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Sample records for project 02-erd-069 discovering

  1. Final Report for LDRD Project 02-ERD-069: Discovering the Unknown Mechanism(s) of Virulence in a BW, Class A Select Agent

    SciTech Connect

    Chain, P; Garcia, E

    2003-02-06

    The goal of this proposed effort was to assess the difficulty in identifying and characterizing virulence candidate genes in an organism for which very limited data exists. This was accomplished by first addressing the finishing phase of draft-sequenced F. tularensis genomes and conducting comparative analyses to determine the coding potential of each genome; to discover the differences in genome structure and content, and to identify potential genes whose products may be involved in the F. tularensis virulence process. The project was divided into three parts: (1) Genome finishing: This part involves determining the order and orientation of the consensus sequences of contigs obtained from Phrap assemblies of random draft genomic sequences. This tedious process consists of linking contig ends using information embedded in each sequence file that relates the sequence to the original cloned insert. Since inserts are sequenced from both ends, we can establish a link between these paired-ends in different contigs and thus order and orient contigs. Since these genomes carry numerous copies of insertion sequences, these repeated elements ''confuse'' the Phrap assembly program. It is thus necessary to break these contigs apart at the repeated sequences and individually join the proper flanking regions using paired-end information, or using results of comparisons against a similar genome. Larger repeated elements such as the small subunit ribosomal RNA operon require verification with PCR. Tandem repeats require manual intervention and typically rely on single nucleotide polymorphisms to be resolved. Remaining gaps require PCR reactions and sequencing. Once the genomes have been ''closed'', low quality regions are addressed by resequencing reactions. (2) Genome analysis: The final consensus sequences are processed by combining the results of three gene modelers: Glimmer, Critica and Generation. The final gene models are submitted to a battery of homology searches and

  2. "Discover Diversities": A Trans-Inter-Disciplinary (SEMEP) Project for Different School Levels and Teachers' Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilo, Miranda; Gavio, Brigitte; Scaldarella, Elda; Di Carlo, Caterina; Martorano, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    "Discover Diversities" is a wide thematic developed within the SEMEP (South-Eastern Mediterranean Environmental Project) project, supported by UNESCO (United Nation Education, Science and Culture Organization). SEMEP is essentially a project for science education, focusing on Mediterranean environment. As the Mediterranean has been the…

  3. Building a City: A Spin Off Project. Part II of Students Discovering Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Adele

    1988-01-01

    Discusses "Students Discovering Cities" and related activities, explaining how the program evolved into a city planning project for fourth graders in West Jordan, Utah. Describes the final stage of the project in which students "built" their city inside the school gymnasium, complete with streets, lights, cardboard buildings,…

  4. Building a City: A Spin Off Project. Part II of Students Discovering Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Adele

    1988-01-01

    Discusses "Students Discovering Cities" and related activities, explaining how the program evolved into a city planning project for fourth graders in West Jordan, Utah. Describes the final stage of the project in which students "built" their city inside the school gymnasium, complete with streets, lights, cardboard buildings,…

  5. Discovering Beaten Paths in Collaborative Ontology-Engineering Projects using Markov Chains

    PubMed Central

    Walk, Simon; Singer, Philipp; Strohmaier, Markus; Tudorache, Tania; Musen, Mark A.; Noy, Natalya F.

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical taxonomies, thesauri and ontologies in the form of the International Classification of Diseases as a taxonomy or the National Cancer Institute Thesaurus as an OWL-based ontology, play a critical role in acquiring, representing and processing information about human health. With increasing adoption and relevance, biomedical ontologies have also significantly increased in size. For example, the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases, which is currently under active development by the World Health Organization contains nearly 50, 000 classes representing a vast variety of different diseases and causes of death. This evolution in terms of size was accompanied by an evolution in the way ontologies are engineered. Because no single individual has the expertise to develop such large-scale ontologies, ontology-engineering projects have evolved from small-scale efforts involving just a few domain experts to large-scale projects that require effective collaboration between dozens or even hundreds of experts, practitioners and other stakeholders. Understanding the way these different stakeholders collaborate will enable us to improve editing environments that support such collaborations. In this paper, we uncover how large ontology-engineering projects, such as the International Classification of Diseases in its 11th revision, unfold by analyzing usage logs of five different biomedical ontology-engineering projects of varying sizes and scopes using Markov chains. We discover intriguing interaction patterns (e.g., which properties users frequently change after specific given ones) that suggest that large collaborative ontology-engineering projects are governed by a few general principles that determine and drive development. From our analysis, we identify commonalities and differences between different projects that have implications for project managers, ontology editors, developers and contributors working on collaborative ontology

  6. Discovering beaten paths in collaborative ontology-engineering projects using Markov chains.

    PubMed

    Walk, Simon; Singer, Philipp; Strohmaier, Markus; Tudorache, Tania; Musen, Mark A; Noy, Natalya F

    2014-10-01

    Biomedical taxonomies, thesauri and ontologies in the form of the International Classification of Diseases as a taxonomy or the National Cancer Institute Thesaurus as an OWL-based ontology, play a critical role in acquiring, representing and processing information about human health. With increasing adoption and relevance, biomedical ontologies have also significantly increased in size. For example, the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases, which is currently under active development by the World Health Organization contains nearly 50,000 classes representing a vast variety of different diseases and causes of death. This evolution in terms of size was accompanied by an evolution in the way ontologies are engineered. Because no single individual has the expertise to develop such large-scale ontologies, ontology-engineering projects have evolved from small-scale efforts involving just a few domain experts to large-scale projects that require effective collaboration between dozens or even hundreds of experts, practitioners and other stakeholders. Understanding the way these different stakeholders collaborate will enable us to improve editing environments that support such collaborations. In this paper, we uncover how large ontology-engineering projects, such as the International Classification of Diseases in its 11th revision, unfold by analyzing usage logs of five different biomedical ontology-engineering projects of varying sizes and scopes using Markov chains. We discover intriguing interaction patterns (e.g., which properties users frequently change after specific given ones) that suggest that large collaborative ontology-engineering projects are governed by a few general principles that determine and drive development. From our analysis, we identify commonalities and differences between different projects that have implications for project managers, ontology editors, developers and contributors working on collaborative ontology

  7. The First Brown Dwarf Discovered by the Backyard Worlds: Planet 9 Citizen Science Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuchner, Marc J.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Schneider, Adam C.; Meisner, Aaron M.; Filippazzo, Joseph C.; Gagne, Jonathan; Trouille, Laura; Silverberg, Steven M.; Castro, Rosa; Fletcher, Bob; hide

    2017-01-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) is a powerful tool for finding nearby brown dwarfs and searching for new planets in the outer solar system, especially with the incorporation of NEOWISE and NEOWISE Reactivation data. However, so far, searches for brown dwarfs in WISE data have yet to take advantage of the full depth of the WISE images. To efficiently search this unexplored space via visual inspection, we have launched anew citizen science project, called "Backyard Worlds: Planet 9," which asks volunteers to examine short animations composed of difference images constructed from time-resolved WISE co adds. We report the first new substellar object discovered by this project, WISEA J110125.95+540052.8, a T5.5 brown dwarf located approximately 34 pc from the Sun with a total proper motion of approx.0. "7/ yr. WISEA J110125.95+540052.8 has a WISE W2 magnitude of W2 = 15.37+/- 0.09; our sensitivity to this source demonstrates the ability of citizen scientists to identify moving objects via visual inspection that are 0.9 mag fainter than the W2 single-exposure sensitivity, a threshold that has limited prior motion-based brown dwarf searches with WISE.

  8. The First Brown Dwarf Discovered by the Backyard Worlds: Planet 9 Citizen Science Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchner, Marc J.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Schneider, Adam C.; Meisner, Aaron M.; Filippazzo, Joseph C.; Gagné, Jonathan; Trouille, Laura; Silverberg, Steven M.; Castro, Rosa; Fletcher, Bob; Mokaev, Khasan; Stajic, Tamara

    2017-06-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) is a powerful tool for finding nearby brown dwarfs and searching for new planets in the outer solar system, especially with the incorporation of NEOWISE and NEOWISE-Reactivation data. However, so far, searches for brown dwarfs in WISE data have yet to take advantage of the full depth of the WISE images. To efficiently search this unexplored space via visual inspection, we have launched a new citizen science project, called “Backyard Worlds: Planet 9,” which asks volunteers to examine short animations composed of difference images constructed from time-resolved WISE coadds. We report the first new substellar object discovered by this project, WISEA J110125.95+540052.8, a T5.5 brown dwarf located approximately 34 pc from the Sun with a total proper motion of ˜0.″7 {{yr}}-1. WISEA J110125.95+540052.8 has a WISE W2 magnitude of W2=15.37+/- 0.09; our sensitivity to this source demonstrates the ability of citizen scientists to identify moving objects via visual inspection that are 0.9 mag fainter than the W2 single-exposure sensitivity, a threshold that has limited prior motion-based brown dwarf searches with WISE.

  9. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Colleen

    1998-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: (1) enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system; (2) enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction; and (3) provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park. The enclosed materials: (1) represent only part of the Discover Earth materials; (2) were developed by classroom teachers who are participating in the Discover Earth project; (3) utilize an investigative approach and on-line data; and (4) can be effectively adjusted to classrooms with greater/without technology access. The Discover Earth classroom materials focus on the Earth system and key issues of global climate change including topics such as the greenhouse effect, clouds and Earth's radiation balance, surface hydrology and land cover, and volcanoes and climate change. All the materials developed to date are available on line at (http://www.strategies.org) You are encouraged to submit comments and recommendations about these materials to the Discover Earth project manager, contact information is listed below. You are welcome to duplicate all these materials.

  10. Athlome Project Consortium: a concerted effort to discover genomic and other "omic" markers of athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Pitsiladis, Yannis P; Tanaka, Masashi; Eynon, Nir; Bouchard, Claude; North, Kathryn N; Williams, Alun G; Collins, Malcolm; Moran, Colin N; Britton, Steven L; Fuku, Noriyuki; Ashley, Euan A; Klissouras, Vassilis; Lucia, Alejandro; Ahmetov, Ildus I; de Geus, Eco; Alsayrafi, Mohammed

    2016-03-01

    Despite numerous attempts to discover genetic variants associated with elite athletic performance, injury predisposition, and elite/world-class athletic status, there has been limited progress to date. Past reliance on candidate gene studies predominantly focusing on genotyping a limited number of single nucleotide polymorphisms or the insertion/deletion variants in small, often heterogeneous cohorts (i.e., made up of athletes of quite different sport specialties) have not generated the kind of results that could offer solid opportunities to bridge the gap between basic research in exercise sciences and deliverables in biomedicine. A retrospective view of genetic association studies with complex disease traits indicates that transition to hypothesis-free genome-wide approaches will be more fruitful. In studies of complex disease, it is well recognized that the magnitude of genetic association is often smaller than initially anticipated, and, as such, large sample sizes are required to identify the gene effects robustly. A symposium was held in Athens and on the Greek island of Santorini from 14-17 May 2015 to review the main findings in exercise genetics and genomics and to explore promising trends and possibilities. The symposium also offered a forum for the development of a position stand (the Santorini Declaration). Among the participants, many were involved in ongoing collaborative studies (e.g., ELITE, GAMES, Gene SMART, GENESIS, and POWERGENE). A consensus emerged among participants that it would be advantageous to bring together all current studies and those recently launched into one new large collaborative initiative, which was subsequently named the Athlome Project Consortium.

  11. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-funded project for teachers of grades 5-12 who want to expand their knowledge of the Earth system, and prepare to become master teachers who promote Earth system science in their own schools, counties, and throughout their state. Participants from the following states are invited to apply: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Washington, DC. Teachers selected for the project participate in a two-week summer workshop conducted at the University of Maryland, College Park; develop classroom-ready materials during the workshop for broad dissemination; conduct a minimum of two peer training activities during the coming school year; and participate in other enrichment/education opportunities as available and desired. Discover Earth is a team effort that utilizes expertise from a range of contributors, and balances science content with hands-on classroom applications.

  12. The PANOPTES project: discovering exoplanets with low-cost digital cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyon, Olivier; Walawender, Josh; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Butterfield, Mike; Gee, Wilfred T.; Mery, Rawad

    2014-07-01

    The Panoptic Astronomical Networked OPtical observatory for Transiting Exoplanets Survey (PANOPTES, www.projectpanoptes.org) project is aimed at identifying transiting exoplanets using a wide network of low-cost imaging units. Each unit consists of two commercial digital single lens reflex (DSLR) cameras equipped with 85mm F1.4 lenses, mounted on a small equatorial mount. At a few $1000s per unit, the system offers a uniquely advantageous survey eficiency for the cost, and can easily be assembled by amateur astronomers or students. Three generations of prototype units have so far been tested, and the baseline unit design, which optimizes robustness, simplicity and cost, is now ready to be duplicated. We describe the hardware and software for the PANOPTES project, focusing on key challenging aspects of the project. We show that obtaining high precision photometric measurements with commercial DSLR color cameras is possible, using a PSF-matching algorithm we developed for this project. On-sky tests show that percent-level photometric precision is achieved in 1 min with a single camera. We also discuss hardware choices aimed at optimizing system robustness while maintaining adequate cost. PANOPTES is both an outreach project and a scientifically compelling survey for transiting exoplanets. In its current phase, experienced PANOPTES members are deploying a limited number of units, acquiring the experience necessary to run the network. A much wider community will then be able to participate to the project, with schools and citizen scientists integrating their units in the network.

  13. Discovering new genetic and psychosocial pathways in Major Depressive Disorder: the NewMood project.

    PubMed

    Freeborough, Annabel; Kimpton, Jessica

    2011-09-01

    The World Health Organisation predicts that Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) will be the second greatest contributor to the global burden of disease by 2020, however, the neurobiological mechanisms behind the disease and the risk factors for it are yet unknown. NewMood (New Molecules for Mood Disorders) was a research project funded by the EU, collaborating work from 10 European countries with the aim of finding new molecular mechanisms behind MDD to develop more effective treatment options. This review explains the aims and objectives of NewMood and how it intends to achieve them with regards to the current literature. It also outlines two of its most recent projects: genome wide association replication study for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) increasing susceptibility to MDD and stress related pathways in depression using the cortisol awakening response (CAR). Both of these studies had significant results and could further contribute to our current understanding of MDD.

  14. An ear turned to ``The Cosmos'': 50 projects to discover the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Puerto, Carmen

    2011-06-01

    In 1609, as Galileo pointed the sky with a telescope, he observed Jupiter's satellites and changed our vision of the universe. Four hundred years later, we celebrate this event all over the world, and also in the Canaries. 2009, the International Year of Astronomy, is a very special year for the Science and Cosmos Museum (Museo de la Ciencia y el Cosmos). This was the first museum in Spain supported by a public entity, The Local Government of Tenerife (Cabildo de Tenerife), through its Autonomous Council of Museums (Organismo Autónomo de Museos y Centros), and a research centre, the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. Fifteen years later, this museum, which receives 50,000 visitors a year, celebrates the International Year of Astronomy with fifty projects described in this paper.

  15. THE PROJECT: an Observatory / Transport Spaceship for Discovering and Populating Habitable Extrasolar Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilston, S.

    1998-12-01

    Recent extrasolar planet discoveries and related progress in astrophysics have refined our knowledge of the implications of the Drake equation. The Space Interferometry Mission and the planned Terrestrial Planet Finder will deepen this understanding, and begin pointing the way to places we need to explore at closer range. If the correct resolution of the Fermi paradox regarding intelligent extraterrestrials (``where are they?") is found to lie in the actual scarcity of such beings, it may turn out that we are more advanced than most other life-forms in our galaxy. In this case, a main purpose in finding planets may be to find places for us to go: astronomy will once again play a major role in human navigation and migration. We describe a strawman design concept for an astronomical observatory ship designed for launch beyond our solar system within several hundred years. This ship design would employ plausible physics, biology, technology, sociology, and economics to carry one million passengers in a one-G environment shielded from space radiation. A cruising speed under 0.01 c, slower than in many science-fiction concepts, minimizes power requirements and the danger from collisional impacts. The ship would contain all subsystems needed to sustain multi-generational life on a voyage of thousands of years, as well as the observatories to identify for human settlement a habitable extrasolar planet. Even the modestly advanced technology described here could spread intelligent life throughout our galaxy within 40 million years, a very small fraction of the galaxy's age. Motivation for such an ambitious project is three-fold: expanding our knowledge of the universe, enlisting the efforts and enthusiasms of humankind toward a very grand goal which will stimulate progress in all aspects of our cultures and technologies, and participating in the process of spreading life so its survivability and fruition are enhanced.

  16. Athlome Project Consortium: a concerted effort to discover genomic and other “omic” markers of athletic performance

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Masashi; Eynon, Nir; Bouchard, Claude; North, Kathryn N.; Williams, Alun G.; Collins, Malcolm; Britton, Steven L.; Fuku, Noriyuki; Ashley, Euan A.; Klissouras, Vassilis; Lucia, Alejandro; Ahmetov, Ildus I.; de Geus, Eco; Alsayrafi, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous attempts to discover genetic variants associated with elite athletic performance, injury predisposition, and elite/world-class athletic status, there has been limited progress to date. Past reliance on candidate gene studies predominantly focusing on genotyping a limited number of single nucleotide polymorphisms or the insertion/deletion variants in small, often heterogeneous cohorts (i.e., made up of athletes of quite different sport specialties) have not generated the kind of results that could offer solid opportunities to bridge the gap between basic research in exercise sciences and deliverables in biomedicine. A retrospective view of genetic association studies with complex disease traits indicates that transition to hypothesis-free genome-wide approaches will be more fruitful. In studies of complex disease, it is well recognized that the magnitude of genetic association is often smaller than initially anticipated, and, as such, large sample sizes are required to identify the gene effects robustly. A symposium was held in Athens and on the Greek island of Santorini from 14–17 May 2015 to review the main findings in exercise genetics and genomics and to explore promising trends and possibilities. The symposium also offered a forum for the development of a position stand (the Santorini Declaration). Among the participants, many were involved in ongoing collaborative studies (e.g., ELITE, GAMES, Gene SMART, GENESIS, and POWERGENE). A consensus emerged among participants that it would be advantageous to bring together all current studies and those recently launched into one new large collaborative initiative, which was subsequently named the Athlome Project Consortium. PMID:26715623

  17. Discovering Deserts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Discovering Deserts." Contents are organized into the following…

  18. Discovering Deserts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Discovering Deserts." Contents are organized into the following…

  19. Discovering Constructivism: How a Project-Oriented Activity-Based Media Production Course Effectively Employed Constructivist Teaching Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Glenn T.

    2012-01-01

    Author uses his experience leading a project-oriented special-topics course as a case study in constructivist teaching methods. Citing relevant literature from the education field, this paper considers why students chosen to work for course credit on a promotional video for a university program considered the project their greatest academic…

  20. New galactic star clusters discovered in the VVV survey. Candidates projected on the inner disk and bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borissova, J.; Chené, A.-N.; Ramírez Alegría, S.; Sharma, S.; Clarke, J. R. A.; Kurtev, R.; Negueruela, I.; Marco, A.; Amigo, P.; Minniti, D.; Bica, E.; Bonatto, C.; Catelan, M.; Fierro, C.; Geisler, D.; Gromadzki, M.; Hempel, M.; Hanson, M. M.; Ivanov, V. D.; Lucas, P.; Majaess, D.; Moni Bidin, C.; Popescu, B.; Saito, R. K.

    2014-09-01

    Context. VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) is one of six ESO Public Surveys using the 4 meter Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA). The VVV survey covers the Milky Way bulge and an adjacent section of the disk, and one of the principal objectives is to search for new star clusters within previously unreachable obscured parts of the Galaxy. Aims: The primary motivation behind this work is to discover and analyze obscured star clusters in the direction of the inner Galactic disk and bulge. Methods: Regions of the inner disk and bulge covered by the VVV survey were visually inspected using composite JHKS color images to select new cluster candidates on the basis of apparent overdensities. DR1, DR2, CASU, and point spread function photometry of 10 × 10 arcmin fields centered on each candidate cluster were used to construct color-magnitude and color-color diagrams. Follow-up spectroscopy of the brightest members of several cluster candidates was obtained in order to clarify their nature. Results: We report the discovery of 58 new infrared cluster candidates. Fundamental parameters such as age, distance, and metallicity were determined for 20 of the most populous clusters. Based on observations gathered as part of observing programs: 179.B-2002,VIRCAM, VISTA at ESO, Paranal Observatory; NTT at ESO, La Silla Observatory (programs 087.D-0490A and 089.D-0462A) and with the SOAR telescope at the NOAO (program CN2012A-045).

  1. The Araucaria Project: The Distances to the NGC 247 and WLM Galaxies From Cepheid Variables Discovered in a Wide-Field Imaging Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, A.; Gieren, W.; Pietrzynski, G.

    2009-05-01

    Two different and extensive wide-field imaging surveys for Cepheid variables have been made in the Sculptor Group galaxy NGC 247 and in the Local Group Irregular galaxy WLM. We present the principal results obtained in this surveys in the context of the Araucaria project. We have discovered 60 Cepheids in WLM and 24 Cepheids in NGC 247. Our data define tight period-luminosity relations in V, I and the reddening-free Wesenheit magnitude W_I which are all extremely well fit by the corresponding slopes of the LMC Cepheid PL relation, suggesting no change of the PL relation slope down to a Cepheid metal abundance of about -1.0 dex, in agreement with other recent studies. We derive a true distance modulus to NGC 247 of 27.80+/-0.09 (r) +/-0.06 (s) mag from our data, in good agreement with the earlier 27.9+/-0.1 mag determination of Davidge (2006, ApJ, 641, 822) from TRGB I band magnitude. The true distance modulus to WLM derived from our data was 25.144+/-0.03 (r) +/-0.07 (s), in good agreement with the earlier 24.92+/-0.21determination of Lee, Freedman, & Madore (1993, ApJ, 417, 553) from Cepheid variables. Aditional information is available in The Araucaria Project homepage (http://ezzelino.ifa.hawaii.edu/ bresolin/Araucaria/index.html) and in the series of papers entitled: The Araucaria Project.

  2. Binaries discovered by the MUCHFUSS project. FBS 0117+396: An sdB+dM binary with a pulsating primary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Østensen, R. H.; Geier, S.; Schaffenroth, V.; Telting, J. H.; Bloemen, S.; Németh, P.; Beck, P. G.; Lombaert, R.; Pápics, P. I.; Tillich, A.; Ziegerer, E.; Fox Machado, L.; Littlefair, S.; Dhillon, V.; Aerts, C.; Heber, U.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Marsh, T. R.

    2013-11-01

    The project Massive Unseen Companions to Hot Faint Underluminous Stars from SDSS (MUCHFUSS) aims to discover subdwarf-B stars with massive compact companions such as overmassive white dwarfs (M > 1.0 M⊙), neutron stars or black holes. From the 127 subdwarfs with substantial radial-velocity variations discovered in the initial survey, a number of interesting objects have been selected for extensive follow-up. After an initial photometry run with BUSCA revealed that FBS 0117+396 is photometrically variable both on long and short timescales, we chose it as an auxiliary target during a 6-night multi-color photometry run with Ultracam. Spectroscopy was obtained at a number of observatories in order to determine the binary period and obtain a radial-velocity amplitude. After establishing an orbital period of P = 0.252 d, and removing the signal associated with the irradiated hemisphere of the M-dwarf companion, we were able to detect ten pulsation periods in the Fourier spectrum of the light curve. Two pulsation modes are found to have short periods of 337 and 379 s, and at least eight modes are found with periods between 45 min and 2.5 h. This establishes that FBS 0117+396 is an sdB+dM reflection binary, in which the primary is a hybrid pulsator, and the first one found with this particular mélange of flavours. Light curves are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/559/A35

  3. THE ARAUCARIA PROJECT: FIRST CEPHEID DISTANCE TO THE SCULPTOR GROUP GALAXY NGC 7793 FROM VARIABLES DISCOVERED IN A WIDE-FIELD IMAGING SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Pietrzynski, Grzegorz; Gieren, Wolfgang; Garcia-Varela, Alejandro; Szewczyk, Olaf E-mail: wgieren@astro-udec.c

    2010-11-15

    For the first time, we have detected Cepheid variables in the Sculptor Group spiral galaxy NGC 7793. From wide-field images obtained in the optical V and I bands on 56 nights in 2003-2005, we have discovered 17 long-period (24-62 days) Cepheids whose periods and mean magnitudes define tight period-luminosity relations. We use the (V - I) Wesenheit index to determine a reddening-free true distance modulus to NGC 7793 of 27.68 {+-} 0.05 mag (internal error) {+-} 0.08 mag (systematic error). The comparison of the reddened distance moduli in V and I with the one derived from the Wesenheit magnitude indicates that the Cepheids in NGC 7793 are affected by an average total reddening of E(B - V) = 0.08 mag, 0.06 of which is produced inside the host galaxy. As in the earlier Cepheid studies of the Araucaria Project, the reported distance is tied to an assumed LMC distance modulus of 18.50. The quoted systematic uncertainty takes into account effects like blending and possible inhomogeneous filling of the Cepheid instability strip on the derived distance. The reported distance value does not depend on the (unknown) metallicity of the Cepheids according to recent theoretical and empirical results. Our Cepheid distance is shorter, but within the errors consistent with the distance to NGC 7793 determined earlier with the TRGB and Tully-Fisher methods. The NGC 7793 distance of 3.4 Mpc is almost identical to the one our project had found for NGC 247, another spiral member of the Sculptor Group located close to NGC 7793 on the sky. Two other conspicuous spiral galaxies in the Sculptor Group, NGC 55 and NGC 300, are much nearer (1.9 Mpc), confirming the picture of a very elongated structure of the Sculptor Group in the line of sight put forward by Jerjen et al. and others.

  4. Students Discover Unique Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-12-01

    Three undergraduate students, from Leiden University in the Netherlands, have discovered an extrasolar planet. The extraordinary find, which turned up during their research project, is about five times as massive as Jupiter. This is also the first planet discovered orbiting a fast-rotating hot star. Omega Centauri ESO PR Photo 45a/08 A planet around a hot star The students were testing a method of investigating the light fluctuations of thousands of stars in the OGLE database in an automated way. The brightness of one of the stars was found to decrease for two hours every 2.5 days by about one percent. Follow-up observations, taken with ESO's Very Large Telescope in Chile, confirmed that this phenomenon is caused by a planet passing in front of the star, blocking part of the starlight at regular intervals. According to Ignas Snellen, supervisor of the research project, the discovery was a complete surprise. "The project was actually meant to teach the students how to develop search algorithms. But they did so well that there was time to test their algorithm on a so far unexplored database. At some point they came into my office and showed me this light curve. I was completely taken aback!" The students, Meta de Hoon, Remco van der Burg, and Francis Vuijsje, are very enthusiastic. "It is exciting not just to find a planet, but to find one as unusual as this one; it turns out to be the first planet discovered around a fast rotating star, and it's also the hottest star found with a planet," says Meta. "The computer needed more than a thousand hours to do all the calculations," continues Remco. The planet is given the prosaic name OGLE2-TR-L9b. "But amongst ourselves we call it ReMeFra-1, after Remco, Meta, and myself," says Francis. The planet was discovered by looking at the brightness variations of about 15 700 stars, which had been observed by the OGLE survey once or twice per night for about four years between 1997 and 2000. Because the data had been made public

  5. Student Discovers New Pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-01-01

    A West Virginia high-school student has discovered a new pulsar, using data from the giant Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). Shay Bloxton, 15, a participant in a project in which students analyze data from the radio telescope, spotted evidence of the pulsar on October 15. Bloxton, along with NRAO astronomers observed the object again one month later. The new observation confirmed that the object is a pulsar, a rotating, superdense neutron star. Bloxton is a sophomore at Nicholas County High School in Summersville, West Virginia. "I was very excited when I found out I had actually made a discovery," Bloxton said. She went to Green Bank in November to participate in the follow-up observation. She termed that visit "a great experience." "It also helped me learn a lot about how observations with the GBT are actually done," she added. The project in which she participated, called the Pulsar Search Collaboratory (PSC), is a joint project of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and West Virginia University, funded by a grant from the National Science Foundation. Pulsars are known for their lighthouse-like beams of radio waves that sweep through space as the neutron star rotates, creating a pulse as the beam sweeps by the Earth. First discovered in 1967, pulsars serve as valuable natural "laboratories" for physicists studying exotic states of matter, quantum mechanics and General Relativity. The GBT, dedicated in 2000, has become one of the world's leading tools for discovering and studying pulsars. The PSC, led by NRAO Education Officer Sue Ann Heatherly and Project Director Rachel Rosen, includes training for teachers and student leaders, and provides parcels of data from the GBT to student teams. The project involves teachers and students in helping astronomers analyze data from 1500 hours of observing with the GBT. The 120 terabytes of data were produced by 70,000 individual pointings of the giant, 17-million-pound telescope. Some 300 hours of the

  6. The Araucaria Project: First Cepheid Distance to the Sculptor Group Galaxy NGC 7793 from Variables Discovered in a Wide-field Imaging Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Gieren, Wolfgang; Hamuy, Mario; Pignata, Giuliano; Soszyński, Igor; Udalski, Andrzej; Walker, Alistair; Fouqué, Pascal; Bresolin, Fabio; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Garcia-Varela, Alejandro; Szewczyk, Olaf; Szymański, Michał; Kubiak, Marcin; Wyrzykowski, Łukasz

    2010-11-01

    For the first time, we have detected Cepheid variables in the Sculptor Group spiral galaxy NGC 7793. From wide-field images obtained in the optical V and I bands on 56 nights in 2003-2005, we have discovered 17 long-period (24-62 days) Cepheids whose periods and mean magnitudes define tight period-luminosity relations. We use the (V - I) Wesenheit index to determine a reddening-free true distance modulus to NGC 7793 of 27.68 ± 0.05 mag (internal error) ± 0.08 mag (systematic error). The comparison of the reddened distance moduli in V and I with the one derived from the Wesenheit magnitude indicates that the Cepheids in NGC 7793 are affected by an average total reddening of E(B - V) = 0.08 mag, 0.06 of which is produced inside the host galaxy. As in the earlier Cepheid studies of the Araucaria Project, the reported distance is tied to an assumed LMC distance modulus of 18.50. The quoted systematic uncertainty takes into account effects like blending and possible inhomogeneous filling of the Cepheid instability strip on the derived distance. The reported distance value does not depend on the (unknown) metallicity of the Cepheids according to recent theoretical and empirical results. Our Cepheid distance is shorter, but within the errors consistent with the distance to NGC 7793 determined earlier with the TRGB and Tully-Fisher methods. The NGC 7793 distance of 3.4 Mpc is almost identical to the one our project had found for NGC 247, another spiral member of the Sculptor Group located close to NGC 7793 on the sky. Two other conspicuous spiral galaxies in the Sculptor Group, NGC 55 and NGC 300, are much nearer (1.9 Mpc), confirming the picture of a very elongated structure of the Sculptor Group in the line of sight put forward by Jerjen et al. and others. Based on observations obtained with the 1.3 m telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory.

  7. The Effectiveness of DISCOVER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Elaine Frances

    Computer assisted career guidance (CACG) systems have been around for at least the past 20 years in career guidance centers. There are two types of systems: information retrieval and guidance interaction. This study investigated the effectiveness of DISCOVER in facilitating career decisions among college students. DISCOVER is a systematic career…

  8. DISCOVER AQ Research Plane Arrives

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-28

    James Crawford, principal investigator and scientist based at NASA’s Langley Research Center in Hampton, Va., talks about the DISCOVER-AQ project on board the P-3B NASA research aircraft at Baltimore/Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport, Tuesday, June 28, 2011, in Baltimore, Md. The aircraft is part of a month-long field campaign designed to improve satellite measurements of air pollution. The name of the experiment -- Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER -- AQ) -- is a mouthful, but its purpose is simple. Come July, the aircraft will be flying spirals over six ground stations in Maryland. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  9. New Apollo asteroid discovered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    A new asteroid that periodically crosses the earth's orbit was recently discovered when two components of a rare split comet were photographed. The asteroid has been made a possible candidate for an asteroid rendezvous mission under study at Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The newly discovered body, 1982 DB, is a member of a group of earth-orbit-crossing objects called Apollo asteroids. They are maverick asteroids in unique orbits outside the main asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter.

  10. Discovering Researcher Subjectivities, Perceptions, and Biases: A Critical Examination of Myths, Metaphors, and Meanings Inherent in University-School Collaborative Action Research Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dana, Nancy Fichtman

    This paper describes a collaborative action research project conducted by a university researcher and a group of elementary school teachers. It examines the role the researcher plays when educational change is initiated by practitioners and the nature of the relationship that develops between researcher and practitioners throughout the change…

  11. Contrasts & Connections: Teachers' Resource Book, Second Edition for the Revised National Curriculum. The Schools History Project, "Discovering the Past Y7."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shephard, Colin; Corbishley, Mike; Large, Alan; Tames, Richard

    This history course has been designed by the Schools History Project for the national curriculum in England. It covers three study units for the revised curriculum, including: (1) the Roman Empire as a study of an era or turning point in European history before 1914; (2) Medieval Realms as a statutory unit; and (3) Islamic Civilizations as a study…

  12. The 'PUCE CAFE' Project: the First 15K Coffee Microarray, a New Tool for Discovering Candidate Genes correlated to Agronomic and Quality Traits

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Understanding the genetic elements that contribute to key aspects of coffee biology will have an impact on future agronomical improvements for this economically important tree. During the past years, EST collections were generated in Coffee, opening the possibility to create new tools for functional genomics. Results The "PUCE CAFE" Project, organized by the scientific consortium NESTLE/IRD/CIRAD, has developed an oligo-based microarray using 15,721 unigenes derived from published coffee EST sequences mostly obtained from different stages of fruit development and leaves in Coffea Canephora (Robusta). Hybridizations for two independent experiments served to compare global gene expression profiles in three types of tissue matter (mature beans, leaves and flowers) in C. canephora as well as in the leaves of three different coffee species (C. canephora, C. eugenoides and C. arabica). Microarray construction, statistical analyses and validation by Q-PCR analysis are presented in this study. Conclusion We have generated the first 15 K coffee array during this PUCE CAFE project, granted by Génoplante (the French consortium for plant genomics). This new tool will help study functional genomics in a wide range of experiments on various plant tissues, such as analyzing bean maturation or resistance to pathogens or drought. Furthermore, the use of this array has proven to be valid in different coffee species (diploid or tetraploid), drastically enlarging its impact for high-throughput gene expression in the community of coffee research. PMID:21208403

  13. The 'PUCE CAFE' Project: the first 15K coffee microarray, a new tool for discovering candidate genes correlated to agronomic and quality traits.

    PubMed

    Privat, Isabelle; Bardil, Amélie; Gomez, Aureliano Bombarely; Severac, Dany; Dantec, Christelle; Fuentes, Ivanna; Mueller, Lukas; Joët, Thierry; Pot, David; Foucrier, Séverine; Dussert, Stéphane; Leroy, Thierry; Journot, Laurent; de Kochko, Alexandre; Campa, Claudine; Combes, Marie-Christine; Lashermes, Philippe; Bertrand, Benoit

    2011-01-05

    Understanding the genetic elements that contribute to key aspects of coffee biology will have an impact on future agronomical improvements for this economically important tree. During the past years, EST collections were generated in Coffee, opening the possibility to create new tools for functional genomics. The "PUCE CAFE" Project, organized by the scientific consortium NESTLE/IRD/CIRAD, has developed an oligo-based microarray using 15,721 unigenes derived from published coffee EST sequences mostly obtained from different stages of fruit development and leaves in Coffea Canephora (Robusta). Hybridizations for two independent experiments served to compare global gene expression profiles in three types of tissue matter (mature beans, leaves and flowers) in C. canephora as well as in the leaves of three different coffee species (C. canephora, C. eugenoides and C. arabica). Microarray construction, statistical analyses and validation by Q-PCR analysis are presented in this study. We have generated the first 15 K coffee array during this PUCE CAFE project, granted by Génoplante (the French consortium for plant genomics). This new tool will help study functional genomics in a wide range of experiments on various plant tissues, such as analyzing bean maturation or resistance to pathogens or drought. Furthermore, the use of this array has proven to be valid in different coffee species (diploid or tetraploid), drastically enlarging its impact for high-throughput gene expression in the community of coffee research.

  14. Discovering Hidden Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Carol

    1991-01-01

    Working with teachers and artists from Florida to Maine, a drama educator has discovered that creative power and insight can emerge when using drama in the language arts classroom. One seventh-grade class began with simple warm-ups to loosen inhibitions and then moved into a unit that dealt with improvising using movement. A student who had hardly…

  15. DISCOVER-AQ

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-01-31

    ... DISCOVER-AQ ) is a four-year campaign to improve the use of satellites to monitor air quality for public health and environmental benefit. ... will enable more effective use of current and future satellites to diagnose ground level conditions influencing air quality. ...

  16. Discovering Mendeleev's Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Donna

    1996-01-01

    Presents an activity that introduces the historical developments in science that led to the discovery of the periodic table and lets students experience scientific discovery firsthand. Enables students to learn about patterns among the elements and experience how scientists analyze data to discover patterns and build models. (JRH)

  17. Discovering the Artist Within.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamill, Sam

    1999-01-01

    Describes a personal artistic struggle against heroin addiction, advising teachers of the difficulty of working to discover and express one's developing self. Considers the effect of poetry and philosophy on the developing creative process. Provides samples of the author's own poetry to demonstrate creative development, as an example to Montessori…

  18. Discovering Mendeleev's Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Donna

    1996-01-01

    Presents an activity that introduces the historical developments in science that led to the discovery of the periodic table and lets students experience scientific discovery firsthand. Enables students to learn about patterns among the elements and experience how scientists analyze data to discover patterns and build models. (JRH)

  19. The Red Radio Ring: a gravitationally lensed hyperluminous infrared radio galaxy at z = 2.553 discovered through the citizen science project SPACE WARPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geach, J. E.; More, A.; Verma, A.; Marshall, P. J.; Jackson, N.; Belles, P.-E.; Beswick, R.; Baeten, E.; Chavez, M.; Cornen, C.; Cox, B. E.; Erben, T.; Erickson, N. J.; Garrington, S.; Harrison, P. A.; Harrington, K.; Hughes, D. H.; Ivison, R. J.; Jordan, C.; Lin, Y.-T.; Leauthaud, A.; Lintott, C.; Lynn, S.; Kapadia, A.; Kneib, J.-P.; Macmillan, C.; Makler, M.; Miller, G.; Montaña, A.; Mujica, R.; Muxlow, T.; Narayanan, G.; O'Briain, D.; O'Brien, T.; Oguri, M.; Paget, E.; Parrish, M.; Ross, N. P.; Rozo, E.; Rusu, Cristian E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sanchez-Argüelles, D.; Simpson, R.; Snyder, C.; Schloerb, F. P.; Tecza, M.; Wang, W.-H.; Van Waerbeke, L.; Wilcox, J.; Viero, M.; Wilson, G. W.; Yun, M. S.; Zeballos, M.

    2015-09-01

    We report the discovery of a gravitationally lensed hyperluminous infrared galaxy (intrinsic LIR ≈ 1013 L⊙) with strong radio emission (intrinsic L1.4 GHz ≈ 1025 W Hz-1) at z = 2.553. The source was identified in the citizen science project SPACE WARPS through the visual inspection of tens of thousands of iJKs colour composite images of luminous red galaxies (LRGs), groups and clusters of galaxies and quasars. Appearing as a partial Einstein ring (re ≈ 3 arcsec) around an LRG at z = 0.2, the galaxy is extremely bright in the sub-millimetre for a cosmological source, with the thermal dust emission approaching 1 Jy at peak. The redshift of the lensed galaxy is determined through the detection of the CO(3→2) molecular emission line with the Large Millimetre Telescope's Redshift Search Receiver and through [O III] and Hα line detections in the near-infrared from Subaru/Infrared Camera and Spectrograph. We have resolved the radio emission with high-resolution (300-400 mas) eMERLIN L-band and Very Large Array C-band imaging. These observations are used in combination with the near-infrared imaging to construct a lens model, which indicates a lensing magnification of μ ≈ 10. The source reconstruction appears to support a radio morphology comprised of a compact (<250 pc) core and more extended component, perhaps indicative of an active nucleus and jet or lobe.

  20. World Spatiotemporal Analytics and Mapping Project (wstamp): Discovering, Exploring, and Mapping Spatiotemporal Patterns across the World's Largest Open Soruce Data Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, R.; Piburn, J.; Sorokine, A.; Myers, A.; Moehl, J.; White, D.

    2015-07-01

    The application of spatiotemporal (ST) analytics to integrated data from major sources such as the World Bank, United Nations, and dozens of others holds tremendous potential for shedding new light on the evolution of cultural, health, economic, and geopolitical landscapes on a global level. Realizing this potential first requires an ST data model that addresses challenges in properly merging data from multiple authors, with evolving ontological perspectives, semantical differences, and changing attributes, as well as content that is textual, numeric, categorical, and hierarchical. Equally challenging is the development of analytical and visualization approaches that provide a serious exploration of this integrated data while remaining accessible to practitioners with varied backgrounds. The WSTAMP project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has yielded two major results in addressing these challenges: 1) development of the WSTAMP database, a significant advance in ST data modeling that integrates 10,000+ attributes covering over 200 nation states spanning over 50 years from over 30 major sources and 2) a novel online ST exploratory and analysis tool providing an array of modern statistical and visualization techniques for analyzing these data temporally, spatially, and spatiotemporally under a standard analytic workflow. We discuss the status of this work and report on major findings.

  1. BINARIES DISCOVERED BY THE MUCHFUSS PROJECT: SDSS J08205+0008-AN ECLIPSING SUBDWARF B BINARY WITH A BROWN DWARF COMPANION

    SciTech Connect

    Geier, S.; Schaffenroth, V.; Drechsel, H.; Heber, U.; Kupfer, T.; Tillich, A.; Oestensen, R. H.; Smolders, K.; Degroote, P.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Barlow, B. N.; Gaensicke, B. T.; Marsh, T. R.; Napiwotzki, R.

    2011-04-20

    Hot subdwarf B stars (sdBs) are extreme horizontal branch stars believed to originate from close binary evolution. Indeed about half of the known sdB stars are found in close binaries with periods ranging from a few hours to a few days. The enormous mass loss required to remove the hydrogen envelope of the red-giant progenitor almost entirely can be explained by common envelope ejection. A rare subclass of these binaries are the eclipsing HW Vir binaries where the sdB is orbited by a dwarf M star. Here, we report the discovery of an HW Vir system in the course of the MUCHFUSS project. A most likely substellar object ({approx_equal}0.068 M{sub sun}) was found to orbit the hot subdwarf J08205+0008 with a period of 0.096 days. Since the eclipses are total, the system parameters are very well constrained. J08205+0008 has the lowest unambiguously measured companion mass yet found in a subdwarf B binary. This implies that the most likely substellar companion has not only survived the engulfment by the red-giant envelope, but also triggered its ejection and enabled the sdB star to form. The system provides evidence that brown dwarfs may indeed be able to significantly affect late stellar evolution.

  2. Binaries discovered by the SPY project . V. GD 687 - a massive double degenerate binary progenitor that will merge within a Hubble time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geier, S.; Heber, U.; Kupfer, T.; Napiwotzki, R.

    2010-06-01

    Aims: The ESO SN Ia Progenitor Survey (SPY) aims at finding merging double degenerate binaries as candidates for supernova type Ia (SN Ia) explosions. A white dwarf merger has also been suggested to explain the formation of rare types of stars like R CrB, extreme helium or He sdO stars. Here we present the hot subdwarf B binary GD 687, which will merge in less than a Hubble time. Methods: The orbital parameters of the close binary have been determined from time resolved spectroscopy. Since GD 687 is a single-lined binary, the spectra contain only information about the subdwarf primary and its orbit. From high resolution spectra the projected rotational velocity was derived. Assuming orbital synchronisation, the inclination of the system and the mass of the unseen companion were constrained. Results: The derived inclination is i = 39.3+6.2-5.6 °. The mass M2 = 0.71-0.21+0.22 M_⊙ indicates that the companion must be a white dwarf, most likely of C/O composition. This is only the fourth case that an sdB companion has been proven to be a white dwarf unambiguously. Its mass is somewhat larger than the average white dwarf mass, but may be as high as 0.93 M_⊙ in which case the total mass of the system comes close to the Chandrasekhar limit. Conclusions: GD 687 will evolve into a double degenerate system and merge to form a rare supermassive white dwarf with a mass in excess of solar. A death in a sub-Chandrasekhar supernova is also conceivable. Based on observations at the Paranal Observatory of the European Southern Observatory for programme No. 165.H-0588(A). Based on observations at the La Silla Observatory of the European Southern Observatory for programmes No. 072.D-0510(B), 079.D-0288(A), 080.D-0685(A) and 084.D-0348(A).

  3. World Spatiotemporal Analytics and Mapping Project (WSTAMP): Discovering, Exploring, and Mapping Spatiotemporal Patterns across the World s Largest Open Source Geographic Data Sets

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Robert N; Piburn, Jesse O; Sorokine, Alexandre; Myers, Aaron T; White, Devin A

    2015-01-01

    The application of spatiotemporal (ST) analytics to integrated data from major sources such as the World Bank, United Nations, and dozens of others holds tremendous potential for shedding new light on the evolution of cultural, health, economic, and geopolitical landscapes on a global level. Realizing this potential first requires an ST data model that addresses challenges in properly merging data from multiple authors, with evolving ontological perspectives, semantical differences, and changing attributes, as well as content that is textual, numeric, categorical, and hierarchical. Equally challenging is the development of analytical and visualization approaches that provide a serious exploration of this integrated data while remaining accessible to practitioners with varied backgrounds. The WSTAMP project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has yielded two major results in addressing these challenges: 1) development of the WSTAMP database, a significant advance in ST data modeling that integrates 10,000+ attributes covering over 200 nation states spanning over 50 years from over 30 major sources and 2) a novel online ST exploratory and analysis tool providing an array of modern statistical and visualization techniques for analyzing these data temporally, spatially, and spatiotemporally under a standard analytic workflow. We discuss the status of this work and report on major findings. Acknowledgment Prepared by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6285, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC for the U. S. Department of Energy under contract no. DEAC05-00OR22725. Copyright This manuscript has been authored by employees of UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy. Accordingly, the United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or

  4. Binaries discovered by the MUCHFUSS project. SDSS J162256.66+473051.1: An eclipsing subdwarf B binary with a brown dwarf companion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffenroth, V.; Geier, S.; Heber, U.; Kupfer, T.; Ziegerer, E.; Heuser, C.; Classen, L.; Cordes, O.

    2014-04-01

    Hot subdwarf B stars (sdBs) are core helium-burning stars located on the extreme horizontal branch. About half of the known sdB stars are found in close binaries. Their short orbital periods of 1.2 h to a few days suggest that they are post common-envelope systems. Eclipsing hot subdwarf binaries are rare but are important in determining the fundamental stellar parameters. Low-mass companions are identified by the reflection effect. In most cases, the companion is a main sequence star near the stellar mass limit. Here, we report the discovery of an eclipsing hot subdwarf binary SDSS J162256.66+473051.1 (J1622) with very short orbital period (0.0697 d), which has been found in the course of the MUCHFUSS project. The lightcurve shows grazing eclipses and a prominent reflection effect. An analysis of the light- and radial velocity (RV) curves indicated a mass ratio of q = 0.1325, an RV semi-amplitude K = 47.2 km s-1, and an inclination of i = 72.33°. We show that a companion mass of 0.064 M⊙, which is well below the hydrogen-burning limit, is the most plausible solution, which implies a mass close to the canonical mass (0.47 M⊙) of the sdB star. Therefore, the companion is a brown dwarf, which has not only survived the engulfment by the red-giant envelope but also triggered its ejection and enabled the sdB star to form. The rotation of J1622 is expected to be tidally locked to the orbit. However, J1622 rotates too slowly (vrot = 74.5 ± 7 km s-1) to be synchronized, challenging tidal interaction models. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  5. Metadata Management on the SCEC PetaSHA Project: Helping Users Describe, Discover, Understand, and Use Simulation Data in a Large-Scale Scientific Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okaya, D.; Deelman, E.; Maechling, P.; Wong-Barnum, M.; Jordan, T. H.; Meyers, D.

    2007-12-01

    Large scientific collaborations, such as the SCEC Petascale Cyberfacility for Physics-based Seismic Hazard Analysis (PetaSHA) Project, involve interactions between many scientists who exchange ideas and research results. These groups must organize, manage, and make accessible their community materials of observational data, derivative (research) results, computational products, and community software. The integration of scientific workflows as a paradigm to solve complex computations provides advantages of efficiency, reliability, repeatability, choices, and ease of use. The underlying resource needed for a scientific workflow to function and create discoverable and exchangeable products is the construction, tracking, and preservation of metadata. In the scientific workflow environment there is a two-tier structure of metadata. Workflow-level metadata and provenance describe operational steps, identity of resources, execution status, and product locations and names. Domain-level metadata essentially define the scientific meaning of data, codes and products. To a large degree the metadata at these two levels are separate. However, between these two levels is a subset of metadata produced at one level but is needed by the other. This crossover metadata suggests that some commonality in metadata handling is needed. SCEC researchers are collaborating with computer scientists at SDSC, the USC Information Sciences Institute, and Carnegie Mellon Univ. in order to perform earthquake science using high-performance computational resources. A primary objective of the "PetaSHA" collaboration is to perform physics-based estimations of strong ground motion associated with real and hypothetical earthquakes located within Southern California. Construction of 3D earth models, earthquake representations, and numerical simulation of seismic waves are key components of these estimations. Scientific workflows are used to orchestrate the sequences of scientific tasks and to access

  6. Discovering system requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Bahill, A.T.; Bentz, B.; Dean, F.F.

    1996-07-01

    Cost and schedule overruns are often caused by poor requirements that are produced by people who do not understand the requirements process. This report provides a high-level overview of the system requirements process, explaining types, sources, and characteristics of good requirements. System requirements, however, are seldom stated by the customer. Therefore, this report shows ways to help you work with your customer to discover the system requirements. It also explains terminology commonly used in the requirements development field, such as verification, validation, technical performance measures, and the various design reviews.

  7. Discovering Community: Activities for Afterschool Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institute on Out-of-School Time, Wellesley College, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The project activities highlighted in this publication were conducted within the framework of school-based afterschool programs operated by community-based organizations. The intention of the Discovering Community initiative, created by The After-School Corporation and MetLife Foundation, is to foster greater collaborations and mutual respect…

  8. Explore and Discover

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Train to improve your aerobic and anaerobic fitness by carrying weighted objects in this activity. The Train Like an Astronaut project uses the excitement of exploration to challenge students to se...

  9. Discovering the Expanding Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussbaumer, Harry; Bieri, Lydia; Sandage, Foreword by Allan

    2009-03-01

    Acknowledgments; Foreword; 1. Introduction; 2. Cosmological concepts at the end of the Middle Ages; 3. Nebulae as a new astronomical phenomenon; 4. On the construction of the Heavens; 5. Island universes turn into astronomical facts: a universe of galaxies; 6. The early cosmology of Einstein and de Sitter; 7. The dynamical universe of Friedmann; 8. Redshifts: how to reconcile Slipher and de Sitter?; 9. Lemaître discovers the expanding universe; 10. Hubble's contribution of 1929; 11. The breakthrough for the expanding universe; 12. Hubble's anger about de Sitter; 13. Robertson and Tolman join the game; 14. The Einstein-de Sitter universe; 15. Are Sun and Earth older than the universe?; 16. In search of alternative tracks; 17. The seed for the Big Bang; 18. Summary and Postscript; Appendix; References; Index.

  10. Fortuitously discovered liver lesions

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Christoph F; Sharma, Malay; Gibson, Robert N; Schreiber-Dietrich, Dagmar; Jenssen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The fortuitously discovered liver lesion is a common problem. Consensus might be expected in terms of its work-up, and yet there is none. This stems in part from the fact that there is no preventive campaign involving the early detection of liver tumors other than for patients with known liver cirrhosis and oncological patients. The work-up (detection and differential diagnosis) of liver tumors comprises theoretical considerations, history, physical examination, laboratory tests, standard ultrasound, Doppler ultrasound techniques, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, as well as image-guided biopsy. CEUS techniques have proved to be the most pertinent method; these techniques became part of the clinical routine about 10 years ago in Europe and Asia and are used for a variety of indications in daily clinical practice. CEUS is in many cases the first and also decisive technical intervention for detecting and characterizing liver tumors. This development is reflected in many CEUS guidelines, e.g., in the European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) guidelines 2004, 2008 and 2012 as well as the recently published World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology-EFSUMB guidelines 2012. This article sets out considerations for making a structured work-up of incidental liver tumors feasible. PMID:23745019

  11. Chandra Discovers Cosmic Cannonball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-11-01

    One of the fastest moving stars ever seen has been discovered with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This cosmic cannonball is challenging theories to explain its blistering speed. Astronomers used Chandra to observe a neutron star, known as RX J0822-4300, over a period of about five years. During that span, three Chandra observations clearly show the neutron star moving away from the center of the Puppis A supernova remnant. This remnant is the stellar debris field created during the same explosion in which the neutron star was created about 3700 years ago. Chandra X-ray Image of RX J0822-4300 in Puppis A Chandra X-ray Image of RX J0822-4300 in Puppis A By combining how far it has moved across the sky with its distance from Earth, astronomers determined the neutron star is moving at over 3 million miles per hour. At this rate, RX J0822-4300 is destined to escape from the Milky Way after millions of years, even though it has only traveled about 20 light years so far. "This star is moving at 3 million miles an hour, but it's so far away that the apparent motion we see in five years is less than the height of the numerals in the date on a penny, seen from the length of a football field," said Frank Winkler of Middlebury College in Vermont. "It's remarkable, and a real testament to the power of Chandra, that such a tiny motion can be measured." Labeled Image of RX J0822-4300 in Puppis A Labeled Image of RX J0822-4300 in Puppis A "Just after it was born, this neutron star got a one-way ticket out of the Galaxy," said co-author Robert Petre of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. "Astronomers have seen other stars being flung out of the Milky Way, but few as fast as this." So-called hypervelocity stars have been previously discovered shooting out of the Milky Way with speeds around one million miles per hour. One key difference between RX J0822-4300 and these other reported galactic escapees is the source of their speed. The hypervelocity stars are

  12. DISCOVER-AQ Aircraft insitu TraceGas Data (ICT)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-03-31

    ... Project Title:  N/A Platform:  NASA P-3B Spatial Coverage:  (37.84, 39.81), (-77.03, -75.18) ... Data for Atmospheric Composition DISCOVER-AQ - NASA Earth Science Mission DISCOVER-AQ - Program Home Page ...

  13. DISCOVER-AQ Aircraft insitu Aerosol Data (ICT)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-03-31

    ... Project Title:  N/A Platform:  NASA P-3B Spatial Coverage:  (37.84, 39.81), (-77.03, -75.18) ... Data for Atmospheric Composition DISCOVER-AQ - NASA Earth Science Mission DISCOVER-AQ - Program Home Page ...

  14. DISCOVER-AQ Aircraft Navigational Data P3B (ICT)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-03-31

    ... Project Title:  N/A Platform:  NASA P-3B Spatial Coverage:  (37.84, 39.81), (-77.03, -75.18) ... Data for Atmospheric Composition DISCOVER-AQ - NASA Earth Science Mission DISCOVER-AQ - Program Home Page ...

  15. Lightest exoplanet yet discovered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-04-01

    Well-known exoplanet researcher Michel Mayor today announced the discovery of the lightest exoplanet found so far. The planet, "e", in the famous system Gliese 581, is only about twice the mass of our Earth. The team also refined the orbit of the planet Gliese 581 d, first discovered in 2007, placing it well within the habitable zone, where liquid water oceans could exist. These amazing discoveries are the outcome of more than four years of observations using the most successful low-mass-exoplanet hunter in the world, the HARPS spectrograph attached to the 3.6-metre ESO telescope at La Silla, Chile. ESO PR Photo 15a/09 Artist's impression of Gliese 581 e ESO PR Photo 15b/09 A planet in the habitable zone ESO PR Video 15a/09 ESOcast 6 ESO PR Video 15b/09 VNR A-roll ESO PR Video 15c/09 Zoom-in on Gliese 581 e ESO PR Video 15d/09 Artist's impression of Gliese 581 e ESO PR Video 15e/09 Artist's impression of Gliese 581 d ESO PR Video 15f/09 Artist's impression of Gliese 581 system ESO PR Video 15g/09 The radial velocity method ESO PR Video 15h/09 Statement in English ESO PR Video 15i/09 Statement in French ESO PR Video 15j/09 La Silla Observatory "The holy grail of current exoplanet research is the detection of a rocky, Earth-like planet in the ‘habitable zone' -- a region around the host star with the right conditions for water to be liquid on a planet's surface", says Michel Mayor from the Geneva Observatory, who led the European team to this stunning breakthrough. Planet Gliese 581 e orbits its host star - located only 20.5 light-years away in the constellation Libra ("the Scales") -- in just 3.15 days. "With only 1.9 Earth-masses, it is the least massive exoplanet ever detected and is, very likely, a rocky planet", says co-author Xavier Bonfils from Grenoble Observatory. Being so close to its host star, the planet is not in the habitable zone. But another planet in this system appears to be. From previous observations -- also obtained with the HARPS spectrograph

  16. Strontium-90 Error Discovered in Subcontract Laboratory Spreadsheet

    SciTech Connect

    D. D. Brown A. S. Nagel

    1999-07-31

    West Valley Demonstration Project health physicists and environment scientists discovered a series of errors in a subcontractor's spreadsheet being used to reduce data as part of their strontium-90 analytical process.

