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Sample records for project fire ii

  1. Aerothermal Analysis of the Project Fire II Afterbody Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Michael J.; Loomis, Mark; Papadopoulos, Periklis; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to simulate the wake flow and afterbody heating of the Project Fire II ballistic reentry to Earth at 11.4 km/sec. Laminar results are obtained over a portion of the trajectory between the initial heat pulse and peak afterbody heating. Although non-catalytic forebody convective heating results are in excellent agreement with previous computations, initial predictions of afterbody heating were about a factor of two below the experimental values. Further analysis suggests that significant catalysis may be occurring on the afterbody heat shield. Computations including finite-rate catalysis on the afterbody surface are in good agreement with the data over the early portion of the trajectory, but are conservative near the peak afterbody heating point, especially on the rear portion of the conical frustum. Further analysis of the flight data from Fire II shows that peak afterbody heating occurs before peak forebody heating, a result that contradicts computations and flight data from other entry vehicles. This result suggests that another mechanism, possibly pyrolysis, may be occurring during the later portion of the trajectory, resulting in less total heat transfer than the current predictions.

  2. FIRE II Cirrus Info

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-03-18

    ... Page:  FIRE II Main Grouping:  Cirrus Description:  First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) ... stratocumulus systems, the radiative properties of these clouds and their interactions. Data Products:  Cirrus ...

  3. Comparison of Coupled Radiative Navier-Stokes Flow Solutions with the Project Fire II Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olynick, David R.; Henline, William D.; Chambers, Lin Hartung; Candler, Graham V,; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    A nonequilibrium, axisymmetric, Navier-Stokes flow solver with coupled radiation has been developed to use in the design of thermal protection systems for vehicles where radiation effects are important. The present method has been compared with an existing flow and radiation solver and with the Project Fire II experimental data. Very good agreement has been obtained over the entire Fire II trajectory with the experimentally determined values of the stagnation radiation intensity in the .2 to 6.2 eV range and with the total stagnation heating. The agreement was significantly better than previous numerical predictions. The effects of a number of flow models are examined to determine which combination of physical models produces the best agreement with the experimental data. These models include radiation coupling, multi-temperature thermal models, finite-rate chemistry, and a quasi-steady-state or Boltzmann assumption for the calculation of the excited electronic states. Finally, the computational efficiency of the present model is evaluated. The radiation properties model developed for this study is shown to offer significant computational savings compared to existing codes.

  4. FIRE II - Cirrus Data Sets

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-07-26

    FIRE II - Cirrus Data Sets First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) II Cirrus was conducted in southeastern Kansas. It was designed to improve the ... stratocumulus systems, the radiative properties of these clouds and their interactions. Relevant Documents:  FIRE ...

  5. Radiative Transfer in Earth Re-entry: Application to the Project Fire II Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamet, J.-M.; Babou, Y.; Riviere, Ph.; Soufiani, A.; Perrin, M.-Y.

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to contribute to the test case 6 by computing the radiative heat intensities at the stagnation point for four points of Fire II re-entry trajectory. The prescribed flow-fields provided in the test case booklet are used. The radiative heat flux computations are based on a line by line approach combined with the exhaustive database which has been developed previously [1, 2]. The previous benchmarking of air radiative properties on a LTE air plasma have shown the quality of this database [3]. Since then, the use of this database has been extended to non LTE applications. In addition to the radiation computations defined in test case 6, the spectral distribution of the different intensities is predicted on a wide spectral range from far UV to IR. This will be important for further flow/radiation coupling studies. Different modelling levels are tested: pure emission, absorption effects, and chemical nonequilibrium effects.

  6. Apollo - FIRE Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Schematic drawing of Project FIRE Velocity Package. This was the design of a package used for flight tests with the Atlas rockets. Project FIRE (Flight Investigation Reentry Environment) studied the effects of reentry heating on spacecraft materials. It involved both wind tunnel and flight tests, although the majority were tests with Atlas rockets and recoverable reentry packages. These flight tests took place at Cape Canaveral in Florida. Wind tunnel tests were made in several Langley tunnels including the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel, the 8-foot High-Temperature Tunnel and the 9x6-Foot Thermal Structures Tunnel.

  7. Apollo - Project FIRE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Test of Project FIRE model in Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. Project FIRE (Flight Investigation Reentry Environment) studied the effects of reentry heating on spacecraft materials. It involved both wind tunnel and flight tests, although the majority were tests with Atlas rockets and recoverable reentry packages. These flight tests took place at Cape Canaveral in Florida. Wind tunnel tests were made in several Langley tunnels including the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel, the 8-foot High-Temperature Tunnel and the 9x6-Foot Thermal Structures Tunnel.

  8. Apollo - Project FIRE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Researcher checks model of Project Fire Reentry package to be tested in Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. Project FIRE (Flight Investigation Reentry Environment) studied the effects of reentry heating on spacecraft materials. It involved both wind tunnel and flight tests, although the majority were tests with Atlas rockets and recoverable reentry packages. These flight tests took place at Cape Canaveral in Florida. Wind tunnel tests were made in several Langley tunnels including the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel, the 8-foot High-Temperature Tunnel and the 9x6-Foot Thermal Structures Tunnel.

  9. Apollo - Project Fire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    60-foot sphere used during flight tests for Project FIRE. (Shot #2): Project FIRE (Flight Investigation Reentry Environment) studied the effects of reentry heating on spacecraft materials. It involved both wind tunnel and flight tests, although the majority were tests with Atlas rockets and recoverable reentry packages. These flight tests took place at Cape Canaveral in Florida. Wind tunnel tests were made in several Langley tunnels including the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel, the 8-foot High-Temperature Tunnel and the 9- x 6-Foot Thermal Structures Tunnel.

  10. The FIRE Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdougal, D.

    1986-01-01

    The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project's (ISCCP) First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) project is a program to validate the cloud parameters derived by the ISCCP. The 4- to 5-year program will concentrate on clouds in the continental United States, particularly cirrus and marine stratocumulus clouds. As part of the validation process, FIRE will acquire satellite, aircraft, balloon, and surface data. These data (except for the satellite data) will be amalgamated into one common data set. Plans are to generate a standardized format structure for use in the PCDS. Data collection will begin in April 1986, but will not be available to the general scientific community until 1987 or 1988. Additional pertinent data sets already reside in the PCDS. Other qualifications of the PCDS for use in this validation program were enumerated.

  11. Apollo - Project FIRE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Project FIRE (Flight Investigation Reentry Environment) studied the effects of reentry heating on spacecraft materials. It involved both wind tunnel and flight tests, although the majority were tests with Atlas rockets and recoverable reentry packages. These flight tests took place at Cape Canaveral in Florida. Wind tunnel tests were made in several Langley tunnels including the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel, the 8-foot High-Temperature Tunnel and the 9x6-Foot Thermal Structures Tunnel.

  12. Managing wildland fires: integrating weather models into fire projections

    Treesearch

    Anne M. Rosenthal; Francis Fujioka

    2004-01-01

    Flames from the Old Fire sweep through lands north of San Bernardino during late fall of 2003. Like many Southern California fires, the Old Fire consumed susceptible forests at the urban-wildland interface and spread to nearby city neighborhoods. By incorporating weather models into fire perimeter projections, scientist Francis Fujioka is improving fire modeling as a...

  13. Hydrogen Fire Spectroscopy Issues Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Compiler)

    2014-01-01

    The detection of hydrogen fires is important to the aerospace community. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has devoted significant effort to the development, testing, and installation of hydrogen fire detectors based on ultraviolet, near-infrared, mid-infrared, andor far-infrared flame emission bands. Yet, there is no intensity calibrated hydrogen-air flame spectrum over this range in the literature and consequently, it can be difficult to compare the merits of different radiation-based hydrogen fire detectors.

  14. Ribosomal Database Project II

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) provides ribosome related data and services to the scientific community, including online data analysis and aligned and annotated Bacterial small-subunit 16S rRNA sequences. As of March 2008, RDP Release 10 is available and currently (August 2009) contains 1,074,075 aligned 16S rRNA sequences. Data that can be downloaded include zipped GenBank and FASTA alignment files, a histogram (in Excel) of the number of RDP sequences spanning each base position, data in the Functional Gene Pipeline Repository, and various user submitted data. The RDP-II website also provides numerous analysis tools.[From the RDP-II home page at http://rdp.cme.msu.edu/index.jsp

  15. Battleship tank firing test of H-II launch vehicle - First stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Atsutaro; Endo, Mamoru; Yamazaki, Isao; Maemura, Takashi; Namikawa, Tatsuo

    1991-06-01

    The H-II launch vehicle capable of placing 2-ton-class payloads on geostationary orbits is outlined, and focus is placed on its propulsion system. The development status of the project, including component development, preliminary battleship tank firing test (BFT-1), battleship tank firing test (BFT-2), and flight-type tank firing test (CFT) is discussed. The configuration and schematic diagram of BFT-2 are presented, and the firing test results of BFT-2 first series are analyzed, including engine performance, interface compatibility, and pressurization of subsystems.

  16. Fire prevention on airplanes. Part II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabatier, J

    1929-01-01

    This part of the report presents a detailed examination of spark prevention, fire extinguishers, and fuel tank location and design. A continued program of investigations and research is also proposed.

  17. FIRE

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-03-16

    ProjectsFIRE Definition/Description:  The F irst I SCCP R egional E xperiments (FIRE) have been designed to improve data products and cloud/radiation ... circulation models (GCMs). Specifically, the goals of FIRE are (1) to improve basic understanding of the interaction of physical ...

  18. Simulating dynamic and mixed-severity fire regimes: a process-based fire extension for LANDIS-II

    Treesearch

    Brian R. Sturtevant; Robert M. Scheller; Brian R. Miranda; Douglas. Shinneman; Alexandra. Syphard

    2009-01-01

    Fire regimes result from reciprocal interactions between vegetation and fire that may be further affected by other disturbances, including climate, landform, and terrain. In this paper, we describe fire and fuel extensions for the forest landscape simulation model, LANDIS-II, that allow dynamic interactions among fire, vegetation, climate, and landscape structure, and...

  19. ATLAS LAUNCHED FROM PAD 12 CARRYING PROJECT FIRE SPACECRAFT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    The Atlas D lifted off Pad 12 at 4:55 p.m. EST carrying the second 200 pound Project FIRE spacecraft on a 5,000 mile ballistic trajectory to expand scientific knowledge of reentry heating. A velocity package using the solid propellant Antares II rocket motor will add the speed needed to drive the re-entry payload back into the atmosphere at 25,000 mph. The payload will reach an apogee of approximately 500 statute miles about 2,440 down range before starting re-entry into the atmosphere. At the speed Project FIRE will attain, the temperature of the gasses in the shock wave area just ahead of the blunt reentry body will approach 20,000 degrees Fahrengeit. As a result from data received from this flight, scientists will be able to predict more accurately, for engineering purposes, the heating associated with entry into the Earth's atmosphere at speeds up to and beyond that of the Apollo command module on its return from lunar flights.

  20. Advanced spacecraft fire safety: Proposed projects and program plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngblood, Wallace W.; Vedha-Nayagam, M.

    1989-01-01

    A detailed review identifies spacecraft fire safety issues and the efforts for their resolution, particularly for the threats posed by the increased on-orbit duration, size, and complexity of the Space Station Freedom. Suggestions provided by a survey of Wyle consultants and outside fire safety experts were combined into 30 research and engineering projects. The projects were then prioritized with respect to urgency to meet Freedom design goals, status of enabling technology, cost, and so on, to yield 14 highest priority projects, described in terms of background, work breakdown structure, and schedule. These highest priority projects can be grouped into the thematic areas of fire detection, fire extinguishment, risk assessment, toxicology and human effects, and ground based testing. Recommendations for overall program management stress the need for NASA Headquarters and field center coordination, with information exchange through spacecraft fire safety oversight committees.

  1. Dry forests of the Northeastern Cascades Fire and Fire Surrogate project site, Mission Creek, Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forest

    Treesearch

    James K. Agee; John F. (comps.) Lehmkuhl

    2009-01-01

    The Fire and Fire Surrogate (FFS) project is a large long-term metastudy established to assess the effectiveness and ecological impacts of burning and fire "surrogates" such as cuttings and mechanical fuel treatments that are used instead of fire, or in combination with fire, to restore dry forests. One of the 13 national FFS sites is the Northeastern...

  2. Projecting climate-driven increases in North American fire activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Morton, D. C.; Collatz, G. J.

    2013-12-01

    Climate regulates fire activity through controls on vegetation productivity (fuels), lightning ignitions, and conditions governing fire spread. In many regions of the world, human management also influences the timing, duration, and extent of fire activity. These coupled interactions between human and natural systems make fire a complex component of the Earth system. Satellite data provide valuable information on the spatial and temporal dynamics of recent fire activity, as active fires, burned area, and land cover information can be combined to separate wildfires from intentional burning for agriculture and forestry. Here, we combined satellite-derived burned area data with land cover and climate data to assess fire-climate relationships in North America between 2000-2012. We used the latest versions of the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED) burned area product and Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) climate data to develop regional relationships between burned area and potential evaporation (PE), an integrated dryness metric. Logistic regression models were developed to link burned area with PE and individual climate variables during and preceding the fire season, and optimal models were selected based on Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). Overall, our model explained 85% of the variance in burned area since 2000 across North America. Fire-climate relationships from the era of satellite observations provide a blueprint for potential changes in fire activity under scenarios of climate change. We used that blueprint to evaluate potential changes in fire activity over the next 50 years based on twenty models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). All models suggest an increase of PE under low and high emissions scenarios (Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5, respectively), with largest increases in projected burned area across the western US and central Canada. Overall, near

  3. A Fire Safety Certification System for Board and Care Operators and Staff. SBIR Phase II: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Bonnie L.

    This report describes Phase II of a project which developed a system for delivering fire safety training to board and care providers who serve adults with developmental disabilities. Phase II focused on developing and pilot testing a "train the trainers" workshop for instructors and field testing the provider's workshop. Evaluation of…

  4. AREAWIDE SUPPRESSION OF FIRE ANTS: DEMONSTRATION PROJECT IN MISSISSIPPI, 2006

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDA-ARS demonstration project for the suppression of imported fire ants has entered its sixth year. In 2005, Mississippi State University joined the project monitoring sites in Clay and Grenada Counties. The Areawide project integrates biological control agents with the chemical ...

  5. Nonequilibrium Stagnation-Line Radiative Heating for Fire II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Christopher O.; Hollis, Brian R.; Sutton, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of the shock-layer radiative heating to the Fire II vehicle using a new air radiation model and a viscous shock-layer flowfield model. This new air radiation model contains the most up-to-date properties for modeling the atomic-line, atomic photoionization, molecular band, and non-Boltzmann processes. The applied viscous shock-layer flowfield analysis contains the same thermophysical properties and nonequilibrium models as the LAURA Navier-Stokes code. Radiation-flowfield coupling, or radiation cooling, is accounted for in detail in this study. It is shown to reduce the radiative heating by about 30% for the peak radiative heating points, while reducing the convective heating only slightly. A detailed review of past Fire II radiative heating studies is presented. It is observed that the scatter in the radiation predicted by these past studies is mostly a result of the different flowfield chemistry models and the treatment of the electronic state populations. The present predictions provide, on average throughout the trajectory, a better comparison with Fire II flight data than any previous study. The magnitude of the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) contribution to the radiative flux is estimated from the calorimeter measurements. This is achieved using the radiometer measurements and the predicted convective heating. The VUV radiation predicted by the present model agrees well with the VUV contribution inferred from the Fire II calorimeter measurement, although only when radiation-flowfield coupling is accounted for. This agreement provides evidence that the present model accurately models the VUV radiation, which is shown to contribute significantly to the Fire II radiative heating.

  6. Can fire atlas data improve species distribution model projections?

    PubMed

    Crimmins, Shawn M; Dobrowski, Solomon Z; Mynsberge, Alison R; Safford, Hugh D

    2014-07-01

    Correlative species distribution models (SDMs) are widely used in studies of climate change impacts, yet are often criticized for failing to incorporate disturbance processes that can influence species distributions. Here we use two temporally independent data sets of vascular plant distributions, climate data, and fire atlas data to examine the influence of disturbance history on SDM projection accuracy through time in the mountain ranges of California, USA. We used hierarchical partitioning to examine the influence of fire occurrence on the distribution of 144 vascular plant species and built a suite of SDMs to examine how the inclusion of fire-related predictors (fire occurrence and departure from historical fire return intervals) affects SDM projection accuracy. Fire occurrence provided the least explanatory power among predictor variables for predicting species' distributions, but provided improved explanatory power for species whose regeneration is tied closely to fire. A measure of the departure from historic fire return interval had greater explanatory power for calibrating modern SDMs than fire occurrence. This variable did not improve internal model accuracy for most species, although it did provide marginal improvement to models for species adapted to high-frequency fire regimes. Fire occurrence and fire return interval departure were strongly related to the climatic covariates used in SDM development, suggesting that improvements in model accuracy may not be expected due to limited additional explanatory power. Our results suggest that the inclusion of coarse-scale measures of disturbance in SDMs may not be necessary to predict species distributions under climate change, particularly for disturbance processes that are largely mediated by climate.

  7. Fire Fighter Level I-II-III [and] Practical Skills Test. Wisconsin Fire Service Certification Series. Final Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pribyl, Paul F.

    Practical skills tests are provided for fire fighter trainees in the Wisconsin Fire Service Certification Series, Fire Fighter Levels I, II, and III. A course introduction appears first and contains this information: recommended instructional sequence, required facilities, instructional methodology, requirements for certification, course…

  8. Thinning and prescribed fire and projected trends in wood product potential, financial return, and fire hazard in New Mexico.

    Treesearch

    Roger D. Fight; R. James Barbour; Glenn Christensen; Guy L. Pinjuv; Rao V. Nagubadi

    2004-01-01

    This work was undertaken under a joint fire science project "Assessing the need, costs, and potential benefits of prescribed fire and mechanical treatments to reduce fire hazard." This paper compares the future mix of timber projects under two treatment scenarios for New Mexico.We developed and demonstrated an analytical method that uses readily available...

  9. Fire Fighter Trainer Environmental Considerations. Phase II. Appendixes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-31

    background ana is an expert in traceI I I BAH PERSONNEL LOCATIONS DURING TESTS LDQ I Scenario M. Halpern Control room G. McLennan Mobile to exterior of...stack-roof level Case Tech II Outside - LDQ I UDQ II M. Halpern Control room G. McLennan Mobile to exterior of facility where needed S. Armentrout Control...Generation of Aerosols, 1980. 1 79. Work Breakdown Structure for Advanced Fire Fighter Trainer, Work Order AT-784, Advanced TechnologyI Systems

  10. Thinning and prescribed fire and projected trends in wood product potential, financial return, and fire hazard in Montana.

    Treesearch

    R. James Barbour; Roger D. Fight; Glenn A. Christensen; Guy L. Pinjuv; Rao V. Nagubadi

    2004-01-01

    This work was undertaken under a joint fire science project "Assessing the need, costs, and potential benefits of prescribed fire and mechanical treatments to reduce fire hazard." This paper compares the future mix of timber products under two treatment scenarios for the state of Montana. We developed and demonstrated an analytical method that uses readily...

  11. Fire. Youth Training Scheme. Core Exemplar Work Based Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Staff Coll., Blagdon (England).

    This trainer's guide is intended to assist supervisors of work-based career training projects in teaching students the basics of fire prevention in the kitchen. The guide is one in a series of core curriculum modules that is intended for use in combination on- and off-the-job programs to familiarize youth with the skills, knowledge, and attitudes…

  12. Research Summary: Projecting Vegetation and Wildfire Response to Changing Climate and Fire Management in Interior Alaska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-21

    USER GUIDE Research Summary: Projecting Vegetation and Wildfire Response to Changing Climate and Fire Management in Interior Alaska SERDP Project...Summary: Projecting Vegetation and Wildfire Response to Changing Climate and Fire Management in Interior Alaska 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...forecast landscape change in response to projected changes in climate , fire regime, and fire management. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF

  13. Projected changes in daily fire spread across Canada over the next century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianli; Parisien, Marc-André; Taylor, Steve W.; Candau, Jean-Noël; Stralberg, Diana; Marshall, Ginny A.; Little, John M.; Flannigan, Mike D.

    2017-02-01

    In the face of climate change, predicting and understanding future fire regimes across Canada is a high priority for wildland fire research and management. Due in large part to the difficulties in obtaining future daily fire weather projections, one of the major challenges in predicting future fire activity is to estimate how much of the change in weather potential could translate into on-the-ground fire spread. As a result, past studies have used monthly, annual, or multi-decadal weather projections to predict future fires, thereby sacrificing information relevant to day-to-day fire spread. Using climate projections from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), historical weather observations, MODIS fire detection data, and the national fire database of Canada, this study investigated potential changes in the number of active burning days of wildfires by relating ‘spread days’ to patterns of daily fire-conducive weather. Results suggest that climate change over the next century may have significant impacts on fire spread days in almost all parts of Canada’s forested landmass; the number of fire spread days could experience a 2-to-3-fold increase under a high CO2 forcing scenario in eastern Canada, and a greater than 50% increase in western Canada, where the fire potential is already high. The change in future fire spread is critical in understanding fire regime changes, but is also imminently relevant to fire management operations and in fire risk mitigation.

  14. Southern thailand coal fired project: Feasibility study. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This study, conducted by Black & Veatch International, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report addresses various technical, environmental, and economic aspects of developing four 1,000 MW units of coal fired electric generating facilities at a site near Prachuap Khiri Khan. The study includes a cost estimate for the units and the fuel delivery port as well as the major conceptual design decisions made for the project. This volume of the report is the Feasibility Study and is divided into the following sections: (1) Introduction/Summary; (2) Generation Planning Study; (3) Site Selection Study; (4) Project Description; (5) Fuel Resource Assessment; (6) Water Resource Assessment; (7) Technical Information to Support the Environmental Impact Assessment; (8) Plant Conceptual Design; (9) Transmission Interconnection; (10) Project Capital Cost Estimate; (11) Project Schedule; (12) Project Implementation Plan; (13) Project Risk Analysis.

  15. Fire hazard analysis for Project W-320 Tank 241-C-106 waste retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, J.C.

    1995-09-12

    This Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) for Project W-320, `Tank 241-C-106 Waste Retrieval` addresses fire hazards or fire related concerns in accordance with DOE 5480.7A (DOE 1998), resulting from or related to the processes and equipment to be installed or modified under Project W-320 to ensure that there are no undue fire hazards to site personnel and the public; the potential for the occurrence of a fire is minimized, process control and safety systems are not damaged by fire or related perils; and property damage from fire and related perils does not exceed an acceptable level.

  16. The Development of Midlatitude Cirrus Models for MODIS Using FIRE-I, FIRE-II, and ARM In Situ Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nasiri, Shaima L.; Baum, Bryan A.; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Yang, Ping; Poellot, Michael R.; Kratz, David P.; Hu, Yong-Xiang

    2002-01-01

    Detailed in situ data from cirrus clouds have been collected during dedicated field Campaigns, but the use of the size and habit distribution data has been lagging in the development of more realistic cirrus scattering models. In this study, the authors examine the use of in situ cirrus data collected during three field campaigns to develop more realistic midlatitude cirrus microphysical models. Data are used from the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Regional Experiment (FIRE)-I (1986) and FIRE-II (1991) campaigns and from a recent Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program campaign held in March-April of 2000. The microphysical models are based on measured vertical distributions of both particle size and particle habit and are used to develop new scattering models for a suite of moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) bands spanning visible. near-infrared, and infrared wavelengths. The sensitivity of the resulting scattering properties to the underlying assumptions of the assumed particle size and habit distributions are examined. It is found that the near-infrared bands are sensitive not only to the discretization of the size distribution but also to the assumed habit distribution. In addition. the results indicate that the effective diameter calculated from a given size distribution tends to be sensitive to the number of size bins that are used to discretize the data and also to the ice-crystal habit distribution.

  17. Overview of the 2013 FireFlux II grass fire field experiment

    Treesearch

    C.B. Clements; B. Davis; D. Seto; J. Contezac; A. Kochanski; J.-B. Fillipi; N. Lareau; B. Barboni; B. Butler; S. Krueger; R. Ottmar; R. Vihnanek; W.E. Heilman; J. Flynn; M.A. Jenkins; J. Mandel; C. Teske; D. Jimenez; J. O' Brien; B. Lefer

    2014-01-01

    In order to better understand the dynamics of fire-atmosphere interactions and the role of micrometeorology on fire behaviour the FireFlux campaign was conducted in 2006 on a coastal tall-grass prairie in southeast Texas, USA. The FireFlux campaign dataset has become the international standard for evaluating coupled fire-atmosphere model systems. While FireFlux is one...

  18. Project Final Report: HPC-Colony II

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Terry R; Kale, Laxmikant V; Moreira, Jose

    2013-11-01

    This report recounts the HPC Colony II Project which was a computer science effort funded by DOE's Advanced Scientific Computing Research office. The project included researchers from ORNL, IBM, and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The topic of the effort was adaptive system software for extreme scale parallel machines. A description of findings is included.

  19. Health Activities Project (HAP), Trial Edition II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buller, Dave; And Others

    Contained within this Health Activities Project (HAP) trial edition (set II) are a teacher information folio and numerous student activity folios which center around the idea that students in grades 5-8 can control their own health and safety. Each student folio is organized into a Synopsis, Health Background, Materials, Setting Up, and Activities…

  20. Preliminary battleship tank firing test of H-II launch vehicle first stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Masahiro; Kazama, Hiroo; Nakatsuji, Hiroyuki; Yamazaki, Isao; Maemura, Takashi; Atsumi, Masahiro

    The development, objectives, facilities, and results of a preliminary battleship tank firing test series of the first stage propulsion system of the H-II rocket are discussed. The test series included two engine chilldown tests and 12 short-duration hot firing tests. The results verify the basic compatibility of the tank system and the LE-7 engine.

  1. Quantifying the Carbon Balance of Forest Restoration and Wildfire under Projected Climate in the Fire-Prone Southwestern US

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Climate projections for the southwestern US suggest a warmer, drier future and have the potential to impact forest carbon (C) sequestration and post-fire C recovery. Restoring forest structure and surface fire regimes initially decreases total ecosystem carbon (TEC), but can stabilize the remaining C by moderating wildfire behavior. Previous research has demonstrated that fire maintained forests can store more C over time than fire suppressed forests in the presence of wildfire. However, because the climate future is uncertain, I sought to determine the efficacy of forest management to moderate fire behavior and its effect on forest C dynamics under current and projected climate. I used the LANDIS-II model to simulate carbon dynamics under early (2010–2019), mid (2050–2059), and late (2090–2099) century climate projections for a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) dominated landscape in northern Arizona. I ran 100-year simulations with two different treatments (control, thin and burn) and a 1 in 50 chance of wildfire occurring. I found that control TEC had a consistent decline throughout the simulation period, regardless of climate. Thin and burn TEC increased following treatment implementation and showed more differentiation than the control in response to climate, with late-century climate having the lowest TEC. Treatment efficacy, as measured by mean fire severity, was not impacted by climate. Fire effects were evident in the cumulative net ecosystem exchange (NEE) for the different treatments. Over the simulation period, 32.8–48.9% of the control landscape was either C neutral or a C source to the atmosphere and greater than 90% of the thin and burn landscape was a moderate C sink. These results suggest that in southwestern ponderosa pine, restoring forest structure and surface fire regimes provides a reasonable hedge against the uncertainty of future climate change for maintaining the forest C sink. PMID:28046079

  2. Quantifying the Carbon Balance of Forest Restoration and Wildfire under Projected Climate in the Fire-Prone Southwestern US.

    PubMed

    Hurteau, Matthew D

    2017-01-01

    Climate projections for the southwestern US suggest a warmer, drier future and have the potential to impact forest carbon (C) sequestration and post-fire C recovery. Restoring forest structure and surface fire regimes initially decreases total ecosystem carbon (TEC), but can stabilize the remaining C by moderating wildfire behavior. Previous research has demonstrated that fire maintained forests can store more C over time than fire suppressed forests in the presence of wildfire. However, because the climate future is uncertain, I sought to determine the efficacy of forest management to moderate fire behavior and its effect on forest C dynamics under current and projected climate. I used the LANDIS-II model to simulate carbon dynamics under early (2010-2019), mid (2050-2059), and late (2090-2099) century climate projections for a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) dominated landscape in northern Arizona. I ran 100-year simulations with two different treatments (control, thin and burn) and a 1 in 50 chance of wildfire occurring. I found that control TEC had a consistent decline throughout the simulation period, regardless of climate. Thin and burn TEC increased following treatment implementation and showed more differentiation than the control in response to climate, with late-century climate having the lowest TEC. Treatment efficacy, as measured by mean fire severity, was not impacted by climate. Fire effects were evident in the cumulative net ecosystem exchange (NEE) for the different treatments. Over the simulation period, 32.8-48.9% of the control landscape was either C neutral or a C source to the atmosphere and greater than 90% of the thin and burn landscape was a moderate C sink. These results suggest that in southwestern ponderosa pine, restoring forest structure and surface fire regimes provides a reasonable hedge against the uncertainty of future climate change for maintaining the forest C sink.

  3. The Ofidia Project: a Retrospective Fire Danger Forecast Analysis in Mediterranean Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirca, C.; Bacciu, V. M.; Salis, M.; Mirto, L.; Fiore, S.; Aloisio, G.; Spano, D.

    2015-12-01

    OFIDIA (Operational FIre Danger preventIon plAtform) is a two-year project started in May 2013 funded by the European Territorial Cooperation Programme Greece Italy (2007 - 2013). The project aims to improve the operational capability of forecasting, preventing, and fighting forest wildfires, and enhance the cross-border cooperation for fire danger assessment. More specifically, OFIDIA aims at developing an operational fire danger prevention platform, with the ability for near real-time fire danger forecast and fire behaviour analysis in Apulia (Italy) and Epirus (Greece) regions to help forest fires services in the effective prevention and response to forecasted danger.One of the preliminary activities of the project was the evaluation of fire danger performances by analysing the relationship between the predicted daily fire danger and observed fire activity (number of fires and area burned). To achieve this task, fire activity and danger patterns were characterised and their relationships were investigated for the period 2000-2012. The Italian Forest Service (CFS, Corpo Forestale dello Stato) provided fire statistics at NUT03 level. The data were homogenized and uncertainties corrected, and then burned area and number of fires were analysed according to the main fire regime characteristics (seasonality, fire return interval, fire incidence, fire size distribution, etc). Then, three fire danger models (FFWI, FWI, and IFI) were selected and computed starting from the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University-National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5) forecast.Results showed a high inter- and intra-annual variability in fire activiy, also considering the different type of affected vegetation. As for other Mediterranean areas, a smaller number of large fires caused a high proportion of burned area. Furthermore, fire activity showed significant correlations with the outputs obtained by the applied models. High relationships were found between

  4. Fire Prevention in California's Riverside County Headstart Project: An Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folkman, William S.; Taylor, Jean

    Results of evaluation are reported for a safety program devised by Head Start teachers and California Division of Forestry personnel to teach fire prevention education to Head Start children. Chapters describe the place of fire prevention in Head Start and causes of fire starting behavior in children. The Head Start Fire Prevention Kit is also…

  5. Fire Prevention in California's Riverside County Headstart Project: An Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folkman, William S.; Taylor, Jean

    Results of evaluation are reported for a safety program devised by Head Start teachers and California Division of Forestry personnel to teach fire prevention education to Head Start children. Chapters describe the place of fire prevention in Head Start and causes of fire starting behavior in children. The Head Start Fire Prevention Kit is also…

  6. Project Fire Model: Summary Progress Report, Period November 1, 1958 to April 30, 1960

    Treesearch

    W.L. Fons; H.D. Bruce; W.Y. Pong; S.S. Richards

    1960-01-01

    This report summarizes progress from November 1, 1958, to April 30, 1960, in a study conducted by the Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station of the Forest Service in cooperation with the Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization. Called PROJECT FIRE MODEL for convenience, the project sought to develop and study a laboratory-scale fire which would...

  7. Supporting FIRE-suppression strategies combining fire spread MODelling and SATellite data in an operational context in Portugal: the FIRE-MODSAT project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sá, Ana C. L.; Benali, Akli; Pinto, Renata M. S.; Pereira, José M. C.; Trigo, Ricardo M.; DaCamara, Carlos C.

    2014-05-01

    Large wildfires are infrequent but account for the most severe environmental, ecological and socio-economic impacts. In recent years Portugal has suffered the impact of major heat waves that fuelled records of burnt area exceeding 400.000ha and 300.000ha in 2003 and 2005, respectively. According to the latest IPCC reports, the frequency and amplitude of summer heat waves over Iberia will very likely increase in the future. Therefore, most climate change studies point to an increase in the number and extent of wildfires. Thus, an increase in both wildfire impacts and fire suppression difficulties is expected. The spread of large wildfires results from a complex interaction between topography, meteorology and fuel properties. Wildfire spread models (e.g. FARSITE) are commonly used to simulate fire growth and behaviour and are an essential tool to understand their main drivers. Additionally, satellite active-fire data have been used to monitor the occurrence, extent, and spread of wildfires. Both satellite data and fire spread models provide different types of information about the spatial and temporal distribution of large wildfires and can potentially be used to support strategic decisions regarding fire suppression resource allocation. However, they have not been combined in a manner that fully exploits their potential and minimizes their limitations. A knowledge gap still exists in understanding how to minimize the impacts of large wildfires, leading to the following research question: What can we learn from past large wildfires in order to mitigate future fire impacts? FIRE-MODSAT is a one-year funded project by the Portuguese Foundation for the Science and Technology (FCT) that is founded on this research question, with the main goal of improving our understanding on the interactions between fire spread and its environmental drivers, to support fire management decisions in an operational context and generate valuable information to improve the efficiency of the

  8. Fire-Protection Research for Energy-Technology Projects: FY 1981 year-end report

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Alvares, N.J.; Lipska-Quinn, A.E.; Beason, D.G.; Foote, K.L.; Priante, S.J.

    1982-07-20

    This report summarizes research conducted in fiscal year 1981 for the DOE-supported project, Fire Protection Research for Energy Technology Projects. Initiated in 1977, this ongoing research program was conceived to advance fire protection strategies for Energy Technology Projects to keep abreast of the unique fire problems that are developing with the complexity of energy technology research. We are developing an analytical methodology through detailed study of fusion energy experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Employing these facilities as models for methodology development, we are simultaneously advancing three major task areas: (1) determination of unique fire hazards of current fusion energy facilities; (2) evaluation of the ability of accepted fire management measures to meet and negate hazards; and (3) performance of unique research into problem areas we have identified to provide input into analytical fire-growth and damage-assessment models.

  9. The Fire Modeling Intercomparison Project (FireMIP), phase 1: experimental and analytical protocols with detailed model descriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabin, Sam S.; Melton, Joe R.; Lasslop, Gitta; Bachelet, Dominique; Forrest, Matthew; Hantson, Stijn; Kaplan, Jed O.; Li, Fang; Mangeon, Stéphane; Ward, Daniel S.; Yue, Chao; Arora, Vivek K.; Hickler, Thomas; Kloster, Silvia; Knorr, Wolfgang; Nieradzik, Lars; Spessa, Allan; Folberth, Gerd A.; Sheehan, Tim; Voulgarakis, Apostolos; Kelley, Douglas I.; Prentice, I. Colin; Sitch, Stephen; Harrison, Sandy; Arneth, Almut

    2017-03-01

    The important role of fire in regulating vegetation community composition and contributions to emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols make it a critical component of dynamic global vegetation models and Earth system models. Over 2 decades of development, a wide variety of model structures and mechanisms have been designed and incorporated into global fire models, which have been linked to different vegetation models. However, there has not yet been a systematic examination of how these different strategies contribute to model performance. Here we describe the structure of the first phase of the Fire Model Intercomparison Project (FireMIP), which for the first time seeks to systematically compare a number of models. By combining a standardized set of input data and model experiments with a rigorous comparison of model outputs to each other and to observations, we will improve the understanding of what drives vegetation fire, how it can best be simulated, and what new or improved observational data could allow better constraints on model behavior. In this paper, we introduce the fire models used in the first phase of FireMIP, the simulation protocols applied, and the benchmarking system used to evaluate the models. We have also created supplementary tables that describe, in thorough mathematical detail, the structure of each model.

  10. Fire!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca

    1996-01-01

    The number of school fires is up nationwide. This article describes unsafe school conditions, problems with new fire codes, and the factors that contribute to school fires. Installation of sprinkler systems is recommended. A fire-safety checklist is included. (LMI)

  11. The LANDFIRE Prototype Project: nationally consistent and locally relevant geospatial data for wildland fire management

    Treesearch

    Matthew G. Rollins; Christine K. Frame

    2006-01-01

    The Landscape Fire and Resource Management Planning Tools Prototype Project, or LANDFIRE Prototype Project, began in April of 2002 and ended in April of 2005. The project was funded by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service and U.S. Department of the Interior. The objectives of the LANDFIRE Prototype Project were to develop the methods, tools, and protocols...

  12. Combined Final Report for Colony II Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kale, Laxmikant; Jones, Terry; Moreira, Jose

    2013-10-23

    (This report was originally submmited by the lead PI (Terry Jones, ORNL) on October 22, 2013 to the program manager, Lucy Nowell. It is being submitted from University of Illinois in accordance with instructions). HPC Colony II seeks to provide portable performance for leadership class machines. Our strategy is based on adaptive system software that aims to make the intelligent decisions necessary to allow domain scientists to safely focus on their task at hand and allow the system software stack to adapt their application to the underlying architecture. This report describes the research undertaken towards these objectives and the results obtained over the performance period of the project.

  13. Battleship tank firing test of H-II launch vehicle second stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Masahiro; Kazama, Hiroo; Nakatsuji, Hiroyuki; Yamazaki, Isao; Maekawa, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Toshihiko

    The objectives, facilities, articles, and results are presented of a series of battleship tank firing tests on the second stage propulsion systems of the H-II launch vehicle. The test series included 11 hot firing tests under first burn conditions, restart conditions, and idle mode conditions. Oscillatory perturbations were added to the LOX flow in some cases to obtain data concerning POGO oscillation. The results verify the functions of the second stage propulsion system.

  14. Integrating fire with hydrological projections: model evaluation to identify uncertainties and tradeoffs in model complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, M.; McKenzie, D.

    2013-12-01

    It is imperative for resource managers to understand how a changing climate might modify future watershed and hydrological processes, and such an understanding is incomplete if disturbances such as fire are not integrated with hydrological projections. Can a robust fire spread model be developed that approximates patterns of fire spread in response to varying topography wind patterns, and fuel loads and moistures, without requiring intensive calibration to each new study area or time frame? We assessed the performance of a stochastic model of fire spread (WMFire), integrated with the Regional Hydro-Ecological Simulation System (RHESSys), for projecting the effects of climatic change on mountain watersheds. We first use Monte Carlo inference to determine that the fire spread model is able to replicate the spatial pattern of fire spread for a contemporary wildfire in Washington State (the Tripod fire), measured by the lacunarity and fractal dimension of the fire. We then integrate a version of WMFire able to replicate the contemporary wildfire with RHESSys and simulate a New Mexico watershed over the calibration period of RHESSys (1941-1997). In comparing the fire spread model to a single contemporary wildfire we found issues in parameter identifiability for several of the nine parameters, due to model input uncertainty and insensitivity of the mathematical function to certain ranges of the parameter values. Model input uncertainty is caused by the inherent difficulty in reconstructing fuel loads and fuel moistures for a fire event after the fire has occurred, as well as by issues in translating variables relevant to hydrological processes produced by the hydrological model to those known to affect fire spread and fire severity. The first stage in the model evaluation aided the improvement of the model in both of these regards. In transporting the model to a new landscape in order to evaluate fire regimes in addition to patterns of fire spread, we find reasonable

  15. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report II. Breckinridge Project design basis

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    The Breckinridge Project is a pioneer endeavor involving the engineering, construction, and operation of a commercial facility that will convert 23,000 tons per day of run-of-mine, high-sulfur coal into 50,000 barrels per day of liquid hydrocarbons equivalent to those produced from crude oil. The Initial Effort, now complete, was executed under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC05-80OR20717 between the Department of Energy and the Participants, Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc., and Airco Energy Company, Inc. The Initial Effort produced a preliminary design, capital estimate, and economic analysis of the commercial plant, as well as a plan for the design, construction, and operation of that plant. The extensive and rigorous attention given to environmental, socioeconomic, safety, and health considerations is indicative of the high priority these issues will continue to receive throughout the life of the project. The Breckinridge Energy Company, a partnership of several major corporations, is being formed to finance, own, and manage the Breckinridge Project. Report II is intended for the reader who is primarily interested in less detailed discussion of the coal liquefaction process and Breckinridge facility than presented in the eleven volumes of Reports IV and V. The overview section describes the project goals and briefly introduces the coal liquefaction process. The report continues with a discussion of the history of the project and the H-COAL process from its concept to the proposed commercialization technology. The report describes the site, the Breckinridge Facility, and concludes with a summary of the eleven reports that contain the deliverable documentation of the Initial Effort or Development Phase of the project.

  16. Site fire protection projects review board engineering evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Fayfich, R.R.

    1992-12-31

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been safely operated since its beginning in the early 1950`s with an effective, highly successful program of fire prevention. However, in the mid 1980`s the Department of Energy directed the site to identify and install fire protection measure in addition to the reliance on prevention. To address the site needs, independent fire protection surveys were conducted by Factory Mutual Research Corporation and Professional Loss Control, Inc. in 1986 and 1987. The results of these surveys identified 1400 fire protection improvements needed in existing facilities to comply with DOE Orders and NFPA Codes and Standards.

  17. Cux1 Enables Interhemispheric Connections of Layer II/III Neurons by Regulating Kv1-Dependent Firing.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Tornos, Fernanda M; Briz, Carlos G; Weiss, Linnea A; Sebastián-Serrano, Alvaro; Ares, Saúl; Navarrete, Marta; Frangeul, Laura; Galazo, Maria; Jabaudon, Denis; Esteban, José A; Nieto, Marta

    2016-02-03

    Neuronal subtype-specific transcription factors (TFs) instruct key features of neuronal function and connectivity. Activity-dependent mechanisms also contribute to wiring and circuit assembly, but whether and how they relate to TF-directed neuronal differentiation is poorly investigated. Here we demonstrate that the TF Cux1 controls the formation of the layer II/III corpus callosum (CC) projections through the developmental transcriptional regulation of Kv1 voltage-dependent potassium channels and the resulting postnatal switch to a Kv1-dependent firing mode. Loss of Cux1 function led to a decrease in the expression of Kv1 transcripts, aberrant firing responses, and selective loss of CC contralateral innervation. Firing and innervation were rescued by re-expression of Kv1 or postnatal reactivation of Cux1. Knocking down Kv1 mimicked Cux1-mediated CC axonal loss. These findings reveal that activity-dependent processes are central bona fide components of neuronal TF-differentiation programs and establish the importance of intrinsic firing modes in circuit assembly within the neocortex.

  18. Modeling Forest Composition and Carbon Dynamics Under Projected Climate-Fire Interactions in the Sierra Nevada, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, S.; Hurteau, M. D.; Westerling, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Sierra Nevada Mountains are occupied by a diversity of forest types that sort by elevation. The interaction of changing climate and altered disturbance regimes (e.g. fire) has the potential to drive changes in forest distribution as a function of species-specific response. Quantifying the effects of these drivers on species distributions and productivity under future climate-fire interactions is necessary for informing mitigation and adaptation efforts. In this study, we assimilated forest inventory and soil survey data and species life history traits into a landscape model, LANDIS-II, to quantify the response of forest dynamics to the interaction of climate change and large wildfire frequency in the Sierra Nevada. We ran 100-year simulations forced with historical climate and climate projections from three models (GFDL, CNRM and CCSM3) driven by the A2 emission scenario. We found that non-growing season NPP is greatly enhanced by 15%-150%, depending on the specific climate projection. The greatest increase occurs in subalpine forests. Species-specific response varied as a function of life history characteristics. The distribution of drought and fire-tolerant species, such as ponderosa pine, expanded by 7.3-9.6% from initial conditions, while drought and fire-intolerant species, such as white fir, showed little change in the absence of fire. Changes in wildfire size and frequency influence species distributions by altering the successional stage of burned patches. The range of responses to different climate models demonstrates the sensitivity of these forests to climate variability. The scale of climate projections relative to the scale of forest simulations presents a source of uncertainty, particularly at the ecotone between forest types and for identifying topographically mediated climate refugia. Improving simulations will likely require higher resolution climate projections.

  19. Fire

    Treesearch

    John R. Jones; Norbert V. DeByle

    1985-01-01

    In some areas, many aspen stands are all the same age, dating from a single great fire or a year of widespread fires (fig. 1). The 1879 fire in the Jackson Hole region of Wyoming (Loope and Gruell 1973) and the 1904 fires in Arizona's White Mountains (Kallander 1969) are examples. Choate (1966) found that almost all aspen stands in New Mexico were even-aged, many...

  20. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUID BED BOILERS (Phase II--Evaluation of the Oxyfuel CFB Concept)

    SciTech Connect

    John L. Marion; Nsakala ya Nsakala

    2003-11-09

    The overall project goal is to determine if carbon dioxide can be captured and sequestered at a cost of about $10/ton of carbon avoided, using a newly constructed Circulating Fluidized Bed combustor while burning coal with a mixture of oxygen and recycled flue gas, instead of air. This project is structured in two Phases. Phase I was performed between September 28, 2001 and May 15, 2002. Results from Phase I were documented in a Topical Report issued on May 15, 2003 (Nsakala, et al., 2003), with the recommendation to evaluate, during Phase II, the Oxyfuel-fired CFB concept. DOE NETL accepted this recommendation, and, hence approved the project continuation into Phase II. Phase 2. The second phase of the project--which includes pilot-scale tests of an oxygen-fired circulating fluidized bed test facility with performance and economic analyses--is currently underway at ALSTOM's Power Plant Laboratories, located in Windsor, CT (US). The objective of the pilot-scale testing is to generate detailed technical data needed to establish advanced CFB design requirements and performance when firing coals and delayed petroleum coke in oxygen/carbon dioxide mixtures. Results will be used in the design of oxygen-fired CFB boilers--both retrofit and new Greenfield--as well as to provide a generic performance database for other researchers. At the conclusion of Phase 2, revised costs and performance will be estimated for both retrofit and new Greenfield design concepts with CO2 capture, purification, compression, and liquefaction.

  1. Fire alarm system acceptance test procedure for Project W-164, Sample Equipment Cleaning Facility

    SciTech Connect

    McKenna, P.J.

    1995-04-17

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the Fire Protection System functions as required by project criteria. The test results will be issued as an acceptance test report (ATR) after all testing is complete. Components that are covered by this procedure are the fire alarm control system, power transfer to battery backup, switching circuits, alarm input devices, and battery capacity and recharge capability. Bldg 6268 is part of the Effluent Treatment and Laboratory Project.

  2. Fire protection research for energy technology projects; FY 79 year-end report

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Alvares, N.J.; Lipska, A.E.; Ford, H.; Beason, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes work performed in fiscal year 1979, on a DOE funded study entitled Fire Protection Research for Energy Technology Projects. The primary goal of this program is to ensure that fire protection measures for Fusion Energy Experiments (FEE) evolve concurrently with the complexity of FEE. Ultimately, it is planned that the detailed study of fusion experiments will provide an analytical methodology which can be applied to the full range of energy technology projects. We attempt to achieve this objective by coordinately advancing 3 (three) major task areas; (a) determine the fire hazards of current FEE facilities (b) assess the ability of accepted fire management strategies to meet and negate the hazard, (c) perform unique research into problem areas we have identified to provide input into analytical fire growth and damage assessment models.

  3. DOE Fire Protection Handbook, Volume II. Fire effects and electrical and electronic equipment

    SciTech Connect

    1994-08-18

    Electrical and electronic equipment, including computers, are used at critical facilities throughout the Department of Energy (DOE). Hughes Associates, Inc. was tasked to evaluate the potential thermal and nonthermal effects of a fire on the electrical and electronic equipment and methods to analyze, evaluate, and assist in controlling the potential effects. This report is a result of a literature review and analysis on the effects of fire on electrical equipment. It is directed at three objectives: (1) Provide a state-of-the-art review and analysis of thermal and nonthermal damage to electrical and electronic equipment; (2) Develop a procedure for estimating thermal and nonthermal damage considerations using current knowledge; and (3) Develop an R&D/T&E program to fill gaps in the current knowledge needed to further perfect the procedure. The literature review was performed utilizing existing electronic databases. Sources searched included scientific and engineering databases including Dialog, NTIS, SciSearch and NIST BFRL literature. Incorporated in the analysis is unpublished literature and conversations with members of the ASTM E-5.21, Smoke Corrosivity, and researchers in the electronics field. This report does not consider the effects of fire suppression systems or efforts. Further analysis of the potential impact is required in the future.

