is the causative agent of cytokine inhibition. Taken together, these data suggest an anti-inflammatory action of this spice.

  10. Spermine Inhibits Proinflammatory Cytokine Synthesis in Human Mononuclear Cells: A Counterregulatory Mechanism that Restrains the Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Minghuang; Caragine, Theresa; Wang, Haichao; Cohen, Pamela S.; Botchkina, Galina; Soda, Kuniyasu; Bianchi, Marina; Ulrich, Peter; Cerami, Anthony; Sherry, Barbara; Tracey, Kevin J.

    1997-01-01

    The local production of proinflammatory cytokines mediates the host response to inflammation, infection, and injury, whereas an overexpression of these mediators can injure or kill the host. Recently, we identified a class of multivalent guanylhydrazone compounds that are effective inhibitors of proinflammatory cytokine synthesis in monocytes/macrophages. The structure of one such cationic molecule suggested a molecular mimicry with spermine, a ubiquitous endogenous biogenic amine that increases significantly at sites of inflammation and infection. Here, we addressed the hypothesis that spermine might counterregulate the innate immune response by downregulating the synthesis of potentially injurious cytokines. When spermine was added to cultures of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), it effectively inhibited the synthesis of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, MIP-1α, and MIP-1β. The inhibition of cytokine synthesis was specific and reversible, with significant inhibition of TNF synthesis occurring even when spermine was added after LPS. The mechanism of spermine-mediated cytokine suppression was posttranscriptional and independent of polyamine oxidase activity. Local administration of spermine in vivo protected mice against the development of acute footpad inflammation induced by carrageenan. These results identify a distinct molecular counterregulatory role for spermine in downregulating the monocyte proinflammatory cytokine response. PMID:9151701

  11. Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of Critonia aromatisans leaves: Downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    la Torre Fabiola, Villa-De; Ralf, Kinscherf; Gabriel, Bonaterra; Victor Ermilo, Arana-Argaez; Martha, Méndez-González; Mirbella, Cáceres-Farfán; Rocio, Borges-Argáez

    2016-08-22

    Critonia aromatisans (Asteraceae), commonly known as "Chiople", is a cultivated species that is used in Mayan traditional medicine to treat inflammation, joint pain and rheumatism. To evaluate the in vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties of aqueous and organic extracts prepared from Critonia aromatisans leaves. Methanol, ethyl acetate, methylene chloride, hexanic, and aqueous extracts were obtained from the leaves of C. aromatisans. The anti-inflammatory properties of the extracts were tested in vivo to evaluate their ability to reduce the inflammatory response in the carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model in NIH mice. In addition, to explore the immunomodulatory effects of C. aromatisans, in vitro testing was performed to determine whether C. aromatisans leaf extracts are capable of decreasing macrophage production of nitric oxide (NO), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) without affecting macrophage viability. Single orally administered doses (100mg/kg or 200mg/kg) of a hexanic extract of C. aromatisans leaves significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice (P<0.001) by 76% and 84%, respectively. The effect of the extract in this model was generally comparable to those of the standard drugs used. In the in vitro determination, the extracts reduced the amount of NO mainly at 500 and 1000μg/mL. Hexanic extract and subfractions C, D, E, and F at 50 and 100μg/mL produced the lowest concentration of mediators in culture supernatants (protein) and at the mRNA/gene level by the significant down-regulation of cytokines. These findings explain some of the anti-inflammatory activity of this species. Purification of fractions C and D allowed the complete identification of cyclocolorenone, stigmasterol and stigmasterol derivatives as some of their main components. A hexanic extract of C. aromatisans displayed anti-inflammatory effects, validating the traditional practice

  12. Induction of proinflammatory cytokines in human lung epithelial cells during Rhodococcus equi infection.

    PubMed

    Remuzgo-Martínez, Sara; Pilares-Ortega, Lilian; Alvarez-Rodríguez, Lorena; Aranzamendi-Zaldunbide, Maitane; Padilla, Daniel; Icardo, Jose Manuel; Ramos-Vivas, Jose

    2013-08-01

    Rhodococcus equi is an opportunistic human pathogen associated with immunosuppressed people. While the interaction of R. equi with macrophages has been comprehensively studied, little is known about its interactions with non-phagocytic cells. Here, we characterized the entry process of this bacterium into human lung epithelial cells. The invasion is inhibited by nocodazole and wortmannin, suggesting that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway and microtubule cytoskeleton are important for invasion. Pre-incubation of R. equi with a rabbit anti-R. equi polyclonal antiserum resulted in a dramatic reduction in invasion. Also, the invasion process as studied by immunofluorescence and scanning electron microscopy indicates that R. equi make initial contact with the microvilli of the A549 cells, and at the structural level, the entry process was observed to occur via a zipper-like mechanism. Infected lung epithelial cells upregulate the expression of cytokines IL-8 and IL-6 upon infection. The production of these pro-inflammatory cytokines was significantly enhanced in culture supernatants from cells infected with non-mucoid plasmid-less strains when compared with cells infected with mucoid strains. These results demonstrate that human airway epithelial cells produce pro-inflammatory mediators against R. equi isolates.

  13. Association of transient receptor potential canonical type 3 (TRPC3) channel transcripts with proinflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Thilo, Florian; Scholze, Alexandra; Liu, Dao Yan; Zidek, Walter; Tepel, Martin

    2008-03-01

    We investigated whether expression of non-selective cation channels of the transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channel family are associated with proinflammatory cytokines in monocytes. Using quantitative RT-PCR we studied the expression of TRPC3, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in monocytes from 15 patients with essential hypertension and 16 age- and sex-matched normotensive control subjects. We observed an approximately 8-fold increase of TRPC3 transcripts in monocytes from patients with essential hypertension compared to normotensive control subjects (p<0.05). We found an approximately 3-fold increase of IL-1beta, and an approximately 9-fold increase of TNF-alpha in patients with essential hypertension compared to normotensive control subjects (each p<0.05). We observed a significant correlation between TRPC3 transcripts with systolic blood pressure, expression of IL-1beta, and TNF-alpha. Using quantitative RT-PCR we observed an association of TRPC3 transcripts and proinflammatory cytokines in monocytes.

  14. Fenretinide inhibited de novo ceramide synthesis and proinflammatory cytokines induced by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hong; Valerio, Michael; Bielawski, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Ceramides play an essential role in modulating immune signaling pathways and proinflammatory cytokine production in response to infectious pathogens, stress stimuli, or chemotherapeutic drugs. In this study, we demonstrated that Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, the pathogen for aggressive periodontitis, induced de novo synthesis of ceramide in Raw 264.7 cells. In addition, we identified that fenretinide, a synthetic retinoid, suppressed the de novo synthesis of ceramide induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans. Moreover, fenretinide attenuated interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA expression induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans. Fenretinide also decreased IL-1β, IL-6, and prostaglandin E2 proinflammatory cytokine levels in Raw 264.7 cells induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans. However, fenretinide had no significant effects on tumor necrosis factor alpha mRNA or protein levels. Furthermore, we showed that fenretinide inhibited the janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt, protein kinase C, and nuclear factor-kappaB signaling pathways, whereas fenretinide up-regulated the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways after bacterial stimulation. This study emphasizes the de novo ceramide synthesis pathway in response to bacterial stimulation and demonstrates the anti-inflammatory role of fenretinide in the bacteria-induced immune response. PMID:23139430

  15. Fenretinide inhibited de novo ceramide synthesis and proinflammatory cytokines induced by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong; Valerio, Michael; Bielawski, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Ceramides play an essential role in modulating immune signaling pathways and proinflammatory cytokine production in response to infectious pathogens, stress stimuli, or chemotherapeutic drugs. In this study, we demonstrated that Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, the pathogen for aggressive periodontitis, induced de novo synthesis of ceramide in Raw 264.7 cells. In addition, we identified that fenretinide, a synthetic retinoid, suppressed the de novo synthesis of ceramide induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans. Moreover, fenretinide attenuated interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA expression induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans. Fenretinide also decreased IL-1β, IL-6, and prostaglandin E2 proinflammatory cytokine levels in Raw 264.7 cells induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans. However, fenretinide had no significant effects on tumor necrosis factor alpha mRNA or protein levels. Furthermore, we showed that fenretinide inhibited the janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt, protein kinase C, and nuclear factor-kappaB signaling pathways, whereas fenretinide up-regulated the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways after bacterial stimulation. This study emphasizes the de novo ceramide synthesis pathway in response to bacterial stimulation and demonstrates the anti-inflammatory role of fenretinide in the bacteria-induced immune response.

  16. Evaluation of proinflammatory cytokine and neopterin levels in women with papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Beksac, Kemal; Sonmez, Cigdem; Cetin, Bahadir; Kismali, Gorkem; Sel, Tevhide; Tuncer, Yildirim; Kosova, Funda

    2016-12-23

    Papillary thyroid cancer is a disease that has been associated with chronic inflammation. The purpose of this study is to measure the production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 and neopterin, which is a novel biomarker for cellular immune response in papillary thyroid cancer. The serum IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and neopterin values of 31 papillary thyroid cancer patients undergoing bilateral total thyroidectomy were measured before and 20 days after surgery. The values were compared with those of 39 healthy controls. Serum IL-1β levels were similar across groups. IL-6 (p<0.001), IL-8 (p = 0.015) and neopterin levels (p = 0.002) were higher in presurgical samples and returned to normal following surgery. The proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8, but not IL-1β, were produced in greater amounts in papillary thyroid cancer. Serum neopterin seems to be a valid biological marker supporting the presence of papillary thyroid cancer.

  17. Adipokines and proinflammatory cytokines, the key mediators in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Stojsavljević, Sanja; Gomerčić Palčić, Marija; Virović Jukić, Lucija; Smirčić Duvnjak, Lea; Duvnjak, Marko

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a condition in which excess fat accumulates in the liver of a patient with no history of alcohol abuse or other causes for secondary hepatic steatosis. The pathogenesis of NAFLD and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has not been fully elucidated. The “two-hit“ hypothesis is probably a too simplified model to elaborate complex pathogenetic events occurring in patients with NASH. It should be better regarded as a multiple step process, with accumulation of liver fat being the first step, followed by the development of necroinflammation and fibrosis. Adipose tissue, which has emerged as an endocrine organ with a key role in energy homeostasis, is responsive to both central and peripheral metabolic signals and is itself capable of secreting a number of proteins. These adipocyte-specific or enriched proteins, termed adipokines, have been shown to have a variety of local, peripheral, and central effects. In the current review, we explore the role of adipocytokines and proinflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. We particularly focus on adiponectin, leptin and ghrelin, with a brief mention of resistin, visfatin and retinol-binding protein 4 among adipokines, and tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1, and briefly IL-18 among proinflammatory cytokines. We update their role in NAFLD, as elucidated in experimental models and clinical practice. PMID:25561778

  18. Antioxidant Defenses of Francisella tularensis Modulate Macrophage Function and Production of Proinflammatory Cytokines.

    PubMed

    Rabadi, Seham M; Sanchez, Belkys C; Varanat, Mrudula; Ma, Zhuo; Catlett, Sally V; Melendez, Juan Andres; Malik, Meenakshi; Bakshi, Chandra Shekhar

    2016-03-04

    Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of a fatal human disease known as tularemia, has been used in the bioweapon programs of several countries in the past, and now it is considered a potential bioterror agent. Extreme infectivity and virulence of F. tularensis is due to its ability to evade immune detection and to suppress the host's innate immune responses. However, Francisella-encoded factors and mechanisms responsible for causing immune suppression are not completely understood. Macrophages and neutrophils generate reactive oxygen species (ROS)/reactive nitrogen species as a defense mechanism for the clearance of phagocytosed microorganisms. ROS serve a dual role; at high concentrations they act as microbicidal effector molecules that destroy intracellular pathogens, and at low concentrations they serve as secondary signaling messengers that regulate the expression of various inflammatory mediators. We hypothesized that the antioxidant defenses of F. tularensis maintain redox homeostasis in infected macrophages to prevent activation of redox-sensitive signaling components that ultimately result in suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokine production and macrophage microbicidal activity. We demonstrate that antioxidant enzymes of F. tularensis prevent the activation of redox-sensitive MAPK signaling components, NF-κB signaling, and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by inhibiting the accumulation of ROS in infected macrophages. We also report that F. tularensis inhibits ROS-dependent autophagy to promote its intramacrophage survival. Collectively, this study reveals novel pathogenic mechanisms adopted by F. tularensis to modulate macrophage innate immune functions to create an environment permissive for its intracellular survival and growth.

  19. Growth factors and proinflammatory cytokines in the renal involvement of POEMS syndrome.

    PubMed

    Soubrier, M; Sauron, C; Souweine, B; Larroche, C; Wechsler, B; Guillevin, L; Piette, J C; Rousset, H; Deteix, P

    1999-10-01

    The POEMS syndrome is a multisystemic syndrome associated with plasma cell dyscrasia, characterized by the combination of polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M protein, and skin changes. Renal involvement in POEMS syndrome is rare (26 reported cases). It has been described as membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis-like lesions (MPGN-like), mesangiolytic glomerulonephritis, or thrombotic microangiopathy. Proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1, IL-6) have been implicated in the physiopathogenesis of POEMS syndrome, particularly when there is renal involvement. Growth factors (FGF-beta, TGF-beta, PDGF) have been implicated in renal lesions of the same histological type but of different origins. An increase in serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been reported in POEMS syndrome (20 of 22 cases). Circulating levels of these factors were determined in 4 patients with POEMS and renal involvement (3 MPGN-like, 1 MPGN-like, and mesangiolysis) and compared with those obtained in 4 patients with POEMS without clinical renal involvement and in 4 patients with primitive membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN). TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 were determined with an immunoradiometric assay, and VEGF, PDGF, FGF-beta, and TGF-beta with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Among the patients with POEMS syndrome, there was no difference in proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors between those with or without renal involvement. VEGF is the only growth factor that differentiates MPGN in POEMS syndrome from primitive MPGN.

  20. An IkappaB homolog encoded by African swine fever virus provides a novel mechanism for downregulation of proinflammatory cytokine responses in host macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Powell, P P; Dixon, L K; Parkhouse, R M

    1996-01-01

    Cytokines stimulate inflammatory defenses against viral infections. In order to evade host defenses, viruses have developed strategies to counteract antiviral cytokines. African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a large, double-stranded DNA virus that infects macrophages. This study demonstrates that ASFV effectively inhibited phorbol myristic acid-induced synthesis of antiviral, proinflammatory cytokines alpha interferon, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin-8 in infected macrophages as assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcriptase PCR. In contrast, levels of mRNA and protein for transforming growth factor beta, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, were increased by ASFV infection, suggesting that ASFV-induced inhibition of cytokine synthesis may be limited to cytokines activated by NFkappaB. An interleukin-8 promoter, containing an NFkappaB enhancer site, driving expression of a luciferase reporter gene was used to show that NFkappaB-dependent transcription was inhibited by the virus and by a cloned ASFV gene, A238L. This gene encodes a protein with homology to IkappaB, the inhibitor of NFkappaB. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that cells expressing the A238L gene inhibited NFkappaB binding to DNA. These results suggest that the A238L gene product interacts with NFkappaB to prevent transcription and downregulate proinflammatory cytokine production. This novel viral evasion strategy encoded in a single IkappaB-like protein may be capable of inhibiting most macrophage NFkappaB-dependent antiviral mechanisms and may provide insights into how ASFV causes a fatal hemorrhagic disease of domestic pigs and a persistent infection in the African warthog, which is its natural permissive host. PMID:8970976

  1. An IkappaB homolog encoded by African swine fever virus provides a novel mechanism for downregulation of proinflammatory cytokine responses in host macrophages.

    PubMed

    Powell, P P; Dixon, L K; Parkhouse, R M

    1996-12-01

    Cytokines stimulate inflammatory defenses against viral infections. In order to evade host defenses, viruses have developed strategies to counteract antiviral cytokines. African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a large, double-stranded DNA virus that infects macrophages. This study demonstrates that ASFV effectively inhibited phorbol myristic acid-induced synthesis of antiviral, proinflammatory cytokines alpha interferon, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin-8 in infected macrophages as assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcriptase PCR. In contrast, levels of mRNA and protein for transforming growth factor beta, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, were increased by ASFV infection, suggesting that ASFV-induced inhibition of cytokine synthesis may be limited to cytokines activated by NFkappaB. An interleukin-8 promoter, containing an NFkappaB enhancer site, driving expression of a luciferase reporter gene was used to show that NFkappaB-dependent transcription was inhibited by the virus and by a cloned ASFV gene, A238L. This gene encodes a protein with homology to IkappaB, the inhibitor of NFkappaB. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that cells expressing the A238L gene inhibited NFkappaB binding to DNA. These results suggest that the A238L gene product interacts with NFkappaB to prevent transcription and downregulate proinflammatory cytokine production. This novel viral evasion strategy encoded in a single IkappaB-like protein may be capable of inhibiting most macrophage NFkappaB-dependent antiviral mechanisms and may provide insights into how ASFV causes a fatal hemorrhagic disease of domestic pigs and a persistent infection in the African warthog, which is its natural permissive host.

  2. Effect of Th1/Th2 cytokine administration on proinflammatory SKOV-3 cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Sikora, Justyna; Kondera-Anasz, Zdzisława; Mickiewicz, Patrycja; Mickiewicz, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Interleukin(IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 might associate with inflammatory processes in a tumor progression and create a specific microenvironment for tumor growth. The aim of the study was to assess whether the Th1 and Th2 type cytokines, such as IL-2 and IL-10, affect ovarian carcinoma continuous cell line (SKOV-3) pro-inflammatory activation. Material and methods SKOV-3 ovarian cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated by IL-2 and IL-10. Additionally, SKOV-3 ovarian cells and PBMCs were co-cultured together. Proinflammatory activation of cancer cells was evaluated by measurement of IL-1β and IL-6 levels in culture fluid after 72 h of incubation. Results SKOV-3 cells and PBMCs secreted IL-1β and IL-6. After stimulation by IL-2 and IL-10, secretion of studied parameters was changed in a dose-dependent manner. The addition of a higher IL-2 level gave rise to an increase of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 secretion in SKOV-3 cells. Stimulation by IL-10 increased only IL-1β secretion in SKOV-3 cells. However, IL-6 secretion decreased after stimulation with 25 ng/ml IL-10. Activatory effects of IL-2 and inhibitory effects of IL-10 in co-culture of SKOV-3 and PBMCs were observed. Conclusions Our results suggested that Th1/Th2 type of cytokines might influence pro-inflammatory activation of SKOV-3 ovarian cells. Co-cultures of SKOV-3 and PBMCs showed significant changes in cross-talk between cancer and immune cells. PMID:27904527

  3. Dihydrocapsaicin suppresses proinflammatory cytokines expression by enhancing nuclear factor IA in a NF-κB-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing-Jing; Hu, Yan-Wei; Huang, Chuan; Ma, Xin; Kang, Chun-Min; Zhang, Yuan; Guo, Feng-Xia; Lu, Jing-Bo; Xiu, Jian-Cheng; Qiu, Yu-Rong; Sha, Yan-Hua; Gao, Ji-Juan; Wang, Yan-Chao; Li, Pan; Xu, Bang-Ming; Zheng, Lei; Wang, Qian

    2016-08-15

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease and represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Accumulating evidences have showed that Dihydrocapsaicin (DHC) has been found to exert multiple pharmacological and physiological effects. Nevertheless, the effects and possible mechanism of DHC on proinflammatory response remain largely unexplained. We found that DHC markedly upregulated NFIA and suppressed NF-κB expression in THP-1 macrophages. Up-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines induced by LPS including TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were markedly suppressed by DHC treatment. We also observed that protein level of NFIA was significantly increased while NF-κB and proinflammatory cytokines were decreased by DHC treatment in apoE(-/-) mice. Lentivirus-mediated overexpression of NFIA suppressed NF-κB and proinflammatory cytokines expression both in THP-1 macrophages and plaque tissues of apoE-/- mice. Moreover, treatment with lentivirus-mediated overexpression of NFIA made the down-regulation of DHC on NF-κB and proinflammatory cytokines expression notably accentuated in THP-1 macrophages and apoE(-/-) mice. In addition, treatment with siRNA targeting NF-κB accentuated the suppression of proinflammatory cytokines by lentivirus-mediated overexpression of NFIA. These observations demonstrated that DHC can significantly decrease proinflammatory cytokines through enhancing NFIA and inhibiting NF-κB expression and thus DHC may be a promising candidate as an anti-inflammatory drug for atherosclerosis as well as other disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Proinflammatory cytokines and apoptosis following glutamate-induced excitotoxicity mediated by p38 MAPK in the hippocampus of neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Chaparro-Huerta, V; Rivera-Cervantes, M C; Flores-Soto, M E; Gómez-Pinedo, U; Beas-Zárate, C

    2005-08-01

    The proinflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 rise during neuronal damage and activate the apoptotic mitogen-activated protein kinase p38. We studied apoptosis, the levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6, and the cell type producing TNF-alpha in rats at 8, 10, and 14 days of age after neonatal exposure to glutamate, which induces neuronal damage. TNF-alpha production was significantly increased by glutamate, but inhibited by SB203580 (a p38 inhibitor). TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 mRNA levels increased, but SB203580 did not modify their expression. Thus, the p38 signaling pathway influences the expression of inflammatory genes and its inhibition may offer anti-inflammatory therapy.

  5. Downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines in HTLV-1-infected T cells by Resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Fuggetta, Maria Pia; Bordignon, Valentina; Cottarelli, Andrea; Macchi, Beatrice; Frezza, Caterina; Cordiali-Fei, Paola; Ensoli, Fabrizio; Ciafrè, Stefania; Marino-Merlo, Francesca; Mastino, Antonio; Ravagnan, Giampietro

    2016-07-22

    Human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-1) is a lymphotropic retrovirus associated to adult T cell leukemia (ATL) and to non-neoplastic inflammatory conditions affecting the central nervous system, lung or skin. The inflammatory disorders associated to HTLV-1 are mediated by different proinflammatory cytokines as IL-1α, IL-6, TNF-α. The release and the role of IL-17 is still debated. Aims of this study were to analyze IL-17 induction by HTLV-1 infection and to determine whether resveratrol (RES) is able to down regulate the pathway of cytokines production either in HTLV-1 chronically infected MT-2 cell line or in human CD4+ cells infected in vitro with HTLV-1. MT-2 and HTLV-1 infected CD4+ cells were analyzed for proinflammatory cytokine production before or after RES treatment. The concentrations of IL-17, IL-1α, IL-6, and TNF-α were measured in cell culture supernatants by ELISA and SearchLight™ technology. The IL-17 mRNA expression was evaluated by RT-PCR. NF-kB activation was detected by non-radioactive, Electro Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA). HTLV-1 RNA expression was detected by Real-time-PCR (RQ-PCR). We found that RES is capable of inducing a dose-dependent inhibition of IL-1α, IL-6 and TNF-α production in vitro and can down regulate the expression of IL-17 at both mRNA and protein levels in HTLV-1 infected cells. This effect was associated with a dose-dependent inhibition of the of the nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-kB) activity. Conversely, RES did not apparently affect HTLV-1 proliferation. These results support the anti-inflammatory properties of RES, suggesting that it might be a useful therapeutic agent for the treatment of HTLV-1 related inflammatory diseases.

  6. Cromolyn sodium prophylaxis inhibits pulmonary proinflammatory cytokines in infants at high risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Viscardi, R M; Hasday, J D; Gumpper, K F; Taciak, V; Campbell, A B; Palmer, T W

    1997-11-01

    An imbalance of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, and the neutrophil chemotactic factor IL-8 and inhibitors (e.g., soluble TNF receptors and IL-1ra) in the lung during the first week of life may contribute to prolonged pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) has anti-inflammatory effects in asthma, a disease with many similarities with BPD. In a prospective, randomized, blinded study, we examined whether early DSCG therapy inhibits proinflammatory cytokines in infants at risk for BPD. Twenty-six infants who were identified as high risk (> or = 75% probability) for oxygen-dependency at 28 d by a 12-h predictive score and survived 48 h were randomized to nebulized DSCG 20 mg (n = 13) or 2 cc NS (control, n = 13) every 6 h from Day 3 to Day 28. Lung lavage was collected on Day 3 (pre-study) and Day 7 and analyzed for cell count and differential and TNF-alpha, sTNFR1, sTNFR2, IL-1 beta, IL-1ra, and IL-8 concentrations. The groups' pre-study lavage cytokine concentrations were similar, but TNF-alpha and IL-8 concentrations were 3.6- and 4.9-fold lower in the DSCG group on Day 7 compared with levels in the control group. Soluble TNF receptors were unaffected by DSCG. There was a trend towards lower IL-1 beta levels in DSCG-treated infants on Day 7, but IL-1ra levels were unaffected by DSCG therapy. Three control subjects, but no DSCG-treated infants, died during the study period (p = 0.07). There were no significant differences between survivors of the two groups for oxygen-dependency at 28 d (100% control subjects; 85% DSCG). These results suggest that nebulized DSCG may exert an anti-inflammatory effect in the lungs of infants < or = 1,000 g at risk for BPD.

  7. Proinflammatory cytokines differentially regulate adipocyte mitochondrial metabolism, oxidative stress, and dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Wendy S.; Kuzmicic, Jovan; Burrill, Joel S.; Donoghue, Margaret A.; Foncea, Rocio; Jensen, Michael D.; Lavandero, Sergio; Arriaga, Edgar A.

    2014-01-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines differentially regulate adipocyte mitochondrial metabolism, oxidative stress, and dynamics. Macrophage infiltration of adipose tissue and the chronic low-grade production of inflammatory cytokines have been mechanistically linked to the development of insulin resistance, the forerunner of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, we evaluated the chronic effects of TNFα, IL-6, and IL-1β on adipocyte mitochondrial metabolism and morphology using the 3T3-L1 model cell system. TNFα treatment of cultured adipocytes led to significant changes in mitochondrial bioenergetics, including increased proton leak, decreased ΔΨm, increased basal respiration, and decreased ATP turnover. In contrast, although IL-6 and IL-1β decreased maximal respiratory capacity, they had no effect on ΔΨm and varied effects on ATP turnover, proton leak, or basal respiration. Only TNFα treatment of 3T3-L1 cells led to an increase in oxidative stress (as measured by superoxide anion production and protein carbonylation) and C16 ceramide synthesis. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with cytokines led to decreased mRNA expression of key transcription factors and control proteins implicated in mitochondrial biogenesis, including PGC-1α and eNOS as well as deceased expression of COX IV and Cyt C. Whereas each cytokine led to effects on expression of mitochondrial markers, TNFα exclusively led to mitochondrial fragmentation and decreased the total level of OPA1 while increasing OPA1 cleavage, without expression of levels of mitofusin 2, DRP-1, or mitofilin being affected. In summary, these results indicate that inflammatory cytokines have unique and specialized effects on adipocyte metabolism, but each leads to decreased mitochondrial function and a reprogramming of fat cell biology. PMID:24595304

  8. Excessive Pro-Inflammatory Serum Cytokine Concentrations in Virulent Canine Babesiosis

    PubMed Central

    Goddard, Amelia; Leisewitz, Andrew L.; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Kristensen, Annemarie T.; Schoeman, Johan P.

    2016-01-01

    Babesia rossi infection causes a severe inflammatory response in the dog, which is the result of the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion. The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in cytokine concentrations were present in dogs with babesiosis and whether it was associated with disease outcome. Ninety-seven dogs naturally infected with B. rossi were studied and fifteen healthy dogs were included as controls. Diagnosis of babesiosis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and reverse line blot. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein at admission, prior to any treatment. Cytokine concentrations were assessed using a canine-specific multiplex assay on an automated analyser. Serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) were measured. Twelve of the Babesia-infected dogs died (12%) and 85 survived (88%). Babesia-infected dogs were also divided into those that presented within 48 hours from displaying clinical signs, and those that presented more than 48 hours after displaying clinical signs. Cytokine concentrations were compared between the different groups using the Mann-Whitney U test. IL-10 and MCP-1 concentrations were significantly elevated for the Babesia-infected dogs compared to the healthy controls. In contrast, the IL-8 concentration was significantly decreased in the Babesia-infected dogs compared to the controls. Concentrations of IL-6 and MCP-1 were significantly increased in the non-survivors compared to the survivors. Concentrations for IL-2, IL-6, IL-18 and GM-CSF were significantly higher in those cases that presented during the more acute stage of the disease. These findings suggest that a mixed cytokine response is present in dogs with babesiosis caused by B. rossi, and that an excessive pro-inflammatory response may result in a poor outcome. PMID:26953797

  9. Excessive Pro-Inflammatory Serum Cytokine Concentrations in Virulent Canine Babesiosis.

    PubMed

    Goddard, Amelia; Leisewitz, Andrew L; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Kristensen, Annemarie T; Schoeman, Johan P

    2016-01-01

    Babesia rossi infection causes a severe inflammatory response in the dog, which is the result of the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion. The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in cytokine concentrations were present in dogs with babesiosis and whether it was associated with disease outcome. Ninety-seven dogs naturally infected with B. rossi were studied and fifteen healthy dogs were included as controls. Diagnosis of babesiosis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and reverse line blot. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein at admission, prior to any treatment. Cytokine concentrations were assessed using a canine-specific multiplex assay on an automated analyser. Serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) were measured. Twelve of the Babesia-infected dogs died (12%) and 85 survived (88%). Babesia-infected dogs were also divided into those that presented within 48 hours from displaying clinical signs, and those that presented more than 48 hours after displaying clinical signs. Cytokine concentrations were compared between the different groups using the Mann-Whitney U test. IL-10 and MCP-1 concentrations were significantly elevated for the Babesia-infected dogs compared to the healthy controls. In contrast, the IL-8 concentration was significantly decreased in the Babesia-infected dogs compared to the controls. Concentrations of IL-6 and MCP-1 were significantly increased in the non-survivors compared to the survivors. Concentrations for IL-2, IL-6, IL-18 and GM-CSF were significantly higher in those cases that presented during the more acute stage of the disease. These findings suggest that a mixed cytokine response is present in dogs with babesiosis caused by B. rossi, and that an excessive pro-inflammatory response may result in a poor outcome.

  10. Chemically induced neuronal damage and gliosis: enhanced expression of the proinflammatory chemokine, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, without a corresponding increase in proinflammatory cytokines(1).

    PubMed

    Little, A R; Benkovic, S A; Miller, D B; O'Callaghan, J P

    2002-01-01

    Enhanced expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines has long been linked to neuronal and glial responses to brain injury. Indeed, inflammation in the brain has been associated with damage that stems from conditions as diverse as infection, multiple sclerosis, trauma, and excitotoxicity. In many of these brain injuries, disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) may allow entry of blood-borne factors that contribute to, or serve as the basis of, brain inflammatory responses. Administration of trimethyltin (TMT) to the rat results in loss of hippocampal neurons and an ensuing gliosis without BBB compromise. We used the TMT damage model to discover the proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines that are expressed in response to neuronal injury. TMT caused pyramidal cell damage within 3 days and a substantial loss of these neurons by 21 days post dosing. Marked microglial activation and astrogliosis were evident over the same time period. The BBB remained intact despite the presence of multiple indicators of TMT-induced neuropathology. TMT caused large increases in whole hippocampal-derived monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 mRNA (1,000%) by day 3 and in MCP-1 (300%) by day 7. The mRNA levels for tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6, cytokines normally expressed during the earliest stage of inflammation, were not increased up to 21 days post dosing. Lipopolysaccharide, used as a positive control, caused large inductions of cytokine mRNA in liver, as well as an increase in IL-1beta in hippocampus, but it did not result in the induction of astrogliosis. The data suggest that enhanced expression of the proinflammatory cytokines, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6, is not required for neuronal and glial responses to injury and that MCP-1 may serve a signaling function in the damaged CNS that is distinct from its role in proinflammatory events.

  11. Inhibition of heat shock protein (molecular weight 90 kDa) attenuates proinflammatory cytokines and prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Ambade, Aditya; Catalano, Donna; Lim, Arlene; Mandrekar, Pranoti

    2012-05-01

    Endotoxin-mediated proinflammatory cytokines play a significant role in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic liver diseases. Heat shock protein 90 (molecular weight, 90 kDa) (hsp90) functions as an important chaperone of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) signaling and is required for the production of proinflammatory cytokines. We hypothesized that inhibition of hsp90 would prevent LPS-induced liver injury by decreasing proinflammatory cytokines. C57BL/6 mice were injected intraperitoneally with an hsp90 inhibitor, 17-dimethylamino-ethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-DMAG), and LPS. Parameters of liver injury, proinflammatory cytokines, and associated mechanisms were studied by in vivo and in vitro experiments. Inhibition of hsp90 by 17-DMAG prevented LPS-induced increases in serum alanine aminotransferase activity and significantly reduced serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) protein as well as messenger RNA (mRNA) in liver. Enhanced DNA-binding activity of heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) and induction of target gene heat shock protein 70 (molecular weight, 70 kDa) confirmed hsp90 inhibition in liver. 17-DMAG treatment decreased cluster of differentiation 14 mRNA and LPS-induced nuclear factor kappa light-chain enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) DNA binding without affecting Toll-like receptor 4 mRNA in liver. Mechanistic studies revealed that 17-DMAG-mediated inhibition of TNFα showed no effect on LPS-induced NFκB promoter-driven reporter activity, but significantly decreased TNFα promoter-driven reporter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that 17-DMAG enhanced HSF1 binding to the TNFα promoter, but not the IL-6 promoter, suggesting HSF1 mediated direct inhibition of TNFα, but not IL-6. We show that HSF1 indirectly regulates IL-6 by the induction of another transcription factor, activating transcription factor 3. Inhibition of HSF1, using small interfering RNA, prevented 17-DMAG-mediated down

  12. [Immunosuppression in kidney donors with rapamycin and tacrolimus. Proinflammatory cytokine expression].

    PubMed

    Cicora, Federico; Roberti, Javier; Lausada, Natalia; González, Pedro; Guerrieri, Diego; Stringa, Pablo; Raimondi, Clemente

    2012-01-01

    The ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) remains a major problem in transplantation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of preconditioning a donor group with rapamycin and another donor group with tacrolimus to prevent IRI. Twelve hours before nephrectomy, donor Wistar rats received immunosuppressive drugs. The sample was divided into four experimental groups: a sham group, an untreated control group, a group treated with rapamycin (2 mg/kg) and a group treated with tacrolimus (0.3 mg/kg). Left kidneys were removed and, after three hours of cold ischemia, grafts were transplanted. Twenty-four hours later, the transplanted organs were recovered for histological analysis and evaluation of cytokine expression. The pre-conditioning treatment with rapamycin or tacrolimus significantly reduced donor blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels compared with control group (BUN: p < 0.001 vs. control and creatinine: p < 0.001 vs. control). Acute tubular necrosis was significantly lower in donors treated with immunosuppressant drugs compared with the control group (p < 0.001). Finally, inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-a, IL-6 and rIL-21 showed lower levels in the graft of pre-treated animals. This exploratory experimental study shows that preconditioning donors with rapamycin and tacrolimus in different groups improves clinical outcome and pathology in recipients and reduces in situ pro-inflammatory cytokines associated with Th17 differentiation, creating a favorable environment for the differentiation of regulatory T cells (Tregs).

  13. A potential role for pro-inflammatory cytokines in regulating synaptic plasticity in major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Khairova, Rushaniya A.; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Du, Jing; Manji, Husseini K.