  17. News & Views Evaluation of Projects for Basic Research of Scientific Instruments in 2008 Completed NSFC Former President Tang Ao-qing Passed Away Professor Tang Aoqing and NSFC Carbon Nanotube Film-Based Speaker Developed in Tsinghua University Dinosaur Footprint Fossils Discovered in Xinjiang New Method for Early Cancer Diagnosis New Progress Achieved by NSFC Project in Basic Research of Black Hole Physics New progress in Organic FET 67 NSFC-RFBR Cooperative Projects Approved for 2008 Spin Configuration and Super-exchange Mechanism in Molecular Magnets Observed NSFC Strengthens its Funding in Wenchuan Concerns Go to Disaster's Impact on Economy and Emergency Response Thirty-seven NSFC-KOSEF Cooperative Projects Approved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation of Projects for Basic Research of Scientific Instruments in 2008 Completed NSFC Former President Tang Ao-qing Passed Away Professor Tang Aoqing and NSFC Carbon Nanotube Film-Based Speaker Developed in Tsinghua University Dinosaur Footprint Fossils Discovered in Xinjiang New Method for Early Cancer Diagnosis New Progress Achieved by NSFC Project in Basic Research of Black Hole Physics New progress in Organic FET 67 NSFC-RFBR Cooperative Projects Approved for 2008 Spin Configuration and Super-exchange Mechanism in Molecular Magnets Observed NSFC Strengthens its Funding in Wenchuan Concerns Go to Disaster's Impact on Economy and Emergency Response Thirty-seven NSFC-KOSEF Cooperative Projects Approved

  18. Temperate Lakes Discovered on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vixie, Graham; Barnes, Jason W.; Jackson, Brian; Wilson, Paul

    2012-04-01

    We have discovered two temperate lakes on Titan using Cassini's Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS). Three key features help to identify these surface features as lakes: morphology, albedo, and specular reflection. The presence of lakes at the mid-latitudes mean liquid can accumulate and remain stable outside of the poles. We first identify a lake surface by looking for possible shorelines with a lacustrine morphology. Then, we apply a simple atmospheric correction that produces an approximate surface albedo. Next, we prepare cylindrical projection maps of the brightness of the sky as seen from any points on the surface to identify specular reflections. Our techniques can then be applied to other areas, such as Arrakis Planitia, to test for liquid. Currently, all the known lakes on Titan are concentrated at the poles. Lakes have been suggested in the tropic zone by Griffith et al. Our discovery of non-transient, temperate lakes has important implications for Titan's hydrologic cycle. Clouds have been recorded accumulating in the mid-latitudes and areas have been darkened by rainfall but later brightened after evaporation (Turtle et al. 2011). Stable temperate lakes would affect total rainfall, liquid accumulation, evaporation rates, and infiltration. Polaznik Macula (Figure 1) is a great candidate for lake filling, evaporation rates, and stability. References: Griffith, C., et al.: "Evidence for Lakes on Titan's Tropical Surface". AAS/Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting Abstracts #42, Vol. 42, pp. 1077, 2010. Turtle, E. P., et al.: "Rapid and Extensive Surface Changes Near Titan's Equator: Evidence of April Showers". Science, Vol. 331, pp. 1414-, 2011. Figure 1: Polaznik Macula is the large, dark area central to the figure. The encircled dark blue areas represent positively identified lake regions in the T66 flyby. The light blue areas represent lake candidates still under analysis. The green circle marks a non-lake surface feature enclosed by a

  19. Digimarc Discover on Google Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Eliot; Rodriguez, Tony; Lord, John; Alattar, Adnan

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports on the implementation of the Digimarc® Discover platform on Google Glass, enabling the reading of a watermark embedded in a printed material or audio. The embedded watermark typically contains a unique code that identifies the containing media or object and a synchronization signal that allows the watermark to be read robustly. The Digimarc Discover smartphone application can read the watermark from a small portion of printed image presented at any orientation or reasonable distance. Likewise, Discover can read the recently introduced Digimarc Barcode to identify and manage consumer packaged goods in the retail channel. The Digimarc Barcode has several advantages over the traditional barcode and is expected to save the retail industry millions of dollars when deployed at scale. Discover can also read an audio watermark from ambient audio captured using a microphone. The Digimarc Discover platform has been widely deployed on the iPad, iPhone and many Android-based devices, but it has not yet been implemented on a head-worn wearable device, such as Google Glass. Implementing Discover on Google Glass is a challenging task due to the current hardware and software limitations of the device. This paper identifies the challenges encountered in porting Discover to the Google Glass and reports on the solutions created to deliver a prototype implementation.

  20. Discovering the Universe, 6th edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comins, Neil F.; Kaufmann, William J.

    Discovering the Universe is the best-selling brief text for descriptive one-term astronomy courses (especially those with no mathematics prerequisites). Carried along by the book's vibrant main theme--the process of scientific discovery--readers will encounter spectacular sights, landmark experiments, and recent discoveries, while learning to avoid the pitfalls created by common misconceptions about astronomy. Now enhanced with a powerful technology and image projection package, this is the most exciting and effective edition yet. The accompanying CD-ROM features a special student version of the award-winning virtual planetarium software, Starry Night? Backyard.

  1. Families Discover the Outdoors Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Polly

    1980-01-01

    An idea for hands-on activities for families to use in discovering the outdoors together when visiting parks is described. Family packs contain discovery and natural history cards, thermometers, magnifiers, insect boxes, photographs of animals and plants, a pencil, and a feedback form. (SA)

  2. DISCOVER: A Computerized Careers Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayman, Jack R.

    Liberal arts campuses are feeling a need to provide better career education services for their undergraduate students. The DISCOVER Foundation has developed a comprehensive computerized career guidance system for grades 7 through 12 which not only provides career information, but also performs such tasks as teaching students decision-making skills…

  3. Large solar system planetoid discovered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    A newly discovered planetoid, currently dubbed 2004 UN, could be confirmed as the largest such known body in the Kuiper Belt, scientists announced on 19 February.The planetoid, located about 4.4 billion miles from Earth, is estimated at about 1,400 kilometers in diameter, according to Michael Brown, associate professor of planetary astronomy at the California Institute of Technology.

  4. DISCOVER-AQ Featured Articles

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-01-31

    ...     Not Your Average Video Traffic Report : Earth Matters Blogs  - DISCOVER-AQ planes have been flying over roadways, ... of air quality during “rush hour” and throughout the day. News Roundup: Arctic Ice, Spacesuit Satellites and More : Earth ...

  5. Families Discover the Outdoors Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Polly

    1980-01-01

    An idea for hands-on activities for families to use in discovering the outdoors together when visiting parks is described. Family packs contain discovery and natural history cards, thermometers, magnifiers, insect boxes, photographs of animals and plants, a pencil, and a feedback form. (SA)

  6. The Universe for all to discover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Gil, A.; Ballesteros, F.; Espinós, H.; Fernández-Soto, A.; Lanzara, M.; Moya, M. J.; Navarro, J.

    2015-05-01

    In the title of this paper, we have changed the slogan of the International Year of Astronomy, ``The Universe yours to discover" to ``The Universe for all to discover" in order to emphasize the need to think about broader audiences when we plan astronomical activities at school or during outreach events. The strategy we propose follows what is known as the Universal Design for Learning (UDL). UDL allows to reach to the general public as well as to audiences which might be regarded as ``special" because they have some disability. It has been shown that everybody has a preferred style of learning (some remember better what they see, others what they hear or what they touch) and therefore, everybody is more or less able under the different styles of learning. Through this talk I am going to outline some of the principles of the UDL that can be applied in the teaching and communication of Astronomy, along with an example of its implementation in the project ``A Touch of the Universe".

  7. DISCOVER AQ Research Plane Arrives

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-28

    WFF Pilots Mike Singer, left, and Shane Dover stand in front of the 117-foot P-3B NASA research aircraft on the tarmac at Baltimore/Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport, Tuesday, June 28, 2011, in Baltimore, Md. The aircraft is part of a month-long field campaign designed to improve satellite measurements of air pollution. The name of the experiment -- Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER -- AQ) -- is a mouthful, but its purpose is simple. Come July, the aircraft will be flying spirals over six ground stations in Maryland. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  8. DISCOVER AQ Research Plane Arrives

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-28

    A 117-foot P-3B NASA research aircraft is seen on the tarmac at Baltimore/Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport, Tuesday, June 28, 2011, in Baltimore, Md. The aircraft is part of a month-long field campaign designed to improve satellite measurements of air pollution. The name of the experiment -- Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER -- AQ) -- is a mouthful, but its purpose is simple. Come July, the aircraft will be flying spirals over six ground stations in Maryland. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  9. DISCOVER AQ Research Plane Arrives

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-28

    Pilots Shane Dover, left, and Mike Singer are seen on the flight deck of the P-3B NASA research aircraft at Baltimore/Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport, Tuesday, June 28, 2011, in Baltimore, Md. The aircraft is part of a month-long field campaign designed to improve satellite measurements of air pollution. The name of the experiment -- Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER -- AQ) -- is a mouthful, but its purpose is simple. Come July, the aircraft will be flying spirals over six ground stations in Maryland. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  10. DISCOVER AQ Research Plane Arrives

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-28

    An unidentified researcher works aboard the P-3B NASA research aircraft at Baltimore/Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport, Tuesday, June 28, 2011, in Baltimore, Md. The aircraft is part of a month-long field campaign designed to improve satellite measurements of air pollution. The name of the experiment -- Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER -- AQ) -- is a mouthful, but its purpose is simple. Come July, the aircraft will be flying spirals over six ground stations in Maryland. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  11. Rapid OT discovered by MASTER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balanutsa, P.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Lipunov, V.; Denisenko, D.; Tiurina, N.; Kornilov, V.; Belinski, A.; Shatskiy, N.; Chazov, V.; Kuznetsov, A.; Zimnukhov, D.; Krushinsky, V.; Zalozhnih, I.; Popov, A.; Bourdanov, A.; Punanova, A.; Ivanov, K.; Yazev, S.; Budnev, N.; Konstantinov, E.; Chuvalaev, O.; Poleshchuk, V.; Gress, O.; Parkhomenko, A.; Tlatov, A.; Dormidontov, D.; Senik, V.; Yurkov, V.; Sergienko, Y.; Varda, D.; Sinyakov, E.; Shumkov, V.; Shurpakov, S.; Levato, H.; Saffe, C.; Mallamaci, C.; Lopez, C.; Podest, F.

    2012-09-01

    OT MASTER J005552.55+261100.8 discovery MASTER-Amur auto-detection system discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 00h 55m 52.55s +26d 11m 00.8s on 2012-08-30.77359 UT by two tube simultaneously during 3 min exposition. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 14.2m (limit 18.0m). There is no minor planet at this place. There is no known satellite around 4 degrees at this time. There is one non star object NBKY021338 (jmag~ 22.3) in the Guide Star Catalog with 3.6 arcsec offset.

  12. Discover an Asteroid Using SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramseyer, Elizabeth A.

    2006-12-01

    Every Fall, the Apache Point Observatory repeatedly images the skies near declination 0 degrees in a quest to see first light from distant supernovae. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) uses the data from these images to map the Universe. These data are made available on the internet for use by the public. While analyzing these images, we discovered the presence of a transient light source that subsequent analysis showed our ?mystery object? to be an asteroid. We present here the details of the analysis that allowed us to determine the identity of our ?mystery object.? Learn how you can access the SDSS database and make your own discovery!

  13. Digital Discover of Ephemeral Ponds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    ER D C/ CE RL T R - 12 -2 1 Center Directed Research Program Digital Discover of Ephemeral Ponds En gi ne er R es ea rc h an d D ev el...r.mapcalc formula : r.terraflow lidar_elev filled=elev_filled \\ accum=elev_accum memory=2000 \\ dir=elev_dir swater=elev_sink tci =elev_tci...J. D., M. Shapiro, W. D. Goran, and D. P. Gerdes. 1992. Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS) Version 4.0 User’s Reference Manual . N

  14. Discovering New Light States at Neutrino Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Essig, Rouven; Harnik, Roni; Kaplan, Jared; Toro, Natalia; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-11

    Experiments designed to measure neutrino oscillations also provide major opportunities for discovering very weakly coupled states. In order to produce neutrinos, experiments such as LSND collide thousands of Coulombs of protons into fixed targets, while MINOS and MiniBooNE also focus and then dump beams of muons. The neutrino detectors beyond these beam dumps are therefore an excellent arena in which to look for long-lived pseudoscalars or for vector bosons that kinetically mix with the photon. We show that these experiments have significant sensitivity beyond previous beam dumps, and are able to partially close the gap between laboratory experiments and supernovae constraints on pseudoscalars. Future upgrades to the NuMI beamline and Project X will lead to even greater opportunities for discovery. We also discuss thin target experiments with muon beams, such as those available in COMPASS, and show that they constitute a powerful probe for leptophilic PNGBs.

  15. Discover 4-H Clubs: The Essential Resource for 4-H

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacArthur, Stacey; Nelson, Cindy; Brower, Naomi; Memmott, Margie; Peterson, Gaelynn

    2016-01-01

    Obstacles facing new 4-H volunteers include time constraints and difficulty finding project-specific information, resources, and opportunities available for club members. As a solution to these obstacles and an aid for assisting volunteers in becoming confident in delivering information to youth, content experts produced Discover 4-H Clubs, a…

  16. Discover 4-H Clubs: The Essential Resource for 4-H

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacArthur, Stacey; Nelson, Cindy; Brower, Naomi; Memmott, Margie; Peterson, Gaelynn

    2016-01-01

    Obstacles facing new 4-H volunteers include time constraints and difficulty finding project-specific information, resources, and opportunities available for club members. As a solution to these obstacles and an aid for assisting volunteers in becoming confident in delivering information to youth, content experts produced Discover 4-H Clubs, a…

  17. Discovering Network Structure Beyond Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Takashi; Motter, Adilson E.

    2011-11-01

    To understand the formation, evolution, and function of complex systems, it is crucial to understand the internal organization of their interaction networks. Partly due to the impossibility of visualizing large complex networks, resolving network structure remains a challenging problem. Here we overcome this difficulty by combining the visual pattern recognition ability of humans with the high processing speed of computers to develop an exploratory method for discovering groups of nodes characterized by common network properties, including but not limited to communities of densely connected nodes. Without any prior information about the nature of the groups, the method simultaneously identifies the number of groups, the group assignment, and the properties that define these groups. The results of applying our method to real networks suggest the possibility that most group structures lurk undiscovered in the fast-growing inventory of social, biological, and technological networks of scientific interest.

  18. Scientix in our school- discovering STEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melcu, Cornelia

    2017-04-01

    My name is Cornelia Melcu and I am a primary school teacher in Brasov. Additionally, I am a teacher trainer of Preparatory Class Curriculum, Google Application in Education Course and European Projects Course and a mentor to new teachers and students in university. I am an eTwinning, Scientix and ESERO ambassador too. During the last three school years my school was involved in several STEM projects, part of Scientix community. The main goal of those projects was to develop basic STEM skills of our students based on project work integrated into the curriculum. Open the Gates to the Universe (http://gatestotheuniverse.blogspot.ro; https://twinspace.etwinning.net/12520/home) is an eTwinning project for primary school students started on September 2015 and finished on September 2016. Some of our partners were from the Mediterranean area. The students discovered different aspects of space science and astronomy working on international groups. They explored some aspects of Science included in their curriculum using resources from ESERO, ROEDUSEIS and Space Awareness (e.g. Calculate with Rosetta, Writing the travel diary, Build Rosetta, How to become an astronaut, etc.) The project was a great opportunity to apply integrated learning methods for developing competencies which are a part of the primary school curriculum in Romania. In Language and Communication classes the students talked about their partners living places and their traditions and habits. They learnt some basic words in their partners language related to the weather. They created stories- both in Romanian and English; they described life in space and astronomical phenomena. They talked to the other partners during the several online meetings we organized and wrote short stories in English. In Mathematics and Science they found out about the Milky Way, the Solar System, the weather, famous astronauts and astronomers. They calculated, solved problems, made experiments and explained specific natural phenomena

  19. Glowing Hot Transiting Exoplanet Discovered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-04-01

    VLT Spectra Indicate Shortest-Known-Period Planet Orbiting OGLE-TR-3 Summary More than 100 exoplanets in orbit around stars other than the Sun have been found so far. But while their orbital periods and distances from their central stars are well known, their true masses cannot be determined with certainty, only lower limits. This fundamental limitation is inherent in the common observational method to discover exoplanets - the measurements of small and regular changes in the central star's velocity, caused by the planet's gravitational pull as it orbits the star. However, in two cases so far, it has been found that the exoplanet's orbit happens to be positioned in such a way that the planet moves in front of the stellar disk, as seen from the Earth. This "transit" event causes a small and temporary dip in the star's brightness, as the planet covers a small part of its surface, which can be observed. The additional knowledge of the spatial orientation of the planetary orbit then permits a direct determination of the planet's true mass. Now, a group of German astronomers [1] have found a third star in which a planet, somewhat larger than Jupiter, but only half as massive, moves in front of the central star every 28.5 hours . The crucial observation of this solar-type star, designated OGLE-TR-3 [2] was made with the high-dispersion UVES spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile). It is the exoplanet with the shortest period found so far and it is very close to the star, only 3.5 million km away. The hemisphere that faces the star must be extremely hot, about 2000 °C and the planet is obviously losing its atmosphere at high rate . PR Photo 10a/03 : The star OGLE-TR-3 . PR Photo 10b/03 : VLT UVES spectrum of OGLE-TR-3. PR Photo 10c/03 : Relation between stellar brightness and velocity (diagram). PR Photo 10d/03 : Observed velocity variation of OGLE-TR-3. PR Photo 10e/03 : Observed brightness variation of OGLE-TR-3. The search

  20. Discover Space: an IYA program for libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P.

    2009-12-01

    Across the country, there is a growing concern regarding the number of students entering science and technology careers. While the focus for education reform is on school improvement, there is considerable research that supports the role that out-of-school experiences can play in student achievement. This is particularly true when family interactions are factored in. Libraries provide an untapped resource for engaging underserved youth and their families in fostering an appreciation and deeper understanding of science and technology topics. The nation’s more than 17,000 public libraries attract diverse audiences in almost every community. Science exhibits in libraries could potentially reach many adults and upper elementary and middle school students with STEM content. The Space Science Institute (SSI) is partnering with the American Library Association (ALA) to develop a pilot exhibit called Discover Space. The exhibit includes two areas: Space Storms and Star Quest and is currently on tour in Colorado. It is a featured IYA outreach project from SSI. This presentation will focus on the results of a national survey of libraries that SSI and ALA conducted in 2008 about interest in STEM exhibits as well as the development process that was used to design and fabricate the exhibit. Preliminary evaluation results will also be shared. The presentation will conclude with an examination of how this program could benefit underserved communities around the country.

  1. Discovering Mobile Social Networks by Semantic Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jason J.; Choi, Kwang Sun; Park, Sung Hyuk

    It has been important for telecommunication companies to discover social networks from mobile subscribers. They have attempted to provide a number of recommendation services, but they realized that the services were not successful. In this chapter, we present semantic technologies for discovering social networks. The process is mainly composed of two steps; (1) profile identification and (2) context understanding. Through developing a Next generation Contents dElivery (NICE) platform, we were able to generate various services based on the discovered social networks.

  2. Scientists Discover Sugar in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-06-01

    . Glycolaldehyde is a simpler molecular cousin to table sugar, the scientists say. The sugar molecule was detected in a large cloud of gas and dust some 26,000 light-years away, near the center of our Galaxy. Such clouds, often many light-years across, are the material from which new stars are formed. Though very rarified by Earth standards, these interstellar clouds are the sites of complex chemical reactions that occur over hundreds of thousands or millions of years. So far, about 120 different molecules have been discovered in these clouds. Most of these molecules contain a small number of atoms, and only a few molecules with eight or more atoms have been found in interstellar clouds. The 12 Meter Telescope "Finding glycolaldehyde in one of these interstellar clouds means that such molecules can be formed even in very rarified conditions," said Hollis. "We don't yet understand how it could be formed there," he added. "A combination of more astronomical observations and theoretical chemistry work will be required to resolve the mystery of how this molecule is formed in space." "We hope this discovery inspires renewed efforts to find even more kinds of molecules, so that, with a better idea of the total picture, we may be able to deduce the details of the prebiotic chemistry taking place in interstellar clouds," Hollis said. The discovery was made by detecting faint radio emission from the sugar molecules in the interstellar cloud. Molecules rotate end-for-end, and as they change from one rotational energy state to another, they emit radio waves at precise frequencies. The "family" of radio frequencies emitted by a particular molecule forms a unique "fingerprint" that scientists can use to identify that molecule. The scientists identified glycolaldehyde by detecting six frequencies of radio emission in what is termed the millimeter-wavelength region of the electromagnetic spectrum -- a region between more-familiar microwaves and infrared radiation. The NRAO 12 Meter Telescope

  3. DISCOVER in Lebanon: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarouphim, Ketty M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of DISCOVER, a performance-based assessment, in identifying gifted students in Lebanon. DISCOVER is grounded in Gardner's MI theory and consists of tasks involving problem-solving and creative abilities. The sample consisted of 49 middle-class 5-th graders, with a mean age of 10.2…

  4. Discovering History in a Digital World: The Texas Story Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munns, David

    2016-01-01

    New digital tools and technologies create an opportunity for history museums to personalize visitor experiences, reach new audiences, and increase their relevancy by including visitors' historical narratives in museum content and programming. By adapting to the shift in social narrative prompted by digital media advancements, museums are…

  5. Discovering History in a Digital World: The Texas Story Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munns, David

    2016-01-01

    New digital tools and technologies create an opportunity for history museums to personalize visitor experiences, reach new audiences, and increase their relevancy by including visitors' historical narratives in museum content and programming. By adapting to the shift in social narrative prompted by digital media advancements, museums are…

  6. The Clipper Project: Discovering What Online Courses Offer Residential Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, M. J.; White, Sally A.

    2007-01-01

    Driven by advances in instructional technologies, the processes of teaching and learning have come under new scrutiny in recent years. Some have called for renewed interest among faculty in the "scholarship of teaching", whereby a portion of their time goes to assessing their pedagogical styles and seeking technology-enhanced…

  7. The Clipper Project: Discovering What Online Courses Offer Residential Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, M. J.; White, Sally A.

    2007-01-01

    Driven by advances in instructional technologies, the processes of teaching and learning have come under new scrutiny in recent years. Some have called for renewed interest among faculty in the "scholarship of teaching", whereby a portion of their time goes to assessing their pedagogical styles and seeking technology-enhanced…

  8. Dive and discover: Expeditions to the seafloor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayers Lawrence, Lisa

    The Dive and Discover Web site is a virtual treasure chest of deep sea science and classroom resources. The goals of Dive and Discover are to engage students, teachers, and the general public in the excitement of ocean disco very through an interactive educational Web site. You can follow scientists on oceanographic research cruises by reading their daily cruise logs, viewing photos and video clips of the discoveries, and even e-mailing questions to the scientists and crew. WHOI has also included an "Educator's Companion" section with teaching strategies, activities, and assessments, making Dive and Discover an excellent resource for the classroom.

  9. Dive and discover: Expeditions to the seafloor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Lisa Ayers

    The Dive and Discover Web site is a virtual treasure chest of deep sea science and classroom resources. The goals of Dive and Discover are to engage students, teachers, and the general public in the excitement of ocean disco very through an interactive educational Web site. You can follow scientists on oceanographic research cruises by reading their daily cruise logs, viewing photos and video clips of the discoveries, and even e-mailing questions to the scientists and crew. WHOI has also included an “Educator's Companion” section with teaching strategies, activities, and assessments, making Dive and Discover an excellent resource for the classroom.

  10. Scientists Discover More Clues to Stuttering

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_162368.html Scientists Discover More Clues to Stuttering MRI shows involvement of brain areas controlling speech, ... speech, attention and emotion are all linked to stuttering. Stuttering is characterized by involuntarily repeating certain sounds, ...

  11. Discovering novel sequence motifs with MEME.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Timothy L

    2002-11-01

    This unit illustrates how to use MEME to discover motifs in a group of related nucleotide or peptide sequences. A MEME motif is a sequence pattern that occurs repeatedly in one or more sequences in the input group. MEME can be used to discover novel patterns because it bases its discoveries only on the input sequences, not on any prior knowledge (such as databases of known motifs). The input to MEME is a set of unaligned sequences of the same type (peptide or nucleotide). For each motif it discovers, MEME reports the occurrences (sites), consensus sequence, and the level of conservation (information content) at each position in the pattern. MEME also produces block diagrams showing where all of the discovered motifs occur in the training set sequences. MEME's hypertext (HTML) output also contains buttons that allow for the convenient use of the motifs in other searches.

  12. Kepler Discovers Earth-size Planet Candidates

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA's Kepler mission has discovered its first Earth-size planet candidates and its first candidates in the habitable zone, a region where liquid water could exist on a planet's surface. Five of th...

  13. Kepler Discovers Its First Rocky Planet

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA's Kepler mission confirmed the discovery of its first rocky planet, named Kepler-10b. Measuring 1.4 times the size of Earth, it is the smallest planet ever discovered outside our solar system....

  14. Fermi discovers giant bubbles in Milky Way

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Using data from NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, scientists have recently discovered a gigantic, mysterious structure in our galaxy. This feature looks like a pair of bubbles extending above...

  15. Did the ancient egyptians discover Algol?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jetsu, L.; Porceddu, S.; Porceddu, S.; Lyytinen, J.; Kajatkari, P.; Markkanen, T.; Toivari-Viitala, J.

    2013-02-01

    Fabritius discovered the first variable star, Mira, in 1596. Holwarda determined the 11 months period of Mira in 1638. Montanari discovered the next variable star, Algol, in 1669. Its period, 2.867 days, was determined by Goodricke (178). Algol was associated with demon-like creatures, "Gorgon" in ancient Greek and "ghoul" in ancient Arab mythology. This indicates that its variability was discovered much before 1669 (Wilk 1996), but this mythological evidence is ambiguous (Davis 1975). For thousands of years, the Ancient Egyptian Scribes (AES) observed stars for timekeeping in a region, where there are nearly 300 clear nights a year. We discovered a significant periodicity of 2.850 days in their calendar for lucky and unlucky days dated to 1224 BC, "the Cairo Calendar". Several astrophysical and astronomical tests supported our conclusion that this was the period of Algol three millennia ago. The "ghoulish habits" of Algol could explain this 0.017 days period increase (Battersby 2012).

  16. ROSAT Discovers Unique, Distant Cluster of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-06-01

    galaxies as they were 5,000 million years ago. Knowing the intensity of the X-ray emission as measured by ROSAT and also the distance, the astronomers were then able to estimate the total X-ray energy emitted by this cluster. It was found to be extremely high [3], in fact higher than that of any other cluster ever observed by ROSAT. It amounts to no less than 1.5 million million times the total energy emitted by the Sun. It is believed that this strong X-ray emission originates in a hot gas located between the galaxies in the cluster. The high temperature indicates that the components of the gas move very rapidly; this is related to the strong gravitational field within the cluster. THE GRAVITATIONAL ARCS To their great surprise and delight, the astronomers also discovered two bright arcs, 5 - 6 arcseconds long and symmetrically placed about 35 arcseconds to the North-East and South-West of the brightest galaxies in the cluster (see the photo). They were detected on exposures of only 3 minutes duration with the 2.2-metre telescope and are among the brightest such arcs ever found. At the indicated distance, the arcs are situated at a projected distance of about 500,000 light-years from the centre of the cluster. It is an interesting possibility that the two arcs may in fact be two images of the same, very distant galaxy, that is situated far beyond RXJ1347.5-1145 and whose light has been bent and split by this cluster's strong gravitational field. This strange phenomenon was first discovered in the late 1970's and is referred to as gravitational lensing. Quite a few examples are now known, in most cases in the form of double or multiple images of quasars. About three dozen cases involve well visible galaxy clusters and elongated arcs, but few, if any, of these arcs are as bright as those seen in the present cluster. This particular arc configuration enables a very accurate determination of the total mass of the cluster, once the distance of the background galaxy has been

  17. Discover Earth: Earth's Energy Budget or Can You Spare a Sun?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, Tom; Peters, Dale E.; Steeley, Jeanne

    1999-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction, and provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park.

  18. Boron Discovered in Ancient Habitable Mars Groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Gasda, Patrick

    2016-12-13

    Boron was recently discovered in calcium-sulfate veins on Mars using the ChemCam instrument on NASA’s Curiosity Mars Rover. This is the first Mars mission to detect boron on the Red Planet. Los Alamos Post-Doctoral Student Patrick Gasda explains how this discovery helps us better understand the timescale of habitability on Mars.

  19. Discover Your Band or Orchestra's Roots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonder, Mark

    1990-01-01

    States that discovering the origins of one's school music group can promote interest in the school's music programs. Discusses books that provide historical information on school music programs; provides ideas for formulating teaching objectives; and tells how to locate sources and organize data. (DB)

  20. Discovering Science through Art-Based Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberts, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Art and science are intrinsically linked; the essence of art and science is discovery. Both artists and scientists work in a systematic but creative way--knowledge and understanding are built up through pieces of art or a series of labs. In the classroom, integrating science and visual art can provide students with the latitude to think, discover,…

  1. Discovering Alaska's Salmon: A Children's Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devaney, Laurel

    This children's activity book helps students discover Alaska's salmon. Information is provided about salmon and where they live. The salmon life cycle and food chains are also discussed. Different kinds of salmon such as Chum Salmon, Chinook Salmon, Coho Salmon, Sockeye Salmon, and Pink Salmon are introduced, and various activities on salmon are…

  2. Discovering Diabetes Complications: an Ontology Based Model

    PubMed Central

    Daghistani, Tahani; Shammari, Riyad Al; Razzak, Muhammad Imran

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is a serious disease that spread in the world dramatically. The diabetes patient has an average of risk to experience complications. Take advantage of recorded information to build ontology as information technology solution will help to predict patients who have average of risk level with certain complication. It is helpful to search and present patient’s history regarding different risk factors. Discovering diabetes complications could be useful to prevent or delay the complications. Method: We designed ontology based model, using adult diabetes patients’ data, to discover the rules of diabetes with its complications in disease to disease relationship. Result: Various rules between different risk factors of diabetes Patients and certain complications generated. Furthermore, new complications (diseases) might be discovered as new finding of this study, discovering diabetes complications could be useful to prevent or delay the complications. Conclusion: The system can identify the patients who are suffering from certain risk factors such as high body mass index (obesity) and starting controlling and maintaining plan. PMID:26862251

  3. The Newly Discovered Rembrandt Impact Basin

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-05-05

    This NAC mosaic of the newly discovered Rembrandt impact basin was presented last week during a NASA media teleconference. The number per area and size distribution of impact craters superposed on Rembrandt rim indicates that it is one of the younges

  4. Discovering the Sequential Structure of Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, John R.; Fincham, Jon M.

    2014-01-01

    Multi-voxel pattern recognition techniques combined with Hidden Markov models can be used to discover the mental states that people go through in performing a task. The combined method identifies both the mental states and how their durations vary with experimental conditions. We apply this method to a task where participants solve novel…

  5. Discovering the Sequential Structure of Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, John R.; Fincham, Jon M.

    2014-01-01

    Multi-voxel pattern recognition techniques combined with Hidden Markov models can be used to discover the mental states that people go through in performing a task. The combined method identifies both the mental states and how their durations vary with experimental conditions. We apply this method to a task where participants solve novel…

  6. Discovering English with the Sketch Engine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, James

    2014-01-01

    "Discovering English with the Sketch Engine" is the title of a new book (Thomas, 2014) which introduces the use of corpora in language study, teaching, writing and translating. It focuses on using the Sketch Engine to identify patterns of normal usage in many aspects of English ranging from morphology to discourse and pragmatics. This…

  7. Pseudomonas blight discovered on raspberry in Watsonville

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the winter (February) of 2013, a field of raspberries in Watsonville was discovered to be infected with Pseudomonas syringae, the causal agent of Pseudomonas blight disease. This was the first documentation of this disease on raspberry in our region. The infection of raspberry plants is manifeste...

  8. Discover Presidential Log Cabins. Teacher's Discussion Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Discover Presidential Log Cabins is a set of materials designed to help educate 6-8 grade students about the significance of three log cabin sites occupied by George Washington, Ulysses Grant, Abraham Lincoln, and Theodore Roosevelt. This teacher's discussion guide is intended for use as part of a larger, comprehensive social studies program, and…

  9. MASTER: bright PSN discovered in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumkov, V.; Lipunov, V.; Podesta, R.; Levato, H.; Buckley, D.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Vladimirov, V.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Chazov, V.; Lopez, C.; Podesta, F.; Saffe, C.; Pogrosheva, T.; Shurpakov, S.

    2016-10-01

    MASTER-OAFA (located in Argentina) auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., 2010, Advances in Astronomy, vol. 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 22h 01m 01.36s -40d 15m 26.7s on 2016-10-31.08091 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 16.9m (mlim=19.9m).

  10. Television: A Medium for Discovering Diversity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selva, Marta; Sola, Anna

    1995-01-01

    Examines television news programs as media for discovering diversity. Discusses television as a means of information and communication, its role in the creation of public opinion, its inability to permit understanding, and the need for empirical research to assess its influence on cognitive processes. (AEF)

  11. Discovering Alaska's Salmon: A Children's Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devaney, Laurel

    This children's activity book helps students discover Alaska's salmon. Information is provided about salmon and where they live. The salmon life cycle and food chains are also discussed. Different kinds of salmon such as Chum Salmon, Chinook Salmon, Coho Salmon, Sockeye Salmon, and Pink Salmon are introduced, and various activities on salmon are…

  12. Did Viking discover life on Mars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, H. P.

    1999-01-01

    A major argument in the claim that life had been discovered during the Viking mission to Mars is that the results obtained in the Labeled Release (LR) experiment are analogous to those observed with terrestrial microorganisms. This assertion is critically examined and found to be implausible.

  13. Discovering Integration through a Physical Phenomenon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Derek; Magnes, Jenny; Schwarz, Gregory; Hartke, John

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines a method of conducting a laboratory designed to discover mathematical integration with students. The results are produced and verified in the laboratory by students. Understanding that an integral is defined by the area bounded by a function of x and the x-axis from a point a to a point b is challenging. Students often have…

  14. Did Viking discover life on Mars?

    PubMed

    Klein, H P

    1999-12-01

    A major argument in the claim that life had been discovered during the Viking mission to Mars is that the results obtained in the Labeled Release (LR) experiment are analogous to those observed with terrestrial microorganisms. This assertion is critically examined and found to be implausible.

  15. New volcanoes discovered in southeast Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-07-01

    Scientists have discovered three new active volcanoes in the Newer Volcanics Province (NVP) in southeast Australia. Researchers from Monash University in Melbourne describe in the Australian Journal of Earth Sciences how they used a combination of satellite photographs, detailed topography models from NASA, the distribution of magnetic minerals in the rocks, and site visits to analyze the region.

  16. Did Viking discover life on Mars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, H. P.

    1999-01-01

    A major argument in the claim that life had been discovered during the Viking mission to Mars is that the results obtained in the Labeled Release (LR) experiment are analogous to those observed with terrestrial microorganisms. This assertion is critically examined and found to be implausible.

  17. ESA's Integral discovers hidden black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-10-01

    discovered so far? Astronomers, who have been observing the object regularly, guess that it had remained invisible because there must be a very thick shell of obscuring material surrounding it. If that was the case, only the most energetic radiation from the object could get through the shell; less-energetic radiation would be blocked. That could explain why space telescopes that are sensitive only to low-energy radiation had overlooked the object, while Integral, specialised in detecting very energetic emissions, did see it. To test their theory, astronomers turned to ESA's XMM-Newton space observatory, which observes the sky in the X-ray wavelengths. As well as being sensitive to high-energy radiation, XMM-Newton is also able to check for the presence of obscuring material. Indeed, XMM-Newton detected this object last February, as well as the existence of a dense 'cocoon' of cold gas with a diameter of similar size to that of the Earth's orbit around the Sun. This obscuring material forming the cocoon is probably 'stellar wind', namely gas ejected by the supermassive companion star. Astronomers think that this gas may be accreted by the compact black hole, forming a dense shell around it. This obscuring cloud traps most of the energy produced inside it. The main author of these results, Roland Walter of the Integral Science Data Centre, Switzerland, explained: "Only photons with the highest energies [above 10 keV] could escape from that cocoon. IGR J16318-4848 has therefore not been detected by surveys performed at lower energies, nor by previous gamma-ray missions that were much less sensitive than Integral." The question now is to find out how many of these objects lurk in the Galaxy. XMM-Newton and Integral together are the perfect tools to do the job. They have already discovered two more new sources embedded in obscuring material. Future observations are planned. Christoph Winkler, ESA Project Scientist for Integral, said: "These early examples of using two

  18. Discovering phase transitions with unsupervised learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei

    2016-11-01

    Unsupervised learning is a discipline of machine learning which aims at discovering patterns in large data sets or classifying the data into several categories without being trained explicitly. We show that unsupervised learning techniques can be readily used to identify phases and phases transitions of many-body systems. Starting with raw spin configurations of a prototypical Ising model, we use principal component analysis to extract relevant low-dimensional representations of the original data and use clustering analysis to identify distinct phases in the feature space. This approach successfully finds physical concepts such as the order parameter and structure factor to be indicators of a phase transition. We discuss the future prospects of discovering more complex phases and phase transitions using unsupervised learning techniques.

  19. Plant Biofilm Inhibitors to Discover Biofilm Genes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-08

    REPORT Final Report for Plant Biofilm Inhibitors to Discover Biofilm Genes 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: To control biofilms , we have...synthesized the natural biofilm inhibitor (5Z)-4-bromo-5-(bromomethylene) -3-butyl-2(5H)-furanone from the red alga Delisea pulchra and determined that...Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS biofilms , biofilm inhibitors Thomas K. Wood Texas Engineering

  20. MASTER: 2 OT discovered in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumkov, V.; Pogrosheva, T.; Lipunov, V.; Podesta, R.; Levato, H.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Vladimirov, V.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Chazov, V.; Lopez, C.; Podesta, F.; Saffe, C.

    2016-10-01

    MASTER-OAFA, located in Argentina, with auto-detection system (Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 03h 19m 42.92s -45d 30m 13.9s on 2016-10-27.27597 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 16.9m (mlim=20.8m).

  1. [Fahr syndrome discovered following a bacterial meningitis].

    PubMed

    Sbai, H; Smail, L; Hamdani, S; Essatara, Y; Harrandou, M; Khatouf, M; Kanjaa, N

    2008-05-01

    Fahr's disease refers to a rare syndrome characterized by symmetrical and bilateral intracranial calcifications. The basal ganglia and dentate nucleus are the most common site of involvement and most cases present extrapyramidal symptoms. This disease is mostly associated with a phosphocalcic metabolism disorder, especially to hypoparathyroidism. The authors report a case of Fahr syndrome (FS) discovered when a young patient with hypocalcemia and bacterial meningitis had a cerebral CT scan disclosing intracerebral calcifications. She fully recovered after both meningitis and hypocalcemia were treated.

  2. What if Fleming had not discovered penicillin?

    PubMed Central

    Alharbi, Sulaiman Ali; Wainwright, Milton; Alahmadi, Tahani Awad; Salleeh, Hashim Bin; Faden, Asmaa A.; Chinnathambi, Arunachalam

    2014-01-01

    What would have happened had Alexander Fleming not discovered penicillin in 1928? Perhaps the obvious answer is that, someone else would have discovered penicillin during 1930s and the Oxford group, would still have purified it sometime in the early 1940s. Here, however, in this counterfactual account of the penicillin story, it is argued that without Fleming, penicillin might still be undiscovered and the antibiotic age would never have dawned. As a result, many of the recent developments in medicine, such as organ transplantation, might have been delayed or, at best, made more hazardous. Penicillin might have come onto the scene a few years later but, had Fleming overlooked the discovery, it seems certain that penicillin would not have saved countless Allied lives, during and after D-Day. Instead of having enjoyed fifty and more years of the antibiotic age, it is argued here, that we would have had to rely upon highly developed sulphonamides, so-called “supasulfas”, and other chemically-derived antibacterial drugs. Indeed, it might be the case that, even well into this new millennium, the antibiotic age has yet to dawn, and medicine is still waiting for someone to chance upon penicillin. Here we discuss what might have happened had Fleming not discovered penicillin and come to the conclusion that the medical armoury available today would have been far different and might have relied solely upon highly developed varieties of sulphonamides or similar, synthetic, non-antibiotic antibacterial agents. PMID:25183937

  3. Astronomers Discover Six-Image Gravitational Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-08-01

    An international team of astronomers has used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope and NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to discover the first gravitational lens in which the single image of a very distant galaxy has been split into six different images. The unique configuration is produced by the gravitational effect of three galaxies along the line of sight between the more-distant galaxy and Earth. Optical and Radio Images of Gravitational Lens "This is the first gravitational lens with more than four images of the background object that is produced by a small group of galaxies rather than a large cluster of galaxies," said David Rusin, who just received his Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania. "Such systems are expected to be extremely rare, so this discovery is an important stepping stone. Because this is an intermediate case between gravitational lenses produced by single galaxies and lenses produced by large clusters of galaxies, it will give us insights we can't get from other types of lenses," Rusin added. The gravitational lens, called CLASS B1359+154, consists of a galaxy more than 11 billion light-years away in the constellation Bootes, with a trio of galaxies more than 7 billion light-years away along the same line of sight. The more-distant galaxy shows signs that it contains a massive black hole at its core and also has regions in which new stars are forming. The gravitational effect of the intervening galaxies has caused the light and radio waves from the single, more-distant galaxy to be "bent" to form six images as seen from Earth. Four of these images appear outside the triangle formed by the three intermediate galaxies and two appear inside that triangle. "This lens system is a very interesting case to study because it is more complicated than lenses produced by single galaxies, and yet simpler than lenses produced by clusters of numerous galaxies," said Chris Kochanek of the Harvard

  4. Project Pride Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennewein, Marilyn; And Others

    Project PRIDE (Probe, Research, Inquire, Discover, and Evaluate) is evaluated in this report to provide data to be used as a learning tool for project staff and student participants. Major objectives of the project are to provide an inter-disciplinary, objective approach to the study of the American heritage, and to incorporate methods and…

  5. Great Explorations: Discovering Science in the Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosa, Maria, Ed.; And Others

    The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Library Institute was a project that brought together 28 school and public librarians from the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area to discuss science, mathematics, and technology. education reform and what can be done to bring it about. This book discusses the project in 12 chapters:…

  6. Discovering Functional Units in Continuous Speech

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sung-Joo; Lacerda, Francisco; Holt, Lori L.

    2015-01-01

    Language learning requires that listeners discover acoustically variable functional units like phonetic categories and words from an unfamiliar, continuous acoustic stream. Although many category learning studies have examined how listeners learn to generalize across the acoustic variability inherent in the signals that convey the functional units of language, these studies have tended to focus upon category learning across isolated sound exemplars. However, continuous input presents many additional learning challenges that may impact category learning. Listeners may not know the timescale of the functional unit, its relative position in the continuous input, or its relationship to other evolving input regularities. Moving laboratory-based studies of isolated category exemplars toward more natural input is important to modeling language learning, but very little is known about how listeners discover categories embedded in continuous sound. In 3 experiments, adult participants heard acoustically variable sound category instances embedded in acoustically variable and unfamiliar sound streams within a video game task. This task was inherently rich in multisensory regularities with the to-be-learned categories and likely to engage procedural learning without requiring explicit categorization, segmentation, or even attention to the sounds. After 100 min of game play, participants categorized familiar sound streams in which target words were embedded and generalized this learning to novel streams as well as isolated instances of the target words. The findings demonstrate that even without a priori knowledge, listeners can discover input regularities that have the best predictive control over the environment for both non-native speech and nonspeech signals, emphasizing the generality of the learning. PMID:26010592

  7. Discovering Communicable Models from Earth Science Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwabacher, Mark; Langley, Pat; Potter, Christopher; Klooster, Steven; Torregrosa, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    This chapter describes how we used regression rules to improve upon results previously published in the Earth science literature. In such a scientific application of machine learning, it is crucially important for the learned models to be understandable and communicable. We recount how we selected a learning algorithm to maximize communicability, and then describe two visualization techniques that we developed to aid in understanding the model by exploiting the spatial nature of the data. We also report how evaluating the learned models across time let us discover an error in the data.

  8. Planet Imager Discovers Young Kuiper Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-07-01

    A debris disk just discovered around a nearby star is the closest thing yet seen to a young version of the Kuiper belt. This disk could be a key to better understanding the interactions between debris disks and planets, as well as how our solar system evolved early on in its lifetime. Hunting for an analog The best way to understand how the Kuiper belt — home to Pluto and thousands of other remnants of early icy planet formation in our solar system — developed would be to witness a similar debris disk in an earlier stage of its life. But before now, none of the disks we've discovered have been similar to our own: the rings are typically too large, the central star too massive, or the stars exist in regions very unlike what we think our Sun's birthplace was like. A collaboration led by Thayne Currie (National Astronomical Observatory of Japan) has changed this using the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), part of a new generation of extreme adaptive-optics systems. The team discovered a debris disk of roughly the same size as the Kuiper belt orbiting the star HD 115600, located in the nearest OB association. The star is only slightly more massive than our Sun, and it lives in a star-forming region similar to the early Sun's environment. HD 115600 is different in one key way, however: it is only 15 million years old. This means that observing it gives us the perfect opportunity to observe how our solar system might have behaved when it was much younger. A promising future GPI's spatially-resolved spectroscopy, combined with measurements of the reflectivity of the disk, have led the team to suspect that the disk might be composed partly of water ice, just as the Kuiper belt is. The disk also shows evidence of having been sculpted by the motions of giant planets orbiting the central star, in much the same way as the outer planets of our solar system may have shaped the Kuiper belt. The observations of HD 115600 are some of the very first to emerge from GPI and the new

  9. Critical perspective: named reactions discovered and developed by women.

    PubMed

    Olson, Julie A; Shea, Kevin M

    2011-05-17

    Named organic reactions. As chemists, we're all familiar with them: who can forget the Diels-Alder reaction? But how much do we know about the people behind the names? For example, can you identify a reaction named for a woman? How about a reaction discovered or developed by a woman but named for her male adviser? Our attempts to answer these simple questions started us on the journey that led to this Account. We introduce you to four reactions named for women and nine reactions discovered or developed by women. Using information obtained from the literature and, whenever possible, through interviews with the chemists themselves, their associates, and their advisers, we paint a more detailed picture of these remarkable women and their outstanding accomplishments. Some of the women you meet in this Account include Irma Goldberg, the only woman unambiguously recognized with her own named reaction. Gertrude Maud Robinson, the wife of Robert Robinson, who collaborated with him on several projects including the Piloty-Robinson pyrrole synthesis. Elizabeth Hardy, the Bryn Mawr graduate student who discovered the Cope rearrangement. Dorothee Felix, a critical member of Albert Eschenmoser's research lab for over forty years who helped develop both the Eschenmoser-Claisen rearrangement and the Eschenmoser-Tanabe fragmentation. Jennifer Loebach, the University of Illinois undergraduate who was part of the team in Eric Jacobsen's lab that discovered the Jacobsen-Katsuki epoxidation. Keiko Noda, a graduate student in Tsutomu Katsuki's lab who also played a key role in the development of the Jacobsen-Katsuki epoxidation. Lydia McKinstry, a postdoc in Andrew Myers's lab who helped develop the Myers asymmetric alkylation. Rosa Lockwood, a graduate student at Boston College whose sole publication is the discovery of the Nicholas reaction. Kaori Ando, a successful professor in Japan who helped develop the Roush asymmetric alkylation as a postdoc at MIT. Bianka Tchoubar, a

  10. Discovering the Art of Mathematics: Using String Art to Investigate Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Renesse, Christine; Ecke, Volker

    2016-01-01

    One goal of our Discovering the Art of Mathematics project is to empower students in the liberal arts to become confident creators of art and imaginative creators of mathematics. In this paper, we describe our experience with using string art to guide liberal arts students in exploring ideas of calculus. We provide excerpts from our inquiry-based…

  11. Discovering the Art of Mathematics: Using String Art to Investigate Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Renesse, Christine; Ecke, Volker

    2016-01-01

    One goal of our Discovering the Art of Mathematics project is to empower students in the liberal arts to become confident creators of art and imaginative creators of mathematics. In this paper, we describe our experience with using string art to guide liberal arts students in exploring ideas of calculus. We provide excerpts from our inquiry-based…

  12. Discovering, Supporting, and Promoting Young Children's Passions and Interests: One Teacher's Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Christine

    2001-01-01

    Describes the journey of one kindergarten teacher as she discovered, supported, and promoted the passions and interests of an at-risk kindergarten student, and shared in his joys of learning. Details an inquiry project about snakes, initiated by the student's knowledge about snakes, involving field trips, class discussion, learning centers, and…

  13. Final Technical Report: Discovering the Nature of Dark Energy: Towards Better Distances from Type Ia Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Saurabh W. Jha

    2012-10-03

    The final technical report from the project "Discovering the Nature of Dark Energy: Towards Better Distances from Type Ia Supernovae" led at Rutgers the State University of New Jersey by Prof. Saurabh W. Jha is presented, including all publications resulting from this award.

  14. Recently Discovered Pulsars and Unidentified Egret Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Diego F.; Butt, Yousaf M.; Camilo, Fernando

    2001-10-01

    We present a correlative study between all unidentified EGRET sources at low Galactic latitudes and the newly discovered pulsars in the released portion of the Parkes multibeam radio survey. We note 14 positional coincidences: eight of these are ``Vela-like'' pulsars with relatively small periods, small characteristic ages, and high spin-down luminosities. Three of these coincidences have been investigated by D'Amico et al. and Camilo et al. Among the others, we argue that PSR J1015-5719 may plausibly generate part of the high-energy radiation observed from 3EG J1014-5705. Three additional interesting cases are 3EG J1410-6147, either of PSRs J1412-6145 or J1413-6141 if the pulsars are at the estimated distance of the coincident SNR G312.4-0.4, and 3EG J1639-4702/PSR J1637-4642. The remaining positional coincidences between the EGRET sources and the newly discovered pulsars are almost certainly spurious.

  15. Discovering Structural Regularity in 3D Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Pauly, Mark; Mitra, Niloy J.; Wallner, Johannes; Pottmann, Helmut; Guibas, Leonidas J.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a computational framework for discovering regular or repeated geometric structures in 3D shapes. We describe and classify possible regular structures and present an effective algorithm for detecting such repeated geometric patterns in point- or mesh-based models. Our method assumes no prior knowledge of the geometry or spatial location of the individual elements that define the pattern. Structure discovery is made possible by a careful analysis of pairwise similarity transformations that reveals prominent lattice structures in a suitable model of transformation space. We introduce an optimization method for detecting such uniform grids specifically designed to deal with outliers and missing elements. This yields a robust algorithm that successfully discovers complex regular structures amidst clutter, noise, and missing geometry. The accuracy of the extracted generating transformations is further improved using a novel simultaneous registration method in the spatial domain. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm on a variety of examples and show applications to compression, model repair, and geometry synthesis. PMID:21170292

  16. Discovering Innovative Curricular Models for School Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marran, James F.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews developments in geography education since World War II. Finds reasons for cautious optimism as a result of the development of national standards in core curriculum subjects and earlier efforts by the Geography Education National Implementation Project. (CFR)

  17. Parents and Children Discover Group Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenster, Suzanne

    1974-01-01

    This article describes two components of "Project: Child-Family Educators", a community-based child development training program designed for community paraprofessionals, a preschool play group experience for children in the community, and a parent education program. (CS)

  18. Discovering the 'Magic' of Target Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grier, Linda J.; Ackenbom, Charles R.

    1988-01-01

    Describes target marketing of children's summer camps, emphasizing the benefits of collaborative advertising campaigns. Discusses the scope and economics of four model campaigns. Outlines the design, implementation, and evaluation of collaborative marketing projects. (SV)

  19. Discovering Self: Childbearing Adolescents' Maternal Identity.

    PubMed

    Macintosh, Janelle; Callister, Lynn Clark

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy and motherhood have long been a topic of interest for many healthcare professionals. However, there are limited data on how childbearing adolescents incorporate motherhood identity into their sense of self. The purpose of this study was to explore how childbearing adolescents perceive motherhood as becoming part of their personal identity. This qualitative study using ethnographic data collection involved 7 months of observation, interaction, and interviews. Data were collected from nine expectant adolescents during in-depth interviews. All participants were patients at a teen mother and child clinic staffed by certified nurse midwives and a pediatrician. Narrative content analysis revealed the overall theme of discovering self, with three major themes: confirming the pregnancy, the loss of my body, and imagining my child in my arms. Adolescent mothers may need assistance to construct their maternal identity in order to strengthen self-perceptions and improve maternal/child outcomes.

  20. Discovering, Indexing and Interlinking Information Resources

    PubMed Central

    Celli, Fabrizio; Keizer, Johannes; Jaques, Yves; Konstantopoulos, Stasinos; Vudragović, Dušan

    2015-01-01

    The social media revolution is having a dramatic effect on the world of scientific publication. Scientists now publish their research interests, theories and outcomes across numerous channels, including personal blogs and other thematic web spaces where ideas, activities and partial results are discussed. Accordingly, information systems that facilitate access to scientific literature must learn to cope with this valuable and varied data, evolving to make this research easily discoverable and available to end users. In this paper we describe the incremental process of discovering web resources in the domain of agricultural science and technology. Making use of Linked Open Data methodologies, we interlink a wide array of custom-crawled resources with the AGRIS bibliographic database in order to enrich the user experience of the AGRIS website. We also discuss the SemaGrow Stack, a query federation and data integration infrastructure used to estimate the semantic distance between crawled web resources and AGRIS. PMID:26834982

  1. Michael Maier--nine newly discovered letters.

    PubMed

    Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas; Tilton, Hereward

    2014-02-01

    The authors provide a transcription, translation, and evaluation of nine newly discovered letters from the alchemist Michael Maier (1568-1622) to Gebhardt Johann von Alvensleben (1576-1631), a noble landholder in the vicinity of Magdeburg. Stemming from the final year of his life, this correspondence casts new light on Maier's biography, detailing his efforts to secure patronage amid the financial crisis of the early Thirty Years' War. While his ill-fated quest to perfect potable gold continued to form the central focus of his patronage suits, Maier also offered his services in several arts that he had condemned in his printed works, namely astrology and "supernatural" magic. Remarks concerning his previously unknown acquaintance with Heinrich Khunrath call for a re-evaluation of Maier's negotiation of the discursive boundaries between Lutheran orthodoxy and Paracelsianism. The letters also reveal Maier's substantial contribution to a work previously ascribed solely to the English alchemist Francis Anthony.

  2. How to See a Recently Discovered Supernova

    SciTech Connect

    Nugent, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Berkeley Lab scientist Peter Nugent discusses a recently discovered supernova that is closer to Earth — approximately 21 million light-years away — than any other of its kind in a generation. Astronomers believe they caught the supernova within hours of its explosion, a rare feat made possible with a specialized survey telescope and state-of-the-art computational tools. The finding of such a supernova so early and so close has energized the astronomical community as they are scrambling to observe it with as many telescopes as possible, including the Hubble Space Telescope. More info on how to see it: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2011/08/31/glimpse-cosmic-explosion/ News release: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2011/08/25/supernova/

  3. Discovering Sentinel Rules for Business Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middelfart, Morten; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    This paper proposes the concept of sentinel rules for multi-dimensional data that warns users when measure data concerning the external environment changes. For instance, a surge in negative blogging about a company could trigger a sentinel rule warning that revenue will decrease within two months, so a new course of action can be taken. Hereby, we expand the window of opportunity for organizations and facilitate successful navigation even though the world behaves chaotically. Since sentinel rules are at the schema level as opposed to the data level, and operate on data changes as opposed to absolute data values, we are able to discover strong and useful sentinel rules that would otherwise be hidden when using sequential pattern mining or correlation techniques. We present a method for sentinel rule discovery and an implementation of this method that scales linearly on large data volumes.