  4. Proceedings of the advanced coal-fired power systems `95 review meeting, Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, H.M.; Mollot, D.J.; Venkataraman, V.K.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains papers which were presented at the advanced coal-fired power sytems review meeting. This is volume II. Topics include: hot gas filter issues, hazardous air pollutants, sorbent development, and separation technologies. Individual papers were processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

  5. Design criteria document, Fire Protection Task, K Basin Essential Systems Recovery, Project W-405

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B.H.

    1994-12-14

    The K Basin were constructed in the early 1950`s with a 20 year design life. The K Basins are currently in their third design life and are serving as a near term storage facility for irradiated N Reactor fuel until an interim fuel storage solution can be implemented. In April 1994, Project W-405, K Basin Essential Systems Recovery, was established to address (among other things) the immediate fire protection needs of the 100K Area. A Fire Barrier Evaluation was performed for the wall between the active and inactive areas of the 105KE and 105KW buildings. This evaluation concludes that the wall is capable of being upgraded to provide an equivalent level of fire resistance as a qualified barrier having a fire resistance rating of 2 hours. The Fire Protection Task is one of four separate Tasks included within the scope of Project W405, K Basin Essential systems Recovery. The other three Tasks are the Water Distribution System Task, the Electrical System Task, and the Maintenance Shop/Support Facility Task. The purpose of Project W-405`s Fire Protection Task is to correct Life Safety Code (NFPA 101) non-compliances and to provide fire protection features in Buildings 105KE, 105KW and 190KE that are essential for assuring the safe operation and storage of spent nuclear fuel at the 100K Area Facilities` Irradiated Fuel Storage Basins (K Basins).

  6. Operation Sun Beam, Shots Little Feller I and II. Project Officer's report - Project 1. 9. Crater size and shape

    SciTech Connect

    Rooke, A.D.; Strange, J.N.

    1985-09-01

    Objectives of Project 1.9 were to obtain the dimensions of the apparent and true craters formed in desert alluvium by the Little Feller II event, a low airburst, and to measure the permanent earth deformation occurring within the plastic response zone. A later requirement was the measurement of the apparent crater formed by Little Feller I, fired ten days after Little Feller II. The Little Feller II experiment used colored sand columns, vertically embedded in the vicinity of ground zero, to enable postshot measurement of permanent earth deformation below the apparent crater. In this report, postshot excavation and mapping of these columns is discussed, the results are evaluated, and correlation is made with previous cratering data.

  7. Launch Vehicle Fire Accident Preliminary Analysis of a Liquid-Metal Cooled Thermionic Nuclear Reactor: TOPAZ-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, G.; Zhao, S.; Ruan, K.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, launch vehicle propellant fire accident analysis of TOPAZ-II reactor has been done by a thermionic reactor core analytic code-TATRHG(A) developed by author. When a rocket explodes on a launch pad, its payload-TOPAZ-II can be subjected to a severe thermal environment from the resulting fireball. The extreme temperatures associated with propellant fires can create a destructive environment in or near the fireball. Different kind of propellants - liquid propellant and solid propellant which will lead to different fire temperature are considered. Preliminary analysis shows that the solid propellant fires can melt the whole toxic beryllium radial reflector.

  8. The ELISE II Project: A Digital Image Library for Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strunz, Bob; Waters, Mairead

    This paper describes the progress made under the ELISE II electronic image library project from a technical standpoint. The ELISE II project is a European-wide initiative that aims to provide a comprehensive electronic image library service for Europe. It is funded under the European Commission, DG XIII-E, Telematics for Libraries Initiative. The…

  9. Simulating fire and forest dynamics for a coordinated landscape fuel treatment project in the Sierra Nevada

    Treesearch

    Brandon M. Collins; Scott L. Stephens; Gary B. Roller; John Battles

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate an actual landscape fuel treatment project that was designed by local U. S. Forest Service managers in the northern Sierra Nevada. We model the effects of this project at reducing landscape-level fire behavior at multiple time steps, up to nearly 30 yr beyond treatment implementation. Additionally, we modeled planned treatments under multiple diameter-...

  10. NDCX-II project commencing at LBNL

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A; Kwan, J

    2009-10-22

    Earlier this year, the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fusion Energy Sciences approved the NDCX-II project, a second-generation Neutralized Drift Compression eXperiment. NDCX-II is a collaborative effort of scientists and engineers from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), in a formal collaboration known as the Virtual National Laboratory for Heavy Ion Fusion Science (HIFS-VNL). Supported by $11 M of funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, construction at LBNL commenced in July of 2009, with completion anticipated in March of 2012. Applications of this facility will include studies of: the basic physics of the poorly understood 'warm dense matter' regime of temperatures around 1 eV and densities near solid, using uniform, volumetric ion heating of thin foil targets; ion energy coupling into an ablating plasma (such as that which occurs in an inertial fusion target) using beams with time-varying kinetic energy; space-charge-dominated ion beam dynamics; and beam focusing and pulse compression in neutralizing plasma. The machine will complement facilities at GSI in Darmstadt, Germany, but will employ lower ion kinetic energies and commensurately shorter stopping ranges in matter. Much of this research will contribute directly toward the collaboration's ultimate goal of electric power production via heavy-ion beam-driven inertial confinement fusion ('Heavy-Ion Fusion', or HIF). In inertial fusion, a target containing fusion fuel is heated by energetic 'driver' beams, and undergoes a miniature thermonuclear explosion. Currently the largest U.S. research program in inertial confinement is at Livermore's National Ignition Facility (NIF), a multibillion-dollar, stadium-sized laser facility optimized for studying physics issues relevant to nuclear stockpile stewardship. Nonetheless, NIF is expected to establish the fundamental feasibility of

  11. Final Report: Fire Prevention, Detection, and Suppression Project, Exploration Technology Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, Gary A.

    2011-01-01

    The Fire Prevention, Detection, and Suppression (FPDS) project is a technology development effort within the Exploration Technology Development Program of the Exploration System Missions Directorate (ESMD) that addresses all aspects of fire safety aboard manned exploration systems. The overarching goal for work in the FPDS area is to develop technologies that will ensure crew health and safety on exploration missions by reducing the likelihood of a fire, or, if one does occur, minimizing the risk to the crew, mission, or system. This is accomplished by addressing the areas of (1) fire prevention and material flammability, (2) fire signatures and detection, and (3) fire suppression and response. This report describes the outcomes of this project from the formation of the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) in October 2005 to September 31, 2010 when the Exploration Technology Development Program was replaced by the Enabling Technology Development and Demonstration Program. NASA s fire safety work will continue under this new program and will build upon the accomplishments described herein.

  12. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): Additive Manufactured Hot Fire Planning and Testing in GRC Cell 32 Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fikes, John C.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this project is to hot fire test an additively manufactured thrust chamber assembly TCA (injector and thrust chamber). GRC will install the additively manufactured Inconel 625 injector, two additively manufactured (SLM) water cooled Cu-Cr thrust chamber barrels and one additively manufactured (SLM) water cooled Cu-Cr thrust chamber nozzle on the test stand in Cell 32 and perform hot fire testing of the integrated TCA.

  13. Landfire: Landscape Fire and Resource Management Planning Tools Project

    Treesearch

    Kevin C. Ryan; Kristine M. Lee; Matthew G. Rollins; Zhiliang Zhu; James Smith; Darren Johnson

    2006-01-01

    Managers are faced with reducing hazardous fuel, restoring fire regimes, and decreasing the threat of catastrophic wildfire. Often, the comprehensive, scientifically-credible data and applications needed to test alternative fuel treatments across multi-ownership landscapes are lacking. Teams from the USDA Forest Service, Department of the Interior, and The Nature...

  14. Masfile--II Pilot Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Five Associated Univ. Libraries, Syracuse, NY.

    The report prepared for the Five Associated University Libraries (FAUL) by the Technical Information Dissemination Bureau (TIDB) at Suny-Buffalo is divided into nine sections: (1) a summary of procedures used to accomplish the specified MASFILE-II tasks; (2) a graphic comparison of the MARC-II and the MASFILE-II formats; (3) recommend…

  15. 18 CFR 415.21 - Class II projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Class II projects. 415.21 Section 415.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION... part, include all projects other than Class I projects, in non-tidal areas of the basin, which involve...

  16. 18 CFR 415.21 - Class II projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Class II projects. 415.21 Section 415.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION... part, include all projects other than Class I projects, in non-tidal areas of the basin, which involve...

  17. 18 CFR 415.21 - Class II projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Class II projects. 415.21 Section 415.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION... part, include all projects other than Class I projects, in non-tidal areas of the basin, which involve...

  18. 18 CFR 415.21 - Class II projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Class II projects. 415.21 Section 415.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION... part, include all projects other than Class I projects, in non-tidal areas of the basin, which involve...

  19. 18 CFR 415.21 - Class II projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Class II projects. 415.21 Section 415.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION... part, include all projects other than Class I projects, in non-tidal areas of the basin, which involve...

  20. Future fire emissions associated with projected land use change in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marlier, M. E.; DeFries, R. S.; Pennington, D.; Ordway, E.; Nelson, E.; Mickley, L.; Koplitz, S.

    2013-12-01

    Indonesia has experienced rapid land use change in past decades as forests and peatlands are cleared for agricultural development, including oil palm and timber plantations1. Fires are the predominant method of clearing and the subsequent emissions can have important public health impacts by contributing to regional particulate matter and ozone concentrations2. This regional haze was dramatically seen in Singapore during June 2013 due to the transport of emissions from fires in Sumatra. Our study is part of a larger project that will quantify the public health impact of various land use development scenarios for Sumatra over the coming decades. Here, we describe how we translate economic projections of land use change into future fire emissions inventories for GEOS-Chem atmospheric transport simulations. We relate past GFED3 fire emissions3 to detailed 1-km land use change data and MODIS fire radiative power observations, and apply these relationships to future estimates of land use change. The goal of this interdisciplinary project is to use modeling results to interact with policy makers and influence development strategies in ways that protect public health. 1Miettinen et al. 2011. Deforestation rates in insular Southeast Asia between 2000 and 2010. Glob. Change Biol.,17 (7), 2261-2270. 2Marlier et al. 2013. El Niño and health risks from landscape fire emissions in southeast Asia. Nature Clim. Change, 3, 131-136. 3van der Werf et al. 2010. Global fire emissions and the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural, and peat fires (1997-2009). Atmos. Chem. Physics, 10 (23), 11707-11735.

  1. Project Planning Resulted in Outstanding Building Deficiencies and Decreased Functionality of the Main Fire Station at Naval Station Great Lakes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-14

    emergency medical technicians5 to the main fire station. The scope of the project also included replacing the roofing, insulation, doors, fire sprinklers ...emergency lighting, and fire alarms. In addition, the scope included repairing water and wastewater piping and mechanical systems to meet...rooms, alert systems , and dorm rooms. PPE Storage Was Inadequate The storage area for PPE in the fire station did not comply with the

  2. Fiber optic timing, firing and control system for high energy density physics experiments at Pegasus II

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, C.R.; Rohlev, L.; Earley, L.; Cochrane, J.

    1995-12-01

    Several fiber optic systems have been designed and implemented for the high energy density experiments at Pegasus II. The main fiber optic system developed for Pegasus II, remotely controls both the charging and discharging of the capacitor discharge unit (CDU). This fiber optic system is also used to distribute the timing and firing information specific to each experiment to the operators and experimenters. The timing and firing information includes the voltage on the CDU as it is being charged, a confirmation signal indicating the CDU has discharged and common timing signals based on the output signals on the load ring of the CDU. Various fiber optic systems were implemented to transfer diagnostic information related to the discharge of the main capacitor bank to the control room. The diagnostics include the current, electric field, and vacuum pressure at the target area. Not only do these fiber optic systems provide the control and monitor signals for the experiments at Pegasus II, they have the added value of preventing premature firing of the capacitor bank, eliminating ground loops between the test area and the control room and providing overall increased operator safety.

  3. FIRE_ACE_UTRECHT_TOWER

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-10-28

    FIRE_ACE_UTRECHT_TOWER Project Title:  FIRE II ACE Discipline:  ... L3 Platform:  SHEBA Ship Site; Meteorological tower Instrument:  Eppley precision pyrgeometers Meteorological tower Spatial Coverage:  Fairbanks, Alaska and the surrounding ...

  4. Sears Point Tidal Marsh Restoration Project: Phase II

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP Sears Point Tidal Marsh Restoration Project: Phase II, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  5. Chapter 10 - Using simulation modeling to assess historical reference conditions for vegetation and fire regimes for the LANDFIRE Prototype Project

    Treesearch

    Sarah Pratt; Lisa Holsinger; Robert E. Keane

    2006-01-01

    A critical component of the Landscape Fire and Resource Management Planning Tools Prototype Project, or LANDFIRE Prototype Project, was the development of a nationally consistent method for estimating historical reference conditions for vegetation composition and structure and wildland fire regimes. These estimates of past vegetation composition and condition are used...

  6. Lessons Learned from FIPSE Projects II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Dora; And Others

    This monograph describes 30 college and university programs funded by the Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education from 1989 to 1991. Each description includes information on program purpose, project activities, major insights and lessons, project continuation, and available information. The first group of 10 are programs focused on…

  7. Project NECESSITIES, Phase II. Volume II, People, Places and Things.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abt Associates, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    The activities and materials in this Project NECESSITIES social studies unit (People, Places and Things) are meant to act as a framework by which the teacher may devise additional content material appropriate to her own students' unique background. The unit, devised for use with primary school students, has as one of its primary emphases the use…

  8. Fire

    Treesearch

    John A. Stanturf; Scott L. Goodrick

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsClimate forecasts indicate that the South’s spring and fall wildfire seasons will be extended.Prescribed fires, currently conducted on roughly a 3 to 5 year rotation across much of the South, would need to become more frequent if conditions become drier.Major wildfire events, such as the 2007...

  9. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF COAL-FIRED HIGH PERFORMANCE POWER SYSTEMS PHASE II AND III

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-30

    This report presents work carried out under contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 "Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High Performance Systems Phase II and III." The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: à thermal efficiency (HHV) >47%; à NOx, SOx, and particulates <10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard); à coal providing >65% of heat input; à all solid wastes benign; à cost of electricity <90% of present plants. Phase I, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase I also included preliminary R&D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This phase, Phase II, involves the development and testing of plant subsystems, refinement and updating of the HIPPS commercial plant design, and the site selection and engineering design of a HIPPS prototype plant. Work reported herein is from: à Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; à Task 6 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design Update.

  10. A Status Report on the PBFA II Construction Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    creating a high use rate for each shot. These components include laser-triggered switches in the pulse-forming section, spark gap switches in the Marx ...generators, the laser trigger assembly, Marx trigger units, and laser standpipes. The project team decided to include a system to recycle SF6 because...installed. This system includes 36 Marx generators, a charging subsystem, a firing subsystem, and a system of output-transfer switches; more detail

  11. Critical path method applied to research project planning: Fire Economics Evaluation System (FEES)

    Treesearch

    Earl B. Anderson; R. Stanton Hales

    1986-01-01

    The critical path method (CPM) of network analysis (a) depicts precedence among the many activities in a project by a network diagram; (b) identifies critical activities by calculating their starting, finishing, and float times; and (c) displays possible schedules by constructing time charts. CPM was applied to the development of the Forest Service's Fire...

  12. Fire prevention in California's Riverside County Headstart Project...an evaluation

    Treesearch

    William S. Folkman; Jean Taylor

    1972-01-01

    An especially designed series of fire prevention lessons were taught to preschool children in the Headstart Project in Riverside County, Calif. Their effectiveness was evaluated by observing classroom reaction and by testing the children at the end of the year. The results suggest that this type of educational approach is feasible.

  13. Simulation of Neural Firing Dynamics: A Student Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kletsky, E. J.

    This paper describes a student project in digital simulation techniques that is part of a graduate systems analysis course entitled Biosimulation. The students chose different simulation techniques to solve a problem related to the neuron model. (MLH)

  14. Military Family Coping Project - Phase II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    anxiety. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Soldier, Intimate Significant Other, Parents, Deployment, Stress, Depression, Anxiety, Life Satisfaction, Addiction , Trauma...Anxiety, Life Satisfaction, Addiction , Trauma 4 The Military Family Coping Project reflects two phases. The first consisted of a series of focus

  15. The NACRE-II Project - A Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yi; Goriely, Stephane; Takahashi, Kohji

    2010-06-01

    The NACRE-II project, which aims at an update and extension of the previous NACRE compilation of the thermonuclear reaction rates of charged-particle induced reactions on light nuclei of astrophysical interest, is briefly reviewed. After a short introduction to the history of the project, a few results are presented in order to exemplify the current status.

  16. Alberta Education Energy Conservation Project. Phase II: Internal Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundmark, Dana

    This report is based on the Alberta Education Energy Conservation Project - Phase II. The project was a follow-up to an earlier study, extending from June 1980 to June 1983, in which government funding and engineering manpower were used to conduct an energy management program in 52 selected pilot schools in 5 areas of the province. The report…

  17. Diode Laser Diagnostics for Gas Species and Soot in Large Fires: LDRD Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher R. Shaddix; Sarah W. Allendorf; Gary L. Hubbard; David K. Ottesen; Louis A. Gritzo

    2001-06-01

    The thermal hazard posed by a fire to a weapon or other engineered system is a consequence of combined radiation and convection from high-temperature soot and gases. The development of advanced, predictive models of this hazard requires detailed knowledge of the transient chemical structure and soot distributions within real-scale fires. At present, there are no measurements, and hence limited understanding, of transient gaseous species generation and transport in large, fully turbulent fires. As part of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to develop such an experimental capability, near-infrared tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) has been identified as the most promising diagnostic technique for making these measurements. In order to develop this capability, significant efforts were applied to choosing optimal species and transitions for detection, to developing an effective multiplexing strategy for several lasers undergoing wavelength modulation spectroscopy with fast laser ramp scans, to developing a methodology for multipassing the TDL beams across a small probe volume, and finally, to designing a water-cooled, fiber-coupled probe for performing these measurements locally within large pool fires. All of these challenges were surmounted during the course of this project, and in the end a preliminary, unique dataset of combined water vapor, acetylene, and soot concentrations was obtained from a 1-m diameter JP-8 pool fire.

  18. The Ned IIS project - forest ecosystem management

    Treesearch

    W. Potter; D. Nute; J. Wang; F. Maier; Michael Twery; H. Michael Rauscher; P. Knopp; S. Thomasma; M. Dass; H. Uchiyama

    2002-01-01

    For many years we have held to the notion that an Intelligent Information System (IIS) is composed of a unified knowledge base, database, and model base. The main idea behind this notion is the transparent processing of user queries. The system is responsible for "deciding" which information sources to access in order to fulfil a query regardless of whether...

  19. Guidelines of the Design of Electropyrotechnic Firing Circuit for Unmanned Flight and Ground Test Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, Guillermo A.; Lucy, Melvin H.; Massie, Jeffrey J.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center, Engineering Directorate, Electronic System Branch, is responsible for providing pyrotechnic support capabilities to Langley Research Center unmanned flight and ground test projects. These capabilities include device selection, procurement, testing, problem solving, firing system design, fabrication and testing; ground support equipment design, fabrication and testing; checkout procedures and procedure?s training to pyro technicians. This technical memorandum will serve as a guideline for the design, fabrication and testing of electropyrotechnic firing systems. The guidelines will discuss the entire process beginning with requirements definition and ending with development and execution.

  20. Environmental Assessment for the Warren Station externally fired combined cycle demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The proposed Penelec project is one of 5 projects for potential funding under the fifth solicitation under the Clean Coal Technology program. In Penelec, two existing boilers would be replaced at Warren Station, PA; the new unit would produce 73 MW(e) in a combined cycle mode (using both gas-fired and steam turbines). The project would fill the need for a full utility-size demonstration of externally fire combined cycle (EFCC) technology as the next step toward commercialization. This environmental assessment was prepared for compliance with NEPA; its purpose is to provide sufficient basis for determining whether to prepare an environmental impact statement or to issue a finding of no significant impact. It is divided into the sections: purpose and need for proposed action; alternatives; brief description of affected environment; environmental consequences, including discussion of commercial operation beyond the demonstration period.

  1. Emissions, Monitoring, and Control of Mercury from Subbituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Bland; Jesse Newcomer; Allen Kephart; Volker Schmidt; Gerald Butcher

    2008-10-31

    Western Research Institute (WRI), in conjunction with Western Farmers Electric Cooperative (WFEC), has teamed with Clean Air Engineering of Pittsburgh PA to conduct a mercury monitoring program at the WEFC Hugo plant in Oklahoma. Sponsored by US Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-26-98FT40323, the program included the following members of the Subbituminous Energy Coalition (SEC) as co-sponsors: Missouri Basin Power Project; DTE Energy; Entergy; Grand River Dam Authority; and Nebraska Public Power District. This research effort had five objectives: (1) determine the mass balance of mercury for subbituminous coal-fired power plant; (2) assess the distribution of mercury species in the flue gas (3) perform a comparison of three different Hg test methods; (4) investigate the long-term (six months) mercury variability at a subbituminous coal-fired power plant; and (5) assess operation and maintenance of the Method 324 and Horiba CEMS utilizing plant personnel.

  2. Predicting fire activity in the US over the next 50 years using new IPCC climate projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Morton, D. C.; Collatz, G. J.

    2012-12-01

    Fire is an integral part of the Earth system with both direct and indirect effects on terrestrial ecosystems, the atmosphere, and human societies (Bowman et al. 2009). Climate conditions regulate fire activities through a variety of ways, e.g., influencing the conditions for ignition and fire spread, changing vegetation growth and decay and thus the accumulation of fuels for combustion (Arora and Boer 2005). Our recent study disclosed the burned area (BA) in US is strongly correlated with potential evaporation (PE), a measurement of climatic dryness derived from National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) climate data (Morton et al. 2012). The correlation varies spatially and temporally. With regard to fire of peak fire seasons, Northwestern US, Great Plains and Alaska have the strongest BA/PE relationship. Using the recently released the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED) Version 3 (van der Werf et al. 2010), we showed increasing BA in the last decade in most of NCA regions. Longer time series of Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) (Eidenshink et al. 2007) data showed the increasing trends occurred in all NCA regions from 1984 to 2010. This relationship between BA and PE provides us the basis to predict the future fire activities in the projected climate conditions. In this study, we build spatially explicit predictors using the historic PE/BA relationship. PE from 2011 to 2060 is calculated from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) data and the historic PE/BA relationship is then used to estimate BA. This study examines the spatial pattern and temporal dynamics of the future US fires driven by new climate predictions for the next 50 years. Reference: Arora, V.K., & Boer, G.J. (2005). Fire as an interactive component of dynamic vegetation models. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 110 Bowman, D.M.J.S., Balch, J.K., Artaxo, P., Bond, W.J., Carlson, J.M., Cochrane, M.A., D

  3. EBR-II and TREAT Digitization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, George W.; Rabiti, Cristian

    2015-09-01

    Digitizing the technical drawings for EBR-II and TREAT provides multiple benefits. Moving the scanned or hard copy drawings to modern 3-D CAD (Computer Aided Drawing) format saves data that could be lost over time. The 3-D drawings produce models that can interface with other drawings to make complex assemblies. The 3-D CAD format can also include detailed material properties and parametric coding that can tie critical dimensions together allowing easier modification. Creating the new files from the old drawings has found multiple inconsistencies that are being flagged or corrected improving understanding of the reactor(s).

  4. Software Quality Measurement Demonstration Project II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    Report ............................... 1-7 1.4-4 Time Log .................................................. 1-8 2.0-1 ECOAEA Scores for Worksheet 1...34 Conduct independent software quality evaluation and validation to include goal specification, data collection, worksheet scoring, assessment of time logs ...8217n ’~’t"~ i m ’u ~ ~ ej 𔃺 vall-datc. s;Cores )..3SieL dd Spcf ’,t~ii,, it -~ L Th~ 1r 3QM prc:"d’:ae 1c ricvn r )o aL used i n measuring the cpaiity

  5. CDF Run II silicon tracking projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sill, Alan; CDF Collaboration

    2000-06-01

    Design features, functionality, and expected performance are reviewed for the silicon charged particle track detectors to be used by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) during the upcoming Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron. The original design has been supplemented by addiition of a new layer of silicon mounted on the beam pipe that improves the vertexing performance of the combined assembly. Progress has been made in many areas of design and construction of the silicon sensors, readout electronics, and associated systems. The resulting detector array should provide substantial improvements in coverage and performance over those of previous CDF silicon vertex detectors.

  6. Multivariate polynomial interpolation under projectivities II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasca, M.; Mühlbach, G.

    1992-10-01

    This is the second part of a note on interpolation by real polynomials of several real variables. For certain regular knot systems (geometric or regular meshes, tensor product grids), Neville-Aitken algorithms are derived explicitly. By application of a projectivity they can be extended in a simple way to arbitrary (k+1)-pencil lattices as recently introduced by Lee and Phillips. A numerical example is given.

  7. Predicting Fire-Regime Responses to Climate Change Over the Past Millennium: Implications of Paleodata-Model Comparisons for Future Projections of Fire Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, A. M.; Higuera, P.; Abatzoglou, J. T.; Duffy, P.; Hu, F.

    2016-12-01

    . This work highlights differential skill in predicting fire activity beyond the observational record, implying greater uncertainty for projections in tundra ecosystems relative to boreal forest. Future work will focus on using these comparisons to constrain 21st-century projections of fire activity in Alaska.

  8. Uncertainties in fuel loading and fire consumption calculations and the Smoke and Emissions Model Intercomparison Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larkin, N.; Solomon, R.; Strand, T.; Raffuse, S. M.; Craig, K.

    2009-12-01

    Fire and fuel managers often need to know how much fuel will be consumed by a fire, and how much smoke the fire will produce. Many factors influence the end result, including fuel type, loading, and moisture, quantity of live and dead fuels, terrain, and meteorology. A variety of fuel models and consumption models have been developed to help provide estimated quantities of fuel consumption and subsequent smoke production. We present results from this work, done as part of the Smoke and Emissions Model Intercomparison Project that show that the specific choice of model and model coupling can have a large effect on the final answer. We have used four different consumption models (CONSUME3, EPM, FEPS, and FOFEM) with three different fuel loading maps (NFDRS, Hardy, FCCS) to bracket the simulated results. A new web-based database viewer now allows both scientists and land and fire managers to directly compare various results by selecting a fuel loading map and consumption model. For model users interested in information for a specific fire these comparisons can be useful in understanding the uncertainties resulting from different model choices.

  9. Direct and indirect effects of climate change on projected future fire regimes in the western United States.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhihua; Wimberly, Michael C

    2016-01-15

    We asked two research questions: (1) What are the relative effects of climate change and climate-driven vegetation shifts on different components of future fire regimes? (2) How does incorporating climate-driven vegetation change into future fire regime projections alter the results compared to projections based only on direct climate effects? We used the western United States (US) as study area to answer these questions. Future (2071-2100) fire regimes were projected using statistical models to predict spatial patterns of occurrence, size and spread for large fires (>400 ha) and a simulation experiment was conducted to compare the direct climatic effects and the indirect effects of climate-driven vegetation change on fire regimes. Results showed that vegetation change amplified climate-driven increases in fire frequency and size and had a larger overall effect on future total burned area in the western US than direct climate effects. Vegetation shifts, which were highly sensitive to precipitation pattern changes, were also a strong determinant of the future spatial pattern of burn rates and had different effects on fire in currently forested and grass/shrub areas. Our results showed that climate-driven vegetation change can exert strong localized effects on fire occurrence and size, which in turn drive regional changes in fire regimes. The effects of vegetation change for projections of the geographic patterns of future fire regimes may be at least as important as the direct effects of climate change, emphasizing that accounting for changing vegetation patterns in models of future climate-fire relationships is necessary to provide accurate projections at continental to global scales.

  10. Methodological Report: Transnational European Evaluation Project II (TEEP II). ENQA Occasional Papers 9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ENQA (European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education), 2006

    2006-01-01

    The second Transnational European Evaluation Project (TEEP II) was undertaken between August 2004 and June 2006. A methodology for evaluating transnational programmes had previously been tested during 2002-2003 by ENQA (European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education) in the first Transnational European Evaluation Project (TEEP I).…

  11. Detection of multilayer cirrus cloud systems using AVHRR Data: Verification based on FIRE II IFO composite measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Ou, S.C.; Liou, K.N.; Baum, B.A.

    1996-02-01

    A numerical scheme has been developed to identify multilayer cirrus cloud systems using Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data. It is based on the physical properties of the AVHRR channels 1-2 reflectance ratios, the brightness temperature differences between channels 4 and 5, and the channel 4 brightness temperatures. In this scheme, clear pixels are first separated from cloudy pixels, which are then classified into three types: cirrus, cirrus/low clouds, and low clouds. The authors have applied this scheme to the satellite data collected over the FIRE II IFO [First ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project) Regional Experiment II intensive field observation] area during nine overpasses within seven observation dates. Determination of the threshold values used in the detection scheme are based on statistical analyses of these satellite data. The authors have validated the detection results against the cloudy condition inferred from the collocated and coincident ground-based lidar and radar images, balloonborne replicator data, and National Center for Atmospheric Research CLASS (Cross-chain Loran Atmospheric Sounding System) humidity soundings on a case-by-case basis. In every case, the satellite detection results are consistent with the cloudy conditions inferred from these dependent and complementary measurements. The present scheme is well suited for the detection of midlatitude, multilayer cirrus cloud systems and tropical anvils. 25 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Detection of Multilayer Cirrus Cloud Systems Using AVHRR Data: Verification Based on FIRE II IFO Composite Measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, S. C.; Liou, K. N.; Baum, B. A.

    1996-02-01

    A numerical scheme has been developed to identify multilayer cirrus cloud systems using Advanced Very Higher Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data. It is based on the physical properties of the AVHRR channels 1 2 reflectance ratios, the brightness temperature differences between channels 4 and 5, and the channel 4 brightness temperatures. In this scheme, clear pixels are first separated from cloudy pixels, which are then classified into three types: cirrus, cirrus/low cloud, and low clouds. The authors have applied this scheme to the satellite data collected over the FIRE II IFO [First ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project) Regional Experiment II intensive field observations area during nine overseas within seven observation dates. Determination of the threshold values used in the detection scheme are based on statistical analysts of these satellite data. The authors have validated the detection results against the cloudy conditions inferred from the collocated and coincident ground-based lidar and radar images, balloonborne replicator data, and National Center for Atmospheric Research CLASS (Cross-chain Loran Atmospheric Sounding System) humidity soundings on a case-by-case basis. In every case, the satellite detection results are consistent with the cloudy conditions inferred from these independent and complementary measurement. The present scheme is well suited for the detection of midlatitude, multilayer cirrus cloud systems and tropical anvils.

  13. NDCX-II project commencing at LBNL

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A; Kwan, J

    2009-10-26

    NDCX-II is the second-generation Neutralized Drift Compression eXperiment, capable of accelerating and strongly bunching tens of nanoCoulombs of non-relativistic ions, for applications requiring nanosecond-scale pulses with short stopping ranges. As with the existing NDCX-I at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), the new machine is based on the technique of neutralized drift compression, whereby a head-to-tail velocity gradient is imparted to the beam, which then shortens as it drifts in a neutralizing plasma that suppresses space-charge forces. The figure shows the layout of the machine, to be sited at LBNL. It will make extensive use of induction cells and other parts from the decommissioned Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). It will be extensible and reconfigurable; in the configuration that has received the most emphasis, each pulse will deliver 30-50 nC of Li+ ions at 3 MeV into a mm-scale spot onto a thin-foil target. Pulse compression to {approx} 1 ns begins in the accelerator and finishes in the drift compression line; the beam is manipulated using suitably tailored voltage waveforms in the accelerating gaps. NDCX-II employs novel beam dynamics. To use the 200 kV Blumlein pulsed power from ATA (blue cylinders in the figure), the pulse duration must first be reduced from an initial 500 ns to less than 70 ns. This shortening is accomplished in an initial stage of non-neutral drift compression, downstream of the injector and the first few induction cells (note the spaces between induction cells at the left end of the figure). The compression is rapid enough that fewer than ten long-pulse waveform generators are needed, with Blumleins powering the rest of the acceleration. Extensive particle-in-cell simulation studies have enabled an attractive physics design that meets the stringent cost goal. Snapshots from a simulation video are shown in the figure. Studies on a dedicated test stand are characterizing

  14. Development of custom fire behavior fuel models from FCCS fuelbeds for the Savannah River fuel assessment project.

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Joe, H.

    2009-07-23

    The purpose of this project is to create fire behavior fuel models that replicate the fire behavior characteristics (spread rate and fireline intensity) produced by 23 candidate FCCS fuelbeds developed for the Savannah River National Wildlife Refuge. These 23 fuelbeds were created by FERA staff in consultation with local fuel managers. The FCCS produces simulations of surface fire spread rate and flame length (and therefore fireline intensity) for each of these fuelbeds, but it does not produce maps of those fire behavior characteristics or simulate fire growth—those tasks currently require the use of the FARSITE and/or FlamMap software systems. FARSITE and FlamMap do not directly use FCCS fuelbeds, but instead use standard or custom fire behavior fuel models to describe surface fuel characteristics for fire modeling. Therefore, replicating fire growth and fire behavior potential calculations using FCCS-simulated fire characteristics requires the development of custom fuel models that mimic, as closely as possible, the fire behavior characteristics produced by the FCCS for each fuelbed, over a range of fuel moisture and wind speeds.

  15. Give-Away Book Programs Combined with Title II Reading Projects. ESEA Title II and The Right to Read, Notable Reading Projects No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This is the ninth report describing notable reading projects funded under Title II of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. Projects combining Title II reading projects with a give-away book program in Alabama, Illinois, Indiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, and New Jersey are described. Although Title II funds cannot be used to provide books to…

  16. Future projections of fire danger in Brazilian biomes in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libonati, Renata; Silva, Patrícia; DaCamara, Carlos; Bastos, Ana

    2016-04-01

    In the global context, Brazil is one of the regions more severely affected by fire occurrences, with important consequences in the global CO2 balance, the state of the Amazon forest and the ecological diversity of the region. Brazil is also one of the few regions experiencing a raise in annual mean temperature above 2.5o during the 20th century, which may further increase between 2o and 7o until 2100 and, likely, be accompanied by a decrease in precipitation [1]. As the fire occurrence and severity largely depends on these two variables, it is worth assessing the evolution of fire danger for the coming decades. In order to obtain a detailed characterization of the future fire patterns in the different biomes of Brazil, we use outputs from a regional-downscaling of the EC-Earth climate model at 0.44 degrees spatial resolution for two future scenarios, an intermediate (RCP4.5) and a more severe (RCP8.5) one. We use a fire danger index specifically developed for the Brazilian climate and biome characteristics, the IFR from INPE. This index relies on values of maximum temperature, accumulated precipitation over different periods, minimum relative humidity and vegetation cover to estimate the likelihood of fire occurrence. We find a systematic increase of the days with critical fire risk, which is more pronounced in RCP8.5 and mostly affects months when fire activity takes place. Temperature increase is the most determinant factor for the increase in fire danger in the dry regions of savannah and shrubland, a result to be expected as fuel is already very dry. [1] Collins, M., R. Knutti, J. Arblaster, J.-L. Dufresne, T. Fichefet, P. Friedlingstein, X. Gao, W.J. Gutowski, T. Johns, G. Krinner, M. Shongwe, C. Tebaldi, A.J. Weaver and M. Wehner, 2013: Long-term Climate Change: Projections, Commitments and Irreversibility. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on

  17. Impacts of the Cerro Grande fire on Homestead era and Manhattan Project properties at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

    SciTech Connect

    McGehee, E. D.; Isaacson, J.

    2001-01-01

    In May of 2000, the Cerro Grande Fire burned approximately 8,000 acres of Department of Energy (DOE) managed land at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Although the fire was generally of low intensity, it impacted a significant number of LANL's cultural resources. Historic wooden properties were affected more heavily than prehistoric archaeological sites. This paper will provide an overview of the Homestead and Manhattan Project Periods at LANL and will discuss the effects of the Cerro Grande Fire on historic wooden properties. Post-fire cultural resource management issues will also be discussed.

  18. Initialization and Validation of a Simulation of Cirrus Using FIRE-II Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, D. L.; Kinne, S.; Pilewskie, P.; Alvarez, J. M.; Minnis, P.; Young, D. F.; Benjamin, S. G.; Eberhard, W. L.; Kropfli, R. A.; Matrosov, S. Y.; Snider, J. B.; Uttal, T. A.; Heymsfield, A. J.; Mace, G. G.; Melfi, S. H.; Starr, D. O'c.; Soden, J. J.

    1996-12-01

    Observations from a wide variety of instruments and platforms are used to validate many different aspects of a three-dimensional mesoscale simulation of the dynamics, cloud microphysics, and radiative transfer of a cirrus cloud system observed on 26 November 1991 during the second cirrus field program of the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Program (ISCCP) Regional Experiment (FIRE-II) located in southeastern Kansas. The simulation was made with a mesoscale dynamical model utilizing a simplified bulk water cloud scheme and a spectral model of radiative transfer. Expressions for cirrus optical properties for solar and infrared wavelength intervals as functions of ice water content and effective particle radius are modified for the midlatitude cirrus observed during FIRE-II and are shown to compare favorably with explicit size-resolving calculations of the optical properties. Rawinsonde, Raman lidar, and satellite data are evaluated and combined to produce a time-height cross section of humidity at the central FIRE-II site for model verification. Due to the wide spacing of rawinsondes and their infrequent release, important moisture features go undetected and are absent in the conventional analyses. The upper-tropospheric humidities used for the initial conditions were generally less than 50% of those inferred from satellite data, yet over the course of a 24-h simulation the model produced a distribution that closely resembles the large-scale features of the satellite analysis. The simulated distribution and concentration of ice compares favorably with data from radar, lidar, satellite, and aircraft. Direct comparison is made between the radiative transfer simulation and data from broadband and spectral sensors and inferred quantities such as cloud albedo, optical depth, and top-of-the-atmosphere 11-µm brightness temperature, and the 6.7-µm brightness temperature. Comparison is also made with theoretical heating rates calculated using the rawinsonde

  19. Removal of Mn(II) from the acid mine wastewaters using coal fired bottom ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahidin, M.; Sulaiman, T. N.; Muslim, A.; Gani, A.

    2017-06-01

    Acid mine wastewater (AMW), the wastewater from mining activities which has low pH about 3-5 and contains hazardous heavy metals such as Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb, etc. Those heavy metals pollution is of prime concern from the environmental view point. Among the heavy metals, Mn occupies the third position in the AMW from one the iron ore mining company in Aceh, Indonesia. In this study, the possibility use of bottom ash from coal fired boiler of steam power plants for the removal of Mn(II) in AMW has been investigated. Experimental has been conducted as follows. Activation of bottom ash was done both by physical and chemical treatments through heating at 270 °C and washing with NaOH activator 0.5 and 1 M. Adsorption test contains two parts observation; preliminary and primary experiments. Preliminary study is addressed to select the best condition of three independent variables i.e.: pH of AMW (3 & 7), bottom ash particle size (40, 60 & 100 mesh) and initial Mn(II) concentrations (100 & 600 mg/l). AMW used was synthetics wastewater. It was found that the best value for NaOH is 1 M, pH is 7, particle size is 100 meshes and initial Mn(II) concentration is 600 mg/l from the adsorption efficiency point of view. The maximum adsorption capacity (q e) is 63.7 mg/g with the efficiency of 85%.

  20. Radiative Enhancement Effects on Flame Spread (REEFS) Project Studied "Green House" Effects on Fire Spread

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, Suleyman A.; Ronney, Paul

    2003-01-01

    The Radiative Enhancement Effects on Flame Spread (REEFS) project, slated for flight aboard the International Space Station, reached a major milestone by holding its Science Concept Review this year. REEFS is led by principal investigator Paul Ronney from the University of Southern California in conjunction with a project team from the NASA Glenn Research Center. The study is focusing on flame spread over flat solid fuel beds to improve our understanding of more complex fires, such as those found in manned spacecraft and terrestrial buildings. The investigation has direct implications for fire safety, both for space and Earth applications, and extends previous work with emphasis on the atmospheres and flow environments likely to be present in fires that might occur in microgravity. These atmospheres will contain radiatively active gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) from combustion products, and likely gaseous fuels such as carbon monoxide (CO) from incomplete combustion of solid fuel, as well as flows induced by ventilation currents. During tests in the 2.2-Second Drop Tower and KC-135 aircraft at Glenn, the principal investigator introduced the use of foam fuels for flame spread experiments over thermally thick fuels to obtain large spread rates in comparison to those of dense fuels such as PMMA. This enables meaningful results to be obtained even in the 2.2 s available in drop tower experiments.

  1. Forest Management and the Evolution of Project Design in Dynamic Wildland Urban Interface Fire Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Truckee Ranger District on the Tahoe National Forest, in the heart of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, has a rich history of human activities. Native American influences, comstock-era logging, fire suppression, development, and recreation have all shaped the natural environment into what it is today. Like much of our national forests in California, forest conditions that have developed are generally much more homogenous and less resistant to disturbance from fire, insect, and disease than they might have been without the myriad of human influences. However, in order to improve the resiliency of our forests to stand replacing disturbances like high severity fire, while managing for integrated anthropomorphic values, it is imperative that management evolve to meet those dynamic needs. Recent advances in remote sensing and GIS allow land managers more access to forest information and can inform site specific prescriptions to change site specific undesirable conditions. It is ecologically and politically complex, yet our forests deserve that microscope. This particular presentation will focus on how the Truckee Ranger District began this process of incorporating several values, generated from stakeholder collaboration, into one project's goals and how those lessons learned informed their most recent project.

  2. A convective and radiative heat transfer analysis for the FIRE II forebody

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greendyke, Robert B.; Hartung, Lin C.

    1993-01-01

    A Navier-Stokes flowfield solution method (LAURA code) using finite-rate chemistry and two-temperature thermal nonequilibrium was used in combination with two nonequilibrium radiative heat transfer codes to calculate heating for the FIRE II vehicle. An axisymmetric model of the actual body shape was used. One radiative heating code (NEQAIR) was used in uncoupled fashion with the flowfield solver's energy equations, while the other code (LORAN) was used in both coupled and uncoupled variations. Several trajectory points ranging from highly nonequilibrium flow to near-equilibrium flow were used for a study of both convective and radiative heating over the vehicle. Considerable variation in radiative heating was seen at the extremes, while agreement was good in the intermediate trajectory points. Total heat transfer calculations gave good comparison until the peak heating trajectory points were encountered, and returned to good agreement for the last two equilibrium points.

  3. A convective and radiative heat transfer analysis for the FIRE II forebody

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greendyke, Robert B.; Hartung, Lin C.

    1993-07-01

    A Navier-Stokes flowfield solution method (LAURA code) using finite-rate chemistry and two-temperature thermal nonequilibrium was used in combination with two nonequilibrium radiative heat transfer codes to calculate heating for the FIRE II vehicle. An axisymmetric model of the actual body shape was used. One radiative heating code (NEQAIR) was used in uncoupled fashion with the flowfield solver's energy equations, while the other code (LORAN) was used in both coupled and uncoupled variations. Several trajectory points ranging from highly nonequilibrium flow to near-equilibrium flow were used for a study of both convective and radiative heating over the vehicle. Considerable variation in radiative heating was seen at the extremes, while agreement was good in the intermediate trajectory points. Total heat transfer calculations gave good comparison until the peak heating trajectory points were encountered, and returned to good agreement for the last two equilibrium points.

  4. Comparison of Coupled Radiative Flow Solutions with Project Fire 2 Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olynick, David R.; Henline, W. D.; Chambers, Lin Hartung; Candler, G. V.

    1995-01-01

    A nonequilibrium, axisymmetric, Navier-Stokes flow solver with coupled radiation has been developed for use in the design or thermal protection systems for vehicles where radiation effects are important. The present method has been compared with an existing now and radiation solver and with the Project Fire 2 experimental data. Good agreement has been obtained over the entire Fire 2 trajectory with the experimentally determined values of the stagnation radiation intensity in the 0.2-6.2 eV range and with the total stagnation heating. The effects of a number of flow models are examined to determine which combination of physical models produces the best agreement with the experimental data. These models include radiation coupling, multitemperature thermal models, and finite rate chemistry. Finally, the computational efficiency of the present model is evaluated. The radiation properties model developed for this study is shown to offer significant computational savings compared to existing codes.

  5. FIRE_CI2_ETL_RADAR

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-11-25

    FIRE_CI2_ETL_RADAR Project Title:  FIRE II CIRRUS Discipline:  ... Platform:  Ground Station Instrument:  Radar Spatial Coverage:  (37.06, -95.34) Spatial ... Order Data Guide Documents:  ETL_RADAR Guide Readme Files:  Readme ETL_RADAR (PS) ...

  6. The 5-6 December 1991 FIRE IFO II jet stream cirrus case study: Possible influences of Volcanic Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassen, Kenneth; Starr, David O'C.; Mace, Gerald G.; Poellot, Michael R.; Melfi, S. H.; Eberhard, Wynn L.; Spinhirne, James D.; Eloranta, E. W.; Hagen, Donald E.; Hallett, John

    1995-01-01

    In presenting an overview of the cirus clouds comprehensively studied by ground-based and airborne sensors from Coffeyville, Kansas, during the 5-6 December 1992 Project First ISCCP Region Experiment (FIRE) Intensive Fields Observation (IFO) II case study period, evidence is provided that volcanic aerosols friom the June 1991 Pinatubo eruptions may have significantly influenced the formation and maintenance of the cirrus. Following the local appearance of a spur of stratospheric volcanic debris from the subtropics, a series of jet streaks subsequently conditioned the troposphere through tropopause foldings with sulfur-based particles that became effective cloud-forming nuclei in cirrus clouds. Aerosol and ozone measurements suggest a complicated history of stratospheric-tropospheric exchanges embedded within the upper-level flow, and cirrus cloud formation was noted to occur locally at the boundaries of stratospheric aerosol-enriched layers that became humidified through diffusion, precipitation, or advective processes. Apparent cirrus cloud alterations include abnormally high ice crystal concentrations (up to approximately 600/L), complex radial ice crystal types, and relatively large haze particles in cirrus uncinus cell heads at temperatures between -40 and -50 C. Implications for volcanic-cirrus cloud climate effects and usual (nonvolcanic aerosol) jet stream cirrus cloud formation are discussed.

  7. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN ASSESSMENT FOR THE CO-FIRING OF BIO-REFINERY SUPPLIED LIGNIN PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Ted Berglund; Jeffrey T. Ranney; Carol L. Babb; Jacqueline G. Broder

    2001-04-01

    The major aspects of this project are proceeding toward completion. Prior to this quarter, design criteria, tentative site selection, facility layout, and preliminary facility cost estimates have been completed and issued for review. Processing of bio-solids was completed, providing material for the pilot operations. Pilot facility design, equipment selection, and modification were completed during the fourth quarter of 2000. Initial pilot facility shakedown was completed during the fourth quarter. After some unavoidable delays, a suitable representative supply of municipal solid waste (MSW) feed material was procured. During this quarter (first quarter of 2001), shredding of the feed material was completed and final feed conditioning was completed. Pilot facility hydrolysis production was completed to produce lignin for co-fire testing. Pilot facility modifications continued to improve facility operations and performance during the first quarter of 2001. Samples of the co-fire fuel material were sent to the co-fire facility for evaluation. The TVA-Colbert facility has neared completion of the task to evaluate the co-location of the Masada facility on the operation of the power generation facility. The TVA-Colbert fossil plant is fully capable of providing a reliable steam supply. The preferred steam supply connection points and steam pipeline routing have been identified. The environmental review of the pipeline routing has been completed and no major impacts have been identified. Detailed assessment of steam export impacts on the Colbert boiler system have been completed and a cost estimate for steam supply system is being developed.

