Science.gov

Sample records for projects aid communities

  1. Fast extraction of the backbone of projected bipartite networks to aid community detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebig, J.; Rao, A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a computationally inexpensive method for extracting the backbone of one-mode networks projected from bipartite networks. We show that the edge weights in the one-mode projections are distributed according to a Poisson binomial distribution and that finding the expected weight distribution of a one-mode network projected from a random bipartite network only requires knowledge of the bipartite degree distributions. Being able to extract the backbone of a projection is highly beneficial in filtering out redundant information in large complex networks and narrowing down the information in the one-mode projection to the most relevant. We demonstrate that the backbone of a one-mode projection aids in the detection of communities.

  2. HIV/AIDS in a Puerto Rican/Dominican Community: A Collaborative Project with a Botanical Shop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado, Melvin; Santiago, Jorge

    1998-01-01

    Presents an overview of the literature concerning HIV/AIDS in Latino communities in the United States and Puerto Rico. Discusses the presence of botanical shops (where herbal medicines and other healing paraphernalia can be purchased) in Latino culture. Describes Projecto Cooperacion, a project that utilized botanical shops as a means of…

  3. HIV/AIDS in a Puerto Rican/Dominican Community: A Collaborative Project with a Botanical Shop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado, Melvin; Santiago, Jorge

    1998-01-01

    Presents an overview of the literature concerning HIV/AIDS in Latino communities in the United States and Puerto Rico. Discusses the presence of botanical shops (where herbal medicines and other healing paraphernalia can be purchased) in Latino culture. Describes Projecto Cooperacion, a project that utilized botanical shops as a means of…

  4. Applying research to AIDS programs in villages. Burkina Faso project learns from community survey.

    PubMed

    Tankoano, F

    1994-01-01

    In 1991, 34 cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were recorded for the province of Bam, which has a population of 4239. Since 1992, PLAN and the local Ministry of Health have been conducting an AIDS prevention program in the province. An initial baseline community survey to assess knowledge, attitude, and practices about the disease was conducted in order to tailor the program to the needs and characteristics of the target population. A questionnaire was administered to 300 randomly selected adults in 10 rural villages. The sexes were equally represented. 74% of the villagers were found to be illiterate and the major sources of health information were radio, health facilities, and friends and relatives; therefore, educational activities were carried out through non-written methods (traditional and modern) that employed these communication channels. Initially, 5 men and 5 women ("Village Communicators") were selected by their communities to be trained in information, education, and communication (IEC) techniques regarding AIDS prevention; under the supervision of their trainers, they organized and conducted 2 weekly sessions. An additional 62 women and 50 men were trained as Village Communicators to promote AIDS awareness among their own gender. A team of health personnel, artists, and a traditional music group conducted collective sessions to promote condom use and address problems relating to AIDS (polygamy, remarrying of spouses of AIDS victims, availability of testing during prenuptial visits). Although 90% of respondents had heard about AIDS, 30% did not understand the disease or its routes of transmission; so messages about the effects and the transmission of AIDS were emphasized. Because 56% of respondents admitted having had 2 or more sex partners, and a similar percentage admitted having had 2 or more sexual encounters per week, messages were disseminated on sexuality using community volunteers and the folkloric band. 42% of respondents were

  5. HOME HEALTH AIDE TRAINING PROJECT. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greater New Haven Community Council, CT.

    THE HOME HEALTH AIDE PERFORMS SIMPLE PERSONAL CARE FUNCTIONS UNDER NURSING SUPERVISION IN THE HOME CARE OF AN ILL OR DISABLED PERSON. THE PROJECT OBJECTIVES WERE TO TRAIN AS AIDES 30 MEN AND WOMEN AGE 45 YEARS AND OLDER WITH LIMITED INCOMES TO MEET A COMMUNITY EMPLOYMENT NEED AND TO EXPERIMENT IN RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, TRAINING, AND EMPLOYMENT…

  6. Community-level HIV intervention in 5 cities: final outcome data from the CDC AIDS Community Demonstration Projects.

    PubMed Central

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated a theory-based community-level intervention to promote progress toward consistent condom and bleach use among selected populations at increased risk for HIV infection in 5 US cities. METHODS: Role-model stories were distributed, along with condoms and bleach, by community members who encouraged behavior change among injection drug users, their female sex partners, sex workers, non-gay-identified men who have sex with men, high-risk youth, and residents in areas with high sexually transmitted disease rates. Over a 3-year period, cross-sectional interviews (n = 15,205) were conducted in 10 intervention and comparison community pairs. Outcomes were measured on a stage-of-change scale. Observed condom carrying and intervention exposure were also measured. RESULTS: At the community level, movement toward consistent condom use with main (P < .05) and nonmain (P < .05) partners, as well as increased condom carrying (P < .0001), was greater in intervention than in comparison communities. At the individual level, respondents recently exposed to the intervention were more likely to carry condoms and to have higher stage-of-change scores for condom and bleach use. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention led to significant communitywide progress toward consistent HIV risk reduction. PMID:10076482

  7. Developing a community-level anti-HIV/AIDS stigma and homophobia intervention in new York city: The project CHHANGE model.

    PubMed

    Frye, Victoria; Paige, Mark Q; Gordon, Steven; Matthews, David; Musgrave, Geneva; Kornegay, Mark; Greene, Emily; Phelan, Jo C; Koblin, Beryl A; Taylor-Akutagawa, Vaughn

    2017-08-01

    HIV/AIDS stigma and homophobia are associated with significant negative health and social outcomes among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and those at risk of infection. Interventions to decrease HIV stigma have focused on providing information and education, changing attitudes and values, and increasing contact with people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), activities that act to reduce stereotyped beliefs and prejudice, as well as acts of discrimination. Most anti-homophobia interventions have focused on bullying reduction and have been implemented at the secondary and post-secondary education levels. Few interventions address HIV stigma and homophobia and operate at the community level. Project CHHANGE, Challenge HIV Stigma and Homophobia and Gain Empowerment, was a community-level, multi-component anti-HIV/AIDS stigma and homophobia intervention designed to reduce HIV stigma and homophobia thus increasing access to HIV prevention and treatment access. The theory-based intervention included three primary components: workshops and trainings with local residents, businesses and community-based organizations (CBO); space-based events at a CBO-partner drop-in storefront and "pop-up" street-based events and outreach; and a bus shelter ad campaign. This paper describes the intervention design process, resultant intervention and the study team's experiences working with the community. We conclude that CHHANGE was feasible and acceptable to the community. Promoting the labeling of gay and/or HIV-related "space" as a non-stigmatized, community resource, as well as providing opportunities for residents to have contact with targeted groups and to understand how HIV stigma and homophobia relate to HIV/AIDS prevalence in their neighborhood may be crucial components of successful anti-stigma and discrimination programming. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. HIV/AIDS information outreach: a community-based approach

    PubMed Central

    Dancy, Nicole C.; Dutcher, Gale A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The paper provides an overview of the National Library of Medicine's (NLM's) AIDS Community Information Outreach Program during the years 1994 to 2005, discusses the impact of previously funded projects, and explores future implications for HIV/AIDS information outreach to communities in need. Methods: A qualitative assessment was conducted to provide information on the impact of projects funded by the AIDS Community Information Outreach Program during fiscal year 2002. Interviews were conducted and final reports were analyzed, resulting in themes based on roles and responsibilities of participants and the impact of the projects in the communities. Results: Results from the assessment suggest that access to HIV/AIDS information led to improved communication between patients and their health care providers and encouraged better health care decision making. Feedback from reports and interviews included examples of impact such as an increase in services provided to communities, national and global recognition of HIV/AIDS services, sustainability of projects, and improved communication. Conclusion: Community-based health information outreach projects may empower the HIV/AIDS community to become more involved in health care and improve communication with providers. NLM will continue to promote the AIDS Community Information Outreach Program to encourage community organizations to design local projects for their specific communities. PMID:17641768

  9. HIV/AIDS information outreach: a community-based approach.

    PubMed

    Dancy, Nicole C; Dutcher, Gale A

    2007-07-01

    The paper provides an overview of the National Library of Medicine's (NLM's) AIDS Community Information Outreach Program during the years 1994 to 2005, discusses the impact of previously funded projects, and explores future implications for HIV/AIDS information outreach to communities in need. A qualitative assessment was conducted to provide information on the impact of projects funded by the AIDS Community Information Outreach Program during fiscal year 2002. Interviews were conducted and final reports were analyzed, resulting in themes based on roles and responsibilities of participants and the impact of the projects in the communities. Results from the assessment suggest that access to HIV/AIDS information led to improved communication between patients and their health care providers and encouraged better health care decision making. Feedback from reports and interviews included examples of impact such as an increase in services provided to communities, national and global recognition of HIV/AIDS services, sustainability of projects, and improved communication. Community-based health information outreach projects may empower the HIV/AIDS community to become more involved in health care and improve communication with providers. NLM will continue to promote the AIDS Community Information Outreach Program to encourage community organizations to design local projects for their specific communities.

  10. Raising HIV/AIDS awareness through Cuba's Memorias project.

    PubMed

    Aragonés, Carlos; Campos, Jorge R; Nogueira, Oscar; Pérez, Jorge

    2011-04-01

    As long as there is no cure for AIDS, the only effective means of containing its spread is prevention, primarily through public education. Cuba's AIDS Prevention Group is a community-based organization whose main purpose is to support the National HIV/AIDS Program's prevention and education efforts. The Group's Memorias Project uses the creation and display of memorial quilts to put a human face on AIDS statistics and stimulate public reflection on issues related to the disease and society.

  11. Development of Home Health Aide Curriculum Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Patricia

    This package contains materials intended for use in a new home health aide curriculum that is designed to be presented as a two-quarter program at Tacoma Community College in Tacoma, Washington. Included in the package are a final report outlining the objectives and outcomes of the project to develop a home health aide curriculum that would meet…

  12. Development of Home Health Aide Curriculum Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Patricia

    This package contains materials intended for use in a new home health aide curriculum that is designed to be presented as a two-quarter program at Tacoma Community College in Tacoma, Washington. Included in the package are a final report outlining the objectives and outcomes of the project to develop a home health aide curriculum that would meet…

  13. A Classroom Response to HIV/AIDS--Project Proposal Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habulembe, Smith H.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a task-based writing project. High-school students in Zambia wrote a proposal to raise awareness of HIV/AIDS in their community. By writing on a topic related to their lives, students were motivated and empowered to use their English skills for positive change. The project was an interactive workshop that invited a community…

  14. Experiencing an Epidemic: The Development of an AIDS Education Program for Community College Students in Maryland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochlin, Joyce T.

    In 1991, a project was undertaken to suggest components for an Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) education program for community college students. The project sought to identify AIDS programs and policies in place at the 17 community colleges in Maryland; assessed community college students' knowledge about the spread and prevention of…

  15. Experiencing an Epidemic: The Development of an AIDS Education Program for Community College Students in Maryland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochlin, Joyce T.

    In 1991, a project was undertaken to suggest components for an Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) education program for community college students. The project sought to identify AIDS programs and policies in place at the 17 community colleges in Maryland; assessed community college students' knowledge about the spread and prevention of…

  16. Empowering Patients and Community Online: Evaluation of the AIDS Community Information Outreach Program

    PubMed Central

    Dancy-Scott, Nicole; Rockoff, Maxine L.; Dutcher, Gale A.; Keselman, Alla; Schnall, Rebecca; Siegel, Elliot R.; Bakken, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    The AIDS Community Information Outreach Program (ACIOP) was created in 1994 to assist the affected community in utilizing electronic HIV/AIDS information resources. Nearly 300 competitive awards have been made to mostly community-based organizations. A formal evaluation was undertaken to determine the performance and impact of the ACIOP. A mixed methods design combined quantitative abstractions and summarization of 47 awardee final reports from 44 organizations, and qualitative telephone interviews with 17 individuals representing 20 projects. Findings revealed that project objectives were mostly met; high-risk populations were reached; low resource organizations were funded; community partnerships were significant; projects built on existing efforts; information resources and training were tailored to local needs; and most projects overcame barriers experienced. Needed modifications centered on: 1) enhancing evaluation capacity at the individual project level and 2) revising project reporting requirements to increase the amount of information available to assess the ACIOP; both have been implemented. PMID:27134323

  17. Empowering Patients and Community Online: Evaluation of the AIDS Community Information Outreach Program.

    PubMed

    Dancy-Scott, Nicole; Rockoff, Maxine L; Dutcher, Gale A; Keselman, Alla; Schnall, Rebecca; Siegel, Elliot R; Bakken, Suzanne

    The AIDS Community Information Outreach Program (ACIOP) was created in 1994 to assist the affected community in utilizing electronic HIV/AIDS information resources. Nearly 300 competitive awards have been made to mostly community-based organizations. A formal evaluation was undertaken to determine the performance and impact of the ACIOP. A mixed methods design combined quantitative abstractions and summarization of 47 awardee final reports from 44 organizations, and qualitative telephone interviews with 17 individuals representing 20 projects. Findings revealed that project objectives were mostly met; high-risk populations were reached; low resource organizations were funded; community partnerships were significant; projects built on existing efforts; information resources and training were tailored to local needs; and most projects overcame barriers experienced. Needed modifications centered on: 1) enhancing evaluation capacity at the individual project level and 2) revising project reporting requirements to increase the amount of information available to assess the ACIOP; both have been implemented.

  18. Practicing HIV/AIDS community-based research.

    PubMed

    Harris, G E

    2006-10-01

    Although community-based research (CBR) is gaining popularity, especially within the field of HIV/AIDS research, there is a paucity of practical models or frameworks designed to guide researchers and community members. Within the present paper the author presents a ten-stage model of conducting CBR that emerged from two HIV/AIDS CBR studies that were conducted in Alberta, Canada. The main strengths and challenges to conducting HIV/AIDS CBR are also explored. Living a life with HIV has changed dramatically over the past few decades. There have been notable improvements in medical technology and treatment, resulting in increased quality and duration of life (Volberding, 1998; Wong-Staal, 1997) as well as improvements in psychosocial interventions leading to improved mental health services (Grinstead & Van Der Straten, 2000; Hoffman, 1996; Sarwer & Crawford, 1994; Schaffner, 1994). Perhaps most significant has been the astonishing community rallying and social support networks that have occurred among individuals living with HIV and AIDS (Roy & Cain, 2001). People living with HIV and AIDS have demonstrated their resilience and positive outlooks through developing a multitude of community connections and projects. These organizational groups have engaged in HIV peer counselling at community-based organizations, fund raising programs, board involvement in community agency organizations and HIV/AIDS national committees, as well as volunteer work in many settings. There has also been a recent focus on CBR, which includes having individuals living with HIV and AIDS, people vulnerable to HIV infection or other stakeholders in HIV/AIDS issues become partners in research projects with academic or trained researchers (Health Canada, 2002).

  19. Impact of community-based forest management on forest protection: evidence from an aid-funded project in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Ryo; Todo, Yasuyuki

    2012-09-01

    Many African countries have adopted community-based forest management (CBFM) to prevent deforestation. However, empirical studies have not reached a consensus on the effectiveness of CBFM. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of the establishment of participatory forest management associations in Ethiopia. We used remote sensing data to gauge the change in forest area and employed a two-stage least squares model to correct for possible biases. The results indicate that the forest area managed by forest associations declines more in the year of establishment than forest areas with no association. This finding suggests that villagers may engage in "last-minute" logging. However, 1 year after the establishment of the forest associations, the forest area of the associations increased substantially, most likely because the associations monitor illegal logging, enabling the regeneration of open areas within the registered forest area. On average, the forest area of the forest associations increased by 1.5 % in the first 2 years, whereas forest areas not managed as part of an association declined by 3.3 %. The cumulative impact over 2 years yields a net increase in the rate of change of 4.8 %. These results demonstrate that it is important to improve the monitoring of forest areas during the initial establishment of participatory forest management associations to maximize the effects of association establishment.

  20. Projecting the impact of AIDS on mortality.

    PubMed

    Stover, J; Way, P

    1998-01-01

    The authors describe the projected impact of AIDS on mortality, explain the reasons for the differences in mortality projections by major international organizations, and offer an approach to estimating the impact of AIDS upon life expectancy. Although AIDS has already significantly increased mortality in many countries, the impact of AIDS upon mortality is expected to grow substantially over the next 10 years and into future decades. By 2005, the population of the most severely affected countries in Africa will be 13-59 million less than it would have been without AIDS, and life expectancy may decline by as much as 27% in those countries. Uncertainty about current and future trends in HIV prevalence among adults has led to differences in the projections of future AIDS-related mortality. For example, while the UN projects that AIDS will reduce the population growth of the most severely affected countries in Africa by 13 million by 2005 and 30 million by 2025, the US Census Bureau projects the reduction to be 59 million by 2005 and 120 million by 2025. These differences are largely due to the use of different methodologies for projecting future levels of adult HIV prevalence. There are also differing estimates of current levels of HIV prevalence and differing assumptions about the length of the incubation period and the perinatal transmission rate. As data and projection methodologies improve, the differences in projections may be reduced for sub-Saharan Africa, while the growing epidemic in some of the largest countries of Asia may increase uncertainty about future global impacts.

  1. NIMH Project Accept (HPTN 043) HIV/AIDS community mobilization (CM) to promote mobile HIV voluntary counseling and testing (MVCT) in rural communities in Northern Thailand: modifications by experience.

    PubMed

    Kawichai, Surinda; Celentano, David; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Wichajarn, Monjun; Pancharoen, Kanokporn; Chariyalertsak, Chonlisa; Visrutaratana, Surasing; Khumalo-Sakutukwa, Gertrude; Sweat, Michael; Chariyalertsak, Suwat

    2012-07-01

    Project Accept is a RCT designed to test the efficacy of community mobilization (CM), mobile voluntary counseling and testing (MVCT), and post-test support services (PTSS) in reducing HIV incidence in three African countries and Thailand. The intervention started in rural areas, northern Thailand in January 2006. CM initially included door-to-door visits during the daytime, small group discussions and joining organized meetings and followed by MVCT. In February 2007, CM strategy using HIV/AIDS "edutainment" (education and entertainment) during evening hours was introduced. After edutainment was initiated, the number of participants increased substantially. VCT uptake increased from 18 to 28 persons/day on average (t test; t = 7.87 P < 0.0001). Edutainment especially motivated younger people, as the median age of VCT clients decreased from 38 to 35 years old (median test; z = 6.74, P < 0.0001). Providing free MVCT in community settings along with edutainment during evening hours increased VCT uptake and was particularly attractive to younger adults.

  2. NIMH Project Accept (HPTN 043) HIV/AIDS Community Mobilization (CM) to Promote Mobile HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing (MVCT) in Rural Communities in Northern Thailand: Modifications by Experience

    PubMed Central

    Kawichai, Surinda; Celentano, David; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Wichajarn, Monjun; Pancharoen, Kanokporn; Chariyalertsak, Chonlisa; Visrutaratana, Surasing; Khumalo-Sakutukwa, Gertrude; Sweat, Michael; Chariyalertsak, Suwat

    2012-01-01

    Project Accept is a RCT designed to test the efficacy of community mobilization (CM), mobile voluntary counseling and testing (MVCT), and post-test support services (PTSS) in reducing HIV incidence in three African countries and Thailand. The intervention started in rural areas, northern Thailand in January 2006. CM initially included door-to-door visits during the daytime, small group discussions and joining organized meetings and followed by MVCT. In February 2007, CM strategy using HIV/AIDS “edutainment” (education and entertainment) during evening hours was introduced. After edutainment was initiated, the number of participants increased substantially. VCT uptake increased from 18 to 28 persons/day on average (t test; t = 7.87 P < 0.0001). Edutainment especially motivated younger people, as the median age of VCT clients decreased from 38 to 35 years old (median test; z = 6.74, P < 0.0001). Providing free MVCT in community settings along with edutainment during evening hours increased VCT uptake and was particularly attractive to younger adults. PMID:22170382

  3. 76 FR 12016 - Local and Regional Food Aid Procurement Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Local and Regional Food Aid Procurement Projects AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural... and Regional Food Aid Procurement Pilot Project (USDA LRP Project). All available funding for field...: Jamie Fisher, Chief, Local and Regional Procurement, Food Assistance Division, Foreign Agricultural...

  4. The Biology of HIV/AIDS: A Case Study in Community Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caccavo, Frank, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a project for the Biology of HIV/AIDS course for undergraduate biology majors. This project challenged science students to engage the community on two different levels. They first had to interact directly and personally with HIV/AIDS activists. The proposal then encouraged them to think about and describe ways of engaging a…

  5. The Biology of HIV/AIDS: A Case Study in Community Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caccavo, Frank, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a project for the Biology of HIV/AIDS course for undergraduate biology majors. This project challenged science students to engage the community on two different levels. They first had to interact directly and personally with HIV/AIDS activists. The proposal then encouraged them to think about and describe ways of engaging a…

  6. Community Organic Gardening Project

    SciTech Connect

    Tracy, S.

    1982-01-01

    Final recommendations as to the further use and development of solar pods, developed by the participants of the Community Organic Gardening Project, are presented. The solar pods tested were dome-shaped, double glazed, fiberglass covers which were hinged to a permanent insulated frame enabling fall and late winter crops to survive outdoor temperatures as low as 10/sup 0/F. A list of materials and the instructions for constructing the pods is provided. Temperature performance and crop yields of the pods are briefly discussed. Very brief discussions of other solar gardening devices include Dutch lights and frames, slitted-row covers, and the Swiss made Xiro-Ag plant protection film. Cost information is included for each of the solar devices discussed. (BCS)

  7. AID seeks proposals for Pakistan's CSM project.

    PubMed

    1985-01-01

    The US Agency for International Development (AID) has prepared a request for proposals (RFP) for an international contractor to provide technical advice to Pakistan's projected contraceptive social marketing program. Sales of both condoms and a low-dose oral contraceptive were planned for 1986. At this point, however, the social marketing project's implementation remains in doubt as a result of internal government opposition. The government had hoped to implement the project without an outside contractor, but this proved infeasible. The RFP prepared by USAID outlines a 4-year involvement for a resident advisor. Funds will come from a 5-year US$20 million contract signed in 1984 by USAID and the Pakistani government. USAID remains optimistic that the project will continue, despite this delay, and is proceeding to procure commodities.

  8. Implementation effects of GFATM-supported HIV/AIDS projects on the health sector, civil society and affected communities in Peru 2004-2007.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, C F; Girón, J Maziel; Sandoval, C; López, R; Valverde, R; Pajuelo, J; Vásquez, P; Rosasco, A M; Chirinos, A; Silva-Santisteban, A

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of opportunities for support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) for HIV-related projects has so far generated funding of over US$75 million for three proposals in Peru. The size of this investment creates the need for close monitoring to ensure a reasonable impact. This paper describes the effects of collaboration with the GFATM on key actors involved in HIV-related activities and on decision-making processes; on health sector divisions; on policies and sources of financing; on equity of access; and on stigma and discrimination of vulnerable and affected populations. Data analysed included primary data collected through interviews with key informants, in-depth interviews and group discussions with vulnerable and affected populations, as well as several public documents. Multisectorality, encouraged by the GFATM, is incipient; centralist proposals with limited consultation, a lack of consensus and short preparation times prevail. No accountability mechanisms operate at the Country Coordinating Mechanism (CCM) level regarding CCM members or society as a whole. GFATM-funded activities have required significant input from the public sector, sometimes beyond the capacity of its human resources. A significant increase in HIV funding, in absolute amounts and in fractions of the total budget, has been observed from several sources including the National Treasury, and it is unclear whether this has implied reductions in the budget for other priorities. Patterns of social exclusion of people living with HIV/AIDS are diverse: children and women are more valued; while transgender persons and sex workers are often excluded.

  9. TRAINING PROGRAM OF COMMUNITY AIDES FOR ADULT EDUCATION IN ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. EVALUATION REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TURNER, LA FAYETTE

    IN ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY, WHERE THE SOCIALLY DISADVANTAGED LIVE IN HIGH DENSITY HOUSING, SCIENTIFIC RESOURCES INCORPORATED RECRUITED AND TRAINED EIGHT INDIGENOUS PEOPLE TO SERVE AS ADULT EDUCATIONAL AIDES IN A 6-MONTH PROJECT DESIGNED FOR THE NEW JERSEY COMMUNITY ACTION TRAINING INSTITUTE. SIX AIDES, AGED FROM 18 TO 48 WITH NINTH-GRADE TO COLLEGE…

  10. A Functional Model for a Community-Junior College Financial Aid Office

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Miles A.; Murphy, Harold D.

    1976-01-01

    The functions that should be performed by a model community-junior college financial aid offer were identified in a research project utilizing the Delphi technique. They deal with counseling; application processing and determination of awards; public relations; recruitment; office management; federal, state, and local aid programs; placement;…

  11. Parents' Expectations and Perceptions Concerning the Provision of Communication Aids by the Communication Aids Project (CAP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Caroline; Clarke, Michael; Donlan, Chris; Wright, Jannet A.; Lister, Claire; Cherguit, Jasmina

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports findings from part of an evaluation study of the Communication Aids Project (CAP), a government-funded project in England which provided communication aids to school-aged children. The paper focuses on parents' views of the CAP process and the impact of the aid. Fourteen parents were interviewed twice over the telephone: once…

  12. AIDS czar says Manhattan Project is underway. Interview by Cesar Chavez.

    PubMed

    Fleming, P

    1995-01-01

    National AIDS Policy Director, Patricia Fleming, was recently interviewed by "Positively Aware". During the interview she stated that she believes the Clinton Administration will deliver on the HIV/AIDS community's call for a Manhattan Project for AIDS. She credited Dr. William Paul (National Institutes for Health) with focusing HIV research on basic science, and stated that her priorities include working on and lobbying for the best possible HIV/AIDS budget, completing a report on AIDS incidence among adolescents, and salvaging the HOPWA program.

  13. The Role of Community College Financial Aid Counselors in Helping Students Understand and Utilize Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Lyle; Roberts, Toya

    2012-01-01

    Financial aid counselors are a primary source of information that many students rely upon to understand financial aid and how to pay for college. However, little is known about financial aid counselors at America's community colleges and their interactions with the students they serve. Using original survey data, this study examined the role these…

  14. The Role of Community College Financial Aid Counselors in Helping Students Understand and Utilize Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Lyle; Roberts, Toya

    2012-01-01

    Financial aid counselors are a primary source of information that many students rely upon to understand financial aid and how to pay for college. However, little is known about financial aid counselors at America's community colleges and their interactions with the students they serve. Using original survey data, this study examined the role these…

  15. Unmet Need and Unclaimed Aid: Increasing Access to Financial Aid for Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Julia I.

    2013-01-01

    In California, public financial aid aimed at low-income students is not reaching some of the poorest students enrolled in community colleges. Outreach efforts to students are important, but high schools and community colleges must also make financial aid receipt a priority.

  16. Unmet Need and Unclaimed Aid: Increasing Access to Financial Aid for Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Julia I.

    2013-01-01

    In California, public financial aid aimed at low-income students is not reaching some of the poorest students enrolled in community colleges. Outreach efforts to students are important, but high schools and community colleges must also make financial aid receipt a priority.

  17. Community Energy Policy Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Thomas B.

    The general procedures, techniques for implementing, and results of a citizen-based "grass-roots" program in Ohio for the development and analysis of community energy policies are described. The program emphasizes citizen input and employs the nominal group process to build consensus. Small group discussions are used to generate…

  18. Community College Enrollment Projections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Aikin

    In this discussion of enrollment forecasting for community colleges, a new point of view is expressed. Traditional theory characterizes enrollment as a function of history. The historical approach used such methodologies as: (1) cohort, or percentage of survival, (2) curve-fitting, (3) ratio-method, and (4) correlation-analysis. However, the new…

  19. Hlatlolanang: a community project.

    PubMed

    Stober, P

    1993-01-01

    Sekekhuneland, which is in the northern Transvaal in South Africa, has suffered from a 2-year drought which has led to a shortage of basic food in the villages and a 50-60% incidence of kwashiorkor among the village children. The natural resources of the area have been eliminated by over population and its attendant deforestation, land erosion, and wildlife decimation. The situation has been exacerbated by a political climate rife with corruption and incompetence. The most pressing problem is a shortage of water which prevents agricultural development and limits food production. Some dangerous traditional beliefs persist, such as believing that sickness is caused by curses which modern medicine cannot affect. In response to this situation, Hlatlolanang ("we share the burden"), a community-based development program has been put into place. The director of the center, Rose Mazibuko, is a nurse who believes that primary health care in its broadest sense is a human right. This involves not only the health sector but also agriculture, industrial development, education, housing, and public works. The first problem tackled was kwashiorkor. Other groups had failed to reduce the incidence of the condition in the area. Hlatlolanang recognized that mothers of affected children were being stigmatized by hospital personnel. Thus, the mothers would often go to the hospital only as a last resort and would avoid the training necessary to help their children. The community requested that Hlatlolanang become a training center where all members of the community could learn how to combat kwashiorkor and where inappropriate attitudes could undergo the necessary changes. Thus, the Hlatlolanang Health and Education Center was born with funding from the Kaiser Family Foundation, an architect who participated in the development workshop and knew exactly what the community wanted, an elected planning committee, and 4 local builders. People were carefully screened and hired to run the center

  20. Social Service Aide Project. Summary Reports and Proposals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    YMCA of Metropolitan Chicago, IL. Career Options Research and Development (CORD).

    The Social Service Aide Project for the training and education of paraprofessionals is a part of the Career Options Research and Development Project of the Young Men's Christian Association of Chicago. These materials include: (1) "A Report of Pilot A Social Service Aide Program: Phase I and II (September 1969-August 1970)," (2)…

  1. Community College Students and Federal Student Financial Aid: A Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juszkiewicz, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    The federal government plays an indispensable role in helping community college students pay for their education. It is hard to imagine today's community college campuses without needs-based federal student aid, such as the Pell Grant program and subsidized loans. There are, however, significant differences between community college students and…

  2. Patterns in Student Financial Aid at Rural Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, David E.; Katsinas, Stephen G.

    2008-01-01

    This article uses the 2005 Basic Classifications of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching as a framing device through which to examine patterns of student financial aid at America's rural community colleges, which represent 64% of all U.S. community colleges. Rural community colleges serve more first-time, full-time students than…

  3. Middlesex Community College Geothermal Project

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Jessie; Spaziani, Gina

    2013-03-29

    The purpose of the project was to install a geothermal system in the trustees house on the Bedford campus of Middlesex Community College. In partnership with the environmental science faculty, learning activities for environmental science courses were developed to explain geothermal energy and more specifically the newly installed system to Middlesex students. A real-time monitoring system highlights the energy use and generation.

  4. The use of technical aids among community-based elderly.

    PubMed

    Parker, M G; Thorslund, M

    1991-08-01

    The growing elderly population will increase the need for assistive technology in the form of technical aids and housing adaptations to facilitate independence in activities of daily living. In this study, which was undertaken to facilitate a better understanding of the life-styles of the disabled elderly and the role of technical aids, 57 disabled persons over 74 years of age were studied. All of the subjects were residents of a rural Swedish community. The subjects had a total of 422 aids, an average of 7.4 per person. Seventy-five percent of the aids were being used, and 42 persons had at least one aid that granted autonomy. This finding illustrates the importance of technical aids in home care. It is recommended, therefore, that information about assistive technology be disseminated to personnel at all levels of community-based care.

  5. Impartiality and Hierarchical Evaluations in the Japanese Development Aid Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maemura, Yu

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a discourse analytic study of how the concept of impartiality is socially constructed by members of the development aid community through an examination of linguistic traits and patterns within (a) inter- and intraorganizational interactions and (b) relevant aid evaluation policy documents. A qualitative analysis of…

  6. The Impact of AIDS on the Black Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatchett, David

    1990-01-01

    More than 25 percent of those who have the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) virus are African American, and, in large urban areas, the disease is a leading cause of death, especially among black women. AIDS education is vital to supplement health care efforts in the black community. (SLD)

  7. NELA: A Community Response to HIV/AIDS in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soyinka, Femi; Ogundare, Dipo; Olowookere, Kemi; Akinsola, Yemisi; Alade, Adeyemi; Moronkola, O. A.

    2004-01-01

    The greatest current threat to humanity, most especially in the developing countries of the world, is HIV/AIDS. The first case of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria was in 1986 in Lagos. Due to inaction and denial by the people, there was a rapid but subtle transmission of the virus within Nigeria's various populations and communities. Presently, the disease has…

  8. Impartiality and Hierarchical Evaluations in the Japanese Development Aid Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maemura, Yu

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a discourse analytic study of how the concept of impartiality is socially constructed by members of the development aid community through an examination of linguistic traits and patterns within (a) inter- and intraorganizational interactions and (b) relevant aid evaluation policy documents. A qualitative analysis of…

  9. NELA: A Community Response to HIV/AIDS in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soyinka, Femi; Ogundare, Dipo; Olowookere, Kemi; Akinsola, Yemisi; Alade, Adeyemi; Moronkola, O. A.

    2004-01-01

    The greatest current threat to humanity, most especially in the developing countries of the world, is HIV/AIDS. The first case of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria was in 1986 in Lagos. Due to inaction and denial by the people, there was a rapid but subtle transmission of the virus within Nigeria's various populations and communities. Presently, the disease has…

  10. Financial Aid Tipping Points: An Analysis of Aid and Academic Achievement at a California Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coria, Elizabeth; Hoffman, John L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore relationships between financial aid awards and measures of student academic achievement. Financial aid and academic records for 11,956 students attending an urban California community college were examined and analyzed using simultaneous linear regression and two-way factorial ANOVAs. Findings revealed a…

  11. Financial Aid Tipping Points: An Analysis of Aid and Academic Achievement at a California Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coria, Elizabeth; Hoffman, John L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore relationships between financial aid awards and measures of student academic achievement. Financial aid and academic records for 11,956 students attending an urban California community college were examined and analyzed using simultaneous linear regression and two-way factorial ANOVAs. Findings revealed a…

  12. [A community project in India].

    PubMed

    Fridman, G

    1988-06-01

    A report is given of a visit to an Indian village community project which is supported by a small Swedish foundation. The project was started about 40 years ago by a female relative of Mahatma Gandhi. The community is a small village of about 2000 inhabitants and consists of an irrigated agricultural project, a school through 10th grade, a small hospital, a home for 140 poor or orphan girls and a nursery. The program employs 12 community health workers who have some healthcare training. Each worker cares for 200-250 households and usually knows his/her families well. Primary emphasis is on care of children which includes help with nutrition and a vaccination program. For every 4 community health workers there is an auxiliary nurse midwife who has 3 years special training following 10th grade. The midwives check up on pregnant women once a month through the 7th month, 2 visits in the 8th month and once/week in the 9th month. Undernourishment and anemia are the most common problems of pregnancy. Children are often born in the parents' home without any trained obstetric help. In spite of this, maternal mortality is very low. Even infection from childbirth is extremely rare. The visitor was particularly impressed by the respect and affection everyone in the village showed for children and for each other.

  13. An Ontario initiative to enhance the effectiveness of AIDS Service Organizations: Community-Linked Evaluation of AIDS Resources.

    PubMed

    Browne, Gina; Browne, Joseph A; McGee, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the rationale, process, and early outcomes of establishing a community-based research unit. The AIDS Bureau of the Ontario Provincial Government established the Community-Linked Evaluation of AIDS Resources Unit (CLEAR), which works in partnership with the AIDS Bureau and 31 of 74 AIDS Service Organizations (ASOs) in Ontario.

  14. NLM Workshop Marks 20 Years of Community Outreach and Capacity Building in HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    DANCY-SCOTT, NICOLE; DUTCHER, GALE A.; KESELMAN, ALIA; SIEGEL, ELLIOT R.

    2016-01-01

    The National Library of Medicine’s (NLM) AIDS Community Information Outreach Program (ACIOP) was launched in 1994 to provide the HIV/AIDS affected community with access to vital health information resources increasingly becoming available on the Internet. Three hundred awards have been made mostly to community-based organizations. An evaluation in 2012 found that most program objectives are being met; a principal recommendation going forward was that NLM seek to enhance the capacity of community-based awardees to conduct evaluations of their own projects. This article reports on a workshop whose invitees were drawn from AIDS serving organizations, along with scientists, clinicians, and information technologists, to review the evaluation findings and recommendations. They considered alternatives for improving awardees’ evaluation capabilities with the help of expert consultation, identified additional steps that could be taken to make individual project results more transparent and sharable, and looked at external influences ranging from mobile health devices to the latest HIV/AIDS scientific research findings that could be used to align future awards with unmet needs in the community. The paper identifies efforts subsequently made by ACIOP managers to prioritize and operationalize guidance from the evaluation and the workshop, and discusses the benefits of community engagement. PMID:27134585

  15. Community Health Aides in Grenada: A Proposed Experimental Training Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaur, Manjit; Mayfield, James B.

    1994-01-01

    Key factors of a model for training community health aides are (1) extended time for updating and reinforcing skills; (2) relevance to local situations; (3) group process and interpersonal communication training; (4) practical materials; and (5) participation of physicians, local health workers, and community leaders in rural health policy…

  16. Computer Aided Management for Information Processing Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akman, Ibrahim; Kocamustafaogullari, Kemal

    1995-01-01

    Outlines the nature of information processing projects and discusses some project management programming packages. Describes an in-house interface program developed to utilize a selected project management package (TIMELINE) by using Oracle Data Base Management System tools and Pascal programming language for the management of information system…

  17. Computer Aided Management for Information Processing Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akman, Ibrahim; Kocamustafaogullari, Kemal

    1995-01-01

    Outlines the nature of information processing projects and discusses some project management programming packages. Describes an in-house interface program developed to utilize a selected project management package (TIMELINE) by using Oracle Data Base Management System tools and Pascal programming language for the management of information system…

  18. Crossing borders: HIV / AIDS and migrant communities.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    The annual National Council for International Health Private Volunteer Organization (PVO)/AIDS workshop took place June 30, 1994, in Arlington, Virginia. About 90 representatives of PVOs, domestic and international nongovernmental organizations (NGO), universities, and research organizations were in attendance. Speakers presented both domestic and international perspectives upon the relationship between migration trends and HIV transmission. The keynote address spelled out the UN High Commission on Refugees' policy on HIV/AIDS: refugees are not a risk group per se, and they should benefit from the same control measures as the general host population; there will be no mandatory HIV screening in any population; and the rights of HIV-positive refugees against being deported and for asylum and eventual repatriation need to be protected. The following issues were presented at the workshop: an overview of HIV/AIDS and migration issues; STD/HIV control and prevention; HIV/AIDS among highly mobile populations along the Thailand/Myanmar border; migration trends in Phnom Penh, Cambodia; migrant farmworkers working in the US; changes in sexual practices among Mexican migrants to the US and their impact on the risk of HIV transmission; the importance of understanding the epidemiology, health-care seeking behaviors, and health beliefs of immigrants; the ability of PVOs and NGOs to provide effective HIV/AIDS prevention for refugees and migrants; the impact of political instability and civil strife on population movements and the prevalence of high-risk behaviors; and the important considerations needed for work with special target populations such as adolescents, women, mobile seasonal migrants, and urban residents.

  19. Financial Aid Facts at California Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for College Access & Success, 2010

    2010-01-01

    While California community college (CCC) system fees are much lower than tuition at community colleges in other states or other colleges in California, the total cost of attending a CCC--which includes books, housing, transportation, and food--is higher than most people realize. The illusion of low cost may lead CCC students to forgo valuable…

  20. Kansas Tree Program Aids Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullins, William S.

    1973-01-01

    Since State and Extension Forestry at Kansas State University received specific funding from the U.S. Forest Service for community forestry programs, the university has received requests for assistance from more than 200 Kansas towns. (GB)

  1. Challenges to achieving sustainable community health development within a donor aid business model.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, Helen; Barclay, Lesley

    2010-06-01

    This paper explores the paradox of donor aid being delivered through a business model through a case study in Papua New Guinea. A retrospective review of project implementation and an outcome evaluation provided an opportunity to examine the long-term results and sustainability of a large project. Analysis was informed by data collected from 175 interviews (national, provincial, district and village), 93 community discussions and observations across 10 provinces. Problems with the business model of delivering aid were evident from implementation data and in an evaluation conducted two years after project completion (2006). Compounding the business model effect were challenges of over-ambitious project goals with limited flexibility to adapt to changing circumstances, a donor payment system requiring short-term productivity and excessive reporting requirements. An overly ambitious project design, donor dominance within the business model and limited local counterpart capacity created problems in the community initiatives component of the project. Contractual pressures can negatively influence long-term outcomes that require development of local leadership and capacity. Future planning for donor project designs needs to be flexible, smaller in scope and have a longer timeframe of seven to 10 years. Donor-funded projects need to be sufficiently flexible to apply proven principles of community development, build local ownership and allow adequate time to build counterpart knowledge and skills.

  2. Bridges to Healthy Communities. AACC Project Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottenritter, Nan; Barnett, Lynn

    The Bridges to Healthy Communities project assists community colleges in offering education and information services that help prevent HIV infection and other serious health problems in students. The five-year Bridges project emphasizes service learning as a community-building and intervention strategy for preventing HIV infection. This initiative…

  3. The Project Dimension in Community Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, J. D. Ekundaye

    1994-01-01

    Describes three projects sponsored by the International Community Education Association: (1) functional literacy for railway workers in Ghana; (2) youth farmers' community development project in Ghana; and (3) participatory research in a community education and development network in Sierra Leone. (SK)

  4. The Project Dimension in Community Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, J. D. Ekundaye

    1994-01-01

    Describes three projects sponsored by the International Community Education Association: (1) functional literacy for railway workers in Ghana; (2) youth farmers' community development project in Ghana; and (3) participatory research in a community education and development network in Sierra Leone. (SK)

  5. Contributions of international cooperation projects to the HIV/AIDS response in China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiangping; Liu, Hui; Li, Hui; Wang, Liqiu; Guo, Haoyan; Shan, Duo; Bulterys, Marc; Korhonen, Christine; Hao, Yang; Ren, Minghui

    2010-01-01

    Background For 20 years, China has participated in 267 international cooperation projects against the HIV/AIDS epidemic and received ∼526 million USD from over 40 international organizations. These projects have played an important role by complementing national efforts in the fight against HIV/AIDS in China. Methods The diverse characteristics of these projects followed three phases over 20 years. Initially, stand-alone projects provided technical support in surveillance, training or advocacy for public awareness. As the epidemic spread across China, projects became a part of the comprehensive and integrated national response. Currently, international best practices encourage the inclusion of civil society and non-governmental organizations in an expanded response to the epidemic. Results Funding from international projects has accounted for one-third of the resources provided for the HIV/AIDS response in China. Beyond this strong financial support, these programmes have introduced best practices, accelerated the introduction of AIDS policies, strengthened capacity, improved the development of grassroots social organizations and established a platform for communication and experience sharing with the international community. However, there are still challenges ahead, including integrating existing resources and exploring new programme models. The National Centre for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention (NCAIDS) in China is consolidating all international projects into national HIV prevention, treatment and care activities. Conclusion International cooperation projects have been an invaluable component of China’s response to HIV/AIDS, and China has now been able to take this information and share its experiences with other countries with the help of these same international programmes. PMID:21113032

  6. Contributions of international cooperation projects to the HIV/AIDS response in China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiangping; Liu, Hui; Li, Hui; Wang, Liqiu; Guo, Haoyan; Shan, Duo; Bulterys, Marc; Korhonen, Christine; Hao, Yang; Ren, Minghui

    2010-12-01

    For 20 years, China has participated in 267 international cooperation projects against the HIV/AIDS epidemic and received ∼526 million USD from over 40 international organizations. These projects have played an important role by complementing national efforts in the fight against HIV/AIDS in China. The diverse characteristics of these projects followed three phases over 20 years. Initially, stand-alone projects provided technical support in surveillance, training or advocacy for public awareness. As the epidemic spread across China, projects became a part of the comprehensive and integrated national response. Currently, international best practices encourage the inclusion of civil society and non-governmental organizations in an expanded response to the epidemic. Funding from international projects has accounted for one-third of the resources provided for the HIV/AIDS response in China. Beyond this strong financial support, these programmes have introduced best practices, accelerated the introduction of AIDS policies, strengthened capacity, improved the development of grassroots social organizations and established a platform for communication and experience sharing with the international community. However, there are still challenges ahead, including integrating existing resources and exploring new programme models. The National Centre for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention (NCAIDS) in China is consolidating all international projects into national HIV prevention, treatment and care activities. International cooperation projects have been an invaluable component of China's response to HIV/AIDS, and China has now been able to take this information and share its experiences with other countries with the help of these same international programmes.

  7. Action Learning: Student Community Service Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronstein, Laurence W.; Olsen, Edward G.

    By engaging students in community service projects, action learning uses resources of the real world to give students opportunities to participate in performing tasks and making decisions that confront societal problems. Such projects should be decided on after a study of the needs of the community. After a project is selected, all relevant…

  8. The use of National Youth Service Corp members to build AIDS competent communities in rural Edo State Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Omorodion, Francisca; Akpede, Ese; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor; Agbontean-Eghafona, Kokunre; Onokerhoraye, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    This paper focuses on the community component of a larger action research project on HIV Prevention for Rural Youth (HP4RY), funded by the Global Health Research Initiative (Canada). It began with ethnographic research in 10 communities selected using geographic representative sampling and random assignment to one of three research arms. Using the AIDS Competent Community (ACC) model developed by Catherine Campbell, the ethnographic research identified factors in six domains that contributed to youth vulnerability to HIV infection. This was followed by recruitment, training and deployment of three overlapping cohorts of young adults (n = 40) serving in Nigeria's National Youth Service Corp (NYSC), to mobilize youth and adults in the communities to increase communities' AIDS competence over a nearly 2 year period. Monthly reports of these Corpers, observations of a Field Coordinator, and community feedback supported the conclusion that communities moved towards greater AIDS competence and reduction in youth vulnerability to HIV infection.

