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Sample records for projects aid communities

  1. Delivering health information services and technologies to urban community health centers: the Chicago AIDS Outreach Project.

    PubMed

    Martin, E R; McDaniels, C; Crespo, J; Lanier, D

    1997-10-01

    Health professionals cannot address public health issues effectively unless they have immediate access to current biomedical information. This paper reports on one mode of access, the Chicago AIDS Outreach Project, which was supported by the National Library of Medicine through outreach awards in 1995 and 1996. The three-year project is an effort to link the programs and services of the University of Illinois at Chicago Library of the Health Sciences and the Midwest AIDS Training and Education Center with the clinic services of community-based organizations in Chicago. The project was designed to provide electronic access to AIDS-related information for AIDS patients, the affected community, and their care givers. The project also provided Internet access and training and continued access to library resources. The successful initiative suggests a working model for outreach to health professionals in an urban setting.

  2. AIDS Community Demonstration Projects for HIV prevention among hard-to-reach groups.

    PubMed Central

    O'Reilly, K R; Higgins, D L

    1991-01-01

    The AIDS Community Demonstration Projects are multicenter prevention projects directing community-based interventions to members of hard-to-reach groups at risk of infection from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The projects are supported by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Interventions are derived from theories of behavior change and have as their goal reducing HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases in the communities. The current objectives, intentionally narrow to improve the project's specificity and clarity, are to increase the use of condoms in sexual activity and the use of bleach to clean injecting drug equipment. Additional objectives may be added. The impact of the interventions is seen in increases in the use of HIV counseling and testing services, decreases in all or specific sexual and drug-use risk behaviors, and requests for related social and public health services. A quasi-experimental research design is being used to evaluate the projects. Multiple evaluation measures are used, including a street-based interview with randomly identified respondents in both intervention and control communities. Success in facilitating HIV and AIDS risk reduction is being measured using a model of behavior change describing stages of change. Upon successful completion of these projects in 1994, CDC may be able to offer models of effective, feasible, and easy-to-monitor State and local health departments and community-based organizations. PMID:1659721

  3. Community responses to AIDS.

    PubMed

    Anderson, S

    1994-01-01

    Some examples of care in the community for people with HIV/AIDS are reported from Africa. Members of communities committed to fighting the AIDS epidemic cannot do so alone and should be given every possible help. Inadequate care favours the spread of HIV, as does the stigmatization of people with HIV infection and their families.

  4. Applying research to AIDS programs in villages. Burkina Faso project learns from community survey.

    PubMed

    Tankoano, F

    1994-01-01

    In 1991, 34 cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were recorded for the province of Bam, which has a population of 4239. Since 1992, PLAN and the local Ministry of Health have been conducting an AIDS prevention program in the province. An initial baseline community survey to assess knowledge, attitude, and practices about the disease was conducted in order to tailor the program to the needs and characteristics of the target population. A questionnaire was administered to 300 randomly selected adults in 10 rural villages. The sexes were equally represented. 74% of the villagers were found to be illiterate and the major sources of health information were radio, health facilities, and friends and relatives; therefore, educational activities were carried out through non-written methods (traditional and modern) that employed these communication channels. Initially, 5 men and 5 women ("Village Communicators") were selected by their communities to be trained in information, education, and communication (IEC) techniques regarding AIDS prevention; under the supervision of their trainers, they organized and conducted 2 weekly sessions. An additional 62 women and 50 men were trained as Village Communicators to promote AIDS awareness among their own gender. A team of health personnel, artists, and a traditional music group conducted collective sessions to promote condom use and address problems relating to AIDS (polygamy, remarrying of spouses of AIDS victims, availability of testing during prenuptial visits). Although 90% of respondents had heard about AIDS, 30% did not understand the disease or its routes of transmission; so messages about the effects and the transmission of AIDS were emphasized. Because 56% of respondents admitted having had 2 or more sex partners, and a similar percentage admitted having had 2 or more sexual encounters per week, messages were disseminated on sexuality using community volunteers and the folkloric band. 42% of respondents were

  5. California Department of Education and California Community College Chancellor's Office Vocational and Technical Education Computer-Managed and Aided Instruction Project: Project Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Office of the Chancellor.

    This description of the Computer-Managed and Aided Instruction (CMAI) Project includes a summary of a December 1989 CMAI planning meeting, the text of a paper presented at the meeting, and descriptions of each of the five phases of the project. The paper, "Programming the Future," by Gerald C. Angove and Scott Smith, discusses: (1) the…

  6. [Latino Religious Leadership Project of the Latino Commission on AIDS].

    PubMed

    Chacon, G

    1996-01-01

    The Latino community has strong religious and spiritual traditions, and there is a need for spiritual leadership. To address these needs, the Latino Leadership Project of the Latino Commission on AIDS offers prevention and education activities. The Commission refers religious leaders to the Latino community. Churches offer food and clothing banks, and counseling services to persons living with HIV/AIDS.

  7. Perception of AIDS by Esikhawini Community.

    PubMed

    Matsane, T E; Zungu, B M

    1996-09-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the perception of AIDS by Esikhawini Community in KwaZulu Natal. The assumption was that the more health education is given to the community, the more knowledgeable the community becomes. The study revealed that the community is aware of AIDS. Sufferers pose a challenge to health workers as talks by health units ranked third in the sources contributing to the knowledge about AIDS. A descriptive cross sectional survey design was used and the questionnaire had both closed and open ended questions.

  8. Experiencing an Epidemic: The Development of an AIDS Education Program for Community College Students in Maryland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochlin, Joyce T.

    In 1991, a project was undertaken to suggest components for an Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) education program for community college students. The project sought to identify AIDS programs and policies in place at the 17 community colleges in Maryland; assessed community college students' knowledge about the spread and prevention of…

  9. AIDS Policies and Resources for Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Ralph; Klein, Charlie

    This report was developed to assist California community college districts in developing policies and educational programs to prevent the further spread of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). First, the report discusses the epidemiology of AIDS, and outlines institutional and legislative actions taken to provide public education about the…

  10. A Classroom Response to HIV/AIDS--Project Proposal Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habulembe, Smith H.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a task-based writing project. High-school students in Zambia wrote a proposal to raise awareness of HIV/AIDS in their community. By writing on a topic related to their lives, students were motivated and empowered to use their English skills for positive change. The project was an interactive workshop that invited a community…

  11. Empowering Patients and Community Online: Evaluation of the AIDS Community Information Outreach Program

    PubMed Central

    Dancy-Scott, Nicole; Rockoff, Maxine L.; Dutcher, Gale A.; Keselman, Alla; Schnall, Rebecca; Siegel, Elliot R.; Bakken, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    The AIDS Community Information Outreach Program (ACIOP) was created in 1994 to assist the affected community in utilizing electronic HIV/AIDS information resources. Nearly 300 competitive awards have been made to mostly community-based organizations. A formal evaluation was undertaken to determine the performance and impact of the ACIOP. A mixed methods design combined quantitative abstractions and summarization of 47 awardee final reports from 44 organizations, and qualitative telephone interviews with 17 individuals representing 20 projects. Findings revealed that project objectives were mostly met; high-risk populations were reached; low resource organizations were funded; community partnerships were significant; projects built on existing efforts; information resources and training were tailored to local needs; and most projects overcame barriers experienced. Needed modifications centered on: 1) enhancing evaluation capacity at the individual project level and 2) revising project reporting requirements to increase the amount of information available to assess the ACIOP; both have been implemented. PMID:27134323

  12. The Older Person's Handbook. Ideas, Projects and Resources for Neighborhood Action. A Mutual Aid Project Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cala, Michael; And Others

    The Mutual Aid Project (MAP) has developed a community organizing and planning approach which has focused its attention on the continuing role of older people within their neighborhoods. This approach has sought to strengthen not only the day-to-day arrangements for mutual aid and support, but also those actions which will assist groups in…

  13. Community health nursing and the AIDS pandemic: case report of one community's response.

    PubMed

    Kuehnert, P L

    1991-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) currently projects that there may be a cumulative total of 30 million cases of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) worldwide by the year 2000 ("WHO Predicts," 1991). Community health nurses (CHNs), particularly those employed by local and state health departments, have a major role to play in the worldwide public health effort being mounted in response to the AIDS pandemic. CHN roles may include: direct caregiver, advocate, case manager, health educator, program planner, program coordinator, and policy advocate. How CHNs contribute to the effort against AIDS in various CHN roles is illustrated through a case report of a Midwestern U.S. suburban community's response to AIDS. The community's response was fostered and an AIDS program developed and implemented by CHNs employed by the community's health department. In addition to enabling this community to respond to AIDS in a humane and caring manner, the CHN initiatives have resulted in positive community feelings about the health department, and enhanced the image of CHNs as innovators and facilitators of change.

  14. The Biology of HIV/AIDS: A Case Study in Community Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caccavo, Frank, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a project for the Biology of HIV/AIDS course for undergraduate biology majors. This project challenged science students to engage the community on two different levels. They first had to interact directly and personally with HIV/AIDS activists. The proposal then encouraged them to think about and describe ways of engaging a…

  15. 76 FR 12016 - Local and Regional Food Aid Procurement Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Local and Regional Food Aid Procurement Projects AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural... and Regional Food Aid Procurement Pilot Project (USDA LRP Project). All available funding for field...: Jamie Fisher, Chief, Local and Regional Procurement, Food Assistance Division, Foreign...

  16. HIV AIDS, sexuality and language within the Asian community.

    PubMed

    Chadha, S

    1995-01-01

    An 8-day course was set up by the Naz Project, which promotes sexual health issues within South Asian, Turkish, Irani, and Arab communities, to provide skills in counseling people from ethnic minorities about human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Views on racism, sex, and sexuality, and roles as counselors and interpreters were examined; the affect of racism, sexism, and homophobia on everyday experiences, particularly of clients, was assessed. 8 women and 7 men attended; they included HIV volunteers, HIV counselors, and those involved in community work. Themes included HIV/AIDS, confidentiality, sexuality, safer sex and sexual practices. The focus was placed on language and ways of developing terminology to express sexual identities and sexual behaviors positively. English was used for training and feedback. The approach was experiential and participative.

  17. Multiculturalism and AIDS: different communities mean different educational messages required

    PubMed Central

    Lechky, O

    1997-01-01

    Having a multitude of different ethnic communities forces Canada's AIDS educators to use many different methods to deliver their messages. These range from an AIDS bingo game that has been used to educate natives in northern Manitoba to attempts to take AIDS education to the streets of Toronto. With AIDS education, reports Olga Lechky, one message definitely does not fit all. PMID:9164407

  18. Implementation effects of GFATM-supported HIV/AIDS projects on the health sector, civil society and affected communities in Peru 2004-2007.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, C F; Girón, J Maziel; Sandoval, C; López, R; Valverde, R; Pajuelo, J; Vásquez, P; Rosasco, A M; Chirinos, A; Silva-Santisteban, A

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of opportunities for support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) for HIV-related projects has so far generated funding of over US$75 million for three proposals in Peru. The size of this investment creates the need for close monitoring to ensure a reasonable impact. This paper describes the effects of collaboration with the GFATM on key actors involved in HIV-related activities and on decision-making processes; on health sector divisions; on policies and sources of financing; on equity of access; and on stigma and discrimination of vulnerable and affected populations. Data analysed included primary data collected through interviews with key informants, in-depth interviews and group discussions with vulnerable and affected populations, as well as several public documents. Multisectorality, encouraged by the GFATM, is incipient; centralist proposals with limited consultation, a lack of consensus and short preparation times prevail. No accountability mechanisms operate at the Country Coordinating Mechanism (CCM) level regarding CCM members or society as a whole. GFATM-funded activities have required significant input from the public sector, sometimes beyond the capacity of its human resources. A significant increase in HIV funding, in absolute amounts and in fractions of the total budget, has been observed from several sources including the National Treasury, and it is unclear whether this has implied reductions in the budget for other priorities. Patterns of social exclusion of people living with HIV/AIDS are diverse: children and women are more valued; while transgender persons and sex workers are often excluded. PMID:20390630

  19. Implementation effects of GFATM-supported HIV/AIDS projects on the health sector, civil society and affected communities in Peru 2004-2007.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, C F; Girón, J Maziel; Sandoval, C; López, R; Valverde, R; Pajuelo, J; Vásquez, P; Rosasco, A M; Chirinos, A; Silva-Santisteban, A

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of opportunities for support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) for HIV-related projects has so far generated funding of over US$75 million for three proposals in Peru. The size of this investment creates the need for close monitoring to ensure a reasonable impact. This paper describes the effects of collaboration with the GFATM on key actors involved in HIV-related activities and on decision-making processes; on health sector divisions; on policies and sources of financing; on equity of access; and on stigma and discrimination of vulnerable and affected populations. Data analysed included primary data collected through interviews with key informants, in-depth interviews and group discussions with vulnerable and affected populations, as well as several public documents. Multisectorality, encouraged by the GFATM, is incipient; centralist proposals with limited consultation, a lack of consensus and short preparation times prevail. No accountability mechanisms operate at the Country Coordinating Mechanism (CCM) level regarding CCM members or society as a whole. GFATM-funded activities have required significant input from the public sector, sometimes beyond the capacity of its human resources. A significant increase in HIV funding, in absolute amounts and in fractions of the total budget, has been observed from several sources including the National Treasury, and it is unclear whether this has implied reductions in the budget for other priorities. Patterns of social exclusion of people living with HIV/AIDS are diverse: children and women are more valued; while transgender persons and sex workers are often excluded.

  20. HIV/AIDS and community conflict in Nigeria: implications and challenges.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Janet; Caffrey, Margaret

    2005-03-01

    This paper discusses how HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and mitigation activities and funding for such work can lead to community conflict. The central role of communities in combating HIV/AIDS is widely agreed, with the contributions of social capital networks and civil society seen as pivotal; a rights-based approach to HIV/AIDS activities is considered essential. Yet experiences from a UK Department for International Development funded project in Nigeria suggest that greater critical attention must be given to the impacts and effects of HIV/AIDS on communities, and the ways in which conflict can develop, emerge and be sustained, resulting in severe breakdown of social cohesion and reduction or cessation of HIV/AIDS activities. It is argued here that conflict can be fuelled by the different priorities and perceptions of community members and groups vis-à-vis those of development organisations, and by the impact of funds on often desperately poor communities. Case studies analyse the development of the conflict, failed attempts at resolution, and two post-conflict project interventions whose design and implementation were informed by its experiences and outcome. The paper concludes by considering the potential input of participatory approaches, community psychology and change management in the development and implementation of HIV/AIDS interventions specifically so as to reduce potential for conflict. Its intention is to contribute to the debate on how best to implement genuinely community-based and managed HIV/AIDS interventions.

  1. Community Organic Gardening Project

    SciTech Connect

    Tracy, S.

    1982-01-01

    Final recommendations as to the further use and development of solar pods, developed by the participants of the Community Organic Gardening Project, are presented. The solar pods tested were dome-shaped, double glazed, fiberglass covers which were hinged to a permanent insulated frame enabling fall and late winter crops to survive outdoor temperatures as low as 10/sup 0/F. A list of materials and the instructions for constructing the pods is provided. Temperature performance and crop yields of the pods are briefly discussed. Very brief discussions of other solar gardening devices include Dutch lights and frames, slitted-row covers, and the Swiss made Xiro-Ag plant protection film. Cost information is included for each of the solar devices discussed. (BCS)

  2. AID seeks proposals for Pakistan's CSM project.

    PubMed

    1985-01-01

    The US Agency for International Development (AID) has prepared a request for proposals (RFP) for an international contractor to provide technical advice to Pakistan's projected contraceptive social marketing program. Sales of both condoms and a low-dose oral contraceptive were planned for 1986. At this point, however, the social marketing project's implementation remains in doubt as a result of internal government opposition. The government had hoped to implement the project without an outside contractor, but this proved infeasible. The RFP prepared by USAID outlines a 4-year involvement for a resident advisor. Funds will come from a 5-year US$20 million contract signed in 1984 by USAID and the Pakistani government. USAID remains optimistic that the project will continue, despite this delay, and is proceeding to procure commodities. PMID:12267251

  3. Australia to fund HIV / AIDS projects in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    1994-12-19

    Australia will fund 23 new HIV-AIDS projects in Southeast Asian countries, the government announced. "Asia is predicted to be the major growth area for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections over the next decade, " Minister for Development Cooperation Gordon Bilney said. "These projects, worth some $4.35 million over three years, will help meet the challenge of preventing the spread of the disease in the region." The projects--in Thailand, Vietnam, the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia and Cambodia--emphasize education and prevention activities as well as programs which focus on the care and support of people living with HIV, Bilney said. He also said a variety of Australian and overseas organizations will implement the projects, many of which will feature the significant involvement of communities at risk and people with HIV. "It is in keeping with the fundamental spirit of the aid program that we should seek to share this expertise with our neighbors in the region." Bilney said one Australian success story--the creative "Streetwize comics" (publications in Australia which help street kids and under privileged kids understand HIV/AIDS problems)--will be piloted in Vietnam in conjunction with the Vietnam Youth Federation. He said Vietnamese staff will be trained in the production of a series of bilingual mini-comics on HIV-AIDS prevention for youth. "This project will receive funding of $187,500 over three years," Bilney said. Bilney said the projects would help minimize the individual and social impact of the epidemic in the targeted countries.

  4. The Role of Community College Financial Aid Counselors in Helping Students Understand and Utilize Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Lyle; Roberts, Toya

    2012-01-01

    Financial aid counselors are a primary source of information that many students rely upon to understand financial aid and how to pay for college. However, little is known about financial aid counselors at America's community colleges and their interactions with the students they serve. Using original survey data, this study examined the role these…

  5. Unmet Need and Unclaimed Aid: Increasing Access to Financial Aid for Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Julia I.

    2013-01-01

    In California, public financial aid aimed at low-income students is not reaching some of the poorest students enrolled in community colleges. Outreach efforts to students are important, but high schools and community colleges must also make financial aid receipt a priority.

  6. New Mexico Migrant Project Aides: Perceptions of Their Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barba, Alma Maria Acevedo

    The doctoral dissertation focused on: the perceptions of school administrators, teachers, and aides on teacher aide functions in the New Mexico Migrant Project; comparing the results with student needs; functions not ascribed to aides within the State Department of Education and the National Migrant Project's guidelines; and making recommendations…

  7. AIDS czar says Manhattan Project is underway. Interview by Cesar Chavez.

    PubMed

    Fleming, P

    1995-01-01

    National AIDS Policy Director, Patricia Fleming, was recently interviewed by "Positively Aware". During the interview she stated that she believes the Clinton Administration will deliver on the HIV/AIDS community's call for a Manhattan Project for AIDS. She credited Dr. William Paul (National Institutes for Health) with focusing HIV research on basic science, and stated that her priorities include working on and lobbying for the best possible HIV/AIDS budget, completing a report on AIDS incidence among adolescents, and salvaging the HOPWA program.

  8. AIDS: Preparing Your School and Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Association of Principals, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Assistance to school principals in preparing their schools to respond to the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) issue is provided in this booklet. The first section offers background information on the following: facts about AIDS/HIV; youth risk factors; knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of Canadian youth; the content of AIDS education…

  9. Community College Students and Federal Student Financial Aid: A Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juszkiewicz, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    The federal government plays an indispensable role in helping community college students pay for their education. It is hard to imagine today's community college campuses without needs-based federal student aid, such as the Pell Grant program and subsidized loans. There are, however, significant differences between community college students and…

  10. Florida Community Colleges Argentina Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcombe, Willis; Greene, William

    1996-01-01

    Describes the origins of the Florida community colleges' Argentina Project, which sent a delegation of representatives to Argentina in 1992 to describe the community college system as a model for educational reform in the country. Describes changes in Argentina since 1989 regarding the political climate and reviews recent educational reforms in…

  11. The Impact of AIDS on the Black Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatchett, David

    1990-01-01

    More than 25 percent of those who have the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) virus are African American, and, in large urban areas, the disease is a leading cause of death, especially among black women. AIDS education is vital to supplement health care efforts in the black community. (SLD)

  12. NELA: A Community Response to HIV/AIDS in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soyinka, Femi; Ogundare, Dipo; Olowookere, Kemi; Akinsola, Yemisi; Alade, Adeyemi; Moronkola, O. A.

    2004-01-01

    The greatest current threat to humanity, most especially in the developing countries of the world, is HIV/AIDS. The first case of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria was in 1986 in Lagos. Due to inaction and denial by the people, there was a rapid but subtle transmission of the virus within Nigeria's various populations and communities. Presently, the disease has…

  13. Vietnam project tailored to community needs.

    PubMed

    1995-11-01

    A workshop, which was held August 21-22, launched the second year phase (1995-1996) of a Sustainable Community-based Reproductive Health Project (VIE/95/P03), which was supported by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), in Vietnam. According to Dr. Tran Thi Trun Chien, vice minister of health of Vietnam, the key to the sustainability of the project was community participation. When the community was committed and mobilized, services were more relevant and appropriate to local needs. Chien also appraised the project's focus on women in development and promotion of maternal and child health (MCH). She said the project would aid the government in establishing an integrated approach to health services, and streamline the work of grassroots health providers. Project managers and personnel from the four provinces and seven districts promoting the project, deputy chairpersons of the people's committees, directors and deputy directors of health at the provincial and district levels, directors of maternal and child health/family planning (MCH/FP) centers of each province, central level officials of the MCH/FP Department of the Ministry of Health (MOH), and a UNFPA representative attended the workshop. Project managers and personnel of each province and district were expected to develop their own implementation plans, which were tailored to reflect needs at the local level, for the next cycle of the project. Participants were provided with a basic project document covering the budget and implementation aims. The focus of the document was on training and upgrading of the commune health centers. In the first phase of the project, details of the implementation plan had been developed by JOICFP and MOH; now MOH only approved the plans developed at the local level.

  14. Financial Aid Tipping Points: An Analysis of Aid and Academic Achievement at a California Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coria, Elizabeth; Hoffman, John L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore relationships between financial aid awards and measures of student academic achievement. Financial aid and academic records for 11,956 students attending an urban California community college were examined and analyzed using simultaneous linear regression and two-way factorial ANOVAs. Findings revealed a…

  15. An Ontario initiative to enhance the effectiveness of AIDS Service Organizations: Community-Linked Evaluation of AIDS Resources.

    PubMed

    Browne, Gina; Browne, Joseph A; McGee, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the rationale, process, and early outcomes of establishing a community-based research unit. The AIDS Bureau of the Ontario Provincial Government established the Community-Linked Evaluation of AIDS Resources Unit (CLEAR), which works in partnership with the AIDS Bureau and 31 of 74 AIDS Service Organizations (ASOs) in Ontario.