  4. How to See a Recently Discovered Supernova

    ScienceCinema

    Nugent, Peter

    2016-07-12

    Berkeley Lab scientist Peter Nugent discusses a recently discovered supernova that is closer to Earth — approximately 21 million light-years away — than any other of its kind in a generation. Astronomers believe they caught the supernova within hours of its explosion, a rare feat made possible with a specialized survey telescope and state-of-the-art computational tools. The finding of such a supernova so early and so close has energized the astronomical community as they are scrambling to observe it with as many telescopes as possible, including the Hubble Space Telescope. More info on how to see it: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2011/08/31/glimpse-cosmic-explosion/ News release: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2011/08/25/supernova/

  5. Discovering chemistry with an ab initio nanoreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lee-Ping; Titov, Alexey; McGibbon, Robert; Liu, Fang; Pande, Vijay S.; Martínez, Todd J.

    2014-11-02

    Chemical understanding is driven by the experimental discovery of new compounds and reactivity, and is supported by theory and computation that provides detailed physical insight. While theoretical and computational studies have generally focused on specific processes or mechanistic hypotheses, recent methodological and computational advances harken the advent of their principal role in discovery. Here we report the development and application of the ab initio nanoreactor – a highly accelerated, first-principles molecular dynamics simulation of chemical reactions that discovers new molecules and mechanisms without preordained reaction coordinates or elementary steps. Using the nanoreactor we show new pathways for glycine synthesis from primitive compounds proposed to exist on the early Earth, providing new insight into the classic Urey-Miller experiment. Ultimately, these results highlight the emergence of theoretical and computational chemistry as a tool for discovery in addition to its traditional role of interpreting experimental findings.

  6. Discovering chemistry with an ab initio nanoreactor

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Lee-Ping; Titov, Alexey; McGibbon, Robert; ...

    2014-11-02

    Chemical understanding is driven by the experimental discovery of new compounds and reactivity, and is supported by theory and computation that provides detailed physical insight. While theoretical and computational studies have generally focused on specific processes or mechanistic hypotheses, recent methodological and computational advances harken the advent of their principal role in discovery. Here we report the development and application of the ab initio nanoreactor – a highly accelerated, first-principles molecular dynamics simulation of chemical reactions that discovers new molecules and mechanisms without preordained reaction coordinates or elementary steps. Using the nanoreactor we show new pathways for glycine synthesis frommore » primitive compounds proposed to exist on the early Earth, providing new insight into the classic Urey-Miller experiment. Ultimately, these results highlight the emergence of theoretical and computational chemistry as a tool for discovery in addition to its traditional role of interpreting experimental findings.« less

  7. Discovering Rules by Meta-level Abduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Katsumi; Furukawa, Koichi; Kobayashi, Ikuo; Nabeshima, Hidetomo

    This paper addresses discovery of unknown relations from incomplete network data by abduction. Given a network information such as causal relations and metabolic pathways, we want to infer missing links and nodes in the network to account for observations. To this end, we introduce a framework of meta-level abduction, which performs abduction in the meta level. This is implemented in SOLAR, an automated deduction system for consequence finding, using a first-order representation for algebraic properties of causality and the full-clausal form of network information and constraints. Meta-level abduction by SOLAR is powerful enough to infer missing rules, missing facts, and unknown causes that involve predicate invention in the form of existentially quantified hypotheses. We also show an application of rule abduction to discover certain physical techniques and related integrity constraints within the subject area of Skill Science.

  8. Newly discovered insect RNA viruses in China.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yang; Wang, ZhaoWei; Liu, YongXiang; Qi, Nan; Si, Jie; Xiang, Xue; Xia, XiaoLing; Hu, YuanYang; Zhou, Xi

    2013-08-01

    Insects are a group of arthropods and the largest group of animals on Earth, with over one million species described to date. Like other life forms, insects suffer from viruses that cause disease and death. Viruses that are pathogenic to beneficial insects cause dramatic economic losses on agriculture. In contrast, viruses that are pathogenic to insect pests can be exploited as attractive biological control agents. All of these factors have led to an explosion in the amount of research into insect viruses in recent years, generating impressive quantities of information on the molecular and cellular biology of these viruses. Due to the wide variety of insect viruses, a better understanding of these viruses will expand our overall knowledge of their virology. Here, we review studies of several newly discovered RNA insect viruses in China.

  9. Discovering New Drugs on the Cellular Level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    With the Vision for Space Exploration calling for a sustained human presence in space, astronauts will need to grow plants, while in orbit, for nourishment that they will not receive from only consuming dehydrated foods. As a potential source of food for long-duration missions, space-grown plants could also give astronauts an important psychological boost, as fresh vegetables could serve as a welcomed change from monotonous meals consisting of reconstituted foods in plastic bags. Even more, these plants could likely aid in the recycling of air and wastewater on spacecraft. With a helping hand from a company by the name of Biolog, Inc., NASA is studying the impacts of decreased gravity and spaceborne bacteria on the plants being grown for food in space. With a helping hand from NASA, this very same company is creating powerful new cell- and bacteria-analysis tools for use in discovering and developing new drugs on Earth.

  10. Discovering chemistry with an ab initio nanoreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Todd

    Traditional approaches for modeling chemical reaction networks such as those involved in combustion have focused on identifying individual reactions and using theoretical approaches to explore the underlying mechanisms. Recent advances involving graphical processing units (GPUs), commodity products developed for the videogaming industry, have made it possible to consider a distinct approach wherein one attempts to discover chemical reactions and mechanisms. We provide a brief summary of these developments and then discuss the concept behind the ``ab initio nanoreactor'' which explores the space of possible chemical reactions and molecular species for a given stoichiometry. The nanoreactor concept is exemplified with an example to the Urey-Miller reaction network which has been previously advanced as a potential model for prebiotic chemistry. We briefly discuss some of the future directions envisioned for the development of this nanoreactor concept.

  11. Discovering chemistry with an ab initio nanoreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lee-Ping; Titov, Alexey; McGibbon, Robert; Liu, Fang; Pande, Vijay S.; Martínez, Todd J.

    2014-12-01

    Chemical understanding is driven by the experimental discovery of new compounds and reactivity, and is supported by theory and computation that provide detailed physical insight. Although theoretical and computational studies have generally focused on specific processes or mechanistic hypotheses, recent methodological and computational advances harken the advent of their principal role in discovery. Here we report the development and application of the ab initio nanoreactor—a highly accelerated first-principles molecular dynamics simulation of chemical reactions that discovers new molecules and mechanisms without preordained reaction coordinates or elementary steps. Using the nanoreactor, we show new pathways for glycine synthesis from primitive compounds proposed to exist on the early Earth, which provide new insight into the classic Urey-Miller experiment. These results highlight the emergence of theoretical and computational chemistry as a tool for discovery, in addition to its traditional role of interpreting experimental findings.

  12. Discovering chemistry with an ab initio nanoreactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lee-Ping; Titov, Alexey; McGibbon, Robert; Liu, Fang; Pande, Vijay S; Martínez, Todd J

    2014-12-01

    Chemical understanding is driven by the experimental discovery of new compounds and reactivity, and is supported by theory and computation that provide detailed physical insight. Although theoretical and computational studies have generally focused on specific processes or mechanistic hypotheses, recent methodological and computational advances harken the advent of their principal role in discovery. Here we report the development and application of the ab initio nanoreactor--a highly accelerated first-principles molecular dynamics simulation of chemical reactions that discovers new molecules and mechanisms without preordained reaction coordinates or elementary steps. Using the nanoreactor, we show new pathways for glycine synthesis from primitive compounds proposed to exist on the early Earth, which provide new insight into the classic Urey-Miller experiment. These results highlight the emergence of theoretical and computational chemistry as a tool for discovery, in addition to its traditional role of interpreting experimental findings.

  13. Discovering chemistry with an ab initio nanoreactor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lee-Ping; Titov, Alexey; McGibbon, Robert; Liu, Fang; Pande, Vijay S.; Martínez, Todd J.

    2014-01-01

    Chemical understanding is driven by the experimental discovery of new compounds and reactivity, and is supported by theory and computation that provides detailed physical insight. While theoretical and computational studies have generally focused on specific processes or mechanistic hypotheses, recent methodological and computational advances harken the advent of their principal role in discovery. Here we report the development and application of the ab initio nanoreactor – a highly accelerated, first-principles molecular dynamics simulation of chemical reactions that discovers new molecules and mechanisms without preordained reaction coordinates or elementary steps. Using the nanoreactor we show new pathways for glycine synthesis from primitive compounds proposed to exist on the early Earth, providing new insight into the classic Urey-Miller experiment. These results highlight the emergence of theoretical and computational chemistry as a tool for discovery in addition to its traditional role of interpreting experimental findings. PMID:25411881

  14. 76 FR 4393 - Discover Financial Services Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Discover Financial Services Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION... Financial Services negotiated service agreement to the market dominant product list. This notice addresses... 3020, et seq., to add a Discover Financial Services (DFS) negotiated service agreement to the...

  15. DISCOVER in Middle School: Identifying Gifted Minority Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarouphim, Ketty M.

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a performance-based assessment (DISCOVER (Discovering Intellectual Strengths and Capabilities through Observation while allowing for Varied Ethnic Responses)) in identifying gifted minority middle school students. Research questions focused on examining the alignment between DISCOVER and Gardner's…

  16. Project: "Project!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    In November 2006, the editors of "Campus Technology" launched their first-ever High-Resolution Projection Study, to find out if the latest in projector technology could really make a significant difference in teaching, learning, and educational innovation on US campuses. The author and her colleagues asked campus educators,…

  17. Project: "Project!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    In November 2006, the editors of "Campus Technology" launched their first-ever High-Resolution Projection Study, to find out if the latest in projector technology could really make a significant difference in teaching, learning, and educational innovation on US campuses. The author and her colleagues asked campus educators,…

  18. Discovering Me: Music Activities for Special Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Keith P.; And Others

    The book contains information on musical activities which were field tested in Project PASE (Program in the Arts for Special Education, Pennsylvania) classrooms with a wide range of exceptionalities from preschool age to adolescence. Activities are seen to help children become more aware of their bodies, feelings, and themselves; feel important…

  19. Discovering Students' Voices in Teachers' Classroom Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Myriam N.

    This study is part of a large project on teacher research and professional development in progress in the Teacher Enhancement Program (TEP), a collaborative mid-career program between the University of New Mexico and local public schools. The objective of the study was to describe teachers' engagement in classroom inquiry and the transformative…

  20. Risk Themes Discovered through Architecture Evaluations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    the tension between satisfying all the customers’ desires and maintaining the integrity of the product line • the tension between configurability... Cafe Projects.” IEEE Software 19, 4 (July/August 2002): 41 - 49. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?isnumber=21951& arnumber=1020286

  1. Astronomers Discover Fastest-Spinning Pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-01-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope have discovered the fastest-spinning neutron star ever found, a 20-mile-diameter superdense pulsar whirling faster than the blades of a kitchen blender. Their work yields important new information about the nature of one of the most exotic forms of matter known in the Universe. Pulsar Graphic Pulsars Are Spinning Neutron Stars CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on image for larger version) "We believe that the matter in neutron stars is denser than an atomic nucleus, but it is unclear by how much. Our observations of such a rapidly rotating star set a hard upper limit on its size, and hence on how dense the star can be.," said Jason Hessels, a graduate student at McGill University in Montreal. Hessels and his colleagues presented their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Washington, DC. Pulsars are spinning neutron stars that sling "lighthouse beams" of radio waves or light around as they spin. A neutron star is what is left after a massive star explodes at the end of its "normal" life. With no nuclear fuel left to produce energy to offset the stellar remnant's weight, its material is compressed to extreme densities. The pressure squeezes together most of its protons and electrons to form neutrons; hence, the name "neutron star." "Neutron stars are incredible laboratories for learning about the physics of the fundamental particles of nature, and this pulsar has given us an important new limit," explained Scott Ransom, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory and one of Hessels' collaborators on this work. The scientists discovered the pulsar, named PSR J1748-2446ad, in a globular cluster of stars called Terzan 5, located some 28,000 light-years from Earth in the constellation Sagittarius. The newly-discovered pulsar is spinning 716 times per second, or at 716 Hertz (Hz), readily beating the previous record of 642 Hz from a pulsar

  2. A newly discovered sialidase from Gardnerella vaginalis.

    PubMed

    von Nicolai, H; Hammann, R; Salehnia, S; Zilliken, F

    1984-10-01

    A sialidase (neuraminidase, acylneuraminosyl hydrolase, EC 3.2.1.18) has been discovered and isolated from Gardnerella vaginalis (ex. Haemophilus vaginalis), a possibly pathogenic inhabitant of the female genital tract. Bacteria were grown in peptone-yeast-extract medium with 2.0 mM N-acetylmannosamine as enzyme inductor under CO2 atmosphere. Sialidase activity was found in the bacterial sediment and in the culture medium. The enzyme was liberated from the cells by ultrasonic treatment. Purification was performed by 60-80% ammonium sulfate precipitation and by column chromatography on Sepharose CL-6B and Sephadex G 200. The enzyme revealed a molecular weight in the range of Mr 75 000 and a pH optimum at 5.5. Among the different types of NeuAc-containing glycoconjugates, the enzyme exhibits its highest activities towards the globular glycoproteins alpha 1-acid glycoprotein and fetuin. Taking their cleavage rate as 100, it is around 55 for II3NeuAc-Lac, 45 for bovine submaxillary mucin, 35 for II6NeuAc-Lac and IV3, III6NeuAc2-LcOse4. The rates for III8,II3NeuAc2-Lac, gangliosides and colominic acid are below 20. Due to its specificity pattern, the enzyme may play a role in the pathogenic process of G. vaginalis infections.

  3. Discovering the Ancient Maya from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sever, T. L.

    2008-01-01

    The Pet6n region of northern Guatemala contains some of the most significant Mayan archeological sites in Latin America. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper, IKONOS, and QuickBird satellite, and airborne STAR-3i and AIRSAR radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as sites, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. Through the use of various airborne and satellite sensor systems we have been able to detect and map ancient causeways, temples, reservoirs, and land forms, and locate these features on the ground through GPS technology. Recently, we have discovered that there is a strong relationship between a tropical forest vegetation signature in satellite imagery and the location of archeological sites. We believe that the use of limestone and lime plasters in ancient Maya construction affects the moisture, nutrition, and plant species of the surface vegetation. We have mapped these vegetation signatures in the imagery and verified through field survey that they are indicative of archeological sites. Through the use of remote sensing and GIS technology it is possible to identify unrecorded archeological features in a dense tropical forest environment and monitor these cultural features for their protection.

  4. Discovering the Ancient Maya From Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sever, T. L.

    2007-01-01

    The Peten region of northern Guatemala contains some of the most significant Mayan archeological sites in Latin America. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper, IKONOS, and QuickBird satellite, and airborne STAR-3i and AIRSAR radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as sites, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. Through the use of various airborne and satellite sensor systems we have been able to detect and map ancient causeways, temples, reservoirs, and land forms, and locate these features on the ground through GPS technology. Recently, we have discovered that there is a strong relationship between a tropical forest vegetation signature in satellite imagery and the location of archeological sites. We believe that the use o f limestone and lime plasters in ancient Maya construction affects the moisture, nutrition, and plant species of the surface vegetation. We have mapped these vegetation signatures in the imagery and verified through field survey that they are indicative of archeological sites. Through the use of remote sensing and GIS technology it is possible to identify unrecorded archeological features in a dense tropical forest environment and monitor these cultural features for their protection.

  5. Has the Higgs boson been discovered?

    PubMed

    Renton, Peter

    2004-03-11

    The standard model of particle physics describes the strong and electroweak interactions of fermions (spin-1/2), gauge bosons (spin-1) and a final vital ingredient--the spin-0 Higgs boson, which gives masses to the other particles. But the Higgs boson has yet to be discovered, and its own mass is not specified by the theory. There is some evidence (although statistically not very significant) for its detection at a mass of about 115 GeV/c2, from electron-positron interactions at LEP (the Large Electron Positron collider). Indirect methods can also be used to constrain the mass of the Higgs boson, because it affects other observable quantities (for example, the mass of the W boson and some measurable properties of the Z boson). An indirect determination of the Higgs boson mass from the most recent measurements of such quantities yields a value compatible with 115 GeV/c2, but with some important caveats arising from inconsistencies in the present data.

  6. Discovering relations between indirectly connected biomedical concepts.

    PubMed

    Weissenborn, Dirk; Schroeder, Michael; Tsatsaronis, George

    2015-01-01

    The complexity and scale of the knowledge in the biomedical domain has motivated research work towards mining heterogeneous data from both structured and unstructured knowledge bases. Towards this direction, it is necessary to combine facts in order to formulate hypotheses or draw conclusions about the domain concepts. This work addresses this problem by using indirect knowledge connecting two concepts in a knowledge graph to discover hidden relations between them. The graph represents concepts as vertices and relations as edges, stemming from structured (ontologies) and unstructured (textual) data. In this graph, path patterns, i.e. sequences of relations, are mined using distant supervision that potentially characterize a biomedical relation. It is possible to identify characteristic path patterns of biomedical relations from this representation using machine learning. For experimental evaluation two frequent biomedical relations, namely "has target", and "may treat", are chosen. Results suggest that relation discovery using indirect knowledge is possible, with an AUC that can reach up to 0.8, a result which is a great improvement compared to the random classification, and which shows that good predictions can be prioritized by following the suggested approach. Analysis of the results indicates that the models can successfully learn expressive path patterns for the examined relations. Furthermore, this work demonstrates that the constructed graph allows for the easy integration of heterogeneous information and discovery of indirect connections between biomedical concepts.

  7. Discovering the Ancient Maya From Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sever, T. L.

    2007-01-01

    The Peten region of northern Guatemala contains some of the most significant Mayan archeological sites in Latin America. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper, IKONOS, and QuickBird satellite, and airborne STAR-3i and AIRSAR radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as sites, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. Through the use of various airborne and satellite sensor systems we have been able to detect and map ancient causeways, temples, reservoirs, and land forms, and locate these features on the ground through GPS technology. Recently, we have discovered that there is a strong relationship between a tropical forest vegetation signature in satellite imagery and the location of archeological sites. We believe that the use o f limestone and lime plasters in ancient Maya construction affects the moisture, nutrition, and plant species of the surface vegetation. We have mapped these vegetation signatures in the imagery and verified through field survey that they are indicative of archeological sites. Through the use of remote sensing and GIS technology it is possible to identify unrecorded archeological features in a dense tropical forest environment and monitor these cultural features for their protection.

  8. Discovering the Ancient Maya from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sever, T. L.

    2008-01-01

    The Pet6n region of northern Guatemala contains some of the most significant Mayan archeological sites in Latin America. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper, IKONOS, and QuickBird satellite, and airborne STAR-3i and AIRSAR radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as sites, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. Through the use of various airborne and satellite sensor systems we have been able to detect and map ancient causeways, temples, reservoirs, and land forms, and locate these features on the ground through GPS technology. Recently, we have discovered that there is a strong relationship between a tropical forest vegetation signature in satellite imagery and the location of archeological sites. We believe that the use of limestone and lime plasters in ancient Maya construction affects the moisture, nutrition, and plant species of the surface vegetation. We have mapped these vegetation signatures in the imagery and verified through field survey that they are indicative of archeological sites. Through the use of remote sensing and GIS technology it is possible to identify unrecorded archeological features in a dense tropical forest environment and monitor these cultural features for their protection.

  9. Discovering the structure of mathematical problem solving.

    PubMed

    Anderson, John R; Lee, Hee Seung; Fincham, Jon M

    2014-08-15

    The goal of this research is to discover the stages of mathematical problem solving, the factors that influence the duration of these stages, and how these stages are related to the learning of a new mathematical competence. Using a combination of multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) and hidden Markov models (HMM), we found that participants went through 5 major phases in solving a class of problems: A Define Phase where they identified the problem to be solved, an Encode Phase where they encoded the needed information, a Compute Phase where they performed the necessary arithmetic calculations, a Transform Phase where they performed any mathematical transformations, and a Respond Phase where they entered an answer. The Define Phase is characterized by activity in visual attention and default network regions, the Encode Phase by activity in visual regions, the Compute Phase by activity in regions active in mathematical tasks, the Transform Phase by activity in mathematical and response regions, and the Respond phase by activity in motor regions. The duration of the Compute and Transform Phases were the only ones that varied with condition. Two features distinguished the mastery trials on which participants came to understand a new problem type. First, the duration of late phases of the problem solution increased. Second, there was increased activation in the rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC) and angular gyrus (AG), regions associated with metacognition. This indicates the importance of reflection to successful learning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. DISCOVER Near Real-Time Ocean Data Products: Examples of Uses and Limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. K.; Wentz, F. J.; Gentemann, C. L.

    2010-12-01

    Scientists at Remote Sensing Systems produce satellite microwave ocean data products for DISCOVER, a NASA MEaSUREs project. These ocean products include ocean surface winds, sea surface temperatures, atmospheric water vapor, cloud liquid water and rain rates created from passive microwave instrument data including that from SSM/I, TMI, AMSR-E, SSMIS and WindSat. Many users download DISCOVER data products in near real-time and use them within their specific applications. For example, some of the applications include ocean weather assessment for military sortie determination, sea surface temperature front identification for use by fishermen, and whale and turtle habitat monitoring. We will present the processing steps used to create the near real-time DISCOVER data, show several examples of user applications and discuss the benefits and limitations users find in applying our data products to their needs.

  11. Discover Earth: an earth system science program for libraries and their communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P.

    2011-12-01

    The view from space has deepened our understanding of Earth as a global, dynamic system. Instruments on satellites and spacecraft, coupled with advances in ground-based research, have provided us with astonishing new perspectives of our planet. Now more than ever, enhancing the public's understanding of Earth's physical and biological systems is vital to helping citizens make informed policy decisions especially when they are faced with the consequences of global climate change. While the focus for education reform is on school improvement, there is considerable research that supports the role that out-of-school experiences can play in student achievement. Libraries provide an untapped resource for engaging underserved youth and their families in fostering an appreciation and deeper understanding of science and technology topics. The Space Science Institute's National Center for Interactive Learning (NCIL) in partnership with the American Library Association (ALA), the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI), and the National Girls Collaborative Project (NGCP) have received funding from NSF to develop a national project called the STAR Library Education Network: a hands-on learning program for libraries and their communities (or STAR-Net for short). STAR stands for Science-Technology, Activities and Resources. STAR-Net includes two exhibitions: Discover Earth and Discover Tech. The Discover Earth exhibition will focus on local earth science topics-such as weather, water cycle, and ecosystem changes-as well as a global view of our changing planet. The main take-away message (or Big Idea) for this exhibition is that the global environment changes - and is changed by - the host community's local environment. The project team is testing whether this approach will be a good strategy for engaging the public, especially in rural America. This presentation will provide an overview of the Discover Earth project and how it is integrating climate change ideas into the exhibit

  12. THE MOST LUMINOUS GALAXIES DISCOVERED BY WISE

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Chao-Wei; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Wu, Jingwen; Wright, Edward L.; Assef, Roberto J.; Blain, Andrew W.; Bridge, Carrie R.; Sayers, Jack; Benford, Dominic J.; Leisawitz, David T.; Cutri, Roc M.; Masci, Frank J.; Yan, Lin; Griffith, Roger L.; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Lonsdale, Carol J.; Petty, Sara M.; Stanford, S. Adam; and others

    2015-06-01

    We present 20 Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)-selected galaxies with bolometric luminosities L{sub bol} > 10{sup 14} L{sub ☉}, including five with infrared luminosities L{sub IR} ≡ L{sub (rest} {sub 8–1000} {sub μm)} > 10{sup 14} L{sub ☉}. These “extremely luminous infrared galaxies,” or ELIRGs, were discovered using the “W1W2-dropout” selection criteria which requires marginal or non-detections at 3.4 and 4.6 μm (W1 and W2, respectively) but strong detections at 12 and 22 μm in the WISE survey. Their spectral energy distributions are dominated by emission at rest-frame 4–10 μm, suggesting that hot dust with T{sub d} ∼ 450 K is responsible for the high luminosities. These galaxies are likely powered by highly obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and there is no evidence suggesting these systems are beamed or lensed. We compare this WISE-selected sample with 116 optically selected quasars that reach the same L{sub bol} level, corresponding to the most luminous unobscured quasars in the literature. We find that the rest-frame 5.8 and 7.8 μm luminosities of the WISE-selected ELIRGs can be 30%–80% higher than that of the unobscured quasars. The existence of AGNs with L{sub bol} > 10{sup 14} L{sub ☉} at z > 3 suggests that these supermassive black holes are born with large mass, or have very rapid mass assembly. For black hole seed masses ∼10{sup 3} M{sub ☉}, either sustained super-Eddington accretion is needed, or the radiative efficiency must be <15%, implying a black hole with slow spin, possibly due to chaotic accretion.

  13. HUBBLE AND KECK DISCOVER GALAXY BUILDING BLOCK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image shows a very small, faint galaxy 'building block' newly discovered by a unique collaboration between ground- and space-based telescopes. Hubble and the 10-meter Keck Telescopes in Hawaii joined forces, using a galaxy cluster which acts as gravitational lens to detect what scientists believe is one of the smallest very distant objects ever found. The galaxy cluster Abell 2218 was used by a team of European and American astronomers led by Richard Ellis (Caltech) in their systematic search for intrinsically faint distant star-forming systems. Without help from Abell 2218's exceptional magnifying power to make objects appear about 30 times brighter, the galaxy building block would have been undetectable. In the image to the right, the object is seen distorted into two nearly identical, very red 'images' by the gravitational lens. The image pair represents the magnified result of a single background object gravitationally lensed by Abell 2218 and viewed at a distance of 13.4 billion light-years. The intriguing object contains only one million stars, far fewer than a mature galaxy, and scientists believe it is very young. Such young star-forming systems of low mass at early cosmic times are likely to be the objects from which present-day galaxies have formed. In the image to the left, the full overview of the galaxy cluster Abell 2218 is seen. This image was taken by Hubble in 1999 at the completion of Hubble Servicing Mission 3A. Credit: NASA, ESA, Richard Ellis (Caltech) and Jean-Paul Kneib (Observatoire Midi-Pyrenees, France) Acknowledgment: NASA, A. Fruchter and the ERO Team (STScI and ST-ECF)

  14. HUBBLE AND KECK DISCOVER GALAXY BUILDING BLOCK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image shows a very small, faint galaxy 'building block' newly discovered by a unique collaboration between ground- and space-based telescopes. Hubble and the 10-meter Keck Telescopes in Hawaii joined forces, using a galaxy cluster which acts as gravitational lens to detect what scientists believe is one of the smallest very distant objects ever found. The galaxy cluster Abell 2218 was used by a team of European and American astronomers led by Richard Ellis (Caltech) in their systematic search for intrinsically faint distant star-forming systems. Without help from Abell 2218's exceptional magnifying power to make objects appear about 30 times brighter, the galaxy building block would have been undetectable. In the image to the right, the object is seen distorted into two nearly identical, very red 'images' by the gravitational lens. The image pair represents the magnified result of a single background object gravitationally lensed by Abell 2218 and viewed at a distance of 13.4 billion light-years. The intriguing object contains only one million stars, far fewer than a mature galaxy, and scientists believe it is very young. Such young star-forming systems of low mass at early cosmic times are likely to be the objects from which present-day galaxies have formed. In the image to the left, the full overview of the galaxy cluster Abell 2218 is seen. This image was taken by Hubble in 1999 at the completion of Hubble Servicing Mission 3A. Credit: NASA, ESA, Richard Ellis (Caltech) and Jean-Paul Kneib (Observatoire Midi-Pyrenees, France) Acknowledgment: NASA, A. Fruchter and the ERO Team (STScI and ST-ECF)

  15. Astronomers Discover Spectacular Structure in Distant Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-01-01

    Researchers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope have imaged a "spectacular and complex structure" in a galaxy 50 million light-years away. Their work both resolves a decades-old observational mystery and revises current theories about the origin of X-ray emission coming from gas surrounding the galaxy. The new VLA image is of the galaxy M87, which harbors at its core a supermassive black hole spewing out jets of subatomic particles at nearly the speed of light and also is the central galaxy of the Virgo Cluster of galaxies. The VLA image is the first to show detail of a larger structure that originally was detected by radio astronomers more than a half-century ago. Analysis of the new image indicates that astronomers will have to revise their ideas about the physics of what causes X-ray emission in the cores of many galaxy clusters. Frazer Owen of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM; Jean Eilek of the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (NM Tech) in Socorro, NM; and Namir Kassim of the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, DC, announced their discovery at the American Astronomical Society's meeting today in Austin, TX. The new observations show two large, bubble-like lobes, more than 200,000 light-years across, that emit radio waves. These lobes, which are intricately detailed, apparently are powered by gravitational energy released from the black hole at the galaxy's center. "We think that material is flowing outward from the galaxy's core into these large, bright, radio-emitting 'bubbles,'" Owen said. The newly-discovered "bubbles" sit inside a region of the galaxy known to be emitting X-rays. Theorists have speculated that this X-ray emission arises when gas that originally was part of the Virgo Cluster of galaxies, cools and falls inwards onto M87 itself, at the center of the cluster. Such "cooling flows" are commonly thought to be responsible for strong X-ray emission in many

  16. DISCOVERING HABITABLE EARTHS, HOT JUPITERS, AND OTHER CLOSE PLANETS WITH MICROLENSING

    SciTech Connect

    Di Stefano, R.

    2012-06-20

    Searches for planets via gravitational lensing have focused on cases in which the projected separation, a, between planet and star is comparable to the Einstein radius, R{sub E} . This paper considers smaller orbital separations and demonstrates that evidence of close-orbit planets can be found in the low-magnification portion of the light curves generated by the central star. We develop a protocol for discovering hot Jupiters as well as Neptune-mass and Earth-mass planets in the stellar habitable zone. When planets are not discovered, our method can be used to quantify the probability that the lens star does not have planets within specified ranges of the orbital separation and mass ratio. Nearby close-orbit planets discovered by lensing can be subject to follow-up observations to study the newly discovered planets or to discover other planets orbiting the same star. Careful study of the low-magnification portions of lensing light curves should produce, in addition to the discoveries of close-orbit planets, definite detections of wide-orbit planets through the discovery of 'repeating' lensing events. We show that events exhibiting extremely high magnification can effectively be probed for planets in close, intermediate, and wide distance regimes simply by adding several-time-per-night monitoring in the low-magnification wings, possibly leading to gravitational lensing discoveries of multiple planets occupying a broad range of orbits, from close to wide, in a single planetary system.

  17. Discovering Habitable Earths, Hot Jupiters, and Other Close Planets with Microlensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Stefano, R.

    2012-06-01

    Searches for planets via gravitational lensing have focused on cases in which the projected separation, a, between planet and star is comparable to the Einstein radius, RE . This paper considers smaller orbital separations and demonstrates that evidence of close-orbit planets can be found in the low-magnification portion of the light curves generated by the central star. We develop a protocol for discovering hot Jupiters as well as Neptune-mass and Earth-mass planets in the stellar habitable zone. When planets are not discovered, our method can be used to quantify the probability that the lens star does not have planets within specified ranges of the orbital separation and mass ratio. Nearby close-orbit planets discovered by lensing can be subject to follow-up observations to study the newly discovered planets or to discover other planets orbiting the same star. Careful study of the low-magnification portions of lensing light curves should produce, in addition to the discoveries of close-orbit planets, definite detections of wide-orbit planets through the discovery of "repeating" lensing events. We show that events exhibiting extremely high magnification can effectively be probed for planets in close, intermediate, and wide distance regimes simply by adding several-time-per-night monitoring in the low-magnification wings, possibly leading to gravitational lensing discoveries of multiple planets occupying a broad range of orbits, from close to wide, in a single planetary system.

  18. Reviews Book: The 4% Universe: Dark Matter, Dark Energy and the Race to Discover the Rest of Reality Book: Quantitative Understanding of Biosystems: An Introduction to Biophysics Book: Edison's Electric Light: The Art of Invention Book: The Edge of Physics: Dispatches from the Frontiers of Cosmology Equipment: Voicebox Equipment: Tracker 4 Books: Hands-On Introduction to NI LabVIEW with Vernier, and Engineering Projects with NI LabVIEW and Vernier Places to Visit: Discovery Museum Book: Philosophy of Science: A Very Short Introduction Web Watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-11-01

    WE RECOMMEND Quantitative Understanding of Biosystems: An Introduction to Biophysics Text applies physics to biology concepts Edison's Electric Light: The Art of Invention Edison's light still shines brightly The Edge of Physics: Dispatches from the Frontiers of Cosmology Anecdotes explore cosmology Voicebox Voicebox kit discovers the physics and evolution of speech Tracker 4 Free software tracks motion analysis Hands-On Introduction to NI LabVIEW with Vernier, and Engineering Projects with NI LabVIEW and Vernier Books support the LabVIEW software Discovery Museum Newcastle museum offers science enjoyment for all Philosophy of Science: A Very Short Introduction Philosophy opens up science questions WORTH A LOOK The 4% Universe: Dark Matter, Dark Energy and the Race to Discover the Rest of Reality Book researches the universe WEB WATCH Superconductivity websites are popular

  19. VLA Discovers Giant Rings Around Galaxy Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-11-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope have discovered giant, ring-like structures around a cluster of galaxies. The discovery provides tantalizing new information about how such galaxy clusters are assembled, about magnetic fields in the vast spaces between galaxy clusters, and possibly about the origin of cosmic rays. Radio-Optical Image of Cluster Galaxy Cluster Abell 3376 (Radio/Optical) CREDIT: Joydeep Bagchi, IUCAA, NRAO/AUI/NSF Above, a combined radio/optical image shows the galaxy cluster Abell 3376 in visible light (blue) and radio (red) images. The giant radio arcs surrounding the cluster were discovered using the Very Large Array. The visible-light image is from the Digitized Sky survey. Below, an X-ray image of Abell 3376 made using the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton telescope shows a spectacular, bullet-shaped region of X-rays coming from gas heated to 60 million degrees Kelvin. The bullet shape results from the supersonic collision of a smaller smaller galaxy subcluster with the main body of the larger cluster. Click on images for larger version. X-Ray Image of Cluster Galaxy Cluster Abell 3376 (X-Ray) CREDIT: Joydeep Bagchi, IUCAA, ESA "These giant, radio-emitting rings probably are the result of shock waves caused by violent collisions of smaller groups of galaxies within the cluster," said Joydeep Bagchi, of the Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics in Pune, India, who led an international research team. The scientists reported their findings in the November 3 edition of the journal Science. The newly-discovered ring segments, some 6 million light-years across, surround a galaxy cluster called Abell 3376, more than 600 million light-years from Earth. They were revealed because fast-moving electrons emitted radio waves as they spiraled around magnetic field lines in intergalactic space. "Even from this large distance, the feeble radio waves were easily picked up by the VLA

  20. Discovering Extrasolar Planets with Microlensing Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wambsganss, J.

    2016-06-01

    An astronomical survey is commonly understood as a mapping of a large region of the sky, either photometrically (possibly in various filters/wavelength ranges) or spectroscopically. Often, catalogs of objects are produced/provided as the main product or a by-product. However, with the advent of large CCD cameras and dedicated telescopes with wide-field imaging capabilities, it became possible in the early 1990s, to map the same region of the sky over and over again. In principle, such data sets could be combined to get very deep stacked images of the regions of interest. However, I will report on a completely different use of such repeated maps: Exploring the time domain for particular kinds of stellar variability, namely microlens-induced magnifications in search of exoplanets. Such a time-domain microlensing survey was originally proposed by Bohdan Paczynski in 1986 in order to search for dark matter objects in the Galactic halo. Only a few years later three teams started this endeavour. I will report on the history and current state of gravitational microlensing surveys. By now, routinely 100 million stars in the Galactic Bulge are monitored a few times per week by so-called survey teams. All stars with constant apparent brightness and those following known variability patterns are filtered out in order to detect the roughly 2000 microlensing events per year which are produced by stellar lenses. These microlensing events are identified "online" while still in their early phases and then monitored with much higher cadence by so-called follow-up teams. The most interesting of such events are those produced by a star-plus-planet lens. By now of order 30 exoplanets have been discovered by these combined microlensing surveys. Microlensing searches for extrasolar planets are complementary to other exoplanet search techniques. There are two particular advantages: The microlensing method is sensitive down to Earth-mass planets even with ground-based telecopes, and it

  1. The Impact of Discovering Life beyond Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: astrobiology and society Steven J. Dick; Part I. Motivations and Approaches. How Do We Frame the Problems of Discovery and Impact?: Introduction; 1. Current approaches to finding life beyond earth, and what happens if we do Seth Shostak; 2. The philosophy of astrobiology: the Copernican and Darwinian presuppositions Iris Fry; 3. History, discovery, analogy: three approaches to the impact of discovering life beyond earth Steven J. Dick; 4. Silent impact: why the discovery of extraterrestrial life should be silent Clément Vidal; Part II. Transcending Anthropocentrism. How Do We Move beyond our Own Preconceptions of Life, Intelligence and Culture?: Introduction; 5. The landscape of life Dirk Schulze-Makuch; 6. The landscape of intelligence Lori Marino; 7. Universal biology: assessing universality from a single example Carlos Mariscal; 8. Equating culture, civilization, and moral development in imagining extraterrestrial intelligence: anthropocentric assumptions? John Traphagan; 9. Communicating with the other: infinity, geometry, and universal math and science Douglas Vakoch; Part III. Philosophical, Theological, and Moral Impact. How Do We Comprehend the Cultural Challenges Raised by Discovery?: Introduction; 10. Life, intelligence and the pursuit of value in cosmic evolution Mark Lupisella; 11. 'Klaatu barada nikto' - or, do they really think like us? Michael Ruse; 12. Alien minds Susan Schneider; 13. The moral subject of astrobiology: guideposts for exploring our ethical and political responsibilities towards extraterrestrial life Elspeth Wilson and Carol Cleland; 14. Astrobiology and theology Robin Lovin; 15. Would you baptize an extraterrestrial? Guy Consolmagno, SJ; Part IV. Practical Considerations: How Should Society Prepare for Discovery - and Non-Discovery?: Introduction; 16. Is there anything new about astrobiology and society? Jane Maienschein; 17. Evaluating preparedness for the discovery of extraterrestrial life: considering potential

  2. PSLQ: An Algorithm to Discover Integer Relations

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, J. M.

    2009-04-03

    Let x = (x{sub 1}, x{sub 2} {hor_ellipsis}, x{sub n}) be a vector of real or complex numbers. x is said to possess an integer relation if there exist integers a{sub i}, not all zero, such that a{sub 1}x{sub 1} + a{sub 2}x{sub 2} + {hor_ellipsis} + a{sub n}x{sub n} = 0. By an integer relation algorithm, we mean a practical computational scheme that can recover the vector of integers ai, if it exists, or can produce bounds within which no integer relation exists. As we will see in the examples below, an integer relation algorithm can be used to recognize a computed constant in terms of a formula involving known constants, or to discover an underlying relation between quantities that can be computed to high precision. At the present time, the most effective algorithm for integer relation detection is the 'PSLQ' algorithm of mathematician-sculptor Helaman Ferguson [10, 4]. Some efficient 'multi-level' implementations of PSLQ, as well as a variant of PSLQ that is well-suited for highly parallel computer systems, are given in [4]. PSLQ constructs a sequence of integer-valued matrices B{sub n} that reduces the vector y = xB{sub n}, until either the relation is found (as one of the columns of B{sub n}), or else precision is exhausted. At the same time, PSLQ generates a steadily growing bound on the size of any possible relation. When a relation is found, the size of smallest entry of the vector y abruptly drops to roughly 'epsilon' (i.e. 10{sup -p}, where p is the number of digits of precision). The size of this drop can be viewed as a 'confidence level' that the relation is real and not merely a numerical artifact - a drop of 20 or more orders of magnitude almost always indicates a real relation. Very high precision arithmetic must be used in PSLQ. If one wishes to recover a relation of length n, with coefficients of maximum size d digits, then the input vector x must be specified to at least nd digits, and one must employ nd-digit floating-point arithmetic. Maple and

  3. Galactic supernova remnant candidates discovered by THOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, L. D.; Wang, Y.; Bihr, S.; Rugel, M.; Beuther, H.; Bigiel, F.; Churchwell, E.; Glover, S. C. O.; Goodman, A. A.; Henning, Th.; Heyer, M.; Klessen, R. S.; Linz, H.; Longmore, S. N.; Menten, K. M.; Ott, J.; Roy, N.; Soler, J. D.; Stil, J. M.; Urquhart, J. S.

    2017-09-01

    Context. There is a considerable deficiency in the number of known supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Galaxy compared to that expected. This deficiency is thought to be caused by a lack of sensitive radio continuum data. Searches for extended low-surface brightness radio sources may find new Galactic SNRs, but confusion with the much larger population of H ii regions makes identifying such features challenging. SNRs can, however, be separated from H ii regions using their significantly lower mid-infrared (MIR) to radio continuum intensity ratios. Aims: Our goal is to find missing SNR candidates in the Galactic disk by locating extended radio continuum sources that lack MIR counterparts. Methods: We use the combination of high-resolution 1-2 GHz continuum data from The HI, OH, Recombination line survey of the Milky Way (THOR) and lower-resolution VLA 1.4 GHz Galactic Plane Survey (VGPS) continuum data, together with MIR data from the Spitzer GLIMPSE, Spitzer MIPSGAL, and WISE surveys to identify SNR candidates. To ensure that the candidates are not being confused with H ii regions, we exclude radio continuum sources from the WISE Catalog of Galactic H ii Regions, which contains all known and candidate H ii regions in the Galaxy. Results: We locate 76 new Galactic SNR candidates in the THOR and VGPS combined survey area of 67.4° > ℓ > 17.5°, | b | ≤ 1.25° and measure the radio flux density for 52 previously-known SNRs. The candidate SNRs have a similar spatial distribution to the known SNRs, although we note a large number of new candidates near ℓ ≃ 30°, the tangent point of the Scutum spiral arm. The candidates are on average smaller in angle compared to the known regions, 6.4' ± 4.7' versus 11.0' ± 7.8', and have lower integrated flux densities. Conclusions: The THOR survey shows that sensitive radio continuum data can discover a large number of SNR candidates, and that these candidates can be efficiently identified using the combination of radio and

  4. A Preliminary Look at Hungarias and Phocaeas Discovered by NEAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, K. J.; Helin, E. F.; Rabinowitz, D. L.; Pravdo, S. H.

    1997-07-01

    With over 10,000 asteroid detections, the Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking (NEAT) project is beginning to develop a sufficient quantity of data such that asteroid families and orbital distributions can be examined. One area of particular interest is the Hungaria and Phocaea region of phase space. Their numbers have increased dramatically over the past decade primarily due to systematic asteroid search programs. Early review of the orbital elements, determined by the Minor Planet Center (MPC), show a substantial number of Hungarias and Phocaeas (12 and 13, respectively) discovered by NEAT. Of particular interest is the 1:1 ratio of Phocaeas to Hungarias within this data. This is consistent with the photographic PCAS data reported by Helin and Roman (1989). However, as of December 1996, the Bigelow Sky Survey (BSS) has reported a 2:1 discovery ratio during their dedicated search for high inclination objects. Although, the BSS is concentrated on higher ecliptic latitudes perhaps a more suitable comparison can be made with the Palomar-Leiden (P-L) Survey which concentrated their observations on the ecliptic as NEAT does. It is somewhat curious that the P-L Survey found 9 Hungarias and no Phocaeas. Details of these results, along with the size and magnitude distributions, will be discussed. Related abstract: Helin, E., et al.,.1997 DPS

  5. Discovering DNA encodes heredity and prions are infectious proteins.

    PubMed

    Prusiner, Stanley B; McCarty, Maclyn

    2006-01-01

    The resemblance between the discoveries that DNA is the basis of heredity and that prions are infectious proteins is remarkable. Though four decades separated these two discoveries, the biochemical methodologies and scientific philosophies that were employed are surprisingly similar. In both cases, bioassays available at the time that the projects were initiated proved to be inadequate to support purification studies. Improved bioassays allowed the transforming principle (TP) to be purified from pneumococci and prions from scrapie-infected hamster brains. Publications describing TP as composed of DNA prompted some scientists to contend that undetected proteins must contaminate TP enriched fractions. The simplicity of DNA was thought to prevent it from encoding genetic information. By the time prions were discovered, the genomes of all infectious pathogens including viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites had been shown to be comprised of nucleic acids and so an antithetical refrain became widely echoed: DNA or RNA molecules must be hiding among the proteins of prions. Finding the unexpected and being asked to demonstrate unequivocally the absence of a possible contaminant represent uncanny parallels between the discoveries that DNA encodes the genotype and that prions are infectious proteins.

  6. High-School Student Discovers Strange Astronomical Object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-09-01

    A West Virginia high-school student analyzing data from a giant radio telescope has discovered a new astronomical object -- a strange type of neutron star called a rotating radio transient. Lucas Bolyard, a sophomore at South Harrison High School in Clarksburg, WV, made the discovery while participating in a project in which students are trained to scrutinize data from the National Science Foundation's giant Robert C. Byrd Green The project, called the Pulsar Search Collaboratory (PSC), is a joint project of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and West Virginia University (WVU), funded by a grant from the National Science Foundation. Bolyard made the discovery in March, after he already had studied more than 2,000 data plots from the GBT and found nothing. "I was home on a weekend and had nothing to do, so I decided to look at some more plots from the GBT," he said. "I saw a plot with a pulse, but there was a lot of radio interference, too. The pulse almost got dismissed as interference," he added. Nonetheless, he reported it, and it went on a list of candidates for West Virginia University astronomers Maura McLaughlin and Duncan Lorimer to re-examine, scheduling new observations of the region of sky from which the pulse came. Disappointingly, the follow-up observations showed nothing, indicating that the object was not a normal pulsar. However, the astronomers explained to Bolyard that his pulse still might have come from a rotating radio transient. Confirmation didn't come until July. Bolyard was at the NRAO's Green Bank Observatory with fellow PSC students. The night before, the group had been observing with the GBT in the wee hours, and all were very tired. Then Lorimer showed Bolyard a new plot of his pulse, reprocessed from raw data, indicating that it is real, not interference, and that Bolyard is likely the discoverer of one of only about 30 rotating radio transients known. Suddenly, Bolyard said, he wasn't tired anymore. "That news made me full

  7. Two bright, variable sources with unusual light curves discovered by ASAS-SN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayasinghe, T.; Kochanek, C. S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Vallely, P.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Shields, J. V.; Thompson, T. A.; Shappee, B. J.; Prieto, J. L.; Dong, Subo

    2017-08-01

    As part of an ongoing effort by ASAS-SN project (Shappee et al. 2014; Kochanek et al. 2017) to characterize and catalog all bright variable stars, we have discovered two bright, variable sources with unusual light curves--ASASSN-V J033455.88-053957.9 (mean V 13.0) and ASASSN-V J211014.40-242105.3 (mean V 14.5).

  8. Spirit Discovers New Class of Igneous Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    . %' indicates that the numbers tell what percentage of the total weight of each rock is silica (on the horizontal scale) and what percentage is oxides of sodium and potassium (on the vertical scale). The thin lines separate volcanic rock types identified on Earth by different scientific names such as foidite and picrobasalt. Various classes of Gusev rocks (see box in upper right) all plot either on or to the left of the green lines, which define 'alkaline' and 'subalkaline' categories (subalkaline rocks have more silica than alkaline rocks).

    Members of the rover team have named different classes of rocks after specimens examined by Spirit that represent their overall character. During the rover's travels, Spirit discovered that Adirondack-class rocks littered the Gusev plains; that Backstay, Irvine, and Wishstone-class rocks occurred as loose blocks on the northwest slope of 'Husband Hill'; and that outcrops of Algonquin-class rocks protruded in several places on the southeast face.

    These rocks have less silica than all previously analyzed Mars samples, which are subalkaline. The previously analyzed Mars samples include Martian meteorites found on Earth and rocks analyzed by the Mars Pathfinder rover in 1997. Gusev is the first documented example of an alkaline igneous province on Mars.

  9. Emerging biogeography of the newly discovered Zetaproteobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAllister, S.; Davis, R.; Emerson, D.; Moyer, C. L.

    2009-12-01

    The Zetaproteobacteria represent a novel candidatus class of Proteobacteria found predominantly at sites of microbially mediated iron oxidation in marine environments. The chemoautotrophic, neutrophilic Fe-oxidizing representative isolate for this novel class, Mariprofundus ferrooxydans, was isolated from Fe-oxide encrusted microbial mats at Loihi Seamount, Hawaii. To date, environmental clones from the Zetaproteobacteria have been detected at numerous sites with iron-rich mats, including the Loihi Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge, Guaymas Basin, Tonga-Kermadec Arc, East Lau Spreading Center, Vailulu’u Seamount, Southern Mariana Trough, and the Red Sea. More than 50 full-length (>1300bp) small subunit ribosomal gene (SSU rRNA gene) sequences representing more than 100 potential Zetaproteobacteria clones were identified using the Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) Version 10.14 seqmatch algorithm. Nine operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with more than three representative clones per OTU were detected based on a minimum similarity of 97% (DOTUR). Eight OTUs contained clones from more than one geographic region. The representative Zetaproteobacteria isolates (M. ferrooxydans JV-1 and PV-1) did not group in the top four most abundant OTUs. Each of the nine OTUs detected represents a unique, geographically dispersed Zetaproteobacteria phylotype, the most abundant of which still lack isolated representatives. Further attempts at detecting Zetaproteobacteria from more diverse geographic regions are required to characterize and expand the proposed phylogenetic groupings. In addition, more isolates are necessary to characterize the breath of Zetaproteobacteria physiology and metabolic potential.

  10. Most Powerful Eruption in the Universe Discovered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-01-01

    emission within the cavities shows that jets from the black hole erupted to create the cavities. Gas is being pushed away from the black hole at supersonic speeds over a distance of about a million light years. The mass of the displaced gas equals about a trillion Suns, more than the mass of all the stars in the Milky Way. LA Radio & Chandra X-ray Composite of MS 0735.6+7421 VLA Radio & Chandra X-ray Composite of MS 0735.6+7421 The rapid growth of supermassive black holes is usually detected by observing very bright radiation from the centers of galaxies in the optical and X-ray wavebands, or luminous radio jets. In MS 0735 no bright central radiation is found and the radio jets are faint. Therefore, the true nature of MS 0735 is only revealed through X-ray observations of the hot cluster gas. "Until now we had no idea that this black hole was gorging itself", said co-author Michael Wise of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. "The discovery of this eruption shows that X-ray telescopes are necessary to understand some of the most violent events in the Universe." The astronomers estimated how much energy was needed to create the cavities by calculating the density, temperature and pressure of the hot gas. By making a standard assumption, that 10% of the gravitational energy goes into launching the jets, they estimated how much material the black hole swallowed. Size Comparison of MS 0735.6+7421 & Perseus Cluster Size Comparison of MS 0735.6+7421 & Perseus Cluster Besides generating the cavities, some of the energy from this eruption should keep the hot gas around the black hole from cooling, and some of it may also generate large-scale magnetic fields in the galaxy cluster. Chandra observers have discovered other cavities in galaxy clusters, but this one is easily the largest and the most powerful. For example, the energy content here exceeds that of the Perseus cavities by 250 times, and dwarfs the cavities in M87 by a factor of 10,000. NASA's Marshall Space Flight

  11. Carbon Atmosphere Discovered On Neutron Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-11-01

    without pulsations would require a tiny size, consistent only with exotic stars made of strange quark matter. "Our carbon veil solves one of the big questions about the neutron star in Cas A," said Craig Heinke. "People have been willing to consider some weird explanations, so it's a relief to discover a less peculiar solution." Unlike most astronomical objects, neutron stars are small enough to understand on a human scale. For example, neutron stars typically have a diameter of about 14 miles, only slightly longer than a half-marathon. The atmosphere of a neutron star is on an even smaller scale. The researchers calculate that the carbon atmosphere is only about 4 inches thick, because it has been compressed by a surface gravity that is 100 billion times stronger than on Earth. "For people who are used to hearing about immense sizes of things in space, it might be a surprise that we can study something so small," said Ho. "It's also funny to think that such a thin veil over this star played a key role in frustrating researchers." In Earth's time frame, the estimated age of the neutron star in Cas A is only several hundred years, making it about ten times younger than other neutron stars with detected surface emission. Therefore, the Cas A neutron star gives a unique window into the early life of a cooling neutron star. The carbon itself comes from a combination of material that has fallen back after the supernova, and nuclear reactions on the hot surface of the neutron star which convert hydrogen and helium into carbon. The X-ray spectrum and lack of pulsar activity suggest that the magnetic field on the surface of this neutron star is relatively weak. Similarly low magnetic fields are implied for several other young neutron stars by study of their weak X-ray pulsations. It is not known whether these neutron stars will have low magnetic fields for their entire lives, and never become radio pulsars, or whether processes in their interior will lead to the development of

  12. Biological Activity of Recently Discovered Halogenated Marine Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Gribble, Gordon W.

    2015-01-01

    This review presents the biological activity—antibacterial, antifungal, anti-parasitic, antiviral, antitumor, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and enzymatic activity—of halogenated marine natural products discovered in the past five years. Newly discovered examples that do not report biological activity are not included. PMID:26133553

  13. 33 CFR 179.05 - Manufacturer discovered defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manufacturer discovered defects. 179.05 Section 179.05 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY DEFECT NOTIFICATION § 179.05 Manufacturer discovered defects. Each...

  14. 33 CFR 179.05 - Manufacturer discovered defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Manufacturer discovered defects. 179.05 Section 179.05 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY DEFECT NOTIFICATION § 179.05 Manufacturer discovered defects. Each...

  15. Discovering the Dark Side of CDM Substructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koopmans, Leon

    2012-10-01

    The existence of mass substructure is an inevitable consequence of the LCDM paradigm. Depite this clear theoretical prediction, a glaring discrepancy with the number of luminous satellites around the Milky Way {MW} has been identified, i.e. the "missing satellite problem". Notwithstanding great progress to address this problem, it remains unsolved. Moreover, the MW could be a biased environment, not representative of the typical universe. Surface brightness aberrations of gravitationally lensed images provide a complementary channel to detect substructure beyond the local Universe in mostly massive early-type galaxies. Simulations suggest a substructure mass fraction of f_sub<=1% inside the inner projected 5-10 kpc or around 5-10% inside the virial radius. Although the observed {flux-ratio/brightness} anomalies/aberrations in lenses can be explained by the presence of this mass substructure, its high rate requires a larger inferred fraction of 2-3%. To resolve these open issues convincingly, we propose to observe highly magnified Einstein rings/arcs in the ultra-violet, where the source is highly structured, to maximize sensitivity to dark substructures through surface brightness aberrations {i.e. the equivalent of the well-known flux-ratio anomalies}. Our simulations, modeling and statistical analyses show that our selected sample of 10 SLACS lens systems can pinpoint dark substructures down to 3x10^8 solar masses { 10^-4 of the ETG virial mass} and, for the first time, determine their mass fraction to down to f_sub 1%, at >99% CL. We request 30 orbits with HST WFC3-F390W to accomplish this goal.

  16. Youngest Stellar Explosion in Our Galaxy Discovered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-05-01

    Astronomers have found the remains of the youngest supernova, or exploded star, in our Galaxy. The supernova remnant, hidden behind a thick veil of gas and dust, was revealed by the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) and NASA's Chandra X-Ray Observatory, which could see through the murk. The object is the first example of a "missing population" of young supernova remnants. 1985 and 2008 VLA Images Move cursor over image to blink. VLA Images of G1.9+0.3 in 1985 and 2008: Circle for size comparison. CREDIT: Green, et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF From observing supernovae in other galaxies, astronomers have estimated that about three such stellar explosions should occur in our Milky Way every century. However, the most recent one known until now occurred around 1680, creating the remnant called Cassiopeia A. The newly-discovered object is the remnant of an explosion only about 140 years ago. "If the supernova rate estimates are correct, there should be the remnants of about 10 supernova explosions in the Milky Way that are younger than Cassiopeia A," said David Green of the University of Cambridge in the UK, who led the VLA study. "It's great to finally track one of them down." Supernova explosions, which mark the violent death of a star, release tremendous amounts of energy and spew heavy elements such as calcium and iron into interstellar space. They thus seed the clouds of gas and dust from which new stars and planets are formed and, through their blast shocks, can even trigger such formation. The lack of evidence for young supernova remnants in the Milky Way had caused astronomers to wonder if our Galaxy, which appears otherwise normal, differed in some unknown way from others. Alternatively, scientists thought that the "missing" Milky Way supernovae perhaps indicated that their understanding of the relationship between supernovae and other galactic processes was in error. The astronomers made their discovery by measuring the expansion of the debris from

  17. Evaluation and Comparison of Methods for Measuring Ozone and NO2 Concentrations in Ambient Air during DISCOVER-AQ

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient evaluations of the various ozone and NO2 methods were conducted during field intensive studies as part of the NASA DISCOVER-AQ project conducted during July 2011 near Baltimore, MD; January – February 2013 in the San Juaquin valley, CA; September 2013 in Houston, TX...

  18. “Fine-Scale Application of the coupled WRF-CMAQ System to the 2011 DISCOVER-AQ Campaign”

    EPA Science Inventory

    The DISCOVER-AQ project (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality), is a joint collaboration between NASA, U.S. EPA and a number of other local organizations with the goal of characterizing air quality in ...