  9. HIV/AIDS Community Health Information System.

    PubMed

    Fulcher, Christopher L; Kaukinen, Catherine E

    2003-01-01

    Given changes in the faces of AIDS over the last decade, it is crucial that disparities in health and access to healthcare are addressed. An Internet-based GIS was developed using ESRI's Arc Internet Map Server (Arc IMS) to provide users with a suite of tools to interact with geographic data and conduct spatial analyses related to the characteristics that promote or impede the provision of HIV-related services. Internet Mapping allows those engaged in local decision-making to: (1) geographically visualize information via the Internet; (2) Assess the relationship between the distribution of HIV services and spatially referenced socio-economic data; and (3) generate "what if" scenarios" that may direct the allocation of healthcare resources.

  10. Adaptive Peircean decision aid project summary assessments.

    SciTech Connect

    Senglaub, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    This efforts objective was to identify and hybridize a suite of technologies enabling the development of predictive decision aids for use principally in combat environments but also in any complex information terrain. The technologies required included formal concept analysis for knowledge representation and information operations, Peircean reasoning to support hypothesis generation, Mill's's canons to begin defining information operators that support the first two technologies and co-evolutionary game theory to provide the environment/domain to assess predictions from the reasoning engines. The intended application domain is the IED problem because of its inherent evolutionary nature. While a fully functioning integrated algorithm was not achieved the hybridization and demonstration of the technologies was accomplished and demonstration of utility provided for a number of ancillary queries.

  11. Can local communities 'sustain' HIV/AIDS programmes? A South African example.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Andrew; Campbell, Catherine; Maimane, Sbongile

    2015-03-01

    Globally, there is a renewed interest in building the local sustainability of HIV/AIDS programmes to ensure that once funders withdraw, local communities can sustain programmes. While the 'local sustainability assumption' is widespread, little research has assessed this. In this article, we assess the sustainability of the Entabeni Project, a community-based intervention that sought to build women's local leadership and capacity to respond to HIV/AIDS through a group of volunteer carers, 3 years after external support was withdrawn. Overall, the sustainability of the Entabeni Project was limited. The wider social and political context undermined volunteer carers' sense that they could affect change, with little external support for them from government and NGOs, who struggled to engage with local community organizations. At the community level, some church leaders and community members recognized the important role of health volunteers, many continued to devalue the work of the carers, especially once there was no external organization to support and validate their work. Within the health volunteer group, despite extensive efforts to change dynamics, it remained dominated by a local male leader who denied others active participation while lacking the skills to meaningfully lead the project. Our case study suggests that the local-sustainability assumption is wishful thinking. Small-scale local projects are unlikely to be able to challenge the broader social and political dynamics hindering their sustainability without meaningful external support.

  12. Santa Ynez Chumash Community Energy Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Santa Ynez Band of Chumash Indians is an EPA Climate Showcase Community. EPA’s CSC Program helps local governments and tribal nations pilot innovative, cost-effective and replicable community-based greenhouse gas reduction projects.

  13. Prevention of HIV/AIDS Education in Rural Communities II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torabi, Mohammad R., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This second special issue of the Health Education Monograph Series on HIV/AIDS Prevention in Rural Communities presents seven articles: (1) "Preventing Maternal-Infant Transmission of HIV: Social and Ethical Issues" (James G. Anderson, Marilyn M. Anderson, and Tara Booth); (2) "HIV Infection in Diverse Rural Population: Migrant Farm…

  14. Community-Based AIDS Outreach Efforts to Migrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Linda J.; Jalloh, Mary Grenz

    The Forsyth County (North Carolina) Health Department's Health Education Division developed a community-based Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) outreach program for migrants. The Migrant/Hispanic Center in Kernersville, North Carolina operates under the auspice of the Catholic Diocese of Charlotte and provides services to Hispanic…

  15. Prevention of HIV/AIDS Education in Rural Communities III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torabi, Mohammad R., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This third special issue of the Health Education Monograph Series on HIV/AIDS Prevention in Rural Communities presents 9 articles on: "Rural Adolescent Views of HIV Prevention: Focus Groups at Two Indiana Rural 4-H Clubs" (William L. Yarber and Stephanie A. Sanders); "Implementing HIV Education: Beyond Curriculum" (Susan…

  16. Ethnic Minorities and Migrant Communities. Report on the Round Table and Satellite Meetings. International Congress on AIDS (9th, Berlin, Germany, June 6-11, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naz Foundation, London (England).

    The Naz Foundation sponsors a project on HIV and AIDS education, prevention, and support among South Asian, Turkish, Irani, and Arab communities in Europe. As immigrants, ethnic minorities, and refugees, these people are not isolated from the societies in which they live, and are just as vulnerable as any other community to AIDS. A conference on…

  17. Community Family Day Care Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Oaks Coll., Pasadena, CA.

    The final six months of the Community Family Day Care Project are reported, together with a summary of the total project, recommendations for the future, and an analysis of the cost of replicating such a project. In the final six months of the project, the staff was concerned with building supports for the self-help organization Women Attentive to…

  18. Hearing Aids and Room Acoustics: an Entrepreneurial Physics Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caner, Edward

    2002-10-01

    We present an acoustics-based physics entrepreneurship project that identifies problems associated with hearing aids and listening environments such as restaurants and churches. The proposed company "Earcrafters" deals with the alarmingly low market penetration of hearing aids--especially amongst baby boomers--in two key ways: 1) Offering hearing instruments that "sound better" by way of improved frequency response throughout the audio spectrum and 2) applying marketing forces to effectively change the public perception that hearing aids are bulky and tinny-sounding. In contrast, the proposed company "US Sound" recognizes low hearing aid market penetration as a trend that will continue. The company is developing efficient methods to improve the acoustical environment of public areas such as restaurants and churches in order to fill the demand of baby boomers with hearing impairment--a number that has reached staggering proportions.

  19. HIV / AIDS and STD among seafarers. Project update.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, W

    1999-01-01

    In response to the need for HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted disease (STD) information and support among seafarers, a regional project involving train-the-trainer workshops are being implemented in Vanuatu, Fiji Islands, Tuvalu, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Kiribati, Samoa, Federated States of Micronesia, Marshall Islands, and in Kavieng, Papua New Guinea. The project aims to build the capacity of the maritime training schools and partner agencies to provide high quality HIV/AIDS and STD training through the regional maritime training schools and colleges. In addition, the workshops aim to provide comprehensive information about HIV/AIDS and STDs and to further develop the training and education skills of participants. Condom is the main topic of the lectures, discussions, group works, brainstorms, role plays, questions and answers, games, participant presentations, and film showings. Informal feedback and formal evaluation on the workshops delivered have been excellent.

  20. The Use of Health Aides in Migrant Health Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, Wilbur

    Intended for migrant project administrators and other professional workers, this document contains recommendations developed from a nationwide study for evaluating the utilization and effectiveness of health aides (indigenous workers) in migrant health programs. Recommendations are provided for five major phases of activity essential for effective…

  1. New UN projections include local effects of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Kalish, S

    1992-10-01

    Reaching 5.5 billion in mid-1992, global population is basically on track with population projections made in 1990. About 60% of the world's population currently lives in ten countries; China and India together comprise 38% of the total. At the growth rate of 1.7%, 750 million people will be added to the world by the end of the decade, with populations of less developed countries growing four times faster than those in the more developed regions. Although the overall growth rate is as projected, all is not as expected at the country level. Compared with 1990 estimates, several African countries are growing more slowly than expected, largely due to AIDS. It is noted, however, that the UN's projected effects of the AIDS epidemic on population size are modest compared to recent speculation that AIDS could halt population growth in Africa. Latin America is also growing slower than expected due to a faster than expected decline in fertility. China is growing a bit faster than expected and India is growing a bit slower. With its 1992 revisions, the UN Population Division for the first time took into account the potential demographic impact of the AIDS pandemic. Life expectancies have been adjusted downward in the 15 countries where AIDS has the highest prevalence: Benin, Burundi, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, Zaire, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. AIDS could reduce population growth by 20 million in these countries over the next 25 years. Population growth rates will nonetheless remain strongly positive in the next few decades with the rapid pace of fertility affecting future population growth far more than mortality or any other demographic parameter. The new projections also take into account recent international migration and sweeping global political changes.

  2. Operational hydrological projections to aid decision making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnetler, Thomas; Davis, Richard; Waddingham, John; James, Karen

    2014-05-01

    The Environment Agency of England has wide ranging responsibility for environmental regulation that includes both water resources management and flood management. In order to best fulfil its role decisions need to be taken using the best available evidence in the time available. The manipulation of large amounts of hydrological data in a way that best meets the needs of decision makers is a complex challenge. Not only should any analysis be technically robust but it should also be presented in a way that communicates key messages clearly and quickly. The Environment Agency and its predecessor organisations has a long history of working with hydrological data but in recent years there has been a need to better incorporate risk and uncertainty into hydrological analysis so that subsequent decisions can take this into account. In the face of recent extreme weather events, there has been an increasing demand for forward look projections from water resource and flood risk practitioners, decision makers and contingency planners. These assessments are required to give appropriate lead in time to allow risk mitigation measures to be implemented to minimise impact upon people, the environment and infrastructure. This presentation will outline the methodologies developed by the Environment Agency to produce and publish monthly routine forward look projections using both a scenario and climate ensemble approach. It will cover how information is disseminated, providing a good example of communicating science to decision makers and to the public. Examples of practical applications of these methodologies include: • Risk based planning and forecasting of water availability for inter basin water transfers into water stressed catchments. • Assessment of water resources prospects during droughts for people and the environment • The likelihood and medium term risk of high groundwater levels impacting upon people and infrastructure. There are also a number of future challenges

  3. The Role of Community Advisory Boards in Project Eban

    PubMed Central

    Mott, Louisa; Crawford, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe the theoretical principles that guided the establishment of Project Eban’s Community Advisory Boards (CABs), their functions, and composition; the selection and recruitment processes; lessons learned; and recommendations on the use of CABs in multisite HIV clinical trial studies. Methods In the first year of Project Eban’s implementation, each of the 4 sites formed a local CAB. Member recruitment took place during the first 6 months of the study. On average, each site’s CAB consisted of 13–19 stakeholders, with a total of 62 members for the multisite study, including leaders of HIV/AIDS-related CBOs, hospital-based HIV/AIDS service providers, HIV/AIDS network leaders in minority communities, CBOs that serve predominantly black communities, and consumers. Results Each of the CAB members has expressed a strong commitment to assisting in the conduct of the research. CABs are integral to the success of the study, and their input is highly respected and used to improve the quality of the research. Conclusions This article highlights the importance of CABs in the conduct of HIV clinical trials and their roles in making the study culturally congruent to meet the needs of the black community in dealing with the HIV epidemic. PMID:18724193

  4. Community Norms about Suppression of HIV/AIDS Prejudice and Perceptions of Stigma by People with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Carol T.; Grover, Kristin W.; Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Solomon, Sondra E.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between reports by 203 people with HIV/AIDS in New England communities about their experiences with stigma and reports by 2,444 randomly selected residents of those same communities about their motivation to control HIV/AIDS prejudice. Multi-level regression analyses revealed that the disclosure concerns of participants with HIV/AIDS were lower in communities in which residents were motivated by personal values to control HIV/AIDS prejudice, and were higher in communities in which residents were motivated by social pressure to control HIV/AIDS prejudice. Reported experiences with discrimination and exclusion were unrelated to these community motivations. These results suggest that the realities of the communities in which stigmatized people live shape their perceptions of stigmatization. PMID:21478473

  5. Integrating Community into the Classroom: Community Gardening, Community Involvement, and Project-Based Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langhout, Regina Day; Rappaport, Julian; Simmons, Doretha

    2002-01-01

    Culturally relevant, ongoing project-based learning was facilitated in a predominantly African American urban elementary school via a community garden project. The project involved teachers, students, university members, and community members. This article evaluates the project through two classroom-community collaboration models, noting common…

  6. The Community Education Project: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beachler, Judith Anne

    This paper outlines aspects of a community education project, which involved the Community College of Allegheny County (CCAC) and other educational institutions and community service agencies in Pittsburgh in the provision of adult and continuing education and adult and family recreation programs. After section I provides background information on…

  7. The Community Education Project: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beachler, Judith Anne

    This paper outlines aspects of a community education project, which involved the Community College of Allegheny County (CCAC) and other educational institutions and community service agencies in Pittsburgh in the provision of adult and continuing education and adult and family recreation programs. After section I provides background information on…

  8. Application of expert systems in project management decision aiding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Regina; Shaffer, Steven; Stokes, James; Goldstein, David

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of developing an expert systems-based project management decision aid to enhance the performance of NASA project managers was assessed. The research effort included extensive literature reviews in the areas of project management, project management decision aiding, expert systems technology, and human-computer interface engineering. Literature reviews were augmented by focused interviews with NASA managers. Time estimation for project scheduling was identified as the target activity for decision augmentation, and a design was developed for an Integrated NASA System for Intelligent Time Estimation (INSITE). The proposed INSITE design was judged feasible with a low level of risk. A partial proof-of-concept experiment was performed and was successful. Specific conclusions drawn from the research and analyses are included. The INSITE concept is potentially applicable in any management sphere, commercial or government, where time estimation is required for project scheduling. As project scheduling is a nearly universal management activity, the range of possibilities is considerable. The INSITE concept also holds potential for enhancing other management tasks, especially in areas such as cost estimation, where estimation-by-analogy is already a proven method.

  9. Community participation in AIDS vaccine trials: empowerment or science?

    PubMed

    Swartz, Leslie; Kagee, Ashraf

    2006-09-01

    For future AIDS vaccines to be successfully tested and implemented, extensive participation in vaccine trials will be necessary. Central to the challenges associated with such participation is concern for protection of participant wellbeing. This short report examines the tension that is sometimes found between the pragmatic need for recruitment into trials, and a more general social good concerning community participation in health. Community empowerment and trial participation are sometimes assumed to go hand in hand, but are potentially contradictory. Recognizing the possible disjunction between empowerment and trial participation allows for clearer discussion of and planning for ethical, scientifically valid trials.

  10. The role of community context in planning and implementing community-based health promotion projects.

    PubMed

    Kegler, Michelle C; Rigler, Jessica; Honeycutt, Sally

    2011-08-01

    The current study examines how community context affected collaborative planning and implementation in eight sites participating in a healthy cities and communities initiative in California. Data are from 23 focus groups conducted with coalition members, and 76 semi-structured interviews with local coordinators and community leaders. Multiple case study methods were used to identify major themes related to how five contextual domains influenced collaborative planning and implementation. Results showed that history of collaboration can influence resources and interpersonal and organizational connections available for planning and implementation, as well as priorities selected for action. Community politics and history can affect which segments of the community participate in a planning process and what issues are prioritized, as well as the pool of partners willing to aid in implementation. Some community norms and values bring people together and others appear to limit involvement from certain groups. Community demographics and economic conditions may shape outreach strategies for planning and implementation, and may also shape priorities. Geography can play a role in assessment methods, priority selection, partners available to aid in implementation, and participation in activities and events. Results suggest that community context plays a substantive role in shaping how community-based health promotion projects unfold.

  11. The impact of aid chains: relations of dependence or supportive partnerships for community-led responses to HIV/AIDS?

    PubMed

    Aveling, E L

    2010-01-01

    In the context of increasing global emphasis on partnerships between international, governmental and civil society organisations in the distribution of international aid, this paper examines the ways in which the resulting aid chains promote and undermine community-led responses to HIV/AIDS. The impact of the aid-granting system is examined using an ethnographic case study of an HIV/AIDS prevention programme with Cambodian military families. The case study draws on observations of stakeholder meetings and programme activities, interviews with stakeholders (the donor, NGOs and military community) and textual materials (programme guidelines, policies and reports). Campbell et al.'s interrelated concepts of relational, symbolic and material context are used to frame the analysis. The establishment of a relationship with a more powerful international NGO is shown to be beneficial to the military community and civil society groups. The international NGO uses its significant material and economic leverage to improve the community's relational context (by ensuring the support of the military high command), symbolic context (by strengthening the position of community and civil society partners in relation to government bodies) and material context (through increasing access to health services). However, material and symbolic asymmetries between partners in the aid chain persist, curtailing the community's involvement and leadership. At the material and relational levels, the hierarchical flow of aid encourages accountability to the demands of the donor while excluding grassroots groups from directly accessing funding. At the symbolic level, problem-focused representations of the military further reinforce the community's position as recipients of intervention, which undermines recognition for the community's knowledge, strengths and right to fully participate. Thus while aid chains can be supportive of community-led responses, this analysis highlights how the structures

  12. A project to reduce the burden of diabetes in the African-American Community: Project DIRECT.

    PubMed Central

    Engelgau, M. M.; Narayan, K. M.; Geiss, L. S.; Thompson, T. J.; Beckles, G. L.; Lopez, L.; Hartwell, T.; Visscher, W.; Liburd, L.

    1998-01-01

    Project DIRECT (Diabetes Interventions Reaching and Educating Communities Together) is the first comprehensive community diabetes demonstration project in the United States in an African-American community. This article describes its intervention components and evaluation design. The development and implementation of Project DIRECT has included the community since the project's beginning. Interventions are targeted in three areas: health promotion (improving diet and physical activity levels), outreach (improving diabetes awareness, detection of undiagnosed diabetes, and ensuring that persons with diabetes who are not receiving continuing diabetes care are integrated into the health-care system), and diabetes care (improving self-care, increasing access, and improving the quality of diabetes preventive care received within the health-care system). Evaluation will be internal (conducted by Project DIRECT staff to assess process outcomes in persons directly exposed to each specific intervention) and external (review of outcomes to assess the impact of the multi-intervention program at the level of the entire community). Because diabetes exacts a disproportionate toll among African Americans, the findings from this project should aid in developing strategies to lessen the burden of this disorder, particularly among minority populations. PMID:9803725

  13. A project to reduce the burden of diabetes in the African-American Community: Project DIRECT.

    PubMed

    Engelgau, M M; Narayan, K M; Geiss, L S; Thompson, T J; Beckles, G L; Lopez, L; Hartwell, T; Visscher, W; Liburd, L

    1998-10-01

    Project DIRECT (Diabetes Interventions Reaching and Educating Communities Together) is the first comprehensive community diabetes demonstration project in the United States in an African-American community. This article describes its intervention components and evaluation design. The development and implementation of Project DIRECT has included the community since the project's beginning. Interventions are targeted in three areas: health promotion (improving diet and physical activity levels), outreach (improving diabetes awareness, detection of undiagnosed diabetes, and ensuring that persons with diabetes who are not receiving continuing diabetes care are integrated into the health-care system), and diabetes care (improving self-care, increasing access, and improving the quality of diabetes preventive care received within the health-care system). Evaluation will be internal (conducted by Project DIRECT staff to assess process outcomes in persons directly exposed to each specific intervention) and external (review of outcomes to assess the impact of the multi-intervention program at the level of the entire community). Because diabetes exacts a disproportionate toll among African Americans, the findings from this project should aid in developing strategies to lessen the burden of this disorder, particularly among minority populations.

  14. Population projections for AIDS using an actuarial model.

    PubMed

    Wilkie, A D

    1989-09-05

    This paper gives details of a model for forecasting AIDS, developed for actuarial purposes, but used also for population projections. The model is only appropriate for homosexual transmission, but it is age-specific, and it allows variation in the transition intensities by age, duration in certain states and calendar year. The differential equations controlling transitions between states are defined, the method of numerical solution is outlined, and the parameters used in five different Bases of projection are given in detail. Numerical results for the population of England and Wales are shown.

  15. Student-Community Partnerships: Advocating Community Enterprise Projects in Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckingham-Hatfield, Susan

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that community enterprise projects help students develop academic, personal, and transferable skills, while enabling underfunded not-for-profit groups to achieve some of their goals. Provides several examples of programs and suggests methods of improvement. (MJP)

  16. The Community Collaboration Stakeholder Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Renee Guarriello

    2010-01-01

    Today's increasingly complex and diverse world demands 21st century communication skills to solve community and social justice problems. Interorganizational collaboration is at the heart of much community activism, such as that focused on solving environmental disputes, eradicating racially discriminating real estate practices, and bringing early…

  17. The Community Collaboration Stakeholder Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Renee Guarriello

    2010-01-01

    Today's increasingly complex and diverse world demands 21st century communication skills to solve community and social justice problems. Interorganizational collaboration is at the heart of much community activism, such as that focused on solving environmental disputes, eradicating racially discriminating real estate practices, and bringing early…

  18. Community theater and AIDS education in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Evian, C

    1992-01-01

    Community theater is being effectively utilized as a vehicle for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) education by the Johannesburg City Health Department. A drama developed and produced by the Department's AIDS Prevention Program in 1989 has been presented to over 20,000 people, at factories, canteens, clinics, parks, and community events. The drama, which revolves around a group of friends living in an urban South African township, includes scenes at the workplace, a health clinic, and disco. A central theme is negotiation of condom use. The event concludes with a discussion period with the actors, all of whom are health workers. Questions that frequently emerge in these discussions are worked into subsequent presentations of the drama. The drama allows the awkwardness of using a condom for the first time to be demonstrated in a way that is nonthreatening to the audience and does not evoke the intimidation often present in the health worker-client relationship. In addition to overcoming problems of information inaccessibility and unreliability, drama offers a means of conveying AIDS prevention messages in a culturally sensitive manner.

  19. The Utilization of Social Media in the Hearing Aid Community.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Moumita; Dinger, Zoë; Fichera, Elena

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the utilization of social media by the hearing aid (HA) community. The purpose of this survey was to analyze the participation of HA community in the social media websites. A systematic survey of online HA-related social media sources was conducted. Such sources were identified using appropriate search terms. Social media participation was quantified on the basis of posts and "likes." Five hundred fifty-seven social media sources were identified, including 174 Twitter accounts, 172 YouTube videos, 91 Facebook pages, 20 Facebook groups, 71 blogs, and 29 forums. Twitter and YouTube platforms showed the highest level of activity among social media users. The HA-related community used social media sources for advice and support, information sharing, and service-related information. HA users, other individuals, and organizations interested in HAs leave their digital footprint on a wide variety of social media sources. The community connects, offers support, and shares information on a variety of HA-related issues. The HA community is as active in social media utilization as other groups, such as the cochlear implant community, even though the patterns of their social media use are different because of their unique needs.

  20. [AIDS in Madagascar. I. Epidemiology, projections, socioeconomic impact, interventions].

    PubMed

    Andriamahenina, R; Ravelojaona, B; Rarivoharilala, E; Ravaoarimalala, C; Andriamiadana, J; Andriamahefazafy, B; May, J F; Behets, F; Rasamindrakotroka, A

    1998-01-01

    which is the prevention of the epidemic not to be exploded in a near future. For this, struggle against it is particularly effective on its start. In addition to counselling given to infected people and care-given to patients, means of prevention of AIDS contamination in all target groups must be set up quickly. It is about broadcasting information on AIDS, community education, controlling other STDs e.g. (importance of medicaments' program), promoting the use of condoms and screening HIV new cases. Only an urgent coordination of everyone's efforts can control the epidemic of AIDS.

  1. Helping Community College Students Cope with Financial Emergencies: Lessons from the Dreamkeepers and Angel Fund Emergency Financial Aid Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geckeler, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Lumina Foundation for Education created the Dreamkeepers and Angel Fund Emergency Financial Aid Programs to assist community college students who are at risk of dropping out because of unexpected financial crises. Both programs are multiyear pilot projects that began in 2005 and are administered by Scholarship America and the American Indian…

  2. Community Connections: The Madonna Center Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junco, Carol; Cook, Gillian

    1998-01-01

    Explores benefits derived from the "Gardendale Family" (a vertically aligned team of K-6 classrooms in which students remain throughout their elementary school careers). Highlights a community-based research project which served as a vehicle for fostering cross-age learning opportunities, connecting students' learning to their community,…

  3. Westlawn Keys to Community. Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Susan; Dedrick, Angie; Mitchell, Graham

    This report describes a project initiated at Westlawn Junior High School, Edmonton (Canada), in which the Community Development Office of Capital Health (CDO) worked with students using the asset-based community building approach. Focus was on the discovery, connection, and mobilization of the students' assets and gifts and connecting these with…

  4. A Participatory Public Art Project: Community Bridge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Pam

    2005-01-01

    This article introduces Community Bridge, a participatory public art project that brought together artists and residents to address aesthetic needs of an urban environment. The Community Bridge is an exemplary work of art by American artist William Cochran. In addition to creating a natural gathering place for residents of all ages, the bridge is…

  5. Community College Technical Mathematics Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Self, Samuel L.

    The purpose of the research project was to develop an applied or technical mathematics curriculum which would meet the needs of vocational-technical students at the community college level. The research project was divided into three distinct phases: Identifying the mathematical concepts requisite for job-entry competencies in each of the…

  6. Getting Started. Becoming Part of the AIDS Solution. A Guide for Hispanic Community-Based Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fimbres, Manuel F.; McKay, Emily Gantz

    This guide is designed to help Hispanic community-based organizations (CBOs) begin Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) education and prevention activities. The following barriers to AIDS education in the Hispanic community are outlined: (1) the perception that AIDS is a gay, white, male disease; (2) the social stigma associated with…

  7. Financial Aid and Persistence in Community Colleges: Assessing the Effectiveness of Federal and State Financial Aid Programs in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Pilar; Mendez, Jesse P.; Malcolm, Zaria

    2009-01-01

    Using a longitudinal, state-wide dataset, this study assessed the effect of financial aid on the persistence of full-time students in associate's degree programs at the Oklahoma community colleges. Three financial-aid sources were examined: the Oklahoma Higher Learning Access Program (OHLAP), Pell grants, and Stafford loans. Results indicate that…

  8. Community College Students' Experiences with Financial Aid Policies and Practices: A Critical Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    This case study describes community college students' experiences with governmental financial aid policies and institutional financial aid processes at an urban community college campus in the Northeastern United States. Drawing from theories of social justice, conceptions of social capital, and institutionalist analyses of the community college…

  9. Reflections of the Community: The Community Aide and Consumer and Homemaking Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whisler, Lois

    To further the development and refinement of a model to utilize paraprofessionals in conducting a needs assessment of disadvantaged youth for consumer and homemaking education, curriculum guides from the nine schools involved in the project were analyzed and pre- and post-assessment questionnaires devised and administered to the aides and teachers…

  10. Evaluation of Mental Health First Aid training with members of the Vietnamese community in Melbourne, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Minas, Harry; Colucci, Erminia; Jorm, Anthony F

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of this project was to investigate in members of the Vietnamese community in Melbourne the impact of Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training on attitudes to people with mental illness and on knowledge about mental disorders. Our hypotheses were that at the end of the training participants would have increased knowledge of mental disorders and their treatments, and decreased negative attitudes towards people with mental disorders. Methods Respondents were 114 participants in two-day MHFA training workshops for the Vietnamese community in Melbourne conducted by two qualified MHFA trainers. Participants completed the research questionnaire prior to the commencement of the training (pre-test) and at its completion (post-test). The questionnaires assessed negative attitudes towards people with mental illness (as described in four vignettes), ability to recognise the mental disorders described in the vignettes, and knowledge about how to assist someone with one of these disorders. Responses to open-ended questions were content analysed and coded. To evaluate the effect of the training, answers to the structured questions and to the coded open-ended questions given at pre- and post-test were compared using McNemar tests for dichotomous values and Wilcoxon tests for other scores. Results Between pre- and post-test there was significant improvement in recognition of mental disorders; more targeted and appropriate mental health first aid responses, and reduction in inappropriate first aid responses; and negative attitudes to the people described in the vignettes declined significantly on many items of the stigma scale. Conclusion A two-day, MHFA training course for general members of the Vietnamese community in Melbourne demonstrated significant reductions in stigmatising attitudes, improved knowledge of mental disorders and improved knowledge about appropriate forms of assistance to give to people in the community with mental disorder. There is sufficient

  11. SIRTF - Key Projects and Community Participation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bicay, M.; Gehrz, R.; Caroff, L.; Jura, M.; Pipher, J. L.; Werner, M.; Young, E.

    1994-05-01

    SIRTF - the Space Infrared Telescope Facility - will be an observatory for the entire scientific community, but the modes of community participation may be somewhat different from those used on previous astrophysics missions. The limited lifetime of the mission demands the development of a highly efficient observing program that will maximize the scientific return. To achieve this goal, the SIRTF scientific program will probably consist largely of Key Projects - large scale targeted and unbiased spectroscopic and imaging surveys - supplemented by General Observer and Archival Research opportunities. Possible forms of community participation in the SIRTF program include: 1. Planning and preparation through collaboration in the definition of community roles and in the definition of the structure of the Key Projects Program. 2. Collaboration in SIRTF's Key Projects. Key Project investigations and investigators will be chosen by peer review several years before launch. Investigators will work with the instrument and operations teams in defining and preparing for their observations. 3. Participation in the General Observer Program. Selected General Observers will bear much of the responsibility for planning their observational programs and reducing the data. 4. Archival Research. We anticipate starting the archival research program during the mission while the spacecraft is still operating and adding data to the archive. The poster will describe these modes of participation in greater detail and serve as a focal point for discussion of the community's role in SIRTF.

  12. The Greater Involvement of People Living with AIDS principle: theory versus practice in Ontario's HIV/AIDS community-based research sector.

    PubMed

    Travers, R; Wilson, M G; Flicker, S; Guta, A; Bereket, T; McKay, C; van der Meulen, A; Cleverly, S; Dickie, M; Globerman, J; Rourke, S B

    2008-07-01

    Drawing on the Greater Involvement of People with HIV/AIDS (GIPA) principle, the HIV/AIDS movement began to "democratize" research in Canada in the mid-1990s. To date, there is little evidence about the success of the community-based research (CBR) movement in relation to the implementation of GIPA. We draw on findings from a larger study examining barriers and facilitating factors in relation to HIV-related CBR in Ontario, Canada. An online survey was completed by 39 senior managers in Ontario AIDS service organizations (ASOs). Twenty-five in-depth, semi-structured interviews were then conducted to further explore the survey findings. Survey respondents reported that, compared to researchers and frontline service providers, people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) tended to be the least involved in all stages (input, process and outcome) of CBR projects. AIDS service organizations with a mandate that included serving rural and urban communities reported even lower levels of PLWHA involvement in CBR. Qualitative data reveal complex barriers that make meaningful PLWHA engagement in CBR difficult, including: HIV-related stigma; health-related challenges; "credentialism"; lack of capacity to engage in research; other issues taking priority; and mistrust of researchers. Facilitating factors included valuing lived experience; training and mentoring opportunities; financial compensation; trust building; and accommodating PLWHA's needs. While there is strong support for the GIPA principles in theory, practice lags far behind.

  13. 23 CFR 630.709 - Conversion to a regular Federal-aid project.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... incurred, provided the project agreement has been executed. If the State Department of Transportation has... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conversion to a regular Federal-aid project. 630.709... TRAFFIC OPERATIONS PRECONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES Advance Construction of Federal-Aid Projects § 630.709...

  14. Teaching wilderness first aid in a remote First Nations community: the story of the Sachigo Lake Wilderness Emergency Response Education Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Born, Karen; Orkin, Aaron; VanderBurgh, David; Beardy, Jackson

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand how community members of a remote First Nations community respond to an emergency first aid education programme. Study design A qualitative study involving focus groups and participant observation as part of a community-based participatory research project, which involved the development and implementation of a wilderness first aid course in collaboration with the community. Methods Twenty community members participated in the course and agreed to be part of the research focus groups. Three community research partners validated and reviewed the data collected from this process. These data were coded and analysed using open coding. Results Community members responded to the course in ways related to their past experiences with injury and first aid, both as individuals and as members of the community. Feelings of confidence and self-efficacy related access to care and treatment of injury surfaced during the course. Findings also highlighted how the context of the remote First Nations community influenced the delivery and development of course materials. Conclusions Developing and delivering a first aid course in a remote community requires sensitivity towards the response of participants to the course, as well as the context in which it is being delivered. Employing collaborative approaches to teaching first aid can aim to address these unique needs. Though delivery of a first response training programme in a small remote community will probably not impact the morbidity and mortality associated with injury, it has the potential to impact community self-efficacy and confidence when responding to an emergency situation. PMID:23110258

  15. Tailoring Community-Based Wellness Initiatives With Latent Class Analysis — Massachusetts Community Transformation Grant Projects

    PubMed Central

    Reardon, Timothy; Vogel, Joshua; Andrews, Bonnie K.; Li, Wenjun; Land, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Community-based approaches to preventing chronic diseases are attractive because of their broad reach and low costs, and as such, are integral components of health care reform efforts. Implementing community-based initiatives across Massachusetts’ municipalities presents both programmatic and evaluation challenges. For effective delivery and evaluation of the interventions, establishing a community typology that groups similar municipalities provides a balanced and cost-effective approach. Methods Through a series of key informant interviews and exploratory data analysis, we identified 55 municipal-level indicators of 6 domains for the typology analysis. The domains were health behaviors and health outcomes, housing and land use, transportation, retail environment, socioeconomics, and demographic composition. A latent class analysis was used to identify 10 groups of municipalities based on similar patterns of municipal-level indicators across the domains. Results Our model with 10 latent classes yielded excellent classification certainty (relative entropy = .995, minimum class probability for any class = .871), and differentiated distinct groups of municipalities based on health-relevant needs and resources. The classes differentiated healthy and racially and ethnically diverse urban areas from cities with similar population densities and diversity but worse health outcomes, affluent communities from lower-income rural communities, and mature suburban areas from rapidly suburbanizing communities with different healthy-living challenges. Conclusion Latent class analysis is a tool that may aid in the planning, communication, and evaluation of community-based wellness initiatives such as Community Transformation Grants projects administrated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. PMID:24524425

  16. Connect to protect and the creation of AIDS-competent communities.

    PubMed

    Reed, Sarah J; Miller, Robin Lin

    2013-06-01

    The development of community capacity is integral to reducing the burden of HIV in high-risk populations (Kippax, 2012). This study examines how coalitions addressing structural level determinants of HIV among youth are generating community capacity and creating AIDS-competent communities. AIDS-competent communities are defined as communities that can facilitate sexual behavior change, reduce HIV/AIDS–related stigma, support people living with HIV/AIDS, and cooperate in HIV–related prevention practices. This study shows how the coalitions are fostering the resources indicative of AIDS-competent communities: knowledge and skills, enhanced dialogue among relevant sectors of the community, local ownership of a problem, confidence in local strengths, solidarity or bonding social capital, and bridging partnerships. These data show that the coalitions catalyzed several outcomes aside from the completion of their structural changes. Coalition members are developing the skills, resources, and relationships that can ostensibly build a heightened community response to HIV prevention.

  17. International Distance Education: The Digital Communities Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard-Vital, Michelle R.; Rosenkoetter, Marlene

    This paper describes the participation of the University of North Carolina at Wilmington (UNCW) in the virtual university component of the Digital Communities Project in Japan. It examines the characteristics of an experimental, international, distance-learning collaboration and explores the politics and practicalities related to international…

  18. A Telecommunications-Infused Community Action Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, Thomas; Puma, Jessica

    1996-01-01

    The Nonprofit Prophets, a telecommunications-infused community action project, was designed for high school students. Students were teamed with a nonprofit organization and produced videoconferences or Web sites for them. Although specific skills were acquired, students also gained confidence and self-esteem as well as a belief that they…

  19. Approximated affine projection algorithm for feedback cancellation in hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangmin; Kim, In-Young; Park, Young-Cheol

    2007-09-01

    We propose an approximated affine projection (AP) algorithm for feedback cancellation in hearing aids. It is based on the conventional approach using the Gauss-Seidel (GS) iteration, but provides more stable convergence behaviour even with small step sizes. In the proposed algorithm, a residue of the weighted error vector, instead of the current error sample, is used to provide stable convergence. A new learning rate control scheme is also applied to the proposed algorithm to prevent signal cancellation and system instability. The new scheme determines step size in proportion to the prediction factor of the input, so that adaptation is inhibited whenever tone-like signals are present in the input. Simulation results verified the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  20. Vida/SIDA: A Grassroots Response to AIDS in Chicago's Puerto Rican Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanabria, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    Chicago's Puerto Rican community in West Town had a unique reaction to the spread of AIDS within its limits. They created their own institutions and tackled the epidemic themselves. In its infancy, Vida/SIDA, which translates as Life/AIDS, was solely an alternative health clinic for people with AIDS. Free of charge, it provided services such as…

  1. The Moving Target: Student Financial Aid and Community College Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennamer, Michael A.; Katsinas, Stephen G.; Schumacker, Randall E.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews recent literature on student financial aid as a retention tool at community colleges. Enrollment and tuition data from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), and federal direct grant student aid data from the IPEDS Student Financial Aid Survey are used to…

  2. Vida/SIDA: A Grassroots Response to AIDS in Chicago's Puerto Rican Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanabria, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    Chicago's Puerto Rican community in West Town had a unique reaction to the spread of AIDS within its limits. They created their own institutions and tackled the epidemic themselves. In its infancy, Vida/SIDA, which translates as Life/AIDS, was solely an alternative health clinic for people with AIDS. Free of charge, it provided services such as…

  3. The HIV/AIDS Epidemic in African American Communities: Lessons from UNAIDS and Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okigbo, Charles; Okigbo, Carol A.; Hall, William B., Jr.; Ziegler, Dhyana

    2002-01-01

    Both African states and African American communities can benefit from a new communication framework that the United Nations Global AIDS Program and the Pennsylvania State University developed to combat the HIV/AIDS pandemic. The framework contains five universal values recommended for AIDS intervention programs worldwide (government policies,…

  4. At the intersection of HIV/AIDS and cancer: a qualitative needs assessment of community-based HIV/AIDS service organizations.

    PubMed

    Burkhalter, Jack E; Cahill, Sean; Shuk, Elyse; Guidry, John; Corner, Geoffrey; Berk, Alexandra; Candelario, Norman; Kornegay, Mark; Lubetkin, Erica I

    2013-08-01

    Due to advances in treatment, persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are living longer, but with aging, immune deficits, and lifestyle factors, they are at increased risk for cancer. This challenges community-based AIDS service organizations (ASOs) to address the growing cancer needs of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Community-based participatory research was applied to engage ASOs in exploring their capacities and needs for integrating cancer-focused programming into their services. Focus groups were conducted with a community advisory board (CAB) representing 10 community-based organizations serving PLWHA. Three 90-minute, serial focus groups were conducted with a mean number of seven participants. Topics explored CAB members' organizational capacities and needs in cancer prevention, detection, treatment, and survivorship. Transcript analyses identified six themes: (a) agencies have limited experience with cancer-focused programs, which were not framed as cancer specific; (b) agencies need resources and collaborative partnerships to effectively incorporate cancer services; (c) staff and clients must be educated about the relevance of cancer to HIV/AIDS; (d) agencies want to know about linkages between HIV/AIDS and cancer; (e) cancer care providers should be culturally competent; and (f) agencies see opportunities to improve their services through research participation but are wary. Agency capacities were strong in relationships with clients and cultural competency, a holistic view of PLWHA health, expertise in prevention activities, and eagerness to be on the cutting edge of knowledge. Cancer education and prevention were of greatest interest and considered most feasible, suggesting that future projects develop accordingly. These findings suggest a high level of receptivity to expanding or initiating cancer-focused activities but with a clear need for education and awareness building

  5. At the Intersection of HIV/AIDS and Cancer: A Qualitative Needs Assessment of Community-Based HIV/AIDS Service Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Burkhalter, Jack E.; Cahill, Sean; Shuk, Elyse; Guidry, John; Corner, Geoffrey; Berk, Alexandra; Candelario, Norman; Kornegay, Mark; Lubetkin, Erica I.

    2014-01-01

    Due to advances in treatment, persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are living longer, but with aging, immune deficits, and lifestyle factors, they are at increased risk for cancer. This challenges community-based AIDS service organizations (ASOs) to address the growing cancer needs of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Community-based participatory research was applied to engage ASOs in exploring their capacities and needs for integrating cancer-focused programming into their services. Focus groups were conducted with a community advisory board (CAB) representing 10 community-based organizations serving PLWHA. Three 90-minute, serial focus groups were conducted with a mean number of seven participants. Topics explored CAB members’ organizational capacities and needs in cancer prevention, detection, treatment, and survivorship. Transcript analyses identified six themes: (a) agencies have limited experience with cancer-focused programs, which were not framed as cancer specific; (b) agencies need resources and collaborative partnerships to effectively incorporate cancer services; (c) staff and clients must be educated about the relevance of cancer to HIV/AIDS; (d) agencies want to know about linkages between HIV/AIDS and cancer; (e) cancer care providers should be culturally competent; and (f) agencies see opportunities to improve their services through research participation but are wary. Agency capacities were strong in relationships with clients and cultural competency, a holistic view of PLWHA health, expertise in prevention activities, and eagerness to be on the cutting edge of knowledge. Cancer education and prevention were of greatest interest and considered most feasible, suggesting that future projects develop accordingly. These findings suggest a high level of receptivity to expanding or initiating cancer-focused activities but with a clear need for education and awareness building

  6. (Re)politicising and (re)positioning prevention: community mobilisations and AIDS prevention in the new AIDS era.

    PubMed

    Rolston, Imara Ajani

    2016-07-01

    An increasing focus on the relationship between AIDS prevalence and socio-economic inequality signals the need for a revaluation of the role of "politics" and "power" in AIDS prevention. This revaluation bears great significance when considering the future trajectories of the AIDS prevention efforts that target highly marginalised populations with high prevalence rates. An emphasis on intersecting forms of inequality has direct implications for the future of AIDS prevention practice. This study explores the experiences of participants, facilitators and local stakeholders applying the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Community Capacity Enhancement-Community Conversations (CCE-CC) approach to AIDS prevention in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. It uses the political narrative analysis of life histories and semi-structured interviews as a means to interrogate the lived experiences of local actors participating in or influenced by this popularised form of community mobilisation used throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Findings suggest the need for a more explicit and intentional valuation for the intersection between the social and political determinants of health in programmes that use community mobilisation as prevention. They also signal a need to critically re-evaluate "community mobilisation" as an AIDS prevention tradition. Intersecting social and political power dynamics play a significant role in both opening up and constraining community mobilisation efforts. This paper proposes the need for a pedagogical turn to "deep organising" and "participatory forms of democracy", as a necessary frontier for programmes working with highly marginalised populations with high prevalence rates. Programmes need to more explicitly support, protect, and advocate for the ability of affected communities to engage in political processes, discourse and long-term organising.

  7. Improving Access to HIV and AIDS Information Resources for Patients, Caregivers, and Clinicians: Results from the SHINE Project.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Brian E; Kaneshiro, Kellie

    2012-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) remains a significant international public health challenge. The Statewide HIV/AIDS Information Network (SHINE) Project was created to improve HIV/AIDS health information use and access for health care professionals, patients, and affected communities in Indiana. Our objective was to assess the information-seeking behaviors of health care professionals and consumers who seek information on the testing, treatment, and management of HIV/AIDS and the usability of the SHINE Project's resources in meeting end user needs. The feedback was designed to help SHINE Project members improve and expand the SHINE Project's online resources. A convenience sample of health care professionals and consumers participated in a usability study. Participants were asked to complete typical HIV/AIDS information-seeking tasks using the SHINE Project website. Feedback was provided in the form of standardized questionnaire and usability "think-aloud" responses. Thirteen participants took part in the usability study. Clinicians generally reported the site to be "very good," while consumers generally found it to be "good." Health care professionals commented that they lack access to comprehensive resources for treating patients with HIV/AIDS. They requested new electronic resources that could be integrated in clinical practice and existing information technology infrastructures. Consumers found the SHINE website and its collected information resources overwhelming and difficult to navigate. They requested simpler, multimedia-content rich resources to deliver information on HIV/AIDS testing, treatment, and disease management. Accessibility, usability, and user education remain important challenges that public health and information specialists must address when developing and deploying interventions intended to empower consumers and support coordinated, patient-centric care.

  8. From Funding Projects to Supporting Sectors? Observation on the Aid Relationship in Burkina Faso

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samoff, Joel

    2004-01-01

    Burkina Faso is among the largest recipients of development aid in West Africa. The new aid terminology emphasizes partnership and a sectoral approach. Yet, recent research suggests more continuity than change in the aid relationship. Projects persist. Funding and technical assistance agencies cooperate more but adhere to their interests,…

  9. Creative partnerships for community health improvement: a qualitative evaluation of the Healthy Carolinians community micro-grant project.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Hans H; Bobbitt-Cooke, Mary; Schwarz, Miriam; White, David

    2006-04-01

    This qualitative study evaluated a recent innovative strategy used to involve community-based organizations (CBOs) in implementing health-related projects through locally administered microgrants. The purpose of this study was to identify key elements that enabled the success of the CBO projects, barriers and challenges to project success, and ways to effectively engage CBOs as partners in local health initiatives. In addition, this study sought to identify aspects of this approach that can be replicated. Study findings revealed that microfinancing CBOs aided in building partnerships, developing local leadership and expertise, and providing resources that enabled progress toward CBO missions and goals. These positive outcomes far out-weighed barriers and challenges faced by CBOs. Furthermore, the results of this study revealed ideas and information that provide useful guidelines for establishing and administering microgrant projects through local organizations that encourage community groups to design and implement community based health initiatives.

  10. Photovoltaic pilot projects in the European community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treble, F. C.; Grassi, G.; Schnell, W.

    The paper presents proposals received for the construction of photovoltaic pilot plants as part of the Commission of the European Communities' second 4-year solar energy R and D program. The proposed plants range from 30 to 300 kWp and cover a variety of applications including rural electrification, water pumping, desalination, dairy farming, factories, hospitals, schools and vacation centers. Fifteen projects will be accepted with a total generating capacity of 1 MWp, with preference given to those projects involving the development of new techniques, components and systems.

  11. Problem posing and cultural tailoring: developing an HIV/AIDS health literacy toolkit with the African American community.