  8. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN ASSESSMENT FOR THE CO-FIRING OF BIO-REFINERY SUPPLIED LIGNIN PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Ted Berglund; Jeffrey T. Ranney; Carol L. Babb; Jacqueline G. Broder

    2002-04-01

    The major aspects of this project are proceeding toward completion. Prior to this quarter, design criteria, tentative site selection, facility layout, and preliminary facility cost estimates were completed and issued. Processing of bio-solids was completed, providing material for the pilot operations. Pilot facility hydrolysis production has been completed to produce lignin for co-fire testing and the lignin fuel was washed and dewatered. Both the lignin and bio-solids fuel materials for co-fire testing were sent to the co-fire facility (EERC) for evaluation and co-firing. EERC has received coal typical of the fuel to the TVA-Colbert boilers. This material was used at EERC as baseline material and for mixing with the bio-fuel for combustion testing. All the combustion and fuel handling tests at EERC have been completed. During fuel preparation EERC reported no difficulties in fuel blending and handling. Preliminary co-fire test results indicate that the blending of lignin and bio-solids with the Colbert coal blend generally reduces NO{sub x} emissions, increases the reactivity of the coal, and increases the ash deposition rate on superheater surfaces. Deposits produced from the fuel blends, however, are more friable and hence easier to remove from tube surfaces relative to those produced from the baseline Colbert coal blend. The final co-fire testing report is being prepared at EERC and will be completed by the end of the second quarter of 2002. The TVA-Colbert facility has neared completion of the task to evaluate co-location of the Masada facility on the operation of the power generation facility. The TVA-Colbert fossil plant is fully capable of providing a reliable steam supply. The preferred steam supply connection points and steam pipeline routing have been identified. The environmental review of the pipeline routing has been completed and no major impacts have been identified. Detailed assessment of steam export impacts on the Colbert boiler system have been

  9. Africa OR / TA Project II supporting studies in several countries.

    PubMed

    1994-12-01

    During the first 6 months, the Africa OR/TA (Operations Research and Technical Assistance) Project II has helped in generating OR country strategic workplans in various sub-Saharan African countries. Project staff has spent much time collaborating with the Navrongo Health Research Centre (NHRC) in the rural Kassena Nankana district in Ghana in designing the Navrongo Community Health and Family Planning (FP) Project. This area has high fertility and mortality rates. The people hold strong pronatal beliefs. Contraceptive use is low among the mostly unschooled women. If this FP/community health project can effectively deliver FP here, it can be successful elsewhere in Africa. Africa OR/TA Project staff are helping design a FP OR experimental field station. They aim to help the Government of Kenya and USAID Nairobi to lower national fertility levels and the incidence of sexually transmitted HIV in some target groups. The Family Planning Association of Kenya will collaborate with the Project on OR/TA activities which include a national situation analysis study, a study examining the impact of quality of services, and community based distribution (CBD) studies. Project staff would like to see integration of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and FP services. OR activities strengthen the clinic- and community-based portions of the FP program in Tanzania. Staff will help with the evaluation of the effectiveness of the CBD models. The FP program aims to meet the reproductive health needs of men and young adults and to integrate STD/AIDS and FP. Project staff will also help the Botswana Population Assistance Project document and monitor the integration of FP, STD management, and AIDS prevention procedures.

  10. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN ASSESSMENT FOR THE CO-FIRING OF BIO-REFINERY SUPPLIED LIGNIN PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Ted Berglund; Jeffrey T. Ranney; Carol L. Babb; Jacqueline G. Broder

    2001-10-01

    The major aspects of this project are proceeding toward completion. Prior to this quarter, design criteria, tentative site selection, facility layout, and preliminary facility cost estimates were completed and issued. Processing of bio-solids was completed, providing material for the pilot operations. Pilot facility design, equipment selection, and modification were completed during the fourth quarter of 2000. Initial pilot facility shakedown was completed. After some unavoidable delays, a suitable representative supply of MSW feed material was procured. During this first quarter of 2001, shredding of the feed material and final feed conditioning were completed. Pilot facility hydrolysis production was completed to produce lignin for co-fire testing and the lignin fuel was washed and dewatered. Both the lignin and bio-solids fuel materials for co-fire testing were sent to the co-fire facility (EERC) for evaluation and co-firing. EERC has received coal typical of the fuel to the TVA-Colbert boilers. This material will be used at EERC as baseline material and for mixing with the bio-fuel for combustion testing. EERC combustion testing of the bio-based fuels is scheduled to begin in October of 2001. The TVA-Colbert facility has neared completion of the task to evaluate co-location of the Masada facility on the operation of the power generation facility. The TVA-Colbert fossil plant is fully capable of providing a reliable steam supply. The preferred steam supply connection points and steam pipeline routing have been identified. The environmental review of the pipeline routing has been completed and no major impacts have been identified. Detailed assessment of steam export impacts on the Colbert boiler system have been completed and a cost estimate for steam supply system was completed. The cost estimate and the output and heat rate impacts will be used to determine a preliminary price for the exported steam.

  11. Polyfire project- an example of an industrial research project promoting safe industrial production of fire-resistant nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaquero, C.; López de Ipiña, J.; Galarza, N.; Hargreaves, B.; Weager, B.; Breen, C.

    2011-07-01

    New developments based on nanotechnology have to guarantee safe products and processes to be accepted by society. The Polyfire project will develop and scale-up techniques for processing halogen-free, fire-retardant nanocomposite materials and coatings based on unsaturated polyester resins and organoclays. The project includes a work package that will assess the Health and Environmental impacts derived from the manipulation of nanoparticles. This work package includes the following tasks: (1) Identification of Health and Environment Impacts derived from the processes, (2) Experimentation to study specific Nanoparticle Emissions, (3) Development of a Risk Management Methodology for the process, and (4) A Comparison of the Health and Environmental Impact of New and Existing Materials. To date, potential exposure scenarios to nanomaterials have been identified through the development of a Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA) of the new production processes. In the next step, these scenarios will be studied and simulated to evaluate potential emissions of nanomaterials. Polyfire is a collaborative European project, funded by the European Commission 7th Framework Programme (Grant Agreement No 229220). It features 11 partners from 5 countries (5 SMEs, 3 research institutes, 2 large companies, 1 association) and runs for three years (1st September 2009 - 31st August 2012). This project is an example of an industrial research development which aims to introduce to the market new products promoting the safe use of nanomaterials.

  12. Projections of 21st Century African Climate: Implications for African Savanna Fire Dynamics, Human Health and Food Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adegoke, J. O.

    2015-12-01

    Fire is a key agent of change in the African savannas, which are shaped through the complex interactions between trees, C4 grasses, rainfall, temperature, CO2 and fire. These fires and their emitted smoke can have numerous direct and indirect effects on the environment, water resources, air quality, and climate. For instance, veld fires in southern Africa cause large financial losses to agriculture, livestock production and forestry on an annual basis. This study contributes to our understanding of the implications of projected surface temperature evolution in Africa for fire risk, human health and agriculture over the coming decades. We use an ensemble of high-resolution regional climate model simulations of African climate for the 21st century. Regional dowscalings and recent global circulation model projections obtained for Africa indicate that African temperatures are likely to rise at 1.5 times the global rate of temperature increase in the tropics, and at almost twice the global rate of increase in the subtropics. Warming is projected to occur during the 21st century, with increases of 4-6 °C over the subtropics and 3-5 °C over the tropics plausible by the end of the century relative to present-day climate under the A2 (low mitigation) scenario. We explore the significance of the projected warming by documenting increases in projected high fire danger days and heat-wave days. General drying is projected across the continent, even for areas (e.g. tropical Africa) where an increase in rainfall is plausible. This is due to the drastic increases in temperature that are projected, which leads to drier soils (through enhanced evaporation) despite the rainfall increases. This will likely impact negatively on crop yield, particularly on the maize crop that is of crucial importance in terms of African food security.

  13. The PEP-II project-wide database

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, A.; Calish, S.; Crane, G.; MacGregor, I.; Meyer, S.; Wong, J.

    1995-05-01

    The PEP-II Project Database is a tool for monitoring the technical and documentation aspects of this accelerator construction. It holds the PEP-II design specifications, fabrication and installation data in one integrated system. Key pieces of the database include the machine parameter list, magnet and vacuum fabrication data. CAD drawings, publications and documentation, survey and alignment data and property control. The database can be extended to contain information required for the operations phase of the accelerator and detector. Features such as viewing CAD drawing graphics from the database will be implemented in the future. This central Oracle database on a UNIX server is built using ORACLE Case tools. Users at the three collaborating laboratories (SLAC, LBL, LLNL) can access the data remotely, using various desktop computer platforms and graphical interfaces.

  14. Structural fire risk of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parente, Joana; Pereira, Mário

    2017-04-01

    FEDER/NORTE 2020; (ii) the FIREXTR project, PTDC/ATP¬GEO/0462/2014; and, (iii) European Investment Funds by FEDER/COMPETE/POCI-Operacional Competitiveness and Internacionalization Programme, under Project POCI-01-0145-FEDER-006958 and National Funds by FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology, under the project UID/AGR/04033. We are especially grateful to ICNF and ISA for providing the fire data.

  15. Standards Improvement Project-Phase II. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2005-01-05

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) through this final rule is continuing to remove and revise provisions of its standards that are outdated, duplicative, unnecessary, or inconsistent, or can be clarified or simplified by being written in plain language. The Agency completed Phase I of the Standards Improvement Project in June 1998. In this Phase II of the Standards Improvement Project, OSHA is again revising or removing a number of health provisions in its standards for general industry, shipyard employment, and construction. The Agency believes that the changes streamline and make more consistent the regulatory requirements in OSHA health and safety standards. In some cases, OSHA has made substantive revisions to requirements because they are outdated, duplicative, unnecessary, or inconsistent with more recently promulgated health standards. The Agency believes these revisions will reduce regulatory requirements for employers without reducing employee protection.

  16. Project ACTS II: Organ Donation Education for African American adults

    PubMed Central

    Jacob Arriola, Kimberly R.; Robinson, Dana H. Z.; Perryman, Jennie P.; Thompson, Nancy J.; Russell, Emily F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Project ACTS “About Choices in Transplantation and Sharing” is a culturally sensitive intervention designed to address organ donation concerns among African American (AA) adults. This study sought to evaluate the efficacy of two versions of the Project ACTS intervention and to determine whether reviewing materials in a group setting would be more effective at increasing participants’ interest in organ and tissue donation than allowing participants to review the materials at home with friends and family. Design A pre-post simple factorial experimental design was used to assess differences between intervention package (Project ACTS I vs. II) and mode of delivery (group vs. take home). Methods Participants completed a baseline and 1-year follow-up assessment of donation –related knowledge, attitudes, and interest. Main Outcome Measures A summed score that represents participants’ interest in being recognized as an organ donor on their driver’s license, via donor card, and by talking to family. Results From baseline to follow-up, participants increased in their knowledge, attitudes, and interest in being recognized as an organ donor regardless of intervention package (ps < .05). Regarding setting, participants who reviewed materials in a group setting demonstrated greater increase from baseline to follow-up in interest in organ donation (β=.22, p<.01) and positive attitudes toward donation (β=.22, p<.05) than those who were allowed to review materials at home with friends and family. Conclusion Project ACTS I and II are equally efficacious; reviewing the intervention in a group setting may be necessary for low vested interest/high ambivalence health behaviors such as organ donation. PMID:23530306

  17. Cirrus Cloud Properties Derived from High Spectral Resolution Infrared Spectrometry during FIRE II. Part I: The High Resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS) Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, W. L.; Revercomb, H. E.; Knuteson, R. O.; Best, F. A.; Dedecker, R.; Howell, H. B.; Woolf, H. M.

    1995-12-01

    The characteristics of the ER-2 aircraft and ground-based High Resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS) instruments deployed during FIRE II are described. A few example spectra are given to illustrate the HIS cloud and molecular atmosphere remote sensing capabilities.

  18. Image analysis of gunshot residue on entry wounds. II--A statistical estimation of firing range.

    PubMed

    Brown, H; Cauchi, D M; Holden, J L; Allen, F C; Cordner, S; Thatcher, P

    1999-03-29

    A statistical investigation of the relationship between firing range and the amount and distribution of gunshot residue (GSR), used automated image analysis (IA) to quantify GSR deposit resulting from firings into pig skin, from distances ranging between contact and 45 cm. Overall, for a Ruger .22 semi-automatic rifle using CCI solid point, high velocity ammunition, the total area of GSR deposit on the skin sections decreased in a non-linear fashion with firing range. More specifically there were significant differences in the amount of GSR deposited from shots fired at contact compared with shots fired from distances between 2.5 and 45 cm; and between shots fired from a distance of 20 cm or less, with shots fired at a distance of 30 cm or more. In addition, GSR particles were heavily concentrated in the wound tract only for contact and close range shots at 2.5 cm, while the particle distribution was more uniform between the wound tract and the skin surfaces for shots fired from distances greater than 2.5 cm. Consequently, for future scientific investigations of gunshot fatalities, once standards have been established for the weapon and ammunition type in question, image analysis quantification of GSR deposited in and around the gunshot wound may be capable of providing a reliable, statistical basis for estimating firing range.

  19. Fire fighters and rescuers monitoring through wearable sensors: The ProeTEX project.

    PubMed

    Magenes, Giovanni; Curone, Davide; Caldani, Laura; Secco, Emanuele Lindo

    2010-01-01

    The final generation of ProeTEX prototypes has been delivered in April 2010: it is based on two sets of sensorized garments devoted to monitor the health status of emergency operators working in harsh environments. This new release of garments shows several improvements with respect to the previous ones, and it is characterized by a major specialization to the requirements imposed by the different categories of end-users (Fire-Fighters, Civil Protection rescuers) addressed by the project. Each ProeTEX prototype is provided with a communication infrastructure allowing the real-time remote transmission of data recorded by the wearable sensors, and the presentation of such data to possible managers supervising the activities of the first line responders. After the delivery of the prototypes, an intense validation of the garments is being carried out both in laboratories, specialized in physiological measures, and in simulated fire-fighting scenarios. In such a context, this paper presents the main features characterizing the final ProeTEX prototypes and preliminary results of their laboratory assessment.

  20. Climate change projected fire weather sensitivity: California Santa Ana wind occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Norman L.; Schlegel, Nicole J.

    2006-08-01

    A new method based on global climate model pressure gradients was developed for identifying coastal high-wind fire weather conditions, such as the Santa Ana Occurrence (SAO). Application of this method for determining southern California Santa Ana wind occurrence resulted in a good correlation between derived large-scale SAOs and observed offshore winds during periods of low humidity. The projected change in the number of SAOs was analyzed using two global climate models, one a low temperature sensitivity and the other a middle-temperature sensitivity, both forced with low and high emission scenarios, for three future time periods. This initial analysis shows consistent shifts in SAO events from earlier (September-October) to later (November-December) in the season, suggesting that SAOs may significantly increase the extent of California coastal areas burned by wildfires, loss of life, and property.

  1. Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113, Detail Design Report (Title II). Volume 4: Project cost estimate

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Solid Waste Retrieval Facility--Phase 1 (Project W113) will provide the infrastructure and the facility required to retrieve from Trench 04, Burial ground 4C, contact handled (CH) drums and boxes at a rate that supports all retrieved TRU waste batching, treatment, storage, and disposal plans. This includes (1) operations related equipment and facilities, viz., a weather enclosure for the trench, retrieval equipment, weighing, venting, obtaining gas samples, overpacking, NDE, NDA, shipment of waste and (2) operations support related facilities, viz., a general office building, a retrieval staff change facility, and infrastructure upgrades such as supply and routing of water, sewer, electrical power, fire protection, roads, and telecommunication. Title I design for the operations related equipment and facilities was performed by Raytheon/BNFL, and that for the operations support related facilities including infrastructure upgrade was performed by KEH. These two scopes were combined into an integrated W113 Title II scope that was performed by Raytheon/BNFL. This volume represents the total estimated costs for the W113 facility. Operating Contractor Management costs have been incorporated as received from WHC. The W113 Facility TEC is $19.7 million. This includes an overall project contingency of 14.4% and escalation of 17.4%. A January 2001 construction contract procurement start date is assumed.

  2. Healy Clean Coal Project: Healy coal firing at TRW Cleveland Test Facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama, T.; Petrill, E.; Sheppard, D.

    1991-08-01

    A test burn of two Alaskan coals was conducted at TRW`s Cleveland test facility in support of the Healy Clean Coal Project, as part of Clean Coal Technology III Program in which a new power plant will be constructed using a TRW Coal Combustion System. This system features ash slagging technology combined with NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} control. The tests, funded by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) and TRW, were conducted to verify that the candidate Healy station coals could be successfully fired in the TRW coal combustor, to provide data required for scale-up to the utility project size requirements, and to produce sufficient flash-calcined material (FCM) for spray dryer tests to be conducted by Joy/NIRO. The tests demonstrated that both coals are viable candidates for the project, provided the data required for scale-up, and produced the FCM material. This report describes the modifications to the test facility which were required for the test burn, the tests run, and the results of the tests.

  3. Healy Clean Coal Project: Healy coal firing at TRW Cleveland Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama, T.; Petrill, E.; Sheppard, D.

    1991-08-01

    A test burn of two Alaskan coals was conducted at TRW's Cleveland test facility in support of the Healy Clean Coal Project, as part of Clean Coal Technology III Program in which a new power plant will be constructed using a TRW Coal Combustion System. This system features ash slagging technology combined with NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} control. The tests, funded by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) and TRW, were conducted to verify that the candidate Healy station coals could be successfully fired in the TRW coal combustor, to provide data required for scale-up to the utility project size requirements, and to produce sufficient flash-calcined material (FCM) for spray dryer tests to be conducted by Joy/NIRO. The tests demonstrated that both coals are viable candidates for the project, provided the data required for scale-up, and produced the FCM material. This report describes the modifications to the test facility which were required for the test burn, the tests run, and the results of the tests.

  4. Comparison of DSMC and CFD Solutions of Fire II Including Radiative Heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liechty, Derek S.; Johnston, Christopher O.; Lewis, Mark J.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to compute rarefied, ionized hypersonic flows is becoming more important as missions such as Earth reentry, landing high mass payloads on Mars, and the exploration of the outer planets and their satellites are being considered. These flows may also contain significant radiative heating. To prepare for these missions, NASA is developing the capability to simulate rarefied, ionized flows and to then calculate the resulting radiative heating to the vehicle's surface. In this study, the DSMC codes DAC and DS2V are used to obtain charge-neutral ionization solutions. NASA s direct simulation Monte Carlo code DAC is currently being updated to include the ability to simulate charge-neutral ionized flows, take advantage of the recently introduced Quantum-Kinetic chemistry model, and to include electronic energy levels as an additional internal energy mode. The Fire II flight test is used in this study to assess these new capabilities. The 1634 second data point was chosen for comparisons to be made in order to include comparisons to computational fluid dynamics solutions. The Knudsen number at this point in time is such that the DSMC simulations are still tractable and the CFD computations are at the edge of what is considered valid. It is shown that there can be quite a bit of variability in the vibrational temperature inferred from DSMC solutions and that, from how radiative heating is computed, the electronic temperature is much better suited for radiative calculations. To include the radiative portion of heating, the flow-field solutions are post-processed by the non-equilibrium radiation code HARA. Acceptable agreement between CFD and DSMC flow field solutions is demonstrated and the progress of the updates to DAC, along with an appropriate radiative heating solution, are discussed. In addition, future plans to generate more high fidelity radiative heat transfer solutions are discussed.

  5. A Chronosequence Feasibility Assessment of Emergency Fire Rehabilitation Records within the Intermountain Western United States - Final Report to the Joint Fire Science Program - Project 08-S-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knutson, Kevin C.; Pyke, David A.; Wirth, Troy A.; Pilliod, David S.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Chambers, Jeanne C.

    2009-01-01

    Department of the Interior (DOI) bureaus have invested heavily (for example, the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) spent more than $60 million in fiscal year 2007) in seeding vegetation for emergency stabilization and burned area rehabilitation of non-forested arid lands over the past 10 years. The primary objectives of these seedings commonly are to (1) reduce the post-fire dominance of non-native annual grasses, such as cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and red brome (Bromus rubens); (2) minimize the probability of recurrent fire; and (3) ultimately produce desirable vegetation characteristics (for example, ability to recover following disturbance [resilience], resistance to invasive species, and a capacity to support a diverse flora and fauna). Although these projects historically have been monitored to varying extents, land managers currently lack scientific evidence to verify whether seeding arid and semiarid lands achieves desired objectives. Given the amount of resources dedicated to post-fire seeding projects, a synthesis of information determining the factors that result in successful treatments is critically needed. Although results of recently established experiments and monitoring projects eventually will provide useful insights for the future direction of emergency stabilization and burned area rehabilitation programs, a chronosequence approach evaluating emergency stabilization and burned area rehabilitation treatments (both referenced hereafter as ESR treatments) over the past 30 years could provide a comprehensive assessment of treatment success across a range of regional environmental gradients. By randomly selecting a statistically robust sample from the population of historic ESR treatments in the Intermountain West, this chronosequence approach would have inference for most ecological sites in this region. The goal of this feasibility study was to compile and examine historic ESR records from BLM field offices across the Intermountain West to

  6. Project 93L-EWL-097, fire alarm system improvements, 300 Area

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, M.V.

    1995-01-01

    This document contains the Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) which will demonstrate that the modifications to the Fire Protection systems in the 338 Building function as intended. The ATP will test the fire alarm control panel, flow alarm pressure switch, post indicator valve tamper switch, heat detectors, flow switches, and fire alarm signaling devices.

  7. The PEP-II Project: Low-Energy Ring Design and Project Status

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2006-01-02

    We describe the present status of the PEP-II project. The project comprises four major systems: Injector, High-Energy Ring (HER), Low-Energy Ring (LER), and Interaction Region (IR). We focus in detail on the design of the LER, as its parameters and requirements are most closely related to those required for the Beijing Tau-Charm Factory rings. The PEP-II LER is a high-current, 3.1-GeV positron ring mounted above the 9-GeV HER. The LER uses a wiggler located in one of its six straight sections to provide emittance control and additional damping. We describe the rather complicated IR, which must transport the LER beam into the plane of the HER, focus it to a common beam size, and separate the beams after the head-on collisions. Both permanent magnet and conventional electromagnets are used in this area. The LER lattice has now adopted a simplified non-interleaved sextupole correction scheme that has reduced the required number of sextupoles substantially. We describe the LER vacuum system, one of the most challenging subsystems in PEP-II. It employs several technologies. In the arcs, aluminum extrusions and titanium sublimation pumps are employed; the straight sections use stainless steel chambers with lumped ion pumps. In the wiggler area, an extended copper photon dump with nonevaporable getter (NEG) pumps is employed to handle the very large synchrotron radiation power. The design of the room-temperature RF system, the bunch-by-bunch longitudinal and transverse feedback systems, and some of the special diagnostics will be described briefly. The PEP-II project remains on schedule to begin commissioning of the HER in April 1997, followed by the LER a year later.

  8. THE CONCEPTUAL DESIGN ASSESSMENT FOR THE CO-FIRING OF BIO-REFINERY SUPPLIED LIGNIN PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Ted Berglund; Jeffrey T. Ranney; Carol L. Babb; Jacqueline G. Broder

    2001-07-01

    The major aspects of this project are proceeding toward completion. Prior to this quarter, design criteria, tentative site selection, facility layout, and preliminary facility cost estimates were completed and issued. Processing of bio-solids was completed, providing material for the pilot operations. Pilot facility design, equipment selection, and modification were completed during the fourth quarter of 2000. Initial pilot facility shakedown was completed during the fourth quarter. After some unavoidable delays, a suitable representative supply of MSW feed material was procured. During this first quarter of 2001, shredding of the feed material and final feed conditioning were completed. Pilot facility hydrolysis production was completed to produce lignin for co-fire testing. During this quarter, TVA completed the washing and dewatering of the lignin material produced from the MSW hydrolysis. Seven drums of lignin material were washed to recover the acid and sugar from the lignin and provide an improved fuel for steam generation. Samples of both the lignin and bio-solids fuel materials for co-fire testing were sent to the co-fire facility (EERC) for evaluation. After sample evaluation, EERC approved sending the material and all of the necessary fuel for testing was shipped to EERC. EERC has requested and will receive coal typical of the fuel to the TVA-Colbert boilers. This material will be used at EERC as baseline material and for mixing with the bio-fuel for combustion testing. EERC combustion testing of the bio based fuels is scheduled to begin in August of 2001. The TVA-Colbert facility has neared completion of the task to evaluate the co-location of the Masada facility on the operation of the power generation facility. The TVA-Colbert fossil plant is fully capable of providing a reliable steam supply. The preferred steam supply connection points and steam pipeline routing have been identified. The environmental review of the pipeline routing has been completed

  9. LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project. Final report, volume II: Project performance and economics

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This publication discusses the demonstration of the LIFAC sorbent injection technology at Richmond Power and Light`s Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2, performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program. LIFAC is a sorbent injection technology capable of removing 75 to 85 percent of a power plant`s SO{sub 2} emissions using limestone at calcium to sulfur molar ratios of between 2 and 2.5 to 1. The site of the demonstration is a coal-fired electric utility power plant located in Richmond, Indiana. The project is being conducted by LIFAC North America (LIFAC NA), a joint venture partnership of Tampella Power Corporation and ICF Kaiser Engineers, in cooperation with DOE, RP&L, and Research Institute (EPRI), the State of Indiana, and Black Beauty Coal Company. The purpose of Public Design Report Volume 2: Project Performance and Economics is to consolidate, for public use, the technical efficiency and economy of the LIFAC Process. The report has been prepared pursuant to the Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC22-90PC90548 between LIFAC NA and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  10. Proposed Tenaska Washington II Generation Project : Final Environmental Impact Statement: Summary.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-01-01

    BPA is considering whether to purchase electrical power from a proposed privately-owned combustion-turbine electrical generation plant in Washington. The plant would be fired by natural gas and would use combined-cycle technology to generate 240 average megawatts (aMW) of energy. The plant would be developed, owned, and operated by Tenaska Washington Partners II, L.P. The project would be located about 19 kilometers (12 miles) southeast of downtown Tacoma in the Frederickson Industrial Area, Pierce County. The proposed plant would occupy about half of a 6.4-hectare (16-acre) parcel and would be consistent with the industrial character of its surroundings. The proposed site is currently undeveloped and zoned for industrial use by the county. Main environmental concerns identified in the scoping process and in comments on the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) include: (1) potential air quality impacts, such as emissions and their contribution to the {open_quotes}greenhouse{close_quotes} effect; (2) potential health and safety impacts, such as nuisance odors, plant safety, visibility and heat-emission systems which may affect low-flying planes and potential health effects of electric and magnetic fields; and (3) potential water quality and quantity impacts, such as the amount of wastewater to be discharged, the source and amount of water required for plant operation. These and other issues are discussed in detail in the EIS. The proposed project already includes many features designed to reduce environmental impacts. Based on investigations performed for the EIS, no significant unavoidable adverse environmental impacts associated with the proposed project were identified, and no evidence emerged to suggest that the proposed action is controversial. The EIS is being mailed to numerous agencies, groups, and individuals (see Section 8.0). There will be a 30-day no-action period before any decisions are made and the Record of Decision is signed.

  11. Blade System Design Study. Part II, final project report (GEC).

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, Dayton A.

    2009-05-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Low Wind Speed Turbine program, Global Energy Concepts LLC (GEC)1 has studied alternative composite materials for wind turbine blades in the multi-megawatt size range. This work in one of the Blade System Design Studies (BSDS) funded through Sandia National Laboratories. The BSDS program was conducted in two phases. In the Part I BSDS, GEC assessed candidate innovations in composite materials, manufacturing processes, and structural configurations. GEC also made recommendations for testing composite coupons, details, assemblies, and blade substructures to be carried out in the Part II study (BSDS-II). The BSDS-II contract period began in May 2003, and testing was initiated in June 2004. The current report summarizes the results from the BSDS-II test program. Composite materials evaluated include carbon fiber in both pre-impregnated and vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) forms. Initial thin-coupon static testing included a wide range of parameters, including variation in manufacturer, fiber tow size, fabric architecture, and resin type. A smaller set of these materials and process types was also evaluated in thin-coupon fatigue testing, and in ply-drop and ply-transition panels. The majority of materials used epoxy resin, with vinyl ester (VE) resin also used for selected cases. Late in the project, testing of unidirectional fiberglass was added to provide an updated baseline against which to evaluate the carbon material performance. Numerous unidirectional carbon fabrics were considered for evaluation with VARTM infusion. All but one fabric style considered suffered either from poor infusibility or waviness of fibers combined with poor compaction. The exception was a triaxial carbon-fiberglass fabric produced by SAERTEX. This fabric became the primary choice for infused articles throughout the test program. The generally positive results obtained in this program for the SAERTEX material have led to its being

  12. California Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Smoke Blankets Northern California     View Larger Image ... strikes sparked more than a thousand fires in northern California. This image was captured by the Multi-angle Imaging ... June 27, 2008 - Smoke from fires in northern California. project:  MISR category:  gallery ...

  13. GAD67-GFP+ Neurons in the Nucleus of Roller. II. Subthreshold and Firing Resonance Properties

    PubMed Central

    Berger, A. J.

    2011-01-01

    In the companion paper we show that GAD67-GFP+ (GFP+) inhibitory neurons located in the Nucleus of Roller of the mouse brain stem can be classified into two main groups (tonic and phasic) based on their firing patterns in responses to injected depolarizing current steps. In this study we examined the responses of GFP+ cells to fluctuating sinusoidal (“chirp”) current stimuli. Membrane impedance profiles in response to chirp stimulation showed that nearly all phasic cells exhibited subthreshold resonance, whereas the majority of tonic GFP+ cells were nonresonant. In general, subthreshold resonance was associated with a relatively fast passive membrane time constant and low input resistance. In response to suprathreshold chirp current stimulation at a holding potential just below spike threshold the majority of tonic GFP+ cells fired multiple action potentials per cycle at low input frequencies (<5 Hz) and either stopped firing or were not entrained by the chirp at higher input frequencies (= tonic low-pass cells). A smaller group of phasic GFP+ cells did not fire at low input frequency but were able to phase-lock 1:1 at intermediate chirp frequencies (= band-pass cells). Spike timing reliability was tested with repeated chirp stimuli and our results show that phasic cells were able to reliably fire when they phase-locked 1:1 over a relatively broad range of input frequencies. Most tonic low-pass cells showed low reliability and poor phase-locking ability. Computer modeling suggested that these different firing resonance properties among GFP+ cells are due to differences in passive and active membrane properties and spiking mechanisms. This heterogeneity of resonance properties might serve to selectively activate subgroups of interneurons. PMID:21047931

  14. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emissions boiler system. Phase II subsystem test design and plan - an addendum to the Phase II RD & T Plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    Shortly after the year 2000 it is expected that new generating plants will be needed to meet the growing demand for electricity and to replace the aging plants that are nearing the end of their useful service life. The plants of the future will need to be extremely clean, highly efficient and economical. Continuing concerns over acid rain, air toxics, global climate changes, ozone depletion and solid waste disposal are expected to further then regulations. In the late 1980`s it was commonly believed that coal-fired power plants of the future would incorporate either some form of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) or first generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBS) technologies. However, recent advances In emission control techniques at reduced costs and auxiliary power requirements coupled with significant improvements In steam turbine and cycle design have clearly indicated that pulverized coal technology can continue to be competitive In both cost and performance. In recognition of the competitive potential for advanced pulverized coal-fired systems with other emerging advanced coal-fired technologies, DOE`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) began a research and development initiative In late 1990 named, Combustion 2000, with the intention of preserving and expanding coal as a principal fuel In the Generation of electrical power. The project was designed for two stages of commercialization, the nearer-term Low Emission Boiler System (LEBS) program, and for the future, the High Performance Power System (HIPPS) program. B&W is participating In the LEBS program.

  15. Multi-GCM Climate Projection for the Mediterranean and Related Impact on the Forest Fire Risk (with a stress on Sardinia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovsky, M.; Duce, P.; Arca, B.; Pellizzaro, G.

    2012-04-01

    PRASCE project (2008-2011) aimed at a development of the probabilistic projection of climate accounting for the uncertainties coming from various sources. The methodology was based on linking the stochastic weather generator (which may represent uncertainty due to natural climate variability) with the GCM-based climate change scenarios, which are determined by the pattern scaling method and account for uncertainties in emission scenario, climate sensitivity and between-GCM variability. The methodology is being used to create synthetic weather series representing present and future climates for various climate change impact experiments. One of the regions under focus in this project was the Mediterranean, especially Sardinia. The presentation will consist of two parts: (1) Multi-GCM climate change scenarios for the Mediterranean. (i) The maps will show the probabilistic (based on all GCMs included in IPCC-AR4 dataset) projection of temperature, precipitation and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). In addition, the scenarios will include changes of climatic characteristics (also being the parameters of the weather generator), which affect high frequency variability, e.g. changes in probability of wet day occurrence and variability of daily values. (ii) Options for choosing a representative subset of GCMs from all available GCMs will be discussed. This part is motivated by the fact, that some climate change impact studies do not allow to employ all available GCMs, so the task arise to choose the subset of GCMs based on the quality of GCMs and ability of the subset to represent the between GCM uncertainty. To demonstrate the methodology, the procedure will be applied to Sardinia. (2) Assessment of possible impacts of climate change on wildland fire risk. The M&Rfi weather generator linked to climate change scenarios derived from a subset of available GCMs will be used to create synthetic weather series (air temperature and relative humidity, wind speed

  16. Parametric Optimization of Undulators for NSLS-II Project Beamlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubar, O.; Bengtsson, J.; Berman, L.; Broadbent, A.; Cai, Y. Q.; Hulbert, S.; Shen, Q.; Tanabe, T.

    2010-06-01

    General optimization procedure, computation methods used, and the obtained optimal parameters of undulators for the NSLS-II project beamlines are reported. The optimization starts with high-accuracy calculation of undulator magnetic fields, using Radia magnetostatics code, for a large set of periods and vertical gaps of a given undulator type, given magnetic materials and a scalable magnet geometry. From the resulting magnetic fields, a sub-set of undulator periods and the corresponding vertical gaps, providing the required low-energy cut-off values of spectral harmonics for each particular beamline, is determined. In parallel, from the same Radia undulator models, angular magnetic kick maps are calculated, and the insertion device effect on electron beam is simulated using Tracy-2 tracking code based on symplectic integrator. After these simulations, magnet parameters are fine-tuned and the maximal acceptable undulator lengths are determined for different straight sections, as functions of minimal gap and with due regard for the electron beam vertical "stay clear" constraint in the case of in-vacuum undulators. Finally, the optimal undulator period and length are determined as the values providing maximal spectral flux among the pre-selected undulator cases, already satisfying the requirements concerning the harmonic cut-off values and the effect on electron beam.

  17. Analytical and experimental evaluation of solid waste drum fire performance volumes I and II

    SciTech Connect

    Hecker, C.F.,; Rhodes, B.T.; Beitel, J.J.; Gottuk, D.T.; Beyler, C.L.; Rosenbaum, E.R.,

    1995-04-28

    Fire hazards associated with drum storage of radioactively contaminated wastes are a major concern in DOE facilities design for long term storage of solid wastes in drums. These facilities include drums stored in pallet arrays and in rack storage systems. This report details testing in this area

  18. Early Pottery Making in Northern Coastal Peru. Part II: Field Firing Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, I.; Goldstein, D.; Sosa, J.; Wagner, U.

    2003-09-01

    We present data from three seasons of experimental field work designed to recreate ancient Andean coastal ceramic firing techniques. Based on the recent discovery of two different archaeological ceramic production sites in the La Leche river valley of northern coastal Peru, the opportunity arose to apply Mössbauer spectroscopy and other analytical methods to reconstruct ancient firing procedures. Two sets of firings took place in 1993 and 1997 in Batán Grande using a partially restored Formative kiln from about 800 BC, local hardwood and cow dung as fuel. A third experiment followed in 2000 after the discovery of a Middle Sicán ceramics workshop in use between ca. AD 950 and 1050 at Huaca Sialupe, where an exact replica of an ancient kiln was built from local clay, and fired with local wood and cow dung. Additionally, inverted urns found at Huaca Sialupe were tested for their potential use as furnaces for metal working. Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to compare the physical and chemical state of specimens produced in the field experiments with ancient ceramics and with specimens produced in controlled laboratory experiments.

  19. Coastal Change Processes Project data report for oceanographic observations near Fire Island, New York, February through May 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, Brandy N.; Warner, John C.; List, Jeffrey H.; Martini, Marinna A.; Montgomery, Ellyn T.; Traykovski, Peter A.; Voulgaris, George

    2015-01-01

    An oceanographic field study during February through May 2014 investigated processes that control the sediment-transport dynamics along the western part of Fire Island, New York. This report describes the project background, field program, instrumentation configuration, and locations of the sensors deployed. The data collected, including meteorological observations, are presented as time-series plots for data visualization. Additionally, individual links to the database containing digital data files are available as part of this report.

  20. Coastal Change Processes Project data report for observations near Fire Island, New York, January to April 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, Brandy N.; Warner, John C.; List, Jeffrey H.; Martini, Marinna A.; Montgomery, Ellyn T.; Voulgaris, George; Traykovski, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    An oceanographic field study during January through April 2012 investigated processes that control the sediment-transport dynamics near Fire Island, New York. This report describes the project background, field program, instrumentation configuration, and locations of the sensors deploymed. The data collected and supporting meteorological observations are presented as time series plots for data visualization. Additionally, individual, links to the database containing digital data files are available as part of this report.

  1. Monitoring Post-Fire Vegetation Rehabilitation Projects: A Common Approach for Non-Forested Ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wirth, Troy A.; Pyke, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Emergency Stabilization and Rehabilitation (ES&R) and Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) treatments are short-term, high-intensity treatments designed to mitigate the adverse effects of wildfire on public lands. The federal government expends significant resources implementing ES&R and BAER treatments after wildfires; however, recent reviews have found that existing data from monitoring and research are insufficient to evaluate the effects of these activities. The purpose of this report is to: (1) document what monitoring methods are generally used by personnel in the field; (2) describe approaches and methods for post-fire vegetation and soil monitoring documented in agency manuals; (3) determine the common elements of monitoring programs recommended in these manuals; and (4) describe a common monitoring approach to determine the effectiveness of future ES&R and BAER treatments in non-forested regions. Both qualitative and quantitative methods to measure effectiveness of ES&R treatments are used by federal land management agencies. Quantitative methods are used in the field depending on factors such as funding, personnel, and time constraints. There are seven vegetation monitoring manuals produced by the federal government that address monitoring methods for (primarily) vegetation and soil attributes. These methods vary in their objectivity and repeatability. The most repeatable methods are point-intercept, quadrat-based density measurements, gap intercepts, and direct measurement of soil erosion. Additionally, these manuals recommend approaches for designing monitoring programs for the state of ecosystems or the effect of management actions. The elements of a defensible monitoring program applicable to ES&R and BAER projects that most of these manuals have in common are objectives, stratification, control areas, random sampling, data quality, and statistical analysis. The effectiveness of treatments can be determined more accurately if data are gathered using

  2. A project in two parts: Developing fire histories for the eastern U.S. and creating a climate-based continental fire frequency model to fill data gaps

    Treesearch

    Richard Guyette; Michael Stambaugh; Daniel. Dey

    2011-01-01

    Tree-ring dated fire scars provide long-term records of fire frequency, giving land managers valuable baseline information about the fire regimes that existed prior to Euro-American settlement. However, for the East, fire history data prove difficult to acquire because the generally moister climate of the region causes rapid decay of wood. In an endeavor to fill data...

  3. Ecohydrological Projections of Fire Regimes: Balancing Uncertainty and Complexity to Integrate Cross-disciplinary Simulation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, M. C.; McKenzie, D.; Tague, C.; Bart, R. R.

    2016-12-01

    The structure and function of watersheds throughout the Western US are impacted by the interactions of fire and other disturbances with vegetation dynamics and hydrology. The watershed is the intermediate scale at which these dynamic interactions occur directly, and thus it is important to understand and predict the impacts of a changing climate at that scale. This requires the synthesis of knowledge across multiple disciplines (including hydrology, ecology, plant physiology, fire science, and biogeochemical cycling), which is challenging because these disciplines have different metrics for the state variables that must interact in an integrated model. In this study, we have integrated WMFire, a stochastic raster-based model of fire spread, with the Regional Hydro-Ecological Simulation System (RHESSys), a spatially distributed model of climate-water-carbon interactions, in order to simulate expected fire regimes for watersheds throughout the Western US. In the bidirectional coupling of the two models, RHESSys passes to WMFire values for litter load, relative moisture deficit, wind direction, and topographic slope; WMFire combines these to calculate the probability that a fire spreads from one pixel to a neighboring pixel. The pixels affected by fire are returned to RHESSys, which will then calculate relevant fire effects. In a preliminary analysis that compared simulated to expected regimes we were able to match expected patterns in the spread of individual fires, but in some locations fire occurrence was over-predicted. The integrated model was improved by separating the process of fire occurrence from that of fire spread, thereby reducing prediction uncertainty with a modest increase in model complexity. The rate of possible fire starts is scaled to the size of the watershed under study, and for each possible fire start a successful ignition is related to the conditions in the understory rather than across the entire canopy. In addition to providing substantial

  4. Test Firing of the Saturn V S-II (Second) Stage at the Mississippi Test Facility (MTF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    This photograph shows a test firing of the the Saturn V S-II (second) stage at the Mississippi Test Facility's (MTF) S-II test stand. When the Saturn V booster stage (S-IC) burns out and drops away, power for the Saturn will be provided by the 82-foot-long and 33-foot-diameter S-II stage. Developed by the Space Division of North American Aviation under the direction of the Marshall Space Flight Center, the stage utilized five J-2 engines, each producing 200,000 pounds of thrust. The engines used liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen as propellants. Static test of ground test versions of the S-II stage were conducted at North American Aviation's Santa Susana, California test site. All flight stages were tested at the Mississippi Test Facility, Bay St. Louis, Mississippi. MTF was renamed to the National Space Technology Laboratory (NSTL) in 1974 and later to the Sternis Space Center in May 1988.

  5. Test Firing of the Saturn V S-II S (Second Stage) at the Mississippi Test Facility (MTF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    This photograph shows a test firing of the the Saturn V S-II (second) stage at the Mississippi Test Facility's (MTF) S-II test stand. When the Saturn V booster stage (S-IC) burns out and drops away, power for the Saturn will be provided by the 82-foot-long and 33-foot-diameter S-II stage. Developed by the Space Division of North American Aviation under the direction of the Marshall Space Flight Center, the stage utilized five J-2 engines, each producing 200,000 pounds of thrust. The engine used liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen as its propellants. Static test of ground test versions of the S-II stage were conducted at North American Aviation's Santa Susana, California test site. All flight stages were tested at the Mississippi Test Facility, Bay St. Louis, Mississippi. The MTF was renamed to the National Space Technology Laboratory (NSTL) in 1974 and later to the Sternis Space Center (SSC) in May 1988.

  6. Functional design criteria for project W-252, phase II liquid effluent treatment and disposal. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, C.E.

    1995-05-01

    This document is the Functional Design Criteria for Project W-252. Project W-252 provides the scope to provide BAT/AKART (best available technology...) to 200 Liquid Effluent Phase II streams (B-Plant). This revision (Rev. 2) incorporates a major descoping of the project. The descoping was done to reflect a combination of budget cutting measures allowed by a less stringent regulatory posture toward the Phase II streams

  7. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS: PHASE II--PILOT SCALE TESTING AND UPDATED PERFORMANCE AND ECONOMICS FOR OXYGEN FIRED CFB WITH CO2 CAPTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

    2004-10-27

    Because fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this Phase II study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated one promising near-term coal fired power plant configuration designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}, along with some moisture, nitrogen, oxygen, and trace gases like SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB plants results in significant Boiler Island cost savings resulting from reduced component The overall objective of the Phase II workscope, which is the subject of this report, is to generate a refined technical and economic evaluation of the Oxygen fired CFB case (Case-2 from Phase I) utilizing the information learned from pilot-scale testing of this concept. The objective of the pilot-scale testing was to generate detailed technical data needed to establish advanced CFB design requirements and performance when firing coals and

  8. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN ASSESSMENT FOR THE CO-FIRING OF BIO-REFINERY SUPPLIED LIGNIN PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Ted Berglund; Jeffrey T. Ranney; Carol L. Babb; Jacqueline G. Broder

    2001-01-01

    The major aspects of this project are proceeding toward completion. Prior to this quarter, design criteria, tentative site selection, facility layout, and preliminary facility cost estimates have been completed and issued for review. Processing of bio-solids was completed, providing material for the pilot operations. Pilot facility design, equipment selection, and modification were completed during the fourth quarter. Initial pilot facility shakedown was completed during the fourth quarter. During pilot plant shakedown operations, several production batch test runs were performed. These pilot tests were coupled with laboratory testing to confirm pilot results. In initial batches of operations, cellulose to glucose conversions of 62.5% and 64.8% were observed in laboratory hydrolysis. As part of this testing, lignin dewatering was tested using laboratory and vendor-supplied filtration equipment. Dewatering tests reported moisture contents in the lignin of between 50% and 60%. Dewatering parameters and options will continue to be investigated during lignin production. After some unavoidable delays, a suitable representative supply of MSW feed material was procured. Shredding of the feed material was completed and final drying of the feed is expected to be completed by late January. Once feed drying is completed, pilot facility production will begin to produce lignin for co-fire testing. Facility modifications are expected to continue to improve facility operations and performance during the first quarter of 2001. The TVA-Colbert facility continues to make progress in evaluating the co-location of the Masada facility on the operation of the power generation facility. The TVA-Colbert fossil plant is fully capable of providing a reliable steam supply. The preferred steam supply connection points and steam pipeline routing have been identified. The environmental review of the pipeline routing has been completed and no major impacts have been identified. Detailed

  9. The MODIS Rapid Response Project: Near-Real-Time Processing for Fire Monitoring and Other Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Descloitres, J.; Justice, C.; Sohlberg, R.; Giglio, L.; Schmaltz, J.; Seaton, J.; Davies, D.; Anyamba, A.; Hansen, M.; Carroll, M.; Sullivan, M.

    2003-12-01

    The Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on board the Terra and Aqua satellites offers an unprecedented combination of daily spatial coverage, spatial resolution, and spectral characteristics. These capabilities make MODIS ideal to observe a variety of rapid events: active fires, floods, smoke transport, dust storms, severe storms, iceberg calving, and volcanic eruptions. The MODIS Rapid Response System (http://rapidfire.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov) was developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center to provide a rapid response to those events, with initial emphasis on active fire detection and 250m-resolution imagery. MODIS data for most of the Earth's land surface is processed just a few hours after data acquisition. A collaboration between NASA, the University of Maryland and the U.S.D.A. Forest Service has been developed to provide fire information derived from MODIS to federal fire managers. Active fire locations in the conterminous United States are produced by the MODIS Rapid Response System and communicated to the Forest Service within a few minutes of production. The MODIS Rapid Response processing was also adapted to Direct Broadcast to reduce the product turn-around to just minutes after data acquisition regionally. MODIS active fire locations are used by the Forest Service to generate regional fire maps over the United States, updated twice daily and provided to the fire managers to help them allocate firefighting resources. Active fire locations are also distributed in near-real-time to the Global Observation of Forest Cover (G.O.F.C.) user community through a web interface integrating MODIS active fire locations and Geographic Information System (G.I.S.) datasets. The suite of MODIS rapid fire products is currently being complemented with a Smoke Index product and a Burned Area product that will represent two new key tools available to the fire community. Finally a new collaboration with the U.S.D.A. Foreign Agricultural Service was

  10. Wheels of Fire. II. Neutral Hydrogen in the Cartwheel Ring Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higdon, James L.