  19. Evaluation and Comparison of Methods for Measuring Ozone and NO2 Concentrations in Ambient Air during DISCOVER-AQ

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient evaluations of the various ozone and NO2 methods were conducted during field intensive studies as part of the NASA DISCOVER-AQ project conducted during July 2011 near Baltimore, MD; January – February 2013 in the San Juaquin valley, CA; September 2013 in Houston, TX...

  20. “Fine-Scale Application of the coupled WRF-CMAQ System to the 2011 DISCOVER-AQ Campaign”

    EPA Science Inventory

    The DISCOVER-AQ project (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality), is a joint collaboration between NASA, U.S. EPA and a number of other local organizations with the goal of characterizing air quality in ...

  1. Discovering New Minerals at Micron to Nanoscales: A SEM-EBSD-EPMA Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, C.

    2014-12-01

    With high-resolution analytical field emission scanning electron microscope and electron probe microanalyzer, we are now capable to characterize Earth and planetary materials easier and faster down to nanoscales. Nanofeatures (such as inclusions, exsolution, zonation, coatings, pores) in minerals and rocks are being discovered. Nanominerals and nanoparticles are being revealed. New minerals and new materials are being identified. During our ongoing nanomineralogy investigation since 2006, more than twenty five new minerals have been discovered at micron to nanoscales. Fifteen of them are from the Allende meteorite, including new refractory minerals like allendeite, hexamolybdenum, tistarite, panguite and kangite, which are among the first solids formed in our solar system. Each of the new extraterrestrial minerals reveals distinctive forming environments, providing insights into nebula or parent-body processes. Presented here are a few nanomineralogy projects demonstrating how to find and characterize new minerals with an integrated SEM-EBSD-EPMA approach.

  2. First Multi-Planet System Discovered by Kepler

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA's Kepler Mission has discovered the first confirmed planetary system with more than one planet transiting the same star. The announcement of the discovery of the two planets, Kepler 9b and 9c,...

  3. Spectroscopic Classifications with Magellan of 7 Supernovae Discovered by DES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard, P. K.; Challis, P.; Drout, M.; Kirshner, R.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; D'Andrea, C.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Scolnic, D.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Brout, D. J.; Fischer, J. A.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.

    2015-01-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of supernova candidates discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectra (425-945 nm) were obtained using IMACS on the 6.5m Baade telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory on Dec 19, 2014.

  4. NASA's Kepler Mission Discovers Multiple Planets Orbiting Twin Suns

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA's Kepler mission has discovered the first transiting circumbinary system -- multiple planets orbiting two suns -- 4,900 light-years from Earth, in the constellation Cygnus, proving that more t...

  5. Using Authentic Reading Texts to Discover Underlying Sociocultural Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Carmen

    1991-01-01

    Describes the use of authentic Spanish language materials to design activities to help students discover and understand a text's underlying sociocultural context, using both pre- and postreading strategies to foster cultural awareness and understanding. (two references) (Author/CB)

  6. NASA's Kepler Discovers Its Smallest 'Habitable Zone' Planets to Date

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA's Kepler mission has discovered two new planetary systems that include three super-Earth-size planets in the "habitable zone," the range of distance from a star where the surface temperature o...

  7. Development of a global land cover characteristics database and IGBP DISCover from 1 km AVHRR data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loveland, T.R.; Reed, B.C.; Brown, J.F.; Ohlen, D.O.; Zhu, Z.; Yang, L.; Merchant, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    Researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey, University of Nebraska-Lincoln and the European Commission's Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy produced a 1 km resolution global land cover characteristics database for use in a wide range of continental-to global-scale environmental studies. This database provides a unique view of the broad patterns of the biogeographical and ecoclimatic diversity of the global land surface, and presents a detailed interpretation of the extent of human development. The project was carried out as an International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, Data and Information Systems (IGBP-DIS) initiative. The IGBP DISCover global land cover product is an integral component of the global land cover database. DISCover includes 17 general land cover classes defined to meet the needs of IGBP core science projects. A formal accuracy assessment of the DISCover data layer will be completed in 1998. The 1 km global land cover database was developed through a continent-by-continent unsupervised classification of 1 km monthly Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) composites covering 1992-1993. Extensive post-classification stratification was necessary to resolve spectral/temporal confusion between disparate land cover types. The complete global database consists of 961 seasonal land cover regions that capture patterns of land cover, seasonality and relative primary productivity. The seasonal land cover regions were aggregated to produce seven separate land cover data sets used for global environmental modelling and assessment. The data sets include IGBP DISCover, U.S. Geological Survey Anderson System, Simple Biosphere Model, Simple Biosphere Model 2, Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme, Olson Ecosystems and Running Global Remote Sensing Land Cover. The database also includes all digital sources that were used in the classification. The complete database can be sourced from the website: http://edcwww.cr.usgs.gov/landdaac/glcc/glcc.html.

  8. Talkoot Portals: Discover, Tag, Share, and Reuse Collaborative Science Workflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B. D.; Ramachandran, R.; Lynnes, C.

    2009-05-01

    discoverable using tag search, and advertised using "service casts" and "interest casts" (Atom feeds). Multiple science workflow systems will be plugged into the system, with initial support for UAH's Mining Workflow Composer and the open-source Active BPEL engine, and JPL's SciFlo engine and the VizFlow visual programming interface. With the ability to share and execute analysis workflows, Talkoot portals can be used to do collaborative science in addition to communicate ideas and results. It will be useful for different science domains, mission teams, research projects and organizations. Thus, it will help to solve the "sociological" problem of bringing together disparate groups of researchers, and the technical problem of advertising, discovering, developing, documenting, and maintaining inter-agency science workflows. The presentation will discuss the goals of and barriers to Science 2.0, the social web technologies employed in the Talkoot software appliance (e.g. CMS, social tagging, personal presence, advertising by feeds, etc.), illustrate the resulting collaborative capabilities, and show early prototypes of the web interfaces (e.g. embedded workflows).

  9. The Community Discovered: The Search for Meaning through the Integration of Art and Technology in K-12 Education. Evaluation Progress Report No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdouch, Ronald; Grandgenett, Neal; Topp, Neal; Ostler, Elliott; Pawloski, Bob; Timms, Mike; Peterson, Joan

    This fourth evaluation progress report concerns the "Community Discovered" project, currently completing its third year of operation, a 5-year project that links technology and the visual and performing arts with other subject areas to transform the education of K-12 students in Nebraska and nationwide. The report states that the project…

  10. Discover Earth: An earth system science program for libraries and their communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, L.; Dusenbery, P.

    2010-12-01

    The view from space has deepened our understanding of Earth as a global, dynamic system. Instruments on satellites and spacecraft, coupled with advances in ground-based research, have provided us with astonishing new perspectives of our planet. Now more than ever, enhancing the public’s understanding of Earth’s physical and biological systems is vital to helping citizens make informed policy decisions especially when they are faced with the consequences of global climate change. In spite of this relevance, there are many obstacles to achieving broad public understanding of key earth system science (ESS) concepts. Strategies for addressing climate change can only succeed with the full engagement of the general public. As reported by U.S. News and World Report in 2010, small towns in rural America are emerging as the front line in the climate change debate in the country. The Space Science Institute’s National Center for Interactive Learning (NCIL) in partnership with the American Library Association (ALA), the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI), and the National Girls Collaborative Project (NGCP) have received funding from NSF to develop a national project called the STAR Library Education Network: a hands-on learning program for libraries and their communities (or STAR-Net for short). STAR stands for Science-Technology, Activities and Resources. There are two distinct components of STAR-Net: Discover Earth and Discover Tech. While the focus for education reform is on school improvement, there is considerable research that supports the role that out-of-school experiences can play in student achievement. Libraries provide an untapped resource for engaging underserved youth and their families in fostering an appreciation and deeper understanding of science and technology topics. The overarching goal of the project is to reach underserved youth and their families with informal STEM learning experiences. The Discover Earth part of STAR_Net will produce ESS

  11. Challenges and opportunities for remote sensing of air quality: Insights from DISCOVER-AQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, J. H.; Pickering, K. E.; Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Clark, R. D.; Cohen, R. C.; Diskin, G. S.; Ferrare, R. A.; Fried, A.; Holben, B. N.; Herman, J. R.; Hoff, R. M.; Hostetler, C. A.; Janz, S. J.; Szykman, J.; Thompson, A. M.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Wisthaler, A.; Yang, M. M.; Chen, G.; Kleb, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    Improving the remote sensing of air quality has been the primary focus of a series of four field studies conducted by a project called DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from COlumn and VERtically resolved observations relevant to Air Quality). Operating as an integrated observing system, DISCOVER-AQ has employed multiple aircraft and ground instrumentation to conduct multi-perspective observations of the distribution of gaseous and particulate pollution in the lower atmosphere over contrasting regions of the U.S. that are currently in violation of National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The four study areas include Maryland (Baltimore-Washington corridor), California (southern San Joaquin Valley), Texas (Greater Houston area), and Colorado (Denver/Northern Front Range). The DISCOVER-AQ observations are actively being used to promote improvements in remote sensing in the following ways: Characterizing vertical structure in the atmosphere and its diurnal patterns to develop improved a priori information for satellite retrievals; Examining horizontal variability to assess the spatial scales needed to resolve emissions and photochemistry; Determining correlative relationships between remotely sensed and in situ observations; Assessing the value of ground-based remote sensing to provide information on impact of boundary layer dynamics and mixing on air pollution. Examples of the ongoing analysis of these datasets and their relevance to future geostationary satellite observations as well as augmentation of air quality monitoring networks with ground-based remote sensing will be discussed.

  12. Ongoing analysis of DISCOVER-AQ observations and their implications for remote sensing of air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, J. H.; Pickering, K. E.; Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Chen, G.; Clark, R. D.; Cohen, R. C.; Diskin, G. S.; Ferrare, R. A.; Fried, A.; Herman, J. R.; Hoff, R. M.; Hostetler, C. A.; Janz, S. J.; Kleb, M. M.; Szykman, J.; Thompson, A. M.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Wisthaler, A.; Yang, M. M.; Holben, B. N.

    2015-12-01

    Improving the remote sensing of air quality has been the primary focus of a series of four field studies conducted by a project called DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from COlumn and VERtically resolved observations relevant to AirQuality). Operating as an integrated observing system, DISCOVER-AQ has employed multiple aircraft and ground instrumentation to conduct multi-perspective observations of the distribution of gaseous and particulate pollution in the lower atmosphere over contrasting regions of the U.S. that are currently in violation of National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The four study areas include Maryland (Baltimore-Washington corridor), California (southern San Joaquin Valley), Texas (Greater Houston area), and Colorado (Denver/Northern Front Range). The DISCOVER-AQ observations are actively being used to promote improvements in remote sensing in the following ways: Characterizing vertical structure in the atmosphere and its diurnal patterns to develop improved a priori information for satellite retrievals; Examining horizontal variability to assess the spatial scales needed to resolve emissions and photochemistry; Determining correlative relationships between remotely sensed and in situ observations; Assessing the value of ground-based remote sensing to provide information on impact of boundary layer dynamics and mixing on air pollution. Current progress on analysis of these datasets and their relevance to future geostationary satellite observations as well as augmentation of air quality monitoring networks with ground-based remote sensing will be discussed.

  13. Will cosmic strings be discovered using the Space Telescope?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pacynski, B.

    1986-01-01

    Cosmic strings are topologically stable defects in the vacuum of space which may be produced by a phase transition in the early universe. Here, it is suggested that observations of very distant galaxies are a more useful means of discovering strings than quasar observations. It is argued that if there is only one string out to redshift z - about 1 the probability that it crosses a random image obtained using the Wide Field Camera (WFC) of the Space Telescope is about 0.0001. In order to discover a cosmic string the Space Telescope WFC will be required to operate almost continuously in primary and serendipity modes, and a cosmic string, if it exists, may be discovered within the first few years of operation.

  14. Discovering biomedical relations utilizing the World-wide Web.

    PubMed

    Mukherjea, Sougata; Sahay, Saurav

    2006-01-01

    To crate a Semantic Web for Life Sciences discovering relations between biomedical entities is essential. Journals and conference proceedings represent the dominant mechanisms of reporting newly discovered biomedical interactions. The unstructured nature of such publications makes it difficult to utilize data mining or knowledge discovery techniques to automatically incorporate knowledge from these publications into the ontologies. On the other hand, since biomedical information is growing explosively, it is difficult to have human curators manually extract all the information from literature. In this paper we present techniques to automatically discover biomedical relations from the World-wide Web. For this purpose we retrieve relevant information from Web Search engines using various lexico-syntactic patterns as queries. Experiments are presented to show the usefulness of our techniques.

  15. New variable stars discovered in the fields of three Galactic open clusters using the VVV survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palma, T.; Minniti, D.; Dékány, I.; Clariá, J. J.; Alonso-García, J.; Gramajo, L. V.; Ramírez Alegría, S.; Bonatto, C.

    2016-11-01

    This project is a massive near-infrared (NIR) search for variable stars in highly reddened and obscured open cluster (OC) fields projected on regions of the Galactic bulge and disk. The search is performed using photometric NIR data in the J-, H- and Ks- bands obtained from the Vista Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) Survey. We performed in each cluster field a variability search using Stetson's variability statistics to select the variable candidates. Later, those candidates were subjected to a frequency analysis using the Generalized Lomb-Scargle and the Phase Dispersion Minimization algorithms. The number of independent observations range between 63 and 73. The newly discovered variables in this study, 157 in total in three different known OCs, are classified based on their light curve shapes, periods, amplitudes and their location in the corresponding color-magnitude (J -Ks ,Ks) and color-color (H -Ks , J - H) diagrams. We found 5 possible Cepheid stars which, based on the period-luminosity relation, are very likely type II Cepheids located behind the bulge. Among the newly discovered variables, there are eclipsing binaries, δ Scuti, as well as background RR Lyrae stars. Using the new version of the Wilson & Devinney code as well as the "Physics Of Eclipsing Binaries" (PHOEBE) code, we analyzed some of the best eclipsing binaries we discovered. Our results show that these studied systems turn out to be ranging from detached to double-contact binaries, with low eccentricities and high inclinations of approximately 80°. Their surface temperatures range between 3500 K and 8000 K.

  16. Discovering Hidden Analogies in an Online Humanities Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cory, Kenneth A.

    1999-01-01

    Drawing upon an efficacious method for discovering previously unknown causes of medical syndromes and searching in the Humanities Index, an illuminating new humanities analogy between the epistemological ideas of Robert Frost and the ancient Greek philosopher Carneades was found by constructing a search statement in which proper names were coupled…

  17. Re-Discovering Mendel: The Case of Carl Correns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Carl Erich Correns (1864-1933) is remembered in the annals of science as one of the three botanists who re-discovered Mendel's laws. He can also, however, be regarded as one of the founding figures of classical genetics in Germany. Between 1894 and 1899 he carried out the crossing experiments with corn and peas that led to the re-statement of…

  18. Discovering patterns of activity in unstructured incident reports at scale

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-12

    indicators and exploit reporting patterns across agencies and tickets. • Indicator similarity • Indicator communities Parse free text descriptions of...Unstructured Field: • Notes (free text allowed) The unstructured notes field contains most of the information about each ticket. Data Description 6Discovering

  19. Antarcticite: A New Mineral, Calcium Chloride Hexahydrate, Discovered in Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Torii, T; Ossaka, J

    1965-08-27

    A new mineral, calcium chloride hexahydrate, was discovered in the Don Juan Pond in Victoria Land, Antarctica. The optical properties, chemical analysis, and powder patterns obtained by x-ray diffraction agree with those of artificial calcium chloride hexahydrate. The name Antarcticite is proposed for the new mineral.

  20. Let Students Discover an Important Physical Property of a Slinky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gash, Philip

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a simple experiment that lets first-year physics and engineering students discover an important physical property of a Slinky. The restoring force for the fundamental oscillation frequency is provided only by those coils between the support and the Slinky center of mass.

  1. Fast bright OT in PGC2697102 discovered by MASTER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumkov, V.; Lipunov, V.; Tlatov, A.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Chazov, V.; Tiurina, N.; Kuznetsov, A.; Balanutsa, P.; Kornilov, V.; Vladimirov, V.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Kuvshinov, D.; Senik, V.; Dormidontov, D.; Parkhomenko, A.; Gabovich, A.

    2016-11-01

    MASTER-Kislovodsk auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 16h 15m 32.60s +67d 14m 45.8s on 2016-11-10.73375 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is (mlim=18.7m).

  2. Re-Discovering Mendel: The Case of Carl Correns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Carl Erich Correns (1864-1933) is remembered in the annals of science as one of the three botanists who re-discovered Mendel's laws. He can also, however, be regarded as one of the founding figures of classical genetics in Germany. Between 1894 and 1899 he carried out the crossing experiments with corn and peas that led to the re-statement of…

  3. Let Students Discover an Important Physical Property of a Slinky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gash, Philip

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a simple experiment that lets first-year physics and engineering students discover an important physical property of a Slinky. The restoring force for the fundamental oscillation frequency is provided only by those coils between the support and the Slinky center of mass.

  4. Discovering Theorems in Abstract Algebra Using the Software "GAP"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyth, Russell D.; Rainbolt, Julianne G.

    2010-01-01

    A traditional abstract algebra course typically consists of the professor stating and then proving a sequence of theorems. As an alternative to this classical structure, the students could be expected to discover some of the theorems even before they are motivated by classroom examples. This can be done by using a software system to explore a…

  5. Discovering How a Communicative Notion Is Expressed in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Graeme D.

    A study to develop a methodology for discovering how one important notion or semantic category, "frequency of occurrence," is expressed in words, phrases, or other linguistic devices in academic English began with a search for devices expressing that notion, by analyzing text from a news magazine, a New Zealand geography textbook, and a…

  6. Discovering body site and severity modifiers in clinical texts.

    PubMed

    Dligach, Dmitriy; Bethard, Steven; Becker, Lee; Miller, Timothy; Savova, Guergana K

    2014-01-01

    To research computational methods for discovering body site and severity modifiers in clinical texts. We cast the task of discovering body site and severity modifiers as a relation extraction problem in the context of a supervised machine learning framework. We utilize rich linguistic features to represent the pairs of relation arguments and delegate the decision about the nature of the relationship between them to a support vector machine model. We evaluate our models using two corpora that annotate body site and severity modifiers. We also compare the model performance to a number of rule-based baselines. We conduct cross-domain portability experiments. In addition, we carry out feature ablation experiments to determine the contribution of various feature groups. Finally, we perform error analysis and report the sources of errors. The performance of our method for discovering body site modifiers achieves F1 of 0.740-0.908 and our method for discovering severity modifiers achieves F1 of 0.905-0.929. Results indicate that both methods perform well on both in-domain and out-domain data, approaching the performance of human annotators. The most salient features are token and named entity features, although syntactic dependency features also contribute to the overall performance. The dominant sources of errors are infrequent patterns in the data and inability of the system to discern deeper semantic structures. We investigated computational methods for discovering body site and severity modifiers in clinical texts. Our best system is released open source as part of the clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System (cTAKES).

  7. Despite Appearances, Cosmic Explosions Have Common Origin, Astronomers Discover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-11-01

    A Fourth of July fireworks display features bright explosions that light the sky with different colors, yet all have the same cause. They just put their explosive energy into different colors of light. Similarly, astronomers have discovered, a variety of bright cosmic explosions all have the same origin and the same amount of total energy. This is the conclusion of an international team of astronomers that used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to study the closest known gamma-ray burst earlier this year. Artist's conception of burst Artist's Conception of Twin Jets in Energetic Cosmic Explosion CREDIT: Dana Berry, SkyWorks Digital (Click on Image for Larger Version) "For some reason we don't yet understand, these explosions put greatly varying percentages of their explosive energy into the gamma-ray portion of their output," said Dale Frail, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. That means, he said, that both strong and weak gamma-ray bursts, along with X-ray flashes, which emit almost no gamma rays, are just different forms of the same cosmic beast. The research team reported their results in the November 13 issue of the scientific journal Nature. The scientists trained the VLA on a gamma-ray burst discovered using NASA's HETE-2 satellite last March 29. This burst, dubbed GRB 030329, was the closest such burst yet seen, about 2.6 billion light-years from Earth. Because of this relative proximity, the burst was bright, with visible light from its explosion reaching a level that could be seen in amateur telescopes. As the burst faded, astronomers noted an underlying distinctive signature of a supernova explosion, confirming that the event was associated with the death of a massive star. Since 1999, astronomers have known that the strong outbursts of gamma rays, X-rays, visible light and radio waves from these bursts form beams, like those from a flashlight, rather than spreading in all directions

  8. Updating strategies for isolating and discovering giant viruses.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Jacques Yaacoub Bou; Andreani, Julien; La Scola, Bernard

    2016-06-01

    Almost fifteen years ago, the discovery of Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus, the first giant virus, changed how we define a virus. It was discovered incidentally in a process of isolating Legionella sp. from environmental samples in the context of pneumonia epidemics using a co-culture system with Acanthamoeba. Since then, much effort and improvement has been put into the original technique. In addition to the known families of Mimiviridae and Marseilleviridae, four new proposed families of giant viruses have been isolated: Pandoravirus, Pithovirus, Faustovirus and Mollivirus. Major improvements were based on enrichment systems, targeted use of antibiotics and high-throughput methods. The most recent development, using flow cytometry for isolation and presumptive identification systems, opens a path to large environmental surveys that may discover new giant virus families in new protozoa supports used for culture support.

  9. Cataclysmic Variables discovered in the ChaMPlane Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ping; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Hong, JaeSub; Servillat, Mathieu; Van Den Berg, Maureen

    2017-01-01

    We present the Cataclysmic Variables discovered in the Chandra Multi-wavelength Plane Survey (ChaMPlane). ChaMPlane is designed to survey the point X-ray sources discovered by the Chandra X-ray Observatory in the galactic plane in order to constrain the X-ray binary population in the Galaxy. The survey includes the data from the Chandra achieve, as well as the optical and infrared images and spectroscopes. CV candidates are first identified from the Chandra and optical imaging in the deep V, I, R, H-alpha bands. Then optical spectroscopic follow-ups are conducted to confirm their status. CVs are identified by their hydrogen Balmer and helium emission lines, often broadened and double peaked due to the accretion disk rotation around the primary. We present the spectra of 25 CVs obtained from the Magellan, CTIO-4m and WIYN telescopes.

  10. Discovering characteristic landmarks on ancient coins using convolutional networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jongpil; Pavlovic, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    We propose a method to find characteristic landmarks and recognize ancient Roman imperial coins using deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) combined with expert-designed domain hierarchies. We first propose a framework to recognize Roman coins that exploits the hierarchical knowledge structure embedded in the coin domain, which we combine with the CNN-based category classifiers. We next formulate an optimization problem to discover class-specific salient coin regions. Analysis of discovered salient regions confirms that they are largely consistent with human expert annotations. Experimental results show that the proposed framework is able to effectively recognize ancient Roman coins as well as successfully identify landmarks on the coins. For this research, we have collected a Roman coin dataset where all coins are annotated and consist of obverse (head) and reverse (tail) images.

  11. In Silico Models for Designing and Discovering Novel Anticancer Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, Atul; Kapoor, Pallavi; Kumar, Rahul; Chaudhary, Kumardeep; Gautam, Ankur; Raghava, G. P. S.

    2013-10-01

    Use of therapeutic peptides in cancer therapy has been receiving considerable attention in the recent years. Present study describes the development of computational models for predicting and discovering novel anticancer peptides. Preliminary analysis revealed that Cys, Gly, Ile, Lys, and Trp are dominated at various positions in anticancer peptides. Support vector machine models were developed using amino acid composition and binary profiles as input features on main dataset that contains experimentally validated anticancer peptides and random peptides derived from SwissProt database. In addition, models were developed on alternate dataset that contains antimicrobial peptides instead of random peptides. Binary profiles-based model achieved maximum accuracy 91.44% with MCC 0.83. We have developed a webserver, which would be helpful in: (i) predicting minimum mutations required for improving anticancer potency; (ii) virtual screening of peptides for discovering novel anticancer peptides, and (iii) scanning natural proteins for identification of anticancer peptides (http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/anticp/).

  12. Re-discovering ancient wheat varieties as functional foods.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Raymond

    2015-07-01

    With the gluten-free food market worth almost $1.6 bn in 2011, there is every reason for renewed interest in ancient grains. This resurgent interest is expressed in re-discovering ancient varieties as functional foods. In particular, people affected by celiac disease have to avoid all gluten in their diet and several ancient grains may offer an important alternative.

  13. MASTER: OT discovered during inspection of HESE 58537957 trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyurina, N.; Lipunov, V.; Buckley, D.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kornilov, V.; Kuvshinov, D.; Vlasenko, D.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Shumkov, V.; Potter, S.

    2016-08-01

    MASTER-SAAO auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 349171 ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 13h 08m 45.02s -32d 32m 54.9s on 2016-08-24.73811 UT during inspection of HESE alert ( 58537957 trigger number ) http://gcn.gsfc.nasa.gov/notices_amon/58537957_128340.amon . The OT unfiltered magnitude is 19.6m (limit 20.5m).

  14. Why Ampère did not discover electromagnetic induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, L. Pearce

    1986-04-01

    In 1832, after Michael Faraday had announced his discovery of electromagnetic induction, Andre-Marie Ampère claimed that he had actually discovered the induction of one current by another in 1822. In fact, he had, but did not really publish the fact at that time. This article explores the reasons for Ampère's failure to lay claim to a discovery that would have guaranteed him scientific immortality.

  15. Re-discovering ancient wheat varieties as functional foods

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    With the gluten-free food market worth almost $1.6 bn in 2011, there is every reason for renewed interest in ancient grains. This resurgent interest is expressed in re-discovering ancient varieties as functional foods. In particular, people affected by celiac disease have to avoid all gluten in their diet and several ancient grains may offer an important alternative. PMID:26151025

  16. 2 new OT, discovered by MASTER-OAFA (Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumkov, V.; Lipunov, V.; Podesta, R.; Levato, H.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Kuznetsov, A.; Vladimirov, V.; Balanutsa, P.; Kornilov, V.; Gress, O.; Chazov, V.; Kuvshinov, D.; Lopez, C.; Podesta, F.; Saffe, C.; Gabovich, A.

    2016-11-01

    MASTER-OAFA (located in Argentina) auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 09h 23m 26.72s -76d 28m 17.7s on 2016-11-13 06:19:38UT The OT magnitude in unfiltered is (mlim=18.0m).

  17. Discovering System Health Anomalies Using Data Mining Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sriastava, Ashok, N.

    2005-01-01

    We present a data mining framework for the analysis and discovery of anomalies in high-dimensional time series of sensor measurements that would be found in an Integrated System Health Monitoring system. We specifically treat the problem of discovering anomalous features in the time series that may be indicative of a system anomaly, or in the case of a manned system, an anomaly due to the human. Identification of these anomalies is crucial to building stable, reusable, and cost-efficient systems. The framework consists of an analysis platform and new algorithms that can scale to thousands of sensor streams to discovers temporal anomalies. We discuss the mathematical framework that underlies the system and also describe in detail how this framework is general enough to encompass both discrete and continuous sensor measurements. We also describe a new set of data mining algorithms based on kernel methods and hidden Markov models that allow for the rapid assimilation, analysis, and discovery of system anomalies. We then describe the performance of the system on a real-world problem in the aircraft domain where we analyze the cockpit data from aircraft as well as data from the aircraft propulsion, control, and guidance systems. These data are discrete and continuous sensor measurements and are dealt with seamlessly in order to discover anomalous flights. We conclude with recommendations that describe the tradeoffs in building an integrated scalable platform for robust anomaly detection in ISHM applications.

  18. Discovering health topics in social media using topic models.

    PubMed

    Paul, Michael J; Dredze, Mark

    2014-01-01

    By aggregating self-reported health statuses across millions of users, we seek to characterize the variety of health information discussed in Twitter. We describe a topic modeling framework for discovering health topics in Twitter, a social media website. This is an exploratory approach with the goal of understanding what health topics are commonly discussed in social media. This paper describes in detail a statistical topic model created for this purpose, the Ailment Topic Aspect Model (ATAM), as well as our system for filtering general Twitter data based on health keywords and supervised classification. We show how ATAM and other topic models can automatically infer health topics in 144 million Twitter messages from 2011 to 2013. ATAM discovered 13 coherent clusters of Twitter messages, some of which correlate with seasonal influenza (r = 0.689) and allergies (r = 0.810) temporal surveillance data, as well as exercise (r =  .534) and obesity (r =  -.631) related geographic survey data in the United States. These results demonstrate that it is possible to automatically discover topics that attain statistically significant correlations with ground truth data, despite using minimal human supervision and no historical data to train the model, in contrast to prior work. Additionally, these results demonstrate that a single general-purpose model can identify many different health topics in social media.

  19. Discovering Pair-wise Synergies in Microarray Data

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuan; Cao, Dan; Gao, Jun; Yuan, Zheming

    2016-01-01

    Informative gene selection can have important implications for the improvement of cancer diagnosis and the identification of new drug targets. Individual-gene-ranking methods ignore interactions between genes. Furthermore, popular pair-wise gene evaluation methods, e.g. TSP and TSG, are helpless for discovering pair-wise interactions. Several efforts to discover pair-wise synergy have been made based on the information approach, such as EMBP and FeatKNN. However, the methods which are employed to estimate mutual information, e.g. binarization, histogram-based and KNN estimators, depend on known data or domain characteristics. Recently, Reshef et al. proposed a novel maximal information coefficient (MIC) measure to capture a wide range of associations between two variables that has the property of generality. An extension from MIC(X; Y) to MIC(X1; X2; Y) is therefore desired. We developed an approximation algorithm for estimating MIC(X1; X2; Y) where Y is a discrete variable. MIC(X1; X2; Y) is employed to detect pair-wise synergy in simulation and cancer microarray data. The results indicate that MIC(X1; X2; Y) also has the property of generality. It can discover synergic genes that are undetectable by reference feature selection methods such as MIC(X; Y) and TSG. Synergic genes can distinguish different phenotypes. Finally, the biological relevance of these synergic genes is validated with GO annotation and OUgene database. PMID:27470995

  20. Discovering Health Topics in Social Media Using Topic Models

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Michael J.; Dredze, Mark

    2014-01-01

    By aggregating self-reported health statuses across millions of users, we seek to characterize the variety of health information discussed in Twitter. We describe a topic modeling framework for discovering health topics in Twitter, a social media website. This is an exploratory approach with the goal of understanding what health topics are commonly discussed in social media. This paper describes in detail a statistical topic model created for this purpose, the Ailment Topic Aspect Model (ATAM), as well as our system for filtering general Twitter data based on health keywords and supervised classification. We show how ATAM and other topic models can automatically infer health topics in 144 million Twitter messages from 2011 to 2013. ATAM discovered 13 coherent clusters of Twitter messages, some of which correlate with seasonal influenza (r = 0.689) and allergies (r = 0.810) temporal surveillance data, as well as exercise (r = .534) and obesity (r = −.631) related geographic survey data in the United States. These results demonstrate that it is possible to automatically discover topics that attain statistically significant correlations with ground truth data, despite using minimal human supervision and no historical data to train the model, in contrast to prior work. Additionally, these results demonstrate that a single general-purpose model can identify many different health topics in social media. PMID:25084530

  1. Independent Research Projects Using Protein Extraction: Affordable Ways to Inquire, Discover & Publish for Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pu, Rongsun

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how to use protein extraction, quantification, and analysis in the undergraduate teaching laboratory to engage students in inquiry-based, discovery-driven learning. Detailed instructions for obtaining proteins from animal tissues, using BCA assay to quantify the proteins, and data analysis are provided. The experimental…

  2. Discovering Hidden Resources: Assistive Technology Recycling, Refurbishing, and Redistribution. RESNA Technical Assistance Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RESNA: Association for the Advancement of Rehabilitation Technology, Arlington, VA.

    This monograph discusses the benefits of recycling and reusing assistive technology for students with disabilities. It begins by discussing the benefits of recycled assistive technology for suppliers, students, and consumers, and then profiles programmatic models for assistive technology recycling programs. The advantages and disadvantages for…

  3. Involving Students in a Collaborative Project to Help Discover Inexpensive, Stable Materials for Solar Photoelectrolysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anunson, Paige N.; Winkler, Gates R.; Winkler, Jay R.; Parkinson, Bruce A.; Christus, Jennifer D. Schuttlefield

    2013-01-01

    In general, laboratory experiments focus on traditional chemical disciplines. While this approach allows students the ability to learn and explore fundamental concepts in a specific area, it does not always encourage students to explore interdisciplinary science. Often little transfer of knowledge from one area to another is observed, as students…

  4. Totally Tree-mendous Activities: Projects To Discover the Beauty and Benefits of Trees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollister, Sarah

    This teacher's guide supplies information and hands-on activities to teach about trees from several disciplines. Activities are grouped into six areas that cover botany, social studies, arts and literature (aesthetics), and trees as a resource. Sections include: (1) Tree Identification, which defines trees and leaves and presents activities that…

  5. The "Discover" Project: Improving Assessment and Curriculum for Diverse Gifted Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maker, C. June

    2005-01-01

    C. June Maker, Professor at the University of Arizona, has developed a unique performance-based assessment in which children are observed by teams of teachers, counselors, paraprofessionals, administrators, specialists in education of the gifted and bilingual education, and local community members. The assessment, designed initially to …

  6. Independent Research Projects Using Protein Extraction: Affordable Ways to Inquire, Discover & Publish for Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pu, Rongsun

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how to use protein extraction, quantification, and analysis in the undergraduate teaching laboratory to engage students in inquiry-based, discovery-driven learning. Detailed instructions for obtaining proteins from animal tissues, using BCA assay to quantify the proteins, and data analysis are provided. The experimental…

  7. Involving Students in a Collaborative Project to Help Discover Inexpensive, Stable Materials for Solar Photoelectrolysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anunson, Paige N.; Winkler, Gates R.; Winkler, Jay R.; Parkinson, Bruce A.; Christus, Jennifer D. Schuttlefield

    2013-01-01

    In general, laboratory experiments focus on traditional chemical disciplines. While this approach allows students the ability to learn and explore fundamental concepts in a specific area, it does not always encourage students to explore interdisciplinary science. Often little transfer of knowledge from one area to another is observed, as students…

  8. Totally Tree-mendous Activities: Projects To Discover the Beauty and Benefits of Trees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollister, Sarah

    This teacher's guide supplies information and hands-on activities to teach about trees from several disciplines. Activities are grouped into six areas that cover botany, social studies, arts and literature (aesthetics), and trees as a resource. Sections include: (1) Tree Identification, which defines trees and leaves and presents activities that…

  9. A Virtual Screen Discovers Novel, Fragment-Sized Inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis InhA

    PubMed Central

    Perryman, Alexander L.; Yu, Weixuan; Wang, Xin; Ekins, Sean; Forli, Stefano; Li, Shao-Gang; Freundlich, Joel S.; Tonge, Peter J.; Olson, Arthur J.

    2015-01-01

    Isoniazid (INH) is usually administered to treat latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infections, and is used in combination therapy to treat active tuberculosis disease (TB). Unfortunately, resistance to this drug is hampering its clinical effectiveness. INH is a prodrug that must be activated by Mtb catalase peroxidase (KatG) before it can inhibit InhA (Mtb enoyl-acyl-carrier-protein reductase). Isoniazid-resistant cases of TB found in clinical settings usually involve mutations in or deletion of katG, which abrogate INH activation. Compounds that inhibit InhA without requiring prior activation by KatG would not be affected by this resistance mechanism and hence would display continued potency against these drug-resistant isolates of Mtb. Virtual screening experiments versus InhA in the GO Fight Against Malaria project (GO FAM) were designed to discover new scaffolds that display base stacking interactions with the NAD cofactor. GO FAM experiments included targets from other pathogens, including Mtb, when they had structural similarity to a malaria target. Eight of the sixteen soluble compounds identified by docking against InhA plus visual inspection were modest inhibitors and did not require prior activation by KatG. The best two inhibitors discovered are both fragment-sized compounds and displayed Ki values of 54 and 59 μM, respectively. Importantly, the novel inhibitors discovered have low structural similarity to known InhA inhibitors and, thus, help expand the number of chemotypes on which future medicinal chemistry efforts can be focused. These new fragment hits could eventually help advance the fight against INH-resistant Mtb strains, which pose a significant global health threat. PMID:25636146

  10. An Overview of Ozone and Precursor Temporal and Spatial Variability in DISCOVER-AQ Study Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickering, K. E.; Follette-Cook, M. B.; Loughner, C.; Flynn, C.; Crawford, J. H.; Clark, R. D.; Fried, A.; Herman, J. R.; Janz, S. J.; Lamsal, L. N.; Silverman, M. L.; Stein Zweers, D. C.; Szykman, J.; Weinheimer, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    One of the major goals of the NASA Earth Venture - 1 DISCOVER-AQ project is to better quantify the spatial and temporal variability of pollutant gases in the lower troposphere, as this information is required for the design of new atmospheric chemistry satellite instruments. This objective has been addressed through a series of four field experiments (Baltimore-Washington, San Joaquin Valley, Houston, and Denver). DISCOVER-AQ observations that lend themselves to this analysis include in-situ measurements of trace gases by the NASA P-3B aircraft (spiral profiles and constant altitude flight legs), trace gas columns from the surface-based network of Pandora UV/Vis spectrometers, trace gas columns from the Airborne Compact Atmospheric Mapper (ACAM) on board the NASA King Air, and in-situ tethered balloon observations. We make use of the P-3B observations to assess spatial variability and evaluate regional model simulations through the use of structure functions, which yield the mean difference in column abundance or mixing ratio between observation points at specified distances apart over a designated length of time. Agreement between the observations and model output indicates that the model can be used to derive more comprehensive variability analyses than are possible with the aircraft data. Subsequently, the structure function approach can be used to compute the mean difference over various time intervals to yield temporal variability estimates. The continuous Pandora data also allow for comprehensive temporal variability estimates for the tropospheric column, as does the frequent tethered balloon profiling at fixed sites for the lower portion of the boundary layer. Additionally, the fine-resolution pixels of the ACAM data allow further detailed spatial analysis. A second DISCOVER-AQ objective is to assess the relationship between column observations and surface air quality. We examine the temporal variability of these measurements over the daytime hours, and the

  11. Observational data and orbits of the asteroids discovered at the Baldone Observatory in 2008--2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Černis, K.; Wlodarczyk, I.; Eglitis, I.

    The paper presents statistics of the asteroids observed and discovered at the Baldone Observatory, Latvia, in 2008--2013 within the project for astrometric observations of the near-Earth objects (NEOs), the main belt asteroids and comets. CCD observations of the asteroids were obtained with the 0.80/1.20 m, f/3 Schmidt telescope and a ST-10XME 15 × 10 mm CCD camera. In the Minor Planet Circulars and the Minor Planet Electronic Circulars (2008--2013) we published 3511 astrometric positions of 826 asteroids. Among them, 43 asteroids were newly discovered at Baldone. For 36 of these asteroids the precise orbits are calculated. Because of short observational arc and small number of observations, a few asteroids have low-precision orbits and their tracks have been lost. For seven objects with poorly known orbits we present their ephemerides for 2015--2016. The orbits and the evolution of orbital elements of two asteroids, (428694) 2008 OS9 from the Apollo group and the Centaur (330836) Orius (2009 HW77), are recalculated including new observations obtained after 2011.

  12. A New Species of Frog (Anura: Dicroglossidae) Discovered from the Mega City of Dhaka.

    PubMed

    Howlader, Mohammad Sajid Ali; Nair, Abhilash; Merilä, Juha

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of frog of the genus Zakerana discovered from the urban core of Dhaka, Bangladesh, one of the most densely populated cities in the world. Although the new species is morphologically similar to the geographically proximate congeners in the Bangladeshi cricket frog group, we show that it can be distinguished from all congeners on the basis of morphological characters, advertisement calls and variation in two mitochondrial DNA genes (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA). Apart from several diagnostic differences in body proportions, the new species differs from other Zakerana species in having a flattened snout (from ventral view) projecting over the lower jaw, and diagnostic trapezoid-shaped red markings on the vocal sac in males. Molecular genetic analyses show that the new species is highly divergent (3.1-20.1% sequence divergence) from all congeneric species, and forms a well-supported clade with its sister species, Zakerana asmati. The discovery of a new amphibian species from the urban core of Dhaka together with several recent descriptions of new amphibian species from Bangladesh may indicate that more amphibian species remain to be discovered from this country.

  13. A New Species of Frog (Anura: Dicroglossidae) Discovered from the Mega City of Dhaka

    PubMed Central

    Howlader, Mohammad Sajid Ali; Nair, Abhilash; Merilä, Juha

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of frog of the genus Zakerana discovered from the urban core of Dhaka, Bangladesh, one of the most densely populated cities in the world. Although the new species is morphologically similar to the geographically proximate congeners in the Bangladeshi cricket frog group, we show that it can be distinguished from all congeners on the basis of morphological characters, advertisement calls and variation in two mitochondrial DNA genes (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA). Apart from several diagnostic differences in body proportions, the new species differs from other Zakerana species in having a flattened snout (from ventral view) projecting over the lower jaw, and diagnostic trapezoid-shaped red markings on the vocal sac in males. Molecular genetic analyses show that the new species is highly divergent (3.1–20.1% sequence divergence) from all congeneric species, and forms a well-supported clade with its sister species, Zakerana asmati. The discovery of a new amphibian species from the urban core of Dhaka together with several recent descriptions of new amphibian species from Bangladesh may indicate that more amphibian species remain to be discovered from this country. PMID:26934699

  14. Human Genome Project

    SciTech Connect

    Block, S.; Cornwall, J.; Dally, W.; Dyson, F.; Fortson, N.; Joyce, G.; Kimble, H. J.; Lewis, N.; Max, C.; Prince, T.; Schwitters, R.; Weinberger, P.; Woodin, W. H.

    1998-01-04

    The study reviews Department of Energy supported aspects of the United States Human Genome Project, the joint National Institutes of Health/Department of Energy program to characterize all human genetic material, to discover the set of human genes, and to render them accessible for further biological study. The study concentrates on issues of technology, quality assurance/control, and informatics relevant to current effort on the genome project and needs beyond it. Recommendations are presented on areas of the genome program that are of particular interest to and supported by the Department of Energy.

  15. Discovering Astronomy: An Astro 101 e-book

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shawl, Stephen J.; Byrd, Gene; Deustua, Susana E.; LoPresto, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Discovering Astronomy, now available in its 6th edition as an eText, has many advantages and features for your students. We have partnered with etextink.com and WebAssign.net to produce an affordable set of cost-saving options for your students. Also available is the Discovering Astronomy Activity Manual, which provides students with an active-learning experience.Our etext is device independent and thus accessible through any web browser. Americans with Disabilities Act compatibility provides access for all students. Hotlinks to outside sites provide further information for interested students. Lecture demonstration videos of important concepts, made specifically for this new edition, are embedded within the text as appropriate. Students can highlight text, take notes, and bookmark locations within the text. Important terms are linked to the glossary. Search capabilities allow students to easily find what they want.Instructors can interact with their students directly through the etext once the class roster has been provided. For example, instructors can embed assignments into their students' etext and add their own notes and updates, which are immediately visible to their students.Updates can be quickly made by us as new findings become available. For example, updates from New Horizons were added at the time of the closest approach to Pluto, and an update on the recent announcement of current water on Mars was added the day of the announcement.We will present results of our own experience with college and high school students' use of Discovering Astronomy in online courses.Details of the book, a sample chapter, and other information are available at discoveringastronomy.weebly.com.

  16. Exploiting online discussions to discover unrecognized drug side effects.

    PubMed

    Wu, H; Fang, H; Stanhope, S J

    2013-01-01

    Drugs can treat human diseases through chemical interactions between the ingredients and intended targets in the human body. However, the ingredients could unexpectedly interact with off-targets, which may cause adverse drug side effects. Notifying patients and physicians of potential drug effects is an important step in improving healthcare quality and delivery. With the increasing popularity of Web 2.0 applications, more and more patients start discussing drug side effects in many online sources. These online discussions form a valuable source for mining interesting knowledge about side effects. The main goal of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of exploiting these discussions to discover unrecognized drug side effects. We propose methods that can 1) build a knowledge base for drug side effects by automatically integrating the information related to drug side effects from different sources; and 2) monitor online discussions about drugs and discover potential unrecognized drug side effects. Experiment results show that the online discussions indeed provide useful information discovering unrecognized drug side effects. We find that the integrated knowledge base contains more information than individual online sources. Moreover, both proposed detection methods can identify the side effects related to the four recently recalled drugs, and the information from online discussions makes it possible to make the detection much earlier than official announcements. Finally, the proposed generative modeling method is shown to be more effective than the discriminative method. We find that it is possible to monitor online discussions to detect unrecognized drug side effects. The developed system is expected to serve as a complementary tool for drug companies and FDA to receive feedbacks from the patients, and it has the potentials to expedite the discovery process of unrecognized drug side effects and to improve the quality of healthcare.

  17. Discover Health Services Near You! The North Dakota Story: Part I

    PubMed Central

    Rieke, Judith L.; Safratowich, Michael; Markland, Mary J.

    2010-01-01

    Since the 2003 launch of NC Health Info, the National Library of Medicine has encouraged the development of Go Local databases. A team of Go Local enthusiasts at North Dakota’s only medical school library wanted to obtain NLM funding and build a resource for their rural state. Although short on staff, money, and time, the team found a way to realize a Go Local database that serves the state’s residents and helps them “Discover Health Services Near You!” A team approach and collaboration with health providers and organizations worked well in this small rural state. North Dakota’s Go Local project offers a low-cost model that stresses collaboration, teamwork and technology. Part I, which appears in this issue, describes the rural setting, explains how the project was conceived, and the processes necessary to begin building the database. Part II, which will appear in the next issue, details how records were created, including developing the input style guide and indexing decisions, the NLM testing and review process, the maintenance and auditing process, and publicity and promotion of the project. PMID:20448842

  18. Discover Health Services Near You! The North Dakota Story: Part II

    PubMed Central

    Safratowich, Michael; Markland, Mary J.; Rieke, Judith L.

    2010-01-01

    Since the 2003 launch of NC Health Info, the National Library of Medicine has encouraged the development of Go Local databases. A team of Go Local enthusiasts at North Dakota’s only medical school library wanted to obtain NLM funding and build a resource for their rural state. Although short on staff, money, and time, the team found a way to realize a Go Local database that serves the state’s residents and helps them “Discover Health Services Near You!” A team approach and collaboration with health providers and organizations worked well in this small rural state. North Dakota’s Go Local project offers a low-cost model that stresses collaboration, teamwork and technology. Part I which appeared in the last issue describes the rural setting, explains how the project was conceived, and the processes necessary to begin building the database. Part II which appears in this issue details how records were created including developing the input style guide and indexing decisions, the NLM testing and review process, the maintenance and auditing process, and publicity and promotion of the project. PMID:20436944

  19. Discover the Cosmos - Bringing Cutting Edge Science to Schools across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, Rosa

    2015-03-01

    The fast growing number of science data repositories is opening enormous possibilities to scientists all over the world. The emergence of citizen science projects is engaging in science discovery a large number of citizens globally. Astronomical research is now a possibility to anyone having a computer and some form of data access. This opens a very interesting and strategic possibility to engage large audiences in the making and understanding of science. On another perspective it would be only natural to imagine that soon enough data mining will be an active part of the academic path of university or even secondary schools students. The possibility is very exciting but the road not very promising. Even in the most developed nations, where all schools are equipped with modern ICT facilities the use of such possibilities is still a very rare episode. The Galileo Teacher Training Program GTTP, a legacy of IYA2009, is participating in some of the most emblematic projects funded by the European Commission and targeting modern tools, resources and methodologies for science teaching. One of this projects is Discover the Cosmos which is aiming to target this issue by empowering educators with the necessary skills to embark on this innovative path: teaching science while doing science.

  20. Interpretation of the newly discovered submillimeter water maser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neufeld, David A.; Melnick, Gary J.

    1990-01-01

    The 10(29)-9(36)321 GHz water maser discovered recently by Menten et al. (1990) may be pumped collisionally under a wide range of physical conditions. This range of conditions is similar but not identical to that required to excite the well-studied 22 GHz water maser. The ratio of the observed 22 GHz and 321 GHz intersteller maser luminosities can be explained by collisional excitation within the same warm, dense gas. Collisional pumping in a circumstellar envelope can account for the observed 321 GHz maser emission in the supergiant star VY CMa.

  1. Discovering Communicable Scientific Knowledge from Spatio-Temporal Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwabacher, Mark; Langley, Pat; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes how we used regression rules to improve upon a result previously published in the Earth science literature. In such a scientific application of machine learning, it is crucially important for the learned models to be understandable and communicable. We recount how we selected a learning algorithm to maximize communicability, and then describe two visualization techniques that we developed to aid in understanding the model by exploiting the spatial nature of the data. We also report how evaluating the learned models across time let us discover an error in the data.

  2. Marquette Island: A Distinct Mafic Lithology Discovered by Opportunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Gellert, R.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Clark, B. C.; Cohen, B. A.; Fleischer, I.; Jolliff, B. L.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Ming, D. W.; Yingst, R. A.

    2010-01-01

    While rolling over the Meridiani Planum sedimentary terrane, the rover Opportunity has occasionally discovered large, > 10 cm erratics. Most of these have proven to be meteorites [1], but one - Bounce Rock - is a martian basaltic rock similar in composition to the meteorite EETA79001 lithology B [2]. Presently, Opportunity is intensively investigating an --30 cm tall rock named Marquette Island that may be a distinct type of martian mafic lithology. We report the results of its continuing investigation using the Microscopic Imager (MI); Mossbauer Spectrometer (MB) and Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS). A companion abstract discusses the results of Panoramic Camera (Pancam) imaging of the rock [3].

  3. Exposed water ice discovered near the south pole of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Titus, T.N.; Kieffer, H.H.; Christensen, P.R.

    2003-01-01

    The Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) has discovered water ice exposed near the edge of Mars' southern perennial polar cap. The surface H2O ice was first observed by THEMIS as a region that was cooler than expected for dry soil at that latitude during the summer season. Diurnal and seasonal temperature trends derived from Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer observations indicate that there is H2O ice at the surface. Viking observations, and the few other relevant THEMIS observations, indicate that surface H2O ice may be widespread around and under the perennial CO2 cap.

  4. E2000 + 223 - A newly discovered old nova?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takalo, L. O.; Nousek, J. A.

    1985-06-01

    The X-ray source, E2000 + 223, serendipitously discovered by the Einstein Observatory, has been tentatively identified with an old nova shell. Spectroscopic observations of the diffuse optical counterpart show a heavily reddened continuum with bright forbidden S II emission lines at double lambda 6716, 6732. Radio observations at the VLA show a weak (about 1.2 mJy) extended radio source, with a nonthermal spectrum, concident with the optical emission. The observations can be best explained by assuming the object is an old nova which erupted sometime in the eighteenth or nineteenth century, similar to GK Per (Nova 1901) but at a distance of 1.4 kpc.

  5. E2000 + 223 - A newly discovered old nova?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takalo, L. O.; Nousek, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    The X-ray source, E2000 + 223, serendipitously discovered by the Einstein Observatory, has been tentatively identified with an old nova shell. Spectroscopic observations of the diffuse optical counterpart show a heavily reddened continuum with bright forbidden S II emission lines at double lambda 6716, 6732. Radio observations at the VLA show a weak (about 1.2 mJy) extended radio source, with a nonthermal spectrum, concident with the optical emission. The observations can be best explained by assuming the object is an old nova which erupted sometime in the eighteenth or nineteenth century, similar to GK Per (Nova 1901) but at a distance of 1.4 kpc.

  6. Exposed water ice discovered near the south pole of Mars.

    PubMed

    Titus, Timothy N; Kieffer, Hugh H; Christensen, Phillip R

    2003-02-14

    The Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) has discovered water ice exposed near the edge of Mars' southern perennial polar cap. The surface H2O ice was first observed by THEMIS as a region that was cooler than expected for dry soil at that latitude during the summer season. Diurnal and seasonal temperature trends derived from Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer observations indicate that there is H2O ice at the surface. Viking observations, and the few other relevant THEMIS observations, indicate that surface H2O ice may be widespread around and under the perennial CO2 cap.

  7. Isolated Star-Forming Cloud Discovered in Intracluster Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    Subaru and VLT Join Forces in New Study of Virgo Galaxy Cluster [1] Summary At a distance of some 50 million light-years, the Virgo Cluster is the nearest galaxy cluster. It is located in the zodiacal constellation of the same name (The Virgin) and is a large and dense assembly of hundreds of galaxies. The "intracluster" space between the Virgo galaxies is permeated by hot X-ray emitting gas and, as has become clear recently, by a sparse "intracluster population of stars". So far, stars have been observed to form in the luminous parts of galaxies. The most massive young stars are often visible indirectly by the strong emission from surrounding cocoons of hot gas, which is heated by the intense radiation from the embedded stars. These "HII regions" (pronounced "Eitch-Two" and so named because of their content of ionized hydrogen) may be very bright and they often trace the beautiful spiral arms seen in disk galaxies like our own Milky Way. New observations by the Japanese 8-m Subaru telescope and the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) have now shown that massive stars can also form in isolation, far from the luminous parts of galaxies. During a most productive co-operation between astronomers working at these two world-class telescopes, a compact HII region has been discovered at the very boundary between the outer halo of a Virgo cluster galaxy and Virgo intracluster space. This cloud is illuminated and heated by a few hot and massive young stars. The estimated total mass of the stars in the cloud is only a few hundred times that of the Sun. Such an object is rare at the present epoch. However, there may have been more in the past, at which time they were perhaps responsible for the formation of a fraction of the intracluster stellar population in clusters of galaxies. Massive stars in such isolated HII regions will explode as supernovae at the end of their short lives, and enrich the intracluster medium with heavy elements. Observations of two other Virgo cluster

  8. DISCOVER-AQ: An Overview and Initial Comparisons of NO2 with OMI Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, Kenneth; Crawford, James; Krotkov, Nickolay; Bucsela, Eric; Lamsal, Lok; Celarier, Edward; Herman, Jay; Janz, Scott; Cohen, Ron; Weinheimer, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The first deployment of the Earth Venture -1 DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) project was conducted during July 2011 in the Baltimore-Washington region. Two aircraft (a P-3B for in-situ sampling and a King Air for remote sensing) were used along with an extensive array of surface-based in-situ and remote sensing instrumentation. Fourteen flight days were accomplished by both aircraft and over 250 profiles of trace gases and aerosols were performed by the P-3B over surface air quality monitoring stations, which were specially outfitted with sunphotometers and Pandora UV/Vis spectrometers. The King Air flew with the High Spectral Resolution Lidar for aerosols and the ACAM UV/Vis spectrometer for trace gases. This suite of observations allows linkage of surface air quality with the vertical distributions of gases and aerosols, with remotely-sensed column amounts observed from the surface and from the King Air, and with satellite observations from Aura (OMI and TES), GOME-2, MODIS and GOES. The DISCOVER-AQ data will allow determination of under what conditions satellite retrievals are indicative of surface air quality, and they will be useful in planning new satellites. In addition to an overview of the project, a preliminary comparison of tropospheric column NO2 densities from the integration of in-situ P-3B observations, from the Pandoras and ACAM, and from the new Goddard OMI NO2 algorithm will be presented.

  9. Fine-scale application of the WRF-CMAQ modeling system to the 2013 DISCOVER-AQ San Joaquin Valley study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The DISCOVER-AQ project (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality), is a joint collaboration between NASA, U.S. EPA and a number of other local organizations with the goal of characterizing air quality in ...

  10. Fine-scale application of the WRF-CMAQ modeling system to the 2013 DISCOVER-AQ San Joaquin Valley study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The DISCOVER-AQ project (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality), is a joint collaboration between NASA, U.S. EPA and a number of other local organizations with the goal of characterizing air quality in ...