    PubMed

    Rikard, R V; Thompson, Maxine S; Head, Rachel; McNeil, Carlotta; White, Caressa

    2012-09-01

    The rate of HIV infection among African Americans is disproportionately higher than for other racial groups in the United States. Previous research suggests that low level of health literacy (HL) is an underlying factor to explain racial disparities in the prevalence and incidence of HIV/AIDS. The present research describes a community and university project to develop a culturally tailored HIV/AIDS HL toolkit in the African American community. Paulo Freire's pedagogical philosophy and problem-posing methodology served as the guiding framework throughout the development process. Developing the HIV/AIDS HL toolkit occurred in a two-stage process. In Stage 1, a nonprofit organization and research team established a collaborative partnership to develop a culturally tailored HIV/AIDS HL toolkit. In Stage 2, African American community members participated in focus groups conducted as Freirian cultural circles to further refine the HIV/AIDS HL toolkit. In both stages, problem posing engaged participants' knowledge, experiences, and concerns to evaluate a working draft toolkit. The discussion and implications highlight how Freire's pedagogical philosophy and methodology enhances the development of culturally tailored health information.

  12. AIDS Prevention Education Project, Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissell, Barbara K.; And Others

    A curriculum guide for an Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) prevention education program for grades 4-8 is presented in this document. The purpose of these materials is to serve as a resource to encourage and facilitate AIDS education in order to prevent the disease. It is recommended that this AIDS program be taught as part of the human…

  13. The UCSF AIDS Health Project Guide to Counseling: Perspectives on Psychotherapy, Prevention, and Therapeutic Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilley, James W., Ed.; Marks, Robert, Ed.

    The University of California San Francisco AIDS Health Project has more than 15 years' experience in working with thousands of people with AIDS. This guide, developed by the Project, provides practical, state-of-the-art resources in the field. Part 1, "Risk and Behavior: Helping Clients Remain Uninfected," covers the following topics:…

  14. The UCSF AIDS Health Project Guide to Counseling: Perspectives on Psychotherapy, Prevention, and Therapeutic Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilley, James W., Ed.; Marks, Robert, Ed.

    The University of California San Francisco AIDS Health Project has more than 15 years' experience in working with thousands of people with AIDS. This guide, developed by the Project, provides practical, state-of-the-art resources in the field. Part 1, "Risk and Behavior: Helping Clients Remain Uninfected," covers the following topics:…

  15. Technical Aids for the Speech-Impaired. An International Survey on Research and Development Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundman, Margita, Comp.

    One-hundred thirty-two projects concerning technical aids for the speech handicapped are summarized as a result of an international survey of 270 institutions. Introductory tables allow access to projects by diagnosis (type of speech impairment such as stuttering or aphasia laryngectomy) or type of technical aid (such as communication boards or…

  16. 25 CFR 170.912 - Does Indian employment preference apply to Federal-aid Highway Projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does Indian employment preference apply to Federal-aid Highway Projects? 170.912 Section 170.912 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Indian Preference § 170.912 Does Indian employment preference apply to Federal-aid Highway Projects? (a...

  17. 25 CFR 170.912 - Does Indian employment preference apply to Federal-aid Highway Projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Does Indian employment preference apply to Federal-aid Highway Projects? 170.912 Section 170.912 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Indian Preference § 170.912 Does Indian employment preference apply to Federal-aid Highway Projects? (a...

  18. 25 CFR 170.912 - Does Indian employment preference apply to Federal-aid Highway Projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Does Indian employment preference apply to Federal-aid Highway Projects? 170.912 Section 170.912 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Indian Preference § 170.912 Does Indian employment preference apply to Federal-aid Highway Projects? (a...

  19. 25 CFR 170.912 - Does Indian employment preference apply to Federal-aid Highway Projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Does Indian employment preference apply to Federal-aid Highway Projects? 170.912 Section 170.912 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Indian Preference § 170.912 Does Indian employment preference apply to Federal-aid Highway Projects? (a...

  20. 25 CFR 170.912 - Does Indian employment preference apply to Federal-aid Highway Projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Does Indian employment preference apply to Federal-aid Highway Projects? 170.912 Section 170.912 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Indian Preference § 170.912 Does Indian employment preference apply to Federal-aid Highway Projects? (a...

  1. [Community organizations and fighting STDs, HIV and AIDS in Montreal: lessons for sub-Saharan Africa].

    PubMed

    Agonnoude, Maurice T; Mesenge, C

    2010-01-01

    discourse on AIDS legible to broader populations, for the borderlines between these target groups and the rest of the population is very fuzzy. Discussion and lessons: This analysis of the process of fighting HIV/AIDS inMontreal identified some positive experiences that can inspire concrete actions in African setting. One is the experience of the Farha Foundation, an organisation specialized in community fund-raising, which puts its collections at the disposal of other community organisations, and is independent, receiving no funding from local, provincial or federal public authorities. Transposition of this experience to Africa would require contextualisation and would need to mobilize the resources of not only the local community but also the national and international communities. The "Ruban en route" organization provides useful awareness programs for the young, visiting primary and secondary schools to debate HIV/AIDS issues with students with games, and demonstrating condom use. In the African context, given the limited educational system and the extent of school quitting, such an organisation would need to find a means to reach young apprentices and young farmers in informal structures. Action Séro Zero and Stella target male homosexuals and sex workers, respectively, and work to have their rights recognized by the community. The application of their policies would not be possible in our societies, for sociocultural reasons. Instead efforts must be directed toward making the community understand the need to encourage and tolerate recognition and aid for prostitutes, for the good of all. To a lesser degree, the experience of "Spectre de rue" with the TAPAJ project (Travail Alternatif Payé A la Journée or alternative work paid daily) is also importable, although only in urban environments where "street kids" are an important phenomenon. In some cities, where their number is increasing, this activity can be connected to an organisation working on awareness campaigns

  2. Community-based research in AIDS-service organizations: what helps and what doesn't?

    PubMed

    Flicker, Sarah; Wilson, Michael; Travers, Robb; Bereket, Tarik; McKay, Colleen; van der Meulen, Anna; Guta, Adrian; Cleverly, Shelley; Rourke, Sean B

    2009-01-01

    Community-based research (CBR) approaches have become commonplace in many North American HIV communities. In many large urban centers, AIDS-service organizations (ASOs) have become active research hubs, advocating for research dollars in community settings. While ASOs have historically integrated local knowledge into their prevention, care and advocacy initiatives, many are now initiating or collaborating in research which addresses emerging issues encountered in practice with clients. To investigate barriers and facilitating factors for ASO engagement in CBR. We conducted a survey (n=39) and one-on-one semi-structured telephone interviews (n=25) with executive directors and CBR coordinators from ASOs in Ontario, Canada. The survey queried four major areas of interest (organizational demographics, ASO CBR activities, potential barriers and facilitators for CBR engagement, and what roles stakeholders play in CBR initiatives). The interviews focused on exploring these issues in greater depth as well as understanding barriers and facilitating factors to people living with HIV/AIDS engaging in CBR. ASOs in Ontario are moderately supportive of CBR in their organizations. However, our survey and one-on-one interviews indicate that funding and organizational resources are both important barriers and facilitators to ASO involvement in CBR projects. Attaining access to research ethics boards and concerns that CBR results will not be acted upon also emerged as barriers to CBR, particularly once funds and organizational resources have been attained. Initiatives designed to enhance the skills of research team members emerged as an another important facilitator. Increasing emphasis from program funders on more rigorous evaluation and accountability, coupled with pull from increasingly empowered communities demanding much more active roles in setting research agendas, means that CBR is likely here to stay. Attending to barriers and facilitators will help with enhanced ASO

  3. Providing choices for a marginalized community. A community-based project with Malaysian aborigines.

    PubMed

    Kaur, P

    1994-01-01

    In 1991, the Family Planning Association (FPA) of the Malaysian state of Perak initiated a community-based development project in the remote Aborigine village of Kampung Tisong. The community consists of approximately 34 households who survive on an average income of about US $37. Malnutrition is pervasive, even minor ailments cause death, more serious afflictions are prevalent, and the closest government clinic is 20 kilometers away and seldom used by the Aborigines. 70% of the children have access to education, but parental illiteracy is a serious educational obstacle. The goals of the FPA program are to 1) promote maternal and child health and responsible parenthood, 2) provide health education, 3) encourage women to seek self-determination, and 4) encourage the development of self-reliance in the community as a whole. The first step was to survey the community's culture, beliefs, and health status with the help of the Aborigines Department and the village headman. After a series of preliminary meetings with other agencies, the FPA began to provide activities including health talks, health courses and demonstrations, medical examinations and check-ups, and first aid training. Environmental protection and sanitation measures were included in the educational activities, and following the traditional "mutual aid system," a small plot of land was cleared for vegetable production. Vegetable gardens and needlecraft will become income-producing activities for the women. Attempts to motivate the women to use family planning have been hindered by the fact that the health of 2 women deteriorated after they began using oral contraceptives. Positive changes are occurring slowly and steadily, however, and the FPA has been instrumental in having the settlement included in a program for the hardcore poor which will provide new housing and farming projects.

  4. An impact evaluation of the safe motherhood promotion project in Bangladesh: evidence from Japanese aid-funded technical cooperation.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Yusuke; Yoshimura, Yukie; Islam, Mohammad Tajul

    2013-04-01

    This paper reports the findings from a quasi-experimental impact evaluation of the Safe Motherhood Promotion Project (SMPP) conducted in the Narsingdi district of Bangladesh. SMPP is a Japanese aid-funded technical cooperation project aimed at developing local capacities to tackle maternal and newborn health problems in rural areas. We assessed whether the project interventions, in particular, community-based activities under the Model Union approach, had a favorable impact on women's access to and knowledge of maternal health care during pregnancy and childbirth. The project comprises a package of interlinked interventions to facilitate safe motherhood practices at primary and secondary care levels. The primary-level activities focused on community mobilization through participatory approaches. The secondary-level activities aimed at strengthening organizational and personnel capacities for delivering emergency obstetric care (EmOC) at district and sub-district level hospitals. The project impact was estimated by difference-in-differences logistic regressions using two rounds of cross-sectional household survey data. The results showed that the project successfully increased the utilization of antenatal visits and postpartum EmOC services and also enhanced women's knowledge of danger signs during pregnancy and delivery. The project also reduced income inequalities in access to antenatal care. In contrast, we found no significant increase in the use of skilled birth attendants (SBA) in the project site. Nonetheless, community mobilization activities and the government's voucher scheme played a complementary role in promoting the use of SBA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Managing Community Projects for Change. NIACE Lifelines in Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eldred, Jan

    This document presents practical advice to help managers of adult learning projects in communities across the United Kingdom manage their community projects for change. The following topics are discussed in sections 1-12: (1) the benefits of adult learning projects; (2) characteristics of adult learning projects and quality assurance mechanisms;…

  6. Managing Community Projects for Change. NIACE Lifelines in Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eldred, Jan

    This document presents practical advice to help managers of adult learning projects in communities across the United Kingdom manage their community projects for change. The following topics are discussed in sections 1-12: (1) the benefits of adult learning projects; (2) characteristics of adult learning projects and quality assurance mechanisms;…

  7. Kothmale Community Radio Interorg Project: True Community Radio or Feel-Good Propaganda?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey-Carter, Liz

    2009-01-01

    The Kothmale Community Radio and Interorg project in Sri Lanka has been hailed as an example of how a community radio initiative should function in a developing nation. However, there is some question about whether the Kothmale Community Interorg Project is a true community radio initiative that empowers local communities to access ICT services…

  8. Building partnerships to support community-led HIV/AIDS management: a case study from rural South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nair, Yugi; Campbell, Catherine

    2008-05-01

    The importance of partnerships between marginalised communities and support agencies (from the public sector, private sector and civil society) is a pillar of HIV/AIDS management policy. Such alliances are notoriously difficult to promote and sustain. We present a case study focusing on the first stage of a project seeking to build partnerships to facilitate local responses to HIV/AIDS in a remote rural community in South Africa. To date the Entabeni project has been successful in its goal of training volunteer health workers in home-based care, peer education, project management and procedures for accessing grants and services. The paper focuses on the project's other goal - to create external support structures for these volunteers (drawing on government departments, local NGOs and private-sector philanthropists). The partnership aims to empower volunteers to lead HIV-prevention and AIDS-care efforts, and to make public services more responsive to local needs. We illustrate how features of the local public-sector environment have actively worked against effective community empowerment. These include a rigid hierarchy, poor communication between senior and junior health professionals, lack of social development skills and the demoralisation and/or exhaustion of public servants dealing with multiple social problems in under-resourced settings. We outline the obstacles that have prevented private-sector involvement, suggesting a degree of scepticism about the potential for private-sector contributions to development in remote areas. We discuss how the project's most effective partners have been two small under-funded NGOs - run by highly committed individuals with a keen understanding of social-development principles, flexible working styles and a willingness to work hard for small gains. Despite many challenges, the partnership formation process has seen some positive achievements; we outline these and discuss the essential role played by an external change agent

  9. [Community nutrition strategy project: an innovation in community health].

    PubMed

    Diallo, I; Ndiaye, B; Pouye, A; Gaye, I A; Sy, A; Sarr, R; Tall-Dia, A

    1998-01-01

    The strategy of the community nutrition project is based on the utilization of the community development structures to deliver the nutrition services. These structures, represented in Senegal by youth associations, women groups, GIEs and NGOs, are part of the decentralization process, and as such play an important role in health and health development activities in poor urban districts. The Community Nutrition Project (CNP), funded for five years by the World Bank, German Cooperation (KFW), World Food Program (WFP) and the Senegalese government aims to halt further deterioration in the nutrition status of the most vulnerable groups in the poorest urban districts of Senegal. All nutrition services and particularly the IEC services have been entirely contracted out the first year to 76 GIEs involving 323 unemployed persons, operating as micro-enterprises "MIC" and 17 "GIEs" of unemployed physicians, pharmacists, and social workers for a total of 34 persons, organized as "maître d'Oeuvre communautaires "MOC", in charge of the supervision tasks. Each community nutrition center recruits and monitors every six months 460 to 600 beneficiaries composed of women at six months of pregnancy, lactating mother of children under 6 months, and a group of children aged from 6 to 35 months old. An average of 87% of registered children in the nutrition centers are weekly or monthly weighted. Thus the proportion of malnourished children in cohort of children followed from January to July 1996 has decreased from 70% to 25% within six months. The malnutrition rate has been reduced up to 65% after six months.

  10. Improving Access to HIV and AIDS Information Resources for Patients, Caregivers, and Clinicians: Results from the SHINE Project

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Brian E.; Kaneshiro, Kellie

    2012-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) remains a significant international public health challenge. The Statewide HIV/AIDS Information Network (SHINE) Project was created to improve HIV/AIDS health information use and access for health care professionals, patients, and affected communities in Indiana. Objective: Our objective was to assess the information-seeking behaviors of health care professionals and consumers who seek information on the testing, treatment, and management of HIV/AIDS and the usability of the SHINE Project’s resources in meeting end user needs. The feedback was designed to help SHINE Project members improve and expand the SHINE Project’s online resources. Methods: A convenience sample of health care professionals and consumers participated in a usability study. Participants were asked to complete typical HIV/AIDS information-seeking tasks using the SHINE Project website. Feedback was provided in the form of standardized questionnaire and usability “think-aloud” responses. Results: Thirteen participants took part in the usability study. Clinicians generally reported the site to be “very good,” while consumers generally found it to be “good.” Health care professionals commented that they lack access to comprehensive resources for treating patients with HIV/AIDS. They requested new electronic resources that could be integrated in clinical practice and existing information technology infrastructures. Consumers found the SHINE website and its collected information resources overwhelming and difficult to navigate. They requested simpler, multimedia-content rich resources to deliver information on HIV/AIDS testing, treatment, and disease management. Conclusions: Accessibility, usability, and user education remain important challenges that public health and information specialists must address when developing and deploying interventions intended to empower consumers and support

  11. From rhetoric to reality? Putting HIV and AIDS rights talk into practice in a South African rural community.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Catherine; Nair, Yugi

    2014-01-01

    Whilst international rhetoric on HIV and AIDS frequently invokes discourses of human rights to inspire and guide action, translating universal rights talk into practice in specific settings remains a challenge. Community mobilisation is often strategy of choice. We present a case study of the Entabeni Project in South Africa--in which a foreign-funded NGO sought to work with female health volunteers in a deep rural community to increase their access to two HIV-relevant rights: women's rights (especially gender equality) and rights to health (especially access to HIV- and AIDS-related services). Whilst the project had short-term health-related successes, it was less successful in implementing a gender empowerment agenda. The concept of women's rights had no purchase with women who had little interest in directly challenging male power, foregrounding the fight against poverty as their main preoccupation. The area's traditional chief and gatekeeper insisted the project should remain 'apolitical'. Project funders prioritised 'numbers reached' over a gender empowerment orientation. In the absence of (1) a marginalised group who are willing to assert their rights; and (2) a context where powerful people are willing to support these claims, 'rights' may be a blunt tool for HIV-related work with women in deeply oppressive and remote rural communities beyond the reach of international treaties and urban-based activist movements.

  12. Adolescents, AIDS and HIV: A Community-Wide Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Population Options, Washington, DC.

    This report explores policy initiatives, priorities, and plans of action recommended to policymakers with respect to a commitment to education for youth on prevention of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Young people with AIDS/HIV infection, can be offered compassion, hope, and support.…

  13. HIV/AIDS in Communities of Color: A Lasswellian Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humble Michael N.; Bride, Brian E.

    2009-01-01

    HIV/AIDS has changed drastically since the introduction of life-saving drugs known as highly active antiretroviral treatment. These same drugs have created a schism between the haves and the have-nots in society. The demographics of the disease have also changed alongside treatment. This article explores the changing face of HIV/AIDS in the 21st…

  14. HIV/AIDS in Communities of Color: A Lasswellian Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humble Michael N.; Bride, Brian E.

    2009-01-01

    HIV/AIDS has changed drastically since the introduction of life-saving drugs known as highly active antiretroviral treatment. These same drugs have created a schism between the haves and the have-nots in society. The demographics of the disease have also changed alongside treatment. This article explores the changing face of HIV/AIDS in the 21st…

  15. Supporting Children with Communication Aids in Transition: The Perspective of Children and Adults Involved with the Communication Aids Project (CAP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Caroline; Wright, Jannet A.; Clarke, Michael; Donlan, Chris; Lister, Claire; Cherguit, Jasmina

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports findings from an evaluation study of the Communication Aids Project (CAP), focussing on the perspective of children at points of educational transition and the parents, education staff and Speech and Language Therapists who support them. All participants took part in structured interviews, the individual children face-to-face on…

  16. Sensory Aids Research Project - Clarke School for the Deaf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boothroyd, Arthur

    Described is a program of research into sensory aids for the deaf, emphasizing research on factors involved in the effective use of sensory aids rather than evaluation of particular devices. Aspects of the program are the development of a programed testing and training unit, the control of fundamental voice frequency using visual feedback, and…

  17. Latinos’ Community Involvement in HIV/AIDS: Organizational and Individual Perspectives on Volunteering

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Brown, Amanda Uris

    2013-01-01

    Community involvement (e.g., volunteerism, activism) in HIV/AIDS may be an effective prevention strategy. Through involvement in HIV/AIDS-related organizations, individuals may develop a positive sense of themselves, maintain HIV preventive behaviors, and create community change. In this paper we examine the types of activities, motives, consequences, and deterrents to community involvement among Latino gay men using both community organizations’ and Latino gay men’s perspectives. Data come from an exploratory study in Chicago. It included telephone interviews with HIV/AIDS organizations (N = 62) and in-depth interviews with Latino gay men (n = 6 volunteers; n = 7 no volunteers). We found that organizations have few Latino volunteers and that the deterrents to involvement are stigma of HIV/AIDS and homosexuality, racism, and apathy. Among the positive consequences, we found an increase in self-esteem, sense of empowerment, and safer sex behaviors. PMID:12630602

  18. AIDS Knowledge among Latinos: Findings from a Community and Agricultural Labor Camp Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urizar, Guido G., Jr.; Winkleby, Marilyn A.

    2003-01-01

    A study examining AIDS awareness among northern California Latinos surveyed 817 Latinos from a community and 188 Latino men from migrant labor camps. Misconceptions about AIDS transmission were highest among Latinos with low educational attainment, particularly men from labor camps, older Latinos, and Latinos with low educational attainment who…

  19. $156 million budget increase to fight HIV/AIDS in African American & other minority communities.

    PubMed

    1998-12-01

    A series of initiatives was established to invest $156 million in efforts to fight HIV/AIDS in minority populations, where AIDS is still a leading cause of death among men and women between 25 and 44 years of age. The initiatives will target specific communities and includes technical assistance and increased access to care. Specific goals of the initiatives are discussed.

  20. Safe Sex and Dangerous Poems: AIDS, Literature and the Gay and Lesbian Community College Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engler, Robert Klein

    Some of the denial and fear that accompanies homosexuality and the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) can be dealt with by discussing the following three issues: the AIDS epidemic, the problems of gay and lesbian community college students, and finally, the teaching of literature--especially poetry. Exploring both poetry and the AIDS…

  1. Into the Community and Not on the Shelf: Learning to Develop a Meaningful HIV/AIDS Curriculum for Multiple Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Tasha

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the process involved in creating a community-based training curriculum designed to build capacity and foster new knowledge in support of HIV/AIDS education. Highlighted are the challenges and triumphs incurred while working with community and academic partners to ensure the production of an adaptable curriculum designed to…

  2. Into the Community and Not on the Shelf: Learning to Develop a Meaningful HIV/AIDS Curriculum for Multiple Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Tasha

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the process involved in creating a community-based training curriculum designed to build capacity and foster new knowledge in support of HIV/AIDS education. Highlighted are the challenges and triumphs incurred while working with community and academic partners to ensure the production of an adaptable curriculum designed to…

  3. Antiretroviral Therapy and Reproductive Life Projects: Mitigating the Stigma of AIDS in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Mbakwem, Benjamin C

    2010-01-01

    As millions of people infected with HIV in Africa are increasingly able to live longer and healthier lives because of access to antiretroviral therapy, concerns have emerged that people might eschew protective practices after their health improves. Extending beyond the notion of sexual “disinhibition,” researchers have begun to analyze the sexual behavior of people in treatment through the perspective of their marital and childbearing aspirations. This article explores the reproductive life projects of HIV-positive men and women in southeastern Nigeria, showing how actions that contradict medical advice are understandable in the context of patients’ socially normative desires for marriage and children. Based on in-depth interviews and observations (June–December 2004; June–July 2006; June–July 2007) of people enrolled in the region’s oldest treatment program, we argue that broadly held social expectations with regard to reproduction are experienced even more acutely by HIV-positive people. This is because in Nigeria the stigma associated with AIDS is closely tied to widespread perceptions of social and moral crisis, such that AIDS itself is seen as both a cause and a symptom of anxiety-producing forms of social change. Specifically, in an era of rapid societal transformation, Nigerians see sexual promiscuity and the alienation of young people from traditional obligations to kin and community as indicative of threatened social reproduction. For people who are HIV-positive, marrying and having children offer not only the opportunity to lead normal lives, but also a means to mitigate the stigma associated with the disease. Four ethnographic case studies are provided to exemplify how and why social and personal life projects can trump or complicate medical and public health priorities. These examples suggest that treatment programs must openly address and proactively support the life projects of people on antiretroviral therapy if the full benefits of

  4. Effectiveness of Computer-Aided Detection in Community Mammography Practice

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Linn; Taplin, Stephen H.; Geller, Berta M.; Carney, Patricia A.; D’Orsi, Carl; Elmore, Joann G.; Barlow, William E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Computer-aided detection (CAD) is applied during screening mammography for millions of US women annually, although it is uncertain whether CAD improves breast cancer detection when used by community radiologists. Methods We investigated the association between CAD use during film-screen screening mammography and specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value, cancer detection rates, and prognostic characteristics of breast cancers (stage, size, and node involvement). Records from 684 956 women who received more than 1.6 million film-screen mammograms at Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium facilities in seven states in the United States from 1998 to 2006 were analyzed. We used random-effects logistic regression to estimate associations between CAD and specificity (true-negative examinations among women without breast cancer), sensitivity (true-positive examinations among women with breast cancer diagnosed within 1 year of mammography), and positive predictive value (breast cancer diagnosed after positive mammograms) while adjusting for mammography registry, patient age, time since previous mammography, breast density, use of hormone replacement therapy, and year of examination (1998–2002 vs 2003–2006). All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Of 90 total facilities, 25 (27.8%) adopted CAD and used it for an average of 27.5 study months. In adjusted analyses, CAD use was associated with statistically significantly lower specificity (OR = 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.85 to 0.89, P < .001) and positive predictive value (OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.80 to 0.99, P = .03). A non-statistically significant increase in overall sensitivity with CAD (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.84 to 1.33, P = .62) was attributed to increased sensitivity for ductal carcinoma in situ (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 0.83 to 2.91; P = .17), although sensitivity for invasive cancer was similar with or without CAD (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.75 to 1.24; P = .77). CAD was not associated with

  5. Community Service Projects: Citizenship in Action. Fastback 231.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipka, Richard P.; And Others

    This booklet examines the theory and practice of projects that involve secondary students in community services. Through such involvement, young people will develop positive attitudes toward community participation that will persist throughout their adult lives. Community service projects represent an important and exciting way to bring democracy…

  6. 23 CFR 230.117 - Reimbursement procedures (Federal-aid highway construction projects only).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reimbursement procedures (Federal-aid highway construction projects only). 230.117 Section 230.117 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Construction Contracts (Including Supportive Services) § 230.117 Reimbursement procedures (Federal-aid...

  7. 23 CFR 230.117 - Reimbursement procedures (Federal-aid highway construction projects only).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reimbursement procedures (Federal-aid highway construction projects only). 230.117 Section 230.117 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Construction Contracts (Including Supportive Services) § 230.117 Reimbursement procedures (Federal-aid highway...

  8. 23 CFR 230.117 - Reimbursement procedures (Federal-aid highway construction projects only).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reimbursement procedures (Federal-aid highway construction projects only). 230.117 Section 230.117 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Construction Contracts (Including Supportive Services) § 230.117 Reimbursement procedures (Federal-aid highway...

  9. 23 CFR 230.117 - Reimbursement procedures (Federal-aid highway construction projects only).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reimbursement procedures (Federal-aid highway construction projects only). 230.117 Section 230.117 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Construction Contracts (Including Supportive Services) § 230.117 Reimbursement procedures (Federal-aid highway...

  10. 23 CFR 230.117 - Reimbursement procedures (Federal-aid highway construction projects only).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reimbursement procedures (Federal-aid highway construction projects only). 230.117 Section 230.117 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Construction Contracts (Including Supportive Services) § 230.117 Reimbursement procedures (Federal-aid highway...

  11. Community Based Education Activities in Southeastern Region Teacher Corps Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Martha; Bonney, Nancy

    To gather information on the community councils mandated for each Teacher Corps project, this pilot study surveyed 34 project directors and council chairpersons in 24 southeastern projects initiated in 1978 and 1979. The study's questionnaires asked about community council elections, membership, training, leadership, meetings, procedures, interest…

  12. Under the radar: community safety nets for AIDS-affected households in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Foster, G

    2007-01-01

    Safety nets are mechanisms to mitigate the effects of poverty on vulnerable households during times of stress. In sub-Saharan Africa, extended families, together with communities, are the most effective responses enabling access to support for households facing crises. This paper reviews literature on informal social security systems in sub-Saharan Africa, analyses changes taking place in their functioning as a result of HIV/AIDS and describes community safety net components including economic associations, cooperatives, loan providers, philanthropic groups and HIV/AIDS initiatives. Community safety nets target households in greatest need, respond rapidly to crises, are cost efficient, based on local needs and available resources, involve the specialized knowledge of community members and provide financial and psycho-social support. Their main limitations are lack of material resources and reliance on unpaid labour of women. Changes have taken place in safety net mechanisms because of HIV/AIDS, suggesting the resilience of communities rather than their impending collapse. Studies are lacking that assess the value of informal community-level transfers, describe how safety nets assist the poor or analyse modifications in response to HIV/AIDS. The role of community safety nets remains largely invisible under the radar of governments, non-governmental organizations and international bodies. External support can strengthen this system of informal social security that provides poor HIV/AIDS-affected households with significant support.

  13. HIV/AIDS: perceptions of the Grenadian faith-based community.

    PubMed

    Gomez, A; Alexis-Thomas, C

    2010-07-01

    This exploratory study conducted in 2008 aimed at gathering the views and opinions of leaders of the faith-based community (FBC) in Grenada about the increased incidence of HIV/AIDS in the Caribbean region including their beliefs and attitudes towards persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV/AIDS). The study followed a cross-sectional design and used a qualitative approach. Telephone surveys were conducted with all faith-based organizations and semi-structured interviews done with key leaders representing the faith-based community in Grenada. Findings showed that perceptions of HIV/AIDS are embedded in a socio-political-cultural context where many risk behaviours and factors intertwine in complex ways. Religious beliefs are based on love, compassion and acceptance. The most prominent risk behaviours associated with the spread of HIV/AIDS identified by leaders are homosexuality, prostitution, promiscuity and substance abuse which are in direct contradiction to their beliefs and teachings. Leaders felt that these risk behaviours were exacerbated by changes in family structure and the absence of a common moral discourse shared by all sectors of society. The faith-based community has a significant presence across Grenada and it can be an effective partner in helping communities understand and prevent HIV/AIDS and overcome the stigma and discrimination associated with this disease. Training and effective strategies are needed to engage them in the national response to HIV/AIDS without threatening their ideologies and practices.

  14. Participation levels in 25 Community-based participatory research projects.

    PubMed

    Spears Johnson, C R; Kraemer Diaz, A E; Arcury, T A

    2016-10-01

    This analysis describes the nature of community participation in National Institutes of Health and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded community-based participatory research (CBPR) projects, and explores the scientific and social implications of variation in community participation. We conducted in-depth interviews in 2012 with professional and community researchers from 25 CBPR projects in the Southeast US. Interview topics focused on participants' experiences with the nature and conduct of their CBPR project. Projects were rated on community participation in 13 components of research. Projects varied substantially in community participation. Some projects had community participation in only two to three components; others had participation in every component. Some professional researchers were deliberate in their inclusion of community participation in all aspects of research, others had community participation in some aspects, and others were mainly concerned that community members had the opportunity to participate in the study. Findings suggest a need for a standardized rubric for community-based research that facilitates delineation of approaches and procedures that are effective and efficient. Little actual community participation may also result in negative social impacts for communities. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. No Standing: Young People and Community Space Project Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Kasey

    The Young People and Community Space Project documents the ways in which young people (aged 12 through 24 years) in New South Wales (Australia) use community space and explores ways in which conflicts in the use of community space can be addressed. Community space, for purposes of the study, includes privately owned places such as shopping centers…

  16. The Design & Management of Community Projects--A Team Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Robert L.; Ennis-Applegate, Mari

    This manual contains materials for a 2-week workshop to train extension staff and community leaders working at the village level in the Solomon Islands. The aim of the course is to improve participants' skills so they are better able to help communities and community groups design and manage community projects. An introduction addresses the team…

  17. Experiences and benefits of volunteering in a community AIDS organization.

    PubMed

    Crook, Joan; Weir, Robin; Willms, Dennis; Egdorf, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the AIDS service organization-volunteer relationship from the volunteer's point of view. Factors that led to a relationship with an AIDS service organization included personal values and individual characteristics and needs. Volunteers reported many rewards from the work itself and the responses of others. Volunteers also encountered challenges that included role demands, role-ability fit, and stress/burnout concerns as well as limited organizational resources and structural obstacles. These results suggest that care must be taken to ensure that the volunteer role meets the needs, skills, and abilities of the individual volunteering. The need to ameliorate challenges is clear for AIDS service organizations seeking to retain volunteers. Some of the preventive strategies include goal-setting and feedback, individual-sensitive role redesign, opportunity to participate in decisions, and increased communication.

  18. AIDS deaths shift from hospital to home. AIDS Mortality Project Group.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, J J; Chu, S Y; Buehler, J W

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study monitors trends in place of death among persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) as a measure of health care usage patterns and terminal health care among persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS. Sixteen health departments collected death certificates for 55,186 persons with AIDS whose deaths occurred through 1991. Place of death was categorized as hospital, residence, hospice or nursing home, and other. RESULTS. The percentage of AIDS deaths at hospital facilities decreased from 92% in 1983 to 57% in 1991. In 1988, 23% of deaths occurred at home or in hospices and nursing homes. This trend was more evident among men, Whites, and men who had sex with men; less so among persons with other modes of exposure; and not at all among injecting drug users and children with perinatally acquired AIDS. Place of death varied by geographic location, with the greatest percentage of hospital deaths in the Northeast (91%) and the greatest percentage of at-home deaths in the West (27%). CONCLUSIONS. The percentage of AIDS deaths at home or in hospices and nursing homes has increased since 1983. These trends may reflect changes in hospital use for end-stage HIV infection. Decreasing hospitalization and increasing outpatient services and home care will decrease costs and may allow HIV-infected persons improved social support. PMID:8214234

  19. Perspectives and Experiences of Financial Aid Counselors on Community College Students Who Borrow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Lyle; Roberts, Toya; Shefman, Pamelyn

    2013-01-01

    Loan borrowing among community college students has increased in recent years. This study utilized original survey data to examine this trend from the perspective and firsthand experiences of 107 community college financial aid counselors from three states: California, Florida, and Texas. Findings indicate these counselors are concerned with the…

  20. Critical Pedagogy in HIV-AIDS Education for a Maya Immigrant Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoorman, Dilys; Acosta, Maria Cristina; Sena, Rachel; Baxley, Traci

    2012-01-01

    In this article the authors discuss how the perspectives of Paulo Freire were instructive in addressing the challenges of HIV-AIDS education in Guatemalan Maya immigrant communities with minimal formal education and literacy. The forging of a community-based, collaborative, educational program offers several implications for effective teaching and…

  1. Factors Influencing the Retention and Attrition of Community Health Aides/Practitioners in Alaska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landon, Beth; Loudon, Jenny; Selle, Mariko; Doucette, Sanna

    2004-01-01

    The Community Health Aide Program (CHAP) is a unique program employing local, indigenous peoples as primary care nonphysician providers in extremely remote frontier, tribal Alaskan communities. With attrition rates up to 20%, recommendations for improving retention are necessary to maintain access to health services for Alaska Natives in these…

  2. Community College Business and Technical Aid. Memorandum Report to the Legislature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowell, David; Smith, Linda

    A study was conducted of nine State University of New York (SUNY) and three City University of New York (CUNY) community colleges to determine the impact of supplemental financial aid on the operation and financing of community college business and technical degree programs. The study sought to assess the extent and reasons for business and…

  3. How Can You Teach Middle Grades Students about HIV/AIDS in a Conservative Community?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrand, Shirley; Wattenbarger, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    Describes a program for educating middle school students about the AIDS epidemic and disease prevention while keeping with the values expressed by a conservative community. Considers the use of science, social studies, math, and language arts in the education process, and the cooperation of parents and the community. (JPB)

  4. Community Colleges Tackle Student Health and HIV/AIDS. AACC Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottenritter, Nan; Barnett, Lynn

    This research brief summarizes the findings of a survey conducted in 1996 to determine the involvement of community colleges in the health of their students. The survey gathered information from 535 campuses concerning administration and leadership, curriculum, and community relationships. This report focuses on HIV/AIDS and the extent to which…

  5. Community College Business and Technical Aid. Memorandum Report to the Legislature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowell, David; Smith, Linda

    A study was conducted of nine State University of New York (SUNY) and three City University of New York (CUNY) community colleges to determine the impact of supplemental financial aid on the operation and financing of community college business and technical degree programs. The study sought to assess the extent and reasons for business and…

  6. Critical Pedagogy in HIV-AIDS Education for a Maya Immigrant Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoorman, Dilys; Acosta, Maria Cristina; Sena, Rachel; Baxley, Traci

    2012-01-01

    In this article the authors discuss how the perspectives of Paulo Freire were instructive in addressing the challenges of HIV-AIDS education in Guatemalan Maya immigrant communities with minimal formal education and literacy. The forging of a community-based, collaborative, educational program offers several implications for effective teaching and…

  7. Perspectives and Experiences of Financial Aid Counselors on Community College Students Who Borrow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Lyle; Roberts, Toya; Shefman, Pamelyn

    2013-01-01

    Loan borrowing among community college students has increased in recent years. This study utilized original survey data to examine this trend from the perspective and firsthand experiences of 107 community college financial aid counselors from three states: California, Florida, and Texas. Findings indicate these counselors are concerned with the…

  8. Factors Influencing the Retention and Attrition of Community Health Aides/Practitioners in Alaska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landon, Beth; Loudon, Jenny; Selle, Mariko; Doucette, Sanna

    2004-01-01

    The Community Health Aide Program (CHAP) is a unique program employing local, indigenous peoples as primary care nonphysician providers in extremely remote frontier, tribal Alaskan communities. With attrition rates up to 20%, recommendations for improving retention are necessary to maintain access to health services for Alaska Natives in these…

  9. Climate project screening tool: an aid for climate change adaptation

    Treesearch

    Toni Lyn Morelli; Sharon Yeh; Nikola M. Smith; Mary Beth Hennessy; Constance I. Millar

    2012-01-01

    To address the impacts of climate change, land managers need techniques for incorporating adaptation into ongoing or impending projects. We present a new tool, the Climate Project Screening Tool (CPST), for integrating climate change considerations into project planning as well as for developing concrete adaptation options for land managers. We designed CPST as part of...

  10. Community Air Monitoring, Educational Outreach, and the Village Green Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the poster is to provide an overview of the Village Green Project to attendees at the National Air Quality Conference. The emphasis on the presentation is the genesis of the project and community outreach.

  11. Community Air Monitoring, Educational Outreach, and the Village Green Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the poster is to provide an overview of the Village Green Project to attendees at the National Air Quality Conference. The emphasis on the presentation is the genesis of the project and community outreach.

  12. Clearing the Path: Delivering Financial Aid to Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick Cardelle, Rachel A.

    2013-01-01

    Low- and middle-income students at public, two-year institutions too often do not apply for college financial aid (Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance, 2008; Kantrowitz, 2009a, 2011). This research first examines national data to identify what the risk factors are for not applying and compares those risk factors for students at…

  13. Preventing Abuse in Federal Student Aid: Community College Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baime, David S.; Mullin, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    In recent months, some legislators, government agency officials, segments of the media, and campus administrators have called attention to perceived and proven instances of abuse of the federal student financial assistance programs. Concerns have focused on students enrolling in courses primarily to secure student financial aid funds rather than…

  14. New Careers: The Community/Home Health Aide Trainee's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Florence

    Intended for trainee use, the manual is in notebook format with a curriculum corresponding to the trainers' manual (VT 007 909), a related document. Part I, Basic Health Curriculum, deals with (1) the roles of health service aides, (2) Biological Potential and Equilibrium, (3) Professionals in the Health Field, (4) Public Health Administration,…

  15. Clearing the Path: Delivering Financial Aid to Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick Cardelle, Rachel A.

    2013-01-01

    Low- and middle-income students at public, two-year institutions too often do not apply for college financial aid (Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance, 2008; Kantrowitz, 2009a, 2011). This research first examines national data to identify what the risk factors are for not applying and compares those risk factors for students at…

  16. New Careers: The Community/Home Health Aide Trainee's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Florence

    Intended for trainee use, the manual is in notebook format with a curriculum corresponding to the trainers' manual (VT 007 909), a related document. Part I, Basic Health Curriculum, deals with (1) the roles of health service aides, (2) Biological Potential and Equilibrium, (3) Professionals in the Health Field, (4) Public Health Administration,…

  17. Guide to Implementing TAP. Teens for AIDS Prevention Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Population Options, Washington, DC.

    Teens for AIDS Prevention (TAP) is a model peer intervention program designed by the Center for Population Options to increase knowledge and change attitudes and behaviors among youth to reduce their risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. The program utilizes peer pressure in a positive sense: to encourage youth to protect…

  18. Guide to Implementing TAP. Teens for AIDS Prevention Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Population Options, Washington, DC.

    Teens for AIDS Prevention (TAP) is a model peer intervention program designed by the Center for Population Options to increase knowledge and change attitudes and behaviors among youth to reduce their risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. The program utilizes peer pressure in a positive sense: to encourage youth to protect…

  19. Project Sunshine: a cook book approach to generating funds for community solar energy projects

    SciTech Connect

    Brenninger, B.; Grundy, R.

    1981-01-01

    The first Solar Energy Program in Illinois' politically conservative DuPage County was a multi-governmental sponsored program which came to be widely known as Project Sunshine. Project Sunshine was unique as a truly community project because of its support locally by schools, community colleges, youth agencies, senior citizen's groups, private sector interest groups, private community service clubs, et al. Project Sunshine also received heavy financial support through city, township, county, state, and federal funding agencies.

  20. University of Wyoming, College of Engineering, undergraduate design projects to aid Wyoming persons with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Steven F; Laurin, Kathy M; Bloom, Janet K Chidester

    2003-01-01

    In Spring 2002 the University of Wyoming received NSF funding from the Division of Bioengineering and Environmental Systems to provide a meaningful design experience for University of Wyoming, College of Engineering students that will directly aid individuals with disabilities within the state of Wyoming. Other universities have participated in this very worthwhile program [1, 2, 3]. To achieve the program purpose, the following objectives were established: Provide engineering students multi-disciplinary, meaningful, community service design projects, Provide persons with disabilities assistive devices to empower them to achieve the maximum individual growth and development and afford them the opportunity to participate in all aspects of life as they choose, Provide engineering students education and awareness on the special needs and challenges of persons with disabilities, and Provide undergraduate engineering students exposure to the biomedical field of engineering. To accomplish these objectives the College of Engineering partnered with three organizations that provide education and service related to disability. Specifically, the college has joined with the Wyoming Institute for Disabilities (WIND) assistive technology program, Wyoming New Options in Technology (WYNOT) and their Sports and Outdoor Assistive Recreation (SOAR) project along with the university's Special Education program. In this paper we will describe how the program was created, developed, and its current status.

  1. University-Community Partnerships: Bridging People and Cultures in an HIV/AIDS Health Intervention in an African American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Maxine Seaborn; Head, Rachel; Rikard, R. V.; McNeil, Carlotta; White, Caressa

    2012-01-01

    As universities become more involved in real-world problems that affect racial and ethnic communities, university members are identifying strategies to effectively work with culturally diverse community partners. The Communities and Health Disparities Project described in this article is an example of collaborative scholarship that engages the…

  2. HIV/AIDS, beersellers and critical community health psychology in Cambodia: a case study.

    PubMed

    Lubek, Ian; Lee, Helen; Kros, Sarath; Wong, Mee Lian; Van Merode, Tiny; Liu, James; McCreanor, Tim; Idema, Roel; Campbell, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This case study illustrates a participatory framework for confronting critical community health issues using 'grass-roots' research-guided community-defined interventions. Ongoing work in Cambodia has culturally adapted research, theory and practice for particular, local health-promotion responses to HIV/AIDS, alcohol abuse and other challenges in the community of Siem Reap. For resource-poor communities in Cambodia, we recycle such 'older' concepts as 'empowerment' and 'action research'. We re-imagine community health psychology, when confronted with 'critical', life-and-death issues, as adjusting its research and practices to local, particular ontological and epistemological urgencies of trauma, morbidity and mortality.

  3. Community engagement among men who have sex with men living with HIV/AIDS in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Deng-Min; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Community engagement was developed as a global principle in the provision of HIV/AIDS services, yet evidence-based research of implementation of the principle is lacking in Taiwan. This short report aims to understand factors associated with engagement in two types of activities with varying levels of visibility: HIV-related community events and HIV-related community action, in Taiwanese men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV. A cross-sectional survey was distributed to a purposive sample of participants recruited from AIDS service organizations (ASOs). Among participants (n = 178), 63.6% were involved in HIV-related community events, while less than half (47.7%) were involved in HIV-related community action. In multivariable analysis, age, involvement in ASOs, and AIDS knowledge were positively associated with engagement in community events, and living in the north of Taiwan, years of infection, and self-stigma were negatively associated with this type of engagement. Few factors, with the exception of involvement in ASOs, were positively associated with engagement in HIV-related community action. To this end, ASOs appear to play a strong role in improving and organizing both types of community engagement in Taiwan. Future studies should evaluate tailored programs delivered through ASOs for strengthening community connectedness among younger, stigmatized, and longer diagnosed MSM living with HIV.

  4. National Science Foundation 1989 Engineering Senior Design Projects To Aid the Disabled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enderle, John D., Ed.

    Through the Bioengineering and Research to Aid the Disabled program of the National Science Foundation, design projects were awarded competitively to 16 universities. Senior engineering students at each of the universities constructed custom devices and software for disabled individuals. This compendium contains a description of each project in…

  5. Myths or theories? Alternative beliefs about HIV and AIDS in South African working class communities.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, David

    2013-09-01

    Despite three decades of public health promotion based on the scientific explanation of HIV/AIDS, alternative explanations of the disease continue to circulate. While these are seen as counter-productive to health education efforts, what is rarely analysed is their plurality and their tenacity. This article analyses the 'AIDS myths' collected by African HIV/AIDS workplace peer educators during an action research project. These beliefs about HIV/AIDS are organised, in this article, around core ideas that form the basis of 'folk' and 'lay theories' of HIV/AIDS. These constitute non-scientific explanations of HIV/AIDS, with folk theories drawing on bodies of knowledge that are independent of HIV/AIDS while lay theories are generated in response to the disease. A categorisation of alternative beliefs about HIV/AIDS is presented which comprises three folk theories - African traditional beliefs, Christian theology, and racial conspiracy - and three lay theories, all focused on avoiding HIV infection. Using this schema, the article describes how the plausibility of these alternative theories of HIV/AIDS lies not in their scientific validity, but in the robustness of the core idea at the heart of each folk or lay theory. Folk and lay theories of HIV/AIDS are also often highly palatable in that they provide hope and comfort in terms of prevention, cure, and the allocation of blame. This study argue that there is coherence and value to these alternative HIV/AIDS beliefs which should not be dismissed as ignorance, idle speculation or simple misunderstandings. A serious engagement with folk and lay theories of HIV/AIDS helps explain the continued circulation of alternative beliefs of HIV/AIDS and the slow uptake of behavioural change messages around the disease.