    1996-08-01

    The VLA was used to investigate the distribution and kinematics of neutral hydrogen, and the relation between massive star formation (MSF) and gas surface density, in the Cartwheel ring galaxy. Over 85% of the Cartwheel's H I resides in the outer ring, with a low surface density component filling much of the interior. Analysis of the H I velocity field indicates that the outer ring is expanding at V_exp_ = 53 +/- 9 km s^-1^, and that ~300 Myr have elapsed since the intruder's passage. Changes in V_exp_ with radius show that gas is beginning to leave the outer ring and is infalling for R <~ 8 kpc. H I is accumulating just beyond the inner ring, though optical (V - R) maps show gas and dust crossing the ring and flowing into the nucleus along two streams. No H I analogs of the optical "spokes" are found. The ring's surface brightness in Hα ({SIGMA}_Hα_) and 20 cm continuum ({SIGMA}_20 cm_) are identical, showing that peculiar extinction is not responsible for the observed crescent of MSF. Only the two most luminous H II complexes are detected at 6 cm and are characterized by nonthermal spectra (α^bar^ = - 0.65) and low 6 cm- Hα extinction (A^bar^_V_ = 1.7 mag). The 20 cm continuum-derived Type II SN rate (0.1 +/- 0.02 yr^-1^) is consistent with the lower bound of optical estimates. H I and Hα are both concentrated and anticorrelated in the outer ring. MSF appears to take place on the H I ring's leading edge throughout the starburst quadrant, where a disturbed H I component is found. The Cartwheel's gas consumption time-scale is 290 Myr. If the inner ring triggers a second sustained starburst, a significant fraction of the remaining gas supply may be converted into stars. The global distribution of MSF can be understood in terms of a critical surface density ({SIGMA}_crit_; reported by Kennicutt in 1989): Only in the outer ring does the atomic gas surface density ({SIGMA}_ag_) exceed {SIGMA}_crit_ when averaged over a full range in azimuth. At smaller radii

  11. A Copper (II) Aspirinate Project for the General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudek, Emily

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment that involves the synthesis of copper (II) aspirinate and the analysis of copper content in the product using electrogravimetric, spectrophotometric, and titrimetric methods. (MLH)

  12. Evaluation in Adult Literacy Research. Project ALERT. Phase II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ntiri, Daphne Williams, Ed.

    This document contains an evaluation handbook for adult literacy programs and feedback from/regarding the evaluation instruments developed during the project titled Adult Literacy and Evaluation Research Team (also known as Project ALERT), a two-phase project initiated by the Detroit Literacy Coalition (DLC) for the purpose of developing and…

  13. Future fire emissions associated with projected land use change in Sumatra.

    PubMed

    Marlier, Miriam E; DeFries, Ruth; Pennington, Derric; Nelson, Erik; Ordway, Elsa M; Lewis, Jeremy; Koplitz, Shannon N; Mickley, Loretta J

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia has experienced rapid land use change over the last few decades as forests and peatswamps have been cleared for more intensively managed land uses, including oil palm and timber plantations. Fires are the predominant method of clearing and managing land for more intensive uses, and the related emissions affect public health by contributing to regional particulate matter and ozone concentrations and adding to global atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Here, we examine emissions from fires associated with land use clearing and land management on the Indonesian island of Sumatra and the sensitivity of this fire activity to interannual meteorological variability. We find ~80% of 2005-2009 Sumatra emissions are associated with degradation or land use maintenance instead of immediate land use conversion, especially in dry years. We estimate Sumatra fire emissions from land use change and maintenance for the next two decades with five scenarios of land use change, the Global Fire Emissions Database Version 3, detailed 1-km2 land use change maps, and MODIS fire radiative power observations. Despite comprising only 16% of the original study area, we predict that 37-48% of future Sumatra emissions from land use change will occur in fuel-rich peatswamps unless this land cover type is protected effectively. This result means that the impact of fires on future air quality and climate in Equatorial Asia will be decided in part by the conservation status given to the remaining peatswamps on Sumatra. Results from this article will be implemented in an atmospheric transport model to quantify the public health impacts from the transport of fire emissions associated with future land use scenarios in Sumatra.

  14. Dayton Aircraft Cabin Fire Model, Version 3. Volume II. Program User’s Guide and Appendices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    Stoichiometric oxygen -to- fuel mass ratio for this material (-). 18 TABLE IV (Continued) MATERIALS FLAMMABILITY DATA Record Variable Type Column Format Name...the cabin materials). 37 11-20 F10.1 GAMI Stoichiometric oxygen -to- fuel mass ratio for the ignition fire fuel (-). 37 21-30 F10.1 WMIGN Molecular...obtained after the ramp-in period. (2) During the ramp-in period, the values of the heat, smoke, and gas release rates and oxygen consumption rate start

  15. Carbon dynamics of forests in Washington, U.S.A.: 21st century projections based on climate-driven changes in fire regimes.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Crystal L; McKenzie, Donald

    2012-07-01

    During the 21st century, climate-driven changes in fire regimes will be a key agent of change in forests of the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW). Understanding the response of forest carbon (C) dynamics to increases in fire will help quantify limits on the contribution of forest C storage to climate change mitigation and prioritize forest types for monitoring C storage and fire management to minimize C loss. In this study, we used projections of 21st century area burned to explore the consequences of changes in fire regimes on C dynamics in forests of Washington State. We used a novel empirical approach that takes advantage of chronosequences of C pools and fluxes and statistical properties of fire regimes to explore the effects of shifting age class distributions on C dynamics. Forests of the western Cascades are projected to be more sensitive to climate-driven increases in fire, and thus projected changes in C dynamics, than forests of the eastern Cascades. In the western Cascades, mean live biomass C is projected to decrease by 24-37%, and coarse woody debris (CWD) biomass C by 15-25% for the 2040s. Loss of live biomass C is projected to be lower for forests of the eastern Cascades and Okanogan Highlands (17-26%), and CWD biomass is projected to increase. Landscape mean net primary productivity is projected to increase in wet low-elevation forests of the western Cascades, but decrease elsewhere. These forests, and moist forests of the Okanogan Highlands, are projected to have the greatest percentage increases in consumption of live biomass. Percentage increases in consumption of CWD biomass are greater than 50% for all regions and up to four times greater than increases in consumption of live biomass. Carbon sequestration in PNW forests will be highly sensitive to increases in fire, suggesting a cautious approach to managing these forests for C sequestration to mitigate anthropogenic CO2 emissions.

  16. Fire as Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project that deals with fire production as an aspect of technology. The project challenges students to be survivors in a five-day classroom activity. Students research various materials and methods to produce fire without the use of matches or other modern combustion devices, then must create "fire" to keep…

  17. Fire as Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project that deals with fire production as an aspect of technology. The project challenges students to be survivors in a five-day classroom activity. Students research various materials and methods to produce fire without the use of matches or other modern combustion devices, then must create "fire" to keep…

  18. Stem mortality in surface fires: Part II, experimental methods for characterizing the thermal response of tree stems to heating by fires

    Treesearch

    D. M. Jimenez; B. W. Butler; J. Reardon

    2003-01-01

    Current methods for predicting fire-induced plant mortality in shrubs and trees are largely empirical. These methods are not readily linked to duff burning, soil heating, and surface fire behavior models. In response to the need for a physics-based model of this process, a detailed model for predicting the temperature distribution through a tree stem as a function of...

  19. Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems, Phase II and III

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47%; NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input; all solid wastes benign; cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants. Phase 1, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase 1 also included preliminary R and D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This phase, Phase 2, involves the development and testing of plant subsystems, refinement and updating of the HIPPS commercial plant design, and the site selection and engineering design of a HIPPS prototype plant. Work reported herein is from: Task 2.1 HITAC Combustors; Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; Task 6 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design Update.

  20. Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems, Phase II and III

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47%, NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input, all solid wastes benign, and cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants. Phase 1, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase 1 also included preliminary R and D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This phase, Phase 2, involves the development and testing of plant subsystems, refinement and updating of the HIPPS commercial plant design, and the site selection and engineering design of a HIPPS prototype plant. Work reported herein is from: Task 2.1 HITAC Combustors; Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; Task 6 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design Update.

  1. Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems, Phase II and III

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47%, NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard), coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input, all solid wastes benign cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants. Phase 1, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase 1 also included preliminary R and D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This phase, Phase 2, involves the development and testing of plant subsystems, refinement and updating of the HIPPS commercial plant design, and the site selection and engineering design of a HIPPS prototype plant. Work reported herein is from: Task 2.1 HITAF Combustor; Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; Task 6 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design Update.

  2. Climate change and fire effects on a prairie–woodland ecotone: projecting species range shifts with a dynamic global vegetation model

    PubMed Central

    King, David A; Bachelet, Dominique M; Symstad, Amy J

    2013-01-01

    Large shifts in species ranges have been predicted under future climate scenarios based primarily on niche-based species distribution models. However, the mechanisms that would cause such shifts are uncertain. Natural and anthropogenic fires have shaped the distributions of many plant species, but their effects have seldom been included in future projections of species ranges. Here, we examine how the combination of climate and fire influence historical and future distributions of the ponderosa pine–prairie ecotone at the edge of the Black Hills in South Dakota, USA, as simulated by MC1, a dynamic global vegetation model that includes the effects of fire, climate, and atmospheric CO2 concentration on vegetation dynamics. For this purpose, we parameterized MC1 for ponderosa pine in the Black Hills, designating the revised model as MC1-WCNP. Results show that fire frequency, as affected by humidity and temperature, is central to the simulation of historical prairies in the warmer lowlands versus woodlands in the cooler, moister highlands. Based on three downscaled general circulation model climate projections for the 21st century, we simulate greater frequencies of natural fire throughout the area due to substantial warming and, for two of the climate projections, lower relative humidity. However, established ponderosa pine forests are relatively fire resistant, and areas that were initially wooded remained so over the 21st century for most of our future climate x fire management scenarios. This result contrasts with projections for ponderosa pine based on climatic niches, which suggest that its suitable habitat in the Black Hills will be greatly diminished by the middle of the 21st century. We hypothesize that the differences between the future predictions from these two approaches are due in part to the inclusion of fire effects in MC1, and we highlight the importance of accounting for fire as managed by humans in assessing both historical species distributions

  3. Climate change and fire effects on a prairie-woodland ecotone: projecting species range shifts with a dynamic global vegetation model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, David A.; Bachelet, Dominique M.; Symstad, Amy J.

    2013-01-01

    Large shifts in species ranges have been predicted under future climate scenarios based primarily on niche-based species distribution models. However, the mechanisms that would cause such shifts are uncertain. Natural and anthropogenic fires have shaped the distributions of many plant species, but their effects have seldom been included in future projections of species ranges. Here, we examine how the combination of climate and fire influence historical and future distributions of the ponderosa pine–prairie ecotone at the edge of the Black Hills in South Dakota, USA, as simulated by MC1, a dynamic global vegetation model that includes the effects of fire, climate, and atmospheric CO2 concentration on vegetation dynamics. For this purpose, we parameterized MC1 for ponderosa pine in the Black Hills, designating the revised model as MC1-WCNP. Results show that fire frequency, as affected by humidity and temperature, is central to the simulation of historical prairies in the warmer lowlands versus woodlands in the cooler, moister highlands. Based on three downscaled general circulation model climate projections for the 21st century, we simulate greater frequencies of natural fire throughout the area due to substantial warming and, for two of the climate projections, lower relative humidity. However, established ponderosa pine forests are relatively fire resistant, and areas that were initially wooded remained so over the 21st century for most of our future climate x fire management scenarios. This result contrasts with projections for ponderosa pine based on climatic niches, which suggest that its suitable habitat in the Black Hills will be greatly diminished by the middle of the 21st century. We hypothesize that the differences between the future predictions from these two approaches are due in part to the inclusion of fire effects in MC1, and we highlight the importance of accounting for fire as managed by humans in assessing both historical species distributions

  4. Climate change and fire effects on a prairie-woodland ecotone: projecting species range shifts with a dynamic global vegetation model.

    PubMed

    King, David A; Bachelet, Dominique M; Symstad, Amy J

    2013-12-01

    Large shifts in species ranges have been predicted under future climate scenarios based primarily on niche-based species distribution models. However, the mechanisms that would cause such shifts are uncertain. Natural and anthropogenic fires have shaped the distributions of many plant species, but their effects have seldom been included in future projections of species ranges. Here, we examine how the combination of climate and fire influence historical and future distributions of the ponderosa pine-prairie ecotone at the edge of the Black Hills in South Dakota, USA, as simulated by MC1, a dynamic global vegetation model that includes the effects of fire, climate, and atmospheric CO2 concentration on vegetation dynamics. For this purpose, we parameterized MC1 for ponderosa pine in the Black Hills, designating the revised model as MC1-WCNP. Results show that fire frequency, as affected by humidity and temperature, is central to the simulation of historical prairies in the warmer lowlands versus woodlands in the cooler, moister highlands. Based on three downscaled general circulation model climate projections for the 21st century, we simulate greater frequencies of natural fire throughout the area due to substantial warming and, for two of the climate projections, lower relative humidity. However, established ponderosa pine forests are relatively fire resistant, and areas that were initially wooded remained so over the 21st century for most of our future climate x fire management scenarios. This result contrasts with projections for ponderosa pine based on climatic niches, which suggest that its suitable habitat in the Black Hills will be greatly diminished by the middle of the 21st century. We hypothesize that the differences between the future predictions from these two approaches are due in part to the inclusion of fire effects in MC1, and we highlight the importance of accounting for fire as managed by humans in assessing both historical species distributions and

  5. FIRE I - Marine Stratocumulus Data Sets

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-07-12

    FIRE I - Marine Stratocumulus Data Sets First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) I - Marine Stratocumulus was conducted off the southwestern coast of California. ... FIRE Project Guide FIRE I - Marine Stratocumulus Home Page SCAR-B Block:  ...

  6. FIRE I - Extended Time Observations Data Sets

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-08-01

    FIRE I - Extended Time Observations Data Sets First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) I - Extended Time Observations were conducted in Utah. Relevant Documents:  FIRE Project Guide FIRE I - Extended Time Observations Home Page SCAR-B Block:  ...

  7. Part I. The fire properties of polymer clay nanocomposites. Part II. Thermal rearrangement of donor-acceptor substituted cyclopropanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Shengpei

    2003-08-01

    This work consists of two parts. Part I, which includes chapter 1--5, is focused on the fire properties of nanocomposites while part II deals with thermal rearrangement of the donor-acceptor cyclopropanes. In chapter 1 of the first part an introduction to the preparation of polymer-clay nanocomposites is provided along with their application to fire retardancy. Chapter 2 details the exfoliation process of clay using in situ polymerization; the results show that the exfoliation process is related to the monomer, the modified clay and the initiator. Chapter 3 concentrates on the preparation of nanocomposites by melt blending with polymer modified clays. Three different polymer modified clays (PS, PMMA and PBD modified clay) and six polymers (PS, HIPS, ABS, PMMA, PP and PE) are reported. The morphology, thermal stability, fire behavior and mechanical properties were studied. This research shows that the exfoliation process by melt blending is controlled by the types of interactions between the various polymers, the silicate surfaces and the organic modifier. The combination of polar polymer matrix and non-polar polymer modified clay with large d-spacing will be more likely to give the exfoliated nanocomposites. TGA-FTIR results show that the mechanism of degradation of polystyrene is changed in the presence of the clay. In order to better understand the effects of the organic modifier, PS surfactants with five different pendant groups, dimethylhexadecylamine, trimethylamine, dimethylbenzylamine, 1,2-dimethylimidizole and triphenylphosphine, were used and the results show that the degradation depends upon the pendant. Chapter 5 provides some suggestions for future work based upon this work. The synthesis of several new and previously reported donor-acceptor cyclopropanes is reported in part II. The study shows that the facility of the donor-acceptor cyclopropane ring cleavage is strongly influenced by the kind of activating substitutes on the cyclopropane ring, and the

  8. Vegetation fire proneness in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Mário; Aranha, José; Amraoui, Malik

    2015-04-01

    Fire selectivity has been studied for vegetation classes in terms of fire frequency and fire size in a few European regions. This analysis is often performed along with other landscape variables such as topography, distance to roads and towns. These studies aims to assess the landscape sensitivity to forest fires in peri-urban areas and land cover changes, to define landscape management guidelines and policies based on the relationships between landscape and fires in the Mediterranean region. Therefore, the objectives of this study includes the: (i) analysis of the spatial and temporal variability statistics within Europe; and, (ii) the identification and characterization of the vegetated land cover classes affected by fires; and, (iii) to propose a fire proneness index. The datasets used in the present study comprises: Corine Land Cover (CLC) maps for 2000 and 2006 (CLC2000, CLC2006) and burned area (BA) perimeters, from 2000 to 2013 in Europe, provided by the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS). The CLC is a part of the European Commission programme to COoRdinate INformation on the Environment (Corine) and it provides consistent, reliable and comparable information on land cover across Europe. Both the CLC and EFFIS datasets were combined using geostatistics and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques to access the spatial and temporal evolution of the types of shrubs and forest affected by fires. Obtained results confirms the usefulness and efficiency of the land cover classification scheme and fire proneness index which allows to quantify and to compare the propensity of vegetation classes and countries to fire. As expected, differences between northern and southern Europe are notorious in what concern to land cover distribution, fire incidence and fire proneness of vegetation cover classes. This work was supported by national funds by FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology, under the project PEst-OE/AGR/UI4033/2014 and by

  9. A Manhattan Project in Educational Technology, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Wesley K.

    The initial four phases of the Training Extension Course (TEC), a project to remedy deficiencies in training programs for armed forces recruits, employed systematic instructional development and extensive audiovisual resources. The project required subcontracting for lesson production and modifications in personnel and budgeting. Posttest evidence…

  10. DPI Gender Equity Leadership Project - Phase II. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Linda L.

    This report documents a project to provide technical assistance, coordination, training, and resources to programs implementing the Wisconsin Model for Sex Equity in Career and Vocational Education. It describes how technical assistance was provided to all school districts served through a consortium and three special projects. Other project…

  11. Coal-fired propulsion system dynamics. Volume II. Program documentation and user's guide. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Greenlee, T.L.; Pearsons, J.L.

    1982-12-01

    This volume describes the use and internal details of a FORTRAN computer program that has been written for simulating the dynamic (transient) behavior of a dual-fired (coal or oil) ship propulsion system. The FORTRAN program implements and solves a system of coupled, nonlinear, first-order, ordinary differential equations that represent all major components of the ship propulsion system (feedwater pumps, boilers, headers, turbines, turbine/gears propeller shaft, and hull). These equations also represent all major control loops. The program incorporates a numerical linearization subroutine that can be used to generate the steady-state conditions for any operating point. This subroutine also produces a linearized version of the model that describes the transient behavior of the propulsion system in a neighborhood of the steady-state operating point. The eigenvalues (reciprocal time constants) of this linear model are also generated. A copy of the FORTRAN program is available on magnetic tape from MARAD.

  12. Projected carbon stocks in the conterminous USA with land use and variable fire regimes.

    PubMed

    Bachelet, Dominique; Ferschweiler, Ken; Sheehan, Timothy J; Sleeter, Benjamin M; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2015-12-01

    The dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM) MC2 was run over the conterminous USA at 30 arc sec (~800 m) to simulate the impacts of nine climate futures generated by 3GCMs (CSIRO, MIROC and CGCM3) using 3 emission scenarios (A2, A1B and B1) in the context of the LandCarbon national carbon sequestration assessment. It first simulated potential vegetation dynamics from coast to coast assuming no human impacts and naturally occurring wildfires. A moderate effect of increased atmospheric CO2 on water use efficiency and growth enhanced carbon sequestration but did not greatly influence woody encroachment. The wildfires maintained prairie-forest ecotones in the Great Plains. With simulated fire suppression, the number and impacts of wildfires was reduced as only catastrophic fires were allowed to escape. This greatly increased the expansion of forests and woodlands across the western USA and some of the ecotones disappeared. However, when fires did occur, their impacts (both extent and biomass consumed) were very large. We also evaluated the relative influence of human land use including forest and crop harvest by running the DGVM with land use (and fire suppression) and simple land management rules. From 2041 through 2060, carbon stocks (live biomass, soil and dead biomass) of US terrestrial ecosystems varied between 155 and 162 Pg C across the three emission scenarios when potential natural vegetation was simulated. With land use, periodic harvest of croplands and timberlands as well as the prevention of woody expansion across the West reduced carbon stocks to a range of 122-126 Pg C, while effective fire suppression reduced fire emissions by about 50%. Despite the simplicity of our approach, the differences between the size of the carbon stocks confirm other reports of the importance of land use on the carbon cycle over climate change.

  13. The Topaz-II project: A technical teaming of US and Russian scientists

    SciTech Connect

    Thome, F.V.; Wyant, F.J.; Oglobin, B.

    1994-12-31

    This report describes research efforts associated with the Topaz-II project and thermionic conversion. The Thermionic System Evaluation test is a program that is executed by Air FOrce Phillips Laboratory and involves the purchase of two Russian TOPAZ II space nuclear power reactor systems and support equipment necessary for nonuclear ground testing. The laboratory also is involved with the The Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Power System that involes the evaluation of the TOPAZ II system from a safety perspective.

  14. Coal-fired MHD combustor development project: Phase IIIB. First quarterly technical progress report, 13 January-30 April 1982

    SciTech Connect

    1982-05-20

    The first quarterly technical progress report of the Coal-Fired MHD Combustor Development Project (Phase IIIB) presents the accomplishments during the period 13 January to 30 April, 1982. The scope of work covered by this quarterly report relates to those tasks associated with preparing the TRW 20 MW/sub t/ MHD coal combustor for delivery to AERL for integrated power tests and the work associated with the preliminary design of a 50 MW/sub t/ coal-fired combustor. Progress during this reporting period is described. All new 20 MW/sub t/ hardware was designed and fabricated. Interface coordination meetings were conducted with AERL and DOE. Interface control drawings were completed and a 20 MW/sub t/ coal combustion User's manual was delivered to AERL. The User's manual contained a shipping plan, a crew training plan, an assembly manual, interface documentation and recommended operating procedures. Facility/combustor set-up was completed and the pre-delivery 20 MW/sub t/ coal combustor qualification test series was completed. The 50 MW/sub t/ coal-fired MHD combustor preliminary designs were finalized and the DOE preliminary design review (PDR) was successfully completed.

  15. Anemone toxin (ATX II)-induced increase in persistent sodium current: effects on the firing properties of rat neocortical pyramidal neurones

    PubMed Central

    Mantegazza, Massimo; Franceschetti, Silvana; Avanzini, Giuliano

    1998-01-01

    The experiments were performed on sensorimotor cortex using current-clamp intracellular recordings in layer V pyramidal neurones and whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings in dissociated pyramidal neurones. The intracellularly recorded neurones were classified on the basis of their firing characteristics as intrinsically bursting (IB) and regular spiking (RS). The RS neurones were further subdivided into adapting (RSAD) or non-adapting (RSNA), depending on the presence or absence of spike frequency adaptation. Since burst firing in neocortical pyramidal neurones has previously been suggested to depend on the persistent fraction of Na+ current (INa,p), pharmacological manipulations with drugs affecting INa inactivation have been employed. ATX II, a toxin derived from Anemonia sulcata, selectively inhibited INa fast inactivation in dissociated neurones. In current-clamp experiments on neocortical slices, ATX II enhanced the naturally occurring burst firing in IB neurones and revealed the ability of RSNA neurones to discharge in bursts, whereas in RSAD neurones it increased firing frequency, without inducing burst discharges. During the ATX II effect, in all the three neuronal subclasses, episodes of a metastable condition occurred, characterized by long-lasting depolarizing shifts, triggered by action potentials, which were attributed to a peak in the toxin-induced inhibition of INa inactivation. The ATX II effect on IB and RSNA neurones was compared with that induced by veratridine and iodoacetamide. Veratridine induced a small increase in the INa and a large shift to the left in the voltage dependence of INa activation. Accordingly, its major effect on firing characteristics was the induction of prolonged tonic discharges, associated with burst facilitation less pronounced than that induced by ATX II. The alkylating agent iodoacetamide was able to induce a selective small increase in the INa,p, with a similar but less pronounced effect than ATX II on firing behaviour

  16. Molecular characterization of MHC class II in a nonmodel anuran species, the fire-bellied toad Bombina bombina.

    PubMed

    Hauswaldt, J Susanne; Stuckas, H; Pfautsch, S; Tiedemann, R

    2007-06-01

    While the anuran Xenopus comprises one of the best characterized nonmammalian taxa regarding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), the organization of this gene complex has never been studied in other anurans, and information on amphibian MHC (other than Xenopus) is generally very scarce. Here, we describe the characterization of the first MHC class II B cDNA sequences from a nonmodel anuran species, the European fire-bellied toad (Bombina bombina). We isolated two transcript sequences differing substantially in amino acid composition and length within the beta2 domain. To investigate the variability of the peptide binding region in this species, we sequenced a 158-bp large fragment from wild B. bombina (n = 20) and identified eight distinct alleles. All substitutions but one were nonsynonymous, and many of the highly polymorphic sites corresponded with amino acid positions known to be involved in antigen binding. The level of variation we found in B. bombina was similar compared to that previously found in a comparable sample of a wild urodelan species, Ambystoma tigrinum, and to that found in Xenopus laevis. Based on the cDNA data and the individual's allelic diversity, we conclude that Bombina possesses at least two class II B loci. With our new beta1 primers, we were able to generate sequences in other species of anurans. We provide here a first phylogenetic analysis of this gene in amphibians.

  17. Effects of cavity form and setting expansion of refractory dies on adaptability of Class II (MO and MOD) fired ceramic inlays.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, M; Miura, M; Nishimura, N; Takeshige, F; Ebisu, S

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of cavity divergence and setting expansion of refractory die material on the adaptability of Class II (MO and MOD) fired ceramic inlays. Standardized Class II (MO and MOD) cavities with two kinds of lateral wall divergence (10 and 20 degrees) were prepared in epoxy resin blocks. A refractory die was prepared from an impression of the epoxy resin cavity in which the setting expansion ranged from 0.04 to 1.14%. A ceramic inlay was fired on each die. The fabricated inlay was inserted into the epoxy resin cavity, and the interfacial distance between the ceramic inlay and the cavity wall at the margin was measured using a reflecting microscope at x100 magnification. The internal fit was measured after sectioning the specimen longitudinally. The results indicate that the setting expansion of the refractory die materials and the divergence of the lateral walls had significant effects on the adaptability of Class II (MO and MOD) fired ceramic inlays. The inlays fabricated on the refractory dies with small setting expansion showed small internal gaps in Class II (MO) cavities. Significantly good adaptation was achieved when the setting expansion was 0.32% or less (p < 0.05). The inlays fabricated on the refractory dies with large setting expansion showed small internal gaps in Class II (MOD) cavities. Significantly good adaptation was achieved when the setting expansion was 0.87% and greater (p < 0.05).

  18. 29 CFR 1915.505 - Fire response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... response organization; (ii) The number of trained fire response employees; (iii) The fire response... type, amount, and frequency of training that must be given to fire response employees; and (vi) The... basic organizational structure of the combined fire response; (ii) The number of combined trained fire...

  19. 29 CFR 1915.505 - Fire response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... response organization; (ii) The number of trained fire response employees; (iii) The fire response... type, amount, and frequency of training that must be given to fire response employees; and (vi) The... basic organizational structure of the combined fire response; (ii) The number of combined trained fire...

  20. 29 CFR 1915.505 - Fire response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... response organization; (ii) The number of trained fire response employees; (iii) The fire response... type, amount, and frequency of training that must be given to fire response employees; and (vi) The... basic organizational structure of the combined fire response; (ii) The number of combined trained fire...

  1. Comparative assessment of marginal accuracy of grade II titanium and Ni–Cr alloy before and after ceramic firing: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Abhijit; Singh, Kishan; Sahoo, Sukant; Suvarna, Suraj; Kumar, Prince; Singh, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aims of the study are to assess the marginal accuracy of base metal and titanium alloy casting and to evaluate the effect of repeated ceramic firing on the marginal accuracy of base metal and titanium alloy castings. Materials and Methods: Twenty metal copings were fabricated with each casting material. Specimens were divided into 4 groups of 10 each representing base metal alloys castings without (Group A) and with metal shoulder margin (Group B), titanium castings without (Group C) and with metal shoulder margin (Group D). The measurement of fit of the metal copings was carried out before the ceramic firing at four different points and the same was followed after porcelain build-up. Results: Significant difference was found when Ni–Cr alloy samples were compared with Grade II titanium samples both before and after ceramic firings. The titanium castings with metal shoulder margin showed highest microgap among all the materials tested. Conclusions: Based on the results that were found and within the limitations of the study design, it can be concluded that there is marginal discrepancy in the copings made from Ni–Cr and Grade II titanium. This marginal discrepancy increased after ceramic firing cycles for both Ni–Cr and Grade II titanium. The comparative statistical analysis for copings with metal-collar showed maximum discrepancy for Group D. The comparative statistical analysis for copings without metal-collar showed maximum discrepancy for Group C. PMID:24926205

  2. Tampa Bay Ecosystem Services Demonstration Project Website: Phase II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tampa Bay Ecosystem Services Demonstration Project models the impact of human development and natural stressors on the economic, aesthetic and cultural value of local ecosystems. By linking ecological structures, functions, and condition to the ecosystem services valued by h...

  3. Tampa Bay Ecosystem Services Demonstration Project Website: Phase II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tampa Bay Ecosystem Services Demonstration Project models the impact of human development and natural stressors on the economic, aesthetic and cultural value of local ecosystems. By linking ecological structures, functions, and condition to the ecosystem services valued by h...

  4. Preliminary Design of Pinhole camera for NSLS-II Project.

    SciTech Connect

    Pinayev,I.; Kosciuk, B.; Singh, O.

    2009-05-04

    The NSLS-II Light Source being built at Brookhaven National Laboratory is expected to provide very small emittances and electron beam sizes. High resolution imaging systems are required in order to provide robust measurements. The pinhole camera will utilize 6-fold magnification with a pinhole placed inside a crotch absorber. The pinhole is protected from high power synchrotron radiation with a filter made of refractory metal. In this paper we provide resolution analyses, heat load calculations, and optimization details for the NSLS-II pinhole camera, including beamline design.

  5. Greek Students Research the Effects of Fire on the Soil System through Project-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kioupi, Vasiliki; Arianoutsou, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    This study is focused on the development, implementation and evaluation of an environmental education programme for secondary education students. The programme was entitled "?he effects of fire on the soil system" and it was implemented during the school period of 2008. Twenty-four (24) students (aged from 15 to 20) coming from Lidoriki…

  6. Greek Students Research the Effects of Fire on the Soil System through Project-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kioupi, Vasiliki; Arianoutsou, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    This study is focused on the development, implementation and evaluation of an environmental education programme for secondary education students. The programme was entitled "?he effects of fire on the soil system" and it was implemented during the school period of 2008. Twenty-four (24) students (aged from 15 to 20) coming from Lidoriki…

  7. Project EASE II. Workplace Education Curricula: From Teaching Basic Skills to Training the Trainer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb.

    This curriculum guide was created to guide workplace basic skills instructors in the design of customized curricula for Project Employment Assistance and Skill Enhancement (EASE II), an on-the-job literacy and basic skills improvement project for employees of small companies in the metal working industry in the Chicago area. The guide contains…

  8. 76 FR 55947 - Industrial Relations Promotion Project, Phase II in Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... of the Secretary Industrial Relations Promotion Project, Phase II in Vietnam AGENCY: Bureau of... funded.. DAI, through its Industrial Relations Promotion Project (IRRP), is the only organization that... disputes and sound industrial relations by developing approaches in cooperation with trade unions/worker...

  9. HEW Region II Staff Development Project: Final Report 1972-1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montclair State Coll., Upper Montclair, NJ. Adult Continuing Education Center.

    The final report of the Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW) Region II Adult and Continuing Education Staff Development Project, administered by Montclair State College, synthesizes the project's efforts for regionalization of staff development for New Jersey, New York, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Chapter 1 covers administrative…

  10. Operation and Development Status of the Spacecraft Fire Experiments (Saffire)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, Gary A.; Urban, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2012, a series of Spacecraft Fire Experiments (Saffire) have been under development by the Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration (SFS Demo) project, funded by NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Division. The overall objective of this project is to reduce the uncertainty and risk associated with the design of spacecraft fire safety systems for NASA's exploration missions. The approach to achieving this goal has been to define, develop, and conduct experiments that address gaps in spacecraft fire safety knowledge and capabilities identified by NASA's Fire Safety System Maturation Team. The Spacecraft Fire Experiments (Saffire-I, -II, and -III) are material flammability tests at length scales that are realistic for a spacecraft fire in low-gravity. The specific objectives of these three experiments are to (1) determine how rapidly a large scale fire grows in low-gravity and (2) investigate the low-g flammability limits compared to those obtained in NASA's normal gravity material flammability screening test. The experiments will be conducted in Orbital ATK's Cygnus vehicle after it has unberthed from the International Space Station. The tests will be fully automated with the data downlinked at the conclusion of the test before the Cygnus vehicle reenters the atmosphere. This paper discusses the status of the Saffire-I, II, and III experiments followed by a review of the fire safety technology gaps that are driving the development of objectives for the next series of experiments, Saffire-IV, V, and VI.

  11. Fire Protection Specialist, Blocks I, II, & III, 17-2. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This military-developed text contains the first three blocks of a five-block course for use in training fire protection specialists. Covered in the individual volumes are the following topics: fire protection objectives and responsibilities (fire protection and occupational safety, extinguishing agents, principles and theory of combustion, natural…

  12. Using the Large Fire Simulator System to map wildland fire potential for the conterminous United States

    Treesearch

    LaWen Hollingsworth; James Menakis

    2010-01-01

    This project mapped wildland fire potential (WFP) for the conterminous United States by using the large fire simulation system developed for Fire Program Analysis (FPA) System. The large fire simulation system, referred to here as LFSim, consists of modules for weather generation, fire occurrence, fire suppression, and fire growth modeling. Weather was generated with...

  13. LAPS Lidar Measurements at the ARM Alaska Northslope Site (Support to FIRE Project)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philbrick, C. Russell; Lysak, Daniel B., Jr.; Petach, Tomas M.; Esposito, Steven T.; Mulik, Karoline R.

    1998-01-01

    This report consists of data summaries of the results obtained during the May 1998 measurement period at Barrow Alaska. This report does not contain any data interpretation or analysis of the results which will follow this activity. This report is forwarded with a data set on magnetic media which contains the reduced data from the LAPS lidar in 15 minute intervals. The data was obtained during the period 15-30 May 1998. The measurement period overlapped with several aircraft flights conducted by NASA as part of the FIRE project. The report contains a summary list of the data obtained plus figures that have been prepared to help visualize the measurement periods. The order of the presentation is as follows: Section 1. A copy of the Statement of Work for the planned activity of the second measurement period at the ARM Northslope site is provided. Section 2. A list of the data collection periods shows the number of one minute data records stored during each hour of operation and the corresponding size (Mbytes) of the one hour data folders. The folder and file names are composed from the year, month, day, hour and minute. The date/time information is given in UTC for easier comparison with other data sets. Section 3. A set of 4 comparisons between the LAPS lidar results and the sondes released by the ARM scientists from a location nearby the lidar. The lidar results show the +/- 1 sigma statistical error on each of the independent 75 m altitude bins of the data. This set of 4 comparisons was used to set and validate the calibration value which was then used for the complete data set. Section 4. A set of false color figures with up to 10 hours of specific humidity measurements are shown in each graph. Two days of measurements are shown on each page. These plots are crude representations of the data and permit a survey which indicates when the clouds were very low or where interesting events may occur in the results. These plots are prepared using the real time sequence

  14. Upgrades for the Project 8 Phase II Apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettus, Walter; Project 8 Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    Project 8 employs the Cyclotron Radiation Emission Spectroscopy (CRES) technique towards the ultimate goal of a high precision tritium endpoint measurement. Following the successful first demonstration of CRES, the collaboration has pursued a number of improvements to the apparatus and has recently commissioned its second phase. A new cell design and gas handling system will allow the first measurement of molecular tritium with this setup. New data acquisition systems have been implemented providing greater trigger flexibility and scalability towards future multi-antenna phases. We will highlight the hardware and instrumentation advances defining this new experimental phase of Project 8.

  15. Accelerator Physics Challenges for the NSLS-II Project

    SciTech Connect

    Krinsky,S.

    2009-05-04

    The NSLS-II is an ultra-bright synchrotron light source based upon a 3-GeV storage ring with a 30-cell (15 super-period) double-bend-achromat lattice with damping wigglers used to lower the emittance below 1 nm. In this paper, we discuss the accelerator physics challenges for the design including: optimization of dynamic aperture; estimation of Touschek lifetime; achievement of required orbit stability; and analysis of ring impedance and collective effects.

  16. The EMIL project at BESSY II: Beamline design and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Hendel, Stefan Schäfers, Franz; Reichardt, Gerd; Scheer, Michael; Bahrdt, Johannes; Lips, Klaus; Hävecker, Michael

    2016-07-27

    The Energy Materials In-Situ Laboratory Berlin (EMIL) at BESSY-II is currently under construction. Two canted undulators for soft- and hard X-rays will be installed into the BESSY II storage ring in one straight section, complex beamlines with more than twenty optical elements will be set up and a new laboratory building attached to BESSY II will host three endstations and a large UHV-transfer system connecting various HV- and UHV-deposition systems. The undulators, UE48 and U17, provide a broad energy spectrum of 80 - 10000 eV, of which the harder radiation (>700 eV) is provided by a cryogenic in-vacuum device. Three monochromators (two plane grating monochromators (PGM) and one LN{sub 2}-cooled double crystal monochromator (DCM)) disperse the radiation into separate pathways of 65 m length, while downstream of the monochromators split-mirror chambers distribute the photon beam to one (or simultaneously to two) of five upcoming endstations. Three of these endstations are designed for the full energy range with spatial overlap of the soft and hard foci, whereas one endstation (PEEM) uses only the soft and another one (PINK) only the hard branch, respectively.

  17. EBR-II spent fuel treatment demonstration project status

    SciTech Connect

    Benedict, R.W.; Henslee, S.P.

    1998-07-01

    The application of electrometallurgical technology to spent nuclear fuel treatment is being demonstrated by treating 410 kg uranium spent driver fuel and 1,200 kg uranium spent blanket fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) spent driver and blanket fuel. This fuel is a metallic uranium alloy and contains elemental sodium, which is a reactive material. Since reactive material is considered hazardous by US Environmental Protection Agency regulations, this fuel requires treatment before disposal in a geologic repository. The EBR-II spent fuel treatment demonstration conditions this fuel in an integrated process where the fuel is converted into three different products: low enriched uranium (LEU), ceramic waste and metallic waste. This demonstration was initiated in June 1996 and has treated approximately 50% of the driver fuel. The higher throughput equipment that will be used for blanket treatment processes has been installed in the hot cell facility and is being tested with depleted uranium. Metal waste forms have been produced from the irradiated metals from the driver fuel. Ceramic waste process equipment has been built and is being tested before installation in the hot cell facilities. This paper discusses the processes and the current results from the first 20 months of operation.

  18. CBI Project Evaluation Phase II: Data Analysis Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA. Center for Interactive Educational Technology.

    This report contains the data and results of a study conducted in each of the five Department of Defense Dependents Schools worldwide concerning uses of and attitudes about computers in the classroom. Questionnaires were distributed to 6,850 students in grades 5 to 12 and to 543 computer-based instruction (CBI) project teachers. Highlights of the…

  19. Phase II: Final Report. Northern New Mexico Energy Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico Highlands Univ., Las Vegas.

    Objectives of the Northern New Mexico Energy Education Project were to: (1) improve teachers' knowledge of energy-related subject matter and energy-related educational materials; (2) develop continuing communication and cooperation between elementary and junior high staffs and the university on energy-related matters; and (3) provide follow-up…

  20. Phase II: Final Report. Northern New Mexico Energy Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico Highlands Univ., Las Vegas.

    Objectives of the Northern New Mexico Energy Education Project were to: (1) improve teachers' knowledge of energy-related subject matter and energy-related educational materials; (2) develop continuing communication and cooperation between elementary and junior high staffs and the university on energy-related matters; and (3) provide follow-up…

  1. Videotex Project Reviews II. Research Report Prepared for OCLC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widing, Robert E., II; Talarzyk, W. Wayne

    Designed to provide an overview of the nature and focus of activity in the fledgling videotex industry in the United States and Canada, this updated and extended report presents in-depth reviews of 26 projects which reflect the involvement of such industries as publishing, retailing, agriculture, banking, other financial intermediaries,…

  2. Final Technical Report - Kotzebue Wind Power Project - Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Rana Zucchi, Global Energy Concepts, LLC; Brad Reeve, Kotzebue Electric Association; DOE Project Officer - Doug Hooker

    2007-10-31

    The Kotzebue Wind Power Project is a joint undertaking of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); Kotzebue Electric Association (KEA); and the Alaska Energy Authority (AEA). The goal of the project is to develop, construct, and operate a wind power plant interconnected to a small isolated utility grid in an arctic climate in Northwest Alaska. The primary objective of KEA’s wind energy program is to bring more affordable electricity and jobs to remote Alaskan communities. DOE funding has allowed KEA to develop a multi-faceted approach to meet these objectives that includes wind project planning and development, technology transfer, and community outreach. The first wind turbines were installed in the summer of 1997 and the newest turbines were installed in the spring of 2007. The total installed capacity of the KEA wind power project is 1.16 MW with a total of 17 turbines rated between 65 kW and 100 kW. The operation of the wind power plant has resulted in a wind penetration on the utility system in excess of 35% during periods of low loads. This document and referenced attachments are presented as the final technical report for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) grant agreement DE-FG36-97GO10199. Interim deliverables previously submitted are also referenced within this document and where reasonable to do so, specific sections are incorporated in the report or attached as appendices.

  3. School-Based Health Education Project: Implementation Stage II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seffrin, John R.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Two units of the School Based Health Education Project in Howard County, Indiana, have been revised. The Little Smoky unit on smoking for second graders stresses the effects of smoking on the body systems while the Counter Conscious unit examines the uses of over-the-counter substances. (JMF)

  4. CONDENSING ECONOMIZERS FOR SMALL COAL-FIRED BOILERS AND FURNACES PROJECT REPORT - JANUARY 1994

    SciTech Connect

    BUTCHER,T.A.

    1994-01-04

    Condensing economizers increase the thermal efficiency of boilers by recovering sensible and latent heat from exhaust gas. These economizers are currently being used commercially for this purpose in a wide range of applications. Performance is dependent upon application-specific factors affecting the utility of recovered heat. With the addition of a condensing economizer boiler efficiency improvements up to 10% are possible. Condensing economizers can also capture flue gas particulates. In this work, the potential use of condensing economizers for both efficiency improvement and control of particulate emissions from small, coal water slurry-fired boilers was evaluated. Analysis was done to predict heat transfer and particulate capture by mechanisms including: inertial impaction, interception, diffusion, thermophoretic forces, and condensation growth. Shell-and-tube geometries were considered with flue gas on the outside of Teflon-covered tubes. Experimental studies were done with both air- and water-cooled economizers refit to a small boiler. Two experimental arrangements were used including oil-firing with injection of flyash upstream of the economizer and direct coal water slurry firing. Firing rates ranged from 27 to 82 kW (92,000 to 280,000 Btu/hr). Inertial impaction was found to be the most important particulate capture mechanism and removal efficiencies to 95% were achieved. With the addition of water sprays directly on the first row of tubes, removal efficiencies increased to 98%. Use of these sprays adversely affects heat recovery. Primary benefits of the sprays are seen to be the addition of small impaction sites and future design improvements are suggested in which such small impacts are permanently added to the highest velocity regions of the economizer. Predicted effects of these added impactors on particulate removal and pressure drop are presented.

  5. Spectroscopy of Project Fire 1, April 14, 1964. [comparison of reentry vehicle and meteor spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millman, P. M.

    1973-01-01

    The Fire 1 test was designed to study the heating of an Apollo-type reentry vehicle. The total reentry complex weighed approximately 230 kg and entered the upper atmosphere at a velocity of 11.5 km/s. The spectrum of the reentry complex has been studied in the wavelength range 3700 to 8800 A, where 102 multiplets of 21 atoms and the band systems of 5 diatomic molecules have been identified. Comparisons with meteor spectra are made.

  6. Climate Changes Projection for Land and Forest Fire Risk Assessment in West Kalimantan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadmiko, S. D.; Murdiyarso, D.; Faqih, A.

    2017-03-01

    Risk analysis is a method used to determine the probability of disaster in the current and future. This research analyse of fire risk in West Kalimantan by using extreme climate and vulnerability analysis. Extreme climate was calculated based on the extreme dry rainfall from regional climate model RegCM4.4 outputs. Vulnerability analysis was conducted by using a composite mapping analysis used hotspot data and eleven indicators of vulnerability. We found that very high level of extreme dry rainfall located in the southern region and the western coast area of West Kalimantan. This condition was influenced by environment factors such as topography and land use. Extreme dry rainfall also associated with the pattern of annual rainfall in West Kalimantan which ranges between 1753-4861 mm. Modelling of the vulnerability of land and forest fires in West Kalimantan showed that the land use has impact 24% on the vulnerability model. The results of the vulnerability model analysis shows that the plantations areas and secondary swamp forests are highly vulnerable, particularly on the peat area with depth about 50-200 cm. The analysis of land and forest fires risk found that the vulnerable areas have high risk which is largely unmanaged plantation areas and peatlands.

  7. The NASA/Baltimore Applications Project (BAP). Computer aided dispatch and communications system for the Baltimore Fire Department: A case study of urban technology application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, A. L.

    1981-01-01

    An engineer and a computer expert from Goddard Space Flight Center were assigned to provide technical assistance in the design and installation of a computer assisted system for dispatching and communicating with fire department personnel and equipment in Baltimore City. Primary contributions were in decision making and management processes. The project is analyzed from four perspectives: (1) fire service; (2) technology transfer; (3) public administration; and (5) innovation. The city benefitted substantially from the approach and competence of the NASA personnel. Given the proper conditions, there are distinct advantages in having a nearby Federal laboratory provide assistance to a city on a continuing basis, as is done in the Baltimore Applications Project.

  8. Project 8 Phase II: Improved beta decay electrons reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guigue, Mathieu; Project 8 Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Project 8 collaboration aims to measure the absolute neutrino mass scale using a cyclotron radiation emission spectroscopy technique on the beta decays of tritium. The second phase of the project will measure a differential spectrum of tritium beta decays and extract the tritium endpoint value with an eV or sub-eV scale precision. Monoenergetic electrons emitted by gaseous 83mKr atoms can be used to determine the coefficient between the cyclotron frequency and the electron energy and to optimize the instrument configuration for the tritium measurement. We present the progress on the processing of the electron cyclotron radiation signal to reconstruct the beta decay spectrum of krypton and tritium.

  9. Compare harvest systems. Minnesota Agripower Project, Task II research report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcke, W.F.; Hietala, J.S.

    1997-10-30

    Our primary objectives for this task were to determine field performance and harvest losses for several types of cutting and baling equipment and to compare these values with those found in the literature. Originally, we had planned to study use of preservatives and their effect on harvest and storage losses, but since the MNVAP processing plant is not currently buying hay treated with preservatives, we did minimal work with preservatives during this phase of the project.

  10. Project Fire Model: Summary Progress Report - II, Period May 1, 1960 to April 30, 1962

    Treesearch

    W.L. Fons; H.B. Clements; E.R. Elliott; P.M. George

    1962-01-01

    This publication is included in a four part series. The other parts of the series can be found through the following links:Progress Report #1: http://www.fs.fed.us/psw/publications/fons/psw_1960_fons001.pdf...

  11. Appalachian Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of smoke from forest fires in Virginia, Kentucky, and West Virginia was taken by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) on November 15, 2001. Smoke is visible extending over the Chesapeake Bay. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  12. Microcomputer Applications for Health Care Professionals. Volume II. Curriculum Improvement Project. Region II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Lucy

    This volume is one of three in a self-paced computer literacy course that gives allied health students a firm base of knowledge concerning computer usage in the hospital environment. It also develops skill in several applications software packages. Volume II contains materials for three one-hour courses on word processing applications, spreadsheet…

  13. Alfalfa variety development. Minnesota Agripower Project, Task II research report

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, J.F.S.; Samac, D.A.; Sheaffer, C.C.

    1997-10-30

    This report briefly summarizes preliminary results from crossbreeding alfalfa to develop desirable characteristics for a dedicated biomass feed stock. The varieties development is part of a larger project which includes preparation and gasification of the alfalfa stems for energy production, and use of the co-product alfalfa leaves in livestock feed. The desired alfalfa traits include winter hardiness, resistance to major pathogens, resistance to foliar disease complexes, many thick, tall, solid, non-lodging stems with high lignin content, delayed flowering, and high quality leaves retained through harvest. Currently no alfalfa varieties meet these criteria. Three crosses were made using old European varieties, with thick stems, and modern resistant varieties. The crossbreeds showed some resistance to diseases, but increased resistance is needed to maximize leaf and steam yield. 1 tab.

  14. Construction Cost Analysis : Residential Construction Demonstration Project Cycle II.

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, Cole; Thor, Philip W.