  16. Hlatlolanang: a community project.

    PubMed

    Stober, P

    1993-01-01

    Sekekhuneland, which is in the northern Transvaal in South Africa, has suffered from a 2-year drought which has led to a shortage of basic food in the villages and a 50-60% incidence of kwashiorkor among the village children. The natural resources of the area have been eliminated by over population and its attendant deforestation, land erosion, and wildlife decimation. The situation has been exacerbated by a political climate rife with corruption and incompetence. The most pressing problem is a shortage of water which prevents agricultural development and limits food production. Some dangerous traditional beliefs persist, such as believing that sickness is caused by curses which modern medicine cannot affect. In response to this situation, Hlatlolanang ("we share the burden"), a community-based development program has been put into place. The director of the center, Rose Mazibuko, is a nurse who believes that primary health care in its broadest sense is a human right. This involves not only the health sector but also agriculture, industrial development, education, housing, and public works. The first problem tackled was kwashiorkor. Other groups had failed to reduce the incidence of the condition in the area. Hlatlolanang recognized that mothers of affected children were being stigmatized by hospital personnel. Thus, the mothers would often go to the hospital only as a last resort and would avoid the training necessary to help their children. The community requested that Hlatlolanang become a training center where all members of the community could learn how to combat kwashiorkor and where inappropriate attitudes could undergo the necessary changes. Thus, the Hlatlolanang Health and Education Center was born with funding from the Kaiser Family Foundation, an architect who participated in the development workshop and knew exactly what the community wanted, an elected planning committee, and 4 local builders. People were carefully screened and hired to run the center

  17. Crossing borders: HIV / AIDS and migrant communities.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    The annual National Council for International Health Private Volunteer Organization (PVO)/AIDS workshop took place June 30, 1994, in Arlington, Virginia. About 90 representatives of PVOs, domestic and international nongovernmental organizations (NGO), universities, and research organizations were in attendance. Speakers presented both domestic and international perspectives upon the relationship between migration trends and HIV transmission. The keynote address spelled out the UN High Commission on Refugees' policy on HIV/AIDS: refugees are not a risk group per se, and they should benefit from the same control measures as the general host population; there will be no mandatory HIV screening in any population; and the rights of HIV-positive refugees against being deported and for asylum and eventual repatriation need to be protected. The following issues were presented at the workshop: an overview of HIV/AIDS and migration issues; STD/HIV control and prevention; HIV/AIDS among highly mobile populations along the Thailand/Myanmar border; migration trends in Phnom Penh, Cambodia; migrant farmworkers working in the US; changes in sexual practices among Mexican migrants to the US and their impact on the risk of HIV transmission; the importance of understanding the epidemiology, health-care seeking behaviors, and health beliefs of immigrants; the ability of PVOs and NGOs to provide effective HIV/AIDS prevention for refugees and migrants; the impact of political instability and civil strife on population movements and the prevalence of high-risk behaviors; and the important considerations needed for work with special target populations such as adolescents, women, mobile seasonal migrants, and urban residents.

  18. Evaluation of community-based nurse case management activities for symptomatic HIV/AIDS clients.

    PubMed

    Wright, J; Henry, S B; Holzemer, W L; Falknor, P

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate case management activities performed by nurse case managers in the California Pilot Care and Waiver Projects for HIV/AIDS patients. Nurse case managers, social workers, and site directors completed a 62-item survey. Significant differences appeared in ratings among the groups on five items. The nurse case managers responding to the survey indicated that a wide variety of nursing skills are used to provide case management services to persons living with AIDS and AIDS-related complex. This survey validates the interdisciplinary case management model in a community-based HIV population.

  19. NLM Workshop Marks 20 Years of Community Outreach and Capacity Building in HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    DANCY-SCOTT, NICOLE; DUTCHER, GALE A.; KESELMAN, ALIA; SIEGEL, ELLIOT R.

    2016-01-01

    The National Library of Medicine’s (NLM) AIDS Community Information Outreach Program (ACIOP) was launched in 1994 to provide the HIV/AIDS affected community with access to vital health information resources increasingly becoming available on the Internet. Three hundred awards have been made mostly to community-based organizations. An evaluation in 2012 found that most program objectives are being met; a principal recommendation going forward was that NLM seek to enhance the capacity of community-based awardees to conduct evaluations of their own projects. This article reports on a workshop whose invitees were drawn from AIDS serving organizations, along with scientists, clinicians, and information technologists, to review the evaluation findings and recommendations. They considered alternatives for improving awardees’ evaluation capabilities with the help of expert consultation, identified additional steps that could be taken to make individual project results more transparent and sharable, and looked at external influences ranging from mobile health devices to the latest HIV/AIDS scientific research findings that could be used to align future awards with unmet needs in the community. The paper identifies efforts subsequently made by ACIOP managers to prioritize and operationalize guidance from the evaluation and the workshop, and discusses the benefits of community engagement. PMID:27134585

  20. Financial Aid Facts at California Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for College Access & Success, 2010

    2010-01-01

    While California community college (CCC) system fees are much lower than tuition at community colleges in other states or other colleges in California, the total cost of attending a CCC--which includes books, housing, transportation, and food--is higher than most people realize. The illusion of low cost may lead CCC students to forgo valuable…

  1. Kansas Tree Program Aids Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullins, William S.

    1973-01-01

    Since State and Extension Forestry at Kansas State University received specific funding from the U.S. Forest Service for community forestry programs, the university has received requests for assistance from more than 200 Kansas towns. (GB)

  2. Collaborating With an Urban Community to Develop an HIV and AIDS Prevention Program for Black Youth and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baptiste, Donna R.; Paikoff, Roberta L.; McKay, Mary McKernan; Madison-Boyd, Sybil; Coleman, Doris; Bell, Carl

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a collaboration between academic researchers and residents of a low-income, inner-city community to develop and deliver an HIV and AIDS prevention program for Black youth. The Chicago HIV Prevention and Adolescent Mental Health Project (CHAMP) Program was developed and implemented to decrease HIV and AIDS risk exposure among…

  3. Middlesex Community College Geothermal Project

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Jessie; Spaziani, Gina

    2013-03-29

    The purpose of the project was to install a geothermal system in the trustees house on the Bedford campus of Middlesex Community College. In partnership with the environmental science faculty, learning activities for environmental science courses were developed to explain geothermal energy and more specifically the newly installed system to Middlesex students. A real-time monitoring system highlights the energy use and generation.

  4. [A community project in India].

    PubMed

    Fridman, G

    1988-06-01

    A report is given of a visit to an Indian village community project which is supported by a small Swedish foundation. The project was started about 40 years ago by a female relative of Mahatma Gandhi. The community is a small village of about 2000 inhabitants and consists of an irrigated agricultural project, a school through 10th grade, a small hospital, a home for 140 poor or orphan girls and a nursery. The program employs 12 community health workers who have some healthcare training. Each worker cares for 200-250 households and usually knows his/her families well. Primary emphasis is on care of children which includes help with nutrition and a vaccination program. For every 4 community health workers there is an auxiliary nurse midwife who has 3 years special training following 10th grade. The midwives check up on pregnant women once a month through the 7th month, 2 visits in the 8th month and once/week in the 9th month. Undernourishment and anemia are the most common problems of pregnancy. Children are often born in the parents' home without any trained obstetric help. In spite of this, maternal mortality is very low. Even infection from childbirth is extremely rare. The visitor was particularly impressed by the respect and affection everyone in the village showed for children and for each other.

  5. HIV/AIDS Community Health Information System.

    PubMed

    Fulcher, Christopher L; Kaukinen, Catherine E

    2003-01-01

    Given changes in the faces of AIDS over the last decade, it is crucial that disparities in health and access to healthcare are addressed. An Internet-based GIS was developed using ESRI's Arc Internet Map Server (Arc IMS) to provide users with a suite of tools to interact with geographic data and conduct spatial analyses related to the characteristics that promote or impede the provision of HIV-related services. Internet Mapping allows those engaged in local decision-making to: (1) geographically visualize information via the Internet; (2) Assess the relationship between the distribution of HIV services and spatially referenced socio-economic data; and (3) generate "what if" scenarios" that may direct the allocation of healthcare resources. PMID:14728567

  6. Multisectoral strategy for AIDS prevention at community level.

    PubMed

    Elkins, D B; Kuyyakanond, T; Maticka-Tyndale, E; Rujkorakarn, D; Haswell-Elkins, M

    1996-01-01

    In north-east Thailand a five-act drama is broadcast on the village sound system to catalyse involvement in planning and carrying out AIDS prevention activities. Each community's own suggestions for an effective strategy are presented to the relevant government and nongovernmental agencies for endorsement and support.

  7. Prevention of HIV/AIDS Education in Rural Communities II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torabi, Mohammad R., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This second special issue of the Health Education Monograph Series on HIV/AIDS Prevention in Rural Communities presents seven articles: (1) "Preventing Maternal-Infant Transmission of HIV: Social and Ethical Issues" (James G. Anderson, Marilyn M. Anderson, and Tara Booth); (2) "HIV Infection in Diverse Rural Population: Migrant Farm Workers in…

  8. Computer Aided Management for Information Processing Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akman, Ibrahim; Kocamustafaogullari, Kemal

    1995-01-01

    Outlines the nature of information processing projects and discusses some project management programming packages. Describes an in-house interface program developed to utilize a selected project management package (TIMELINE) by using Oracle Data Base Management System tools and Pascal programming language for the management of information system…

  9. Can local communities 'sustain' HIV/AIDS programmes? A South African example.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Andrew; Campbell, Catherine; Maimane, Sbongile

    2015-03-01

    Globally, there is a renewed interest in building the local sustainability of HIV/AIDS programmes to ensure that once funders withdraw, local communities can sustain programmes. While the 'local sustainability assumption' is widespread, little research has assessed this. In this article, we assess the sustainability of the Entabeni Project, a community-based intervention that sought to build women's local leadership and capacity to respond to HIV/AIDS through a group of volunteer carers, 3 years after external support was withdrawn. Overall, the sustainability of the Entabeni Project was limited. The wider social and political context undermined volunteer carers' sense that they could affect change, with little external support for them from government and NGOs, who struggled to engage with local community organizations. At the community level, some church leaders and community members recognized the important role of health volunteers, many continued to devalue the work of the carers, especially once there was no external organization to support and validate their work. Within the health volunteer group, despite extensive efforts to change dynamics, it remained dominated by a local male leader who denied others active participation while lacking the skills to meaningfully lead the project. Our case study suggests that the local-sustainability assumption is wishful thinking. Small-scale local projects are unlikely to be able to challenge the broader social and political dynamics hindering their sustainability without meaningful external support. PMID:25351362

  10. Can local communities 'sustain' HIV/AIDS programmes? A South African example.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Andrew; Campbell, Catherine; Maimane, Sbongile

    2015-03-01

    Globally, there is a renewed interest in building the local sustainability of HIV/AIDS programmes to ensure that once funders withdraw, local communities can sustain programmes. While the 'local sustainability assumption' is widespread, little research has assessed this. In this article, we assess the sustainability of the Entabeni Project, a community-based intervention that sought to build women's local leadership and capacity to respond to HIV/AIDS through a group of volunteer carers, 3 years after external support was withdrawn. Overall, the sustainability of the Entabeni Project was limited. The wider social and political context undermined volunteer carers' sense that they could affect change, with little external support for them from government and NGOs, who struggled to engage with local community organizations. At the community level, some church leaders and community members recognized the important role of health volunteers, many continued to devalue the work of the carers, especially once there was no external organization to support and validate their work. Within the health volunteer group, despite extensive efforts to change dynamics, it remained dominated by a local male leader who denied others active participation while lacking the skills to meaningfully lead the project. Our case study suggests that the local-sustainability assumption is wishful thinking. Small-scale local projects are unlikely to be able to challenge the broader social and political dynamics hindering their sustainability without meaningful external support.

  11. Study projects demographic impact of AIDS in Africa.

    PubMed

    1994-06-01

    Based on the United Nations study, "AIDS and the Demography of Africa", population growth rates will remain high in African countries south of the Sahara despite high mortality due to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The Population Division of the UN Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis (DESIPA) incorporated the demographic impact of AIDS in its biennial population estimates and projections for Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Central African Republic, Congo, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, United Republic of Tanzania, Uganda, Zaire, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. 9 million additional deaths due to AIDS are projected by 2005; 61% will occur in Uganda, Zaire, Tanzania, and Zambia. From 2000 to 2005, the average life expectancy for the region (51.2 years) will be 6.5 years lower than that without AIDS; that in Uganda (42.9 years) will be 11.1 years less. Mortality is increasing and its hardest impact will be during the prime working and family care years. Socioeconomic effects may include reductions in the size and productivity of the labor force, decreased industrial and agricultural production, and changes in care of children and the elderly. Due to high fertility rates, however, population increases are projected for all 15 countries. Although its nearly 12.4 million years less (4%) than that expected without the effect of AIDS, the total population for the region is projected to be 297.9 million by 2005. The address for obtaining the document discussed is listed with the price.

  12. Ethnic Minorities and Migrant Communities. Report on the Round Table and Satellite Meetings. International Congress on AIDS (9th, Berlin, Germany, June 6-11, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naz Foundation, London (England).

    The Naz Foundation sponsors a project on HIV and AIDS education, prevention, and support among South Asian, Turkish, Irani, and Arab communities in Europe. As immigrants, ethnic minorities, and refugees, these people are not isolated from the societies in which they live, and are just as vulnerable as any other community to AIDS. A conference on…

  13. Contributions of international cooperation projects to the HIV/AIDS response in China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiangping; Liu, Hui; Li, Hui; Wang, Liqiu; Guo, Haoyan; Shan, Duo; Bulterys, Marc; Korhonen, Christine; Hao, Yang; Ren, Minghui

    2010-01-01

    Background For 20 years, China has participated in 267 international cooperation projects against the HIV/AIDS epidemic and received ∼526 million USD from over 40 international organizations. These projects have played an important role by complementing national efforts in the fight against HIV/AIDS in China. Methods The diverse characteristics of these projects followed three phases over 20 years. Initially, stand-alone projects provided technical support in surveillance, training or advocacy for public awareness. As the epidemic spread across China, projects became a part of the comprehensive and integrated national response. Currently, international best practices encourage the inclusion of civil society and non-governmental organizations in an expanded response to the epidemic. Results Funding from international projects has accounted for one-third of the resources provided for the HIV/AIDS response in China. Beyond this strong financial support, these programmes have introduced best practices, accelerated the introduction of AIDS policies, strengthened capacity, improved the development of grassroots social organizations and established a platform for communication and experience sharing with the international community. However, there are still challenges ahead, including integrating existing resources and exploring new programme models. The National Centre for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention (NCAIDS) in China is consolidating all international projects into national HIV prevention, treatment and care activities. Conclusion International cooperation projects have been an invaluable component of China’s response to HIV/AIDS, and China has now been able to take this information and share its experiences with other countries with the help of these same international programmes. PMID:21113032

  14. Adaptive Peircean decision aid project summary assessments.

    SciTech Connect

    Senglaub, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    This efforts objective was to identify and hybridize a suite of technologies enabling the development of predictive decision aids for use principally in combat environments but also in any complex information terrain. The technologies required included formal concept analysis for knowledge representation and information operations, Peircean reasoning to support hypothesis generation, Mill's's canons to begin defining information operators that support the first two technologies and co-evolutionary game theory to provide the environment/domain to assess predictions from the reasoning engines. The intended application domain is the IED problem because of its inherent evolutionary nature. While a fully functioning integrated algorithm was not achieved the hybridization and demonstration of the technologies was accomplished and demonstration of utility provided for a number of ancillary queries.

  15. The Project Dimension in Community Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, J. D. Ekundaye

    1994-01-01

    Describes three projects sponsored by the International Community Education Association: (1) functional literacy for railway workers in Ghana; (2) youth farmers' community development project in Ghana; and (3) participatory research in a community education and development network in Sierra Leone. (SK)

  16. Action Learning: Student Community Service Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronstein, Laurence W.; Olsen, Edward G.

    By engaging students in community service projects, action learning uses resources of the real world to give students opportunities to participate in performing tasks and making decisions that confront societal problems. Such projects should be decided on after a study of the needs of the community. After a project is selected, all relevant…

  17. Moral and social aspects of AIDS: a medical students' project.

    PubMed

    Elford, J

    1987-01-01

    The rising number of cases of AIDS in Great Britain has important implications for all those who work in the health services. A group of pre-clinical students at the Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine, London, undertook a project in which they explored some of the sociological and epidemiological aspects of AIDS. Particular attention was paid to any stigma that may surround the disease. The moral definition of the disease pervaded all areas of enquiry during the project. It is suggested that sound management of AIDS patients and those who are HIV antibody positive, will require both health care staff and students to carefully consider their own beliefs regarding the disease and those most at risk.

  18. Major Factors Influencing HIV/AIDS Project Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niba, Mercy Bi; Green, J. Maryann

    2005-01-01

    This article aimed at finding out if participatory processes (group discussions, enactments, and others) do make a valuable contribution in communication-based project implementation/evaluation and the fight against HIV/AIDS. A case study backed by documentary analysis of evaluation reports and occasional insights from interviews stood as the main…

  19. Operational hydrological projections to aid decision making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnetler, Thomas; Davis, Richard; Waddingham, John; James, Karen

    2014-05-01

    The Environment Agency of England has wide ranging responsibility for environmental regulation that includes both water resources management and flood management. In order to best fulfil its role decisions need to be taken using the best available evidence in the time available. The manipulation of large amounts of hydrological data in a way that best meets the needs of decision makers is a complex challenge. Not only should any analysis be technically robust but it should also be presented in a way that communicates key messages clearly and quickly. The Environment Agency and its predecessor organisations has a long history of working with hydrological data but in recent years there has been a need to better incorporate risk and uncertainty into hydrological analysis so that subsequent decisions can take this into account. In the face of recent extreme weather events, there has been an increasing demand for forward look projections from water resource and flood risk practitioners, decision makers and contingency planners. These assessments are required to give appropriate lead in time to allow risk mitigation measures to be implemented to minimise impact upon people, the environment and infrastructure. This presentation will outline the methodologies developed by the Environment Agency to produce and publish monthly routine forward look projections using both a scenario and climate ensemble approach. It will cover how information is disseminated, providing a good example of communicating science to decision makers and to the public. Examples of practical applications of these methodologies include: • Risk based planning and forecasting of water availability for inter basin water transfers into water stressed catchments. • Assessment of water resources prospects during droughts for people and the environment • The likelihood and medium term risk of high groundwater levels impacting upon people and infrastructure. There are also a number of future challenges

  20. Santa Cruz Community Service Television Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederiksen, Herbert Allan

    A non-profit corporation, called the Santa Cruz Community Service Television Project (S.C.C.S.T.P.), is proposed that would produce videotape for the purpose of intra-community communication. The corporation would use portable videotape equipment to record a variety of community programs, such as an ecological history of the Monterey Bay area, the…

  1. Application of expert systems in project management decision aiding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Regina; Shaffer, Steven; Stokes, James; Goldstein, David

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of developing an expert systems-based project management decision aid to enhance the performance of NASA project managers was assessed. The research effort included extensive literature reviews in the areas of project management, project management decision aiding, expert systems technology, and human-computer interface engineering. Literature reviews were augmented by focused interviews with NASA managers. Time estimation for project scheduling was identified as the target activity for decision augmentation, and a design was developed for an Integrated NASA System for Intelligent Time Estimation (INSITE). The proposed INSITE design was judged feasible with a low level of risk. A partial proof-of-concept experiment was performed and was successful. Specific conclusions drawn from the research and analyses are included. The INSITE concept is potentially applicable in any management sphere, commercial or government, where time estimation is required for project scheduling. As project scheduling is a nearly universal management activity, the range of possibilities is considerable. The INSITE concept also holds potential for enhancing other management tasks, especially in areas such as cost estimation, where estimation-by-analogy is already a proven method.

  2. Helping Community College Students Cope with Financial Emergencies: Lessons from the Dreamkeepers and Angel Fund Emergency Financial Aid Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geckeler, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Lumina Foundation for Education created the Dreamkeepers and Angel Fund Emergency Financial Aid Programs to assist community college students who are at risk of dropping out because of unexpected financial crises. Both programs are multiyear pilot projects that began in 2005 and are administered by Scholarship America and the American Indian…

  3. Community-based participatory research to prevent substance abuse and HIV/AIDS in African-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Marianne T; Walker, Thomas; Swint, J Michael; Smith, Brenda Page; Brown, Cleon; Busen, Nancy; Edwards, Thelissa; Liehr, Patricia; Taylor, Wendell C; Williams, Darryal; von Sternberg, Kirk

    2004-11-01

    Adolescence is a time for exploration and risk-taking; in today's urban environment, with the twin threats of substance abuse and HIV/AIDS, the stakes are particularly high. This paper describes a community-based participatory research project to design, implement, and evaluate a faith-based substance abuse and HIV/AIDS prevention program for African-American adolescents. A coalition of university-based investigators and African-American church member stakeholders collaborated on all aspects of Project BRIDGE, the 3-year intervention to reduce substance abuse and HIV/AIDS in African-American adolescents. Our results support the use of community-based participatory research to create desirable change in this setting. Adolescents who participated in Project BRIDGE reported significantly less marijuana and other drug use and more fear of AIDS than a comparison group. Project BRIDGE has been designated an official ministry of the church and the program has been extended to others in the larger metropolitan community. The church now has a well-trained volunteer staff University faculty developed skills in negotiating with community-based settings. The coalition remains strong with plans for continued collaborative activities.