  6. Logic system aids in evaluation of project readiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maris, S. J.; Obrien, T. J.

    1966-01-01

    Measurement Operational Readiness Requirements /MORR/ assignments logic is used for determining the readiness of a complex project to go forward as planned. The system used logic network which assigns qualities to all important criteria in a project and establishes a logical sequence of measurements to determine what the conditions are.

  7. Literacy Learning within Community Action Projects for Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Dana E.; Mahiri, Jabari

    2012-01-01

    This case study describes the literacy development of a struggling reader over a seven-month period as he engaged in a youth-led participatory action research (PAR) project. The project's goal was for youth participants to develop a proposal for productive change in their local community and present it to community stakeholders. The study focused…

  8. The Community Arbitration Project, Anne Arundel County, Maryland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blew, Carol Holliday; Rosenblum, Robert

    This examines an exemplary project of community arbitration, a juvenile justice alternative. Essential elements of this project are described and include: (1) prompt case processing, (2) court-like setting, (3) involvement of victims, (4) assurance of due process, (5) use of community resources, and (6) constructive dispositions. Facets of CAP…

  9. Literacy Learning within Community Action Projects for Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Dana E.; Mahiri, Jabari

    2012-01-01

    This case study describes the literacy development of a struggling reader over a seven-month period as he engaged in a youth-led participatory action research (PAR) project. The project's goal was for youth participants to develop a proposal for productive change in their local community and present it to community stakeholders. The study focused…

  10. Five conversations: reflections of stakeholders on the impact of the ethnocultural communities facing AIDS study.

    PubMed

    Willms, D; Bhatia, R; Lowe, J; Niemi, F; Stewart, D; Westmoreland-Traore, J

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports on issues identified in conversations held between one of the Ethnocultural Communities Facing AIDS Study (ECFA) investigators and five stakeholders associated with this experiment in collaborative and participatory research. The stakeholders reflect on their experiences in partnering with university-based researchers, resistance in ethnocultural communities to being researched, and the next steps implicated by the research in question. The problem of HIV/AIDS in ethnocultural communities in Canada is, relative to the mainstream, also viewed as a symbol of disadvantage in these communities. The stakeholders suggest that to address these deeper concerns, there must be vital, dynamic, and enduring communication between researchers, community representatives, and government at all levels, in the process of identifying solutions and implementing them in the present.

  11. Evaluation of the community response to HIV and AIDS: learning from a portfolio approach.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-García, Rosalía; Wilson, David; York, Nick; Low, Corinne; N'Jie, N'Della; Bonnel, Rene

    2013-01-01

    While communities have played a large role in the HIV/AIDS response, their contributions and innovative approaches to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support have not always been the focus of systematic and rigorous evaluations. To address this gap, the World Bank led an evaluation of the impact of the community response to HIV, including country studies in Burkina Faso, India, Kenya, Lesotho, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa and Zimbabwe over a three-year period. Due to the complexity and varied nature of community responses, the evaluation attempted to determine the results that investments have produced at the community level by applying a mixed method approach: Randomized Controlled Trials, quasi-experimental studies, qualitative studies and analytical studies including financial data. Specifically, the studies examined a typology of community response and the flow of funds to community-based organizations, while investigating the impact of the community responses on (1) knowledge and behavior, (2) use of services, (3) social transformation, and (4) HIV incidence. This editorial summarizes the results of this evaluation portfolio, finding that investments in communities have produced significant results, including, improved knowledge and behavior, and increased use of health services, and even decreased HIV incidence. Evidence on social transformation was more mixed, with community groups found to be effective only in some settings. Each study in the evaluation provides a partial view of how communities shape the local response; however, taken together they corroborate the common wisdom that communities can be a vital part of the global HIV/AIDS response.

  12. Demographic and social factors associated with homophobia and fear of AIDS in a community sample.

    PubMed

    Walch, Susan E; Orlosky, Paula M; Sinkkanen, Kimberly A; Stevens, Heather R

    2010-01-01

    Examinations of demographic and social factors associated with homophobia and fear of AIDS are limited by the frequent use of homogeneous, college student samples and limited examination of interrelationships among variables. The present study examined community attitudes toward homosexuality and fear of HIV/AIDS as a function of age, education, race/ethnicity, religious affiliation, political party affiliation, and personal contact with homosexual individuals and persons living with HIV/AIDS. A community sample of 463 adults completed standardized measures of homophobia and fear of AIDS as well as demographic and social background items. When examined separately, each demographic and social factor assessed, with the exception of race/ethnicity, was associated with homophobia and all but race/ethnicity and political party affiliation were associated with fear of AIDS. However, when entered into multiple regression analyses, 24% of the variance in homophobia was predicted by a single variable, including only personal contact with homosexual individuals, while 18% of the variance in fear of AIDS was accounted for by five variables, including personal contact with homosexual individuals, religious affiliation, political affiliation, education, and personal contact with someone living with HIV/AIDS. Findings suggest that it is important to consider intercorrelations among social and demographic factors, particularly when considering homophobia.

  13. In Jamaica, Community Aides for Disabled Pre-School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorburn, Marigold J.

    1981-01-01

    One of the major goals of the Jamaican Early Stimulation Project is to develop a low cost model for providing early identification of disability and intervention services. Journal availability: see EC 133 861. (Author)

  14. Community Air Sensor Network (CAIRSENSE) project ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Advances in air pollution sensor technology have enabled the development of small and low cost systems to measure outdoor air pollution. The deployment of a large number of sensors across a small geographic area would have potential benefits to supplement traditional monitoring networks with additional geographic and temporal measurement resolution, if the data quality were sufficient. To understand the capability of emerging air sensor technology, the Community Air Sensor Network (CAIRSENSE) project deployed low cost, continuous and commercially-available air pollution sensors at a regulatory air monitoring site and as a local sensor network over a surrounding ~2 km area in Southeastern U.S. Co-location of sensors measuring oxides of nitrogen, ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and particles revealed highly variable performance, both in terms of comparison to a reference monitor as well as whether multiple identical sensors reproduced the same signal. Multiple ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide sensors revealed low to very high correlation with a reference monitor, with Pearson sample correlation coefficient (r) ranging from 0.39 to 0.97, -0.25 to 0.76, -0.40 to 0.82, respectively. The only sulfur dioxide sensor tested revealed no correlation (r 0.5), step-wise multiple linear regression was performed to determine if ambient temperature, relative humidity (RH), or age of the sensor in sampling days could be used in a correction algorihm to im

  15. Community Air Sensor Network (CAIRSENSE) project ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Advances in air pollution sensor technology have enabled the development of small and low cost systems to measure outdoor air pollution. The deployment of a large number of sensors across a small geographic area would have potential benefits to supplement traditional monitoring networks with additional geographic and temporal measurement resolution, if the data quality were sufficient. To understand the capability of emerging air sensor technology, the Community Air Sensor Network (CAIRSENSE) project deployed low cost, continuous and commercially-available air pollution sensors at a regulatory air monitoring site and as a local sensor network over a surrounding ~2 km area in Southeastern U.S. Co-location of sensors measuring oxides of nitrogen, ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and particles revealed highly variable performance, both in terms of comparison to a reference monitor as well as whether multiple identical sensors reproduced the same signal. Multiple ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide sensors revealed low to very high correlation with a reference monitor, with Pearson sample correlation coefficient (r) ranging from 0.39 to 0.97, -0.25 to 0.76, -0.40 to 0.82, respectively. The only sulfur dioxide sensor tested revealed no correlation (r 0.5), step-wise multiple linear regression was performed to determine if ambient temperature, relative humidity (RH), or age of the sensor in sampling days could be used in a correction algorihm to im

  16. Evaluating an HIV and AIDS Community Training Partnership Program in Five Diamond Mining Communities in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rispel, L. C.; Peltzer, K.; Nkomo, N.; Molomo, B.

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, De Beers Consolidated Diamond Mines in South Africa entered into a partnership, with the Soul City Institute for Health and Development Communications to implement an HIV and AIDS Community Training Partnership Program (CTPP), initially in five diamond mining areas in three provinces of South Africa. The aim of CTPP was to improve HIV…

  17. Evaluating an HIV and AIDS Community Training Partnership Program in Five Diamond Mining Communities in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rispel, L. C.; Peltzer, K.; Nkomo, N.; Molomo, B.

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, De Beers Consolidated Diamond Mines in South Africa entered into a partnership, with the Soul City Institute for Health and Development Communications to implement an HIV and AIDS Community Training Partnership Program (CTPP), initially in five diamond mining areas in three provinces of South Africa. The aim of CTPP was to improve HIV…

  18. Enhancing the Capacity of Community Organizations to Evaluate HIV/AIDS Information Outreach: A Pilot Experiment in Expert Consultation

    PubMed Central

    Dancy-Scott, Nicole; Williams-Livingston, Arletha; Plumer, Andrew; Dutcher, Gale A.; Siegel, Elliot R.

    2017-01-01

    The National Library of Medicine’s AIDS Community Information Outreach Program (ACIOP) supports and enables access to health information on the Internet by community-based organizations. A technical assistance (TA) model was developed to enhance the capacity of ACIOP awardees to plan, evaluate, and report the results of their funded projects. This consisted of individual Consultation offered by an experienced evaluator to advise on the suitability of proposed project plans and objectives, improve measurement analytics, assist in problem resolution and outcomes reporting, and identify other improvement possibilities. Group webinars and a moderated blog for the exchange of project-specific information were also offered. Structured data collections in the form of reports, online surveys, and key informant telephone interviews provided qualitative feedback on project progress, satisfaction with the TA, and the perceived impact of the interventions on evaluation capacity building. The Model was implemented in the 2013 funding cycle with seven organizations, and the level of reported satisfaction was uniformly high. One-on-one TA was requested by four awardee organizations, and was determined to have made a meaningful difference with three. Participation in the webinars was mandatory and high overall; and was deemed to be a useful means for delivering evaluation information. In subsequent funding cycles, submission of a Logic Model will be required of awardees as a new model intervention in the expectation that it will produce stronger proposals, and enable the evaluation consultant to identify earlier intervention opportunities leading to project improvements and evaluation capacity enhancements. PMID:28405054

  19. Enhancing the Capacity of Community Organizations to Evaluate HIV/AIDS Information Outreach: A Pilot Experiment in Expert Consultation.

    PubMed

    Dancy-Scott, Nicole; Williams-Livingston, Arletha; Plumer, Andrew; Dutcher, Gale A; Siegel, Elliot R

    2016-01-01

    The National Library of Medicine's AIDS Community Information Outreach Program (ACIOP) supports and enables access to health information on the Internet by community-based organizations. A technical assistance (TA) model was developed to enhance the capacity of ACIOP awardees to plan, evaluate, and report the results of their funded projects. This consisted of individual Consultation offered by an experienced evaluator to advise on the suitability of proposed project plans and objectives, improve measurement analytics, assist in problem resolution and outcomes reporting, and identify other improvement possibilities. Group webinars and a moderated blog for the exchange of project-specific information were also offered. Structured data collections in the form of reports, online surveys, and key informant telephone interviews provided qualitative feedback on project progress, satisfaction with the TA, and the perceived impact of the interventions on evaluation capacity building. The Model was implemented in the 2013 funding cycle with seven organizations, and the level of reported satisfaction was uniformly high. One-on-one TA was requested by four awardee organizations, and was determined to have made a meaningful difference with three. Participation in the webinars was mandatory and high overall; and was deemed to be a useful means for delivering evaluation information. In subsequent funding cycles, submission of a Logic Model will be required of awardees as a new model intervention in the expectation that it will produce stronger proposals, and enable the evaluation consultant to identify earlier intervention opportunities leading to project improvements and evaluation capacity enhancements.

  20. "Dying is dying, that's all": Structural violence and cultural projects in Malawian AIDS proverbs.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Nicole C

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines three Malawian proverbs about AIDS: "AIDS came for people", "Dying is dying, that's all" and "It's in the flour". Proverbs permit Malawians to discuss the otherwise taboo topic of AIDS because they offer a special register and perform a footing shift, a rhetorical manoeuvre that allows the speaker to attribute problematic speech to someone else. The proverbs under consideration convey a sense of powerless in the face of the AIDS epidemic, which is an indicator of the effects of structural violence on the everyday lives of most Malawians. Despite the aura of timeless tradition generally conveyed by proverbs, the author argues that individual Malawians are actually using AIDS proverbs to align themselves with the pursuit of gendered cultural projects, such as multiple concurrent partner sex and transactional sex, which are not traditional at all.

  1. TRI Community Engagement: Four New EPA Pilot Projects Challenge Us to Communicate More Effectively with Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Overview of pilot projects conducted to test new approaches for raising awareness about TRI at the community level, including discussion of the results, lessons learned, and responses from communities

  2. AIDS-related illness trajectories in Mexico: findings from a qualitative study in two marginalized communities.

    PubMed

    Castro, R; Orozco, E; Eroza, E; Manca, M C; Hernández, J J; Aggleton, P

    1998-10-01

    This paper describes findings from a recent study examining how people affected directly and indirectly by the HIV/AIDS epidemic cope with HIV-related illness in Mexico. One-hundred-and-thirteen in-depth interviews were conducted with key informants in two contrasting communities: Ciudad Netzahualcóyotl (an economically marginalized community) and the gay community in Mexico City (a sexually marginalized community). This paper describes the AIDS-related wellness/illness careers or trajectories followed by individuals in both communities, and identifies critical points for material and emotional intervention. This career comprises four stages: (1) life before infection; (2) life surrounding the discovery of seropositivity; (3) living as an HIV-positive person; and (4) facing death. Comparisons are drawn between the processes of adjustment and coping found in both communities. In Ciudad Netzahualcóyotl, wellness/illness careers are closely linked to prevailing poverty and oppression, as well as the sense of urgency in which local people live their lives. In the case of the gay community, wellness/illness careers are associated with the intolerance and social repression faced by homosexual men. The paper concludes by suggesting possible interventions to improve the lives of people with HIV/AIDS in Mexico today.

  3. Social capital and HIV competent communities: the role of community groups in managing HIV/AIDS in rural Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Catherine; Scott, Kerry; Nhamo, Mercy; Nyamukapa, Constance; Madanhire, Claudius; Skovdal, Morten; Sherr, Lorraine; Gregson, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Community involvement is increasingly identified as a "critical enabler" of an effective HIV/AIDS response. We explore pathways between community participation and HIV prevention, treatment and impact mitigation in Zimbabwe, reviewing six qualitative studies in Manicaland. These find that community group membership is often (not always) associated with decreased HIV incidence, reduced stigma and improved access to some services, particularly amongst women. Participation in formal community groups (e.g., church or women's groups) and informal local networks (e.g., neighbours, families) provides opportunities for critical dialogue about HIV/AIDS, often facilitating renegotiation of harmful social norms, sharing of previously hidden personal experiences of HIV/AIDS, formulation of positive action plans and solidarity to action them. However, implementation of new plans and insights is constrained by poverty, social uncertainty and poor service delivery. Furthermore, dialogue may have negative effects, spreading false information and entrenching negative norms. The extent that formal groups and informal networks facilitate externally imposed HIV/AIDS interventions varies. They potentially provide vital practical and emotional support, facilitating service access, treatment adherence and AIDS care. However, they may sometimes play a negative role in prevention activities, challenging stereotypes about sexuality or gender. There is an urgent need for greater recognition of the role of indigenous community groups and networks, and the inclusion of "strengthening local responses" as a key element of interventions and policy. Such efforts require great sensitivity. Heavy-handed external interference in complex indigenous relationships risks undermining the localism and bottom-up initiative and activism that might be central to their effectiveness. Cautious efforts might seek to enhance the potentially beneficial effects of groups, especially for women, and limit potentially

  4. Social capital and HIV Competent Communities: The role of community groups in managing HIV/AIDS in rural Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Catherine; Scott, Kerry; Nhamo, Mercy; Nyamukapa, Constance; Madanhire, Claudius; Skovdal, Morten; Sherr, Lorraine; Gregson, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Community involvement is increasingly identified as a “critical enabler” of an effective HIV/AIDS response. We explore pathways between community participation and HIV prevention, treatment and impact mitigation in Zimbabwe, reviewing six qualitative studies in Manicaland. These find that community group membership is often (not always) associated with decreased HIV incidence, reduced stigma and improved access to some services, particularly amongst women. Participation in formal community groups (e.g., church or women's groups) and informal local networks (e.g., neighbours, families) provides opportunities for critical dialogue about HIV/AIDS, often facilitating renegotiation of harmful social norms, sharing of previously hidden personal experiences of HIV/AIDS, formulation of positive action plans and solidarity to action them. However, implementation of new plans and insights is constrained by poverty, social uncertainty and poor service delivery. Furthermore, dialogue may have negative effects, spreading false information and entrenching negative norms. The extent that formal groups and informal networks facilitate externally imposed HIV/AIDS interventions varies. They potentially provide vital practical and emotional support, facilitating service access, treatment adherence and AIDS care. However, they may sometimes play a negative role in prevention activities, challenging stereotypes about sexuality or gender. There is an urgent need for greater recognition of the role of indigenous community groups and networks, and the inclusion of “strengthening local responses” as a key element of interventions and policy. Such efforts require great sensitivity. Heavy-handed external interference in complex indigenous relationships risks undermining the localism and bottom-up initiative and activism that might be central to their effectiveness. Cautious efforts might seek to enhance the potentially beneficial effects of groups, especially for women, and limit

  5. Native American Women and HIV/AIDS: Building Healthier Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, Irene S.; Thurman, Pamela Jumper

    2009-01-01

    A quote From chief Wilma Mankiller in her "Rebuilding the Cherokee Nation" asks Natives to focus on their strengths and wisdom; for those in the health field, it motivates them to create a vision of health parity and community wellness. In following her lead the authors share general information about the health of Natives, focus on the health of…

  6. Native American Women and HIV/AIDS: Building Healthier Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, Irene S.; Thurman, Pamela Jumper

    2009-01-01

    A quote From chief Wilma Mankiller in her "Rebuilding the Cherokee Nation" asks Natives to focus on their strengths and wisdom; for those in the health field, it motivates them to create a vision of health parity and community wellness. In following her lead the authors share general information about the health of Natives, focus on the health of…

  7. Perinatal AIDS: Permanency Planning for the African-American Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Brown, Susan; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Conducted a retrospective chart review utilizing Norwood's model on the families of the 83 infants whose cord blood was positive for maternal HIV antibodies or who were congenitally infected with HIV. Discusses implications for permanency planning in the context of their impact on the African-American community. (KS)

  8. Perinatal AIDS: Permanency Planning for the African-American Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Brown, Susan; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Conducted a retrospective chart review utilizing Norwood's model on the families of the 83 infants whose cord blood was positive for maternal HIV antibodies or who were congenitally infected with HIV. Discusses implications for permanency planning in the context of their impact on the African-American community. (KS)

  9. Immigration and health: the Italian situation. Italian National Focal Point (NFP) of the AIDS & Mobility Project.

    PubMed

    Colucci, A; Covre, P; D'Agostini, A; Gallo, P; Geraci, S; Kanieff, M; Luzi, A M; Mayer, R; Morrone, A; Morte Karag, M R; Petrosillo, N; Spizzichino, L; Claver, P T; Volpicelli, S

    1998-01-01

    This report is a description of the situation of migrant populations in Italy. It was written as part of the European project "AIDS & Mobility", which is being co-ordinated by the Netherlands Institute for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention and financed by the European Union (EU). The report was written by the Italian National Focal Point (NFP) of the AIDS & Mobility Project, which consists of a committed team of experts from public institutions, non-governmental organizations, volunteer associations, and researchers from the Telefono Verde AIDS (National AIDS Help-line of Italy) of the Centro Operativo AIDS (COA, National AIDS Unit of Italy) of the Istituto Superiore di Sanità. The report illustrates the phenomenon of immigration in Italy, with demographic data (updated at 31 December 1997) on the presence of non-Italians and a review of the current laws pertinent to this phenomenon, with particular reference to health care laws. Moreover, epidemiological data on HIV/AIDS and on sexually transmitted diseases are provided, particularly as they relate to drug addiction and prostitution. Finally, following an accurate analysis of the situation and in light of the experience gained, the report includes proposals for identifying needs, objectives to pursue, and strategies to adopt, with respect to confronting the issue of immigration.

  10. Puerto Rico Sustainable Communities Research Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of EPA’s Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research Program (SHCRP) is to inform and empower decision‐makers to equitably weigh and integrate human health, socio‐economic, environmental, and ecological factors to foster community sustainability. Pue...

  11. Puerto Rico Sustainable Communities Research Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of EPA’s Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research Program (SHCRP) is to inform and empower decision‐makers to equitably weigh and integrate human health, socio‐economic, environmental, and ecological factors to foster community sustainability. Pue...

  12. 2017 Healthy Communities Grant Program: Project ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-02-22

    The 2017 Healthy Communities Grant Program is EPA New England's main competitive grant program to work directly with communities to reduce environmental risks, protect and improve human health and improve the quality of life.

  13. Evaluating an HIV and AIDS Community Training Partnership Program in five diamond mining communities in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Rispel, L C; Peltzer, K; Nkomo, N; Molomo, B

    2010-11-01

    In 2006, De Beers Consolidated Diamond Mines in South Africa entered into a partnership with the Soul City Institute for Health and Development Communications to implement an HIV and AIDS Community Training Partnership Program (CTPP), initially in five diamond mining areas in three provinces of South Africa. The aim of CTPP was to improve HIV knowledge and to contribute to positive behavior changes in the targeted populations. This paper describes the evaluation of the CTPP, one year after implementation. The evaluation combined qualitative interviews with key informants and trainers and a post-intervention survey of 142 community members. The successes of the CTPP included capacity building of trainers through an innovative training approach and HIV and AIDS knowledge transfer to community trainers and targeted communities in remote mining towns. The Soul City edutainment brand is popular and emerged as a major reason for success. Challenges included insufficient attention paid to contextual factors, resource constraints and the lack of a monitoring and evaluation framework. Independent evaluations are useful to strengthen program implementation. In remote areas and resource constraint settings, partnerships between non-governmental organisations and corporations may be required for successful community HIV and AIDS initiatives. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Targeted Expansion Project for Outreach and Treatment for Substance Abuse and HIV Risk Behaviors in Asian and Pacific Islander Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Kamitani, Emiko; Morris, Anne; Sakata, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Access to culturally competent HIV/AIDS and substance abuse treatment and prevention services is limited for Asian and Pacific Islanders (APIs). Based on the intake data for a community outreach project in the San Francisco Bay Area (N = 1,349), HIV risk behaviors were described among the targeted API risk groups. The self-reported HIV prevalence…

  15. Targeted Expansion Project for Outreach and Treatment for Substance Abuse and HIV Risk Behaviors in Asian and Pacific Islander Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Kamitani, Emiko; Morris, Anne; Sakata, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Access to culturally competent HIV/AIDS and substance abuse treatment and prevention services is limited for Asian and Pacific Islanders (APIs). Based on the intake data for a community outreach project in the San Francisco Bay Area (N = 1,349), HIV risk behaviors were described among the targeted API risk groups. The self-reported HIV prevalence…

  16. At the Intersection of HIV/AIDS and Cancer: A Qualitative Needs Assessment of Community-Based HIV/AIDS Service Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhalter, Jack E.; Cahill, Sean; Shuk, Elyse; Guidry, John; Corner, Geoffrey; Berk, Alexandra; Candelario, Norman; Kornegay, Mark; Lubetkin, Erica I.

    2013-01-01

    Due to advances in treatment, persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are living longer, but with aging, immune deficits, and lifestyle factors, they are at increased risk for cancer. This challenges community-based AIDS service organizations (ASOs) to address the growing cancer needs of…

  17. At the Intersection of HIV/AIDS and Cancer: A Qualitative Needs Assessment of Community-Based HIV/AIDS Service Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhalter, Jack E.; Cahill, Sean; Shuk, Elyse; Guidry, John; Corner, Geoffrey; Berk, Alexandra; Candelario, Norman; Kornegay, Mark; Lubetkin, Erica I.

    2013-01-01

    Due to advances in treatment, persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are living longer, but with aging, immune deficits, and lifestyle factors, they are at increased risk for cancer. This challenges community-based AIDS service organizations (ASOs) to address the growing cancer needs of…

  18. Project H.A.P.P.E. (Home Aid for Parents in Preschool Education). Final Report of Project Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolte, Jane

    This is the final project-outcomes report of the Home Aid for Parents in Preschool Education (H.A.P.P.E.) which had as its ultimate goal the development of a variety of materials for the education of parents of preschool children and future parents (e.g. high school child development students). Results are described in terms of the six project…

  19. The Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project - a community-level, public health initiative to build community disaster resilience.

    PubMed

    Eisenman, David; Chandra, Anita; Fogleman, Stella; Magana, Aizita; Hendricks, Astrid; Wells, Ken; Williams, Malcolm; Tang, Jennifer; Plough, Alonzo

    2014-08-19

    Public health officials need evidence-based methods for improving community disaster resilience and strategies for measuring results. This methods paper describes how one public health department is addressing this problem. This paper provides a detailed description of the theoretical rationale, intervention design and novel evaluation of the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project (LACCDR), a public health program for increasing community disaster resilience. The LACCDR Project utilizes a pretest-posttest method with control group design. Sixteen communities in Los Angeles County were selected and randomly assigned to the experimental community resilience group or the comparison group. Community coalitions in the experimental group receive training from a public health nurse trained in community resilience in a toolkit developed for the project. The toolkit is grounded in theory and uses multiple components to address education, community engagement, community and individual self-sufficiency, and partnerships among community organizations and governmental agencies. The comparison communities receive training in traditional disaster preparedness topics of disaster supplies and emergency communication plans. Outcome indicators include longitudinal changes in inter-organizational linkages among community organizations, community member responses in table-top exercises, and changes in household level community resilience behaviors and attitudes. The LACCDR Project is a significant opportunity and effort to operationalize and meaningfully measure factors and strategies to increase community resilience. This paper is intended to provide public health and academic researchers with new tools to conduct their community resilience programs and evaluation research. Results are not yet available and will be presented in future reports.

  20. College Projects for Aiding Students. Bulletin, 1938, No. 9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Fred J.; Ratcliffe, Ella B.

    1938-01-01

    The depression of the past few years led colleges and universities to seek new ways in which to assist their financially needy students. In January 1937 the Office of Education requested all colleges and universities to send it descriptions of the projects they had devised. The responses to this request indicated a very cooperative spirit on the…

  1. Targeting Learning Needs in an Australian Aid Project in Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinder, Rex; Karawanan, Chaisak

    1996-01-01

    The Thailand Land Titling Project includes a training and development component aimed at long-term sustainability. A training target matrix was developed to identify the knowledge, skills, experience, and performance standards required and needs for training at various levels. Six broad and flexible career paths allow for logical succession,…

  2. Driver Aid and Education Test Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shadis, W.; Soucek, S. J.

    A driver education project tested the hypothesis that measurable improvements in fleet fuel economy can be achieved by driver awareness training in fuel-efficient driving techniques and by a manifold vacuum gauge, used individually or in combination with each other. From April 1976 through December 1977 data were collected in the Las Vegas,…

  3. Mothers Affected by HIV & AIDS: The "Kgolo Mmogo" Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eloff, Irma

    2008-01-01

    In this short report, I discuss the way in which an assumption at the outset of a longitudinal study on HIV-positive mothers has been challenged three years into the study. The assumption concerns the employment status of the participants. The "Kgolo Mmogo" project is investigating the resilience factors in mothers (n = 440) and children (n = 440)…

  4. Quick Facts about Financial Aid and Community Colleges, 2007-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for College Access & Success, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Community colleges are usually considered a low-cost college option, but the sticker price is only part of the real story--students often struggle to cover a range of related costs and living expenses. Financial aid can be a big help, but many community college students have a harder time paying for college than their peers at four-year schools.…

  5. Teaching Community Medicine to Undergraduates: The Role of Student Projects

    PubMed Central

    Kaufert, J. M.; Fish, D. G.; Hildes, J.; Krause, R.

    1981-01-01

    The community medicine primary care clerkship at the University of Manitoba integrates didactic elements, clinical placements and student projects in teaching community medicine. The clinical clerkship is undertaken in a variety of community settings and emphasizes ambulatory care. The rotation for each student is eight weeks, six of which are spent in the clinical clerkship, bracketed by two weeks of community medicine. Student research projects allow medical students to become familiar with the principles of population-based and community-oriented medicine as applied in clinical practice. Evaluation of 156 projects completed during the first two years of the program indicates that a wide range of community-based health problems were identified and a variety of methodological approaches applied. PMID:21289697

  6. Financial Aid at California Community Colleges: Pell Grants and Fee Waivers in 2003-04. MPR Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkner, Lutz; Woo, Jennie

    2008-01-01

    In 2003-04 over half a million students attending the 109 California community colleges received about one billion dollars in financial aid to help meet their college expenses. Nearly all of the aided students received Board of Governors Fee Waivers to cover their enrollment fees. Less than one-half of the aided students also received federal Pell…

  7. Variation in Residential Care Community Nurse and Aide Staffing Levels: United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Rome, Vincent; Harris-Kojetin, Lauren D

    2016-02-19

    This report presents national and state estimates of staffing levels in residential care communities for registered nurses, licensed practical or vocational nurses, and aides in the United States for 2014. Data were drawn from the residential care community component of the 2014 wave of the biennial National Study of Long-Term Care Providers, conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Center for Health Statistics. For each staff type, the "staffing level" measure is presented as average hours per resident per day, defined as the total number of hours worked divided by the total number of residents, which does not necessarily reflect the amount of care given to a specific resident. Analyses examined the extent to which residential care community nurse and aide staffing levels varied by selected organizational characteristics and selected resident composition characteristics of the communities. Differences among subgroups were evaluated using two-sided t tests at the 0.05 level. In 2014, the total registered nurse, licensed practical or vocational nurse, and aide staffing level among all residential care communities was about 2 hours and 50 minutes. Registered nurse staffing levels differed for two of the three organizational characteristics (size and metropolitan statistical area [MSA]) and for only one of the four resident composition characteristics (primarily serving residents needing any assistance with activities of daily living). Licensed practical or vocational nurse staffing levels differed for all three organizational characteristics (size, MSA, and ownership) and for only one of the four resident composition characteristics (primarily serving residents diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease or other dementias). In contrast, differences in aide staffing levels were common when examining both community organizational and resident composition characteristics. Registered nursing, licensed practical and vocational nursing, and aide

  8. The Puente Project: Socializing and Mentoring Latino Community College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laden, Berta Vigil

    2000-01-01

    Claims that the way that minority students are socialized is related to retention and persistence. Discusses mentoring programs offered in community colleges that socialize and retain minority students. Explores the Puente Program as an example of a successful program that can aid minority Latino students. (Contains 35 references.) (MZ)

  9. Keweenaw Bay Indian Community Weatherization Training Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Denomie, Lawrence J.; LaPointe, Bruce

    2012-03-26

    The objective of the project is to train the appropriate staff, both new and existing from various KBIC Departments in the core competencies needed to develop a comprehensive Tribal community weatherization program. The goal of the project was to build the staff capacity to enable the KBIC to establish a Tribal weatherization program that promotes energy sufficiency throughout the Tribal community. The project addresses the needs identified in the 2008 KBIC Strategic Energy Plan to build the staff capacity and increase the knowledge base within the Tribal Departments and to implement an energy efficiency program through community education and financial assistance incentives.

  10. Risk and Resilience in Orphaned Adolescents Living in a Community Affected by AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Lauren G.; Flisher, Alan J.; Robertson, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    The AIDS pandemic has resulted in a dramatic rise in the number of orphans in South Africa. This study was designed to investigate the associations between family, peer, and community factors and resilience in orphaned adolescents. Self-report questionnaires were administered verbally to 159 parentally bereaved adolescents (aged 10-19) in an…

  11. Green Lights & Red Tape: Improving Access to Financial Aid at California's Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Deborah Frankle

    2007-01-01

    Financial aid can encourage students to enroll in college and increase their odds of academic success. While the California community colleges (CCCs) have very low fees, which are waived for most low-income students, the additional expenses of books, supplies, transportation, housing, food and childcare can create significant financial barriers to…

  12. The Power of Computer-aided Tomography to Investigate Marine Benthic Communities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Utilization of Computer-aided-Tomography (CT) technology is a powerful tool to investigate benthic communities in aquatic systems. In this presentation, we will attempt to summarize our 15 years of experience in developing specific CT methods and applications to marine benthic co...

  13. Risk and Resilience in Orphaned Adolescents Living in a Community Affected by AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Lauren G.; Flisher, Alan J.; Robertson, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    The AIDS pandemic has resulted in a dramatic rise in the number of orphans in South Africa. This study was designed to investigate the associations between family, peer, and community factors and resilience in orphaned adolescents. Self-report questionnaires were administered verbally to 159 parentally bereaved adolescents (aged 10-19) in an…

  14. The Illusion of Convergence: Federal Student Aid Policy in Community Colleges and Proprietary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Richard W.

    1995-01-01

    Argues that the apparent convergence of community colleges and proprietary schools is in large part caused by changes in federal student aid policy. Suggests that the apparent convergence masks real and profound differences between these institutions in the areas of mission, governance, size, articulation with other sectors, costs, and market…

  15. Volunteering for College? Potential Implications of Financial Aid Tax Credits Rewarding Community Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Ryan S.; Lynch, Cassie M.

    2014-01-01

    President Obama has proposed a financial aid policy whereby students who complete 100 hours of community service would receive a tax credit of US$4,000 for college. After lawmakers cut this proposal from previous legislation, the administration was tasked with studying the feasibility of implementation. However, the implications of the policy for…

  16. Computer-Aided Instruction in Mathematics Remediation at a Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brocato, Mary Anne

    2009-01-01

    Over the past ten years, traditional lecture style delivery has given way to computer-aided instruction (CAI) in post-secondary education. Developmental mathematics courses have been one of the most widely used applications. At a small community college in the Mississippi Delta, a computer assisted version of Intermediate Algebra was implemented.…

  17. Organizational and Environmental Predictors of Job Satisfaction in Community-based HIV/AIDS Service Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gimbel, Ronald W.; Lehrman, Sue; Strosberg, Martin A.; Ziac, Veronica; Freedman, Jay; Savicki, Karen; Tackley, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Using variables measuring organizational characteristics and environmental influences, this study analyzed job satisfaction in community-based HIV/AIDS organizations. Organizational characteristics were found to predict job satisfaction among employees with varying intensity based on position within the organization. Environmental influences had…

  18. Exploring Living Learning Community: Aiding Undecided Students' Decision Making or Simply a Residence Hall Option?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workman, Jamie L.

    2015-01-01

    This research explored first year undecided college student experiences with a Living Learning Community (LLC) designed to aid them in major and career decision making process. The study took place at a public high research Midwestern university. Twelve students who were undeclared majors when they began college participated in the study. The…

  19. Assessing Riverside Community College Nursing Student Attitudes toward Exposure to AIDS/HIV-Positive Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kross, Carolyn Sue

    In fall 1990, a study was conducted to assess the attitudes of nursing students who were attending Riverside Community College (RCC), in California, toward exposure to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome/Human Immunodeficiency Virus (AIDS/HIV) positive patients in a hospital setting. All students enrolled in RCC's associate degree nursing program…

  20. Assessing Riverside Community College Nursing Student Attitudes toward Exposure to AIDS/HIV-Positive Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kross, Carolyn Sue

    In fall 1990, a study was conducted to assess the attitudes of nursing students who were attending Riverside Community College (RCC), in California, toward exposure to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome/Human Immunodeficiency Virus (AIDS/HIV) positive patients in a hospital setting. All students enrolled in RCC's associate degree nursing program…

  1. The Power of Computer-aided Tomography to Investigate Marine Benthic Communities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Utilization of Computer-aided-Tomography (CT) technology is a powerful tool to investigate benthic communities in aquatic systems. In this presentation, we will attempt to summarize our 15 years of experience in developing specific CT methods and applications to marine benthic co...

  2. Volunteering for College? Potential Implications of Financial Aid Tax Credits Rewarding Community Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Ryan S.; Lynch, Cassie M.

    2014-01-01

    President Obama has proposed a financial aid policy whereby students who complete 100 hours of community service would receive a tax credit of US$4,000 for college. After lawmakers cut this proposal from previous legislation, the administration was tasked with studying the feasibility of implementation. However, the implications of the policy for…

  3. Rural Indian tribal communities: an emerging high-risk group for HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Naik, Eknath; Karpur, Arun; Taylor, Richard; Ramaswami, Balasubramaniam; Ramachandra, Seetharam; Balasubramaniam, Bindu; Galwankar, Sagar; Sinnott, John; Nabukera, Sarah; Salihu, Hamisu M

    2005-02-21

    BACKGROUND: Rural Indian tribes are anthropologically distinct with unique cultures, traditions and practices. Over the years, displacement and rapid acculturation of this population has led to dramatic changes in their socio-cultural and value systems. Due to a poor health infrastructure, high levels of poverty and ignorance, these communities are highly vulnerable to various health problems, especially, communicable diseases including HIV/AIDS. Our study sought to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding sexuality, and the risk factors associated with the spread of HIV/AIDS and STDs among these communities. METHODS: A nested cross sectional study was undertaken as part of the on going Reproductive and Child Health Survey. A total of 5,690 participants age 18-44 were recruited for this study. Data were obtained through home interviews, and focused on socio-demographics, knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding sexuality, HIV/AIDS and other STDs. RESULTS: The study revealed that only 22% of adults had even heard of AIDS, and 18 % knew how it is transmitted. In addition, only 5% knew that STDs and AIDS were related to each other. AIDS awareness among women was lower compared to men (14% vs.30 %). Regarding sexual practices, 35% of the respondents reported having had extramarital sexual encounters, with more males than females reporting extramarital affairs. CONCLUSION: Lack of awareness, permissiveness of tribal societies for premarital or extra-marital sexual relationships, and sexual mixing patterns predispose these communities to HIV/AIDS and STD infections. There is a dire need for targeted interventions in order to curtail the increasing threat of HIV and other STDs among these vulnerable populations.

  4. Improving the Financial Aid Process for Community College Students: A Literature Review of FAFSA Simplification, Information, and Verification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, J. Cody

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that community college and other low income students have the most need regarding the financial aid process. Community college students are less likely to complete the free application for federal student aid (FAFSA) than students at public and private four-year and for-profit institutions. Surveys have shown that the complexity…

  5. Improving the Financial Aid Process for Community College Students: A Literature Review of FAFSA Simplification, Information, and Verification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, J. Cody

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that community college and other low income students have the most need regarding the financial aid process. Community college students are less likely to complete the free application for federal student aid (FAFSA) than students at public and private four-year and for-profit institutions. Surveys have shown that the complexity…

  6. 23 CFR 636.104 - Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS DESIGN-BUILD CONTRACTING General § 636.104 Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects? The provisions of this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does this part apply to all Federal-aid...

  7. Gulf Coast Community College's Memory Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrell, Matthew D.

    2005-01-01

    Gulf Coast Community College in Panama City, Florida, is celebrating a fifty-year anniversary in 2007. Maintained by the library, the school's archives represent the historical contributions on a local and national level. Gulf Coast Community College library is ensuring the school's historical significance through the digitization of its…

  8. Gulf Coast Community College's Memory Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrell, Matthew D.

    2005-01-01

    Gulf Coast Community College in Panama City, Florida, is celebrating a fifty-year anniversary in 2007. Maintained by the library, the school's archives represent the historical contributions on a local and national level. Gulf Coast Community College library is ensuring the school's historical significance through the digitization of its…

  9. Community parenteral therapy project: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Foster, L; McMurray, A

    1998-01-01

    The pilot study reported in this paper was devised to develop and compare service delivery models that would achieve the provision of high quality parenteral therapy care to patients in the Gold Coast District Health Service community. All data were collected on 113 patients for a 12-month period, January to December 1996. The study compared the provision of outreach nursing services and contracted nursing services on measures of satisfaction and cost. The study showed that patient and carers indicated a preference for community care, medical officers advocated the benefits of administering parenteral therapies in the community, general practitioners were interested in managing future community parenteral therapies, and contracted (nurse) service providers endorsed the development of a parenteral therapy resource centre. The findings also revealed considerable potential cost savings in community-based care.

  10. Dynamic optical projection of acquired luminescence for aiding oncologic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarder, Pinaki; Gullicksrud, Kyle; Mondal, Suman; Sudlow, Gail P.; Achilefu, Samuel; Akers, Walter J.

    2013-12-01

    Optical imaging enables real-time visualization of intrinsic and exogenous contrast within biological tissues. Applications in human medicine have demonstrated the power of fluorescence imaging to enhance visualization in dermatology, endoscopic procedures, and open surgery. Although few optical contrast agents are available for human medicine at this time, fluorescence imaging is proving to be a powerful tool in guiding medical procedures. Recently, intraoperative detection of fluorescent molecular probes that target cell-surface receptors has been reported for improvement in oncologic surgery in humans. We have developed a novel system, optical projection of acquired luminescence (OPAL), to further enhance real-time guidance of open oncologic surgery. In this method, collected fluorescence intensity maps are projected onto the imaged surface rather than via wall-mounted display monitor. To demonstrate proof-of-principle for OPAL applications in oncologic surgery, lymphatic transport of indocyanine green was visualized in live mice for intraoperative identification of sentinel lymph nodes. Subsequently, peritoneal tumors in a murine model of breast cancer metastasis were identified using OPAL after systemic administration of a tumor-selective fluorescent molecular probe. These initial results clearly show that OPAL can enhance adoption and ease-of-use of fluorescence imaging in oncologic procedures relative to existing state-of-the-art intraoperative imaging systems.

  11. The Design of a Project to Assess Bilateral Versus Unilateral Hearing Aid Fitting

    PubMed Central

    Arlinger, Stig; Gatehouse, Stuart; Kiessling, Jürgen; Naylor, Graham; Verschuure, Hans; Wouters, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Binaural hearing provides advantages over monaural in several ways, particularly in difficult listening situations. For a person with bilateral hearing loss, the bilateral fitting of hearing aids thus seems like a natural choice. However, surprisingly few studies have been reported in which the additional benefit of bilateral versus unilateral hearing aid use has been investigated based on real-life experiences. Therefore, a project has been designed to address this issue and to find tools to identify people for whom the drawbacks would outweigh the advantages of bilateral fitting. A project following this design is likely to provide reliable evidence concerning differences in benefit between unilateral and bilateral fitting of hearing aids by evaluating correlations between entrance data and outcome measures and final preferences. PMID:18567594

  12. 28 CFR 551.60 - Volunteer community service projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for approval of the Regional Director. Volunteer community service projects are designed to provide... under the provisions of the Inmate Accident Compensation Program. (b) An inmate may volunteer to...

  13. A Multi-disciplinary Project Using Community Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Thomas Allen

    1992-01-01

    Describes a project in which 135 seventh graders "adopted" a nearby park; cleaned up litter in it; and raised the consciousness of the community about the park and litter through news stories, signs, and a park guidebook. (SV)

  14. New Jersey: Clean Air Communities (A Former EPA CARE Project)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Clean Air Communities (CAC) is the recipient of a Level II CARE cooperative agreement to implement recommendations by the state’s Environmental Justice Task Force and the Air Toxics Pilot Project to reduce environmental risks.

  15. Knowledge-Based Indexing of the Medical Literature: The Indexing Aid Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, Suzanne; Miller, Nancy E.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Indexing Aid Project for conducting research in knowledge representation and indexing for information retrieval, whose goal is to develop interactive knowledge-based systems for computer-assisted indexing of the periodical medical literature. Appendices include background information on NLM…

  16. QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLANS: A USELESS PAPER EXERCISE OR VALUABLE AID?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two perspectives on the fundamental question "Are quality assurance project plans (QAPPS) a useless paper exercise or a valuable aid?" will be explored. These perspectives include those of a Branch Chief (i.e., the supervisor/manager) and an active researcher. As a Branch Chief, ...

  17. The Development of the Data Base for "Student Aid: Description and Options". SRI Project 2158.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershberger, Ann M.; And Others

    What problems are involved in the development and organization of data sources used in a research project on student aid? Problems faced are: (1) using data from sources that had combined information into different categories; (2) incomplete data on a topic; (3) the disparity in the numbers of students or dollars reported by different data…

  18. QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLANS: A USELESS PAPER EXERCISE OR VALUABLE AID?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two perspectives on the fundamental question "Are quality assurance project plans (QAPPS) a useless paper exercise or a valuable aid?" will be explored. These perspectives include those of a Branch Chief (i.e., the supervisor/manager) and an active researcher. As a Branch Chief, ...