    2009-01-01

    A growing body of data suggests that hyperactivation of the immune system has been implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Several pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) have been found to be significantly increased in patients with MDD. This review focuses on these two cytokines based on multiple lines of evidence from genetic, animal behaviour, and clinical studies showing that altered levels of serum TNF-α and IL-1 are associated with increased risk of depression, cognitive impairments, and reduced responsiveness to treatment. In addition, recent findings have shown that centrally expressed TNF-α and IL-1 play a dual role in the regulation of synaptic plasticity. In this paper, we review and critically appraise the mechanisms by which cytokines regulate synaptic and neural plasticity, and their implications for the pathophysiology and treatment of MDD. Finally, we discuss the therapeutic potential of anti-inflammatory-based approaches for treating patients with severe mood disorders. This is a promising field for increasing our understanding of the mechanistic interaction between the immune system, synaptic plasticity, and antidepressants, and for the ultimate development of novel and improved therapeutics for severe mood disorders. PMID:19224657

  14. Herbal medicine IMOD suppresses LPS-induced production of proinflammatory cytokines in human dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaee, Saeedeh; Drewniak, Agata; Sarrami-Forooshani, Ramin; Kaptein, Tanja M.; Gharibdoost, Farhad; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional medicines that stimulate or modulate the immune system can be used as innovative approaches to treat immunological diseases. The herbal medicine IMOD has been shown to strongly modulate immune responses in several animal studies as well as in clinical trials. However, little is known about the mechanisms of IMOD to modulate immunity. Here we have investigated whether IMOD modulates the immunological function of human dendritic cells (DCs). IMOD alone did not induce DC maturation nor production of cytokines. Notably, IMOD decreased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-12 p70, and TNFα by LPS-activated DCs at both mRNA and protein levels in a dose dependent manner. In contrast, treatment with IMOD did not affect LPS induced-production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Furthermore, IMOD inhibited T cell activation/proliferation by LPS-treated DCs and skewed T-cells responses toward the T helper type 2 polarization. These data strongly indicate that IMOD has a potent immunomodulatory ability that affects TLR signaling and thereby modulates DC function. Insight into the immunomodulatory effect of herbal medicine IMOD may provide innovative strategies to affect the immune system and to help combat various diseases. PMID:25870561

  15. Upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the intercostal muscles of COPD patients.

    PubMed

    Casadevall, C; Coronell, C; Ramírez-Sarmiento, A L; Martínez-Llorens, J; Barreiro, E; Orozco-Levi, M; Gea, J

    2007-10-01

    Muscle dysfunction is a characteristic feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recent studies suggest that cytokines may operate as local regulators of both muscle function and regeneration. The aim of the present study was to characterise the expression of different cytokines in the external intercostal muscle of COPD. Muscle biopsies were obtained from 25 stable COPD patients and eight healthy controls. Local tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, -6 and -10 expressions (real-time PCR and ELISA), sarcolemmal damage (immunohistochemistry), and the transcript levels of CD18 were assessed. Muscle TNF-alpha and IL-6 transcripts were significantly higher in COPD patients compared with controls, and IL-1beta and sarcolemmal damage showed a strong tendency in the same direction. Similar results were observed at protein level. The CD18 panleukocyte marker was similar in COPD and controls. Respiratory muscle function was impaired in COPD patients and it correlated to both the severity of lung function impairment and TNF-alpha muscle expression. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is associated with the upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the intercostal muscles. This phenomenon might be involved in respiratory muscle dysfunction.

  16. Comparison of pro-inflammatory cytokines of non-healing and healing cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Moafi, M; Rezvan, H; Sherkat, R; Taleban, R; Asilian, A; Hamid Zarkesh-Esfahani, S; Nilforoushzadeh, M A; Jaffary, F; Mansourian, M; Sokhanvari, F; Ansari, N

    2017-04-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) heals spontaneously within several weeks or months, but, in rare cases, CL-active lesions last for many years. In this study, we assessed cell-mediated immunity in non-healing CL through the measurement of three pro-inflammatory cytokines: Interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-17a and CXCL-11. For this, 32 patients afflicted with healing or non-healing CL were recruited in this study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of every patient were treated with three antigens: purified protein derivative (PPD), soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA) and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA). Cytokine quantification was performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Results of our study showed that neither cytokine produced in the presence of a PPD stimulator (as an irrelevant antigen) significantly differed between the healing and non-healing groups (P-value ≥0.05 for all of them). However, IFN-γ, CXCL-11 and IL-17a levels produced in the presence of PHA or SLA were significantly higher within the healing than in the non-healing group (P-value <0.01 for all of them). It seems that appropriate levels of IFN-γ, as well as IL-17a and CXCL-11, contribute to the control of Leishmania infection.

  17. Immunohistochemical detection of the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines by ovine pulmonary macrophages.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, L; Núñez, A; Sánchez-Cordón, P J; Pedrera, M; Fernández de Marco, M; Salguero, F J; Gómez-Villamandos, J C

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the expression of three proinflammatory cytokines by pulmonary macrophages of sheep in paraffin wax-embedded tissue. Samples of lung from seven healthy sheep were fixed by immersion in either 10% neutral buffered formalin, acetic formalin, paraformaldehyde-lysine-periodate or Bouin's solution and processed for structural and immunohistochemical studies. The expression of interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha by pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIMs) and alveolar macrophages (AMs) was detected by the avidin-biotin-peroxidase (ABC) technique. Bouin's solution proved to be the most suitable fixative and Tween 20 the most effective pretreatment for increasing permeability. Constitutive expression of IL-1alpha, IL-6 and TNF-alpha by both macrophage populations was detected. The number of PIMs expressing IL-1alpha (the predominant cytokine in ovine lung) was higher than that of AMs, while the expression of IL-6 was greater in AMs. No differences between PIMS and AMs were found in respect of TNF-alpha expression. The evaluation of cytokine expression represents a valuable tool for studying the pathogenesis of disease in the ovine lung.

  18. Increased hydrophobicity in Malassezia species correlates with increased proinflammatory cytokine expression in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Akaza, Narifumi; Akamatsu, Hirohiko; Takeoka, Shiori; Mizutani, Hiroshi; Nakata, Satoru; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2012-11-01

    Malassezia cells stimulate cytokine production by keratinocytes, although this ability differs among Malassezia species for unknown reasons. The aim of this study was to clarify the factors determining the ability to induce cytokine production by human keratinocytes in response to Malassezia species. M. furfur NBRC 0656, M. sympodialis CBS 7222, M. dermatis JCM 11348, M. globosa CBS 7966, M. restricta CBS 7877, and three strains each of M. globosa, M. restricta, M. dermatis, M. sympodialis, and M. furfur maintained under various culture conditions were used. Normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) (1 × 10(5) cells) and the Malassezia species (1 × 10(6) cells) were co-cultured, and IL-1α, IL-6, and IL-8 mRNA levels were determined. Moreover, the hydrophobicity and β-1,3-glucan expression at the surface of Malassezia cells were analyzed. The ability of Malassezia cells to trigger the mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines in NHEKs differed with the species and conditions and was dependent upon the hydrophobicity of Malassezia cells not β-1,3-glucan expression.

  19. Oxidative Stress and Proinflammatory Cytokines Contribute to Demyelination and Axonal Damage in a Cerebellar Culture Model of Neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    di Penta, Alessandra; Moreno, Beatriz; Reix, Stephanie; Fernandez-Diez, Begoña; Villanueva, Maite; Errea, Oihana; Escala, Nagore; Vandenbroeck, Koen; Comella, Joan X.; Villoslada, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Background Demyelination and axonal damage are critical processes in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines elicited by inflammation mediates tissue damage. Methods/Principal Findings To monitor the demyelination and axonal injury associated with microglia activation we employed a model using cerebellar organotypic cultures stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Microglia activated by LPS released pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα), and increased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This activation was associated with demyelination and axonal damage in cerebellar cultures. Axonal damage, as revealed by the presence of non-phosphorylated neurofilaments, mitochondrial accumulation in axonal spheroids, and axonal transection, was associated with stronger iNOS expression and concomitant increases in ROS. Moreover, we analyzed the contribution of pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress in demyelination and axonal degeneration using the iNOS inhibitor ethyl pyruvate, a free-scavenger and xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol, as well as via blockage of pro-inflammatory cytokines using a Fc-TNFR1 construct. We found that blocking microglia activation with ethyl pyruvate or allopurinol significantly decreased axonal damage, and to a lesser extent, demyelination. Blocking TNFα significantly decreased demyelination but did not prevented axonal damage. Moreover, the most common therapy for MS, interferon-beta, was used as an example of an immunomodulator compound that can be tested in this model. In vitro, interferon-beta treatment decreased oxidative stress (iNOS and ROS levels) and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines after LPS stimulation, reducing axonal damage. Conclusion The model of neuroinflammation using cerebellar culture stimulated with endotoxin mimicked myelin and axonal damage mediated by the combination of

  20. Identification of (poly)phenol treatments that modulate the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines by human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Ford, Christopher T; Richardson, Siân; McArdle, Francis; Lotito, Silvina B; Crozier, Alan; McArdle, Anne; Jackson, Malcolm J

    2016-05-28

    Diets rich in fruits and vegetables (FV), which contain (poly)phenols, protect against age-related inflammation and chronic diseases. T-lymphocytes contribute to systemic cytokine production and are modulated by FV intake. Little is known about the relative potency of different (poly)phenols in modulating cytokine release by lymphocytes. We compared thirty-one (poly)phenols and six (poly)phenol mixtures for effects on pro-inflammatory cytokine release by Jurkat T-lymphocytes. Test compounds were incubated with Jurkat cells for 48 h at 1 and 30 µm, with or without phorbol ester treatment at 24 h to induce cytokine release. Three test compounds that reduced cytokine release were further incubated with primary lymphocytes at 0·2 and 1 µm for 24 h, with lipopolysaccharide added at 5 h. Cytokine release was measured, and generation of H2O2 by test compounds was determined to assess any potential correlations with cytokine release. A number of (poly)phenols significantly altered cytokine release from Jurkat cells (P<0·05), but H2O2 generation did not correlate with cytokine release. Resveratrol, isorhamnetin, curcumin, vanillic acid and specific (poly)phenol mixtures reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine release from T-lymphocytes, and there was evidence for interaction between (poly)phenols to further modulate cytokine release. The release of interferon-γ induced protein 10 by primary lymphocytes was significantly reduced following treatment with 1 µm isorhamnetin (P<0·05). These results suggest that (poly)phenols derived from onions, turmeric, red grapes, green tea and açai berries may help reduce the release of pro-inflammatory mediators in people at risk of chronic inflammation.

  1. Fasting levels of insulin and amylin after acute pancreatitis are associated with pro-inflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Gillies, Nicola A; Pendharkar, Sayali A; Singh, Ruma G; Windsor, John A; Bhatia, Madhav; Petrov, Maxim S

    2017-10-01

    The prevalence of metabolic diseases continues to rise worldwide, with a growing recognition of metabolic dysregulation after acute inflammatory diseases such as acute pancreatitis (AP). Adipokines and cytokines play an important role in metabolism and the course of AP, but there is a paucity of research investigating their relationship with pancreatic hormones after AP. This study aimed to explore associations between pancreatic hormones and adipokines as well as cytokines to provide insights into the pathophysiology of altered pancreatic hormone secretion following AP. A total of 83 patients previously diagnosed with AP and no prior diabetes or pre-diabetes were recruited into this cross-sectional follow up study. Fasting venous blood samples were collected to analyse a panel of pancreatic hormones and derivatives (amylin, C-peptide, glucagon, insulin, pancreatic polypeptide, somatostatin), adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, retinol binding protein-4, and resistin), and cytokines (interleukin-6 (IL-6), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)). Linear regression analyses were used, and potential confounders were adjusted for in multivariate analyses. Insulin was significantly associated with IL-6 in both unadjusted and adjusted models (p = .029 and p = .040, respectively). Amylin was significantly associated with MCP-1 in the unadjusted model (p = .046), and TNF-α in unadjusted and adjusted models (p = .025 and p = .027, respectively). Insulin and amylin have a strong positive association with pro-inflammatory cytokines in patients following an episode of AP. These associations have possible relevance in the development of diabetes associated with diseases of the exocrine pancreas, providing the opportunity to develop novel treatment paradigms.

  2. Cervical ripening and parturition in cows are driven by a cascade of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    van Engelen, E; de Groot, M W; Breeveld-Dwarkasing, V N A; Everts, M E; van der Weyden, G C; Taverne, M A M; Rutten, V P M G

    2009-10-01

    The final stages of cervical ripening and parturition resemble an inflammatory process. Although the role of cytokines in both spontaneous and experimentally induced parturitions has been described in several small laboratory animals and humans, the involvement of pro-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines in physiologic parturition in cows has not been determined. In this study, the cytokine expression profiles were assessed in bovine cervical tissue at several stages of pregnancy and at parturition. Serial biopsy samples of the cervix were obtained from 10 cows on day 185 and day 275 of pregnancy (which was on average 5.4 days before parturition) and at parturition. Messenger RNA expression levels of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)alpha were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction and the number of neutrophils and eosinophils was estimated by Luna and Sirius Red staining. At parturition, IL-8 expression had increased 430-fold (p < 0.001) when compared with that of the day 185 of pregnancy, large numbers of neutrophils had invaded the cervix while eosinophils remained scarce, IL-1beta had increased eightfold (p < 0.05) and IL-6 had not changed significantly. Additionally, IL-10 was increased by 10-fold (p < 0.001) and TNFalpha decreased by 57% (p < 0.05) when compared with that of the day 185 of pregnancy. The large increase in expression of IL-8, enabling the influx of neutrophils, is indicative of its important role in the final stage of cervical ripening and at parturition. As previous studies have shown that neutrophils excrete matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), this might contribute to softening of the cervix. In contrast, the only slightly increased levels of IL-1, steady concentrations of IL-6 and decreased TNFalpha, the potential consequences of increased IL-10 expression, indicate that final cervical of cows in ripening at term parturition is an inflammatory process influenced by regulatory cytokines.

  3. The role of proinflammatory cytokines in wasting disease during lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection.

    PubMed

    Kamperschroer, Cris; Quinn, Daniel G

    2002-07-01

    Infection with pathogens often leads to loss of body weight, but the cause of weight loss during infection is poorly understood. We used the infection of mice with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) as a model to study how pathogens induce weight loss. If LCMV is introduced into the CNS of CTL-deficient mice, the immune response against the virus leads to a severe weight loss called wasting disease. We planned to determine what components of this antiviral immune response mediate wasting disease. By adoptive transfer, we show that CD4 T cells activated by LCMV infection are sufficient to cause wasting disease. We examined the role of cytokines in LCMV-induced wasting disease using mice lacking specific cytokines or cytokine receptors. Results of adoptive transfer experiments suggest that TNF-alpha is not involved in LCMV-induced wasting disease and show that IFN-gamma contributes to the disease. Consistent with a role for IFN-gamma in wasting, we find that IFN-gamma is necessary for LCMV-specific CD4 T cell responses in the CNS, most likely because it is required to induce MHC class II expression. Our data also indicate that IL-1 is required for LCMV-induced wasting and that IL-6 contributes to the wasting disease. Additionally, our results identify alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone as a potential mediator of the disease. Overall, this work defines the critical role of virus-primed CD4 T cells and of proinflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of wasting disease induced by LCMV infection.

  4. Proinflammatory cytokines remain elevated despite long-term remission in Cushing's disease: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Shah, Nirali; Ruiz, Henry H; Zafar, Usman; Post, Kalmon D; Buettner, Christoph; Geer, Eliza B

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation contributes to the development of metabolic and cardiovascular disease. Cushing's disease (CD), a state of chronic glucocorticoid (GC) excess characterized by visceral obesity and insulin resistance, may be associated with increased systemic inflammation. Cardiovascular mortality in CD remains elevated even after successful remission. It is unclear whether a chronic low-grade inflammatory state persists even after remission of CD, which may account for the increased CVD mortality. (1) To assess circulating proinflammatory cytokines in patients with active CD and BMI-matched controls; (2) to prospectively follow plasma cytokine concentrations in patients with CD before and after surgical remission; and (3) to assess whether plasma cytokine concentrations correlate with adipose tissue distribution and ectopic lipid content in liver and muscle. Plasma cytokines from prospectively enrolled patients with CD (N = 31) were quantified during active disease (v1) vs controls (N = 18) and 19·5 ± 12·9 months after surgical remission (v2). Fasting plasma IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-17 and IL-10 were quantified using a multiplex assay. Total and regional fat masses were measured by whole-body MRI. Circulating IL-6 and IL-1β were elevated in patients with active CD vs controls (P < 0·05) and remained elevated in CD after surgical remission, despite decreases in BMI (P < 0·001), HOMA-IR (P < 0·001), and visceral, hepatic and intermuscular fat (P < 0·001, <0·001 and 0·03, respectively). Despite long-term remission and improvements in fat distribution and insulin sensitivity, patients with CD may suffer from a state of chronic low-grade inflammation, which could contribute to increased cardiovascular mortality. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Levels in HIV Infected and Uninfected Pregnant Women with and without Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Maharaj, Niren Ray; Phulukdaree, Alisa; Nagiah, Savania; Ramkaran, Prithiksha; Tiloke, Charlette; Chuturgoon, Anil Amichund

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Preeclampsia and HIV/AIDS are inflammatory conditions that contribute significantly to adverse maternal and foetal outcomes. The immune reconstitution effects of HAART on inflammatory mediators has not been adequately studied in pregnancy and may impact on the inflammatory cytokine network in women with co-morbid preeclampsia. Our study evaluated changes in pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-2, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-6 in HIV infected preeclamptic women on HAART. Methods A prospective experimental study was conducted at Prince Mshiyeni Memorial Hospital between July 2013 and September 2014. One hundred and ninety three pregnant women were recruited into 4 groups: uninfected normotensive (50; 26%), infected normotensive (45; 23%), uninfected preeclamptic (53; 28%) and infected preeclamptic women (45; 23%). Serum levels of cytokines TNF-α, IFN- γ, IL-2 and IL-6 were determined using commercially available kits and a Cytometric Bead Array (CBA). Comparative data was recorded and analysed descriptively. Results In the control groups (normotensive), significantly lower values were found in IL-2 (p = 0.010), TNF-α (p = 0.045), and IL-6 (p = 0.005); and a non-significant decrease was observed in IFN-γ (p = 0.345) in HIV infected women on HAART compared to uninfected controls. In the experimental group (preeclamptic) women, significantly reduced levels were observed in IL-2 and TNF-α (p = 0.001; p = 0.000) and non-significant decreases were observed in IFN-γ and IL-6 (p = 0.023; p = 0.086) in HIV infected women on HAART compared with uninfected preeclamptic women. Non-significant differences were observed between uninfected preeclamptic and normotensive women. Conclusion In uncomplicated/normotensive pregnancies, HIV/HAART is associated with significant decreases in IL-2, TNF-α and IL-6, and in preeclamptic women significant decreases in IL-2 and TNF-α were observed. These findings suggest that HIV/HAART impacts on pro-inflammatory cytokines in women with co

  6. Borrelia burgdorferi Induces the Production and Release of Proinflammatory Cytokines in Canine Synovial Explant Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Straubinger, Reinhard K.; Straubinger, Alix F.; Summers, Brian A.; Erb, Hollis N.; Härter, Luc; Appel, Max J. G.

    1998-01-01

    Canine synovial membrane explants were exposed to high- or low-passage Borrelia burgdorferi for 3, 6, 12, and 24 h. Spirochetes received no treatment, were UV light irradiated for 16 h, or were sonicated prior to addition to synovial explant cultures. In explant tissues, mRNA levels for the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-1β, and IL-8 were surveyed semiquantitatively by reverse transcription-PCR. Culture supernatants were examined for numbers of total and motile (i.e., viable) spirochetes, TNF-like and IL-1-like activities, polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) chemotaxis-inducing activities, and IL-8. During exposure to synovial explant tissues, the total number of spirochetes in the supernatants decreased gradually by ∼30%, and the viability also declined. mRNAs for TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-8 were up-regulated in synovial explant tissues within 3 h after infection with untreated or UV light-irradiated B. burgdorferi, and mRNA levels corresponded to the results obtained with bioassays. During 24 h of coincubation, cultures challenged with untreated or UV light-irradiated spirochetes produced similar levels of TNF-like and IL-1-like activities. In contrast, explant tissues exposed to untreated B. burgdorferi generated significantly higher levels of chemotactic factors after 24 h of incubation than did explant tissues exposed to UV light-treated spirochetes. In identical samples, a specific signal for IL-8 was identified by Western blot analysis. High- and low-passage borreliae did not differ in their abilities to induce proinflammatory cytokines. No difference in cytokine induction between untreated and sonicated high-passage spirochetes was observed, suggesting that fractions of the organism can trigger the production and release of inflammatory mediators. The titration of spirochetes revealed a dose-independent cytokine response, where 103 to 107 B. burgdorferi organisms induced similar TNF

  7. Phototherapy-treated apoptotic tumor cells induce pro-inflammatory cytokines production in macrophage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Cuixia; Wei, Yanchun; Xing, Da

    2014-09-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that as a mitochondria-targeting cancer phototherapy, high fluence low-power laser irradiation (HF-LPLI) induces mitochondrial superoxide anion burst, resulting in oxidative damage to tumor cells. In this study, we further explored the immunological effects of HF-LPLI-induced apoptotic tumor cells. When macrophages were co-incubated with apoptotic cells induced by HF-LPLI, we observed the increased levels of TNF-α secretion and NO production in macrophages. Further experiments showed that NF-κB was activated in macrophages after co-incubation with HF-LPLI-induced apoptotic cells, and inhibition of NF-κB activity by pyrrolidinedithiocarbamic acid (PDTC) reduced the elevated levels of TNF-α secretion and NO production. These data indicate that HF-LPLI-induced apoptotic tumor cells induce the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in macrophages, which may be helpful for better understanding the biological effects of cancer phototherapy.

  8. Pro-inflammatory Macrophages Sustain Pyruvate Oxidation through Pyruvate Dehydrogenase for the Synthesis of Itaconate and to Enable Cytokine Expression.

    PubMed

    Meiser, Johannes; Krämer, Lisa; Sapcariu, Sean C; Battello, Nadia; Ghelfi, Jenny; D'Herouel, Aymeric Fouquier; Skupin, Alexander; Hiller, Karsten

    2016-02-19

    Upon stimulation with Th1 cytokines or bacterial lipopolysaccharides, resting macrophages shift their phenotype toward a pro-inflammatory state as part of the innate immune response. LPS-activated macrophages undergo profound metabolic changes to adapt to these new physiological requirements. One key step to mediate this metabolic adaptation is the stabilization of HIF1α, which leads to increased glycolysis and lactate release, as well as decreased oxygen consumption. HIF1 abundance can result in the induction of the gene encoding pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1), which inhibits pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) via phosphorylation. Therefore, it has been speculated that pyruvate oxidation through PDH is decreased in pro-inflammatory macrophages. However, to answer this open question, an in-depth analysis of this metabolic branching point was so far lacking. In this work, we applied stable isotope-assisted metabolomics techniques and demonstrate that pyruvate oxidation is maintained in mature pro-inflammatory macrophages. Glucose-derived pyruvate is oxidized via PDH to generate citrate in the mitochondria. Citrate is used for the synthesis of the antimicrobial metabolite itaconate and for lipogenesis. An increased demand for these metabolites decreases citrate oxidation through the tricarboxylic acid cycle, whereas increased glutamine uptake serves to replenish the TCA cycle. Furthermore, we found that the PDH flux is maintained by unchanged PDK1 abundance, despite the presence of HIF1. By pharmacological intervention, we demonstrate that the PDH flux is an important node for M(LPS) macrophage activation. Therefore, PDH represents a metabolic intervention point that might become a research target for translational medicine to treat chronic inflammatory diseases.

  9. Pro-inflammatory Macrophages Sustain Pyruvate Oxidation through Pyruvate Dehydrogenase for the Synthesis of Itaconate and to Enable Cytokine Expression*

    PubMed Central

    Meiser, Johannes; Krämer, Lisa; Sapcariu, Sean C.; Battello, Nadia; Ghelfi, Jenny; D'Herouel, Aymeric Fouquier; Skupin, Alexander; Hiller, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Upon stimulation with Th1 cytokines or bacterial lipopolysaccharides, resting macrophages shift their phenotype toward a pro-inflammatory state as part of the innate immune response. LPS-activated macrophages undergo profound metabolic changes to adapt to these new physiological requirements. One key step to mediate this metabolic adaptation is the stabilization of HIF1α, which leads to increased glycolysis and lactate release, as well as decreased oxygen consumption. HIF1 abundance can result in the induction of the gene encoding pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1), which inhibits pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) via phosphorylation. Therefore, it has been speculated that pyruvate oxidation through PDH is decreased in pro-inflammatory macrophages. However, to answer this open question, an in-depth analysis of this metabolic branching point was so far lacking. In this work, we applied stable isotope-assisted metabolomics techniques and demonstrate that pyruvate oxidation is maintained in mature pro-inflammatory macrophages. Glucose-derived pyruvate is oxidized via PDH to generate citrate in the mitochondria. Citrate is used for the synthesis of the antimicrobial metabolite itaconate and for lipogenesis. An increased demand for these metabolites decreases citrate oxidation through the tricarboxylic acid cycle, whereas increased glutamine uptake serves to replenish the TCA cycle. Furthermore, we found that the PDH flux is maintained by unchanged PDK1 abundance, despite the presence of HIF1. By pharmacological intervention, we demonstrate that the PDH flux is an important node for M(LPS) macrophage activation. Therefore, PDH represents a metabolic intervention point that might become a research target for translational medicine to treat chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:26679997

  10. Combined effects of proinflammatory cytokines and intermittent cyclic mechanical strain in inhibiting osteogenicity in human periodontal ligament cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chaofan; Chen, Lijiao; Shi, Xinlian; Cao, Zhensheng; Hu, Bibo; Yu, Wenbin; Ren, Manman; Hu, Rongdang; Deng, Hui

    2016-09-01

    Mechanical strain plays an important role in bone formation and resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. The mechanism has not been fully studied, and the process becomes complex with increased amounts of periodontal patients seeking orthodontic care. Our aims were to elucidate the combined effects of proinflammatory cytokines and intermittent cyclic strain (ICS) on the osteogenic capacity of human periodontal ligament cells. Cultured human periodontal ligament cells were exposed to proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β 5 ng/mL and tumor necrosis factor-α 10 ng/mL) for 1 and 5 days, and ICS (0.5 Hz, 12% elongation) was applied for 4 h per day. The autocrine of inflammatory cytokines was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of osteoblast markers runt-related transcription factor 2 and rabbit collagen type I was determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. The osteogenic capacity was also detected by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, ALP activity, and alizarin red staining. We demonstrated that ICS impaired the osteogenic capacity of human periodontal ligament cells when incubated with proinflammatory cytokines, as evidenced by the low expression of ALP staining, low ALP activity, reduced alizarin red staining, and reduced osteoblast markers. These data, for the first time, suggest that ICS has a negative effect on the inductive inhibition of osteogenicity in human PDL cells mediated by proinflammatory cytokines. © 2016 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  11. Lifetime Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence and Proinflammatory Cytokine Levels Across the Perinatal Period.

    PubMed

    Robertson Blackmore, Emma; Mittal, Mona; Cai, Xueya; Moynihan, Jan A; Matthieu, Monica M; O'Connor, Thomas G

    2016-10-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health concern, affecting one-third of US women. Prior research suggests an association between exposure to IPV and poor maternal perinatal health, but the underlying biological correlates are not well understood. This study examined the relationship between exposure to IPV and proinflammatory cytokine levels, a candidate mechanism accounting for poor psychiatric and obstetric outcomes, across the perinatal period. Data were obtained from a prospective, longitudinal cohort study of 171 women receiving obstetrical care from a hospital-based practice serving a predominantly low-income minority population. Participants completed questionnaires on IPV exposure, psychiatric symptoms, and psychosocial and obstetric factors and provided blood samples at 18 and 32 weeks of gestation and 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were assayed via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Thirty-five (20.5%) women reported lifetime exposure to IPV and 7 (4.1%) reported being physically hurt in the preceding 12 months (4 while pregnant). Lifetime exposure to IPV was associated with increased likelihood of experiencing perinatal depression and smoking during pregnancy. Women with a history of IPV had significantly higher levels of TNF-α at 18 weeks (z = -2.29, p < 0.05), but significantly smaller changes in levels of IL-6 (β = -0.36, p = 0.04) across time. Lifetime exposure to IPV was associated with a range of adverse mental health outcomes and may affect proinflammatory cytokine levels in pregnancy.

  12. Parenteral nutrition in short bowel syndrome patients, regardless of its duration, increases serum proinflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Bizari, Letícia; da Silva Santos, Andressa Feijó; Foss, Norma Tiraboschi; Marchini, Júlio Sérgio; Suen, Vivian Marques Miguel

    2016-07-01

    Short bowel syndrome is a severe malabsorption disorder, and prolonged parenteral nutrition is essential for survival in some cases. Among the undesirable effects of long-term parenteral nutrition is an increase in proinflammatory cytokines. The aim of the present study was to measure the serum levels of interleukin-6, interleukin-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and transforming growth factor beta, in patients with short bowel syndrome on cyclic parenteral nutrition and patients who had previously received but no longer require parenteral nutrition. The study was cross-sectional and observational. Three groups were studied as follows: Parenteral nutrition group, 9 patients with short bowel syndrome that receive cyclic parenteral nutrition; Oral nutrition group, 10 patients with the same syndrome who had been weaned off parenteral nutrition for at least 1 year prior to the study; Control group, 13 healthy adults, matched for age and sex to parenteral and oral groups. The following data were collected: age, tobacco use, drug therapies, dietary intake, body weight, height, blood collection. All interleukins were significantly higher in the parenteral group compared with the control group as follows: interleukin-6: 22 ± 19 vs 1.5 ± 1.4 pg/mL, P= .0002; transforming growth factor β: 854 ± 204 vs 607 ± 280 pg/mL, P= .04; interleukin-10: 8 ± 37 vs 0.6 ± 4, P= .03; tumor necrosis factor α: 20 ± 8 vs 8 ± 4 pg/mL, P< .0001. We concluded that parenteral nutrition in short bowel syndrome patients, regardless of its duration, increases serum proinflammatory cytokines.

  13. No relationship between lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, proinflammatory cytokines, and neopterin in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Savas, S; Kabaroglu, C; Alpman, A; Sarac, F; Yalcin, M A; Parıldar, Z; Ozkinay, F; Kumral, E; Akcicek, F

    2016-05-01

    Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is a reported risk factor for dementia. However, the relationship between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Lp-PLA2 is still debatable and, to the best of our knowledge, no study has evaluated the associations between levels of Lp-PLA2, proinflammatory cytokines, and neopterin in AD. In total, 59 patients with AD and 38 non-demented individuals were included in the case-control study. Fasting serum concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), neopterin, and Lp-PLA2 were determined using ELISA. The associations between AD and each of the variables were analyzed by logistic regression. The median Lp-PLA2 levels in AD and controls were similar (P=0.29, not significant). Median serum neopterin and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in patients with AD than in controls (P=0.0001 and P=0.03, respectively). In regression analyses, median neopterin levels, a lower level of education, and female gender were significantly associated with AD when compared with controls (OR, 31.44, 95% CI 3.59-275.28, P=0.002; OR, 4.35, 95% CI 1.13-16.61, P=0.032; OR, 7.25, 95% CI 1.88-28.00, P=0.004, respectively). In contrast to previous evidence suggesting its role in dementia and AD, Lp-PLA2 enzyme levels were higher in the controls, and no relationship between Lp-PLA2 and either proinflammatory cytokines or neopterin was identified in AD. Elevated neopterin levels may be considered inflammatory markers of AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Well-controlled proinflammatory cytokine responses of Peyer’s patch cells to probiotic Lactobacillus casei

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Yukihide; Shida, Kan; Nagata, Satoru; Wada, Mariko; Bian, Lei; Wang, Chongxin; Shimizu, Toshiaki; Yamashiro, Yuichiro; Kiyoshima-Shibata, Junko; Nanno, Msanobu; Nomoto, Koji

    2010-01-01

    In order to clarify the probiotic features of immunomodulation, cytokine production by murine spleen and Peyer’s patch (PP) cells was examined in response to probiotic and pathogenic bacteria. In spleen cells, probiotic Lactobacillus casei induced interleukin (IL)-12 production by CD11b+ cells more strongly than pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and effectively promoted the development of T helper (Th) type 1 cells followed by high levels of secretion of interferon (IFN)-γ. Although the levels of IL-12 secreted by PP cells in response to L. casei were lower in comparison with spleen cells, Th1 cells developed as a result of this low-level induction of IL-12. However, IFN-γ secretion by the L. casei-induced Th1 cells stimulated with a specific antigen was down-regulated in PP cells. Development of IL-17-producing Th17 cells was efficiently induced in PP cells by antigen stimulation. Lactobacillus casei slightly, but significantly, inhibited the antigen-induced secretion of IL-17 without a decrease in the proportion of Th17 cells. No bacteria tested induced the development of IL-10-producing, transforming growth factor-β-producing or Foxp3-expressing regulatory T cells, thus suggesting that certain probiotics might regulate proinflammatory responses through as yet unidentified mechanisms in PP cells. These data show probiotic L. casei to have considerable potential to induce IL-12 production and promote Th1 cell development, but the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-12 and IL-17 may be well controlled in PP cells. PMID:20636824

  15. Enhanced natural killer activity and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in mice selected for high acute inflammatory response (AIRmax).

    PubMed

    Castoldi, Lindsey; Golim, Marjorie Assis; Filho, Orlando Garcia Ribeiro; Romagnoli, Graziela Gorete; Ibañez, Olga Célia Martinez; Kaneno, Ramon

    2007-03-01

    Strains of mice with maximal and minimal acute inflammatory responsiveness (AIRmax and AIRmin, respectively) were developed through selective breeding based on their high- or low-acute inflammatory responsiveness. Previous reports have shown that AIRmax mice are more resistant to the development of a variety of tumours than AIRmin mice, including spontaneous metastasis of murine melanoma. Natural killer activity is involved in immunosurveillance against tumour development, so we analysed the number and activity of natural killer cells (CD49b(+)), T-lymphocyte subsets and in vitro cytokine production by spleen cells of normal AIRmax and AIRmin mice. Analysis of lymphocyte subsets by flow cytometry showed that AIRmax mice had a higher relative number of CD49b(+) cells than AIRmin mice, as well as cytolytic activity against Yac.1 target cells. The number of CD3(+) CD8(+) cells was also higher in AIRmax mice. These findings were associated with the ability of spleen cells from AIRmax mice in vitro to produce higher levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-12p40 and interferon-gamma but not the anti-inflammatory interleukin-10. Taken together, our data suggest that the selective breeding to achieve the AIRmax and AIRmin strains was able to polarize the genes associated with cytotoxic activity, which can be responsible for the antitumour resistance observed in AIRmax mice.

  16. Cross-Regulation of Proinflammatory Cytokines by Interleukin-10 and miR-155 in Orientia tsutsugamushi-Infected Human Macrophages Prevents Cytokine Storm.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Hsien; Chang, Chung-Hsing; Tsai, Rong-Kung; Hong, Yi-Ren; Chuang, Tsung-Hsien; Fan, Kan-Tang; Peng, Chi-Wen; Wu, Ching-Ying; Hsu, Wen-Li; Wang, Lih-Shinn; Chen, Li-Kuang; Yu, Hsin-Su

    2016-07-01

    Scrub typhus is caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi. Macrophages are host cells for its replication and clearance. Severe complications in patients are mainly caused by a cytokine storm resulting from overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines; nevertheless, the molecular mechanism for the occurrence remains obscure. Herein, we investigate the interactive regulation of cytokines and micro-RNA (miR) in human macrophages infected with low and high doses of O. tsutsugamushi. During low dose infection, macrophages produce high levels of IL-10 through extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation, which inhibits proinflammatory cytokine production and facilitates pathogen replication. Increasing levels of pathogen results in reduced levels of IL-10, and macrophages begin to generate high levels of proinflammatory cytokines through NF-κB activation. However, during a high dose infection, macrophages produce high levels of miR-155 to slow the proinflammatory response. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase/IL-10 axis suppresses the NF-κB/tumor necrosis factor alpha axis via activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3. Both IL-10 and miR-155 inhibit the NF-κB signaling pathway. Furthermore, IL-10 is a potent inhibitor of miR-155. Patients susceptible to a cytokine storm, peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed significantly lower IL-10 and miR-155 responses to O. tsutsugamushi challenge. Thus, IL-10 and miR-155 operate inhibitory mechanisms to achieve a proper defense mechanism and prevent a cytokine storm. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An eco-friendly enantioselective access to (R)-naringenin as inhibitor of proinflammatory cytokine release.

    PubMed

    Gaggeri, Raffaella; Rossi, Daniela; Daglia, Maria; Leoni, Flavio; Avanzini, Maria Antonia; Mantelli, Melissa; Juza, Markus; Collina, Simona

    2013-08-01

    (RS)-Naringenin is a flavanone well-known for its beneficial health-related properties, such as its anti-inflammatory activity. The preparative enantioselective chromatographic resolution of commercial (RS)-naringenin was performed on a Chiralpak AD-H column (500×50 mm i.d., dp 20 μm) using MeOH as eluent. The developed method is in accordance with the principles of green chemistry, since the environmental impact was lowered by recycling of the eluent, and allowed the production of gram amounts of each enantiomer with high purity (chemical purity >99%, enantiomeric excess (ee) >94%). Racemic and enantiomeric naringenin were subjected to an exhaustive in vitro investigation of anti-inflammatory activity, aimed at evaluating the relevance of chirality. The assay with cultured human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMC) activated by phytohemagglutinin A revealed that (R)-naringenin was more effective in inhibiting T-cell proliferation than the (S)-enantiomer and the racemate. Moreover, (R)-naringenin significantly reduced proinflammatory cytokine levels such as those of TNF-α and, with less potency, IL-6. These results evidenced the anti-inflammatory potential of naringenin and the higher capacity of (R)-naringenin to inhibit both in vitro hPBMC proliferation and cytokine secretion at non toxic doses. Thus, (R)-naringenin is a promising candidate for in vivo investigation. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  18. The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-18 alters multiple signaling pathways to inhibit natural killer cell death

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodge, D.L.; Subleski, J.J.; Reynolds, D.A.; Buschman, M.D.; Schill, W.B.; Burkett, M.W.; Malyguine, A.M.; Young, H.A.