    1990-06-01

    The Residential Construction Demonstration Project (RCDP) is designed to demonstrate new residential building techniques and product innovations which advance the stage-of-the-art in constructing energy-efficient electrically heated residences. A secondary purpose is to obtain documented cost and energy savings data from which to make accurate assessments of the cost-effectiveness of various conservation innovations. The project solicits participation of regional homebuilders by offering them financial incentives for constructing homes to the Model Conservation Standards (MCS) and including at least one innovation.'' The innovations are determined by BPA and the States prior to construction and represent construction techniques or energy saving products that might reduce the cost of building MCS homes, or expand the options available to builders in achieving MCS levels of energy efficiency in homes. Besides covering some of the additional risk for employing the innovation, the incentive payment guarantees that builders will provide certain amounts of information regarding the cost and acceptability of building the homes. In addition, an incentive is paid to homeowners for their participation in data collection efforts following construction. Several one-time'' tests were performed on the houses and homeowners were required to report energy consumption and temperature data on a weekly basis for approximately 18 months. BPA and the States compile the information obtained from the builders and homeowners. Access to this data is provided for the purpose of analyzing the cost and performance of the RCDP homes, as well as understanding the value of the various innovations that are tested. 25 tabs., 4 figs.

  15. Differential firing pattern and response to lighting conditions of rat intergeniculate leaflet neurons projecting to suprachiasmatic nucleus or contralateral intergeniculate leaflet.

    PubMed

    Blasiak, T; Lewandowski, M H

    2013-01-03

    The intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) of the lateral geniculate body in the rat is a population of GABAergic neurons that can be divided into two, anatomically and neurochemically distinct populations. One population comprises neuropeptide-Y (NPY)-positive neurons that form the geniculohypothalamic tract innervating the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) and the other population comprises enkephalin-positive (ENK) neurons giving rise to the geniculo-geniculate tract innervating the contralateral IGL (cIGL). Previous electrophysiological studies have observed various patterns of firing and different responses to changes in lighting conditions of IGL neurons in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study was to determine if these distinct properties could be ascribed to differentially projecting IGL neurons. Neuron activity was recorded extracellularly in the IGL of anaesthetised rats under different lighting conditions (i.e. light/dark). Antidromic activation was used to identify recorded cells as projecting to the SCN or the contralateral IGL. All IGL neurons identified as projecting to the contralateral IGL displayed infra-slow oscillatory activity (ISO; i.e. slow rhythmic bursts of action potentials). ISO of these neurons was sustained in the light and was diminished in the darkness. In contrast, all IGL neurons identified as projecting to the SCN displayed a low level of firing in the light and a majority of these cells increased firing in the darkness. All IGL neurons projecting to the SCN were characterised by an irregular pattern of firing in the light and dark. These data are the first to demonstrate that differentially projecting rat intergeniculate leaflet neurons are characterised by distinct firing patterns and opposite responses to light and dark conditions.

  16. Prioritizing sewer rehabilitation projects using AHP-PROMETHEE II ranking method.

    PubMed

    Kessili, Abdelhak; Benmamar, Saadia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a methodology for the prioritization of sewer rehabilitation projects for Algiers (Algeria) sewer networks to support the National Sanitation Office in its challenge to make decisions on prioritization of sewer rehabilitation projects. The methodology applies multiple-criteria decision making. The study includes 47 projects (collectors) and 12 criteria to evaluate them. These criteria represent the different issues considered in the prioritization of the projects, which are structural, hydraulic, environmental, financial, social and technical. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is used to determine weights of the criteria and the Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations (PROMETHEE II) method is used to obtain the final ranking of the projects. The model was verified using the sewer data of Algiers. The results have shown that the method can be used for prioritizing sewer rehabilitation projects.

  17. Proposed Tenaska Washington II Generation Project : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1: Environmental Analysis and Technical Appendices.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-01-01

    BPA is considering whether to purchase electrical power from a proposed privately-owned combustion-turbine electrical generation plant in Washington. The plant would be fired by natural gas and would use combined-cycle technology to generate 240 average megawatts (aMW) of energy. The plant would be developed, owned, and operated by Tenaska Washington Partners II, L.P. The project would be located about 19 kilometers (12 miles) southeast of downtown Tacoma in the Frederickson Industrial Area, Pierce County. The proposed plant would occupy about half of a 6.4-hectare (16-acre) parcel and would be consistent with the industrial character of its surroundings. The proposed site is currently undeveloped and zoned for industrial use by the county. Main environmental concerns identified in the scoping process and in comments on the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) include: (1) potential air quality impacts, such as emissions and their contribution to the {open_quotes}greenhouse{close_quotes} effect; (2) potential health and safety impacts, such as nuisance odors, plant safety, visibility and heat-emission systems which may affect low-flying planes and potential health effects of electric and magnetic fields; and (3) potential water quality and quantity impacts, such as the amount of wastewater to be discharged, the source and amount of water required for plant operation. These and other issues are discussed in detail in the EIS. The proposed project already includes many features designed to reduce environmental impacts. Based on investigations performed for the EIS, no significant unavoidable adverse environmental impacts associated with the proposed project were identified, and no evidence emerged to suggest that the proposed action is controversial. The EIS is being mailed to numerous agencies, groups, and individuals (see Section 8.0). There will be a 30-day no-action period before any decisions are made and the Record of Decision is signed.

  18. Mapping landscape fire frequency for fire regime condition class

    Treesearch

    Dale A. Hamilton; Wendel J. Hann

    2015-01-01

    Fire Regime Condition Class (FRCC) is a departure index that compares the current amounts of the different vegetation succession classes, fire frequency, and fire severity to historic reference conditions. FRCC assessments have been widely used for evaluating ecosystem status in many areas of the U.S. in reports such as land use plans, fire management plans, project...

  19. Climate change projected fire weather sensitivity: CaliforniaSanta Ana wind occurrence

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Norman L.; Schlegel, Nicole J.

    2006-01-01

    A new methodbased on global climate model pressuregradients was developed for identifying coastal high-wind fire weatherconditions, such as the Santa Ana Occurrence (SAO). Application of thismethod for determining southern California Santa Ana wind occurrenceresulted in a good correlation between derived large-scale SAOs andobserved offshore winds during periods of low humidity. The projectedchange in the number of SAOs was analyzed using two global climatemodels, one a low temperature sensitivity and the other amiddle-temperature sensitivity, both forced with low and high emissionscenarios, for three future time periods. This initial analysis showsconsistent shifts in SAO events from earlier (September-October) to later(November-December) in the season, suggesting that SAOs may significantlyincrease the extent of California coastal areas burned by wildfires, lossof life, and property.

  20. Technology and Organisation of Inka Pottery Production in the Leche Valley. Part II: Study of Fired Vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashida, F.; Häusler, W.; Riederer, J.; Wagner, U.

    2003-09-01

    Ceramic finds from the Inka workshops at Tambo Real and La Viña in the Leche Valley in northern Peru were studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy, thin section microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Sherds of Inka style vessels and of local style vessels can be distinguished by their shape, although local techniques appear to have been used in making both types. A reconstruction of the firing techniques by scientific studies of the ceramic material does not reveal a substantial difference in material or in the firing of both forms, although high firing temperatures were necessary to achieve sufficient stability of the large Inka style vessels. It cannot be decided whether the smaller local vessels were fired together with the Inka vessels or separately. Most of the variation in the maximum firing temperature can be explained with the normal temperature and atmosphere fluctuations in an open pit kiln.

  1. Functional design criteria for Project W-252, Phase II Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, C.E.

    1994-11-10

    This document provides the functional design criteria required for the Phase 2 Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal Project, Project W-252. Project W-252 shall provide new facilities and existing facility modifications required to implement Best Available Technology/All Known, Available, and Reasonable Methods of Prevention, Control, and Treatment (BAT/AKART) for the 200 East Phase II Liquid Effluent Streams. The project will also provide a 200 East Area Phase II Effluent Collection System (PTECS) for connection to a disposal system for relevant effluent streams to which BAT/AKART has been applied. Liquid wastestreams generated in the 200 East Area are currently discharged to the soil column. Included in these wastestreams are cooling water, steam condensate, raw water, and sanitary wastewaters. It is the policy of the DOE that the use of soil columns to treat and retain radionuclides and nonradioactive contaminants be discontinued at the earliest practical time in favor of wastewater treatment and waste minimization. In 1989, the DOE entered into an interagency agreement with Ecology and EPA. This agreement is referred to as the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). Project W-252 is one of the projects required to achieve the milestones set forth in the Tri-Party Agreement. One of the milestones requires BAT/AKART implementation for Phase II streams by October 1997. This Functional Design Criteria (FDC) document provides the technical baseline required to initiate Project W-252 to meet the Tri-Party Agreement milestone for the application of BAT/AKART to the Phase II effluents.

  2. Hazard Science in Support of Community Resiliency: The Response of the Multi Hazards Demonstration Project to the 2009 Station Fire in Los Angeles County

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, L. M.; Bawden, G. W.; Bowers, J.; Cannon, S.; Cox, D. A.; Fisher, R.; Keeley, J.; Perry, S. C.; Plumlee, G. S.; Wood, N. J.

    2009-12-01

    The “Station” fire, the largest fire in the history of Los Angeles County in southern California, began on August 26, 2009 and as of the abstract deadline had burned over 150,000 acres of the Angeles National Forest. This fire creates both a demand and an opportunity for hazards science to be used by the communities directly hit by the fire, as well as those downstream of possible postfire impacts. The Multi Hazards Demonstration Project of the USGS is deploying several types of scientific response, including 1) evaluation of potential debris-flow hazards and associated risk, 2) monitoring physical conditions in burned areas and the hydrologic response to rainstorms, 3) increased streamflow monitoring, 4) ash analysis and ground water contamination, 5) ecosystem response and endangered species rescue, 6) lidar data acquisition for evaluations of biomass loss, detailed mapping of the physical processes that lead to debris-flow generation, and other geologic investigations. The Multi Hazards Demonstration Project is working with the southern California community to use the resulting information to better manage the social consequences of the fire and its secondary hazards. In particular, we are working with Los Angeles County to determine what information they need to prioritize recovery efforts. For instance, maps of hazards specific to debris flow potential can help identify the highest priority areas for debris flow mitigation efforts. These same maps together with ecosystem studies will help land managers determine whether individuals from endangered species should be removed to zoos or other refuges during the rainy months. The ash analysis will help water managers prevent contamination to water supplies. Plans are just beginning for a public information campaign with Los Angeles County about the risk posed by potential debris flows that should be underway in December. Activities from the fire response will support the development of the Wildfire Scenario in

  3. The Due Innovators II Apollo Project: Monitoring Atmospheric Pollution with Earth Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellitto, P.; Del Frate, F.; Di Noia, A.; Sambucini, V.; Bojkov, B. R.

    2010-12-01

    In this paper we present the Innovators II - APOLLO (monitoring Atmospheric POLLution with earth Observation) project which has been carried out in the framework of the ESA Data User Element programme (http://www.esa.int/due). The projects aims at the development of an innovative service for the monitoring of the air quality from ground based measurements and by means of satellite data e.g. provided by the OMI mission. The core of the APOLLO project is the OMI-TOC NN (neural networks) algorithm.

  4. Evaluation of the 1985-86 ECIA, Chapter II Teaching Geographic Skills Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Donald R.

    This Education Consolidation and Improvement Act (ECIA), Chapter II project combined acquisition of instructional equipment with teacher training to improve the geographic skills of students in grades six through eight in the Dade County Public Schools, Florida. Map and globe materials from three different publishers (the George F. Cram Company,…

  5. Project PRE-Schooner II. Postshot Geologic and Engineering Properties Investigations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1967-11-01

    rock medium. 9 1. 5 PROJECT LOCATION AND ACCESSIBILITY The Pre-Schooner II Event was located in Owyhee County of southwestern Idaho. The site is...Radiation Laboratory, Livermore. 11. L. M. Gard and J. W. Hasler; "Geology of Proposed Schooner Site, Bruneau River Area, Owyhee County, Idaho" USGS

  6. World History. Volumes I and II. [Sahuarita High School Career Curriculum Project].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Judy

    Volumes I and II of a world history course, part of a high school career curriculum project, are outlined. Objectives are listed by course title. Course titles include: Early Communication - Languages and Writing; World History; Law and Order in Ancient Times; Early Transportation; Women in Ancient Times; Art and Literature in Ancient Times;…

  7. Community participation in fire management planning: The Trinity county fire safe council's fire plan

    Treesearch

    Yvonne Everett

    2008-01-01

    In 1999, Trinity County CA, initiated a participatory fire management planning effort. Since that time, the Trinity County Fire Safe Council has completed critical portions of a fire safe plan and has begun to implement projects defined in the plan. Completion of a GIS based, landscape scale fuels reduction element in the plan defined by volunteer fire fighters, agency...

  8. THE FOREST-ATMOSPHERIC CARBON TRANSFER AND STORAGE-II (FACTS-II): ASPEN FACE PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    KARNOSKY,D.F.; HENDREY,G.; PREGITZER,K.; ISEBRANDS,J.G.

    1998-02-01

    The FACTS II (ASPEN FACE) infrastructure including 12 FACE [Free-Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment] rings, a central control facility, a central CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} receiving and storage area, a central O{sub 3} generation system, and a dispensing system for CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} was completed in 1997. The FACE rings were planted with over 10,000 plants (aspen, birch and maple). The entire system was thoroughly tested for both CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} and was shown to be effective in delivering elevated CO{sub 2} and/or O{sub 3} on demand and at predetermined set points. The NCASI support to date has been extremely helpful in matching support for federal grants.

  9. The Forest-Atmospheric Carbon Transfer and Storage-II (FACTS-II): Aspen FACE project

    SciTech Connect

    Karnosky, D.F.; Pregitzer, K.; Hendrey, G.; Isebrands, J.G.

    1998-02-01

    The FACTS II (Aspen FACE) infrastructure including 12 FACE rings, a central control facility, a central CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} receiving and storage area, a central O{sub 3} generation system, and a dispensing system for CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} was completed in 1997. The FACE rings were planted with over 10,000 plants (aspen, birch and maple). The entire system was thoroughly tested for both CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} and was shown to be effective in delivering elevated CO{sub 2} and/or O{sub 3} on demand and at predetermined set points. The NCASI support to date has been extremely helpful in matching support for federal grants.

  10. IGCC repowering project clean coal II project public design report. Annual report, October 1992--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-10-01

    Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) is participating in a $270 million coal gasification combined cycle repowering project that was designed to provide a nominal 60 MW of electricity to City, Water, Light and Power (CWL&P) in Springfield, Illinois. The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) system consists of CE`s air-blown entrained flow two-stage gasifier; an advanced hot gas cleanup system; a combustion turbine adapted to use low-BTU gas; and all necessary coal handling equipment, The project is currently completing the second budget period of five. The major activities to date are: (1) Establishment of a design, cost, and schedule for the project; (2) Establishment of financial commitments; (3) Acquire design and modeling data; (4) Establishment of an approved for design (AFD) engineering package; (5) Development of a detailed cost estimate; (6) Resolution of project business issues; (7) CWL&P renewal and replacement activities; and (8) Application for environmental air permits. A Project Management Plan was generated, The conceptual design of the plant was completed and a cost and schedule baseline for the project was established in Budget Period One. This information was used to establish AFD Process Flow Diagrams, Piping and Instrument Diagrams, Equipment Data Sheets, material take offs, site modification plans and other information necessary to develop a plus or minus 20% cost estimate. Environmental permitting activities were accomplished, including the Air Permit Application, completion of the National Environmental Policy Act process, and the draft Environmental Monitoring Plan. At the end of 1992 the DOE requested that Duke Engineering and Services Inc., (DESI) be used to complete the balance of plant cost estimate. DESI was retained to do this work, DESI completed the material take off estimate and included operations, maintenance, and startup in the estimate.

  11. Lightning fire research in the Rocky Mountains

    Treesearch

    J. S. Barrows

    1954-01-01

    Lightning is the major cause of fires in Rocky Mountain forests. The lightning fire problem is the prime target of a broad research program now known as Project Skyfire. KEYWORDS: lightning, fire research

  12. River Protection Project Integrated safety management system phase II verification report, volumes I and II - 8/19/99

    SciTech Connect

    SHOOP, D.S.

    1999-09-10

    The Department of Energy policy (DOE P 450.4) is that safety is integrated into all aspects of the management and operations of its facilities. In simple and straightforward terms, the Department will ''Do work safely.'' The purpose of this River Protection Project (RPP) Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) Phase II Verification was to determine whether ISMS programs and processes are implemented within RFP to accomplish the goal of ''Do work safely.'' The goal of an implemented ISMS is to have a single integrated system that includes Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) requirements in the work planning and execution processes to ensure the protection of the worker, public, environment, and federal property over the RPP life cycle. The ISMS is comprised of the (1) described functions, components, processes, and interfaces (system map or blueprint) and (2) personnel who are executing those assigned roles and responsibilities to manage and control the ISMS. Therefore, this review evaluated both the ''paper'' and ''people'' aspects of the ISMS to ensure that the system is implemented within RPP. Richland Operations Office (RL) conducted an ISMS Phase I Verification of the TWRS from September 28-October 9, 1998. The resulting verification report recommended that TWRS-RL and the contractor proceed with Phase II of ISMS verification given that the concerns identified from the Phase I verification review are incorporated into the Phase II implementation plan.

  13. Phase II Final Project Report SBIR Project: "A High Efficiency PV to Hydrogen Energy System"

    SciTech Connect

    Slade, A; Turner, J; Stone, K; McConnell, R

    2008-09-02

    The innovative research conducted for this project contributed greatly to the understanding of generating low-cost hydrogen from solar energy. The project’s research identified two highly leveraging and complementary pathways. The first pathway is to dramatically increase the efficiency of converting sunlight into electricity. Improving solar electric conversion efficiency directly increases hydrogen production. This project produced a world record efficiency for silicon solar cells and contributed to another world record efficiency for a solar concentrator module using multijunction solar cells. The project’s literature review identified a second pathway in which wasted heat from the solar concentration process augments the electrolysis process generating hydrogen. One way to do this is to use a “heat mirror” that reflects the heat-producing infrared and transmits the visible spectrum to the solar cells; this also increases solar cell conversion efficiency. An economic analysis of this concept confirms that, if long-term concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) and solid-oxide electrolyzer cost goals can be achieved, hydrogen will be produced from solar energy cheaper than the cost of gasoline. The potential public benefits from this project are significant. The project has identified a potential energy source for the nation’s future electricity and transportation needs that is entirely “home grown” and carbon free. As CPV enter the nation’s utility markets, the opportunity for this approach to be successful is greatly increased. Amonix strongly recommends further exploration of this project’s findings.

  14. FIRE II ASTEX Info

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-03-18

    ... (ASTEX) was conducted in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean. It was designed to improve the understanding of the physical processes involved in the life cycles of cirrus and marine stratocumulus systems, the radiative ...

  15. Advanced Instrumentation, Information and Control (II&C) Research and Development Facility Buildout and Project Execution of LWRS II&C Pilot Projects 1 and 3

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Farris; Johanna Oxstrand; Gregory Weatherby

    2011-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research, development, and deployment on light water reactor sustainability (LWRS), in which the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is working closely with nuclear utilities to develop technologies and solutions to help ensure the safe operational life extension of current reactors. As technologies are introduced that change the operation of the plant, the LWRS pilot projects can help identify their best-advanced uses and help demonstrate the safety of these technologies. In early testing of operator performance given these emerging technologies will ensure the safety and usability of systems prior to large-scale deployment and costly verification and validation at the plant. The aim of these collaborations, demonstrations, and approaches are intended to lessen the inertia that sustains the current status quo of today's II&C systems technology, and to motivate transformational change and a shift in strategy to a long-term approach to II&C modernization that is more sustainable. Research being conducted under Pilot Project 1 regards understanding the conditions and behaviors that can be modified, either through process improvements and/or technology deployment, to improve the overall safety and efficiency of outage control at nuclear facilities. The key component of the research in this pilot project is accessing the delivery of information that will allow researchers to simulate the control room, outage control center (OCC) information, and plant status data. The simulation also allows researchers to identify areas of opportunity where plant operating status and outage activities can be analyzed to increase overall plant efficiency. For Pilot Project 3 the desire is to demonstrate the ability of technology deployment and the subsequent impact on maximizing the 'Collective Situational Awareness' of the various stakeholders in a commercial nuclear power plant. Specifically, the desire is to show positive results in plant

  16. FIRE_CI1_TOVS

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-01-27

    ... FIRE_CI1_TOVS Project Title:  FIRE I CIRRUS Discipline:  Clouds Field Campaigns ... Parameters:  Altitude Barometric Altitude Cloud Amount Cloud Top Pressure Cloud Top Temperature Dew/Frost Point ...

  17. HIFS VNL Monthly Progress Report Preparation for NDCX-II Project

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, Grant; Kwan, Joe; Barnard, John; Friedman, Alex; Gilson, Erik; Leitner, Matthaeus; Waldron, Will; Bieniosek, Frank

    2009-05-29

    In preparation for the project and for anticipated review in August, the HIFS-VNL hosted an NDCX-II Advisory Meeting at LBNL on May 27, 2009. A number of experts in accelerator physics, engineering, and construction were asked to visit for a full day, listen to presentations on the project, its goals, and its status, and to offer their advice on how best to proceed, what topics needed attention, and what technical options seemed most attractive to them. This was a productive meeting, and the Committee's comments will provide useful guidance.

  18. Wood Pellet-Fired Biomass Boiler Project at the Ketchikan Federal Building

    SciTech Connect

    Tomberlin, Gregg

    2014-06-01

    Biomass boiler systems have existed for many years, but the technology has advanced in recent decades and can now provide automated and efficient operation for a relatively modest investment. Key advances in system monitoring and control allow for lower operating costs, since the control systems run all aspects of the boiler, including feed, load reduction and even tube cleaning. These advances have made such systems economical on a small scale in situations where inexpensive fuels like natural gas are not available. This creates an opportunity for building operators in remote, cold-climate locations to reduce the use of expensive fuels for heating buildings. GSA Region 10 installed the system at the federal building in Ketchikan, Alaska and submitted the project to the Green Proving Ground (GPG) program. GSA's GPG program contracted with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to assess the installation and the technology. The system serves as a demonstration to assess actual system efficiencies, as well as operating characteristics and financial benefits. In addition to installation and operational issues, the project team/researchers examined other issues, including fuel transportation costs, building energy savings, and overall economics.

  19. Colver Power Project: CFB operates at 2400 psig, with reheat, firing waste coal

    SciTech Connect

    Ansell, J.; Hall, J.; Streblow, B.

    1996-12-31

    The Colver Power Project (CPP) is located approximately 100 miles east of Pittsburgh, PA, near Colver, a former mining town. The town was the location of the Ebensburg Coal Co`s Colver Mine and the Blacklick and Yellow Creek Railroad. The mine and railroad produced and transported over 40-million tons of coking and steam coal until they closed in 1978. The 103.5-MW facility has a 25-yr power sales agreement with Pennsylvania Electric Co. (Penelec). Typical of many coal mining regions, the Colver area has stockpiles of bituminous coal waste or gob, a low-Btu, high-ash byproduct of mining activities. These gob stockpiles became an eyesore and a regional environmental hazard. Use of gob as a fuel for circulating-fluidized-bed (CFB) boilers is a proven method for managing this material is an environmentally acceptable manner. Alkaline ash from the combustion process can in turn be used to condition the soil in the gob-pile areas. Using CFB technology creates a win-win situation for all parties involved. The project owners can use the gob as fuel to make and sell power, the local residents get a better environment, and the state avoids having to use tax revenue to clean up the gob piles.

  20. Fire-return intervals in mixed-conifer forests of the Kings River Sustainable Forest Ecosystems Project area

    Treesearch

    Catherine Phillips

    2002-01-01

    Fire-return intervals were studied on six 1.4-ha plots in a 2,070-ha study area in the Dinkey Creek watershed. Stumps in mixed-conifer forest were examined for fire scars created from 1771 to 1994, with 1873 chosen as the end of the pre-Euro-American settlement period because the rate of fire events decreased on most plots after about that year. Mean intervals from...

  1. Project on restaurant energy performance: end-use monitoring and analysis. Appendixes I and II

    SciTech Connect

    Claar, C.N.; Mazzucchi, R.P.; Heidell, J.A.

    1985-05-01

    This is the second volume of the report, ''The Porject on Restaurant Energy Performance - End-Use Monitoring and Analysis''. The first volume (PNL-5462) contains a summary and analysis of the metered energy performance data collected by the Project on Restaurant Energy Performance (PREP). Appendix I, presented here, contains monitoring site descriptions, measurement plans, and data summaries for the seven restaurants metered for PREP. Appendix II, also in this volume, is a description of the PREP computer system.

  2. Modelling Behaviour of a Carbon Epoxy Composite Exposed to Fire: Part II-Comparison with Experimental Results.

    PubMed

    Tranchard, Pauline; Samyn, Fabienne; Duquesne, Sophie; Estèbe, Bruno; Bourbigot, Serge

    2017-04-28

    Based on a phenomenological methodology, a three dimensional (3D) thermochemical model was developed to predict the temperature profile, the mass loss and the decomposition front of a carbon-reinforced epoxy composite laminate (T700/M21 composite) exposed to fire conditions. This 3D model takes into account the energy accumulation by the solid material, the anisotropic heat conduction, the thermal decomposition of the material, the gas mass flow into the composite, and the internal pressure. Thermophysical properties defined as temperature dependant properties were characterised using existing as well as innovative methodologies in order to use them as inputs into our physical model. The 3D thermochemical model accurately predicts the measured mass loss and observed decomposition front when the carbon fibre/epoxy composite is directly impacted by a propane flame. In short, the model shows its capability to predict the fire behaviour of a carbon fibre reinforced composite for fire safety engineering.

  3. Carbon dynamics of forest in Washington, USA: 21st century projections based on climate-driven changes in fire regimes

    Treesearch

    Crystal L. Raymond; Donald. McKenzie

    2012-01-01

    During the 21st century, climate-driven changes in fire regimes will be a key agent of change in forests of the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW). Understanding the response of forest carbon (C) dynamics to increases in fire will help quantify limits on the contribution of forest C storage to climate change mitigation and prioritize forest types for...

  4. Provision of near-real-time atmospheric CO2 concentrations in the MACC-II project: combining observations, land surface modelling, and high-resolution transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelen, R. J.; Agusti-Panareda, A.; Balsamo, G.; Boussetta, S.; Chevallier, F.; Massart, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate project (MACC-II) is the current pre-operational atmospheric service of the European GMES programme. MACC-II provides data records on atmospheric composition for recent years, data for monitoring present conditions and forecasts of the distribution of key constituents for a few days ahead. MACC combines state-of-the-art atmospheric modelling with Earth observation data to provide information services covering Air Quality and Atmospheric Composition, Climate Forcing, the Ozone Layer and UV radiation, Solar Energy, and Emissions and Surface Fluxes MACC-II uses a wide array of satellite and in-situ data observing both meteorological and atmospheric composition variables to provide a best estimate of the current state of the atmosphere on a daily basis. These analyses are then used as initial conditions for 5-day global forecasts of atmospheric composition and 4-day European air quality forecasts (http://www.gmes-atmosphere.eu). One of the aims of the MACC-II greenhouse gas service is to monitor fluxes of CO2 and CH4 using a combination of satellite and in-situ observations. However, a newly developed product is the provision of global atmospheric CO2 concentrations in near-real-time (NRT) that can be used as boundary conditions for regional studies as well as to monitor and support newly developed satellite observations, such as GOSAT and OCO-2. The system is able to produce various statistics about the behaviour of the satellite retrievals relative to the model. Also, the MACC-II system can provide accurate a priori information in NRT as input to these satellite retrievals. The CO2 forecasting system uses the ECMWF numerical weather prediction (NWP) model with a fully integrated version of the C-TESSEL land carbon model to model the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) fluxes over land. Anthropogenic emissions and ocean fluxes are currently prescribed, while the emissions from wild fires and biomass burning are provided by

  5. Fire alarm system improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, S.G.

    1994-10-01

    This document contains the Fire Alarm System Test Procedure for Building 234-5Z, 200-West Area on the Hanford Reservation, Richland, Washington. This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the modifications to the Fire Protection systems function as required by project criteria. The ATP will test the Fire Alarm Control Panels, Flow Alarm Pressure Switch, Heat Detectors, Smoke Detectors, Flow Switches, Manual Pull Stations, and Gong/Door by Pass Switches.

  6. Re-investigation of venom chemistry of Solenopsis fire ants. II. Identification of novel alkaloids in S. invicta.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Fadamiro, Henry Y

    2009-04-01

    The venom of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, is dominated by trans stereoisomers of 2,6-dialkylpiperidines. cis Stereoisomers of alkaloids in the venom of S. invicta were separated from trans stereoisomers by using silica gel short column chromatography and identified by coupled gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Seven pairs of cis and trans sterecoisomers were identified based on relative retention times and mass spectral data. The GC trace of the cis stereoisomers of S. invicta alkaloids was presented for the first time. In addition to the previously described 2,6-dialkylpiperideines, eleven novel 2,6-dialkyl-delta1,2-piperideines and 2,6-dialkyl-delta1,6-piperideines were identified from S. invicta venom. The results are discussed in relation to the evolutionary significance of these piperideines and their possible biosynthetic pathways in Solenopsis fire ants.

  7. Thermocouples for forest fire research

    Treesearch

    Erwin H. Breuer

    1965-01-01

    Thermocouples have proved valuable in research conducted by the Fire Physics Project at the Northern Forest Fire Laboratory because they can measure several important fire variables besides flame and convection column temperatures. These include rate of spread and flame residence time. Describes a simple, rapid method of fabrication and reports useful and diverse...

  8. Prescribed fire research in Pennsylvania

    Treesearch

    Patrick Brose

    2009-01-01

    Prescribed fire in Pennsylvania is a relatively new forestry practice because of the State's adverse experience with highly destructive wildfires in the early 1900s. The recent introduction of prescribed fire raises a myriad of questions regarding its correct and safe use. This poster briefly describes the prescribed fire research projects of the Forestry Sciences...

  9. Bugs and burns: effects of fire on ponderosa pine bark beetle (Project INT-F-07-02)

    Treesearch

    Thomas DeGomez; Thomas Kolb; Sabrina Kleinman; Kelly Williams

    2013-01-01

    Fire-damaged trees that otherwise would have survived can be killed by bark beetles (McCullough and others 1998, McHugh and others 2003). Wallin and others (2008) found that fire weakens a tree’s defense against bark beetles. An unacceptable level of tree mortality may occur after a controlled burn as a result of weakened tree defenses (Sullivan and others 2003)....

  10. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report, Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife II Project, Technical Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Darren

    2003-06-01

    In 2002, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife II Project, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in 1997. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, and yellow warbler. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife II Project provides a total of 313.91 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Open water habitat provides 16.08 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Shoreline and island habitat provide 7.36 HUs fore Canada goose and mallard. Wet meadow provides 117.62 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Scrub-shrub wetlands provide 9.78 HUs for yellow warbler, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Deciduous forested wetlands provide 140.47 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Conifer forest provides 22.60 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife II Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  11. High-solids black liquor firing in pulp and paper industry kraft recovery boilers: Phase 1 -- Final report. Volume 2: Project technical results

    SciTech Connect

    Southards, W.T.; Clement, J.L.; McIlroy, R.A.; Tharp, M.R.; Verrill, C.L.; Wessell, R.A.

    1995-11-01

    This project is a multiple-phase effort to develop technologies to improve high-solids black liquor firing in pulp mill recovery boilers. The principal means to this end is to construct and operate a pilot-scale recovery furnace simulator (RFS) in which these technologies can be tested. The Phase 1 objectives are to prepare a preliminary design for the RFS, delineate a project concept for evaluating candidate technologies, establish industrial partners, and report the results. Phase 1 addressed the objectives with seven tasks: Develop a preliminary design of the RFS; estimate the detailed design and construction costs of the RFS and the balance of the project; identify interested parties in the paper industry and key suppliers; plan the Phase 2 and Phase 3 tests to characterize the RFS; evaluate the economic justification for high-solids firing deployment in the industry; evaluate high-solids black liquor property data to support the RFS design; manage the project and reporting results, which included planning the future program direction.

  12. Overview of Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics for the NSLS-II Project

    SciTech Connect

    Singh,O.

    2008-05-04

    A new, ultra-bright 3rd generation light source, the NSLS-II Project, is planned to be built at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The light source being developed will have unprecedently small beam horizontal emittance and will provide the radiation sources with a brightness of 3 x 10{sup 21} photons/sec/0.1%BW/mm{sup 2}/mrad{sup 2}. In this paper we present the detailed specifications and a comprehensive description of the planned beam instrumentation system and the first results of the ongoing instrumentation R&D activities on beyond state-of-the-art subsystems.

  13. Parameterization of Fire Injection Height in Large Scale Transport Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paugam, R.; Wooster, M.; Atherton, J.; Val Martin, M.; Freitas, S.; Kaiser, J. W.; Schultz, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    The parameterization of fire injection height in global chemistry transport model is currently a subject of debate in the atmospheric community. The approach usually proposed in the literature is based on relationships linking injection height and remote sensing products like the Fire Radiative Power (FRP) which can measure active fire properties. In this work we present an approach based on the Plume Rise Model (PRM) developed by Freitas et al (2007, 2010). This plume model is already used in different host models (e.g. WRF, BRAMS). In its original version, the fire is modeled by: a convective heat flux (CHF; pre-defined by the land cover and evaluated as a fixed part of the total heat released) and a plume radius (derived from the GOES Wildfire-ABBA product) which defines the fire extension where the CHF is homogeneously distributed. Here in our approach the Freitas model is modified, in particular we added (i) an equation for mass conservation, (ii) a scheme to parameterize horizontal entrainment/detrainment, and (iii) a new initialization module which estimates the sensible heat released by the fire on the basis of measured FRP rather than fuel cover type. FRP and Active Fire (AF) area necessary for the initialization of the model are directly derived from a modified version of the Dozier algorithm applied to the MOD14 product. An optimization (using the simulating annealing method) of this new version of the PRM is then proposed based on fire plume characteristics derived from the official MISR plume height project and atmospheric profiles extracted from the ECMWF analysis. The data set covers the main fire region (Africa, Siberia, Indonesia, and North and South America) and is set up to (i) retain fires where plume height and FRP can be easily linked (i.e. avoid large fire cluster where individual plume might interact), (ii) keep fire which show decrease of FRP and AF area after MISR overpass (i.e. to minimize effect of the time period needed for the plume to

  14. FARSITE: a fire area simulator for fire managers

    Treesearch

    Mark A. Finney

    1995-01-01

    A fire growth model (FARSITE) has been developed for use on personal computers (PC’s). Because PC’s are commonly used by land and fire managers, this portable platform would be an accustomed means to bring fire growth modeling technology to management applications. The FARSITE model is intended for use in projecting the growth of prescribed natural fires for wilderness...

  15. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2001-07-23

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 30 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron (hot metal) consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy. The work which is labeled as Phase II will take place at two levels; namely, the bench scale level and the process development unit level. During the past quarter approval for the re-direction took place and work was initiated at both levels.

  16. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2002-01-22

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 30 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron (hot metal) consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy. The work which is labeled as Phase II will take place at two levels; namely, the bench scale level and the process development unit (PDU) level.

  17. 75 FR 5279 - Sucker Creek Channel and Floodplain Restoration Project (Phase II), Rogue River-Siskiyou National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... make diligent effort at involving the public, agencies, organizations, Native American tribes and other...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Sucker Creek Channel and Floodplain Restoration Project (Phase II..., reduce stream temperature, and reduce excessive fine sediment inputs from the project reach....

  18. Atomic data from the Iron project. XIII. Electron excitation rates and emissivity ratios for forbidden transitions in NI II and Fe II.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bautista, M. A.; Pradhan, A. K.

    1996-02-01

    Electron impact excitation rates and emissivity line ratios are reported for Optical and IR transitions in Ni II and Fe II arising from low-lying even parity levels. A total of 7 LS terms were included for Ni II, which result in 17 fine structure levels and 136 transitions. Coupling effects and resonance structures considered in the present calculations result in significant differences with the earlier distorted wave calculations by Nussbaumer & Storey (1982), although a reasonable agreement is found for the line diagnostics of some strong transitions in Ni II. Whereas an extensive set of collisional data has been presented earlier by Zhang & Pradhan for Fe II in the Iron Project series, in this paper we report collision strengths for some transitions missing from their dataset using an improved eigenfunction expansion for Fe II which includes the lowest 18 LS terms giving 52 fine structure levels and 1326 transitions. The present dataset provides a useful check on several forbidden transitions in Fe II and essentially confirms the diagnostics derived from the earlier work. The present calculations were carried out on the massively parallel processor Cray T3D with a parallelized version of the Iron Project R-matrix codes; to our knowledge these are the first such calculations.

  19. Analysis of Aircraft, Radiosonde and Radar Observations in Cirrus Clouds Observed During FIRE II: The Interactions Between Environmental Structure, Turbulence and Cloud Microphysical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Samantha A.; DelGenio, Anthony D.

    1999-01-01

    Ways to determine the turbulence intensity and the horizontal variability in cirrus clouds have been investigated using FIRE-II aircraft, radiosonde and radar data. Higher turbulence intensities were found within some, but not all, of the neutrally stratified layers. It was also demonstrated that the stability of cirrus layers with high extinction values decrease in time, possibly as a result of radiative destabilization. However, these features could not be directly related to each other in any simple manner. A simple linear relationship was observed between the amount of horizontal variability in the ice water content and its average value. This was also true for the extinction and ice crystal number concentrations. A relationship was also suggested between the variability in cloud depth and the environmental stability across the depth of the cloud layer, which requires further investigation.

  20. Effects of a coal-fired power plant and other sources on southwestern visibility (interim summary of EPA'S project VISTTA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenthal, D. L.; Richards, L. W.; Macias, E. S.; Bergstrom, R. W.; Wilson, W. E.; Bhardwaja, P. S.

    VISTTA (Visibility impairment due to Sulfur Transport and Transformation in the Atmosphere) is a cooperative program involving numerous government agencies, private companies, and universities. This paper summarizes the measurements and the results to date of the summer and winter, 1979, VISTTA plume measurement programs conducted near the Navajo Generating Station (NGS), Page, Arizona. During the program, ground and airborne measurements of aerosol size distribution, chemistry and optical properties, as well as gaseous reactant concentrations were made in the plume and in background air. Extensive regional and plume telephotometer measurements, airborne measurements along telephotometer site paths, background meteorological measurements, and source aerosol and chemistry measurements were also made. Various types of visibility measurements were compared with one another and with calculations of light extinction made using aerosol and NO 2 data. The measured plume optical effects were compared to those predicted using the EPA-SAI plume visibility model (PLUVUE). The results of the study to date indicate that: For the NGS plume, under most lighting and viewing conditions, NO 2 dominates the blue light extinction and brown coloration due to the plume. For distances up to 100 km or more for power plants like NGS, secondary aerosol formation can be ignored in visibility models under the dry conditions studied. Widespread areas of elevated aerosol concentrations were documented in the southwest due to long range transport from the southern California area, and to wild fires. Other causes of regional haze are known to exist but were not documented in this study. Evaluation of the chemistry, aerosol growth, and optics components of the PLUVUE plume visibility model showed predictions to be in reasonable agreement with the measurements. More uncertainty was encountered with the diffusion component. A set of nine reactions among NO, NO 2, O 3, O 2, SO 2, OH, H 2O, and O

  1. Yakima River Basin Fish Passage Phase II Fish Screen Construction, Project Completion Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, R. Dennis

    2008-01-01

    On December 5, 1980, Congress passed the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Public Law 96-501). The Act created the Northwest Power Planning Council (now the Northwest Power and Conservation Council). The Council was charged with the responsibility to prepare a Regional Conservation and Electric Power Plan and to develop a program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife including related spawning grounds and habitat on the Columbia River and its tributaries. The Council adopted its Fish and Wildlife Program on November 15, 1982. Section 800 of the Program addresses measures in the Yakima River Basin. The Yakima measures were intended to help mitigate hydroelectric impacts in the basin and provide off-site mitigation to compensate for fish losses caused by hydroelectric project development and operations throughout the Columbia River Basin. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) was designated as a major source of funding for such off-site mitigation measures and was requested to initiate discussions with the appropriate Federal project operators and the Council to determine the most expeditious means for funding and implementing the program. The primary measures proposed for rapid implementation in the Yakima River basin were the installation of fish passage and protective facilities. Sec. 109 of The Hoover Power Plant Act of 1984, authorized the Secretary of the Interior to design, construct, operate, and maintain fish passage facilities within the Yakima River Basin. Under Phase I of the program, improvements to existing fish passage facilities and installation of new fish ladders and fish screens at 16 of the largest existing diversion dams and canals were begun in 1984 and were completed in 1990. The Yakima Phase II fish passage program is an extension of the Phase I program. In 1988, the Yakama Nation (YN) submitted an application to amend Sections 803(b) and 1403(4.5) of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council

  2. Relative potencies of Type I and Type II pyrethroids for inhibition of spontaneous firing in neuronal networks.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pyrethroids insecticides commonly used in pest control disrupt the normal function of voltage-sensitive sodium channels. We have previously demonstrated that permethrin (a Type I pyrethroid) and deltamethrin (a Type II pyrethroid) inhibit sodium channel-dependent spontaneous netw...

  3. Relative potencies of Type I and Type II pyrethroids for inhibition of spontaneous firing in neuronal networks.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pyrethroids insecticides commonly used in pest control disrupt the normal function of voltage-sensitive sodium channels. We have previously demonstrated that permethrin (a Type I pyrethroid) and deltamethrin (a Type II pyrethroid) inhibit sodium channel-dependent spontaneous netw...

  4. Negligent and intentional fires in Portugal: the role of human and biophysical drivers on the temporal distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parente, Joana; Pereira, Mário; Amraoui, Malik; Tedim, Fantina

    2017-04-01

    believe that the findings of this study contribute to a better fire prevention, firefighting and crisis management. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by: (i) the project Interact - Integrative Research in Environment,Agro-Chain and Technology, NORTE-01-0145-FEDER-000017, research line BEST, cofinanced by FEDER/NORTE 2020; (ii) the FIREXTR project, PTDC/ATP¬GEO/0462/2014; and, (iii) European Investment Funds by FEDER/COMPETE/POCI-Operacional Competitiveness and Internacionalization Programme, under Project POCI-01-0145-FEDER-006958 and National Funds by FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology, under the project UID/AGR/04033. We are especially grateful to ICNF for providing the fire data.

  5. CSNI Project for Fracture Analyses of Large-Scale International Reference Experiments (FALSIRE II)

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, B.R.; Pugh, C.E.; Keeney, J.; Schulz, H.; Sievers, J.

    1996-11-01

    A summary of Phase II of the Project for FALSIRE is presented. FALSIRE was created by the Fracture Assessment Group (FAG) of the OECD/NEA`s Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CNSI) Principal Working Group No. 3. FALSIRE I in 1988 assessed fracture methods through interpretive analyses of 6 large-scale fracture experiments in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels under pressurized- thermal-shock (PTS) loading. In FALSIRE II, experiments examined cleavage fracture in RPV steels for a wide range of materials, crack geometries, and constraint and loading conditions. The cracks were relatively shallow, in the transition temperature region. Included were cracks showing either unstable extension or two stages of extensions under transient thermal and mechanical loads. Crack initiation was also investigated in connection with clad surfaces and with biaxial load. Within FALSIRE II, comparative assessments were performed for 7 reference fracture experiments based on 45 analyses received from 22 organizations representing 12 countries. Temperature distributions in thermal shock loaded samples were approximated with high accuracy and small scatter bands. Structural response was predicted reasonably well; discrepancies could usually be traced to the assumed material models and approximated material properties. Almost all participants elected to use the finite element method.

  6. Maintaining exercise and healthful eating in older adults: the SENIOR project II: study design and methodology.

    PubMed

    Clark, Phillip G; Blissmer, Bryan J; Greene, Geoffrey W; Lees, Faith D; Riebe, Deborah A; Stamm, Karen E

    2011-01-01

    The Study of Exercise and Nutrition in Older Rhode Islanders (SENIOR) Project II is an intervention study to promote the maintenance of both exercise and healthful eating in older adults. It is the second phase of an earlier study, SENIOR Project I, that originally recruited 1277 community-dwelling older adults to participate in behavior-specific interventions designed to increase exercise and/or fruit and vegetable consumption. The general theoretical framework for this research is the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) of Health Behavior Change. The current intervention occurs over a 48-month period, using a manual, newsletters, and phone coaching calls. Annual assessments collect standardized data on behavioral outcomes (exercise and diet), TTM variables (stage of change and self-efficacy), psychosocial variables (social support, depression, resilience, and life satisfaction), physical activity and functioning (SF-36, Up and Go, Senior Fitness Test, and disability assessment), cognitive functioning (Trail Making Test and Forward and Backward Digit Span), physical measures (height, weight, and waist circumference), and demographics. The SENIOR Project II is designed to answer the following question as its primary objective: (1) Does an individualized active-maintenance intervention with older adults maintain greater levels of healthful exercise and dietary behaviors for 4years, compared to a control condition? In addition, there are two secondary objectives: (2) What are the psychosocial factors associated with the maintenance of health-promoting behaviors in the very old? (3) What are the effects of the maintenance of health-promoting behaviors on reported health outcomes, psychosocial measures, anthropometrics, and cognitive status? Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Maintaining Exercise and Healthful Eating in Older Adults: The SENIOR Project II: Study Design and Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Phillip G.; Blissmer, Bryan J.; Greene, Geoffrey W.; Lees, Faith D.; Riebe, Deborah A.; Stamm, Karen E.

    2015-01-01

    The Study of Exercise and Nutrition in Older Rhode Islanders (SENIOR) Project II is an intervention study to promote the maintenance of both exercise and healthful eating in older adults. It is the second phase of an earlier study, SENIOR Project I, that originally recruited 1,277 community-dwelling older adults to participate in behavior-specific interventions designed to increase exercise and/or fruit and vegetable consumption. The general theoretical framework for this research is the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) of Health Behavior Change. The current intervention occurs over a 48-month period, using a manual, newsletters, and phone coaching calls. Annual assessments collect standardized data on behavioral outcomes (exercise and diet), TTM variables (stage of change and self-efficacy), psychosocial variables (social support, depression, resilience, and life satisfaction), physical activity and functioning (SF-36, Up and Go, Senior Fitness Test, and disability assessment), cognitive functioning (Trail Making Test and Forward and Backward Digit Span), physical measures (height, weight, and waist circumference), and demographics. The SENIOR Project II is designed to answer the following question as its primary objective: (1) Does an individualized active-maintenance intervention with older adults maintain greater levels of healthful exercise and dietary behaviors for four years, compared to a control condition? In addition, there are two secondary objectives: (2) What are the psychosocial factors associated with the maintenance of health-promoting behaviors in the very old? and (3) What are the effects of the maintenance of health-promoting behaviors on reported health outcomes, psychosocial measures, anthropometrics, and cognitive status? PMID:20955821

  8. Conceptual design assessment for the co-firing of bio-refinery supplied lignin project. Quarterly report, June 23--July 1, 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Berglund, T.; Ranney, J.T.; Babb, C.L.

    2000-07-27

    The Conceptual Design Assessment for the Co-Firing of Bio-Refinery Supplied Lignin Project was successfully kicked off on July 23, 2000 during a meeting at the TVA-PPI facility in Muscle Shoals, AL. An initial timeline for the study was distributed, issues of concern were identified and a priority actions list was developed. Next steps include meeting with NETL to discuss de-watering and lignin fuel testing, the development of the mass balance model and ethanol facility design criteria, providing TVA-Colbert with preliminary lignin fuel analysis and the procurement of representative feed materials for the pilot and bench scale testing of the hydrolysis process.

  9. Daily monitoring of pre-fire vegetation conditions using satellite MODIS data:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basile, G.; Loperte, G.; Antonucci, F.; Lanorte, A.; Lasaponara, R.