  19. Evaluation of the community response to HIV and AIDS: Learning from a portfolio approach

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-García, Rosalía; Wilson, David; York, Nick; Low, Corinne; N'Jie, N'Della; Bonnel, Rene

    2013-01-01

    While communities have played a large role in the HIV/AIDS response, their contributions and innovative approaches to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support have not always been the focus of systematic and rigorous evaluations. To address this gap, the World Bank led an evaluation of the impact of the community response to HIV, including country studies in Burkina Faso, India, Kenya, Lesotho, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa and Zimbabwe over a three-year period. Due to the complexity and varied nature of community responses, the evaluation attempted to determine the results that investments have produced at the community level by applying a mixed method approach: Randomized Controlled Trials, quasi-experimental studies, qualitative studies and analytical studies including financial data. Specifically, the studies examined a typology of community response and the flow of funds to community-based organizations, while investigating the impact of the community responses on (1) knowledge and behavior, (2) use of services, (3) social transformation, and (4) HIV incidence. This editorial summarizes the results of this evaluation portfolio, finding that investments in communities have produced significant results, including, improved knowledge and behavior, and increased use of health services, and even decreased HIV incidence. Evidence on social transformation was more mixed, with community groups found to be effective only in some settings. Each study in the evaluation provides a partial view of how communities shape the local response; however, taken together they corroborate the common wisdom that communities can be a vital part of the global HIV/AIDS response. PMID:23745633

  20. The Role of Community Development Employment Projects in Rural and Remote Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misko, Josie

    2004-01-01

    The Community Development Employment Projects (CDEP) scheme provides funds to help Indigenous communities in rural and remote Australia provide employment, skills development, and various essential and desirable municipal services. However, there is room to improve the range and quality of employment and community development activities available.…

  1. Access to Democracy Project: Community Report on Attitudes Regarding Educational Attainment. Grand Rapids (Michigan) Surrounding Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daun-Barnett, Nathan J.; Bowman, Nicholas A.

    2005-01-01

    The "Access to Democracy" project has two broad goals. It is an effort to understand community beliefs, attitudes and conditions that shape educational outcomes for community youth, and it is a way to focus community discussions on efforts that support higher educational attainment for residents. This report focuses on the lessons…

  2. Diversity Awareness through Community Service. Project SEED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Marilyn; And Others

    This paper briefly describes a collaborative project between a special school and a middle school to enhance disability awareness. The project brought 7th graders from the middle school and students from the special school together for combined learning activities and gave 7th graders an opportunity to volunteer help with individual students and…

  3. Project MAIN: Community Collaboration Benefits Senior Citizens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Gerald F.

    1986-01-01

    Examines Project MAIN (Mobile Assistants in Nutrition), a 12-month demonstration project and the collaborative effort of an urban university, a high school, and a senior services agency, which employed students, ages 14 to 19, to research, plan, and operate a grocery delivery and escort service for elderly and disabled citizens. (BB)

  4. Community Air Sensor Network CAIRSENSE Project: Lower ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presentation slides on the CAIRSENSE project, Atlanta field study testing low cost air sensors against FEM instruments. To be presented at the Air and Waste Management Association conference. Presentation slides on the CAIRSENSE project, Atlanta field study testing low cost air sensors against FEM instruments. To be presented at the Air and Waste Management Association conference.

  5. Project MAIN: Community Collaboration Benefits Senior Citizens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Gerald F.

    1986-01-01

    Examines Project MAIN (Mobile Assistants in Nutrition), a 12-month demonstration project and the collaborative effort of an urban university, a high school, and a senior services agency, which employed students, ages 14 to 19, to research, plan, and operate a grocery delivery and escort service for elderly and disabled citizens. (BB)

  6. Context-aided analysis of community evolution in networks

    DOE PAGES

    Pallotta, Giuliana; Konjevod, Goran; Cadena, Jose; ...

    2017-09-15

    Here, we are interested in detecting and analyzing global changes in dynamic networks (networks that evolve with time). More precisely, we consider changes in the activity distribution within the network, in terms of density (ie, edge existence) and intensity (ie, edge weight). Detecting change in local properties, as well as individual measurements or metrics, has been well studied and often reduces to traditional statistical process control. In contrast, detecting change in larger scale structure of the network is more challenging and not as well understood. We address this problem by proposing a framework for detecting change in network structure basedmore » on separate pieces: a probabilistic model for partitioning nodes by their behavior, a label-unswitching heuristic, and an approach to change detection for sequences of complex objects. We examine the performance of one instantiation of such a framework using mostly previously available pieces. The dataset we use for these investigations is the publicly available New York City Taxi and Limousine Commission dataset covering all taxi trips in New York City since 2009. Using it, we investigate the evolution of an ensemble of networks under different spatiotemporal resolutions. We identify the community structure by fitting a weighted stochastic block model. In conclusion, we offer insights on different node ranking and clustering methods, their ability to capture the rhythm of life in the Big Apple, and their potential usefulness in highlighting changes in the underlying network structure.« less

  7. Community Capacity Building: Starting with People Not Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Lyn; Wood, Leanne; Daws, Leonie

    2003-01-01

    A remote Australian town's initiative to develop an Internet cafe was based on a foundation of community empowerment and capacity building. The project's failure illustrates factors that inhibit community control: overstretched local resources, failure to understand impact on existing social infrastructure and social networks, and lack of…

  8. Communication and Energy: Community Participation in Forestry Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Marilyn W.

    1981-01-01

    Criteria for establishing a project management plan for local community development of forestry programs in Africa are provided in the lead article, which elaborates upon approaches for encouraging participation in fuelwood production, determining community needs and responsibilities, assigning technical support personnel, and revitalizing rural…

  9. Project R.I.S.E. and Community Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libarios, Ernest; Libarios, Shirley

    1979-01-01

    Project R.I.S.E. (Resourceful Individuals Seeking Education) seeks to empower minority students and parents, phasing them in as equal members of the school and community. Active participation and discussion of intergroup issues are encouraged. This description is part of a theme issue on community education in Hawaii. (SJL)

  10. Community Energy Project of ACTION's Office of Voluntary Citizen Participation

    SciTech Connect

    Crangle, M

    1980-01-01

    Several memoranda dated from March 4, 1980 to September 18, 1980 from the Community Energy Project personnel to the Acting Director of Weatherization Assistance Program within ACTION are compiled. Information on community-based efforts and programs for low cost/no cost energy conservation is presented. (LCL)

  11. Participatory Evaluation with Youth Leads to Community Action Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, Carolyn; Arnold, Mary E.; Wells, Elissa E.

    2010-01-01

    4-H has long emphasized the importance of civic engagement and community service for positive youth development. One pathway to this ideal is youth action research and evaluation. This article demonstrates how participatory youth research and evaluation can lead to the successful implementation of community action projects. It describes the…

  12. Community Capacity Building: Starting with People Not Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Lyn; Wood, Leanne; Daws, Leonie

    2003-01-01

    A remote Australian town's initiative to develop an Internet cafe was based on a foundation of community empowerment and capacity building. The project's failure illustrates factors that inhibit community control: overstretched local resources, failure to understand impact on existing social infrastructure and social networks, and lack of…

  13. How national context, project design, and local community characteristics influence success in community-based conservation projects.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Jeremy S; Waylen, Kerry A; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique

    2012-12-26

    Community-based conservation (CBC) promotes the idea that conservation success requires engaging with, and providing benefits for, local communities. However, CBC projects are neither consistently successful nor free of controversy. Innovative recent studies evaluating the factors associated with success and failure typically examine only a single resource domain, have limited geographic scope, consider only one outcome, or ignore the nested nature of socioecological systems. To remedy these issues, we use a global comparative database of CBC projects identified by systematic review to evaluate success in four outcome domains (attitudes, behaviors, ecological, economic) and explore synergies and trade-offs among these outcomes. We test hypotheses about how features of the national context, project design, and local community characteristics affect these measures of success. Using bivariate analyses and multivariate proportional odds logistic regressions within a multilevel analysis and model-fitting framework, we show that project design, particularly capacity-building in local communities, is associated with success across all outcomes. In addition, some characteristics of the local community in which projects are conducted, such as tenure regimes and supportive cultural beliefs and institutions, are important for project success. Surprisingly, there is little evidence that national context systematically influences project outcomes. We also find evidence of synergies between pairs of outcomes, particularly between ecological and economic success. We suggest that well-designed and implemented projects can overcome many of the obstacles imposed by local and national conditions to succeed in multiple domains.

  14. How national context, project design, and local community characteristics influence success in community-based conservation projects

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Jeremy S.; Waylen, Kerry A.; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique

    2012-01-01

    Community-based conservation (CBC) promotes the idea that conservation success requires engaging with, and providing benefits for, local communities. However, CBC projects are neither consistently successful nor free of controversy. Innovative recent studies evaluating the factors associated with success and failure typically examine only a single resource domain, have limited geographic scope, consider only one outcome, or ignore the nested nature of socioecological systems. To remedy these issues, we use a global comparative database of CBC projects identified by systematic review to evaluate success in four outcome domains (attitudes, behaviors, ecological, economic) and explore synergies and trade-offs among these outcomes. We test hypotheses about how features of the national context, project design, and local community characteristics affect these measures of success. Using bivariate analyses and multivariate proportional odds logistic regressions within a multilevel analysis and model-fitting framework, we show that project design, particularly capacity-building in local communities, is associated with success across all outcomes. In addition, some characteristics of the local community in which projects are conducted, such as tenure regimes and supportive cultural beliefs and institutions, are important for project success. Surprisingly, there is little evidence that national context systematically influences project outcomes. We also find evidence of synergies between pairs of outcomes, particularly between ecological and economic success. We suggest that well-designed and implemented projects can overcome many of the obstacles imposed by local and national conditions to succeed in multiple domains. PMID:23236173

  15. U.S. Aid to Education in Nepal: A 20-Year Beginning. Project Impact Evaluation No. 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellar, Peter O.; And Others

    This evaluation measured the impacts of United States aid to education in Nepal. It differs from other Agency for International Development (AID) Impact Evaluations in that, rather than a single project, a series of projects (1954-1975) were evaluated, dealing with primary education, teacher training, vocational and secondary education, curriculum…

  16. A Historical Demographic Evaluation of the Illinois Department of Public Aid Population Enrolled in the Illinois State Board of Education, Adult Education Information Referral and Retention Special Project, of the Illinois Eastern Community College District 529 during the Period of FY84-FY88. A Five Year Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scattergood-Fisher, Beverly J.

    A 5-year study of the Illinois Eastern Community College District 529 Information Referral and Retention (IR&R) Project was conducted. Its purpose was to evaluate demographic and educational information regarding 888 students enrolled in the IR&R Public Assistance Program from November 1983 through June 1988. As part of the study, an…

  17. [Innovative processes in ambulatory care--AIDS as a pilot project].

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, D

    1996-06-01

    Flexibility in nursing practice and the willingness to be innovative are discussed, using the care of patients with AIDS as an example. When this new infectious disorder made its first appearance many countries tried to provide a patient-centred, community based service, in spite of the severity of the illness and the fact that it was usually lethal. A number of innovations were required to achieve this. The top priority was the provision of a community nursing service. This contribution consists of the analysis of the structure of provisions for care of patients with AIDS in the German Federal Republic (BRD). It deals with the reaction of the nursing services and asks to what extent the objectives have been achieved. Three different ways to adapt to the situation in the BRD are described and analysed. Data are based on qualitative interviews with members of the nursing service. It is shown that AIDS has led, in the BRD, to numerous innovations in community nursing care, the relevance of which far transcends the treatment of AIDS. In spite of this success, the care of patients is unsatisfactory. Many promising attempts to change came to grief as a result of resistance and obstacles to implementation. Others proved to be insufficiently robust or inappropriate in view of the multiplicity of problems encountered in AIDS. Reasons are to be found in the defective structure of the service, in the fact that management difficulties concerned with implementation of innovations were underestimated and that there is a "crisis" in nursing in the BRD. There have been criticisms for a long time, pointing out that the basic qualification is insufficient, that it does not prepare nurses adequately to deal with new social and health problems. If no change is introduced to training, community nursing is unlikely to be able to cope innovatively and flexibly with new challenges in the future.

  18. Community Structures in Bipartite Networks: A Dual-Projection Approach

    PubMed Central

    Melamed, David

    2014-01-01

    Identifying communities or clusters in networked systems has received much attention across the physical and social sciences. Most of this work focuses on single layer or one-mode networks, including social networks between people or hyperlinks between websites. Multilayer or multi-mode networks, such as affiliation networks linking people to organizations, receive much less attention in this literature. Common strategies for discovering the community structure of multi-mode networks identify the communities of each mode simultaneously. Here I show that this combined approach is ineffective at discovering community structures when there are an unequal number of communities between the modes of a multi-mode network. I propose a dual-projection alternative for detecting communities in multi-mode networks that overcomes this shortcoming. The evaluation of synthetic networks with known community structures reveals that the dual-projection approach outperforms the combined approach when there are a different number of communities in the various modes. At the same time, results show that the dual-projection approach is as effective as the combined strategy when the number of communities is the same between the modes. PMID:24836376

  19. The Biodiversity Community Action Project: An STS Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aidin, Amirshokoohi; Mahsa, Kazempour

    2010-01-01

    The Biodiversity Community Action Project is a stimulating and vigorous project that allows students to gain an in-depth understanding of the interconnection between organisms and their environments as well as the connection of science to their lives and society. It addresses key content standards in the National Science Education Standards and…

  20. Community-Based Projects for the Prevention of Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, M. J., Jr.; Hollowell, Joseph G.

    1992-01-01

    Several community projects of the Centers for Disease Control's Disabilities Prevention Program are described. The projects, which are coordinated at the state level, attempt to stimulate local involvement in disability prevention and to evaluate prevention needs and preventive interventions. (Author/JDD)

  1. The Biodiversity Community Action Project: An STS Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aidin, Amirshokoohi; Mahsa, Kazempour

    2010-01-01

    The Biodiversity Community Action Project is a stimulating and vigorous project that allows students to gain an in-depth understanding of the interconnection between organisms and their environments as well as the connection of science to their lives and society. It addresses key content standards in the National Science Education Standards and…

  2. Traffic Light Geography: A Fifth Grade Community Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirschky, E. Dwight

    1989-01-01

    Describes a community study project that uses history and the five fundamental themes of geography as a framework. The project involves organizing committees to study the need for a traffic signal in a small town. By studying various dimensions of the issue, the committees are able to demonstrate the need for a signal. (KO)

  3. Project Closeout: Guidance for Final Evaluation of Building America Communities

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, P.; Burch, J.; Hendron, B.

    2008-03-01

    This report presents guidelines for Project Closeout. It is used to determine whether the Building America program is successfully facilitating improved design and practices to achieve energy savings goals in production homes. Its objective is to use energy simulations, targeted utility bill analysis, and feedback from project stakeholders to evaluate the performance of occupied BA communities.

  4. Raising Aspirations within School Communities: The Learning Catalysts Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterhouse, Joanne

    2008-01-01

    This article accounts for a project that rests on a collaboration between the Leadership for Learning group at the Faculty of Education and the county council in King's Lynn and West Norfolk to address a concern regarding the low aspirations in the community. At the heart of the project was the development of a cadre of "Learning…

  5. Open Crowdsourcing: Leveraging Community Software Developers for IT Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phair, Derek

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative exploratory single-case study was designed to examine and understand the use of volunteer community participants as software developers and other project related roles, such as testers, in completing a web-based application project by a non-profit organization. This study analyzed the strategic decision to engage crowd…

  6. Open Crowdsourcing: Leveraging Community Software Developers for IT Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phair, Derek

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative exploratory single-case study was designed to examine and understand the use of volunteer community participants as software developers and other project related roles, such as testers, in completing a web-based application project by a non-profit organization. This study analyzed the strategic decision to engage crowd…

  7. Using Community-Based Research Projects To Teach Research Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapdelaine, Andrea; Chapman, Barbara L.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a community-based research project that collaborated with the police department to survey female residents' attitudes toward the role of the police in handling domestic violence cases. Explains that this project provided students with the opportunity to directly experience the research process early in their undergraduate psychology…

  8. Community-based mental health counseling for children orphaned by AIDS in China.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Joan A; Zeng, Wu; Wang, Liyao; Zhang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop scalable approaches to community-based mental health services for children in rural China and other developing countries involving task shifting from clinicians to trained community workers. Evidence is needed about the effectiveness of interventions for children affected by AIDS in rural areas. This article describes an intervention study aimed at developing, implementing, and evaluating a community-based counseling program for the AIDS orphans of Fuyang, Anhui Province, an area of central China where a tainted blood donation scheme infected countless farmers and left many children orphaned by AIDS. In China these children live in rural settings with no access to mental health services. The authors trained a group of community-based counselors to provide group counseling sessions focusing on self-awareness and communication and to provide a basic therapeutic approach for depression and anxiety. The authors conducted a baseline and two follow-up surveys of 39 children who met the clinical diagnostic criteria for anxiety and depression. There was a statistically significant improvement for the children on anxiety, but there was no statistically significant improvement on depression, with greatest gains immediately following the intervention. We demonstrated the feasibility of task shifting for mental health services in this setting.

  9. HIV/AIDS in Asian and Pacific Islander Communities in the U.S.: A Review, Analysis, and Integration.

    PubMed

    A, G Y

    1992-01-01

    In the United States, HIV/AIDS is invisible in Asian and Pacific Islander (A/PI) communities even though it has affected them since 1981. As the AIDS crisis enters its second decade, A/PI communities continue to face a classic Catch-22: They receive modest, if any, funding for services, education, or research because there are relatively few reported Asian AIDS cases, but no one can financially, socially, and ethically afford to wait for an explosion of HIV infection in these communities. This article, using the AIDS Risk Reduction Model (ARRM) as an organizing framework, reviews, analyzes, and integrates the current state of knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors associated with HIV/AIDS among Asians and Pacific Islanders. Implications for community health education programs and future directions for research are discussed.

  10. Creating "communicative spaces": a case of NGO community organizing for HIV/AIDS prevention.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Rebecca

    2009-12-01

    This study uses the case study method to investigate the processes used by a local nongovernmental organization called the Society for People's Action for Development to organize sex workers in the slums of Bangalore, India, for HIV/AIDS prevention. The nongovernmental organization-facilitated HIV/AIDS program is based on the new paradigm of community organizing that encourages community participation and capacity building. Grounded in the culture-centered approach, this study documents the processes used to organize the women, while highlighting the role of communication in these processes. The study identifies 4 primary processes used to mobilize the community, namely collectivization, community awareness and sensitization, capacity building, and providing legal education and support. Each of these processes highlights the importance of attending to the economic, social, and political realities that shape the health of women. The common thread linking these processes together is the notion of "voice." More specifically, each process serves as a catalyst to produce discursive practices that enable women to provide support to each other, increase awareness in the community about the problems that they face, build self-reliance through financial skills training and communication training, and defend their legal rights. In addition, the study suggests that the primary role of nongovernmental organizations should be the creation of "communicative spaces," which are discursive and material spaces within marginalized communities and mainstream society where cultural participants can identify problems (oftentimes beyond the realm of health), manage solutions to those problems, and advocate for health and social change.

  11. "At my age I should be sitting under that tree": the impact of AIDS on Tanzanian lakeshore communities.

    PubMed

    Appleton, J

    2000-07-01

    In 1992, the author led a participatory rural appraisal (PRA) exercise for a community fisheries project in Kagera region, on the western side of Lake Victoria, Tanzania. The PRA team visited four settlements: the prime harbor settlement on Kerebe Island; N'toro beach, in Bukoba district, near the Ugandan border; Chamkwikwi landing site in Muleba district; and Buzirayombo bay settlement in Biharamulo district in the south. This article draws on that research, to give an outsider's analysis of the ways in which AIDS was changing livelihoods in poor fishing and farming communities. On the lakeshore and islands, adults were falling ill and dying. This loss of men and women in their prime was causing major economic and social stresses for the single parents, grandparents, and orphans whom the authors met. They showed resilience and adaptability in the face of this threat to their already precarious livelihoods. The article ends by suggesting ways in which development policy makers and practitioners should support livelihoods in the era of AIDS.

  12. Promoting Community Preparedness and Resilience: A Latino Immigrant Community-Driven Project Following Hurricane Sandy.

    PubMed

    Cuervo, Isabel; Leopold, Les; Baron, Sherry

    2017-09-01

    As community residents and recovery workers, Latino immigrants play important roles after disasters, yet are rarely included in preparedness planning. A community-university-labor union partnership created a demonstration project after Hurricane Sandy to strengthen connections to disaster preparedness systems to increase community resilience among Latino immigrant communities in New York and New Jersey. Building ongoing ties that connect workers and community-based organizations with local disaster preparedness systems provided mutual benefits to disaster planners and local immigrant communities, and also had an impact on national disaster-related initiatives.

  13. Community Harmony Project: Real-Life Integrated Creative Arts Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell-Bowie, Deirdre

    2005-01-01

    Australian children from an urban area near Sydney used the creative arts to promote harmony among their diverse cultures including sizable immigrant populations from the Middle East, Asia, and other traditions. The project enabled children to develop leadership and artistic skills, and examine how their backgrounds influence their view of the…

  14. Community Based Demonstration Projects: Willamette Ecosystem Services Project (WESP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA’s Ecosystem Services Research Program in the Office of Research and Development is focused on the study of ecosystem services and the benefits to human well-being provided by ecological systems. As part of this research effort, the Willamette Ecosystems Services Project (WE...

  15. Community Based Demonstration Projects: Willamette Ecosystem Services Project (WESP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA’s Ecosystem Services Research Program in the Office of Research and Development is focused on the study of ecosystem services and the benefits to human well-being provided by ecological systems. As part of this research effort, the Willamette Ecosystems Services Project (WE...

  16. Project Citizen: Students Practice Democratic Principles While Conducting Community Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina-Jerez, William; Bryant, Carol; Green, Carie

    2010-01-01

    Project Citizen is a program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education's congressionally funded Center for Civic Education, which sponsors both domestic and international programs. The Center for Civic Education's Civitas International Programs pair U.S. states with countries around the world based on a variety of factors; including geographic…

  17. Community-based research in action: tales from the Ktunaxa community learning centres project.

    PubMed

    Stacy, Elizabeth; Wisener, Katherine; Liman, Yolanda; Beznosova, Olga; Lauscher, Helen Novak; Ho, Kendall; Jarvis-Selinger, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Rural communities, particularly Aboriginal communities, often have limited access to health information, a situation that can have significant negative consequences. To address the lack of culturally and geographically relevant health information, a community-university partnership was formed to develop, implement, and evaluate Aboriginal Community Learning Centres (CLCs). The objective of this paper is to evaluate the community-based research process used in the development of the CLCs. It focuses on the process of building relationships among partners and the CLC's value and sustainability. Semistructured interviews were conducted with key stakeholders, including principal investigators, community research leads, and supervisors. The interview transcripts were analyzed using an open-coding process to identify themes. Key challenges included enacting shared project governance, negotiating different working styles, and hiring practices based on commitment to project objectives rather than skill set. Technological access provided by the CLCs increased capacity for learning and collective community initiatives, as well as building community leads' skills, knowledge, and self-efficacy. An important lesson was to meet all partners "where they are" in building trusting relationships and adapting research methods to fit the project's context and strengths. Successful results were dependent upon persistence and patience in working through differences, and breaking the project into achievable goals, which collectively contributed to trust and capacity building. The process of building these partnerships resulted in increased capacity of communities to facilitate learning and change initiatives, and the capacity of the university to engage in successful research partnerships with Aboriginal communities in the future.

  18. Clackamas Community College: Data Exploration Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MPR Associates, Inc., 2008

    2008-01-01

    Clackamas Community College (CCC) is a two-year college offering academic and career education to more than 30,000 students a year. CCC has multiple campuses and extension sites, with a large main campus in Oregon City and smaller campuses and sites in Harmony, Wilsonville, Estacada, and Molalla. CCC has identified a pressing need to know more…

  19. Involving Children and Youth in Community Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalishman, Norton; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes New Mexico's Alcohol and Substance Abuse Prevention Program, which encourages students to participate actively in school and community to eliminate substance abuse. Also describes the Student Traffic Safety Task Force of the Eldorado High School Student Senate, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Determinants of program success are pointed out. (RH)

  20. Project Impact: Building a Disaster Resistant Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC.

    There have been well over 200 Presidentially declared disasters in the United States in the past 5 years. No state has been spared. The costs associated with these events are staggering. Communities can take responsibility for alleviating the impact of natural disasters to ensure citizen safety, prevent damage to facilities, prevent delays of…

  1. The UCLA Community College Student Survey Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lara, Juan Francisco

    A survey was conducted of 1,343 community college students who transferred to the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), in fall 1977 to determine the major factors influencing student withdrawal or persistence. In addition to requesting information on students' background, the survey questionnaire asked the students to contrast their…

  2. Project COPE: Community Corrections Education. Resource Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Richard L.; And Others

    Based on a program developed in Texas, this guide was developed to help correctional educators coordinate educational services in the community with adult education program providers in order to provide appropriate programs for parolees and probationers. Following an introduction that explains terms of the criminal justice system and…

  3. A Community's Perception of a Treatment Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oki, G.; Collier, D.

    1978-01-01

    Prior to the opening of a rurally located treatment program for public inebriates, a concentrated public relations effort was made to inform and reassure the inhabitants of the local and surrounding neighborhoods about the program. Community sentiments four years later are discussed. (Author)

  4. [Community-based organizations and the aids epidemic in Amazonas state, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Kadri, Michele Rocha; Schweickardt, Julio Cesar

    2015-05-01

    The scope of this paper was to analyze the perception of community-based organizations and their contributions to the history of tackling Aids in Amazonas State. It involved qualitative research with the use of oral and documental sources. Data were collected between June and September 2013 by means of semi-structured interviews with the leaders of eight organizations that work or worked with more vulnerable communities. Based on Discourse Analysis the conclusion drawn is that that the organizations perceive two distinct phases since the decentralization of funds from the Sexually-Transmitted Diseases Aids and Viral Hepatitis Department to the local leaders. The first phase was marked by the strengthening of organizations, collective empowerment and active political participation. The current phase has seen the distancing between organizations, a loss of political momentum and weakening of common response and organization.

  5. Introducing NINJA: A Gravitation Wave Community Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoemaker, Deirdre

    2010-10-01

    A world-wide network of gravitation wave detectors is operational. Fortunately one of the most important sources of gravitational waves, the coalescence of two black holes, is now routinely computed by numerical relativity. The Numerical Injection Analysis Project (NINJA) was formed to study the sensitivity of gravitational-wave analysis pipelines to numerical simulations of waveforms and foster close collaboration between numerical relativists and data analysts. This talk will summarize the results of the first NINJA project and introduce the goals of the second.

  6. Use of NASA Satellite Data in Aiding Mississippi Barrier Island Restoration Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giardino, Marco; Spruce, Joseph; Kalcic, Maria; Fletcher, Rose

    2009-01-01

    This presentation discusses a NASA Stennis Space Center project in which NASA-supported satellite and aerial data is being used to aid state and federal agencies in restoring the Mississippi barrier islands. Led by the Applied Science and Technology Project Office (ASTPO), this project will produce geospatial information products from multiple NASA-supported data sources, including Landsat, ASTER, and MODIS satellite data as well as ATLAS multispectral, CAMS multispectral, AVIRIS hyperspectral, EAARL, and other aerial data. Project objectives include the development and testing of a regional sediment transport model and the monitoring of barrier island restoration efforts through remote sensing. Barrier islands provide invaluable benefits to the State of Mississippi, including buffering the mainland from storm surge impacts, providing habitats for valuable wildlife and fisheries habitat, offering accessible recreational opportunities, and preserving natural environments for educating the public about coastal ecosystems and cultural resources. Unfortunately, these highly valued natural areas are prone to damage from hurricanes. For example, Hurricane Camille in 1969 split Ship Island into East and West Ship Island. Hurricane Georges in 1998 caused additional land loss for the two Ship Islands. More recently, Hurricanes Ivan, Katrina, Rita, Gustav, and Ike impacted the Mississippi barrier islands. In particular, Hurricane Katrina caused major damage to island vegetation and landforms, killing island forest overstories, overwashing entire islands, and causing widespread erosion. In response, multiple state and federal agencies are working to restore damaged components of these barrier islands. Much of this work is being implemented through federally funded Coastal Impact Assessment and Mississippi Coastal Improvement programs. One restoration component involves the reestablishment of the island footprints to that in 1969. Our project will employ NASA remote sensing

  7. Capstone Engineering Design Projects for Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Kenneth A.; Christian, Jon R.

    2017-01-01

    Capstone engineering design courses have been a feature at research universities and four-year schools for many years. Although such classes are less common at two-year colleges, the experience is equally beneficial for this population of students. With this in mind, Madison College introduced a project-based Engineering Design course in 2007.…

  8. African Americans and HIV/AIDS – the epidemic continues: an intervention to address the HIV/AIDS pandemic in the black community.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Latrena

    2011-01-01

    The Black community continues to be ravished by HIV/AIDS infection despite the marked expenditures utilized to reduce incidence among this cohort. Efforts to produce culturally appropriate programs that work continues to elude officials and HIV/AIDS has become endemic among specific subgroups in this cohort (e.g., Black men who have sex with men). Large-scale prevention programs have not worked and although community-based interventions have proven to be effective in eliciting behavior change, the numbers that they have been producing have not been enough to make a substantial impact on HIV incidence. The purpose of this exploratory article is to rehash how HIV/AIDS infection continues to devastate the African American community in an effort to elicit renewed vigilance in combating the disease in this community, describe the elements that continue to impede prevention and risk reduction efforts, and present a potential framework that may work to decrease incidence in this community. This article presents a multi-pronged approach to addressing the epidemic of HIV/AIDS in the African American community.

  9. Challenges in presenting high dimensional data to aid in triage in the DARPA virtual soldier project.

    PubMed

    Boyd, A D; Wright, Z C; Ade, A S; Bookstein, F; Ogden, J C; Meixner, W; Athey, B D; Morris, T

    2005-01-01

    One of the goals of the DARPA Virtual Soldier Project is to aid the field medic in the triage of a casualty. In Phase I, we are currently collecting 12 baseline experimental physiological variables and a cardiac gated Computed Tomography (CT) imagery for use in an prototyping a futuristic electronic medical record, the "Holomer". We are using physiological models and Kalman filtering to aid in diagnosis and predict outcomes in relation to cardiac injury. The physiological modeling introduces another few hundred variables. Reducing the complexity of the above into easy-to-read text to aid in the triage by the field medic is the challenge with multiple display solutions. A description of the possible techniques follows.

  10. Performance factors of mobile rich media job aids for community health workers.

    PubMed

    Florez-Arango, Jose F; Iyengar, M Sriram; Dunn, Kim; Zhang, Jiajie

    2011-01-01

    To study and analyze the possible benefits on performance of community health workers using point-of-care clinical guidelines implemented as interactive rich media job aids on small-format mobile platforms. A crossover study with one intervention (rich media job aids) and one control (traditional job aids), two periods, with 50 community health workers, each subject solving a total 15 standardized cases per period per period (30 cases in total per subject). Error rate per case and task, protocol compliance. A total of 1394 cases were evaluated. Intervention reduces errors by an average of 33.15% (p = 0.001) and increases protocol compliance 30.18% (p < 0.001). Limitations Medical cases were presented on human patient simulators in a laboratory setting, not on real patients. These results indicate encouraging prospects for mHealth technologies in general, and the use of rich media clinical guidelines on cell phones in particular, for the improvement of community health worker performance in developing countries.

  11. Conceptualizing the cross-cultural gaps in managing international aid: HIV/AIDS and TB project delivery in Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Terence

    2011-01-01

    There appears to be a gap between the billions of dollars inputted into fighting HIV/AIDS and TB and outcomes. This in part can be attributed to the lack of attention in International Development to managing programmes and projects within complex levels of cross-cultural interactions. International Development often ignores management issues, yet Management Studies is left wanting through a lack of engagement with development issues including the fight against disease and poverty. This paper attempts to link these two disciplines towards mutual benefit, through a critical cross-cultural approach. It provides contextualization of international development policies/strategies; conceptualization of dominant paradigms; structural analysis of how a programme/project fits into the global governance structure; analysis of complexities and levels of cross-cultural interaction and their consequences and the process and implications of knowledge transfer across cultural distances. It concludes with implications for policy and practice, as well as what is needed from cross-disciplinary research. This includes how feedback loops can be strengthened from local to global, how indigenous knowledge may be better understood and integrated, how power relations within the global governance structure could be managed, how cross-cultural interaction could be better understood, and how knowledge transfer/sharing should be critically managed.

  12. Emergency School Aid Act Pilot Project, Final Project Report, 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Lowrie A.

    Two Emergency School Aid Act pilot programs were conducted by the Atlanta Public Schools: Cultural Adjustment and Special Mathematics. The purpose of the Cultural Adjustment program was to reduce isolation and educational problems related to non-English speaking pupils and pupils who have first language interference. Program evaluation conclusions…

  13. Seeing like a research project: producing "high-quality data" in AIDS research in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Biruk, Crystal

    2012-01-01

    Numbers are the primary way that we know about AIDS in Africa, yet their power and utility often obscure the conditions of their production. I show that quantification is very much a sociocultural process by focusing on everyday realities of making AIDS-related numbers in Malawi. "Seeing like a research project" implies systematically transforming social reality into data points and managing uncertainties inherent in numbers. Drawing on 20 months of participant observation with survey research projects (2005, 2007-2008), I demonstrate how standards govern data collection to protect and reproduce demographers' shared expectations of "high-quality data." Data are expected to be "clean," accurate and precise, data collection efficient and timely, and data collected from sufficiently large, pure, and representative samples. I employ ethnographic analysis to show that each of these expectations not only guides survey research fieldwork but also produces categories, identities, and practices that reinforce and challenge these standardizing values.

  14. Childhood pneumonia diagnostics: community health workers’ and national stakeholders’ differing perspectives of new and existing aids

    PubMed Central

    Spence, Hollie; Baker, Kevin; Wharton-Smith, Alexandra; Mucunguzi, Akasiima; Matata, Lena; Habte, Tedila; Nanyumba, Diana; Sebsibe, Anteneh; Thany, Thol; Källander, Karin

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Pneumonia heavily contributes to global under-five mortality. Many countries use community case management to detect and treat childhood pneumonia. Community health workers (CHWs) have limited tools to help them assess signs of pneumonia. New respiratory rate (RR) counting devices and pulse oximeters are being considered for this purpose. Objective: To explore perspectives of CHWs and national stakeholders regarding the potential usability and scalability of seven devices to aid community assessment of pneumonia signs. Design: Pile sorting was conducted to rate the usability and scalability of 7 different RR counting aids and pulse oximeters amongst 16 groups of participants. Following each pile-sorting session, a focus group discussion (FGD) explored participants’ sorting rationale. Purposive sampling was used to select CHWs and national stakeholders with experience in childhood pneumonia and integrated community case management (iCCM) in Cambodia, Ethiopia, Uganda and South Sudan. Pile-sorting data were aggregated for countries and participant groups. FGDs were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Translated FGDs transcripts were coded in NVivo 10 and analysed using thematic content analysis. Comparative analysis was performed between countries and groups to identify thematic patterns. Results: CHWs and national stakeholders across the four countries perceived the acute respiratory infection (ARI) timer and fingertip pulse oximeter as highly scalable and easy for CHWs to use. National stakeholders were less receptive to new technologies. CHWs placed greater priority on device acceptability to caregivers and children. Both groups felt that heavy reliance on electricity reduced potential scalability and usability in rural areas. Device simplicity, affordability and sustainability were universally valued. Conclusions: CHWs and national stakeholders prioritise different device characteristics according to their specific focus of work. The

  15. Community Capacity for Implementing Clean Development Mechanism Projects Within Community Forests in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Michael K.; Bressers, Hans Th. A.

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing assumption that payments for environmental services including carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emission reduction provide an opportunity for poverty reduction and the enhancement of sustainable development within integrated natural resource management approaches. Yet in experiential terms, community-based natural resource management implementation falls short of expectations in many cases. In this paper, we investigate the asymmetry between community capacity and the Land Use Land Use Change Forestry (LULUCF) provisions of the Clean Development Mechanism within community forests in Cameroon. We use relevant aspects of the Clean Development Mechanism criteria and notions of “community capacity” to elucidate determinants of community capacity needed for CDM implementation within community forests. The main requirements are for community capacity to handle issues of additionality, acceptability, externalities, certification, and community organisation. These community capacity requirements are further used to interpret empirically derived insights on two community forestry cases in Cameroon. While local variations were observed for capacity requirements in each case, community capacity was generally found to be insufficient for meaningful uptake and implementation of Clean Development Mechanism projects. Implications for understanding factors that could inhibit or enhance community capacity for project development are discussed. We also include recommendations for the wider Clean Development Mechanism/Kyoto capacity building framework. PMID:17377732

  16. Projection-aided videometric method for shape measurement of large-scale bulk material stockpile.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohu; Ou, Jianliang; Yuan, Yun; Shang, Yang; Yu, Qifeng

    2011-09-10

    Large-scale stockpiles are a common means for the storage of bulk material and their shape measurement is a prerequisite for effective transportation and logistics management. This paper proposes a projection-aided videometric method that is based on stereo vision and makes use of projections and epipolar geometry constraints to solve the correspondence problem. A prototype measuring system was developed that can work in real time and achieve measuring accuracy of 0.71 mm in terms of the flatness deviation and 0.54 mm in terms of the depth error, as proven by the experimental results.

  17. MBC / UNAIDS / SPC Pacific Islands AIDS / STD strategic planning. Project update.

    PubMed

    Chaix, A; Benton, K; Buchanan, H

    1999-01-01

    This article presents an update of the Pacific Islands AIDS/sexually transmitted disease (STD) Strategic Planning Project. It also provides specific stories on the strategic planning experiences and achievements of four countries namely New Caledonia, Kiribati, Solomon Islands, and Nauru. The project began in 1998 when 17 Pacific Island countries participated in a workshop where each country developed an action plan which contained the following common elements: 1) a plan on how to integrate the strategic planning process into existing structures for HIV/AIDS activities; 2) strategies to gain political and other organizational support into HIV/AIDS and STD planning; 3) a summary of the factors contributing to HIV and STD risk; and 4) a review of what has been done to address these problems. In 1999, these plans were put into action. Each country was challenged at the planning and execution of situational analysis and response review. A project review conducted in June 1999 resulted in a decision to hold individual country workshops in the future which will allow more participants and facilitators to concentrate their efforts on developing an individual strategic plan for each country.

  18. Mobilizing Lithuanian Health Professionals as Community Peer Leaders for AIDS Prevention: An International Primary Health Care Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norr, Kathleen F.; McElmurry, Beverly J.; Slutas, Frances M.; Christiansen, Carol D.; Misner, Susan J.; Marks, Beth A.

    2001-01-01

    Using primary health care and peer leadership models, U.S. nurses trained Lithuanian health professionals as community peer leaders in AIDS prevention. A national continuing education program is in place to sustain the initiative in Lithuania. (SK)

  19. Is HIV/AIDS Stigma Dividing the Gay Community? Perceptions of HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtenay-Quirk, Cari; Wolitski, Richard J.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Gomez, Cynthia A.

    2006-01-01

    Stigma surrounding HIV/AIDS has existed since the beginning of the epidemic, but little is known about HIV/AIDS stigma within the gay community and how it affects men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV. A better understanding of the effects of stigma on this population is needed to reduce it and its harmful effects. Our study used…

  20. Fostering Supportive Environments: A Case Study of Public Pedagogy in a Community-Based AIDS Service Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Colin

    2016-01-01

    This article offers an analysis of the significance of public pedagogy for how community-based organizations that provide prevention, support, and educational services to people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS operate. The article reports on a case study analysis of a local AIDS service organization (ASO) in a small town in Ontario, Canada. The…

  1. A Cervical Cancer Community-Based Participatory Research Project in a Native American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Suzanne; Gidley, Allison L.; Letiecq, Bethany; Smith, Adina; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun

    2008-01-01

    The Messengers for Health on the Apsaalooke Reservation project uses a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach and lay health advisors (LHAs) to generate knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer prevention among community members in a culturally competent manner. Northern Plains Native Americans, of whom Apsaalooke women are a…

  2. The Role of Community Development Employment Projects in Rural and Remote Communities. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misko, Josie

    2006-01-01

    This document was produced by the author(s) based on their research for the report, "The Role of Community Development Employment Projects in Rural and Remote Communities," (ED495158) and is an added resource for further information. The contents of this support docment include: (1) Regional Council--Roma; (2) Regional Council--Tennant…

  3. Surveying Your Community: An Approach to Community Involvement in Schools. Project Director's Guidebook [and] Staff Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromwell, Bea; Root, Suzanne

    These guidebooks were designed to help central office personnel, principals, teachers, and members of the community to plan and conduct a community survey. The main volume--the staff handbook--describes seven tasks involved in planning and conducting the survey and offers guidelines for the survey staff to follow. The project director's guidebook…

  4. A Cervical Cancer Community-Based Participatory Research Project in a Native American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Suzanne; Gidley, Allison L.; Letiecq, Bethany; Smith, Adina; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun

    2008-01-01

    The Messengers for Health on the Apsaalooke Reservation project uses a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach and lay health advisors (LHAs) to generate knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer prevention among community members in a culturally competent manner. Northern Plains Native Americans, of whom Apsaalooke women are a…

  5. HIV Prevention Strategies for Community Colleges: Lessons Learned from Bridges to Healthy Communities. AACC Project Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottenritter, Nan; Barnett, Lynn

    The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) instituted the Bridges to Healthy Communities project in 1995 as part of a 5-year strategy to develop campus-based programs for preventing HIV infection and related health problems among college students. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) sponsored the national effort through…

  6. The Black Community and the Community College: Action Programs for Expanding Opportunity. A Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA. Inst. for Higher Educational Opportunity.

    A three-year project to investigate black student utilization of the public community college in the South began with a year-long study of the attitudes of black students enrolled in high schools and junior colleges in five communities. Trained interviewers talked at length with approximately 400 students and with teachers, parents, and community…

  7. HIV/AIDS, declining family resources and the community safety net.

    PubMed

    Heymann, Jody; Kidman, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Families play central roles in the HIV/AIDS pandemic, caring for both orphaned children and the ill. This extra caregiving depletes two family resources essential for supporting children: time and money. We use recent data from published studies in sub-Saharan Africa to illustrate deficits and document community responses. In Botswana, parents caring for the chronically ill had less time for their preschool children (74 versus 96 hours per month) and were almost twice as likely to leave children home alone (53% versus 27%); these children experienced greater health and academic problems. Caregiving often prevented adults from working full time or earning their previous level of income; 47% of orphan caregivers and 64% of HIV/AIDS caregivers reported financial difficulties due to caregiving. Communities can play an important role in helping families provide adequate childcare and financial support. Unfortunately, while communities commonly offer informal assistance, the value of such support is not adequate to match the magnitude of need: 75% of children's families in Malawi received assistance from their social network, but averaging only US$81 annually. We suggest communities can strengthen the capacity of families by implementing affordable quality childcare for 0-6 year olds, after-school programming for older children and youth, supportive care for ill children and parents, microlending to enhance earnings, training to increase access to quality jobs, decent working conditions, social insurance for the informal sector, and income and food transfers when families are unable to make ends meet.

  8. Community Wind: Once Again Pushing the Envelope of Project Finance

    SciTech Connect

    bolinger, Mark A.

    2011-01-18

    In the United States, the 'community wind' sector - loosely defined here as consisting of relatively small utility-scale wind power projects that sell power on the wholesale market and that are developed and owned primarily by local investors - has historically served as a 'test bed' or 'proving grounds' for up-and-coming wind turbine manufacturers that are trying to break into the U.S. wind power market. For example, community wind projects - and primarily those located in the state of Minnesota - have deployed the first U.S. installations of wind turbines from Suzlon (in 2003), DeWind (2008), Americas Wind Energy (2008) and later Emergya Wind Technologies (2010), Goldwind (2009), AAER/Pioneer (2009), Nordic Windpower (2010), Unison (2010), and Alstom (2011). Thus far, one of these turbine manufacturers - Suzlon - has subsequently achieved some success in the broader U.S. wind market as well. Just as it has provided a proving grounds for new turbines, so too has the community wind sector served as a laboratory for experimentation with innovative new financing structures. For example, a variation of one of the most common financing arrangements in the U.S. wind market today - the special allocation partnership flip structure (see Figure 1 in Section 2.1) - was first developed by community wind projects in Minnesota more than a decade ago (and is therefore sometimes referred to as the 'Minnesota flip' model) before being adopted by the broader wind market. More recently, a handful of community wind projects built over the past year have been financed via new and creative structures that push the envelope of wind project finance in the U.S. - in many cases, moving beyond the now-standard partnership flip structures involving strategic tax equity investors. These include: (1) a 4.5 MW project in Maine that combines low-cost government debt with local tax equity, (2) a 25.3 MW project in Minnesota using a sale/leaseback structure, (3) a 10.5 MW project in South Dakota

  9. The Children's Aid Society community schools: a full-service partnership model.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Jane

    2005-01-01

    In 1989, the Children's Aid Society (CAS) created an unprecedented partnership with the New York City Board of Education by developing a comprehensive response to the pressing needs of children and families in the northern Manhattan neighborhood of Washington Heights. After three years of careful planning, CAS and the New York City public schools opened the first community school at Intermediate School 218, offering a full array of supports, services, and learning opportunities. Adding, on average, one partnership school per year and remaining very flexible in adapting its model to the individual needs of each community, CAS now has thirteen community schools around New York City. The model's flexibility is seen also in the success of its national and international adaptation-an intentional part of CAS's work.

  10. Drug abuse, HIV/AIDS and stigmatisation in a Dai community in Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Deng, Rui; Li, Jianghong; Sringernyuang, Luechai; Zhang, Kaining

    2007-04-01

    The latest data indicate that between 540,000 and 760,000 people are infected with HIV in China. Although minority nationalities represent 8.1% of China's total population, they account for more than 30% of the reported HIV/AIDS cases. This study examined stigma and discrimination against drug abusers and people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) in a Dai minority nationality community in Yunnan, China. The study used qualitative research methods, which included participatory observations, in-depth interviews, focus-group discussions, transect walking and community mapping. A combination of different sampling strategies was used to maximise diversity of the initially selected sample. The data revealed deeply entrenched stigma and overt discrimination against drug abusers and PLHA that manifested in familial, work, civil and institutional contexts. The stigma reflected pre-existing cultural, religious sanctions against "deviant behaviours". Intervention programmes that were insensitive to the local culture and religion may have also contributed in part to the stigmatisation of drug abusers and PLHA. The major impact of stigma was that it created a vicious cycle of social isolation, marginalisation and thus addiction relapse. This in turn reinforced the stigmatisation and discrimination against drug abusers and thus hindered efforts towards prevention and control of HIV/AIDS.