    2006-01-01

    The proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-18 (IL-18), is a natural killer (NK) cell activator that induces NK cell cytotoxicity and interferon-?? (IFN-??) expression. In this report, we define a novel role for IL-18 as an NK cell protective agent. Specifically, IL-18 prevents NK cell death initiated by different and distinct stress mechanisms. IL-18 reduces NK cell self-destruction during NK-targeted cell killing, and in the presence of staurosporin, a potent apoptotic inducer, IL-18 reduces caspase-3 activity. The critical regulatory step in this process is downstream of the mitochondrion and involves reduced cleavage and activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. The ability of IL-18 to regulate cell survival is not limited to a caspase death pathway in that IL-18 augments tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling, resulting in increased and prolonged mRNA expression of c-apoptosis inhibitor 2 (cIAP2), a prosurvival factor and caspase-3 inhibitor, and TNF receptor-associated factor 1 (TRAF1), a prosurvival protein. The cumulative effects of IL-18 define a novel role for this cytokine as a molecular survival switch that functions to both decrease cell death through inhibition of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and enhance TNF induction of prosurvival factors. ?? Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  19. Hierarchical effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines on the post-influenza susceptibility to pneumococcal coinfection

    PubMed Central

    Duvigneau, Stefanie; Sharma-Chawla, Niharika; Boianelli, Alessandro; Stegemann-Koniszewski, Sabine; Nguyen, Van Kinh; Bruder, Dunja; Hernandez-Vargas, Esteban A.

    2016-01-01

    In the course of influenza A virus (IAV) infections, a secondary bacterial infection frequently leads to serious respiratory conditions provoking high hospitalization and death tolls. Although abundant pro-inflammatory responses have been reported as key contributing factors for these severe dual infections, the relative contributions of cytokines remain largely unclear. In the current study, mathematical modelling based on murine experimental data dissects IFN-γ as a cytokine candidate responsible for impaired bacterial clearance, thereby promoting bacterial growth and systemic dissemination during acute IAV infection. We also found a time-dependent detrimental role of IL-6 in curtailing bacterial outgrowth which was not as distinct as for IFN-γ. Our numerical simulations suggested a detrimental effect of IFN-γ alone and in synergism with IL-6 but no conclusive pathogenic effect of IL-6 and TNF-α alone. This work provides a rationale to understand the potential impact of how to manipulate temporal immune components, facilitating the formulation of hypotheses about potential therapeutic strategies to treat coinfections. PMID:27872472

  20. Expression of proinflammatory cytokines by hepatic macrophages in acute classical swine fever.

    PubMed

    Núñez, A; Gómez-Villamandos, J C; Sánchez-Cordón, P J; Fernández de Marco, M; Pedrera, M; Salguero, F J; Carrasco, L

    2005-07-01

    Fourteen pigs were inoculated with the 'Alfort 187' strain of classical swine fever (CSF) virus and killed in pairs at 2, 4, 7, 9, 11, 14 or 17 days post-inoculation for histopathological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical examination. For the latter method, the antibodies used were those against viral antigen Gp55, porcine myeloid marker SWC3, IL-1alpha, IL-6, TNF-alpha and Factor VIII-related antigen. Activation and increase in the number of hepatic macrophages was observed following viral detection in liver, as well as an increase in IL-1alpha and IL-6 production, mainly by Kupffer cells. Maximum detection of viral antigen was observed in the middle stage of the experiment coinciding with overexpression of the three cytokines studied, with IL-6 production by interstitial macrophages prominent at the end. Additionally, the labelling of platelets for Factor VIII-related antigen and the ultrastructural study of the sinusoids revealed activation and aggregation of thrombocytes close to Kupffer cells at the beginning of the infection. The liver seems to play a prominent role in the origin of the thrombocytopenia that occurs in CSF and contributes to the overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines considered responsible for the disorders observed during the course of the disease.

  1. B7 expression and antigen presentation by human brain endothelial cells: requirement for proinflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Prat, A; Biernacki, K; Becher, B; Antel, J P

    2000-02-01

    Interaction between systemic immune cells with cells of the blood-brain barrier is a central step in development of CNS-directed immune responses. Endothelial cells are the first cells of the blood-brain barrier encountered by migrating lymphocytes. To investigate the antigen-presenting capacity of human adult brain endothelial cells (HBECs), we used HBECs derived from surgically resected temporal lobe tissue, cocultured with allogeneic peripheral blood derived CD4+ T lymphocytes. HBECs in response to IFN-gamma, but not under basal culture conditions, expressed HLA-DR, B7.1 and B7.2 antigens. Despite such up-regulation, these IFN-gamma-treated HBECs, in contrast to human microglia and PB monocytes, did not sustain allogeneic CD4+ cell proliferation, supported only low levels of IL-2 and IFN-gamma production, and did not stimulate IL-2 receptor expression. CD4+ T cell proliferation and increased IL-2 receptor expression could be obtained by addition of IL-2. Our data suggests that, although HBECs cannot alone support T cell proliferation and cytokine production, HBECs acting in concert with cytokines derived from a proinflammatory environment could support such a response.

  2. Hierarchical effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines on the post-influenza susceptibility to pneumococcal coinfection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duvigneau, Stefanie; Sharma-Chawla, Niharika; Boianelli, Alessandro; Stegemann-Koniszewski, Sabine; Nguyen, Van Kinh; Bruder, Dunja; Hernandez-Vargas, Esteban A.

    2016-11-01

    In the course of influenza A virus (IAV) infections, a secondary bacterial infection frequently leads to serious respiratory conditions provoking high hospitalization and death tolls. Although abundant pro-inflammatory responses have been reported as key contributing factors for these severe dual infections, the relative contributions of cytokines remain largely unclear. In the current study, mathematical modelling based on murine experimental data dissects IFN-γ as a cytokine candidate responsible for impaired bacterial clearance, thereby promoting bacterial growth and systemic dissemination during acute IAV infection. We also found a time-dependent detrimental role of IL-6 in curtailing bacterial outgrowth which was not as distinct as for IFN-γ. Our numerical simulations suggested a detrimental effect of IFN-γ alone and in synergism with IL-6 but no conclusive pathogenic effect of IL-6 and TNF-α alone. This work provides a rationale to understand the potential impact of how to manipulate temporal immune components, facilitating the formulation of hypotheses about potential therapeutic strategies to treat coinfections.

  3. Cromolyn Sodium Attenuates Paraquat-Induced Lung Injury by Modulation of Proinflammatory Cytokines.

    PubMed

    Harchegani, Amir Larki; Hemmati, Ali Asghar; Nili-Ahmadabadi, Amir; Darabi, Borhan; Shabib, Somayeh

    2017-02-21

    The current study aimed to investigate the effects of Cromolyn Sodium (CS) on proinflammatory cytokines in Paraquat (PQ)-induced lung damage in rat. Animals were randomly divided into 5 groups. Group 1 and 2 received nebulized vehicle and CS (8 mg/kg) for 3 consecutive weeks, respectively. Group 3 was treated with single oral dose of PQ (40 mg/kg). Groups 4 and 5 were PQ groups which received nebulized CS (6 and 8 mg/kg/day, respectively) from 1 week before to 2 weeks after PQ administration. Finally, the animals were scarified and the changes of hydroxyproline (HP) and histology were evaluated in lung tissue. In addition, IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-8 levels were determined in serum samples. The results showed that lung HP level as well as IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-8 were significantly lower in the CS treated rats as compared to PQ group. The best response, however, was observed with the 8 mg/kg of CS as confirmed by histology findings. This study suggests that CS may prevent progression of PQ-induced lung damage by decreasing of inflammatory cytokines.

  4. Regulation of autoimmune arthritis by the pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eugene Y; Chi, Howard H; Bouziane, Mohammed; Gaur, Amitabh; Moudgil, Kamal D

    2008-04-01

    The pathogenesis of T cell-mediated diseases like rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has typically been explained in the context of the Th1-Th2 paradigm: the initiation/propagation by pro-inflammatory cytokines, and downregulation by Th2 cytokines. However, in our study based on the adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) model of RA, we observed that Lewis (LEW) (RT.1(l)) rats at the recovery phase of AA showed the highest level of IFN-gamma in recall response to mycobacterial heat-shock protein 65 (Bhsp65), whereas AA-resistant Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) (RT.1(l)) rats secreted high levels of IFN-gamma much earlier following disease induction. However, no significant secretion of IL-10 or TGF-beta was observed in either strain. Furthermore, pre-treatment of LEW rats with a peptide of self (rat) hsp65 (R465), which induced T cells secreting predominantly IFN-gamma, afforded protection against AA and decreased IL-17 expression by the arthritogenic epitope-restimulated T cells. These results provide a novel perspective on the pathogenesis of autoimmune arthritis.

  5. Diacerhein downregulate proinflammatory cytokines expression and decrease the autoimmune diabetes frequency in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice.

    PubMed

    Malaguti, Carina; Vilella, Conceição Aparecida; Vieira, Karla Priscila; Souza, Gustavo H M F; Hyslop, Stephen; Zollner, Ricardo de Lima

    2008-06-01

    NOD mice are used as experimental models as they develop type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM-1) spontaneously, with a strong similarity to the human disease. Diabetes mellitus type 1 is characterized by the destruction of the islet, orchestrated by T lymphocytes that induce cytokine release like IL-1beta, promoting an inflammatory process. Diacerhein has antiinflammatory properties, inhibiting IL-1. However, the mechanisms involved in immune modulation are not completely understood. In the present study, serum and pancreatic islets were isolated to investigate the relationship between IL-1beta, IFN-gamma, IL-12 and TNF-alpha expression and diabetes onset, morphological aspects, and diacerhein dose dependence in animals treated with different doses (5, 10 and 50 mg/kg/day) and the control group (saline solution). The results demonstrated upregulation of mRNA islets and downregulation of the serum concentration of IL-1beta, IL-12 and TNF-alpha in the group treated with 5 and 10 mg/kg/day diacerhein, when compared with the saline group, and increased IFN-gamma serum concentration in the group treated with 50 mg/kg/day. These results suggest that diacerhein in NOD mice, decreases, in a dose-dependent manner, the diabetes frequency downregulating proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma and IL-12 at posttranscriptional or posttranslational level. Furthermore, using the HPLC method, diacerhein and rhein (active metabolite) were detected in serum and pancreas of treated mice.

  6. Infection and upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines in human brain vascular pericytes by human cytomegalovirus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections can result in CNS abnormalities in newborn babies including vision loss, mental retardation, motor deficits, seizures, and hearing loss. Brain pericytes play an essential role in the development and function of the blood–brain barrier yet their unique role in HCMV dissemination and neuropathlogy has not been reported. Methods Primary human brain vascular pericytes were exposed to a primary clinical isolate of HCMV designated ‘SBCMV’. Infectivity was analyzed by microscopy, immunofluorescence, Western blot, and qRT-PCR. Microarrays were performed to identify proinflammatory cytokines upregulated after SBCMV exposure, and the results validated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) methodology. In situ cytokine expression of pericytes after exposure to HCMV was examined by ELISA and in vivo evidence of HCMV infection of brain pericytes was shown by dual-labeled immunohistochemistry. Results HCMV-infected human brain vascular pericytes as evidenced by several markers. Using a clinical isolate of HCMV (SBCMV), microscopy of infected pericytes showed virion production and typical cytomegalic cytopathology. This finding was confirmed by the expression of major immediate early and late virion proteins and by the presence of HCMV mRNA. Brain pericytes were fully permissive for CMV lytic replication after 72 to 96 hours in culture compared to human astrocytes or human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC). However, temporal transcriptional expression of pp65 virion protein after SBCMV infection was lower than that seen with the HCMV Towne laboratory strain. Using RT-PCR and dual-labeled immunofluorescence, proinflammatory cytokines CXCL8/IL-8, CXCL11/ITAC, and CCL5/Rantes were upregulated in SBCMV-infected cells, as were tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Pericytes exposed to SBCMV elicited higher levels of IL-6

  7. Colostrum proinflammatory cytokines as biomarkers of bovine immune response to bovine tuberculosis (bTB).

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Soto, Eduardo; Ponce-Ramos, Rosa; Hernández-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo; Gutiérrez-Ortega, Abel; Álvarez, Angel H; Martínez-Velázquez, Moisés; Absalón, Angel E; Ortiz-Lazareno, Pablo; Limón-Flores, Alberto; Estrada-Chávez, Ciro; Herrera-Rodríguez, Sara E

    2017-02-01

    Bovine colostrum contains compounds, which provide passive immune protection from mother to newborn calves. Little is known about cytokine levels and their role in bovine colostrum. Moreover, the capacity of bovine colostrum cells to mount specific immune responses after natural exposure to bovine tuberculosis (bTB) antigens in dairy herds has not been studied, thus far. The purpose of this study was to identify biomarkers for bTB infection measurable in bovine colostrum. The present study reveals that isolated-immune colostrum cells can mount a specific immune response against bTB antigens, by measuring the novo IFN-γ release in cell culture. We found that IFN-γ levels in the responders (Bov(+)) to bTB antigen were higher than in non-responders (Bov(-)). On the other hand, proinflammatory cytokines contained in colostrum's whey were tested in Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) reactor (TST(+)) and non-reactor (TST(-)) animals to assess their potential role as biomarker. We observed that IFN-γ levels were lower or undetectable, as opposed to IL4 levels were measurable, the TNF-α level was higher in TST(-) than TST(+), while IL-6 levels showed the opposite reaction and with no statistical significance. Moreover, IL-1α mRNA expression levels were higher in colostrum mononuclear cells (CMC) in Bov(+) cattle. Collectively, these data suggest that the differential expression of pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines could have relevant value to diagnose bTB in cattle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Injury Induces Localized Airway Increases in Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines in Humans and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jonker, Mark A.; Hermsen, Joshua L.; Gomez, F. Enrique; Sano, Yoshifumi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) increases in the airways of humans and mice after injury to protect against infection. The pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 are linked molecularly to sIgA production and secretion and are required for sIgA increases in the airway after injury in a mouse model. We investigated the injury effect on airway and serum concentrations to determine the source of the cytokines involved in the airway IgA response. Methods In the first experiment, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and serum obtained from 11 ventilated trauma patients within 30 h of admission were compared with those in eight elective surgical patients. In the second experiment, male ICR mice received no injury (n = 7) or injury with sham celiotomy and neck incisions (n = 8) with sacrifice of all animals at 8 h for BAL fluid and serum cytokine measurements by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Injured patients had significantly higher BAL fluid and serum TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 concentrations, with greater increases in the BAL fluid than in the serum. Injured mice had significantly increased BAL fluid concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 without significant changes in serum TNF-α or IL-1β. Serum IL-6 increased significantly. Conclusions Injury significantly increases human and mouse airway TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6. Increases are greater in the airway than in serum, implying a local rather than a systemic stress response to injury. PMID:21166596

  9. The Roles of Adipokines, Proinflammatory Cytokines, and Adipose Tissue Macrophages in Obesity-Associated Insulin Resistance in Modest Obesity and Early Metabolic Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Min; Joung, Kyong Hye; Lee, Ju Hee; You, Bo Ram; Choi, Min Jeong; Ryu, Min Jeong; Ko, Young Bok; Lee, Min A.; Lee, Junguee; Ku, Bon Jeong; Shong, Minho; Lee, Ki Hwan; Kim, Hyun Jin

    2016-01-01

    The roles of adipokines, proinflammatory cytokines, and adipose tissue macrophages in obesity-associated insulin resistance have been explored in both animal and human studies. However, our current understanding of obesity-associated insulin resistance relies on studies of artificial metabolic extremes. The purpose of this study was to explore the roles of adipokines, proinflammatory cytokines, and adipose tissue macrophages in human patients with modest obesity and early metabolic dysfunction. We obtained omental adipose tissue and fasting blood samples from 51 females undergoing gynecologic surgery. We investigated serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and adipokines as well as the mRNA expression of proinflammatory and macrophage phenotype markers in visceral adipose tissue using ELISA and quantitative RT-PCR. We measured adipose tissue inflammation and macrophage infiltration using immunohistochemical analysis. Serum levels of adiponectin and leptin were significantly correlated with HOMA-IR and body mass index. The levels of expression of MCP-1 and TNF-α in visceral adipose tissue were also higher in the obese group (body mass index ≥ 25). The expression of mRNA MCP-1 in visceral adipose tissue was positively correlated with body mass index (r = 0.428, p = 0.037) but not with HOMA-IR, whereas TNF-α in visceral adipose tissue was correlated with HOMA-IR (r = 0.462, p = 0.035) but not with body mass index. There was no obvious change in macrophage phenotype or macrophage infiltration in patients with modest obesity or early metabolic dysfunction. Expression of mRNA CD163/CD68 was significantly related to mitochondrial-associated genes and serum inflammatory cytokine levels of resistin and leptin. These results suggest that changes in the production of inflammatory biomolecules precede increased immune cell infiltration and induction of a macrophage phenotype switch in visceral adipose tissue. Furthermore, serum resistin and leptin have specific

  10. Effect of catechin/epicatechin dietary intake on endothelial dysfunction biomarkers and proinflammatory cytokines in aorta of hyperhomocysteinemic mice.

    PubMed

    Noll, Christophe; Lameth, Julie; Paul, Jean-Louis; Janel, Nathalie

    2013-04-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is well recognized as an independent risk factor for the development of premature atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis, however, may be prevented by polyphenols, potent antioxidant compounds with anti-atherogenic properties. Previously, we used cystathionine beta synthase-deficient mice [Cbs (±)] fed a high-methionine diet-a murine model of hyperhomocysteinemia-to show that daily intake of a red wine polyphenolic extract, mainly comprised of catechin and epicatechin, has a beneficial effect on aortic expression of endothelial dysfunction biomarkers and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The aim of the present study was to understand whether catechin and epicatechin, in purified forms, have anti-atherogenic effects in hyperhomocysteinemia. Cbs (±) mice received 50 μg of catechin and/or epicatechin daily in drinking water for 1 month. Plasma homocysteine (Hcy) level and aortic expression of several endothelial dysfunction biomarkers (Vcam-1, Icam-1, E-selectin, and Lox-1) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (Tnf-α, Il-6) were assessed. We found that both catechin and epicatechin had a beneficial effect on plasma homocysteine levels and endothelial dysfunction biomarker expression; however, only catechin had a beneficial effect on pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Further, when both polyphenols were given, a beneficial effect was observed only on pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Catechin seems to be a more potent anti-atherogenic compound than epicatechin in hyperhomocysteinemia and should be considered as a novel therapeutic approach against endothelial dysfunction induced by this condition.

  11. Interleukin-6 Infusion Blunts Proinflammatory Cytokine Production Without Causing Systematic Toxicity in a Swine Model of Uncontrolled Hemorrhagic Shock

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-01

    work from your group. I thank the Program Commit- tee for the invitation to discuss this work and the Association for the privilege of the floor . Dr...group because they did undergo the hypo- thermic and dilutional coagulopathy, yet they had nowhere near the proinflammatory cytokine expression observed

  12. Velutin reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced proinflammatory cytokine TNFa and IL-6 production by inhibiting NF-Kappa B activation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent studies have shown that some flavonoids are modulators of proinflammatory cytokine expression. Velutin, an uncommon flavone isolated from acai (Euterpe oleraceas) berry, was tested for the effects in reducing LPS-induced TNFa and IL-6 production in RAW 264.7 peripheral macrophages and periton...

  13. Cell-free culture supernatant of Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 decreases pro-inflammatory cytokines in human dendritic cells challenged with Salmonella typhi through TLR activation.

    PubMed

    Bermudez-Brito, Miriam; Muñoz-Quezada, Sergio; Gomez-Llorente, Carolina; Matencio, Esther; Bernal, Maria J; Romero, Fernando; Gil, Angel

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) constitute the first point of contact between gut commensals and our immune system. Despite growing evidence of the immunomodulatory effects of probiotics, the interactions between the cells of the intestinal immune system and bacteria remain largely unknown. Indeed,, the aim of this work was to determine whether the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and its cell-free culture supernatant (CFS) have immunomodulatory effects in human intestinal-like dendritic cells (DCs) and how they respond to the pathogenic bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, and also to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in these interactions. Human DCs were directly challenged with B. breve/CFS, S. typhi or a combination of these stimuli for 4 h. The expression pattern of genes involved in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway and cytokine secretion was analyzed. CFS decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in human intestinal DCs challenged with S. typhi. In contrast, the B. breve CNCM I-4035 probiotic strain was a potent inducer of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines tested, i.e., TNF-α, IL-8 and RANTES, as well as anti-inflammatory cytokines including IL-10. CFS restored TGF-β levels in the presence of Salmonella. Live B.breve and its supernatant enhanced innate immune responses by the activation of TLR signaling pathway. These treatments upregulated TLR9 gene transcription. In addition, CFS was a more potent inducer of TLR9 expression than the probiotic bacteria in the presence of S. typhi. Expression levels of CASP8 and IRAK4 were also increased by CFS, and both treatments induced TOLLIP gene expression. Our results indicate that the probiotic strain B. breve CNCM I-4035 affects the intestinal immune response, whereas its supernatant exerts anti-inflammatory effects mediated by DCs. This supernatant may protect immune system from highly infectious agents such as Salmonella typhi and can down-regulate pro-inflammatory

  14. AP-1 Is a Key Regulator of Proinflammatory Cytokine TNFα-mediated Triple-negative Breast Cancer Progression*

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Yichun; He, Huan; Jonsson, Philip; Sinha, Indranil; Zhao, Chunyan; Dahlman-Wright, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) represents a highly aggressive form of breast cancer with limited treatment options. Proinflammatory cytokines such as TNFα can facilitate tumor progression and metastasis. However, the mechanistic aspects of inflammation mediated TNBC progression remain unclear. Using ChIP-seq, we demonstrate that the cistrome for the AP-1 transcription factor c-Jun is comprised of 13,800 binding regions in TNFα-stimulated TNBC cells. In addition, we show that c-Jun regulates nearly a third of the TNFα-regulated transcriptome. Interestingly, high expression level of the c-Jun-regulated pro-invasion gene program is associated with poor clinical outcome in TNBCs. We further demonstrate that c-Jun drives TNFα-mediated increase of malignant characteristics of TNBC cells by transcriptional regulation of Ninj1. As exemplified by the CXC chemokine genes clustered on chromosome 4, we demonstrate that NF-κB might be a pioneer factor required for the regulation of TNFα-inducible inflammatory genes, whereas c-Jun has little effect. Together, our results uncover AP-1 as an important determinant for inflammation-induced cancer progression, rather than inflammatory response. PMID:26792858

  15. Roles of proinflammatory cytokines and the Fas/Fas ligand interaction in the pathogenesis of inflammatory myopathies.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Masahiro; Murakawa, Yohko; Harashima, Nanae; Kobayashi, Shotai; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Harada, Mamoru

    2009-09-01

    Within the lesions of inflammatory myopathies, muscle fibres and invading mononuclear cells express Fas and Fas ligand (FasL), respectively. However, the roles of the Fas/FasL interaction in the pathogenesis of inflammatory myopathies are not fully understood. In the present study, we investigated the roles of proinflammatory cytokines and the Fas/FasL system in the pathogenesis of inflammatory myopathies. In vitro culturing of muscle cells with the proinflammatory cytokines interferon-gamma, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin (IL)-1beta synergistically increased Fas expression, susceptibility to Fas-mediated apoptosis, and the expression of cytoplasmic caspases 8 and 3. In addition, culturing of muscle cells with activated CD4(+) T cells induced muscle cell apoptosis, which was partially inhibited by anti-FasL antibody. We also tested the possibility that T helper (Th) 17, which is an IL-17-producing helper T-cell subset that plays crucial roles in autoimmune and inflammatory responses, participates in the pathogenesis of inflammatory myopathies. Interestingly, in vitro culturing of dendritic cells with anti-Fas immunoglobulin M (IgM) or activated CD4(+) T cells induced the expression of mRNA for IL-23p19, but not for IL-12p35, in addition to proinflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, IL-23p19 and IL-17 mRNAs were detected in the majority of biopsy samples from patients with inflammatory myopathies. Taken together, these results suggest that proinflammatory cytokines enhance Fas-mediated apoptosis of muscle cells, and that the Fas/FasL interaction between invading dendritic cells and CD4(+) T cells induces local production of IL-23 and proinflammatory cytokines, which can promote the proliferation of Th17 cells and enhance Fas-mediated apoptosis of muscle cells, respectively.

  16. Interleukin-32 production associated with biliary innate immunity and proinflammatory cytokines contributes to the pathogenesis of cholangitis in biliary atresia.

    PubMed

    Okamura, A; Harada, K; Nio, M; Nakanuma, Y

    2013-08-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is thought to be associated with infections by viruses such as Reoviridae and is characterized histologically by fibrosclerosing cholangitis with proinflammatory cytokine-mediated inflammation. Interleukin (IL)-32 affects the continuous inflammation by increasing the production of proinflammatory cytokines. In this study, the role of IL-32 in the cholangitis of BA was examined. Immunohistochemistry for IL-32 and caspase 1 was performed using 21 samples of extrahepatic bile ducts resected from BA patients. Moreover, using cultured human biliary epithelial cells (BECs), the expression of IL-32 and its induction on stimulation with a Toll-like receptor [(TLR)-3 ligand (poly(I:C)] and proinflammatory cytokines was examined. BECs composing extrahepatic bile ducts showing cholangitis expressed IL-32 in BA, but not in controls. Caspase 1 was expressed constantly on BECs of both BA and control subjects. Furthermore, poly(I:C) and proinflammatory cytokines [(IL-1β, interferon (IFN)-γ and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α] induced IL-32 expression strongly in cultured BECs, accompanying the constant expression of TLR-3 and caspase 1. Our results imply that the expression of IL-32 in BECs was found in the damaged bile ducts of BA and induced by biliary innate immunity via TLR-3 and proinflammatory cytokines. These findings suggest that IL-32 is involved initially in the pathogenic mechanisms of cholangitis in BA and also plays an important role in the amplification and continuance of periductal inflammatory reactions. It is therefore tempting to speculate that inhibitors of IL-32 could be useful for attenuating cholangitis in BA.

  17. Endometritis Increases Pro-inflammatory Cytokines in Follicular Fluid and Cervico-vaginal Mucus in the Buffalo Cow.

    PubMed

    Boby, Jones; Kumar, Harendra; Gupta, Harihar Prasad; Jan, Mustapha Hussain; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Patra, Manas Kumar; Nandi, Sukdeb; Abraham, Asha; Krishnaswamy, Narayanan

    2016-11-17

    Emerging evidence shows that some of the pro-inflammatory cytokines are elevated not only in the endometrium but also in the follicular fluid of cows with endometritis. Developing a cervico-vaginal mucus (CVM) based test has the potential for becoming a pen-side test because of the ease of sample collection. The present study describes the results of two different experiments. The first experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of endometritis on the proinflammatory cytokines of follicular fluid based on the reproductive tracts of buffalo collected at a slaughter house Buffalo genitalia were categorized into purulent endometritis (PE), cytological endometritis (CE), and non-endometritis (NE) based on the white-side test and endometrial cytology, respectively (n = 14/group). Each group was subdivided into follicular and mid-luteal stage (n = 7/stage) and the follicular fluid was collected from the largest follicle. Second experiment was done to study the difference in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the CVM of repeat breeders with subclinical endometritis presented to the clinic. CVM was collected from the repeaters (n = 10) and non-repeaters (n = 10) through aseptic trans-vaginal aspiration. The pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNFα were quantitated through bovine specific ELISA kits. Significantly higher concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-8, IL-6, and TNFα) along with low intra-follicular estradiol in buffaloes of PE and CE groups suggest that endometritis impedes the follicular steroidogenesis. Significantly higher concentration of IL-1β and TNF-α in the CVM of repeaters indicate their potential as a pen-side diagnostic test for CE.

  18. Differential Regulation of Proinflammatory Cytokine Expression by Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases in Macrophages in Response to Intestinal Parasite Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Mei Xing; Png, Chin Wen; Tay, Crispina Yan Bing; Teo, Joshua Ding Wei; Jiao, Huipeng; Lehming, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Blastocystis is a common enteric protistan parasite that can cause acute, as well as chronic, infection and is associated with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, the pathogenic status of Blastocystis infection remains unclear. In this study, we found that Blastocystis antigens induced abundant expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), in mouse intestinal explants, in mouse colitis colon, and in macrophages. Further investigation utilizing RAW264.7 murine macrophages showed that Blastocystis treatment in RAW264.7 macrophages induced the activation of ERK, JNK, and p38, the three major groups of mammalian mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases that play essential roles in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. ERK inhibition in macrophages significantly suppressed both mRNA and protein expression of IL-6 and TNF-α and mRNA expression of IL-1β. On the other hand, JNK inhibition resulted in reductions in both c-Jun and ERK activation and significant suppression of all three proinflammatory cytokines at both the mRNA and protein levels. Inhibition of p38 suppressed only IL-6 protein expression with no effect on the expression of IL-1β and TNF-α. Furthermore, we found that serine proteases produced by Blastocystis play an important role in the induction of ERK activation and proinflammatory cytokine expression by macrophages. Our study thus demonstrated for the first time that Blastocystis could induce the expression of various proinflammatory cytokines via the activation of MAP kinases and that infection with Blastocystis may contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory intestinal diseases through the activation of inflammatory pathways in host immune cells, such as macrophages. PMID:25156742

  19. TRPV1 promotes repetitive febrile seizures by pro-inflammatory cytokines in immature brain.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Xian; Yu, Fang; Sanchez, Russell M; Liu, Yu-Qiang; Min, Jia-Wei; Hu, Jiang-Jian; Bsoul, Najeeb Bassam; Han, Song; Yin, Jun; Liu, Wan-Hong; He, Xiao-Hua; Peng, Bi-Wen

    2015-08-01

    Febrile seizure (FS) is the most common seizure disorder in children, and children with FS are regarded as a high risk for the eventual development of epilepsy. Brain inflammation may be implicated in the mechanism of FS. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is believed to act as a monitor and regulator of body temperature. The role of inflammation in synaptic plasticity mediation indicates that TRPV1 is relevant to several nervous system diseases, such as epilepsy. Here, we report a critical role for TRPV1 in a febrile seizure mouse model and reveal increased levels of pro-inflammatory factors in the immature brain. Animals were subjected to hyperthermia for 30 min, which generates seizures lasting approximately 20 min, and then were used for experiments. To invoke frequently repetitive febrile seizures, mice are exposed to hyperthermia for three times daily at an interval of 4h between every time induced seizure, and a total of 4 days to induce. Behavioral testing for febrile seizures revealed that a TRPV1 knock-out mouse model demonstrated a prolonged onset latency and a shortened duration and seizure grade of febrile seizure when compared with wild type (WT) mice. The expression levels of both TRPV1 mRNA and protein increased after a hyperthermia-induced febrile seizure in WT mice. Notably, TRPV1 activation resulted in a significant elevation in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and HMGB1) in the hippocampus and cortex. These data indicate that the reduction of TRPV1 expression parallels a decreased susceptibility to febrile seizures. Thus, preventative strategies might be developed for use during febrile seizures.

  20. Glycine treatment decreases proinflammatory cytokines and increases interferon-gamma in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cruz, M; Maldonado-Bernal, C; Mondragón-Gonzalez, R; Sanchez-Barrera, R; Wacher, N H; Carvajal-Sandoval, G; Kumate, J

    2008-08-01

    Amino acids have been shown to stimulate insulin secretion and decrease glycated hemoglobin (A1C) in patients with Type 2 diabetes. In vitro, glycine reduces tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha secretion and increases interleukin-10 secretion in human monocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. The aim of this study was to determine whether glycine modifies the proinflammatory profiles of patients with Type 2 diabetes. Seventy-four patients, with Type 2 diabetes were enrolled in the study. The mean age was 58.5 yr, average age of diagnosis was 5 yr, the mean body mass index was 28.5 kg/m2, the mean fasting glucose level was 175.5 mg/dl and the mean A1C level was 8%. They were allocated to one of two treatments, 5 g/d glycine or 5 g/d placebo, po tid, for 3 months. A1C levels of patients given glycine were significantly lower after 3 months of treatment than those of the placebo group. A significant reduction in TNF-receptor I levels was observed in patients given glycine compared with placebo. There was a decrease of 38% in the interferon (IFN)-gamma level of the group treated with placebo, whereas that of the group treated with glycine increased up to 43%. These data showed that patients treated with glycine had a significant decrease in A1C and in proinflammatory cytokines and also an important increase of IFN-gamma. Treatment with glycine is likely to have a beneficial effect on innate and adaptive immune responses and may help prevent tissue damage caused by chronic inflammation in patients with Type 2 diabetes.

  1. Association of proinflammatory cytokines and islet resident leucocytes with islet dysfunction in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Butcher, Matthew J; Hallinger, Daniel; Garcia, Eden; Machida, Yui; Chakrabarti, Swarup; Nadler, Jerry; Galkina, Elena V; Imai, Yumi

    2014-03-01

    Chronic inflammation in type 2 diabetes is proposed to affect islets as well as insulin target organs. However, the nature of islet inflammation and its effects on islet function in type 2 diabetes remain unclear. Moreover, the immune cell profiles of human islets in healthy and type 2 diabetic conditions are undefined. We aimed to investigate the correlation between proinflammatory cytokine expression, islet leucocyte composition and insulin secretion in type 2 diabetic human islets. Human islets from organ donors with or without type 2 diabetes were studied. First and second phases of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion were determined by perifusion. The expression of inflammatory markers was obtained by quantitative PCR. Immune cells within human islets were analysed by FACS. Type 2 diabetic islets, especially those without first-phase insulin secretion, displayed higher CCL2 and TNFa expression than healthy islets. CD45(+) leucocytes were elevated in type 2 diabetic islets, to a greater extent in moderately functional type 2 diabetic islets compared with poorly functional ones, and corresponded with elevated ALOX12 but not with CCL2 or TNFa expression. T and B lymphocytes and CD11c(+) cells were detectable within both non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic islet leucocytes. Importantly, the proportion of B cells was significantly elevated within type 2 diabetic islets. Elevated total islet leucocyte content and proinflammatory mediators correlated with islet dysfunction, suggesting that heterogeneous insulitis occurs during the development of islet dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. In addition, the altered B cell content highlights a potential role for the adaptive immune response in islet dysfunction.

  2. Association of proinflammatory cytokines and islet resident leucocytes with islet dysfunction in type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Butcher, Matthew J.; Hallinger, Daniel; Garcia, Eden; Machida, Yui; Chakrabarti, Swarup; Nadler, Jerry; Galkina, Elena V.; Imai, Yumi

    2014-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Chronic inflammation in type 2 diabetes is proposed to affect islets as well as insulin target organs. However, the nature of islet inflammation and its effects on islet function in type 2 diabetes remain unclear. Moreover, the immune cell profiles of human islets in healthy and type 2 diabetic conditions are undefined. We aimed to investigate the correlation between proinflammatory cytokine expression, islet leucocyte composition and insulin secretion in type 2 diabetic human islets. Methods Human islets from organ donors with or without type 2 diabetes were studied. First and second phases of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion were determined by perifusion. The expression of inflammatory markers was obtained by quantitative PCR. Immune cells within human islets were analysed by FACS. Results Type 2 diabetic islets, especially those without first-phase insulin secretion, displayed higher CCL2 and TNFa expression than healthy islets. CD45+ leucocytes were elevated in type 2 diabetic islets, to a greater extent in moderately functional type 2 diabetic islets compared with poorly functional ones, and corresponded with elevated ALOX12 but not with CCL2 or TNFa expression. T and B lymphocytes and CD11c+ cells were detectable within both non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic islet leucocytes. Importantly, the proportion of B cells was significantly elevated within type 2 diabetic islets. Conclusions/interpretation Elevated total islet leucocyte content and proinflammatory mediators correlated with islet dysfunction, suggesting that heterogeneous insulitis occurs during the development of islet dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. In addition, the altered B cell content highlights a potential role for the adaptive immune response in islet dysfunction. PMID:24429578

  3. [Elevation of proinflammatory cytokines level at early age as the risk factor of neurological and mental pathology development].

    PubMed

    Zubarev, O E; Klimenko, V M

    2011-10-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines Interleukin-1, Interleukin-6 (IL-1, IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), the key mediators of neuroimmune interactions, are the common pathogenic part of various kinds of the perinatal pathology leading to severe neurological and mental diseases. In the review, features of expression of the proinflammatory cytokines and their receptors in the brain at early age under normal and pathological conditions, their influence on processes of maturing of the CNS cells are described, the data of experimental and clinical researches of disturbances of the mental functions arising in adults owing to elevation of the IL-1, IL-6 levels and TNFalpha in early ontogenesis are cited. The role of the cytokines in pathogenesis of schizophrenia, a syndrome of attention deficiency, autism and a Parkinsonism is discussed.

  4. Expression of proinflammatory cytokines and receptors by human fallopian tubes in organ culture following challenge with Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Maisey, Kevin; Nardocci, Gino; Imarai, Monica; Cardenas, Hugo; Rios, Miguel; Croxatto, Horacio B; Heckels, John E; Christodoulides, Myron; Velasquez, Luis A

    2003-01-01

    Infection of the Fallopian tubes (FT) by Neisseria gonorrhoeae can lead to acute salpingitis, an inflammatory condition, which is a major cause of infertility. Challenge of explants of human FT with gonococci induced mRNA expression and protein secretion for the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-1beta, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) but not for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. In contrast, FT expression of IL-6 and of the cytokine receptors IL-6R, TNF receptor I (TNF-RI), and TNF-RII was constitutive and was not increased by gonococcal challenge. These studies suggest that several proinflammatory cytokines are likely to contribute to the cell and tissue damage observed in gonococcal salpingitis.