  4. Financial Aid and Persistence in Community Colleges: Assessing the Effectiveness of Federal and State Financial Aid Programs in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Pilar; Mendez, Jesse P.; Malcolm, Zaria

    2009-01-01

    Using a longitudinal, state-wide dataset, this study assessed the effect of financial aid on the persistence of full-time students in associate's degree programs at the Oklahoma community colleges. Three financial-aid sources were examined: the Oklahoma Higher Learning Access Program (OHLAP), Pell grants, and Stafford loans. Results indicate that…

  5. Community participation in AIDS activities in two pilot areas, Machinga district, Malawi.

    PubMed

    Mwangalawa, A S

    1995-09-01

    Students from the Department of Fine Art and Performing Arts of Chancellor College were subcontracted to spend one month in Nyambi and one month in Gawanani to facilitate participatory research and information gathering from the villages using focus group interviews. Nyambi is an Islamic-dominated area, while Gawanani is Christian-dominated. Music and drama were used to mobilize the communities. Performances were followed by discussion of how traditional practices potentially increasing the community risk of HIV infection could be altered. A drama presentation with proposed solutions was then presented to each community. Major risk factors identified were promiscuity and commercial sex, traditional male circumcision conducted with nonsterile equipment, female initiation requiring young women's participation in sexual intercourse, the sexual cleansing of young widows, tattooing by traditional healers, and misconceptions about how HIV is transmitted. Furthermore, extramarital relationships lead to marital breakdown and the subsequent involvement of unsupervised children in exploratory sexual activities. The district AIDS coordinator facilitated meetings with community leaders to mobilize them to form local AIDS committees. The committees then identified volunteers within their areas who were trained in AIDS education and group discussion skills. 58 volunteers were trained in January 1995. Further plans include the additional training of the volunteers in counseling and home-based care skills, transformation of the volunteers groups into self-administered local nongovernmental organizations, the provision of income-generating activities skills, condom promotion, and the application of the project method in other areas in the district. The success of this project attests to how people, when given the opportunity and guidance, can respond positively to problems and tackle them in their own context.

  6. 23 CFR 630.709 - Conversion to a regular Federal-aid project.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conversion to a regular Federal-aid project. 630.709... TRAFFIC OPERATIONS PRECONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES Advance Construction of Federal-Aid Projects § 630.709 Conversion to a regular Federal-aid project. (a) The State Department of Transportation may submit a...

  7. Reflections of the Community: The Community Aide and Consumer and Homemaking Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whisler, Lois

    To further the development and refinement of a model to utilize paraprofessionals in conducting a needs assessment of disadvantaged youth for consumer and homemaking education, curriculum guides from the nine schools involved in the project were analyzed and pre- and post-assessment questionnaires devised and administered to the aides and teachers…

  8. [AIDS in Madagascar. I. Epidemiology, projections, socioeconomic impact, interventions].

    PubMed

    Andriamahenina, R; Ravelojaona, B; Rarivoharilala, E; Ravaoarimalala, C; Andriamiadana, J; Andriamahefazafy, B; May, J F; Behets, F; Rasamindrakotroka, A

    1998-01-01

    which is the prevention of the epidemic not to be exploded in a near future. For this, struggle against it is particularly effective on its start. In addition to counselling given to infected people and care-given to patients, means of prevention of AIDS contamination in all target groups must be set up quickly. It is about broadcasting information on AIDS, community education, controlling other STDs e.g. (importance of medicaments' program), promoting the use of condoms and screening HIV new cases. Only an urgent coordination of everyone's efforts can control the epidemic of AIDS. PMID:9559168

  9. The Community Collaboration Stakeholder Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Renee Guarriello

    2010-01-01

    Today's increasingly complex and diverse world demands 21st century communication skills to solve community and social justice problems. Interorganizational collaboration is at the heart of much community activism, such as that focused on solving environmental disputes, eradicating racially discriminating real estate practices, and bringing early…

  10. Evaluation of Mental Health First Aid training with members of the Vietnamese community in Melbourne, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Minas, Harry; Colucci, Erminia; Jorm, Anthony F

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of this project was to investigate in members of the Vietnamese community in Melbourne the impact of Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training on attitudes to people with mental illness and on knowledge about mental disorders. Our hypotheses were that at the end of the training participants would have increased knowledge of mental disorders and their treatments, and decreased negative attitudes towards people with mental disorders. Methods Respondents were 114 participants in two-day MHFA training workshops for the Vietnamese community in Melbourne conducted by two qualified MHFA trainers. Participants completed the research questionnaire prior to the commencement of the training (pre-test) and at its completion (post-test). The questionnaires assessed negative attitudes towards people with mental illness (as described in four vignettes), ability to recognise the mental disorders described in the vignettes, and knowledge about how to assist someone with one of these disorders. Responses to open-ended questions were content analysed and coded. To evaluate the effect of the training, answers to the structured questions and to the coded open-ended questions given at pre- and post-test were compared using McNemar tests for dichotomous values and Wilcoxon tests for other scores. Results Between pre- and post-test there was significant improvement in recognition of mental disorders; more targeted and appropriate mental health first aid responses, and reduction in inappropriate first aid responses; and negative attitudes to the people described in the vignettes declined significantly on many items of the stigma scale. Conclusion A two-day, MHFA training course for general members of the Vietnamese community in Melbourne demonstrated significant reductions in stigmatising attitudes, improved knowledge of mental disorders and improved knowledge about appropriate forms of assistance to give to people in the community with mental disorder. There is sufficient

  11. Preventing Distress and Burnout--A Project That Worked: The New Teacher and Teacher Aide Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Herbert L.

    The New Teacher and Teacher Aide Project, a joint venture of the Faculty of Educational Studies, State University of New York at Buffalo and the Buffalo Public Schools, was designed to help new secondary teachers of disadvantaged youth in an inner-city school system. The project had four components: (1) a pre-program orientation; (2) small group…

  12. Connect to protect and the creation of AIDS-competent communities.

    PubMed

    Reed, Sarah J; Miller, Robin Lin

    2013-06-01

    The development of community capacity is integral to reducing the burden of HIV in high-risk populations (Kippax, 2012). This study examines how coalitions addressing structural level determinants of HIV among youth are generating community capacity and creating AIDS-competent communities. AIDS-competent communities are defined as communities that can facilitate sexual behavior change, reduce HIV/AIDS–related stigma, support people living with HIV/AIDS, and cooperate in HIV–related prevention practices. This study shows how the coalitions are fostering the resources indicative of AIDS-competent communities: knowledge and skills, enhanced dialogue among relevant sectors of the community, local ownership of a problem, confidence in local strengths, solidarity or bonding social capital, and bridging partnerships. These data show that the coalitions catalyzed several outcomes aside from the completion of their structural changes. Coalition members are developing the skills, resources, and relationships that can ostensibly build a heightened community response to HIV prevention.

  13. Westlawn Keys to Community. Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Susan; Dedrick, Angie; Mitchell, Graham

    This report describes a project initiated at Westlawn Junior High School, Edmonton (Canada), in which the Community Development Office of Capital Health (CDO) worked with students using the asset-based community building approach. Focus was on the discovery, connection, and mobilization of the students' assets and gifts and connecting these with…

  14. Teaching wilderness first aid in a remote First Nations community: the story of the Sachigo Lake Wilderness Emergency Response Education Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Born, Karen; Orkin, Aaron; VanderBurgh, David; Beardy, Jackson

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand how community members of a remote First Nations community respond to an emergency first aid education programme. Study design A qualitative study involving focus groups and participant observation as part of a community-based participatory research project, which involved the development and implementation of a wilderness first aid course in collaboration with the community. Methods Twenty community members participated in the course and agreed to be part of the research focus groups. Three community research partners validated and reviewed the data collected from this process. These data were coded and analysed using open coding. Results Community members responded to the course in ways related to their past experiences with injury and first aid, both as individuals and as members of the community. Feelings of confidence and self-efficacy related access to care and treatment of injury surfaced during the course. Findings also highlighted how the context of the remote First Nations community influenced the delivery and development of course materials. Conclusions Developing and delivering a first aid course in a remote community requires sensitivity towards the response of participants to the course, as well as the context in which it is being delivered. Employing collaborative approaches to teaching first aid can aim to address these unique needs. Though delivery of a first response training programme in a small remote community will probably not impact the morbidity and mortality associated with injury, it has the potential to impact community self-efficacy and confidence when responding to an emergency situation. PMID:23110258

  15. Vida/SIDA: A Grassroots Response to AIDS in Chicago's Puerto Rican Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanabria, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    Chicago's Puerto Rican community in West Town had a unique reaction to the spread of AIDS within its limits. They created their own institutions and tackled the epidemic themselves. In its infancy, Vida/SIDA, which translates as Life/AIDS, was solely an alternative health clinic for people with AIDS. Free of charge, it provided services such as…

  16. The HIV/AIDS Epidemic in African American Communities: Lessons from UNAIDS and Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okigbo, Charles; Okigbo, Carol A.; Hall, William B., Jr.; Ziegler, Dhyana

    2002-01-01

    Both African states and African American communities can benefit from a new communication framework that the United Nations Global AIDS Program and the Pennsylvania State University developed to combat the HIV/AIDS pandemic. The framework contains five universal values recommended for AIDS intervention programs worldwide (government policies,…

  17. Community College Technical Mathematics Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Self, Samuel L.

    The purpose of the research project was to develop an applied or technical mathematics curriculum which would meet the needs of vocational-technical students at the community college level. The research project was divided into three distinct phases: Identifying the mathematical concepts requisite for job-entry competencies in each of the…

  18. (Re)politicising and (re)positioning prevention: community mobilisations and AIDS prevention in the new AIDS era.

    PubMed

    Rolston, Imara Ajani

    2016-07-01

    An increasing focus on the relationship between AIDS prevalence and socio-economic inequality signals the need for a revaluation of the role of "politics" and "power" in AIDS prevention. This revaluation bears great significance when considering the future trajectories of the AIDS prevention efforts that target highly marginalised populations with high prevalence rates. An emphasis on intersecting forms of inequality has direct implications for the future of AIDS prevention practice. This study explores the experiences of participants, facilitators and local stakeholders applying the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Community Capacity Enhancement-Community Conversations (CCE-CC) approach to AIDS prevention in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. It uses the political narrative analysis of life histories and semi-structured interviews as a means to interrogate the lived experiences of local actors participating in or influenced by this popularised form of community mobilisation used throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Findings suggest the need for a more explicit and intentional valuation for the intersection between the social and political determinants of health in programmes that use community mobilisation as prevention. They also signal a need to critically re-evaluate "community mobilisation" as an AIDS prevention tradition. Intersecting social and political power dynamics play a significant role in both opening up and constraining community mobilisation efforts. This paper proposes the need for a pedagogical turn to "deep organising" and "participatory forms of democracy", as a necessary frontier for programmes working with highly marginalised populations with high prevalence rates. Programmes need to more explicitly support, protect, and advocate for the ability of affected communities to engage in political processes, discourse and long-term organising. PMID:27399047

  19. Community College Students' Experiences with Financial Aid Policies and Practices: A Critical Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    This case study describes community college students' experiences with governmental financial aid policies and institutional financial aid processes at an urban community college campus in the Northeastern United States. Drawing from theories of social justice, conceptions of social capital, and institutionalist analyses of the community…

  20. At the Intersection of HIV/AIDS and Cancer: A Qualitative Needs Assessment of Community-Based HIV/AIDS Service Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Burkhalter, Jack E.; Cahill, Sean; Shuk, Elyse; Guidry, John; Corner, Geoffrey; Berk, Alexandra; Candelario, Norman; Kornegay, Mark; Lubetkin, Erica I.

    2014-01-01

    Due to advances in treatment, persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are living longer, but with aging, immune deficits, and lifestyle factors, they are at increased risk for cancer. This challenges community-based AIDS service organizations (ASOs) to address the growing cancer needs of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Community-based participatory research was applied to engage ASOs in exploring their capacities and needs for integrating cancer-focused programming into their services. Focus groups were conducted with a community advisory board (CAB) representing 10 community-based organizations serving PLWHA. Three 90-minute, serial focus groups were conducted with a mean number of seven participants. Topics explored CAB members’ organizational capacities and needs in cancer prevention, detection, treatment, and survivorship. Transcript analyses identified six themes: (a) agencies have limited experience with cancer-focused programs, which were not framed as cancer specific; (b) agencies need resources and collaborative partnerships to effectively incorporate cancer services; (c) staff and clients must be educated about the relevance of cancer to HIV/AIDS; (d) agencies want to know about linkages between HIV/AIDS and cancer; (e) cancer care providers should be culturally competent; and (f) agencies see opportunities to improve their services through research participation but are wary. Agency capacities were strong in relationships with clients and cultural competency, a holistic view of PLWHA health, expertise in prevention activities, and eagerness to be on the cutting edge of knowledge. Cancer education and prevention were of greatest interest and considered most feasible, suggesting that future projects develop accordingly. These findings suggest a high level of receptivity to expanding or initiating cancer-focused activities but with a clear need for education and awareness building

  1. Community Access Survey. Project REC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Hospital, Boston, MA. Training and Research Inst. for People with Disabilities.

    Developed as part of a larger project to integrate youth with disabilities into regular recreational and leisure activities, this survey was developed for use in the assessment of public accommodations according to the minimum standards set forth in the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The instrument utilizes a yes/no response format, with a…

  2. 28 CFR 551.60 - Volunteer community service projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Procedure (see 28 CFR part 542). ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Volunteer community service projects. 551... MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Volunteer Community Service Projects § 551.60 Volunteer community service...

  3. 28 CFR 551.60 - Volunteer community service projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Procedure (see 28 CFR part 542). ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Volunteer community service projects. 551... MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Volunteer Community Service Projects § 551.60 Volunteer community service...

  4. 28 CFR 551.60 - Volunteer community service projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Procedure (see 28 CFR part 542). ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Volunteer community service projects. 551... MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Volunteer Community Service Projects § 551.60 Volunteer community service...

  5. 28 CFR 551.60 - Volunteer community service projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Procedure (see 28 CFR part 542). ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Volunteer community service projects. 551... MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Volunteer Community Service Projects § 551.60 Volunteer community service...

  6. 28 CFR 551.60 - Volunteer community service projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Procedure (see 28 CFR part 542). ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Volunteer community service projects. 551... MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Volunteer Community Service Projects § 551.60 Volunteer community service...

  7. Tailoring Community-Based Wellness Initiatives With Latent Class Analysis — Massachusetts Community Transformation Grant Projects

    PubMed Central

    Reardon, Timothy; Vogel, Joshua; Andrews, Bonnie K.; Li, Wenjun; Land, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Community-based approaches to preventing chronic diseases are attractive because of their broad reach and low costs, and as such, are integral components of health care reform efforts. Implementing community-based initiatives across Massachusetts’ municipalities presents both programmatic and evaluation challenges. For effective delivery and evaluation of the interventions, establishing a community typology that groups similar municipalities provides a balanced and cost-effective approach. Methods Through a series of key informant interviews and exploratory data analysis, we identified 55 municipal-level indicators of 6 domains for the typology analysis. The domains were health behaviors and health outcomes, housing and land use, transportation, retail environment, socioeconomics, and demographic composition. A latent class analysis was used to identify 10 groups of municipalities based on similar patterns of municipal-level indicators across the domains. Results Our model with 10 latent classes yielded excellent classification certainty (relative entropy = .995, minimum class probability for any class = .871), and differentiated distinct groups of municipalities based on health-relevant needs and resources. The classes differentiated healthy and racially and ethnically diverse urban areas from cities with similar population densities and diversity but worse health outcomes, affluent communities from lower-income rural communities, and mature suburban areas from rapidly suburbanizing communities with different healthy-living challenges. Conclusion Latent class analysis is a tool that may aid in the planning, communication, and evaluation of community-based wellness initiatives such as Community Transformation Grants projects administrated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. PMID:24524425

  8. Young citizens as health agents: use of drama in promoting community efficacy for HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Kamo, Norifumi; Carlson, Mary; Brennan, Robert T; Earls, Felton

    2008-02-01

    A community-based cluster randomized control trial in a medium-sized municipality in Tanzania was designed to increase local competence to control HIV/AIDS through actions initiated by children and adolescents aged 10 to 14 years. Representative groups from the 15 treatment communities reached mutual understanding about their objectives as health agents, prioritized their actions, and skillfully applied community drama ("skits") to impart knowledge about the social realities and the microbiology of HIV/AIDS. In independently conducted surveys of neighborhood residents, differences were found between adults who did and did not witness the skits in their beliefs about the efficacy of children as HIV/AIDS primary change agents.

  9. Approximated affine projection algorithm for feedback cancellation in hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangmin; Kim, In-Young; Park, Young-Cheol

    2007-09-01

    We propose an approximated affine projection (AP) algorithm for feedback cancellation in hearing aids. It is based on the conventional approach using the Gauss-Seidel (GS) iteration, but provides more stable convergence behaviour even with small step sizes. In the proposed algorithm, a residue of the weighted error vector, instead of the current error sample, is used to provide stable convergence. A new learning rate control scheme is also applied to the proposed algorithm to prevent signal cancellation and system instability. The new scheme determines step size in proportion to the prediction factor of the input, so that adaptation is inhibited whenever tone-like signals are present in the input. Simulation results verified the efficiency of the proposed algorithm. PMID:17644214

  10. International Distance Education: The Digital Communities Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard-Vital, Michelle R.; Rosenkoetter, Marlene

    This paper describes the participation of the University of North Carolina at Wilmington (UNCW) in the virtual university component of the Digital Communities Project in Japan. It examines the characteristics of an experimental, international, distance-learning collaboration and explores the politics and practicalities related to international…

  11. The Community Leisure Facilitator. Project REC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, M. Sherril; And Others

    Developed as part of a project to integrate youth with disabilities into regular recreational and leisure activities, this report focuses on the role of the community leisure facilitator (CLF), defined as a professional, friend, family member, or volunteer who assists individuals with disabilities to enjoy the same leisure pursuits as other…

  12. Community Participation in Jamaican Conservation Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundy, Patricia

    1999-01-01

    In Jamaica, people most likely to be affected by environmental degradation are less likely to be involved in environmental nongovernmental organizations and community-based conservation projects. Funders, practitioners, and policy makers should work to remove barriers to participation and ensure equitable allocation of funding. (SK)

  13. A Telecommunications-Infused Community Action Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, Thomas; Puma, Jessica

    1996-01-01

    The Nonprofit Prophets, a telecommunications-infused community action project, was designed for high school students. Students were teamed with a nonprofit organization and produced videoconferences or Web sites for them. Although specific skills were acquired, students also gained confidence and self-esteem as well as a belief that they…

  14. Alpena Community College Workplace Partnership Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpena Community Coll., MI.

    These materials include a report, evaluation, and book written about a workplace literacy project involving education (Alpena Community College), business and industry (Besser Company and Alpena Power Company), and labor (Thunder Bay Labor Council). The report specifies objectives; accomplishments, including development of eight courses in math,…

  15. NAN--a national voice for community-based services to persons with AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Kawata, P A; Andriote, J M

    1988-01-01

    Because of the variety of needs engendered by AIDS, a broadbased response to the epidemic is warranted. The traditional medical model, with its emphasis on inpatient hospital care, is expensive and fails to address other needs of people with AIDS (PWAs). This paper outlines an alternative model: the community-based response, or continuum-of-care model. It builds on earlier community models of an integrated network of service providers who can better meet a range of needs of PWAs outside the hospital. Although the model may include a designated hospital AIDS unit that supplies inpatient services, the continuum-of-care model incorporates other nonacute and psychosocial services offered through community-based providers, and these services rely to a large extent on volunteers. Nationwide, more than 400 community-based AIDS service organizations have been formed in response to the growing AIDS epidemic, or have evolved from existing organizations. The National AIDS Network (NAN) was formed in 1985 by five such organizations to represent at the national level the vision of community-based AIDS care. As the nexus for a national community-based response, NAN acts as a conduit for service providers to share experience as well as a clearinghouse for information and programs. PMID:3131822

  16. The Community Follow-up Project (CFUP).

    PubMed

    Sherina, M S; Azhar, M Z; Mohd Yunus, A; Azlan Hamzah, S A

    2005-08-01

    The Community Follow-up Project (CFUP) is a project where medical students choose a hospital in-ward patient during their clinical ward-based attachments and follow-up this patient's progress after discharge from the hospital. The students do a series of home visits and also accompany their patients for some of their follow-ups at the hospital, government clinics, general practitioners' clinics and even to the palliative care or social welfare centres. The students assess the physical, psychological and social impact of the illness on the patient, family and community. By following their patients from the time their patients were in the hospital and back to their homes and community, the students are able to understand in depth the problems faced by patients, the importance of communication skills in educating patients on their illness and the importance of good communication between primary, secondary and tertiary care.

  17. HIV/AIDS in Communities of Color: A Lasswellian Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humble Michael N.; Bride, Brian E.

    2009-01-01

    HIV/AIDS has changed drastically since the introduction of life-saving drugs known as highly active antiretroviral treatment. These same drugs have created a schism between the haves and the have-nots in society. The demographics of the disease have also changed alongside treatment. This article explores the changing face of HIV/AIDS in the 21st…

  18. Communities, citizens, and the perceived importance of AIDS-related services in West Hollywood, California.

    PubMed

    Law, Robin

    2003-03-01

    Successful strategies for prevention and treatment of human immuneodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the developed world are commonly described in terms of community mobilisation and involvement. While a broadly defined 'gay community' has been regarded as central in mobilising responses to HIV and AIDS, other kinds of communities are also relevant, including place-based communities of citizens constituted by their shared residential location, and interest or affinity-based communities of individuals constituted by their relationship to AIDS (e.g. as HIV-positive, as care-giver, as activist). These overlapping communities are identified in West Hollywood, a city with a relatively large gay and lesbian population, and with high rates of HIV infection and AIDS. Results are presented from a 1993 survey of city residents (N=832), comparing perceptions of the relative importance of HIV and AIDS services. How does the perception of the importance of these services vary among individuals defined in terms of their potential membership of these three communities? The findings show that although household HIV-status and gay self-identity were positively associated with relatively high ratings of importance for HIV and AIDS services, there was a strong consensus among all residents that AIDS was the top issue of concern for West Hollywood as a whole. In short, AIDS had emerged as a central issue for citizens of West Hollywood even though the majority of residents were not self-identified members of a gay community nor part of a narrowly-defined community of interest comprising households with a HIV-positive member.