  11. The role of volunteer support in the community for adults with hearing loss and hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Pryce, Helen; Hall, Amanda; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael

    2015-08-01

    To explore interactions between audiology patients and volunteers, to describe encounters and define the role of volunteers. Qualitative ethnographic and interview study of volunteer-patient interactions. Ten volunteer participants from two volunteer schemes in South West England were observed and interviewed. Three patient participants were interviewed. Analysis of observational data showed that volunteers provided support relating to local services and hearing aids, but did not engage in discussions about hearing loss. Interviews with volunteers identified gaps in audiology provision, including accessible services and clear information and highlighted a need for more support from audiology services to enable them to fulfil their role. Volunteer interactions with patients mimicked a clinician-patient encounter and volunteers employed strategies and behaviours used by professional audiologists. Audiology volunteers could provide an accessible bridge between health services and the community but their care is limited to focus on hearing aids. Volunteers enable patients to use hearing aids appropriately and are a core element of current care arrangements. However, volunteers express a need for adequate support from audiology services. Volunteers have the potential to increase service capacity and to bridge the gaps between community and audiology healthcare services. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. The Community Research Scholars Initiative: A Mid‐Project Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Earl; Sehgal, Ashwini R.; Fischer, Robert L.; Collins, Cyleste

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Community organizations addressing health and human service needs generally have minimal capacity for research and evaluation. As a result, they are often inadequately equipped to independently carry out activities that can be critical for their own success, such as conducting needs assessments, identifying best practices, and evaluating outcomes. Moreover, they are unable to develop equitable partnerships with academic researchers to conduct community‐based research. This paper reports on the progress of the Community Research Scholar Initiative (CRSI), a program that aims to enhance community research and evaluation capacity through training of selected employees from Greater Cleveland community organizations. The intensive 2‐year CRSI program includes didactic instruction, fieldwork, multiple levels of community and academic engagement, leadership training, and a mentored research project. The first cohort of CRSI Scholars, their community organizations, and other community stakeholders have incorporated program lessons into their practices and operations. The CRSI program evaluation indicates: the importance of careful Scholar selection; the need to engage executive leadership from Scholar organizations; the value of a curriculum integrating classwork, fieldwork, and community engagement; and the need for continual scholar skill and knowledge assessment. These findings and lessons learned guide other efforts to enhance community organization research and evaluation capacity. PMID:26073663

  13. Community Support and Adolescent Girls' Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS: Evidence From Botswana, Malawi, and Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Carol; Schwandt, Hilary M

    2015-01-01

    Girls are vulnerable to HIV in part because the social systems in which they live have failed to support and protect them. The goal of this research was to develop a viable supportive community index and test its association with intermediate variables associated with HIV risk across 16 communities in Botswana, Malawi, and Mozambique. This cross-sectional survey with separate samples randomly drawn in each country (2010) yielded a total sample of 1,418 adolescent girls (aged 11-18). Multilevel, multivariate logistic regression, while controlling for vulnerability, age, religion, and residence, found that an increase in supportive community index is positively associated with the odds of indicating improved community support for girls and with the confidence to refuse unwanted sex with a boyfriend across the three countries, as well as with self-efficacy to insist on condom use in Botswana and Mozambique. Program implementers and decision makers alike can use the supportive community index to identify and measure structural factors associated with girls' vulnerability to HIV/AIDS; this will potentially contribute to judicious decision making regarding resource allocation to enhance community-level, protective factors for adolescent girls. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Automotive technicians' training as a community-of-practice: implications for the design of an augmented reality teaching aid.

    PubMed

    Anastassova, Margarita; Burkhardt, Jean-Marie

    2009-07-01

    The paper presents an ergonomic analysis carried out in the early phases of an R&D project. The purpose was to investigate the functioning of today's Automotive Service Technicians (ASTs) training in order to inform the design of an Augmented Reality (AR) teaching aid. The first part of the paper presents a literature review of some major problems encountered by ASTs today. The benefits of AR as technological aid are also introduced. Then, the methodology and the results of two case studies are presented. The first study is based on interviews with trainers and trainees; the second one on observations in real training settings. The results support the assumption that today's ASTs' training could be regarded as a community-of-practice (CoP). Therefore, AR could be useful as a collaboration tool, offering a shared virtual representation of real vehicle's parts, which are normally invisible unless dismantled (e.g. the parts of a hydraulic automatic transmission). We conclude on the methods and the technologies to support the automotive CoP.

  15. Strategies for reaching retirement communities and aging social networks: HIV/AIDS prevention activities among seniors in South Florida.

    PubMed

    Agate, Lisa L; Mullins, Jolene M; Prudent, Ella S; Liberti, Thomas M

    2003-06-01

    Since 1993, the HIV/AIDS Program Office of the Broward County Health Department has recognized the importance of targeting the population of those aged 50 years and older. Close examination of epidemiological data for the south Florida area and requests from health care providers showed that targeted intervention had to address the needs of the seniors as well as the beliefs and perceptions of their health practitioners. Originally designed to provide community training, identify and train volunteer peer educators, and increase awareness and sensitivity among providers of health services, the senior initiative was officially expanded with funding from the Florida Department of Elder Affairs in 1997. The resulting Senior HIV Intervention Project (SHIP) is more comprehensive than the original senior training program, addressing the increased need for early intervention activities, HIV counseling, and testing. SHIP also links HIV-positive seniors to care and treatment services through a network of trained staff and volunteers. SHIP's considerable experience in serving the needs of older adults offers useful insight for others developing successful HIV/AIDS programming for people aged 50 years and older.

  16. [An EPDA Project To Prepare Graduate Teachers and Undergraduate Indian Teacher Aides To Educate American Indian Children. A Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Montana Coll., Havre.

    A project is proposed involving a 3-year coordinated program of 9-week summer institutes and school-year inservice training programs to prepare 15 graduate teachers and 15 undergraduate Indian teacher aides to perform highly specialized roles in the education of Indian children. Teachers and aides will be placed in teaching teams of at least three…

  17. Can Financial Aid Improve Student Success at Louisiana's Community Colleges? A Study of the Potential Impact of Redistributing State Gift Aid on the Success of Pell Grant Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockett, Kevin; Heffron, Mark; Schneider, Mark

    2012-01-01

    In this report, the authors investigate the relationship between levels of financial aid and student success in Louisiana community colleges, with a focus on Pell Grant recipients. They measure success by whether a student earned a certificate or an associate's degree within three years of enrolling as a first-time full-time student or transferred…

  18. Evaluation of the 1978-79 United States Elementary and Secondary Education Act--Title I and Impact Aid Programs in Community School District 6, New York, N.Y.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilis, Howard S.; Conde, Aquiles

    The following programs funded under Title I and Impact Aid and implemented in New York City's Community School District 6 are evaluated in this report: (1) the Program for Corrective Reading for eligible students in grades 3-6; (2) the Junior High School Reading Lab Program; (3) Project Striver, designed to provide supplementary reading…

  19. Lessons Learned from the Uniontown Community Health Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littleton, Mary Ann; Cornell, Carol E.; Dignan, Mark; Brownstein, J. Nell; Raczynski, James M.; Stalker, Varena G.; McDuffie, Kathleen Y.; Greene, Paul G.; Sanderson, Bonnie; Struempler, Barbara Jo.

    2002-01-01

    Examines lessons learned from a 5-year project designed to develop, implement, and evaluate a multifaceted community health advisor-based intervention to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease among older, rural, African American women. Data from observations surveys, and discussion groups highlight six lessons (e.g., establish personal working…

  20. National Labor Market Projections for Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Dixie

    2009-01-01

    This chapter examines the job outlook for occupations where the most important path to entry is through programs typically found at the community college: an associate degree or postsecondary training but less than a degree. The discussion draws on labor market projections from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), the federal agency charged…

  1. The Early Childhood Community Gives Back: Exchange Center Makeover Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exchange: The Early Childhood Leaders' Magazine Since 1978, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The early childhood community gives back. With the extreme generosity of the "Exchange" Makeover Project partners, Jewel's Learning Center, selected as the winner of the Center Makeover, will be awarded with new and innovative tools to help build an even stronger educational foundation for the children attending the center. Included will be new…

  2. Enrollment Projections for Queensborough Community College: 1986-1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Edward G.

    Enrollment projections for Queensborough Community College (QCC) were developed using the cohort survival method to assist the college in more effectively planning for future academic and budgetary needs. In the face of a falling national population of young people in the 16 to 25 age bracket, demographic factors at work in Queens are expected to…

  3. Thinking Like Researchers: An ESL Project that Investigates Local Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherron, Paul; Randolph, Patrick T.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on task-based and intercultural teaching approaches, this article presents an ESL classroom project at two different university settings in which students investigate aspects of their local communities through the use of ethnographic and observational research techniques. For related reasons, the instructors at each university developed…

  4. Understanding Transfers: A Collaborative Community College and University Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bers, Trudy; Filkins, Joseph W.; McLaughlin, Gerald W.

    2001-01-01

    Presents the results of a collaborative research project conducted by a community college and a university, which obtained information and students' perceptions about academic preparation, the transfer process, and experiences from a cohort of students who earned 12 or more units at the college and then transferred to the university. (Contains 15…

  5. Landscaping Habitat for Humanity Homes: A Community Outreach Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsay, Jodie L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to incorporate a community service component into a Biology course at Northern State University (NSU) in Aberdeen, SD. Students in an upper-level botany course (Plant Structure and Function) provide landscaping services to homeowners who have purchased homes through Habitat for Humanity. Homeowner satisfaction with…

  6. COMMUNITY EDUCATION PROJECT, A REPORT TO THE ROSENBERG FOUNDATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HEPPELL, HELEN M.

    A 3-YEAR COMMUNITY EDUCATION PROJECT WAS UNDERTAKEN IN SOUTHEAST SAN DIEGO, A CITY WHICH IS CHARACTERIZED BY A LARGE MINORITY GROUP POPULATION, LOW INCOMES, HIGH UNEMPLOYMENT, AND JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL EDUCATIONAL MEDIAN. ADULT EDUCATION CLASSES WERE POORLY ATTENDED IN THE AREA. CREATIVE MOTIVATIONAL TECHNIQUES WERE MADE POSSIBLE BY FOUNDATION…

  7. Moving Parts in Imagined Spaces: Community Arts Zone's Movement Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowsell, Jennifer; McQueen-Fuentes, Glenys

    2017-01-01

    Movement is relatively invisible in literacy theory and pedagogy. There has been more recent scholarship on the body and embodiment, but less on connections between movements, body and literacy. In this article, we present the Community Arts Zone movement project and ways that the study opened up spaces for creativity, experimentation, and…

  8. Dynamics of participation in a community health project.

    PubMed

    Kelly, K J; Van Vlaenderen, H

    1996-05-01

    Although the term 'participation' is widely used in discussing community development strategies, there has been relatively little said about the characteristics of 'participatory relationships', i.e. the interactions between community developers and those who stand to benefit from community development initiatives. There is seen to be a need for case studies which attempt to understand the relational and communicative processes involved in participatory development. The paper presents an analysis of the participatory dynamics of a community health development project. The principal source of data is interviews conducted with thirteen selected participants in the project. Analysis of interview data using a structured hermeneutic method led to a description of the meaning of participation for each of the participants interviewed. Further interpretation led to the identification of a number of modes of participation in the project as a whole. For each mode of participation descriptions were developed of how it was perceived by others not participating from that mode. An attempt was made to understand the dynamics of the project in terms of the relationship between the different modes of participation and in terms of the discrepancies between how participants saw themselves and how others saw them. Finally, these problems were discussed at a general theoretical level and suggestions were made about how such problems might be alleviated.

  9. National Labor Market Projections for Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Dixie

    2009-01-01

    This chapter examines the job outlook for occupations where the most important path to entry is through programs typically found at the community college: an associate degree or postsecondary training but less than a degree. The discussion draws on labor market projections from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), the federal agency charged…

  10. Landscaping Habitat for Humanity Homes: A Community Outreach Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsay, Jodie L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to incorporate a community service component into a Biology course at Northern State University (NSU) in Aberdeen, SD. Students in an upper-level botany course (Plant Structure and Function) provide landscaping services to homeowners who have purchased homes through Habitat for Humanity. Homeowner satisfaction with…

  11. Thinking Like Researchers: An ESL Project that Investigates Local Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherron, Paul; Randolph, Patrick T.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on task-based and intercultural teaching approaches, this article presents an ESL classroom project at two different university settings in which students investigate aspects of their local communities through the use of ethnographic and observational research techniques. For related reasons, the instructors at each university developed…

  12. The ASCD Healthy School Communities Project: Formative Evaluation Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valois, Robert F.; Lewallen, Theresa C.; Slade, Sean; Tasco, Adriane N.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report the formative evaluation results from the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development Healthy School Communities (HSC) pilot project. Design/methodology/approach: This study utilized 11 HSC pilot sites in the USA (eight sites) and Canada (three sites). The evaluation question was…

  13. The ASCD Healthy School Communities Project: Formative Evaluation Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valois, Robert F.; Lewallen, Theresa C.; Slade, Sean; Tasco, Adriane N.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report the formative evaluation results from the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development Healthy School Communities (HSC) pilot project. Design/methodology/approach: This study utilized 11 HSC pilot sites in the USA (eight sites) and Canada (three sites). The evaluation question was…

  14. Safe Sex in the 1970s: Community Practitioners on the Eve of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Blair, Thomas R

    2017-06-01

    In the 1970s, groups of gay and gay-allied health professionals began to formulate guidelines for safer sexual activity, several years before HIV/AIDS. Through such organizations as the National Coalition of Gay Sexually Transmitted Disease Services, Bay Area Physicians for Human Rights, and the Sisters of Perpetual Indulgence, these practitioners developed materials that would define sexual health education for the next four decades, as well as such concepts as "bodily fluids" and the "safe sex hanky." To do so, they used their dual membership in the community and the health professions. Although the dichotomy between the gay community and the medical establishment helped define the early history of HIV/AIDS, the creative work of these socially "amphibious" activists played an equally important part. Amid current debates over preexposure prophylaxis against HIV and Zika virus transmission, lessons for sexual health include the importance of messaging, the difficulty of behavioral change, and the vitality of community-driven strategies to mitigate risk.

  15. Community Reaction to Older-age Parental AIDS Caregivers and their Families

    PubMed Central

    Knodel, John; Williams, Nathalie; Kim, Sovan Kiry; Puch, Sina; Saengtienchai, Chanpen

    2009-01-01

    Accounts of community reaction to persons with HIV/AIDS and their families typically focus only on negative reactions stemming from stigmatization with little acknowledgement of variation over time and across settings. To usefully guide local interventions, a broader view is needed that also encompasses attitudes and actions stemming from sympathy and friendship. We examine community reaction in Cambodia to families from the perspective of parents of adults who died of AIDS or currently receive antiretroviral therapy. Survey evidence and open-ended interviews reveal a mixture of reactions with respect to social relations, interactions with local officials, gossip, business patronage, funeral participation, and orphaned grandchildren. Positive support is often dominant and reactions typically improve substantially over time. Misplaced fears of contagion through casual contact underlie most negative reactions. Moral condemnation or blame is not evident as a source of negative reactions. Overall a sufficiently supportive atmosphere likely exists in many localities to facilitate community based efforts to mitigate the epidemic’s impact on affected families. PMID:20161630

  16. Learning about Urban Congregations and HIV/AIDS: Community-Based Foundations for Developing Congregational Health Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Mendel, Peter J.; Kanouse, David E.; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Castaneda, Laura Werber; Hawes-Dawson, Jennifer; Mata, Michael; Oden, Clyde W.

    2010-01-01

    Religious congregations are important community institutions that could help fight HIV/AIDS; however, barriers exist, particularly in the area of prevention. Formative, participatory research is needed to understand the capacity of congregations to address HIV/AIDS. This article describes a study that used community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches to learn about congregation-sponsored HIV activities. CBPR strategies were used throughout the study, including proposal development, community expert interviews, Community Advisory Board, congregational telephone survey, congregational case studies, and congregational feedback sessions. Involving community consultants, experts, and advisory board members in all stages of the study helped the researchers to conceptualize congregational involvement in HIV, be more sensitive to potential congregational concerns about the research, achieve high response rates, and interpret and disseminate findings. Providing preliminary case findings to congregational participants in an interactive feedback session improved data quality and relationships with the community. Methods to engage community stakeholders can lay the foundation for future collaborative interventions. PMID:20361357

  17. The Teacher Aide Program. ESEA, Title III--Social Studies In-Service Model Project Bulletin 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison Public Schools, WI.

    The Teacher Aide Program--one aspect of a 1967-68 Title III ESEA project to implement a pilot social studies program in various Madison, Wisconsin, public schools--utilized 1 full-time or 2 part-time noncertified aides working with each of 4 project teaching teams (horizontal teams at grades 6 and 10, and vertical teams at grades 4, 5, 6, and 8,…

  18. Community-Based Outreach for AIDS Education in New Haven, Connecticut.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurth, Ann; Champoux, R.

    This pilot project attempted to understand and influence knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of individuals in order to decrease transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in a black community. This predominantly low-income minority population had a high incidence of intravenous drug abuse (IVDA) and teenage pregnancies. The spread…

  19. Philippine Academy of Rehabilitation Medicine emergency basic relief and medical aid mission project (November 2013-February 2014): the role of physiatrists in Super Typhoon Haiyan.

    PubMed

    Ganchoon, Filipinas; Bugho, Rommel; Calina, Liezel; Dy, Rochelle; Gosney, James

    2017-06-09

    Physiatrists have provided humanitarian assistance in recent large-scale global natural disasters. Super Typhoon Haiyan, the deadliest and most costly typhoon in modern Philippine history, made landfall on 8 November 2013 resulting in significant humanitarian needs. Philippine Academy of Rehabilitation Medicine physiatrists conducted a project of 23 emergency basic relief and medical aid missions in response to Super Typhoon Haiyan from November 2013 to February 2014. The final mission was a medical aid mission to the inland rural community of Burauen, Leyte. Summary data were collected, collated, and tabulated; project and mission evaluation was performed. During the humanitarian assistance project, 31,254 basic relief kits containing a variety of food and non-food items were distributed and medical services including consultation, treatment, and medicines were provided to 7255 patients. Of the 344 conditions evaluated in the medical aid mission to Burauen, Leyte 85 (59%) were physical and rehabilitation medicine conditions comprised of musculoskeletal (62 [73%]), neurological (17 [20%]), and dermatological (6 [7%]) diagnoses. Post-mission and project analysis resulted in recommendations and programmatic changes to strengthen response in future disasters. Physiatrists functioned as medical providers, mission team leaders, community advocates, and in other roles. This physiatrist-led humanitarian assistance project met critical basic relief and medical aid needs of persons impacted by Super Typhoon Haiyan, demonstrating significant roles performed by physiatrists in response to a large-scale natural disaster. Resulting disaster programing changes and recommendations may inform a more effective response by PARM mission teams in the Philippines as well as by other South-Eastern Asia teams comprising rehabilitation professionals to large-scale, regional natural disasters. Implications for rehabilitation Large-scale natural disasters including tropical cyclones can

  20. Data management for community research projects: A JGOFS case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, Roy K.

    1992-01-01

    Since the mid 1980s, much of the marine science research effort in the United Kingdom has been focused into large scale collaborative projects involving public sector laboratories and university departments, termed Community Research Projects. Two of these, the Biogeochemical Ocean Flux Study (BOFS) and the North Sea Project incorporated large scale data collection to underpin multidisciplinary modeling efforts. The challenge of providing project data sets to support the science was met by a small team within the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) operating as a topical data center. The role of the data center was to both work up the data from the ship's sensors and to combine these data with sample measurements into online databases. The working up of the data was achieved by a unique symbiosis between data center staff and project scientists. The project management, programming and data processing skills of the data center were combined with the oceanographic experience of the project communities to develop a system which has produced quality controlled, calibrated data sets from 49 research cruises in 3.5 years of operation. The data center resources required to achieve this were modest and far outweighed by the time liberated in the scientific community by the removal of the data processing burden. Two online project databases have been assembled containing a very high proportion of the data collected. As these are under the control of BODC their long term availability as part of the UK national data archive is assured. The success of the topical data center model for UK Community Research Project data management has been founded upon the strong working relationships forged between the data center and project scientists. These can only be established by frequent personal contact and hence the relatively small size of the UK has been a critical factor. However, projects covering a larger, even international scale could be successfully supported by a

  1. Impact of Community-Based HIV/AIDS Treatment on Household Incomes in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Feulefack, Joseph F.; Luckert, Martin K.; Mohapatra, Sandeep; Cash, Sean B.; Alibhai, Arif; Kipp, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Though health benefits to households in developing countries from antiretroviral treatment (ART) programs are widely reported in the literature, specific estimates regarding impacts of treatments on household incomes are rare. This type of information is important to governments and donors, as it is an indication of returns to their ART investments, and to better understand the role of HIV/AIDS in development. The objective of this study is to estimate the impact of a community-based ART program on household incomes in a previously underserved rural region of Uganda. A community-based ART program, based largely on labor contributions from community volunteers, was implemented and evaluated. All households with HIV/AIDS patients enrolled in the treatment programme (n = 134 households) were surveyed five times; once at the beginning of the treatment and every three months thereafter for a period of one year. Data were collected on household income from cash earnings and value of own production. The analysis, using ordinary least squares and quantile regressions, identifies the impact of the ART program on household incomes over the first year of the treatment, while controlling for heterogeneity in household characteristics and temporal changes. As a result of the treatment, health conditions of virtually all patients improved, and household incomes increased by approximately 30% to 40%, regardless of household income quantile. These increases in income, however, varied significantly depending on socio-demographic and socio-economic control variables. Overall, results show large and significant impacts of the ART program on household incomes, suggesting large returns to public investments in ART, and that treating HIV/AIDS is an important precondition for development. Moreover, development programs that invest in human capital and build wealth are important complements that can increase the returns to ART programs. PMID:23840347

  2. Implications of the HIV/AIDS Prevention Research Synthesis Project for the efforts of state, territorial, and local health departments.

    PubMed

    Scofield, Julie M; Smith, Raymond A

    2002-07-01

    State, territorial and local health departments have responsibility for all three of the HIV/AIDS Prevention Research Synthesis (PRS) project's intervention categories: behavioral, social, and policy. These health departments may be aided by the PRS project in a number of ways. These ways include the provision of information on scientifically proven interventions; the determination of sociodemographic categories underrepresented in research; the promotion of consistent methodologies and standards for reporting findings; and the fostering of greater engagement with HIV prevention research among program staff. Further development of the PRS project can enhance and expand these benefits, although the project must be sure to keep practical applications in mind.

  3. How to Identify Community Leaders, Problems, Resources: A Model Guidebook. Resource Materials and Training Aids. Second Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippincott, Kenneth; Radig, John

    This package has been developed as a resource guide and training aid to assist school administrators who want to improve school-community relations, to involve people meaningfully in decision-making, and to create learning experiences of quality in the community's lifelong educational process. The guidebook lists steps for identifying formal and…

  4. Handbook for Peer Educators and Community Mobilisers Conducting HIV/AIDS Prevention Programmes in the Informal Sector Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagimu, Majid; Karama, Said; Mbabazi, Jackson; Mularira, Grace N.; Nakawuka, Minah; Kityo, Tom; Ssengonzi, Robert; Ssentongo, Chris; Walakira, Yusuf

    2004-01-01

    This handbook has been developed as a resource to be used by peer/community educators and mobilisers conducting HIV/AIDS prevention programmes in the informal sector workplaces and surrounding communities in Uganda. The handbook provides basic information on a range of topics on HIV and other sexually transmitted infections that can be used by…

  5. Experiences and challenges in implementing complex community-based research project: the Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project.

    PubMed

    Schultz, J T; Moodie, M; Mavoa, H; Utter, J; Snowdon, W; McCabe, M P; Millar, L; Kremer, P; Swinburn, B A

    2011-11-01

    Policy makers throughout the world are struggling to find effective ways to prevent the rising trend of obesity globally, particularly among children. The Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project was the first large-scale, intervention research project conducted in the Pacific aiming to prevent obesity in adolescents. The project spanned four countries: Australia, New Zealand, Fiji and Tonga. This paper reports on the strengths and challenges experienced from this complex study implemented from 2004 to 2009 across eight cultural groups in different community settings. The key strengths of the project were its holistic collaborative approach, participatory processes and capacity building. The challenges inherent in such a large complex project were underestimated during the project's development. These related to the scale, complexity, duration, low research capacity in some sites and overall coordination across four different countries. Our experiences included the need for a longer lead-in time prior to intervention for training and up-skilling of staff in Fiji and Tonga, investment in overall coordination, data quality management across all sites and the need for realistic capacity building requirements for research staff. The enhanced research capacity and skills across all sites include the development and strengthening of research centres, knowledge translation and new obesity prevention projects.

  6. Tucson Solar Village: Project management. A project in sustainable community development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    The Tucson Solar Village is a Design/Build Project In Sustainable Community Development which responds to a broad spectrum of energy, environmental, and economic challenges. This project is designed for 820 acres of undeveloped State Trust Land within the Tucson city limits; residential population will be five to six thousand persons with internal employment provided for 1200. This is a 15 year project (for complete buildout and sales) with an estimated cost of $500 million. Details of the project are addressed with emphasis on the process and comments on its transferability.

  7. HIV-AIDS Information and the American Library Community: An Overview of Responses to the HIV-AIDS Health Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukenbill, W. Bernard

    This paper presents an overview of how American libraries have responded to the health crisis caused by HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). AIDS information dissemination practices of libraries and the social role which American librarians have articulated regarding their special responsibilities are…

  8. "My mother told me I must not cook anymore"--food, culture, and the context of HIV- and AIDS-related stigma in three communities in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Okoror, T A; Airhihenbuwa, C O; Zungu, M; Makofani, D; Brown, D C; Iwelunmor, J

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of food as an instrument in expressing and experiencing HIV/AIDS stigma by HIV-positive women and their families, with the goal of reducing discrimination. It goes beyond willingness to share utensils, which has been identified in HIV/AIDS research. As part of an ongoing capacity-building HIV/AIDS stigma project in South Africa, 25 focus groups and 15 key informant interviews were conducted among 195 women and 54 men in three Black communities. Participants were asked to discuss how they were treated in the family as women living with HIV and AIDS, and data was organized using the PEN-3 model. Findings highlight both the positive and negative experiences HIV-positive women encounter. Women would not disclose their HIV status to avoid being isolated from participating in the socio-cultural aspects of food preparation, while others that have disclosed their status have experienced alienation. The symbolic meanings of food should be a major consideration when addressing the elimination of HIV/AIDS stigma in South Africa.

  9. Family economic empowerment and mental health among AIDS-affected children living in AIDS-impacted communities: evidence from a randomised evaluation in southwestern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Han, Chang-Keun; Ssewamala, Fred M; Wang, Julia Shu-Huah

    2013-03-01

    The authors examine whether an innovative family economic empowerment intervention addresses mental health functioning of AIDS-affected children in communities heavily impacted by HIV/AIDS in Uganda. A cluster randomised controlled trial consisting of two study arms, a treatment condition (n=179) and a control condition (n=118), was used to examine the impact of the family economic empowerment intervention on children's levels of hopelessness and depression. The intervention comprised matched children savings accounts, financial management workshops and mentorship. Data were collected at baseline and 12 months post-intervention. Using multivariate analysis with several socioeconomic controls, the authors find that children in the treatment condition (receiving the intervention) report significant improvement in their mental health functioning. Specifically, the intervention reduces hopelessness and depression levels. On the other hand, children in the control condition (not receiving the intervention) report no changes on both measures. The findings indicate that children with poor mental health functioning living in communities affected by HIV/AIDS may benefit from innovative family economic empowerment interventions. As measures of mental health functioning, both hopelessness and depression have long-term negative psychosocial and developmental impacts on children. These findings have implications for public health programmes intended for long-term care and support of children living in resource poor AIDS-impacted communities.

  10. Rural Hispanic Community. Community Education Proven Practices II. Federally Funded Local Community Education Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barros, Ricardo

    Focusing on the Chama Valley School District's attempt to plan and implement a community council as a foundation for community education efforts in the rural Hispanic community of Chama, this publication offers "hands-on" suggestions in methods of implementing a community education program. Following a description of the school district…

  11. Use of community pharmacy-provided diabetes services to aid physicians in the National Committee for Quality Assurance recognition program.

    PubMed

    Brittain, Kristy L; Kuhn, Catherine H

    2009-01-01

    Pay-for-performance (P4P) models are being adopted by many health care payers, including Medicare, for payment of physician services. To receive financial incentives in P4P programs, physicians are encouraged to attain recognition or credentialing from an agency, such as the National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA). To explore the potential roles of a community pharmacy-provided diabetes services in collaboration with physicians and to assist them in becoming acknowledged by the NCQA Diabetes Physician Recognition Program. KDI Health Solutions pharmacists have demonstrated success in the management of diabetes through the Asheville Project and the Diabetes Ten City Challenge. Continued pharmacists' efforts may focus on expanding current disease state management programs, community pharmacy diabetes education programs, and collaborative practices with physicians. Studies are currently being conducted to assess physician willingness to use pharmacists as part of the NCQA recognition process. Collaboration of physicians and pharmacists may improve diabetes standards of care and aid physicians in becoming NCQA-recognized providers. NCQA-recognized physicians can align themselves with current and future P4P programs.

  12. Community partnerships for an LPN to BSN career mobility project.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Priscilla; Merriman, Carolyn; Blowers, Sally; Grooms, Janelle; Sullivan, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Based on a 6-year, learn and earn curriculum, the authors report on a year-old project that assists licensed practical nurses (LPNs) to obtain a baccalaureate degree in nursing (BSN). Partnerships with 4 area healthcare agencies employing LPNs were developed to support students with full or partial tuition reimbursement and work schedules to accommodate classes. Key university staff in the offices of admissions, financial aid, adult programs and services, and nursing advisement are assigned to this student group to provide individualized assistance. The authors discuss unique components of the project including regularly scheduled role transition seminars, faculty mentors, BSN and nurse practitioner clinical mentors, and clinical experiences in nurse-managed clinics.

  13. Enhancing community-based organizations' capacity for HIV/AIDS education and prevention.

    PubMed

    Mayberry, Robert M; Daniels, Pamela; Yancey, Elleen M; Akintobi, Tabia Henry; Berry, Jamillah; Clark, Nicole; Dawaghreh, Ahmad

    2009-08-01

    The catalytic potential of community-based organizations to promote health, prevent disease, and address racial, ethnic, and socio-economic disparities in local communities is well recognized. However, many CBOs, particularly, small- to medium-size organizations, lack the capacity to plan, implement, and evaluate their successes. Moreover, little assistance has been provided to enhance their capacity and the effectiveness of technical assistance to enhance capacity is likewise limited. A unique private-academic partnership is described that simultaneously conducted program evaluation and addressed the capacity needs of 24 CBOs funded by the Pfizer Foundation Southern HIV/AIDS Prevention Initiative. Assessments of key program staff members at 12 and 18 months after the initial cross-site program assessment survey indicated a significant improvement in the CBOs' knowledge, skills, and abilities and a substantial reduction in their technical assistance needs for HIV/AIDS prevention. Full participation of CBOs in technical assistance and a concurrent empowerment evaluation framework were necessary to enhance prevention capacity.

  14. Energy Efficient Community Development in California: Chula Vista Research Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gas Technology Institute

    2009-03-31

    In 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy joined the California Energy Commission in funding a project to begin to examine the technical, economic and institutional (policy and regulatory) aspects of energy-efficient community development. That research project was known as the Chula Vista Research Project for the host California community that co-sponsored the initiative. The researches proved that the strategic integration of the selected and economically viable buildings energy efficiency (EE) measures, photovoltaics (PV), distributed generation (DG), and district cooling can produce significant reductions in aggregate energy consumption, peak demand and emissions, compared to the developer/builder's proposed baseline approach. However, the central power plant emission reductions achieved through use of the EE-DG option would increase local air emissions. The electric and natural gas utility infrastructure impacts associated with the use of the EE and EE-PV options were deemed relatively insignificant while use of the EE-DG option would result in a significant reduction of necessary electric distribution facilities to serve a large-scale development project. The results of the Chula Vista project are detailed in three separate documents: (1) Energy-Efficient Community Development in California; Chula Vista Research Project report contains a detailed description of the research effort and findings. This includes the methodologies, and tools used and the analysis of the efficiency, economic and emissions impacts of alternative energy technology and community design options for two development sites. Research topics covered included: (a) Energy supply, demand, and control technologies and related strategies for structures; (b) Application of locally available renewable energy resources including solar thermal and PV technology and on-site power generation with heat recovery; (c) Integration of local energy resources into district energy systems and existing energy

  15. The Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project: project overview and methods.

    PubMed

    Swinburn, B A; Millar, L; Utter, J; Kremer, P; Moodie, M; Mavoa, H; Snowdon, W; McCabe, M P; Malakellis, M; de Courten, M; Waqa, G; Fotu, K F; Roberts, G; Scragg, R

    2011-11-01

    Obesity is increasing worldwide with the Pacific region having the highest prevalence among adults. The most common precursor of adult obesity is adolescent obesity making this a critical period for prevention. The Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project was a four-country project (Fiji, Tonga, New Zealand and Australia) designed to prevent adolescent obesity. This paper overviews the project and the methods common to the four countries. Each country implemented a community-based intervention programme promoting healthy eating, physical activity and healthy weight in adolescents. A community capacity-building approach was used, with common processes employed but with contextualized interventions within each country. Changes in anthropometric, behavioural and perception outcomes were evaluated at the individual level and school environments and community capacity at the settings level. The evaluation tools common to each are described. Additional analytical studies included economic, socio-cultural and policy studies. The project pioneered many areas of obesity prevention research: using multi-country collaboration to build research capacity; testing a capacity-building approach in ethnic groups with very high obesity prevalence; costing complex, long-term community intervention programmes; systematically studying the powerful socio-cultural influences on weight gain; and undertaking a participatory, national, priority-setting process for policy interventions using simulation modelling of cost-effectiveness of interventions.

  16. Direct/community broadcast projects using space satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frutkin, A. W.

    1975-01-01

    A review is presented of direct/community broadcast projects which are currently in preparation in India, Canada, and Japan. It is shown that the satellite broadcast experiments involved are conducted for practical domestic reasons. The broadcast activities in all three projects will not reach other countries' TV receivers unless those countries take deliberate steps to enable themselves to receive such broadcasts. It is pointed out that for technological reasons problems of intrusion and interference connected with the use of satellites in broadcast operations may be much easier to handle than similar problems related to conventional radio broadcasting.

  17. Improving dietary habits in disadvantaged women with HIV/AIDS: the SMART/EST women's project.

    PubMed

    Segal-Isaacson, C J; Tobin, Jonathan N; Weiss, Stephen M; Brondolo, Elizabeth; Vaughn, Anita; Wang, Cuiling; Camille, Joanne; Gousse, Yolene; Ishii, Mary; Jones, Deborah; Laperriere, Arthur; Lydston, David; Schneiderman, Neil; Ironson, Gail

    2006-11-01

    There is a lack of information on whether brief nutrition education can succeed in improving longer-term dietary patterns in disadvantaged populations with HIV/AIDS. In the SMART/EST II Women's Project 466 disadvantaged women with HIV/AIDS were randomized to one of four groups and received a two-phase training consisting of a coping skills/stress management and nutrition education provided either in a group or individually. At baseline the majority of participants had excessive fat and sugar consumption and suboptimal intakes of vegetables, fruits, calcium-rich foods and whole grains. Dietary patterns for all participants improved after the nutrition intervention primarily due to decreases in high fat and high sugar foods such as soda and fried foods and were still significantly better 18 months later. There were only short-term differences in improvements between the four groups. These findings support the value of even brief nutrition education for disadvantaged women living with HIV/AIDS.

  18. Rural Community Action: A Series of Case Studies of Action Projects in Small New York State Communities. Miscellaneous Bulletin 116.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, James C.; Halton, Katherine B.

    The report presents case studies of 7 community action projects which were undertaken by New York communities with populations under 10,000 and which show how local leaders can improve the quality of life in their communities. The report describes the background, initiation, expansion, implementation, consequences, and highlights of the projects,…

  19. Women and AIDS Support Network: mutual support to change community norms.

    PubMed

    Ray, S

    1992-01-01

    A group of women formed the Women and AIDS Support Network (WASN) in Zimbabwe in June 1989 to improve women;s self-esteem and confidence and to bring about changes in attitudes and reactions toward AIDS-related problems. Both HIV-positive and HIV-negative women are WASN members. Women have limited control over sexual relationships. Women who know their partners are having intercourse with other women have few options, e.g., they may depend on their partners. A family council settles marital disagreements, but husbands do not always cooperate. Increased peer pressure could change societal acceptance of male infidelity to positive attitudes toward friendship and partnership in marriage. Therefore, WASN explores sexual relationships, especially control and power in them. These discussions should lead to affirmation of positive behavior. For example, men can promote condom use and monogamy to their male peers. They can also talk to their partners and their sons about HIV. Rural women should not blame urban women for their partner's HIV status. WASN also targets schoolgirls. Most early and some current messages of AIDS campaigns reinforces the dichotomy of good and bad women, supported by an earlier link between urban women and sexually transmitted diseases. Yet, they ignored men's role in HIV transmission. WASN speaks out against such negative images, e.g., dramas that depict the HIV-infected woman as evil and the innocent as good while the man worries about which woman infected him instead of feeling awful about infecting other women. WASN also addressee AIDS-related discrimination on the job and stigmatization issues. It now is conducting 2 research projects: information needs of urban and rural women and capacities of family support systems to assist HIV-positive women.

  20. The Norwegian national project for ethics support in community health and care services.

    PubMed

    Magelssen, Morten; Gjerberg, Elisabeth; Pedersen, Reidar; Førde, Reidun; Lillemoen, Lillian

    2016-11-08

    Internationally, clinical ethics support has yet to be implemented systematically in community health and care services. A large-scale Norwegian project (2007-2015) attempted to increase ethical competence in community services through facilitating the implementation of ethics support activities in 241 Norwegian municipalities. The article describes the ethics project and the ethics activities that ensued. The article first gives an account of the Norwegian ethics project. Then the results of two online questionnaires are reported, characterizing the scope, activities and organization of the ethics activities in the Norwegian municipalities and the ethical topics addressed. One hundred and thirty-seven municipal contact persons answered the first survey (55 % response rate), whereas 217 ethics facilitators from 48 municipalities responded to the second (33 % response rate). The Norwegian ethics project is vast in scope, yet has focused on some institutions and professions (e.g., nursing homes, home-based care; nurses, nurses' aides, unskilled workers) whilst seldom reaching others (e.g., child and adolescent health care; physicians). Patients and next of kin were very seldom involved. Through the ethics project employees discussed many important ethical challenges, in particular related to patient autonomy, competence to consent, and cooperation with next of kin. The "ethics reflection group" was the most common venue for ethics deliberation. The Norwegian project is the first of its kind and scope, and other countries may learn from the Norwegian experiences. Professionals have discussed central ethical dilemmas, the handling of which arguably makes a difference for patients/users and service quality. The study indicates that large (national) scale implementation of CES structures for the municipal health and care services is complex, yet feasible.

  1. The RNA WikiProject: Community annotation of RNA families

    PubMed Central

    Daub, Jennifer; Gardner, Paul P.; Tate, John; Ramsköld, Daniel; Manske, Magnus; Scott, William G.; Weinberg, Zasha; Griffiths-Jones, Sam; Bateman, Alex

    2008-01-01

    The online encyclopedia Wikipedia has become one of the most important online references in the world and has a substantial and growing scientific content. A search of Google with many RNA-related keywords identifies a Wikipedia article as the top hit. We believe that the RNA community has an important and timely opportunity to maximize the content and quality of RNA information in Wikipedia. To this end, we have formed the RNA WikiProject (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:WikiProject_RNA) as part of the larger Molecular and Cellular Biology WikiProject. We have created over 600 new Wikipedia articles describing families of noncoding RNAs based on the Rfam database, and invite the community to update, edit, and correct these articles. The Rfam database now redistributes this Wikipedia content as the primary textual annotation of its RNA families. Users can, therefore, for the first time, directly edit the content of one of the major RNA databases. We believe that this Wikipedia/Rfam link acts as a functioning model for incorporating community annotation into molecular biology databases. PMID:18945806

  2. Repertoires: How to Transform a Project into a Research Community

    PubMed Central

    Leonelli, Sabina; Ankeny, Rachel A.

    2015-01-01

    How effectively communities of scientists come together and co-operate is crucial both to the quality of research outputs and to the extent to which such outputs integrate insights, data and methods from a variety of fields, laboratories and locations around the globe. This essay focuses on the ensemble of material and social conditions that makes it possible for a short-term collaboration, set up to accomplish a specific task, to give rise to relatively stable communities of researchers. We refer to these distinctive features as repertoires, and investigate their development and implementation across three examples of collaborative research in the life sciences. We conclude that whether a particular project ends up fostering the emergence of a resilient research community is partly determined by the degree of attention and care devoted by researchers to material and social elements beyond the specific research questions under consideration. PMID:26412866

  3. The IRAF-Wiki: A Community Documentation Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, P. L.

    2005-12-01

    It took a community to create IRAF and its many contributed and external packages. Now the community is invited to participate in a documentation project: the IRAF-Wiki. Wiki's are an online interface to editable knowledge bases. Examples include Wikipedia, Wiktionary, and Wikispeecies. The IRAF-Wiki is based on the free Meta-Wiki software and allows users to search entries, edit and update entries, and create entries. All changes can be undone, and the software keeps a detailed archive of all changes. The goal is to create an up-to-date documentation resource for all IRAF users. The IRAF-wiki is intended as a community home for sharing tricks, tips, and information on the use of IRAF in astronomical applications. Current entries detail getting started, basic photometry using DAOphot, scripting, and more. You are invited to contribute your favorite scripts, tricks, and methodology. The IRAF-wiki can be found at http://www.iraf-wiki.org.

  4. Family Planning Counseling in Your Pocket: A Mobile Job Aid for Community Health Workers in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Smisha; Lasway, Christine; L’Engle, Kelly; Homan, Rick; Layer, Erica; Ollis, Steve; Braun, Rebecca; Silas, Lucy; Mwakibete, Anna; Kudrati, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To address low contraceptive use in Tanzania, a pilot intervention using a mobile job aid was developed to guide community health workers (CHWs) to deliver integrated counseling on family planning, HIV, and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In this article, we describe the process of developing the family planning algorithms and implementation of the mobile job aid, discuss how the job aid supported collection of real-time data for decision making, and present the cost of the overall system based on an evaluation of the pilot. The family planning algorithm was developed, beginning in June 2011, in partnership with the Tanzania Ministry of Health and Social Welfare based on a combination of evidence-based tools such as the Balanced Counseling Strategy Plus Toolkit. The pilot intervention and study was implemented with 25 CHWs in 3 wards in Ilala district in Dar es Salaam between January 2013 and July 2013. A total of 710 family planning users (455 continuing users and 255 new users) were registered and counseled using the mobile job aid over the 6-month intervention period. All users were screened for current pregnancy, questioned on partner support for contraceptive use, counseled on a range of contraceptives, and screened for HIV/STI risk. Most new and continuing family planning users chose pills and male condoms (59% and 73%, respectively). Pills and condoms were provided by the CHW at the community level. Referrals were made to the health facility for pregnancy confirmation, injectable contraceptives, long-acting reversible contraceptives and HIV/STI testing. Follow-up visits with clients were planned to confirm completion of the health facility referral. The financial cost of implementing this intervention with 25 CHWs and 3 supervisors are estimated to be US$26,000 for the first year. For subsequent years, the financial costs are estimated to be 73% lower at $7,100. Challenges such as limited client follow-up by CHWs and use of data by

  5. The Baltimore Learning Community Project: Creating a Networked Community Across Middle Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enomoto, Ernestine; Nolet, Victor; Marchionini, Gary

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the Baltimore Learning Community Project, a collaborative effort that includes the Baltimore City Public Schools, the University of Maryland (UM), and Johns Hopkins University. Focuses on the UM component that involves the development of telecommunications software applications for middle school science and social studies teachers.…

  6. Multilevel Drivers of HIV/AIDS among Black Philadelphians: Exploration Using Community Ethnography and Geographic Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Brawner, Bridgette M.; Reason, Janaiya L.; Goodman, Bridget A.; Schensul, Jean J.; Guthrie, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Background Unequal HIV/AIDS distribution is influenced by certain social and structural contexts that facilitate HIV transmission and concentrate HIV in disease epicenters. Thus, one of the first steps in designing effective community-level HIV/AIDS initiatives is to disentangle the influence of individual, social, and structural factors on HIV risk. Combining ethnographic methodology with geographic information systems (GIS) mapping can allow for a complex exploration of multilevel factors within communities that facilitate HIV transmission in highly affected areas. Objectives We present the formative comparative community-based case study findings of an investigation of individual-, social- , and structural-level factors that contribute to the HIV/AIDS epidemic among Black Philadelphians. Methods Communities were defined using census tracts. The methodology included ethnographic and GIS mapping, observation, informal conversations with residents and business owners, and secondary analyses of census tract-level data in four Philadelphia neighborhoods. Results Factors such as overcrowding, disadvantage, permeability in community boundaries, and availability and accessibility of health-related resources varied significantly. Further, HIV/AIDS trended with social and structural inequities above and beyond the community’s racial composition. Discussion This study was a first step to disentangle relationships between community-level factors and potential risk for HIV in an HIV epicenter. The findings also highlight stark sociodemographic differences within and across racial groups, and further substantiate the need for comprehensive, community-level HIV prevention interventions. These findings from targeted United States urban communities have potential applicability for examining the distribution of HIV/AIDS in broader national and international geosocial contexts. PMID:25738621

  7. How community trust was gained by an NGO in Malawi, Central Africa, to mitigate the impact of HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    MacIntyre, Linda M; Waters, Catherine M; Rankin, Sally H; Schell, Ellen; Laviwa, Jones; Luhanga, Melton Richard

    2013-07-01

    Trust is valuable social capital that is essential for effective partnerships to improve a community's health. Yet, how to establish trust in culturally diverse communities is elusive for many researchers, practitioners, and agencies. The purpose of this qualitative study was to obtain perspectives of individuals working for a nongovernmental organization (NGO) about gaining community trust in Malawi in order to mitigate the impact of HIV/AIDS. Twenty-six interviews were conducted over 12 months. Content analysis revealed the relationship between NGO staff and the community is crucial to gaining community trust. Gender, social context, and religious factors influence the establishment of trust within the relationship, but NGO assumptions about the community can erode community trust. Nurses and other health professionals working with the NGOs can help create conditions to build trust in an ethically and culturally sensitive manner whereby communities can develop processes to address their own health concerns.