  5. Expression of Proinflammatory Cytokines and Receptors by Human Fallopian Tubes in Organ Culture following Challenge with Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    PubMed Central

    Maisey, Kevin; Nardocci, Gino; Imarai, Monica; Cardenas, Hugo; Rios, Miguel; Croxatto, Horacio B.; Heckels, John E.; Christodoulides, Myron; Velasquez, Luis A.

    2003-01-01

    Infection of the Fallopian tubes (FT) by Neisseria gonorrhoeae can lead to acute salpingitis, an inflammatory condition, which is a major cause of infertility. Challenge of explants of human FT with gonococci induced mRNA expression and protein secretion for the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) but not for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. In contrast, FT expression of IL-6 and of the cytokine receptors IL-6R, TNF receptor I (TNF-RI), and TNF-RII was constitutive and was not increased by gonococcal challenge. These studies suggest that several proinflammatory cytokines are likely to contribute to the cell and tissue damage observed in gonococcal salpingitis. PMID:12496205

  6. Pro-inflammatory Cytokines Impair Vitamin D-induced Host Defense in Cultured Airway Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Schrumpf, Jasmijn A; Amatngalim, Gimano D; Veldkamp, Joris B; Verhoosel, Renate M; Ninaber, Dennis K; Ordonez, Soledad R; van der Does, Anne M; Haagsman, Henk P; Hiemstra, Pieter S

    2017-02-23

    Vitamin D is a regulator of host defense against infections and induces expression of the antimicrobial peptide hCAP18/LL-37. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with chronic inflammatory lung diseases and respiratory infections. However, it is incompletely understood if and how (chronic) airway inflammation affects vitamin D metabolism and action. We hypothesized that long-term exposure of primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBEC) to pro-inflammatory cytokines alters their vitamin D metabolism, antibacterial activity and expression of hCAP18/LL-37. To investigate this, PBEC were differentiated at the air-liquid interphase for 14 days in presence of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β (TNF-α/IL-1β), and subsequently exposed to vitamin D (inactive 25(OH)D3 and active 1,25(OH)2D3). Expression of hCAP18/LL-37, vitamin D receptor (VDR) and enzymes involved in vitamin D metabolism (CYP24A1 and CYP27B1) was determined using qPCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence staining. Furthermore, vitamin D-mediated antibacterial activity was assessed using non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). We found that TNF-α/IL-1β treatment reduced vitamin D-induced expression of hCAP18/LL-37 and killing of NTHi. In addition, CYP24A1 (a vitamin D-degrading enzyme) was increased by TNF-α/IL-1β, whereas CYP27B1 (that converts 25(OH)D3 to its active form) and VDR expression remained unaffected. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the TNF-α/IL-1β-mediated induction of CYP24A1 was at least in part mediated by the transcription factor specific protein 1 (Sp1) and the EGFR-MAPK-pathway. These findings indicate that TNF-α/IL-1β decreases vitamin D-mediated antibacterial activity and hCAP18/LL-37 expression via induction of CYP24A1, and suggests that chronic inflammation impairs protective responses induced by vitamin D.

  7. Adiponectin and pro-inflammatory cytokines are modulated in Vietnamese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Tong, Hoang Van; Luu, Nguyen Kim; Son, Ho Anh; Hoan, Nguyen Van; Hung, Trinh Thanh; Velavan, Thirumalaisamy P; Toan, Nguyen Linh

    2017-05-01

    Adipose tissue-derived hormones are associated with metabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes mellitus. The present study investigated the levels of adiponectin and pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and IL-10 in Vietnamese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and their correlations with clinical parameters of overweight and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Based on body mass index, 73 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were categorized either as overweight or non-overweight. As healthy controls, 57 overweight and non-overweight individuals without type 2 diabetes mellitus were included. The adiponectin, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10 levels were measured in the sera samples in all study participants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and were correlated with clinical parameters. The adiponectin levels were lower in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (2.5 ± 1.5 μg/mL) compared with controls (16 ± 18.6 μg/mL; P < 0.0001), and were decreased in overweight individuals compared with those who were not overweight. The TNF-α and IL-1β levels were increased, whereas the IL-10 levels were decreased in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and in overweight controls compared with non-overweight controls (P < 0.0001). The adiponectin levels were correlated with the TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10 levels, and the clinical parameters of overweight and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance indexes were correlated with the relative ratios of adiponectin/TNF-α, adiponectin/IL-1β, adiponectin/IL-10, TNF-α/IL-10 and IL-1β/IL-10. Adiponectin and pro-inflammatory cytokines are associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and might serve as a prognostic marker and a therapeutic intervention for overweight-related type 2 diabetes mellitus. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the

  8. Role of pro-inflammatory cytokines of pancreatic islets and prospects of elaboration of new methods for the diabetes treatment.

    PubMed

    Cieślak, Marek; Wojtczak, Andrzej; Cieślak, Michał

    2015-01-01

    Several relations between cytokines and pathogenesis of diabetes are reviewed. In type 1 and type 2 diabetes an increased synthesis is observed and as well as the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which cause the damage of pancreatic islet cells and, in type 2 diabetes, the development of the insulin resistance. That process results in the disturbed balance between pro-inflammatory and protective cytokines. Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), as well as recently discovered pancreatic derived factor PANDER are involved in the apoptosis of pancreatic β-cells. Inside β-cells, cytokines activate different metabolic pathways leading to the cell death. IL-1β activates the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), affects the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and activates the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). TNF-α and IFN-γ in a synergic way activate calcium channels, what leads to the mitochondrial dysfunction and activation of caspases. Neutralization of pro-inflammatory cytokines, especially interleukin 1β with the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and/or IL-1β antibodies might cause the extinction of the inflammatory process of pancreatic islets, and consequently normalize concentration of glucose in blood and decrease the insulin resistance. In type 1 diabetes interleukin-6 participates in regulation of balance between Th17 and regulatory T cells. In type 2 diabetes and obesity, the long-duration increase of IL-6 concentration in blood above 5 pg/ml leads to the chronic and permanent increase in expression of SOCS3, contributing to the increase in the insulin resistance in cells of the skeletal muscles, liver and adipose tissue.

  9. Proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β suppresses cold-induced thermogenesis in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Naknukool, Supaporn; Yoshitake, Rieko; Hanafusa, Yuki; Tokiwa, Soshi; Li, Yongjia; Sakamoto, Tomoya; Nitta, Takahiro; Kim, Minji; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Yu, Rina; Daiyasu, Hiromi; Seno, Shigeto; Matsuda, Hideo; Kawada, Teruo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), a typical proinflammatory cytokine on the β-adrenoreceptor-stimulated induction of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in adipocytes. IL-1β mRNA expression levels were upregulated in white adipose tissues of obese mice and in RAW264.7 macrophages under conditions designed to mimic obese adipose tissue. Isoproterenol-stimulated induction of UCP1 mRNA expression was significantly inhibited in C3H10T1/2 adipocytes by conditioned medium from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages in comparison with control conditioned medium. This inhibition was significantly attenuated in the presence of recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist and IL-1β antibody, suggesting that activated macrophage-derived IL-1β is an important cytokine for inhibition of β-adrenoreceptor-stimulated UCP1 induction in adipocytes. IL-1β suppressed isoproterenol-induced UCP1 mRNA expression in C3H10T1/2 adipocytes, and this effect was partially but significantly abrogated by inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). IL-1β also suppressed the isoproterenol-induced activation of the UCP1 promoter and transcription factors binding to the cAMP response element. Moreover, intraperitoneal administration of IL-1β suppressed cold-induced UCP1 expression in adipose tissues. These findings suggest that IL-1β upregulated in obese adipose tissues suppresses β-adrenoreceptor-stimulated induction of UCP1 expression through ERK activation in adipocytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of proinflammatory cytokines on the claudin-19 rich tight junctions of human retinal pigment epithelium.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shaomin; Gan, Geliang; Rao, Veena S; Adelman, Ron A; Rizzolo, Lawrence J

    2012-07-27

    Chronic, subclinical inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of several ocular diseases, including age-related macular degeneration. Proinflammatory cytokines affect tight junctions in epithelia that lack claudin-19, but in the retinal pigment epithelium claudin-19 predominates. We examined the effects of cytokines on the tight junctions of human fetal RPE (hfRPE). hfRPE was incubated with interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β), interferon-gamma (IFNγ), or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), alone or in combination. Permeability and selectivity of the tight junctions were assessed using nonionic tracers and electrophysiology. Claudins, occludin, and ZO-1 were examined using PCR, immunoblotting, and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. Only TNFα consistently reduced transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) >80%. A serum-free medium revealed two effects of TNFα: (1) decreased TER was observed only when TNFα was added to the apical side of the monolayer, and (2) expression of TNFα receptors and inhibitors of apoptosis were induced from either side of the monolayer. In untreated cultures, tight junctions were slightly cation selective, and this was affected minimally by TNFα. The results were unexplained by effects on claudin-2, claudin-3, claudin-19, occludin, and ZO-1, but changes in the morphology of the junctions and actin cytoskeleton may have a role. Claudin-19-rich tight junctions have low permeability for ionic and nonionic solutes, and are slightly cation-selective. Claudin-19 is not a direct target of TNFα. TNFα may protect RPE from apoptosis, but makes the monolayer leaky when it is presented to the apical side of the monolayer. Unlike other epithelia, IFNγ failed to augment the effect of TNFα on tight junctions.

  11. Effects of Proinflammatory Cytokines on the Claudin-19 Rich Tight Junctions of Human Retinal Pigment Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Shaomin; Gan, Geliang; Rao, Veena S.; Adelman, Ron A.; Rizzolo, Lawrence J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Chronic, subclinical inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of several ocular diseases, including age-related macular degeneration. Proinflammatory cytokines affect tight junctions in epithelia that lack claudin-19, but in the retinal pigment epithelium claudin-19 predominates. We examined the effects of cytokines on the tight junctions of human fetal RPE (hfRPE). Methods. hfRPE was incubated with interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β), interferon-gamma (IFNγ), or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), alone or in combination. Permeability and selectivity of the tight junctions were assessed using nonionic tracers and electrophysiology. Claudins, occludin, and ZO-1 were examined using PCR, immunoblotting, and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. Results. Only TNFα consistently reduced transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) >80%. A serum-free medium revealed two effects of TNFα: (1) decreased TER was observed only when TNFα was added to the apical side of the monolayer, and (2) expression of TNFα receptors and inhibitors of apoptosis were induced from either side of the monolayer. In untreated cultures, tight junctions were slightly cation selective, and this was affected minimally by TNFα. The results were unexplained by effects on claudin-2, claudin-3, claudin-19, occludin, and ZO-1, but changes in the morphology of the junctions and actin cytoskeleton may have a role. Conclusions. Claudin-19–rich tight junctions have low permeability for ionic and nonionic solutes, and are slightly cation-selective. Claudin-19 is not a direct target of TNFα. TNFα may protect RPE from apoptosis, but makes the monolayer leaky when it is presented to the apical side of the monolayer. Unlike other epithelia, IFNγ failed to augment the effect of TNFα on tight junctions. PMID:22761260

  12. Association of pro-inflammatory cytokines, cortisol and depression in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Du, Yi-jie; Yang, Chang-jiang; Li, Bei; Wu, Xiao; Lv, Yu-bao; Jin, Hua-liang; Cao, Yu-xue; Sun, Jing; Luo, Qing-li; Gong, Wei-yi; Zhang, Hong-ying; Liu, Bao-jun; Wu, Jin-Ffng; Dong, Jing-cheng

    2014-08-01

    Evidence suggests that pro-inflammatory cytokines and cortisol play a crucial role in the etiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and depression. Depression occurs commonly among COPD patients and an earlier diagnosis would be beneficial. This study investigated the associations between depression, sputum cytokines and salivary cortisol in COPD patients. The diurnal rhythms of sputum IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α and salivary cortisol were measured in COPD patients with depression compared to those only with depression, or COPD and healthy controls. The area under the diurnal variation curves (AUC) over the 24h time course and relative diurnal variation (VAR) were calculated while correlation and regression analysis were performed. Patients with co-morbid depression and COPD showed an increasing sputum IL-1, sputum TNF-α AUC and a decreasing salivary cortisol VAR (P<0.001). The combination of sputum TNF-α AUC, sputum IL-1 AUC, sputum IL-6 AUC and salivary cortisol VAR performed best as a potential biomarker in the diagnosis of depression in COPD patients, with a sensitivity of 94.74% and a specificity of 96.67%. Positive correlations were found between sputum IL-1 AUC and sputum TNF-α AUC versus depressive symptoms, respectively a negative correlation was found between salivary cortisol VAR and depression. They were independently associated with depression in logistic regression models. Depression in COPD is associated with higher 24-h overall levels of sputum IL-1, TNF-α and flattened diurnal salivary cortisol. These non-invasive sputum and salivary biomarkers may serve as a simple clinical tool for the early diagnosis of depression in COPD patients.

  13. Association among pain, masticatory performance, and proinflammatory cytokines in crevicular fluid during orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Gameiro, Gustavo Hauber; Schultz, Christian; Trein, Marcos Porto; Mundstock, Karina Santos; Weidlich, Patrícia; Goularte, Jéferson Ferraz

    2015-12-01

    Orthodontic patients usually complain about masticatory limitations associated with the activation of fixed appliances. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate whether orthodontic pain reflects differences in the objective evaluation of mastication and in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the crevicular fluid of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. Twenty patients with malocclusions requiring orthodontic treatment were included in this prospective study. Their pain experience, masticatory performance, and levels of interleukin 1-beta and prostaglandin E2 in crevicular fluid were evaluated at 3 times: before bracket placement, 24 hours after archwire placement, and 30 days after the initial appointment. All variables were compared with those of a control group of 25 subjects with normal occlusion. The masticatory performance of the patients was significantly reduced at 24 hours after bracket placement, the period in which they reported higher values of pain and had higher levels of interleukin 1-beta. The levels of prostaglandin E2 did not change in the periods evaluated, and there were no correlations between the levels of cytokines and the functional limitations observed. The only significant correlation was between pain and decreased masticatory performance. The masticatory performance of orthodontic patients is significantly reduced only during the period of greatest pain. However, these alterations did not correlate with any measurement of interleukin 1-beta or prostaglandin E2 in the crevicular fluid, suggesting that these solitary measurements are inadequate to predict the temporary pain and masticatory limitations experienced by patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Low-level laser therapy modulates pro-inflammatory cytokines after partial tenotomy.

    PubMed

    Da Ré Guerra, Flávia; Vieira, Cristiano Pedrozo; Oliveira, Letícia Prado; Marques, Petrus Pires; dos Santos Almeida, Marcos; Pimentel, Edson Rosa

    2016-05-01

    Tendon injuries give rise to substantial morbidity, and current understanding of the mechanisms involved in tendon injury and repair is limited. This lesion remains a clinical issue because the injury site becomes a region with a high incidence of recurrent rupture and has drawn the attention of researchers. We already demonstrated that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) stimulates the synthesis and organization of collagen I, MMP-9, and MMP-2 and improved the gait recovery of the treated animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of LLLT in the nitric oxide and cytokines profile during the inflammatory and remodeling phases. Adult male rats were divided into the following groups: G1--intact, G2-- injured, G3--injured + LLLT (4 J/cm(2) continuous), G4--injured + LLLT (4 J/cm(2)-20 Hz--pulsed laser). According to the analysis, the animals were euthanized on different dates (1, 4, 8, or 15 days after injury). ELISA assay of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10, and TGF-β was performed. Western blotting of isoform of nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS) and nitric oxide dosage experiments was conducted. Our results showed that the pulsed LLLT seems to exert an anti-inflammatory effect over injured tendons, with reduction of the release of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and the decrease in the i-NOS activity. Thanks to the pain reduction and the facilitation of movement, there was a stimulation in the TGF-β and IL-1β release. In conclusion, we believe that pulsed LLLT worked effectively as a therapy to reestablish the tendon integrity after rupture.

  15. A Pilot Study of Proinflammatory Cytokines and Fatigue in Women With Breast Cancer During Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Raudonis, Barbara M; Kelley, Ingrid H; Rowe, Nancy; Ellis, Jenny

    Fatigue remains a prevalent, persistent, and debilitating side effect of chemotherapy for stage I and II breast cancer patients. Severity of fatigue varies among patients. Evidence suggests that proinflammatory cytokines contribute to the development of fatigue. The aim of this study is to investigate predictors of fatigue and cytokine levels in women undergoing chemotherapy for stage I or II breast cancer. Piper Fatigue Scales and blood samples for interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were collected at baseline and days 7, 14, and 21 for each chemotherapy cycle. Descriptive statistics, general linear mixed models, and graphic analysis were used to analyze the data. The predominantly white convenience sample was composed of 11 women with stage I or II breast cancer who were 37 to 72 years old (mean, 52 years). Predictors of fatigue were type of chemotherapy drugs, time, and IL-6 levels. A predictor of IL-6 and TNF-α levels was whether chemotherapy was administered at the visit. Type of chemotherapy significantly predicted TNF-α levels. Fatigue patterns were characterized by chaotic pattern of peaks and troughs unique to each woman. Women with stage I and II breast cancer experienced variability in the severity of fatigue and levels of IL-6 and TNF-α throughout their treatment trajectories. The presence and role of genetic variants related to cancer-related fatigue may explain the individual variation and warrant further research. These findings highlight the importance of symptom assessments including fatigue at each clinic visit and individualized interventions throughout the cancer trajectory.

  16. Do mechanical strain and TNF-α interact to amplify pro-inflammatory cytokine production in human annulus fibrosus cells?

    PubMed

    Likhitpanichkul, Morakot; Torre, Olivia M; Gruen, Jadry; Walter, Benjamin A; Hecht, Andrew C; Iatridis, James C

    2016-05-03

    During intervertebral disc (IVD) injury and degeneration, annulus fibrosus (AF) cells experience large mechanical strains in a pro-inflammatory milieu. We hypothesized that TNF-α, an initiator of IVD inflammation, modifies AF cell mechanobiology via cytoskeletal changes, and interacts with mechanical strain to enhance pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Human AF cells (N=5, Thompson grades 2-4) were stretched uniaxially on collagen-I coated chambers to 0%, 5% (physiological) or 15% (pathologic) strains at 0.5Hz for 24h under hypoxic conditions with or without TNF-α (10ng/mL). AF cells were treated with anti-TNF-α and anti-IL-6. ELISA assessed IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 production and immunocytochemistry measured F-actin, vinculin and α-tubulin in AF cells. TNF-α significantly increased AF cell pro-inflammatory cytokine production compared to basal conditions (IL-1β:2.0±1.4-84.0±77.3, IL-6:10.6±9.9-280.9±214.1, IL-8:23.9±26.0-5125.1±4170.8pg/ml for basal and TNF-α treatment, respectively) as expected, but mechanical strain did not. Pathologic strain in combination with TNF-α increased IL-1β, and IL-8 but not IL-6 production of AF cells. TNF-α treatment altered F-actin and α-tubulin in AF cells, suggestive of altered cytoskeletal stiffness. Anti-TNF-α (infliximab) significantly inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokine production while anti-IL-6 (atlizumab) did not. In conclusion, TNF-α altered AF cell mechanobiology with cytoskeletal remodeling that potentially sensitized AF cells to mechanical strain and increased TNF-α-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Results suggest an interaction between TNF-α and mechanical strain and future mechanistic studies are required to validate these observations.

  17. MyD88-dependent pro-inflammatory cytokine response contributes to lethal toxicity of staphylococcal enterotoxin B in mice.

    PubMed

    Kissner, Teri L; Ruthel, Gordon; Cisney, Emily D; Ulrich, Robert G; Fernandez, Stefan; Saikh, Kamal U

    2011-10-01

    An elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine response is the primary cause of death by toxic shock after exposure to staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB). Identifying an intracellular signal mediator that predominantly controls the pro-inflammatory response is important for developing a therapeutic strategy. We examined the role of the signaling adaptor MyD88 in cell culture and in a mouse model of toxic shock. Our results indicated that elevated tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-1α/β and IL-6 production from mouse spleen cells treated with SEB alone or in combination with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was regulated by MyD88. Elevated levels of MyD88 protein in spleen cells, as well as in CD11c(+) or Mac3(+) cells, and activation of nuclear factor-κB in spleen cells were observed in mice treated with SEB. An SEB-dose dependent lethality was observed in LPS-potentiated and in D-galactosamine-sensitized mice. D-Galactosamine treatment of spleen cells had no effect in cytokine induction but rather increased the sensitivity to toxic shock in mice. Our results demonstrated an impaired pro-inflammatory cytokine production by spleen cells of MyD88(-/-) mice in response to SEB or SEB plus LPS. Most importantly, MyD88(-/-) mice were resistant to SEB-induced death. These results demonstrate that MyD88-dependent pro-inflammatory signaling is responsible for SEB intoxication. In addition, our studies also demonstrated that LPS potentiation, in comparison to D-galactosamine sensitization, contributes to a stronger SEB-induced lethality. This is due to the pro-inflammatory cytokine response elicited by MyD88 after exposure to SEB and LPS. These findings offer an important insight upon SEB intoxication and subsequent therapy targeting MyD88.

  18. Effect of proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 on efflux transport of rebamipide in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Masateru; Nakai, Daisuke

    2017-09-01

    1. Effect of IL-6, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, on efflux transport of rebamipide, an antiulcer drug, was investigated in Caco-2 cells. 2. Rebamipide had a greater basal-to-apical than apical-to-basal transport rate. Efflux transport of rebamipide was inhibited by cyclosporine A, a P-gp inhibitor, and probenecid, which is a general MRP inhibitor, but not by Ko143, a BCRP inhibitor. 3. By the addition of IL-6, mannitol transport was slightly increased in a concentration-dependent manner in both directions of absorption and efflux. The addition of IL-6 did not change efflux transport of rebamipide even though efflux transport of digoxin, a typical substrate of P-gp, was significantly decreased by the addition of IL-6, indicating decrease of the function of P-gp. 4. Therefore, it was suggested that increase of MRP(s)-mediated transport compensates for the decrease of P-gp mediated transport of rebamipide. These findings suggested that rebamipide absorption is unlikely to be changed in IBD patients.

  19. Reduced Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines after Eight Weeks of Low-Dose Naltrexone for Fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Parkitny, Luke; Younger, Jarred

    2017-04-18

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a complex, multi-symptom condition that predominantly affects women. The majority of those affected are unlikely to gain significant symptomatic control from the few treatments that are approved for FM. In this 10-week, single-blind, crossover trial we tested the immune effects of eight weeks of oral administration of low-dose naltrexone (LDN). We enrolled eight women with an average age of 46 years, symptom severity of 62 out of 100, and symptom duration of 14 years. We found that LDN was associated with reduced plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-15, IL-17A, IL-27, interferon (IFN)-α, transforming growth factor (TGF)-α, TGF-β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). We also found a 15% reduction of FM-associated pain and an 18% reduction in overall symptoms. The findings of this pilot trial suggest that LDN treatment in fibromyalgia is associated with a reduction of several key pro-inflammatory cytokines and symptoms. The potential role of LDN as an atypical anti-inflammatory medication should be explored further.

  20. Reduced Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines after Eight Weeks of Low-Dose Naltrexone for Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Parkitny, Luke; Younger, Jarred

    2017-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a complex, multi-symptom condition that predominantly affects women. The majority of those affected are unlikely to gain significant symptomatic control from the few treatments that are approved for FM. In this 10-week, single-blind, crossover trial we tested the immune effects of eight weeks of oral administration of low-dose naltrexone (LDN). We enrolled eight women with an average age of 46 years, symptom severity of 62 out of 100, and symptom duration of 14 years. We found that LDN was associated with reduced plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-15, IL-17A, IL-27, interferon (IFN)-α, transforming growth factor (TGF)-α, TGF-β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). We also found a 15% reduction of FM-associated pain and an 18% reduction in overall symptoms. The findings of this pilot trial suggest that LDN treatment in fibromyalgia is associated with a reduction of several key pro-inflammatory cytokines and symptoms. The potential role of LDN as an atypical anti-inflammatory medication should be explored further. PMID:28536359

  1. Acidic sphingomyelinase induced by electrophiles promotes proinflammatory cytokine production in human bladder carcinoma ECV-304 cells.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Takeshi; Ishino, Tomohiro; Nakagawa, Yasuhito

    2012-03-01

    Electrophiles in environmental pollutants or cigarette smoke are high risk factors for various diseases caused by cell injuries such as apoptosis and inflammation. Here we show that electrophilic compounds such as diethyl malate (DEM), methyl mercury and cigarette smoke extracts significantly enhanced the expression of acidic sphingomyelinase (ASMase). ASMase activity and the amount of ceramide of DEM-treated cells were approximately 6 times and 4 times higher than these of non-treated cells, respectively. Moreover, we found that DEM pretreatment enhanced the production of IL-6 induced by TNF-α. Knockdown of ASMase attenuated the enhancement of TNF-α-dependent IL-6 production. On the other hand, enhancement of TNF-α-induced IL-6 production was observed in ASMase-overexpressing cells without DEM. Fractionation of the lipid raft revealed that the TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) was migrated into the lipid raft in DEM-treated cells or ASMase-overexpressing cells. The TNF-α-induced IL-6 expression required the clustering of TNFR1 since IL-6 expression were decreased by the destruction of the lipid raft with filipin. These results demonstrated a new role for ASMase in the acceleration of the production of TNF-induced IL-6 as a pro-inflammatory cytokine and indicated that electrophiles could potentiate inflammation response by up-regulating of ASMase expression following formation of lipid rafts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Prolyl Oligopeptidase Induces In vitro Secretion of Proinflammatory Cytokines by Peritoneal Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Portugal, Brina; Motta, Flávia N.; Correa, Andre F.; Nolasco, Diego O.; de Almeida, Hugo; Magalhães, Kelly G.; Atta, Ana L. V.; Vieira, Francisco D.; Bastos, Izabela M. D.; Santana, Jaime M.

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease that leads to death over 1 million people per year worldwide and the biological mediators of this pathology are poorly established, preventing the implementation of effective therapies to improve outcomes in TB. Host–bacterium interaction is a key step to TB establishment and the proteases produced by these microorganisms seem to facilitate bacteria invasion, migration and host immune response evasion. We presented, for the first time, the identification, biochemical characterization, molecular dynamics (MDs) and immunomodulatory properties of a prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (POPMt). POP is a serine protease that hydrolyzes substrates with high specificity for proline residues and has already been characterized as virulence factor in infectious diseases. POPMt reveals catalytic activity upon N-Suc-Gly-Pro-Leu-Gly-Pro-AMC, a recognized POP substrate, with optimal activity at pH 7.5 and 37°C. The enzyme presents KM and Kcat/KM values of 108 μM and 21.838 mM-1 s-1, respectively. MDs showed that POPMt structure is similar to that of others POPs, which consists of a cylindrical architecture divided into an α/β hydrolase catalytic domain and a β-propeller domain. Finally, POPMt was capable of triggering in vitro secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by peritoneal macrophages, an event dependent on POPMt intact structure. Our data suggests that POPMt may contribute to an inflammatory response during M. tuberculosis infection. PMID:28223969

  3. Acute aerocystitis in Piaractus mesopotamicus: participation of eicosanoids and pro-inflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Claudiano, Gustavo da Silva; Petrillo, Thalita R; Manrique, Wilson G; Castro, Marcello P; Loureiro, Bruna A; Marcusso, Paulo F; Belo, Marco A A; Moraes, Julieta R E; de Moraes, Flávio Ruas

    2013-05-01

    A total of 360 pacus (Piaractus mesopotamicus) were used to study vascular permeability (VP) and inflammatory cell component (CC) in induced aerocystitis in P. mesopotamicus through inoculation of inactivated Aeromonas hydrophila, and the effect of steroidal and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. It was observed that after inoculation of A. hydrophila, the maximum VP occurred 180 min post-stimulus (MPS). Pretreatment with anti-inflammatory drugs inhibited VP, and the inhibitory effect of dexamethasone was seen earlier than the effects caused by meloxicam and indomethacin. Inoculation of the bacterium caused a gradual increase in the accumulation of cells, which reached a maximum 24 h post-stimulus (HPS). Pretreatment with dexamethasone, indomethacin and meloxicam reduced the accumulation of lymphocytes, thrombocytes, granulocytes and macrophages. There was no significant difference between the different doses of the drugs tested. The results suggest that eicosanoids and pro-inflammatory cytokines participate in chemical mediation in acute inflammation in pacus.

  4. Ketamine modulates hippocampal neurogenesis and pro-inflammatory cytokines but not stressor induced neurochemical changes.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Melanie; Razmjou, Sara; Prowse, Natalie; Dwyer, Zach; Litteljohn, Darcy; Pentz, Rowan; Anisman, Hymie; Hayley, Shawn

    2017-01-01

    Considerable recent attention has focused on the rapid antidepressant effects observed in treatment resistant patients produced by the NMDA receptor antagonist, ketamine. Surprisingly, the effects of ketamine in the context of stressor exposure, as well as the consequences of its chronic use are unclear. Thus, we assessed the impact of acute and repeated ketamine treatment together with acute [restraint or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] or chronic (unpredictable different psychogenic challenges) stressor exposure. Importantly, acute ketamine treatment did provoke an antidepressant-like effect in a forced swim test (FST) and this effect lasted for 8 days following repeated exposure to the drug. Although acute restraint and LPS individually provoked the expected elevation of plasma corticosterone and brain-region specific monoamine variations, ketamine had no influence on corticosterone and had, at best, sparse effects on the monoamine changes. Similarly, ketamine did not appreciably influence the stressor induced neurochemical and sucrose preference alterations, it did however, dose-dependently reverse the LPS induced elevation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Likewise, repeated ketamine administration increased adult hippocampal neurogenesis. These data indicate that repeated ketamine administration had greater behavioral consequences than acute treatment and that the drug might be imparting antidepressant effects through its effects on neuroplasticity and inflammatory processes rather than the typical neurochemical/hormonal factors affected by stressors. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Ionotropic glutamate receptors'. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative evaluation of pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in pulpotomized primary molars.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Yasemin; Kutukculer, Necil; Topaloglu-Ak, Asli; Kose, Timur; Eronat, Cemal

    2015-06-01

    The present in vivo study was performed to investigate the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6, and IL-8, in primary molars for which pulpotomy was clinically indicated, and to evaluate the success rates of three different pulpotomy agents employed for cariously (CExp) or mechanically exposed (MExp) primary molars. Forty-seven primary molars were classified as MExp or CExp according to the type of pulpal exposure. Pulp tissue was harvested and analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Subsequently, three pulpotomy agents-calcium hydroxide (CH), mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), and formocresol (FC)-were applied randomly, and the outcome was observed radiographically for 18 months. Levels of IL-6 and IL-8 were significantly higher in CExp pulp than in MExp pulp (P < 0.05). In the CH pulpotomy group, MExp teeth showed a higher success rate than CExp teeth. There was no significant difference in success rate between MExp and CExp teeth in both the FC and MTA groups. The levels of IL-6 and IL-8 have the potential to become indicators of pulp status and can be monitored by researchers to make the prognosis of vital pulp therapies less uncertain. As MTA and FC yielded higher rates of success than CH in CExp teeth, the choice of pulpotomy agent appears to be important in this context.

  6. Induction of proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide by Trypanosoma cruzi in renal cells.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Gabriel M; Yoshida, Nobuko; Higa, Elisa M S; Shenkman, Sérgio; Alves, Monique; Staquicini, Daniela; Cascabulho, Cynthia; Schor, Nestor

    2011-08-01

    Chagas disease is typically associated with cardiac involvement. During the acute phase of murine infection with Trypanosoma cruzi, severe acute myocarditis can develop. Prior to cardiac alteration, however, infected mice present with renal inflammatory infiltration causing acute kidney injury due to an ischemia/reperfusion lesion. Thus, the present study was undertaken in order to evaluate whether the parasites or some of their components would directly affect renal cells. As such, this study employed kidney cell lines (mesangial, epithelial, and proximal tubular) that mimic different regions of the renal system. Mesangial cells are more resistant to infection, showing reduced parasite internalization relative to epithelial and proximal tubular cells. Upon infection, mesangial cells produced more nitric oxide, tumor factor necrosis-α, and interferon-γ and showed decreased viability when compared to the other cell lines. These results indicate that the resistance of mesangial cells to infection may be related to the increased expression of nitric oxide and proinflammatory cytokines. Conversely, the high levels of nitric oxide produced by these cells caused impairment of cell integrity and viability. Higher nitric oxide concentrations promote cellular injury and can be involved in the genesis of ischemia/reperfusion lesions in acute kidney injury.

  7. Fucoidan delays apoptosis and induces pro-inflammatory cytokine production in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jun-O; Yu, Qing

    2015-02-01

    Although some immune modulatory effects of fucoidan have been elucidated, the effects of fucoidan on the apoptosis and activation of human neutrophils have not been investigated. In this study, we demonstrated that fucoidan purified from the brown seaweed Undaria pinnatifilda delays spontaneous apoptosis of human neutrophils and induces their activation. Fucoidan treatment inhibited apoptotic nuclei changes and phosphatidyl serine (PS) exposure on neutrophils cultured in vitro for 24h. The delay in neutrophil apoptosis mediated by fucoidan was associated with increased levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1 and decreased levels of activated caspase-3. Screening of the signaling pathways by specific inhibitors indicated that fucoidan-induced delay in neutrophil apoptosis was dependent on the activation of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, whereas MAPK signaling pathway was not critical. In addition, fucoidan enhanced the production of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α from neutrophils in an AKT-dependent manner. Taken together, these results demonstrated that fucoidan delays human neutrophil apoptosis and induces their production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This knowledge could facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies for infectious diseases and neutropenia by controlling neutrophil homeostasis and function with fucoidan.

  8. The Proinflammatory Cytokine High-Mobility Group Box-1 Mediates Retinal Neuropathy Induced by Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Mairaj Siddiquei, Mohammad; Nawaz, Mohd Imtiaz; Mohammad, Ghulam

    2014-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that increased expression of proinflammatory cytokine high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) in epiretinal membranes and vitreous fluid from patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and in retinas of diabetic rats plays a pathogenetic role in mediating diabetes-induced retinal neuropathy. Retinas of 1-month diabetic rats and HMGB1 intravitreally injected normal rats were studied using Western blot analysis, RT-PCR and glutamate assay. In addition, we studied the effect of the HMGB1 inhibitor glycyrrhizin on diabetes-induced biochemical changes in the retina. Diabetes and intravitreal injection of HMGB1 in normal rats induced significant upregulation of HMGB1 protein and mRNA, activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), cleaved caspase-3 and glutamate; and significant downregulation of synaptophysin, tyrosine hydroxylase, glutamine synthetase, and glyoxalase 1. Constant glycyrrhizin intake from the onset of diabetes did not affect the metabolic status of the diabetic rats, but it significantly attenuated diabetes-induced upregulation of HMGB1 protein and mRNA, activated ERK1/2, cleaved caspase-3, and glutamate. In the glycyrrhizin-fed diabetic rats, the decrease in synaptophysin, tyrosine hydroxylase, and glyoxalase 1 caused by diabetes was significantly attenuated. These findings suggest that early retinal neuropathy of diabetes involves upregulated expression of HMGB1 and can be ameliorated by inhibition of HMGB1. PMID:24733965

  9. Induction of proinflammatory cytokines by a soluble factor of Propionibacterium acnes: implications for chronic inflammatory acne.