  11. Novel Virophages Discovered in a Freshwater Lake in China

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Chaowen; Zhang, Weijia; Zhou, Xuewen; Wang, Hongming; Sun, Guowei; Xiao, Jinzhou; Pan, Yingjie; Yan, Shuling; Wang, Yongjie

    2016-01-01

    Virophages are small double-stranded DNA viruses that are parasites of giant DNA viruses that infect unicellular eukaryotes. Here we identify a novel group of virophages, named Dishui Lake virophages (DSLVs) that were discovered in Dishui Lake (DSL): an artificial freshwater lake in Shanghai, China. Based on PCR and metagenomic analysis, the complete genome of DSLV1 was found to be circular and 28,788 base pairs in length, with a G+C content 43.2%, and 28 predicted open reading frames (ORFs). Fifteen of the DSLV1 ORFs have sequence similarity to known virophages. Two DSLV1 ORFs exhibited sequence similarity to that of prasinoviruses (Phycodnaviridae) and chloroviruses (Phycodnaviridae), respectively, suggesting horizontal gene transfer occurred between these large algal DNA viruses and DSLV1. 46 other virophages-related contigs were also obtained, including six homologous major capsid protein (MCP) gene. Phylogenetic analysis of these MCPs showed that DSLVs are closely related to OLV (Organic Lake virophage) and YSLVs (Yellowstone Lake virophages), especially to YSLV3, except for YSLV7. These results indicate that freshwater ecotopes are the hotbed for discovering novel virophages as well as understanding their diversity and properties. PMID:26834726

  12. Robust PCA based method for discovering differentially expressed genes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin-Xing; Wang, Yu-Tian; Zheng, Chun-Hou; Sha, Wen; Mi, Jian-Xun; Xu, Yong

    2013-01-01

    How to identify a set of genes that are relevant to a key biological process is an important issue in current molecular biology. In this paper, we propose a novel method to discover differentially expressed genes based on robust principal component analysis (RPCA). In our method, we treat the differentially and non-differentially expressed genes as perturbation signals S and low-rank matrix A, respectively. Perturbation signals S can be recovered from the gene expression data by using RPCA. To discover the differentially expressed genes associated with special biological progresses or functions, the scheme is given as follows. Firstly, the matrix D of expression data is decomposed into two adding matrices A and S by using RPCA. Secondly, the differentially expressed genes are identified based on matrix S. Finally, the differentially expressed genes are evaluated by the tools based on Gene Ontology. A larger number of experiments on hypothetical and real gene expression data are also provided and the experimental results show that our method is efficient and effective.

  13. Evolutionary approach for discovering changing patterns in historical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Au, Wai-Ho; Chan, Keith C. C.

    2002-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a new data mining approach, called dAR, for discovering interesting association rules and their changes by evolutionary computation. dAR searches through huge rule spaces effectively using a genetic algorithm. It has the following characteristics: (i) it encodes a complete set of rules in one single chromosome; (ii) each allele encodes one rule and each rule is represented by some non-binary symbolic values; (iii) the evolutionary process begins with the generation of an initial set of first-order rules (i.e., rules with one condition) using a probabilistic induction technique and based on these rules, rules of higher order (two or more conditions) are obtained iteratively; (iv) it adopts a steady-state reproduction scheme in which only two chromosomes are replaced every time; (v) when identifying interesting rules, an objective interestingness measure is used; and (vi) the fitness of a chromosome is defined in terms of the probability that the attribute values of a tuple can be correctly determined using the rules it encodes. Furthermore, dAR can also be used to mine the changes in discovered rules over time. This allows the accurate prediction of the future based on the historical data in the past. The experimental results on a synthetic database have shown that dAR is very effective at mining interesting association rules and their changes over time.

  14. Screening individual hybridomas by microengraving to discover monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Ogunniyi, Adebola O; Story, Craig M; Papa, Eliseo; Guillen, Eduardo; Love, J Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The demand for monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in biomedical research is significant, but the current methodologies used to discover them are both lengthy and costly. Consequently, the diversity of antibodies available for any particular antigen remains limited. Microengraving is a soft lithographic technique that provides a rapid and efficient alternative for discovering new mAbs. This protocol describes how to use microengraving to screen mouse hybridomas to establish new cell lines producing unique mAbs. Single cells from a polyclonal population are isolated into an array of microscale wells (~105 cells per screen). The array is then used to print a protein microarray, where each element contains the antibodies captured from individual wells. The antibodies on the microarray are screened with antigens of interest, and mapped to the corresponding cells, which are then recovered from their microwells by micromanipulation. Screening and retrieval require approximately 1–3 d (9–12 d including the steps for preparing arrays of microwells). PMID:19528952

  15. [Newly discovered hepatitis viruses--do they cause hepatitis indeed?].

    PubMed

    Takács, Mária; Lengyel, Anna; Dencs, Agnes; Berencsi, György

    2003-08-10

    The paper reviews the available information on the newly discovered viruses originally supposed to cause post-transfusion hepatitis. GBV-C/Hepatitis G virus belongs to the Flaviviridae family, and can be transmitted parenterally like Hepatitis C virus. Its role in causing hepatitis or other diseases has not been proved yet. The other newly discovered viruses contain single-stranded circular DNA, with a wide range of sequence divergence. These viruses can be transmitted not only with blood and blood products but via fecal-oral route as well. They are unique among enterally transmitted viruses in the sense that the virus persists for years in the human body, therefore their genomes may be detected in the blood of the healthy population in high percentage. One of the genotypes of TTV is suspected to cause hepatitis. High TT virus load was found as an independent factor associated with the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma among patients with hepatitis C virus-related chronic liver disease. It is not clear yet, whether TTV-like minivirus and SEN virus cause any illnesses.

  16. Discovering loose group movement patterns from animal trajectories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Yuwei; Luo, Ze; Xiong, Yan; Prosser, Diann J.; Newman, Scott H.; Takekawa, John Y.; Yan, Baoping

    2015-01-01

    The technical advances of positioning technologies enable us to track animal movements at finer spatial and temporal scales, and further help to discover a variety of complex interactive relationships. In this paper, considering the loose gathering characteristics of the real-life groups' members during the movements, we propose two kinds of loose group movement patterns and corresponding discovery algorithms. Firstly, we propose the weakly consistent group movement pattern which allows the gathering of a part of the members and individual temporary leave from the whole during the movements. To tolerate the high dispersion of the group at some moments (i.e. to adapt the discontinuity of the group's gatherings), we further scheme the weakly consistent and continuous group movement pattern. The extensive experimental analysis and comparison with the real and synthetic data shows that the group pattern discovery algorithms proposed in this paper are similar to the the real-life frequent divergences of the members during the movements, can discover more complete memberships, and have considerable performance.

  17. Retinal Oximetry Discovers Novel Biomarkers in Retinal and Brain Diseases.

    PubMed

    Stefánsson, Einar; Olafsdottir, Olof Birna; Einarsdottir, Anna Bryndis; Eliasdottir, Thorunn Scheving; Eysteinsson, Thor; Vehmeijer, Wouter; Vandewalle, Evelien; Bek, Toke; Hardarson, Sveinn Hakon

    2017-05-01

    Biomarkers for several eye and brain diseases are reviewed, where retinal oximetry may help confirm diagnosis or measure severity of disease. These include diabetic retinopathy, central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO), retinitis pigmentosa, glaucoma, and Alzheimer's disease. Retinal oximetry is based on spectrophotometric fundus imaging and measures oxygen saturation in retinal arterioles and venules in a noninvasive, quick, safe manner. Retinal oximetry detects changes in oxygen metabolism, including those that result from ischemia or atrophy. In diabetic retinopathy, venous oxygen saturation increases and arteriovenous difference decreases. Both correlate with diabetic retinopathy severity as conventionally classified on fundus photographs. In CRVO, vein occlusion causes hypoxia, which is measured directly by retinal oximetry to confirm the diagnosis and measure severity. In both diseases, the change in oxygen levels is a consequence of disturbed blood flow with resulting tissue hypoxia and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production. In atrophic diseases, such as retinitis pigmentosa and glaucoma, retinal oxygen consumption is reduced and this is detected by retinal oximetry. Retinal oximetry correlates with visual field damage and retinal atrophy. It is an objective metabolic measure of the degree of retinal atrophy. Finally, the retina is part of the central nervous system tissue and reflects central nervous system diseases. In Alzheimer's disease, a change in retinal oxygen metabolism has been discovered. Retinal oximetry is a novel, noninvasive technology that opens the field of metabolic imaging of the retina. Biomarkers in metabolic, ischemic, and atrophic diseases of the retina and central nervous system have been discovered.

  18. Novel Virophages Discovered in a Freshwater Lake in China.

    PubMed

    Gong, Chaowen; Zhang, Weijia; Zhou, Xuewen; Wang, Hongming; Sun, Guowei; Xiao, Jinzhou; Pan, Yingjie; Yan, Shuling; Wang, Yongjie

    2016-01-01

    Virophages are small double-stranded DNA viruses that are parasites of giant DNA viruses that infect unicellular eukaryotes. Here we identify a novel group of virophages, named Dishui Lake virophages (DSLVs) that were discovered in Dishui Lake (DSL): an artificial freshwater lake in Shanghai, China. Based on PCR and metagenomic analysis, the complete genome of DSLV1 was found to be circular and 28,788 base pairs in length, with a G+C content 43.2%, and 28 predicted open reading frames (ORFs). Fifteen of the DSLV1 ORFs have sequence similarity to known virophages. Two DSLV1 ORFs exhibited sequence similarity to that of prasinoviruses (Phycodnaviridae) and chloroviruses (Phycodnaviridae), respectively, suggesting horizontal gene transfer occurred between these large algal DNA viruses and DSLV1. 46 other virophages-related contigs were also obtained, including six homologous major capsid protein (MCP) gene. Phylogenetic analysis of these MCPs showed that DSLVs are closely related to OLV (Organic Lake virophage) and YSLVs (Yellowstone Lake virophages), especially to YSLV3, except for YSLV7. These results indicate that freshwater ecotopes are the hotbed for discovering novel virophages as well as understanding their diversity and properties.

  19. Discovering Influential Nodes for SIS Models in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Kazumi; Kimura, Masahiro; Motoda, Hiroshi

    We address the problem of efficiently discovering the influential nodes in a social network under the susceptible/infected/susceptible (SIS) model, a diffusion model where nodes are allowed to be activated multiple times. The computational complexity drastically increases because of this multiple activation property. We solve this problem by constructing a layered graph from the original social network with each layer added on top as the time proceeds, and applying the bond percolation with pruning and burnout strategies. We experimentally demonstrate that the proposed method gives much better solutions than the conventional methods that are solely based on the notion of centrality for social network analysis using two large-scale real-world networks (a blog network and a wikipedia network). We further show that the computational complexity of the proposed method is much smaller than the conventional naive probabilistic simulation method by a theoretical analysis and confirm this by experimentation. The properties of the influential nodes discovered are substantially different from those identified by the centrality-based heuristic methods.

  20. Discovering fragile X syndrome: family experiences and perceptions.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Donald B; Skinner, Debra; Sparkman, Karen L

    2003-02-01

    We used surveys from 274 families who had at least 1 child with fragile X syndrome (FXS) to determine their experiences in discovering FXS, factors associated with the timeliness of discovery, and the perceived consequences of obtaining this information. For families of male children who were born in the last decade, someone first became concerned about the child's development at an average age of 13 months. Professional confirmation of a developmental delay did not occur until an average age of 21 months, and a FXS diagnosis occurred at an average age of nearly 32 months. Families reported several barriers to discovering FXS and frustration with the process. Many families had additional children with FXS without knowing reproductive risk. A range of perceived benefits and challenges associated with the discovery were reported. We conclude that selected pediatric practices could promote earlier identification but in only a limited way and predict that disorders such as FXS will continue to challenge current criteria for determining viable candidate disorders for newborn screening.

  1. Project PRISM: Project Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunnion, Maryellen; And Others

    The first of three volumes of Project PRISM, a program designed to help classroom teachers (grades 6 through 8) provide for the needs of their gifted and talented students without removing those students from the mainstream of education, outlines the project's background and achievements. Sections review the following project aspects (sample…

  2. Carry Groups: Abstract Algebra Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Cheryl Chute; Madore, Blair F.

    2004-01-01

    Carry Groups are a wonderful collection of groups to introduce in an undergraduate Abstract Algebra course. These groups are straightforward to define but have interesting structures for students to discover. We describe these groups and give examples of in-class group projects that were developed and used by Miller.

  3. Carry Groups: Abstract Algebra Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Cheryl Chute; Madore, Blair F.

    2004-01-01

    Carry Groups are a wonderful collection of groups to introduce in an undergraduate Abstract Algebra course. These groups are straightforward to define but have interesting structures for students to discover. We describe these groups and give examples of in-class group projects that were developed and used by Miller.

  4. DISCOVER-AQ observations over the Baltimore-DC area during July 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, J. H.; Pickering, K. E.; Discover-Aq Science Team

    2011-12-01

    DISCOVER-AQ is one of five NASA Earth Venture-1 airborne science projects scheduled to occur in the 2011-2015 timeframe. These five-year, targeted science investigations are part of NASA's Earth System Science Pathfinder program. The goal of DISCOVER-AQ is to improve the interpretation of satellite observations to diagnose near-surface conditions relating to air quality. Distinguishing between pollution at the surface and aloft is a particularly difficult problem for satellites. The strategy for studying this problem is articulated in the acronym which stands for Deriving Information on Surface conditions from COlumn and VERtically resolved observations relevant to Air Quality. This strategy dictates an observational approach that enables systematic and concurrent observation of column-integrated, surface, and vertically-resolved distributions of aerosols and trace gases relevant to air quality as they evolve throughout the day. This was accomplished over the Baltimore-Washington area during July 2011 as the project completed the first of four planned deployments. Two NASA aircraft were flown over six instrumented ground sites on fourteen days. The NASA UC-12 flew a circuit at high altitude (26 kft) passing over individual ground sites five to six times on each flight day, providing lidar observations of aerosols and passive remote sensing of trace gases. Concurrently, the NASA P-3B conducted in situ sampling of trace gases and aerosols along a circuit that allowed for three profiles of the lower atmosphere over each ground site (typically from 10,500 to 1000 feet) as well as low altitude transects along the I-95 corridor at 1000 feet. The six ground sites were chosen from the long-term monitoring network maintained and operated by the Maryland Department of the Environment. These sites also hosted additional instrumentation that included remote sensors (sunphotometers and trace gas spectrometers), instrumented trailers, ozonesondes, and tethered balloons. Partners

  5. Distant World in Peril Discovered from La Silla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    Giant Exoplanet Orbits Giant Star Summary When, in a distant future, the Sun begins to expand and evolves into a "giant" star, the surface temperature on the Earth will rise dramatically and our home planet will eventually be incinerated by that central body. Fortunately for us, this dramatic event is several billion years away. However, that sad fate will befall another planet, just discovered in orbit about the giant star HD 47536, already within a few tens of millions of years. At a distance of nearly 400 light-years from us, it is the second-remotest planetary system discovered to date [1]. This is an interesting side-result of a major research project, now carried out by a European-Brazilian team of astronomers [2]. In the course of a three-year spectroscopic survey, they have observed about 80 giant stars in the southern sky with the advanced FEROS spectrograph on the 1.52-m telescope installed at the ESO La Silla Observatory (Chile). It is one of these stars that has just been found to host a giant planet. This is only the fourth such case known and with a diameter of about 33 million km (or 23.5 times that of our Sun), HD 47536 is by far the largest of those giant stars [1]. The distance of the planet from the star is still of the order of 300 million km (or twice the distance of the Earth from the Sun), a safe margin now, but this will not always be so. The orbital period is 712 days, i.e., somewhat less than two Earth years, and the planet's mass is 5 - 10 times that of Jupiter. The presence of exoplanets in orbit around giant stars, some of which will eventually perish into their central star (be "cannibalized"), provides a possible explanation of the anomalous abundance of certain chemical elements that is observed in the atmospheres of some stars, cf. ESO PR 10/01. This interesting discovery bodes well for coming observations of exoplanetary systems with new, more powerful instruments, like HARPS to be installed next year at the ESO 3.6-m telescope on

  6. LIMNOBIUM SPONGIA (HYDROCHARITACEAE) DISCOVERED IN NEW ENGLAND. (U915544)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  7. LIMNOBIUM SPONGIA (HYDROCHARITACEAE) DISCOVERED IN NEW ENGLAND. (U915544)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  8. Helping the public 'Discover Health' in their local library. Providing health information in public libraries: a partnership approach in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Henry, Elspeth; Marley, Lesley

    2004-06-01

    A partnership between the Specialist Health Promotion Service of NHS Tayside and Dundee City Council developed a project, 'Discover Health', to bring health information to the public. The two main formats used were traditional leaflets and Internet access via the People's Network, both available in public libraries. The steering group for the project was made up of staff from both organisations. The NHS side secured the funding; the Council side provided the accommodation and information and communication technologies. The partnership worked well, and the project is continuing, with expansion in the pipeline for other areas within Tayside. The various aspects of the functioning of the partnership are discussed. A literature review of similar initiatives is included.

  9. Bridges and the City: An Interdisciplinary Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Judith Y.; Goodman, Cecelia; Ridley, Theodora; Singer, Alan

    2000-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary project to help elementary school children discover the relationship among technology, history, and geography that involved the building of a model Brooklyn Bridge and considering the history and role of the real bridge. Suggestions for similar projects for other cities are appended. (JPB)

  10. New tools for discovering and characterizing microbial diversity.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, Erick; Tiedje, James M

    2008-12-01

    To discover and characterize microbial diversity, approaches based on new sequencing technologies, novel isolation techniques, microfluidics, and metagenomics among others are being used. These approaches have contributed to discovery of novel genes from environmental samples, to massive characterization of functional and phylogenetic genes and to isolation of members of formerly uncultured yet ubiquitous groups like Verrucomicrobia, Acidobacteria, OP10, and methanogenic Archaea. Cheaper sequencing is key in this process by making available applications that were previously restricted to big research centers, complementing previously available methodologies and potentially replacing some of them. The new tools are reshaping the way we study the environment, increasing the resolution at which microbial communities, their complexities and dynamics, can be studied to reveal their genetic potential and their functional diversity.

  11. Discovering of execution patterns of subprograms in execution traces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komorowski, Michał

    2015-09-01

    This article describes an approach to the analysis of historical debuggers logs (execution traces). Historical debuggers are tools that provide insight into the history of programs execution. The author focuses on finding execution patterns of subprograms in these logs in an efficient way and proposes a method of visualising them. Execution patterns are a form of automatically generated specification/documentation of software which show usage of subprograms. In order to discover them in execution traces an existing algorithm was adapted. This algorithm is based on suffix arrays and it finds patterns in text application logs in the linear time with the respect to the length of logs. Additionally, Extended Call Graphs were introduced to visualise the execution patterns. They contain more information in comparison with standard call graphs.

  12. Discovering Mira Ceti: Celestial Change and Cosmic Continuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatch, Robert Alan

    In the short narrative that follows I introduce two new heroes. Although we begin with Fabricius's first sighting in 1596, the new pivot point in the drama is the collaboration between Hevelius and Boulliau that began around 1660. As it happens, Learned Europe paid little attention to Mira in the generation after the first scattered sightings of 1596, indeed, nearly 70 years passed before the New Star was given a working identity. Like Columbus discovering America, Fabricius and Holwarda saw different things - for convenience, I call them Fabricius's Star and Holwarda's Star. Hevelius's Historiola (Danzig, 1662) and Boulliau's Ad astronomos (Paris, 1667) presented a different vision. It made Mira famous. As I shall argue, if Hevelius gave Mira a history, Boulliau gave Mira a future.5 In the end, the New Star not only challenged the ancient cosmos, it became an enduring icon for the New Science, a returning reminder of celestial continuity and cosmic order.

  13. Re-discovering Mendel: The Case of Carl Correns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Carl Erich Correns (1864-1933) is remembered in the annals of science as one of the three botanists who re-discovered Mendel's laws. He can also, however, be regarded as one of the founding figures of classical genetics in Germany. Between 1894 and 1899 he carried out the crossing experiments with corn and peas that led to the re-statement of Gregor Mendel's (1822-1884) results. Between 1900 and 1910, he explored the complications of these laws, including the coupling of factors due to their chromosomal location and the inheritance of sex, in a great number of plant species. In later years Correns became interested in and experimented on phenomena of extra-nuclear inheritance.

  14. Los Alamos Discovers Super Efficient Solar Using Perovskite Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Mohite, Aditya; Nie, Wanyi

    2015-01-29

    State-of-the-art photovoltaics using high-purity, large-area, wafer-scale single-crystalline semiconductors grown by sophisticated, high temperature crystal-growth processes offer promising routes for developing low-cost, solar-based clean global energy solutions for the future. Solar cells composed of the recently discovered material organic-inorganic perovskites offer the efficiency of silicon, yet suffer from a variety of deficiencies limiting the commercial viability of perovskite photovoltaic technology. In research to appear in Science, Los Alamos National Laboratory researchers reveal a new solution-based hot-casting technique that eliminates these limitations, one that allows for the growth of high-quality, large-area, millimeter-scale perovskite crystals and demonstrates that highly efficient and reproducible solar cells with reduced trap assisted recombination can be realized.

  15. Adrenal Pheochromocytoma Incidentally Discovered in a Patient With Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Petramala, Luigi; Concistrè, Antonio; Marinelli, Cristiano; Zinnamosca, Laura; Iannucci, Gino; Lucia, Piernatale; De Vincentis, Giuseppe; Letizia, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate the diagnostic route of pheochromocytoma (PHEO) in a patient under dopaminergic treatment. A 70-year-old man with Parkinsonism and under treatment with levodopa and carbidopa came to our observation for evaluation of arterial hypertension and right adrenal mass discovered incidentally. To evaluate adrenal hormone levels we performed a dexamethasone suppression test, plasma aldosterone levels and 24-hr urinary metanephrine, which revealed elevated levels of catecholamines metabolities. 123-I-metaiodobenzylguanidine SPECT scintiscan revealed raised activity within the right adrenal gland concordant with the mass. The diagnosis of PHEO was posed and an elective laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed; histopathological examination confirmed the PHEO diagnosis. Recently the coexistence of PHEO and Parkinsonism is a very rare association of diseases, with only 3 cases reported in literature. In this article, another case is reported and diagnostic procedures are discussed. PMID:26496334

  16. Discovering Related Clinical Concepts Using Large Amounts of Clinical Notes

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, Kavita; Lloyd, Shane; Sarkar, Vikren

    2016-01-01

    The ability to find highly related clinical concepts is essential for many applications such as for hypothesis generation, query expansion for medical literature search, search results filtering, ICD-10 code filtering and many other applications. While manually constructed medical terminologies such as SNOMED CT can surface certain related concepts, these terminologies are inadequate as they depend on expertise of several subject matter experts making the terminology curation process open to geographic and language bias. In addition, these terminologies also provide no quantifiable evidence on how related the concepts are. In this work, we explore an unsupervised graphical approach to mine related concepts by leveraging the volume within large amounts of clinical notes. Our evaluation shows that we are able to use a data driven approach to discovering highly related concepts for various search terms including medications, symptoms and diseases. PMID:27656096

  17. Internal contamination of an irradiator discovered during security enhancement.

    PubMed

    Harvey, R P

    2014-08-01

    High-risk radioactive sources regulated under Increased Controls Regulations have been protected by licensed facilities, but the federal government has placed significant emphasis on these sources and has developed initiatives to assist radioactive material licensees. The Department of Energy's Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) Domestic Threat Reduction Program is a voluntary federally funded program for security enhancements of high-risk radiological material. During the hardening or security enhancement process by the United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) contractors, a small amount of radioactive contamination was discovered in a Cesium irradiator. Ultimately, it was decided to pursue disposal with U.S. DOE's Off-Site Recovery Program (OSRP). Radiological devices may have a leaking source or known internal contamination that may cause difficulty during security enhancement. If the licensee understands this, it may provide facilities the opportunity to plan and prepare for unusual circumstances.

  18. Discovering the leader within yourself: school nurses as leaders.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Linda J; Wesoloski, Mary Anne; Lawinger, Sandra; Fishman, Donna

    2012-03-01

    School nurses are leaders every day, sometimes with ambivalence and sometimes fully embracing the leadership role. The authors were participants and trainers in the successful School Nurse Leadership Program of the Healthy Schools Campaign. The article describes five principles of effective school nurse leadership to help school nurses discover the leaders within themselves: passion, knowledge, advocacy, relationships, and communication. School nurses are encouraged to set leadership goals. Participants in a session at the NASN 2011 annual conference described a variety of 6-month goals including "Invite myself to the administrative meetings at least one time per quarter; present on a topic for at least 5 minutes. "Setting simple yet attainable goals is the first step to recognizing leadership in oneself.

  19. SOLAR SYSTEM ANALOGS AROUND IRAS-DISCOVERED DEBRIS DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Christine H.; Sheehan, Patrick; Watson, Dan M.; Manoj, P.; Najita, Joan R.

    2009-08-20

    We have rereduced Spitzer IRS spectra and reanalyzed the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of three nearby debris disks: {lambda} Boo, HD 139664, and HR 8799. We find that the thermal emission from these objects is well modeled using two single temperature black body components. For HR 8799 - with no silicate emission features despite a relatively hot inner dust component (T{sub gr} = 150 K) - we infer the presence of an asteroid belt interior to and a Kuiper Belt exterior to the recently discovered orbiting planets. For HD 139664, which has been imaged in scattered light, we infer the presence of strongly forward scattering grains, consistent with porous grains, if the cold, outer disk component generates both the observed scattered light and thermal emission. Finally, careful analysis of the {lambda} Boo SED suggests that this system possesses a central clearing, indicating that selective accretion of solids onto the central star does not occur from a dusty disk.

  20. How did Archimedes discover the law of buoyancy by experiment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroki, Hidetaka

    2016-03-01

    After Archimedes and Vitruvius era, for more than 2000 years, it has been believed that the displaced water measurement of golden crown is impossible, and at his Eureka moment, Archimedes discovered the law of buoyancy (Proposition 7 of his principles) and proved the theft of a goldsmith by weighing the golden crown in water. A previous study showed that a small amount of displaced water was able to be measured with enough accuracy by the introduced method. Archimedes measured the weight of displaced water. He did not find the law of buoyancy but rather specific gravity of things at the moment. After which, Archimedes continued to measure the specific gravity of various solids and fluids. Through these measurements, he reached the discovery of the law of buoyancy directly by experiment. In this paper, the process to the discovery of Archimedes' principle (Proposition 5) is presented.

  1. Detailed Abundances of Stars with Small Planets Discovered by Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuler, Simon C.; Vaz, Zachary A.; Katime Santrich, Orlando J.; Cunha, Katia M. L.; Smith, Verne V.; King, Jeremy R.; Ghezzi, Luan; Howell, Steve B.; Teske, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    We present newly derived stellar parameters and the detailed abundances of 19 elements of seven stars with small planets discovered by NASA's Kepler Mission. Each star save one has at least one planet with a radius less than 2 REarth, suggesting a primarily rocky composition. The stellar parameters and abundances are derived from high signal-to-noise ratio, high-resolution echelle spectroscopy obtained with the 10-m Keck I telescope and HIRES spectrometer using standard spectroscopic techniques. We compare the abundances to those of a general Galactic disk population and investigate possible abundance trends with condensation temperature of the elements.S.C.S. acknowledges support provided by grant NNX12AD19G to S.C.S. from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration as part of the Kepler Participating Scientist Program.

  2. Quantify spatial relations to discover handwritten graphical symbols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinpeng; Mouchère, Harold; Viard-Gaudin, Christian

    2012-01-01

    To model a handwritten graphical language, spatial relations describe how the strokes are positioned in the 2-dimensional space. Most of existing handwriting recognition systems make use of some predefined spatial relations. However, considering a complex graphical language, it is hard to express manually all the spatial relations. Another possibility would be to use a clustering technique to discover the spatial relations. In this paper, we discuss how to create a relational graph between strokes (nodes) labeled with graphemes in a graphical language. Then we vectorize spatial relations (edges) for clustering and quantization. As the targeted application, we extract the repetitive sub-graphs (graphical symbols) composed of graphemes and learned spatial relations. On two handwriting databases, a simple mathematical expression database and a complex flowchart database, the unsupervised spatial relations outperform the predefined spatial relations. In addition, we visualize the frequent patterns on two text-lines containing Chinese characters.

  3. A Systematic Approach to Discover and Characterize Natural Plant Biostimulants

    PubMed Central

    Povero, Giovanni; Mejia, Juan F.; Di Tommaso, Donata; Piaggesi, Alberto; Warrior, Prem

    2016-01-01

    The use of natural plant biostimulants is proposed as an innovative solution to address the challenges to sustainable agriculture, to ensure optimal nutrient uptake, crop yield, quality, and tolerance to abiotic stress. However, the process of selection and characterization of plant biostimulant matrices is complex and involves a series of rigorous evaluations customized to the needs of the plant. Here, we propose a highly differentiated plant biostimulant development and production platform, which involves a combination of technology, processes, and know-how. Chemistry, biology and omic concepts are combined/integrated to investigate and understand the specific mode(s) of action of bioactive ingredients. The proposed approach allows to predict and characterize the function of natural compounds as biostimulants. By managing and analyzing massive amounts of complex data, it is therefore possible to discover, evaluate and validate new product candidates, thus expanding the uses of existing products to meet the emerging needs of agriculture. PMID:27092156

  4. Cassini discovers a kinematic spiral ring around Saturn.

    PubMed

    Charnoz, S; Porco, C C; Déau, E; Brahic, A; Spitale, J N; Bacques, G; Baillie, K

    2005-11-25

    Since the time of the Voyager flybys of Saturn in 1980-1981, Saturn's eccentric F ring has been known to be accompanied on either side by faint strands of material. New Cassini observations show that these strands, initially interpreted as concentric ring segments, are in fact connected and form a single one-arm trailing spiral winding at least three times around Saturn. The spiral rotates around Saturn with the orbital motion of its constituent particles. This structure is likely the result of differential orbital motion stretching an initial cloud of particles scattered from the dense core of the F ring. Different scenarios of formation, implying ringlet-satellite interactions, are explored. A recently discovered moon candidate, S/2004 S6, is on an orbit that crosses the F-ring core at the intersection of the spiral with the ring, which suggests a dynamical connection between S/2004 S6 and the spiral.

  5. David Levy's Guide to Observing and Discovering Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, David H.

    2003-05-01

    Preface; Part I. Why Observe Comets?: 1. Of history, superstition, magic, and science; 2. Comet science progresses; Part II. Discovering Comets: 3. Comet searching begins; 4. Tails and trails; 5. Comet searching in the twentieth century; 6. How I search for comets; 7. Searching for comets photographically; 8. Searching for comets with CCDs; 9. Comet hunting by reading; 10. Hunting for sungrazers over the Internet; 11. What to do when you think you've found a comet; Part III. A New Way of Looking at Comets: 12. When comets hit planets; 13. The future of visual comet hunting; Part IV. How to Observe Comets: 14. An introduction to comet hunting; 15. Visual observing of comets; 16. Estimating the magnitude of a comet; 17. Taking a picture of a comet; 18. Measuring where a comet is in the sky; Part V. Closing Notes: 19. My passion for comets.

  6. NLRC5: a newly discovered MHC class I transactivator (CITA).

    PubMed

    Meissner, Torsten B; Li, Amy; Kobayashi, Koichi S

    2012-06-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II are crucial for the function of the human adaptive immune system. An NLR protein, CIITA (MHC class II transactivator), is a master regulator of MHC class II gene expression as well as of some of the genes involved in MHC class II antigen presentation. It has recently been discovered that another member of the NLR protein family, NLRC5, transcriptionally activates MHC class I genes, and thus acts as "CITA" (MHC class I transactivator), a counterpart to CIITA. In addition to MHC class I genes, NLRC5 can induce the expression of β2M, TAP1 and LMP2, essential components of MHC class I antigen presentation. These findings indicate that NLRC5 and CIITA are transcriptional regulators that orchestrate the concerted expression of critical components in the MHC class I and MHC class II pathways, respectively.

  7. Los Alamos Discovers Super Efficient Solar Using Perovskite Crystals

    ScienceCinema

    Mohite, Aditya; Nie, Wanyi

    2016-07-12

    State-of-the-art photovoltaics using high-purity, large-area, wafer-scale single-crystalline semiconductors grown by sophisticated, high temperature crystal-growth processes offer promising routes for developing low-cost, solar-based clean global energy solutions for the future. Solar cells composed of the recently discovered material organic-inorganic perovskites offer the efficiency of silicon, yet suffer from a variety of deficiencies limiting the commercial viability of perovskite photovoltaic technology. In research to appear in Science, Los Alamos National Laboratory researchers reveal a new solution-based hot-casting technique that eliminates these limitations, one that allows for the growth of high-quality, large-area, millimeter-scale perovskite crystals and demonstrates that highly efficient and reproducible solar cells with reduced trap assisted recombination can be realized.

  8. Transcriptomics as a tool to discover new antibacterial targets.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Ángel; Muñoz, Elisa; López, M Carmen; Cordero, Miguel; Martínez, José Pedro; Viñas, Miguel

    2017-03-13

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens, multiple drug-resistance, and extremely drug-resistant strains demonstrates the need for improved strategies to discover new drug-based compounds. The development of transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics has provided new tools for global studies of living organisms. However, the compendium of expression profiles produced by these methods has introduced new scientific challenges into antimicrobial research. In this review, we discuss the practical value of transcriptomic techniques as well as their difficulties and pitfalls. We advocate the construction of new databases of transcriptomic data, using standardized formats in addition to standardized models of bacterial and yeast similar to those used in systems biology. The inclusion of proteomic and metabolomic data is also essential, as the resulting networks can provide a landscape to rationally predict and exploit new drug targets and to understand drug synergies.

  9. Discovering Tradeoffs, Vulnerabilities, and Dependencies within Water Resources Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing recognition and interest in using emerging computational tools for discovering the tradeoffs that emerge across complex combinations infrastructure options, adaptive operations, and sign posts. As a field concerned with "deep uncertainties", it is logically consistent to include a more direct acknowledgement that our choices for dealing with computationally demanding simulations, advanced search algorithms, and sensitivity analysis tools are themselves subject to failures that could adversely bias our understanding of how systems' vulnerabilities change with proposed actions. Balancing simplicity versus complexity in our computational frameworks is nontrivial given that we are often exploring high impact irreversible decisions. It is not always clear that accepted models even encompass important failure modes. Moreover as they become more complex and computationally demanding the benefits and consequences of simplifications are often untested. This presentation discusses our efforts to address these challenges through our "many-objective robust decision making" (MORDM) framework for the design and management water resources systems. The MORDM framework has four core components: (1) elicited problem conception and formulation, (2) parallel many-objective search, (3) interactive visual analytics, and (4) negotiated selection of robust alternatives. Problem conception and formulation is the process of abstracting a practical design problem into a mathematical representation. We build on the emerging work in visual analytics to exploit interactive visualization of both the design space and the objective space in multiple heterogeneous linked views that permit exploration and discovery. Many-objective search produces tradeoff solutions from potentially competing problem formulations that can each consider up to ten conflicting objectives based on current computational search capabilities. Negotiated design selection uses interactive visualization

  10. Combined mining: discovering informative knowledge in complex data.

    PubMed

    Cao, Longbing; Zhang, Huaifeng; Zhao, Yanchang; Luo, Dan; Zhang, Chengqi

    2011-06-01

    Enterprise data mining applications often involve complex data such as multiple large heterogeneous data sources, user preferences, and business impact. In such situations, a single method or one-step mining is often limited in discovering informative knowledge. It would also be very time and space consuming, if not impossible, to join relevant large data sources for mining patterns consisting of multiple aspects of information. It is crucial to develop effective approaches for mining patterns combining necessary information from multiple relevant business lines, catering for real business settings and decision-making actions rather than just providing a single line of patterns. The recent years have seen increasing efforts on mining more informative patterns, e.g., integrating frequent pattern mining with classifications to generate frequent pattern-based classifiers. Rather than presenting a specific algorithm, this paper builds on our existing works and proposes combined mining as a general approach to mining for informative patterns combining components from either multiple data sets or multiple features or by multiple methods on demand. We summarize general frameworks, paradigms, and basic processes for multifeature combined mining, multisource combined mining, and multimethod combined mining. Novel types of combined patterns, such as incremental cluster patterns, can result from such frameworks, which cannot be directly produced by the existing methods. A set of real-world case studies has been conducted to test the frameworks, with some of them briefed in this paper. They identify combined patterns for informing government debt prevention and improving government service objectives, which show the flexibility and instantiation capability of combined mining in discovering informative knowledge in complex data.

  11. Discovering opinion leaders for medical topics using news articles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rapid identification of subject experts for medical topics helps in improving the implementation of discoveries by speeding the time to market drugs and aiding in clinical trial recruitment, etc. Identifying such people who influence opinion through social network analysis is gaining prominence. In this work, we explore how to combine named entity recognition from unstructured news articles with social network analysis to discover opinion leaders for a given medical topic. Methods We employed a Conditional Random Field algorithm to extract three categories of entities from health-related new articles: Person, Organization and Location. We used the latter two to disambiguate polysemy and synonymy for the person names, used simple rules to identify the subject experts, and then applied social network analysis techniques to discover the opinion leaders among them based on their media presence. A network was created by linking each pair of subject experts who are mentioned together in an article. The social network analysis metrics (including centrality metrics such as Betweenness, Closeness, Degree and Eigenvector) are used for ranking the subject experts based on their power in information flow. Results We extracted 734,204 person mentions from 147,528 news articles related to obesity from January 1, 2007 through July 22, 2010. Of these, 147,879 mentions have been marked as subject experts. The F-score of extracting person names is 88.5%. More than 80% of the subject experts who rank among top 20 in at least one of the metrics could be considered as opinion leaders in obesity. Conclusion The analysis of the network of subject experts with media presence revealed that an opinion leader might have fewer mentions in the news articles, but a high network centrality measure and vice-versa. Betweenness, Closeness and Degree centrality measures were shown to supplement frequency counts in the task of finding subject experts. Further, opinion leaders missed in

  12. Discovering the plates boundaries in the Mediterranean sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinelli, Maurizio

    2017-04-01

    During the 8th class the students learn geology. We analyze the earth's layers, the earthquakes, the volcanoes and other natural phenomena like subduction and orogeny. We start with a global study but our goal is to focus on the crust to discover the plates boundaries, particularly the boundary between Eurasian and African Plate in the Mediterranean sea. It's very simple for the students to discover all the information using the Internet or the science book, but I want to make with them an exploration of earth science with the help of the natural phenomena we studied during the year. We connect with Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia ( http://www.ingv.it/en/ ) where we can find a map with the earthquakes happened in the last years in Italy and in the Mediterranean sea and the list of the main volcanoes. In this way we can draw a map of the mediterranean plates and we can talk about the past and the future of the Mediterranean sea, Europe and Africa based on our maps and on the Alps orogeny. Using youtube we can have a confirm of our hypothesis about the future of the Mediterranean sea (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uGcDed4xVD4 ). A good observation for the students is given by the fact that we live in Europe but actually we stay on the African plate. The boundary is 5 km north of our school and we can go and visit the place where it is possible to see the different height of the two plates.

  13. Discovering opinion leaders for medical topics using news articles.

    PubMed

    Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha; Peeler, Ryan; Topham, Philip

    2012-03-15

    Rapid identification of subject experts for medical topics helps in improving the implementation of discoveries by speeding the time to market drugs and aiding in clinical trial recruitment, etc. Identifying such people who influence opinion through social network analysis is gaining prominence. In this work, we explore how to combine named entity recognition from unstructured news articles with social network analysis to discover opinion leaders for a given medical topic. We employed a Conditional Random Field algorithm to extract three categories of entities from health-related new articles: Person, Organization and Location. We used the latter two to disambiguate polysemy and synonymy for the person names, used simple rules to identify the subject experts, and then applied social network analysis techniques to discover the opinion leaders among them based on their media presence. A network was created by linking each pair of subject experts who are mentioned together in an article. The social network analysis metrics (including centrality metrics such as Betweenness, Closeness, Degree and Eigenvector) are used for ranking the subject experts based on their power in information flow. We extracted 734,204 person mentions from 147,528 news articles related to obesity from January 1, 2007 through July 22, 2010. Of these, 147,879 mentions have been marked as subject experts. The F-score of extracting person names is 88.5%. More than 80% of the subject experts who rank among top 20 in at least one of the metrics could be considered as opinion leaders in obesity. The analysis of the network of subject experts with media presence revealed that an opinion leader might have fewer mentions in the news articles, but a high network centrality measure and vice-versa. Betweenness, Closeness and Degree centrality measures were shown to supplement frequency counts in the task of finding subject experts. Further, opinion leaders missed in scientific publication network analysis

  14. Discovering unexpected information using a building energy visualization tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, B.; Rodriguez, N.; Puech, W.; Vasques, X.

    2013-03-01

    Building energy consumption is an important problem in construction field, old buildings are gap of energy and they need to be refactored. Energy footprint of buildings needs to be reduced. New buildings are designed to be suitable with energy efficiency paradigm. To improve energy efficiency, Building Management Systems (BMS) are used: BMS are IT (Information Technology) systems composed by a rules engine and a database connected to sensors. Unfortunately, BMS are only monitoring systems: they cannot predict and mine efficiently building information. RIDER project has emerged from this observation. This project is conducted by several French companies and universities, IBM at Montpellier, France, leads the project. The main goal of this project is to create a smart and scalable BMS. This new kind of BMS will be able to dig into data and predict events. This IT system is based on component paradigm and the core can be extended with external components. Some of them are developed during the project: data mining, building generation model and visualization. All of these components will provide new features to improve rules used by the core. In this paper, we will focus on the visualization component. This visualization use a volume rendering method based on sensors data interpolation and a correlation method to create new views. We will present the visualization method used and which rules can be provided by this component.

  15. Which Process Model Practices Support Project Success?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepmets, Marion

    In this research the relevance of the guidance of software process models to industry was studied - more precisely, how relevant are the basic project management practices to the industry projects and to the success of these projects. The focus of the research is on project management and its related practices - the processes that support the achievement of capability levels 1 and 2 in CMMI and ISO/IEC 15504. These project management practices can also be viewed as best practices, the application of which can lead to project success. We aimed to discover whether the implementation of basic project management practices supports project success. There is evidence that higher process capability supports increased project performance. The question remains about the significance of basic project management practices to project performance.

  16. SNPnexus: a web database for functional annotation of newly discovered and public domain single nucleotide polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Chelala, Claude; Khan, Arshad; Lemoine, Nicholas R

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: Design a new computational tool allowing scientists to functionally annotate newly discovered and public domain single nucleotide polymorphisms in order to help in prioritizing targets in further disease studies and large-scale genotyping projects. Summary: SNPnexus database provides functional annotation for both novel and public SNPs. Possible effects on the transcriptome and proteome levels are characterized and reported from five major annotation systems providing the most extensive information on alternative splicing. Additional information on HapMap genotype and allele frequency, overlaps with potential regulatory elements or structural variations as well as related genetic diseases can be also retrieved. The SNPnexus database has a user-friendly web interface, providing single or batch query options using SNP identifiers from dbSNP as well as genomic location on clones, contigs or chromosomes. Therefore, SNPnexus is the only database currently providing a complete set of functional annotations of SNPs in public databases and newly detected from sequencing projects. Hence, we describe SNPnexus, provide details of the query options, the annotation categories as well as biological examples of use. Availability: The SNPnexus database is freely available at http://www.snp-nexus.org. Contact: claude.chelala@cancer.org.uk PMID:19098027

  17. Discovering Collaboration and Knowledge Management Practices for the Future Digital Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Myrna; Vera, Tomas; Tucci, Christopher

    Recently there has been an explosion of new technologies and tools such as wikis, blogs, tags, Facebook, among many others, that are commonly identified under Web 2.0 and which promise a new digital business ecosystem fed by formal/informal and internal/external relationships and interactions. Although Web 2.0 is very promising to enable such collective knowledge creation, technology by itself is not the only ingredient. It is also required to define the right strategy, governance, culture, processes, training, incentives among others, before implementing such innovative open spaces for collaboration and knowledge sharing. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to present a Knowledge Management (KM) Framework and a Maturity Model developed by a CEMEX and EPFL collaborative research project to discover the AS-IS collaboration practices in CEMEX before the implementation of the SMARTBRICKS Web 2.0 prototype for Business Process Management (BPM), currently under development by the Intelligent Manufacturing Systems (IMS) Swiss Digital Factory (DiFac) project.

  18. The CUAHSI Water Data Center: Empowering scientists to discover, use, store, and share water data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couch, A. L.; Hooper, R. P.; Arrigo, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    control. The WDC enables this by making both kinds of sources available in the same search interface. c. Data provenance: the appropriateness of data for use in a specific model or analysis often depends upon the exact details of how data was gathered and processed. The WDC will aid this by curating standards for metadata that are as descriptive as practical of the collection procedures. "Plug and play" sensor interfaces will fill in metadata appropriate to each sensor without human intervention. d. Contextual search: discovering data based upon geological (e.g. aquifer) or geographic (e.g., location in a stream network) features external to metadata. e. Data-driven search: discovering data that exhibit quality factors that are not described by the metadata. The WDC will partner with researchers desiring contextual and data driven search, and make results available to all. Many major data providers (e.g. federal agencies) are not mandated to provide access to data other than those they collect. The HIS project assembled data from over 90 different sources, thus demonstrating the promise of this approach. Meeting the grand challenges listed above will greatly enhance scientists' ability to discover, interpret, access, and analyze water data from across domains and sources to test Earth system hypotheses.

  19. Newly Discovered Clouds Found Floating High Above Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-10-01

    GREEN BANK, WV -- New studies with the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) have revealed a previously unknown population of discrete hydrogen clouds in the gaseous halo that surrounds the Milky Way Galaxy. These clouds were discovered in the transition zone between the Milky Way and intergalactic space, and provide tantalizing evidence that supernova-powered "galactic fountains" continually blast superheated hydrogen gas into our Galactic suburbs. Hydrogen Clouds Graphic Artist's Rendering of the Milky Way (background) with insert showing GBT image of newly-discovered clouds of Hydrogen gas above the plane of the Galaxy. Credit: Kirk Woellert/National Science Foundation. Extending far above the star-filled disk of the Milky Way is an atmosphere, or halo, of hydrogen gas. "By studying this halo, we can learn a great deal about the processes that are going on inside our Galaxy as well as beyond its borders," said Jay Lockman, an astronomer with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, West Virginia. "It has remained a mystery, however, how this halo formed and what has prevented gravitational forces from collapsing the gas into a thin layer long ago." Some astronomers have speculated that this gas is distributed as a diffuse mist held up by either magnetic fields or cosmic rays streaming out of the plane of the Milky Way. Others believed that it is made of innumerable long-lived hydrogen clouds bobbing up and down like balls tossed by a juggler. Early observations with other telescopes discovered that there was some neutral hydrogen gas floating far above the Galaxy's plane, but these instruments were not sensitive enough to reveal any structure or resolve questions about its origin. Lockman's studies for the first time show a clear picture of the structure of the gas. Rather than a mist, the halo is in fact full of discrete clouds, each containing 50-to-100 solar masses of hydrogen and averaging about 100

  20. Ethnic and Gender Differences in the Use of DISCOVER: A Multi-Cultural Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarouphim, Ketty M.; Maker, C. June

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine ethnic and gender differences in using DISCOVER, a performance-based assessment, for identifying gifted students from diverse ethnicities. DISCOVER is an acronym which stands for Discovering Intellectual Strength and Capabilities while Observing Varied Ethnic Responses. The sample consisted of 941 boys and…

  1. A Country Discovered: Upper Juniors Explore Meanings in "Hamlet."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Dennis

    1989-01-01

    Describes a project in England in which a class of 9- to 11-year olds enthusiastically and successfully explored the play "Hamlet" by writing about, discussing, performing, and visually interpreting the actual text. The teacher suggests that, with a little creativity, Shakespeare is very accessible to children. (SM)

  2. River of Words: Discovering a Sense of Place and Self

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Jeffrey Marshall

    2006-01-01

    One of the most powerful ways middle school students learn about themselves is through writing, and one of the most effective ways for students to learn about themselves is by writing about a place. At Cosgriff, a K-8 Catholic School in Salt Lake City, Utah, teachers have put this idea into practice by participating in the River of Words project.…

  3. A Country Discovered: Upper Juniors Explore Meanings in "Hamlet."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Dennis

    1989-01-01

    Describes a project in England in which a class of 9- to 11-year olds enthusiastically and successfully explored the play "Hamlet" by writing about, discussing, performing, and visually interpreting the actual text. The teacher suggests that, with a little creativity, Shakespeare is very accessible to children. (SM)

  4. Destination Innovation: Episode 1 Kepler: Discovering New Worlds

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-06

    Destination Innovation is a new series that explores the research, science and other projects underway at the NASA Ames Research Center. Episode 1 focuses on the Kepler Mission, a space telescope that is revolutionizing our knowledge of planets outside our Solar System.

  5. Discovering New Variable Stars at Key Stage 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chubb, Katy; Hood, Rosie; Wilson, Thomas; Holdship, Jonathan; Hutton, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Details of the London pilot of the "Discovery Project" are presented, where university-based astronomers were given the chance to pass on some real and applied knowledge of astronomy to a group of selected secondary school pupils. It was aimed at students in Key Stage 3 of their education, allowing them to be involved in real…

  6. River of Words: Discovering a Sense of Place and Self

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Jeffrey Marshall

    2006-01-01

    One of the most powerful ways middle school students learn about themselves is through writing, and one of the most effective ways for students to learn about themselves is by writing about a place. At Cosgriff, a K-8 Catholic School in Salt Lake City, Utah, teachers have put this idea into practice by participating in the River of Words project.…

  7. Variability of O3 and NO2 Profile Shapes during DISCOVER-AQ July 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, C.; Pickering, K. E.; Lamsal, L. N.; Herman, J. R.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Chen, G.; Liu, X.; Loughner, C.; Thompson, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    The first deployment of the NASA Earth Venture -1 DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) project was conducted during July 2011 in the Baltimore-Washington region. The P-3B aircraft provided in situ vertical profiles of meteorological quantities, trace gases, and aerosols over six Maryland Department of the Environment (MDE) air quality monitoring sites over fourteen flight days. Additionally, two sites launched ozonesondes and operated tethersondes during the campaign, supplementing the P-3B profiles. A major goal of DISCOVER-AQ is to understand the processes linking column abundances to surface concentrations for O3 and NO2, which includes understanding the variability of the in situ O3 and NO2 profile shapes used to compute the lower tropospheric column abundances. In support of this goal, a hierarchical cluster analysis was performed for the O3 and NO2 P-3B and sonde profiles for the Maryland 2011 campaign, allowing classes of profile shapes to be identified at each surface site. These classes were related to differences in vertical mixing, as indicated by profiles of potential temperature, CO, and short-lived trace gas species, as well as the impact of the bay breeze at one site. Such an analysis of profile variability will also be useful to assess the representativeness of the assumed profile shapes used in satellite retrievals for O3 and NO2. Further, profile shapes for these species were compared with those from the CMAQ model to assess its performance. Lastly, the average diurnal variation of the O3 and NO2 column abundances over the July 2011 campaign was assessed at each site to elucidate the diurnal cycle for these columns and results were compared to the once-per-day OMI column observations.

  8. Implications of Incidentally Discovered, Nonfunctioning Pancreatic Endocrine Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, Alex B.; Deshpande, Vikram; Ingkakul, Thun; Vagefi, Parsia A.; Szymonifka, Jackie; Thayer, Sarah P.; Ferrone, Cristina R.; Wargo, Jennifer A.; Warshaw, Andrew L.; Castillo, Carlos Fernández-del

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To describe the characteristics and outcomes after resection of incidentally discovered, nonfunctioning pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs). Design Case series. Setting Academic hospital. Patients Consecutive patients with an incidentally identified, nonfunctioning PET resected from May 1, 1977, through July 31, 2009. Main Outcome Measures Operative morbidity and survival after resection. Results A total of 139 patients with median age of 56 years (range, 21–85 years) underwent resection; tumor size ranged from 0.4 to 17.0 cm, with median size of 3.0 cm. No perioperative deaths were reported. Sixty-one patients (43.9%) experienced a perioperative complication. Twenty-six tumors (18.7%) were classified as benign, 39 (28.1%) as malignant, and 72 (51.8%) as uncertain. We were unable to confidently classify 2 tumors due to lack of information regarding mitotic rate in the pathology report. Complete follow-up was available for 112 patients (80.6%) (median, 34.2 months). Five-year actuarial survival rates were 88.8% for patients with benign disease, 92.5% for patients with tumors of uncertain biology, and 49.8% for those with malignant tumors (P=.01). Late metastasis, tumor recurrence, or disease progression were seen in 1 patient (3.8%) with tumors initially classified as benign, 8 patients (11.1%) with uncertain tumors, and 15 patients (38.5%) with tumors classified as malignant (P<.001). Of the 39 patients with tumors 2 cm or smaller, 3 (7.7%) had late metastases or recurrence. When compared with patients with symptomatic, nonfunctioning PETs, no large difference was observed in tumor size, patient age, disease, or survival. Conclusions Incidentally detected, nonfunctioning PETs can display aggressive behavior, even when small. Although patients with malignant disease had diminished survival and increased rates of recurrence, benign histologic findings did not eliminate the possibility of progression. Patients with incidentally discovered, nonfunctioning

  9. Earth's Largest Meteorite Impact Craters discovered in South America?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellndorfer, J. M.; Schmidt-Falkenberg, H.

    2014-12-01

    Novel analysis of high resolution InSAR-based digital elevation data from the year 2001 Shuttle Radar Topography Mission combined with a recently produced dataset of pan-tropical vegetation height from ALOS-1 SAR and IceSAT/GLAS Lidar estimates led to the quasi-bald-Earth discovery of four sizable near-perfect circle arcs in South America under dense tropical forests ranging in length from 216 km to 441 km. Terrain elevation profiles of cross-sections across the arcs show a distinct vertical rising and falling in elevations of hundreds of meters over a horizontal distance of tens of kilometers. It is hypothesized that these sizable arcs and associated rim-like topographic terrain features are remnants of huge meteorite impact craters with diameters ranging from 770 km to 1,310 km, thus forming potentially the largest known impact carter structures discovered on Earth today. The potential impact crater rim structures are located north of the eastern Amazon River, in the coastal region of Recife and Natal, and in the Brazilian, Bolivian and Paraguayan border region encompassing the Pantanal. Elevation profiles, hillshades and gray-shaded elevation maps were produced to support the geomorphologic analysis. It is also speculated whether in three of the four potential impact craters, central uplift domes or peaks, which are typical for complex impact crater structures can be identified. The worlds largest iron ore mining area of Carajás in Para, Brazil, falls exactly in the center of the largest hypothesized circular impact crater showing topographic elevations similar to the rim structure discovered 655 km to the north-north-west. Based on the topographic/geomorphologic driven hypothesis, geologic exploration of these topographic features is needed to test whether indeed meteorite impact craters could be verified, what the more exact ellipsoidal shapes of the potential impact craters might be, and to determine when during geologic times the impacts would have taken

  10. Discovering asteroids temporarily captured by the Earth with LSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorets, Grigori; Granvik, Mikael; Jones, Lynne; Jedicke, Robert

    2015-08-01

    Granvik et al. (2012, Icarus 218) predict that there is a population of small asteroids orbiting the Earth at any given time. These asteroids have been temporarily captured by the Earth from the much larger population of near-Earth asteroids. Temporarily-captured asteroids have elliptic geocentric orbits and come to within 0.03 au from the Earth. We divide the population into temporarily-captured orbiters (TCOs, or minimoons) that make at least one full revolution around the Earth, and into temporarily-captured flybys (TCFs) which make less than one revolution around the Earth. Recent results suggest that at any given time there is one 2--3-meter-diameter asteroid captured on a geocentric orbit within 0.03 au from the Earth (Fedorets et al., in preparation). At any given time, there is a dozen 1-meter-diameter captured asteroids, 2--3 of which are TCFs.The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will become operational in early 2020's. LSST is expected cover the available sky from its location in Chile every 4 nights for the duration of a 10 years. The observational cadence combined with the expected limited magnitude, r=24.5, suggest that LSST will detect a new minimoon once a month (Bolin et al. 2014, Icarus 241). Only one minimoon, asteroid 2006 RH120, has so far been discovered (Kwiatkowski et al. 2009, A&A 495).Whereas Bolin et al. (2014, Icarus 241) investigated possibilities for detecting minimoons by current and upcoming survey telescopes we extend the analysis to include the linking of minimoon detections, that is, aiming at extracting minimoon trajectories and, further, minimoon orbits from LSST data. We will test the performance of the current LSST pipeline with simulated TCO and TCF data assuming a realistic magnitude distribution derived from a novel NEO model by Granvik et al. (in preparation).Proving that minimoons can be discovered using LSST data will increase the scientific interest towards them, perhaps primarily as a population of asteroids in

  11. Research projects lead by the USDA Cranberry Entomology Laboratory (CEL)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    1. Newly discovered native nematode species represent bio-insecticides (grad student project) a. Problems being addressed: Issues over flea beetle control; unresolved questions over pesticide use during bloom. b. Discoveries: at least two native nematodes species new to science have been discovered ...

  12. Observational data and orbits of the asteroids discovered at the Molėtai Observatory in 2005-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Černis, K.; Wlodarczyk, I.; Zdanavičius, J.

    The paper presents statistics of the asteroids observed and discovered at the Molėtai Observatory, Lithuania, in 2005-2007 within the project for astrometric observations of the near-Earth objects (NEOs), the main belt asteroids and comets. CCD observations of asteroids were obtained with the 35/51 cm Maksutov-type meniscus telescope and the 1.65 m Ritchey-Chretien reflector. In the Minor Planet Circulars and the Minor Planet Electronic Circulars (2005-2007) we published 17 003 astrometric positions of 2980 asteroids. Among them 112 were new normal asteroids and one NEO (2006 SF77) discovered at Molėtai; a few NEOs were found by our team independently. For the asteroids discovered at Molėtai their precise orbits were calculated. Because of short observational arc, a few asteroids have low-precision orbits and some asteroids have been lost. For three of them with low-precision orbital elements (NEO 2006 SF77 and two Mars crossers - 2006 SN368 and 2007 VM315), we present their ephemerides for 2016-2018.