    2009-04-01

    Forest fires have an important influence on the environment causing removal of vegetation, alteration of the vegetation structure, soil erosion and desertification processes, long-term site degradation and alteration. In the recent years, Basilicata region has been characterized by an increasing incidence of fire disturbance which also tends to affect protected (Regional and national parks) and natural vegetated areas. FIRE_SAT project has been funded by the Civil Protection of the Basilicata Region in order to set up a low cost methodology for fire danger/risk monitoring based on satellite Earth Observation. To this aim, NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data were used. The spectral capability and daily availability makes MODIS products especially suitable for determining real-time fire danger monitoring. This paper presents significant results obtained during the first year 2008 of FIRE-SAT project. Modis data were also used for identifying and mapping fuel properties in terms of type and loading. Fuel moisture, Fuel properties, and Fire danger maps were obtained as follows: a) Fuel moisture from MSI (Moisture Stress Index) which is an index specifically developed for the estimation of live fuel moisture. b) Fuel type map from supervised classification techniques and spectral analysis methodologies performed at sub-pixel level; c) fire danger maps from both the (i) Relative Greenness (RG) derived from NDVI series and (ii) MSI (Moisture Stress Index) Areas characterized by a decreasing in Relative Greenness and moisture content are supposed to be related to an increase in fire danger. Fire danger maps obtained for the 2008 summer season were compared with actual forest fire data. Results from this comparison suggested that the MODIS-based model identified the main fire risk zone and the integration of the fuel type map and fuel moisture daily maps into a single, integrated model properly described fire-proneness.

  10. Synchronous firing of antennal-lobe projection neurons encodes the behaviorally effective ratio of sex-pheromone components in male Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Joshua P.; Lei, Hong; Riffell, Jeffrey A.; Hildebrand, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Olfactory stimuli that are essential to an animal's survival and reproduction are often complex mixtures of volatile organic compounds in characteristic proportions. Here, we investigated how these proportions are encoded in the primary olfactory processing center, the antennal lobe (AL), of male Manduca sexta moths. Two key components of the female's sex pheromone, present in an approximately 2:1 ratio, are processed in each of two neighboring glomeruli in the macroglomerular complex (MGC) of males of this species. In wind-tunnel flight experiments, males exhibited behavioral selectivity for ratios approximating the ratio released by conspecific females. The ratio between components was poorly represented, however, in the firing-rate output of uniglomerular MGC projection neurons (PNs). PN firing rate was mostly insensitive to the ratio between components, and individual PNs did not exhibit a preference for a particular ratio. Recording simultaneously from pairs of PNs in the same glomerulus, we found that the natural ratio between components elicited the most synchronous spikes, and altering the proportion of either component decreased the proportion of synchronous spikes. The degree of synchronous firing between PNs in the same glomerulus thus selectively encodes the natural ratio that most effectively evokes the natural behavioral response to pheromone. PMID:24002682

  11. Fire occurrence and fire weather indices in the past and under future climate in Peninsular Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbieta, Itziar R.; Zavala, Gonzalo; Moreno, José M.

    2010-05-01

    Understanding fire occurrence and its relationship with ignition sources and weather conditions is a major environmental challenge in regions affected by fire, particularly under ongoing and projected future climate change. The objectives of this study were: 1) To address a historical reconstruction of fire regime (fire occurrence, area burned, and fire causes) in Peninsular Spain for the last three decades. 2) Analyze the time x space relationship between fire occurrence and area burned with climatic variables and climate-derived fire danger indices. 3) Assess how climate change would affect fire danger indices for various emission scenarios based on projections of five regional climate models. The country was divided into 50x50 km cells, for which fire statistics were available. Climate data were interpolated at this grid so that daily fire danger indices were calculated for present and future conditions. Results showed an overall increase of fire occurrence and area burned over the past decades. Fire activity (number of fires and area burned) showed significant correlations with fire danger indices and climatic variables; although in some areas the relationship was weak given the uncertainty linked to the number of ignitions caused by people. There was a significant correlation between certain fire indices and Gini coefficient of fire sizes, whereby fires under more severe conditions become more variable in size. Towards the end of this century (2071-2100) increases in the fire danger indices, and a longer period of fire danger are projected. This trend is consistent among models.

  12. Long-rising Type II supernovae from Palomar Transient Factory and Caltech Core-Collapse Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taddia, F.; Sollerman, J.; Fremling, C.; Migotto, K.; Gal-Yam, A.; Armen, S.; Duggan, G.; Ergon, M.; Filippenko, A. V.; Fransson, C.; Hosseinzadeh, G.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Laher, R. R.; Leloudas, G.; Leonard, D. C.; Lunnan, R.; Masci, F. J.; Moon, D.-S.; Silverman, J. M.; Wozniak, P. R.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Supernova (SN) 1987A was a peculiar hydrogen-rich event with a long-rising (~84 d) light curve, stemming from the explosion of a compact blue supergiant star. Only a few similar events have been presented in the literature in recent decades. Aims: We present new data for a sample of six long-rising Type II SNe (SNe II), three of which were discovered and observed by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) and three observed by the Caltech Core-Collapse Project (CCCP). Our aim is to enlarge this small family of long-rising SNe II, characterizing their differences in terms of progenitor and explosion parameters. We also study the metallicity of their environments. Methods: Optical light curves, spectra, and host-galaxy properties of these SNe are presented and analyzed. Detailed comparisons with known SN 1987A-like events in the literature are shown, with particular emphasis on the absolute magnitudes, colors, expansion velocities, and host-galaxy metallicities. Bolometric properties are derived from the multiband light curves. By modeling the early-time emission with scaling relations derived from the SuperNova Explosion Code (SNEC) models of MESA progenitor stars, we estimate the progenitor radii of these transients. The modeling of the bolometric light curves also allows us to estimate other progenitor and explosion parameters, such as the ejected 56Ni mass, the explosion energy, and the ejecta mass. Results: We present PTF12kso, a long-rising SN II that is estimated to have the largest amount of ejected 56Ni mass measured for this class. PTF09gpn and PTF12kso are found at the lowest host metallicities observed for this SN group. The variety of early light-curve luminosities depends on the wide range of progenitor radii of these SNe, from a few tens of R⊙ (SN 2005ci) up to thousands (SN 2004ek) with some intermediate cases between 100 R⊙ (PTF09gpn) and 300 R⊙ (SN 2004em). Conclusions: We confirm that long-rising SNe II with light-curve shapes closely

  13. Feasibility study of wood-fired cogeneration at a Wood Products Industrial Park, Belington, WV. Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Vasenda, S.K.; Hassler, C.C.

    1992-06-01

    Customarily, electricity is generated in a utility power plant while thermal energy is generated in a heating/cooling plant; the electricity produced at the power plant is transmitted to the heating/cooling plant to power equipments. These two separate systems waste vast amounts of heat and result in individual efficiencies of about 35%. Cogeneration is the sequential production of power (electrical or mechanical) and thermal energy (process steam, hot/chilled water) from a single power source; the reject heat of one process issued as input into the subsequent process. Cogeneration increases the efficiency of these stand-alone systems by producing these two products sequentially at one location using a small additional amount of fuel, rendering the system efficiency greater than 70%. This report discusses cogeneration technologies as applied to wood fuel fired system.

  14. Preliminary Conceptual Design Report for the FACET-II Project at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, Mark

    2016-04-22

    Plasma wakefield acceleration has the potential to dramatically shrink the size and cost of particle accelerators. Research at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has demonstrated that plasmas can provide 1,000 times the acceleration in a given distance compared with current technologies. Developing revolutionary and more efficient acceleration techniques that allow for an affordable high-energy collider is the focus of FACET, a National User Facility at SLAC. The existing FACET National User Facility uses part of SLAC’s two-mile-long linear accelerator to generate high-density beams of electrons and positrons. FACET-II is a new test facility to develop advanced acceleration and coherent radiation techniques with high-energy electron and positron beams. It is the only facility in the world with high energy positron beams. FACET-II provides a major upgrade over current FACET capabilities and the breadth of the potential research program makes it truly unique. It will synergistically pursue accelerator science that is vital to the future of both advanced acceleration techniques for High Energy Physics, ultra-high brightness beams for Basic Energy Science, and novel radiation sources for a wide variety of applications. The design parameters for FACET-II are set by the requirements of the plasma wakefield experimental program. To drive the plasma wakefield requires a high peak current, in excess of 10kA. To reach this peak current, the electron and positron design bunch size is 10μ by 10μ transversely with a bunch length of 10μ. This is more than 200 times better than what has been achieved at the existing FACET. The beam energy is 10 GeV, set by the Linac length available and the repetition rate is up to 30 Hz. The FACET-II project is scheduled to be constructed in three major stages. Components of the project discussed in detail include the following: electron injector, bunch compressors and linac, the positron system, the Sector 20 sailboat and W chicanes

  15. Enhancing fire science exchange: The Joint Fire Science Program's National Network of Knowledge Exchange Consortia

    Treesearch

    Vita Wright; Crystal Kolden; Todd Kipfer; Kristine Lee; Adrian Leighton; Jim Riddering; Leana Schelvan

    2011-01-01

    The Northern Rocky Mountain region is one of the most fire-prone regions in the United States. With a history of large fires that have shaped national policy, including the fires of 1910 and 2000 in Idaho and Montana and the Yellowstone fires of 1988, this region is projected to have many large severe fires in the future. Communication about fire science needs and...

  16. Embryonic origins of ZebrinII parasagittal stripes and establishment of topographic Purkinje cell projections.

    PubMed

    Sillitoe, R V; Gopal, N; Joyner, A L

    2009-09-01

    The establishment of neural circuits involves both the precise positioning of cells within brain regions and projection of axons to specific target cells. In the cerebellum (Cb), the medial-lateral (M-L) and anterior-posterior (A-P) position of each Purkinje cell (PC) and the topography of its axon can be defined with respect to two coordinate systems within the Cb; one based on the pattern of lobules and the other on PC gene expression in parasagittal clusters in the embryo (e.g. Pcp2) and stripes in the adult (e.g. ZebrinII). The relationship between the embryonic clusters of molecularly defined PCs and particular adult PC stripes is not clear. Using a mouse genetic inducible fate mapping (GIFM) approach and a Pcp2-CreER-IRES-hAP transgene, we marked three bilateral clusters of PC clusters with myristolated green fluorescent protein (mGfp) on approximately embryonic day (E) 15 and followed their fate into adulthood. We found that these three clusters contributed specifically to ZebrinII-expressing PCs, including nine of the adult stripes. This result suggests that embryonic PCs maintain a particular molecular identity, and that each embryonic cluster can contribute PCs to more than one adult M-L stripe. Each PC projects a primary axon to one of the deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN) or the vestibular nuclei in the brainstem in an organized fashion that relates to the position of the PCs along the M-L axis. We characterized when PC axons from the three M-L clusters acquire topographic projections. Using a combination of GIFM to mark the PC clusters with mGfp and staining for human placental alkaline phosphatase (hAP) in Pcp2-CreER-IRES-hAP transgenic embryos we found that axons from each embryonic PC cluster intermingled with neurons within particular DCN or projected out of the Cb toward the vestibular nuclei by E14.5. These studies show that PC molecular patterning, efferent circuitry, and DCN nucleogenesis occur simultaneously, suggesting a link between these

  17. Study of Robinson instabilities with a higher-harmonic cavity for the HLS phase II project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yu-Ning; Li, Wei-Min; Wu, Cong-Feng; Wang, Lin

    2012-11-01

    In the Phase II Project at the Hefei Light Source, a fourth-harmonic “Landau" cavity will be operated in order to suppress the coupled-bunch instabilities and increase the beam lifetime of the Hefei storage ring. Instabilities limit the utility of the higher-harmonic cavity when the storage ring is operated with a small momentum compaction. Analytical modeling and simulations show that the instabilities result from Robinson mode coupling. In the analytic modeling, we operate an algorithm to consider the Robinson instabilities. To study the evolution of unstable behavior, simulations have been performed in which macroparticles are distributed among the buckets. Both the analytic modeling and simulations agree for passive operation of the harmonic cavity.

  18. Proposed Tenaska Washington II Generation Project : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 2: Public Involvement.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-01-01

    In regard to the proposed Tenaska Washington II Generation Project, the goal of the Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) public involvement process is to determine the issues to be examined and pertinent analyses to be conducted and to solicit comments on the content and quality of information presented in the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS). Comments and questions are solicited from the public and government agencies during the scoping process and during the comment period and public hearing on the DEIS, to find out what is of most concern to them. The end product of the public involvement process is the Comment Report which follows in part of this volume on Public Involvement.

  19. Initiating the D&D Project for the EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Rick Demmer

    2010-08-01

    A novel decommissioning project is underway to close the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) “fast” reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) facility near Idaho Falls, ID. The facility was placed in cold shutdown in 1994 and work began on the removal of the metallic sodium coolant. The bulk of the sodium was drained and treated beginning in 2001. The residual sodium heel was chemically passivated to render it less reactive in 2005 using a novel carbon dioxide treatment. Approximately 700 kg of metallic sodium and 3500 kg of sodium bicarbonate remain in the facility. A RCRA Waste Treatment Permit, issued in 2002 by the State of Idaho Department of Environmental Quality, requires annual progress toward closure of the facility, and that all regulated materials be removed or deactivated, and the waste products removed by 2022. The baseline sodium removal technology would result in about 100,000 gallons of low-level waste solution requiring treatment along with separate handling of the large components (intermediate heat exchanger, rotating plug, etc) outside of the primary tank.

  20. Fire safety

    Treesearch

    Robert H. White; Mark A. Dietenberger

    1999-01-01

    Fire safety is an important concern in all types of construction. The high level of national concern for fire safety is reflected in limitations and design requirements in building codes. These code requirements are discussed in the context of fire safety design and evaluation in the initial section of this chapter. Since basic data on fire behavior of wood products...

  1. The PEP-II/BaBar Project-Wide Database using World Wide Web and Oracle*Case

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, A.; Crane, G.; MacGregor, I.; Meyer, S.

    1995-12-01

    The PEP-II/BaBar Project Database is a tool for monitoring the technical and documentation aspects of the accelerator and detector construction. It holds the PEP-II/BaBar design specifications, fabrication and installation data in one integrated system. Key pieces of the database include the machine parameter list, components fabrication and calibration data, survey and alignment data, property control, CAD drawings, publications and documentation. This central Oracle database on a UNIX server is built using Oracle*Case tools. Users at the collaborating laboratories mainly access the data using World Wide Web (WWW). The Project Database is being extended to link to legacy databases required for the operations phase.

  2. Post-fire mulching for runoff and erosion mitigation; Part II: Effectiveness in reducing runoff and sediment yields from small catchments

    Treesearch

    Peter R. Robichaud; Joseph W. Wagenbrenner; Sarah A. Lewis; Louise E. Ashmun; Robert E. Brown; Peter M. Wohlgemuth

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural straw, hydromulch, and wood shred or wood strand mulches increasingly are being used as post-fire hillslope treatments, but the differences in effectiveness among these mulch treatments are not fully understood. Following the 2002 Hayman fire in central Colorado and the 2003 Cedar fire in southern California, matched catchments were monitored for five to...

  3. Truck design optimization project. Phase II: Type II Truck test results report. Technical report Apr-Dec 80

    SciTech Connect

    Peacock, R.A.; Gibson, D.W.

    1981-12-01

    The purpose of the Type II Truck Test Program was to obtain performance data on several Type II (or premium) freight car trucks in order to characterize their operational behavior. Data were acquired in the performance regimes of curve negotiation, lateral stability, trackability, and ride quality. Tests were also conducted to obtain rolling resistance data as part of the fuel consumption study. Data on the Longitudinal coupler forces were used to compare the relative ability of various trucks to reduce rolling resistance and flanging forces, thus improving fuel consumption. The test program was designed to provide direct comparison measurements, wherever possible, with the Type I Truck tested earlier in TDOP Phase II. Seven Type II trucks were tested over the same test zones used during Type I testing. This report documents the changes to the instrumentation and equipment developed for Type I testing which were made for testing Type II trucks. Descriptions of the testing of each truck are presented, as are the procedures for data acquisition and reduction. Additionally, the report contains five appendices: Wheelset Calibration Data, Bearing Adapter Calibration Data, Type II Truck Test Plan and Procedure, Data Reduction Equations, and Transducer Location Measurement Data. The performance data gathered during testing will be used to formulate performance specifications for Type II trucks.

  4. Phase II Water Rental Pilot Project: Snake River Resident Fish and Wildlife Resources and Management Recommendations.

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, Stacey H.

    1994-08-01

    The Idaho Water Rental Pilot Project was implemented in 1991 as part of the Non-Treaty Storage Fish and Wildlife Agreement between Bonneville Power Administration and the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority. The goal of the project is to quantify resident fish and wildlife impacts resulting from salmon flow augmentation releases made from the upper Snake River Basin. Phase I summarized existing resource information and provided management recommendations to protect and enhance resident fish and wildlife habitat resulting from storage releases for the I improvement of an adromous fish migration. Phase II includes the following: (1) a summary of recent biological, legal, and political developments within the basin as they relate to water management issues, (2) a biological appraisal of the Snake River between American Falls Reservoir and the city of Blackfoot to examine the effects of flow fluctuation on fish and wildlife habitat, and (3) a preliminary accounting of 1993--1994 flow augmentation releases out of the upper Snake, Boise, and Payette river systems. Phase III will include the development of a model in which annual flow requests and resident fish and wildlife suitability information are interfaced with habitat time series analysis to provide an estimate of resident fish and wildlife resources.

  5. Development of neutron beam projects at the University of Texas TRIGA Mark II Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Unlu, Kenan; Bauer, Thomas L.; Wehring, Bernard W.

    1992-07-01

    Recently, the UT-TRIGA research reactor was licensed and has become fully operational. This reactor, the first new US university reactor in 17 years, is the focus of a new reactor laboratory facility which is located on the Balcones Research Center at The University of Texas at Austin. The TRIGA Mark II reactor is licensed for 1.1 MW steady power operation, 3 dollar pulsing, and includes five beam ports. Various neutron beam-line projects have been assigned to each beam port. Neutron Depth Profiling (NDP) and the Texas Cold Neutron Source (TCNS) are close to completion and will be operational in the near future. The design of the NDP instrument has been completed, a target chamber has been built, and the thermal neutron collimator, detectors, data acquisition electronics, and data processing computers have been acquired. The target chamber accommodates wafers up to 12'' in diameter and provides remote positioning of these wafers. The design and construction of the TCNS has been completed. The TCNS consists of a moderator (mesitylene), a neon heat pipe, a cryogenic refrigerator, and neutron guide tubes. In addition, fission-fragment research (HIAWATHA), Neutron Capture Therapy, and Neutron Radiography are being pursued as projects for the other three beam ports. (author)

  6. Fires, invasives, migrations, oh my! Scaling spatial processes into earth system models and global change projections. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietze, M.

    2013-12-01

    Spatial processes often drive ecosystem processes, biogeochemical cycles, and land-atmosphere feedbacks at the landscape-scale. Long-term responses of ecosystems to climate change requires dispersal and species migrations. Climate-sensitive disturbances, such as fire, pests, and pathogens, often spread contagiously across the landscape. Land-use change has created a highly fragmented landscape with a large fraction of 'edge' habitat that alters the surface energy dynamics and microclimate. These factors all interact, with fragmentation creating barriers for fire and migrations while creating corridors for rapid invasion. While the climate-change implications of these factors are often discussed, none of these processes are incorporated into earth system models because they occur at a spatial scale well below model resolution. Here we present a novel second-order spatially-implicit scheme for representing the spatial adjacencies of different vegetation types and edaphic classes. Adjacencies direct affect dispersal, contagious disturbance, radiation, and microclimate. We also demonstrate a means for approximating the size distribution of spatially contagious disturbances, such as fire, insects, and disease. Finally, we demonstrate a means for dynamically evolving spatial adjacency through time in response to disturbance and succession. This scheme is tested under a range of dispersal, disturbance, and land-use scenarios in comparison to a spatially explicit and conventional non-spatial alternatives. This scheme lays the ground for a more realistic global-scale exploration of how spatially-complex and heterogenous landscapes interact with climate-change drivers.

  7. Fighting Fire with Fire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spoor, Dana L.

    1996-01-01

    School districts are integrating security and life-safety systems into school buildings to protect students and property. This proactive approach includes sprinkler systems, fire alarms, and security systems that monitor door movement. Some school districts that are incorporating the latest life-safety technology are in Missouri, Ohio, California,…

  8. Fighting Fire with Fire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spoor, Dana L.

    1996-01-01

    School districts are integrating security and life-safety systems into school buildings to protect students and property. This proactive approach includes sprinkler systems, fire alarms, and security systems that monitor door movement. Some school districts that are incorporating the latest life-safety technology are in Missouri, Ohio, California,…

  9. Negligent and intentional fires in Portugal: the role of human and biophysical drivers on the spatial distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parente, Joana; Pereira, Mário; Amraoui, Malik; Tedim, Fantina

    2017-04-01

    project Interact - Integrative Research in Environment,Agro-Chain and Technology, NORTE-01-0145-FEDER-000017, research line BEST, cofinanced by FEDER/NORTE 2020; (ii) the FIREXTR project, PTDC/ATP¬GEO/0462/2014; and, (iii) European Investment Funds by FEDER/COMPETE/POCI-Operacional Competitiveness and Internacionalization Programme, under Project POCI-01-0145-FEDER-006958 and National Funds by FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology, under the project UID/AGR/04033. We are especially grateful to ICNF for providing the fire data.

  10. Fires in Central Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Hundreds of fires are set every year during the dry season in Central Africa. This true color image from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) shows dozens of smoke plumes in the Democratic Republic of the Congo on June 29, 2000. Residents burn away scrub and brush annually in the woody savanna to clear land for farming and grazing. For more information, visit the SeaWiFS Home Page, Global Fire Monitoring Fact Sheet, and 4km2 Fire Data Image Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  11. Fires in Central Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Hundreds of fires are set every year during the dry season in Central Africa. This true color image from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) shows dozens of smoke plumes in the Democratic Republic of the Congo on June 29, 2000. Residents burn away scrub and brush annually in the woody savanna to clear land for farming and grazing. For more information, visit the SeaWiFS Home Page, Global Fire Monitoring Fact Sheet, and 4km2 Fire Data Image Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  12. A hydroclimatic model of global fire patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boer, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Satellite-based earth observation is providing an increasingly accurate picture of global fire patterns. The highest fire activity is observed in seasonally dry (sub-)tropical environments of South America, Africa and Australia, but fires occur with varying frequency, intensity and seasonality in almost all biomes on Earth. The particular combination of these fire characteristics, or fire regime, is known to emerge from the combined influences of climate, vegetation, terrain and land use, but has so far proven difficult to reproduce by global models. Uncertainty about the biophysical drivers and constraints that underlie current global fire patterns is propagated in model predictions of how ecosystems, fire regimes and biogeochemical cycles may respond to projected future climates. Here, I present a hydroclimatic model of global fire patterns that predicts the mean annual burned area fraction (F) of 0.25° x 0.25° grid cells as a function of the climatic water balance. Following Bradstock's four-switch model, long-term fire activity levels were assumed to be controlled by fuel productivity rates and the likelihood that the extant fuel is dry enough to burn. The frequency of ignitions and favourable fire weather were assumed to be non-limiting at long time scales. Fundamentally, fuel productivity and fuel dryness are a function of the local water and energy budgets available for the production and desiccation of plant biomass. The climatic water balance summarizes the simultaneous availability of biologically usable energy and water at a site, and may therefore be expected to explain a significant proportion of global variation in F. To capture the effect of the climatic water balance on fire activity I focused on the upper quantiles of F, i.e. the maximum level of fire activity for a given climatic water balance. Analysing GFED4 data for annual burned area together with gridded climate data, I found that nearly 80% of the global variation in the 0.99 quantile of F

  13. Understanding the effects of fire management practices on forest health: Implications for weeds and vegetation structure (Project INT-F-04-01) [Chapter 14

    Treesearch

    Anne E. Black; Peter Landres

    2011-01-01

    Current fire policy to restore ecosystem function and resiliency and reduce buildup of hazardous fuels implies a larger future role for fire (both natural and human ignitions) (USDA and USDOI 2000). Yet some fire management (such as building fire line, spike camps, or heli-spots) potentially causes both short- and long-term impacts to forest health. In the short run,...

  14. Predicting Fire Season Severity in the Pacific Northwest

    Treesearch

    Paul Werth

    2006-01-01

    Projections of fire season severity that integrate historical weather and fire information can be used by fire managers when making decisions about allocating and prioritizing firefighting resources. They enable fire managers to anticipate fire activity and pre-position resources to maximize public and firefighter safety, reduce environmental impacts, and lower...

  15. Variability of fire behavior, fire effects, and emissions in Scotch pine forests of central Siberia

    Treesearch

    D. J. McRae; Susan Conard; G. A. Ivanova; A. I. Sukhinin; Steve Baker; Y. N. Samsonov; T. W. Blake; V. A. Ivanov; A. V. Ivanov; T. V. Churkina; WeiMin Hao; K. P. Koutzenogij; Nataly Kovaleva

    2006-01-01

    As part of the Russian FIRE BEAR (Fire Effects in the Boreal Eurasia Region) Project, replicated 4-ha experimental fires were conducted on a dry Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris)/lichen (Cladonia sp.)/feathermoss (Pleurozeum schreberi) forest site in central Siberia. Observations from the initial seven surface fires (2000-2001) ignited under a range of burning...

  16. Research in fire prevention.

    PubMed

    Pearce, N

    1985-10-01

    This paper describes in broad terms, the fire testing programme we carried out on whole bed assemblies in 1984. It should be clear that the tests were carried out in a thoroughly rigorous scientific manner. As always there is more to be done. The immediate task of finding the so called 'safe' bed assembly is proceeding with the search this year for safer pillows. Softer barrier foams are now being produced and it may be that the NHS could use full depth foam mattresses rather than a barrier foam wrap. On the engineering side I have explained the false alarm problem, and I have reviewed some of the research we are doing to see that new technology is used to give us better systems in future. Life safety sprinkler systems give the possibility of truly active fire protection in patient areas. They will enhance fire safety but at the moment no trade-offs can be offered in other areas of fire protection--either active or passive. My final point is that although I have considered the Department's fire research by looking separately at specific projects, the fire safety of a hospital must always be considered as a total package. To be effective, individual components of fire safety must not be considered in isolation but as part of the overall fire safety system.

  17. THE IRON PROJECT AND THE RMAX PROJECT: Radiative and CollisionalProcesses of Iron Ions - Fe I, Fe II, Fe XVI, Fe XVII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montenegro, Maximiliano; Nahar, Sultana; Pradhan, Anil; Sur, Chiranjib

    2008-05-01

    Results from work in progress under the Iron Project and Rmax Project on electron impact excitation and radiative processes of photo-excitations, photoionization and electron-ion recombination will be reported. Whereas the Iron Project is involved in scattering and radiative atomic processes of iron and iron-peak elements, and the Rmax Project aims particularly at the X-ray spectroscopy of astrophysical objects. We will present (i) collision strengths of Fe II at low energies using an accurate wavefunction needed for spectral analysis of infrared region, (ii) oscillator strengths and radiative decay rates for allowed and forbidden transitions in Fe I and Fe II, (iii) photoionization and electron-ion recombination of ground state of Fe XVI for over a large energy/temperature range up to and including K-shell ionization and core excitations as observed in X-ray spectra, and (iv) photoionization cross sections of large number fine structure levels (n<=10 and 0 <= 10) needed for astrophysical and modeling work. Relativistic approach in the Breit-Pauli approximation is being employed to study these atomic processes.

  18. 75 FR 18201 - Big Horn II Wind Project, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Big Horn II Wind Project, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization April 2, 2010. This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced...

  19. Three-Year Staff Development Plan 1972-1975. Report of HEW Region II Staff Development Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montclair State Coll., Upper Montclair, NJ.

    The U.S. Office of Education sought applications for a first-year proposal of a potential three-year staff development project in each of nine Health, Education, and Welfare regions. Region II (New Jersey, New York, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands) received one of the grants with the objective of designing a competency-based staff development…

  20. Learning Science in Grades 3-8 Using Probeware and Computers: Findings from the TEEMSS II Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Andrew A.; Tinker, Robert; Staudt, Carolyn; Mansfield, Amie; Metcalf, Shari

    2008-01-01

    The Technology Enhanced Elementary and Middle School Science II project (TEEMSS), funded by the National Science Foundation, produced 15 inquiry-based instructional science units for teaching in grades 3-8. Each unit uses computers and probeware to support students' investigations of real-world phenomena using probes (e.g., for temperature or…

  1. Comprehensive Study of Educational Technology Programs Authorized from 1989-1992. Volume III: Level II Model Technology School Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Far West Lab. for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, CA.

    This report, the third in a series of six, evaluates the 10 school districts that received grants from the California Department of Education to develop Level II Model Technology School (MTS) Projects intended to enhance instruction and student learning through a combination of curriculum improvement and integration of technology within a single…

  2. Learning Science in Grades 3-8 Using Probeware and Computers: Findings from the TEEMSS II Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Andrew A.; Tinker, Robert; Staudt, Carolyn; Mansfield, Amie; Metcalf, Shari

    2008-01-01

    The Technology Enhanced Elementary and Middle School Science II project (TEEMSS), funded by the National Science Foundation, produced 15 inquiry-based instructional science units for teaching in grades 3-8. Each unit uses computers and probeware to support students' investigations of real-world phenomena using probes (e.g., for temperature or…

  3. Title II Projects Demonstrate Function of Audiovisual Materials in Reading; ESEA Title II and The Right to Read Notable Reading Projects No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    The 17 reading projects described in this report involve the use of media in teaching reading. They range from a media project for culturally distinct and geographically isolated pupils in Nye County, Nevada, to an experience in multimedia perception which took place in a vocational technical school in Quincy, Massachusetts. Several of the…

  4. The Spacecraft Fire Experiment (Saffire) - Objectives, Development and Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoren, William; Ruff, Gary A.; Urban, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2012, the Spacecraft Fire Experiment (Saffire) has been under development by the Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration (SFS Demo) project that is funded by NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Division in the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate. The overall objective of this project is to reduce the uncertainty and risk associated with the design of spacecraft fire safety systems for NASA's exploration missions. This is accomplished by defining, developing, and conducting experiments that address gaps in spacecraft fire safety knowledge and capabilities identified by NASA's Fire Safety System Maturation Team. This paper describes the three Spacecraft Fire Experiments (Saffire-I, -II, and -III) that were developed at NASA-GRC and that will conduct a series of material flammability tests in low-gravity and at length scales that are realistic for a spacecraft fire. The experiments will be conducted in Orbital ATK's Cygnus vehicle after it has unberthed from the International Space Station. The tests will be fully automated with the data downlinked at the conclusion of the test and before the Cygnus vehicle reenters the atmosphere. The objectives of these experiments are to (1) determine how rapidly a large scale fire grows in low-gravity and (2) investigate the low-g flammability limits compared to those obtained in NASA's normal gravity material flammability screening test. The hardware for these experiments has been completed and is awaiting their respective launches, all planned for 2016. This paper will review the objectives of these experiments and how they address several of the knowledge gaps for NASA's exploration missions. The hardware development will be discussed including several novel approaches that were taken for testing and evaluation of these series payloads. The status of the missions and operational status will also be presented.

  5. Ground-based remote sensing of cloud particle sizes during the 26 November 1991 FIRE II cirrus case: Comparisons with in situ data

    SciTech Connect

    Matrosov, S.Y.; Intrieri, J.M.

    1995-12-01

    The paper presents the results of retrieving characteristic particle sizes for the November 26, 1991, FIRE II case using two methods that utilize ground-based remote sensors. The size information for the complete vertical depth of the cloud was obtained for a 3-hour period from 1830 to 2130 UTC using combined Doppler radar and TR radiometer measurements and for two shorter periods using radar reflectivity and CO{sub 2} lidar backscatter measurements. The results obtained with both remote sensing techniques are compared for these two periods. Possible retrieval uncertainties are discussed. Comparisons yielded an agreement with a relative standard deviation of 15%-20% between the two methods. Particle sizes retrieved by both methods were compared with 2D particle probe data sampled during 10 time intervals when a research aircraft was crossing the hub area. The relative standard deviation of particle sizes retrieved with the radar-radiometer method from those obtained from 2D probes is about 30% for nine compared times. The corresponding deviation for the lidar-radar method is about 35% for three compared times. The relative standard deviation between particle concentrations retrieved with the radar-radiometer method and those obtained from 2D probes is about 60% for nine compared times.

  6. Parameterization of Fire Injection Height in Large Scale Transport Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paugam, r.; Wooster, m.; Freitas, s.; Gonzi, s.; Palmer, p.

    2012-04-01

    The parameterization of fire injection height in global chemistry transport model is currently a subject of debate in the atmospheric community. The approach usually proposed in the literature is based on relationships linking injection height and remote sensing products like the Fire Radiative Power (FRP) which can measure active fire properties. In this work we present an approach based on the Plume Rise Model (PRM) developed by Freitas et al (2007, 2010). This plume model is already used in different host models (e.g. WRF, BRAMS). In its original version, the fire is modelled by: a convective heat flux (CHF; pre-defined by the land cover and evaluated as a fixed part of the total heat released) and a plume radius (derived from the GOES Wildfire-ABBA product) which defines the fire extension where the CHF is homogeneously distributed. Here in our approach the Freitas model is modified. Major modifications are implemented in its initialisation module: (i) CHF and the Active Fire area are directly force from FRP data derived from a modified version of the Dozier algorithm applied to the MOD12 product, (ii) and a new module of the buoyancy flux calculation is implemented instead of the original module based on the Morton Taylor and Turner equation. Furthermore the dynamical core of the plume model is also modified with a new entrainment scheme inspired from latest results from shallow convection parameterization. Optimization and validation of this new version of the Freitas PRM is based on fire plume characteristics derived from the official MISR plume height project and atmospheric profile extracted from the ECMWF analysis. The data set is (i) build up to only keep fires where plume height and FRP can be easily linked (i.e. avoid large fire cluster where individual plume might interact) and (ii) split per fire land cover type to optimize the constant of the buoyancy flux module and the entrainment scheme to different fire regime. Result shows that the new PRM is

  7. Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) Report for the Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife II Project, Technical Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Darren

    2003-06-01

    The Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP), developed in 1980 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS 1980a, USFWS 1980b), uses a habitat/species based approach to assessing project impacts, and is a convenient tool to document the predicted effects of proposed management actions. The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) endorsed the use of HEP in its Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program to evaluate wildlife benefits and impacts associated with the development and operation of the federal Columbia River Basin hydroelectric system (NPPC 1994). The Albeni Falls Interagency Work Group (AFIWG) used HEP in 1987 to evaluate wildlife habitat losses attributed to the Albeni Falls hydroelectric facility (Martin et al. 1988). In 1992, the AFIWG (Idaho Department of Fish and Game; Kalispel, Coeur d'Alene, and Kootenai Tribes) began implementing activities to mitigate these losses. Implementation activities include protecting, restoring and enhancing wildlife habitat. HEPs are used extensively within the NPPC's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. Wildlife managers use HEP to determine habitat lost from the construction of the federal hydroelectric projects and habitat gained through NPPC mitigation program. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models for each of the seven target species are used to determine habitat quality and quantity losses for representative habitat cover types for this project. Target species include Bald Eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, white-tailed deer and yellow warbler. In 2002, a HEP team determined the habitat condition of the 164-acre Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife II Project (Figure 1). The HEP team consisted of the following members and agencies: Roy Finley, Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD); Neil Lockwood, KNRD; Brian Merson, KNRD; Sonny Finley, KNRD; Darren Holmes, KNRD; Anna, Washington Dept. of Fish and Game (WDFW); and Scott, WDFW. Baseline Habitat Units (HU) will be credited to

  8. Fire investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomberg, A.

    There was considerable progress made on several fronts of fire investigation in the United States in recent years. Progress was made in increasing the quantity of fire investigation and reporting, through efforts to develop the National Fire Incident Reporting System. Improving overall quality of fire investigation is the objective of efforts such as the Fire Investigation Handbook, which was developed and published by the National Bureau of Standards, and the upgrading and expanding of the ""dictionary'' of fire investigation and reporting, the NFPA 901, Uniform Coding for Fire Protection, system. The science of fire investigation as furthered also by new approaches to post fire interviews being developed at the University of Washington, and by in-depth research into factors involved in several large loss fires, including the MGM Grand Hotel in Las Vegas. Finally, the use of special study fire investigations - in-depth investigations concentrating on specific fire problems - is producing new glimpses into the nature of the national fire problem. A brief description of the status of efforts in each of these areas is discussed.

  9. Regional projections of the likelihood of very large wildland fires under a changing climate in the contiguous Western United States

    Treesearch

    Donald McKenzie; John T. Abatzoglou; E. Natasha Stavros; Narasimhan K. Larkin

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal changes in the climatic potential for very large wildfires (VLWF >= 50,000 ac~20,234 ha) across the western contiguous United States are projected over the 21st century using generalized linear models and downscaled climate projections for two representative concentration pathways (RCPs). Significant (p

  10. Understory Fires

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The flames of understory fires in the southern Amazon reach on average only a few feet tall, but the fire type can claim anywhere from 10 to 50 percent of a burn area's trees. Credit: NASA/Doug Morton

  11. Learning Science in Grades 3 8 Using Probeware and Computers: Findings from the TEEMSS II Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucker, Andrew A.; Tinker, Robert; Staudt, Carolyn; Mansfield, Amie; Metcalf, Shari

    2008-02-01

    The Technology Enhanced Elementary and Middle School Science II project (TEEMSS), funded by the National Science Foundation, produced 15 inquiry-based instructional science units for teaching in grades 3-8. Each unit uses computers and probeware to support students' investigations of real-world phenomena using probes (e.g., for temperature or pressure) or, in one case, virtual environments based on mathematical models. TEEMSS units were used in more than 100 classrooms by over 60 teachers and thousands of students. This paper reports on cases in which groups of teachers taught science topics without TEEMSS materials in school year 2004-2005 and then the same teachers taught those topics using TEEMSS materials in 2005-2006. There are eight TEEMSS units for which such comparison data are available. Students showed significant learning gains for all eight. In four cases (sound and electricity, both for grades 3-4; temperature, grades 5-6; and motion, grades 7-8) there were significant differences in science learning favoring the students who used the TEEMSS materials. The effect sizes are 0.58, 0.94, 1.54, and 0.49, respectively. For the other four units there were no significant differences in science learning between TEEMSS and non-TEEMSS students. We discuss the implications of these results for science education.

  12. The Importance of Permafrost Thaw, Fire and Logging Disturbances as Driving Factors of Historical and Projected Carbon Dynamics in Alaskan Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genet, H.; Zhang, Y.; McGuire, A. D.; He, Y.; Johnson, K. D.; D'Amore, D. V.; Zhou, X.; Bennett, A.; Breen, A. L.; Biles, F. E.; Bliss, N. B.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Kurkowski, T. A.; Pastick, N.; Rupp, S. T.; Wylie, B. K.; Zhu, Z.; Zhuang, Q.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon dynamics of natural ecosystems are influenced by disturbance regimes of various frequencies and magnitudes. With global change, these disturbances are projected to increase in frequency and/or magnitude and may have significant effects on future net carbon balance, especially in high latitude ecosystems where carbon stocks are among the largest on Earth and climate change is substantial. In Alaska, permafrost degradation and fire in the boreal and arctic regions and logging in the southern coastal region are the main disturbances that affect ecosystems. Large uncertainties related to the effects of these disturbances on the capacity of these regions to store carbon still exist mainly due to difficulty in representing permafrost degradation in current ecosystem models. We ran the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM), which explicitly simulates the carbon cycle and permafrost dynamics, coupled with a disturbance model (the Alaska Frame Based Ecosystem Code, ALFRESCO) to assess the relative importance of permafrost thaw, wildfire, and forest management on historical and projected carbon balance and carbon stocks in Alaska, from 1950 to 2100, at a 1-km resolution. Our simulations showed that the increase in plant productivity in response to warming in boreal and arctic regions is offset by soil carbon loss due to permafrost degradation and wildfire combustion during both historical and future simulations. Fire disturbances act as a catalyst accelerating permafrost degradation and associated soil carbon loss. In addition, our preliminary results for south coastal regions of Alaska indicate that logging of second growth forests could influence carbon dynamics in that region. Overall, these results have implications for land management strategies and illustrate the importance of taking into account multiple types of disturbance regimes in ecosystem models for Alaska.

  13. Seasonal Forecasting of Fires across Southern Borneo, 1997-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spessa, Allan; Field, Robert; Kaiser, Johannes; Langner, Andreas; Moore, Jonathan; Pappenberger, Florian; Siegert, Florian; Weber, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    Wildfire is a fundamental Earth System process, affecting almost all biogeochemical cycles, and all vegetated biomes. Fires are naturally rare in humid tropical forests, and tropical trees are generally killed by even low-intensity fires. However, fire activity in the tropics has increased markedly over the past 15-20 years, especially in Indonesia, Amazonia, and more recently, central Africa also. Since fire is the prime tool for clearing land in the tropics, it not surprising that the increase in fire activity is strongly associated with increased levels of deforestation, which is driven mainly by world-wide demand for timber and agricultural commodities. The consequences of deforestation fires for biodiversity conservation and emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols are enormous. For example, carbon emissions from tropical biomass burning are around 20% of annual average global fossil fuel emissions. The destructive fires in Indonesia during the exceptionally strong El Niño-induced drought in late 1997 and early 1998 rank as some of the largest peak emissions events in recorded history. Past studies estimate about 1Gt of carbon was released to the atmosphere from the Indonesian fires in 1997 (which were mostly concentrated in carbon-rich forested peatlands). This amount is equivalent to about 14% of the average global annual fossil fuel emissions released during the 1990s. While not as large as the 1997-98 events, significant emissions from biomass burning have also been recorded in other (less severe) El Niño years across Indonesia, in particular, 2002, 2004, 2006 and 2009-2010. Recent climate modelling studies indicate that the frequency of El Niño events may increase under future climate change, affecting many tropical countries, including Indonesia. An increased drought frequency plus a projected increase in population and land use pressures in Indonesia, imply there will be even more fires and emissions in future across the region. However, while

  14. Is fire a long term sink or source of atmospheric carbon? A comprehensive evaluation of a boreal forest fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santin, C.; Doerr, S. H.; Preston, C.; Bryant, R.

    2012-12-01

    Fires lead to a rapid release of carbon (C) from forest and other fire-prone ecosystems, emitting important quantities of C to the atmosphere. Every year 300-600 Mill. ha burn around the globe, generating CO2 emissions equivalent to half of the current annual global from fossil fuel combustion. Over the longer-term vegetation fires are widely considered as 'net zero Carbon (C) emission events', because C emissions from fires, excluding those associated with deforestation, are balanced by C uptake by regenerating vegetation. This 'zero C emission' scenario, however, may be flawed, as it does not consider the role of pyrogenic C (PyC). During fire, some of the fuel is transformed into PyC (i.e. charcoal, black C, soot), which is characterized by an enhanced recalcitrance and a longer mean residence time in the environment than its 'fresh' precursors. Therefore, after complete regeneration of the vegetation, the PyC generated represents an additional longer-term C pool and, hence, recurring fire-regrowth cycles could be considered as a 'net sink of atmospheric C'. To test the validity of this hypothesis, and to estimate how quantitatively important this PyC pool might be, accurate data on PyC production with respect to the fuel combusted are needed. Unfortunately, detailed quantification of fuel prior to fire is normally only available for prescribed and experimental fires, which are usually of low-intensity and therefore not representative of higher-intensity wildfires. Furthermore, what little data is available is usually based on only a specific fraction of the PyC present following burning rather than the whole range of PyC products and stores (i.e. PyC in soil, ash, downed wood and standing vegetation). The FireSmart project (Ft. Providence, NWT, Canada, June 2012) provided the ideal framework to address this research gap. This experimental fire reproduced wildfire conditions in boreal forest, i.e. stand-replacing crown fire and, at the same time, allowed i) pre-fire

  15. Fire Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    An early warning fire detection sensor developed for NASA's Space Shuttle Orbiter is being evaluated as a possible hazard prevention system for mining operations. The incipient Fire Detector represents an advancement over commercially available smoke detectors in that it senses and signals the presence of a fire condition before the appearance of flame and smoke, offering an extra margin of safety.

  16. Analysis of tethered balloon, ceilometer and class sounding data taken on San Nicolas Island during the FIRE project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Wayne H.; Ciesielski, Paul E.; Guinn, Thomas A.; Cox, Stephen K.; Mckee, Thomas B.

    1990-01-01

    During the FIRE Marine Stratocumulus Program on San Nicolas Island, Colorado State University (CSU) and the British Meteorological Office (BMO) operated separate instrument packages on the NASA tethered balloon. The CSU package contained instrumentation for the measurement of temperature, pressure, humidity, cloud droplet concentration, and long and short wave radiation. Eight research flights, performed between July 7 and July 14, are summarized. An analysis priority to the July 7, 8 and 11 flights was assigned for the purposes of comparing the CSU and BMO data. Results are presented. In addition, CSU operated a laser ceilometer for the determination of cloud base, and a CLASS radiosonde site which launched 69 sondes. Data from all of the above systems are being analyzed.

  17. Business models for cost effective use of health information technologies: lessons learned in the CHCS II project.

    PubMed

    Riley, David L

    2003-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) has embarked on an initiative to create an electronic medical record for all of its eligible beneficiaries. The Clinical Information Technology Program Office (CITPO) is the joint-service program office established to centrally manage this multi-year project. The Composite Health Care System II (CHCS II) is the name of the system under development. Given the historical failure rate of large-scale government information system projects, CITPO has employed an incremental acquisition approach and striven to use industry best practices to the greatest degree possible within the constraints of federal acquisition law. Based on lessons learned during the concept exploration phase of this project, CITPO, in partnership with Integic Corporation, the prime integration contractor, has reengineered its software acquisition process to include industry best practices. The result of this reengineering process has resulted in a reduction of the total projected life cycle costs for CHCS II from the original estimate of $7.6 billion over a 14-year period to between $3.9 and $4.3 billion.

  18. Phase II Report for SERRI Project No. 80037: Investigation of surge and wave reduction by vegetation (Phase II)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To better understand and quantify the effectiveness of wetland vegetation in mitigating the impact of hurricane and storm surges, this SERRI project (No. 80037) examined surge and wave attenuation by vegetation through laboratory experiments, field observations and computational modeling. It was a c...

  19. Field Validation of the Career Education Curriculum Project Modules. Phase II. 7-12 Instrument Development. Final Report. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Earl; Wellman, Frank

    Focusing on the measurement of outcomes rather than on module materials specifically, test items were constructed to evaluate the Career Education Modules for grades 7-12 developed by the Missouri Career Education Project. First, the stated learning objectives of the modules were converted into outcome objectives. Next, the relevant vocabulary,…

  20. An Oral History Project: World War II Veterans Share Memories in My Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, David W.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes how the author developed and implemented a course on World War II that has an oral history component. The author describes the format of the World War II course and the oral history component within the course framework. The author uses classroom presentations by veterans to enliven his World War II history class and enhance…

  1. BASS II

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-14

    ISS038-E-047576 (14 Feb. 2014) --- NASA astronaut Rick Mastracchio, Expedition 38 flight engineer, works with the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS-II) experiment in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) located in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. BASS-II explores how different substances burn in microgravity with benefits for combustion on Earth and fire safety in space.

  2. BASS II

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-14

    ISS038-E-047582 (14 Feb. 2014) --- NASA astronaut Rick Mastracchio, Expedition 38 flight engineer, works with the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS-II) experiment in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) located in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. BASS-II explores how different substances burn in microgravity with benefits for combustion on Earth and fire safety in space.

  3. FIRE_ACE_SHIP_SSFR

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-04-26

    FIRE_ACE_SHIP_SSFR Project Title:  FIRE III ACE Discipline:  ... Level:  L3 Platform:  SHEBA Ship Instrument:  Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer ... Info:  Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) Ship SCAR-B Block:  SCAR-B Products ...

  4. The Harvard/Brown Anxiety Research Project – Phase II (HARP-II): Rationale, methods, and features of the sample at intake

    PubMed Central

    Weisberg, Risa B.; Beard, Courtney; Dyck, Ingrid; Keller, Martin B.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the rationale, method, and intake demographic and clinical findings of the Harvard/Brown Anxiety Research Project-Phase II (HARP-II). HARP-II is the first prospective, observational, longitudinal study to describe the characteristics and course of anxiety in African American, Latino, and Non-Latino White individuals. Participants met criteria for at least one of the following disorders: Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Social Phobia, Panic Disorder with or without Agoraphobia, Agoraphobia without history of Panic Disorder, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Initial intake data, collected between 2004 and 2011, are presented for 165 African American, 150 Latino, and 172 Non-Latino White participants. Participants evidenced substantial psychiatric comorbidity (mean number of Axis I disorders = 3.4), and moderate to severe symptoms and functional impairment. HARP-II will examine clinical course, in the context of potential socio-cultural and individual moderators (e.g., discrimination, acculturation, negative affect). Results should lead to improved understanding, prognostics, and treatment of anxiety in diverse populations. PMID:22410095

  5. The Harvard/Brown Anxiety Research Project-Phase II (HARP-II): rationale, methods, and features of the sample at intake.