    PubMed Central

    Vowels, B R; Yang, S; Leyden, J J

    1995-01-01

    Although many cytokines have been implicated in the development and persistence of inflammatory immune responses, it is unknown if any of these are important in inflammatory acne. This study investigated the production of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-1 beta, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) by human monocytic cell lines, ThP-1 and U937, and by freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from acne patients. Both Propionibacterium acnes and supernatants obtained from 72-h P. acnes cultures could induce significant concentrations of IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha, and IL-8 by both cell lines and by peripheral blood mononuclear cells as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. There was no significant difference between acne and non-acne subjects. Endotoxin quantification and addition of polymyxin B to assays indicated no lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contamination. P. acnes supernatant was fractionated into components with molecular weights of < 3,000, < 10,000, and < 30,000 and assayed for the ability to induce IL-8 and TNF production in ThP-1 cells. Nearly 90% of the original activity was found in the < 30,000-molecular-weight fraction, 50% was in the < 10,000-molecular-weight fraction, and only 15% remained in the < 3,000-molecular-weight fraction. The effluent from the < 3,000-molecular-weight fraction contained about 70% activity, indicating that the inducing factor was not retained in the membrane. Incubation of P. acnes supernatant with various concentrations of mutanolysin or lysozyme resulted in a loss of 60% of the original activity. The addition of jimson lectin, which binds peptidoglycan, resulted in a loss of 70% of the activity in a dose-response manner, whereas peanut lectin had little or no effect on the activity. Heating of the P. acnes supernatant to 65 degrees C also had no effect on the activity. Blocking of CD14, a receptor for both LPS and peptidoglycan, reduced cytokine production by > 50%, suggesting that

  10. Inhibition of Pro-inflammatory Mediators and Cytokines by Chlorella Vulgaris Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Sibi, G.; Rabina, Santa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of solvent fractions from Chlorella vulgaris by inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines. Methods: Methanolic extracts (80%) of C. vulgaris were prepared and partitioned with solvents of increasing polarity viz., n-hexane, chloroform, ethanol, and water. Various concentrations of the fractions were tested for cytotoxicity in RAW 264.7 cells using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and the concentrations inducing cell growth inhibition by about 50% (IC50) were chosen for further studies. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were treated with varying concentrations of C. vulgaris fractions and examined for its effects on nitric oxide (NO) production by Griess assay. The release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using Celecoxib and polymyxin B as positive controls. Results: MTT assay revealed all the solvent fractions that inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner. Of all the extracts, 80% methanolic extract exhibited the strongest anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting NO production (P < 0.01), PGE2 (P < 0.05), TNF-α, and IL-6 (P < 0.001) release in LPS induced RAW 264.7 cells. Both hexane and chloroform fractions recorded a significant (P < 0.05) and dose-dependent inhibition of LPS induced inflammatory mediators and cytokines in vitro. The anti-inflammatory effect of ethanol and aqueous extracts was not significant in the study. Conclusion: The significant inhibition of inflammatory mediators and cytokines by fractions from C. vulgaris suggests that this microalga would be a potential source of developing anti-inflammatory agents and a good alternate for conventional steroidal and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. SUMMARY C. vulgaris extracts have potential anti

  11. Effects of short-chain fatty acid-supplemented total parenteral nutrition on intestinal pro-inflammatory cytokine abundance.

    PubMed

    Milo, L A; Reardon, K A; Tappenden, K A

    2002-09-01

    We examined the effect of short-chain fatty acid-supplemented total parenteral nutrition on proinflammatory cytokine levels in piglets. Piglets (N = 22) received either standard total parenteral nutrition or total parenteral nutrition supplemented with short-chain fatty acids. After seven days of continuous nutrient infusion, proinflammatory cytokine (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6) abundance in plasma, jejunal, and ileal samples and small intestinal myeloperoxidase was determined using western blotting. No differences were seen in TNF-alpha small intestinal abundance. IL-1beta was higher in the small intestine of the short-chain fatty acid group (P < 0.05). IL-6 was higher in intestinal samples of the short-chain fatty acid group (P = 0.05), with the ileum having a greater abundance of IL-6 than the jejunum (P < 0.005). No differences in proinflammatory cytokine abundance in the plasma or tissue myeloperoxidase were seen. These results indicate short-chain fatty acids beneficially increase small intestinal abundance of IL-1beta and IL-6 during total parenteral nutrition administration, while not affecting systemic production of these cytokines or intestinal inflammation.

  12. High Incidence of ACE/PAI-1 in Association to a Spectrum of Other Polymorphic Cardiovascular Genes Involving PBMCs Proinflammatory Cytokines in Hypertensive Hypercholesterolemic Patients: Reversibility with a Combination of ACE Inhibitor and Statin

    PubMed Central

    Mouawad, Charbel; Haddad, Katia; Hamoui, Samar; Azar, Albert; Fajloun, Ziad; Makdissy, Nehman

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are significantly high in the Lebanese population with the two most predominant forms being atherosclerosis and venous thrombosis. The purpose of our study was to assess the association of a spectrum of CVD related genes and combined state of hypertension hypercholesterolemia (HH) in unrelated Lebanese. Twelve polymorphisms were studied by multiplex PCR and reverse hybridization of DNA from 171 healthy individuals and 144 HH subjects. Two genes were significantly associated with HH: ACE (OR: 9.20, P<0.0001) and PAI-1 (OR: 2.29, P = 0.007), respectively with the occurrence of the risky alleles “Del” and “4G”. The frequencies of the Del and 4G alleles were found to be 0.98 and 0.90 in the HH group versus 0.84 and 0.79 in the healthy group, respectively. Serum ACE activity and PAI-I increased significantly with Del/Del and 4G/5G genotypes. The co-expression of Del/4G(+/+) was detected in 113 out of 171 (66.0%) controls and 125 out of 144 (86.8%) HH subjects. Del/4G(-/-) was detected in only 6 (3.5%) controls and undetected in the HH group. Three venous thrombosis related genes [FV(Leiden), MTHFR(A1298C) and FXIII(V34L)] were significantly related to the prominence of the co-expression of Del/4G(+/+). A range of 2 to 8 combined polymorphisms co-expressed per subject where 5 mutations were the most detected. In Del/4G(+/+) subjects, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) produced significant elevated levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α contrary to IL-10, and no variations occurred for IL-4. ACE inhibitor (ramipril) in combination with statin (atorvastatin) and not alone reversed significantly the situation. This first report from Lebanon sheds light on an additional genetic predisposition of a complex spectrum of genes involved in CVD and suggests that the most requested gene FVL by physicians may not be sufficient to diagnose eventual future problems that can occur in the cardiovascular system. Subjects expressing the double mutations

  13. Protective effect of ixerisoside A against UVB-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Bae; Kim, Ji-Eun; Kang, Ok-Hwa; Mun, Su-Hyun; Seo, Yun-Soo; Kang, Da-Hye; Yang, Da-Wun; Ryu, Shi-Yong; Lee, Young-Mi; Kwon, Dong-Yeul

    2015-05-01

    Human skin is the first line of defense for the protection of the internal organs of the body from different stimuli. Ultraviolet B (UVB), one of the harmful radiations for skin, is widely known to induce abnormally increased cytokine release from keratinocytes leading to inflammatory skin disorders. IL-6 and IL-8 induce an acute-phase response and stimulate leukocyte infiltration in the skin. Previous studies have shown that chronic exposure to UVB radiation increases cyclooxygenase-2 (COX‑2) expression through various cell signaling pathways, resulting in skin cancer. Recent studies have shown that the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 MAPK is strongly correlated with acute inflammation and development of skin cancer caused by an increased expression of COX-2. Ixerisoside A (IXA) is an active constituent of Ixeris dentata of the Compositae (Asteraceae) family. The effect of IXA on skin inflammation has yet to be elucidated. To determine the anti-inflammatory effects of IXA, we examined its effect on UVB-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) by observing these cells in the presence or absence of IXA. In this study, pro-inflammatory cytokine production was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr), and western blot analysis to evaluate the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). IXA inhibited UVB-induced production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, IXA inhibited the expression of COX-2, ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPKs, indicating that the secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8, and COX-2 expression was inhibited by blocking MAPK phosphorylation. These results indicated that IXA potentially protects against UVB-induced skin inflammation.

  14. Evaluating Posttranscriptional Regulation of Cytokine Genes

    PubMed Central

    Rattenbacher, Bernd; Bohjanen, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    A wide variety of cytokines are necessary for cell–cell communication in multicellular organisms, and cytokine dysregulation has detrimental effects, leading to disease states. Thus, it is a necessity that the expression of cytokines is tightly controlled. Regulation of cytokine gene expression takes place at different levels, including transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Ultimately, the steady-state levels of cytokine transcripts are determined by the equilibrium of transcription and degradation of this mRNA. Degradation rates of cytokine mRNAs can be measured in cells by blocking transcription with actinomycin D, harvesting RNA after different time points, and evaluating mRNA levels over time by northern blot. Cis-acting elements that mediate the rapid decay of numerous cytokine transcripts, including AU-rich elements (AREs), are found in the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of these transcripts. Putative regulatory cis-elements can be cloned into the 3′ UTR of a reporter transcript in order to assess their function in regulating mRNA decay. Cis-elements, such as AREs, regulate cytokine mRNA decay by binding to trans-acting proteins, such as tristetraprolin or HuR. These RNA-binding proteins can be visualized using electromobility shift assays or UV crosslinking assays based on their binding to radioactively labeled RNA sequences. RNA-binding proteins that regulate cytokine mRNA decay can be purified using an RNA affinity method, using their target RNA sequence as the bait. In this chapter, we review the methods for measuring cytokine mRNA decay and methods for characterizing the cis-acting elements and trans-acting factors that regulate cytokine mRNA decay. PMID:22131026

  15. Pro-inflammatory cytokines mediate the decrease in serum 25(OH)D concentrations after total knee arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Henriksen, Vanessa T; Rogers, Victoria E; Rasmussen, G Lynn; Trawick, Roy H; Momberger, Nathan G; Aguirre, Dale; Barker, Tyler

    2014-02-01

    Vitamin D is a fat-soluble micronutrient that regulates inflammation and skeletal muscle size and function. Inflammation and skeletal muscle dysfunction (i.e., atrophy and weakness) are predominant impairments that continue to challenge the rehabilitation from total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Data suggest a decrease in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations after TKA. Despite the decrease being attributed to a systemic inflammatory response, it is unclear what inflammatory mediator(s) is contributing to the decrease in serum 25(OH)D concentrations after TKA. In immune cells, pro-inflammatory cytokines mediate the enzymatic conversion of 25(OH)D to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, implying that pro-inflammatory cytokines contribute to the decrease in substrate availability (i.e., 25(OH)D). We propose the hypothesis that pro-inflammatory cytokines mediate the decrease in serum 25(OH)D concentrations after TKA. To complement the supporting literature for the proposed hypothesis, we analyzed serum 25(OH)D and pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations prior to and serially after TKA in a case subject (female; age, 62 year; height, 160 cm; body mass, 63 kg; body mass index, 26.5 kg/m(2)). The subtle decrease (12%) from pre-surgery to 2-d post-surgery and the more pronounced decrease (74%) from 3-week to 8-week post-surgery in serum 25(OH)D concentrations corresponded with the increase in serum pro-inflammatory cytokine (i.e., TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, GM-CSF, and IL-6) concentrations. This observation lends credence to the proposed hypothesis that pro-inflammatory cytokines could contribute to the decrease in serum 25(OH)D concentrations after TKA. Clearly, future research is needed to confirm the proposed hypothesis and to identify if attenuating the decrease in serum 25(OH)D concentrations improves patient outcomes after TKA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Up-Regulation of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines and Chemokine Production in Avian Influenza H9N2 Virus-Infected Human Lung Epithelial Cell Line (A549).

    PubMed

    Farzin, Hamidreza; Toroghi, Reza; Haghparast, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Influenza H9N2 virus mostly infects avian species but poses a potential health risk to humans. Little is known about the mammalian host immune responses to H9N2 virus. To obtain insight into the innate immune responses of human lung epithelial cells to the avian H9N2 virus, the expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokine in the human airway epithelial cells infected with avian H9N2 virus were examined by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). H9N2 virus was able to cultivate in the human lung epithelial cell line (A549) and stimulate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6) and chemokine (IL-8). Expressions of cytokine genes were up-regulated to a significantly higher level for IL-1β (p < 0.01), IL-6 (p < 0.01 after 12 hours and p < 0.05 after 24 hours) and IL-8 (p < 0.01 after 12 hours and p < 0.001 after 24 hours) in virus-cultured A549 cells as compared with non-virus-cultured cells. The amount of IL-6 and IL-1β proteins secreted into the culture medium was also increased after virus culture infection of A549 cell line compared to non-virus-cultured A549 cells and were significant in both IL-1β (p < 0.05 in 18 hours and p < 0.001 in 24-48 hours harvested supernatant) and IL-6 (p < 0.001). Silencing the p65 component of NF-κB in A549 cells suppressed the stimulatory effects of influenza virus on secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokine. The findings in this study will broaden our understanding of host innate immune mechanisms and the pathogenesis of H9N2 influenza viruses in human respiratory epithelium.

  17. Cortical Astrocytes Acutely Exposed to the Monomethylarsonous Acid (MMA(III)) Show Increased Pro-inflammatory Cytokines Gene Expression that is Consistent with APP and BACE-1: Over-expression.

    PubMed

    Escudero-Lourdes, C; Uresti-Rivera, E E; Oliva-González, C; Torres-Ramos, M A; Aguirre-Bañuelos, P; Gandolfi, A J

    2016-10-01

    Long-term exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) through drinking water has been associated with cognitive impairment in children and adults; however, the related pathogenic mechanisms have not been completely described. Increased or chronic inflammation in the brain is linked to impaired cognition and neurodegeneration; iAs induces strong inflammatory responses in several cells, but this effect has been poorly evaluated in central nervous system (CNS) cells. Because astrocytes are the most abundant cells in the CNS and play a critical role in brain homeostasis, including regulation of the inflammatory response, any functional impairment in them can be deleterious for the brain. We propose that iAs could induce cognitive impairment through inflammatory response activation in astrocytes. In the present work, rat cortical astrocytes were acutely exposed in vitro to the monomethylated metabolite of iAs (MMA(III)), which accumulates in glial cells without compromising cell viability. MMA(III) LD50 in astrocytes was 10.52 μM, however, exposure to sub-toxic MMA(III) concentrations (50-1000 nM) significantly increased IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, COX-2, and MIF-1 gene expression. These effects were consistent with amyloid precursor protein (APP) and β-secretase (BACE-1) increased gene expression, mainly for those MMA(III) concentrations that also induced TNF-α over-expression. Other effects of MMA(III) on cortical astrocytes included increased proliferative and metabolic activity. All tested MMA(III) concentrations led to an inhibition of intracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. Results suggest that MMA(III) induces important metabolic and functional changes in astrocytes that may affect brain homeostasis and that inflammation may play a major role in cognitive impairment-related pathogenicity in As-exposed populations.

  18. Modulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases production in co-cultivated human keratinocytes and melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Decean, H; Perde-Schrepler, M; Tatomir, C; Fischer-Fodor, E; Brie, I; Virag, P

    2013-10-01

    The human epidermis exerts immunoregulatory functions through the variety of cytokines and other molecules elaborated by keratinocytes and melanocytes. Their constitutive production is very low; however, considerably increased upon stimulation. In vivo, keratinocytes and melanocytes have a typical exposure in the skin, referred as melanocyte epidermal unit. In the present study we co-cultivated these cells in vitro proposing to elucidate some communication links in close cell-to-cell association. We assessed the amounts of IL-6, IL-8, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) in individually and co-cultured cells, exposed or not to UVB radiation. Normal human epidermal keratinocytes and melanocytes were grown in specific media and supplements. Cells were exposed to UVB radiation (100 mJ/cm(2)) to create comparable stress to the environmental one. Cytokines were determined with ELISA and confirmed with Western blot and metalloproteinases with gel zimography. Pure cultures of keratinocytes and melanocytes released low amounts of cytokines and metalloproteinases, these secretions being enhanced by UVB irradiation. In co-cultures, the cell-to-cell proximity triggered signals which markedly augmented the cytokines' secretions, whereas metalloproteinases were down-regulated. UVB irradiation did not influence either of these secretions in co-cultures. Concurrently with the highest levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, MMP-9 was up-regulated creating pro-inflammatory conditions and premises for changes in cellular survival, differentiation and phenotype. A complex network of interactions occurred between keratinocytes and melanocytes in co-cultures, resulting in modulated pro-inflammatory cytokines and metalloproteinases productions. Therefore, any disturbances in the microenvironmental signaling system and its molecular constituents may result in inflammation or even tumorigenesis in the epidermis.

  19. Better cognitive control of emotional information is associated with reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine reactivity to emotional stress.

    PubMed

    Shields, Grant S; Kuchenbecker, Shari Young; Pressman, Sarah D; Sumida, Ken D; Slavich, George M

    2016-01-01

    Stress is strongly associated with several mental and physical health problems that involve inflammation, including asthma, cardiovascular disease, certain types of cancer, and depression. It has been hypothesized that better cognitive control of emotional information may lead to reduced inflammatory reactivity to stress and thus better health, but to date no studies have examined whether differences in cognitive control predict pro-inflammatory cytokine responses to stress. To address this issue, we conducted a laboratory-based experimental study in which we randomly assigned healthy young-adult females to either an acute emotional stress (emotionally evocative video) or no-stress (control video) condition. Salivary levels of the key pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 were measured before and after the experimental manipulation, and following the last cytokine sample, we assessed participants' cognitive control of emotional information using an emotional Stroop task. We also assessed participants' cortisol levels before and after the manipulation to verify that documented effects were specific to cytokines and not simply due to increased nonwater salivary output. As hypothesized, the emotional stressor triggered significant increases in IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8. Moreover, even in fully adjusted models, better cognitive control following the emotional (but not control) video predicted less pronounced cytokine responses to that stressor. In contrast, no effects were observed for cortisol. These data thus indicate that better cognitive control specifically following an emotional stressor is uniquely associated with less pronounced pro-inflammatory cytokine reactivity to such stress. These findings may therefore help explain why superior cognitive control portends better health over the lifespan.

  20. IL-37 inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in MSU crystal-induced inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Mei; Dang, Wantai; Chen, Baofeng; Qing, Yufeng; Xie, Wenguang; Zhao, Mingcai; Zhou, Jingguo

    2016-09-01

    Acute gouty arthritis (AGA) is an auto-inflammatory disease characterized by resolving spontaneously, which suggests that negative feedback loops control inflammatory and immunological responses to monosodium urate (MSU) crystals. By now, the molecular mechanism for spontaneous resolution of acute GA remains unclear; this study was undertaken to evaluate whether IL-37 is involved in spontaneous resolution of AGA. A total of 45 acute GA (AGA),29 non-acute GA (NAGA) male patients and 82 male health control (HC) were involved in this study, we measured IL-7 expression in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), together with levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and TGF-β1 in the serum. Further, we either inhibited IL-37 expression in human PBMCs with siRNA or over-expressed the cytokine in human macrophages. Pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α expressions were significantly higher in the AGA group than in the NAGA or HC group (P < 0.05, respectively). However, anti-inflammatory IL-37, TGF-β1, and IL-10 were greater in the NAGA group than in the AGA and HC groups (P < 0.05, respectively). Expression of IL-37 in MSU crystal-treated macrophages inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, whereas the abundance of these cytokines increased with silencing of endogenous IL-37 in human blood cells. However, anti-inflammatory TGF-β1 and IL-10 expressions in these supernatants were unaffected by over-expression or knockdown of IL-37. Our study indicates that IL-37 is an important anti-inflammatory cytokine in AGA by suppressing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Thus, IL-37 may provide a novel research target for the pathogenesis and therapy of GA.

  1. Lipoxin A4 inhibits the production of proinflammatory cytokines induced by β-amyloid in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Wang, Aitao; Min, Zhe; Xiong, Yongjie; Yan, Qiuyue; Zhang, Jinping; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Suming

    2011-05-13

    Studies increasingly indicate that inflammation induced by β-amyloid (Aβ) contributes to the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). How to inhibit the enhanced production of proinflammatory cytokines stimulated by Aβ is an important research subject for the treatment of AD. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect and the molecular mechanism of the lipoxin A(4) (LXA(4)) on the production of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factorα (TNFα) induced by β-amyloid in the cortex and hippocampus of mice, and in Aβ-stimulated BV2 cells, a mouse microglial cell line. LXA(4) down-regulated the protein expression of IL-1β and TNFα, attenuated the gene expressions of IL-1β and TNFα, inhibited the degradation of IκBα, inhibited translocation of NF-κB p65 subunit into the nucleus induced by β-amyloid in the cortex and hippocampus of mice, and in Aβ-stimulated BV2 cells, and the inhibitory effects were dose dependently elevated. Our findings suggest that LXA(4) inhibits the production of IL-1β and TNFα induced by β-amyloid in the cortex and hippocampus of mice, and in BV2 microglial cells via the NF-κB signal pathway.

  2. Vernonia cinerea L. scavenges free radicals and regulates nitric oxide and proinflammatory cytokines profile in carrageenan induced paw edema model.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P Pratheesh; Kuttan, Girija

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the medicinal plant, Vernonia cinerea L (Asteraceae) using in vitro as well as in vivo models. Methanolic extract of Vernonia cinerea was found to scavenge the hydroxyl radical generated by Fenton reaction (IC(50)130 microg/ml), Superoxide generated by photo reduction of riboflavin (IC(50)190 microg/ml) and inhibited lipid peroxidation significantly (IC(50)130.5 microg/ml). The drug also scavenged nitric oxide (IC(50)210 microg/ml). Intraperitoneal administration of Vernonia cinerea was found to inhibit the PMA induced Superoxide generation in mice peritoneal macrophages. The administration of Vernonia cinerea to mice significantly increased the levels of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S transferase in blood and liver, whereas lipid peroxidation activity was significantly decreased. It was also found that Vernonia cinerea extract significantly inhibited carrageenan induced inflammation, compared with control models. Down regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine level and gene expression were also support the above result.

  3. Effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines on cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors in immune cells

    PubMed Central

    Jean-Gilles, Lucie; Braitch, Manjit; Latif, M. Liaque; Aram, Jehan; Fahey, Angela J.; Edwards, Laura J.; Robins, R. Adrian; Tanasescu, Radu; Tighe, Patrick J.; Gran, Bruno; Showe, Louise C.; Alexander, Steve P.; Chapman, Victoria; Kendall, David A.; Constantinescu, Cris S.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To investigate the regulation of cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 on immune cells by proinflammatory cytokines and its potential relevance to the inflammatory neurological disease, multiple sclerosis (MS). CB1 and CB2 signalling may be anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective in neuroinflammatory diseases. Cannabinoids can suppress inflammatory cytokines but the effects of these cytokines on CB1 and CB2 expression and function are unknown. Methods Immune cells from peripheral blood were obtained from healthy volunteers and patients with MS. Expression of CB1 and CB2 mRNA in whole blood cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and T cells was determined by quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Expression of CB1 and CB2 protein was determined by flow cytometry. CB1 and CB2 signaling in PBMC was determined by Western blotting for Erk1/2. Results Proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α (the latter likely NFκB-dependently) can up-regulate CB1 and CB2 on human whole blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). We also demonstrate up-regulation of CB1 and CB2 and increased IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA in blood of MS patients compared with controls. Conclusion The levels of CB1 and CB2 can be up-regulated by inflammatory cytokines, which can explain their increase in inflammatory conditions including MS. PMID:25704169

  4. Atypical antipsychotics suppress production of proinflammatory cytokines and up-regulate interleukin-10 in lipopolysaccharide-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Sugino, Haruhiko; Futamura, Takashi; Mitsumoto, Yasuhide; Maeda, Kenji; Marunaka, Yoshinori

    2009-03-17

    There is considerable evidence that schizophrenia is associated with immune system dysregulation. For example, blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of proinflammatory cytokines are significantly increased in schizophrenic patients, and their normalization correlates with improvement in psychotic symptoms. In fact, typical and atypical antipsychotics are reported to modulate immune function in in vitro and in vivo studies. In the present study, we examined the anti-inflammatory effect of antipsychotics, clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone and haloperidol, on serum cytokine levels in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mice. Atypical antipsychotics, such as clozapine, olanzapine and risperidone, but not haloperidol, suppressed tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6, and up-regulated IL-10. Moreover, only clozapine, robustly increased the serum levels of IL-10. Clozapine reproduced its anti-inflammatory feature in polyinsinic-polycytidylic acid sodium salt (Poly[I:C])-induced inflammation. Thus, the anti-inflammatory effect of clozapine would adapt to inflammation induced by some varieties of antigens. Several receptor ligands, such as 8-OH-DPAT, ketanserin, prazosin and scopolamine, were also examined as to their anti-inflammatory effects on serum cytokine levels in LPS-treated mice. Ketanserin and prazosin, but not 8-OH-DPAT nor scopolamine, behaved similarly to atypical antipsychotics. However, the remarkable increase of serum IL-10 level observed in clozapine was not detected in ketanserin and prazosin. These results suggest the unique efficacy of atypical antipsychotics in the suppression of proinflammatory cytokines, and the increase of anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10.

  5. The inner gel component of Aloe vera suppresses bacterial-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines from human immune cells.

    PubMed

    Habeeb, Fatema; Stables, Graham; Bradbury, Fiona; Nong, Stephanie; Cameron, Pamela; Plevin, Robin; Ferro, Valerie A

    2007-08-01

    The present study was carried out to examine the anti-inflammatory activity of the inner leaf gel component of Aloe barbadensis Miller. A simple in vitro assay was designed to determine the effect of the inner gel on bacterial-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production, namely TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta, from peripheral blood leukocytes stimulated with Shigella flexneri or LPS. This report describes the suppression of both cytokines with a freeze-dried inner gel powder and a commercial health drink from the same source. Comparison was made with a human monocytic cell-line (THP-1 cells) and a similar trend in responses was demonstrated.

  6. Oscillation of p38 activity controls efficient pro-inflammatory gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Tomida, Taichiro; Takekawa, Mutsuhiro; Saito, Haruo

    2015-01-01

    The p38 MAP kinase signalling pathway controls inflammatory responses and is an important target of anti-inflammatory drugs. Although pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) appear to induce only transient activation of p38 (over ∼60 min), longer cytokine exposure is necessary to induce p38-dependent effector genes. Here we study the dynamics of p38 activation in individual cells using a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based p38 activity reporter. We find that, after an initial burst of activity, p38 MAPK activity subsequently oscillates for more than 8 h under continuous IL-1β stimulation. However, as this oscillation is asynchronous, the measured p38 activity population average is only slightly higher than basal level. Mathematical modelling, which we have experimentally verified, indicates that the asynchronous oscillation of p38 is generated through a negative feedback loop involving the dual-specificity phosphatase MKP-1/DUSP1. We find that the oscillatory p38 activity is necessary for efficient expression of pro-inflammatory genes such as IL-6, IL-8 and COX-2. PMID:26399197

  7. Reduced B Lymphoid Kinase (Blk) Expression Enhances Proinflammatory Cytokine Production and Induces Nephrosis in C57BL/6-lpr/lpr Mice

    PubMed Central

    Papillion, Amber M.; Tatum, Arthur H.; Princiotta, Michael F.; Hayes, Sandra M.

    2014-01-01

    BLK, which encodes B lymphoid kinase, was recently identified in genome wide association studies as a susceptibility gene for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and risk alleles mapping to the BLK locus result in reduced gene expression. To determine whether BLK is indeed a bona fide susceptibility gene, we developed an experimental mouse model, namely the Blk+/−.lpr/lpr (Blk+/−.lpr) mouse, in which Blk expression levels are reduced to levels comparable to those in individuals carrying a risk allele. Here, we report that Blk is expressed not only in B cells, but also in IL-17-producing γδ and DN αβ T cells and in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). Moreover, we found that solely reducing Blk expression in C57BL/6-lpr/lpr mice enhanced proinflammatory cytokine production and accelerated the onset of lymphoproliferation, proteinuria, and kidney disease. Together, these findings suggest that BLK risk alleles confer susceptibility to SLE through the dysregulation of a proinflammatory cytokine network. PMID:24637841

  8. Atypical antipsychotics induce both proinflammatory and adipogenic gene expression in human adipocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sárvári, Anitta K; Veréb, Zoltán; Uray, Iván P; Fésüs, László; Balajthy, Zoltán

    2014-08-08

    Schizophrenia requires lifelong treatment, potentially causing systemic changes in metabolic homeostasis. In the clinical setting, antipsychotic treatment may differentially lead to weight gain among individual patients, although the molecular determinants of such adverse effects are currently unknown. In this study, we investigated changes in the expression levels of critical regulatory genes of adipogenesis, lipid metabolism and proinflammatory genes during the differentiation of primary human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). These cells were isolated from patients with body mass indices <25 and treated with the second-generation antipsychotics olanzapine, ziprasidone, clozapine, quetiapine, aripiprazole and risperidone and the first-generation antipsychotic haloperidol. We found that antipsychotics exhibited a marked effect on key genes involved in the regulation of cell cycle, signal transduction, transcription factors, nuclear receptors, differentiation markers and metabolic enzymes. In particular, we observed an induction of the transcription factor NF-KB1 and NF-KB1 target genes in adipocytes in response to these drugs, including the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8 and MCP-1. In addition, enhanced secretion of both IL8 and MCP-1 was observed in the supernatant of these cell cultures. In addition to their remarkable stimulatory effects on proinflammatory gene transcription, three of the most frequently prescribed antipsychotic drugs, clozapine, quetiapine and aripiprazole, also induced the expression of essential adipocyte differentiation genes and the adipocyte hormones leptin and adiponectin, suggesting that both glucose and fat metabolism may be affected by these drugs. These data further suggest that antipsychotic treatments in patients alter the gene expression patterns in adipocytes in a coordinated fashion and priming them for a low-level inflammatory state.

  9. Apigenin inhibits PMA-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and AP-1 factors in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Patil, Rajeshwari H; Babu, R L; Naveen Kumar, M; Kiran Kumar, K M; Hegde, Shubha M; Ramesh, Govindarajan T; Chidananda Sharma, S

    2015-05-01

    Acute and chronic alveolar or bronchial inflammation is thought to be central to the pathogenesis of many respiratory disorders. Cytokines and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factors (GM-CSF) play an important role in chronic inflammation. Activator protein-1 (AP-1) the superfamily of transcription factors is involved in proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and transformation including inflammation. Understanding the function and regulation of proinflammatory factors involved in inflammation may provide the novel therapeutic strategies in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Our aim of the present study is to investigate the pro-inflammatory cytokines and pattern of AP-1 factors expressed during activation of lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells by Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) and to understand the anti-inflammatory effect of apigenin. A549 cells were treated with and without PMA or apigenin, and the cell viability was assessed by MTT assay. Expressions of inflammatory mediators and different AP-1 factors were analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. IL-6 protein secreted was analyzed by ELISA, and expressions of IL-1β, c-Jun, and c-Fos proteins were analyzed by Western blotting. Activation of A549 cells by PMA, induced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α) mRNAs and secretion of IL-6 and the expression of specific AP-1 factors (c-Jun, c-Fos, and Fra-1). Treatment of cells with apigenin, significantly inhibited PMA-stimulated mRNA expression of above pro-inflammatory cytokines, AP-1 factors, cyclooxygenase-2, and secretion of IL-6 protein. Results suggested that the AP-1 factors may be involved in inflammation and apigenin has anti-inflammatory effect, which may be useful for therapeutic management of lung inflammatory diseases.

  10. Scopoletin suppresses pro-inflammatory cytokines and PGE2 from LPS-stimulated cell line, RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung-Jin; Jang, Seon Il; Kim, Young-Jun; Chung, Hun-Taeg; Yun, Yong-Gab; Kang, Tai-Hyun; Jeong, Ok-Sam; Kim, Youn-Chul

    2004-06-01

    Scopoletin (1-50 microg/ml) inhibited the release of PGE2, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 and suppressed the expression of COX-2 in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that scopoletin might suppress the production of such pro-inflammatory cytokines and exert inhibitory activity on LPS-induced PGE2 production through the depression of COX-2 expression. Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Serum proinflammatory cytokines and nutritional status in pediatric chronic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Santetti, Daniele; de Albuquerque Wilasco, Maria Inês; Dornelles, Cristina Toscani Leal; Werlang, Isabel Cristina Ribas; Fontella, Fernanda Urruth; Kieling, Carlos Oscar; dos Santos, Jorge Luiz; Vieira, Sandra Maria Gonçalves; Goldani, Helena Ayako Sueno

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the nutritional status and its association with proinflammatory cytokines in children with chronic liver disease. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study with 43 children and adolescents, aged 0 to 17 years, diagnosed with chronic liver disease. All patients regularly attended the Pediatric Hepatology Unit and were under nutritional follow up. The exclusion criteria were fever from any etiology at the time of enrollment, inborn errors of the metabolism and any chronic illness. The severity of liver disease was assessed by Child-Pugh, Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) and Pediatric End Stage Liver Disease (PELD) scores. Anthropometric parameters were height/age, body mass index/age and triceps skinfold/age according to World Health Organization standards. The cutoff points for nutritional status were risk of malnutrition (Z-score < -1.00) and malnutrition (Z-score < -2.00). Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α levels were assessed by commercial ELISA kits. For multivariate analysis, linear regression was applied to assess the association between cytokine levels, disease severity and nutritional status. RESULTS: The median (25th-75th centile) age of the study population was 60 (17-116)-mo-old, and 53.5% were female. Biliary atresia was the main cause of chronic liver disease (72%). With respect to Child-Pugh score, cirrhotic patients were distributed as follows: 57.1% Child-Pugh A, a mild presentation of the disease, 34.3% Child-Pugh B, a moderate stage of cirrhosis and 8.6% Child-Pugh C, were considered severe cases. PELD and MELD scores were only above the cutoff point in 5 cases. IL-6 values ​​were increased in patients at nutritional risk (34.9%) compared with those who were well-nourished [7.12 (0.58-34.23) pg/mL vs 1.63 (0.53-3.43) pg/mL; P = 0.02], correlating inversely with triceps skinfold-for-age z-score (rs = -0.61; P < 0.001). IL-6 levels were associated with liver disease severity assessed by Child

  12. Serum proinflammatory cytokines and nutritional status in pediatric chronic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Santetti, Daniele; de Albuquerque Wilasco, Maria Inês; Dornelles, Cristina Toscani Leal; Werlang, Isabel Cristina Ribas; Fontella, Fernanda Urruth; Kieling, Carlos Oscar; Dos Santos, Jorge Luiz; Vieira, Sandra Maria Gonçalves; Goldani, Helena Ayako Sueno

    2015-08-07

    To evaluate the nutritional status and its association with proinflammatory cytokines in children with chronic liver disease. We performed a cross-sectional study with 43 children and adolescents, aged 0 to 17 years, diagnosed with chronic liver disease. All patients regularly attended the Pediatric Hepatology Unit and were under nutritional follow up. The exclusion criteria were fever from any etiology at the time of enrollment, inborn errors of the metabolism and any chronic illness. The severity of liver disease was assessed by Child-Pugh, Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) and Pediatric End Stage Liver Disease (PELD) scores. Anthropometric parameters were height/age, body mass index/age and triceps skinfold/age according to World Health Organization standards. The cutoff points for nutritional status were risk of malnutrition (Z-score < -1.00) and malnutrition (Z-score < -2.00). Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α levels were assessed by commercial ELISA kits. For multivariate analysis, linear regression was applied to assess the association between cytokine levels, disease severity and nutritional status. The median (25(th)-75(th) centile) age of the study population was 60 (17-116)-mo-old, and 53.5% were female. Biliary atresia was the main cause of chronic liver disease (72%). With respect to Child-Pugh score, cirrhotic patients were distributed as follows: 57.1% Child-Pugh A, a mild presentation of the disease, 34.3% Child-Pugh B, a moderate stage of cirrhosis and 8.6% Child-Pugh C, were considered severe cases. PELD and MELD scores were only above the cutoff point in 5 cases. IL-6 values ​​were increased in patients at nutritional risk (34.9%) compared with those who were well-nourished [7.12 (0.58-34.23) pg/mL vs 1.63 (0.53-3.43) pg/mL; P = 0.02], correlating inversely with triceps skinfold-for-age z-score (rs = -0.61; P < 0.001). IL-6 levels were associated with liver disease severity assessed by Child-Pugh score (P = 0

  13. [Changes of proinflammatory cytokines and their receptors in serum from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Tang, Shenjie; Xiao, Heping; Fan, Yihu; Wu, Furong; Zhang, Zhongshun; Li, Hong; Yang, Yan

    2002-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the characteristics and clinical value of serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and its receptor (sTNF-R), interleukin-1beta(IL-1beta) and its receptor(IL-1R), interleukin-6(IL-6) and its receptor(IL-6R) in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, and to evaluate their role in the immunopathogenesis of tuberculosis. METHODS The serum levels of TNF-alpha, sTNF-R Iota IL-1beta,IL-1R, IL-6 and IL-6R were measured using the sandwich ABC-ELISA method in 41 cases of active tuberculosis, 21 cases of inactive tuberculosis and 20 normal controls. The serum levels of the cytokines in 17 cases of active tuberculos is were followed. RESULTS The serum levels of TNF-alpha sTNF-RIota IL-1beta,IL-1R, IL-6 IL-6R and the TNF-alpha/sTNF-RIota ratio were significantly higher in both the active and the inactive tuberculosis groups than those in normal controls (P <0.01 approximately 0.05). The TNF-alpha sTNF-R Iota IL-1 beta, IL-1R, IL-6 IL-6R levels and the TNF-alpha/sTNF-R Iota ratio in the active tuberculosis group were significantly higher than those in the inactive tuberculosis(P <0.01 approximately 0.05). The serum levels of TNF-alpha sTNF-R Iota, IL-1beta and IL-6 and the TNF-alpha,/sTNF-R Iota ratio were significantly lower in cavernous tuberculosis than those in non- cavernous tuberculosis (P < 0.01 approximately 0.05). After 2 months' antituberculosis treatment, the serum levels of TNF-alpha,sTNF-R Iota IL-1 beta, IL-1R,IL-6, IL-6R and the TNF-alpha/sTNF-R Iota ratio in 15(15/17) cases were significantly lower than those before treatment(P < 0.01 approximately 0.05). CONCLUSIONS TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6 and their receptors may be involved in the immunopathogenesis of tuberculosis. Measuring the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines and their receptors may be useful in evaluating the activity, the clinical pattern, and the prognosis of the disease and monitoring the clinical effect of antituberculous therapy.