  13. The value of prior knowledge in discovering motifs with MEME

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, T.L.; Elkan, C.

    1995-12-31

    MEME is a tool for discovering motifs in sets of protein or DNA sequences. This paper describes several extensions to MEME which increase its ability to find motifs in a totally unsupervised fashion, but which also allow it to benefit when prior knowledge is available. When no background knowledge is asserted, MEME obtains increased robustness from a method for determining motif widths automatically, and from probabilistic models that allow motifs to be absent in some input sequences. On the other hand, MEME can exploit prior knowledge about a motif being present in all input sequences, about the length of a motif and whether it is a palindrome, and (using Dirichlet mixtures) about expected patterns in individual motif positions. Extensive experiments are reported which support the claim that MEME benefits from, but does not require, background knowledge. The experiments use seven previously studied DNA and protein sequence families and 75 of the protein families documented in the Prosite database of sites and patterns, Release 11.1.

  14. Discovering Patterns in Brain Signals Using Decision Trees

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Even with emerging technologies, such as Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) systems, understanding how our brains work is a very difficult challenge. So we propose to use a data mining technique to help us in this task. As a case of study, we analyzed the brain's behaviour of blind people and sighted people in a spatial activity. There is a common belief that blind people compensate their lack of vision using the other senses. If an object is given to sighted people and we asked them to identify this object, probably the sense of vision will be the most determinant one. If the same experiment was repeated with blind people, they will have to use other senses to identify the object. In this work, we propose a methodology that uses decision trees (DT) to investigate the difference of how the brains of blind people and people with vision react against a spatial problem. We choose the DT algorithm because it can discover patterns in the brain signal, and its presentation is human interpretable. Our results show that using DT to analyze brain signals can help us to understand the brain's behaviour. PMID:27688746

  15. Discovering Numerical Differences between Animal and Plant microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhenbang; Xin, Dawei; Qi, Zhaoming; Chen, Qingshan

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have confirmed that there are many differences between animal and plant microRNAs (miRNAs), and that numerical features based on sequence and structure can be used to predict the function of individual miRNAs. However, there is little research regarding numerical differences between animal and plant miRNAs, and whether a single numerical feature or combination of features could be used to distinguish animal and plant miRNAs or not. Therefore, in current study we aimed to discover numerical features that could be used to accomplish this. We performed a large-scale analysis of 132 miRNA numerical features, and identified 17 highly significant distinguishing features. However, none of the features independently could clearly differentiate animal and plant miRNAs. By further analysis, we found a four-feature subset that included helix number, stack number, length of pre-miRNA, and minimum free energy, and developed a logistic classifier that could distinguish animal and plant miRNAs effectively. The precision of the classifier was greater than 80%. Using this tool, we confirmed that there were universal differences between animal and plant miRNAs, and that a single feature was unable to adequately distinguish the difference. This feature set and classifier represent a valuable tool for identifying differences between animal and plant miRNAs at a molecular level. PMID:27768749

  16. Inner solar system material discovered in the Oort cloud.

    PubMed

    Meech, Karen J; Yang, Bin; Kleyna, Jan; Hainaut, Olivier R; Berdyugina, Svetlana; Keane, Jacqueline V; Micheli, Marco; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Wainscoat, Richard J

    2016-04-01

    We have observed C/2014 S3 (PANSTARRS), a recently discovered object on a cometary orbit coming from the Oort cloud that is physically similar to an inner main belt rocky S-type asteroid. Recent dynamical models successfully reproduce the key characteristics of our current solar system; some of these models require significant migration of the giant planets, whereas others do not. These models provide different predictions on the presence of rocky material expelled from the inner solar system in the Oort cloud. C/2014 S3 could be the key to verifying these predictions of the migration-based dynamical models. Furthermore, this object displays a very faint, weak level of comet-like activity, five to six orders of magnitude less than that of typical ice-rich comets on similar Orbits coming from the Oort cloud. For the nearly tailless appearance, we are calling C/2014 S3 a Manx object. Various arguments convince us that this activity is produced by sublimation of volatile ice, that is, normal cometary activity. The activity implies that C/2014 S3 has retained a tiny fraction of the water that is expected to be present at its formation distance in the inner solar system. We may be looking at fresh inner solar system Earth-forming material that was ejected from the inner solar system and preserved for billions of years in the Oort cloud.

  17. Discovering Psychological Principles by Mining Naturally Occurring Data Sets.

    PubMed

    Goldstone, Robert L; Lupyan, Gary

    2016-07-01

    The very expertise with which psychologists wield their tools for achieving laboratory control may have had the unwelcome effect of blinding psychologists to the possibilities of discovering principles of behavior without conducting experiments. When creatively interrogated, a diverse range of large, real-world data sets provides powerful diagnostic tools for revealing principles of human judgment, perception, categorization, decision-making, language use, inference, problem solving, and representation. Examples of these data sets include patterns of website links, dictionaries, logs of group interactions, collections of images and image tags, text corpora, history of financial transactions, trends in twitter tag usage and propagation, patents, consumer product sales, performance in high-stakes sporting events, dialect maps, and scientific citations. The goal of this issue is to present some exemplary case studies of mining naturally existing data sets to reveal important principles and phenomena in cognitive science, and to discuss some of the underlying issues involved with conducting traditional experiments, analyses of naturally occurring data, computational modeling, and the synthesis of all three methods.

  18. Inner solar system material discovered in the Oort cloud

    PubMed Central

    Meech, Karen J.; Yang, Bin; Kleyna, Jan; Hainaut, Olivier R.; Berdyugina, Svetlana; Keane, Jacqueline V.; Micheli, Marco; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Wainscoat, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    We have observed C/2014 S3 (PANSTARRS), a recently discovered object on a cometary orbit coming from the Oort cloud that is physically similar to an inner main belt rocky S-type asteroid. Recent dynamical models successfully reproduce the key characteristics of our current solar system; some of these models require significant migration of the giant planets, whereas others do not. These models provide different predictions on the presence of rocky material expelled from the inner solar system in the Oort cloud. C/2014 S3 could be the key to verifying these predictions of the migration-based dynamical models. Furthermore, this object displays a very faint, weak level of comet-like activity, five to six orders of magnitude less than that of typical ice-rich comets on similar Orbits coming from the Oort cloud. For the nearly tailless appearance, we are calling C/2014 S3 a Manx object. Various arguments convince us that this activity is produced by sublimation of volatile ice, that is, normal cometary activity. The activity implies that C/2014 S3 has retained a tiny fraction of the water that is expected to be present at its formation distance in the inner solar system. We may be looking at fresh inner solar system Earth-forming material that was ejected from the inner solar system and preserved for billions of years in the Oort cloud. PMID:27386512

  19. More Far-Side Deep Moonquake Nests Discovered

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Jackson, John A.; Jackson, Katherine G.

    2004-01-01

    As reported last year, we started to reanalyze the seismic data acquired from 1969 to 1977 with a network of stations established on the Moon during the Apollo mission. The reason for the reanalysis was because recent advances in computer technology make it possible to employ much more sophisticated analysis techniques than was possible previously. The primary objective of the reanalysis was to search for deep moonquakes on the far side of the Moon and, if found, to use them to infer the structure of the Moon's deep interior, including a possible central core. The first step was to identify any new deep moonquakes that escaped our earlier search by applying a combination of waveform cross-correlation and single-link cluster analysis, and then to see if any of them are from previously unknown nests of deep moonquakes. We positively identified 7245 deep moonquakes, more than a five-fold increase from the previous 1360. We also found at least 88 previously unknown deep-moonquake nests. The question was whether any of these newly discovered nets were on the far side of the Moon, and we now report that our analysis of the data indicates that some of them are indeed on the far side.

  20. Timing of Five PALFA-discovered Millisecond Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stovall, K.; Allen, B.; Bogdanov, S.; Brazier, A.; Camilo, F.; Cardoso, F.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J. M.; Crawford, F.; Deneva, J. S.; Ferdman, R.; Freire, P. C. C.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Jenet, F.; Kaplan, D. L.; Karako-Argaman, C.; Kaspi, V. M.; Knispel, B.; Kotulla, R.; Lazarus, P.; Lee, K. J.; van Leeuwen, J.; Lynch, R.; Lyne, A. G.; Madsen, E.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Patel, C.; Ransom, S. M.; Scholz, P.; Siemens, X.; Stairs, I. H.; Stappers, B. W.; Swiggum, J.; Zhu, W. W.; Venkataraman, A.

    2016-12-01

    We report the discovery and timing results for five millisecond pulsars (MSPs) from the Arecibo PALFA survey: PSRs J1906+0055, J1914+0659, J1933+1726, J1938+2516, and J1957+2516. Timing observations of the five pulsars were conducted with the Arecibo and Lovell telescopes for time spans ranging from 1.5 to 3.3 years. All of the MSPs except one (PSR J1914+0659) are in binary systems with low eccentricities. PSR J1957+2516 is likely a redback pulsar, with a ˜ 0.1 {M}⊙ companion and possible eclipses that last ˜10% of the orbit. The position of PSR J1957+2516 is also coincident with a near-infrared source. All five MSPs are distant (\\gt 3.1 kpc) as determined from their dispersion measures, and none of them show evidence of γ-ray pulsations in a fold of Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope data. These five MSPs bring the total number of MSPs discovered by the PALFA survey to 26 and further demonstrate the power of this survey in finding distant, highly dispersed MSPs deep in the Galactic plane.

  1. Oxygen and carbon discovered in exoplanet atmosphere `blow-off'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-02-01

    Oxygen and carbon discovered in exoplanet atmosphere ‘blow-off’ hi-res Size hi-res: 1096 kb Credits: ESA/Alfred Vidal-Madjar (Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, France) Oxygen and carbon discovered in exoplanet atmosphere ‘blow-off’ This artist’s impression shows an extended ellipsoidal envelope - the shape of a rugby-ball - of oxygen and carbon discovered around the well-known extrasolar planet HD 209458b. An international team of astronomers led by Alfred Vidal-Madjar (Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, France) observed the first signs of oxygen and carbon in the atmosphere of a planet beyond our Solar System for the first time using the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. The atoms of carbon and oxygen are swept up from the lower atmosphere with the flow of escaping atmospheric atomic hydrogen - like dust in a supersonic whirlwind - in a process called atmospheric ‘blow off’. Oxygen and carbon have been detected in the atmosphere of a planet beyond our Solar System for the first time. Scientists using the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope have observed the famous extrasolar planet HD 209458b passing in front of its parent star, and found oxygen and carbon surrounding the planet in an extended ellipsoidal envelope - the shape of a rugby-ball. These atoms are swept up from the lower atmosphere with the flow of the escaping atmospheric atomic hydrogen, like dust in a supersonic whirlwind. The team led by Alfred Vidal-Madjar (Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, France) reports this discovery in a forthcoming issue of Astrophysical Journal Letters. The planet, called HD 209458b, may sound familiar. It is already an extrasolar planet with an astounding list of firsts: the first extrasolar planet discovered transiting its sun, the first with an atmosphere, the first observed to have an evaporating hydrogen atmosphere (in 2003 by the same team of scientists) and now the first to have an atmosphere containing oxygen and carbon. Furthermore

  2. Discovering thematic objects in image collections and videos.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Junsong; Zhao, Gangqiang; Fu, Yun; Li, Zhu; Katsaggelos, Aggelos K; Wu, Ying

    2012-04-01

    Given a collection of images or a short video sequence, we define a thematic object as the key object that frequently appears and is the representative of the visual contents. Successful discovery of the thematic object is helpful for object search and tagging, video summarization and understanding, etc. However, this task is challenging because 1) there lacks a priori knowledge of the thematic objects, such as their shapes, scales, locations, and times of re-occurrences, and 2) the thematic object of interest can be under severe variations in appearances due to viewpoint and lighting condition changes, scale variations, etc. Instead of using a top-down generative model to discover thematic visual patterns, we propose a novel bottom-up approach to gradually prune uncommon local visual primitives and recover the thematic objects. A multilayer candidate pruning procedure is designed to accelerate the image data mining process. Our solution can efficiently locate thematic objects of various sizes and can tolerate large appearance variations of the same thematic object. Experiments on challenging image and video data sets and comparisons with existing methods validate the effectiveness of our method.

  3. HELIO - Discovering solar effects in all the heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Suárez, D.; Bentley, R. D.; Aboudarham, J.; Brooke, J.; Csillaghy, A.; Gallagher, P. T.; Jacquey, C.; Messerotti, M.; Pierantoni, G.

    2013-09-01

    HELIO, the HELiophysics Integrated Observatory, consists of a set of integrated software tools developed by an international consortium under the European Commission's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). HELIO is designed to help scientists easily search heliophysical data and discover any possible connections. This is achieved by merging information from feature and event catalogues and services that know about the locations and capabilities of instruments to find all the data available that contain information on a certain event by propagating it through the whole solar system. There are then tools to access data archives and processing tools that allow the users to create their own workflows. HELIO is definitely making the research in heliophysics more accessible to different scientists [1] but it capabilities goes further than this. It can be adapted to other fields in science, where multiple observations in different observatories are used to study a particular event. The interfaces of the HELIO services are based onWeb services and, as far as possible, are compliant with IVOA standards. This simplifies access to the capabilities via different tools like Web browsers, scripting languages (IDL, Python, etc.), and workflow tools (Taverna, Kepler, etc.). The overall capabilities of the system can greatly increased when the services are combined using workflows or scripting languages. While we try to hide the use of these tools for most users, those who choose to gain familiarity with such tools can address more complex problems. A brief introduction to HELIO services and a use case demonstration will be presented.

  4. Structural characterization of a serendipitously discovered bioactive macromolecule, lignin sulfate.

    PubMed

    Raghuraman, Arjun; Tiwari, Vaibhav; Thakkar, Jay N; Gunnarsson, Gunnar T; Shukla, Deepak; Hindle, Michael; Desai, Umesh R

    2005-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) utilizes cell-surface glycosaminoglycan, heparan sulfate, to gain entry into cells and cause infection. In a search for synthetic mimics of heparan sulfate to prevent HSV infection, we discovered potent inhibitory activity arising from sulfation of a monomeric flavonoid. Yet, detailed screening indicated that the sulfated flavonoid was completely inactive and the potent inhibitory activity arose from a macromolecular substance present in the parent flavonoid. The active principle was identified through a battery of biophysical and chemical analyses as a sulfated form of lignin, a three-dimensional network polymer composed of substituted phenylpropanoid monomers. Mass spectral analysis of the parent lignin and its sulfated derivative indicates the presence of p-coumaryl monomers interconnected through uncondensed beta-O-4-linkages. Elemental analysis of lignin sulfate correlates primarily with a polymer of p-coumaryl alcohol containing one sulfate group. High-performance size exclusion chromatography shows a wide molecular weight distribution from 1.5 to 40 kDa suggesting significant polydispersity. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis indicates a highly networked polymer that differs significantly from linear charged polymers with respect to its electrophoretic mobility. Overall, macromolecular lignin sulfate presents a multitude of substructures that can interact with biomolecules, including viral glycoproteins, using hydrophobic, hydrogen-bonding, and ionic forces. Thus, lignin sulfate represents a large number of interesting structures with potential medicinal benefits.

  5. Unified Photo Enhancement by Discovering Aesthetic Communities From Flickr.

    PubMed

    Hong, Richang; Zhang, Luming; Tao, Dacheng

    2016-03-01

    Photo enhancement refers to the process of increasing the aesthetic appeal of a photo, such as changing the photo aspect ratio and spatial recomposition. It is a widely used technique in the printing industry, graphic design, and cinematography. In this paper, we propose a unified and socially aware photo enhancement framework which can leverage the experience of photographers with various aesthetic topics (e.g., portrait and landscape). We focus on photos from the image hosting site Flickr, which has 87 million users and to which more than 3.5 million photos are uploaded daily. First, a tagwise regularized topic model is proposed to describe the aesthetic topic of each Flickr user, and coherent and interpretable topics are discovered by leveraging both the visual features and tags of photos. Next, a graph is constructed to describe the similarities in aesthetic topics between the users. Noticeably, densely connected users have similar aesthetic topics, which are categorized into different communities by a dense subgraph mining algorithm. Finally, a probabilistic model is exploited to enhance the aesthetic attractiveness of a test photo by leveraging the photographic experiences of Flickr users from the corresponding communities of that photo. Paired-comparison-based user studies show that our method performs competitively on photo retargeting and recomposition. Moreover, our approach accurately detects aesthetic communities in a photo set crawled from nearly 100000 Flickr users.

  6. MEME: discovering and analyzing DNA and protein sequence motifs.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Timothy L; Williams, Nadya; Misleh, Chris; Li, Wilfred W

    2006-07-01

    MEME (Multiple EM for Motif Elicitation) is one of the most widely used tools for searching for novel 'signals' in sets of biological sequences. Applications include the discovery of new transcription factor binding sites and protein domains. MEME works by searching for repeated, ungapped sequence patterns that occur in the DNA or protein sequences provided by the user. Users can perform MEME searches via the web server hosted by the National Biomedical Computation Resource (http://meme.nbcr.net) and several mirror sites. Through the same web server, users can also access the Motif Alignment and Search Tool to search sequence databases for matches to motifs encoded in several popular formats. By clicking on buttons in the MEME output, users can compare the motifs discovered in their input sequences with databases of known motifs, search sequence databases for matches to the motifs and display the motifs in various formats. This article describes the freely accessible web server and its architecture, and discusses ways to use MEME effectively to find new sequence patterns in biological sequences and analyze their significance.

  7. MEME: discovering and analyzing DNA and protein sequence motifs

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Timothy L.; Williams, Nadya; Misleh, Chris; Li, Wilfred W.

    2006-01-01

    MEME (Multiple EM for Motif Elicitation) is one of the most widely used tools for searching for novel ‘signals’ in sets of biological sequences. Applications include the discovery of new transcription factor binding sites and protein domains. MEME works by searching for repeated, ungapped sequence patterns that occur in the DNA or protein sequences provided by the user. Users can perform MEME searches via the web server hosted by the National Biomedical Computation Resource () and several mirror sites. Through the same web server, users can also access the Motif Alignment and Search Tool to search sequence databases for matches to motifs encoded in several popular formats. By clicking on buttons in the MEME output, users can compare the motifs discovered in their input sequences with databases of known motifs, search sequence databases for matches to the motifs and display the motifs in various formats. This article describes the freely accessible web server and its architecture, and discusses ways to use MEME effectively to find new sequence patterns in biological sequences and analyze their significance. PMID:16845028

  8. Discovering novel ligands for understanding molecular mechanism of bacteria chemotaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Luhua

    2015-03-01

    In order to understand the molecular mechanism of bacteria chemotaxis, we used a combined experimental and computational approach to discover novel chemoeffector molecules and compare their binding features, as well as the conformational changes they produce. We first used molecular docking to computationally screen a large chemical library and tested binding strengths of the top-ranking molecules for the E. coli chemoreceptor Tar. Chemotactic properties of the binding molecules were then studied using a specially designed microfluidic device. Novel attractant and antagonist molecules were identified that bind directly with the E. coli chemoreceptor Tar. Molecular dynamics simulations showed that attractant and antagonist binding result in distinct conformational changes in Tar. Differences of antagonist and attractant binding suggest that molecules lacking triggering interaction with the receptor behave as antagonist. For Tar, the triggering interaction is mediated by the hydrogen bonds formed between a donor group in the attractant and the main-chain carbonyls in the fourth helix of Tar. This ?bind-and-trigger? mechanism of receptor signaling is verified experimentally by converting an antagonist into an attractant when introducing an NH group into the antagonist compound. Similar conformational changes were also observed in the E. coli Tsr system.

  9. [Expedition glycocalyx. A newly discovered "Great Barrier Reef"].

    PubMed

    Chappell, D; Jacob, M; Becker, B F; Hofmann-Kiefer, K; Conzen, P; Rehm, M

    2008-10-01

    Healthy vascular endothelium is luminally coated by an endothelial glycocalyx, which interacts with the bloodstream and assumes a filter function on the vascular wall. Although this structure was discovered nearly 70 years ago, its physiological importance has been underestimated for a long time. Recent findings indicate that the glycocalyx is, in addition to the endothelial cells themselves, a main constituent part of the vascular barrier. The existence of different colloid osmotic gradients within and beneath this structure has now led to a modification of the Starling equation. In many vascular beds the interstitial space features a protein concentration similar to that of the plasma. The inwardly directed gradient, which retains water and proteins in the vascular system, is generated beneath the glycocalyx by selective protein filtration over this structure. The endothelial glycocalyx, as an additional competent vascular permeability barrier has, therefore, not only a key role for perioperative fluid and protein shifts into the interstitial space, but it seems to be intimately involved in the pathophysiology of diabetes, arteriosclerosis, sepsis and ischemia/reperfusion, especially with respect to associated vascular dysfunctions. The fragile glycocalyx can be destroyed in the course of surgery, trauma, ischemia/reperfusion and sepsis and by inflammatory mediators such as TNF-alpha, causing leukocyte adhesion, platelet aggregation and edema formation. Recent studies have shown that protecting this structure not only maintains the vascular barrier, but constitutes an important component of a rational perioperative fluid therapy.

  10. More Far-Side Deep Moonquake Nests Discovered

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Jackson, John A.; Jackson, Katherine G.

    2004-01-01

    As reported last year, we started to reanalyze the seismic data acquired from 1969 to 1977 with a network of stations established on the Moon during the Apollo mission. The reason for the reanalysis was because recent advances in computer technology make it possible to employ much more sophisticated analysis techniques than was possible previously. The primary objective of the reanalysis was to search for deep moonquakes on the far side of the Moon and, if found, to use them to infer the structure of the Moon's deep interior, including a possible central core. The first step was to identify any new deep moonquakes that escaped our earlier search by applying a combination of waveform cross-correlation and single-link cluster analysis, and then to see if any of them are from previously unknown nests of deep moonquakes. We positively identified 7245 deep moonquakes, more than a five-fold increase from the previous 1360. We also found at least 88 previously unknown deep-moonquake nests. The question was whether any of these newly discovered nets were on the far side of the Moon, and we now report that our analysis of the data indicates that some of them are indeed on the far side.

  11. Can doubly strange dibaryon resonances be discovered at RHIC?

    SciTech Connect

    Paganis, S. D.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Ray, R. L.; Tang, J.-L.; Udagawa, T.; Longacre, R. S.

    2000-08-01

    The baryon-baryon continuum invariant mass spectrum generated from relativistic nucleus + nucleus collision data may reveal the existence of doubly strange dibaryons not stable against strong decay if they lie within a few MeV of threshold. Furthermore, since the dominant component of these states is a superposition of two color-octet clusters which can be produced intermediately in a color-deconfined quark-gluon plasma (QGP), an enhanced production of dibaryon resonances could be a signal of QGP formation. A total of eight, doubly strange dibaryon states are considered for experimental search using the STAR detector (solenoidal tracker at RHIC) at the new Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). These states may decay to {lambda}{lambda} and/or p{xi}{sup -}, depending on the resonance energy. STAR's large acceptance, precision tracking and vertex reconstruction capabilities, and large data volume capacity, make it an ideal instrument to use for such a search. Detector performance and analysis sensitivity are studied as a function of resonance production rate and width for one particular dibaryon which can directly strong decay to p{xi}{sup -}, but not {lambda}{lambda}. Results indicate that such resonances may be discovered using STAR if the resonance production rates are comparable to coalescence model predictions for dibaryon bound states. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  12. Discovering interacting domains and motifs in protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Hugo, Willy; Sung, Wing-Kin; Ng, See-Kiong

    2013-01-01

    Many important biological processes, such as the signaling pathways, require protein-protein interactions (PPIs) that are designed for fast response to stimuli. These interactions are usually transient, easily formed, and disrupted, yet specific. Many of these transient interactions involve the binding of a protein domain to a short stretch (3-10) of amino acid residues, which can be characterized by a sequence pattern, i.e., a short linear motif (SLiM). We call these interacting domains and motifs domain-SLiM interactions. Existing methods have focused on discovering SLiMs in the interacting proteins' sequence data. With the recent increase in protein structures, we have a new opportunity to detect SLiMs directly from the proteins' 3D structures instead of their linear sequences. In this chapter, we describe a computational method called SLiMDIet to directly detect SLiMs on domain interfaces extracted from 3D structures of PPIs. SLiMDIet comprises two steps: (1) interaction interfaces belonging to the same domain are extracted and grouped together using structural clustering and (2) the extracted interaction interfaces in each cluster are structurally aligned to extract the corresponding SLiM. Using SLiMDIet, de novo SLiMs interacting with protein domains can be computationally detected from structurally clustered domain-SLiM interactions for PFAM domains which have available 3D structures in the PDB database.

  13. Substantial overnight reaeration by convective cooling discovered in pond ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holgerson, Meredith A.; Zappa, Christopher J.; Raymond, Peter A.

    2016-08-01

    Trends in freshwater dissolved oxygen (DO) reflect whole-ecosystem properties and influence organismal survival and behavior. Here we show that small ponds have unique oxygen dynamics that differ from larger lakes. We discovered that ponds undersaturated in DO experienced substantial increases in oxygen concentration overnight. Nighttime increases in DO occurred on 45% of the nights sampled and resulted in DO saturation increasing 12-fold (22% saturation) on average. Oxygen spikes were likely to occur when ponds became at least 1.8°C warmer than the air and later in the season when oxygen levels were low (<31% saturation) and the air was warm (≥5.8°C). We demonstrate that overnight increases in surface water DO resulted from atmospheric oxygen invasion as opposed to internal production. Convective cooling enhanced turbulence and air-water gas exchange, leading to intense bursts of oxygen invasion during nighttime hours. This mechanism has not been demonstrated before and has important implications for the biogeochemistry of these systems, as well as understanding how organisms survive in hypoxic small ponds.

  14. New Star Clusters Discovered in the GLIMPSE Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercer, E. P.; Clemens, D. P.; Meade, M. R.; Babler, B. L.; Indebetouw, R.; Whitney, B. A.; Watson, C.; Wolfire, M. G.; Wolff, M. J.; Bania, T. M.; Benjamin, R. A.; Cohen, M.; Dickey, J. M.; Jackson, J. M.; Kobulnicky, H. A.; Mathis, J. S.; Stauffer, J. R.; Stolovy, S. R.; Uzpen, B.; Churchwell, E. B.

    2005-12-01

    A systematic and automated search of the extensive GLIMPSE mid-infrared survey data of the inner Galaxy was carried out to uncover new star clusters. This search has yielded 59 new clusters. Using our automated search algorithm, these clusters were identified as significant localized overdensities in the GLIMPSE point-source catalog (GLMC) and archive (GLMA). Subsequent visual inspection of the GLIMPSE image mosaics confirmed the existence of these clusters plus an additional 33 heavily embedded clusters missed by our detection algorithm, for a total of 92 newly discovered clusters. These previously uncataloged clusters range in type from heavily embedded to fully exposed clusters. More than half of the clusters have memberships exceeding 35 stars, and nearly all the clusters have diameters of 3' or less. The Galactic latitude distribution of the clusters reveals that the majority are concentrated toward the Galactic midplane. There is an asymmetry in the number of clusters located above and below the midplane, with more clusters detected below the midplane. We also observe an asymmetry in the number of clusters detected in the northern and southern halves of the Galaxy, with more than twice as many clusters detected in the south.

  15. Cellular Metabolic Network Analysis: Discovering Important Reactions in Treponema pallidum

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xueying; Zhao, Min; Qu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    T. pallidum, the syphilis-causing pathogen, performs very differently in metabolism compared with other bacterial pathogens. The desire for safe and effective vaccine of syphilis requests identification of important steps in T. pallidum's metabolism. Here, we apply Flux Balance Analysis to represent the reactions quantitatively. Thus, it is possible to cluster all reactions in T. pallidum. By calculating minimal cut sets and analyzing topological structure for the metabolic network of T. pallidum, critical reactions are identified. As a comparison, we also apply the analytical approaches to the metabolic network of H. pylori to find coregulated drug targets and unique drug targets for different microorganisms. Based on the clustering results, all reactions are further classified into various roles. Therefore, the general picture of their metabolic network is obtained and two types of reactions, both of which are involved in nucleic acid metabolism, are found to be essential for T. pallidum. It is also discovered that both hubs of reactions and the isolated reactions in purine and pyrimidine metabolisms play important roles in T. pallidum. These reactions could be potential drug targets for treating syphilis. PMID:26495292

  16. Modern Approaches to Discovering New Hydroxynitrile Lyases for Biocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Padhi, Santosh Kumar

    2017-01-17

    Hydroxynitrile lyases (HNLs) have grown in importance from laboratory to industry due to their potential to catalyze stereoselective C-C bond-formation reactions in the synthesis of several chiral intermediates, such as enantiopure α-cyanohydrins, β-nitro alcohols, and their derivatives with multiple functional groups. With these wide applications, the demand for finding new HNLs has increased, and this has led to exploration not only of new HNLs but also of new ways to discover them. An exclusive review article on HNLs by Asano et al. in 2011 described the discovery of HNLs along with their applications. Since then many scientific advancements have been seen in this area. This article aims to highlight the modern HNL discovery approaches, based mainly on 1) genome mining, 2) use of INTMSAlign software, 3) rational design (based on a millipede HNL), 4) evolution of catalytic mechanisms, 5) protein engineering guided by catalytic mechanisms, and 6) screening of plants with cyanogen glycoside (CG) content. This description is followed by future prospects. Overall this review represents the present state and the future potential of HNL discovery approaches, and so might be hoped to be instrumental not only in exploration of new HNLs but also in the invention of methods for potential biotechnological applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Discovering Transcription and Splicing Networks in Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongyan; Wen, Jianguo; Chang, Chung-che; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2013-01-01

    More and more transcription factors and their motifs have been reported and linked to specific gene expression levels. However, focusing only on transcription is not sufficient for mechanism research. Most genes, especially in eukaryotes, are alternatively spliced to different isoforms. Some of these isoforms increase the biodiversity of proteins. From this viewpoint, transcription and splicing are two of important mechanisms to modulate expression levels of isoforms. To integrate these two kinds of regulation, we built a linear regression model to select a subset of transcription factors and splicing factors for each co-expressed isoforms using least-angle regression approach. Then, we applied this method to investigate the mechanism of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), a precursor lesion of acute myeloid leukemia. Results suggested that expression levels of most isoforms were regulated by a set of selected regulatory factors. Some of the detected factors, such as EGR1 and STAT family, are highly correlated with progression of MDS. We discovered that the splicing factor SRSF11 experienced alternative splicing switch, and in turn induced different amino acid sequences between MDS and controls. This splicing switch causes two different splicing mechanisms. Polymerase Chain Reaction experiments also confirmed that one of its isoforms was over-expressed in MDS. We analyzed the regulatory networks constructed from the co-expressed isoforms and their regulatory factors in MDS. Many of these networks were enriched in the herpes simplex infection pathway which involves many splicing factors, and pathways in cancers and acute or chronic myeloid leukemia. PMID:24244432

  18. Discovering side-chain correlation in {alpha}-Helices

    SciTech Connect

    Klinger, T.M.; Brutlag, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    Using a new representation for interactions in protein sequences based on correlations between pairs of amino acids, we have examined {alpha}-helical segments from known protein structures for important interactions. Traditional techniques for representing protein sequences usually make an explicit assumption of conditional independence of residues in the sequences. Protein structure analyses, however, have repeatedly demonstrated the importance of amino acid interactions for structural stability. We have developed an automated program for discovering sequence correlations in sets of aligned protein sequences using standard statistical tests and for representing them with Bayesian networks. In this paper, we demonstrate the power of our discovery program and representation by analyzing pairs of residues from {alpha}-helices. The sequence correlations we find represent physical and chemical interactions among amino-acid side chains in helical structures. Furthermore, these local interactions are likely to be important for stabilizing and packing {alpha}-helices. Lastly, we have also detect correlations in side-chain conformations that indicate important structural interactions but which don`t appear as sequence correlations.

  19. Binary star database: binaries discovered in non-optical bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkov, Oleg Yu.; Tessema, Solomon B.; Kniazev, Alexei Yu.

    The Binary star Database (BDB) is the world's principal database of binary and multiple systems of all observational types. In particular, it should contain data on binaries discovered in non-optical bands, X-ray binaries (XRBs) and radio pulsars in binaries. The goal of the present study was to compile complete lists of such objects. Due to the lack of a unified identification system for XRBs, we had to select them from five principal catalogues of X-ray sources. After cross-identification and positional cross-matching, a general catalogue of 373 XRBs was constructed for the first time. It contains coordinates, indication of photometric and spectroscopic binarity, and extensive cross-identification. In the preparation of the catalogue, a number of XRB classification disagreements were resolved, some catalogued identifiers and coordinates were corrected, and duplicated entries in the original catalogues were found. We have also compiled a general list of 239 radio pulsars in binary systems. The list is supplied with indication of photometric, spectroscopic or X-ray binarity, and with cross-identification data.

  20. Unusual Slowly Rotating Brown Dwarfs Discovered through Precision Spitzer Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinze, Aren; Metchev, S.

    2014-01-01

    Many brown dwarfs exhibit low-amplitude rotationally modulated variability due to photospheric inhomogeneities caused by condensate clouds in their atmospheres. The Spitzer Space Telescope 'Weather on Other Worlds' (WoW) project has monitored 44 brown dwarfs at unprecedented photometric precision from space. We present one of several important new results from WoW: the discovery of brown dwarfs with unexpectedly slow rotation periods. While most brown dwarfs have periods of 2-12 hours, we have identified two with well-constrained periods of 13±1 and >20 hours, respectively, and 2 others that show more tentative evidence of longer than 20-hour periods. By serving as almost non-rotating standards, these objects will allow more accurate calibration of spectroscopic measurements of brown dwarfs' projected rotational velocities. The existence of such slowly-rotating objects also constrains models of brown dwarf formation and angular momentum evolution.

  1. Project Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents sixteen project notes developed by pupils of Chipping Norton School and Bristol Grammar School, in the United Kingdom. These Projects include eight biology A-level projects and eight Chemistry A-level projects. (HM)

  2. Genomic DNA Enrichment Using Sequence Capture Microarrays: a Novel Approach to Discover Sequence Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) in Brassica napus L

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Wayne E.; Parkin, Isobel A.; Gajardo, Humberto A.; Gerhardt, Daniel J.; Higgins, Erin; Sidebottom, Christine; Sharpe, Andrew G.; Snowdon, Rod J.; Federico, Maria L.; Iniguez-Luy, Federico L.

    2013-01-01

    Targeted genomic selection methodologies, or sequence capture, allow for DNA enrichment and large-scale resequencing and characterization of natural genetic variation in species with complex genomes, such as rapeseed canola (Brassica napus L., AACC, 2n=38). The main goal of this project was to combine sequence capture with next generation sequencing (NGS) to discover single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in specific areas of the B. napus genome historically associated (via quantitative trait loci –QTL– analysis) to traits of agronomical and nutritional importance. A 2.1 million feature sequence capture platform was designed to interrogate DNA sequence variation across 47 specific genomic regions, representing 51.2 Mb of the Brassica A and C genomes, in ten diverse rapeseed genotypes. All ten genotypes were sequenced using the 454 Life Sciences chemistry and to assess the effect of increased sequence depth, two genotypes were also sequenced using Illumina HiSeq chemistry. As a result, 589,367 potentially useful SNPs were identified. Analysis of sequence coverage indicated a four-fold increased representation of target regions, with 57% of the filtered SNPs falling within these regions. Sixty percent of discovered SNPs corresponded to transitions while 40% were transversions. Interestingly, fifty eight percent of the SNPs were found in genic regions while 42% were found in intergenic regions. Further, a high percentage of genic SNPs was found in exons (65% and 64% for the A and C genomes, respectively). Two different genotyping assays were used to validate the discovered SNPs. Validation rates ranged from 61.5% to 84% of tested SNPs, underpinning the effectiveness of this SNP discovery approach. Most importantly, the discovered SNPs were associated with agronomically important regions of the B. napus genome generating a novel data resource for research and breeding this crop species. PMID:24312619

  3. Genomic DNA enrichment using sequence capture microarrays: a novel approach to discover sequence nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in Brassica napus L.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Wayne E; Parkin, Isobel A; Gajardo, Humberto A; Gerhardt, Daniel J; Higgins, Erin; Sidebottom, Christine; Sharpe, Andrew G; Snowdon, Rod J; Federico, Maria L; Iniguez-Luy, Federico L

    2013-01-01

    Targeted genomic selection methodologies, or sequence capture, allow for DNA enrichment and large-scale resequencing and characterization of natural genetic variation in species with complex genomes, such as rapeseed canola (Brassica napus L., AACC, 2n=38). The main goal of this project was to combine sequence capture with next generation sequencing (NGS) to discover single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in specific areas of the B. napus genome historically associated (via quantitative trait loci -QTL- analysis) to traits of agronomical and nutritional importance. A 2.1 million feature sequence capture platform was designed to interrogate DNA sequence variation across 47 specific genomic regions, representing 51.2 Mb of the Brassica A and C genomes, in ten diverse rapeseed genotypes. All ten genotypes were sequenced using the 454 Life Sciences chemistry and to assess the effect of increased sequence depth, two genotypes were also sequenced using Illumina HiSeq chemistry. As a result, 589,367 potentially useful SNPs were identified. Analysis of sequence coverage indicated a four-fold increased representation of target regions, with 57% of the filtered SNPs falling within these regions. Sixty percent of discovered SNPs corresponded to transitions while 40% were transversions. Interestingly, fifty eight percent of the SNPs were found in genic regions while 42% were found in intergenic regions. Further, a high percentage of genic SNPs was found in exons (65% and 64% for the A and C genomes, respectively). Two different genotyping assays were used to validate the discovered SNPs. Validation rates ranged from 61.5% to 84% of tested SNPs, underpinning the effectiveness of this SNP discovery approach. Most importantly, the discovered SNPs were associated with agronomically important regions of the B. napus genome generating a novel data resource for research and breeding this crop species.

  4. VLT/MUSE discovers a jet from the evolved B[e] star MWC 137

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehner, A.; de Wit, W. J.; Groh, J. H.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; Baade, D.; Rivinius, T.; Selman, F.; Boffin, H. M. J.; Martayan, C.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Not all stars exhibiting the optical spectral characteristics of B[e] stars are in the same evolutionary stage. The Galactic B[e] star MWC 137 is a prime example of an object with uncertain classification, where previous work has suggested either a pre- or a post-main sequence classification. Our goal is to settle this debate and provide a reliable evolutionary classification. Methods: Integral field spectrograph observations with the Very Large Telescope Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (VLT MUSE) of the cluster SH 2-266 are used to analyze the nature of MWC 137. Results: A collimated outflow is discovered that is geometrically centered on MWC 137. The central position of MWC 137 in the cluster SH 2-266 within the larger nebula suggests strongly that it is a member of this cluster and that it is the origin of both the nebula and the newly discovered jet. Comparison of the color-magnitude diagram of the brightest cluster stars with stellar evolutionary models results in a distance of about 5.2 ± 1.4 kpc. We estimate that the cluster is at least 3 Myr old. The jet emanates from MWC 137 at a position angle of 18-20°. The jet extends over 66'' (1.7 pc) projected on the plane of the sky, shows several knots, and has electron densities of about 103 cm-1 and projected velocities of up to ± 450 km s-1. From the Balmer emission line decrement of the diffuse intracluster nebulosity, we determine E(B-V) = 1.4 mag for the inner 1' cluster region. The spectral energy distribution of the brightest cluster stars yields a slightly lower extinction of E(B-V) ~ 1.2 mag for the inner region and E(B-V) ~ 0.4-0.8 mag for the outer region. The extinction toward MWC 137 is estimated to be E(B-V) ~ 1.8 mag (AV ~ 5.6 mag). Conclusions: Our analysis of the optical and near-infrared color-magnitude and color-color diagrams suggests a post-main sequence stage for MWC 137. The existence of a jet in this object implies the presence of an accretion disk. Several possibilities for MWC

  5. Discovering the Role of Grain Boundary Complexions in Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Harmer, Martin P.

    2015-03-19

    in a range of materials systems, and to characterize their structures, range of stability and selected physical properties. First, an Au-based bilayer interfacial phase was discovered at a bicrystal boundary in the Si-Au system. This bilayer transitioned abruptly to an intrinsic (“clean”) grain boundary phase, suggesting first-order phase behavior. This study represents the discovery of grain boundary complexions in a completely new system, i.e., a semiconductor-metal system, giving further support to the expectation that grain boundary complexions are a general phenomenon not limited to any particular class of materials. The TiO2-CuO system exhibited four grain boundary interfacial phases: a monolayer, disordered bilayer, disordered trilayer, and non-wetting nanoscale amorphous drop (which likely resulted from dewetting of a nanoscale IGF). SiO2 contamination was discovered in the TiO2-CuO samples, and we hypothesize that this impurity may have caused an “order-disorder” transition to occur. In other words, we expect that pure TiO2-CuO may have a higher tendency to exhibit ordered bilayer and trilayer complexions, which may also exhibit a well-defined order-disorder transition temperature. In this effort we have also identified unique complexion transitions in yttria and strontium titanate.

  6. Discovering Exoplanets with Microlensing: Transition to the Next Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Andrew

    We propose to continue our successful program of planet discovery using the gravitaional microlensing technique. Our work will specifically focus on so-called "high- magnification events", which are exceptionally sensitive to planets, and which allow us to extract exceptionally detailed information about each planetary system. These results will be of high scientific interest in their own right, but will also play a key role in the transition to "next-generation" surveys that will discover many times more planets in "low-magnification events". We will continue to operate and build our network of approximately 30 amateur+professional astronomers (about half each) on 6 continents plus Oceania, which enables the 24 hour coverage that is crucial to extracting planetary science from microlensing events. In particular, by engaging the amateurs at a high scientific level, we will both improve the quantity and quality of amateur data and utilize their role as a "transmission belt" to the broader public. Over the past few years, high-mag events have enabled the first detection of a Jupiter- Saturn analog system, the first census of ice and gas giants beyond the snow line, the recognition that "cold Neptunes" are extremely common, and the detection of 3 very massive, super-Jupiter planets orbiting M dwarfs (which may challenge the standard "core-accretion" paradigm). Analysis of these events has also led to key theoretical insights, including the fact that planet orbital motion can be detected in microlensing events and that careful effort is required to disentangle this from "parallax effects" (due to the Earth's own orbital motion). The direct impact of our proposed work will be to increase the still small statistics of high-mag planet detections (due to the intrinsic rarity of high-mag events) and to exploit the sensitivity of these events to higher-order effects (including parallax, planet orbital motion, and multiple planets) to gain deeper knowledge of detected systems

  7. The Spy VI child: a newly discovered Neandertal infant.

    PubMed

    Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Bayle, Priscilla; Rougier, Hélène; Maureille, Bruno; Higham, Thomas; van der Plicht, Johannes; De Clerck, Nora; Semal, Patrick

    2010-12-01

    Spy cave (Jemeppe-sur-Sambre, Belgium) is reputed for the two adult Neandertal individuals discovered in situ in 1886. Recent reassessment of the Spy collections has allowed direct radiocarbon dating of these individuals. The sorting of all of the faunal collections has also led to the discovery of the remains of a Neandertal child, Spy VI. This individual is represented by two mandibular corpus fragments. The left fragment is the most complete and both sides preserve the mental foramen. Four deciduous teeth are associated with these mandibular remains: three incisors and one canine. The lower left canine (Spy 645a) conjoins with the corresponding alveolar socket in the left part of the mandible. Following extant standards, the developmental stage of the preserved teeth indicate an age at death of about one and a half years. In addition to performing a classical morphometric comparative study of the mandible and teeth, we have evaluated the dental tissue proportions using high-resolution microtomographic techniques. Our results show that Spy VI generally falls within the Neandertal range of variation. However, this specimen also exhibits particular traits, notably in the dental internal structural organization, which reveals that variation in the immature Neandertal variation is larger than what was variation currently represented by the available fossil record. These observations demonstrate the need for investigating the frequency and expression of immature Neandertal traits in fossil anterior teeth, as well as their temporal and geographic variation. Direct radiocarbon dating of the Spy VI specimen has been conducted in two different laboratories. The results of Spy VI confirm the age previously determined for the two adults, making the Spy Neandertal remains the youngest ever directly dated in northwest Europe. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A new population of protostars discovered by Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stutz, A. M.; Tobin, J.; Fischer, W.; S. T. Megeath; Stanke, T.; Ali, B.; Henning, T.

    2012-03-01

    We present a newly discovered Herschel--detected class of very red protostars found in the Herschel Orion Protostar Survey (HOPS). In contrast to the known Orion protostars targeted with HOPS, the new sources are undetected or very faint in the Spitzer 24 μm imaging. A subset of these sources is redder than any of the known Orion Class 0 protostars, and appear similar in their 70 μm to 24 μm colors to the most extreme Class 0 objects known. These new Orion protostars are likely to be in a very early and short lived stage of protostellar evolution. As a sample of extremely red sources at a common distance, they represent an important new population of protostars. The majority of these reddest sources exhibit associated IRAC 4.5, and 5.8 μm extended emission that suggests the presence of an outflow, confirming their protostellar nature. In addition, many of these sources are located within classical filaments as traced by Spitzer absorption features and APEX 870 μm dust emission maps. Fits of the broad--band SEDs to radiative transfer models of protostars suggest that the extremely red 70 μm to 24 μm colors result from a combination of nearly edge--on viewing angles and high envelope infall rates. We analyze the properties of the filaments from which these sources form using sub--mm and IRAM 30 m N_2H^+ measurements. Finally, we present the initial results of a search for outflows using IRAM 30 m CO maps. As a population of cold protostars detected by Herschel but not Spitzer, the PBRS extend the Spitzer--identified sample to earlier stages of envelope evolution, allowing the most complete census yet of the Orion protostellar population.

  9. Serum irisin levels and thyroid function--newly discovered association.

    PubMed

    Ruchala, Marek; Zybek, Ariadna; Szczepanek-Parulska, Ewelina

    2014-10-01

    Irisin is a newly discovered adipo-myokin, which is reported to have a significant influence on the body metabolism and thermogenesis. Other influencing factors on metabolic state are thyroid hormones, which increase heat production and control the energy balance. Due to numerous similarities in action it seems imperative to explore these substances' potential mutual influence on the body. The aim of the study is to provide the first ever, according to our knowledge, evaluation of serum irisin concentrations in patients with thyroid dysfunction and its correlation with creatine kinase (CK) levels - a serum marker of muscle damage. The studied group consisted of 20 patients with newly diagnosed thyroid disorder - hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. Venous blood samples were analyzed for irisin, thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and CK serum concentrations. Patients' body mass index (BMI), body weight and muscle mass were evaluated using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Median serum irisin levels were lower in hypothyroid (117.30ng/ml) than hyperthyroid (161.95ng/ml) patients with a borderline statistical significance (p=0.0726). The negative correlation between irisin and TSH levels was demonstrated (r=-0.4924, p=0.0230), as well as the positive correlation between irisin and FT4 levels (r=0.4833, p=0.0360). The CK level was negatively correlated with irisin, FT4 and FT3 concentrations (r=-0.7272, p=0.0140; r=-0.9636, p=<0.0001; r=-0.8838, p=0.0007, respectively). The study demonstrates that irisin concentrations may vary according to the thyrometabolic state, which potentially could be related to the degree of muscle damage.

  10. Discovering Higgs Bosons of the MSSM using Jet Substructure

    SciTech Connect

    Kribs, Graham D.; Martin, Adam; Roy, Tuhin S.; Spannowsky, Michael

    2010-06-01

    We present a qualitatively new approach to discover Higgs bosons of the MSSM at the LHC using jet substructure techniques applied to boosted Higgs decays. These techniques are ideally suited to the MSSM, since the lightest Higgs boson overwhelmingly decays to b{bar b} throughout the entire parameter space, while the heavier neutral Higgs bosons, if light enough to be produced in a cascade, also predominantly decay to b{bar b}. The Higgs production we consider arises from superpartner production where superpartners cascade decay into Higgs bosons. We study this mode of Higgs production for several superpartner hierarchies: m{sub {tilde q}},m{sub {tilde g}} > m{sub {tilde W}},{sub {tilde B}} > m{sub h} + {mu}; m{tilde q};m{sub {tilde q}},m{sub {tilde g}} > m{sub {tilde W}},{sub {tilde B}} > m {sub h,H,A} + {mu}; and m{sub {tilde q}},m{sub {tilde g}} > m{sub {tilde W}} > m{sub h} + {mu} with m{sub {tilde B}} {approx} {mu}. In these cascades, the Higgs bosons are boosted, with pT > 200 GeV a large fraction of the time. Since Higgs bosons appear in cascades originating from squarks and/or gluinos, the cross section for events with at least one Higgs boson can be the same order as squark/gluino production. Given 10 fb{sup -1} of 14 TeV LHC data, with m{sub {tilde q}} {approx}< 1 TeV, and one of the above superpartner mass hierarchies, our estimate of S{radical} B of the Higgs signal is sufficiently high that the b{bar b} mode can become the discovery mode of the lightest Higgs boson of the MSSM.

  11. The Ring System Discovered Around the Centaur Object (10199) Chariklo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga-Ribas, F.; Sicardy, B.; Ortiz, J. L.; Vieira Martins, R.; Colas, F.; Duffard, R.; Camargo, J. I. B.; Desmars, J.; Gulbis, A.; Assafin, M.; Maquet, L.; Beisker, W.; Benedetti-Rossi, G.; Vachier, F.; Dumas, C.; Ivanov, V. D.; Renner, S.; Bath, K. L.; Klotz, A.; Pollock, J. T.

    2014-12-01

    Observations of a stellar occultation on 03 June 2013 led to the discovery of the first ring system around a small Solar System object, the Centaur (10199) Chariklo (Braga-Ribas et al. 2014, Nature, 508, 72). The object has a radius of about 125 km and moves on an unstable orbit between Saturn and Uranus, with lifetime of about 10 Myr. The fifth ring system ever discovered (after those around the four giant planets) is made of two dense and narrow rings with respective widths of 7 and 3 kilometers, normal optical depths of 0.4 and 0.06, and orbital radii of 391 and 405 kilometers, respectively (see figure). They are separated by an empty gap of about 9 km (see Figure 1). Their current configuration may be explained by the presence of putative kilometric-sized satellites. By means of the shepherd mechanism, satellites can confine and open the gap between the rings, otherwise they would spread out in few thousand years. From 1997 to 2008, the Chariklo system exhibited an unexplained behavior. It dimmed by 0.6 in absolute magnitude and the water-ice band in its spectrum, formerly observed, could not be detected in 2008. All this is simply explained by the rings' pole orientation, which implies that they were seen edge-on in 2007-2008. We can also calculate their reflectivity I/F ~ 0.1. Spectroscopic and photometric observations of the system allowed us to calculate the amount of water ice and silicate elements in the rings as well as on the main body. No water ice is detectable on the surface of Chariklo. New stellar occultations by the Chariklo system were observed in 2014, and they show the fine structure of the rings as well confirm the preferred pole position from the 2013 event. These findings will be presented and possible formation scenarios will be discussed.

  12. Discovering discovery patterns with predication-based Semantic Indexing

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Trevor; Widdows, Dominic; Schvaneveldt, Roger W.; Davies, Peter; Rindflesch, Thomas C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we utilize methods of hyperdimensional computing to mediate the identification of therapeutically useful connections for the purpose of literature-based discovery. Our approach, named Predication-based Semantic Indexing, is utilized to identify empirically sequences of relationships known as “discovery patterns”, such as “drug x INHIBITS substance y, substance y CAUSES disease z” that link pharmaceutical substances to diseases they are known to treat. These sequences are derived from semantic predications extracted from the biomedical literature by the SemRep system, and subsequently utilized to direct the search for known treatments for a held out set of diseases. Rapid and efficient inference is accomplished through the application of geometric operators in PSI space, allowing for both the derivation of discovery patterns from a large set of known TREATS relationships, and the application of these discovered patterns to constrain search for therapeutic relationships at scale. Our results include the rediscovery of discovery patterns that have been constructed manually by other authors in previous research, as well as the discovery of a set of previously unrecognized patterns. The application of these patterns to direct search through PSI space results in better recovery of therapeutic relationships than is accomplished with models based on distributional statistics alone. These results demonstrate the utility of efficient approximate inference in geometric space as a means to identify therapeutic relationships, suggesting a role of these methods in drug repurposing efforts. In addition, the results provide strong support for the utility of the discovery pattern approach pioneered by Hristovski and his colleagues. PMID:22841748

  13. Discovering discovery patterns with Predication-based Semantic Indexing.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Trevor; Widdows, Dominic; Schvaneveldt, Roger W; Davies, Peter; Rindflesch, Thomas C

    2012-12-01

    In this paper we utilize methods of hyperdimensional computing to mediate the identification of therapeutically useful connections for the purpose of literature-based discovery. Our approach, named Predication-based Semantic Indexing, is utilized to identify empirically sequences of relationships known as "discovery patterns", such as "drug x INHIBITS substance y, substance y CAUSES disease z" that link pharmaceutical substances to diseases they are known to treat. These sequences are derived from semantic predications extracted from the biomedical literature by the SemRep system, and subsequently utilized to direct the search for known treatments for a held out set of diseases. Rapid and efficient inference is accomplished through the application of geometric operators in PSI space, allowing for both the derivation of discovery patterns from a large set of known TREATS relationships, and the application of these discovered patterns to constrain search for therapeutic relationships at scale. Our results include the rediscovery of discovery patterns that have been constructed manually by other authors in previous research, as well as the discovery of a set of previously unrecognized patterns. The application of these patterns to direct search through PSI space results in better recovery of therapeutic relationships than is accomplished with models based on distributional statistics alone. These results demonstrate the utility of efficient approximate inference in geometric space as a means to identify therapeutic relationships, suggesting a role of these methods in drug repurposing efforts. In addition, the results provide strong support for the utility of the discovery pattern approach pioneered by Hristovski and his colleagues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Galactic Evolved Massive Stars Discovered by Their Infrared Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marston, Anthony; Mauerhan, J. C.; Van Dyk, S.; Cohen, M.; Morris, P.

    2013-06-01

    Determining the Galactic distribution and numbers of massive stars, such as Wolf-Rayet stars (WRs), is hampered by intervening Galactic or local circumstellar dust obscuration. In order to probe such regions of the Galaxy we can use infrared observations, which provide a means for finding such hidden populations through the dust. The availability of both 2MASS and Spitzer/GLIMPSE large-scale survey data provides infrared colours from 1.25 to 8 μm for a large fraction of the inner Galactic plane. In 2005 we had initiated a pilot study of the combined set of infrared colours for early-release GLIMPSE fields and show that WRs typically occupy a sparsely populated region of the color space. (This has also subsequently been demonstrated by our work in Hadfield et al. [2007, MNRAS, 376, 248] and Mauerhan et al. [2009, PASP, 121, 591].) We followed up 42 of our WR candidates spectroscopically in the near-infrared, and with limited additional observations of some of these candidates in the optical. Six new WRs, four late-type WN and two late-type WC stars, were discovered as a result. Of the remaining ~86% of the sample, five appear to be O-type stars. 21 stars are likely of type Be, and 10 stars appear to be of late-type, or possibly young stellar objects, which have ``contaminated'' the infrared color space. The survey is generally unbiased towards clusters or field stars, and the new WRs found are in both the field and in and around the RCW 49 region (including cluster Westerlund 2). In this work, and in our other recent work, we show that the infrared broad-band colours so far to be the most efficient means of identifying (particularly, dust-obscured) candidate massive stars, notably WRs.

  15. Discovering structure and evolution within the coronae of Seyfert galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, Daniel; Gallo, Luigi C.; Silva, Catia; Costantini, Elisa

    2017-08-01

    Detailed analysis of the reflection and reverberation of X-rays from the innermost regions of AGN accretion discs reveals the structure and processes that produce the intense continuum emission and the extreme variability we see, right down to the innermost stable orbit and event horizon of the black hole. Observations of Seyfert galaxies spanning more than a decade have enabled measurement of the geometry of the corona and how it evolves, leading to orders of magnitude in variability. They reveal processes the corona undergoes during transient events, notably the collimation and ejection of the corona during X-ray flares, reminiscent of the aborted launching of a jet.Recent reverberation studies, of the Seyfert galaxy I Zwicky 1 with XMM-Newton, are revealing structures within the corona for the very first time. A persistent collimated core is discovered, akin to the base of a jet embedded in the innermost regions alongside an extended corona related to the accretion disc. The detection of the flare in the X-ray emission enables the evolution of both the collimated and extended portions of the corona to be tracked. The flare is seen originating as an increase in activity above the accretion disc before propagating inwards, energising the collimated core at a later time, leading to a second sharp increase in the X-ray luminosity.This gives us important constraints on the processes by which energy is liberated from black hole accretion flows, how they are governed over time and how jets are launched, giving us the deepest insight to date of how these extreme objects are powered.