  19. Communities, citizens, and the perceived importance of AIDS-related services in West Hollywood, California.

    PubMed

    Law, Robin

    2003-03-01

    Successful strategies for prevention and treatment of human immuneodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the developed world are commonly described in terms of community mobilisation and involvement. While a broadly defined 'gay community' has been regarded as central in mobilising responses to HIV and AIDS, other kinds of communities are also relevant, including place-based communities of citizens constituted by their shared residential location, and interest or affinity-based communities of individuals constituted by their relationship to AIDS (e.g. as HIV-positive, as care-giver, as activist). These overlapping communities are identified in West Hollywood, a city with a relatively large gay and lesbian population, and with high rates of HIV infection and AIDS. Results are presented from a 1993 survey of city residents (N=832), comparing perceptions of the relative importance of HIV and AIDS services. How does the perception of the importance of these services vary among individuals defined in terms of their potential membership of these three communities? The findings show that although household HIV-status and gay self-identity were positively associated with relatively high ratings of importance for HIV and AIDS services, there was a strong consensus among all residents that AIDS was the top issue of concern for West Hollywood as a whole. In short, AIDS had emerged as a central issue for citizens of West Hollywood even though the majority of residents were not self-identified members of a gay community nor part of a narrowly-defined community of interest comprising households with a HIV-positive member. PMID:12609469

  20. From Funding Projects to Supporting Sectors? Observation on the Aid Relationship in Burkina Faso

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samoff, Joel

    2004-01-01

    Burkina Faso is among the largest recipients of development aid in West Africa. The new aid terminology emphasizes partnership and a sectoral approach. Yet, recent research suggests more continuity than change in the aid relationship. Projects persist. Funding and technical assistance agencies cooperate more but adhere to their interests,…

  1. Latinos' community involvement in HIV/AIDS: organizational and individual perspectives on volunteering.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Brown, Amanda Uris

    2003-02-01

    Community involvement (e.g., volunteerism, activism) in HIV/AIDS may be an effective prevention strategy. Through involvement in HIV/AIDS-related organizations, individuals may develop a positive sense of themselves, maintain HIV preventive behaviors, and create community change. In this paper we examine the types of activities, motives, consequences, and deterrents to community involvement among Latino gay men using both community organizations' and Latino gay men's perspectives. Data come from an exploratory study in Chicago. It included telephone interviews with HIV/AIDS organizations (N = 62) and in-depth interviews with Latino gay men (n = 6 volunteers; n = 7 no volunteers). We found that organizations have few Latino volunteers and that the deterrents to involvement are stigma of HIV/AIDS and homosexuality, racism, and apathy. Among the positive consequences, we found an increase in self-esteem, sense of empowerment, and safer sex behaviors.

  2. Safe Sex and Dangerous Poems: AIDS, Literature and the Gay and Lesbian Community College Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engler, Robert Klein

    Some of the denial and fear that accompanies homosexuality and the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) can be dealt with by discussing the following three issues: the AIDS epidemic, the problems of gay and lesbian community college students, and finally, the teaching of literature--especially poetry. Exploring both poetry and the AIDS…

  3. Into the Community and Not on the Shelf: Learning to Develop a Meaningful HIV/AIDS Curriculum for Multiple Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Tasha

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the process involved in creating a community-based training curriculum designed to build capacity and foster new knowledge in support of HIV/AIDS education. Highlighted are the challenges and triumphs incurred while working with community and academic partners to ensure the production of an adaptable curriculum designed to…

  4. From rhetoric to reality? Putting HIV and AIDS rights talk into practice in a South African rural community.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Catherine; Nair, Yugi

    2014-01-01

    Whilst international rhetoric on HIV and AIDS frequently invokes discourses of human rights to inspire and guide action, translating universal rights talk into practice in specific settings remains a challenge. Community mobilisation is often strategy of choice. We present a case study of the Entabeni Project in South Africa--in which a foreign-funded NGO sought to work with female health volunteers in a deep rural community to increase their access to two HIV-relevant rights: women's rights (especially gender equality) and rights to health (especially access to HIV- and AIDS-related services). Whilst the project had short-term health-related successes, it was less successful in implementing a gender empowerment agenda. The concept of women's rights had no purchase with women who had little interest in directly challenging male power, foregrounding the fight against poverty as their main preoccupation. The area's traditional chief and gatekeeper insisted the project should remain 'apolitical'. Project funders prioritised 'numbers reached' over a gender empowerment orientation. In the absence of (1) a marginalised group who are willing to assert their rights; and (2) a context where powerful people are willing to support these claims, 'rights' may be a blunt tool for HIV-related work with women in deeply oppressive and remote rural communities beyond the reach of international treaties and urban-based activist movements.

  5. From rhetoric to reality? Putting HIV and AIDS rights talk into practice in a South African rural community.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Catherine; Nair, Yugi

    2014-01-01

    Whilst international rhetoric on HIV and AIDS frequently invokes discourses of human rights to inspire and guide action, translating universal rights talk into practice in specific settings remains a challenge. Community mobilisation is often strategy of choice. We present a case study of the Entabeni Project in South Africa--in which a foreign-funded NGO sought to work with female health volunteers in a deep rural community to increase their access to two HIV-relevant rights: women's rights (especially gender equality) and rights to health (especially access to HIV- and AIDS-related services). Whilst the project had short-term health-related successes, it was less successful in implementing a gender empowerment agenda. The concept of women's rights had no purchase with women who had little interest in directly challenging male power, foregrounding the fight against poverty as their main preoccupation. The area's traditional chief and gatekeeper insisted the project should remain 'apolitical'. Project funders prioritised 'numbers reached' over a gender empowerment orientation. In the absence of (1) a marginalised group who are willing to assert their rights; and (2) a context where powerful people are willing to support these claims, 'rights' may be a blunt tool for HIV-related work with women in deeply oppressive and remote rural communities beyond the reach of international treaties and urban-based activist movements. PMID:25005486

  6. Effectiveness of Computer-Aided Detection in Community Mammography Practice

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Linn; Taplin, Stephen H.; Geller, Berta M.; Carney, Patricia A.; D’Orsi, Carl; Elmore, Joann G.; Barlow, William E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Computer-aided detection (CAD) is applied during screening mammography for millions of US women annually, although it is uncertain whether CAD improves breast cancer detection when used by community radiologists. Methods We investigated the association between CAD use during film-screen screening mammography and specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value, cancer detection rates, and prognostic characteristics of breast cancers (stage, size, and node involvement). Records from 684 956 women who received more than 1.6 million film-screen mammograms at Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium facilities in seven states in the United States from 1998 to 2006 were analyzed. We used random-effects logistic regression to estimate associations between CAD and specificity (true-negative examinations among women without breast cancer), sensitivity (true-positive examinations among women with breast cancer diagnosed within 1 year of mammography), and positive predictive value (breast cancer diagnosed after positive mammograms) while adjusting for mammography registry, patient age, time since previous mammography, breast density, use of hormone replacement therapy, and year of examination (1998–2002 vs 2003–2006). All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Of 90 total facilities, 25 (27.8%) adopted CAD and used it for an average of 27.5 study months. In adjusted analyses, CAD use was associated with statistically significantly lower specificity (OR = 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.85 to 0.89, P < .001) and positive predictive value (OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.80 to 0.99, P = .03). A non-statistically significant increase in overall sensitivity with CAD (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.84 to 1.33, P = .62) was attributed to increased sensitivity for ductal carcinoma in situ (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 0.83 to 2.91; P = .17), although sensitivity for invasive cancer was similar with or without CAD (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.75 to 1.24; P = .77). CAD was not associated with

  7. Localizing HIV/AIDS discourse in a rural Kenyan community.

    PubMed

    Banda, Felix; Oketch, Omondi

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of multimodal texts used in HIV/AIDS campaigns in rural western Kenya using multimodal discourse analysis (Kress and Van Leeuwen, 2006; Martin and Rose, 2004). Twenty HIV/AIDS documents (posters, billboards and brochures) are analysed together with interview data (20 unstructured one-on-one interviews and six focus groups) from the target group to explore the effectiveness of the multimodal texts in engaging the target rural audience in meaningful interaction towards behavioural change. It is concluded that in some cases the HIV/AIDS messages are misinterpreted or lost as the multimodal texts used are unfamiliar and contradictory to the everyday life experiences of the rural folk. The paper suggests localization of HIV/AIDS discourse through use of local modes of communication and resources. PMID:21574281

  8. The UCSF AIDS Health Project Guide to Counseling: Perspectives on Psychotherapy, Prevention, and Therapeutic Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilley, James W., Ed.; Marks, Robert, Ed.

    The University of California San Francisco AIDS Health Project has more than 15 years' experience in working with thousands of people with AIDS. This guide, developed by the Project, provides practical, state-of-the-art resources in the field. Part 1, "Risk and Behavior: Helping Clients Remain Uninfected," covers the following topics: (1) "HIV…

  9. Photovoltaic pilot projects in the European community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treble, F. C.; Grassi, G.; Schnell, W.

    The paper presents proposals received for the construction of photovoltaic pilot plants as part of the Commission of the European Communities' second 4-year solar energy R and D program. The proposed plants range from 30 to 300 kWp and cover a variety of applications including rural electrification, water pumping, desalination, dairy farming, factories, hospitals, schools and vacation centers. Fifteen projects will be accepted with a total generating capacity of 1 MWp, with preference given to those projects involving the development of new techniques, components and systems.

  10. Providing choices for a marginalized community. A community-based project with Malaysian aborigines.

    PubMed

    Kaur, P

    1994-01-01

    In 1991, the Family Planning Association (FPA) of the Malaysian state of Perak initiated a community-based development project in the remote Aborigine village of Kampung Tisong. The community consists of approximately 34 households who survive on an average income of about US $37. Malnutrition is pervasive, even minor ailments cause death, more serious afflictions are prevalent, and the closest government clinic is 20 kilometers away and seldom used by the Aborigines. 70% of the children have access to education, but parental illiteracy is a serious educational obstacle. The goals of the FPA program are to 1) promote maternal and child health and responsible parenthood, 2) provide health education, 3) encourage women to seek self-determination, and 4) encourage the development of self-reliance in the community as a whole. The first step was to survey the community's culture, beliefs, and health status with the help of the Aborigines Department and the village headman. After a series of preliminary meetings with other agencies, the FPA began to provide activities including health talks, health courses and demonstrations, medical examinations and check-ups, and first aid training. Environmental protection and sanitation measures were included in the educational activities, and following the traditional "mutual aid system," a small plot of land was cleared for vegetable production. Vegetable gardens and needlecraft will become income-producing activities for the women. Attempts to motivate the women to use family planning have been hindered by the fact that the health of 2 women deteriorated after they began using oral contraceptives. Positive changes are occurring slowly and steadily, however, and the FPA has been instrumental in having the settlement included in a program for the hardcore poor which will provide new housing and farming projects.

  11. Experiences and benefits of volunteering in a community AIDS organization.

    PubMed

    Crook, Joan; Weir, Robin; Willms, Dennis; Egdorf, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the AIDS service organization-volunteer relationship from the volunteer's point of view. Factors that led to a relationship with an AIDS service organization included personal values and individual characteristics and needs. Volunteers reported many rewards from the work itself and the responses of others. Volunteers also encountered challenges that included role demands, role-ability fit, and stress/burnout concerns as well as limited organizational resources and structural obstacles. These results suggest that care must be taken to ensure that the volunteer role meets the needs, skills, and abilities of the individual volunteering. The need to ameliorate challenges is clear for AIDS service organizations seeking to retain volunteers. Some of the preventive strategies include goal-setting and feedback, individual-sensitive role redesign, opportunity to participate in decisions, and increased communication.

  12. Experiences and benefits of volunteering in a community AIDS organization.

    PubMed

    Crook, Joan; Weir, Robin; Willms, Dennis; Egdorf, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the AIDS service organization-volunteer relationship from the volunteer's point of view. Factors that led to a relationship with an AIDS service organization included personal values and individual characteristics and needs. Volunteers reported many rewards from the work itself and the responses of others. Volunteers also encountered challenges that included role demands, role-ability fit, and stress/burnout concerns as well as limited organizational resources and structural obstacles. These results suggest that care must be taken to ensure that the volunteer role meets the needs, skills, and abilities of the individual volunteering. The need to ameliorate challenges is clear for AIDS service organizations seeking to retain volunteers. Some of the preventive strategies include goal-setting and feedback, individual-sensitive role redesign, opportunity to participate in decisions, and increased communication. PMID:16849088

  13. Kothmale Community Radio Interorg Project: True Community Radio or Feel-Good Propaganda?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey-Carter, Liz

    2009-01-01

    The Kothmale Community Radio and Interorg project in Sri Lanka has been hailed as an example of how a community radio initiative should function in a developing nation. However, there is some question about whether the Kothmale Community Interorg Project is a true community radio initiative that empowers local communities to access ICT services…

  14. Community College Business and Technical Aid. Memorandum Report to the Legislature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowell, David; Smith, Linda

    A study was conducted of nine State University of New York (SUNY) and three City University of New York (CUNY) community colleges to determine the impact of supplemental financial aid on the operation and financing of community college business and technical degree programs. The study sought to assess the extent and reasons for business and…

  15. Community Colleges Tackle Student Health and HIV/AIDS. AACC Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottenritter, Nan; Barnett, Lynn

    This research brief summarizes the findings of a survey conducted in 1996 to determine the involvement of community colleges in the health of their students. The survey gathered information from 535 campuses concerning administration and leadership, curriculum, and community relationships. This report focuses on HIV/AIDS and the extent to which…

  16. The Effects of Community Colleges: Aid or Hindrance to Socioeconomic Attainment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Kevin

    Focusing on the controversy over whether community colleges aid or hinder their students' socioeconomic attainment, this paper aims to definitively determine the effects of these institutions and to explore how they produce those effects. The first section critically synthesizes research comparing the community college and other postsecondary…

  17. Perspectives and Experiences of Financial Aid Counselors on Community College Students Who Borrow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Lyle; Roberts, Toya; Shefman, Pamelyn

    2013-01-01

    Loan borrowing among community college students has increased in recent years. This study utilized original survey data to examine this trend from the perspective and firsthand experiences of 107 community college financial aid counselors from three states: California, Florida, and Texas. Findings indicate these counselors are concerned with the…

  18. Colorado Community College System Financial Aid Services: Cost Analyses and Cost Efficiency Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckmann, Dale

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted in two phases. One, the Cost Analysis, reports on inventory and analysis of actual estimated costs for delivering financial aid services to students and potential students in thirteen Colorado Community College System (CCCS) community colleges in Fiscal Year 2003. Additionally, an assessment of services and functions is…

  19. Critical Pedagogy in HIV-AIDS Education for a Maya Immigrant Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoorman, Dilys; Acosta, Maria Cristina; Sena, Rachel; Baxley, Traci

    2012-01-01

    In this article the authors discuss how the perspectives of Paulo Freire were instructive in addressing the challenges of HIV-AIDS education in Guatemalan Maya immigrant communities with minimal formal education and literacy. The forging of a community-based, collaborative, educational program offers several implications for effective teaching and…

  20. [ATPF / CE project: AIDS prevention in the workplace].

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The Tunisian Family Planning Association initiated a widespread activity relative to the prevention of AIDS that targets young professionals, both those that are employed and those in professional training. The activity aimed to sensitize young professionals to AIDS prevention and to promote condom use. Planned activities include 30 educational meetings on AIDS prevention in professional environments. More specifically, there will be 10 meetings in each of three regions: Sfax, Sbeitla, and Kef. Each meeting will have 40 participants. Association volunteers in collaboration with the Tunisian Association for AIDS Control will enliven the meetings. These meetings are scheduled to take place in June 1995 in Sfax.

  1. Improving Access to HIV and AIDS Information Resources for Patients, Caregivers, and Clinicians: Results from the SHINE Project

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Brian E.; Kaneshiro, Kellie

    2012-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) remains a significant international public health challenge. The Statewide HIV/AIDS Information Network (SHINE) Project was created to improve HIV/AIDS health information use and access for health care professionals, patients, and affected communities in Indiana. Objective: Our objective was to assess the information-seeking behaviors of health care professionals and consumers who seek information on the testing, treatment, and management of HIV/AIDS and the usability of the SHINE Project’s resources in meeting end user needs. The feedback was designed to help SHINE Project members improve and expand the SHINE Project’s online resources. Methods: A convenience sample of health care professionals and consumers participated in a usability study. Participants were asked to complete typical HIV/AIDS information-seeking tasks using the SHINE Project website. Feedback was provided in the form of standardized questionnaire and usability “think-aloud” responses. Results: Thirteen participants took part in the usability study. Clinicians generally reported the site to be “very good,” while consumers generally found it to be “good.” Health care professionals commented that they lack access to comprehensive resources for treating patients with HIV/AIDS. They requested new electronic resources that could be integrated in clinical practice and existing information technology infrastructures. Consumers found the SHINE website and its collected information resources overwhelming and difficult to navigate. They requested simpler, multimedia-content rich resources to deliver information on HIV/AIDS testing, treatment, and disease management. Conclusions: Accessibility, usability, and user education remain important challenges that public health and information specialists must address when developing and deploying interventions intended to empower consumers and support

  2. An impact evaluation of the safe motherhood promotion project in Bangladesh: evidence from Japanese aid-funded technical cooperation.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Yusuke; Yoshimura, Yukie; Islam, Mohammad Tajul

    2013-04-01

    This paper reports the findings from a quasi-experimental impact evaluation of the Safe Motherhood Promotion Project (SMPP) conducted in the Narsingdi district of Bangladesh. SMPP is a Japanese aid-funded technical cooperation project aimed at developing local capacities to tackle maternal and newborn health problems in rural areas. We assessed whether the project interventions, in particular, community-based activities under the Model Union approach, had a favorable impact on women's access to and knowledge of maternal health care during pregnancy and childbirth. The project comprises a package of interlinked interventions to facilitate safe motherhood practices at primary and secondary care levels. The primary-level activities focused on community mobilization through participatory approaches. The secondary-level activities aimed at strengthening organizational and personnel capacities for delivering emergency obstetric care (EmOC) at district and sub-district level hospitals. The project impact was estimated by difference-in-differences logistic regressions using two rounds of cross-sectional household survey data. The results showed that the project successfully increased the utilization of antenatal visits and postpartum EmOC services and also enhanced women's knowledge of danger signs during pregnancy and delivery. The project also reduced income inequalities in access to antenatal care. In contrast, we found no significant increase in the use of skilled birth attendants (SBA) in the project site. Nonetheless, community mobilization activities and the government's voucher scheme played a complementary role in promoting the use of SBA. PMID:23465202

  3. Projections of HIV infections and AIDS cases to the year 2000.

    PubMed Central

    Chin, J.; Sato, P. A.; Mann, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    After the recognition of AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) in the early 1980s, uncertainty about the present and future dimensions of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection led to the development of many models to estimate current and future numbers of HIV infections and AIDS cases. The Global Programme on AIDS (GPA) of the World Health Organization (WHO) has developed an AIDS projection model which relies on available HIV seroprevalence data and on the annual rate of progression from HIV infection to AIDS for use in areas where reporting of AIDS cases is incomplete, and where scant data are available to quantify biological and human behavioural variables. Virtually all models, including the WHO model, have projected large increases in the number of AIDS cases by the early 1990s. Such short-term projections are considered relatively reliable since most of the new AIDS cases will develop in persons already infected with HIV. Longer-term prediction (10 years or longer) is less reliable because HIV prevalence and future trends are determined by many variables, most of which are still not well understood. WHO has now applied the Delphi method to project HIV prevalence from the year 1988 to mid-2000. This method attempts to improve the quality of the judgements and estimates for relatively uncertain issues by the systematic use of knowledgeable "experts". The mean value of the Delphi projections for HIV prevalence in the year 2000 is between 3 and 4 times the 1988 base estimate of 5.1 million; these projections have been used to obtain annual estimates of adult AIDS cases up to the year 2000. Coordinated HIV/AIDS prevention and control programmes are considered by the Delphi participants to be potentially capable of preventing almost half of the new HIV infections that would otherwise occur between 1988 and the year 2000. However, more than half of the approximately 5 million AIDS cases which are projected for the next decade will occur despite the most

  4. Campuses Confront AIDS: Tapping the Vitality of Caring and Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Richard P.

    1993-01-01

    In response to needs created by the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, colleges and universities have struggled to develop or redesign policies and services to promote behavioral change. Effective institutional response requires comprehensive policy, services and referral, and education and prevention focusing on identity and…

  5. Clearing the Path: Delivering Financial Aid to Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick Cardelle, Rachel A.

    2013-01-01

    Low- and middle-income students at public, two-year institutions too often do not apply for college financial aid (Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance, 2008; Kantrowitz, 2009a, 2011). This research first examines national data to identify what the risk factors are for not applying and compares those risk factors for students at…

  6. Preventing Abuse in Federal Student Aid: Community College Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baime, David S.; Mullin, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    In recent months, some legislators, government agency officials, segments of the media, and campus administrators have called attention to perceived and proven instances of abuse of the federal student financial assistance programs. Concerns have focused on students enrolling in courses primarily to secure student financial aid funds rather than…

  7. Linking People with AIDS in Rural Communities: The Telephone Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rounds, Kathleen A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Notes that rural people with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) have difficulty obtaining support. Describes development, implementation, and evaluation of model to bring support groups into homes of rural residents through six telephone group sessions. Describes goals of psychoeducational group being to increase information and social…

  8. New Careers: The Community/Home Health Aide Trainee's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Florence

    Intended for trainee use, the manual is in notebook format with a curriculum corresponding to the trainers' manual (VT 007 909), a related document. Part I, Basic Health Curriculum, deals with (1) the roles of health service aides, (2) Biological Potential and Equilibrium, (3) Professionals in the Health Field, (4) Public Health Administration,…

  9. Sensory Aids Research Project - Clarke School for the Deaf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boothroyd, Arthur

    Described is a program of research into sensory aids for the deaf, emphasizing research on factors involved in the effective use of sensory aids rather than evaluation of particular devices. Aspects of the program are the development of a programed testing and training unit, the control of fundamental voice frequency using visual feedback, and…

  10. Myths or theories? Alternative beliefs about HIV and AIDS in South African working class communities.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, David

    2013-09-01

    Despite three decades of public health promotion based on the scientific explanation of HIV/AIDS, alternative explanations of the disease continue to circulate. While these are seen as counter-productive to health education efforts, what is rarely analysed is their plurality and their tenacity. This article analyses the 'AIDS myths' collected by African HIV/AIDS workplace peer educators during an action research project. These beliefs about HIV/AIDS are organised, in this article, around core ideas that form the basis of 'folk' and 'lay theories' of HIV/AIDS. These constitute non-scientific explanations of HIV/AIDS, with folk theories drawing on bodies of knowledge that are independent of HIV/AIDS while lay theories are generated in response to the disease. A categorisation of alternative beliefs about HIV/AIDS is presented which comprises three folk theories - African traditional beliefs, Christian theology, and racial conspiracy - and three lay theories, all focused on avoiding HIV infection. Using this schema, the article describes how the plausibility of these alternative theories of HIV/AIDS lies not in their scientific validity, but in the robustness of the core idea at the heart of each folk or lay theory. Folk and lay theories of HIV/AIDS are also often highly palatable in that they provide hope and comfort in terms of prevention, cure, and the allocation of blame. This study argue that there is coherence and value to these alternative HIV/AIDS beliefs which should not be dismissed as ignorance, idle speculation or simple misunderstandings. A serious engagement with folk and lay theories of HIV/AIDS helps explain the continued circulation of alternative beliefs of HIV/AIDS and the slow uptake of behavioural change messages around the disease. PMID:25860318

  11. Myths or theories? Alternative beliefs about HIV and AIDS in South African working class communities.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, David

    2013-09-01

    Despite three decades of public health promotion based on the scientific explanation of HIV/AIDS, alternative explanations of the disease continue to circulate. While these are seen as counter-productive to health education efforts, what is rarely analysed is their plurality and their tenacity. This article analyses the 'AIDS myths' collected by African HIV/AIDS workplace peer educators during an action research project. These beliefs about HIV/AIDS are organised, in this article, around core ideas that form the basis of 'folk' and 'lay theories' of HIV/AIDS. These constitute non-scientific explanations of HIV/AIDS, with folk theories drawing on bodies of knowledge that are independent of HIV/AIDS while lay theories are generated in response to the disease. A categorisation of alternative beliefs about HIV/AIDS is presented which comprises three folk theories - African traditional beliefs, Christian theology, and racial conspiracy - and three lay theories, all focused on avoiding HIV infection. Using this schema, the article describes how the plausibility of these alternative theories of HIV/AIDS lies not in their scientific validity, but in the robustness of the core idea at the heart of each folk or lay theory. Folk and lay theories of HIV/AIDS are also often highly palatable in that they provide hope and comfort in terms of prevention, cure, and the allocation of blame. This study argue that there is coherence and value to these alternative HIV/AIDS beliefs which should not be dismissed as ignorance, idle speculation or simple misunderstandings. A serious engagement with folk and lay theories of HIV/AIDS helps explain the continued circulation of alternative beliefs of HIV/AIDS and the slow uptake of behavioural change messages around the disease.