  8. Industrial Tech Prep Projects for Heartland Community College Regions. Final Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean DeWitt Regional Vocational System, Bloomington, IL.

    Emphasis of the Industrial Tech Prep Projects in Heartland Community College (Illinois) regions was on planning and raising tech prep awareness among school administrators, teachers, counselors, and private industry. To develop industrial technology tech prep associate degree programs, an organizational structure was designed consisting of…

  9. The Astropy Project: A community Python library for astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipocz, Brigitta; Robitaille, Thomas; Tollerud, Erik

    2016-03-01

    The Astropy Project is a community effort to develop a single core package for Astronomy in Python and foster interoperability between Python Astronomy packages, and is one of the largest open-source collaborations in Astronomy. In this talk I present an overview of the project, provide an update on the latest status of the core package, which saw the v1.1 release late last year, and discuss our plans for the coming year. In addition, I describe the "affiliated packages": Python packages that use Astropy and are associated with the project, but are not actually a part of the core library itself. I also briefly talk about the infrastructural tools we provide for these packages.

  10. A tool to aid emergency managers and communities in appraising private dam safety and policy.

    PubMed

    Pisaniello, John D; McKay, Jennifer

    2007-06-01

    Issues concerning dam safety and equitable sharing of catchment run-off are receiving more attention throughout the world. This paper assesses these matters in the context of Australia, and the need for policy responses. Landholders often overlook the common law obligation to review/design dams to current standards because of high costs, leaving them vulnerable to litigation if their dam fails. The paper reports on an innovative spillway design/review procedure, applicable to southeast Australia, but transferable to any region worldwide. Dam safety policy models and guidelines derived from international best practice are linked to the procedure and intended to aid government decision-making. The procedure minimises costs to landholders and provides an acceptable level of safety assurance to downstream communities. Also discussed are recent surveys testing community attitudes to the procedure and implemented dam safety and water allocation policies. These further guide any government wanting to implement this'integrated engineering and community partnerships'approach to preventing potential disasters due to private dam failure and achieving sustainable and safe water storage and use.

  11. Community-Based Participatory Research Studies on HIV/AIDS Prevention, 2005–2014

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven S

    2016-01-01

    The recent literature on community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches to preventing HIV infection in diverse communities was systematically reviewed as part of the planning process for a new study. Published HIV prevention studies that employed CBPR methods were identified for the period January 1, 2005 to April 30, 2014 using PubMed databases and MeSH term and keyword searches. A total of 44 studies on CBPR and HIV or AIDS prevention were identified, of which 3 focused on adolescents, 33 on adults, and 8 on both adolescents and adults. A variety of at-risk populations were the focus of the studies including men who have sex with men, African American or Hispanic men, and African American or Hispanic women. Few studies focused on Asian/Pacific Islander or American Indian populations in the U.S. Six studies employed CBPR methods to address HIV prevention in church settings. Many of the studies were limited to formative research (ethnographic research, in-depth interviews of key informants, or focus groups). Other studies had a pre-/post-test design, quasi-experimental, or randomized design. Additional CBPR studies and faith-based interventions are needed with adequate sample sizes and rigorous study designs to address lack of knowledge of HIV and inadequate screening in diverse communities to address health disparities. PMID:28066841

  12. Epidemiological measures of participation in community health promotion projects.

    PubMed

    Oddy, W H; Holman, C D; Corti, B; Donovan, R J

    1995-10-01

    The paper is concerned with the use of epidemiological methods to measure the rates at which different strata of a defined population participate in community health promotion projects. The specific aim was to estimate the incidence rates of participation in projects sponsored by the Western Australian Health Promotion Foundation (Healthway), separately for sociodemographic and health-related behavioral subgroups. Data were drawn from Healthway sponsorship projects in 1992. Each sport, arts, and racing project was associated with promotion of a health message and creation of a health promoting environment. The study used a 2-stage sampling design. 13 of 57 large sponsorship projects and 30 of 129 small projects were selected. In the second stage, respondents were randomly surveyed from among project participants. A total of 4060 respondents at least 10 years old was sampled from the 43 selected projects. Population-based incident participation were estimated and were related to person-years at risk. The total participation rate was 4.01 per person-year in people or= 10 years old. The rate was very high at ages 10-14 years and thereafter declined with increasing age. Compared with the least socially disadvantaged 25% of the population, the participation rate fell by around 1/3 in the medium and high disadvantaged groups, but exceeded the baseline by a ratio of 1.85 (95% confidence interval: 1.57-2.18) in the most disadvantaged 10% of the population. The comparatively high rate of participation in the most disadvantaged group occurred only at ages 50 years and the effect was most pronounced at ages 10-19 years. Compared with the least disadvantaged 25%, the rate ratio in the most disadvantaged 10% of the population was 2.50 in the metropolitan area and 1.25 in the country regions of western Australia. Participation was higher in those who smoked, drank alcohol unsafely, reported sunburn, and reported low consumption of fruit and vegetables. Epidemiological methods

  13. Communications Skills Training in Bi-Lateral Aid Projects. Report on the Dunford House Seminar (England, United Kingdom, July 15-25, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgs, David, Ed.

    Proceedings of a seminar on communications skills training for English-as-a-Second-Language teachers in the context of aid projects overseas are presented in the form of papers, presentations, and summary narrative. They include: "Educational Project Management: Survey of Communications Skills Requirements in Aid Projects in Indonesia"…

  14. Towards a "fourth generation" of approaches to HIV/AIDS management: creating contexts for effective community mobilisation.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Catherine; Cornish, Flora

    2010-01-01

    Many biomedical and behavioural HIV/AIDS programmes aimed at prevention, care and treatment have disappointing outcomes because of a lack of effective community mobilisation. But community mobilisation is notoriously difficult to bring about. We present a conceptual framework that maps out those dimensions of social context that are likely to support or undermine community mobilisation efforts, proposing that attention should be given to three dimensions of social context: the material, symbolic and relational. This paper has four parts. We begin by outlining why community mobilisation is regarded as a core dimension of effective HIV/AIDS management: it increases the "reach" and sustainability of programmes; it is a vital component of the wider "task shifting" agenda given the scarcity of health professionals in many HIV/AIDS-vulnerable contexts. Most importantly it facilitates those social psychological processes that we argue are vital preconditions for effective prevention, care and treatment. Secondly we map out three generations of approaches to behaviour change within the HIV/AIDS field: HIV-awareness, peer education and community mobilisation. We critically evaluate each approach's underlying assumptions about the drivers of behaviour change, to frame our understandings of the pathways between mobilisation and health, drawing on the concepts of social capital, dialogue and empowerment. Thirdly we refer to two well-documented case studies of community mobilisation in India and South Africa to illustrate our claim that community mobilisation is unlikely to succeed in the absence of supportive material, symbolic and relational contexts. Fourthly we provide a brief overview of how the papers in this special issue help us flesh out our conceptualisation of the "health enabling social environment". We conclude by arguing for the urgent need for a 'fourth generation' of approaches in the theory and practice of HIV/AIDS management, one which pays far greater

  15. A needs analysis for computer-based telephone triage in a community AIDS clinic.

    PubMed Central

    Henry, S. B.; Schreiner, J. G.; Borchelt, D.; Musen, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    This study describes the complexity of the telephone-triage task in a community-based AIDS clinic. We identify deficiencies related to the data management for and documentation of the telephone-triage encounter, including inaccessibility of the medical record and failure to document required data elements. Our needs analysis suggests five design criteria for a computer-based system that assists nurses with the telephone-triage task: (1) online accessibility of the medical record, (2) ability to move among modules of the medical record and the triage-encounter module, (3) ease of data entry, (4) compliance with standards for documentation, and (5) notification of the primary-care physician in an appropriate and timely manner. PMID:1482941

  16. Improved health and self-esteem among patients with AIDS in a therapeutic community nursing program.

    PubMed

    McGovern, John J; Guida, Frank; Corey, Paula

    2002-12-01

    This study followed up 41 clients (26 males and 15 females) admitted into a modified therapeutic community (TC) nursing home for substance abusing clients with AIDS at 3 points in time (admission, 8 months into treatment, and after completing residential treatment, 16-18 months post baseline) using the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale and other biological and social indicators, such as CD-4 cell count, body weight, and number of close friends. Analyses of repeated measures found significant linear increases on total self-esteem, CD-4 cell count, and body weight biological indicators, and number of close friends social indicator. Discussion focused on the pertinence of the TC nursing home treatment on clients' internalized behavior self-concept change, as well as positive physical and social change indicators.

  17. [A method of education at a distance for nurses' aides in the community area of Guatemala].

    PubMed

    García Pastor de Domínguez, E; Robles de Sandoval, A; Martínez Chopen, O

    1988-01-01

    The authors describe in detail a self-tutorial system that has been used for some ten years in Guatemala to train auxiliary nursing personnel. This model addressed both training and service objectives, and it proved to be consistent with a health policy of integrating teaching and service which the country was implementing at the time. The system involved a national effort to develop self-tutorial units and materials on basic subjects such as nursing procedures, mother and child health, first aid, management, guided therapy, community development and health education. Materials were divided into three categories: for self-tutorial instruction, for recording, supervision and evaluation, and for coordination and feedback within the system. Lastly, greater detail is given on the functions and tasks performed at the different levels of staff involved in managing the system, and the mechanisms which were implemented in the country's health areas are described.

  18. [Health promotion work in a community of sex workers in San Juan, Puerto Rico and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV / AIDS) prevention].

    PubMed

    Toro Alfonso, J

    1995-01-01

    An intervention model for prevention of HIV infection among male transvestite sex workers in San Juan, Puerto Rico, is described. Sex workers have been neglected in most AIDS prevention programs, primarily due to the moralistic attitudes permeating most prevention models. The model was viewed as existing in the context of the sex industry, in order to deflect attention from the prostitute and direct it to the whole series of relations between the client, sex worker, policeman, and others involved. Health promotion strategies must recognize that the sex industry will always exist. Promotion of healthier lifestyles, of community consciousness, and of more responsible sexuality must take place according to the reality of the culture and reference points of the target community. The AIDS Foundation of Puerto Rico in 1991 extended its work among homosexuals to include male transvestites in San Juan. A male transvestite was contracted to work full time for the project. In the beginning, his activities were limited to being present in the street, identifying himself and speaking informally about AIDS and the project, and distributing condoms. Nine months later, the sex workers requested HIV testing, which revealed that 95% of the 48 tested were seronegative. 19 transvestites were interviewed in August 1992 to provide information on the characteristics and needs of the community. The workers were found to be young, with relatively limited education, incomes primarily from sex work, and high levels of alcohol and drug use. Most had no regular partners and the majority of their sexual activity was with clients. Over half engaged in high risk sexual activity without protection. The intervention model, developed with information collected from the transvestites and using as a frame of reference some models for similar populations, called for 8 weekly 1-hour sessions intended to provide information on HIV/AIDS, strengthen participant self-esteem, reduce high risk behaviors

  19. An assessment of community readiness for HIV/AIDS preventive interventions in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Aboud, Frances; Huq, Nafisa Lira; Larson, Charles P; Ottisova, Livia

    2010-02-01

    Efforts to prevent HIV from becoming widespread among the youth population 15-24 years in Bangladesh are in the early stages. However, conservative religious and cultural norms may curtail the dissemination of needed information about sexuality and condoms. The community-readiness stages model was adopted as a framework for assessing the level of preparedness of community leaders to facilitate planned HIV prevention efforts. Six focus group discussions with three professional groups (teachers, businessmen, drugshop vendors) in Hobiganj district were conducted in late 2005, and a single multi-professional group made up of teachers, imams, and drugshop vendors was convened in early 2007 to assess changes. The audio recordings in Bangla were coded as were English translations. Everyone had heard of AIDS and regarded it as a potential catastrophe for the health, economy and social fabric of Bangladesh. Remarks concerning Stage 1-Vulnerability indicated that most did not believe their community to be at risk, though Bangladesh was. Remarks at Stage 2-Knowledge of Transmission were mostly vague but accurately identified sex, blood and needles as the main means of spread; however sex with sex workers was also mentioned in each group. Remarks at Stage 3-Prevention showed strong opposition to condoms for unmarried males and a preference for current means of forbidding sex outside of marriage. A few in each group recognized the importance of condoms for wayward youth. Stage 4-Planning discussions centered on raising awareness and fear, and a desire for government and media to take the lead. By 2007 participants articulated more realistic strategies that they themselves could, and had, implemented, but also raised barriers that authorities should help them overcome. The findings provide formative information on the constraints and opportunities of community groups as partners in HIV preventive interventions and strategies to help them move to a higher stage of readiness

  20. Ideological schisms about HIV/AIDS helping systems in the African American community, with an emphasis on women.

    PubMed

    Fairfax, Colita Nichols

    2010-10-01

    This article is an initial exploration about the impact of ideological beliefs on helping services in the African American community. Newly infected HIV/AIDS cases place African Americans at 45% of such new cases, with African American women becoming infected at a rate 18 times that of Whites. Yet, helping services that are organic to African American women should be stronger through a discussion of cultural beliefs held in the community, where the genesis of helping services exists. Values and beliefs should be at the center of community partnerships, public media strategies, generalist-practice curricula in macro-level systems, and creating more space for relationship dialogue between African American men and women, which includes gender and racial distortions. Given the exponentially high numbers of HIV/AIDS cases in the African American community, a more earnest examination of values and beliefs is warranted.

  1. From project aid to sustainable HIV services: a case study from Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Sustainable service delivery is a major challenge in the HIV response that is often not adequately addressed in project implementation. Sustainable strategies must be built into project design and implementation to enable HIV efforts to continue long after donor-supported projects are completed. Case description This paper presents the experiences in operational sustainability of Family Health International's Zambia Prevention, Care and Treatment Partnership in Zambia, which is supported by the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief through United States Agency for International Development (October 2004 to September 2009). The partnership worked with Zambia's Ministry of Health to scale up HIV clinical services in five of the country's nine provinces, reaching 35 districts and 219 facilities. It provided technical and financial support from within the ministry's systems and structures. By completion of the project, 10 of the 35 districts had graduated beyond receiving ongoing technical support. Discussion and evaluation By working within the ministry's policies, structures and systems, the partnership was able to increase the ministry's capacity to add a comprehensive HIV service delivery component to its health services. Ministry structures were improved through renovations of health facilities, training of healthcare workers, procurement of essential equipment, and establishment of a quality assurance plan to ensure continued quality of care. The quality assurance tools were implemented by both the ministry and project staff as the foundation for technical graduation. Facilities that met all the quality criteria for more than six months were graduated from project technical support, as were districts where most supported facilities met the criteria. The district health offices then provided ongoing supervision of services. This predetermined "graduation" exit strategy, with buy in of the provincial and district health offices, set the stage

  2. From project aid to sustainable HIV services: a case study from Zambia.

    PubMed

    Torpey, Kwasi; Mwenda, Lona; Thompson, Catherine; Wamuwi, Edgar; van Damme, Wim

    2010-06-07

    Sustainable service delivery is a major challenge in the HIV response that is often not adequately addressed in project implementation. Sustainable strategies must be built into project design and implementation to enable HIV efforts to continue long after donor-supported projects are completed. This paper presents the experiences in operational sustainability of Family Health International's Zambia Prevention, Care and Treatment Partnership in Zambia, which is supported by the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief through United States Agency for International Development (October 2004 to September 2009). The partnership worked with Zambia's Ministry of Health to scale up HIV clinical services in five of the country's nine provinces, reaching 35 districts and 219 facilities. It provided technical and financial support from within the ministry's systems and structures. By completion of the project, 10 of the 35 districts had graduated beyond receiving ongoing technical support. By working within the ministry's policies, structures and systems, the partnership was able to increase the ministry's capacity to add a comprehensive HIV service delivery component to its health services. Ministry structures were improved through renovations of health facilities, training of healthcare workers, procurement of essential equipment, and establishment of a quality assurance plan to ensure continued quality of care. The quality assurance tools were implemented by both the ministry and project staff as the foundation for technical graduation. Facilities that met all the quality criteria for more than six months were graduated from project technical support, as were districts where most supported facilities met the criteria. The district health offices then provided ongoing supervision of services. This predetermined "graduation" exit strategy, with buy in of the provincial and district health offices, set the stage for continued delivery of high-quality HIV services

  3. [Analysis on funds application of community based organizations involved in HIV/AIDS response and government financial investment in China, 2014].

    PubMed

    Zhang, G; Zhu, Y X; Wang, P; Liu, P; Li, J F; Sha, S; Yang, W Z; Li, H

    2017-03-06

    Objective: To understand the government financial investments to community based organizations (CBO) involved in HIV/AIDS Control and Prevention of China and its influencing factors. Methods: Questionnaire of the situation of CBO involved in HIV/AIDS control and prevention were designed, and filled by the staff of Provincial Health Administrative Departments of 31 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities). The research focused on the fields of CBO involved in HIV/AIDS response in 31 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities), including intervention on HIV/AIDS high risk population (female sex worker (FSW), man who sex with man (MSM), drug user (DU) and case management and care for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH)). 29 valid questionnaires were collecting, with Shanxi Province and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Regions not filled. Questionnaire included financial supports from local governments, transfer payment from central government for CBO involved in HIV/AIDS response in 2014, and unit cost for CBO involved in HIV/AIDS control and prevention. Multivariate analysis was conducted on the project application and financial investment of community based organizations involved in HIV/AIDS control and prevention in 2014. Results: The total amount of CBO to apply for participation in AIDS prevention and control was 64 482 828 Yuan in 2014. The actual total amount of investment was 50 616 367 Yuan, The investment came from the central government funding, the provincial level government funding, the prefecture and county level government funding investment and other sources of funding. 22 of 28 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) received the funds from the central government finance, and median of investment funds 500 000 Yuan. 15 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) gained the funds from the provincial government finance, and median of investment funds 350 000 Yuan. 12 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) got the funds

  4. Why do some women know more? An exploration of the association of community socioeconomic characteristics, social capital, and HIV/AIDS knowledge.

    PubMed

    Jesmin, Syeda S; Chaudhuri, Sanjukta

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the associations of community-level socio-economic status (SES) characteristics and social capital with women's knowledge of HIV/AIDS. We used a representative national sample of 6,771 women ages 15-49 years from the Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey of 2007. We extended the findings of prior studies by providing new evidence that both community and social capital were related to having knowledge of AIDS. The significant community characteristics associated with women's greater knowledge of AIDS were: women's higher mean age at first marriage, higher mean years of education, the higher percentage of women in the community who work, and higher mean household living standard in the community. Regardless of individual-level SES, living in a community with higher community-level SES and having greater social capital were associated with having a greater likelihood of hearing about AIDS. However, we found that once women knew about AIDS, not all of the community-SES and social capital indicators explained their advanced knowledge of AIDS prevention and transmission. Our findings underscore the importance of HIV/AIDS education campaigns in the disadvantaged communities, specifically targeting women who are not members in any non-governmental organizations, as well as greater use of media in educating women about AIDS.

  5. A Practical Tablet-Based Hearing Aid Configuration as an Exemplar Project for Students of Instrumentation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the configuration and digital signal processing details of a tablet-based hearing aid transmitting wirelessly to standard earphones, whereby the tablet performs full sound processing rather than solely providing a means of setting adjustment by streaming to conventional digital hearing aids. The presented device confirms the recognized advantages of this tablet-based approach (e.g., in relation to cost, frequency domain processing, amplification range, versatility of functionality, component battery rechargeability), and flags the future wider-spread availability of such hearing solutions within mainstream healthcare. The use of a relatively high sampling frequency was found to be beneficial for device performance, while the use of optional off-the-shelf add-on components (e.g., data acquisition device, high fidelity microphone, compact wireless transmitter/receiver, wired headphones) are also discussed in relation to performance optimization. The easy-to-follow configuration utilized is well suited to student learning/research instrumentation projects within the health and biomedical sciences. In this latter regard, the presented device was pedagogically integrated into a flipped classroom approach for the teaching of bioinstrumentation within an Allied Health Sciences School, with the subsequent establishment of positive student engagement outcomes. PMID:26779329

  6. Evaluating the effects of community-based organization engagement on HIV and AIDS-related risk behavior in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Riehman, Kara S; Kakietek, Jakub; Manteuffel, Brigitte A; Rodriguez-García, Rosalía; Bonnel, Rene; N'Jie, N'Della; Godoy-Garraza, Lucas; Orago, Alloys; Murithi, Patrick; Fruh, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    International donors have increasingly shifted AIDS funding directly to community-based organizations (CBOs) with the assumption that responding to the epidemic is best achieved at the community level. The World Bank, ICF Macro, and the National Council for Population and Development in Kenya, conducted a study to evaluate the community response in Kenya. The study used a quasi-experimental design comparing seven study communities and seven comparison communities in Nyanza Province and Western Province. We examined the impact of CBO activity on individual and community-level outcomes, including HIV knowledge, awareness and perceptions, sexual risk behavior, and social transformation (gender ideology and social capital). The study consisted of two components: a household survey conducted in all 14 communities, and qualitative data collected in a subset of communities. Individuals in communities with higher CBO engagement were significantly more likely to have reported consistent condom use. Higher CBO engagement was associated with some measures of social capital, including participation in local and national elections, and participation in electoral campaigns. CBOs provide added value in addressing the HIV and AIDS epidemic in very targeted and specific ways that are closely tied to the services they provide (e.g., prevention education); thus, increasing CBO engagement can be an effective measure in scaling up prevention efforts in those areas.

  7. Evaluating the effects of community-based organization engagement on HIV and AIDS-related risk behavior in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Riehman, Kara S.; Kakietek, Jakub; Manteuffel, Brigitte A.; Rodriguez-Garcıa, Rosalía; Bonnel, Rene; N'Jie, N'Della; Godoy-Garraza, Lucas; Orago, Alloys; Murithi, Patrick; Fruh, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    International donors have increasingly shifted AIDS funding directly to community-based organizations (CBOs) with the assumption that responding to the epidemic is best achieved at the community level. The World Bank, ICF Macro, and the National Council for Population and Development in Kenya, conducted a study to evaluate the community response in Kenya. The study used a quasi-experimental design comparing seven study communities and seven comparison communities in Nyanza Province and Western Province. We examined the impact of CBO activity on individual and community-level outcomes, including HIV knowledge, awareness and perceptions, sexual risk behavior, and social transformation (gender ideology and social capital). The study consisted of two components: a household survey conducted in all 14 communities, and qualitative data collected in a subset of communities. Individuals in communities with higher CBO engagement were significantly more likely to have reported consistent condom use. Higher CBO engagement was associated with some measures of social capital, including participation in local and national elections, and participation in electoral campaigns. CBOs provide added value in addressing the HIV and AIDS epidemic in very targeted and specific ways that are closely tied to the services they provide (e.g., prevention education); thus, increasing CBO engagement can be an effective measure in scaling up prevention efforts in those areas. PMID:23745632

  8. Community-Based Management of Child Malnutrition in Zambia: HIV/AIDS Infection and Other Risk Factors on Child Survival

    PubMed Central

    Moramarco, Stefania; Amerio, Giulia; Ciarlantini, Clarice; Chipoma, Jean Kasengele; Simpungwe, Matilda Kakungu; Nielsen-Saines, Karin; Palombi, Leonardo; Buonomo, Ersilia

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: Supplementary feeding programs (SFPs) are effective in the community-based treatment of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) and prevention of severe acute malnutrition (SAM); (2) Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on a sample of 1266 Zambian malnourished children assisted from 2012 to 2014 in the Rainbow Project SFPs. Nutritional status was evaluated according to WHO/Unicef methodology. We performed univariate and multivariate Cox proportional risk regression to identify the main predictors of mortality. In addition, a time-to event analysis was performed to identify predictors of failure and time to cure events; (3) Results: The analysis included 858 malnourished children (19 months ± 9.4; 49.9% males). Program outcomes met international standards with a better performance for MAM compared to SAM. Cox regression identified SAM (3.8; 2.1–6.8), HIV infection (3.1; 1.7–5.5), and WAZ <−3 (3.1; 1.6–5.7) as predictors of death. Time to event showed 80% of children recovered by SAM/MAM at 24 weeks. (4) Conclusions: Preventing deterioration of malnutrition, coupled to early detection of HIV/AIDS with adequate antiretroviral treatment, and extending the duration of feeding supplementation, could be crucial elements for ensuring full recovery and improve child survival in malnourished Zambian children. PMID:27376317

  9. Community-Based Management of Child Malnutrition in Zambia: HIV/AIDS Infection and Other Risk Factors on Child Survival.

    PubMed

    Moramarco, Stefania; Amerio, Giulia; Ciarlantini, Clarice; Chipoma, Jean Kasengele; Simpungwe, Matilda Kakungu; Nielsen-Saines, Karin; Palombi, Leonardo; Buonomo, Ersilia

    2016-07-01

    (1) BACKGROUND: Supplementary feeding programs (SFPs) are effective in the community-based treatment of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) and prevention of severe acute malnutrition (SAM); (2) METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on a sample of 1266 Zambian malnourished children assisted from 2012 to 2014 in the Rainbow Project SFPs. Nutritional status was evaluated according to WHO/Unicef methodology. We performed univariate and multivariate Cox proportional risk regression to identify the main predictors of mortality. In addition, a time-to event analysis was performed to identify predictors of failure and time to cure events; (3) RESULTS: The analysis included 858 malnourished children (19 months ± 9.4; 49.9% males). Program outcomes met international standards with a better performance for MAM compared to SAM. Cox regression identified SAM (3.8; 2.1-6.8), HIV infection (3.1; 1.7-5.5), and WAZ <-3 (3.1; 1.6-5.7) as predictors of death. Time to event showed 80% of children recovered by SAM/MAM at 24 weeks. (4) CONCLUSIONS: Preventing deterioration of malnutrition, coupled to early detection of HIV/AIDS with adequate antiretroviral treatment, and extending the duration of feeding supplementation, could be crucial elements for ensuring full recovery and improve child survival in malnourished Zambian children.

  10. The Role of Psychiatric Emergency Services in Aiding Community Alternatives to Hospitalization in an Inner-City Population

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Carl C.

    1978-01-01

    In the proper political/economic environment, Crisis Intervention Programs can reduce the recidivism rate of patients who suffer from recurrent intermittent acute psychotic episodes. The author seeks to outline such a program and demonstrate its effectiveness in providing an alternative to brief hospitalization. It is believed that this form of management of the psychiatric emergency aids the practice of community psychiatry and supports the use of day treatment facilities, outpatient clinics, emergency housing, family therapy, and other community support systems. PMID:731721

  11. Evaluating South Carolina's community cardiovascular disease prevention project.

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, F C; Lackland, D T; Mace, M L; Reddick, A; Hogelin, G; Remington, P L

    1991-01-01

    A community cardiovascular disease prevention program was undertaken as a cooperative effort of the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control and the Centers for Disease Control of the Public Health Service. As part of the evaluation of the project, a large scale community health survey was conducted by the State and Federal agencies. The successful design and implementation of the survey, which included telephone and in-home interviews as well as clinical assessments of participants, is described. Interview response rates were adequate, although physical assessments were completed on only 61 percent of those interviewed. Households without telephones were difficult and costly to identify, and young adults were difficult to locate for survey participation. The survey produced baseline data for program planning and for measuring the success of ongoing intervention efforts. Survey data also have been used to estimate the prevalence of selected cardiovascular disease risk factors. PMID:1910187

  12. Estimates of eligibility for antiretroviral treatment (ART) and projected ART impact on AIDS mortality among South African educators.

    PubMed

    Rehle, Thomas M; Shisana, Olive

    2005-11-01

    The study assessed the proportion of HIV-infected educators that need antiretroviral treatment (ART) according to current criteria, and estimated the impact of ART on AIDS mortality by modelling scenarios with and without access to ART. Specimens for HIV testing were obtained from 17 088 educators and a sub-sample of 444 venous blood specimens from HIV-positive educators was selected for a CD4 cell count analysis. The Spectrum model package was used for estimating AIDS-associated mortality and projecting the impact of ART scenarios. The results of the CD4 cell count analysis in the HIV-positive educator study population showed that 8% had fewer than 100, 22% fewer than 200, 52% fewer than 350, and 72% fewer than 500 CD4 cells/mm3. Based on the proportion of HIV-positive educators with a CD4 cell count < 200 cells/mm3 we estimated that in 2005 approximately 10 700 educators would need ART according to current SA government guidelines. For the baseline scenario without ART the number of AIDS deaths among HIV-infected educators was projected to increase from 1 992 deaths in 2000 to 5 260 in 2010. The number of projected AIDS deaths in the educator study population was estimated to be 4 414 in 2005, with almost 50% of the AIDS deaths occurring in the 35 - 44 age group. The estimates suggest that in 2005 9.1% of the HIV-infected educators, or 1.2% of the total educator population, will be dying of AIDS. By 2010, a reduction of almost 50% in AIDS deaths was estimated for the treatment scenario with 90% ART coverage, compared with the baseline scenario without treatment. The ART impact scenarios illustrate that a relatively high ART coverage would be needed to ensure a substantial impact of ART on HIV/AIDS-associated mortality.

  13. Evaluation of a New Zealand indigenous community injury prevention project.

    PubMed

    Brewin, Marilyn; Coggan, Carolyn

    2002-06-01

    To evaluate the Turanganui-a-kiwa Community Injury Prevention Project, based in a provincial town on the North Island of New Zealand with an extensive indigenous population (Maori). The evaluation design was quasi-experimental and included process, impact and outcome measures. Process evaluation findings indicated that adopting an holistic lifespan approach to injury prevention was successful in this Maori community. The three main areas of activities were: child road safety; safer alcohol use in the road, sporting and home environments for young people and adults; and fire safety for older people. Significant increases in awareness of injury prevention initiatives were found among Turanganui-a-kiwa whanau (families) (p < 0.001). A large increase in the take-up of car restraints among Maori young children was demonstrated (pre 10%, post 74%). The safe alcohol dual message approach also resulted in significant increases in the number of respondents wearing protective equipment for sports (p < 0.05). The results of the fire safety initiative was that 120 kaumatua homes now have correctly installed smoke alarms and there is now a commitment from the Fire Service to maintain these alarms. Outcome evaluation findings showed that there was a significant decrease in hospitalization injury rates across the lifespan in Turanganui-a-kiwa (p < 0.05). Despite the challenges associated with conducting community injury prevention projects the conduct of this evaluation provides previously unknown information on an indigenous (Maori) injury prevention programme. The success of the programme would appear to be that the project was perceived as an intervention for Maori operating within a Maori framework which addressed Maori aspirations. As so little is known about injury prevention initiatives in indigenous populations, the findings presented in this article will provide important information for the future development of other indigenous injury prevention programmes.

  14. "The problem is ours, it is not CRAIDS' ". Evaluating sustainability of Community Based Organisations for HIV/AIDS in a rural district in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Aisling; Mulambia, Chishimba; Brugha, Ruairi; Hanefeld, Johanna

    2012-11-28

    While sustainability of health programmes has been the subject of empirical studies, there is little evidence specifically on the sustainability of Community Based Organisations (CBOs) for HIV/AIDS. Debates around optimal approaches in community health have centred on utilitarian versus empowerment approaches. This paper, using the World Bank Multi-Country AIDS Program (MAP) in Zambia as a case study, seeks to evaluate whether or not this global programme contributed to the sustainability of CBOs working in the area of HIV/AIDS in Zambia. Lessons for optimising sustainability of CBOs in lower income countries are drawn. In-depth interviews with representatives of all CBOs that received CRAIDS funding (n = 18) and district stakeholders (n= 10) in Mumbwa rural district in Zambia, in 2010; and national stakeholders (n=6) in 2011. All eighteen CBOs in Mumbwa that received MAP funding between 2003 and 2008 had existed prior to receiving MAP grants, some from as early as 1992. This was contrary to national level perceptions that CBOs were established to access funds rather than from the needs of communities. FUNDING opportunities for CBOs in Mumbwa in 2010 were scarce.Health services: While all CBOs were functioning in 2010, most reported reductions in service provision. Home visits had reduced due to a shortage of food to bring to people living with HIV/AIDS and scarcity of funding for transport, which reduced antiretroviral treatment adherence support and transport of patients to clinics.Organisational capacity and viability: Sustainability had been promoted during MAP through funding Income Generating Activities. However, there was a lack of infrastructure and training to make these sustainable. Links between health facilities and communities improved over time, however volunteers' skills levels had reduced. Whilst the World Bank espoused the idea of sustainability in their plans, it remained on the periphery of their Zambia strategy. Assessments of need on the ground

  15. “The problem is ours, it is not CRAIDS’ ”. Evaluating sustainability of Community Based Organisations for HIV/AIDS in a rural district in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While sustainability of health programmes has been the subject of empirical studies, there is little evidence specifically on the sustainability of Community Based Organisations (CBOs) for HIV/AIDS. Debates around optimal approaches in community health have centred on utilitarian versus empowerment approaches. This paper, using the World Bank Multi-Country AIDS Program (MAP) in Zambia as a case study, seeks to evaluate whether or not this global programme contributed to the sustainability of CBOs working in the area of HIV/AIDS in Zambia. Lessons for optimising sustainability of CBOs in lower income countries are drawn. Methods In-depth interviews with representatives of all CBOs that received CRAIDS funding (n = 18) and district stakeholders (n= 10) in Mumbwa rural district in Zambia, in 2010; and national stakeholders (n=6) in 2011. Results Funding: All eighteen CBOs in Mumbwa that received MAP funding between 2003 and 2008 had existed prior to receiving MAP grants, some from as early as 1992. This was contrary to national level perceptions that CBOs were established to access funds rather than from the needs of communities. Funding opportunities for CBOs in Mumbwa in 2010 were scarce. Health services: While all CBOs were functioning in 2010, most reported reductions in service provision. Home visits had reduced due to a shortage of food to bring to people living with HIV/AIDS and scarcity of funding for transport, which reduced antiretroviral treatment adherence support and transport of patients to clinics. Organisational capacity and viability: Sustainability had been promoted during MAP through funding Income Generating Activities. However, there was a lack of infrastructure and training to make these sustainable. Links between health facilities and communities improved over time, however volunteers’ skills levels had reduced. Conclusions Whilst the World Bank espoused the idea of sustainability in their plans, it remained on the periphery of

  16. Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Warren B. Mori

    2013-02-01

    The UCLA Plasma Simulation Group is a major partner of the "Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation. This is the final technical report. We include an overall summary, a list of publications and individual progress reports for each years. During the past five years we have made tremendous progress in enhancing the capabilities of OSIRIS and QuickPIC, in developing new algorithms and data structures for PIC codes to run on GPUS and many future core architectures, and in using these codes to model experiments and in making new scientific discoveries. Here we summarize some highlights for which SciDAC was a major contributor.

  17. Imagining the future: Community perceptions of a family-based economic empowerment intervention for AIDS-orphaned adolescents in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Ismayilova, Leyla; Ssewamala, Fred; Mooers, Elizabeth; Nabunya, Proscovia; Sheshadri, Srividya

    2012-01-01

    AIDS-orphaned children and adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa have inadequate access to basic services, including health and education. Using a qualitative approach, the study explores the meaning of education in rural Uganda, obstacles faced by AIDS-orphaned adolescents and their caregivers to access secondary education, and the potential of an economic empowerment intervention SEED in addressing the challenges of accessing educational opportunities for AIDS-orphaned adolescents. The findings come from 29 semi-structured interviews conducted with eleven adolescents study participants, four caregivers and fourteen community leaders involved in the pilot SEED intervention. Study participants and community members indicated that the savings accounts offer a unique opportunity for orphaned adolescents to stay in school and imagine the future with optimism. PMID:23543861

  18. Imagining the future: Community perceptions of a family-based economic empowerment intervention for AIDS-orphaned adolescents in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ismayilova, Leyla; Ssewamala, Fred; Mooers, Elizabeth; Nabunya, Proscovia; Sheshadri, Srividya

    2012-10-01

    AIDS-orphaned children and adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa have inadequate access to basic services, including health and education. Using a qualitative approach, the study explores the meaning of education in rural Uganda, obstacles faced by AIDS-orphaned adolescents and their caregivers to access secondary education, and the potential of an economic empowerment intervention SEED in addressing the challenges of accessing educational opportunities for AIDS-orphaned adolescents. The findings come from 29 semi-structured interviews conducted with eleven adolescents study participants, four caregivers and fourteen community leaders involved in the pilot SEED intervention. Study participants and community members indicated that the savings accounts offer a unique opportunity for orphaned adolescents to stay in school and imagine the future with optimism.

  19. Librarian-initiated HIV/AIDS prevention intervention program outcome in rural communities in Oyo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ajuwon, G A; Komolafe-Opadeji, H O; Ikhizama, B

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to meet the HIV/AIDS information and service needs of citizens living in selected rural, underserved communities in Oyo State, Nigeria. This was a librarian-initiated intervention program (pre-post) study of heads of rural households in Oyo State. A questionnaire was used for pre- and post-intervention assessment. The education covered knowledge about HIV/AIDS, routes of transmission, prevention strategies, and attitude toward persons living with HIV. It increased participants' knowledge about AIDS and improved attitude toward those living with HIV. Provision and dissemination of information on HIV/AIDS through librarians to rural settlers is an important prevention strategy and librarians can make major contributions.

  20. The Effects of Instructional Aids on the Achievement of Community College Students Enrolled in a Geology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Linda W.; Piper, Martha Kime

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of instructional aids designed to improve the test scores of field-dependent students enrolled in an introductory, community college-level, geology course for non-science majors. Prior to beginning course instruction, 36 students were classified as field-dependent on the basic scores from the Witkin Embedded…

  1. How Do Professional Learning Communities Aid and Hamper Professional Learning of Beginning Teachers Related to Differentiated Instruction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Neve, Debbie; Devos, Geert

    2017-01-01

    Research has shown that adequate support from the school environment is necessary to help beginning teachers in applying differentiated instruction (DI), but how schools can aid in this process remains unclear. This qualitative study explores how professional learning communities (PLCs), an indicator of a supportive school environment, can enhance…

  2. How Do Professional Learning Communities Aid and Hamper Professional Learning of Beginning Teachers Related to Differentiated Instruction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Neve, Debbie; Devos, Geert

    2017-01-01

    Research has shown that adequate support from the school environment is necessary to help beginning teachers in applying differentiated instruction (DI), but how schools can aid in this process remains unclear. This qualitative study explores how professional learning communities (PLCs), an indicator of a supportive school environment, can enhance…

  3. APPLICATION OF 3D COMPUTER-AIDED TOMOGRAPHY TO THE QUANTIFICATION OF MARINE SEDIMENT COMMUNITIES IN POLLUTION GRADIENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer-Aided Tomography (CT) has been demonstrated to be a cost efficient tool for the qualitative and quantitative study of estuarine benthic communities along pollution gradients.
    Now we have advanced this technology to successfully visualize and discriminate three dimen...

  4. Local newspapers, community partnerships, and health improvement projects: their roles in a comprehensive community initiative.

    PubMed

    Hubbell, Anne P; Dearing, James W

    2003-10-01

    To understand local media's role in a community health initiative, a content analysis of 1,709 paragraphs from 173 news articles and editorials was undertaken. The articles were from three local newspapers, one in each of three communities. Analyses focused on article content combined with reflective personal interviews with local campaign directors. Results suggest that local campaign staff can be successful using commercial media to achieve objectives. Surprisingly, most coverage was not about projects with observable and easily identifiable benefits for local residents, but rather partnerships among influential residents engaged in decision-making about such projects. We conclude that the politics of resource distribution is more newsworthy to local journalists than tangible topics like access to health information, insurance coverage, and service provision.

  5. Community Education: A Status Report and Projections for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Larry E.

    2002-01-01

    Describes mission of community education, the implementation of community education through community schools, and the relationship between community education and school public relations. Discusses some future trends and issues in education and their implications for community education. (PKP)

  6. NIH support of Centers for AIDS Research and Department of Health Collaborative Public Health Research: advancing CDC's Enhanced Comprehensive HIV Prevention Planning project.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Alan E; Purcell, David W; Gordon, Christopher M; Flores, Stephen; Grossman, Cynthia; Fisher, Holly H; Barasky, Rebecca J

    2013-11-01

    The contributions reported in this supplemental issue highlight the relevance of NIH-funded CEWG research to health department–supported HIV prevention and care activities in the 9 US cities with the highest numbers of AIDS cases. The project findings have the potential to enhance ongoing HIV treatment and care services and to advance the wider scientific agenda. The HIV testing to care continuum, while providing a framework to help track progress on national goals, also can reflect the heterogeneities of local epidemics. The collaborative research that is highlighted in this issue not only reflects a locally driven research agenda but also demonstrates research methods, data collection tools, and collaborative processes that could be encouraged across jurisdictions. Projects such as these, capitalizing on the integrated efforts of NIH, CDC, DOH, and academic institutions, have the potential to contribute to improvements in the HIV care continuum in these communities, bringing us closer to realizing the HIV prevention and treatment goals of the NHAS.

  7. Urban-Rural Differences in Motivation to Control Prejudice toward People with HIV/AIDS: The Impact of Perceived Identifiability in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Solomon, Sondra E.; Varni, Susan E.; Miller, Carol T.; Forehand, Rex L.; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2008-01-01

    Context: HIV/AIDS is occurring with increasing frequency in rural areas of the United States, and people living with HIV/AIDS in rural communities report higher levels of perceived stigma than their more urban counterparts. The extent to which stigmatized individuals perceive stigma could be influenced, in part, by prevailing community attitudes.…

  8. Port Graham Community Building Biomass Heating Design Project

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, Patrick; Sink, Charles

    2015-04-30

    Native Village of Port Graham completed preconstruction activities to prepare for construction and operations of a cord wood biomass heating system to five or more community buildings in Port Graham, Alaska. Project Description Native Village of Port Graham (NVPG) completed preconstruction activities that pave the way towards reduced local energy costs through the construction and operations of a cord wood biomass heating system. NVPG plans include installation of a GARN WHS 3200 Boiler that uses cord wood as fuel source. Implementation of the 700,000 Btu per hour output biomass community building heat utility would heat 5-community buildings in Port Graham, Alaska. Heating system is estimated to displace 85% of the heating fuel oil or 5365 gallons of fuel on an annual basis with an estimated peak output of 600,000 Btu per hour. Estimated savings is $15,112.00 per year. The construction cost estimate made to install the new biomass boiler system is estimated $251,693.47 with an additional Boiler Building expansion cost estimated at $97,828.40. Total installed cost is estimated $349,521.87. The WHS 3200 Boiler would be placed inside a new structure at the old community Water Plant Building site that is controlled by NVPG. Design of the new biomass heat plant and hot water loop system was completed by Richmond Engineering, NVPG contractor for the project. A hot water heat loop system running off the boiler is designed to be placed underground on lands controlled by NVPG and stubbed to feed hot water to existing base board heating system in the following community buildings: 1. Anesia Anahonak Moonin Health and Dental Clinic 2. Native Village of Port Graham offices 3. Port Graham Public Safety Building/Fire Department 4. Port Graham Corporation Office Building which also houses the Port Graham Museum and Head Start Center 5. North Pacific Rim Housing Authority Workshop/Old Fire Hall Existing community buildings fuel oil heating systems are to be retro-fitted to

  9. [The survival and development conditions of community-based organizations for HIV/AIDS prevention and control among men who have sex with men in three Chinese cities].