  16. Discovering superconductors: A path to new science and higher Tc's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geballe, T. H.; Koster, Gertjan

    2005-08-01

    The search for superconductivity in new and unexpected structures has been ongoing since the initial discovery in Leiden over 9 decades ago. Though the successes are few the rewards are great. Our meeting here today is a direct result of Bednorz and Mueller's discovery of cuprate superconductivity [1]. The questions which have arisen as a result of this single discovery have uncovered inadequacies of theory and stimulated new ways of thinking. Understanding the mechanism(s) of high temperature superconductivity is among the foremost challenges of theoretical and experimental research today [2]. Searching for new superconductors has always been a fruitful research enterprise, and as we see, there are new opportunities for doing so today. For more than 4 decades after the initial discovery there was no microscopic theory (the most outstanding theorists from Heisenberg down tried and failed to come up with a satisfactory theory) and the experimental basis for understanding the underlying mechanisms was inadequate. It must have been a surprise for Kamerlingh Onnes, after taking care to use the purest Hg he could obtain in the investigation that led to the discovery of superconductivity, to find that ordinary solder was also superconducting. In 1932 Meissner discovered barely metallic copper sulfide was superconducting, while high conductivity copper itself was not superconducting. These puzzles and others like it suggested that a comprehensive search for new superconductors might reveal a pattern of occurrence that would reveal clues, and prompted John Hulm and Bernd Matthias, with encouragement from Enrico Fermi [3] in 1951 to undertake a full-scale effort to find new superconductors. This was a propitious time for such an undertaking for a number of reasons. Today parallel reasons exist.

  17. Discovering significant evolution patterns from satellite image time series.

    PubMed

    Petitjean, François; Masseglia, Florent; Gançarski, Pierre; Forestier, Germain

    2011-12-01

    Satellite Image Time Series (SITS) provide us with precious information on land cover evolution. By studying these series of images we can both understand the changes of specific areas and discover global phenomena that spread over larger areas. Changes that can occur throughout the sensing time can spread over very long periods and may have different start time and end time depending on the location, which complicates the mining and the analysis of series of images. This work focuses on frequent sequential pattern mining (FSPM) methods, since this family of methods fits the above-mentioned issues. This family of methods consists of finding the most frequent evolution behaviors, and is actually able to extract long-term changes as well as short term ones, whenever the change may start and end. However, applying FSPM methods to SITS implies confronting two main challenges, related to the characteristics of SITS and the domain's constraints. First, satellite images associate multiple measures with a single pixel (the radiometric levels of different wavelengths corresponding to infra-red, red, etc.), which makes the search space multi-dimensional and thus requires specific mining algorithms. Furthermore, the non evolving regions, which are the vast majority and overwhelm the evolving ones, challenge the discovery of these patterns. We propose a SITS mining framework that enables discovery of these patterns despite these constraints and characteristics. Our proposal is inspired from FSPM and provides a relevant visualization principle. Experiments carried out on 35 images sensed over 20 years show the proposed approach makes it possible to extract relevant evolution behaviors.

  18. Data mining algorithm for discovering matrix association regions (MARs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Gautam B.; Krawetz, Shephan A.

    2000-04-01

    Lately, there has been considerable interest in applying Data Mining techniques to scientific and data analysis problems in bioinformatics. Data mining research is being fueled by novel application areas that are helping the development of newer applied algorithms in the field of bioinformatics, an emerging discipline representing the integration of biological and information sciences. This is a shift in paradigm from the earlier and the continuing data mining efforts in marketing research and support for business intelligence. The problem described in this paper is along a new dimension in DNA sequence analysis research and supplements the previously studied stochastic models for evolution and variability. The discovery of novel patterns from genetic databases as described is quite significant because biological patterns play an important role in a large variety of cellular processes and constitute the basis for gene therapy. Biological databases containing the genetic codes from a wide variety of organisms, including humans, have continued their exponential growth over the last decade. At the time of this writing, the GenBank database contains over 300 million sequences and over 2.5 billion characters of sequenced nucleotides. The focus of this paper is on developing a general data mining algorithm for discovering regions of locus control, i.e. those regions that are instrumental for determining cell type. One such type of element of locus control are the MARs or the Matrix Association Regions. Our limited knowledge about MARs has hampered their detection using classical pattern recognition techniques. Consequently, their detection is formulated by utilizing a statistical interestingness measure derived from a set of empirical features that are known to be associated with MARs. This paper presents a systematic approach for finding associations between such empirical features in genomic sequences, and for utilizing this knowledge to detect biologically interesting

  19. Three Novel Virophage Genomes Discovered from Yellowstone Lake Metagenomes

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jinglie; Sun, Dawei; Childers, Alyson; McDermott, Timothy R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Virophages are a unique group of circular double-stranded DNA viruses that are considered parasites of giant DNA viruses, which in turn are known to infect eukaryotic hosts. In this study, the genomes of three novel Yellowstone Lake virophages (YSLVs)—YSLV5, YSLV6, and YSLV7—were identified from Yellowstone Lake through metagenomic analyses. The relative abundance of these three novel virophages and previously identified Yellowstone Lake virophages YSLV1 to -4 were determined in different locations of the lake, revealing that most of the sampled locations in the lake, including both mesophilic and thermophilic habitats, had multiple virophage genotypes. This likely reflects the diverse habitats or diversity of the eukaryotic hosts and their associated giant viruses that serve as putative hosts for these virophages. YSLV5 has a 29,767-bp genome with 32 predicted open reading frames (ORFs), YSLV6 has a 24,837-bp genome with 29 predicted ORFs, and YSLV7 has a 23,193-bp genome with 26 predicted ORFs. Based on multilocus phylogenetic analysis, YSLV6 shows a close evolutionary relationship with YSLV1 to -4, whereas YSLV5 and YSLV7 are distantly related to the others, and YSLV7 represents the fourth novel virophage lineage. In addition, the genome of YSLV5 has a G+C content of 51.1% that is much higher than all other known virophages, indicating a unique host range for YSLV5. These results suggest that virophages are abundant and have diverse genotypes that likely mirror diverse giant viral and eukaryotic hosts within the Yellowstone Lake ecosystem. IMPORTANCE This study discovered novel virophages present within the Yellowstone Lake ecosystem using a conserved major capsid protein as a phylogenetic anchor for assembly of sequence reads from Yellowstone Lake metagenomic samples. The three novel virophage genomes (YSLV5 to -7) were completed by identifying specific environmental samples containing these respective virophages, and closing gaps by targeted PCR

  20. Three novel virophage genomes discovered from Yellowstone Lake metagenomes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jinglie; Sun, Dawei; Childers, Alyson; McDermott, Timothy R; Wang, Yongjie; Liles, Mark R

    2015-01-15

    Virophages are a unique group of circular double-stranded DNA viruses that are considered parasites of giant DNA viruses, which in turn are known to infect eukaryotic hosts. In this study, the genomes of three novel Yellowstone Lake virophages (YSLVs)--YSLV5, YSLV6, and YSLV7--were identified from Yellowstone Lake through metagenomic analyses. The relative abundance of these three novel virophages and previously identified Yellowstone Lake virophages YSLV1 to -4 were determined in different locations of the lake, revealing that most of the sampled locations in the lake, including both mesophilic and thermophilic habitats, had multiple virophage genotypes. This likely reflects the diverse habitats or diversity of the eukaryotic hosts and their associated giant viruses that serve as putative hosts for these virophages. YSLV5 has a 29,767-bp genome with 32 predicted open reading frames (ORFs), YSLV6 has a 24,837-bp genome with 29 predicted ORFs, and YSLV7 has a 23,193-bp genome with 26 predicted ORFs. Based on multilocus phylogenetic analysis, YSLV6 shows a close evolutionary relationship with YSLV1 to -4, whereas YSLV5 and YSLV7 are distantly related to the others, and YSLV7 represents the fourth novel virophage lineage. In addition, the genome of YSLV5 has a G+C content of 51.1% that is much higher than all other known virophages, indicating a unique host range for YSLV5. These results suggest that virophages are abundant and have diverse genotypes that likely mirror diverse giant viral and eukaryotic hosts within the Yellowstone Lake ecosystem. This study discovered novel virophages present within the Yellowstone Lake ecosystem using a conserved major capsid protein as a phylogenetic anchor for assembly of sequence reads from Yellowstone Lake metagenomic samples. The three novel virophage genomes (YSLV5 to -7) were completed by identifying specific environmental samples containing these respective virophages, and closing gaps by targeted PCR and sequencing. Most of

  1. Astronomers Discover New Star-Forming Regions in Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-05-01

    Astronomers studying the Milky Way have discovered a large number of previously-unknown regions where massive stars are being formed. Their discovery provides important new information about the structure of our home Galaxy and promises to yield new clues about the chemical composition of the Galaxy. "We can clearly relate the locations of these star-forming sites to the overall structure of the Galaxy. Further studies will allow us to better understand the process of star formation and to compare the chemical composition of such sites at widely different distances from the Galaxy's center," said Thomas Bania, of Boston University. Bania worked with Loren Anderson of the Astrophysical Laboratory of Marseille in France, Dana Balser of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), and Robert Rood of the University of Virginia. The scientists presented their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Miami, Florida. The star-forming regions the astronomers sought, called H II regions, are sites where hydrogen atoms are ionized, or stripped of their electrons, by the intense radiation of the massive, young stars. To find these regions hidden from visible-light detection by the Milky Way's gas and dust, the researchers used infrared and radio telescopes. "We found our targets by using the results of infrared surveys done with NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and of surveys done with the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope," Anderson said. "Objects that appear bright in both the Spitzer and VLA images we studied are good candidates for H II regions," he explained. The astronomers then used the NSF's giant Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia, an extremely sensitive radio telescope. With the GBT, they were able to detect specific radio frequencies emitted by electrons as they recombined with protons to form hydrogen. This evidence of recombination confirmed that the regions contained ionized

  2. LifeWatch Greece data-services: Discovering Biodiversity Data using Semantic Web Technologies.

    PubMed

    Minadakis, Nikos; Marketakis, Yannis; Doerr, Martin; Bekiari, Chryssoula; Papadakos, Panagiotis; Gougousis, Alexandros; Bailly, Nicolas; Arvanitidis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Biodiversity data is characterized by its cross-disciplinary character, the extremely broad range of data types and structures, and the variety of semantic concepts that it encompasses. Furthermore there is a plethora of different data sources providing resources for the same piece of information in a heterogeneous way. Even if we restrict our attention to Greek biodiversity domain, it is easy to see that biodiversity data remains unconnected and widely distributed among different sources. To cope with these issues, in the context of the LifeWatch Greece project, i) we supported cataloguing and publishing of all the relevant metadata information of the Greek biodiversity domain, ii) we integrated data from heterogeneous sources by supporting the definitions of appropriate models, iii) we provided means for efficiently discovering biodiversity data of interest and iv) we enabled the answering of complex queries that could not be answered from the individual sources. This work has been exploited, evaluated and scientificaly confirmed by the biodiversity community through the services provided by the LifeWatch Greece portal.

  3. A New X-Ray--discovered Cluster of Galaxies Associated with CL 0016+16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, John P.; Birkinshaw, Mark; Huchra, John P.

    1995-08-01

    We have discovered a new cluster of galaxies, RX J0018.3+1618, in a deep ROSAT PSPC pointing toward the distant cluster CL 0016+16. The mean radial velocities of the new cluster (z = 0.5506) and CL 0016+16 (z = 0.5455) differ by 1000 +/- 390 km s-1, which is comparable to their internal velocity dispersions. The angular separation of the clusters, 9.'5, corresponds to a projected linear distance of 4.2 Mpc. RX J0018.3+1618 has an X-ray luminosity in the 0.2--2 keV band of 1.3 x 1044 ergs s-1, which is about 10% of the luminosity of CL 0016+16. From the redshifts of seven galaxies in the new cluster, we derive a radial velocity dispersion of 540^{+260}_{-120} km s-1, which establishes RX J0018.3+1618 as one of the most distant known poor clusters. Simple energetic arguments suggest that the two clusters constitute a bound system. This discovery adds considerable weight to the suggestion made by Koo in 1981 that CL 0016+16 is part of a massive large-scale structure at z ~ 0.55.

  4. LifeWatch Greece data-services: Discovering Biodiversity Data using Semantic Web Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Marketakis, Yannis; Doerr, Martin; Bekiari, Chryssoula; Papadakos, Panagiotis; Gougousis, Alexandros; Bailly, Nicolas; Arvanitidis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Biodiversity data is characterized by its cross-disciplinary character, the extremely broad range of data types and structures, and the variety of semantic concepts that it encompasses. Furthermore there is a plethora of different data sources providing resources for the same piece of information in a heterogeneous way. Even if we restrict our attention to Greek biodiversity domain, it is easy to see that biodiversity data remains unconnected and widely distributed among different sources. New information To cope with these issues, in the context of the LifeWatch Greece project, i) we supported cataloguing and publishing of all the relevant metadata information of the Greek biodiversity domain, ii) we integrated data from heterogeneous sources by supporting the definitions of appropriate models, iii) we provided means for efficiently discovering biodiversity data of interest and iv) we enabled the answering of complex queries that could not be answered from the individual sources. This work has been exploited, evaluated and scientificaly confirmed by the biodiversity community through the services provided by the LifeWatch Greece portal. PMID:27932908

  5. Fast Variable Structure Stochastic Automaton for Discovering and Tracking Spatiotemporal Event Patterns.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junqi; Wang, Yuheng; Wang, Cheng; Zhou, MengChu

    2017-04-05

    Discovering and tracking spatiotemporal event patterns have many applications. For example, in a smart-home project, a set of spatiotemporal pattern learning automata are used to monitor a user's repetitive activities, by which the home's automaticity can be promoted while some of his/her burdens can be reduced. Existing algorithms for spatiotemporal event pattern recognition in dynamic noisy environment are based on fixed structure stochastic automata whose state transition function is fixed and predesigned to guarantee their immunity to noise. However, such design is conservative because it needs continuous and identical feedbacks to converge, thus leading to its very low convergence rate. In many real-life applications, such as ambient assisted living, consecutive nonoccurrences of an elder resident's routine activities should be treated with an alert as quickly as possible. On the other hand, no alert should be output even for some occurrences in order to diminish the effects caused by noise. Clearly, confronting a pattern's change, slow speed and low accuracy may degrade a user's life security. This paper proposes a fast and accurate leaning automaton based on variable structure stochastic automata to satisfy the realistic requirements for both speed and accuracy. Bias toward alert is necessary for elder residents while the existing method can only support the bias toward ``no alert.'' This paper introduces a method to allow bias toward alert or no alert to meet a user's specific bias requirement. Experimental results show its better performance than the state-of-the-art methods.

  6. Psychotherapy and moralising rhetoric in Galen's newly discovered Avoiding Distress (Peri Alypias).

    PubMed

    Xenophontos, Sophia

    2014-10-01

    In this article, I examine Galen's credentials as an ethical philosopher on the basis of his recently discovered essay Avoiding Distress (Peri alypias). As compensation for the scholarly neglect from which Galen's ethics suffers, I argue that his moral agenda is an essential part of his philosophical discourse, one that situates him firmly within the tradition of practical ethics of the Roman period. Galen's engagement with Stoic psychotherapy and the Platonic-Aristotelian educational model affirms his ethical authority; on the other hand, his distinctive moralising features such as the autobiographical perspective of his narrative and the intimacy between author and addressee render his Avoiding Distress exceptional among other essays, Greek or Latin, treating anxiety. Additionally, I show that Galen's self-projection as a therapist of the emotions corresponds to his role as a practising physician, especially as regards the construction of authority, the efficacy of his therapy and the importance of personal experience as attested in his medical accounts. Finally, the diligence with which Galen retextures his moral advice in his On the Affections and Errors of the Soul - a work of different nature and intent in relation to Avoiding Distress - is a testimony to the dynamics of his ethics and more widely to his philosophical medicine. The philosopher's lecture room is a 'hospital': you ought not to walk out of it in a state of pleasure, but in pain; for you are not in good condition when you arrive. Epictetus, Discourses 3.23.30.

  7. LHS 6343 C: A TRANSITING FIELD BROWN DWARF DISCOVERED BY THE KEPLER MISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, John Asher; Crepp, Justin R.; Morton, Timothy D.; Apps, Kevin; Gazak, J. Zachary; Crossfield, Ian J.; Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoff W.; Chubak, Carly; Isaacson, Howard

    2011-04-01

    We report the discovery of a brown dwarf that transits one member of the M+M binary system LHS 6343 AB every 12.71 days. The transits were discovered using photometric data from the Kepler public data release. The LHS 6343 stellar system was previously identified as a single high proper motion M dwarf. We use adaptive optics imaging to resolve the system into two low-mass stars with masses 0.370 {+-} 0.009 M{sub sun} and 0.30 {+-} 0.01 M{sub sun}, respectively, and a projected separation of 0.''55. High-resolution spectroscopy shows that the more massive component undergoes Doppler variations consistent with Keplerian motion, with a period equal to the transit period and an amplitude consistent with a companion mass of M{sub C} = 62.7 {+-} 2.4 M{sub Jup}. Based on our analysis of the transit light curve, we estimate the radius of the companion to be R{sub C} = 0.833 {+-} 0.021 R{sub Jup}, which is consistent with theoretical predictions of the radius of a >1 Gyr brown dwarf.

  8. Faintest Methane Brown Dwarf Discovered with the NTT and VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-08-01

    FORS1 and ISAAC instruments at the VLT 8.2-m ANTU telescope during the first period of VLT observations. Such distant objects are quite red (due to their high redshift) and are best detected by a combination of visible and infrared exposures. Discovery of an extremely infrared object ESO PR Photo 35a/99 ESO PR Photo 35a/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 251 pix - 72k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 502 pix - 224k] [High-Res - JPEG: 3000 x 1881 pix - 1.7M] Caption to ESO PR Photo 35a/99 : Part of the NTT Deep Field , with the new Methane Brown Dwarf NTTDF J1205-0744 at the centre. The field measures 1.3 x 1.3 arcmin 2. The object is well visible in the SOFI infrared exposure (left) in the J-band at wavelength 1.25 µm, but not in the SUSI one at a shorter wavelength (right) in the i-band at 0.8 µm. North is up and East is left. The astronomers noted a star-like object of extreme colour in this field. While it was well visible and similarly bright in both SOFI infrared images (J = 20.2 and K = 20.3), it could not be seen at all on the SUSI images in the visible spectral region, even at the longest wavelength (i-band) observed with that instrument (i-J > 6 mag), cf. PR Photo 35a/99 . No "normal" object is known to have such extreme colours. The new object now received the designation NTTDF J1205-0744 , indicating that it was discovered in the NTT Deep Field at the given position on the sky. It seemed that there were only two possibilities. Either it was an extremely distant quasar (redshift about 8) at the edge of the observable universe, or it must be a very cold object in the Milky Way Galaxy. Whatever its nature, this was obviously a most interesting object. Spectroscopic observations of NTTDF J1205-0744 ESO PR Photo 35b/99 ESO PR Photo 35b/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 337 pix - 56k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 674 pix - 124k] Caption to ESO PR Photo 35b/99 : The infrared spectrum of NTTDF J1205-0744 , as obtained with SOFI at the NTT and ISAAC at VLT ANTU, and compared to the spectrum of the

  9. Photographs and Committees: Activities That Help Students Discover Permutations and Combinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szydlik, Jennifer Earles

    2000-01-01

    Presents problem situations that support students when discovering the multiplication principle, permutations, combinations, Pascal's triangle, and relationships among those objects in a concrete context. (ASK)

  10. Photographs and Committees: Activities That Help Students Discover Permutations and Combinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szydlik, Jennifer Earles

    2000-01-01

    Presents problem situations that support students when discovering the multiplication principle, permutations, combinations, Pascal's triangle, and relationships among those objects in a concrete context. (ASK)

  11. Projects Work!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Textor, Martin R.

    2005-01-01

    The great educational value of projects is emphasized by contrasting negative aspects of the life of today's children with the goals of project work. This is illustrated by a project "Shopping." It is shown what children are learning in such projects and what the advantages of project work are. Relevant topic areas, criteria for selecting a…

  12. The Sungrazer Citizen Science Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battams, K.

    2016-12-01

    The NASA-funded Sungrazer Project is one of the oldest and most successful Citizen Science projects, having more than doubled the number of officially designated comets since it became public in 2002. The Sungrazer Project has enabled the discovery of more than 3,100 previously unknown near-Sun and Sungrazing comets in images returned by the joint ESA-NASA Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), which was launched in 1995, and the NASA Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatories (STEREO), launched in 2006. The Sungrazer Project offers a centralized web site for amateur astronomers ("comet hunters") to report potential comets in SOHO and STEREO data, which the Project PI then confirms/rejects. It is then the task of the Project PI to perform precise astrometric measurements of all new comets, and supply the resulting data to the Minor Planet Center for official orbit determinations and designation. Almost 100 individuals from all over the world have discovered comets via the Project, with successful participants as young as 13-years old. In this talk I will discuss the history of the project, report the current discovery statistics, and highlight a few of the major discoveries enabled by the Project. I will also discuss the logistic of the program, participation requirements, day-to-day operations, and outreach efforts. Finally I will present an outlook for the project with respect to future space-based heliophysics missions.

  13. Project Wild (Project Tame).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegenthaler, David

    For 37 states in the United States, Project Wild has become an officially sanctioned, distributed and funded "environemtnal and conservation education program." For those who are striving to implement focused, sequential, learning programs, as well as those who wish to promote harmony through a non-anthropocentric world view, Project…

  14. Project Wild (Project Tame).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegenthaler, David

    For 37 states in the United States, Project Wild has become an officially sanctioned, distributed and funded "environemtnal and conservation education program." For those who are striving to implement focused, sequential, learning programs, as well as those who wish to promote harmony through a non-anthropocentric world view, Project…

  15. Astronomers Discover Rotating Disk Around Young, Massive Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-01-01

    Astronomers using radio telescopes in New Mexico and California have discovered a giant, rotating disk of material around a young, massive star, indicating that very massive stars as well as those closer to the size of the Sun may be circled by disks from which planets are thought to form. This is the most massive young star for which such a disk has yet been found. Debra Shepherd of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) and Stan Kurtz of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope and telescopes of Caltech's Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) to make a detailed study of an object called G192.16-3.82, in the constellation Orion. They announced their findings at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Austin, TX, today. What astronomers call Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) -- stars still in the process of formation -- are enigmatic objects, both drawing in material from their surroundings and expelling material outward at the same time. "The details of the interaction between these two processes are poorly understood," Shepherd said. "In addition, most theories are based on observing low-mass stars, and we don't know if things work the same way with higher-mass stars." "We now have the first unambiguous evidence for a rotating disk around a high-mass star that also is powering an outflow," Shepherd said. "We need to make more observations to confirm the finding, but this information will help test theories of how such young stellar objects operate." It has been difficult to study massive star formation, because massive stars are rarer than smaller ones, they tend to form in clusters, making observations more difficult, and there are few of them forming relatively nearby. The object that Shepherd and Kurtz chose is reasonably isolated. "We think it provides us with a good laboratory for studying the process," Kurtz said. The young star at the core of G192.16-3.82 is

  16. Planetary dreams : the quest to discover life beyond earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Robert

    1999-03-01

    The Quest To Discover Life Beyond Earth. "The 'dreams' that I write of are not the usual ones, the images that come up in our minds involuntarily during certain stages of sleep, but rather the hopes and expectations that we have lavished upon other worlds around us."-from the Preface. The surprisingly long history of debate over extraterrestrial life is full of marvelous visions of what life "out there" might be like, as well as remarkable stories of alleged sightings and heated disputes about the probability that life might actually have arisen more than once. In Planetary Dreams, acclaimed author Robert Shapiro explores this rich history of dreams and debates in search of the best current answers to the most elusive and compelling of all questions: Are we alone? In his pursuit, he presents three contrasting views regarding how life might have started: through Divine Creation, by a highly unlikely stroke of luck, or by the inevitable process of a natural law that he terms the Life Principle. We are treated to a lively fictional dinner debate among the leading proponents of these schools of thought-with the last named group arguing that life has almost surely formed in many places throughout the universe, and the others that life may well be entirely unique to our own blue planet. To set the stage for a deep exploration of the question, the author then leads us on a fantastic journey through the museum of the cosmos, an imagined building that holds models of the universe at different degrees of magnification. We then journey deep into inner space to view the astonishingly intricate life of a single cell, and learn why the origin of such a complex object from simple chemical mixtures poses one of the most profound enigmas known to science. Writing in a wonderfully entertaining style, Shapiro then reviews the competing theories about the start of life on Earth, and suggests the debate may best be settled by finding signs of life on the other worlds of our solar

  17. Astronomers Discover First Negatively-charged Molecule in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-12-01

    Cambridge, MA - Astronomers have discovered the first negatively charged molecule in space, identifying it from radio signals that were a mystery until now. While about 130 neutral and 14 positively charged molecules are known to exist in interstellar space, this is the first negative molecule, or anion, to be found. "We've spotted a rare and exotic species, like the white tiger of space," said astronomer Michael McCarthy of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). By learning more about the rich broth of chemicals found in interstellar space, astronomers hope to explain how the young Earth converted these basic ingredients into the essential chemicals for life. This new finding helps to advance scientists' understanding of the chemistry of the interstellar medium, and hence the birthplaces of planets. McCarthy worked with CfA colleagues Carl Gottlieb, Harshal Gupta (also from the Univ. of Texas), and Patrick Thaddeus to identify the molecular anion known as C6H-: a linear chain of six carbon atoms with one hydrogen atom at the end and an "extra" electron. Such molecules were thought to be extremely rare because ultraviolet light that suffuses space easily knocks electrons off molecules. The large size of C6H-, larger than most neutral and all positive molecules known in space, may increase its stability in the harsh cosmic environment. "The discovery of C6H- resolves a long-standing enigma in astrochemistry: the apparent lack of negatively charged molecules in space," stated Thaddeus. The team first conducted laboratory experiments to determine exactly what radio frequencies to use in their search. Then, they used the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope to hunt for C6H- in celestial objects. In particular, they targeted locations in which previous searches had spotted unidentified radio signals at the appropriate frequencies. They found C6H- in two very different locations-a shell of gas surrounding the evolved red giant

  18. DISCOVER-AQ: an innovative approach to study the vertical distribution of air quality constituents in the Earth's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisthaler, Armin; Crawford, James H.; Müller, Markus; Mikoviny, Tomas; Cady-Pereira, Karen E.

    2014-05-01

    DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) is a multi-year NASA research project to improve remote sensing of air quality from space. Satellite-based measurements of air pollutants typically provide information integrated over the total atmospheric column while it is the lowermost part of the atmosphere that is of interest from a public health perspective. DISCOVER-AQ has implemented a new field observation strategy to collect a comprehensive dataset on the vertical distribution of air pollutants in the atmosphere. In situ measurements from the NASA P-3B Airborne Science Laboratory generate profile information of air quality constituents over a set of selected ground monitoring sites. Ground and profile information is tied to column information collected by active and passive remote sensors looking downward from a second King Air aircraft flying higher in the atmosphere above the P-3B. Vertical profiles of air pollutants are measured repetitively during different times of the day and under different meteorological conditions occurring in the timeframe of 1-month field campaigns. Targeted regions in the U.S. affected by poor air quality include the Washington/Baltimore metropolitan area (June/July 2011), the San Joaquin Valley in California (January/February 2013), the Houston metropolitan area (September 2013) and the Northern Front Range area in Colorado (June/July 2014). Herein, we will present the DISCOVER-AQ project to the European community and show preliminary analyses of the obtained data. The latter will focus on non-methane hydrocarbons and ammonia, being the species measured by our newly developed airborne PTR-ToF-MS instrument (see session AS4.17). In situ ammonia data collected over the San Joaquin Valley are in promising agreement with satellite data obtained from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES). Web site: http://discover-aq.larc.nasa.gov/ Funding

  19. Discovering biomedical semantic relations in PubMed queries for information retrieval and database curation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chung-Chi; Lu, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Identifying relevant papers from the literature is a common task in biocuration. Most current biomedical literature search systems primarily rely on matching user keywords. Semantic search, on the other hand, seeks to improve search accuracy by understanding the entities and contextual relations in user keywords. However, past research has mostly focused on semantically identifying biological entities (e.g. chemicals, diseases and genes) with little effort on discovering semantic relations. In this work, we aim to discover biomedical semantic relations in PubMed queries in an automated and unsupervised fashion. Specifically, we focus on extracting and understanding the contextual information (or context patterns) that is used by PubMed users to represent semantic relations between entities such as 'CHEMICAL-1 compared to CHEMICAL-2' With the advances in automatic named entity recognition, we first tag entities in PubMed queries and then use tagged entities as knowledge to recognize pattern semantics. More specifically, we transform PubMed queries into context patterns involving participating entities, which are subsequently projected to latent topics via latent semantic analysis (LSA) to avoid the data sparseness and specificity issues. Finally, we mine semantically similar contextual patterns or semantic relations based on LSA topic distributions. Our two separate evaluation experiments of chemical-chemical (CC) and chemical-disease (CD) relations show that the proposed approach significantly outperforms a baseline method, which simply measures pattern semantics by similarity in participating entities. The highest performance achieved by our approach is nearly 0.9 and 0.85 respectively for the CC and CD task when compared against the ground truth in terms of normalized discounted cumulative gain (nDCG), a standard measure of ranking quality. These results suggest that our approach can effectively identify and return related semantic patterns in a ranked order

  20. Discovering biomedical semantic relations in PubMed queries for information retrieval and database curation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chung-Chi; Lu, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Identifying relevant papers from the literature is a common task in biocuration. Most current biomedical literature search systems primarily rely on matching user keywords. Semantic search, on the other hand, seeks to improve search accuracy by understanding the entities and contextual relations in user keywords. However, past research has mostly focused on semantically identifying biological entities (e.g. chemicals, diseases and genes) with little effort on discovering semantic relations. In this work, we aim to discover biomedical semantic relations in PubMed queries in an automated and unsupervised fashion. Specifically, we focus on extracting and understanding the contextual information (or context patterns) that is used by PubMed users to represent semantic relations between entities such as ‘CHEMICAL-1 compared to CHEMICAL-2.’ With the advances in automatic named entity recognition, we first tag entities in PubMed queries and then use tagged entities as knowledge to recognize pattern semantics. More specifically, we transform PubMed queries into context patterns involving participating entities, which are subsequently projected to latent topics via latent semantic analysis (LSA) to avoid the data sparseness and specificity issues. Finally, we mine semantically similar contextual patterns or semantic relations based on LSA topic distributions. Our two separate evaluation experiments of chemical-chemical (CC) and chemical–disease (CD) relations show that the proposed approach significantly outperforms a baseline method, which simply measures pattern semantics by similarity in participating entities. The highest performance achieved by our approach is nearly 0.9 and 0.85 respectively for the CC and CD task when compared against the ground truth in terms of normalized discounted cumulative gain (nDCG), a standard measure of ranking quality. These results suggest that our approach can effectively identify and return related semantic patterns in a ranked

  1. Can we discover double Higgs production at the LHC?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Alexandre; Ghosh, Tathagata; Sinha, Kuver

    2017-08-01

    We explore double Higgs production via gluon fusion in the b b ¯γ γ channel at the high-luminosity LHC using machine learning tools. We first propose a Bayesian optimization approach to select cuts on kinematic variables, obtaining a 30%-50% increase in the significance compared to current results in the literature. We show that this improvement persists once systematic uncertainties are taken into account. We next use boosted decision trees (BDT) to further discriminate signal and background events. Our analysis shows that a joint optimization of kinematic cuts and BDT hyperparameters results in an appreciable improvement in the significance. Finally, we perform a multivariate analysis of the output scores of the BDT. We find that assuming a very low level of systematics, the techniques proposed here will be able to confirm the production of a pair of standard model Higgs bosons at 5 σ level with 3 ab-1 of data. Assuming a more realistic projection of the level of systematics, around 10%, the optimization of cuts to train BDTs combined with a multivariate analysis delivers a respectable significance of 4.6 σ . Even assuming large systematics of 20%, our analysis predicts a 3.6 σ significance, which represents at least strong evidence in favor of double Higgs production. We carefully incorporate background contributions coming from light flavor jets or c jets being misidentified as b jets and jets being misidentified as photons in our analysis.

  2. Discovering NOAA Climate Data and Product Services (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, R.; Ansari, S.; Reid, G.

    2009-12-01

    The National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) archives climate data for the US and the world. These data are provided through traditional web systems as well as web services. The web service implementation follows standards set by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). Simple object access protocol (SOAP) and representational state transfer (REST) are the two types of services provided. Provision of many data and product services from multiple organizations presents consumers with the difficulty of discovery. Standards based collection level metadata describe these data and products. This information delivered using a catalog service (CSW) in combination with an ontology service provides a robust mechanism for data discovery. Service endpoints or clients that use service endpoints are embedded within the metadata providing customers with tools to access and interrogate the fine details of the data. These technologies are demonstrated in current NCDC projects such as NOAA Climate Services Portal (NCSP), National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS), Pacific Climate Information System (PaCIS) and work with the Consortium of Universities for Advancement of Hydrologic Science (CUAHSI).

  3. A new method for discovering behavior patterns among animal movements

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuwei; Luo, Ze; Takekawa, John; Prosser, Diann; Xiong, Yan; Newman, Scott; Xiao, Xiangming; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Spragens, Kyle; Balachandran, Sivananinthaperumal; Yan, Baoping

    2016-01-01

    Advanced satellite tracking technologies enable biologists to track animal movements at fine spatial and temporal scales. The resultant data present opportunities and challenges for understanding animal behavioral mechanisms. In this paper, we develop a new method to elucidate animal movement patterns from tracking data. Here, we propose the notion of continuous behavior patterns as a concise representation of popular migration routes and underlying sequential behaviors during migration. Each stage in the pattern is characterized in terms of space (i.e., the places traversed during movements) and time (i.e. the time spent in those places); that is, the behavioral state corresponding to a stage is inferred according to the spatiotemporal and sequential context. Hence, the pattern may be interpreted predictably. We develop a candidate generation and refinement framework to derive all continuous behavior patterns from raw trajectories. In the framework, we first define the representative spots to denote the underlying potential behavioral states that are extracted from individual trajectories according to the similarity of relaxed continuous locations in certain distinct time intervals. We determine the common behaviors of multiple individuals according to the spatiotemporal proximity of representative spots and apply a projection-based extension approach to generate candidate sequential behavior sequences as candidate patterns. Finally, the candidate generation procedure is combined with a refinement procedure to derive continuous behavior patterns. We apply an ordered processing strategy to accelerate candidate refinement. The proposed patterns and discovery framework are evaluated through conceptual experiments on both real GPS-tracking and large synthetic datasets. PMID:27217810

  4. Opportunistically discovering usability requirements for a clinical handover system.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, David; Parry, David; Carlsen, Victoria; Carter, Philip; Parry, Emma; Westbrook, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    Clinical Handover in hospital is a process that can cause a major risk to patients, and be inefficient and time-consuming for staff. Software designed to support such processes needs to be used in a demanding and fast-moving environment. This work formulated Usability Design Requirements for such a handover software system. The requirements have been derived from a usability evaluation at Auckland City Hospital, where the handover was observed in two different environments during a handover improvement process. The requirements were produced using a multi-method, triangulated approach and they may be able to inform the design of systems to support clinical handover. The physical environment and the protocols adopted for handover were changed during this process, with software changes waiting for a larger project. Periods of change in work practice may be particularly favourable times to perform such studies, even if major software changes are not implemented. Staff engagement with the process may also be improved during times of change.

  5. Discovering synergistic qualities of published authors to enhance translational research.

    PubMed

    Bahr, Nathan J; Cohen, Aaron M

    2008-11-06

    Translational research is the process of bringing together basic scientific research and improvements in patient care. This process, by its very nature, requires a wide range of skills and resources, typically not found within any single individual. This project investigates the synergistic features of published researchers at the Oregon Clinical and Translational Research Institute(OCTRI) to see how scientists with different specializations can be brought together to improve translational research.The investigated features were author connectivity and complementarity of research subjects. Author connectivity was measured by taking the Average Path Length (APL) and cluster coefficients [1] over an OCTRIcoauthor network. A high degree of connectivity, or low APL value, would indicate that a researcher has participated in many collaborations and published many papers with other OCTRI researchers. This would imply that they have some experience we could leverage to build teams for translational research. Subject complementarity was established by using pairs of frequently co-occurring MeSH terms. Those terms were then used to bridge researchers together through indirect Swanson matching [2] and present evidence of topic synergy, or potential collaborative synergy.Our initial investigation supports the development of a collaborative browsing tool to assist the creation of new translational research teams. Such a tool is being developed at the OCTRI and will include a user-centric evaluation in the near future.

  6. A new method for discovering behavior patterns among animal movements.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuwei; Luo, Ze; Takekawa, John; Prosser, Diann; Xiong, Yan; Newman, Scott; Xiao, Xiangming; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Spragens, Kyle; Balachandran, Sivananinthaperumal; Yan, Baoping

    Advanced satellite tracking technologies enable biologists to track animal movements at fine spatial and temporal scales. The resultant data present opportunities and challenges for understanding animal behavioral mechanisms. In this paper, we develop a new method to elucidate animal movement patterns from tracking data. Here, we propose the notion of continuous behavior patterns as a concise representation of popular migration routes and underlying sequential behaviors during migration. Each stage in the pattern is characterized in terms of space (i.e., the places traversed during movements) and time (i.e. the time spent in those places); that is, the behavioral state corresponding to a stage is inferred according to the spatiotemporal and sequential context. Hence, the pattern may be interpreted predictably. We develop a candidate generation and refinement framework to derive all continuous behavior patterns from raw trajectories. In the framework, we first define the representative spots to denote the underlying potential behavioral states that are extracted from individual trajectories according to the similarity of relaxed continuous locations in certain distinct time intervals. We determine the common behaviors of multiple individuals according to the spatiotemporal proximity of representative spots and apply a projection-based extension approach to generate candidate sequential behavior sequences as candidate patterns. Finally, the candidate generation procedure is combined with a refinement procedure to derive continuous behavior patterns. We apply an ordered processing strategy to accelerate candidate refinement. The proposed patterns and discovery framework are evaluated through conceptual experiments on both real GPS-tracking and large synthetic datasets.

  7. Newly discovered young CORE-SINEs in marsupial genomes.

    PubMed

    Munemasa, Maruo; Nikaido, Masato; Nishihara, Hidenori; Donnellan, Stephen; Austin, Christopher C; Okada, Norihiro

    2008-01-15

    Although recent mammalian genome projects have uncovered a large part of genomic component of various groups, several repetitive sequences still remain to be characterized and classified for particular groups. The short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs) distributed among marsupial genomes are one example. We have identified and characterized two new SINEs from marsupial genomes that belong to the CORE-SINE family, characterized by a highly conserved "CORE" domain. PCR and genomic dot blot analyses revealed that the distribution of each SINE shows distinct patterns among the marsupial genomes, implying different timing of their retroposition during the evolution of marsupials. The members of Mar3 (Marsupialia 3) SINE are distributed throughout the genomes of all marsupials, whereas the Mac1 (Macropodoidea 1) SINE is distributed specifically in the genomes of kangaroos. Sequence alignment of the Mar3 SINEs revealed that they can be further divided into four subgroups, each of which has diagnostic nucleotides. The insertion patterns of each SINE at particular genomic loci, together with the distribution patterns of each SINE, suggest that the Mar3 SINEs have intensively amplified after the radiation of diprotodontians, whereas the Mac1 SINE has amplified only slightly after the divergence of hypsiprimnodons from other macropods. By compiling the information of CORE-SINEs characterized to date, we propose a comprehensive picture of how SINE evolution occurred in the genomes of marsupials.

  8. A new method for discovering behavior patterns among animal movements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Y.; Luo, Ze; Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, Diann J.; Xiong, Y.; Newman, S.; Xiao, X.; Batbayar, N.; Spragens, Kyle A.; Balachandran, S.; Yan, B.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced satellite tracking technologies enable biologists to track animal movements at fine spatial and temporal scales. The resultant data present opportunities and challenges for understanding animal behavioral mechanisms. In this paper, we develop a new method to elucidate animal movement patterns from tracking data. Here, we propose the notion of continuous behavior patterns as a concise representation of popular migration routes and underlying sequential behaviors during migration. Each stage in the pattern is characterized in terms of space (i.e., the places traversed during movements) and time (i.e. the time spent in those places); that is, the behavioral state corresponding to a stage is inferred according to the spatiotemporal and sequential context. Hence, the pattern may be interpreted predictably. We develop a candidate generation and refinement framework to derive all continuous behavior patterns from raw trajectories. In the framework, we first define the representative spots to denote the underlying potential behavioral states that are extracted from individual trajectories according to the similarity of relaxed continuous locations in certain distinct time intervals. We determine the common behaviors of multiple individuals according to the spatiotemporal proximity of representative spots and apply a projection-based extension approach to generate candidate sequential behavior sequences as candidate patterns. Finally, the candidate generation procedure is combined with a refinement procedure to derive continuous behavior patterns. We apply an ordered processing strategy to accelerate candidate refinement. The proposed patterns and discovery framework are evaluated through conceptual experiments on both real GPS-tracking and large synthetic datasets.

  9. Lynch Canyon combination thermal drive project. [Termination

    SciTech Connect

    Stair, J. R.

    1980-11-01

    The following report provides a summary of the Lynch Canyon Thermal Drive Project. This demonstration project was begun in 1978 and terminated in 1980. The project originally was divided into four phases; Geologic Evaluation, Injectivity Test, Field Development Combined with Air-Water Injection, and a Project Review. Following the First Phase operations, which included drilling of four wells for geologic evaluation, a joint decision to cancel the project was made. The conditions which were thought to exist at the initiation of the project, would have provided an excellent opportunity to conduct a Pilot Combination Thermal Drive. However, potential problems which were discovered in the Phase One Operations significantly altered the economics of the project and removed the favorable conditions under which the project was begun.

  10. Extrasolar Planet in Double Star System Discovered from La Silla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-11-01

    Early Success With New Swiss Telescope During the past three years, about fifteen planetary companions have been discovered in orbits around dwarf stars. They have revealed to astrophysicists a broad diversity of planetary systems at other stars. Giant planets with masses ranging from half to several times the mass of Jupiter, the largest planet in our own solar system, have been detected with various telescopes. The orbital periods range from 3.1 to 1650 days; while some of the orbits are of circular shape, others are very elongated. The observed diversity naturally raises questions about how these exoplanets are formed. Now, following only a few months of observations, a Swiss team of astronomers [1], working with a new Swiss astronomical facility at the ESO La Silla Observatory mainly dedicated to the search for exoplanets, has made its first planetary detection. It is a massive planet moving in an almost circular orbit around a nearby star that is itself the primary component of a double star system. The Geneva southern extrasolar planet search programme ESO PR Photo 45a/98 ESO PR Photo 45a/98 [Preview - JPEG: 800 x 640 pix - 456k] [High-Res - JPEG: 3000 x 2400 pix - 2.7Mb] ESO PR Photo 45b/98 ESO PR Photo 45b/98 [Preview - JPEG: 800 x 953 pix - 296k] [High-Res - JPEG: 3000 x 3572 pix - 2.3Mb] PR Photo 45a/98 (left) is a view of the dome with the 1.2-m Swiss Leonard Euler Telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory. The telescope itself is shown in Photo 45b/98 (right). In June 1998, the CORALIE echelle spectrograph was mounted at the 1.2-m Swiss telescope at La Silla and the commissioning phase was begun, during which the telescope and the spectrograph would be trimmed to perfection. This facility is specifically designed for high-precision radial-velocity measurements and it will mostly be used for an ambitious search for large extrasolar planets around stars in the southern celestial hemisphere. Over 1000 stars will be investigated. Such a vast observational

  11. Chandra Discovers Eruption and Pulsation in Nova Outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-09-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered a giant outburst of X-rays and unusual cyclical pulsing from a white dwarf star that is closely orbiting another star -- the first time either of these phenomena has been seen in X-rays. The observations are helping scientists better understand the thermonuclear explosions that occur in certain binary star systems. The observations of Nova Aquilae were reported today at the "Two Years of Science with Chandra" symposium by an international team led by Sumner Starrfield of Arizona State University. "We found two important results in our Chandra observations. The first was an underlying pulsation every 40 minutes in the X-ray brightness, which we believe comes from the cyclical expansion and contraction of the outer layers of the white dwarf," said Starrfield. "The other result was an enormous flare of X-rays that lasted for 15 minutes. Nothing like this has been seen before from a nova, and we don't know how to explain it." Novas occur on a white dwarf (a star which used up all its nuclear fuel and shrank to roughly the size of the Earth) that is orbiting a normal size star. Strong gravity tides drag hydrogen gas off the normal star and onto the white dwarf, where it can take more than 100,000 years for enough hydrogen to accumulate to ignite nuclear fusion reactions. Gradually, these reactions intensify until a cosmic-sized hydrogen bomb blast results. The outer layers of the white dwarf are then blown away, producing a nova outburst that can be observed for a period of months to years as the material expands into space. "Chandra has allowed us to see deep into the gases ejected by this giant explosion and extract unparalleled information on the evolution of the white dwarf whose surface is exploding," said Jeremy Drake of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. The brightening of Nova Aquilae was first detected by optical astronomers in December 1999. "Although this star is at a distance of more than 6

  12. Scientists discover massive jet streams flowing inside the sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-07-01

    the Earth. The Stanford research team has been viewing the Sun's surface with one of these instruments called a Michelson Doppler Imager that can measure the vertical motion of the Sun's surface at one million different points once per minute. The measurements show the effects of sound waves that permeate the interior. The researchers then apply techniques similar to Earth based seismology and computer aided tomography to infer and map the flow patterns and temperature beneath the Sun's roiling surface. "These techniques allow us to peer inside the Sun using sound waves, much like a doctor can look inside a pregnant woman with a sonogram," said Dr. Schou. Currently, the Stanford scientists have both identified new structures in the interior of the Sun and clarified the form of previously discovered ones. Understanding their relationship to solar activity will require more observations and time for analysis. "At this point, we do not know whether the plasma streams snake around like the jet stream on Earth, or whether it is a less dynamic feature," said Dr. Douglas Gough, of Cambridge University, UK. "It is intriguing to speculate that these streams may affect solar weather like the terrestrial jetstream impacts weather patterns on Earth, but this is completely unclear right now. The same speculation may apply to the other flows we've observed, or they may act in concert. It will be especially helpful to make observations as the Sun enters its next active cycle, expected to peak around the year 2001." NOTE TO EDITORS: Images to support this story and further information are available from : ESA Public Relations Division Tel: +33.1(0)53.69.7155 Fax: +33.1(0)53.69.7690 The images also can be found at the following Internet address: http://www.gsfc.nasa.gov/

  13. Scientists discover massive jet streams flowing inside the sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-08-01

    the Earth. The Stanford research team has been viewing the Sun's surface with one of these instruments called a Michelson Doppler Imager that can measure the vertical motion of the Sun's surface at one million different points once per minute. The measurements show the effects of sound waves that permeate the interior. The researchers then apply techniques similar to Earth based seismology and computer aided tomography to infer and map the flow patterns and temperature beneath the Sun's roiling surface. "These techniques allow us to peer inside the Sun using sound waves, much like a doctor can look inside a pregnant woman with a sonogram," said Dr. Schou. Currently, the Stanford scientists have both identified new structures in the interior of the Sun and clarified the form of previously discovered ones. Understanding their relationship to solar activity will require more observations and time for analysis. "At this point, we do not know whether the plasma streams snake around like the jet stream on Earth, or whether it is a less dynamic feature," said Dr. Douglas Gough, of Cambridge University, UK. "It is intriguing to speculate that these streams may affect solar weather like the terrestrial jetstream impacts weather patterns on Earth, but this is completely unclear right now. The same speculation may apply to the other flows we've observed, or they may act in concert. It will be especially helpful to make observations as the Sun enters its next active cycle, expected to peak around the year 2001." NOTE TO EDITORS: Images to support this story and further information are available from : ESA Public Relations Division Tel: +33.1(0)53.69.7155 Fax: +33.1(0)53.69.7690 The images also can be found at the following Internet address: http://www.gsfc.nasa.gov/

  14. Chandra Discovers "Rivers Of Gravity" That Define Cosmic Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-07-01

    NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered part of an intergalactic web of hot gas and dark matter that contains most of the material in the universe. The hot gas, which appears to lie like a fog in channels carved by rivers of gravity, has been hidden from view since the time galaxies formed. “The Chandra observations, together with ultraviolet observations, are a major advance in our understanding of how the universe evolved over the last 10 billion years,” said Fabrizio Nicastro of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) in Cambridge, Mass. and head of one of the teams of scientists involved in the discovery. Four independent teams of scientists, whose results appear as separate papers in The Astrophysical Journal, used Chandra to detect intergalactic gas with temperatures ranging from 300,000 to 5 million degrees Celsius. This gas forms part of a gigantic system of hot gas and dark matter that defines the cosmic landscape. The gaseous component alone contains more material than all the stars in the universe. “We had strong suspicions from the Big Bang theory and observations of the early universe that this gas exists in the present era, but like a stealth aircraft it had eluded our detection,” said Claude Canizares of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), who along with Taotao Fang, led of one of the teams. The hot gas detected by Chandra can be used to trace the presence of the more massive dark matter component. The discovery of the hot gas may eventually enable astronomers to map of the distribution of dark matter in the universe and perhaps understand its origin. Ultraviolet telescopes had detected cooler components of the hot gas system, but because of its high temperatures most of it is detectable only with an extremely sensitive X-ray telescope. The various groups used two techniques to probe the intergalactic gas. One method uses the absorbing effects of the gas on X-rays from distant galaxies. On their way to

  15. Astronomers Discover Most Massive Neutron Star Yet Known

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-10-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Green Bank Telescope (GBT) have discovered the most massive neutron star yet found, a discovery with strong and wide-ranging impacts across several fields of physics and astrophysics. "This neutron star is twice as massive as our Sun. This is surprising, and that much mass means that several theoretical models for the internal composition of neutron stars now are ruled out," said Paul Demorest, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). "This mass measurement also has implications for our understanding of all matter at extremely high densities and many details of nuclear physics," he added. Neutron stars are the superdense "corpses" of massive stars that have exploded as supernovae. With all their mass packed into a sphere the size of a small city, their protons and electrons are crushed together into neutrons. A neutron star can be several times more dense than an atomic nucleus, and a thimbleful of neutron-star material would weigh more than 500 million tons. This tremendous density makes neutron stars an ideal natural "laboratory" for studying the most dense and exotic states of matter known to physics. The scientists used an effect of Albert Einstein's theory of General Relativity to measure the mass of the neutron star and its orbiting companion, a white dwarf star. The neutron star is a pulsar, emitting lighthouse-like beams of radio waves that sweep through space as it rotates. This pulsar, called PSR J1614-2230, spins 317 times per second, and the companion completes an orbit in just under nine days. The pair, some 3,000 light-years distant, are in an orbit seen almost exactly edge-on from Earth. That orientation was the key to making the mass measurement. As the orbit carries the white dwarf directly in front of the pulsar, the radio waves from the pulsar that reach Earth must travel very close to the white dwarf. This close passage causes them to be delayed in their arrival by the distortion of

  16. Neutron Star Discovered Where a Black Hole Was Expected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-11-01

    stars and black holes are the end stages in the evolution of a star, so their progenitors must have been among the most massive stars in the cluster. Muno and colleagues discovered a pulsing neutron star in a cluster of stars known as Westerlund 1. This cluster contains a hundred thousand or more stars in a region only 30 light years across, which suggests that all the stars were born in a single episode of star formation. Based on optical properties such as brightness and color some of the normal stars in the cluster are known to have masses of about 40 suns. Since the progenitor of the neutron star has already exploded as a supernova, its mass must have been more than 40 solar masses. 2MASS Infrared Image of Westerlund 1 2MASS Infrared Image of Westerlund 1 Introductory astronomy courses sometimes teach that stars with more than 25 solar masses become black holes -- a concept that until recently had no observational evidence to test it. However, some theories allow such massive stars to avoid becoming black holes. For example, theoretical calculations by Alexander Heger of the University of Chicago and colleagues indicate that extremely massive stars blow off mass so effectively during their lives that they leave neutron stars when they go supernovae. Assuming that the neutron star in Westerlund 1 is one of these, it raises the question of where the black holes observed in the Milky Way and other galaxies come from. Other factors, such as the chemical composition of the star, how rapidly it is rotating, or the strength of its magnetic field might dictate whether a massive star leaves behind a neutron star or a black hole. The theory for stars of normal chemical composition leaves a small window of initial masses - between about 25 and somewhat less than 40 solar masses - for the formation of black holes from the evolution of single massive stars. The identification of additional neutron stars or the discovery of black holes in young star clusters should further

  17. The 1000 Genomes Project: data management and community access.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Laura; Zheng-Bradley, Xiangqun; Smith, Richard; Kulesha, Eugene; Xiao, Chunlin; Toneva, Iliana; Vaughan, Brendan; Preuss, Don; Leinonen, Rasko; Shumway, Martin; Sherry, Stephen; Flicek, Paul

    2012-04-27

    The 1000 Genomes Project was launched as one of the largest distributed data collection and analysis projects ever undertaken in biology. In addition to the primary scientific goals of creating both a deep catalog of human genetic variation and extensive methods to accurately discover and characterize variation using new sequencing technologies, the project makes all of its data publicly available. Members of the project data coordination center have developed and deployed several tools to enable widespread data access.

  18. 32 CFR 644.533 - Contamination discovered after return of land to owner, or sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Contamination discovered after return of land to owner, or sale. 644.533 Section 644.533 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... Other Contamination from Proposed Excess Land and Improvements § 644.533 Contamination discovered after...

  19. How are childhood thyroid nodules discovered: opportunities for improving early detection.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anjuli; Ly, Samantha; Castroneves, Luciana A; Frates, Mary C; Benson, Carol B; Feldman, Henry A; Wassner, Ari J; Smith, Jessica R; Marqusee, Ellen; Alexander, Erik K; Barletta, Justine; Muyide, Funmilayo; Doubilet, Peter M; Peters, Hope E; Webb, Susan; Modi, Biren P; Paltiel, Harriet J; Martins, Yolanda; Burmeister, Kelly; Kozakewich, Harry; Hollowell, Monica; Cibas, Edmund S; Moore, Francis D; Shamberger, Robert C; Larsen, P Reed; Huang, Stephen A

    2014-03-01

    In a retrospective analysis of childhood thyroid nodules, 18% were radiographic incidentalomas and 41% were discovered by a clinician's palpation; 40% were discovered by patients' families. The latter group had the largest nodules and highest rates of thyroid cancer metastasis, suggesting opportunities for earlier detection through annual well-child visits.

  20. How Are Childhood Thyroid Nodules Discovered: Opportunities for Improving Early Detection

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Anjuli; Ly, Samantha; Castroneves, Luciana A.; Frates, Mary C.; Benson, Carol B.; Feldman, Henry A.; Wassner, Ari J.; Smith, Jessica R.; Marqusee, Ellen; Alexander, Erik K.; Barletta, Justine; Muyide, Funmilayo; Doubilet, Peter M.; Peters, Hope E.; Webb, Susan; Modi, Biren P.; Paltiel, Harriet J.; Martins, Yolanda; Burmeister, Kelly; Kozakewich, Harry; Hollowell, Monica; Cibas, Edmund S.; Moore, Francis D.; Shamberger, Robert C.; Larsen, P. Reed; Huang, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    In a retrospective analysis of childhood thyroid nodules, 18% were radiographic incidentalomas and 41% were discovered by a clinician's palpation; 40% were discovered by patients' families. The latter group had the largest nodules and highest rates of thyroid cancer metastasis, suggesting opportunities for earlier detection through annual well-child visits. PMID:24345455

  1. The Use of a Performance Assessment for Identifying Gifted Lebanese Students: Is DISCOVER Effective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarouphim, Ketty M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of DISCOVER, a performance- based assessment in identifying gifted Lebanese students. The sample consisted of 248 students (121 boys, 127 girls) from Grades 3-5 at two private schools in Beirut, Lebanon. Students were administered DISCOVER and the Raven Standard Progressive Matrices…

  2. The Use of a Performance Assessment for Identifying Gifted Lebanese Students: Is DISCOVER Effective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarouphim, Ketty M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of DISCOVER, a performance-based assessment in identifying gifted Lebanese students. The sample consisted of 248 students (121 boys, 127 girls) from grades 3-5 at two private schools in Beirut, Lebanon. Results showed evidence for DISCOVER's concurrent validity with the Raven Standard…

  3. Evaluating DISCOVER's Effectiveness in Enhancing College Students' Social Cognitive Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maples, Michael R.; Luzzo, Darrell Anthony

    2005-01-01

    College students (20 women, 14 men) seeking career counseling services at a university career center participated in this exploratory investigation. A 2 (DISCOVER treatment) x 2 (counseling treatment) research design was used to evaluate the individual and combined effects of DISCOVER (ACT, 1998) and counseling on participants' career…

  4. 32 CFR 644.533 - Contamination discovered after return of land to owner, or sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Contamination discovered after return of land to owner, or sale. 644.533 Section 644.533 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... Other Contamination from Proposed Excess Land and Improvements § 644.533 Contamination discovered after...