    PubMed

    Weisberg, Risa B; Beard, Courtney; Dyck, Ingrid; Keller, Martin B

    2012-05-01

    We describe the rationale, method, and intake demographic and clinical findings of the Harvard/Brown Anxiety Research Project-Phase II (HARP-II). HARP-II is the first prospective, observational, longitudinal study to describe the characteristics and course of anxiety in African American, Latino, and Non-Latino White individuals. Participants met criteria for at least one of the following disorders: Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Social Phobia, Panic Disorder with or without Agoraphobia, Agoraphobia without history of Panic Disorder, Post-traumatic Stress Disorder. Initial intake data, collected between 2004 and 2011, are presented for 165 African American, 150 Latino, and 172 Non-Latino White participants. Participants evidenced substantial psychiatric comorbidity (mean number of Axis I disorders=3.4), and moderate to severe symptoms and functional impairment. HARP-II will examine clinical course, in the context of potential socio-cultural and individual moderators (e.g., discrimination, acculturation, negative affect). Results should lead to improved understanding, prognostics, and treatment of anxiety in diverse populations.

  6. Geochronology of Danube Delta sediments The PN-II-RU-TE-2012-3-0351 project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert-Csaba, Begy; Andra-Rada, Iurian; (Rusu) Oana Alexandra, Dumitru; Luminita, Preoteasa; Hedvig, Simon; Alida, Timar-Gabor; Szabolcs, Kelemen

    2014-05-01

    fluxes within the Danube Delta and over the associated Danubian continental shelf, using the radiometric method of 210Pb (210Po) and 137Cs. The detailed stratigraphical survey of the deltaic sediments will provide an accurate view of the sedimentation characteristics in the last ~100 years, including the impact of the hydrotechnical works built within the Danube basin on the sedimentation rates and on the deltaic continental shelf evolution. Another important aspect of the present project is featured by the combined application of three complex radiometric and nuclear tools: alpha spectrometry (210Po), gamma-spectrometry (210Pb, 137Cs, and 226Ra) and luminescence absolute method. Acknoledgement: The financial support from the grant of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research CNCS-UEFISCDI, PN-II-RU-TE-2012-3-0351 (2013-2015) is acknoledged.

  7. Forest fires in Pennsylvania.

    Treesearch

    Donald A. Haines; William A. Main; Eugene F. McNamara

    1978-01-01

    Describes factors that contribute to forest fires in Pennsylvania. Includes an analysis of basic statistics; distribution of fires during normal, drought, and wet years; fire cause, fire activity by day-of-week; multiple-fire day; and fire climatology.

  8. NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Graduate Student Program. [FIRE CIRRUS-II examination of coupling between an upper tropospheric cloud system and synoptic-scale dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerman, Thomas P.

    1994-01-01

    The evolution of synoptic-scale dynamics associated with a middle and upper tropospheric cloud event that occurred on 26 November 1991 is examined. The case under consideration occurred during the FIRE CIRRUS-II Intensive Field Observing Period held in Coffeyville, KS during Nov. and Dec., 1991. Using data from the wind profiler demonstration network and a temporally and spatially augmented radiosonde array, emphasis is given to explaining the evolution of the kinematically-derived ageostrophic vertical circulations and correlating the circulation with the forcing of an extensively sampled cloud field. This is facilitated by decomposing the horizontal divergence into its component parts through a natural coordinate representation of the flow. Ageostrophic vertical circulations are inferred and compared to the circulation forcing arising from geostrophic confluence and shearing deformation derived from the Sawyer-Eliassen Equation. It is found that a thermodynamically indirect vertical circulation existed in association with a jet streak exit region. The circulation was displaced to the cyclonic side of the jet axis due to the orientation of the jet exit between a deepening diffluent trough and building ridge. The cloud line formed in the ascending branch of the vertical circulation with the most concentrated cloud development occurring in conjunction with the maximum large-scale vertical motion. The relationship between the large scale dynamics and the parameterization of middle and upper tropospheric clouds in large-scale models is discussed and an example of ice water contents derived from a parameterization forced by the diagnosed vertical motions and observed water vapor contents is presented.

  9. A new North American fire scar network for reconstructing historical pyrogeography, 1600-1900 AD

    Treesearch

    Donald A. Falk; Thomas Swetnam; Thomas Kitzberger; Elaine Sutherland; Peter Brown; Erica Bigio; Matthew Hall

    2013-01-01

    The Fire and Climate Synthesis (FACS) project is a collaboration of about 50 fire ecologists to compile and synthesize fire and climate data for western North America. We have compiled nearly 900 multi-century fire-scar based fire histories from the western United States, Canada, and Mexico. The resulting tree-ring based fire history is the largest and most spatially...

  10. Characterization of potential fire regimes: applying landscape ecology to fire management in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardel, E.; Alvarado, E.; Perez-Salicrup, D.; Morfín-Rios, J.

    2013-05-01

    Knowledge and understanding of fire regimes is fundamental to design sound fire management practices. The high ecosystem diversity of Mexico offers a great challenge to characterize the fire regime variation at the landscape level. A conceptual model was developed considering the main factors controlling fire regimes: climate and vegetation cover. We classified landscape units combining bioclimatic zones from the Holdridge life-zone system and actual vegetation cover. Since bioclimatic conditions control primary productivity and biomass accumulation (potential fuel), each landscape unit was considered as a fuel bed with a particular fire intensity and behavior potential. Climate is also a determinant factor of post-fire recovery rates of fuel beds, and climate seasonality (length of the dry and wet seasons) influences fire probability (available fuel and ignition efficiency). These two factors influence potential fire frequency. Potential fire severity can be inferred from fire frequency, fire intensity and behavior, and vegetation composition and structure. Based in the conceptual model, an exhaustive literature review and expert opinion, we developed rules to assign a potential fire regime (PFR) defined by frequency, intensity and severity (i.e. fire regime) to each bioclimatic-vegetation landscape unit. Three groups and eight types of potential fire regimes were identified. In Group A are fire-prone ecosystems with frequent low severity surface fires in grasslands (PFR type I) or forests with long dry season (II) and infrequent high-severity fires in chaparral (III), wet temperate forests (IV, fire restricted by humidity), and dry temperate forests (V, fire restricted by fuel recovery rate). Group B includes fire-reluctant ecosystems with very infrequent or occasional mixed severity surface fires limited by moisture in tropical rain forests (VI) or fuel availability in seasonally dry tropical forests (VII). Group C and PFR VIII include fire-free environments

  11. Fight Fire with These Safety Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Lisa M.

    1998-01-01

    Provides expert guidelines on ways to keep schools and children safe from building fires, such as maintenance of exits for easy egress in emergencies, maintaining fire-protection systems, and utilizing evacuation planning and drilling. Highlights fire-safety ideas as part of school-building and renovation projects. (GR)

  12. Fight Fire with These Safety Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Lisa M.

    1998-01-01

    Provides expert guidelines on ways to keep schools and children safe from building fires, such as maintenance of exits for easy egress in emergencies, maintaining fire-protection systems, and utilizing evacuation planning and drilling. Highlights fire-safety ideas as part of school-building and renovation projects. (GR)

  13. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing an ESP while demonstrating the ICCT CT-121 FGD Project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-16

    The US Department of Energy is performing comprehensive assessments of toxic emissions from eight selected coal-fired electric utility units. This program responds to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, which require the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electric utility power plants for Potential health risks. The resulting data will be furnished to EPA utility power plants and health risk determinations. The assessment of emissions involves the collection and analysis of samples from the major input, process, and output streams of each of the eight power plants for selected hazardous Pollutants identified in Title III of the Clean Air Act. Additional goals are to determine the removal efficiencies of pollution control subsystems for these selected pollutants and the Concentrations associated with the particulate fraction of the flue gas stream as a function of particle size. Material balances are being performed for selected pollutants around the entire power plant and several subsystems to identify the fate of hazardous substances in each utility system. Radian Corporation was selected to perform a toxics assessment at a plant demonstrating an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project. The site selected is Plant Yates Unit No. 1 of Georgia Power Company, which includes a Chiyoda Thoroughbred-121 demonstration project.

  14. The lick AGN monitoring project 2011: Fe II reverberation from the outer broad-line region

    SciTech Connect

    Barth, Aaron J.; Cooper, Michael C.; Pancoast, Anna; Treu, Tommaso; Bennert, Vardha N.; Brewer, Brendon J.; Canalizo, Gabriela; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li, Weidong; Cenko, S. Bradley; Clubb, Kelsey I.; Gates, Elinor L.; Greene, Jenny E.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Sand, David J.; Stern, Daniel; Assef, Roberto J.; Woo, Jong-Hak; Bae, Hyun-Jin; Buehler, Tabitha; and others

    2013-06-01

    The prominent broad Fe II emission blends in the spectra of active galactic nuclei have been shown to vary in response to continuum variations, but past attempts to measure the reverberation lag time of the optical Fe II lines have met with only limited success. Here we report the detection of Fe II reverberation in two Seyfert 1 galaxies, NGC 4593 and Mrk 1511, based on data from a program carried out at Lick Observatory in Spring 2011. Light curves for emission lines including Hβ and Fe II were measured by applying a fitting routine to decompose the spectra into several continuum and emission-line components, and we use cross-correlation techniques to determine the reverberation lags of the emission lines relative to V-band light curves. In both cases, the measured lag (τ{sub cen}) of Fe II is longer than that of Hβ, although the inferred lags are somewhat sensitive to the choice of Fe II template used in the fit. For spectral decompositions done using the Fe II template of Véron-Cetty et al., we find τ{sub cen}(Fe II)/τ{sub cen}(Hβ) = 1.9 ± 0.6 in NGC 4593 and 1.5 ± 0.3 in Mrk 1511. The detection of highly correlated variations between Fe II and continuum emission demonstrates that the Fe II emission in these galaxies originates in photoionized gas, located predominantly in the outer portion of the broad-line region.

  15. CE IGCC repowering project: Clean Coal II Project. Annual report, 1 January, 1992--31 December, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    CE is participating in a $270 million coal gasification combined cycle repowering project that will provide a nominal 60 MW of electricity to City, Water, light and Power (CWL and P) in Springfield, Illinois. The IGCC system will consist of CE`s air-blown entrained flow two-stage gasifier; an advanced hot gas cleanup system; a combustion turbine adapted to use low-Btu gas: and all necessary coal handling equipment. The project is currently in the second budget period of five. The major activities during this budgeted period are: Establishment of an approved for design (AFD) engineering package; development of a detailed cost estimate; resolution of project business issues; CWL and P renewal and replacement activities; and application for environmental air permits. The Project Management Plan was updated. The conceptual design of the plant was completed and a cost and schedule baseline for the project was established previously in Budget Period One. This information was used to establish AFD Process Flow Diagrams, Piping and Instrument Diagrams, Equipment Data Sheets, material take offs, site modification plans and other information necessary to develop a plus or minus 20% cost estimate. Environmental permitting activities are continuing. At the end of 1992 the major activities remaining for Budget Period two is to finish the cost estimate and complete the Continuation Request Documents.

  16. Fincke stands beside a floating bag of tomato seeds for the EPO Tomatosphere II project during Expedition 9

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-07-17

    ISS009-E-15362 (17 July 2004) --- Astronaut Edward M. (Mike) Fincke, Expedition 9 NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer, is pictured in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station (ISS). A bag of tomato seeds for the Tomatosphere II Project, an educational program sponsored by Canadian Space Agency (CSA), floats nearby. The seeds will be distributed to classrooms in Canada for use in plant growth experiments.

  17. Fincke stands beside a floating bag of tomato seeds for the EPO Tomatosphere II project during Expedition 9

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-07-17

    ISS009-E-15361 (17 July 2004) --- Astronaut Edward M. (Mike) Fincke, Expedition 9 NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer, is pictured in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station (ISS). A bag of tomato seeds for the Tomatosphere II Project, an educational program sponsored by Canadian Space Agency (CSA), floats nearby. The seeds will be distributed to classrooms in Canada for use in plant growth experiments.

  18. Rx-CADRE (Prescribed Fire Combustion-Atmospheric Dynamics Research Experiments) collaborative research in the core fire sciences

    Treesearch

    D. Jimenez; B. Butler; K. Hiers; R. Ottmar; M. Dickinson; R. Kremens; J. O' Brien; A. Hudak; C. Clements

    2009-01-01

    The Rx-CADRE project was the combination of local and national fire expertise in the field of core fire research. The project brought together approximately 30 fire scientists from six geographic regions and seven diff erent agencies. The project objectives were to demonstrate the capacity for collaborative research by bringing together individuals and teams with a...

  19. Projections of air toxic emissions from coal-fired utility combustion: Input for hazardous air pollutant regulators

    SciTech Connect

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1993-08-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is required by the 1990 CAAA to promulgate rules for all ``major`` sources of any of these HAPs. According to the HAPs section of the new Title III, any stationary source emitting 10 tons per year (TPY) of one HAP or 25 TPY of a combination of HAPs will be considered and designated a major source. In contrast to the original National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), which were designed to protect public health to ``an ample margin of safety,`` the new Title III, in its first phase, will regulate by industrial category those sources emitting HAPs in excess of the 10/25-TPY threshold levels, regardless of health risks. The trace elements normally associated with coal mineral matter and the various compounds formed during coal combustion have the potential to produce hazardous air toxic emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. Under Title III, the EPA is required to perform certain studies, prior to any regulation of electric utilities; these studies are currently underway. Also, the US Department of Energy (DOE) maintains a vested interest in addressing those energy policy questions affecting electric utility generation, coal mining, and steel producing critical to this country`s economic well-being, where balancing the costs to the producers and users of energy with the benefits of environmental protection to the workers and the general populace remains of significant concern.

  20. Developing statistical wildlife habitat relationships for assessing cumulative effects of fuels treatments: Final Report for Joint Fire Science Program Project

    Treesearch

    Samuel A. Cushman; Kevin S. McKelvey

    2006-01-01

    The primary weakness in our current ability to evaluate future landscapes in terms of wildlife lies in the lack of quantitative models linking wildlife to forest stand conditions, including fuels treatments. This project focuses on 1) developing statistical wildlife habitat relationships models (WHR) utilizing Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) and National Vegetation...

  1. Resuspension and redistribution of radionuclides during grassland and forest fires in the Chernobyl exclusion zone: part II. Modeling the transport process.

    PubMed

    Yoschenko, V I; Kashparov, V A; Levchuk, S E; Glukhovskiy, A S; Khomutinin, Yu V; Protsak, V P; Lundin, S M; Tschiersch, J

    2006-01-01

    To predict parameters of radionuclide resuspension, transport and deposition during forest and grassland fires, several model modules were developed and adapted. Experimental data of controlled burning of prepared experimental plots in the Chernobyl exclusion zone have been used to evaluate the prognostic power of the models. The predicted trajectories and elevations of the plume match with those visually observed during the fire experiments in the grassland and forest sites. Experimentally determined parameters could be successfully used for the calculation of the initial plume parameters which provide the tools for the description of various fire scenarios and enable prognostic calculations. In summary, the model predicts a release of some per thousand from the radionuclide inventory of the fuel material by the grassland fires. During the forest fire, up to 4% of (137)Cs and (90)Sr and up to 1% of the Pu isotopes can be released from the forest litter according to the model calculations. However, these results depend on the parameters of the fire events. In general, the modeling results are in good accordance with the experimental data. Therefore, the considered models were successfully validated and can be recommended for the assessment of the resuspension and redistribution of radionuclides during grassland and forest fires in contaminated territories.

  2. Wildland fire limits subsequent fire occurrence

    Treesearch

    Sean A. Parks; Carol Miller; Lisa M. Holsinger; Scott Baggett; Benjamin J. Bird

    2016-01-01

    Several aspects of wildland fire are moderated by site- and landscape-level vegetation changes caused by previous fire, thereby creating a dynamic where one fire exerts a regulatory control on subsequent fire. For example, wildland fire has been shown to regulate the size and severity of subsequent fire. However, wildland fire has the potential to influence...

  3. Fire Resistance of Geopolymer Concretes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-21

    1 Project report – Grant FA23860814096, "Fire resistance of geopolymer concretes" – J. Provis, University of Melbourne 1. Background and...experimental program This project provided funding for us to carry out fire testing of geopolymer concrete specimens and associated laboratory...testing. The focus of this report will be the outcomes of the series of pilot-scale (4’×4’×6”) tests on geopolymer concrete panels, which were conducted

  4. Occupational Counseling for Physically Handicapped Students: A Demonstration and Training Project--Phase II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Leo; Flugman, Bert

    Reported are results of the second year of a demonstration and training project to develop and test a model for training counselors to promote the vocational development of secondary level special education students. An overview of the project covers the need for the project, features of the new model, program objectives (including the design of…

  5. Project Talented and Gifted Second Evaluation Report: ESEA Title III Region II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khatena, Joe

    Presented in the annual (1974-75) evaluation of Project Talented and Gifted are results of an appraisal of over 50 student participants (10- to 12-years-old) and the project staff and resource personnel. The project is described as a 3-month institute to provide experiences in areas such as learning to use creative thinking and problem-solving…

  6. An Assessment of Fire Regime Changes in the Northern Rocky Mountain Region Using Simulated Historical Fire Maps and Remotely Sensed Current Fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, F.; Zhu, Z.; Huang, C.

    2011-12-01

    Wildland fire is a primary ecosystem process that shapes the landscape of Western United States. Changes in fire regime can therefore have profound impact on ecosystem functions and services, including carbon cycling, habitat conditions, and biodiversity. This poster presents a study on current fire regime and changes in the Northern Rocky Mountain region assessed using contemporary and historical fire regimes. Contemporary fire records from 1984 to 2008 were obtained from the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) project. Historical (pre-EuroAmerican settlement) fire regimes and fire regime condition class (FRCC), produced by the LANDFIRE project, were simulated using a Landscape Succession Model (LANDSUM). We extracted historical fire frequency (Mean Fire Interval) and fire severity (percentage of severe fire) data from LANDFIRE, and calculated current fire frequency and severity using MTBS data by following the FRCC definition, to evaluate changes in fire regimes in Northern Rocky Mountain area. Preliminary results reveal that the current fire regime in Northern Rocky Mountains may exhibit a general pattern of longer return intervals and more severe fires. Biophysical Setting (BpS) map units from LANDFIRE are used as study units to describe environmental gradients and will be used to further examine whether the observed fire regime changes are controlled by land cover or biophysical settings. The findings of this study will help reveal contemporary fire dynamics in this region and serve for future fire studies and other forest management applications.

  7. The modeling of a laboratory natural gas-fired furnace with a higher-order projection method for unsteady combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Pember, R.B.; Colella, P.; Howell, L.H.; Almgren, A.S.

    1996-02-01

    A higher-order, embedded boundary projection method for axisymmetric, unsteady, low-Mach number combustion is used to model a natural gas flame from a 300 kW IFRF burner in the Burner Engineering Research Laboratory (BERL) at Sandia National Laboratory under hot wall conditions. The numerical predictions presented are the late simulated-time results of a computation of unsteady flow in the furnace. The predictions are compared both with measurements completed in the BERL as part of the GRI SCALING 400 Project and with results from a steady-state axisymmetric reacting flow code in order to evaluate the combustion model and the numerical method. The results compare favorably with the experimental data.

  8. Fire clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the latest developments in the fire clay industry, particularly in the U.S., as of June 2011. It claims that the leading fire clay producer in the U.S. is the state of Missouri. The other major producers include California, Texas and Washington. It reports that the use of heavy clay products made of fire clay like brick, cement and lightweight aggregate has increased slightly in 2010.

  9. Fire clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, six companies mined fire clay in Missouri, Ohio and South Carolina. Production was estimate to be 300 kt with a value of $8.3 million. Missouri was the leading producer state followed by Ohio and South Carolina. For the third consecutive year, sales and use of fire clays have been relatively unchanged. For the next few years, sales of fire clay is forecasted to remain around 300 kt/a.

  10. Preserving the Memories of World War II: An Intergenerational Interview Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Percoco, James A.

    2013-01-01

    The Friends of the National World War II Memorial was established in 2007 to serve, in part, as an organization devoted to educating young people and visitors to the memorial in an effort to ensure that the lessons, legacy, and sacrifices of World War II not be forgotten. After 32 years of teaching history at West Springfield High School in…

  11. Preserving the Memories of World War II: An Intergenerational Interview Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Percoco, James A.

    2013-01-01

    The Friends of the National World War II Memorial was established in 2007 to serve, in part, as an organization devoted to educating young people and visitors to the memorial in an effort to ensure that the lessons, legacy, and sacrifices of World War II not be forgotten. After 32 years of teaching history at West Springfield High School in…

  12. Fire clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2013-01-01

    Four companies mined fire clay in three states in 2012. Production, based on a preliminary survey of the fire clay industry, was estimated to be 230 kt (254,000 st) valued at $6.98 million, an increase from 215 kt (237,000 st) valued at $6.15 million in 2011. Missouri was the leading producing state, followed by Colorado and Texas, in decreasing order by quantity. The number of companies mining fire clay declined in 2012 because several common clay producers that occasionally mine fire clay indicated that they did not do so in 2012.

  13. Operation Sun Beam, Shots Little Feller I, II and Johnie Boy. Project officers report. Project 6. 6. Electromagnetic measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, W.D.; Livingston, P.M.; Rutter, R.L.

    1985-09-01

    Of considerable interest from both a physical and practical viewpoint is the coupling of electromagnetic energy from a nuclear explosion into various electrical systems in the vicinity of the burst. A series of electromagnetic measurements were made on Shots Little Feller I, Little Feller II, and Johnie Boy. It is clear from the records that radiation shielding must be given closer consideration in future tests. Due to equipment failure and radiation inactivation, only the Johnie Boy dynamic current measurement and the passive peak current indicators on all three events are interpretable.

  14. FIRE II - ASTEX Data Sets

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-07-10

    ... (ASTEX) was conducted in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean. It was designed to improve the understanding of the physical processes involved in the life cycles of cirrus and marine stratocumulus systems, the radiative ...

  15. Development of advanced blanket performance under irradiation and system integration through JUPITER-II project

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, Katsunori; Kohyama, Akira; Tanaka, Satoru; Namba, C.; Terai, T.; Kunugi, T.; Muroga, Takeo; Hasegawa, Akira; Sagara, A.; Berk, S.; Zinkle, Steven J.; Sze, Dai Kai; Petti, D. A.; Abdou, Mohamed A.; Morley, Neil B.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Snead, Lance L.; Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    2008-12-01

    This report describes an outline of the activities of the JUPITER-II collaboration (japan-USA program of Irradiation/Integration test for Fusion Research-II), Which has bee carried out through six years (2001-2006) under Phase 4 of the collabroation implemented by Amendment 4 of Annex 1 to the DOE (United States Department of Energy)-MEXT (Ministry of Education ,Culture,Sports,Science and Technology) Cooperation. This program followed the RTNS-II Program (Phase1:1982-4986), the FFTF/MOTA Program (Phase2:1987-1994) and the JUPITER Program (Phase 3: 1995-2000) [1].

  16. Mapping severe fire potential across the contiguous United States

    Treesearch

    Brett H. Davis

    2016-01-01

    The Fire Severity Mapping System (FIRESEV) project is an effort to provide critical information and tools to fire managers that enhance their ability to assess potential ecological effects of wildland fire. A major component of FIRESEV is the development of a Severe Fire Potential Map (SFPM), a geographic dataset covering the contiguous United States (CONUS) that...

  17. Wind River Watershed Restoration Project, Segment II, 2000-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bair, Brian; Olegario, Anthony; Powers, Paul

    2002-06-01

    This document represents work conducted as part of the Wind River Watershed Restoration Project during its second year of funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The project is a comprehensive effort involving public and private entities seeking to restore water quality and fishery resources in the basin through cooperative actions. Project elements include coordination, watershed assessment, restoration, monitoring, and education. Entities involved with implementing project components are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), USDA Forest Service (USFS), U.S. Geological Survey - Columbia River Research Lab (USGS-CRRL), and WA Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW).

  18. [Development of projective reduplication in psychosomatic patients. II. Attempt at an assessment].

    PubMed

    Ullrich, G

    1988-01-01

    Starting with a clinical description of the "projective reduplication" this construct is being critically evaluated on the basis of recent publications on the psychosomatic patient's "pseudo-normality". These studies cast further doubt on the assumption of a "projective reduplication" mechanism as a valid, specific characteristic of this patient population. Recent research results suggest a non-projective, specific sensibility in perception in psychosomatic patients rather than a deficit. The assumption of non-differentiation between self and others as part of the "projective reduplication" mechanism is finally being interpreted as a sequel to the specific "patient career" of psychosomatic patients and the effects of their being clinically evaluated for psychosomatic illness.

  19. Oregon Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... title:  Smoke Plumes from the B&B Complex Fires, Oregon     View Larger Image ... of smoke originating from the B&B Complex Fires in central Oregon are captured in these September 4, 2003 views from the Multi-angle ...

  20. Fire Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denker, Deb; West, Lee

    2009-01-01

    For education administrators, campus fires are not only a distressing loss, but also a stark reminder that a campus faces risks that require special vigilance. In many ways, campuses resemble small communities, with areas for living, working and relaxing. A residence hall fire may raise the specter of careless youth, often with the complication of…

  1. Colorado Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... Hayman fire and from the Ponil Complex fires south of the New Mexico-Colorado border are portrayed in these views from the Multi-angle ... x 565 kilometers. They use data from blocks 58 to 61 within World Reference System-2 path 32. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's ...

  2. Returning Fire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Jon B.

    2007-01-01

    Last December saw another predictable report from the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (FIRE), a self-described watchdog group, highlighting how higher education is supposedly under siege from a politically correct plague of so-called hate-speech codes. In that report, FIRE declared that as many as 96 percent of top-ranked colleges…

  3. Fire Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denker, Deb; West, Lee

    2009-01-01

    For education administrators, campus fires are not only a distressing loss, but also a stark reminder that a campus faces risks that require special vigilance. In many ways, campuses resemble small communities, with areas for living, working and relaxing. A residence hall fire may raise the specter of careless youth, often with the complication of…

  4. Returning Fire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Jon B.

    2007-01-01

    Last December saw another predictable report from the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (FIRE), a self-described watchdog group, highlighting how higher education is supposedly under siege from a politically correct plague of so-called hate-speech codes. In that report, FIRE declared that as many as 96 percent of top-ranked colleges…

  5. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... After September 15, 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.315 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel 36 feet (11.8 meters) or more in length...

  6. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... After September 15, 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.315 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel 36 feet (11.8 meters) or more in length...

  7. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses..., fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel 36 feet (11.8 meters) or more in length must... fire pump on a vessel 79 feet (24 meters) or more in length must be capable of delivering water...

  8. Forest-fire models

    Treesearch

    Haiganoush Preisler; Alan Ager

    2013-01-01

    For applied mathematicians forest fire models refer mainly to a non-linear dynamic system often used to simulate spread of fire. For forest managers forest fire models may pertain to any of the three phases of fire management: prefire planning (fire risk models), fire suppression (fire behavior models), and postfire evaluation (fire effects and economic models). In...

  9. Comparison of differential mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry for gas chromatographic detection of ignitable liquids from fire debris using projected difference resolution.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yao; Chen, Ping; Harrington, Peter B

    2009-08-01

    The significance of forensic arson analysis accelerates the applications of new technologies in this area. Based on the previously reported application of differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) as a detection method for gas chromatography (GC) in arson analysis, the performances of DMS and mass spectrometry (MS) were compared using a novel chemometric tool, projected difference resolutions (PDRs). The PDR results show that one-way mass spectra data exhibit higher resolution than DMS data, while total ion chromatograms from GC-DMS show higher resolution than that from GC/MS for differentiating seven kinds of ignitable liquids. Combining the information from both chromatography and spectra, two-way data always have higher resolution than one-way data for these two detection methods, and GC/MS would exhibit better performance than GC-DMS according to the minimum resolution value. To verify the PDR results, a fuzzy rule-building expert system was applied for classifying these seven kinds of ignitable liquids from fire debris based on GC-DMS and GC/MS data, respectively. The prediction accuracies were consistent with PDR results, which proved that PDR is a powerful tool in comparing the performances of different analysis methods for pattern recognition.

  10. A comparison of geospatially modeled fire behavior and fire management utility of three data sources in the southeastern United States

    Treesearch

    LaWen T. Hollingsworth; Laurie L. Kurth; Bernard R. Parresol; Roger D. Ottmar; Susan J. Prichard

    2012-01-01

    Landscape-scale fire behavior analyses are important to inform decisions on resource management projects that meet land management objectives and protect values from adverse consequences of fire. Deterministic and probabilistic geospatial fire behavior analyses are conducted with various modeling systems including FARSITE, FlamMap, FSPro, and Large Fire Simulation...

  11. PREPARATION AIDS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF CATEGORY II QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data collection activities performed for the Risk Reduction Engineering aboratory (RREL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are divided into tour categories, depending on the intended use of the data. uality Assurance (QA) Project Plans are written to ensure that project...

  12. Tidal Wave II Revisited: A Review of Earlier Enrollment Projections for California Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, Gerald C.; Breneman, David W.; Estrada, Leobardo F.

    This report examined enrollment projections for higher education institutions in California in relation to earlier projections conducted in the mid-1990s that forecasted steep declines in enrollment. It notes that California's remarkable economic recovery over the last several years has allowed it to fund higher education enrollment growth at a…

  13. Building a City: A Spin Off Project. Part II of Students Discovering Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Adele

    1988-01-01

    Discusses "Students Discovering Cities" and related activities, explaining how the program evolved into a city planning project for fourth graders in West Jordan, Utah. Describes the final stage of the project in which students "built" their city inside the school gymnasium, complete with streets, lights, cardboard buildings,…

  14. The VIDEOSHARE Project. Instruction (Manual I) and Classroom Videotaping Guide (Manual II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walmsley, Tim; Neilsen, Shelley

    Manual I describes the VIDEOSHARE Project, a demonstration project employing systematic, video-based technology in preschool special education classrooms to supplement traditional measures of academic and developmental progress. The VIDEOSHARE model focuses on using video to: (1) enhance family-school partnerships; (2) increase child study team…

  15. The Workplace Literacy System Project (WLS). Phase II. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulton, Bruce R.

    As described in this performance report, the Workplace Literacy System (WLS) project was a national demonstration program in which North Carolina State University, Forsyth Technical Community College, and Sara Lee Knit Products Company (SLKP) participated as partners. During the project's second phase, a nine-module curriculum on the history of…

  16. How to Build a Better Mousetrap and 13 Other Science Projects Using the Apple II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernier, David L.

    Science projects which can be used by high school students who have minimal experience with computers or electronics are presented in this book on laboratory interfacing. These laboratory interfacing projects include either the connecting of measuring instruments directly to a computer or using a computer to control external devices. All of the 14…

  17. PREPARATION AIDS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF CATEGORY II QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data collection activities performed for the Risk Reduction Engineering aboratory (RREL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are divided into tour categories, depending on the intended use of the data. uality Assurance (QA) Project Plans are written to ensure that project...

  18. Building a City: A Spin Off Project. Part II of Students Discovering Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Adele

    1988-01-01

    Discusses "Students Discovering Cities" and related activities, explaining how the program evolved into a city planning project for fourth graders in West Jordan, Utah. Describes the final stage of the project in which students "built" their city inside the school gymnasium, complete with streets, lights, cardboard buildings,…

  19. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart P of... - Model Fire Safety Plan (Non-Mandatory)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of Contents I. Purpose. II. Work site fire hazards and how to properly control them. III. Alarm... case of fire. II. Work Site Fire Hazards and How To Properly Control Them A. Measures to contain fires... more than one type exists. B. The work site emergency alarm system. C. Procedures for reporting...

  20. Spacecraft Fire Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margle, Janice M. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Fire detection, fire standards and testing, fire extinguishment, inerting and atmospheres, fire-related medical science, aircraft fire safety, Space Station safety concerns, microgravity combustion, spacecraft material flammability testing, and metal combustion are among the topics considered.

  1. A comparison of three approaches for simulating fine-scale surface winds in support of wildland fire management. Part II. An exploratory study of the effect of simulated winds on fire growth simulations

    Treesearch

    Jason M. Forthofer; Bret W. Butler; Charles W. McHugh; Mark A. Finney; Larry S. Bradshaw; Richard D. Stratton; Kyle S. Shannon; Natalie S. Wagenbrenner

    2014-01-01

    The effect of fine-resolution wind simulations on fire growth simulations is explored. The wind models are (1) a wind field consisting of constant speed and direction applied everywhere over the area of interest; (2) a tool based on the solution of the conservation of mass only (termed mass-conserving model) and (3) a tool based on a solution of conservation of mass...

  2. Fire scars and tree vigor following prescribed fires in Missouri Ozark upland forests

    Treesearch

    Aaron P. Stevenson; Rose-Marie Muzika; Richard P. Guyette

    2008-01-01

    The goal of our project was to examine basal fire scars caused by prescribed fires and tree vigor in upland forests of the Missouri Ozarks. Fire scar data were collected in 100 plots from black oak (Quercus velutina Lam.), scarlet oak (Q. coccinea Muench.), Shumard oak (Q. shumardii Buckl.), post oak (Q...

  3. The Fire Effects Information System - serving managers since before the Yellowstone fires

    Treesearch

    Jane Kapler Smith; Janet L. Fryer; Kristin Zouhar

    2009-01-01

    This presentation will describe the current status of the Fire Effects Information System (FEIS) and explore lessons learned from this 23-yearold project about the application of science to fire management issues. FEIS contains literature reviews covering biology and fire ecology for approximately 1,100 species in North America: plants and animals, native and nonnative...

  4. Progress toward the determination of correct classification rates in fire debris analysis II: utilizing soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA).

    PubMed

    Waddell, Erin E; Williams, Mary R; Sigman, Michael E

    2014-07-01

    A multistep classification scheme was used to detect and classify ignitable liquid residues in fire debris into the classes defined by the ASTM E1618-10 standard method. The total ion spectra (TIS) of the samples were classified by soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) with cross-validation and tested on fire debris. For detection of ignitable liquid residue, the true-positive rate was 94.2% for cross-validation and 79.1% for fire debris, with false-positive rates of 5.1% and 8.9%, respectively. Evaluation of SIMCA classifications for fire debris relative to a reviewer's examination led to an increase in the true-positive rate to 95.1%; however, the false-positive rate also increased to 15.0%. The correct classification rates for assigning ignitable liquid residues into ASTM E1618-10 classes were generally in the range of 80-90%, with the exception of gasoline samples, which were incorrectly classified as aromatic solvents following evaporative weathering in fire debris.

  5. Wind River Watershed Project; Volume II of III Reports F and G, 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    1999-11-01

    The authors report here their on-ground restoration actions. Part 1 describes work conducted by the Underwood Conservation District (UCD) on private lands. This work involves the Stabler Cut-Bank project. Part 2 describes work conducted by the U.S. Forest Service. The Stabler Cut-Bank Project is a cooperative stream restoration effort between Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the UCD, private landowners, the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). The Stabler site was identified by UCD during stream surveys conducted in 1996 as part of a USFWS funded project aimed at initiating water quality and habitat restoration efforts on private lands in the basin. In 1997 the Wind River Watershed Council selected the project as a top priority demonstration project. The landowners were approached by the UCD and a partnership developed. Due to their expertise in channel rehabilitation, the Forest Service was consulted for the design and assisted with the implementation of the project. A portion of the initial phase of the project was funded by USFWS. However, the majority of funding (approximately 80%) has been provided by BPA and it is anticipated that additional work that is planned for the site will be conducted with BPA funds.

  6. Projects from Federal Region IX: Department of Energy Appropriate Energy Technology Program. Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Case, C.W.; Clark, H.R.; Kay, J.; Lucarelli, F.B.; Rizer, S.

    1980-01-01

    Details and progress of appropriate energy technology programs in Region IX are presented. In Arizona, the projects are Solar Hot Water for the Prescott Adult Center and Solar Prototype House for a Residential Community. In California, the projects are Solar AquaDome Demonstration Project; Solar Powered Liquid Circulating Pump; Appropriate Energy Technology Resource Center; Digester for Wastewater Grown Aquatic Plants; Performance Characteristics of an Anaerobic Wastewater Lagoon Primary Treatment System; Appropriate Energy/Energy Conservation Demonstration Project; Solar Energy for Composting Toilets; Dry Creek Rancheria Solar Demonstration Projects; Demonstration for Energy Retrofit Analysis and Implementation; and Active Solar Space Heating System for the Integral Urban House. In Hawaii, the projects are: Java Plum Electric; Low-Cost Pond Digesters for Hawaiian Pig Farm Energy Needs; Solar Beeswax Melter; Methane Gas Plant for Operating Boilers and Generating Steam; and Solar Water Heating in Sugarcane Seed-Treatment Plants. A Wind-Powered Lighted Navigation Buoys Project for Guam is also described. A revised description of the Biogas Energy for Hawaiian Small Farms and Homesteads is given in an appendix.

  7. New Technology for the Fire Attire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Although little can be done to reduce the risks of firefighting, something can be done to curb the injuries and fatalities. This is the goal of Project FIRES, a program jointly sponsored by NASA and the Federal Emergency Management Agency's U.S. Fire Administration with technical management provided by Marshall Space Flight Center. Project FIRES (Firefighter's Integrated Response Equipment System) involves applications of advanced materials and design concepts, derived from Apollo to update existing gear which does not adequately protect against many of the hazards encountered in fire suppression activities. A major focus of the effort involves application to the FIRES ensemble of lightweight, fire-resistant, heat-protective materials originally developed for use in astronauts' space suits or in spacecraft components which require thermal protection. Data from the fourteen municipal fire departments participating in the field evaluation will form a basis for development of new nationwide protective ensemble students.

  8. ESA Fire CCI product assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heil, Angelika; Yue, Chao; Mouillot, Florent; Storm, Thomas; Chuvieco, Emilio; Kaiser, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    Vegetation fires are a major disturbance in the Earth System. Fires change the biophysical properties and dynamics of ecosystems and alter terrestrial carbon pools. By altering the atmosphere's composition, fire emissions exert a significant climate forcing. To realistically model past and future changes of the Earth System, fire disturbances must be taken into account. Related modelling efforts require consistent global burned area observations covering at least 10 to 20 years. Guided by the specific requirements of a wide range of end users, the ESA fire_cci project is currently computing a new global burned area dataset. It applies a newly developed spectral change detection algorithm upon the full ENVISAT-MERIS archive (2002 to 2012). The algorithm relies on MODIS active fire information as "seed". A first, formally validated version has been released for the period 2006 to 2008. It comprises a pixel burned area product (spatial resolution of 333 m) with date detection information and a biweekly grid product at 0.5 degree spatial resolution. We compare fire_cci burned area with other global burned area products (MCD64, GFED4(s), GEOLAND) and a set of active fires data (hotspots from MODIS, TRMM, AATSR and fire radiative power from GFAS). Output from the ongoing processing of the full MERIS timeseries will be incorporated into the study, as far as available. The analysis of patterns of agreement and disagreement between fire_cci and other products provides a better understanding of product characteristics and uncertainties. The intercomparison of the 2006-2008 fire_cci time series shows a close agreement with GFED4 data in terms of global burned area and the general spatial and temporal patterns. Pronounced differences, however, emerge for specific regions or fire events. Burned area mapped by fire_cci tends to be notably higher in regions where small agricultural fires predominate. The improved detection of small agricultural fires by fire_cci can be related to

  9. Projected changes in atmospheric heating due to changes in fire disturbance and the snow season in the western Arctic, 2003-2100

    Treesearch

    E.S. Euskirchen; A.D. McGuire; T.S. Rupp; F.S. Chapin; J.E. Walsh

    2009-01-01

    In high latitudes, changes in climate impact fire regimes and snow cover duration, altering the surface albedo and the heating of the regional atmosphere. In the western Arctic, under four scenarios of future climate change and future fire regimes (2003-2100), we examined changes in surface albedo and the related changes in regional atmospheric heating due to: (1)...

  10. A collaborative fire hazard reduction/ecosystem restoration stewardship project in a Montana mixed ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir/western larch wildland urban interface

    Treesearch

    Steve Slaughter; Laura Ward; Michael Hillis; Jim Chew; Rebecca McFarlan

    2004-01-01

    Forest Service managers and researchers designed and evaluated alternative disturbance-based fire hazard reduction/ecosystem restoration treatments in a greatly altered low-elevation ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir/western larch wildland urban interface. Collaboratively planned improvement cutting and prescribed fire treatment alternatives were evaluated in simulations of...

  11. Using Space Technologies for a timely detection of forest fires: the experience of end-users in 3 Italian Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filizzola, Carolina; Belloni, Antonella; Benigno, Giuseppe; Biancardi, Alberto; Corrado, Rosita; Coviello, Irina; De Costanzo, Giovanni; Genzano, Nicola; Lacava, Teodosio; Lisi, Mariano; Marchese, Francesco; Mazzeo, Giuseppe; Merzagora, Cinzio; Paciello, Rossana; Pergola, Nicola; Sannazzaro, Filomena; Serio, Salvatore; Tramutoli, Valerio

    2013-04-01

    Every year, hundreds of thousands of hectares of European forests are destroyed by fires. Due to the particular topography, landscape and demographic distribution in Europe (very different from typical scenarios of China, USA, Canada and Australia), rapidity in fire sighting is still the determining factor in limiting damages to people and goods. Moreover, the possibility of early fire detection means also potentially to reduce the size of the event to be faced, the necessary fire fighting resources and, therefore, even the reaction times. In such a context, integration of satellite technologies (mainly high temporal resolution data) and traditional surveillance systems within the fire fighting procedures seems to positively impact on the effectiveness of active fire fighting as demonstrated by recent experiences over Italian territory jointly performed by University of Basilicata, IMAA-CNR and Local Authorities. Real time implementation was performed since 2007, during fire seasons, over several Italian regions with different fire regimes and features, in order to assess the actual potential of different satellite-based fire detection products to support regional and local authorities in efficiently fighting fires and better mitigating their negative effects. Real-time campaigns were carried out in strict collaboration with end-users within the framework of specific projects (i.e. the AVVISA, AVVISTA and AVVISA-Basilicata projects) funded by Civil Protection offices of Regione Lombardia, Provincia Regionale di Palermo and Regione Basilicata in charge of fire risk management and mitigation. A tailored training program was dedicated to the personnel of Regional Civil Protection offices in order to ensure the full understanding and the better integration of satellite based products and tools within the existing fire fighting protocols. In this work, outcomes of these practices are shown and discussed, especially highlighting the impact that a real time satellite

  12. Gaseous time projection chambers for rare event detection: results from the T-REX project. II. Dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Irastorza, I.G.; Aznar, F.; Castel, J. E-mail: faznar@unizar.es [Grupo de Física Nuclear y Astropartículas, Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza, C and others

    2016-01-01

    As part of the T-REX project, a number of R and D and prototyping activities have been carried out during the last years to explore the applicability of gaseous Time Projection Chambers (TPCs) with Micromesh Gas Structures (Micromegas) in rare event searches like double beta decay, axion research and low-mass WIMP searches. While in the companion paper we focus on double beta decay, in this paper we focus on the results regarding the search for dark matter candidates, both axions and WIMPs. Small (few cm wide) ultra-low background Micromegas detectors are used to image the axion-induced x-ray signal expected in axion helioscopes like the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) experiment. Background levels as low as 0.8 × 10{sup −6} counts keV{sup −1} cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} have already been achieved in CAST while values down to ∼10{sup −7} counts keV{sup −1} cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} have been obtained in a test bench placed underground in the Laboratorio Subterráneo de Canfranc (LSC). Prospects to consolidate and further reduce these values down to ∼10{sup −8} counts keV{sup −1} cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} will be described. Such detectors, placed at the focal point of x-ray telescopes in the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO), would allow for 10{sup 5} better signal-to-noise ratio than CAST, and search for solar axions with g{sub a}γ down to few 10{sup 12} GeV{sup −1}, well into unexplored axion parameter space. In addition, a scaled-up version of these TPCs, properly shielded and placed underground, can be competitive in the search for low-mass WIMPs. The TREX-DM prototype, with ∼ 0.300 kg of Ar at 10 bar, or alternatively ∼ 0.160 kg of Ne at 10 bar, and energy threshold well below 1 keV, has been built to test this concept. We will describe the main technical solutions developed, as well as the results from the commissioning phase on surface. The anticipated sensitivity of this technique might reach ∼10{sup −44} cm{sup 2} for

  13. The visual pulvinar in tree shrews II. Projections of four nuclei to areas of visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Lyon, David C; Jain, Neeraj; Kaas, Jon H

    2003-12-22

    Patterns of thalamocortical connections were related to architectonically defined subdivisions of the pulvinar complex and the dorsolateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri). Tree shrews are of special interest because they are considered close relatives of primates, and they have a highly developed visual system. Several distinguishable tracers were injected within and across cortical visual areas in individual tree shrews in order to reveal retinotopic patterns and cortical targets of subdivisions of the pulvinar. The results indicate that each of the three architectonic regions of the pulvinar has a distinctive pattern of cortical connections and that one of these divisions is further divided into two regions with different patterns of connections. Two of the pulvinar nuclei have similar retinotopic patterns of projections to caudal visual cortex. The large central nucleus of the pulvinar (Pc) projects to the first and second visual areas, V1 and V2, and an adjoining temporal dorsal area (TD) in retinotopic patterns indicating that the upper visual quadrant is represented dorsal to the lower quadrant in Pc. The smaller ventral nucleus (Pv) which stains darkly for the Cat-301 antigen, projects to these same cortical areas, with a retinotopic pattern. Pv also projects to a temporal anterior area, TA. The dorsal nucleus (Pd), which densely expresses AChE, projects to posterior and ventral areas of temporal extrastriate cortex, areas TP and TPI. A posterior nucleus, Pp, projects to anterior areas TAL and TI, of the temporal lobe, as well as TPI. Injections in different cortical areas as much as 6 mm apart labeled overlapping zones in Pp and double-labeled some cells. These results indicate that the visual pulvinar of tree shrews contains at least four functionally distinct subdivisions, or nuclei. In addition, the cortical injections revealed that the LGN projects topographically and densely to V1 and that a significant number of LGN neurons

  14. Evaluation Report For Institute For Public Libraries In Service To Young Children. Higher Education Title II-B Project, 1971-1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Jeannie; Willis, Bernice

    A three-phase project, funded under the Higher Education Act Title II-B, was initiated in 1971 to investigate and improve public library services to preschool children in North Carolina. The first goal of the project was to locate and describe existing services with a field survey covering 36 counties. Although the survey technique and…

  15. An Analysis of Supported Projects to Test Methods for Increasing the Access of Ethnic Minority Students to Careers in Science and Technology. Volume II, Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Joel B.

    In the first section of Volume II of this report, complete details are given concerning the background, goals, methodology, conclusions, and recommendations of a study evaluating eleven projects dealing with science education for minority students. Section 2 provides full descriptions for each of the eleven projects. Section 3 includes details of…

  16. Fire-on-fire interactions in three large wilderness areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teske, Casey C.

    Current knowledge about wildfire occurrence is not complete. Fire researchers and managers hold the assumption that previous wildfires affect subsequent wildfires; however, research regarding the interactions of large wildfires at their common boundaries is missing from the literature. This research focuses on understanding the influence of previous large wildfires on subsequent large wildfires in three wilderness areas: The Greater Bob Marshall, the Selway-Bitterroot, and the Frank Church. Data from the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) project, which mapped large wildfires in the western United States occurring since 1984, are used for the research. The combination of using wilderness areas and remotely sensed images allows an objective and consistent analysis of fire-on-fire interaction that is extensive in both time and space. Standardized methods for analyzing fire interactions do not currently exist, therefore methods were developed, tested, and refined to describe, quantify, and compare once-burned and re-burned locations within a subset of ten fires in terms of size, location, timing between fires, and severity. These methods were then used to address the question of whether re-burns occur within each of the three wilderness areas. Edge and re-burn characteristics were also derived and quantified. Results were statistically and empirically compared to randomized fire intersections and to published fire history research for each area. Although a low proportion of each study area burns or re-burns, when a new fire encounters a previous fire it re-burns onto the previously burned area approximately 80% of the time. Current large wildfires are behaving in a typical fashion, although on some landscapes the amount of re-burn is not different from what would be expected due to chance. Lastly, the complexity of the post-fire landscape was assessed using texture metrics. Pre-fire and post-fire landscapes were shown to be different, with post-fire landscapes

  17. The ForFire photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyaud, A.; Angelopoulos, A.; Chelmis, C.; Costopoulos, V.; Chica, M.; Giomataris, I.; Gongadze, A.; Herbert, T.; Kantemiris, I.; Kirch, S.; Mols, J. P.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Quinlan, F.