  14. The effect of hydrophilic titanium surface modification on macrophage inflammatory cytokine gene expression.

    PubMed

    Hamlet, Stephen; Alfarsi, Mohammed; George, Roy; Ivanovski, Saso

    2012-05-01

    Chemical modification of microrough titanium dental implants to produce a hydrophilic surface with increased wettability and improved surface energy has been demonstrated clinically to achieve superior bone wound healing and osseointegration compared to that achieved with a microrough titanium surface alone. As the recruitment of the necessary osseoinductive precursors involved in bone wound healing and osseointegration to the wound site is facilitated by the action of cytokines, this study sought to determine the in vitro effect of hydrophilic surface modification on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines from adherent macrophages. The surface topography and composition of the titanium surfaces was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Macrophage attachment and proliferation was assessed using an MTT assay. The expression of 84 pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines by adherent RAW 264.7 cells, a murine leukaemic monocyte cell line, was assessed by PCR array after 24 h culture on either smooth polished, sand-blasted acid-etched (SLA) or hydrophilic-modified SLA (SLActive) titanium surfaces. Following 24 h culture on titanium, surface microroughness activated pro-inflammatory cytokine gene transcription in RAW 264.7 cells. Although there was no significant difference in the degree of cellular attachment or proliferation of RAW 264.7 cells to the different titanium surfaces, by 24 h the hydrophilic surface elicited a gene expression profile with significant down-regulation of the key pro-inflammatory cytokines Tnfα, IL-1α, IL-1β and the chemokine Ccl-2. Down-regulation of the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes may thus modulate the inflammatory response and may facilitate the enhanced bone wound healing and osseointegration observed clinically using implants with a microrough hydrophilic surface. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Comparative effects of daily and weekly boron supplementation on plasma steroid hormones and proinflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Naghii, Mohammad Reza; Mofid, Mahmoud; Asgari, Ali Reza; Hedayati, Mehdi; Daneshpour, Maryam-Saddat

    2011-01-01

    Boron possesses widespread properties in biochemistry and nutrition. Acute supplementation with 11.6 mg of boron resulted in a significant increase in plasma boron concentration. Given such a fast bioavailability, the objective was to determine whether acute (hourly or daily), and weekly supplementation could have any significant biological effects on the steroid hormones and further on some inflammatory biomarkers. Eight healthy male volunteers attended the laboratory on three occasions (days 0, 1 and 7). On the first day (day 0), a blood sample collection at 8.00 A.M was followed by ingestion of placebo with the breakfast. On the next day (supplementation-day 1), similar procedure was followed by ingestion of a capsule containing 10mg of boron. On both occasions blood was collected every 2h for the next 6h. Subjects were requested to consume a capsule of 10mg boron every day with their breakfast, and on the day 7, the blood collection was carried out at 8.00 A.M, again. Boron in plasma increased significantly following hours and weekly consumption. Six hours supplementation showed a significant decrease on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), high sensitive CRP (hsCRP) and TNF-α level. After one week (in samples taken at 8.00 A.M, only), the mean plasma free testosterone increased and the mean plasma estradiol decreased significantly. Dihydrotestosterone, cortisol and vitamin D was elevated. Also, concentrations of all three inflammatory biomarkers decreased after supplementation. Of note, despite decreased proinflammatory cytokines, based on recent clinical data, this must be the first human study report to show an increase level of free testosterone after boron consumption.

  16. Apoptosis and pro-inflammatory cytokine response of mast cells induced by influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Meng, Di; Wei, Tangting; Zhang, Siyi; Hu, Yanxin; Wang, Ming

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of the influenza A virus has been investigated heavily, and both the inflammatory response and apoptosis have been found to have a definitive role in this process. The results of studies performed by the present and other groups have indicated that mast cells may play a role in the severity of the disease. To further investigate cellular responses to influenza A virus infection, apoptosis and inflammatory response were studied in mouse mastocytoma cell line P815. This is the first study to demonstrate that H1N1 (A/WSN/33), H5N1 (A/Chicken/Henan/1/04), and H7N2 (A/Chicken/Hebei/2/02) influenza viruses can induce mast cell apoptosis. They were found to do this mainly through the mitochondria/cytochrome c-mediated intrinsic pathway, and the activation of caspase 8-mediated extrinsic pathway was here found to be weak. Two pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 homology domain 3 (BH3) -only molecules Bim and Puma appeared to be involved in the apoptotic pathways. When virus-induced apoptosis was inhibited in P815 cells using pan-caspase (Z-VAD-fmk) and caspase-9 (Z-LEHD-fmk) inhibitors, the replication of these three subtypes of viruses was suppressed and the secretions of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including IL-6, IL-18, TNF-α, and MCP-1, decreased. The results of this study may further understanding of the role of mast cells in host defense and pathogenesis of influenza virus. They may also facilitate the development of novel therapeutic aids against influenza virus infection.

  17. Reduced thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor and enhanced proinflammatory cytokines in acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pang, H; Zhang, C; Liu, F; Gong, X; Jin, X; Su, C

    2016-12-27

    A study was made of the changes in the serum levels of thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI), proinflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins in the acute stage of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), in order to explore the possibility of using TAFI as a biomarker for ACS risk assessment. A total of 211 patients with ACS were enrolled, and healthy subjects were used as controls. Blood samples were taken within 24h after admission. Serum TAFI levels were determined by immunoturbidimetry. Serum levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured by gold-immunochromatographic assay. Serum TAFI levels in ACS patients were significantly decreased versus the controls. The IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, PCT and CRP levels were markedly higher in the ACS patients than in the controls. Correlation analysis revealed a strong negative correlation between TAFI concentration and the IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-а, PCT and CRP levels in ACS patients and in controls. Multivariate logistic regression analysis suggested decreased serum TAFI to be an independent risk factor for ACS (OR 9.459; 95% CI 2.306-38.793; P=0.002). The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for TAFI was 0.872 (95% CI 0.787-0.909; P<0.001). The optimum TAFI cutoff point for the prediction of ACS was 24μg/ml, with a sensitivity of 75.83% and a specificity of 72.57%. These findings suggest that TAFI can be useful as a potential biomarker for ACS risk assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  18. Collagen degradation products and proinflammatory cytokines in systemic and localized scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Becvár, R; Hulejová, H; Braun, M; Stork, J

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the degradation of collagen type I and proinflammatory cytokines in systemic and localized scleroderma compared with psoriasis and healthy controls. Total 99 individuals were examined - 24 with SSc, 22 with LSc, 39 patients with PsV and 14 healthy controls. U-PD and U-DPD were measured using a sensitive isocratic HPLC method. Serum levels of IL-6 and soluble IL-2R were assayed using commercial ELISA kits. In the SSc group U-PD and U-DPD levels (nmol/mmol creatinine) were increased compared with controls (P = 0.001) and with PsV (P = 0.006). IL-6 levels were increased compared with controls (P = 0.004) and with PsV (P = 0.002). IL-2R concentrations were insignificantly increased in comparison with controls and were lower than in PsV, but the difference was not significant. In the LSc group excretion of U-PD and U-DPD did not differ from controls, but was insignificantly decreased compared with PsV. IL-6 levels were increased compared with controls (P = 0.001) and also with PsV (P = 0.03). IL-2R concentrations were significantly increased in comparison with controls only (P = 0.03). In patients with SSc our data have shown the most intensive collagen degradation and simultaneously an active inflammation, as documented by IL-6, which reflects the pathological processes in the skin and visceral organs compared with PsV patients and healthy individuals. In the LSc group collagen degradation was similar to that in control groups, but a certain inflammatory activity was observed.

  19. Cerebral mTOR signal and pro-inflammatory cytokines in Alzheimer’s disease rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xu; Li, Guang-Jian; Hu, Hai-Xia; Ma, Chi; Ma, Di-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract As a part of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) development the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been reported to play a crucial role in regulating cognition and can be used as a neuronal marker. Neuro-inflammation is also a cause of the pathophysiological process in AD. Thus, we examined the protein expression levels of mTOR and its downstream pathways as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs) in the brain of AD rats. We further examined the effects of blocking mTOR on PICs, namely IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. Our results showed that the protein expression of p-mTOR, mTOR-mediated phosphorylation of 4E-binding protein 4 (4E-BP1) and p70 ribosomal S6 protein kinase 1 (S6K1) pathways were amplified in the hippocampus of AD rats compared with controls. Blocking mTOR by using rapamycin selectively enhanced activities of IL-6 and TNF-α signaling pathways, which was accompanied with an increase of Caspase-3, indicating cellular apoptosis and worsened learning performance. In conclusion, our data for the first time revealed specific signaling pathways engaged in the development of AD, including a regulatory role by the activation of mTOR in PIC mechanisms. Stimulation of mTOR is likely to play a beneficial role in modulating neurological deficits in AD.Targeting one or more of these signaling molecules may present with new opportunities for treatment and clinical management of AD PMID:28123835

  20. The influence of occupational chronic lead exposure on the levels of selected pro-inflammatory cytokines and angiogenic factors.

    PubMed

    Machoń-Grecka, A; Dobrakowski, M; Boroń, M; Lisowska, G; Kasperczyk, A; Kasperczyk, S

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of occupational exposure to lead on the blood levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and selected factors that influence angiogenesis. The study population was divided into two groups. The first group consisted of 56 male workers chronically exposed to lead. The second group (control) was comprised of 24 male administrative workers. The serum levels of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were significantly higher in the group of workers chronically exposed to lead compared to control values by 38%, 68%, and 57%, respectively. Similarly, the values of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sVEGFR-1) and fibroblast growth factor-basic (FGF-basic) were higher by 19% and 63%, respectively. In the group of workers chronically exposed to lead, there were positive correlations between the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) and angiogenic factors (VEGF, FGF-basic, sVEGFR-1, and soluble angiopoietin receptor). In the control group, there were no correlations between the levels of the abovementioned parameters. Results of the present study indicate that chronic occupational lead exposure promotes inflammatory processes via induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, modulates angiogenesis, and elicits interdependencies between the immune response and angiogenic factors.

  1. Expression Levels of Proinflammatory Cytokines and NLRP3 Inflammasome in an Experimental Model of Oxazolone-induced Colitis.

    PubMed

    Zherebiatiev, Aleksandr; Kamyshnyi, Aleksandr

    2016-02-01

    IL-1β and IL-17A are two cytokines with strong proinflammatory activities and are now known to be involved in a number of chronic inflammatory disorders. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear protein regulating the expression of these proinflammatory cytokines. The NLRP3 inflammasome promotes the maturation of the IL-1β and its activation has been shown as a critical mechanism in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, underlying mechanisms to modulate their production in IBD are still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression levels of mRNA for the NLRP3 inflammasome, HMGB1 and proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, IL-17A in the inflamed colon of rats with experimental oxazolone-induced colitis. Experiments were carried out on male wistar rats. IL-1β, IL-17A, HMGB1 and NLRP3 inflammasome mRNA expression were analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Our results indicated that the expression levels of IL-1β, IL-17A, NLRP3 and HMGB1 were elevated in the inflamed colon of rats with oxazolone-induced colitis.

  2. Propionibacterium acnes and lipopolysaccharide induce the expression of antimicrobial peptides and proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines in human sebocytes.

    PubMed

    Nagy, István; Pivarcsi, Andor; Kis, Kornélia; Koreck, Andrea; Bodai, László; McDowell, Andrew; Seltmann, Holger; Patrick, Sheila; Zouboulis, Christos C; Kemény, Lajos

    2006-07-01

    Acne is a common skin disorder of the pilosebaceous unit. In addition to genetic, hormonal and environmental factors, abnormal colonization by Propionibacterium acnes has been implicated in the occurrence of acne via the induction of inflammatory mediators. To gain more insight into the role that sebocytes play in the innate immune response of the skin, particularly in acne, we compared the antimicrobial peptide and proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine expression at mRNA and protein levels, as well as the viability and differentiation of SZ95 sebocytes in response to co-culture with representative isolates of P. acnes type IA and type IB as well as Escherichia coli-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We found that, in vitro, P. acnes type IA and IB isolates and LPS induced human beta-defensin-2 and proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine expression, and influenced sebocyte viability and differentiation. Our results provide evidence that sebocytes are capable of producing proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines and antimicrobial peptides, which may have a role in acne pathogenesis. Furthermore, since P. acnes types IA and IB differentially affect both the differentiation and viability of sebocytes, our data demonstrate that different strains of P. acnes vary in their capacity to stimulate an inflammatory response within the pilosebaceous follicle.

  3. Antioxidants inhibit SAA formation and pro-inflammatory cytokine release in a human cell model of alkaptonuria.

    PubMed

    Spreafico, Adriano; Millucci, Lia; Ghezzi, Lorenzo; Geminiani, Michela; Braconi, Daniela; Amato, Loredana; Chellini, Federico; Frediani, Bruno; Moretti, Elena; Collodel, Giulia; Bernardini, Giulia; Santucci, Annalisa

    2013-09-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is an ultra-rare autosomal recessive disease that currently lacks an appropriate therapy. Recently we provided experimental evidence that AKU is a secondary serum amyloid A (SAA)-based amyloidosis. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the use of antioxidants to inhibit SAA amyloid and pro-inflammatory cytokine release in AKU. We adopted a human chondrocytic cell AKU model to evaluate the anti-amyloid capacity of a set of antioxidants that had previously been shown to counteract ochronosis in a serum AKU model. Amyloid presence was evaluated by Congo red staining. Homogentisic acid-induced SAA production and pro-inflammatory cytokine release (overexpressed in AKU patients) were evaluated by ELISA and multiplex systems, respectively. Lipid peroxidation was evaluated by means of a fluorescence-based assay. Our AKU model allowed us to prove the efficacy of ascorbic acid combined with N-acetylcysteine, taurine, phytic acid and lipoic acid in significantly inhibiting SAA production, pro-inflammatory cytokine release and membrane lipid peroxidation. All the tested antioxidant compounds were able to reduce the production of amyloid and may be the basis for establishing new therapies for AKU amyloidosis.

  4. Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-induced suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) 3 regulates proinflammatory TNF-α responses.

    PubMed

    Collins, Aideen S; Ahmed, Suaad; Napoletano, Silvia; Schroeder, Martina; Johnston, James A; Hegarty, John E; O'Farrelly, Cliona; Stevenson, Nigel J

    2014-08-01

    TNF-α is a proinflammatory cytokine, dramatically elevated during pathogenic infection and often responsible for inflammation-induced disease pathology. SOCS proteins are inhibitors of cytokine signaling and regulators of inflammation. In this study, we found that both SOCS1 and SOCS3 were transiently induced by TNF-α and negatively regulate its NF-κB-mediated signal transduction. We discovered that PBMCs from HCV-infected patients have elevated endogenous SOCS3 expression but less TNF-α-mediated IκB degradation and proinflammatory cytokine production than healthy controls. HCV protein expression in Huh7 hepatocytes also induced SOCS3 and directly inhibited TNF-α-mediated IL-8 production. Furthermore, we found that SOCS3 associates with TRAF2 and inhibits TRAF2-mediated NF-κB promoter activity, suggesting a mechanism by which SOCS3 inhibits TNF-α-mediated signaling. These results demonstrate a role for SOCS3 in regulating proinflammatory TNF-α signal transduction and reveal a novel immune-modulatory mechanism by which HCV suppresses inflammatory responses in primary immune cells and hepatocytes, perhaps explaining mild pathology often associated with acute HCV infection.

  5. JAK1/STAT3 Activation through a Proinflammatory Cytokine Pathway Leads to Resistance to Molecularly Targeted Therapy in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Shien, Kazuhiko; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vassiliki A; Ruder, Dennis; Behrens, Carmen; Shen, Li; Kalhor, Neda; Song, Juhee; Lee, J Jack; Wang, Jing; Tang, Ximing; Herbst, Roy S; Toyooka, Shinichi; Girard, Luc; Minna, John D; Kurie, Jonathan M; Wistuba, Ignacio I; Izzo, Julie G

    2017-10-01

    Molecularly targeted drugs have yielded significant therapeutic advances in oncogene-driven non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but a majority of patients eventually develop acquired resistance. Recently, the relation between proinflammatory cytokine IL6 and resistance to targeted drugs has been reported. We investigated the functional contribution of IL6 and the other members of IL6 family proinflammatory cytokine pathway to resistance to targeted drugs in NSCLC cells. In addition, we examined the production of these cytokines by cancer cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF). We also analyzed the prognostic significance of these molecule expressions in clinical NSCLC samples. In NSCLC cells with acquired resistance to targeted drugs, we observed activation of the IL6-cytokine pathway and STAT3 along with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) features. In particular, IL6 family cytokine oncostatin-M (OSM) induced a switch to the EMT phenotype and protected cells from targeted drug-induced apoptosis in OSM receptors (OSMRs)/JAK1/STAT3-dependent manner. The cross-talk between NSCLC cells and CAFs also preferentially activated the OSM/STAT3 pathway via a paracrine mechanism and decreased sensitivity to targeted drugs. The selective JAK1 inhibitor filgotinib effectively suppressed STAT3 activation and OSMR expression, and cotargeting inhibition of the oncogenic pathway and JAK1 reversed resistance to targeted drugs. In the analysis of clinical samples, OSMR gene expression appeared to be associated with worse prognosis in patients with surgically resected lung adenocarcinoma. Our data suggest that the OSMRs/JAK1/STAT3 axis contributes to resistance to targeted drugs in oncogene-driven NSCLC cells, implying that this pathway could be a therapeutic target. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(10); 2234-45. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Impact of Systemic Normobaric Short-Term Hypoxia on Pro-Inflammatory and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines in Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Rohm, Ilonka; Ratka, Josephine; Pistulli, Rudin; Goebel, Bjoern; Gecks, Thomas; Figulla, Hans Reiner; Yilmaz, Atilla; Jung, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia has been shown to induce a microvascular inflammation, affect the cell count of different types of immune cells, and influence cytokine production in blood. In the present study, serum levels of different cytokines were investigated to achieve insights into the effect of hypoxia on the balance of inflammation and anti-inflammation. Pro- (IL-8) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines were measured in an experiment exposing 12 healthy subjects (35 ± 9 yr, 176 ± 7 cm, 73 ± 16 kg, BMI 23 ± 4 kg/m2) to systemic, normobaric hypoxia in a hypoxic chamber. In this chamber oxygen was replaced by nitrogen to reach an oxygen content of 9.9% that is equivalent to an altitude of 5500 m during 7 hours. Serum cytokine concentrations were analyzed using ELISA. As expected, a significant decrease in peripheral oxygen saturation accompanied by a significant increase in breathing frequency and heart rate were observed in the subjects during hypoxia compared to baseline (BL). Blood leukocytes increased slightly, but significantly in the course of hypoxia. A statistically significant increase was measured for IL-8 serum level during hypoxia compared to the baseline measurements (BL 12.0 ± 1.1 pg/mL, hypoxia 16.2 ± 1.6 pg/mL, p = 0.006). For IL-10 a statistically significant decrease was measured upon hypoxia compared to baseline (BL 11.6 [6.2 - 43.31 pg/mL, hypoxia 8.3 [4.4 - 26.6] pg/mL, p = 0.016). Additionally, a significant inverse correlation was found comparing the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 with the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 (r = -0.69, p < 0.001). The results of this study demonstrate a hypoxia-induced increase in pro- and decrease in anti-inflammatory cytokines reflecting an increased pro-inflammatory status during hypoxia.

  7. Differential expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1beta-1, TNFalpha-1 and IL-8 in vaccinated pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and chum (Oncorhynchus keta) salmon juveniles.

    PubMed

    Fast, M D; Johnson, S C; Jones, S R M

    2007-04-01

    Laboratory-reared pink and chum salmon juveniles (approximately 2g) received an intraperitoneal injection with a commercial, unadjuvanted Aeromonas salmonicida bacterin or sterile saline. Relative to elongation factor-1A, expression levels of genes encoding the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta-1 (IL-1beta), tumour necrosis factor-alpha-1 (TNFalpha) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in pools of kidney and liver were examined 6- and 24-h after injection. Expression of IL-1beta was significantly elevated in pink and chum salmon by 6-h, and declined in pink salmon but not in chum salmon by 24-h. Similarly, expression of TNFalpha was significantly elevated in both species at 6h and only in chum salmon after 24-h. Expression of IL-8 was significantly elevated in both species at 6- and 24-h after injection. Expression of the three proinflammatory cytokine genes differed between salmon species both in the timing and magnitude of their expression. The significance of these differences with respect to immune function in these fish requires further research.

  8. Thymol attenuates inflammation in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarcted rats by inhibiting the release of lysosomal enzymes and downregulating the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Nagoor Meeran, Mohamed Fizur; Jagadeesh, Govindan Sangaran; Selvaraj, Palanisamy

    2015-05-05

    Inflammation plays an important role in the development of myocardial infarction (MI). The current study dealt with the protective effects of thymol on inflammation in isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial infarcted rats. Male albino Wistar rats were pre and co-treated with thymol (7.5mg/kg body weight) daily for 7 days. ISO (100mg/kg body weight) was injected subcutaneously into rats at an interval of 24h for two days (6th and 7th day) to induce MI. ISO induced myocardial infarcted rats showed increased levels of serum cardiac troponin-T, high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), lysosomal thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and elevated ST-segments. Also, the activities of lysosomal enzymes such as β-glucuronidase, β-galactosidase, cathepsin-B and D, the stimulators of inflammatory mediators were increased in the serum and heart of ISO induced myocardial infarcted rats. Furthermore, ISO up regulates the expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) genes in the myocardium of rats analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Pre and co-treatment with thymol (7.5mg/kg body weight) near normalized the levels of lysosomal TBARS, activities of serum and heart lysosomal enzymes and downregulates the expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the myocardium of ISO induced myocardial infarcted rats. Histopathological and transmission electron microscopic findings were also found in line with biochemical findings. Thus, the results of our study revealed that thymol attenuates inflammation by inhibiting the release of lysosomal enzymes and downregulates the expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines by its potent anti-inflammatory effect.

  9. Physical exercise in MCI elderly promotes reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and improvements on cognition and BDNF peripheral levels.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Carla Manuela Crispim; Pereira, Jessica Rodrigues; de Andrade, Larissa Pires; Garuffi, Marcelo; Talib, Leda Leme; Forlenza, Orestes Vicente; Cancela, Jose Maria; Cominetti, Marcia Regina; Stella, Florindo

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of physical exercise to reduce low-grade inflammation and improve Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) levels and cognitive function became a growing field of interest. Low-grade inflammation is common during aging and seems to be linked to neurodegenerative process. Regular physical exercises can help to reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines levels and to improve BDNF peripheral concentrations. The main goal of this research was to analyze the effects of a 16-week multimodal physical exercise program on peripheral BDNF levels and on Tumor Necrosis-α (TNF-α) and Interleukin- 6 (IL-6) as pro-inflammatory markers in cognitive healthy elderly individuals and in elderly with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Cognitive functions were assessed by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) prior to and after the intervention. Thirty cognitively healthy participants and thirty-seven MCI participants were assigned to the control (CG) and trained (TG) groups. The TG participated in a multimodal physical training program for a 16-week period. The results showed a significant between-subjects interaction, which indicates the beneficial contribution of training on the reduction of TNF-α (p=0.001) and IL-6 (p<0.001) and on the improvement of BDNF (p<0.001) peripheral concentrations. Cognitive functions also presented significant improvements for MCI trained group (p=0.03). In conclusion, physical exercise was effective to reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines and to improve BDNF peripheral levels, with positive reflexes on cognition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that evaluated longitudinally the effects of a multimodal physical exercises protocol on peripheral concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines and cognition performance in elderly MCI individuals.

  10. Induction of STAT1 Phosphorylation at Serine 727 and Expression of Proinflammatory Cytokines by Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ying; Wang, Rong; Nan, Yuchen; Zhang, Linsheng; Zhang, Yanjin

    2013-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a viral pathogen that causes acute respiratory illnesses in young pigs. Since 1987, PRRSV has contributed substantial economic losses to the swine industry. Elevation of proinflammatory cytokines in PRRSV-infected pigs is thought to contribute to PRRSV pathogenesis. In this study, PRRSV VR-2385, a Type 2 strain with moderate virulence, was found to induce phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) at serine 727 (pSTAT1-S727) in MARC-145 cells. No phosphorylated STAT1 at tyrosine 701 was detected, which indicates that the pSTAT1-S727 elevation was interferon-independent. The PRRSV-induced pSTAT1-S727, however, was dose-dependent and its levels increased with infection time. IngelVac PRRS MLV strain had a minimal effect on pSTAT1-S727. Compared to MLV-infected cells, VR-2385 infection caused significantly higher level of expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin 1 beta (IL-1beta) and IL-8. The VR-2385-induced pSTAT1-S727 and cytokine expression were reduced after SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), or methylthioadenosine (MTA), a methyl transferase inhibitor, was added to the cells. The SB203580 and MTA-mediated inhibition suggested that the virus-induced pSTAT1-S727 was dependent on p38 MAPK pathway. In primary porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs), VR-2385 also induced pSTAT1-S727 and expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including IL-1beta, IL-8, chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10). Similarly, SB203580 treatment of PAM cells blocked the elevation of pSTAT1-S727 and cytokine expression. Overexpression of individual viral proteins showed that non-structural protein 12 (nsp12) was able to induce elevation of pSTAT1-S727 and the expression of IL-1β and IL-8. These results indicated that PRRSV VR-2385 induces pSTAT1-S727 and the expression of proinflammatory

  11. The relationship between visceral ischemia, proinflammatory cytokines, and organ injury in patients undergoing thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Welborn, M B; Oldenburg, H S; Hess, P J; Huber, T S; Martin, T D; Rauwerda, J A; Wesdorp, R I; Espat, N J; Copeland, E M; Moldawer, L L; Seeger, J M

    2000-09-01

    Plasma proinflammatory, anti-inflammatory cytokine, and soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor concentrations were examined in hospitalized patients after abdominal and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) repair, with and without left atrial femoral bypass. Changes in plasma cytokine concentrations were related to the duration of visceral ischemia and the frequency rate of postoperative, single, or multiple system organ dysfunction (MSOD). Prospective, observational study. Two academic referral centers in the United States and The Netherlands. We included 16 patients undergoing TAAA repair without left atrial femoral bypass, 12 patients undergoing TAAA repair with left atrial femoral bypass, and nine patients undergoing infrarenal aortic aneurysm repair. Timed, arterial blood sampling for proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine and soluble TNF receptor concentrations (p55 and p75), and prospective assessment of postoperative single and MSOD. Plasma appearance of TNF-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and IL-10 peaked 1 to 4 hrs after TAAA repair, and concentrations were significantly elevated compared with infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (p < .05). Left atrial femoral bypass significantly reduced the duration of visceral ischemia (p < .05) and the systemic TNF-alpha, p75, and IL-10 responses (p < .05). Plasma TNF-alpha concentrations >150 pg/mL were more common in patients with extended visceral ischemia times (>40 mins). Additionally, patients with early peak TNF-alpha concentrations >150 pg/mL and IL-6 levels >1,000 pg/mL developed MSOD more frequently than patients without these elevated plasma cytokine levels (both p < .05). Thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair results in the increased plasma appearance of TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and shed TNF receptors. The frequency and magnitude of postoperative organ dysfunction after TAAA repair is associated with an increased concentration of the cytokines, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 and the

  12. Increased production of proinflammatory cytokines following infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Thanawongnuwech, Roongroje; Thacker, Brad; Halbur, Patrick; Thacker, Eileen L

    2004-09-01

    Induction of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 (IL-1) (alpha and beta), IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) was assessed following experimental infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and/or Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae by using in vivo and in vitro models. The in vivo model consisted of pigs infected with PRRSV and/or M. hyopneumoniae and necropsied at 10, 28, or 42 days postinfection. Pigs infected with both pathogens had a greater percentage of macroscopic lung lesions, increased clinical disease, and slower viral clearance than pigs infected with either pathogen alone. The pigs infected with both PRRSV and M. hyopneumoniae had significantly increased levels of mRNA for many proinflammatory cytokines in PAMs collected by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) at all necropsy dates compared to those in uninfected control pigs. Increased levels of IL-1beta, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-alpha proteins in BAL fluid, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, confirmed the increased cytokine induction induced by the pathogens. An in vitro model consisted of M. hyopneumoniae-inoculated tracheal ring explants cultured with PRRSV-infected PAMs. PAMs were harvested at 6 or 15 h postinfection with either or both pathogens. The in vitro study detected increased IL-10 and IL-12 mRNA levels in PAMs infected with PRRSV at all time periods. In addition, IL-10 protein levels were significantly elevated in the culture supernatants in the presence of M. hyopneumoniae-inoculated tracheal ring explants. The increased production of proinflammatory cytokines in vivo and in vitro associated with concurrent M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV infection may play a role in the increased rates of pneumonia associated with PRRSV infection. The increased levels of IL-10 may be a possible mechanism that PRRSV and M. hyopneumoniae use to exacerbate the severity and duration of pneumonia induced by

  13. Effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines on chondrogenesis of equine mesenchymal stromal cells derived from bone marrow or synovial fluid.

    PubMed

    Zayed, M N; Schumacher, J; Misk, N; Dhar, M S

    2016-11-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have the capacity to differentiate into cells of mesenchymal lineage, such as chondrocytes, and have potential for use in regeneration of equine articular cartilage. MSCs instilled intra-articularly would be exposed to the inflamed environment associated with equine osteoarthritis (OA), which may compromise their function and ability to heal a cartilaginous defect. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of equine adult MSCs to differentiate into chondrocytes when stimulated with pro-inflammatory cytokines. MSCs derived from equine bone marrow (BM) and from synovial fluid (SF) were cultured in chondrogenic induction medium containing transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. BM-derived MSCs (BMMSCs) and SF-derived MSCs (SFMSCs) were stimulated with 100 ng/mL interferon (IFN)-γ and 10 ng/mL tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Chondrogenic differentiation was measured quantitatively with the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) assay and qualitatively by immunofluorescence (IF) for SOX-9, TGF-β1, aggrecan and collagen II. The viability of equine MSCs was maintained in the presence of IFN-γ and TNF-α, but production of GAGs from both types of MSCs was decreased in stimulated medium. Exposure of BMMSCs to pro-inflammatory cytokines reduced the levels of SOX-9, TGF-β1, aggrecan and collagen II, whereas exposure of SFMSCs to these cytokines reduced the levels of aggrecan only. These data suggest that pro-inflammatory cytokines do not affect proliferation of MSCs, but could inhibit chondrogenesis of MSCs. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Metallothionein treatment reduces proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-alpha and apoptotic cell death during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE).

    PubMed

    Penkowa, M; Hidalgo, J

    2001-07-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model for the human autoimmune disease multiple sclerosis (MS). Proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) are considered important for induction and pathogenesis of EAE/MS disease, which is characterized by significant inflammation and neuroglial damage. We have recently shown that the exogenous administration of the antioxidant protein zinc-metallothionein-II (Zn-MT-II) significantly decreased the clinical symptoms, mortality, and leukocyte infiltration of the CNS during EAE. However, it is not known how EAE progression is regulated nor how cytokine production and cell death can be reduced. We herewith demonstrate that treatment with Zn-MT-II significantly decreased the CNS expression of IL-6 and TNF-alpha during EAE. Zn-MT-II treatment could also significantly reduce apoptotic cell death of neurons and oligodendrocytes during EAE, as judged by using TUNEL and immunoreactivity for cytochrome c and caspases 1 and 3. In contrast, the number of apoptotic lymphocytes and macrophages was less affected by Zn-MT-II treatment. The Zn-MT-II-induced decrease in proinflammatory cytokines and apoptosis during EAE could contribute to the reported diminution of clinical symptoms and mortality in EAE-immunized rats receiving Zn-MT-II treatment. Our results demonstrate that MT-II reduces the CNS expression of proinflammatory cytokines and the number of apoptotic neurons during EAE in vivo and that MT-II might be a potentially useful factor for treatment of EAE/MS.

  15. Proinflammatory Cytokines, Enolase and S-100 as Early Biochemical Indicators of Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy Following Perinatal Asphyxia in Newborns.

    PubMed

    Chaparro-Huerta, Verónica; Flores-Soto, Mario Eduardo; Merin Sigala, Mario Ernesto; Barrera de León, Juan Carlos; Lemus-Varela, María de Lourdes; Torres-Mendoza, Blanca Miriam de Guadalupe; Beas-Zárate, Carlos

    2017-02-01

    Estimation of the neurological prognosis of infants suffering from perinatal asphyxia and signs of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy is of great clinical importance; however, it remains difficult to satisfactorily assess these signs with current standard medical practices. Prognoses are typically based on data obtained from clinical examinations and neurological tests, such as electroencephalography (EEG) and neuroimaging, but their sensitivities and specificities are far from optimal, and they do not always reliably predict future neurological sequelae. In an attempt to improve prognostic estimates, neurological research envisaged various biochemical markers detectable in the umbilical cord blood of newborns (NB). Few studies examining these biochemical factors in the whole blood of newborns exist. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the expression and concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) and specific CNS enzymes (S-100 and enolase) in infants with perinatal asphyxia. These data were compared between the affected infants and controls and were related to the degree of HIE to determine their utilities as biochemical markers for early diagnosis and prognosis. The levels of the proinflammatory cytokines and enzymes were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Reverse Transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The expression and serum levels of the proinflammatory cytokines, enolase and S-100 were significantly increased in the children with asphyxia compared with the controls. The role of cytokines after hypoxic-ischemic insult has been determined in studies of transgenic mice that support the use of these molecules as candidate biomarkers. Similarly, S-100 and enolase are considered promising candidates because these markers have been correlated with tissue damage in different experimental models. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Inhibition of reactive oxygen species in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates the renin–angiotensin system and proinflammatory cytokines in hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Qing; Qin, Da-Nian; Wang, Fu-Xin; Ren, Jun; Li, Hong-Bao; Zhang, Meng; Yang, Qing; Miao, Yu-Wang; Yu, Xiao-Jing; Qi, Jie; Zhu, Zhiming; Zhu, Guo-Qing; Kang, Yu-Ming

    2014-04-15

    Aims: To explore whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger (tempol) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) attenuates renin–angiotensin system (RAS) and proinflammatory cytokines (PICs), and decreases the blood pressure and sympathetic activity in angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced hypertension. Methods and results: Male Sprague–Dawley rats were infused intravenously with ANG II (10 ng/kg per min) or normal saline (NS) for 4 weeks. These rats were treated with bilateral PVN infusion of oxygen free radical scavenger tempol (TEMP, 20 μg/h) or vehicle (artificial cerebrospinal fluid, aCSF) for 4 weeks. ANG II infusion resulted in increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). These ANG II-infused rats also had higher levels of gp91{sup phox} (a subunit of NAD(P)H oxidase), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) in the PVN than the control animals. Treatment with PVN infusion of TEMP attenuated the overexpression of gp91{sup phox}, ACE and IL-1β within the PVN, and decreased sympathetic activity and MAP in ANG II-infused rats. Conclusion: These findings suggest that ANG II infusion induces elevated PICs and oxidative stress in the PVN, which contribute to the sympathoexcitation in hypertension. Inhibition of reactive oxygen species in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates the renin–angiotensin system, proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress in ANG II-induced hypertension. - Highlights: • The effect of chronic inhibiting PVN superoxide on hypertension was investigated. • ANG II infusion induced increased proinflammatory cytokines and superoxide in PVN. • ANG II infusion resulted in oxidative stress, sympathoexcitation and hypertension. • Chronic inhibiting PVN superoxide attenuates RAS and cytokines in hypertension.