  5. Discovering "The Italian Flag" by Fernando Melani (1907-1985)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlesi, Serena; Bartolozzi, Giovanni; Cucci, Costanza; Marchiafava, Veronica; Picollo, Marcello; La Nasa, Jacopo; Di Girolamo, Francesca; Dilillo, Marialaura; Modugno, Francesca; Degano, Ilaria; Colombini, Maria Perla; Legnaioli, Stefano; Lorenzetti, Giulia; Palleschi, Vincenzo

    2016-11-01

    In the occasion of the celebrations for the 150th anniversary of the founding of Italy (1861-2011), it was decided to analyse the artwork ;The Italian Flag; (La Bandiera Italiana) created by the artist Fernando Melani (Pistoia, 1907-1985), one of the precursors of the Poor Art artistic movement in Italy. This project is a follow-up to a previous study which was mainly focused on the pigments and dyes found in his home-studio. The main goal of this paper is to identify a correct diagnostic plan, based on the use of a combination of non-invasive and micro-invasive methodologies, in order to determine the state of preservation and define the best conservation procedures for a contemporary artwork. Visible, infrared and infrared false colour images as well as the Fibre Optic Reflectance Spectroscopy (FORS) technique were applied in situ to analyse The Italian Flag. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and micro-Raman spectroscopies, Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy (Py-GC/MS), High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Arrays Detection (HPLC-DAD) and Mass Spectrometric Detection (HPLC-ESI-Q-ToF) were all applied to three small samples detached from the three painted (green-blue, white and red-yellow, respectively) areas of the flag. The combination of the data obtained with all these techniques made possible a comprehensive understanding of both the chemical composition and physical behaviour of the materials used by the artist and supported curators in defining the preventive conservation of this artwork.

  6. Discovering "The Italian Flag" by Fernando Melani (1907-1985).

    PubMed

    Carlesi, Serena; Bartolozzi, Giovanni; Cucci, Costanza; Marchiafava, Veronica; Picollo, Marcello; La Nasa, Jacopo; Di Girolamo, Francesca; Dilillo, Marialaura; Modugno, Francesca; Degano, Ilaria; Colombini, Maria Perla; Legnaioli, Stefano; Lorenzetti, Giulia; Palleschi, Vincenzo

    2016-11-05

    In the occasion of the celebrations for the 150th anniversary of the founding of Italy (1861-2011), it was decided to analyse the artwork "The Italian Flag" (La Bandiera Italiana) created by the artist Fernando Melani (Pistoia, 1907-1985), one of the precursors of the Poor Art artistic movement in Italy. This project is a follow-up to a previous study which was mainly focused on the pigments and dyes found in his home-studio. The main goal of this paper is to identify a correct diagnostic plan, based on the use of a combination of non-invasive and micro-invasive methodologies, in order to determine the state of preservation and define the best conservation procedures for a contemporary artwork. Visible, infrared and infrared false colour images as well as the Fibre Optic Reflectance Spectroscopy (FORS) technique were applied in situ to analyse The Italian Flag. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and micro-Raman spectroscopies, Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy (Py-GC/MS), High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Arrays Detection (HPLC-DAD) and Mass Spectrometric Detection (HPLC-ESI-Q-ToF) were all applied to three small samples detached from the three painted (green-blue, white and red-yellow, respectively) areas of the flag. The combination of the data obtained with all these techniques made possible a comprehensive understanding of both the chemical composition and physical behaviour of the materials used by the artist and supported curators in defining the preventive conservation of this artwork. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. TWENTY-FIVE SUBARCSECOND BINARIES DISCOVERED BY LUNAR OCCULTATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Richichi, A.; Fors, O.; Cusano, F.; Moerchen, M.

    2013-09-15

    We report on 25 subarcsecond binaries, detected for the first time by means of lunar occultations in the near-infrared (near-IR) as part of a long-term program using the ISAAC instrument at the ESO Very Large Telescope. The primaries have magnitudes in the range K = 3.8-10.4, and the companions in the range K = 6.4-12.1. The magnitude differences have a median value of 2.8, with the largest being 5.4. The projected separations are in the range 6-748 mas and with a median of 18 mas, or about three times less than the diffraction limit of the telescope. Among our binary detections are a pre-main-sequence star and an enigmatic Mira-like variable previously suspected to have a companion. Additionally, we quote an accurate first-time near-IR detection of a previously known wider binary. We discuss our findings on an individual basis as far as made possible by the available literature, and we examine them from a statistical point of view. We derive a typical frequency of binarity among field stars of Almost-Equal-To 10%, in the resolution and sensitivity range afforded by the technique ( Almost-Equal-To 0.''003 to Almost-Equal-To 0.''5, and K Almost-Equal-To 12 mag, respectively). This is in line with previous results using the same technique but we point out interesting differences that we can trace up to sensitivity, time sampling, and average distance of the targets. Finally, we discuss the prospects for further follow-up studies.

  8. Examination of the relationship between project management critical success factors and project success of oil and gas drilling projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alagba, Tonye J.

    Oil and gas drilling projects are the primary means by which oil companies recover large volumes of commercially available hydrocarbons from deep reservoirs. These types of projects are complex in nature, involving management of multiple stakeholder interfaces, multidisciplinary personnel, complex contractor relationships, and turbulent environmental and market conditions, necessitating the application of proven project management best practices and critical success factors (CSFs) to achieve success. Although there is some practitioner oriented literature on project management CSFs for drilling projects, none of these is based on empirical evidence, from research. In addition, the literature has reported alarming rates of oil and gas drilling project failure, which is attributable not to technical factors, but to failure of project management. The aim of this quantitative correlational study therefore, was to discover an empirically verified list of project management CSFs, which consistent application leads to successful implementation of oil and gas drilling projects. The study collected survey data online, from a random sample of 127 oil and gas drilling personnel who were members of LinkedIn's online community "Drilling Supervisors, Managers, and Engineers". The results of the study indicated that 10 project management factors are individually related to project success of oil and gas drilling projects. These 10 CSFs are namely; Project mission, Top management support, Project schedule/plan, Client consultation, Personnel, Technical tasks, Client acceptance, Monitoring and feedback, Communication, and Troubleshooting. In addition, the study found that the relationships between the 10 CSFs and drilling project success is unaffected by participant and project demographics---role of project personnel, and project location. The significance of these findings are both practical, and theoretical. Practically, application of an empirically verified CSFs list to oil

  9. LIGO Discovers the Merger of Two Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-02-01

    is: how do binary black holes form? Two primary mechanisms have been proposed:A binary star system contains two stars that are each massive enough to individually collapse into a black hole. If the binary isnt disrupted during the two collapse events, this forms an isolated black-hole binary.Single black holes form in dense cluster environments and then because they are the most massive objects sink to the center of the cluster. There they form pairs through dynamical interactions.Now that were able to observe black-hole binaries through gravitational-wave detections, one way we could distinguish between the two formation mechanisms is from spin measurements. If we discover a clear preference for the misalignment of the two black holes spins, this would favor formation in clusters, where theres no reason for the original spins to be aligned.The current, single detection is not enough to provide constraints, but if we can compile a large enough sample of events, we can start to present a statistical case favoring one channel over the other.What does GW150914 mean for the future of gravitational-wave detection?The fact that Advanced LIGO detected an event even before the start of its first official observing run is certainly promising! The LIGO team estimates that the volume the detectors can probe will still increase by at least a factor of ~10 as the observing runs become more sensitive and of longer duration.Aerial view of the Virgo interferometer near Pisa, Italy. [Virgo Collaboration]In addition, LIGO is not alone in the gravitational-wave game. LIGOs counterpart in Europe, Virgo, is also undergoing design upgrades to increase its sensitivity. Within this year, Virgo should be able to take data simultaneously with LIGO, allowing for better localization of sources. And the launch of (e)LISA, ESAs planned space-based interferometer, will grant us access to a new frequency range, opening a further window to the gravitational-wave sky.The detection of GW150914 marks

  10. Tierra Nueva -- A passive solar cohousing project

    SciTech Connect

    Haggard, K.; Cooper, P.

    1999-10-01

    California architects take on the formidable challenges of designing a cohousing project, and discover that the end result is well worth the effort. The Tierra Nueva Cohousing Project consists of living units, a common house, community orchard, community gardens, community play space, space for a future shop and at the periphery of the site, parking, carports and garages. The units use thermal mass, solar heating, passive solar cooling, perimeter insulation on slabs. Design was agreed to by the community as a whole.

  11. Endangered Species & Biodiversity: A Classroom Project & Theme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauro, Brook

    2012-01-01

    Students discover the factors contributing to species losses worldwide by conducting a project about endangered species as a component of a larger classroom theme of biodiversity. Groups conduct research using online endangered- species databases and present results to the class using PowerPoint. Students will improve computer research abilities…

  12. Holomorphic projections and Ramanujan's mock theta functions.

    PubMed

    Imamoğlu, Özlem; Raum, Martin; Richter, Olav K

    2014-03-18

    We use spectral methods of automorphic forms to establish a holomorphic projection operator for tensor products of vector-valued harmonic weak Maass forms and vector-valued modular forms. We apply this operator to discover simple recursions for Fourier series coefficients of Ramanujan's mock theta functions.

  13. Cultural Projects. Indian Education Program. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore Public Schools, OK.

    The eight projects in this guide, developed for grades K-6, present various aspects of American Indian culture. The activities include discovering the importance of bear claw necklaces, making Kachina doll sack puppets, understanding the lifestyle of Plains Indians, interpreting the stories of Indian shields, making Indian games and toys, doing…

  14. Endangered Species & Biodiversity: A Classroom Project & Theme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauro, Brook

    2012-01-01

    Students discover the factors contributing to species losses worldwide by conducting a project about endangered species as a component of a larger classroom theme of biodiversity. Groups conduct research using online endangered- species databases and present results to the class using PowerPoint. Students will improve computer research abilities…

  15. Shop Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Bob

    Vocational agriculture teachers in Oklahoma prepared the shop project drawings which comprise the document. Seventy-one projects, with lists of required materials, diagrams, and measurements, are included. Construction projects fall into six categories (number of projects in parentheses): Trailers (5), racks (3), livestock production projects…

  16. Fastest Pulsar Speeding Out of Galaxy, Astronomers Discover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-08-01

    any firm conclusions," said Wouter Vlemmings of the Jodrell Bank Observatory in the UK and Cornell University in the U.S. The observations of B1508+55 were part of a larger project to use the VLBA to measure the distances and motions of numerous pulsars. "This is the first result of this long-term project, and it's pretty exciting to have something so spectacular come this early," Brisken said. The VLBA observations were made at radio frequencies between 1.4 and 1.7 GigaHertz. Chatterjee, Vlemmings and Brisken worked with Joseph Lazio of the Naval Research Laboratory, James Cordes of Cornell University, Miller Goss of NRAO, Stephen Thorsett of the University of California, Santa Cruz, Edward Fomalont of NRAO, Andrew Lyne and Michael Kramer, both of Jodrell Bank Observatory. The scientists presented their findings in the September 1 issue of the Astrophysical Journal Letters. The VLBA is a system of ten radio-telescope antennas, each with a dish 25 meters (82 feet) in diameter and weighing 240 tons. From Mauna Kea on the Big Island of Hawaii to St. Croix in the U.S. Virgin Islands, the VLBA spans more than 5,000 miles, providing astronomers with the sharpest vision of any telescope on Earth or in space. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  17. An Airborne Investigation of Boundary Layer Dynamics, Entrainment, and Ozone Photochemical Production During DISCOVER-AQ in California's Central Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conley, S. A.; Post, A.; Faloona, I. C.

    2014-12-01

    During the California deployment of NASA's DISCOVER-AQ project of January/February 2013, our team flew a Mooney TLS research aircraft instrumented with an in-house wind measurement system, a UV absorption ozone instrument, temperature probe, and a Picarro methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor analyzer. Flights were focused on the lowest 1000 m across the Central Valley axis just north of Fresno in order to characterize the wintertime atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). For seven flights we report the observed ABL growth rates, and compare these with a simple mixed layer model driven by surface heat flux estimates from the North American Regional Reanalysis data set. By enforcing a mixed layer budget closure of the observed water vapor trend and the differential across the ABL top, we derive midday entrainment velocities for the region that average 1.2 (± 0.4) cm s-1. A similar budgeting method is used for ozone to estimate wintertime photochemical production rates that ranged from 0.5 to 7.0 ppb h-1, and exhibited a strong correlation with ambient temperature (see Figure) and total ozone abundance. Finally, the gross emissions of methane for this heavily agricultural region are estimated and compared to existing inventories. These results can provide important constraints on ABL growth and entrainment to aid surface studies of aerosol composition and other trace gases that are being conducted for DISCOVER-AQ.

  18. Observational data and orbits of the asteroids discovered at the Molėtai observatory in 2008-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Černis, K.; Wlodarczyk, I.; Zdanavičius, J.

    We present the statistics of the asteroids observed and discovered at the Molėtai Observatory, Lithuania, in 2008-2009 within the project for astrometric observations of the near-Earth objects (NEOs), the main belt asteroids and comets. CCD observations of the asteroids were obtained with the 35/51-cm Maksutov-type meniscus telescope. In the Minor Planet Circulars and the Minor Planet Electronic Circulars (2008-2009), 11 900 astrometric positions of 2522 asteroids were published. Among them 95 were new asteroids, including four belonging to the Trojan group: (352655) 2008QX28, 2008 SE8, (353194) 2009 SM100 and (264068) 2009 SQ148. For the asteroids discovered at Molėtai their precise orbits are calculated. Because of short observational arc, a few asteroids have low-precision orbits and some asteroids are considered lost. For the three Main Belt asteroids with low-precision orbital elements, 2008 QP32, 2008 SD8 and 2008 SG150, we present their ephemerides for 2017. They can be brighter than 20 mag.

  19. [Relaxin-3 and relaxin family peptide receptors--from structure to functions of a newly discovered mammalian brain system].

    PubMed

    Kania, Alan; Lewandowski, Marian H; Błasiak, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Relaxin-3, a member of the relaxin peptide family, was discovered in 2001 as a homologue of relaxin--a well-known reproductive hormone. However, it is the brain which turned out to be a major expression site of this newly discovered peptide. Both its molecular structure and expression pattern were shown to be very conserved among vertebrates. Extensive research carried out since the discovery of relaxin-3 contributed to the significant progress in our knowledge regarding this neuropeptide. The endogenous relaxin-3 receptor (RXFP3) was identified and the anatomy of the yet uncharacterized mammalian brain system was described, with nucleus incertus as the main center of relaxin-3 expression. Not only its diffusive projections throughout the whole brain, which reach various brain structures such as the hippocampus, septum, intergeniculate leaflet or amygdala, but also functional studies of the relaxin-3/RXFP3 signaling system, allowed this brain network to be classified as one of the ascending nonspecific brain systems. Thus far, research depicts the connection of relaxin-3 with phenomena such as feeding behavior, spatial memory, sleep/wake cycle or modulation of pituitary gland hormone secretion. Responsiveness of relaxin-3 neurons to stress factors and the strong orexigenic effect exerted by this peptide suggest its participation in modulation of feeding by stress, in particular of the chronic type. The discovery of relaxin-3 opened a new research field which will contribute to our better understanding of the neurobiological basis of feeding disorders.

  20. Final project report

    SciTech Connect

    Podzorov, Vitaly

    2012-10-28

    The scope of this project is to investigate fundamental aspects of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) grown at the surface of organic semiconductors and other electronic materials, recently discovered in our group (Fig. 1) [1]. Understanding the growth mechanism and structure of these SAMs, as well as investigating the effect of SAM-induced high surface conductivity, are the main thrusts of the project. An additional thrust of the project is to find new ways of surface doping or surface gating of novel semiconductors, in which electronic traps at the interface would be passivated. Molecular self assembly is an exciting research area of modern materials science, playing an important role in a variety of emerging applications, such as organic and molecular electronics, bioengineering, sensors and actuators. The current effort in this field has been focused on two experimental platforms: SAMs on metals (e.g., Au) and SAMs on inorganic oxides (e.g., SiO2). We have recently discovered the third platform, molecular self-assembly at the surface of carbon-based electronic materials (organic semiconductors, graphene and CNTs), which opens new opportunities for fundamental research and applications (Fig. 1) [1, 2, 3]. One of the most intriguing aspects of the new discovery is that formation of an FTS self-assembled monolayer on these materials induces a high-density mobile charges, with n up to 1014 cm-2, resulting in a large surface conductivity, σ ≈ 10-5 S·square-1 [1]. The effect is due to an interfacial electron transfer from the semiconductor to the SAM, resulting in a 0.54 V potential drop across the 1.3 nm-thick SAM, as recently revealed by Kelvin probe microscopy in rubrene [4].

  1. Ozone production by corona discharges during a convective event in DISCOVER-AQ Houston

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotsakis, Alexander; Morris, Gary A.; Lefer, Barry; Jeon, Wonbae; Roy, Anirban; Minschwaner, Ken; Thompson, Anne M.; Choi, Yunsoo

    2017-07-01

    An ozonesonde launched near electrically active convection in Houston, TX on 5 September 2013 during the NASA DISCOVER-AQ project measured a large enhancement of ozone throughout the troposphere. A separate ozonesonde was launched from Smith Point, TX (∼58 km southeast of the Houston site) at approximately the same time as the launch from Houston and did not measure that enhancement. Furthermore, ozone profiles for the descent of both sondes agreed well with the ascending Smith Point profile, suggesting a highly localized event in both space and time in which an anomalously large enhancement of 70-100 ppbv appeared in the ascending Houston ozonesonde data. Compared to literature values, such an enhancement appears to be the largest observed to date. Potential sources of the localized ozone enhancement such as entrainment of urban or biomass burning emissions, downward transport from the stratosphere, photochemical production from lightning NOx, and direct ozone production from corona discharges were investigated using model simulations. We conclude that the most likely explanation for the large ozone enhancement is direct ozone production by corona discharges. Integrating the enhancement seen in the Houston ozone profile and using the number of electrical discharges detected by the NLDN (or HLMA), we estimate a production of 2.48 × 1028 molecules of ozone per flash which falls within the range of previously recorded values (9.89 × 1026-9.82 × 1028 molecules of ozone per flash). Since there is currently no parameterization for the direct production of ozone from corona discharges we propose the implementation of an equation into a chemical transport model. Ultimately, additional work is needed to further understand the occurrence and impact of corona discharges on tropospheric chemistry on short and long timescales.

  2. Studies of gravitational lens systems discovered in the Cosmic Lens All-Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusin, David Joseph

    2001-11-01

    This thesis describes research conducted on and inspired by the Cosmic Lens All-Sky Survey (CLASS), which searches for new cases of gravitational lensing among compact radio sources. CLASS aims to provide the largest and best-studied sample of lens systems for use in constraining the properties of galaxy mass distributions, determining the Hubble parameter and placing limits on the cosmological constant. The goal of this thesis was to complete observations of the CLASS sample, discover and thoroughly investigate new lenses, and apply them to interesting astrophysical problems. We begin with a detailed overview of the CLASS project, including scientific goals, the radio source sample, survey observations, candidate selection and follow-ups. Results are then presented from the third phase of the CLASS survey (CLASS-3), which yielded three new gravitational lens systems. 130850+054 and 131152+199 both consist of a pair of lensed images. 131359+154 features six images of a single source, and is the first arcsecond-scale system in which a source is lensed into more than four images. We also present observations and modeling of the CLASS-2 gravitational lens B2319+051. We use the absence of detectable central images in deep radio maps of CLASS lens systems to place powerful constraints on the inner mass profiles of leasing galaxies. These analyses imply that the profile slopes cannot be much shallower than isothermal. Finally, we consider the relative frequency of two and four-image lens systems, and demonstrate that there is a statistically significant overdensity of quads in the CLASS sample. We investigate a range of factors that may be increasing the frequency of radio quads, including external shear fields, mass distributions flatter than the light, shallow leasing mass profiles, finite core radii, satellite galaxies, and alterations to the luminosity function for faint flat-spectrum radio sources. Surprisingly, none of these mechanisms provide a particularly

  3. Psychotherapy and Moralising Rhetoric in Galen’s Newly Discovered Avoiding Distress (Peri Alypias)

    PubMed Central

    Xenophontos, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I examine Galen’s credentials as an ethical philosopher on the basis of his recently discovered essay Avoiding Distress (Peri alypias). As compensation for the scholarly neglect from which Galen’s ethics suffers, I argue that his moral agenda is an essential part of his philosophical discourse, one that situates him firmly within the tradition of practical ethics of the Roman period. Galen’s engagement with Stoic psychotherapy and the Platonic-Aristotelian educational model affirms his ethical authority; on the other hand, his distinctive moralising features such as the autobiographical perspective of his narrative and the intimacy between author and addressee render his Avoiding Distress exceptional among other essays, Greek or Latin, treating anxiety. Additionally, I show that Galen’s self-projection as a therapist of the emotions corresponds to his role as a practising physician, especially as regards the construction of authority, the efficacy of his therapy and the importance of personal experience as attested in his medical accounts. Finally, the diligence with which Galen retextures his moral advice in his On the Affections and Errors of the Soul – a work of different nature and intent in relation to Avoiding Distress – is a testimony to the dynamics of his ethics and more widely to his philosophical medicine. The philosopher’s lecture room is a ‘hospital’: you ought not to walk out of it in a state of pleasure, but in pain; for you are not in good condition when you arrive. Epictetus, Discourses 3.23.30 PMID:25284896

  4. A combined bioinformatics and functional metagenomics approach to discovering lipolytic biocatalysts

    PubMed Central

    Masuch, Thorsten; Kusnezowa, Anna; Nilewski, Sebastian; Bautista, José T.; Kourist, Robert; Leichert, Lars I.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of protein sequence data published today is of metagenomic origin. However, our ability to assign functions to these sequences is often hampered by our general inability to cultivate the larger part of microbial species and the sheer amount of sequence data generated in these projects. Here we present a combination of bioinformatics, synthetic biology, and Escherichia coli genetics to discover biocatalysts in metagenomic datasets. We created a subset of the Global Ocean Sampling dataset, the largest metagenomic project published to date, by removing all proteins that matched Hidden Markov Models of known protein families from PFAM and TIGRFAM with high confidence (E-value > 10-5). This essentially left us with proteins with low or no homology to known protein families, still encompassing ~1.7 million different sequences. In this subset, we then identified protein families de novo with a Markov clustering algorithm. For each protein family, we defined a single representative based on its phylogenetic relationship to all other members in that family. This reduced the dataset to ~17,000 representatives of protein families with more than 10 members. Based on conserved regions typical for lipases and esterases, we selected a representative gene from a family of 27 members for synthesis. This protein, when expressed in E. coli, showed lipolytic activity toward para-nitrophenyl (pNP) esters. The Km-value of the enzyme was 66.68 μM for pNP-butyrate and 68.08 μM for pNP-palmitate with kcat/Km values at 3.4 × 106 and 6.6 × 105 M-1s-1, respectively. Hydrolysis of model substrates showed enantiopreference for the R-form. Reactions yielded 43 and 61% enantiomeric excess of products with ibuprofen methyl ester and 2-phenylpropanoic acid ethyl ester, respectively. The enzyme retains 50% of its maximum activity at temperatures as low as 10°C, its activity is enhanced in artificial seawater and buffers with higher salt concentrations with an optimum osmolarity of

  5. “Application and evaluation of the two-way coupled WRF-CMAQ modeling system to the 2011 DISCOVER-AQ campaign in the Baltimore-Washington D.C. area.”

    EPA Science Inventory

    The DISCOVER-AQ project (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality), is a joint collaboration between NASA, U.S. EPA and a number of other local organizations with the goal of characterizing air quality in ...

  6. “Application and evaluation of the two-way coupled WRF-CMAQ modeling system to the 2011 DISCOVER-AQ campaign in the Baltimore-Washington D.C. area.”

    EPA Science Inventory

    The DISCOVER-AQ project (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality), is a joint collaboration between NASA, U.S. EPA and a number of other local organizations with the goal of characterizing air quality in ...

  7. Development of Procedures for Assessing the Impact of Vocational Education Research and Development on Vocational Education (Project IMPACT). Volume 4--A Case Study of Illinois Projects in Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hook, Colin; Ethridge, James

    As part of Project IMPACT's efforts to identify and develop procedures for complying with the impact requirements of Public Law 94-482, a case study was made of Illinois Projects in Horticulture. Fourteen horticulture projects in high schools and junior colleges were discovered through a previous study, personal interviews with two University of…

  8. Development of Procedures for Assessing the Impact of Vocational Education Research and Development on Vocational Education (Project IMPACT). Volume 4--A Case Study of Illinois Projects in Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hook, Colin; Ethridge, James

    As part of Project IMPACT's efforts to identify and develop procedures for complying with the impact requirements of Public Law 94-482, a case study was made of Illinois Projects in Horticulture. Fourteen horticulture projects in high schools and junior colleges were discovered through a previous study, personal interviews with two University of…

  9. Webinar Presentation: Using Metabolomics with Neonatal Blood Spots to Discover Causes of Childhood Leukemia

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation, Using Metabolomics with Neonatal Blood Spots to Discover Causes of Childhood Leukemia, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2016 Webinar Series: Exposome held on May 11, 2016.

  10. Mining literatures to discover novel multiple biological associations in a disease context.

    PubMed

    Faro, Alberto; Giordano, Daniela; Maiorana, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The text mining methods proposed to discover associations between pairs of biological entities by mining a scientific literature often extract associations already existing in the literature, whereas their extensions supervise too much the discovery process with heuristics and ontologies that limit the research space. On the other hand, the methods that search novel associations applying the text mining methods to two literatures do not avoid the risk of discovering syllogisms based on faulty premises. For this reason, the paper proposes a method that helps the users to discover associations among biological entities by mining the literature using an unsupervised clustering approach. The discovered multiple associations are derived from binary associations to limit the computational load without compromising the methodology accuracy. A case study demonstrates how the tool derived from the methodology works in practice. A comparison between this tool and other tools available in the literature points out the methodology effectiveness.

  11. Discovering Your Radiant Self: A Transpersonal Approach to Expressing Your Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klimek, Paula; Canfield, Jack

    1979-01-01

    Presents a process combining a drawing experience with exercises learned in psychosynthesis training to help people discover what transpersonal qualities are attempting to manifest themselves through their personalities. (Author/BEF)

  12. [Preoperative Spirometry Leads Latent COPD Patients to be Discovered and Treated].

    PubMed

    Watari, Masanobu; Kumada, Takashi; Shimada, Emi; Nagao, Atsushi

    2015-03-01

    We have noticed the possibility that preoperative spirometry may discover latent COPD patients. When COPD is discovered before operation, we can start to treat COPD promptly. Consequently, the better perioperative care is given to COPD patients. On discharge, patients are referred to their family doctors, so that they can receive COPD treatment. There activities were started in July 2012. During the initial twelve months, 90 patients of COPD II x III were discovered and treated before admission. FEV1.0 was significantly improved (1.54 l vs. 1.71 l in average) on repeated spirometry on admission. There was no adverse event in COPD treatment All patients have shown good clinical courses. Latent COPD patients can be discovered by preoperative spirometry.

  13. Discovering Your Radiant Self: A Transpersonal Approach to Expressing Your Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klimek, Paula; Canfield, Jack

    1979-01-01

    Presents a process combining a drawing experience with exercises learned in psychosynthesis training to help people discover what transpersonal qualities are attempting to manifest themselves through their personalities. (Author/BEF)

  14. Bright PSN in NGC5128 (Centaurus A) Discovered By Backyard Observatory Supernova Search (BOSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marples, Peter; Bock, Greg; Parker, Stuart

    2016-02-01

    During the ongoing Backyard Observatory Supernova Search (BOSS), Peter Marples discovered a possible supernova using data from a 300mm F7 SCT telescope at Loganholme Observatory, Queensland, Australia.

  15. Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. Discovering Sustainable Solutions to Power and Secure America’s Future

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2010-09-01

    Sustainability is fundamental to the Department of Energy’s research mission and operations as reflected in the Department’s Strategic Plan. Our overarching mission is to discover the solutions to power and secure America’s future.

  16. Science project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-23

    DRIFTER sensor devices were designed by the Applied Science and Technology Project Office as inexpensive tools that can be used for science projects in local schools. The devices transmit information about water temperature and conductivity for use by Gulf Coast researchers. The DRIFTER project began as an effort to help Gulf Coast oyster fishermen dealing with the effects of fresh water intrusion.

  17. An updated survey of globular clusters in M 31. II. Newly discovered bright and remote clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galleti, S.; Bellazzini, M.; Federici, L.; Buzzoni, A.; Fusi Pecci, F.

    2007-08-01

    Aims:We present the first results of a large spectroscopic survey of candidate globular clusters located in the extreme outskirts of the nearby M 31 galaxy. The survey is aimed at ascertaining the nature of the selected candidates to increase the sample of confirmed M 31 clusters lying more that 2° away from the center of the galaxy. Methods: We obtained low resolution spectra (λ/Δλ ≃ 800-1300) of 48 targets selected from the Extended Source Catalogue of 2MASS, as in Galleti et al. (2005, A&A, 436, 535). The observed candidates have been robustly classified according to their radial velocity and by verifying their extended/point-source nature from ground-based optical images. We have also obtained a spectrum and a radial velocity estimate for the remote M 31 globular discovered by Martin et al. (2006b, MNRAS, 371, 1983). Results: Among the 48 observed candidates clusters we found: 35 background galaxies, 8 foreground Galactic stars, and 5 genuine remote globular clusters. One of them has been already identified independently by Mackey et al. (2007, ApJ, 655, L85), their GC1; the other four are completely new discoveries: B516, B517, B518, B519. The newly discovered clusters lie at projected distance 40 kpc ≲ R_p≲ 100 kpc from the center of M 31, and have absolute integrated magnitude -9.5 ≲ MV ≲ -7.5. For all the observed clusters we have measured the strongest Lick indices and we have obtained spectroscopic metallicity estimates. Mackey-GC1, Martin-GC1, B517 and B518 have spectra typical of old and metal poor globular clusters ([Fe/H] ≲ -1.3); B519 appears old but quite metal-rich ([Fe/H]~≃ -0.5); B516 presents very strong Balmer absorption lines: if this is indeed a cluster it should have a relatively young age (likely < 2 Gyr). Conclusions: The present analysis nearly doubles the number of M 31 globulars at R_p≥ 40 kpc. At odds with the Milky Way, M 31 appears to have a significant population of very bright globular clusters in its extreme

  18. Talkoot Portals: Discover, Tag, Share, and Reuse Collaborative Science Workflows (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B. D.; Ramachandran, R.; Lynnes, C.

    2009-12-01

    interest will be discoverable using tag search, and advertised using “service casts” and “interest casts” (Atom feeds). Multiple science workflow systems will be plugged into the system, with initial support for UAH’s Mining Workflow Composer and the open-source Active BPEL engine, and JPL’s SciFlo engine and the VizFlow visual programming interface. With the ability to share and execute analysis workflows, Talkoot portals can be used to do collaborative science in addition to communicate ideas and results. It will be useful for different science domains, mission teams, research projects and organizations. Thus, it will help to solve the “sociological” problem of bringing together disparate groups of researchers, and the technical problem of advertising, discovering, developing, documenting, and maintaining inter-agency science workflows. The presentation will discuss the goals of and barriers to Science 2.0, the social web technologies employed in the Talkoot software appliance (e.g. CMS, social tagging, personal presence, advertising by feeds, etc.), illustrate the resulting collaborative capabilities, and show early prototypes of the web interfaces (e.g. embedded workflows).

  19. NASA's Kepler Mission Discovers First Earth-size Planet in Habitable Zone of Another Star (Reporter Package)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-17

    NASA's Kepler mission has discovered the first Earth-size planet orbiting in the habitable zone of a star outside our solar system. The newly discovered planet is called Kepler-186f and is about 10 percent larger than Earth.

  20. Discover CHP

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Access information about how CHP systems work; their efficiency, environmental, economic, and reliability benefits; the cost and performance characteristics of CHP technologies; and how to calculate CHP efficiency emissions savings.

  1. Discovering astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, R. D.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of basic astronomical knowledge is presented with attention to the structure and dynamics of the stars and planets. Also dealt with are techniques of astronomical measurement, e.g., stellar spectrometry, radio astronomy, star catalogs, etc. Basic physical principles as they pertain to astronomy are reviewed, including the nature of light, gravitation, and electromagnetism. Finally, stellar evolution and cosmology are discussed with reference to the possibility of life elsewhere in the universe.

  2. Discovering Mozart.

    PubMed

    Rusk, Nicole

    2010-06-01

    High-throughput imaging of genome-wide RNA interference screens and systematic analysis of protein complexes involved in mitosis yield valuable resources and reveal new subunits of well-characterized complexes.

  3. Discovering Greatness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    People are confronting the most pressing challenge facing every family, school, and community--raising respectful children in a toxic world. In simpler societies, raising children was a shared task of the whole community, as adults and youth worked in harmony and mutual respect. Today, humans are the only species in creation living out of balance.…

  4. Discovering Greatness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    People are confronting the most pressing challenge facing every family, school, and community--raising respectful children in a toxic world. In simpler societies, raising children was a shared task of the whole community, as adults and youth worked in harmony and mutual respect. Today, humans are the only species in creation living out of balance.…

  5. Discovering Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Much of our current knowledge of Mars is the result of investigations conducted by a fleet of spacecraft starting with the Mariners in the mid-1960's. The 1971 Mariner 9 mission which looked at the entire planet instead of just the southern hemisphere, as was the case with the earlier missions, reveals huge volcanic mountains and discloses surface erosion and dried riverbeds. This pamphlet gives a chronology of the United States and Russian spacecraft that have examined Mars along with a short description of each mission. Photos of the Martian surface are included along with descriptions of the topography of the planet. The reverse side of the pamphlet contains a large photo of the Martian surface which clearly depicts the Vallis Marineris, a gigantic rift valley extending a distance equivalent to that from New York to Los Angeles.

  6. Discovering Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manner, Barbara M.; Hattler, Jean Anne

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a preservice teacher field trip to the rain forests and coastal areas. This experience develops an awareness for different cultures among preservice teachers by experiencing biological and cultural diversity in Costa Rica. Presents students' own ideas on this experience. (YDS)

  7. The Fernald wet records recovery project: A case history

    SciTech Connect

    Sterling, H.J.; Devir, B.R.; Hawley, R.A.; Freesmeyer, M.T.

    1995-06-22

    This paper discusses a project performed to recover wet records discovered in January 1995 at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). This paper discusses the emergency and record recovery phases of the project, the technical options considered for records recovery, and special measures which were required due to radiological contamination of the records. Also, the root causes and lessons learned from the incident, and path forward for future records management operations at Fernald, are discussed.

  8. Collaborative Learner Biographies: Or, Discovering You Had Created a Project-Based Learning Task without Realizing It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltmarsh, David

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on an assessment task designed to provoke pre-service teacher education students to recollect and share experiences of what enabled and frustrated their learning. The assumption underpinning the creation of this task was that: if teacher education students could, through reflection and discussion, recapture…

  9. Genome-based approach to discover new livestock pest control technologies: The horn fly (Haematobia irritans) genome sequencing project

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Invasion of the Americas by the horn fly, H. irritans, has resulted in control issues throughout the continent. Insecticide resistance is a major complicating factor with efforts to manage this pest. Stakeholder focus groups identified the horn fly as the top priority arthropod pest affecting cattle...

  10. The JASON Project: Discover Scientific Treasure as You Accompany Scientists to the Bottom of the Mediterranean Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Describes an underwater expedition which will allow students to participate in activities without being physically present. Provides a list of participating museums and examples of activities from curriculum materials which include a poster, bathymetric map, and 25 lessons. (RT)

  11. Dive and Discover: Bringing Oceanographic Research into the Classroom and to the General Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornari, D. J.; Fino, D.; Humphris, S. E.; Fruth, L. L.; Dean, S.

    2001-12-01

    We have developed the "Dive and Discover" web site for use in classrooms and for the general public to provide near real-time, daily access to oceanographic research expeditions, particularly those using deep submergence vehicles operated by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. The site was one of five science sites nominated for a 2001 Webby Award, was selected by Scientific American as one of the top five sites in the category of earth and environmental science, and was one of Eisenhower National Clearinghouse's "digital dozen" for science resources. The web site consists of two major components. A series of educational modules provide both general educational information about the oceans and the people that study them, as well as cruise-specific information about the natural systems being studied, the participating scientists, and the data and sample-collecting methodologies and technologies being used. The second component consists of modules that allow access to near real-time updates of the progress of the cruise, images of seafloor features and animals, samples of data being collected and used on board, and general information about life on board. In addition, a Mail Buoy provides e-mail access for students to ask questions of the scientists on board the ship during the course of the expedition. COSI Toledo have a linked Educator's Companion that gives access to COSI project management tips, background information, activities, correlations to national science education standards, assessment tools, and a vast array of resources to assist educators in using the web site. We have worked with teachers and students from all over the United States to test, evaluate, and refine the web site during five cruises in the Pacific and Indian Oceans over the last two years. These cruises focused on various problems associated with mid-ocean ridge volcanism, and the chemical, physical and biological processes associated with seafloor hydrothermal activity. Our intention

  12. 25 CFR 224.87 - What are the obligations of a tribe if it discovers a violation or breach?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What are the obligations of a tribe if it discovers a violation or breach? 224.87 Section 224.87 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... obligations of a tribe if it discovers a violation or breach? As soon as practicable after discovering...

  13. Richest Planetary System Discovered - Up to seven planets orbiting a Sun-like star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-08-01

    Astronomers using ESO's world-leading HARPS instrument have discovered a planetary system containing at least five planets, orbiting the Sun-like star HD 10180. The researchers also have tantalising evidence that two other planets may be present, one of which would have the lowest mass ever found. This would make the system similar to our Solar System in terms of the number of planets (seven as compared to the Solar System's eight planets). Furthermore, the team also found evidence that the distances of the planets from their star follow a regular pattern, as also seen in our Solar System. "We have found what is most likely the system with the most planets yet discovered," says Christophe Lovis, lead author of the paper reporting the result. "This remarkable discovery also highlights the fact that we are now entering a new era in exoplanet research: the study of complex planetary systems and not just of individual planets. Studies of planetary motions in the new system reveal complex gravitational interactions between the planets and give us insights into the long-term evolution of the system." The team of astronomers used the HARPS spectrograph, attached to ESO's 3.6-metre telescope at La Silla, Chile, for a six-year-long study of the Sun-like star HD 10180, located 127 light-years away in the southern constellation of Hydrus (the Male Water Snake). HARPS is an instrument with unrivalled measurement stability and great precision and is the world's most successful exoplanet hunter. Thanks to the 190 individual HARPS measurements, the astronomers detected the tiny back and forth motions of the star caused by the complex gravitational attractions from five or more planets. The five strongest signals correspond to planets with Neptune-like masses - between 13 and 25 Earth masses [1] - which orbit the star with periods ranging from about 6 to 600 days. These planets are located between 0.06 and 1.4 times the Earth-Sun distance from their central star. "We also have

  14. A Generalized Bio-inspired Method for Discovering Sequence-based Signatures

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Elena S.; Curtis, Darren S.; Phillips, Aaron R.; Teuton, Jeremy R.; Oehmen, Christopher S.

    2013-06-07

    Many phenomena that we wish to discover are comprised of sequences of events or event primitives. Often signatures are constructed to identify such phenomena using either distributions or frequencies of attributes, or specific subsequences that are known to correlate to the phenomena. Distribution-based identification does not capture the essence of the sequence of behaviors and therefore may suffer from lack of specificity. At the other extreme, using specific subsequences to identify target phenomena is often too specific and suffers from lower sensitivity when natural variations arise in the phenomena, measuring process, or data analysis. We introduce here a method for discovering signatures for phenomena that are well characterized by sequences of event primitives. In this paper, we describe the steps taken and lessons learned in generalizing a sequence analysis method, BLAST, for use on non-biological datasets including expressing and operating on alphabets of varying length, constructing a reward/penalty model for arbitrary datasets, and discovering low complexity segments in sequence data by extending BLAST’s native low-complexity estimating algorithms. We also present several case studies that demonstrate the utility of this method to discovering signatures in a wide array of applications including network traffic, software analysis, server characterization, and others. Finally, we demonstrate how signatures discovered using this method can be expressed using a variety of model formalisms, each having its own relative benefit.

  15. Extragalactic Transients Discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Jonathan; Warren-Son Holoien, Thomas; ASAS-SN

    2016-01-01

    Even in the modern era, only human eyes can scan the entire optical sky for the violent, variable, and transient events that shape our universe. The "All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae" (ASAS-SN or "Assassin") is changing this by monitoring the extra-galactic sky down to V~17 mag every 2-3 days using multiple telescopes, hosted by Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, in the northern and southern hemispheres. The primary goal of ASAS-SN is to discover bright, nearby supernovae (SNe), we are discovering more than 60% of supernovae with V<17. Since June 2013, we have discovered 224 supernovae, 133 in 2015 alone (as of September 30, 2015). ASAS-SN has also discovered many other interesting extragalactic transients, including the three closest tidal disruption events (TDEs) ever discovered at optical wavelengths. The nearby nature of ASASSN discoveries allows detailed follow-up across a wide wavelength coverage; here we present some of these data on recent ASAS-SN extragalactic transients.

  16. Map projections

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1993-01-01

    A map projection is used to portray all or part of the round Earth on a flat surface. This cannot be done without some distortion. Every projection has its own set of advantages and disadvantages. There is no "best" projection. The mapmaker must select the one best suited to the needs, reducing distortion of the most important features. Mapmakers and mathematicians have devised almost limitless ways to project the image of the globe onto paper. Scientists at the U. S. Geological Survey have designed projections for their specific needs—such as the Space Oblique Mercator, which allows mapping from satellites with little or no distortion. This document gives the key properties, characteristics, and preferred uses of many historically important projections and of those frequently used by mapmakers today.

  17. Precambrian crust and lithosphere beneath the Northern Canadian Cordillera discovered by LITHOPROBE seismic reflection profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clowes, R. M.; Cook, F. A.; Snyder, D. B.; van der Velden, A. J.; Hall, K. W.; Erdmer, P.; Evenchick, C. A.

    2003-04-01

    The Cordillera in northern Canada is underlain by westward tapering layers that can be followed from outcrops of Proterozoic strata in the Foreland Belt to the lowermost crust of the orogenic interior, a distance of as much as 500 km across strike. The layering was discovered on two new deep seismic reflection profiles in the Yukon (Line 3; ~650 km) and northern British Columbia (Line 2; ~1245 km in two segments) that were acquired as part of the LITHOPROBE Slave - Northern Cordillera Lithospheric Evolution (SNORCLE) transect. Along Line 3, the layering is visible between 5.0 and 12.0 s (~15 to 36 km depth). It is followed southwestward for nearly 650 km (~500 km across strike) and thins to less than 1.0 s (~3.0-3.5 km thickness) near the Moho at the Yukon-Alaska international boundary. Farther south, along Line 2, the upper part of the layering correlates with outcrops of Proterozoic (1.76-1.0 Ga) strata on the east. Near the outcrop, the layering is >15 km thick. It projects westward into the middle and lower crust for ~700 km (~300 km across strike) where it disappears as a thin taper at the base of the crust. The layering is disrupted at the Tintina fault zone, a late to post-orogenic strike-slip fault with up to 800 km of displacement, which appears as a vertical zone of little reflectivity on both profiles (~300 km apart). The base of the layered reflection zone coincides with the Moho, which exhibits variable character and undulates in a series of broad (~150 km) arches. Although the mantle is generally non-reflective, an event dips eastward from ~14.0 s (~45 km) at the western end of Line 3 near the coast to ~21.0 s (73 km depth) beneath exposed Eocene magmatic rocks. It is interpreted as a relict subduction surface of the Kula plate. Some implications of the interpretation of Proterozoic layered rocks beneath most of the northern Cordillera are: (1) ancient North American crust and lithosphere project westward beneath most of the Northern Cordillera, (2

  18. Effective Monitoring and Control of Outsourced Software Development Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponisio, Laura; Vruggink, Peter

    In our study of four outsourcing projects we discover mechanisms to support managerial decision making during software development processes. We report on Customer Office, a framework used in practice that facilitates reasoning about projects by highlighting information paths and making co-ordination issues explicit. The results suggest a key role of modularisation and standardisation to assist in value creation, by facilitating information flow and keeping the overview of the project. The practical implications of our findings are guidelines for managing outsourcing projects such as to have a modularised view of the project based on knowledge domains and to standardise co-ordination operations.

  19. A strategy to discover new organizers identifies a putative heart organizer

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Claire; Khan, Mohsin A. F.; Wong, Frances; Solovieva, Tatiana; Oliveira, Nidia M. M.; Baldock, Richard A.; Tickle, Cheryll; Burt, Dave W.; Stern, Claudio D.

    2016-01-01

    Organizers are regions of the embryo that can both induce new fates and impart pattern on other regions. So far, surprisingly few organizers have been discovered, considering the number of patterned tissue types generated during development. This may be because their discovery has relied on transplantation and ablation experiments. Here we describe a new approach, using chick embryos, to discover organizers based on a common gene expression signature, and use it to uncover the anterior intestinal portal (AIP) endoderm as a putative heart organizer. We show that the AIP can induce cardiac identity from non-cardiac mesoderm and that it can pattern this by specifying ventricular and suppressing atrial regional identity. We also uncover some of the signals responsible. The method holds promise as a tool to discover other novel organizers acting during development. PMID:27557800

  20. Five new outbursting AM CVn systems discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitan, David; Kupfer, Thomas; Groot, Paul J.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Prince, Thomas A.; Simonian, Gregory V.; Arcavi, Iair; Bloom, Joshua S.; Laher, Russ; Nugent, Peter E.; Ofek, Eran O.; Sesar, Branimir; Surace, Jason

    2013-04-01

    We present five new outbursting AM CVn systems and one candidate discovered as part of an ongoing search for such systems using the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). This is the first large-area, systematic search for AM CVn systems using only large-amplitude photometric variability to select candidates. Three of the confirmed systems and the candidate system were discovered as part of the PTF transient search. Two systems were found as part of a search for outbursts through the PTF photometric data base. We discuss the observed characteristics of each of these systems, including the orbital periods of two systems. We also consider the position of these systems, selected in a colour-independent survey, in colour-colour space and compare to systems selected solely by their colours. We find that the colours of our newly discovered systems do not differ significantly from those of previously known systems, but significant errors preclude a definitive answer.

  1. Discovering Concepts from Word Co-occurrences with a Relational Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurihara, Kenichi; Kameya, Yoshitaka; Sato, Taisuke

    Clustering word co-occurrences has been studied to discover clusters as latent concepts. Previous work has applied the semantic aggregate model (SAM), and reports that discovered clusters seem semantically significant. The SAM assumes a co-occurrence arises from one latent concept. This assumption seems moderately natural. However, to analyze latent concepts more deeply, the assumption may be too restrictive. We propose to make clusters for each part of speech from co-occurrence data. For example, we make adjective clusters and noun clusters from adjective--noun co-occurrences while the SAM builds clusters of ``co-occurrences.'' The proposed approach allows us to analyze adjectives and nouns independently.

  2. What Is Going on Inside the Arrows? Discovering the Hidden Springs in Causal Models

    PubMed Central

    Murray-Watters, Alexander; Glymour, Clark

    2016-01-01

    Using Gebharter's (2014) representation, we consider aspects of the problem of discovering the structure of unmeasured sub-mechanisms when the variables in those sub-mechanisms have not been measured. Exploiting an early insight of Sober's (1998), we provide a correct algorithm for identifying latent, endogenous structure—sub-mechanisms—for a restricted class of structures. The algorithm can be merged with other methods for discovering causal relations among unmeasured variables, and feedback relations between measured variables and unobserved causes can sometimes be learned. PMID:27313331

  3. Anomalous right coronary artery from pulmonary artery discovered incidentally in an asymptomatic young infant

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyu Seon; Jo, Eun Young; Yu, Jae Hyeon

    2016-01-01

    Isolated anomalous right coronary artery originating from the pulmonary artery (ARCAPA) is a rare congenital coronary anomaly that is asymptomatic and discovered incidentally in most cases. ARCAPA is generally not considered a fatal defect in infancy or childhood, although cases of sudden death have been reported. Here, we report a 2-month-old female infant who presented with a prolonged fever that was determined to be caused by rhinovirus infection. Myocardial ischemia of the left ventricular posterior wall was already seen on echocardiography, and ARCAPA was discovered incidentally. The patient underwent successful surgical reimplantation of the right coronary artery to the aortic root to re-establish dual ostial circulation. PMID:28018453

  4. Anomalous right coronary artery from pulmonary artery discovered incidentally in an asymptomatic young infant.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyu Seon; Jo, Eun Young; Yu, Jae Hyeon; Kil, Hong Rang

    2016-11-01

    Isolated anomalous right coronary artery originating from the pulmonary artery (ARCAPA) is a rare congenital coronary anomaly that is asymptomatic and discovered incidentally in most cases. ARCAPA is generally not considered a fatal defect in infancy or childhood, although cases of sudden death have been reported. Here, we report a 2-month-old female infant who presented with a prolonged fever that was determined to be caused by rhinovirus infection. Myocardial ischemia of the left ventricular posterior wall was already seen on echocardiography, and ARCAPA was discovered incidentally. The patient underwent successful surgical reimplantation of the right coronary artery to the aortic root to re-establish dual ostial circulation.

  5. IGBP-DIS global 1 km land cover data set, DISCover: First results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loveland, T.R.; Belward, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    The International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Data and Information System (IGBP-DIS) is co-ordinating the development of global land data sets from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data. The first is a 1 km spatial resolution land cover product `DISCover', based on monthly Normalized Difference Vegetation Index composites from 1992 and 1993. DISCover is a 17 class land cover dataset based on the science requirements of IGBP elements. Mapping uses unsupervised classification with post-classification refinement using ancillary data. Draft Africa, North America and South America products are now available for peer review.

  6. The COMPADRE Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deustua, S. E.

    2004-12-01

    ComPADRE is a joint project of the American Association of Physics Teachers, the American Astronomical Society, the American Institute of Physics/Society of Physics Students, and the American Physical Society. The project's goals are to provide focused collections of educational resources that support communities whose core membership belongs to and identifies with the societies. These resources are available to a broad audience. The partnership of physics and astronomy professional societies is vital to the success of comPADRE, since the societies provide a stable, sustaining force for the collections developed here. The American Astronomical Society is building the Astronomycenter to support instructors of undergraduate introductory astronomy courses. The sources of material include links to online resources such as astronomical images, applets, laboratory simulations, and electronic and print journals. The sources of material will be identified, selected and assessed by reviewers, drawn from the community of instructors. The Astronomycenter will collect, annotate, organize, and deliver the very best of this material. ComPADRE is currently funded by a two-year grant from the National Science Foundations NSDL (National Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics Education Digital Library) program. The NSDL is an NSF effort to support science literacy, at all levels, through access to the materials and methods by which we discover the nature of the physical universe.

  7. Project SEED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Reports on Project SEED (Summer Educational Experience for the Disadvantaged) a project in which high school students from low-income families work in summer jobs in a variety of academic, industrial, and government research labs. The program introduces the students to career possibilities in chemistry and to the advantages of higher education.…

  8. Project FAST.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essexville-Hampton Public Schools, MI.

    Described are components of Project FAST (Functional Analysis Systems Training) a nationally validated project to provide more effective educational and support services to learning disordered children and their regular elementary classroom teachers. The program is seen to be based on a series of modules of delivery systems ranging from mainstream…

  9. Project HIRE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisz, Vera C.

    Project HIRE is a special program conducted by Middlesex Community College since October 1978 to help people 55 years of age and older find paid employment. The specific goals of the project, as it was originally conceived, were to: (1) open three intake centers; (2) register clients at the centers; (3) provide career counseling; (4) offer…

  10. Project Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meredith, Larry D.

    Project Success consists of after-school, weekend, and summer educational programs geared toward minority and disadvantaged students to increase their numbers seeking postsecondary education from the Meadville, Pennsylvania area. The project is funded primarily through the Edinboro University of Pennsylvania, whose administration is committed to…

  11. Project CHILD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robison, Helen F.; And Others

    This document described Project CHILD, a program of educational change and curriculum development for disadvantaged prekindergarten and kindergarten children. The historical part of this report indicates that the project began in 1966 with a small-scale study of teacher behavior and children's responses in a few classrooms in a Harlem school…

  12. Project REM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Carol Hahn

    1983-01-01

    Project REM (Resources, Energy, Mankind) incorporates energy, ecology, and environmental topics into a sixth-grade science curriculum. Various activities of this year-long project are discussed, including those related to Mr. REM (a student-built "robot") and an all day exploration of energy held near the end of the school year. (JN)

  13. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1959-04-27

    Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper, Jr., one of the original seven astronauts for Mercury Project selected by NASA on April 27, 1959. The MA-9 mission, boosted by the Mercury-Atlas launch vehicle, was the last flight of the Mercury Project. The Faith 7 spacecraft orbited the Earth 22 times in 1-1/2 days.

  14. Project Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meredith, Larry D.

    Project Success consists of after-school, weekend, and summer educational programs geared toward minority and disadvantaged students to increase their numbers seeking postsecondary education from the Meadville, Pennsylvania area. The project is funded primarily through the Edinboro University of Pennsylvania, whose administration is committed to…

  15. UNESCO Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goutard, Madeleine

    1990-01-01

    Details of a UNESCO project concerning the young child and the family environment are presented. The three major aspects of child development addressed by the project are nutrition for the child, children's handicaps, and interaction between the child and its family. (BG)

  16. Project EASIER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvord, David J.; Tack, Leland R.; Dallam, Jerald W.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the development of Project EASIER, a collaborative electronic-data interchange for networking Iowa local school districts, education agencies, community colleges, universities, and the Department of Education. The primary goal of this project is to develop and implement a system for collection of student information for state and federal…

  17. Projects Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Members of the Projects Board and associated committees of the American Society for Engineering Education are listed along with the by-laws of the board. Active projects described include a study of engineering technological education, faculty interchange with black engineering colleges, and the visiting engineer program. (TS)

  18. Watchdog Project

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Rhett; Campbell, Jack; Hadley, Mark

    2016-12-30

    The Watchdog Project completed 100% of the project Statement of Project Objective (SOPO). The Watchdog project was a very aggressive project looking to accomplish commercialization of technology that had never been commercialized, as a result it took six years to complete not the original three that were planned. No additional federal funds were requested from the original proposal and SEL contributed the additional cost share required to complete the project. The result of the Watchdog Project is the world’s first industrial rated Software Defined Network (SDN) switch commercially available. This technology achieved the SOPOO and DOE Roadmap goals to have strong network access control, improve reliability and network performance, and give the asset owner the ability to minimize attack surface before and during an attack. The Watchdog project is an alliance between CenterPoint Energy Houston Electric, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL), and Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc. (SEL). SEL is the world’s leader in microprocessor-based electronic equipment for protecting electric power systems. PNNL performs basic and applied research to deliver energy, environmental, and national security for our nation. CenterPoint Energy is the third largest publicly traded natural gas delivery company in the U.S and third largest combined electricity and natural gas delivery company. The Watchdog Project efforts were combined with the SDN Project efforts to produce the entire SDN system solution for the critical infrastructure. The Watchdog project addresses Topic Area of Interest 5: Secure Communications, for the DEFOA- 0000359 by protecting the control system local area network itself and the communications coming from and going to the electronic devices on the local network. Local area networks usually are not routed and have little or no filtering capabilities. Combine this with the fact control system protocols are designed with inherent trust the control

  19. First records of Nocomis biguttatus (Hornyhead Chub) from West Virginia discovered in museum voucher specimens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welsh, Stuart; Cincotta, Daniel A.; Starnes, Wayne C.

    2013-01-01

    Specimens of Nocomis biguttatus (Hornyhead Chub) from South Fork Hughes River (Little Kanawha River drainage, WV) were discovered in two museum lots at the North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences. These accessions, collected in 1960 and 1966, represent an addition to the state fauna and are the first distribution records for this species from the Appalachian Plateau, WV

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: newly discovered planets from WASP-South (Turner+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, O. D.; Anderson, D. R.; Cameron, A. Collier; Delrez, L.; Evans, D. F.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Segransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.

    2017-02-01

    Lightcurves and radial velocity data of three newly discovered planets from the WASP-South survey. Discovery data come from the WASP-South telescope (SAAO, South Africa) with follow-up lightcurves from the TRAPPIST telescope and EulerCam on the Swiss telescope (La Silla, Chile). Radial velocity data are from the CORALIE spectrograph on the Swiss telescope. (6 data files).