  12. HIV/AIDS and immigrant Cape Verdean women: contextualized perspectives of Cape Verdean community advocates.

    PubMed

    De Jesus, Maria

    2007-03-01

    This research explored Cape Verdean community advocates' understandings of the structural and social realities that contribute to the increased HIV/AIDS risk of Northeastern U.S.-based immigrant Cape Verdean women. A community perspective informed the analysis of the multi-layered contextual barriers that these advocates identified as limiting the effectiveness of individual-level HIV/AIDS prevention and intervention models. Qualitative content analysis of interviews with nine community advocates revealed several thematic clusters including challenges to (1) perceived institutional and community realities; (2) traditional gender relations; and, (3) traditional ways of thinking. These findings challenge universalist cognitive-behavioral change models of HIV/AIDS prevention and intervention and are critically discussed to better understand the complex realities faced by Cape Verdean immigrant women. A liberatory community psychology perspective framed the research process and contributed to reconceptualizing HIV/AIDS risk as a community problem that requires interventions not simply at the individual and relational levels, but also at the structural level.

  13. Evaluation of the community response to HIV and AIDS: learning from a portfolio approach.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-García, Rosalía; Wilson, David; York, Nick; Low, Corinne; N'Jie, N'Della; Bonnel, Rene

    2013-01-01

    While communities have played a large role in the HIV/AIDS response, their contributions and innovative approaches to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support have not always been the focus of systematic and rigorous evaluations. To address this gap, the World Bank led an evaluation of the impact of the community response to HIV, including country studies in Burkina Faso, India, Kenya, Lesotho, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa and Zimbabwe over a three-year period. Due to the complexity and varied nature of community responses, the evaluation attempted to determine the results that investments have produced at the community level by applying a mixed method approach: Randomized Controlled Trials, quasi-experimental studies, qualitative studies and analytical studies including financial data. Specifically, the studies examined a typology of community response and the flow of funds to community-based organizations, while investigating the impact of the community responses on (1) knowledge and behavior, (2) use of services, (3) social transformation, and (4) HIV incidence. This editorial summarizes the results of this evaluation portfolio, finding that investments in communities have produced significant results, including, improved knowledge and behavior, and increased use of health services, and even decreased HIV incidence. Evidence on social transformation was more mixed, with community groups found to be effective only in some settings. Each study in the evaluation provides a partial view of how communities shape the local response; however, taken together they corroborate the common wisdom that communities can be a vital part of the global HIV/AIDS response.

  14. Demographic and social factors associated with homophobia and fear of AIDS in a community sample.

    PubMed

    Walch, Susan E; Orlosky, Paula M; Sinkkanen, Kimberly A; Stevens, Heather R

    2010-01-01

    Examinations of demographic and social factors associated with homophobia and fear of AIDS are limited by the frequent use of homogeneous, college student samples and limited examination of interrelationships among variables. The present study examined community attitudes toward homosexuality and fear of HIV/AIDS as a function of age, education, race/ethnicity, religious affiliation, political party affiliation, and personal contact with homosexual individuals and persons living with HIV/AIDS. A community sample of 463 adults completed standardized measures of homophobia and fear of AIDS as well as demographic and social background items. When examined separately, each demographic and social factor assessed, with the exception of race/ethnicity, was associated with homophobia and all but race/ethnicity and political party affiliation were associated with fear of AIDS. However, when entered into multiple regression analyses, 24% of the variance in homophobia was predicted by a single variable, including only personal contact with homosexual individuals, while 18% of the variance in fear of AIDS was accounted for by five variables, including personal contact with homosexual individuals, religious affiliation, political affiliation, education, and personal contact with someone living with HIV/AIDS. Findings suggest that it is important to consider intercorrelations among social and demographic factors, particularly when considering homophobia.

  15. Evaluating an HIV and AIDS Community Training Partnership Program in Five Diamond Mining Communities in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rispel, L. C.; Peltzer, K.; Nkomo, N.; Molomo, B.

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, De Beers Consolidated Diamond Mines in South Africa entered into a partnership, with the Soul City Institute for Health and Development Communications to implement an HIV and AIDS Community Training Partnership Program (CTPP), initially in five diamond mining areas in three provinces of South Africa. The aim of CTPP was to improve HIV…

  16. 23 CFR 230.117 - Reimbursement procedures (Federal-aid highway construction projects only).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... construction projects only). 230.117 Section 230.117 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... construction projects only). (a) On-the-job special training provisions. State highway agencies will be reimbursed on the same pro-rata basis as the construction costs of the Federal-aid project. (b)...

  17. 23 CFR 230.117 - Reimbursement procedures (Federal-aid highway construction projects only).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... construction projects only). 230.117 Section 230.117 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... construction projects only). (a) On-the-job special training provisions. State highway agencies will be reimbursed on the same pro-rata basis as the construction costs of the Federal-aid project. (b)...

  18. 23 CFR 230.117 - Reimbursement procedures (Federal-aid highway construction projects only).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... construction projects only). 230.117 Section 230.117 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... construction projects only). (a) On-the-job special training provisions. State highway agencies will be reimbursed on the same pro-rata basis as the construction costs of the Federal-aid project. (b)...

  19. 23 CFR 230.117 - Reimbursement procedures (Federal-aid highway construction projects only).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... construction projects only). 230.117 Section 230.117 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... construction projects only). (a) On-the-job special training provisions. State highway agencies will be reimbursed on the same pro-rata basis as the construction costs of the Federal-aid project. (b)...

  20. Origins and Outcomes: An Essay on the History of Student Aid in California. The Eureka Project: A Review of Student Financial Aid in California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eureka Project, Sacramento, CA.

    The history of student aid policies in California is reviewed by the Eureka Project to help guide policy formation and review developments that have accounted for past consensus about the state's role in providing student aid. Attention is directed to: the demographic facts that have made student aid important to California; the evolution of…

  1. Role of community pharmacies in prevention of AIDS among injecting drug misusers: findings of a survey in England and Wales.

    PubMed Central

    Glanz, A.; Byrne, C.; Jackson, P.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the current and potential roles of community pharmacists in the prevention of AIDS among misusers of injected drugs. DESIGN--Cross sectional postal survey of a one in four random sample of registered pharmacies in England and Wales. SETTING--Project conducted in the addiction research unit of the Institute of Psychiatry, London. SUBJECTS--2469 Community pharmacies in the 15 regional health authorities in England and Wales. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Willingness of pharmacists to sell injecting equipment to known or suspected misusers of drugs; pharmacists' attitudes to syringe exchange schemes, keeping a "sharps" box for use by misusers of drugs, and offering face to face advice and leaflets; and opinions of community pharmacists on their role in AIDS prevention and drug misuse. RESULTS--1946 Questionnaires were returned, representing a response rate of 79%. This fell short of the target of one in four pharmacies in each family practitioner committee area in England and Wales, and total numbers of respondents were therefore weighted in inverse proportion to the response rate in each area. The findings disclosed a substantial demand for injecting equipment by drug misusers. After weighting of numbers of respondents an estimated 676 of 2434 pharmacies were currently selling injecting equipment and 65 of 2415 (3%) were participating in local syringe exchange schemes; only 94 of 2410 pharmacies (4%) had a sharps box for used equipment. There was a high degree of concern among pharmacists about particular consequences of drug misusers visiting their premises, along with a widespread acceptance that the community pharmacist had an important part to play. CONCLUSIONS--Promoting the participation of community pharmacists in the prevention of AIDS among misusers of injected drugs is a viable policy, but several problems would need to be overcome before it was implemented. PMID:2511969

  2. In Jamaica, Community Aides for Disabled Pre-School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorburn, Marigold J.

    1981-01-01

    One of the major goals of the Jamaican Early Stimulation Project is to develop a low cost model for providing early identification of disability and intervention services. Journal availability: see EC 133 861. (Author)

  3. A Climate Created: Community Building in the Beacon College Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Lynn

    From 1989 to 1995, the American Association of Community Colleges implemented the Beacon College Project to help community colleges develop creative and practical community-building strategies through collaborative initiatives. This report reviews the philosophy behind the project and describes goals and outcomes for the 26 institutions selected…

  4. Perinatal AIDS: Permanency Planning for the African-American Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Brown, Susan; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Conducted a retrospective chart review utilizing Norwood's model on the families of the 83 infants whose cord blood was positive for maternal HIV antibodies or who were congenitally infected with HIV. Discusses implications for permanency planning in the context of their impact on the African-American community. (KS)

  5. Native American Women and HIV/AIDS: Building Healthier Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, Irene S.; Thurman, Pamela Jumper

    2009-01-01

    A quote From chief Wilma Mankiller in her "Rebuilding the Cherokee Nation" asks Natives to focus on their strengths and wisdom; for those in the health field, it motivates them to create a vision of health parity and community wellness. In following her lead the authors share general information about the health of Natives, focus on the health of…

  6. Social capital and HIV Competent Communities: The role of community groups in managing HIV/AIDS in rural Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Catherine; Scott, Kerry; Nhamo, Mercy; Nyamukapa, Constance; Madanhire, Claudius; Skovdal, Morten; Sherr, Lorraine; Gregson, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Community involvement is increasingly identified as a “critical enabler” of an effective HIV/AIDS response. We explore pathways between community participation and HIV prevention, treatment and impact mitigation in Zimbabwe, reviewing six qualitative studies in Manicaland. These find that community group membership is often (not always) associated with decreased HIV incidence, reduced stigma and improved access to some services, particularly amongst women. Participation in formal community groups (e.g., church or women's groups) and informal local networks (e.g., neighbours, families) provides opportunities for critical dialogue about HIV/AIDS, often facilitating renegotiation of harmful social norms, sharing of previously hidden personal experiences of HIV/AIDS, formulation of positive action plans and solidarity to action them. However, implementation of new plans and insights is constrained by poverty, social uncertainty and poor service delivery. Furthermore, dialogue may have negative effects, spreading false information and entrenching negative norms. The extent that formal groups and informal networks facilitate externally imposed HIV/AIDS interventions varies. They potentially provide vital practical and emotional support, facilitating service access, treatment adherence and AIDS care. However, they may sometimes play a negative role in prevention activities, challenging stereotypes about sexuality or gender. There is an urgent need for greater recognition of the role of indigenous community groups and networks, and the inclusion of “strengthening local responses” as a key element of interventions and policy. Such efforts require great sensitivity. Heavy-handed external interference in complex indigenous relationships risks undermining the localism and bottom-up initiative and activism that might be central to their effectiveness. Cautious efforts might seek to enhance the potentially beneficial effects of groups, especially for women, and limit

  7. Social capital and HIV competent communities: the role of community groups in managing HIV/AIDS in rural Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Catherine; Scott, Kerry; Nhamo, Mercy; Nyamukapa, Constance; Madanhire, Claudius; Skovdal, Morten; Sherr, Lorraine; Gregson, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Community involvement is increasingly identified as a "critical enabler" of an effective HIV/AIDS response. We explore pathways between community participation and HIV prevention, treatment and impact mitigation in Zimbabwe, reviewing six qualitative studies in Manicaland. These find that community group membership is often (not always) associated with decreased HIV incidence, reduced stigma and improved access to some services, particularly amongst women. Participation in formal community groups (e.g., church or women's groups) and informal local networks (e.g., neighbours, families) provides opportunities for critical dialogue about HIV/AIDS, often facilitating renegotiation of harmful social norms, sharing of previously hidden personal experiences of HIV/AIDS, formulation of positive action plans and solidarity to action them. However, implementation of new plans and insights is constrained by poverty, social uncertainty and poor service delivery. Furthermore, dialogue may have negative effects, spreading false information and entrenching negative norms. The extent that formal groups and informal networks facilitate externally imposed HIV/AIDS interventions varies. They potentially provide vital practical and emotional support, facilitating service access, treatment adherence and AIDS care. However, they may sometimes play a negative role in prevention activities, challenging stereotypes about sexuality or gender. There is an urgent need for greater recognition of the role of indigenous community groups and networks, and the inclusion of "strengthening local responses" as a key element of interventions and policy. Such efforts require great sensitivity. Heavy-handed external interference in complex indigenous relationships risks undermining the localism and bottom-up initiative and activism that might be central to their effectiveness. Cautious efforts might seek to enhance the potentially beneficial effects of groups, especially for women, and limit potentially

  8. No Standing: Young People and Community Space Project Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Kasey

    The Young People and Community Space Project documents the ways in which young people (aged 12 through 24 years) in New South Wales (Australia) use community space and explores ways in which conflicts in the use of community space can be addressed. Community space, for purposes of the study, includes privately owned places such as shopping centers…

  9. Aid and Advocacy: Why Community College Transfer Students Do Not Apply for Financial Aid and How Counselors Can Help Them Get in the Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handel, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    According to the American Council on Education, more than 1 million community college students failed to receive financial aid for which they were likely eligible. This is a startling statistic. Given that financial aid is such a critical determinant of college-going and that academic counselors are among students' most important advocates,…

  10. At the Intersection of HIV/AIDS and Cancer: A Qualitative Needs Assessment of Community-Based HIV/AIDS Service Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhalter, Jack E.; Cahill, Sean; Shuk, Elyse; Guidry, John; Corner, Geoffrey; Berk, Alexandra; Candelario, Norman; Kornegay, Mark; Lubetkin, Erica I.

    2013-01-01

    Due to advances in treatment, persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are living longer, but with aging, immune deficits, and lifestyle factors, they are at increased risk for cancer. This challenges community-based AIDS service organizations (ASOs) to address the growing cancer needs of…

  11. Advancing HIV/AIDS prevention among American Indians through capacity building and the community readiness model.

    PubMed

    Thurman, Pamela Jumper; Vernon, Irene S; Plested, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Although HIV/AIDS prevention has presented challenges over the past 25 years, prevention does work! To be most effective, however, prevention must be specific to the culture and the nature of the community. Building the capacity of a community for prevention efforts is not an easy process. If capacity is to be sustained, it must be practical and utilize the resources that already exist in the community. Attitudes vary across communities; resources vary, political climates are constantly varied and changing. Communities are fluid-always changing, adapting, growing. They are "ready" for different things at different times. Readiness is a key issue! This article presents a model that has experienced a high level of success in building community capacity for effective prevention/intervention for HIV/AIDS and offers case studies for review. The Community Readiness Model provides both quantitative and qualitative information in a user-friendly structure that guides a community through the process of understanding the importance of the measure of readiness. The model identifies readiness- appropriate strategies, provides readiness scores for evaluation, and most important, involves community stakeholders in the process. The article will demonstrate the importance of developing strategies consistent with readiness levels for more cost-effective and successful prevention efforts.

  12. Coded talk, scripted omissions: the micropolitics of AIDS talk in an affected community in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wood, Kate; Lambert, Helen

    2008-09-01

    In this ethnographic article, we explore the character of local discourse about AIDS in an affected township community in South Africa, describing the "indirection" that characterized communication about suspected cases of AIDS. Through a case study of one affected family, the article first explores the diverse ways in which people came to "know" that specific cases of illness were AIDS related, and how this "knowledge" was communicated. We consider why communication was indirect and coded, arguing that this reflected nota "denial" of its presence in this community but, rather, a complex group of overlapping concerns far from unique to AIDS: first, a normative injunction on naming potentially fatal conditions; second, an interest in pursuing different therapeutic options and the need to maintain hope of recovery; and third, a wish to avoid the "disrespect" entailed in referring directly to the nature of the problem in a context where, discursively, stigma was still present. The coded and indirect character of HIV/AIDS-related talk underlines the importance of ethnographic inquiry in understanding community responses to this epidemic, demonstrating that the subtleties entailed by verbal silence and elision should not be interpreted naively as collective "denial" but rather be grounded within existing patterns of responses to dangerous sickness.

  13. Financial Aid at California Community Colleges: Pell Grants and Fee Waivers in 2003-04. MPR Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkner, Lutz; Woo, Jennie

    2008-01-01

    In 2003-04 over half a million students attending the 109 California community colleges received about one billion dollars in financial aid to help meet their college expenses. Nearly all of the aided students received Board of Governors Fee Waivers to cover their enrollment fees. Less than one-half of the aided students also received federal Pell…

  14. The North Cumbria Community Genetics Project.

    PubMed Central

    Chase, D S; Tawn, E J; Parker, L; Jonas, P; Parker, C O; Burn, J

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the North Cumbria Community Genetics Project is to establish a store of DNA, plasma, and viable cells from a cohort of around 8000 Cumbrian infants. To meet this objective, specimens of umbilical cord blood and tissue will be collected with maternal consent from babies born at the West Cumberland Hospital, Whitehaven over a five year period from January 1996. These samples will be used in a series of genetic and epidemiological studies investigating the interaction between genes, the environment, and health. There is little population movement in West Cumbria and so it will be possible to follow many of the babies throughout their childhood and to investigate the relationship between their genetic constitution and health outcome. PMID:9610806

  15. Volunteering for College? Potential Implications of Financial Aid Tax Credits Rewarding Community Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Ryan S.; Lynch, Cassie M.

    2014-01-01

    President Obama has proposed a financial aid policy whereby students who complete 100 hours of community service would receive a tax credit of US$4,000 for college. After lawmakers cut this proposal from previous legislation, the administration was tasked with studying the feasibility of implementation. However, the implications of the policy for…

  16. Assessing Riverside Community College Nursing Student Attitudes toward Exposure to AIDS/HIV-Positive Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kross, Carolyn Sue

    In fall 1990, a study was conducted to assess the attitudes of nursing students who were attending Riverside Community College (RCC), in California, toward exposure to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome/Human Immunodeficiency Virus (AIDS/HIV) positive patients in a hospital setting. All students enrolled in RCC's associate degree nursing program…

  17. Organizational and Environmental Predictors of Job Satisfaction in Community-based HIV/AIDS Service Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gimbel, Ronald W.; Lehrman, Sue; Strosberg, Martin A.; Ziac, Veronica; Freedman, Jay; Savicki, Karen; Tackley, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Using variables measuring organizational characteristics and environmental influences, this study analyzed job satisfaction in community-based HIV/AIDS organizations. Organizational characteristics were found to predict job satisfaction among employees with varying intensity based on position within the organization. Environmental influences had…

  18. Risk and Resilience in Orphaned Adolescents Living in a Community Affected by AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Lauren G.; Flisher, Alan J.; Robertson, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    The AIDS pandemic has resulted in a dramatic rise in the number of orphans in South Africa. This study was designed to investigate the associations between family, peer, and community factors and resilience in orphaned adolescents. Self-report questionnaires were administered verbally to 159 parentally bereaved adolescents (aged 10-19) in an…

  19. The Power of Computer-aided Tomography to Investigate Marine Benthic Communities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Utilization of Computer-aided-Tomography (CT) technology is a powerful tool to investigate benthic communities in aquatic systems. In this presentation, we will attempt to summarize our 15 years of experience in developing specific CT methods and applications to marine benthic co...

  20. Green Lights & Red Tape: Improving Access to Financial Aid at California's Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Deborah Frankle

    2007-01-01

    Financial aid can encourage students to enroll in college and increase their odds of academic success. While the California community colleges (CCCs) have very low fees, which are waived for most low-income students, the additional expenses of books, supplies, transportation, housing, food and childcare can create significant financial barriers to…

  1. [Healthcare access in Benin: poverty and community aid networks].

    PubMed

    Ouendo, Edgard-Marius; Makoutodé, Michel; Wilmet-Dramaix, Michèle; Paraiso, Moussiliou; Dujardin, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the capacity of poor and non-poor households to pay for health care and to show how existing community assistance (or solidarity) networks (CAN) may compensate for this inability. Sixteen (16) study sites were randomly selected after stratification of Benin into four groups. All 1,312 households in our sample (668 poor and 664 non-poor) were interviewed, and 48 focus group were held with opinion leaders, women, healthcare workers, social workers, and persons responsible for these networks. The survey showed that only 27% of the heads of households have permanent financial access to health care and health services. This financial access is lower for the poor (9%) than for others (46%). However, the capacity of heads of households to pay reached 84% (87% for the non-poor and 81% for the poor, with P<0.01). Capacity to pay differs between strata (P<0.001) and is higher in the urban strata. For 25% of the families, intervention of the CAN made payment possible, preferentially for the poor. In 90% of cases, this community support came from the family network. Health centre management committees contributed in only 0.8% of cases. In general, help covered only a small percentage of those in need. The health policy of African countries must ensure that health care is accessible to the population, especially the poor.