  17. The influence of sex hormones on proinflammatory cytokines in gingiva of periodontally healthy premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Markou, E; Boura, E; Tsalikis, L; Deligianidis, A; Konstantinidis, A

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate any correlation between the fluctuation of levels of specific proinflammatory cytokines in gingival crevicular fluid and the fluctuation of sex hormones in peripheral blood at ovulation and progesterone peak. Eighteen premenopausal women with normal and consistent menstrual cycles and healthy periodontium were included in this study. The exclusion criteria were as follows: (i) pregnancy; (ii) use of oral contraceptives; (iii) metabolic or systemic disease that might affect the periodontium; (iv) use of antimicrobial or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs during the past 6 mo; and (v) smoking. The measurements were performed at two specific time points for each participant [(i) on the day of ovulation; and (ii) on the day of the progesterone peak) and included the following: (i) plaque index; (ii) bleeding on probing; and (iii) the gingival crevicular fluid levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). During the menstrual cycle, plaque index values remained unchanged (0.71 ± 0.07 at ovulation; 0.73 ± 0.08 at progesterone peak; p > 0.05), as did bleeding on probing (0.35 ± 0.07 at ovulation; 0.41 ± 0.07 at progesterone peak; p > 0.05). At ovulation, mean gingival crevicular fluid levels were as follows: IL-1β, 13.3 pg/sample; IL-6, 5.9 pg/sample; IL-8, 18.7 pg/sample; and TNF-α, 25.9 pg/sample. The corresponding values at progesterone peak were as follows: 14.1, 10.1, 19.5 and 26.3 pg/sample. Only IL-6 gingival crevicular fluid levels were significantly different between ovulation and progesterone peak (p < 0.05). This could reflect sensitivity to subclinical amounts of plaque and biofilm constituents. The subclinical increase of IL-6 at progesterone peak is not accompanied by clinical changes in the periodontium. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. The proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α excites subfornical organ neurons.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Nick J; Ferguson, Alastair V

    2017-09-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a proinflammatory cytokine implicated in cardiovascular and autonomic regulation via actions in the central nervous system. TNF-α(-/-) mice do not develop angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced hypertension, and administration of TNF-α into the bloodstream of rats increases blood pressure and sympathetic tone. Recent studies have shown that lesion of the subfornical organ (SFO) attenuates the hypertensive and autonomic effects of TNF-α, while direct administration of TNF-α into the SFO increases blood pressure, suggesting the SFO to be a key site for the actions of TNF-α. Therefore, we used patch-clamp techniques to examine both acute and long-term effects of TNF-α on the excitability of Sprague-Dawley rat SFO neurons. It was observed that acute bath application of TNF-α depolarized SFO neurons and subsequently increased action potential firing rate. Furthermore, the magnitude of depolarization and the proportion of depolarized SFO neurons were concentration dependent. Interestingly, following 24-h incubation with TNF-α, the basal firing rate of the SFO neurons was increased and the rheobase was decreased, suggesting that TNF-α elevates SFO neuron excitability. This effect was likely mediated by the transient sodium current, as TNF-α increased the magnitude of the current and lowered its threshold of activation. In contrast, TNF-α did not appear to modulate either the delayed rectifier potassium current or the transient potassium current. These data suggest that acute and long-term TNF-α exposure elevates SFO neuron activity, providing a basis for TNF-α hypertensive and sympathetic effects.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Considerable recent evidence has suggested important links between inflammation and the pathological mechanisms underlying hypertension. The present study describes cellular mechanisms through which acute and long-term exposure of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) influences the activity of subfornical organ neurons by

  19. Prolonged REM sleep restriction induces metabolic syndrome-related changes: Mediation by pro-inflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Venancio, Daniel Paulino; Suchecki, Deborah

    2015-07-01

    Chronic sleep restriction in human beings results in metabolic abnormalities, including changes in the control of glucose homeostasis, increased body mass and risk of cardiovascular disease. In rats, 96h of REM sleep deprivation increases caloric intake, but retards body weight gain. Moreover, this procedure increases the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), which may be involved with the molecular mechanism proposed to mediate insulin resistance. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of a chronic protocol of sleep restriction on parameters of energy balance (food intake and body weight), leptin plasma levels and its hypothalamic receptors and mediators of the immune system in the retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RPAT). Thirty-four Wistar rats were distributed in control (CTL) and sleep restriction groups; the latter was kept onto individual narrow platforms immersed in water for 18h/day (from 16:00h to 10:00h), for 21days (SR21). Food intake was assessed daily, after each sleep restriction period and body weight was measured daily, after the animals were taken from the sleep deprivation chambers. At the end of the 21day of sleep restriction, rats were decapitated and RPAT was obtained for morphological and immune functional assays and expression of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) was assessed in skeletal muscle. Another subset of animals was used to evaluate blood glucose clearance. The results replicated previous findings on energy balance, e.g., increased food intake and reduced body weight gain. There was a significant reduction of RPAT mass (p<0.001), of leptin plasma levels and hypothalamic leptin receptors. Conversely, increased levels of TNF-α and IL-6 and expression of phosphorylated NFκ-β in the RPAT of SR21 compared to CTL rats (p<0.01, for all parameters). SR21 rats also displayed reduced glucose clearance and IRS-1 expression than CTL rats (p<0.01). The

  20. EGCG attenuates pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines production in LPS-stimulated L02 hepatocyte.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiaoli; Qian, Yun; Chen, Feng; Chen, Xiaoming; Chen, Zhi; Zheng, Min

    2014-01-01

    Endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plays an important role in the acceleration of inflammatory reaction of hepatitis as the second attack. Compounds that can prevent inflammation by targeting LPS have potential therapeutic clinical application. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has potent hepatocyte-protective effect and mild anti-hepatitis virus function. Here, we investigated whether EGCG attenuated the severity of inflammatory response in LPS-stimulated L02 hepatocytes. L02 hepatocytes were pretreated with EGCG for 2 h, then stimulated by LPS at 250 ng/ml. The expression levels of chemokine regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (Rantes) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ, adhesion molecule intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), oxidant stress molecules nitric oxide (NO), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of total extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), phospho-ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2), p-AKT, total p38, phospho-p38 (p-p38), total p65 and phospho-p65 (p-p65), IκBα, phospho-IκBα (p-IκBα) and TNF receptor associated factor 2 were tested by western blot analysis. Our results showed that pre-treatment with EGCG could significantly reduce the production of TNF-α, Rantes, MCP-1, ICAM-1, NO, VEGF, and MMP-2 in LPS-stimulated L02 hepatocytes in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of EGCG may be related to the inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways by down-regulation of p-IκBα, p65, p-p65, p-p38, p-ERK1/2, and p-AKT. These results indicate that EGCG suppresses LPS-induced inflammatory response and oxidant stress and exerts its hepatocyte-protective activity partially by inhibiting NF-κB and MAPK pathways.

  1. Critical Role of CD14 for Production of Proinflammatory Cytokines and Cytokine Inhibitors during Sepsis with Failure To Alter Morbidity or Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Ebong, Samuel J.; Goyert, Sanna M.; Nemzek, Jean A.; Kim, Jiyoun; Bolgos, Gerald L.; Remick, Daniel G.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the immunopathophysiologic responses during sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in CD4-deficient (CD14 knockout [CD14KO]) mice. Our studies were designed to specifically test the role of CD14 in the inflammatory response to sepsis and to ascertain if alterations would improve morbidity or mortality. Sepsis was induced using the CLP model with appropriate antibiotic treatment. The severity of sepsis increased in the CD14KO mice with increasing puncture size (18 gauge [18G], 21G, and 25G). Following CLP, body temperature (at 12 h) and gross motor activity levels of the sham and 25G CLP groups recovered to normal, while the 21G and 18G CLP groups exhibited severe hypothermia coupled with decreased gross motor activity and body weight. There were no significant differences in survival, temperature, body weight, or activity levels between CD14KO and control mice after 21G CLP. However, CD14KO mice expressed two- to fourfold less pro-inflammatory (interleukin-1β [IL-1β], tumor necrosis factor [TNF], and IL-6) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10, IL-1 receptor antagonist, and TNF receptors I and II) cytokines in the blood after 21G CLP. Plasma levels of the chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein 2α and KC were similarly reduced in CD14KO mice. A similar trend of decreased cytokine and cytokine inhibitor levels was observed in the peritoneal cavity of CD14KO mice. Our results indicate that the CD14 pathway of activation plays a critical role in the production of both pro-inflammatory cytokines and cytokine inhibitors but has minimal impact on the morbidity or mortality induced by the CLP model of sepsis. PMID:11254563

  2. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans cytolethal distending toxin activates the NLRP3 inflammasome in human macrophages, leading to the release of proinflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Shenker, Bruce J; Ojcius, David M; Walker, Lisa P; Zekavat, Ali; Scuron, Monika Damek; Boesze-Battaglia, Kathleen

    2015-04-01

    The cytolethal distending toxin (Cdt) is produced from a number of bacteria capable of causing infection and inflammatory disease. Our previous studies with Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Cdt demonstrate not only that the active toxin subunit functions as a phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP3) phosphatase but also that macrophages exposed to the toxin were stimulated to produce proinflammatory cytokines. We now demonstrate that the Cdt-induced proinflammatory response involves the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Specific inhibitors and short hairpin RNA (shRNA) were employed to demonstrate requirements for NLRP3 and ASC as well as caspase-1. Furthermore, Cdt-mediated inflammasome activation is dependent upon upstream signals, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and Cdt-induced increases in extracellular ATP levels. Increases in extracellular ATP levels contribute to the activation of the P2X7 purinergic receptor, leading to K+ efflux. The relationship between the abilities of the active toxin subunit CdtB to function as a lipid phosphatase, activate the NLRP3 inflammasome, and induce a proinflammatory cytokine response is discussed. These studies provide new insight into the virulence potential of Cdt in mediating the pathogenesis of disease caused by Cdt-producing organisms such as Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.

  3. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Cytolethal Distending Toxin Activates the NLRP3 Inflammasome in Human Macrophages, Leading to the Release of Proinflammatory Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Ojcius, David M.; Walker, Lisa P.; Zekavat, Ali; Scuron, Monika Damek; Boesze-Battaglia, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    The cytolethal distending toxin (Cdt) is produced from a number of bacteria capable of causing infection and inflammatory disease. Our previous studies with Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Cdt demonstrate not only that the active toxin subunit functions as a phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP3) phosphatase but also that macrophages exposed to the toxin were stimulated to produce proinflammatory cytokines. We now demonstrate that the Cdt-induced proinflammatory response involves the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Specific inhibitors and short hairpin RNA (shRNA) were employed to demonstrate requirements for NLRP3 and ASC as well as caspase-1. Furthermore, Cdt-mediated inflammasome activation is dependent upon upstream signals, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and Cdt-induced increases in extracellular ATP levels. Increases in extracellular ATP levels contribute to the activation of the P2X7 purinergic receptor, leading to K+ efflux. The relationship between the abilities of the active toxin subunit CdtB to function as a lipid phosphatase, activate the NLRP3 inflammasome, and induce a proinflammatory cytokine response is discussed. These studies provide new insight into the virulence potential of Cdt in mediating the pathogenesis of disease caused by Cdt-producing organisms such as Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. PMID:25644004

  4. Upregulated LINE-1 Activity in the Fanconi Anemia Cancer Susceptibility Syndrome Leads to Spontaneous Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Production.

    PubMed

    Brégnard, Christelle; Guerra, Jessica; Déjardin, Stéphanie; Passalacqua, Frank; Benkirane, Monsef; Laguette, Nadine

    2016-06-01

    Fanconi Anemia (FA) is a genetic disorder characterized by elevated cancer susceptibility and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Using SLX4(FANCP) deficiency as a working model, we questioned the trigger for chronic inflammation in FA. We found that absence of SLX4 caused cytoplasmic DNA accumulation, including sequences deriving from active Long INterspersed Element-1 (LINE-1), triggering the cGAS-STING pathway to elicit interferon (IFN) expression. In agreement, absence of SLX4 leads to upregulated LINE-1 retrotransposition. Importantly, similar results were obtained with the FANCD2 upstream activator of SLX4. Furthermore, treatment of FA cells with the Tenofovir reverse transcriptase inhibitor (RTi), that prevents endogenous retrotransposition, decreased both accumulation of cytoplasmic DNA and pro-inflammatory signaling. Collectively, our data suggest a contribution of endogenous RT activities to the generation of immunogenic cytoplasmic nucleic acids responsible for inflammation in FA. The additional observation that RTi decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine production induced by DNA replication stress-inducing drugs further demonstrates the contribution of endogenous RTs to sustaining chronic inflammation. Altogether, our data open perspectives in the prevention of adverse effects of chronic inflammation in tumorigenesis.

  5. Neonates with sickle cell disease are vulnerable to blue light phototherapy-induced oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine elevations.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Hemakshi; Goyal, Sameer; Patil, Chandragouda

    2016-11-01

    Sickle cell disease is a frequent genetic anomaly characterized by altered molecular structure of hemoglobin resulting into crescent-like deformation of the red blood corpuscles. Neonatal jaundice is a frequent co-morbidity in sickle cell disease. Phototherapy induces isomerization of bilirubin rendering it extractable through urine and hence it is used as a routine treatment of neonatal jaundice. An exposure to light phototherapy as a treatment of neonatal jaundice induces oxidative stress. It is hypothesized that such exposure of neonates with sickle cell disease to the blue light phototherapy as a treatment of neonatal jaundice induces severe oxidative stress and increases the levels of proinflammatory cytokines. This hypothesis is supported with two case studies of sickle cell disease suffering neonates who were exposed to blue light phototherapy to treat jaundice. In both these cases, exposure to phototherapy induced oxidative stress (increased lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase, slight change in activity of catalase and GSH) and elevated the levels of proinflammatory cytokine (TNFα, IL-1, and IL-6) in the sickle cell disease suffering neonates. These observations warrant further investigations to determine the consequences and clinical significance of the blue phototherapy-induced oxidative and proinflammatory stress in Sickle cell disease suffering neonates exposed to phototherapy as a treatment of jaundice.

  6. Edible blue-green algae reduce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by inhibiting NF-κB pathway in macrophages and splenocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Chai Siah; Pham, Tho X.; Park, Youngki; Kim, Bohkyung; Shin, Min; Kang, Insoo; Lee, Jiyoung

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic inflammation contributes to the development of pathological disorders including insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Identification of anti-inflammatory natural products can prevent the inflammatory diseases. Methods Anti-inflammatory effects of blue-green algae (BGA), i.e., Nostoc commune var. Sphaeroides Kützing (NO) and Spirulina Platensis (SP), were compared in RAW 264.7 and mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) as well as splenocytes from apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE−/−) mice fed BGA. Results When macrophages pretreated with 100 μg/ml NO lipid extract (NOE) or SP lipid extract (SPE) were activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), and IL-6, were significantly repressed. NOE and SPE also significantly repressed the expression of TNFα and IL-1β in BMM. LPS-induced secretion of IL-6 was lower in splenocytes from apoE−/− fed an atherogenic diet containing 5% NO or SP for 12 weeks. In RAW 264.7 macrophages, NOE and SPE markedly decreased nuclear translocation of NF-κB. The degree of repression of pro-inflammatory gene expression by algal extracts was much stronger than that of SN50, an inhibitor of NF-κB nuclear translocation. Trichostatin A, a pan histone deacetylase inhibitor, increased basal expression of IL-1β and attenuated the repression of the gene expression by SPE. SPE significantly down-regulated mRNA abundance of 11 HDAC isoforms, consequently increasing acetylated histone 3 levels. Conclusion NOE and SPE repress pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and secretion in macrophages and splenocytes via inhibition of NF-κB pathway. Histone acetylation state is likely involved in the inhibition. General significance This study underscores natural products can exert anti-inflammatory effects by epigenetic modifications such as histone acetylation. PMID:23357040

  7. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Coincident with Pulmonary Tuberculosis Is Associated with Heightened Systemic Type 1, Type 17, and Other Proinflammatory Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nathella Pavan; Sridhar, Rathinam; Banurekha, Vaithilingam V.; Jawahar, Mohideen S.; Fay, Michael P.; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for the development of active tuberculosis, although the biological basis underlying this susceptibility remains poorly characterized. Objectives and Methods: To identify the influence of coincident diabetes mellitus on cytokine levels in pulmonary tuberculosis, we examined circulating levels of a panel of cytokines and chemokines in the plasma of individuals with tuberculosis with diabetes and compared them with those of individuals without diabetes. Measurements and Main Results: Tuberculosis with diabetes is characterized by elevated circulating levels of type 1 (IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, and IL-2), type 2 (IL-5), and type 17 (IL-17A) cytokines but decreased circulating levels of IL-22. This was associated with increased systemic levels of other proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-18) and an antiinflammatory cytokine (IL-10) but not type 1 IFNs. Moreover, tuberculosis antigen–stimulated whole blood also showed increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Finally, type 1 and type 17 cytokines in plasma exhibit a significant positive correlation with hemoglobin A1C levels, indicating that impaired control of diabetes is associated with this proinflammatory milieu. Multivariate analysis revealed that the association of proinflammatory cytokines with diabetes mellitus was not influenced by age, sex, or other metabolic parameters. Conclusions: Our data reveal that tuberculosis with diabetes is characterized by heightened cytokine responsiveness, indicating that chronic inflammation underlying type 2 diabetes potentially contributes to increased immune pathology and poor control in tuberculosis infection. PMID:23987505

  8. A New Application for Albumin Dialysis in Extracorporeal Organ Support: Characterization of a Putative Interaction Between Human Albumin and Proinflammatory Cytokines IL-6 and TNFα.

    PubMed

    Pfensig, Claudia; Dominik, Adrian; Borufka, Luise; Hinz, Michael; Stange, Jan; Eggert, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Albumin dialysis in extracorporeal organ support is often performed in the treatment of liver failure as it facilitates the removal of toxic components from the blood. Here, we describe a possible effect of albumin dialysis on proinflammatory cytokine levels in vitro. Initially, albumin samples were incubated with different amounts of cytokines and analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Analysis of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) levels indicated that increased concentrations of albumin reduce the measureable amount of the respective cytokines. This led to the hypothesis that the used proinflammatory cytokines may interact with albumin. Size exclusion chromatography of albumin spiked with cytokines was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The corresponding fractions were evaluated by immunoblotting. We detected albumin and cytokines in the same fractions indicating an interaction of the small-sized cytokines IL-6 and TNFα with the larger-sized albumin. Finally, a two-compartment albumin dialysis in vitro model was used to analyze the effect of albumin on proinflammatory cytokines in the recirculation circuit during 6-h treatment. These in vitro albumin dialysis experiments indicated a significant decrease of IL-6, but not of TNFα, when albumin was added to the dialysate solution. Taken together, we were able to show a putative in vitro interaction of human albumin with the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6, but with less evidence for TNFα, and demonstrated an additional application for albumin dialysis in liver support therapy where IL-6 removal might be indicated.

  9. Downregulating galectin-3 inhibits proinflammatory cytokine production by human monocyte-derived dendritic cells via RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Chen, Swey-Shen; Sun, Liang-Wu; Brickner, Howard; Sun, Pei-Qing

    2015-03-01

    Galectin-3 (Gal-3), a β-galactoside-binding lectin, serves as a pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) of dendritic cells (DCs) in regulating proinflammatory cytokine production. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) siRNA downregulates expression of IL-6, IL-1β and IL-23 p19, while upregulates IL-10 and IL-12 p35 in TLR/NLR stimulated human MoDCs. Furthermore, Gal-3 siRNA-treated MoDCs enhanced IFN-γ production in SEB-stimulated CD45RO CD4 T-cells, but attenuated IL-17A and IL-5 production by CD4 T-cells. Addition of neutralizing antibodies against Gal-3, or recombinant Gal-3 did not differentially modulate IL-23 p19 versus IL-12 p35. The data indicate that intracellular Gal-3 acts as cytokine hub of human DCs in responding to innate immunity signals. Gal-3 downregulation reprograms proinflammatory cytokine production by MoDCs that inhibit Th2/Th17 development.

  10. Melanoma tumors alter proinflammatory cytokine production and monoamine brain function, and induce depressive-like behavior in male mice.

    PubMed

    Lebeña, Andrea; Vegas, Oscar; Gómez-Lázaro, Eneritz; Arregi, Amaia; Garmendia, Larraitz; Beitia, Garikoitz; Azpiroz, Arantza

    2014-10-01

    Depression is a commonly observed disorder among cancer patients; however, the mechanisms underlying the relationship between these disorders are not well known. We used an animal model to study the effects of tumor development on depressive-like behavior manifestation, proinflammatory cytokine expression, and central monoaminergic activity. Male OF1 mice were inoculated with B16F10 melanoma tumor cells and subjected to a 21-day behavioral evaluation comprising the novel palatable food (NPF) test and tail suspension test (TST). The mRNA expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), were measured in the hypothalamus and hippocampus and the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were measured in the blood plasma. We similarly determined the monoamine turnover in various brain areas. The tumors resulted in increasing the immobility in TST and the expression level of IL-6 in the hippocampus. These increases corresponded with a decrease in dopaminergic activity in the striatum and a decrease in serotonin turnover in the prefrontal cortex. Similarly, a high level of tumor development produced increases in the brain expression levels of IL-6 and TNF-α and plasma levels of IL-6. Our findings suggest that these alterations in inflammatory cytokines and monoaminergic system function might be responsible for the manifestation of depressive-like behaviors in tumor-bearing mice.

  11. Neutrophils influx and proinflammatory cytokines inhibition by sodium salicylate, unlike aspirin, in Candida albicans-induced peritonitis model.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Priscilla Aparecida Tártari; Bini, Daniel; Bovo, Fernanda; Faccioli, Lucia Helena; Monteiro, Marta Chagas

    2016-07-01

    Sodium salicylate (NaS) and aspirin (ASA) are known to have a variety of effects on microorganisms, such as fungus (C. albicans and C. neoformans), moreover, it have effects in leukocyte adhesion and migration in vitro. In this report, we investigated the effect of ASA and NaS in neutrophil migration and cytokine production in C. albicans-induced peritonitis murine model. For this, mice were treated intraperitoneally (i.p) or orally (po) with NaS or ASA; after they were stimulated i.p. with C. albicans, the cellular migration was evaluated 24 h after stimulation. NaS, in mice treated i.p., unlike ASA, was able to inhibit the neutrophil migration and proinflammatory cytokine production induced by C. albicans, such as TNF-α, IL-1, IFN-γ, IL-12, and IL-10, but did not alter the IL-4 levels in these animals. However, the po treatment with same the dose of NaS or ASA did not affect the influx of this cell for inflammatory site. These results suggest that the NaS inhibits cellular migration and proinflammatory cytokine by different anti-inflammatory mechanism compared to ASA.

  12. Inhibitory effects of amantadine on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by stimulated in vitro human blood.

    PubMed

    Kubera, Marta; Maes, Michael; Budziszewska, Bogusława; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Leśkiewicz, Monika; Grygier, Beata; Rogóz, Zofia; Lasoń, Władysław

    2009-01-01

    Treatment with amantadine (AMA), an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist and antidepressant drug, increased the antidepressant activity of subsequent drugs in experimental studies and in patients suffering from treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Recent evidence indicates that depression may be accompanied by activation of an inflammatory response. These data indicate that pro-inflammatory cytokines may play a role in the etiology of depression, particularly in TRD. The present in vitro study shows the ability of AMA, used at concentrations between 10(-7) to 10(-5) M, to reduce the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, specifically interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). In addition, AMA treatment increased the production of the negative immunoregulator, interleukin-10 (IL-10). Furthermore, the combined treatment of AMA with fluoxetine (FLU), but not imipramine (IMI), had a stronger immunomodulatory effect on cytokine production than AMA alone. The above data provide additional rationale for the treatment of patients suffering from depression with a combination of AMA and a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor.

  13. Glia proinflammatory cytokine upregulation as a therapeutic target for neurodegenerative diseases: function-based and target-based discovery approaches.

    PubMed

    Van Eldik, Linda J; Thompson, Wendy L; Ralay Ranaivo, Hantamalala; Behanna, Heather A; Martin Watterson, D

    2007-01-01

    Inflammation is the body's defense mechanism against threats such as bacterial infection, undesirable substances, injury, or illness. The process is complex and involves a variety of specialized cells that mobilize to neutralize and dispose of the injurious material so that the body can heal. In the brain, a similar inflammation process occurs when glia, especially astrocytes and microglia, undergo activation in response to stimuli such as injury, illness, or infection. Like peripheral immune cells, glia in the central nervous system also increase production of inflammatory cytokines and neutralize the threat to the brain. This brain inflammation, or neuroinflammation, is generally beneficial and allows the brain to respond to changes in its environment and dispose of damaged tissue or undesirable substances. Unfortunately, this beneficial process sometimes gets out of balance and the neuroinflammatory process persists, even when the inflammation-provoking stimulus is eliminated. Uncontrolled chronic neuroinflammation is now known to play a key role in the progression of damage in a number of neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines offers a pathophysiology progression mechanism that can be targeted in new therapeutic development for multiple neurodegenerative diseases. We summarize in this chapter the evidence supporting proinflammatory cytokine upregulation as a therapeutic target for neurodegenerative disorders, with a focus on Alzheimer's disease. In addition, we discuss the drug discovery process and two approaches, function-driven and target-based, that show promise for development of neuroinflammation-targeted, disease-modifying therapeutics for multiple neurodegenerative disorders.

  14. Pre-treatment with curcumin modulates acetylcholinesterase activity and proinflammatory cytokines in rats infected with Trypanosoma evansi.

    PubMed

    Wolkmer, Patrícia; Silva, Cássia B da; Paim, Francine C; Duarte, Marta M M F; Castro, Verônica; Palma, Heloisa E; França, Raqueli T; Felin, Diandra V; Siqueira, Lucas C; Lopes, Sonia T A; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C; Monteiro, Silvia G; Mazzanti, Cinthia M

    2013-04-01

    The potent activity against Trypanosomes and health beneficial effects of curcumin (Cur) has been demonstrated in various experimental models. In this study, we evaluated the in vivo effect of Cur as trypanocide and as potential anti-inflammatory agent, through the evaluation of immunomodulatory mechanisms in rats infected with Trypanosoma evansi. Daily oral Cur was administered at doses of 0, 20 or 60mg/kg as preventive treatment (30 and 15days pre infection) and as treatment (post infection). The treatment of the groups continued until the day of euthanasia. Fifteen days after inoculation, parasitemia, plasma proinflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6), anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10) and blood acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE) were analyzed. Pretreatment with Cur reduced parasitemia and lethality. Cur inhibited AChE activity and improved immunological response by cytokines proinflammatory, fundamental during T. evansi infection. We found that Cur is not so important as an antitrypanosomal activity but as immunomodulator agent. These findings reveal that the preventive use of Cur stimulates anti-inflammatory mechanisms, reducing an excessive inflammatory response.

  15. Activation of PPARγ inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokines production by upregulation of miR-124 in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Shi, Liuyan; Xin, Wei; Xu, Jiancheng; Xu, Jing; Li, Qi; Xu, Zhi; Wang, Jianchun; Wang, Guansong; Yao, Wei; He, Binfeng; Yang, Yu; Hu, Mingdong

    2017-03-22

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and miR-124 have been reported to play important roles in regulation of inflammation. However, the underlying anti-inflammatory mechanisms remain not well understood. In the present study, we demonstrated that the expression level of PPARγ is positively correlated with that of miR-124 in patients with sepsis. Activation of PPARγ upregulates miR-124 and in turn inhibits miR-124 target gene. PPARγ bound directly to PPRE in the miR-124 promoter region, and enhanced the promoter transcriptional activity. PPARγ-induced miR-124 is involved in the suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokine in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that PPARγ-induced miR-124 inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines is a novel PPARγ anti-inflammatory mechanism and also indicate that miR-124 may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

  16. Low Induction of Proinflammatory Cytokines Parallels Evolutionary Success of Modern Strains within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Mandemakers, Jornt J.; Kleinnijenhuis, Johanneke; Enaimi, Mimount; Lachmandas, Ekta; Joosten, Leo A. B.; Ottenhoff, Tom H. M.; Netea, Mihai G.; van Soolingen, Dick; van Crevel, Reinout

    2013-01-01

    One of the most widespread clades of Mycobacterium tuberculosis worldwide, the Beijing genotype family, consists of ancient (atypical) and modern (typical) strains. Modern Beijing strains outcompete ancient strains in terms of prevalence, while reserving a higher degree of genetic conservation. We hypothesize that their selective advantage lies in eliciting a different host immune response. Bead-disrupted lysates of a collection of different M. tuberculosis strains of the modern (n = 7) or ancient (n = 7) Beijing genotype, as well as the Euro-American lineage (n = 6), were used for induction of ex vivo cytokine production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 10 healthy individuals. Hierarchical clustering and multivariate regression analyses were used to study possible differences in production of nine cytokines. Modern and ancient M. tuberculosis Beijing genotypes induced different cytokine signatures. Overall induction of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), gamma interferon (IFN-γ), and IL-22 was 38 to 40% lower after stimulation with modern Beijing strains (corrected P values of <0.0001, 0.0288, and 0.0002, respectively). Euro-American reactivation strains induced 2-fold more TNF-α production than both types of Beijing strains. The observed differences in cytokine induction point to a reduction in proinflammatory cytokine response as a possible contributing factor to the evolutionary success of modern Beijing strains. PMID:23897611

  17. Pro-inflammatory and antiviral cytokine expression in vaccinated and unvaccinated horses exposed to equine influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Quinlivan, Michelle; Nelly, Maura; Prendergast, Michael; Breathnach, Cormac; Horohov, David; Arkins, Sean; Chiang, Yu-Wei; Chu, Hsien-Jue; Ng, Terry; Cullinane, Ann

    2007-10-10

    Most studies of the cytokine response to influenza virus infection have been carried out in human, porcine and murine models, however the data available on equine cytokines is limited. An experimental challenge study was undertaken in unvaccinated naïve horses and horses vaccinated with a commercial inactivated influenza vaccine. The humoral antibody response to vaccination and virus challenge was measured by single radial haemolysis (SRH) assay and clinical signs of influenza and viral shedding were monitored post-challenge. Levels of three equine pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and the antiviral cytokine interferon (IFN)-alpha were examined by quantitative RT-PCR of mRNA. Vaccination provided significant clinical and virological protection and resulted in a significant reduction of IFN-alpha and IL-6 expression on day 2 post-challenge. The patterns of cytokine expression observed in control animals suffering from influenza after challenge are comparable to those reported in studies of other species.

  18. Suppression of Proinflammatory Cytokines in Functionalized Fullerene-Exposed Dermal Keratinocytes

    DOE PAGES

    Gao, Jun; Wang, Hsing-Lin; Iyer, Rashi

    2010-01-01

    Initial experiments using differentially functionalized fullerenes, CD-, hexa-, and tris-, suggested a properties dependent effect on cytotoxic and proliferative responses in human skin keratinocytes. In the present study we investigated the cytokine secretion profile of dermal epithelial cells exposed to functionalized fullerenes. Keratinocyte-derived cytokines affect homing and trafficking of normal and malignant epidermal immune as well as nonimmune cells in vivo. These cytokines are critical for regulating activation, proliferation, and differentiation of epidermal cells. Our results indicate that tris- (size range <100 nm) significantly reduces inflammatory cytokine release in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In contrast CD- demonstrated a relatively pro-inflammatorymore » cytokine response, while hexa- did not significantly perturb cytokine responses. Physical and chemical characterizations of these engineered nanomaterials suggest that the disparate biological responses observed may potentially be a function of the aggregation properties of these fullerenes.« less

  19. Acute-phase proteins, oxidative stress biomarkers, proinflammatory cytokines, and cardiac troponin in Arabian mares affected with pyometra.

    PubMed

    El-Bahr, S M; El-Deeb, W M

    2016-09-01

    New biomarkers are essential for diagnosis of pyometra in mares. In this context, 12 subfertile Arabian mares suffered from pyometra were admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. The basis for diagnosis of pyometra was positive findings of clinical examination and rectal palpation. Blood samples were collected from diseased animals and from five Arabian healthy mares, which were considered as control group. Acute-phase proteins (APP), oxidative stress biomarkers, proinflammatory cytokines, and cardiac troponin I were estimated in the harvested sera of both groups. Clinical examination revealed purulent yellowish fluid discharged from vagina of affected animals and rectal palpation of the reproductive tract revealed uterine distention. The biochemical analysis of the serum revealed significant increase in cardiac troponin I, creatin kinase, alkaline phosphatase, malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukins 6, prostaglandin F2α, haptoglobin, and serum amyloid A and significant decrease in reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity, and nitric oxide (NO) of mares affected with pyometra compare to control. Cardiac troponin I was positively correlated with aspartate aminotransferase, creatin kinase, malondialdehyde, alkaline phosphatase, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukins 6, prostaglandin F2α, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A and negatively correlated with glutathione, superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity and nitric oxide in serum of mares affected with pyometra. Moreover, there was high positive correlation between proinflammatory cytokines and APP in serum of mares affected with pyometra. The present study suggests cardiac troponin I together with APP, proinflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress parameters as biomarkers for pyometra in Arabian mares. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Interleukin-21 Induces Proliferation and Proinflammatory Cytokine Profile of Fibroblast-like Synoviocytes of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Xing, R; Yang, L; Jin, Y; Sun, L; Li, C; Li, Z; Zhao, J; Liu, X

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) through aggressive proliferation and invasion, and certain proinflammatory cytokines may affect synoviocyte proliferation. To evaluate whether interleukin-21 (IL-21) could promote proliferation and proinflammatory cytokine production by RA-FLS, immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting were performed to observe the expression of IL-21 receptor (IL-21R) in synovial tissues and FLS from RA and osteoarthritis (OA) patients. The MTS assay was used to analyse RA-FLS proliferation. The concentrations of IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in culture supernatants were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The signalling pathways triggered by IL-21 were characterized by immunoblotting. IL-21R was upregulated in the synovial tissues and FLS of RA patients as compared with OA patients. IL-21 stimulated RA-FLS proliferation and promoted the production of TNF-α and IL-6 and blockade of IL-21/IL-21R pathway with IL-21R.Fc attenuated IL-21-induced proliferation and secretion of TNF-α and IL-6. Moreover, IL-21 induced activation of the ERK1/2, PI3K/AKT and STAT3 pathways, and blockade of these pathways attenuated IL-21-induced proliferation and secretion of TNF-α and IL-6. These results suggest that IL-21 could promote RA-FLS proliferation and production of proinflammatory cytokines. Therefore, therapeutic strategies targeting IL-21 might be effective for the treatment of RA.

  1. Ketamine reduces the induced spinal p38 MAPK and pro-inflammatory cytokines in a neuropathic rats

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, So-Young; Yeom, Jae Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Background Neuropathic rats created by spinal nerve ligation are known to show higher levels of p38, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase p44/42 (ERK 1/2) of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). The authors of this study aimed to understand the effect of ketamine on p38 MAPK and inflammatory responses, as well as its effect on the development of neuropathic pain. Methods The neuropathic rats were prepared by Chung's method with Sprague-Dawley rats. The research was carried out on three groups, a sham-operated group, a neuropathic pain and normal saline (NP + NS) group, and a neuropathic pain and ketamine (NP + Keta) group. The normal saline or ketamine was infused into the neuropathic rats through a mini-osmotic pump implanted in the subcutaneous space. After a week, the quantities of phospho-p38, p38 MAPK and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured and compared through western blots and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Results In comparison to the control group, the NP + NS group showed a significant increase of phospho-p38 and p38 MAPK, as well as of the proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1). However, in the NP + Keta group, phospho-p38, p38 MAPK and TNFα and, ICAM1 were reduced in comparison to the NP + NS group. The paw withdrawal threshold test also showed the trend of recovery from the mechanical allodynia in the NP + Keta group. Conclusions In the development of neuropathic pain, p38 MAPK and inflammatory responses are significantly related, and the use of ketamine reduces p38 MAPK and proinflammatory cytokines. Thus, the adequate use of ketamine could be effective for the prevention and treatment of neuropathic pain following peripheral injury. PMID:24567814

  2. Immunohistochemical detection of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in granulomas in cattle with natural Mycobacterium bovis infection.

    PubMed

    Canal, Ana M; Pezzone, Natalia; Cataldi, Angel; Zumarraga, Martín; Larzabal, Mariano; Garbaccio, Sergio; Fernandez, Analía; Dominguez, Lucas; Aranaz, Alicia; Rodriguez-Bertos, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    Cellular immune response was evaluated in lymph nodes and lung with different granulomatous lesions from cattle naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis. For this purpose, we assessed pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines by immunohistochemical assays. Immunoreaction was observed for all the cytokines analyzed. Fourteen animals displayed advanced stage IV granulomas, with intense immunoreactivity to IFN-γ and TGF-β in areas of caseous necrosis, macrophages and lymphocytes. Seven animals showed stage III granuloma, with high immunoreactivity to IFN-γ (average of 44.5% immunoreactive cells) and moderate to TNF-α and to the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-β, in relation to the proliferation of fibroblasts in granuloma periphery We found satellite stage I granulomas in 4 bovines and stage II granulomas in 2 bovines, which exhibited low immunostaining response (-13%). Cytokine expression in stage III and IV granulomas was significant, with predominance of immunoreactivity to IFN-γ, thus suggesting a strong, longstanding local immune response mediated by macrophages and epithelioid cells. In addition, these two stages displayed lower reactivity to IL-10; which suggests a deficit of anti-inflammatory cytokines, suppressed immunity and persistence of the infection. High expression of TGF-β could indicate a chronic process with greater tissue damage and fibrosis. Numerous bacilli observed in necrotic areas in stage III and IV granulomas with low expression of IL-1β suggest failure in the immune response with bacterial multiplication. In this study, evidence of in situ presence of cytokines demonstrates these cytokines are involved in the development and evolution of bovine tuberculosis granulomas. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Broad-spectrum sunscreens prevent the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in human keratinocytes exposed to ultraviolet A and phototoxic lomefloxacin.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, P; Cybulski, M; Miller, S M; Ferrarotto, C; Wilkins, R; Deslauriers, Y

    2006-02-01

    The combination of phototoxic drugs and ultraviolet (UV) radiation can trigger the release of proinflammatory cytokines. The present study measured the ability of sunscreens to prevent cytokine secretion in human keratinocytes following cotreatment of these cells with a known photoreactive drug and UVA. Keratinocytes were treated for 1 h with increasing concentrations of lomefloxacin (LOM) or norfloxacin (NOR), exposed to 15 J/cm2 UVA, and incubated for 24 h. NOR, owing to the absence of a fluorine atom in position 8, was non-phototoxic and used as a negative control. Cell viability and the release of 3 cytokines were assessed, namely interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). The measurement of these cytokines may be a useful tool for detecting photoreactive compounds. To measure their ability to prevent cytokine secretion, various sunscreens were inserted between the UVA source and the cells. Treatment with NOR, NOR plus UVA, or LOM had no effect on the cells. LOM plus UVA, however, had an effect on cell viability and on cytokine secretion. IL-1alpha levels increased with LOM concentration. The release of TNF-alpha and IL-6 followed the same pattern at lower concentrations of LOM but peaked at 15 micromol/L and decreased at higher concentrations. Sunscreens protected the cells from the effects of LOM plus UVA, as cell viability and levels of cytokines remained the same as in the control cells. In conclusion, the application of broad-spectrum sunscreen by individuals exposed to UVA radiation may prevent phototoxic reactions initiated by drugs such as LOM.