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the ForFire project is the development of an outdoor fire detection system by using an innovative solar blind camera based on the technology of photosensitive gas and solid-state detectors. The development of this new sensor together with an appropriate algorithm for pattern recognition aims to provide a high capability and a high reliability flame-detection system with cost effectiveness, early detection and accurate localization of fire hazards. This is achieved by focusing specifically on the detection of the VUV part (180 nm ≤ λ ≤ 260 nm) of the electromagnetic spectrum emitted by the fire source. The advantage of this approach is that on Earth only fire flames emit in this spectral range thus avoiding potential interferences with other wavelength sources where the Sun is a dominant background.

  18. 33 CFR 149.409 - How many fire extinguishers are needed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... thereof, located near each exit, either inside or outside the space. (3) Paint room B-II One outside each paint room exit. (d) Machinery Spaces: (1) Gas-fired boilers B-II OR C-II Two. (2) Gas-fired boilers B-V One. 1 (3) Oil-fired boilers B-II Two. (4) Oil-fired boilers B-V Two. 1 (5) Internal combustion or gas...

  19. 33 CFR 149.409 - How many fire extinguishers are needed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... thereof, located near each exit, either inside or outside the space. (3) Paint room B-II One outside each paint room exit. (d) Machinery Spaces: (1) Gas-fired boilers B-II OR C-II Two. (2) Gas-fired boilers B-V One. 1 (3) Oil-fired boilers B-II Two. (4) Oil-fired boilers B-V Two. 1 (5) Internal combustion or gas...

  20. General Mathematics II. A CoSer Project of the Cortland-Madison BOCES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiLucci, Jackie; And Others

    This General Mathematics II curriculum reflects the 1980 National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Agenda for Action statement that emphasis in mathematics learning and teaching should be shifted away from isolated computational skills toward problem-solving techniques. The use of calculators and estimation is encouraged. Emphasis both in…

  1. Project Care Phase II: A Case Study in the Evaluation of Communication and Learning Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Frederick; And Others

    Phase II was a field evaluation of a communication and learning system package of films, simulation games, discussion questions, and posters designed to promote career awareness in junior high school children. It was proposed that this evaluation serves as a prototype for the assessment of the effects of learning systems on the affective and…

  2. Applications of Living Fire PRA models to Fire Protection Significance Determination Process in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    De-Cheng, Chen; Chung-Kung, Lo; Tsu-Jen, Lin; Ching-Hui, Wu; Lin, James C.

    2004-07-01

    The living fire probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) models for all three operating nuclear power plants (NPPs) in Taiwan had been established in December 2000. In that study, a scenario-based PRA approach was adopted to systematically evaluate the fire and smoke hazards and associated risks. Using these fire PRA models developed, a risk-informed application project had also been completed in December 2002 for the evaluation of cable-tray fire-barrier wrapping exemption. This paper presents a new application of the fire PRA models to fire protection issues using the fire protection significance determination process (FP SDP). The fire protection issues studied may involve the selection of appropriate compensatory measures during the period when an automatic fire detection or suppression system in a safety-related fire zone becomes inoperable. The compensatory measure can either be a 24-hour fire watch or an hourly fire patrol. The living fire PRA models were used to estimate the increase in risk associated with the fire protection issue in terms of changes in core damage frequency (CDF) and large early release frequency (LERF). In compliance with SDP at-power and the acceptance guidelines specified in RG 1.174, the fire protection issues in question can be grouped into four categories; red, yellow, white and green, in accordance with the guidelines developed for FD SDP. A 24-hour fire watch is suggested only required for the yellow condition, while an hourly fire patrol may be adopted for the white condition. More limiting requirement is suggested for the red condition, but no special consideration is needed for the green condition. For the calculation of risk measures, risk impacts from any additional fire scenarios that may have been introduced, as well as more severe initiating events and fire damages that may accompany the fire protection issue should be considered carefully. Examples are presented in this paper to illustrate the evaluation process. (authors)

  3. The FERRUM Project: Experimental Transition Probabilities of [Fe II] and Astrophysical Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, H.; Derkatch, A.; Donnelly, M. P.; Gull, T.; Hibbert, A.; Johannsson, S.; Lundberg, H.; Mannervik, S.; Norlin, L. -O.; Rostohar, D.

    2002-01-01

    We report on experimental transition probabilities for thirteen forbidden [Fe II] lines originating from three different metastable Fe II levels. Radiative lifetimes have been measured of two metastable states by applying a laser probing technique on a stored ion beam. Branching ratios for the radiative decay channels, i.e. M1 and E2 transitions, are derived from observed intensity ratios of forbidden lines in astrophysical spectra and compared with theoretical data. The lifetimes and branching ratios are combined to derive absolute transition probabilities, A-values. We present the first experimental lifetime values for the two Fe II levels a(sup 4)G(sub 9/2) and b(sup 2)H(sub 11/2) and A-values for 13 forbidden transitions from a(sup 6)S(sub 5/2), a(sup 4)G(sub 9/2) and b(sup 4)D(sub 7/2) in the optical region. A discrepancy between the measured and calculated values of the lifetime for the b(sup 2)H(sub 11/2) level is discussed in terms of level mixing. We have used the code CIV3 to calculate transition probabilities of the a(sup 6)D-a(sup 6)S transitions. We have also studied observational branching ratios for lines from 5 other metastable Fe II levels and compared them to calculated values. A consistency in the deviation between calibrated observational intensity ratios and theoretical branching ratios for lines in a wider wavelength region supports the use of [Fe II] lines for determination of reddening.

  4. California Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... title:  Smoke from Station Fire Blankets Southern California     View Larger Image ... that had not burned in decades, and years of extended drought contributed to the explosive growth of wildfires throughout southern ...

  5. Historical and current forest landscapes in eastern Oregon and Washington Part II: Linking vegetation characteristics to potential fire behavior and related smoke production.

    Treesearch

    Mark H. Huff; Roger D. Ottmar; Ernesto Alvarado; Robert E. Vihnanek; John F. Lehmkuhl; Paul F. Hessburg; Richard L. Everett

    1995-01-01

    We compared the potential fire behavior and smoke production of historical and current time periods based on vegetative conditions in forty-nine 5100- to 13 5OO-hectare watersheds in six river basins in eastern Oregon and Washington. Vegetation composition, structure, and patterns were attributed and mapped from aerial photographs taken from 1932 to 1959 (historical)...

  6. RETROFIT COSTS FOR SO2 AND NOX CONTROL OPTIONS AT 200 COAL-FIRED PLANTS, VOLUME II - SITE SPECIFIC STUDIES FOR AL, DE. FL, GA, IL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study, the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 and NOx controls at 200 large SO2-emitting coal-fired utility plants. To accomplish the object...

  7. Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems, Phase II and Phase III. Quarter progress report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    Work is presented on the development of a coal-fired high performance power generation system by the year 2000. This report describes the design of the air heater, duct heater, system controls, slag viscosity, and design of a quench zone.

  8. RETROFIT COSTS FOR SO2 AND NOX CONTROL OPTIONS AT 200 COAL-FIRED PLANTS, VOLUME II - SITE SPECIFIC STUDIES FOR AL, DE. FL, GA, IL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study, the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 and NOx controls at 200 large SO2-emitting coal-fired utility plants. To accomplish the object...

  9. Ultrastructural Analysis of Projections to the Pulvinar Nucleus of the Cat. II: Pretectum

    PubMed Central

    BALDAUF, ZSOLT B.; WANG, SITING; CHOMSUNG, RANIDA D.; MAY, PAUL J.; BICKFORD, MARTHA E.

    2008-01-01

    The pretectum (PT) can supply the pulvinar nucleus (PUL), and concomitantly the cortex, with visual motion information through its dense projections to the PUL. We examined the morphology and synaptic targets of pretecto-pulvinar (PT-PUL) terminals labeled by anterograde transport in the cat. By using postembedding immunocytochemical staining for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), we additionally determined whether PT-PUL terminals or their postsynaptic targets were GABAergic. We found that the main projection from the PT to the PUL is an ipsilateral, non-GABAergic projection (72.4%) that primarily contacts thalamocortical cell dendrites (87.6%), and also the dendritic terminals of interneurons (F2 profiles; 12.4%). The PT additionally provides GABAergic innervation to the PUL (27.6% of the ipsilateral projection), which chiefly contacts relay cell dendrites (84.6%) but also GABAergic profiles (15.4%). These GABAergic pretectal terminals are smaller, beaded fibers that likely branch to bilaterally innervate the PUL and dLGN, and possibly other targets. We also examined the neurochemical nature of PT-PUL cells labeled by retrograde transport and found that most are non-GABAergic cells (79%) and devoid of calbindin. Taking existing physiological and our present morphological data into account, we suggest that, in addition to the parietal cortex, the non-GABAergic PT-PUL projection may also strongly influence PUL activity. The GABAergic pretectal fibers, however, may provide a more widespread influence on thalamic activity. PMID:15776450

  10. The area acustico-vestibularis of Discoglossus pictus. II. The primary afferent projections.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, A; Muñoz, M

    1988-01-01

    In the present report the primary projections to the dorsal rhombencephalic alar plate (area acustico-vestibularis, AAV) of the adult anuran amphibian Discoglossus pictus have been studied by means of the anterograde transport of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). As in Alytes cisternasii, other member of the family Discoglossidae, no primary afferent fibers to the AAV were found from nerves other than the VIIIth cranial nerve. No remanent of the lateral line system in the adult stage is present. The projections of the dorsal root of nerve VIIIth distribute over the dorsal nucleus and rostrally reach the aspect of the cerebellum. Caudally projects to the large cells of the ventral nucleus and terminate caudally, in the dorsolateral neuropil, at levels coincident with the IX motor nucleus. The projection of the ventral root also reaches the cerebellum in its lateral aspect but also fibers to the nucleus cerebelli were observed. The extensive projection to the ventral nucleus is also continued caudally to the caudal nucleus and ends around the solitary tract. Main terminal fields were located in two neuropils, one subventricular and other in an intermediate position. In addition, from both nerve branches, fibers leave the AAV and reach the reticular formation. Particularly, fibers from the posterior branch enter the superior olivary nucleus. Retrograde labeled neurons in the vicinity of the VII motor nucleus are interpreted as efferent cells to the labyrinth.

  11. Antennular projections to the midbrain of the spiny lobster. II. Sensory innervation of the olfactory lobe.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, M; Ache, B W

    1992-04-15

    The projection pattern of antennular sensory afferents in the olfactory lobe (OL) of the spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, was examined by backfilling axons in the antennular nerve (AN) with biocytin. Thin, presumptive olfactory afferents from the lateral division of the AN form a tract in the brain that diverges into a dense plexus that completely envelops the glomerular cortex of the OL. Most of the thin (diameter less than or equal to 0.3-1 microns) afferents project to single glomeruli. About 10% of the thin afferents, however, branch in the plexus and project to multiple glomeruli. A smaller number of medium-sized to thick (diameter 2-10 microns), presumably mechanosensory, afferents also innervate the OL and co-project to multiple glomeruli with the thin afferents. Afferents arborize profusely within the columnar glomeruli into very fine processes that penetrate to the base of the columns, but selectively terminate in either the cap/subcap region or in the innermost part of the base of the columns, often with conspicuous terminal boutons, forming two distinct regions of presumptive synaptic output. These results suggest that 1) The majority of the OL innervation is provided by olfactory sensilla (aesthetascs), but that other types of sensilla provide additional, likely mechanosensory, input to the OL. 2) The projection of olfactory afferents is not strictly uniglomerular. 3) The columnar organization of crustacean olfactory glomeruli is functionally significant and may provide an evolutionary correlate of the recently proposed subdivision of the vertebrate olfactory bulb into "functional columns."

  12. Fire clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    Five companies mined fire clay in four states in 2011. Production, based on a preliminary survey of the fire clay industry, was estimated to be 240 kt (265,000 st), valued at $7.68 million, an increase from 216 kt (238,000 st), valued at $6.12 million in 2010. Missouri was the leading producing state, followed by Texas, Washington and Ohio, in decreasing order by quantity.

  13. Environmental mitigation at hydroelectric projects: Volume II. Benefits and costs of fish passage and protection

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J. E.; Cada, G. F.; Dauble, D. D.; Hunt, R. T.; Jones, D. W.; Rinehart, B. N.; Sommers, G. L.; Costello, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy, through its hydropower program, is studying environmental mitigation practices at hydroelectric projects. The study of environmental mitigation is intended to provide greater understanding of environmental problems and solutions that are associated with conventional hydroelectric projects. This volume examines upstream and downstream fish passage/protection technologies and the associated practices, benefits, and costs. Fish passage/protection mitigation technologies are investigated by three methods: (a) national, regional (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission regions), and temporal frequencies of fish passage/protection mitigation are examined at 1,825 operating and conventional (excludes pumped storage) Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) regulated hydroelectric sites in the United States; (b) general fish passage/protection mitigation costs are discussed for 50 FERC regulated hydroelectric projects; and (c) 16 case studies are used to examine specific fish passage/protection mitigation practices, benefits, and costs.

  14. Imprints of local lightcone \\ projection effects on the galaxy bispectrum. Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolicoeur, Sheean; Umeh, Obinna; Maartens, Roy; Clarkson, Chris

    2017-09-01

    General relativistic imprints on the galaxy bispectrum arise from observational (or projection) effects. The lightcone projection effects include local contributions from Doppler and gravitational potential terms, as well as lensing and other integrated contributions. We recently presented for the first time, the correction to the galaxy bispectrum from all local lightcone projection effects up to second order in perturbations. Here we provide the details underlying this correction, together with further results and illustrations. For moderately squeezed shapes, the correction to the Newtonian prediction is ~ 30% on equality scales at z~ 1. We generalise our recent results to include the contribution, up to second order, of magnification bias (which affects some of the local terms) and evolution bias.

  15. Air quality impact of the coal-fired power plants in the northern passageway of the China West-East Power Transmission Project.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhigang; Hao, Jiming; Chai, Fahe; Duan, Ning; Chen, Yizhen; Li, Jindan; Chen, Fu; Liu, Simei; Pu, Wenqing

    2005-12-01

    This paper analyzes the air quality impacts of coal-fired power plants in the northern passageway of the West-East Power Transmission Project in China. A three-layer Lagrangian model called ATMOS, was used to simulate the spatial distribution of incremental sulfur dioxide (SO2) and coarse particulate matter (PM10) concentrations under different emission control scenarios. In the year 2005, the emissions from planned power plants mainly affected the air quality of Shanxi, Shaanxi, the common boundary of Inner Mongolia and Shanxi, and the area around the boundary between Inner Mongolia and Ningxia. In these areas, the annually averaged incremental SO2 and PM10 concentrations exceed 2 and 2.5 microg/m3, respectively. The maximum increases of the annually averaged SO2 and PM10 concentrations are 8.3 and 7.2 microg/m3, respectively, which occur around Hancheng city, near the boundary of the Shaanxi and Shanxi provinces. After integrated control measures are considered, the maximum increases of annually averaged SO2 and PM10 concentrations fall to 4.9 and 4 microg/m3, respectively. In the year 2010, the areas affected by planned power plants are mainly North Shaanxi, North Ningxia, and Northwest Shanxi. The maximum increases of the annually averaged SO2 and PM10, concentrations are, respectively, 6.3 and 5.6 microg/m3, occurring in Northwest Shanxi, which decline to 4.4 and 4.1 microg/m3 after the control measures are implemented. The results showed that the proposed power plants mainly affect the air quality of the region where the power plants are built, with little impact on East China where the electricity will be used. The influences of planned power plants on air quality will be decreased greatly by implementing integrated control measures.

  16. Chemical research projects office functions accomplishments programs. [applied research in the fields of polymer chemistry and polymeric composites with emphasis on fire safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heimbuch, A. H.; Parker, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    Basic and applied research in the fields of polymer chemistry, polymeric composites, chemical engineering, and biophysical chemistry is summarized. Emphasis is placed on fire safety and human survivability as they relate to commercial and military aircraft, high-rise buildings, mines and rapid transit transportation. Materials systems and other fire control systems developed for aerospace applications and applied to national domestic needs are described along with bench-scale and full-scale tests conducted to demonstrate the improvements in performance obtained through the utilization of these materials and fire control measures.

  17. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2002-07-30

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 30 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy.

  18. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2002-10-29

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 30 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy.

  19. Phase II Calderon Process to Produce Direct Reduced Iron Research and Development Project

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2003-06-30

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 42 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy.

  20. Monterey Peninsula Water Supply Project. Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Report/Statement II. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-01

    Project alternative. Review Period: This Draft EIR/EIS will now undergo a public review period that lasts for 45 days following the notice of this document...facilities or programs will be subject to the formal environmental review process when they are proposed by Cal-Am at some future point in time. I U I...S-1 S.1 Introduction S-I S.2 Environmental Review S-1 S.3 Purpose and Need for a Water Supply Project S-3 S.4 Water Supply Alternatives S-4 S.5

  1. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2003-04-28

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 30 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy.

  2. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2003-01-28

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 30 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy.

  3. The AquaDEB project: Physiological flexibility of aquatic animals analysed with a generic dynamic energy budget model (phase II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alunno-Bruscia, Marianne; van der Veer, Henk W.; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.

    2011-11-01

    This second special issue of the Journal of Sea Research on development and applications of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory concludes the European Research Project AquaDEB (2007-2011). In this introductory paper we summarise the progress made during the running time of this 5 years' project, present context for the papers in this volume and discuss future directions. The main scientific objectives in AquaDEB were (i) to study and compare the sensitivity of aquatic species (mainly molluscs and fish) to environmental variability within the context of DEB theory for metabolic organisation, and (ii) to evaluate the inter-relationships between different biological levels (individual, population, ecosystem) and temporal scales (life cycle, population dynamics, evolution). AquaDEB phase I focussed on quantifying bio-energetic processes of various aquatic species ( e.g. molluscs, fish, crustaceans, algae) and phase II on: (i) comparing of energetic and physiological strategies among species through the DEB parameter values and identifying the factors responsible for any differences in bioenergetics and physiology; (ii) considering different scenarios of environmental disruption (excess of nutrients, diffuse or massive pollution, exploitation by man, climate change) to forecast effects on growth, reproduction and survival of key species; (iii) scaling up the models for a few species from the individual level up to the level of evolutionary processes. Apart from the three special issues in the Journal of Sea Research — including the DEBIB collaboration (see vol. 65 issue 2), a theme issue on DEB theory appeared in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B (vol 365, 2010); a large number of publications were produced; the third edition of the DEB book appeared (2010); open-source software was substantially expanded (over 1000 functions); a large open-source systematic collection of ecophysiological data and DEB parameters has been set up; and a series of DEB

  4. Climate data system supports FIRE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Lola M.; Iascone, Dominick; Reph, Mary G.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Climate Data System (NCDS) at Goddard Space Flight Center is serving as the FIRE Central Archive, providing a centralized data holding and data cataloging service for the FIRE project. NCDS members are carrying out their responsibilities by holding all reduced observations and data analysis products submitted by individual principal investigators in the agreed upon format, by holding all satellite data sets required for FIRE, by providing copies of any of these data sets to FIRE investigators, and by producing and updating a catalog with information about the FIRE holdings. FIRE researchers were requested to provide their reduced data sets in the Standard Data Format (SDF) to the FIRE Central Archive. This standard format is proving to be of value. An improved SDF document is now available. The document provides an example from an actual FIRE SDF data set and clearly states the guidelines for formatting data in SDF. NCDS has received SDF tapes from a number of investigators. These tapes were analyzed and comments provided to the producers. One product which is now available is William J. Syrett's sodar data product from the Stratocumulus Intensive Field Observation. Sample plots from all SDF tapes submitted to the archive will be available to FSET members. Related cloud products are also available through NCDS. Entries describing the FIRE data sets are being provided for the NCDS on-line catalog. Detailed information for the Extended Time Observations is available in the general FIRE catalog entry. Separate catalog entries are being written for the Cirrus Intensive Field Observation (IFO) and for the Marine Stratocumulus IFO. Short descriptions of each FIRE data set will be installed into the NCDS Summary Catalog.

  5. Committee Report of the BEPC-II Project Design Review May 13-15, 2002, SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Kawakami, Traci M.

    2002-08-26

    As part of the US-China Cooperative Program in High Energy Physics for the year 2002, a BEPC-II Upgrade Review meeting was held at SLAC, May 13-15, 2002. The upgrade is aimed at improving the luminosity and performance of the BEPC facility at IHEP in Beijing, China with major upgrades to the injector linac, storage ring, and detector. This review addresses mainly the accelerator related issues. Prior to the review, an updated Draft Design Report was made available to the review team. Most important technical change since April 2001 has been a change from a single-ring configuration to a doublering. The goal of the review is to determine whether BEPC-II, if built as described, will meet the operations and physics goals. The charge to the review team is attached as Appendix A.

  6. ESA fire_cci product assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heil, Angelika; Yue, Chao; Mouillot, Florent; Storm, Thomas; Chuvieco, Emilio; Ramo Sanchez, Ruben; Kaiser, Johannes W.

    2017-04-01

    Vegetation fires are a major disturbance in the Earth System. Fires change the biophysical properties and dynamics of ecosystems and alter terrestrial carbon pools. By altering the atmosphere's composition, fire emissions exert a significant climate forcing. To realistically model past and future changes of the Earth System, fire disturbances must be taken into account. Related modelling efforts require consistent global burned area observations covering at least 10 to 20 years. Guided by the specific requirements of a wide range of end users, the ESA fire_cci project has computed a new global burned area dataset. It applies a newly developed spectral change detection algorithm upon the ENVISAT-MERIS archive. The algorithm relies on MODIS active fire information as "seed". It comprises a pixel burned area product (spatial resolution of 333 m) with date detection information and a biweekly grid product at 0.25 degree spatial resolution. We compare fire_cci burned area with other global burned area products (MCD64 Collection 6, MCD45, GFED4, GFED4s and GEOLAND) and a set of active fires data (hotspots from MODIS, TRMM, AATSR and fire radiative power from GFAS). The analysis of patterns of agreement and disagreement between fire_cci and other products provides a better understanding of product characteristics and uncertainties. The intercomparison of the 2005-2011 fire_cci time series shows a close agreement with GFED4 data in terms of global burned area and the general spatial and temporal patterns. Pronounced differences, however, emerge for specific regions or fire events. Burned area mapped by fire_cci tends to be notably higher in regions where small agricultural fires predominate. The improved detection of small agricultural fires by fire_cci can be related to the increased spatial resolution of the MERIS sensor (333 m compared to 500 in MODIS). This is illustrated in detail using the example of the extreme 2006 spring fires in Eastern Europe.

  7. LIFAC Demonstration at Richmond Power and Light Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2 Volume II: Project Performance and Economics

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1998-04-01

    The C1ean Coal Technology (CCT) Program has been recognized in the National Energy Strategy as a major initiative whereby coal will be able to reach its full potential as a source of energy for the nation and the international marketplace. Attainment of this goal depends upon the development of highly efficient, environmentally sound, competitive coal utilization technologies responsive to diverse energy markets and varied consumer needs. The CCT Program is an effort jointly funded by government and industry whereby the most promising of the advanced coal-based technologies are being moved into the marketplace through demonstration. The CCT Program is being implemented through a total of five competitive solicitations. LIFAC North America, a joint venture partnership of ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., and Tampella Power Corporation, is currently demonstrating the LIFAC flue gas desulfurization technology developed by Tampella Power. This technology provides sulfur dioxide emission control for power plants, especially existing facilities with tight space limitations. Sulfur dioxide emissions are expected to be reduced by up to 85% by using limestone as a sorbent. The LIFAC technology is being demonstrated at Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2, a 60-MW coal-fired power plant owned and operated by Richmond Power and Light (RP&L) and located in Richmond, Indiana. The Whitewater plant consumes high-sulfur coals, with sulfur contents ranging from 2.0-2.9 $ZO. The project, co-funded by LIFAC North America and DOE, is being conducted with the participation of Richmond Power and Light, the State of Indiana, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Black Beauty Coal Company. The project has a total cost of $21.4 million and a duration of 48 months from the preliminary design phase through the testing program.

  8. BehavePlus fire modeling system, version 5.0: Design and Features

    Treesearch

    Faith Ann Heinsch; Patricia L. Andrews

    2010-01-01

    The BehavePlus fire modeling system is a computer program that is based on mathematical models that describe wildland fire behavior and effects and the fire environment. It is a flexible system that produces tables, graphs, and simple diagrams. It can be used for a host of fire management applications, including projecting the behavior of an ongoing fire, planning...

  9. Forest Fire Advanced System Technology (FFAST): A Conceptual Design for Detection and Mapping

    Treesearch

    J. David Nichols; John R. Warren

    1987-01-01

    The Forest Fire Advanced System Technology (FFAST) project is developing a data system to provide near-real-time forest fire information to fire management at the fire Incident Command Post (ICP). The completed conceptual design defined an integrated forest fire detection and mapping system that is based upon technology available in the 1990's. System component...

  10. BehavePlus fire modeling system, version 4.0: User's Guide

    Treesearch

    Patricia L. Andrews; Collin D. Bevins; Robert C. Seli

    2005-01-01

    The BehavePlus fire modeling system is a program for personal computers that is a collection of mathematical models that describe fire and the fire environment. It is a flexible system that produces tables, graphs, and simple diagrams. It can be used for a multitude of fire management applications including projecting the behavior of an ongoing fire, planning...

  11. The Midwest. Grade Five (Unit II). Resource Unit. Project Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    Unit II of regional studies for grade five is arranged into three sub-units which comprise two case studies and look at the Midwest region as a whole. The objective of the case studies is to illustrate factors which bring about changing use of the land. Sub-unit one, a case study on Twin Cities, traces the cities' development from the days when…

  12. Fires in Idaho and Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    2000 continues to be the worst fire season in the United States in decades. By August 8, 2000, fires in Montana and Idaho had burned more than 250,000 acres. Resources were stretched so thin that Army and Marine soldiers were recruited to help fight the fires. President Clinton visited Payette National Forest to lend moral support to the firefighters. Dense smoke from Idaho and western Montana is visible stretching all the way to North and South Dakota in this image from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS). The image was taken on August 7, 2000. Although the primary mission of SeaWiFS is to measure the biology of the ocean, it also provides stunning color imagery of the Earth's surface. For more information about fires in the U.S., visit the National Interagency Fire Center. To learn more about using satellites to monitor fires, visit Global Fire Monitoring and New Technology for Monitoring Fires from Space in the Earth Observatory. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  13. Fires in Idaho and Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    2000 continues to be the worst fire season in the United States in decades. By August 8, 2000, fires in Montana and Idaho had burned more than 250,000 acres. Resources were stretched so thin that Army and Marine soldiers were recruited to help fight the fires. President Clinton visited Payette National Forest to lend moral support to the firefighters. Dense smoke from Idaho and western Montana is visible stretching all the way to North and South Dakota in this image from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS). The image was taken on August 7, 2000. Although the primary mission of SeaWiFS is to measure the biology of the ocean, it also provides stunning color imagery of the Earth's surface. For more information about fires in the U.S., visit the National Interagency Fire Center. To learn more about using satellites to monitor fires, visit Global Fire Monitoring and New Technology for Monitoring Fires from Space in the Earth Observatory. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  14. Technical Design Report for the FACET-II Project at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2016-08-26

    Electrons can “surf” on waves of plasma – a hot gas of charged particles – gaining very high energies in very short distances. This approach, called plasma wakefield acceleration, has the potential to dramatically shrink the size and cost of particle accelerators. Research at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has demonstrated that plasmas can provide 1,000 times the acceleration in a given distance compared with current technologies. Developing revolutionary and more efficient acceleration techniques that allow for an affordable high-energy collider has been the focus of FACET, a National User Facility at SLAC. FACET used part of SLAC’s two-mile-long linear accelerator to generate high-density beams of electrons and their antimatter counterparts, positrons. Research into plasma wakefield acceleration was the primary motivation for constructing FACET. In April 2016, FACET operations came to an end to make way for the second phase of SLAC’s x-ray laser, the LCLS-II, which will use part of the tunnel occupied by FACET. FACET-II is a new test facility to provide the unique capability to develop advanced acceleration and coherent radiation techniques with high-energy electron and positron beams. FACET-II represents a major upgrade over current FACET capabilities and the breadth of the potential research program makes it truly unique.

  15. Tidal Wave II: An Evaluation of Enrollment Projections for California Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breneman, David W.; And Others

    In light of various signs indicating significant enrollment growth in California higher education, this study reviewed nine available projections of undergraduate enrollment for California public higher education. The study reviewed enrollment forecasts from the California Department of Finance, the California Postsecondary Education Commission,…

  16. Algebra II California Content Standards: Standards Deconstruction Project. Version 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boswell, Bonnie; Capacia, Nemie; Dreher, Dolores; Hartman, Jim; Hovde, Peg; Orr, Michael; Parvini, Shahrokh; Preibisius, Eric; Samuelson, Kindra; Schwenker, Trysta; Thomson, Sarah; Vargas, Mailei

    2008-01-01

    This project was coordinated and funded by the California Partnership for Achieving Student Success (Cal-PASS) and Girard Foundation. Cal-PASS is a data sharing system linking all segments of education. Its purpose is to improve student transition and success from one educational segment to the next. The original version, Version 1.0, of this…

  17. Clean Coal II: PFBC Utility Demonstration Project. Annual report, [January 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This is the second Annual Report submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE) in connection with the Cooperative Agreement between the DOE and the Appalachian Power Company (APCO) for the Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) Utility Demonstration Project. The report covers the period January 1, 1992 to December 31, 1992; during which time, Task 1.1.3 (Value Engineering) was started. Task 1.1.3 as well as continuation of Task 1.1.2 (Project Support) are associated with Budget Period 2 (BP2) of the Cooperative Agreement. BP2 tasks, which extend from January 1992 to January 1996, are aimed at reducing the technical and economic risks of a large commercial PFBC plant. This objective is being met by performing value engineering activities and testing various systems, including a sorbent fines admission system. Installation of this system (at the Tidd PFBC Demonstration Plant) started in December 1992. The sorbent system being installed is for the purpose of a process verification. Hardware costs specific to verification activities are being funded under the PFBC Utility Demonstration Project Cooperative Agreement. Test data is dependent upon operation of the Tidd facility. The present PFBC program identifies the year 2004 for completion of the project at an as-spent total shared cost of approximately $918 million.

  18. Evaluation of the 1982-83 ECIA, Chapter II School Alternative Vocational Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL. Office of Educational Accountability.

    The School Alternative Vocational Education (SAVE) project is directed at unsuccessful, but not disruptive, students who have sufficient cognitive ability to complete the school program. The program attempts to stimulate a level of motivation sufficient to produce positive behavior while increasing the students' degree of basic skills attainment.…

  19. Wisconsin K-12. Career Education Consortium. Final Project Performance Report. Volume II of Two Volumes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    This report contains accounts from seven Wisconsin school districts which participated in an incremental improvement project to demonstrate career education methods and procedures. The consortium district reports are from Eau Claire, Kimberly, Madison, Oregon, Shawano, Sheboygan, and Watertown. All presentations follow the same format: (1) major…

  20. An Educational Component Incorporated into a Residential Drug Rehabilitation Program. Phase II: Report of Pilot Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgenstein, Melvin; Strongin, Harriet

    This report describes and discusses the findings of a project which involved ex-drug addicts in a multi-faceted educational program, the components of which included: (1) college education; (2) high school equivalency diploma study classes; (3) noncollegiate courses in vocational and technical skills; (4) orientation of residents and teachers; and…

  1. Equilibrium II: Acids and Bases. Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). Unit P3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inner London Education Authority (England).

    This unit on equilibrium is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit, which consists of two levels, focuses on the application of equilibrium principles to equilibria involving weak acids and bases, including buffer solutions and indicators. Level one uses Le Chatelier's…

  2. Toddler Research and Intervention Project Report-Year II. IMRID Behavioral Science Monograph No. 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricker, Diane; Bricker, William

    The report summarizes the second year of the Toddler Research and Intervention Project, which uses experimental research to devise and evaluate educational intervention techniques with approximately 28 normal or developmentally delayed children 1- to 4-years-old and their families. Described are researchers/teachers relationships, behavioral…

  3. Design of Training Systems (DOTS) Project: Test and Evaluation of Phase II Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-04-01

    used for DOTS. The minimum requirements (i. e., keyboards/printers) would suffice in many cases. CRTS and other more sophis - ticated peripherals would...communication on this project is desired. Please feel free to address any question germaine to DOTS to the undersigned. Sin erely, Hi. S*HEYE F-3

  4. Evaluation of the 1983-84 ECIA, Chapter II Program Development for the Artistically Talented Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldinher, Martin R.

    The Program Development for Artistically Talented Project (ATP) in the Dade County Schools, Florida, funded by the Education Consolidation Improvement Act, Chapter 2, was designed to provide technical support to the locally funded program for artistically talented elementary students through: (1) the development of a curriculum/program guide; and…

  5. Law-Related Education Evaluation Project, Final Report. Phase II, Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Science Education Consortium, Inc., Boulder, CO.

    Results of a 3rd-year evaluation of a national law-related education effort (LRE) are presented. Attention is centered on the activities of three curriculum projects--the Constitutional Rights Foundation, the National Institute for Citizen's Education and Law, and Law in a Free Society--which were implemented in California, Michigan, and North…

  6. Project TALENT: Five Years after High School and Appendix II. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, John C.; And Others

    Project TALENT is a nationwide, long term educational research study, both cross-sectional and longitudinal in its methodology and implications. Its main goal is to understand the nature and development of the talents of the nation's adolescents. More specifically, the goals are: (1) to obtain a national inventory of human resources; (2) to…

  7. Reports from the Fund Projects/Women II, 1976-78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Alison; And Others

    Trends in projects to improve women's education submitted to and supported by the Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (Fund) from 1976-78 are analyzed, and comparisons with experiences by the Fund from 1973-75 are made. The majority of Fund grants remain geared to serving adult women students, enhancing the career aspirations of…

  8. State Leadership Assistance for Technology in Education (Project SLATE). Final Report. Volume I and Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Blair; And Others

    Project SLATE (State Leadership Assistance for Technology in Education) was designed to assist state-level policy makers plan effective uses of emerging electronic learning technology in education within their respective states. In addition to providing custom-designed workshops in 20 states focusing upon state-level priority issues and needs for…

  9. Expanding Role Options through Vocational Education. Phase II of the North Dakota Pioneers in Equality Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota State Board for Vocational Education, Bismarck.

    Developed during the course of the North Dakota Pioneers in Equality Project and originally used in a series of regional workshops for vocational teachers and school administrators, this handbook deals with ways in which vocational educators can help to eliminate sex role and occupational stereotyping. It consists of a series of 11 chapters…

  10. The Republican Age, 1760's-1820's. Grade Ten. Resource Unit II. Project Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    The resource unit, developed by the University of Minnesota's Project Social Studies, is the second in a series of six units on continuity and change in American civilization. The unit deals with 18th century principles and their effects upon Americans. Key attention is given to the political system, development of the executive and, in…

  11. Law-Related Education Evaluation Project, Final Report. Phase II, Year 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Mary Jane; And Others

    The impact of six elementary and secondary law related education (LRE) projects on students' knowledge, attitudes, and behavior is examined. Other effects of LRE examined included possible effects on student skills, classroom attendance, discipline, relations with students, school-community interaction, and treatment of youthful offenders by…

  12. National Program for Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings. Project Data Summaries. Vol. II: Demonstration Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    Brief abstracts of projects funded by the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and conducted under the National Program for Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings are presented in three volumes. This, the second volume, identifies the major efforts currently underway in support of the national program. The National Aeronautics and…

  13. COMMUNITY COLLEGE HEALTH CAREERS PROJECT PHASE II--TEACHER PREPARATION. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RATNER, MURIEL

    THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK AT BUFFALO AND CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK COOPERATED WITH THE COMMUNITY COLLEGE HEALTH CAREERS PROJECT BY ESTABLISHING PROGRAMS TO PREPARE PRACTITIONERS TO TEACH IN COMMUNITY COLLEGE PROGRAMS IN (1) OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY ASSISTING, (2) DENTAL ASSISTING, (3) OPHTHALMIC DISPENSING, AND (4) MEDICAL RECORD,…

  14. Professional Teacher Education II; A Programed Design Developed by the AACTE Teacher Education and Media Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, Washington, DC.

    The American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education (AACTE) Media Project was developed to determine whether (1) the gap between the producer and the user of educational innovations could be bridged; (2) a meaningful way to present the results of educational research to the user could be designed; and (3) the integrated and functional use…

  15. The Clipper II Project: A Web-Based Curriculum Research and Development Initiative. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, M. J.; White, Sally A.

    2005-01-01

    Lehigh University's Clipper Project collected data on the short- and long-term effects of offering five Web-based, college-level introductory courses to early-decision, non-matriculated high school seniors for 1) the students who participated; 2) the faculty who developed the courses and taught them online; and 3) the institution that offered…

  16. Energy Conservation Field Projects. Phase 2: External Evaluation. Document II: Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley Associates, Edmonton (Alberta).

    Provided are appendices which contain supporting documentation related to an external evaluation of the Phase 2: Energy Conservation Field Projects. Objectives of this program were to: test the generalizability of the energy conservations measures outlined in "Guidelines for Conserving Energy in Alberta Schools" and augment these…

  17. A Climate for Learning Science. Concept Paper. SEL (The Skills Essential to Learning Project) Phase II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Lazer

    Commissioned for use during the design phase of the "Skills Essential to Learning" (SEL) video project, this concept paper makes a number of suggestions for facilitating effective scientific learning. These include: (1) establishing a positive climate for science learning in which the student can ask and pursue questions, change routes,…

  18. Energy Conservation Field Projects. Phase 2: External Evaluation. Document II: Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley Associates, Edmonton (Alberta).

    Provided are appendices which contain supporting documentation related to an external evaluation of the Phase 2: Energy Conservation Field Projects. Objectives of this program were to: test the generalizability of the energy conservations measures outlined in "Guidelines for Conserving Energy in Alberta Schools" and augment these…

  19. National Program for Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings. Project Data Summaries. Vol. II: Demonstration Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    Brief abstracts of projects funded by the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and conducted under the National Program for Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings are presented in three volumes. This, the second volume, identifies the major efforts currently underway in support of the national program. The National Aeronautics and…

  20. Equilibrium II: Acids and Bases. Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). Unit P3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inner London Education Authority (England).

    This unit on equilibrium is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit, which consists of two levels, focuses on the application of equilibrium principles to equilibria involving weak acids and bases, including buffer solutions and indicators. Level one uses Le Chatelier's…

  1. KHAN DU! II. Final Project Performance Report, November 1, 1978-September 30, 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KLRN/KLRU-TV, Austin, TX.

    This KHAN DU! project produced four half-hour television programs in the area of career education with emphasis on the handicapped, plus an extra nonbroadcast program designed for teachers. The four-program series was designed for children aged eight to eleven, although older children have responded favorably. The goals of the series were (1) to…

  2. Spatio-temporal evolution of forest fires in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonini, Marj; Pereira, Mário G.; Parente, Joana

    2017-04-01

    southern areas spread hot-spot are spatially randomly distributed and temporally more concentrated in the frame 2000 - 2004. To conclude, this study let us to identify a multitude of clustering space-time features of forest fires in Portugal, which can be useful for a better planning of educational activities and prevention campaigns as well as for a better allocation of monitoring systems and firefighting. References: Tonini M., Pereira M. G., Parente J. (2016) - Evolution of forest fires in Portugal: from spatio-temporal point events to smoothed density maps. Natural Hazard, doi:10.1007/s11069-016-2637-x Lu B., Harris P., Charlton M., Brunsdon C. (2014) - The GWmodel R package: further topics for exploring spatial heterogeneity using geographically weighted models. Geo-spatial Information Science, Vol. 17: 85-101 Rowlingson B., Diggle P., Bivand M.R. (2012) - Splancs: spatial point pattern analysis code in S-Plus. Computers and Geosciences, Vol. 19: 627-655 Acknowledgements: This work was supported by: (i) the FIREXTR project, PTDC/ATP¬GEO/0462/2014; (ii) the project Interact - Integrative Research in Environment,Agro-Chain and Technology, NORTE-01-0145-FEDER-000017, research line BEST, cofinanced by FEDER/NORTE 2020; and, (iii) European Investment Funds by FEDER/COMPETE/POCI-Operacional Competitiveness and Internacionalization Programme, under Project POCI-01-0145-FEDER-006958 and National Funds by FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology, under the project UID/AGR/04033. We are especially grateful to ICNF for providing the fire.

  3. NATURAL GAS HYDRATES STORAGE PROJECT PHASE II. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND ECONOMIC STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    R.E. Rogers

    1999-09-27

    DOE Contract DE-AC26-97FT33203 studied feasibility of utilizing the natural-gas storage property of gas hydrates, so abundantly demonstrated in nature, as an economical industrial process to allow expanded use of the clean-burning fuel in power plants. The laboratory work achieved breakthroughs: (1) Gas hydrates were found to form orders of magnitude faster in an unstirred system with surfactant-water micellar solutions. (2) Hydrate particles were found to self-pack by adsorption on cold metal surfaces from the micellar solutions. (3) Interstitial micellar-water of the packed particles were found to continue forming hydrates. (4) Aluminum surfaces were found to most actively collect the hydrate particles. These laboratory developments were the bases of a conceptual design for a large-scale process where simplification enhances economy. In the design, hydrates form, store, and decompose in the same tank in which gas is pressurized to 550 psi above unstirred micellar solution, chilled by a brine circulating through a bank of aluminum tubing in the tank employing gas-fired refrigeration. Hydrates form on aluminum plates suspended in the chilled micellar solution. A low-grade heat source, such as 110 F water of a power plant, circulates through the tubing bank to release stored gas. The design allows a formation/storage/decomposition cycle in a 24-hour period of 2,254,000 scf of natural gas; the capability of multiple cycles is an advantage of the process. The development costs and the user costs of storing natural gas in a scaled hydrate process were estimated to be competitive with conventional storage means if multiple cycles of hydrate storage were used. If more than 54 cycles/year were used, hydrate development costs per Mscf would be better than development costs of depleted reservoir storage; above 125 cycles/year, hydrate user costs would be lower than user costs of depleted reservoir storage.

  4. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2006-04-19

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets, briquettes, sinter and coke.

  5. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2006-01-30

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets, briquettes, sinter and coke.

  6. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2004-04-27

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 42 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets and coke.

  7. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2004-10-28

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 42 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets and coke.

  8. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2003-10-22

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 42 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets and coke.

  9. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2004-07-28

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 42 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets and coke.

  10. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2005-01-25

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 42 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets and coke.

  11. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2005-01-26

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 42 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets and coke.

  12. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2005-07-29

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 42 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets and coke.

  13. Phase II Calderon Process to Produce Direct Reduced Iron Research and Development Project

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon

    2007-03-31

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase 1 was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets, briquettes, sinter and coke.

  14. PHASE II CALDERON PROCESS TO PRODUCE DIRECT REDUCED IRON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Calderon; Reina Calderon

    2004-01-27

    This project was initially targeted to the making of coke for blast furnaces by using proprietary technology of Calderon in a phased approach, and Phase I was successfully completed. The project was then re-directed to the making of iron units. In 2000, U.S. Steel teamed up with Calderon for a joint effort which will last 42 months to produce directly reduced iron with the potential of converting it into molten iron or steel consistent with the Roadmap recommendations of 1998 prepared by the Steel Industry in cooperation with the Department of Energy by using iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, both materials being appreciably lower in cost than using iron pellets and coke.

  15. Combustion modification controls for residential and commercial heating systems. Volume II: oil-fired residential furnace field test. Final task report Jul 78-Jul 79

    SciTech Connect

    Higginbotham, E.B.

    1981-07-01

    Methods and results are given of an environmental assessment test program at an oil-fired, low-emission residential heating unit. The aim of the program was to measure emission changes resulting from changing the operating mode of the low-emission furnace. Emissions of trace elements, organic materials, sulfur species, NO, CO, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter were measured. Both continuous and cyclic operating modes were evaluated.

  16. Central projections of primary vestibular fibers in the bullfrog. II. Nerve branches from individual receptors.

    PubMed

    Suarez, C; Kuruvilla, A; Sitko, S; Schwartz, I R; Honrubia, V

    1985-10-01

    The fibers from the nerves innervating each of the three semicircular canals and the saccule were labeled by injecting horseradish peroxidase extracellularly into these nerves. The projections into the various vestibular nuclei of each receptor were studied in transverse sections of the brain stem throughout the vestibular nuclear area. All five vestibular nuclei receive primary afferents throughout their areas. There are differences in the projection patterns of the canals. In the superior and ventral vestibular nuclei, the location of the projections depends on the crista injected. The anterior canal projects ventrally, the horizontal canal centrally, and the posterior canal more dorsally. Each canal, however, sends fibers to all areas, with overlap of fibers from the different cristae. The cerebellar nucleus receives uniform innervation from the three canals. The medial vestibular nucleus in the rostral and caudal areas receives only thin fibers from each canal, with considerable overlap. The descending nucleus in the rostral and caudal areas receives innervation from the cristae, also with considerable overlap, but with greater intensity in the ventral part of the caudal portion of the nucleus. Each crista sends fibers to the cerebellar granular layer and to the base of the cerebellar Purkinje cell layer. These fibers also innervate the reticular formation below the entry zone of the eighth nerve. The saccule innervates both the dorsal (acoustic) and the ventral nuclei, the latter in the most dorsal position. The innervation of the utricle could be ascertained only in the middle section of the descending and the medial nuclei, an area which does not receive significant innervation from the cristae. Primary afferent fibers course in the vestibular tract, forming a longitudinal bundle lateral to the vestibular nuclei. In the bundle the larger fibers are medially situated.

  17. Big Creek Flood Control Project, Cleveland, Ohio. Phase II. General Design Memorandum.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    life, property, and industry within the flood plain described above is subject to flood damage. The project is based on the need to protect these...Flood Insurance Program requriements for new development and th Corps policy for human health and safety, property, and industry protection. The plan... enviromental measure to -minii polluted leachate, if say, from flowing down the embashment. 1. Comnt 12(a). The freboard on the chute will be revised

  18. Advanced conceptual design report. Phase II. Liquid effluent treatment and disposal Project W-252

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-31

    This Advanced Conceptual Design Report (ACDR) provides a documented review and analysis of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR), WHC-SD-W252-CDR-001, June 30, 1993. The ACDR provides further design evaluation of the major design approaches and uncertainties identified in the original CDR. The ACDR will provide a firmer basis for the both the design approach and the associated planning for the performance of the Definitive Design phase of the project.

  19. Mammalian Survey Techniques for Level II Natural Resource Inventories on Corps of Engineers Projects (Part 1)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    Texas. Javelina and feral swine (Sus Scrofa) (also referred to as wild hogs or European wild boars) were detected at scent stations baited with...specially prepared attractants in southern Texas (Campbell and Long 2008). Populations of feral swine have expanded throughout the United States and can...especially important that managers conduct routine inventories of feral swine when they are present on project lands. White-tailed deer (O. virginianus

  20. Forecasting distribution of numbers of large fires

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Preisler, Haiganoush K.; Howard, Stephen; Burgan, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Systems to estimate forest fire potential commonly utilize one or more indexes that relate to expected fire behavior; however they indicate neither the chance that a large fire will occur, nor the expected number of large fires. That is, they do not quantify the probabilistic nature of fire danger. In this work we use large fire occurrence information from the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity project, and satellite and surface observations of fuel conditions in the form of the Fire Potential Index, to estimate two aspects of fire danger: 1) the probability that a 1 acre ignition will result in a 100+ acre fire, and 2) the probabilities of having at least 1, 2, 3, or 4 large fires within a Predictive Services Area in the forthcoming week. These statistical processes are the main thrust of the paper and are used to produce two daily national forecasts that are available from the U.S. Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation and Science Center and via the Wildland Fire Assessment System. A validation study of our forecasts for the 2013 fire season demonstrated good agreement between observed and forecasted values.