  2. Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of the business community relative to HIV-AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Farnham, P G

    1991-01-01

    One of the goals of the Centers for Disease Control's (CDC) policy on the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is to support business organizations in implementing HIV and AIDS information, education, and prevention activities. However, the response of the American business community to HIV infection and AIDS has been varied. Although company executives consider AIDS to be one of the leading problems in the country, surveys typically indicate that less than one-third of businesses have or are developing some type of AIDS policy. The workplace appears to be a valid site for AIDS information and education programs, given the weight employees attach to information received there. However, workplace education and information programs are undertaken primarily by large companies. Many small companies do not devote much time and effort to these activities, even though extensive, indepth educational programs are likely to have positive impacts on worker attitudes and behavior, whereas short programs or literature distribution may only increase workers' fears. The question of what is an effective workplace program still needs additional research. Very little is known about the magnitude of the costs of HIV infection and AIDS to business. These costs, which are affected by the changing roles of employer-based health insurance, cost shifting, and public programs, will influence how employers react to the epidemic and how they respond to CDC's prevention initiatives. PMID:1956975

  3. Improving the Financial Aid Process for Community College Students: A Literature Review of FAFSA Simplification, Information, and Verification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, J. Cody

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that community college and other low income students have the most need regarding the financial aid process. Community college students are less likely to complete the free application for federal student aid (FAFSA) than students at public and private four-year and for-profit institutions. Surveys have shown that the complexity…

  4. 23 CFR 636.104 - Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Federal-aid design-build projects? The provisions of this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects? 636.104 Section 636.104 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. 23 CFR 636.104 - Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Federal-aid design-build projects? The provisions of this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects? 636.104 Section 636.104 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  6. 23 CFR 636.104 - Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Federal-aid design-build projects? The provisions of this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects? 636.104 Section 636.104 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  7. 23 CFR 636.104 - Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Federal-aid design-build projects? The provisions of this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects? 636.104 Section 636.104 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  8. 23 CFR 636.104 - Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Federal-aid design-build projects? The provisions of this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects? 636.104 Section 636.104 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  9. Community Air Monitoring, Educational Outreach, and the Village Green Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the poster is to provide an overview of the Village Green Project to attendees at the National Air Quality Conference. The emphasis on the presentation is the genesis of the project and community outreach.

  10. Mobilizing the global community to combat Ebola: Psychological effects of the Band Aid 30 campaign.

    PubMed

    Stürmer, Stefan; Rohmann, Anette; van der Noll, Jolanda

    2016-01-01

    A 1 × 3 experiment (N = 99) investigated the effects of the Band Aid 30 music video on psychological processes underlying the willingness to volunteer to combat Ebola. As expected, exposure to the Band Aid music video moderated the relationships among identification with the national or human community and willingness to volunteer. Identification with the national community was a stronger predictor of willingness to volunteer among participants in the two comparison conditions (i.e., the conditions of no exposure to the music video) than among participants in the music video condition. Conversely, identification with the human community was a stronger predictor of willingness to volunteer among participants presented with the music video than among participants in the two comparison conditions. In addition, two individual orientations emerged as positive predictors, namely, motivation to control prejudice (in the comparison conditions), and empathic concern (in the music video condition). Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:27064180

  11. Youth and HIV/AIDS: A Guide to Training and Technical Assistance Resources. Safe Choices Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Network for Youth, Washington, DC.

    This publication lists Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) materials and organizations as identified by the Safe Choices Project. It cites resources and organizations used by the Project for its national HIV/STD prevention trainings and when responding to requests for technical assistance. The publication…

  12. National Science Foundation 1989 Engineering Senior Design Projects To Aid the Disabled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enderle, John D., Ed.

    Through the Bioengineering and Research to Aid the Disabled program of the National Science Foundation, design projects were awarded competitively to 16 universities. Senior engineering students at each of the universities constructed custom devices and software for disabled individuals. This compendium contains a description of each project in…

  13. Logic system aids in evaluation of project readiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maris, S. J.; Obrien, T. J.

    1966-01-01

    Measurement Operational Readiness Requirements /MORR/ assignments logic is used for determining the readiness of a complex project to go forward as planned. The system used logic network which assigns qualities to all important criteria in a project and establishes a logical sequence of measurements to determine what the conditions are.

  14. How Walkerton District Secondary School Involves Itself in Community Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elements of Technology, 1976

    1976-01-01

    More than a dozen community projects designed, drawn, and built by senior technical education students are described. Practical experience for the students, with advice from town engineers and material from industry, and equipment and structures for the community are provided by the projects. The Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT),…

  15. The Community Arbitration Project, Anne Arundel County, Maryland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blew, Carol Holliday; Rosenblum, Robert

    This examines an exemplary project of community arbitration, a juvenile justice alternative. Essential elements of this project are described and include: (1) prompt case processing, (2) court-like setting, (3) involvement of victims, (4) assurance of due process, (5) use of community resources, and (6) constructive dispositions. Facets of CAP…

  16. Literacy Learning within Community Action Projects for Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Dana E.; Mahiri, Jabari

    2012-01-01

    This case study describes the literacy development of a struggling reader over a seven-month period as he engaged in a youth-led participatory action research (PAR) project. The project's goal was for youth participants to develop a proposal for productive change in their local community and present it to community stakeholders. The study focused…

  17. HIV prevalence estimates and AIDS case projections for the United States: report based upon a workshop.

    PubMed

    1990-11-30

    This document presents conclusions and recommendations from a workshop convened to discuss national estimates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence, acquired immunodeficiency virus (AIDS) case projections, and the proportion of HIV-infected persons with laboratory evidence of immune dysfunction. Appendices describe analyses performed before and after the workshop to estimate HIV prevalence and to predict future AIDS cases, the prevalence of persons with AIDS, and deaths among persons with AIDS. On the basis of these analyses, CDC estimates that approximately 750,000 persons in the United States were infected with AIDS at the beginning of 1986 and that approximately 1,000,000 Americans are currently infected with HIV. At least 40,000 new HIV infections occur each year among adults and adolescents, and an estimated 1,500-2,000 new infections occur each year among newborns as a result of perinatal HIV transmission. Approximately 60% of the estimated 1,000,000 HIV-infected persons in the United States may have T-helper lymphocyte (CD4+ cell) counts of less than 500/mm3 of blood and may benefit from early treatment with zidovudine. The number of AIDS cases will continue to increase over the next 4 years, with a projection of 52,000-57,000 cases to be diagnosed in 1990. Both AIDS case projections and HIV-prevalence estimates are influenced by the slowing of the rapid upward trend in AIDS incidence that occurred in 1987, particularly among homosexual and bisexual men who are not intravenous drug users. Data available during and after the workshop suggest that medical therapy or a decline in the incidence of new HIV infections among homosexual men in the early 1980s could have contributed to this change in trend, but the relative contributions of these and other factors (including changes in the completeness or timeliness of AIDS case reporting) require further study.

  18. Creating "communicative spaces": a case of NGO community organizing for HIV/AIDS prevention.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Rebecca

    2009-12-01

    This study uses the case study method to investigate the processes used by a local nongovernmental organization called the Society for People's Action for Development to organize sex workers in the slums of Bangalore, India, for HIV/AIDS prevention. The nongovernmental organization-facilitated HIV/AIDS program is based on the new paradigm of community organizing that encourages community participation and capacity building. Grounded in the culture-centered approach, this study documents the processes used to organize the women, while highlighting the role of communication in these processes. The study identifies 4 primary processes used to mobilize the community, namely collectivization, community awareness and sensitization, capacity building, and providing legal education and support. Each of these processes highlights the importance of attending to the economic, social, and political realities that shape the health of women. The common thread linking these processes together is the notion of "voice." More specifically, each process serves as a catalyst to produce discursive practices that enable women to provide support to each other, increase awareness in the community about the problems that they face, build self-reliance through financial skills training and communication training, and defend their legal rights. In addition, the study suggests that the primary role of nongovernmental organizations should be the creation of "communicative spaces," which are discursive and material spaces within marginalized communities and mainstream society where cultural participants can identify problems (oftentimes beyond the realm of health), manage solutions to those problems, and advocate for health and social change.

  19. Puerto Rico Sustainable Communities Research Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of EPA’s Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research Program (SHCRP) is to inform and empower decision‐makers to equitably weigh and integrate human health, socio‐economic, environmental, and ecological factors to foster community sustainability. Pue...

  20. Targeted Expansion Project for Outreach and Treatment for Substance Abuse and HIV Risk Behaviors in Asian and Pacific Islander Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Kamitani, Emiko; Morris, Anne; Sakata, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Access to culturally competent HIV/AIDS and substance abuse treatment and prevention services is limited for Asian and Pacific Islanders (APIs). Based on the intake data for a community outreach project in the San Francisco Bay Area (N = 1,349), HIV risk behaviors were described among the targeted API risk groups. The self-reported HIV prevalence…

  1. The Puente Project: Socializing and Mentoring Latino Community College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laden, Berta Vigil

    2000-01-01

    Claims that the way that minority students are socialized is related to retention and persistence. Discusses mentoring programs offered in community colleges that socialize and retain minority students. Explores the Puente Program as an example of a successful program that can aid minority Latino students. (Contains 35 references.) (MZ)

  2. Driver Aid and Education Test Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shadis, W.; Soucek, S. J.

    A driver education project tested the hypothesis that measurable improvements in fleet fuel economy can be achieved by driver awareness training in fuel-efficient driving techniques and by a manifold vacuum gauge, used individually or in combination with each other. From April 1976 through December 1977 data were collected in the Las Vegas,…

  3. Communication Aids in the Classroom: The Views of Education Staff and Speech and Language Therapists Involved with the Communication Aids Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Jannet A.; Newton, Caroline; Clarke, Michael; Donlan, Chris; Lister, Claire; Cherguit, Jasmina

    2006-01-01

    The findings presented in this paper are part of an independent evaluation study of the Communication Aids Project (CAP). The study was carried out between July 2003 and April 2004 and looked at the impact of CAP on children receiving communication aids and evaluated the CAP strategy of assessment and delivery. In this paper the views of education…

  4. The Sonagachi Project: a sustainable community intervention program.

    PubMed

    Jana, Smarajit; Basu, Ishika; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Newman, Peter A

    2004-10-01

    High rates of HIV infection among sex workers in India indicate the importance of understanding the process of establishing a sustainable community intervention program. The Sonagachi Project, based in Calcutta, India, has been associated with lower HIV rates among sex workers as compared to other urban centers in India. The program defined HIV as an occupational health problem and included multifaceted, multilevel interventions addressing community (having a high-status advocate; addressing environmental barriers and resources), group (changing social relationships), and individual factors (improving skills and competencies related to HIV prevention and treatment). The Sonagachi Project's core concepts and strategies evolved as community needs were expressed and defined. In particular, the program was not initially conceptualized as a community empowerment project but emerged over time, allowing for project sustainability. Project components appear to be replicable across settings within India and worldwide.

  5. Computer-aided industrial process design. The ASPEN project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-02-01

    The ASPEN Project was carried out at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology from 1976-1981. This report formally documents the work completed under the main contract between MIT and the US Department of Energy (Contract No. E(49-18)-2295 Task No. 9). In addition to the main contract, there were related contracts between MIT and the US Department of Energy on which work was reported separately. The project deliverables consisted of the source code and test problems for the ASPEN system on computer tape and a final report. The User Manual (1348 pages), the System Administrator Manual (1170 pages), and the Technical Reference Manual (1026 pages), and On-Line Documentation (Computer-Generated Tables) on magnetic tape were deliverables on a related, but separate contract. The source code versions of the system itself were provided, with installation instructions, for four different computers and operating system (IBM/OS, IBM/CMS, DEC/VAX, and Univac.

  6. Keweenaw Bay Indian Community Weatherization Training Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Denomie, Lawrence J.; LaPointe, Bruce

    2012-03-26

    The objective of the project is to train the appropriate staff, both new and existing from various KBIC Departments in the core competencies needed to develop a comprehensive Tribal community weatherization program. The goal of the project was to build the staff capacity to enable the KBIC to establish a Tribal weatherization program that promotes energy sufficiency throughout the Tribal community. The project addresses the needs identified in the 2008 KBIC Strategic Energy Plan to build the staff capacity and increase the knowledge base within the Tribal Departments and to implement an energy efficiency program through community education and financial assistance incentives.

  7. Gulf Coast Community College's Memory Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrell, Matthew D.

    2005-01-01

    Gulf Coast Community College in Panama City, Florida, is celebrating a fifty-year anniversary in 2007. Maintained by the library, the school's archives represent the historical contributions on a local and national level. Gulf Coast Community College library is ensuring the school's historical significance through the digitization of its…

  8. Estimation and projection of adult AIDS cases: a simple epidemiological model.

    PubMed

    Chin, J; Lwanga, S K

    1991-01-01

    Many HIV/AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) models have been developed to help our understanding of the dynamics and interrelationships of the determinants of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) spread and/or to develop reliable estimates of the eventual extent of such spread. These models range from very simple to very complex. WHO has developed a simple model for short-term projections of AIDS, details of which are presented here along with results obtained using the model to estimate and project AIDS cases for the USA, sub-Saharan Africa, and south/south-east Asia. WHO has also developed, based on the model described in this paper, a computer program (Epi Model), which will enable the user to easily change the values of any of the variables required by the WHO model.

  9. A Historical Demographic Evaluation of the Illinois Department of Public Aid Population Enrolled in the Illinois State Board of Education, Adult Education Information Referral and Retention Special Project, of the Illinois Eastern Community College District 529 during the Period of FY84-FY88. A Five Year Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scattergood-Fisher, Beverly J.

    A 5-year study of the Illinois Eastern Community College District 529 Information Referral and Retention (IR&R) Project was conducted. Its purpose was to evaluate demographic and educational information regarding 888 students enrolled in the IR&R Public Assistance Program from November 1983 through June 1988. As part of the study, an overview was…

  10. Access to Democracy Project: Community Report on Attitudes Regarding Educational Attainment. Grand Rapids (Michigan) Surrounding Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daun-Barnett, Nathan J.; Bowman, Nicholas A.

    2005-01-01

    The "Access to Democracy" project has two broad goals. It is an effort to understand community beliefs, attitudes and conditions that shape educational outcomes for community youth, and it is a way to focus community discussions on efforts that support higher educational attainment for residents. This report focuses on the lessons learned in the…

  11. Dynamic optical projection of acquired luminescence for aiding oncologic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarder, Pinaki; Gullicksrud, Kyle; Mondal, Suman; Sudlow, Gail P.; Achilefu, Samuel; Akers, Walter J.

    2013-12-01

    Optical imaging enables real-time visualization of intrinsic and exogenous contrast within biological tissues. Applications in human medicine have demonstrated the power of fluorescence imaging to enhance visualization in dermatology, endoscopic procedures, and open surgery. Although few optical contrast agents are available for human medicine at this time, fluorescence imaging is proving to be a powerful tool in guiding medical procedures. Recently, intraoperative detection of fluorescent molecular probes that target cell-surface receptors has been reported for improvement in oncologic surgery in humans. We have developed a novel system, optical projection of acquired luminescence (OPAL), to further enhance real-time guidance of open oncologic surgery. In this method, collected fluorescence intensity maps are projected onto the imaged surface rather than via wall-mounted display monitor. To demonstrate proof-of-principle for OPAL applications in oncologic surgery, lymphatic transport of indocyanine green was visualized in live mice for intraoperative identification of sentinel lymph nodes. Subsequently, peritoneal tumors in a murine model of breast cancer metastasis were identified using OPAL after systemic administration of a tumor-selective fluorescent molecular probe. These initial results clearly show that OPAL can enhance adoption and ease-of-use of fluorescence imaging in oncologic procedures relative to existing state-of-the-art intraoperative imaging systems.

  12. HIV/AIDS, declining family resources and the community safety net.

    PubMed

    Heymann, Jody; Kidman, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Families play central roles in the HIV/AIDS pandemic, caring for both orphaned children and the ill. This extra caregiving depletes two family resources essential for supporting children: time and money. We use recent data from published studies in sub-Saharan Africa to illustrate deficits and document community responses. In Botswana, parents caring for the chronically ill had less time for their preschool children (74 versus 96 hours per month) and were almost twice as likely to leave children home alone (53% versus 27%); these children experienced greater health and academic problems. Caregiving often prevented adults from working full time or earning their previous level of income; 47% of orphan caregivers and 64% of HIV/AIDS caregivers reported financial difficulties due to caregiving. Communities can play an important role in helping families provide adequate childcare and financial support. Unfortunately, while communities commonly offer informal assistance, the value of such support is not adequate to match the magnitude of need: 75% of children's families in Malawi received assistance from their social network, but averaging only US$81 annually. We suggest communities can strengthen the capacity of families by implementing affordable quality childcare for 0-6 year olds, after-school programming for older children and youth, supportive care for ill children and parents, microlending to enhance earnings, training to increase access to quality jobs, decent working conditions, social insurance for the informal sector, and income and food transfers when families are unable to make ends meet.

  13. Mobilizing Lithuanian Health Professionals as Community Peer Leaders for AIDS Prevention: An International Primary Health Care Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norr, Kathleen F.; McElmurry, Beverly J.; Slutas, Frances M.; Christiansen, Carol D.; Misner, Susan J.; Marks, Beth A.

    2001-01-01

    Using primary health care and peer leadership models, U.S. nurses trained Lithuanian health professionals as community peer leaders in AIDS prevention. A national continuing education program is in place to sustain the initiative in Lithuania. (SK)

  14. Evaluation of the 1979-80 Emergency School Aid Act (ESAA) Basic Project, Bilingual Education Component.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Gary L.; Murray, Wayne R.

    This report presents the results of the evaluation of a bilingual education component implemented through the Emergency School Aid Act (ESAA) in the Dallas (Texas) Independent School District. Under the program, multicultural bilingual instruction was provided in 13 schools. Twenty-two percent, as opposed to a projected 60 percent, of the students…

  15. The Parole Officer Aide Program in Ohio. An Exemplary Project. Criminal Justice System Series Number 42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Harry E.; Priestino, Ramon R.

    The report represents an external evaluation of a three-year project designed to use ex-offenders as paraprofessional parole officer aides in Ohio. The report includes the results of a 1974 national survey of States' use of ex-offenders in parole work as background of the study. The program is described in terms of selection and assignment, duties…

  16. QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLANS: A USELESS PAPER EXERCISE OR VALUABLE AID?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two perspectives on the fundamental question "Are quality assurance project plans (QAPPS) a useless paper exercise or a valuable aid?" will be explored. These perspectives include those of a Branch Chief (i.e., the supervisor/manager) and an active researcher. As a Branch Chief, ...

  17. Quick-Fix English: Discontinuities in a Language Development Aid Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Leech, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    In this classroom narrative article I discuss some of my experiences as a teacher in an Australian government-funded English language development aid project during the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET). The program formed part of an emergency response to the devastating violence that accompanied the Indonesian…

  18. Knowledge-Based Indexing of the Medical Literature: The Indexing Aid Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, Suzanne; Miller, Nancy E.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Indexing Aid Project for conducting research in knowledge representation and indexing for information retrieval, whose goal is to develop interactive knowledge-based systems for computer-assisted indexing of the periodical medical literature. Appendices include background information on NLM…

  19. How Can You Teach Middle Grade Students about the Effects of AIDS and the HIV Virus in a Conservative Community?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrand, Shirley; Wattenbarger, Barbara

    This paper describes an interdisciplinary approach to conveying knowledge and promoting understanding of the disease of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) at the middle school level in a conservative community. Discussion of AIDS was included in a sixth grade unit on communicable diseases designed to teach how diseases are transmitted, how…

  20. A Perspective on AIDS: A Catastrophic Disease but a Symptom of Deeper Problems in the Black Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Andrew D.

    1988-01-01

    Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is undisputedly the most significant public health problem facing the Black community today. From the outset, it was apparent that the disease disproportionately affected Blacks. In 1981, when AIDS was first identified, 21.5 percent of the first 107 cases were Blacks and Hispanics. This report discusses…

  1. Is HIV/AIDS Stigma Dividing the Gay Community? Perceptions of HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtenay-Quirk, Cari; Wolitski, Richard J.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Gomez, Cynthia A.

    2006-01-01

    Stigma surrounding HIV/AIDS has existed since the beginning of the epidemic, but little is known about HIV/AIDS stigma within the gay community and how it affects men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV. A better understanding of the effects of stigma on this population is needed to reduce it and its harmful effects. Our study used…

  2. Community Capacity Building: Starting with People Not Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Lyn; Wood, Leanne; Daws, Leonie

    2003-01-01

    A remote Australian town's initiative to develop an Internet cafe was based on a foundation of community empowerment and capacity building. The project's failure illustrates factors that inhibit community control: overstretched local resources, failure to understand impact on existing social infrastructure and social networks, and lack of…

  3. The Community Service Fellowship Planning Project: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Robert L.; Gaffney, Michael J.

    This report describes the findings and recommendations of the Community Service Fellowship (CSF) Planning Project conducted by the American Association of Community and Junior Colleges under a grant from ACTION, the federal agency charged with promoting volunteer service. The proposed CSF program is a means of providing young people with…

  4. Community Support and Adolescent Girls' Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS: Evidence From Botswana, Malawi, and Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Carol; Schwandt, Hilary M

    2015-01-01

    Girls are vulnerable to HIV in part because the social systems in which they live have failed to support and protect them. The goal of this research was to develop a viable supportive community index and test its association with intermediate variables associated with HIV risk across 16 communities in Botswana, Malawi, and Mozambique. This cross-sectional survey with separate samples randomly drawn in each country (2010) yielded a total sample of 1,418 adolescent girls (aged 11-18). Multilevel, multivariate logistic regression, while controlling for vulnerability, age, religion, and residence, found that an increase in supportive community index is positively associated with the odds of indicating improved community support for girls and with the confidence to refuse unwanted sex with a boyfriend across the three countries, as well as with self-efficacy to insist on condom use in Botswana and Mozambique. Program implementers and decision makers alike can use the supportive community index to identify and measure structural factors associated with girls' vulnerability to HIV/AIDS; this will potentially contribute to judicious decision making regarding resource allocation to enhance community-level, protective factors for adolescent girls. PMID:26470396

  5. Project MAIN: Community Collaboration Benefits Senior Citizens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Gerald F.

    1986-01-01

    Examines Project MAIN (Mobile Assistants in Nutrition), a 12-month demonstration project and the collaborative effort of an urban university, a high school, and a senior services agency, which employed students, ages 14 to 19, to research, plan, and operate a grocery delivery and escort service for elderly and disabled citizens. (BB)

  6. Project Apache: A Reservation, Community-Based Early Intervention Program for Apache Infants and Toddlers with Special Needs and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Joanne C.