  4. [Study on the adsorption of endotoxin and proinflammatory cytokines with HB-H-7 resin in vitro].

    PubMed

    Tian, Shuang; Li, Tao; Luo, Li-qun; Du, Zhi

    2009-03-01

    To study the efficacy and safety of adsorption of endotoxin and proinflammatory cytokines with HB-H-7 resin in vitro. Static adsorption experiment: HB-H-7 resin was added into plasma of endotoxin-positive patients according to the ratio of 1;10. Then, they were put in a constant temperature water bath oscillator, and oscillated for 2 hours. Before and after the experiment, plasma endotoxin, proinflammatory cytokines, protein and electrolytes were detected, and the rate of 2-hour absorption was calculated. The experiment was repeated 10 times. Dynamic adsorption experiment: 5 ml resin was put into a self-made perfusion unit. Endotoxin-positive patients plasma (50 ml) was perfused for 2 hours. The flow rate of plasma was controlled at 4 ml/min with the infusion pump, and the plasma endotoxin was determined at 0, 30, 60 and 120 minutes after plasma hemoperfusion, and the absorption rates were calculated. The results were compared with static adsorption. The influence of temperature during adsorption was determined as follows. Perfusion method was similar with dynamic adsorption experiment. The perfusion units were either placed in a 37 centigrade water path or 25 centigrade (room temperature). Then, the plasma endotoxin was measured 2 hours after plasma perfusion, and the absorption rates were calculated. In static adsorption experiment, the plasma endotoxin and proinflammatory cytokines were significantly lower after adsorption with HB-H-7 resin adsorption (all P<0.05). The adsorption rates of endotoxin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1, 6, 8 were 99.2%, 55.0%, 57.0%, 75.0%, 42.0%, respectively. Changes in protein were small (all P<0.05) , and there was no significant change in plasma electrolytes (all P>0.05). Dynamic adsorption rate was higher than that of static, but the differences were not significant (99.8% vs. 99.1%, P>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between difference in temperature (37 centigrade vs. 25 centigrade, 99

  5. Pro-inflammatory cytokines in the serum of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) naturally infected by Clinostomum complanatum: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Horacio Luis; Stefani, Lenita Moura; de Araújo Pedron, Fabio; Baldissera, Matheus Dellaméa; da Silva, Aleksandro Schafer

    2014-02-01

    Clinostomum complanatum is a zoonotic parasite of birds, and its larval form (metacercariae) may cause disease in fish. The immune response of fish infected by C. complanatum is unknown, and therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) infected by this parasite. The analysis showed that fish infected with metacercariae presented significantly (P < 0.05) higher levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 (IL-1), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) when compared to those not infected. These data suggest that C. complanatum larvae activate the host immune response.

  6. Glucocorticoid receptor represses proinflammatory genes at distinct steps of the transcription cycle.

    PubMed

    Gupte, Rebecca; Muse, Ginger W; Chinenov, Yurii; Adelman, Karen; Rogatsky, Inez

    2013-09-03

    Widespread anti-inflammatory actions of glucocorticoid hormones are mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), a ligand-dependent transcription factor of the nuclear receptor superfamily. In conjunction with its corepressor GR-interacting protein-1 (GRIP1), GR tethers to the DNA-bound activator protein-1 and NF-κB and represses transcription of their target proinflammatory cytokine genes. However, these target genes fall into distinct classes depending on the step of the transcription cycle that is rate-limiting for their activation: Some are controlled through RNA polymerase II (PolII) recruitment and initiation, whereas others undergo signal-induced release of paused elongation complexes into productive RNA synthesis. Whether these genes are differentially regulated by GR is unknown. Here we report that, at the initiation-controlled inflammatory genes in primary macrophages, GR inhibited LPS-induced PolII occupancy. In contrast, at the elongation-controlled genes, GR did not affect PolII recruitment or transcription initiation but promoted, in a GRIP1-dependent manner, the accumulation of the pause-inducing negative elongation factor. Consistently, GR-dependent repression of elongation-controlled genes was abolished specifically in negative elongation factor-deficient macrophages. Thus, GR:GRIP1 use distinct mechanisms to repress inflammatory genes at different stages of the transcription cycle.

  7. Glibenclamide reduces pro-inflammatory cytokine production by neutrophils of diabetes patients in response to bacterial infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kewcharoenwong, Chidchamai; Rinchai, Darawan; Utispan, Kusumawadee; Suwannasaen, Duangchan; Bancroft, Gregory J.; Ato, Manabu; Lertmemongkolchai, Ganjana

    2013-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for melioidosis, which is caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei. Our previous study has shown that polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) from diabetic subjects exhibited decreased functions in response to B. pseudomallei. Here we investigated the mechanisms regulating cytokine secretion of PMNs from diabetic patients which might contribute to patient susceptibility to bacterial infections. Purified PMNs from diabetic patients who had been treated with glibenclamide (an ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker for anti-diabetes therapy), showed reduction of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-8 secretion when exposed to B. pseudomallei. Additionally, reduction of these pro-inflammatory cytokines occurred when PMNs from diabetic patients were treated in vitro with glibenclamide. These findings suggest that glibenclamide might be responsible for the increased susceptibility of diabetic patients, with poor glycemic control, to bacterial infections as a result of its effect on reducing IL-1β production by PMNs.

  8. Crystal Structures of the Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Interleukin-23 and Its Complex with a High-Affinity Neutralizing Antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Beyer, Brian M.; Ingram, Richard; Ramanathan, Lata; Reichert, Paul; Le, Hung V.; Madison, Vincent; Orth, Peter

    2009-06-25

    Interleukin (IL)-23 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine playing a key role in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. We have determined the crystal structures of the heterodimeric p19-p40 IL-23 and its complex with the Fab (antigen-binding fragment) of a neutralizing antibody at 2.9 and 1.9 {angstrom}, respectively. The IL-23 structure closely resembles that of IL-12. They share the common p40 subunit, and IL-23 p19 overlaps well with IL-12 p35. Along the hydrophilic heterodimeric interface, fewer charged residues are involved for IL-23 compared with IL-12. The binding site of the Fab is located exclusively on the p19 subunit, and comparison with published cytokine-receptor structures suggests that it overlaps with the IL-23 receptor binding site.

  9. (1)H, (13)C, and (15)N resonance assignments for the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-36α.

    PubMed

    Goradia, Nishit; Wißbrock, Amelie; Wiedemann, Christoph; Bordusa, Frank; Ramachandran, Ramadurai; Imhof, Diana; Ohlenschläger, Oliver

    2016-10-01

    Interleukin-36α (IL-36α) is a recently characterised member of the interleukin-1 superfamily. It is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory arthritis in one third of psoriasis patients. By binding of IL-36α to its receptor IL-36R via the NF-κB pathway other cytokines involved in inflammatory and apoptotic cascade are activated. The efficacy of complex formation is controlled by N-terminal processing. To obtain a more detailed view on the structure function relationship we performed a heteronuclear multidimensional NMR investigation and here report the (1)H, (13)C, and (15)N resonance assignments for the backbone and side chain nuclei of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-36α.

  10. Neurodevelopmental effects of chronic exposure to elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in a developing visual system

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Imbalances in the regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines have been increasingly correlated with a number of severe and prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia and Down syndrome. Although several studies have shown that cytokines have potent effects on neural function, their role in neural development is still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the link between abnormal cytokine levels and neural development using the Xenopus laevis tadpole visual system, a model frequently used to examine the anatomical and functional development of neural circuits. Results Using a test for a visually guided behavior that requires normal visual system development, we examined the long-term effects of prolonged developmental exposure to three pro-inflammatory cytokines with known neural functions: interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. We found that all cytokines affected the development of normal visually guided behavior. Neuroanatomical imaging of the visual projection showed that none of the cytokines caused any gross abnormalities in the anatomical organization of this projection, suggesting that they may be acting at the level of neuronal microcircuits. We further tested the effects of TNF-α on the electrophysiological properties of the retinotectal circuit and found that long-term developmental exposure to TNF-α resulted in enhanced spontaneous excitatory synaptic transmission in tectal neurons, increased AMPA/NMDA ratios of retinotectal synapses, and a decrease in the number of immature synapses containing only NMDA receptors, consistent with premature maturation and stabilization of these synapses. Local interconnectivity within the tectum also appeared to remain widespread, as shown by increased recurrent polysynaptic activity, and was similar to what is seen in more immature, less refined tectal circuits. TNF-α treatment also enhanced the overall growth of tectal cell

  11. Resveratrol attenuates neuropathic pain through balancing pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines release in mice.

    PubMed

    Tao, Lei; Ding, Qian; Gao, Changjun; Sun, Xude

    2016-05-01

    Anti-inflammatory activity of resveratrol has been widely studied, while its beneficial effect on the management of neuropathic pain, a refractory chronic syndrome with pro-inflammation implicated in, is very little investigated. In the present study, the effects of different doses and various time window of administration of resveratrol were explored in a neuropathic mouse model of chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve. It was demonstrated that pretreatment of resveratrol (5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) for 7 consecutive days before CCI did not alleviate neuropathic pain, while it clearly relieved the pain when administrated after CCI and such pain relief effect was more pronounced when administrated right after the peak of pain symptom at day 7 after CCI, as evidenced by the alleviation of thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. Such a beneficial effect of resveratrol was in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanistic study showed that resveratrol repressed the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, and promoted the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 at the same time, which was further confirmed in a cell model of microglia. It was also shown that neuropathic pain inversely correlated with pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, but not with anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in all experimental mice from Spearman correlation coefficient. Our study reveals that resveratrol displays a significant neuropathic pain relief effect and paved a way for novel treatment of chronic pain.

  12. Pro-Inflammatory Adaptive Cytokines and Shed Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptors are Elevated Preceding Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Flare

    PubMed Central

    Munroe, Melissa E.; Vista, Evan S.; Guthridge, Joel M.; Thompson, Linda F.; Merrill, Joan T.; James, Judith A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multifaceted disease characterized by immune dysregulation and unpredictable disease activity. This study evaluated changes in plasma concentrations of soluble mediators preceding clinically-defined disease flares. Methods Soluble mediators (n=52) were examined, including cytokines, chemokines, and soluble receptors, using validated multiplex bead-based or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in plasma from European American SLE patients who developed disease flare 6 or 12 weeks after baseline assessment were compared to 28 matched SLE patients without impending flare and 28 matched healthy controls (n=84). For a subset, mediators within samples preceding SLE disease flare and during a clinically stable period from the same individual were compared. Results Compared to clinically stable patients, patients with impending flare had significant (p≤0.01) alterations in 27 soluble mediators at baseline with significantly higher levels of pro-inflammatory mediators, including Th1, Th2, and Th17-type cytokines, several weeks before clinical flare. Baseline levels of regulatory cytokines, including IL-10 and TGF-β, were higher in non-flare SLE patients, while baseline levels of soluble TNFRI, TNFRII, Fas, FasL, and CD40L were significantly greater in pre-flare patients (p≤0.002). A normalized and weighted combined soluble mediator score was significantly higher in pre-flare SLE patients versus those with stable disease (p≤0.0002). Conclusion Pro-inflammatory adaptive cytokines and shed TNF receptors, are elevated prior to disease flare, while regulatory mediators are elevated during periods of stable disease. Alterations in the balance between inflammatory and regulatory mediators may help identify patients at risk of disease flare and help decipher SLE pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:24578190

  13. Proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in adolescents from Southeast Bulgarian cities with different levels of air pollution.

    PubMed

    Dobreva, Zlatka Georgieva; Kostadinova, Gergana Stoianova; Popov, Borislav Nikolov; Petkov, Georgi Stefanov; Stanilova, Spaska Angelova

    2015-12-01

    Epidemiological studies demonstrated that the exposure of different air pollutants including particulate matter (PM) has been related to adverse effect on immune system. Current study was designed to investigate cytokines in blood plasma of adolescent persons continuously exposed to different degrees of ambient air pollutions. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-12p40, and IL-10 were chosen as cytokines of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory immune response. The peripheral venous blood was taken from adolescents living in the cities of Stara Zagora region, Southeast Bulgaria, that is, in Stara Zagora, Kazanlak, and Chirpan. The quantity of cytokines in plasma samples was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results demonstrated that youths living in Stara Zagora showed significantly smaller quantity of TNF-α, compared with adolescents from Kazanlak and Chirpan. Moreover, adolescents living in Stara Zagora showed significantly higher quantity of IL-10 than students from Kazanlak and Chirpan. Analysis of the data of air quality gives reason to assert that PM10 and PM2.5 have been the main atmospheric pollutants around the monitoring points. The complex air quality assessment based on these criteria determined that the highest air pollution was in the city of Stara Zagora, followed by Chirpan and the relatively unpolluted town was Kazanlak. We concluded that air pollutants, mostly PM2.5, can modulate cytokine production and can change the balance between proinflammatory TNF-α and anti-inflammatory IL-10 production. Increased levels of IL-10 combined with decreased level of TNF-α in adolescents living in Stara Zagora can serve as a biomarker for suppression of T helper 1 (Th1) cell-mediated immunity and exacerbation of Th2 humoral immune response and could be a prerequisite for the development of allergic and autoimmune diseases.

  14. p53 and NF-κB coregulate proinflammatory gene responses in human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Julie M; Menendez, Daniel; Bushel, Pierre R; Shatz, Maria; Kirk, Erin L; Troester, Melissa A; Garantziotis, Stavros; Fessler, Michael B; Resnick, Michael A

    2014-04-15

    Macrophages are sentinel immune cells that survey the tissue microenvironment, releasing cytokines in response to both exogenous insults and endogenous events such as tumorigenesis. Macrophages mediate tumor surveillance and therapy-induced tumor regression; however, tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) and their products may also promote tumor progression. Whereas NF-κB is prominent in macrophage-initiated inflammatory responses, little is known about the role of p53 in macrophage responses to environmental challenge, including chemotherapy or in TAMs. Here, we report that NF-κB and p53, which generally have opposing effects in cancer cells, coregulate induction of proinflammatory genes in primary human monocytes and macrophages. Using Nutlin-3 as a tool, we demonstrate that p53 and NF-κB rapidly and highly induce interleukin (IL)-6 by binding to its promoter. Transcriptome analysis revealed global p53/NF-κB co-regulation of immune response genes, including several chemokines, which effectively induced human neutrophil migration. In addition, we show that p53, activated by tumor cell paracrine factors, induces high basal levels of macrophage IL-6 in a TAM model system [tumor-conditioned macrophages (TCM)]. Compared with normal macrophages, TCMs exhibited higher p53 levels, enhanced p53 binding to the IL-6 promoter, and reduced IL-6 levels upon p53 inhibition. Taken together, we describe a mechanism by which human macrophages integrate signals through p53 and NF-κB to drive proinflammatory cytokine induction. Our results implicate a novel role for macrophage p53 in conditioning the tumor microenvironment and suggest a potential mechanism by which p53-activating chemotherapeutics, acting upon p53-sufficient macrophages and precursor monocytes, may indirectly impact tumors lacking functional p53. ©2014 AACR.

  15. Differential priming effects of proinflammatory cytokines on human neutrophil oxidative burst in response to bacterial N-formyl peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Elbim, C; Bailly, S; Chollet-Martin, S; Hakim, J; Gougerot-Pocidalo, M A

    1994-01-01

    Cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin 8 (IL-8), IL-6, IL-1 alpha, and IL-1 beta produced during the immune and inflammatory responses to bacterial stimuli have been reported to interact with polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) activities. However, contradictory findings on their direct and priming effects on the PMN oxidative burst, which is essential for bacterial killing, have been reported. We have used a flow cytometry method to study the effects of these cytokines on the oxidative burst of PMN in whole blood to avoid PMN activation related to isolation procedures. None of the cytokines tested directly activated the PMN oxidative burst, but they did have differential priming effects on the oxidative burst in response to bacterial N-formyl peptides. TNF, GM-CSF, and IL-8 strongly primed a subpopulation of PMN to produce H2O2 in response to N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP), while IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-6 failed to do so. Furthermore, the addition of TNF, GM-CSF, or IL-8 to whole blood increased the capacity of a subpopulation of PMN to bind N-formyl peptides, a phenomenon that could account, at least in part, for the strong H2O2 production in response to FMLP after priming by the cytokines. The size of the primed hyperresponsive subpopulation was greater after priming with TNF or GM-CSF than after priming with IL-8. However, GM-CSF, TNF, and IL-8 at suboptimal concentrations cooperated in the induction of a subpopulation hyperresponsive to FMLP. These results show that, of the various proinflammatory cytokines tested, TNF, GM-CSF, and IL-8 strongly prime the PMN oxidative burst in response to bacterial peptides in whole blood and suggest that these cytokines may play a critical role in bacterial killing in vivo. PMID:8188340

  16. Low pH Environmental Stress Inhibits LPS and LTA-Stimulated Proinflammatory Cytokine Production in Rat Alveolar Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Stanley F.; Fung, Christopher; Helinski, Jadwiga D.; Alluri, Ravi; Davidson, Bruce A.; Knight, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    Gastric aspiration increases the risks for developing secondary bacterial pneumonia. Cytokine elaboration through pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) is an important mechanism in initiating innate immune host response. Effects of low pH stress, a critical component of aspiration pathogenesis, on the PRR pathways were examined, specifically toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) and TLR4, using isolated rat alveolar macrophages (aMØs). We assessed the ability of aMØs after brief exposure to acidified saline to elaborate proinflammatory cytokines in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) stimulation, known ligands of TLR4 and TLR2, respectively. Low pH stress reduced LPS- and LTA-mediated cytokine release (CINC-1, MIP-2, TNF-α, MCP-1, and IFN-β). LPS and LTA increased intracellular Ca2+ concentrations while Ca2+ chelation by BAPTA decreased LPS- and LTA-mediated cytokine responses. BAPTA blocked the effects of low pH stress on most of LPS-stimulated cytokines but not of LTA-stimulated responses. In vivo mouse model demonstrates suppressed E. coli and S. pneumoniae clearance following acid aspiration. In conclusion, low pH stress inhibits antibacterial cytokine response of aMØs due to impaired TLR2 (MyD88 pathway) and TLR4 signaling (MyD88 and TRIF pathways). The role of Ca2+ in low pH stress-induced signaling is complex but appears to be distinct between LPS- and LTA-mediated responses. PMID:24288685

  17. Interindividual and intra-articular variation of proinflammatory cytokines in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: potential implications for treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ulfgren, A.; Grondal, L.; Lindblad, S.; Khademi, M.; Johnell, O.; Klareskog, L.; Andersson, U.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Assessment of the numbers and spatial distribution of cells producing interleukin 1α (IL1α), interleukin 1β (IL1β), tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα), and interleukin 6 (IL6) in the synovial membranes of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
METHODS—Synovial tissue specimens from 40 patients with RA and eight patients with non-rheumatic disease were obtained by arthroscopy guided biopsy techniques or during joint surgery. A modified immunohistochemical method detecting cytokine producing rather than cytokine binding cells was applied to determine cytokine synthesis in fixed cryopreserved sections. Computerised image analysis methods provided comparative quantitative assessments.
RESULTS—A wide variation between subjects was recorded for both quantities and profiles of expressed cytokines, despite similar macroscopic and histopathological features of inflammation. IL1α and IL1β were the most abundant monokines identified, though produced at different sites. IL1α was predominantly seen in vascular endothelial cells, whereas IL1β staining was mainly shown in macrophages and fibroblasts. Concordant results for the detection of TNFα at protein and mRNA levels were obtained with an unexpectedly low number of TNFα producing cells compared with IL1 expressing cells in many patients with RA. Specimens acquired arthroscopically from areas with maximum signs of macroscopic inflammation showed an increased number of TNFα producing cells in pannus tissue compared with that occurring in synovial villi of a given joint. This clustered distribution was not found for cells expressing any of the other studied cytokines.
CONCLUSION—The recorded heterogeneous profile of proinflammatory cytokine synthesis in the synovial membrane among patients with RA may provide a clue for an understanding of the wide variation in responsiveness to different modes of antirheumatic treatment between patients.

 PMID:10834861

  18. Identification of Lactobacillus plantarum genes modulating the cytokine response of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Modulation of the immune system is one of the most plausible mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of probiotic bacteria on human health. Presently, the specific probiotic cell products responsible for immunomodulation are largely unknown. In this study, the genetic and phenotypic diversity of strains of the Lactobacillus plantarum species were investigated to identify genes of L. plantarum with the potential to influence the amounts of cytokines interleukin 10 (IL-10) and IL-12 and the ratio of IL-10/IL-12 produced by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Results A total of 42 Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from diverse environmental and human sources were evaluated for their capacity to stimulate cytokine production in PBMCs. The L. plantarum strains induced the secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 over an average 14-fold range and secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-12 over an average 16-fold range. Comparisons of the strain-specific cytokine responses of PBMCs to comparative genome hybridization profiles obtained with L. plantarum WCFS1 DNA microarrays (also termed gene-trait matching) resulted in the identification of 6 candidate genetic loci with immunomodulatory capacities. These loci included genes encoding an N-acetyl-glucosamine/galactosamine phosphotransferase system, the LamBDCA quorum sensing system, and components of the plantaricin (bacteriocin) biosynthesis and transport pathway. Deletion of these genes in L. plantarum WCFS1 resulted in growth phase-dependent changes in the PBMC IL-10 and IL-12 cytokine profiles compared with wild-type cells. Conclusions The altered PBMC cytokine profiles obtained with the L. plantarum WCFS1 mutants were in good agreement with the predictions made by gene-trait matching for the 42 L. plantarum strains. This study therefore resulted in the identification of genes present in certain strains of L. plantarum which might be responsible for the stimulation of anti

  19. Ginger extract diminishes chronic fructose consumption-induced kidney injury through suppression of renal overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    . Conclusions The present results suggest that ginger supplement diminishes fructose-induced kidney injury through suppression of renal overexpression of macrophage-associated proinflammatory cytokines in rats. Our findings provide evidence supporting the protective effect of ginger on the metabolic syndrome-associated kidney injury. PMID:24885946

  20. Ginger extract diminishes chronic fructose consumption-induced kidney injury through suppression of renal overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Liu, Changjin; Jiang, Jian; Zuo, Guowei; Lin, Xuemei; Yamahara, Johji; Wang, Jianwei; Li, Yuhao

    2014-05-27

    suggest that ginger supplement diminishes fructose-induced kidney injury through suppression of renal overexpression of macrophage-associated proinflammatory cytokines in rats. Our findings provide evidence supporting the protective effect of ginger on the metabolic syndrome-associated kidney injury.

  1. Ebola virus-like particles stimulate type I interferons and proinflammatory cytokine expression through the toll-like receptor and interferon signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Ayithan, Natarajan; Bradfute, Steven B; Anthony, Scott M; Stuthman, Kelly S; Dye, John M; Bavari, Sina; Bray, Mike; Ozato, Keiko

    2014-02-01

    Ebola viruses (EBOV) can cause severe hemorrhagic disease with high case fatality rates. Currently, no vaccines or therapeutics are approved for use in humans. Ebola virus-like particles (eVLP) comprising of virus protein (VP40), glycoprotein, and nucleoprotein protect rodents and nonhuman primates from lethal EBOV infection, representing as a candidate vaccine for EBOV infection. Previous reports have shown that eVLP stimulate the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages (MΦs) in vitro. However, the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways through which eVLP induce innate immune responses remain obscure. In this study, we show that eVLP stimulate not only the expression of proinflammatory cytokines but also the expression of type I interferons (IFNs) and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) in murine bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) and MΦs. Our data indicate that eVLP trigger host responses through toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway utilizing 2 distinct adaptors, MyD88 and TRIF. More interestingly, eVLP activated the IFN signaling pathway by inducing a set of potent antiviral ISGs. Last, eVLP and synthetic adjuvants, Poly I:C and CpG DNA, cooperatively increased the expression of cytokines and ISGs. Further supporting this synergy, eVLP when administered together with Poly I:C conferred mice enhanced protection against EBOV infection. These results indicate that eVLP stimulate early innate immune responses through TLR and type I IFN signaling pathways to protect the host from EBOV infection.

  2. Proinflammatory cytokine secretion is suppressed by TMEM16A or CFTR channel activity in human cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Veit, Guido; Bossard, Florian; Goepp, Julie; Verkman, A. S.; Galietta, Luis J. V.; Hanrahan, John W.; Lukacs, Gergely L.

    2012-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by the functional expression defect of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel at the apical plasma membrane. Impaired bacterial clearance and hyperactive innate immune response are hallmarks of the CF lung disease, yet the existence of and mechanism accounting for the innate immune defect that occurs before infection remain controversial. Inducible expression of either CFTR or the calcium-activated chloride channel TMEM16A attenuated the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and CXCL1/2 in two human respiratory epithelial models under air–liquid but not liquid–liquid interface culture. Expression of wild-type but not the inactive G551D-CFTR indicates that secretion of the chemoattractant IL-8 is inversely proportional to CFTR channel activity in cftr∆F508/∆F508 immortalized and primary human bronchial epithelia. Similarly, direct but not P2Y receptor–mediated activation of TMEM16A attenuates IL-8 secretion in respiratory epithelia. Thus augmented proinflammatory cytokine secretion caused by defective anion transport at the apical membrane may contribute to the excessive and persistent lung inflammation in CF and perhaps in other respiratory diseases associated with documented down-regulation of CFTR (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). Direct pharmacological activation of TMEM16A offers a potential therapeutic strategy to reduce the inflammation of CF airway epithelia. PMID:22973054

  3. Proinflammatory cytokines induce bronchial hyperplasia and squamous metaplasia in smokers: implications for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease therapy.

    PubMed

    Herfs, Michael; Hubert, Pascale; Poirrier, Anne-Lise; Vandevenne, Patricia; Renoux, Virginie; Habraken, Yvette; Cataldo, Didier; Boniver, Jacques; Delvenne, Philippe

    2012-07-01

    Tracheobronchial squamous metaplasia is common in smokers, and is associated with both airway obstruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and increased risk of lung cancer. Although this reversible epithelial replacement is almost always observed in association with chronic inflammation, the role of inflammatory mediators in the pathogenesis of squamous metaplasia remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the implication of cigarette smoke-mediated proinflammatory cytokine up-regulation in the development and treatment of tracheobronchial epithelial hyperplasia and squamous metaplasia. Using immunohistological techniques, we showed a higher epithelial expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, as well as an activation of NF-κB and activator protein-1/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways in the respiratory tract of smoking patients, compared with the normal ciliated epithelium of nonsmoking patients. In addition, we demonstrated that these signaling pathways strongly influence the proliferation and differentiation state of in vitro-generated normal human airway epithelial basal cells. Finally, we exposed mice to cigarette smoke for 16 weeks, and demonstrated that anti-TNF-α (etanercept), anti-IL-1β (anakinra), and/or anti-IL-6R (tocilizumab) therapies significantly reduced epithelial hyperplasia and the development of squamous metaplasia. These data highlight the importance of soluble inflammatory mediators in the pathogenesis of tracheobronchial squamous metaplasia. Therefore, the administration of proinflammatory cytokine antagonists may have clinical applications in the management of patients with COPD.

  4. A study of lymphoid organs and serum proinflammatory cytokines in pigs infected with African swine fever virus genotype II.

    PubMed

    Zakaryan, Hovakim; Cholakyans, Victorya; Simonyan, Lusine; Misakyan, Alla; Karalova, Elena; Chavushyan, Andranik; Karalyan, Zaven

    2015-06-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV), the causative agent of one of the most important viral diseases of domestic pigs for which no vaccine is available, causes immune system disorders in infected animals. In this study, the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines, as well as the histological and cellular constitution of lymphoid organs of pigs infected with ASFV genotype II were investigated. The results showed a high degree of lymphocyte depletion in the lymphoid organs, particularly in the spleen and lymph nodes, where ASFV infection led to a twofold decrease in the number of lymphocytes on the final day of infection. Additionally, ASFV-infected pigs had atypical forms of lymphocytes found in all lymphoid organs. In contrast to lymphocytes, the number of immature immune cells, particularly myelocytes, increased dramatically and reached a maximum on day 7 postinfection. The serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 were evaluated. Proinflammatory cytokines showed increased levels after ASFV infection, with peak values at 7 days postinfection, and this highlights their role in the pathogenesis of ASFV. In conclusion, this study showed that ASFV genotype II, like other highly virulent strains, causes severe pathological changes in the immune system of pigs.

  5. Effect of Ginger Supplementation on Proinflammatory Cytokines in Older Patients with Osteoarthritis: Outcomes of a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Mozaffari-Khosravi, Hassan; Naderi, Zahra; Dehghan, Ali; Nadjarzadeh, Azadeh; Fallah Huseini, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    There is limited evidence that ginger powder consumption can relieve pain and inflammation due to specific anti-inflammatory phytochemical constitutents. This study investigates the effect of ginger supplementation on proinflammatory factors in participants (n = 120) of a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled 3-month clinical trial investigating knee osteoarthritis. Patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups: the ginger group (GG) or the placebo group (PG). Administered daily for 3 months, participants in the GG intervention received capsules containing 500 mg of ginger powder, while PG participants received capsules filled with 500 mg starch. Serum samples collected at baseline and 3 months were analyzed for serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). At baseline, proinflammatory cytokine concentrations did not differ by group. However, at 3 months, both cytokines decreased in the GG relative to the PG. The results of this study indicate that ginger supplementation may have a promising benefits for knee osteoarthritis and may, therefore, may warrant further study.

  6. Proinflammatory cytokine secretion is suppressed by TMEM16A or CFTR channel activity in human cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelia.

    PubMed

    Veit, Guido; Bossard, Florian; Goepp, Julie; Verkman, A S; Galietta, Luis J V; Hanrahan, John W; Lukacs, Gergely L

    2012-11-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by the functional expression defect of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel at the apical plasma membrane. Impaired bacterial clearance and hyperactive innate immune response are hallmarks of the CF lung disease, yet the existence of and mechanism accounting for the innate immune defect that occurs before infection remain controversial. Inducible expression of either CFTR or the calcium-activated chloride channel TMEM16A attenuated the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and CXCL1/2 in two human respiratory epithelial models under air-liquid but not liquid-liquid interface culture. Expression of wild-type but not the inactive G551D-CFTR indicates that secretion of the chemoattractant IL-8 is inversely proportional to CFTR channel activity in cftr(∆F508/∆F508) immortalized and primary human bronchial epithelia. Similarly, direct but not P2Y receptor-mediated activation of TMEM16A attenuates IL-8 secretion in respiratory epithelia. Thus augmented proinflammatory cytokine secretion caused by defective anion transport at the apical membrane may contribute to the excessive and persistent lung inflammation in CF and perhaps in other respiratory diseases associated with documented down-regulation of CFTR (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). Direct pharmacological activation of TMEM16A offers a potential therapeutic strategy to reduce the inflammation of CF airway epithelia.

  7. Targeting apoptotic signalling pathway and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression as therapeutic intervention in TPE induced lung damage.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Kishore; Krishnamoorthy, Bhavani; Ezhilarasan, Ravesanker; Miyamoto, Shigeki; Balakrishnan, Arun

    2003-01-01

    Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia (TPE) is an occult manifestation of filariasis, brought about by helminth parasites Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi. Treatment of patients suffering from TPE involves the administration of diethyl carbamazine and Ivermectin. Although the drugs are able to block acute inflammation, they are not able to alleviate chronic basal inflammation. We have attempted to examine the disease by targeting two important components; namely filarial parasitic sheath proteins (FPP) induced apoptosis and pro-inflammatory cytokine response in human laryngeal carcinoma cells of epithelial origin (HEp-2) cells an epithelial cell line. Earlier studies by us have shown that FPP exposure induced apoptosis in these cells. In this study with hydrocortisone, calpain inhibitor (ALLN) and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) treatments we demonstrate that apoptosis is inhibited as shown by [3H] thymidine incorporation studies, propidium iodide staining and Annexin V staining. Hydrocortisone at a dose, which inhibits cell death also down regulated, the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8. These findings give us insights into the multifaceted approach one may adopt to target critical signalling molecules using appropriate inhibitors, which could eventually be used to reduce lung damage in TPE.

  8. Decreased Prevalence of Lymphatic Filariasis among Diabetic Subjects Associated with a Diminished Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Response (CURES 83)

    PubMed Central

    Aravindhan, Vivekanandhan; Mohan, Viswanathan; Surendar, Jayagopi; Muralidhara Rao, Maradana; Pavankumar, Nathella; Deepa, Mohan; Rajagopalan, Ramanujam; Kumaraswami, Vasanthapuram; Nutman, Thomas B.; Babu, Subash

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse correlation between the incidence of lymphatic filariasis (LF) and the incidence of allergies and autoimmunity. However, the interrelationship between LF and type-2 diabetes is not known and hence, a cross sectional study to assess the baseline prevalence and the correlates of sero-positivity of LF among diabetic subjects was carried out (n = 1416) as part of the CURES study. There was a significant decrease in the prevalence of LF among diabetic subjects (both newly diagnosed [5.7%] and those under treatment [4.3%]) compared to pre-diabetic subjects [9.1%] (p = 0.0095) and non-diabetic subjects [10.4%] (p = 0.0463). A significant decrease in filarial antigen load (p = 0.04) was also seen among diabetic subjects. Serum cytokine levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines—IL-6 and GM-CSF—were significantly lower in diabetic subjects who were LF positive, compared to those who were LF negative. There were, however, no significant differences in the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines—IL-10, IL-13 and TGF-β—between the two groups. Although a direct causal link has yet to be shown, there appears to be a striking inverse relationship between the prevalence of LF and diabetes, which is reflected by a diminished pro-inflammatory cytokine response in Asian Indians with diabetes and concomitant LF. PMID:20559443

  9. Pro-inflammatory Cytokines Are Involved in Fluoride-Induced Cytotoxic Potential in HeLa Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Wei; Zhou, Bian-Hua; Cao, Jian-Wen; Zhao, Jing; Zhao, Wen-Peng; Tan, Pan-Pan

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the pro-inflammatory cytokines and their involvement in the cytotoxic potential of fluoride (F) in HeLa cells. HeLa cells were cultured with varying F concentrations (1-50 mg/L) for 48 h, and treatment effects were analyzed. The viability of HeLa cells was determined with a colorimetric method. The concentrations of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-a in culture supernatant were measured through enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The mRNA expression levels of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6 and TNF-a were subjected to transcript analysis and quantified through reverse transcription real-time PCR. Results showed that 10, 20 and 50 mg/L F significantly decreased the viability of HeLa cells incubated for 24 and 48 h. With their cytotoxic effect, the concentrations of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-a decreased significantly in response to F, especially at 20 and 50 mg/L for 48 h. The mRNA expression levels of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-a were downregulated at 50 mg/L F for 48 h. Therefore, F inhibited HeLa cell growth; as such, F could be used to alleviate the inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression.

  10. Host attachment, invasion, and stimulation of proinflammatory cytokines by Campylobacter concisus and other non-Campylobacter jejuni Campylobacter species.

    PubMed

    Man, Si Ming; Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Leach, Steven T; Nahidi, Lily; Lu, Hao K; Norman, Jennifer; Day, Andrew S; Zhang, Li; Mitchell, Hazel M

    2010-12-15

    Campylobacter concisus and other non-Campylobacter jejuni Campylobacter species have been implicated in the initiation of gastrointestinal diseases. In the present study, we investigated the interaction between these bacteria and the human intestinal epithelium and immune cells. The ability of C. concisus, Campylobacter showae, Campylobacter hominis, and Bacteroides ureolyticus to invade epithelial cells was examined using scanning electron microscopy and gentamicin protection assays. Proinflammatory cytokines generated by epithelial and immune cells in response to these bacteria were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Ussing Chamber, immunofluorescent stain, and Western blot were used to further elucidate the impact of C. concisus on intestinal barrier integrity and functions. Attachment of non-C. jejuni Campylobacter species to Caco-2 or HT-29 cells was mediated by flagellum-dependent and/or -independent processes. C. concisus was able to invade Caco-2 cells, generate a membrane-ruffling effect on the epithelial surface on entry, and damage epithelial barrier functions by preferential attachment to the cell-cell junctions. Proinflammatory cytokine profiles exh