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaojing; Shan, Duo; Qi, Jinlei; Ouyang, Lin; Wang, Hui; Fu, Jie; Sun, Jiangping

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the survival and development conditions of community-based organizations (CBOs) for HIV/AIDS prevention and control among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Chinese cities including Shanghai, Hangzhou, Chongqing. This study employed both qualitative (focus groups) and quantitative (questionnaire survey) methods to obtain information from 15 MSM CBOs in three Chinese cities. The mean work time of the 15 CBOs for HIV/AIDS prevention and control among MSM was 6.7 years (2.1-11.3 years), and the majority of their funds was from international cooperation projects (80 447 000 RMB, 73.0%) from 2006 to 2013. The survival cost of MSM CBOs apart from expenditure of activities was 2 240-435 360 RMB per year. As it was shown in the graph, the survival and development of MSM CBOs was closely related to the development of international cooperation projects. There was a few small size MSM CBOs taking part in the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS and their work content was limited before 2006. From 2006 to 2008, some international cooperation projects were launched in China, such as the China Global Fund AIDS project and the China-Gates Foundation HIV Prevention Cooperation program. As a result, the number of MSM CBOs was increased sharply, and both the scale and 2012, the performance of these programs further promote the establishment of new MSM CBOs and the development of all MSM CBOs with regard to the work places, full-time staffs, work contents, work patterns and the specific targeted population. After 2012, most international cooperation programs were completed and the local department of disease prevention and control continued to cooperate with MSM CBOs. However, the degree of support funds from the local department was different among different regions. Where the funds were below the half of program funds, the development of MSM CBOs ceased and work slowed down. Besides, there were still some constraints for the survival and development of MSM CBOs, such

  10. Community action for preventing HIV in Cambodia: evaluation of a 3-year project.

    PubMed

    Sopheab, Heng; Fylkesnes, Knut; Lim, Yi; Godwin, Peter

    2008-07-01

    The 'Community Action for Preventing HIV/AIDS Project' was implemented in four provinces in Cambodia (2001-04) to support a comprehensive set of HIV prevention efforts. Implementation was strictly monitored in terms of inputs, outputs and outcomes. We examine changes in these variables during the project period to assess the extent to which they were related to the project. Inputs and outputs were monitored regularly by supervision and quarterly project reports. Baseline and follow-up surveys were conducted on 10 target groups to measure changes in outcome indicators related to sexual risk behaviours, uses of HIV voluntary counselling and testing (VCT), self-reported sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and other indicators. The analyses use data from surveys and from project monitoring. Spending on HIV-related work at provincial level increased markedly, including investments in VCT, STI facilities and staff training. Yearly expenditure increased about 7-fold compared with years immediately preceding the project. VCT centres increased from 3 to 12, numbers of counsellors from 10 to 27, and numbers of client visits more than doubled. STI laboratory facilities increased from 0 to 6 with coverage of STI check-ups among sex workers increasing from 70% to 93% and a decline in men attending STI clinics. The survey results indicate significant changes in a number of major outcome indicators such as consistent condom use related to sex work (>80%), HIV testing and counselling after HIV tests, especially among police (42 to 72%, P < 0.001) and brothel-based sex workers (48 to 89%, P < 0.001). Self-reported STIs declined in most groups. Finally, the programmatic systems for planning, managing and monitoring implementation of activities at both central and provincial level, as well as technical guidelines, developed under the project have become the standard for the national programme. In conclusion, the project appears to have been comprehensive and a number of favourable

  11. Promoting cancer prevention and control in community-based HIV/AIDS service organizations: are they ready?

    PubMed

    Guidry, John A; Lubetkin, Erica; Corner, Geoffrey; Lord-Bessen, Jennifer; Kornegay, Mark; Burkhalter, Jack E

    2014-02-01

    Community-based organizations (CBOs) serving persons living with HIV or AIDS face the challenge of an aging population with more chronic diseases. This study assessed cancer programming needs of AIDS service organizations (ASOs) in New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut by conducting a community needs assessment. Sixty (58%) of 103 organizations completed the survey. ASOs conduct activities most related to early steps along the cancer care continuum, but they also express great interest in expanding cancer-focused programming into new areas. ASOs have resources or capacities in assisting HIV+ clients with mental health or substance abuse problems, but there exists a need for funding in undertaking or expanding cancer-focused programs. ASOs are receptive to collaborating with researchers on disseminating cancer prevention and control knowledge in their settings. Community-academic research partnerships enable resonant training and technical assistance methods to be explored that will enhance the abilities of ASOs to bring cancer-related programming to their clients.

  12. Earth Science community support in the EGI-Inspire Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwichtenberg, H.

    2012-04-01

    The Earth Science Grid community is following its strategy of propagating Grid technology to the ES disciplines, setting up interactive collaboration among the members of the community and stimulating the interest of stakeholders on the political level since ten years already. This strategy was described in a roadmap published in an Earth Science Informatics journal. It was applied through different European Grid projects and led to a large Grid Earth Science VRC that covers a variety of ES disciplines; in the end, all of them were facing the same kind of ICT problems. .. The penetration of Grid in the ES community is indicated by the variety of applications, the number of countries in which ES applications are ported, the number of papers in international journals and the number of related PhDs. Among the six virtual organisations belonging to ES, one, ESR, is generic. Three others -env.see-grid-sci.eu, meteo.see-grid-sci.eu and seismo.see-grid-sci.eu- are thematic and regional (South Eastern Europe) for environment, meteorology and seismology. The sixth VO, EGEODE, is for the users of the Geocluster software. There are also ES users in national VOs or VOs related to projects. The services for the ES task in EGI-Inspire concerns the data that are a key part of any ES application. The ES community requires several interfaces to access data and metadata outside of the EGI infrastructure, e.g. by using grid-enabled database interfaces. The data centres have also developed service tools for basic research activities such as searching, browsing and downloading these datasets, but these are not accessible from applications executed on the Grid. The ES task in EGI-Inspire aims to make these tools accessible from the Grid. In collaboration with GENESI-DR (Ground European Network for Earth Science Interoperations - Digital Repositories) this task is maintaining and evolving an interface in response to new requirements that will allow data in the GENESI-DR infrastructure to

  13. Community air monitoring and the Village Green Project ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Cost and logistics are practical issues that have historically constrained the number of locations where long-term, active air pollution measurement is possible. In addition, traditional air monitoring approaches are generally conducted by technical experts with limited engagement with community members. EPA’s Village Green Project (VGP) is a prototype technology designed to add value to a community environment – VGP is a park bench equipped with air and meteorological instruments that measure ozone, fine particles, wind, temperature, and humidity at a one-minute time resolution, with the open-source Arduino microprocessor operating as the system controller. The data are streamed wirelessly to a database, passed through automatic diagnostic quality checks, and then made publically available on an engaging website. The station was designed to minimize power use; it consumes an estimated 15W and operates entirely on solar power, is engineered to run for several days with minimal solar radiation, and is capable of automatically shutting down components of the system to conserve power and restarting when power availability increases. Situated outside a public library in Durham, North Carolina, VGP has also been a gathering location for air quality experts to engage with community members. During the time span of June, 2013 through January, 2014, the station collected about 3500 hours of ozone and PM2.5 data, with over 90% up-time operating only on solar po

  14. The Fort Gay, West Virginia School/Community Project: An Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertram, Charles L.

    Administered by the 21-member School Community Council (SCC), the Fort Gay-Thompson Urban/Rural project attempts to involve both school personnel and community representatives in the planning of the community's educational program. The project's major goals are to develop and implement comprehensive staff training, and to combine efforts of staff…

  15. 77 FR 38267 - Information Collection; Role of Communities in Stewardship Contracting Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Information Collection; Role of Communities in Stewardship..., Role of Communities in Stewardship Contracting Projects. DATES: Comments must be received in writing on.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Role of Communities in Stewardship Contracting Projects. OMB Number: 0596-0201...

  16. After the Funding Is Gone: Evaluating the Sustainability of a Community-based Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulk, Debbie; Farley, Sharon; Coker, Renee

    2001-01-01

    The Rural Elderly Enhancement Project, in which a nursing school development a model of community participation and involvement, was evaluated through interviews with 73 community members. Many projects designed to foster community competence in elder care and youth/school-based health have been sustained. (SK)

  17. 12 CFR 225.127 - Investment in corporations or projects designed primarily to promote community welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... primarily to promote community welfare. 225.127 Section 225.127 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... corporations or projects designed primarily to promote community welfare. (a) Under § 225.25(b)(6) of... equity and debt investments in corporations or projects designed primarily to promote community welfare...

  18. Assessing the Impact of Development Projects on Women. A.I.D. Program Evaluation Discussion Paper No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Ruth B.

    This report is one of a series of papers presented to encourage discussion on the evaluation of important development issues. The recent emphasis within the Agency for International Development (AID) on knowing the impacts of development assistance, particularly the benefit incidence of projects and programs, makes it important to look at the…

  19. 23 CFR 636.104 - Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects? 636.104 Section 636.104 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS DESIGN-BUILD CONTRACTING General § 636.104 Does this part apply to...

  20. Reflections on the Impact of a Long Term Theatre for Community Development Project in Southern Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nogueira, Marcia Pompeo

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses a community theatre project initiated in 1991 in Ratones, a community in Southern Brazil. It began as an extension project of the State University of Santa Catarina and became an independent project coordinated by former participants, still in collaboration with the university. Aiming to evaluate the benefits of this theatre…

  1. Reflections on the Impact of a Long Term Theatre for Community Development Project in Southern Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nogueira, Marcia Pompeo

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses a community theatre project initiated in 1991 in Ratones, a community in Southern Brazil. It began as an extension project of the State University of Santa Catarina and became an independent project coordinated by former participants, still in collaboration with the university. Aiming to evaluate the benefits of this theatre…

  2. Concern, Compassion, & Community: Facing the Daunting Worldwide Challenges of HIV/AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Arnold H.

    1997-01-01

    Examines barriers to and challenges of professional involvement in enhancing leisure lifestyles and quality of life for people with AIDS, discussing the therapeutic recreation specialist's role and examining service delivery within a framework of the social context of AIDS. Issues related to HIV/AIDS prevention and strategies for implementation…

  3. Project-Based Teaching-Learning Computer-Aided Engineering Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoes, J. A.; Relvas, C.; Moreira, R.

    2004-01-01

    Computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, computer-aided analysis, reverse engineering and rapid prototyping are tools that play an important key role within product design. These are areas of technical knowledge that must be part of engineering and industrial design courses' curricula. This paper describes our teaching experience of…

  4. Project-Based Teaching-Learning Computer-Aided Engineering Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoes, J. A.; Relvas, C.; Moreira, R.

    2004-01-01

    Computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, computer-aided analysis, reverse engineering and rapid prototyping are tools that play an important key role within product design. These are areas of technical knowledge that must be part of engineering and industrial design courses' curricula. This paper describes our teaching experience of…

  5. Life history analysis of HIV/AIDS-affected households in rice and cassava-based farming communities in Northern Malawi.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Midori; van Huis, Arnold; Jiggins, Janice

    2010-10-01

    The "New Variant Famine" hypothesis proposed that AIDS offers a major challenge to food security in this part of Africa by impairing the functioning of traditional support systems, leading to the collapse of "social immunity". This study explores the changing perceptions of HIV and AIDS and peoples' responses to its impact by eliciting life history narratives of 30 respondents in Northern Malawi. We classified respondents by means of gender, livelihood systems and AIDS impact levels. Respondents reported a range of critical events, recorded in the life histories, that threatened their "social immunity", including deaths, sicknesses, migration, marriages and divorces, and dropping out of school; i.e., a greater range of risks than AIDS alone, that need to be recognised in HIV and AIDS programming. For the respondents who were classified as "AIDS-affected", learning about their seropositive status was found to be an important, and in some cases a positive, turning point in their lives in terms of behavioural changes, such as joining support groups and opening up to discussion of the implications of their status. The emerging social organisations could re-create social capacity and check the downward spiral proposed by the "New Variant Famine" hypothesis. To promote this shift and to confer a higher level of "social immunity", investments in expanding access to voluntary counselling and testing and antiretroviral therapy services, and assistance to community-based organisations would be essential.

  6. A Community-Based Participatory Research Approach for Preventing Childhood Obesity: The Communities and Schools Together Project

    PubMed Central

    Johnson-Shelton, Deb; Moreno-Black, Geraldine; Evers, Cody; Zwink, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is a systemic and complex multilevel public health problem. Research approaches are needed that effectively engage communities in reversing environmental determinants of child obesity. Objectives This article discusses the Communities and Schools Together Project (CAST) and lessons learned about the project’s community-based participatory research (CBPR) model. Methods A partnership of schools, community organizations, and researchers used multiple methods to examine environmental health risks for childhood obesity and conduct school–community health programs. Action work groups structured partner involvement for designing and implementing study phases. Lessons Learned CBPR in child obesity prevention involves engaging multiple communities with overlapping yet divergent goals. Schools are naturally situated to participate in child obesity projects, but engagement of key personnel is essential for functional partnerships. Complex societal problems require CBPR approaches that can align diverse communities and necessitate significant coordination by researchers. CBPR can provide simultaneous health promotion across multiple communities in childhood obesity prevention initiatives. Support for emergent partner activities is an essential practice for maintaining community interest and involvement in multi-year CBPR projects. Conclusion Investigator-initiated CBPR partnerships can effectively organize and facilitate large health-promoting partnerships involving multiple, diverse stakeholder communities. Lessons learned from CAST illustrate the synergy that can propel projects that are holistically linked to the agents of a community. PMID:26548786

  7. Network of communities in the fight against AIDS: local actions to address health inequities and promote health in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Edmundo, Kátia; Guimarães, Wanda; Vasconcelos, Maria do Socorro; Baptista, Ana Paula; Becker, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    When combined with major social inequities, the AIDS epidemic in Brazil becomes much more complex and requires effective and participatory community-based interventions. This article describes the experience of a civil society organisation, the Centre for Health Promotion (CEDAPS), in the slum communities (favelas) of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Using a community-based participatory approach, 55 community organisations were mobilised to develop local actions to address the increasing social vulnerability to HIV/AIDS of people living in squatter communities. This was done through on-going prevention initiatives based on the local culture and developed by a Network of Communities. The community movement has created a sense of "ownership" of social actions. The fight against AIDS has been a mobilising factor in engaging and organising communities and has contributed to raising awareness of health rights. Local actions included targeting the determinants of local vulnerability, as suggested by health promotion workers.

  8. The Community Climate System Model Project from an Interagency Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Bader, D C; Bamzai, A; Fein, J; Patrinos, A; Leinen, M

    2005-06-16

    In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) will publish its Fourth Assessment Report of the Scientific Basis of Climate Change (AR4). A significant portion of the AR4 will be the analysis of coupled general circulation model (GCM) simulations of the climate of the past century as well as scenarios of future climates under prescribed emission scenarios. Modeling groups worldwide have contributed to AR4, including three from the U.S., the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) project, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Institute for Space Sciences, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL). This collection of model results is providing a wealth of new information that will be used to examine the state of climate science, the potential impacts from climate changes, and the policy consequences that they imply. Our focus here is on the CCSM project. Although it is centered at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), the CCSM version 3 (CCSM3) was designed, developed, and applied in a uniquely distributed fashion with participation by many institutions. This model has produced some of the most scientifically complete and highest resolution simulations of climate change to date, thanks to the teamwork of many scientists and software engineers. Their contributions will become obvious as a steady stream of peer-reviewed publications appears in the scientific literature. Less obvious, however, is the largely hidden, unprecedented level of interagency cooperation and multi-institutional coordination that provided the direction and resources necessary to make the CCSM project successful. Contrary to the widely-held opinion that the US climate research effort in general, and the climate modeling effort in particular, is fragmented and disorganized (NRC 1998, 2001), the success of the CCSM project demonstrates that a uniquely US approach to model

  9. A Study of Four Library Programs for Disadvantaged Persons. Part II, Appendices B: Brooklyn Public Library Community Coordinator Project, the New York Public Library North Manhattan Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsor, Charlotte B.; Burrows, Lodema

    This document contains observations of library staff and interviews with community members about the Brooklyn Public Library Community Coordinator Project and the New York Public Library North Manhattan Project. The Community Coordinator Project employs four professional librarians to take an active part in community institutions and organizations…

  10. Community-based dental partnerships: improving access to dental care for persons living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Mofidi, Mahyar; Gambrell, Alan

    2009-11-01

    Access to oral health care for persons living with HIV/AIDS is limited. Academic dental institutions can play a significant role in addressing the problem. The purpose of this article is to describe the design and impact of the Community-Based Dental Partnership Program (CBDPP), a federal program created to reduce dental care access disparities for persons living with HIV/AIDS through education and training of students and residents in underserved communities. CBDPP forms collaborations between participating dental education programs and community health organizations. Data for this report were drawn and analyzed from site visits, site visit reports, focus groups, and program data reports. In 2007, 4,745 individuals received oral health services through this program, an increase of 47 percent from 2004, the first year of full program operations. The number of dental providers who delivered oral health services grew from 766 in 2004 to 1,474 in 2007. Providers acquired skills, developed self-confidence, and overcame stereotypes in managing the oral health needs of persons living with HIV/AIDS. Community partners reported expanded dental care capacity to meet the unmet oral health needs of their service populations. CBDPP has had a positive impact on access to dental care and training of providers in HIV and oral health.

  11. Technological Education for the Rural Community (TERC) Project: Technical Mathematics for the Advanced Manufacturing Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Sherry L.; Zieman, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Hopkinsville Community College's Technological Education for the Rural Community (TERC) project is funded through the National Science Foundation Advanced Technological Education (NSF ATE) division. It is advancing innovative educational pathways for technological education promoted at the community college level serving rural communities to fill…

  12. Negotiating Community-Based Research: A Case Study of the "Life's Work" Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Adam S.

    2003-01-01

    The case of Colgate University is used to argue that community-based research can be a vibrant and effective form of service learning, especially in rural communities. However, community-based research is difficult to execute well. There is little flexibility and high consequences for failed projects. As such, community-based research requires…

  13. EPA Awards $270K for Environmental and Health Projects in New England Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has awarded 12 grants across New England under its 2016 Healthy Communities Grant Program, totaling approximately $270,566, to fund community projects addressing environmental and public health issues.

  14. Motivational messages: lead a Baby Friendly Initiative community project.

    PubMed

    Henry, Sue; Butler, Donna

    2012-01-01

    2011 saw Baby Friendly Initiative (BFI) success in the towns of Blackburn with Darwen. The towns serve around 2,500 new babies a year, have significant social deprivation and mixed ethnicity. Commitment was made by the Trust and Local Authority, to progress to meeting full BFI standards by commissioning the Acute Trusts Infant Feeding Coordinator (midwife) to lead on the project and the change needed. Numerous challenges were met along the way, such as capacity to lead and deliver (leading to the recruitment of Donna), swine flu, GP training, organisational changes and loss of ante- and postnatal interventions. This was the first Community Trust in England to achieve full accreditation without follow up visits. This article hopes to inspire other Trusts to get started, keep going and don't let go until you get there--because it's worth it.

  15. Laying the Foundation for Connect to Protect®: A Multi-Site Community Mobilization Intervention to Reduce HIV/AIDS Incidence and Prevalence among Urban Youth

    PubMed Central

    Ziff, Mauri A.; Harper, Gary W.; Chutuape, Kate S.; Deeds, Bethany Griffin; Futterman, Donna; Francisco, Vincent T.; Muenz, Larry R.

    2006-01-01

    Despite the considerable resources that have been dedicated to HIV prevention interventions and services over the past decade, HIV incidence among young people in the United States remains alarmingly high. One reason is that the majority of prevention efforts continue to focus solely on modifying individual behavior, even though public health research strongly suggests that changes to a community's structural elements, such as their programs, practices, and laws or policies, may result in more effective and sustainable outcomes. Connect to Protect is a multi-city community mobilization intervention that focuses on altering or creating community structural elements in ways that will ultimately reduce youth HIV incidence and prevalence. The project, which spans 6 years, is sponsored by the Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions at multiple urban clinical research sites. This paper provides an overview of the study's three phases and describes key factors in setting a firm foundation for the initiation and execution of this type of undertaking. Connect to Protect's community mobilization approach to achieving structural change represents a relatively new and broad direction in HIV prevention research. To optimize opportunities for its success, time and resources must be initially placed into laying the groundwork. This includes activities such as building a strong overarching study infrastructure to ensure protocol tasks can be met across sites; tapping into local site and community expertise and knowledge; forming collaborative relationships between sites and community organizations and members; and fostering community input on and support for changes at a structural level. Failing to take steps such as these may lead to insurmountable implementation problems for an intervention of this kind. PMID:16739051

  16. Implementation of targeted medication adherence interventions within a community chain pharmacy practice: The Pennsylvania Project.

    PubMed

    Bacci, Jennifer L; McGrath, Stephanie Harriman; Pringle, Janice L; Maguire, Michelle A; McGivney, Melissa Somma

    2014-01-01

    To identify facilitators and barriers to implementing targeted medication adherence interventions in community chain pharmacies, and describe adaptations of the targeted intervention and organizational structure within each individual pharmacy practice. Qualitative study. Central and western Pennsylvania from February to April 2012. Rite Aid pharmacists staffed at the 118 Pennsylvania Project intervention sites. Qualitative analysis of pharmacists' perceptions of facilitators and barriers experienced, targeted intervention and organizational structure adaptations implemented, and training and preparation prior to implementation. A total of 15 key informant interviews were conducted from February to April 2012. Ten pharmacists from "early adopter" practices and five pharmacists from "traditionalist" practices were interviewed. Five themes emerged regarding the implementation of targeted interventions, including all pharmacists' need to understand the relationship of patient care programs to their corporation's vision; providing individualized, continual support and mentoring to pharmacists; anticipating barriers before implementation of patient care programs; encouraging active patient engagement; and establishing best practices regarding implementation of patient care services. This qualitative analysis revealed that there are a series of key steps that can be taken before the execution of targeted interventions that may promote successful implementation of medication therapy management in community chain pharmacies.

  17. Knowledge-based indexing of the medical literature: the Indexing Aid Project.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, S M; Miller, N E

    1987-05-01

    This article describes the Indexing Aid Project for conducting research in the areas of knowledge representation and indexing for information retrieval in order to develop interactive knowledge-based systems for computer-assisted indexing of the periodical medical literature. The system uses an experimental frame-based knowledge representation language, FrameKit, implemented in Franz Lisp. The initial prototype is designed to interact with trained MEDLINE indexers who will be prompted to enter subject terms as slot values in filling in document-specific frame data structures that are derived from the knowledge-base frames. In addition, the automatic application of rules associated with the knowledge-base frames produces a set of Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) keyword indices to the document. Important features of the system are representation of explicit relationships through slots which express the relations; slot values, restrictions, and rules made available by inheritance through "is-a" hierarchies; slot values denoted by functions that retrieve values from other slots; and restrictions on slot values displayable during data entry.

  18. The Healthy African American Families (HAAF) Project: From Community-Based Participatory Research To Community-Partnered Participatory Research

    PubMed Central

    Ferré, Cynthia D.; Jones, Loretta; Norris, Keith C.; Rowley, Diane L.

    2013-01-01

    During the past two decades, there has been an increased use of community-based participatory research in public health activities, especially as part of efforts to understand health disparities affecting communities of color. This article describes the history and lessons learned of a long-standing community participatory project, Healthy African American Families (HAAF), in Los Angeles, California. HAAF evolved from a partnership formed by a community advisory board, university, and federal health agency to an independent, incorporated community organization that facilitates and brokers research and health promotion activities within its community. HAAF created mechanisms for community education and networks of community relationships and reciprocity through which mutual support, research, and interventions are integrated. These sustained, institutionalized relationships unite resources and both community and scientific expertise in a community-partnered participatory research model to address multiple health problems in the community, including preterm birth, HIV, asthma, depression, and diabetes. The HAAF participatory process builds on existing community resiliency and resources and on centuries of self-help, problem-solving, cooperative action, and community activism within the African American community. HAAF demonstrates how community-partnered participatory research can be a mechanism for directing power, collective action, system change, and social justice in the process of addressing health disparities at the community level. PMID:20629240

  19. The critical role of community-based micro-grants for disability aids and equipment: results from a needs analysis.

    PubMed

    Muenchberger, Heidi; Ehrlich, Carolyn; Parekh, Sanjoti; Crozier, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the role of philanthropic micro-grants (maximum of $10,000) in the provision of aids and equipment for adults (aged 18-65 years of age) with complex disabilities and examine key trends in aids and equipment requests. This study examined, through quantitative and qualitative analysis, aids and equipment requests (n = 371 individual applications as represented by 136 service organisations in three Australian states) received by a not-for-profit (NFP) organisation across five consecutive years of an innovative micro-grants scheme. Findings highlight that living situation (living with family or living independently) significantly influences the nature of requests for respite, aids, equipment and home modifications. Specifically, people with complex disabilities living with their families require greater combined service provision (higher equipment need, respite support, home modifications) than those living independently (equipment need only). Type of disability did not influence request type. Qualitative data further indicated the "last resort" nature of respite requests, particularly for younger applicants (under 45 years of age) indicating critical unmet needs in the community. Results demonstrate the vital role of NFP organisations and philanthropic funds in supporting daily lifestyle aids and equipment (including respite) that might otherwise not be funded for people with complex disabilities. Although preliminary in its scope and prior to implementation of a National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) in Australia, findings suggest both opportunity and risk to the uptake of community-based micro-grant funding: opportunity for users through the provision of essential aids and lifestyle supports, and risk through over-subscription and devolving of responsibility for critical support resources from public sector. The aids and equipment needs of adults under the age of 65 appear to have been underestimated, poorly defined and under

  20. Preventing heart disease through community action: the North Karelia Project.

    PubMed

    Guest, I

    1978-01-01

    In an effort to deal with their province's abnormally high incidence of heart disease, the people of North Karelia, Finland persuaded the government to establish a special project. Initiated in 1972, the project - led by epidemiologist, Dr. Pekka Puska - appears to have had considerable success in lowering the rate of heart disease. 3 risk factors - or likely causes - were identified, and each cause has been the object of a separate campaign. The 3 factors are hypertension, smoking, and high levels of cholesterol in the blood. The easiest of the 3 "risk factors" to fight effectively has been hypertension, because it simply was a matter of adjusting to the new government health services. The greatest success has come with the anti-smoking campaign. An information blitz, obsessive and non-stop interest among the media, canny use of existing animators worked together to make smoking a public crime in North Karelia and to lower the rates and risk of heart disease. 1 of the key elements is group sessions involving 10 or more people who wish to give up smoking. The most difficult of the 3 separate programs has involved cholesterol. Primarily a question of diet, cholesterol has been checked by community action, such as health food meals. Cholesterol reveals the project's limitation and why it fails to act as an entry point into wider political involvement. The diet of North Karelia is heavily influenced by the area's dependency on dairy farming. This raises the broader issue of changing methods of agricultural production, which may not be to the short-term economic advantage of North Karelia.

  1. Education status among orphans and non-orphans in communities affected by AIDS in Tanzania and Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Kürzinger, M L; Pagnier, J; Kahn, J G; Hampshire, R; Wakabi, T; Dye, T D V

    2008-07-01

    The AIDS pandemic has created an estimated 15 million orphans who may face elevated risk of poor health and social outcomes. This paper compares orphans and non-orphans regarding educational status and delay using data collected in three low-income communities affected by AIDS in Tanzania and Burkina Faso. Orphans were significantly more likely not to attend school than were non-orphans and also to be delayed when in school, though, after controlling for confounders, the risk was borderline and non-significant. Multivariate analysis indicates that variables such as age, religion, family of origin, the relation between the child and the head of household and the dependency ratio of the household better explain differences in education than does orphan status. This study suggests, therefore, that orphans' educational status is relatively equivalent to non-orphans perhaps as a result of family based or community program safety nets.

  2. Building adherence-competent communities: factors promoting children's adherence to anti-retroviral HIV/AIDS treatment in rural Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Catherine; Skovdal, Morten; Mupambireyi, Zivai; Madanhire, Claudius; Nyamukapa, Constance; Gregson, Simon

    2012-03-01

    Given relatively high levels of adherence to HIV treatment in Africa, we explore factors facilitating children's adherence, despite poverty, social disruption and limited health infrastructure. Using interviews with 25 nurses and 40 guardians in Zimbabwe, we develop our conceptualisation of an 'adherence competent community', showing how members of five networks (children, guardians, community members, health workers and NGOs) have taken advantage of the gradual public normalisation of HIV/AIDS and improved drug and service availability to construct new norms of solidarity with HIV and AIDS sufferers, recognition of HIV-infected children's social worth, an ethic of care/assistance and a supporting atmosphere of enablement/empowerment. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. A Guide to Community Shared Solar: Utility, Private, and Non-Profit Project Development (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, J.; Grove, J.; Irvine, L.; Jacobs, J. F.; Johnson Phillips, S.; Sawyer, A.; Wiedman, J.

    2012-05-01

    This guide is organized around three sponsorship models: utility-sponsored projects, projects sponsored by special purpose entities - businesses formed for the purpose of producing community solar power, and non-profit sponsored projects. The guide addresses issues common to all project models, as well as issues unique to each model.

  4. Community-based family-style group homes for children orphaned by AIDS in rural China: an ethnographic investigation

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yan; Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Guoxiang; Zhao, Junfeng; Stanton, Bonita; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    As the number of children orphaned by AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) has reached 17.3 million, most living in resource-poor settings, interest has grown in identifying and evaluating appropriate care arrangements for them. In this study, we describe the community-based family-style group homes (‘group homes’) in rural China. Guided by an ecological framework of children’s wellbeing, we conducted a series of ethnographic observations, in-depth interviews and group discussions in the rural areas of Henan Province, which has been severely impacted by the AIDS endemic through commercial blood collection. Based on our observations and discussions, group homes appear to provide stable and safe living environments for children orphaned by AIDS. Adequate financial support from non-government organizations (NGOs) as well as the central and provincial governments has ensured a low child–caregiver ratio and attention to the basic needs of the children at group homes. The foster parents were selected from the local community and appear to have adequate qualifications and dedication. They receive a monthly stipend, periodical evaluation and parenting consultation from supporting NGOs. The foster parents and children in the group homes have formed strong bonds. Both children and foster parents reported positively on health and education. Characteristics of community-based group homes can be replicated in other care arrangements for AIDS orphans in resource-poor settings for the optimal health outcomes of those vulnerable children. We also call for capacity building for caregivers and communities to provide sustainable and supportive living environment for these children. PMID:25124083

  5. Community-based family-style group homes for children orphaned by AIDS in rural China: an ethnographic investigation.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yan; Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Guoxiang; Zhao, Junfeng; Stanton, Bonita; Li, Li

    2015-09-01

    As the number of children orphaned by AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) has reached 17.3 million, most living in resource-poor settings, interest has grown in identifying and evaluating appropriate care arrangements for them. In this study, we describe the community-based family-style group homes ('group homes') in rural China. Guided by an ecological framework of children's wellbeing, we conducted a series of ethnographic observations, in-depth interviews and group discussions in the rural areas of Henan Province, which has been severely impacted by the AIDS endemic through commercial blood collection. Based on our observations and discussions, group homes appear to provide stable and safe living environments for children orphaned by AIDS. Adequate financial support from non-government organizations (NGOs) as well as the central and provincial governments has ensured a low child-caregiver ratio and attention to the basic needs of the children at group homes. The foster parents were selected from the local community and appear to have adequate qualifications and dedication. They receive a monthly stipend, periodical evaluation and parenting consultation from supporting NGOs. The foster parents and children in the group homes have formed strong bonds. Both children and foster parents reported positively on health and education. Characteristics of community-based group homes can be replicated in other care arrangements for AIDS orphans in resource-poor settings for the optimal health outcomes of those vulnerable children. We also call for capacity building for caregivers and communities to provide sustainable and supportive living environment for these children. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  6. Youths as partners in a community participatory project for substance use prevention.

    PubMed

    Kulbok, Pamela A; Meszaros, Peggy S; Bond, Donna C; Thatcher, Esther; Park, Eunhee; Kimbrell, Monica; Smith-Gregory, Tracey

    2015-01-01

    This community-based participatory research project aimed to develop strategies to prevent youth substance use in a rural county. This article (1) describes the project phases, (2) examines unique contributions and considerations of youth involvement, and (3) explores the youths' perspective. Twelve youths, aged 16 to 18 years, joined parents, community leaders, and research specialists on the community-based participatory research team. The youths were integrally involved in all phases including the community assessment, community leader interviews, selection of a substance use prevention program, and program implementation. Youths reported sustained enthusiasm, experiences of authentic leadership, development of research skills, and greater awareness of their community.

  7. Using decision aids in community-based primary care: A theory-driven evaluation with ethnically diverse patients

    PubMed Central

    Frosch, Dominick L.; Légaré, France; Mangione, Carol M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of informational brochures and video decision aids about cancer screening on patient intention to engage in shared decision making and its predictors in a racially diverse sample. Methods Participants were recruited from 13 community-based primary care practices serving racially and ethnically diverse patients in predominately economically disadvantaged neighborhoods. Participants completed theory-based measures assessing attitudes, perceived social norms, self-efficacy and intentions for working with their physician to make a cancer screening decision after reviewing a brochure or video decision aid, but before seeing the physician. A post-questionnaire assessed screening decisions and participant knowledge. Results Participants who reviewed a video decision aid had higher knowledge and were more likely to want to be the primary decision-maker. They reported lower perceived social norms, self-efficacy and intentions to work with their physicians than participants who reviewed a brochure. Participants who decided against cancer screening reported lower intentions to work with their physician in making a decision and were less likely to report having spoken with their physician about screening. Conclusion Participants who opted against cancer screening after reviewing a brochure or decision aid were less likely to discuss their decision with their physician. The tendency toward autonomous decision-making was stronger among participants who reviewed a video decision aid. PMID:18771875

  8. Awareness of HIV/AIDS among rural youth in India: a community based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sudha B; Makwana, Naresh R; Vadera, Bhavin N; Dhaduk, Kishor M; Gandha, Kapil M

    2011-10-13

    More than one third of reported cases of HIV/AIDS in India are among youth and 60 percent of these reside in rural areas. Assessment of the awareness of HIV/AIDS in the youth is important for determining the impact of previous and current awareness programs as well as the need for interventions. This study aimed to assess the knowledge of rural youth regarding HIV/AIDS and to explore the epidemiological determinants of awareness among them. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among youths aged 15-24 years in rural areas of the Saurashtra region of Gujarat, India. A cluster sampling design was used, surveying 50 subjects from each of 30 clusters. Data was collected through house-to-house visits using a semi-structured questionnaire. Proportions and logistic regression were used for analysis. Out of a total of 1,237 subjects who participated in survey, 60% knew something about HIV. Of those who had heard of HIV, more than 90% subjects knew the modes of transmission and more than 80% were aware of modes of prevention of HIV/AIDS. One fifth of the subjects had misconceptions in relation to HIV/AIDS. On applying multiple logistic regression, age, education, occupation, and mass media exposure were found to be the major determinants of their knowledge with regard to HIV/AIDS. Basic knowledge of HIV/AIDS is still lacking in two fifths of the rural youth. Literacy and media exposure are factors that determine awareness of HIV among them and can be helpful to raise their knowledge regarding this scourge.

  9. The Tuskegee Syphilis Study, 1932 to 1972: implications for HIV education and AIDS risk education programs in the black community.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, S B; Quinn, S C

    1991-01-01

    The Tuskegee study of untreated syphilis in the Negro male is the longest nontherapeutic experiment on human beings in medical history. The strategies used to recruit and retain participants were quite similar to those being advocated for HIV/AIDS prevention programs today. Almost 60 years after the study began, there remains a trail of distrust and suspicion that hampers HIV education efforts in Black communities. The AIDS epidemic has exposed the Tuskegee study as a historical marker for the legitimate discontent of Blacks with the public health system. The belief that AIDS is a form of genocide is rooted in a social context in which Black Americans, faced with persistent inequality, believe in conspiracy theories about Whites against Blacks. These theories range from the belief that the government promotes drug abuse in Black communities to the belief that HIV is a manmade weapon of racial warfare. An open and honest discussion of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study can facilitate the process of rebuilding trust between the Black community and public health authorities. This dialogue can contribute to the development of HIV education programs that are scientifically sound, culturally sensitive, and ethnically acceptable. Images p1500-a p1502-a p1503-a PMID:1951814

  10. Assessing effects of a media campaign on HIV/AIDS awareness and prevention in Nigeria: results from the VISION Project.

    PubMed

    Keating, Joseph; Meekers, Dominique; Adewuyi, Alfred

    2006-05-03

    In response to the growing HIV epidemic in Nigeria, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) initiated the VISION Project, which aimed to increase use of family planning, child survival, and HIV/AIDS services. The VISION Project used a mass-media campaign that focused on reproductive health and HIV/AIDS prevention. This paper assesses to what extent program exposure translates into increased awareness and prevention of HIV/AIDS. This analysis is based on data from the 2002 and 2004 Nigeria (Bauchi, Enugu, and Oyo) Family Planning and Reproductive Health Surveys, which were conducted among adults living in the VISION Project areas. To correct for endogeneity, two-stage logistic regression is used to investigate the effect of program exposure on 1) discussion of HIV/AIDS with a partner, 2) awareness that consistent condom use reduces HIV risk, and 3) condom use at last intercourse. Exposure to the VISION mass media campaign was high: 59%, 47%, and 24% were exposed to at least 1 VISION radio, printed advertisement, or TV program about reproductive health, respectively. The differences in outcome variables between 2002 baseline data and the 2004 follow-up data were small. However, those with high program exposure were almost one and a half (Odds Ratio [O.R.] = 1.47, 95% Confidence Interval [C.I.] 1.01-2.16) times more likely than those with no exposure to have discussed HIV/AIDS with a partner. Those with high program exposure were over twice (O.R. = 2.20, C.I. 1.49-3.25) as likely as those with low exposure to know that condom use can reduce risk of HIV infection. Program exposure had no effect on condom use at last sex. The VISION Project reached a large portion of the population and exposure to mass media programs about reproductive health and HIV prevention topics can help increase HIV/AIDS awareness. Programs that target rural populations, females, and unmarried individuals, and disseminate information on where to obtain condoms, are needed to reduce

  11. [Community health aide. Critical estimation of his task within the nutrition program].

    PubMed

    Bollag, U

    1977-09-01

    Community Health Aides (CHA), locally recruited and trained, visit households and identify malnourished children by means of weighing them in monthly intervals, recording the results on "Gomez" weight-for-age charts. The CHA acts as the people's nearest adviser. In order to become a useful if not the most important member of the health team, some common mistakes and distorted views should be corrected early in her career. The weight-for-age chart is an invaluable tool to record the child's state of health. It is the trend in weight gain that is relevant and not an isolated weight point on the graph. Maternal, perinatal and neonatal histories should be taken as they help to classify the low weight child. 3/4 of the children in the Young Child Nutrition Programme (YCNP) are underweight but also underheight for age. The designation of malnutrition grade I/II/III is misleading. Either one speaks of "undernutrition" if one considers weight-for-age only or one takes other anthropometric measurements such as the height or length in order to classify Protein-Energy-Malnutrition. A physical examination and clinical records are essential in the evaluation of malnutrition - one should not rely on the graph only. By measuring the height of children, one may well be surprised to discover that many children in St. James are on the obese side. Obesity is another form of malnutrition prevalent in the wealthy societies of western industrialized countries. It is paradox that we should increase the number of obese people in a world which is threatened by shortage of food energies and proteins.

  12. Projecting the demographic impact of AIDS and the number of people in need of treatment: updates to the Spectrum projection package

    PubMed Central

    Stover, J; Walker, N; Grassly, N C; Marston, M

    2006-01-01

    Background In the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) approach to HIV and AIDS estimates, estimates of adult prevalence produced by the Estimation and Projection Package (EPP) or the Workbook are transferred to Spectrum to estimate the consequences of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, including the number of people living with HIV by age and sex, new infections, AIDS deaths, AIDS orphans, treatment needs, and the impact of treatment on survival. Methods The UNAIDS Reference Group on Estimates, Models and Projections recommends updates to the methodology and assumptions based on the latest research findings and international policy and programme guidelines. The latest update to Spectrum has been used in the 2005 round of global estimates. Results Several new features have been added to Spectrum in the past two years. New patterns of the age distribution of prevalence over time are based on the latest survey data. A more detailed treatment of mother to child transmission of HIV is now based on information about current breastfeeding practices, treatment options offered to prevent mother to child transmission (PMTCT), infant feeding options, and the percentage or number of pregnant women accessing PMTCT services. A new section on child survival includes the effects of cotrimoxazole and ART on child survival. Projections can now be calibrated with national survey data. A new set of outputs is provided for all adults over the age of 15 in addition to the traditional 15–49 age group. New outputs are now available to show plausibility bounds and regional estimates for key indicators. Conclusions The latest update to the Spectrum program is intended to incorporate the latest research findings and provide new outputs needed by national and international planners. PMID:16735293

  13. Projecting the demographic impact of AIDS and the number of people in need of treatment: updates to the Spectrum projection package.

    PubMed

    Stover, J; Walker, N; Grassly, N C; Marston, M

    2006-06-01

    In the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) approach to HIV and AIDS estimates, estimates of adult prevalence produced by the Estimation and Projection Package (EPP) or the Workbook are transferred to Spectrum to estimate the consequences of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, including the number of people living with HIV by age and sex, new infections, AIDS deaths, AIDS orphans, treatment needs, and the impact of treatment on survival. The UNAIDS Reference Group on Estimates, Models and Projections recommends updates to the methodology and assumptions based on the latest research findings and international policy and programme guidelines. The latest update to Spectrum has been used in the 2005 round of global estimates. Several new features have been added to Spectrum in the past two years. New patterns of the age distribution of prevalence over time are based on the latest survey data. A more detailed treatment of mother to child transmission of HIV is now based on information about current breastfeeding practices, treatment options offered to prevent mother to child transmission (PMTCT), infant feeding options, and the percentage or number of pregnant women accessing PMTCT services. A new section on child survival includes the effects of cotrimoxazole and ART on child survival. Projections can now be calibrated with national survey data. A new set of outputs is provided for all adults over the age of 15 in addition to the traditional 15-49 age group. New outputs are now available to show plausibility bounds and regional estimates for key indicators. The latest update to the Spectrum program is intended to incorporate the latest research findings and provide new outputs needed by national and international planners.

  14. Quality care improvement program in a community-based participatory research project: example of Project DIRECT.

    PubMed Central

    Din-Dzietham, Rebecca; Porterfield, Deborah S.; Cohen, Stuart J.; Reaves, Janet; Burrus, Barri; Lamb, Betty M.

    2004-01-01

    A continuous quality care improvement program (CQIP) was built into Project DIRECT (Diabetes Interventions Reaching and Educating Communities Together) to improve providers' patterns of diabetes care and patients' glycemic control. Project DIRECT consisted of a comprehensive program aimed at reducing the burden of diabetes in the vulnerable high-risk African-American population of southeast Raleigh, NC. Forty-seven providers caring for this target population of adult diabetes patients were included in this quasi-experimental study. At the initial session, providers learned about the CQIP components, completed a planning worksheet, and chose a CQIP coordinator. Educational events included continuing education in practices and through conferences by experts, and guideline distribution. Follow-up was accomplished through phone calls and visits. Effectiveness was measured by a change in prevalence of selected patterns of care abstracted from 1,006 medical charts. Appropriate statistical methods were used to account for the cluster design and repeated measures. At the fourth follow-up year, approximately 40% of providers still participated in the program. Among the providers who stayed in the program for the whole study period, most selected quality care patterns showed significant upward trends. Glycemic control indicators did not change, however, despite an increased number of hemoglobin A1c tests per year. A diabetes CQI program can be effectively implemented in a community setting. Improved performance measures were not associated with improved outcomes. These results suggest that a patient-centered component should reinforce the provider-centered component. PMID:15540882

  15. Assessing Employee Attitudes in a Community-Based AIDS Service Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liou, Kuotsai Tom; Cruise, Peter L.

    1994-01-01

    Thirty-one employees of the Comprehensive Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Program of Palm Beach County (Florida) were surveyed to explore their motives and attitudes toward their jobs, clients, and the organization. Implications for management of AIDS service organizations and program quality are discussed. (SLD)

  16. Vulnerable Children, Communities and Schools: Lessons from Three HIV/AIDS Affected Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Nancy; O'Gara, Chloe

    2007-01-01

    The growing number of children made vulnerable by HIV/AIDS threatens the achievement of Education for All (EFA) and Millennium Development goals. Policy recommendations assign schools key roles in meeting the needs of vulnerable children, but there is a dearth of evidence about how vulnerable children and schools interact in AIDS affected…

  17. Analysis of the spatial distribution of cryptosporidiosis in AIDS patients in San Francisco using density equalizing map projections (DEMP).

    PubMed

    Khalakdina, Asheena; Selvin, Steve; Merrill, Deane W; Erdmann, Christine A; Colford, John M

    2003-10-01

    Environmental transmission of cryptosporidiosis has occurred repeatedly in defined spatial areas during outbreaks of disease attributed, for example, to drinking water contamination. Little work has been done to investigate the possibility of cryptosporidiosis infection in defined spatial areas in non-outbreak (i.e., endemic) settings. This study applies a novel approach to the investigation of the spatial distribution of cryptosporidiosis in AIDS patients in San Francisco. Density equalizing map projection (DEMP) maps were created for nine race/ethnicity-age groups of AIDS patients based on census tract of residence. Additionally, census tracts with a "high density" of cryptosporidiosis cases were identified by applying smoothing techniques to the DEMP maps, and included as a covariate in multivariate Poisson regression analyses of other known risk factors for cryptosporidios. These analyses suggest: (1) cases of cryptosporidiosis among Black and Hispanic AIDS patients, but not among Whites, show a statistically significant non-random spatial distribution (p < 0.05) even after adjustment for the underlying spatial distribution of AIDS patients for these demographic groups, and (2) the risk of residence in these high density census tracts, adjusted for other known risk factors, was not statistically significant (relative risk = 1.27, 95% confidence interval 0.15, 10.53). These results do not support an independent effect of spatial distribution on the transmission of cryptosporidiosis among AIDS patients.

  18. New Hampshire HIV/AIDS Resource-Based Learning Curriculum Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snider, Susan C., Ed.

    The age appropriate units of AIDS/HIV instruction in this guide are based on the student outcomes listed in the "New Hampshire Educators HIV/AIDS Handbook: Curriculum and Policy Guide." All of the units, organized by grade levels, were written collaboratively by teams of New Hampshire educators, each team consisting of a library media…

  19. Computer Aided Design: Instructional Manual. The North Dakota High Technology Mobile Laboratory Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Wan-Lee

    This instructional manual contains 12 learning activity packets for use in a workshop in computer-aided design and drafting (CADD). The lessons cover the following topics: introduction to computer graphics and computer-aided design/drafting; coordinate systems; advance space graphics hardware configuration and basic features of the IBM PC…

  20. Aids for the Intellectually Handicapped: The Requirement and Some Ideas. Project 0338.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goransson, Kerstin, Ed.; Hedman-Hellin, Lena, Ed.

    The manual discusses the role of aids in helping intellectually handicapped persons function as independently as possible. An introductory chapter considers the notion of intellectual aids as tools that people use to facilitate their interaction with the environment. Interaction is further conceptualized in terms of a goal-directed will, awareness…