    This final report describes the outcomes of Project Apache, a reservation, community-based early intervention program designed to develop comprehensive services to Apache infants and toddlers who are at risk of developing a disability and their families. The project uses a home-based service delivery program with paraprofessional aides to assist…

  7. How national context, project design, and local community characteristics influence success in community-based conservation projects

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Jeremy S.; Waylen, Kerry A.; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique

    2012-01-01

    Community-based conservation (CBC) promotes the idea that conservation success requires engaging with, and providing benefits for, local communities. However, CBC projects are neither consistently successful nor free of controversy. Innovative recent studies evaluating the factors associated with success and failure typically examine only a single resource domain, have limited geographic scope, consider only one outcome, or ignore the nested nature of socioecological systems. To remedy these issues, we use a global comparative database of CBC projects identified by systematic review to evaluate success in four outcome domains (attitudes, behaviors, ecological, economic) and explore synergies and trade-offs among these outcomes. We test hypotheses about how features of the national context, project design, and local community characteristics affect these measures of success. Using bivariate analyses and multivariate proportional odds logistic regressions within a multilevel analysis and model-fitting framework, we show that project design, particularly capacity-building in local communities, is associated with success across all outcomes. In addition, some characteristics of the local community in which projects are conducted, such as tenure regimes and supportive cultural beliefs and institutions, are important for project success. Surprisingly, there is little evidence that national context systematically influences project outcomes. We also find evidence of synergies between pairs of outcomes, particularly between ecological and economic success. We suggest that well-designed and implemented projects can overcome many of the obstacles imposed by local and national conditions to succeed in multiple domains. PMID:23236173

  8. How national context, project design, and local community characteristics influence success in community-based conservation projects.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Jeremy S; Waylen, Kerry A; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique

    2012-12-26

    Community-based conservation (CBC) promotes the idea that conservation success requires engaging with, and providing benefits for, local communities. However, CBC projects are neither consistently successful nor free of controversy. Innovative recent studies evaluating the factors associated with success and failure typically examine only a single resource domain, have limited geographic scope, consider only one outcome, or ignore the nested nature of socioecological systems. To remedy these issues, we use a global comparative database of CBC projects identified by systematic review to evaluate success in four outcome domains (attitudes, behaviors, ecological, economic) and explore synergies and trade-offs among these outcomes. We test hypotheses about how features of the national context, project design, and local community characteristics affect these measures of success. Using bivariate analyses and multivariate proportional odds logistic regressions within a multilevel analysis and model-fitting framework, we show that project design, particularly capacity-building in local communities, is associated with success across all outcomes. In addition, some characteristics of the local community in which projects are conducted, such as tenure regimes and supportive cultural beliefs and institutions, are important for project success. Surprisingly, there is little evidence that national context systematically influences project outcomes. We also find evidence of synergies between pairs of outcomes, particularly between ecological and economic success. We suggest that well-designed and implemented projects can overcome many of the obstacles imposed by local and national conditions to succeed in multiple domains.

  9. Can Financial Aid Improve Student Success at Louisiana's Community Colleges? A Study of the Potential Impact of Redistributing State Gift Aid on the Success of Pell Grant Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockett, Kevin; Heffron, Mark; Schneider, Mark

    2012-01-01

    In this report, the authors investigate the relationship between levels of financial aid and student success in Louisiana community colleges, with a focus on Pell Grant recipients. They measure success by whether a student earned a certificate or an associate's degree within three years of enrolling as a first-time full-time student or transferred…

  10. Afghan Health Education Project: a community survey.

    PubMed

    Lipson, J G; Omidian, P A; Paul, S M

    1995-06-01

    This study assessed the health concerns and needs for health education in the Afghan refugee and immigrant community of the San Francisco Bay Area. The study used a telephone survey, seven community meetings and a survey administered to 196 Afghan families through face-to-face interviews. Data were analyzed qualitatively and statistically. Health problems of most concern are mental health problems and stress related to past refugee trauma and loss, current occupational and economic problems, and culture conflict. Physical health problems include heart disease, diabetes and dental problems. Needed health education topics include dealing with stress, heart health, nutrition, raising children in the United States (particularly adolescents), aging in the United States, and diabetes. Using coalition building and involving Afghans in their community assessment, we found that the Afghan community is eager for culture- and language-appropriate health education programs through videos, television, lectures, and written materials. Brief health education talks in community meetings and a health fair revealed enthusiasm and willingness to consider health promotion and disease-prevention practices. PMID:7596962

  11. Community Reaction to Older-age Parental AIDS Caregivers and their Families: Evidence from Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Knodel, John; Williams, Nathalie; Kim, Sovan Kiry; Puch, Sina; Saengtienchai, Chanpen

    2010-01-01

    Accounts of community reaction to persons with HIV/AIDS and their families typically focus only on negative reactions stemming from stigmatization with little acknowledgement of variation over time and across settings. To usefully guide local interventions, a broader view is needed that also encompasses attitudes and actions stemming from sympathy and friendship. We examine community reaction in Cambodia to families from the perspective of parents of adults who died of AIDS or currently receive antiretroviral therapy. Survey evidence and open-ended interviews reveal a mixture of reactions with respect to social relations, interactions with local officials, gossip, business patronage, funeral participation, and orphaned grandchildren. Positive support is often dominant and reactions typically improve substantially over time. Misplaced fears of contagion through casual contact underlie most negative reactions. Moral condemnation or blame is not evident as a source of negative reactions. Overall a sufficiently supportive atmosphere likely exists in many localities to facilitate community based efforts to mitigate the epidemic's impact on affected families. PMID:20161630

  12. Open Crowdsourcing: Leveraging Community Software Developers for IT Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phair, Derek

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative exploratory single-case study was designed to examine and understand the use of volunteer community participants as software developers and other project related roles, such as testers, in completing a web-based application project by a non-profit organization. This study analyzed the strategic decision to engage crowd…

  13. The Biodiversity Community Action Project: An STS Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aidin, Amirshokoohi; Mahsa, Kazempour

    2010-01-01

    The Biodiversity Community Action Project is a stimulating and vigorous project that allows students to gain an in-depth understanding of the interconnection between organisms and their environments as well as the connection of science to their lives and society. It addresses key content standards in the National Science Education Standards and…

  14. Immigrant Latina Mothers' Participation in a Community Mathematization Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willey, Craig

    2008-01-01

    This paper shows how Latina, immigrant mothers expanded their mathematical boundaries by participating in a community mathematization project. These mothers were not only participants, but also curriculum designers in collaboration with university researchers. By involving the mothers in the design of the project, researchers improved the…

  15. Project Closeout: Guidance for Final Evaluation of Building America Communities

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, P.; Burch, J.; Hendron, B.

    2008-03-01

    This report presents guidelines for Project Closeout. It is used to determine whether the Building America program is successfully facilitating improved design and practices to achieve energy savings goals in production homes. Its objective is to use energy simulations, targeted utility bill analysis, and feedback from project stakeholders to evaluate the performance of occupied BA communities.

  16. HOWARD UNIVERSITY STUDENTS AND THE COMMUNITY SERVICE PROJECT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LOWE, GILBERT A., JR.

    THIS REPORT DESCRIBES THE INVOLVEMENT OF HOWARD UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN A FIVE-YEAR COMMUNITY SERVICE PROJECT IN THE SECOND PRECINCT IN WASHINGTON, D.C., BETWEEN 1961 AND 1966. THE PROJECT WAS PLANNED TO--(1) MOBILIZE AND ASSIST THE MORE THAN 160 CHURCHES IN THE AREA, (2) SURVEY THE NEEDS OF THE RESIDENTS AND HELP THEM SOLVE THEIR PROBLEMS, (3)…

  17. Learning about Urban Congregations and HIV/AIDS: Community-Based Foundations for Developing Congregational Health Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Mendel, Peter J.; Kanouse, David E.; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Castaneda, Laura Werber; Hawes-Dawson, Jennifer; Mata, Michael; Oden, Clyde W.

    2010-01-01

    Religious congregations are important community institutions that could help fight HIV/AIDS; however, barriers exist, particularly in the area of prevention. Formative, participatory research is needed to understand the capacity of congregations to address HIV/AIDS. This article describes a study that used community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches to learn about congregation-sponsored HIV activities. CBPR strategies were used throughout the study, including proposal development, community expert interviews, Community Advisory Board, congregational telephone survey, congregational case studies, and congregational feedback sessions. Involving community consultants, experts, and advisory board members in all stages of the study helped the researchers to conceptualize congregational involvement in HIV, be more sensitive to potential congregational concerns about the research, achieve high response rates, and interpret and disseminate findings. Providing preliminary case findings to congregational participants in an interactive feedback session improved data quality and relationships with the community. Methods to engage community stakeholders can lay the foundation for future collaborative interventions. PMID:20361357

  18. Learning about urban congregations and HIV/AIDS: community-based foundations for developing congregational health interventions.

    PubMed

    Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Mendel, Peter J; Kanouse, David E; Bluthenthal, Ricky N; Castaneda, Laura Werber; Hawes-Dawson, Jennifer; Mata, Michael; Oden, Clyde W

    2010-07-01

    Religious congregations are important community institutions that could help fight HIV/AIDS; however, barriers exist, particularly in the area of prevention. Formative, participatory research is needed to understand the capacity of congregations to address HIV/AIDS. This article describes a study that used community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches to learn about congregation-sponsored HIV activities. CBPR strategies were used throughout the study, including proposal development, community expert interviews, Community Advisory Board, congregational telephone survey, congregational case studies, and congregational feedback sessions. Involving community consultants, experts, and advisory board members in all stages of the study helped the researchers to conceptualize congregational involvement in HIV, be more sensitive to potential congregational concerns about the research, achieve high response rates, and interpret and disseminate findings. Providing preliminary case findings to congregational participants in an interactive feedback session improved data quality and relationships with the community. Methods to engage community stakeholders can lay the foundation for future collaborative interventions.

  19. Automotive technicians' training as a community-of-practice: implications for the design of an augmented reality teaching aid.

    PubMed

    Anastassova, Margarita; Burkhardt, Jean-Marie

    2009-07-01

    The paper presents an ergonomic analysis carried out in the early phases of an R&D project. The purpose was to investigate the functioning of today's Automotive Service Technicians (ASTs) training in order to inform the design of an Augmented Reality (AR) teaching aid. The first part of the paper presents a literature review of some major problems encountered by ASTs today. The benefits of AR as technological aid are also introduced. Then, the methodology and the results of two case studies are presented. The first study is based on interviews with trainers and trainees; the second one on observations in real training settings. The results support the assumption that today's ASTs' training could be regarded as a community-of-practice (CoP). Therefore, AR could be useful as a collaboration tool, offering a shared virtual representation of real vehicle's parts, which are normally invisible unless dismantled (e.g. the parts of a hydraulic automatic transmission). We conclude on the methods and the technologies to support the automotive CoP. PMID:18703179

  20. Automotive technicians' training as a community-of-practice: implications for the design of an augmented reality teaching aid.

    PubMed

    Anastassova, Margarita; Burkhardt, Jean-Marie

    2009-07-01

    The paper presents an ergonomic analysis carried out in the early phases of an R&D project. The purpose was to investigate the functioning of today's Automotive Service Technicians (ASTs) training in order to inform the design of an Augmented Reality (AR) teaching aid. The first part of the paper presents a literature review of some major problems encountered by ASTs today. The benefits of AR as technological aid are also introduced. Then, the methodology and the results of two case studies are presented. The first study is based on interviews with trainers and trainees; the second one on observations in real training settings. The results support the assumption that today's ASTs' training could be regarded as a community-of-practice (CoP). Therefore, AR could be useful as a collaboration tool, offering a shared virtual representation of real vehicle's parts, which are normally invisible unless dismantled (e.g. the parts of a hydraulic automatic transmission). We conclude on the methods and the technologies to support the automotive CoP.

  1. Project Impact: Building a Disaster Resistant Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC.

    There have been well over 200 Presidentially declared disasters in the United States in the past 5 years. No state has been spared. The costs associated with these events are staggering. Communities can take responsibility for alleviating the impact of natural disasters to ensure citizen safety, prevent damage to facilities, prevent delays of…

  2. Involving Children and Youth in Community Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalishman, Norton; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes New Mexico's Alcohol and Substance Abuse Prevention Program, which encourages students to participate actively in school and community to eliminate substance abuse. Also describes the Student Traffic Safety Task Force of the Eldorado High School Student Senate, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Determinants of program success are pointed out. (RH)

  3. Conceptualizing the cross-cultural gaps in managing international aid: HIV/AIDS and TB project delivery in Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Terence

    2011-01-01

    There appears to be a gap between the billions of dollars inputted into fighting HIV/AIDS and TB and outcomes. This in part can be attributed to the lack of attention in International Development to managing programmes and projects within complex levels of cross-cultural interactions. International Development often ignores management issues, yet Management Studies is left wanting through a lack of engagement with development issues including the fight against disease and poverty. This paper attempts to link these two disciplines towards mutual benefit, through a critical cross-cultural approach. It provides contextualization of international development policies/strategies; conceptualization of dominant paradigms; structural analysis of how a programme/project fits into the global governance structure; analysis of complexities and levels of cross-cultural interaction and their consequences and the process and implications of knowledge transfer across cultural distances. It concludes with implications for policy and practice, as well as what is needed from cross-disciplinary research. This includes how feedback loops can be strengthened from local to global, how indigenous knowledge may be better understood and integrated, how power relations within the global governance structure could be managed, how cross-cultural interaction could be better understood, and how knowledge transfer/sharing should be critically managed.

  4. Challenges in presenting high dimensional data to aid in triage in the DARPA virtual soldier project.

    PubMed

    Boyd, A D; Wright, Z C; Ade, A S; Bookstein, F; Ogden, J C; Meixner, W; Athey, B D; Morris, T

    2005-01-01

    One of the goals of the DARPA Virtual Soldier Project is to aid the field medic in the triage of a casualty. In Phase I, we are currently collecting 12 baseline experimental physiological variables and a cardiac gated Computed Tomography (CT) imagery for use in an prototyping a futuristic electronic medical record, the "Holomer". We are using physiological models and Kalman filtering to aid in diagnosis and predict outcomes in relation to cardiac injury. The physiological modeling introduces another few hundred variables. Reducing the complexity of the above into easy-to-read text to aid in the triage by the field medic is the challenge with multiple display solutions. A description of the possible techniques follows.

  5. Use of NASA Satellite Data in Aiding Mississippi Barrier Island Restoration Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giardino, Marco; Spruce, Joseph; Kalcic, Maria; Fletcher, Rose

    2009-01-01

    This presentation discusses a NASA Stennis Space Center project in which NASA-supported satellite and aerial data is being used to aid state and federal agencies in restoring the Mississippi barrier islands. Led by the Applied Science and Technology Project Office (ASTPO), this project will produce geospatial information products from multiple NASA-supported data sources, including Landsat, ASTER, and MODIS satellite data as well as ATLAS multispectral, CAMS multispectral, AVIRIS hyperspectral, EAARL, and other aerial data. Project objectives include the development and testing of a regional sediment transport model and the monitoring of barrier island restoration efforts through remote sensing. Barrier islands provide invaluable benefits to the State of Mississippi, including buffering the mainland from storm surge impacts, providing habitats for valuable wildlife and fisheries habitat, offering accessible recreational opportunities, and preserving natural environments for educating the public about coastal ecosystems and cultural resources. Unfortunately, these highly valued natural areas are prone to damage from hurricanes. For example, Hurricane Camille in 1969 split Ship Island into East and West Ship Island. Hurricane Georges in 1998 caused additional land loss for the two Ship Islands. More recently, Hurricanes Ivan, Katrina, Rita, Gustav, and Ike impacted the Mississippi barrier islands. In particular, Hurricane Katrina caused major damage to island vegetation and landforms, killing island forest overstories, overwashing entire islands, and causing widespread erosion. In response, multiple state and federal agencies are working to restore damaged components of these barrier islands. Much of this work is being implemented through federally funded Coastal Impact Assessment and Mississippi Coastal Improvement programs. One restoration component involves the reestablishment of the island footprints to that in 1969. Our project will employ NASA remote sensing

  6. HIV-AIDS Information and the American Library Community: An Overview of Responses to the HIV-AIDS Health Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukenbill, W. Bernard

    This paper presents an overview of how American libraries have responded to the health crisis caused by HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). AIDS information dissemination practices of libraries and the social role which American librarians have articulated regarding their special responsibilities are…

  7. Community Capacity for Implementing Clean Development Mechanism Projects Within Community Forests in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Michael K.; Bressers, Hans Th. A.

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing assumption that payments for environmental services including carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emission reduction provide an opportunity for poverty reduction and the enhancement of sustainable development within integrated natural resource management approaches. Yet in experiential terms, community-based natural resource management implementation falls short of expectations in many cases. In this paper, we investigate the asymmetry between community capacity and the Land Use Land Use Change Forestry (LULUCF) provisions of the Clean Development Mechanism within community forests in Cameroon. We use relevant aspects of the Clean Development Mechanism criteria and notions of “community capacity” to elucidate determinants of community capacity needed for CDM implementation within community forests. The main requirements are for community capacity to handle issues of additionality, acceptability, externalities, certification, and community organisation. These community capacity requirements are further used to interpret empirically derived insights on two community forestry cases in Cameroon. While local variations were observed for capacity requirements in each case, community capacity was generally found to be insufficient for meaningful uptake and implementation of Clean Development Mechanism projects. Implications for understanding factors that could inhibit or enhance community capacity for project development are discussed. We also include recommendations for the wider Clean Development Mechanism/Kyoto capacity building framework. PMID:17377732

  8. Project Citizen: Students Practice Democratic Principles While Conducting Community Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina-Jerez, William; Bryant, Carol; Green, Carie

    2010-01-01

    Project Citizen is a program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education's congressionally funded Center for Civic Education, which sponsors both domestic and international programs. The Center for Civic Education's Civitas International Programs pair U.S. states with countries around the world based on a variety of factors; including geographic…

  9. Community Based Demonstration Projects: Willamette Ecosystem Services Project (WESP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA’s Ecosystem Services Research Program in the Office of Research and Development is focused on the study of ecosystem services and the benefits to human well-being provided by ecological systems. As part of this research effort, the Willamette Ecosystems Services Project (WE...

  10. The Role of Community Development Employment Projects in Rural and Remote Communities. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misko, Josie

    2006-01-01

    This document was produced by the author(s) based on their research for the report, "The Role of Community Development Employment Projects in Rural and Remote Communities," (ED495158) and is an added resource for further information. The contents of this support docment include: (1) Regional Council--Roma; (2) Regional Council--Tennant Creek; (3)…

  11. HIV Prevention Strategies for Community Colleges: Lessons Learned from Bridges to Healthy Communities. AACC Project Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottenritter, Nan; Barnett, Lynn

    The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) instituted the Bridges to Healthy Communities project in 1995 as part of a 5-year strategy to develop campus-based programs for preventing HIV infection and related health problems among college students. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) sponsored the national effort through…

  12. A Cervical Cancer Community-Based Participatory Research Project in a Native American Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Suzanne; Gidley, Allison L.; Letiecq, Bethany; Smith, Adina; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun

    2008-01-01

    The Messengers for Health on the Apsaalooke Reservation project uses a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach and lay health advisors (LHAs) to generate knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer prevention among community members in a culturally competent manner. Northern Plains Native Americans, of whom Apsaalooke women are a…

  13. 77 FR 38267 - Information Collection; Role of Communities in Stewardship Contracting Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Information Collection; Role of Communities in Stewardship..., Role of Communities in Stewardship Contracting Projects. DATES: Comments must be received in writing on.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Role of Communities in Stewardship Contracting Projects. OMB Number:...

  14. The Astropy Project: A Community Python Library for Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tollerud, E. J.; Greenfield, P. E.; Robitaille, T. P.; Astropy Developers

    2013-10-01

    I introduce and describe progress on Astropy, a large, community effort to provide common astronomy/astrophysics utilities and promote reuse of software. It is based on a model of a collaborative open-source core package (currently under heavy development) and independent but affiliated packages contributed by individuals and organizations. I describe some of the features in the current core package, the organizational structure of the community, and the direction the project is headed in the near future.

  15. Women and AIDS Support Network: mutual support to change community norms.

    PubMed

    Ray, S

    1992-01-01

    A group of women formed the Women and AIDS Support Network (WASN) in Zimbabwe in June 1989 to improve women;s self-esteem and confidence and to bring about changes in attitudes and reactions toward AIDS-related problems. Both HIV-positive and HIV-negative women are WASN members. Women have limited control over sexual relationships. Women who know their partners are having intercourse with other women have few options, e.g., they may depend on their partners. A family council settles marital disagreements, but husbands do not always cooperate. Increased peer pressure could change societal acceptance of male infidelity to positive attitudes toward friendship and partnership in marriage. Therefore, WASN explores sexual relationships, especially control and power in them. These discussions should lead to affirmation of positive behavior. For example, men can promote condom use and monogamy to their male peers. They can also talk to their partners and their sons about HIV. Rural women should not blame urban women for their partner's HIV status. WASN also targets schoolgirls. Most early and some current messages of AIDS campaigns reinforces the dichotomy of good and bad women, supported by an earlier link between urban women and sexually transmitted diseases. Yet, they ignored men's role in HIV transmission. WASN speaks out against such negative images, e.g., dramas that depict the HIV-infected woman as evil and the innocent as good while the man worries about which woman infected him instead of feeling awful about infecting other women. WASN also addressee AIDS-related discrimination on the job and stigmatization issues. It now is conducting 2 research projects: information needs of urban and rural women and capacities of family support systems to assist HIV-positive women.

  16. Family Planning Counseling in Your Pocket: A Mobile Job Aid for Community Health Workers in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Smisha; Lasway, Christine; L'Engle, Kelly; Homan, Rick; Layer, Erica; Ollis, Steve; Braun, Rebecca; Silas, Lucy; Mwakibete, Anna; Kudrati, Mustafa

    2016-06-20

    To address low contraceptive use in Tanzania, a pilot intervention using a mobile job aid was developed to guide community health workers (CHWs) to deliver integrated counseling on family planning, HIV, and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In this article, we describe the process of developing the family planning algorithms and implementation of the mobile job aid, discuss how the job aid supported collection of real-time data for decision making, and present the cost of the overall system based on an evaluation of the pilot. The family planning algorithm was developed, beginning in June 2011, in partnership with the Tanzania Ministry of Health and Social Welfare based on a combination of evidence-based tools such as the Balanced Counseling Strategy Plus Toolkit. The pilot intervention and study was implemented with 25 CHWs in 3 wards in Ilala district in Dar es Salaam between January 2013 and July 2013. A total of 710 family planning users (455 continuing users and 255 new users) were registered and counseled using the mobile job aid over the 6-month intervention period. All users were screened for current pregnancy, questioned on partner support for contraceptive use, counseled on a range of contraceptives, and screened for HIV/STI risk. Most new and continuing family planning users chose pills and male condoms (59% and 73%, respectively). Pills and condoms were provided by the CHW at the community level. Referrals were made to the health facility for pregnancy confirmation, injectable contraceptives, long-acting reversible contraceptives and HIV/STI testing. Follow-up visits with clients were planned to confirm completion of the health facility referral. The financial cost of implementing this intervention with 25 CHWs and 3 supervisors are estimated to be US$26,000 for the first year. For subsequent years, the financial costs are estimated to be 73% lower at $7,100. Challenges such as limited client follow-up by CHWs and use of data by supervisors

  17. Family Planning Counseling in Your Pocket: A Mobile Job Aid for Community Health Workers in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Smisha; Lasway, Christine; L'Engle, Kelly; Homan, Rick; Layer, Erica; Ollis, Steve; Braun, Rebecca; Silas, Lucy; Mwakibete, Anna; Kudrati, Mustafa

    2016-06-20

    To address low contraceptive use in Tanzania, a pilot intervention using a mobile job aid was developed to guide community health workers (CHWs) to deliver integrated counseling on family planning, HIV, and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In this article, we describe the process of developing the family planning algorithms and implementation of the mobile job aid, discuss how the job aid supported collection of real-time data for decision making, and present the cost of the overall system based on an evaluation of the pilot. The family planning algorithm was developed, beginning in June 2011, in partnership with the Tanzania Ministry of Health and Social Welfare based on a combination of evidence-based tools such as the Balanced Counseling Strategy Plus Toolkit. The pilot intervention and study was implemented with 25 CHWs in 3 wards in Ilala district in Dar es Salaam between January 2013 and July 2013. A total of 710 family planning users (455 continuing users and 255 new users) were registered and counseled using the mobile job aid over the 6-month intervention period. All users were screened for current pregnancy, questioned on partner support for contraceptive use, counseled on a range of contraceptives, and screened for HIV/STI risk. Most new and continuing family planning users chose pills and male condoms (59% and 73%, respectively). Pills and condoms were provided by the CHW at the community level. Referrals were made to the health facility for pregnancy confirmation, injectable contraceptives, long-acting reversible contraceptives and HIV/STI testing. Follow-up visits with clients were planned to confirm completion of the health facility referral. The financial cost of implementing this intervention with 25 CHWs and 3 supervisors are estimated to be US$26,000 for the first year. For subsequent years, the financial costs are estimated to be 73% lower at $7,100. Challenges such as limited client follow-up by CHWs and use of data by supervisors

  18. Family Planning Counseling in Your Pocket: A Mobile Job Aid for Community Health Workers in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Smisha; Lasway, Christine; L’Engle, Kelly; Homan, Rick; Layer, Erica; Ollis, Steve; Braun, Rebecca; Silas, Lucy; Mwakibete, Anna; Kudrati, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To address low contraceptive use in Tanzania, a pilot intervention using a mobile job aid was developed to guide community health workers (CHWs) to deliver integrated counseling on family planning, HIV, and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In this article, we describe the process of developing the family planning algorithms and implementation of the mobile job aid, discuss how the job aid supported collection of real-time data for decision making, and present the cost of the overall system based on an evaluation of the pilot. The family planning algorithm was developed, beginning in June 2011, in partnership with the Tanzania Ministry of Health and Social Welfare based on a combination of evidence-based tools such as the Balanced Counseling Strategy Plus Toolkit. The pilot intervention and study was implemented with 25 CHWs in 3 wards in Ilala district in Dar es Salaam between January 2013 and July 2013. A total of 710 family planning users (455 continuing users and 255 new users) were registered and counseled using the mobile job aid over the 6-month intervention period. All users were screened for current pregnancy, questioned on partner support for contraceptive use, counseled on a range of contraceptives, and screened for HIV/STI risk. Most new and continuing family planning users chose pills and male condoms (59% and 73%, respectively). Pills and condoms were provided by the CHW at the community level. Referrals were made to the health facility for pregnancy confirmation, injectable contraceptives, long-acting reversible contraceptives and HIV/STI testing. Follow-up visits with clients were planned to confirm completion of the health facility referral. The financial cost of implementing this intervention with 25 CHWs and 3 supervisors are estimated to be US$26,000 for the first year. For subsequent years, the financial costs are estimated to be 73% lower at $7,100. Challenges such as limited client follow-up by CHWs and use of data by

  19. Community Wind: Once Again Pushing the Envelope of Project Finance

    SciTech Connect

    bolinger, Mark A.

    2011-01-18

    In the United States, the 'community wind' sector - loosely defined here as consisting of relatively small utility-scale wind power projects that sell power on the wholesale market and that are developed and owned primarily by local investors - has historically served as a 'test bed' or 'proving grounds' for up-and-coming wind turbine manufacturers that are trying to break into the U.S. wind power market. For example, community wind projects - and primarily those located in the state of Minnesota - have deployed the first U.S. installations of wind turbines from Suzlon (in 2003), DeWind (2008), Americas Wind Energy (2008) and later Emergya Wind Technologies (2010), Goldwind (2009), AAER/Pioneer (2009), Nordic Windpower (2010), Unison (2010), and Alstom (2011). Thus far, one of these turbine manufacturers - Suzlon - has subsequently achieved some success in the broader U.S. wind market as well. Just as it has provided a proving grounds for new turbines, so too has the community wind sector served as a laboratory for experimentation with innovative new financing structures. For example, a variation of one of the most common financing arrangements in the U.S. wind market today - the special allocation partnership flip structure (see Figure 1 in Section 2.1) - was first developed by community wind projects in Minnesota more than a decade ago (and is therefore sometimes referred to as the 'Minnesota flip' model) before being adopted by the broader wind market. More recently, a handful of community wind projects built over the past year have been financed via new and creative structures that push the envelope of wind project finance in the U.S. - in many cases, moving beyond the now-standard partnership flip structures involving strategic tax equity investors. These include: (1) a 4.5 MW project in Maine that combines low-cost government debt with local tax equity, (2) a 25.3 MW project in Minnesota using a sale/leaseback structure, (3) a 10.5 MW project in South Dakota

  20. Multilevel Drivers of HIV/AIDS among Black Philadelphians: Exploration Using Community Ethnography and Geographic Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Brawner, Bridgette M.; Reason, Janaiya L.; Goodman, Bridget A.; Schensul, Jean J.; Guthrie, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Background Unequal HIV/AIDS distribution is influenced by certain social and structural contexts that facilitate HIV transmission and concentrate HIV in disease epicenters. Thus, one of the first steps in designing effective community-level HIV/AIDS initiatives is to disentangle the influence of individual, social, and structural factors on HIV risk. Combining ethnographic methodology with geographic information systems (GIS) mapping can allow for a complex exploration of multilevel factors within communities that facilitate HIV transmission in highly affected areas. Objectives We present the formative comparative community-based case study findings of an investigation of individual-, social- , and structural-level factors that contribute to the HIV/AIDS epidemic among Black Philadelphians. Methods Communities were defined using census tracts. The methodology included ethnographic and GIS mapping, observation, informal conversations with residents and business owners, and secondary analyses of census tract-level data in four Philadelphia neighborhoods. Results Factors such as overcrowding, disadvantage, permeability in community boundaries, and availability and accessibility of health-related resources varied significantly. Further, HIV/AIDS trended with social and structural inequities above and beyond the community’s racial composition. Discussion This study was a first step to disentangle relationships between community-level factors and potential risk for HIV in an HIV epicenter. The findings also highlight stark sociodemographic differences within and across racial groups, and further substantiate the need for comprehensive, community-level HIV prevention interventions. These findings from targeted United States urban communities have potential applicability for examining the distribution of HIV/AIDS in broader national and international geosocial contexts. PMID:25738621

  1. A tool to aid emergency managers and communities in appraising private dam safety and policy.

    PubMed

    Pisaniello, John D; McKay, Jennifer

    2007-06-01

    Issues concerning dam safety and equitable sharing of catchment run-off are receiving more attention throughout the world. This paper assesses these matters in the context of Australia, and the need for policy responses. Landholders often overlook the common law obligation to review/design dams to current standards because of high costs, leaving them vulnerable to litigation if their dam fails. The paper reports on an innovative spillway design/review procedure, applicable to southeast Australia, but transferable to any region worldwide. Dam safety policy models and guidelines derived from international best practice are linked to the procedure and intended to aid government decision-making. The procedure minimises costs to landholders and provides an acceptable level of safety assurance to downstream communities. Also discussed are recent surveys testing community attitudes to the procedure and implemented dam safety and water allocation policies. These further guide any government wanting to implement this'integrated engineering and community partnerships'approach to preventing potential disasters due to private dam failure and achieving sustainable and safe water storage and use.

  2. The ASCD Healthy School Communities Project: Formative Evaluation Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valois, Robert F.; Lewallen, Theresa C.; Slade, Sean; Tasco, Adriane N.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report the formative evaluation results from the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development Healthy School Communities (HSC) pilot project. Design/methodology/approach: This study utilized 11 HSC pilot sites in the USA (eight sites) and Canada (three sites). The evaluation question was…

  3. Landscaping Habitat for Humanity Homes: A Community Outreach Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsay, Jodie L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to incorporate a community service component into a Biology course at Northern State University (NSU) in Aberdeen, SD. Students in an upper-level botany course (Plant Structure and Function) provide landscaping services to homeowners who have purchased homes through Habitat for Humanity. Homeowner satisfaction with…

  4. CICERO Project. Community Initiatives for Citizenship Education Regionally Organised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workers' Educational Association, Rotherham (England). Yorkshire South District.

    This report outlines the European Union's Community Initiatives for Citizenship Education Regionally Organized (CICERO) pilot project, its results, and suggestions for further action. It describes the participants from seven different groups at their first meeting in Barnsley, England, and each group's definition of what it would like European…

  5. Lessons Learned from the Uniontown Community Health Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littleton, Mary Ann; Cornell, Carol E.; Dignan, Mark; Brownstein, J. Nell; Raczynski, James M.; Stalker, Varena G.; McDuffie, Kathleen Y.; Greene, Paul G.; Sanderson, Bonnie; Struempler, Barbara Jo.

    2002-01-01

    Examines lessons learned from a 5-year project designed to develop, implement, and evaluate a multifaceted community health advisor-based intervention to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease among older, rural, African American women. Data from observations surveys, and discussion groups highlight six lessons (e.g., establish personal working…

  6. Thinking Like Researchers: An ESL Project that Investigates Local Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherron, Paul; Randolph, Patrick T.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on task-based and intercultural teaching approaches, this article presents an ESL classroom project at two different university settings in which students investigate aspects of their local communities through the use of ethnographic and observational research techniques. For related reasons, the instructors at each university developed…

  7. [A method of education at a distance for nurses' aides in the community area of Guatemala].

    PubMed

    García Pastor de Domínguez, E; Robles de Sandoval, A; Martínez Chopen, O

    1988-01-01

    The authors describe in detail a self-tutorial system that has been used for some ten years in Guatemala to train auxiliary nursing personnel. This model addressed both training and service objectives, and it proved to be consistent with a health policy of integrating teaching and service which the country was implementing at the time. The system involved a national effort to develop self-tutorial units and materials on basic subjects such as nursing procedures, mother and child health, first aid, management, guided therapy, community development and health education. Materials were divided into three categories: for self-tutorial instruction, for recording, supervision and evaluation, and for coordination and feedback within the system. Lastly, greater detail is given on the functions and tasks performed at the different levels of staff involved in managing the system, and the mechanisms which were implemented in the country's health areas are described.

  8. [A method of education at a distance for nurses' aides in the community area of Guatemala].

    PubMed

    García Pastor de Domínguez, E; Robles de Sandoval, A; Martínez Chopen, O

    1988-01-01

    The authors describe in detail a self-tutorial system that has been used for some ten years in Guatemala to train auxiliary nursing personnel. This model addressed both training and service objectives, and it proved to be consistent with a health policy of integrating teaching and service which the country was implementing at the time. The system involved a national effort to develop self-tutorial units and materials on basic subjects such as nursing procedures, mother and child health, first aid, management, guided therapy, community development and health education. Materials were divided into three categories: for self-tutorial instruction, for recording, supervision and evaluation, and for coordination and feedback within the system. Lastly, greater detail is given on the functions and tasks performed at the different levels of staff involved in managing the system, and the mechanisms which were implemented in the country's health areas are described. PMID:3168883

  9. How Can Community Religious Groups Aid Recovery for Individuals with Psychotic Illnesses?

    PubMed

    Griffith, James L; Myers, Neely; Compton, Michael T

    2016-10-01

    Ministries of churches, temples, mosques, and synagogues are a potential resource for individuals with chronic psychoses. Church attendance is highest in states with the least mental health funding, suggesting a role for community religious groups to aid over-extended mental health systems. The American Psychiatric Association has initiated new efforts to foster partnerships between psychiatrists and religious groups. Such partnerships should be informed by research evidence: (1) religious coping can have both beneficial and adverse effects upon psychosis illness severity; (2) psychosocial programs for persons with psychotic disorders should target specific psychobiological vulnerabilities, in addition to providing compassionate emotional support; (3) family psychoeducation is a well-validated model for reducing schizophrenia illness severity that could inform how religious groups provide activities, social gatherings, and social networks for persons with psychotic disorders. Positive impacts from such collaborations may be greatest in low- and middle-income countries where mental health services are largely absent. PMID:26711096

  10. A needs analysis for computer-based telephone triage in a community AIDS clinic.

    PubMed Central

    Henry, S. B.; Schreiner, J. G.; Borchelt, D.; Musen, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    This study describes the complexity of the telephone-triage task in a community-based AIDS clinic. We identify deficiencies related to the data management for and documentation of the telephone-triage encounter, including inaccessibility of the medical record and failure to document required data elements. Our needs analysis suggests five design criteria for a computer-based system that assists nurses with the telephone-triage task: (1) online accessibility of the medical record, (2) ability to move among modules of the medical record and the triage-encounter module, (3) ease of data entry, (4) compliance with standards for documentation, and (5) notification of the primary-care physician in an appropriate and timely manner. PMID:1482941

  11. An assessment of community readiness for HIV/AIDS preventive interventions in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Aboud, Frances; Huq, Nafisa Lira; Larson, Charles P; Ottisova, Livia

    2010-02-01

    Efforts to prevent HIV from becoming widespread among the youth population 15-24 years in Bangladesh are in the early stages. However, conservative religious and cultural norms may curtail the dissemination of needed information about sexuality and condoms. The community-readiness stages model was adopted as a framework for assessing the level of preparedness of community leaders to facilitate planned HIV prevention efforts. Six focus group discussions with three professional groups (teachers, businessmen, drugshop vendors) in Hobiganj district were conducted in late 2005, and a single multi-professional group made up of teachers, imams, and drugshop vendors was convened in early 2007 to assess changes. The audio recordings in Bangla were coded as were English translations. Everyone had heard of AIDS and regarded it as a potential catastrophe for the health, economy and social fabric of Bangladesh. Remarks concerning Stage 1-Vulnerability indicated that most did not believe their community to be at risk, though Bangladesh was. Remarks at Stage 2-Knowledge of Transmission were mostly vague but accurately identified sex, blood and needles as the main means of spread; however sex with sex workers was also mentioned in each group. Remarks at Stage 3-Prevention showed strong opposition to condoms for unmarried males and a preference for current means of forbidding sex outside of marriage. A few in each group recognized the importance of condoms for wayward youth. Stage 4-Planning discussions centered on raising awareness and fear, and a desire for government and media to take the lead. By 2007 participants articulated more realistic strategies that they themselves could, and had, implemented, but also raised barriers that authorities should help them overcome. The findings provide formative information on the constraints and opportunities of community groups as partners in HIV preventive interventions and strategies to help them move to a higher stage of readiness.

  12. Data management for community research projects: A JGOFS case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, Roy K.

    1992-01-01

    Since the mid 1980s, much of the marine science research effort in the United Kingdom has been focused into large scale collaborative projects involving public sector laboratories and university departments, termed Community Research Projects. Two of these, the Biogeochemical Ocean Flux Study (BOFS) and the North Sea Project incorporated large scale data collection to underpin multidisciplinary modeling efforts. The challenge of providing project data sets to support the science was met by a small team within the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) operating as a topical data center. The role of the data center was to both work up the data from the ship's sensors and to combine these data with sample measurements into online databases. The working up of the data was achieved by a unique symbiosis between data center staff and project scientists. The project management, programming and data processing skills of the data center were combined with the oceanographic experience of the project communities to develop a system which has produced quality controlled, calibrated data sets from 49 research cruises in 3.5 years of operation. The data center resources required to achieve this were modest and far outweighed by the time liberated in the scientific community by the removal of the data processing burden. Two online project databases have been assembled containing a very high proportion of the data collected. As these are under the control of BODC their long term availability as part of the UK national data archive is assured. The success of the topical data center model for UK Community Research Project data management has been founded upon the strong working relationships forged between the data center and project scientists. These can only be established by frequent personal contact and hence the relatively small size of the UK has been a critical factor. However, projects covering a larger, even international scale could be successfully supported by a

  13. Ideological schisms about HIV/AIDS helping systems in the African American community, with an emphasis on women.

    PubMed

    Fairfax, Colita Nichols

    2010-10-01

    This article is an initial exploration about the impact of ideological beliefs on helping services in the African American community. Newly infected HIV/AIDS cases place African Americans at 45% of such new cases, with African American women becoming infected at a rate 18 times that of Whites. Yet, helping services that are organic to African American women should be stronger through a discussion of cultural beliefs held in the community, where the genesis of helping services exists. Values and beliefs should be at the center of community partnerships, public media strategies, generalist-practice curricula in macro-level systems, and creating more space for relationship dialogue between African American men and women, which includes gender and racial distortions. Given the exponentially high numbers of HIV/AIDS cases in the African American community, a more earnest examination of values and beliefs is warranted. PMID:21082471

  14. Ideological schisms about HIV/AIDS helping systems in the African American community, with an emphasis on women.

    PubMed

    Fairfax, Colita Nichols

    2010-10-01

    This article is an initial exploration about the impact of ideological beliefs on helping services in the African American community. Newly infected HIV/AIDS cases place African Americans at 45% of such new cases, with African American women becoming infected at a rate 18 times that of Whites. Yet, helping services that are organic to African American women should be stronger through a discussion of cultural beliefs held in the community, where the genesis of helping services exists. Values and beliefs should be at the center of community partnerships, public media strategies, generalist-practice curricula in macro-level systems, and creating more space for relationship dialogue between African American men and women, which includes gender and racial distortions. Given the exponentially high numbers of HIV/AIDS cases in the African American community, a more earnest examination of values and beliefs is warranted.

  15. Implementing community interventions for HIV prevention: insights from project ethnography.

    PubMed

    Evans, Catrin; Lambert, Helen

    2008-01-01

    Global policy on HIV prevention among marginalised populations recommends a community-based approach with participation and mobilisation as central features. The overall aim is to empower individuals and groups to reduce their vulnerability to HIV. Community empowerment initiatives have had mixed results, however, in spite of utilising very similar peer-education based intervention strategies. This is particularly true of community-based interventions in sex work settings. Drawing upon an ethnographic study conducted in the early years of a well-known sex worker initiative-the Sonagachi STD/HIV Intervention Project (SHIP) in Kolkata, India-this paper argues that ethnographic research can illuminate the complex and inter-dependent dynamics of context, practice, agency and power that are specific to a project and shape the course of intervention implementation in ways that may be 'hidden' in conventional techniques of project reporting. Two detailed excerpts of what we refer to as 'private contexts of practice' are presented-focusing upon the complex processes underlying community mobilisation and peer education. We show that the gathering of ethnographic forms of evidence in conjunction with more conventional evaluation measures has two distinct benefits. First, an ethnographic approach is able to capture the play of power through observation of real-time events that involve multiple actors with widely different perspectives, as compared with retrospective accounts from carefully selected project representatives (the usual practice in project evaluations). Second, observation of actual intervention practices can reveal insights that may be hard for project staff to articulate or difficult to pinpoint, and can highlight important points of divergence and convergence from intervention theory or planning documents.

  16. Implementing community interventions for HIV prevention: insights from project ethnography.

    PubMed

    Evans, Catrin; Lambert, Helen

    2008-01-01

    Global policy on HIV prevention among marginalised populations recommends a community-based approach with participation and mobilisation as central features. The overall aim is to empower individuals and groups to reduce their vulnerability to HIV. Community empowerment initiatives have had mixed results, however, in spite of utilising very similar peer-education based intervention strategies. This is particularly true of community-based interventions in sex work settings. Drawing upon an ethnographic study conducted in the early years of a well-known sex worker initiative-the Sonagachi STD/HIV Intervention Project (SHIP) in Kolkata, India-this paper argues that ethnographic research can illuminate the complex and inter-dependent dynamics of context, practice, agency and power that are specific to a project and shape the course of intervention implementation in ways that may be 'hidden' in conventional techniques of project reporting. Two detailed excerpts of what we refer to as 'private contexts of practice' are presented-focusing upon the complex processes underlying community mobilisation and peer education. We show that the gathering of ethnographic forms of evidence in conjunction with more conventional evaluation measures has two distinct benefits. First, an ethnographic approach is able to capture the play of power through observation of real-time events that involve multiple actors with widely different perspectives, as compared with retrospective accounts from carefully selected project representatives (the usual practice in project evaluations). Second, observation of actual intervention practices can reveal insights that may be hard for project staff to articulate or difficult to pinpoint, and can highlight important points of divergence and convergence from intervention theory or planning documents. PMID:17920740

  17. Evaluating the effects of community-based organization engagement on HIV and AIDS-related risk behavior in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Riehman, Kara S; Kakietek, Jakub; Manteuffel, Brigitte A; Rodriguez-García, Rosalía; Bonnel, Rene; N'Jie, N'Della; Godoy-Garraza, Lucas; Orago, Alloys; Murithi, Patrick; Fruh, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    International donors have increasingly shifted AIDS funding directly to community-based organizations (CBOs) with the assumption that responding to the epidemic is best achieved at the community level. The World Bank, ICF Macro, and the National Council for Population and Development in Kenya, conducted a study to evaluate the community response in Kenya. The study used a quasi-experimental design comparing seven study communities and seven comparison communities in Nyanza Province and Western Province. We examined the impact of CBO activity on individual and community-level outcomes, including HIV knowledge, awareness and perceptions, sexual risk behavior, and social transformation (gender ideology and social capital). The study consisted of two components: a household survey conducted in all 14 communities, and qualitative data collected in a subset of communities. Individuals in communities with higher CBO engagement were significantly more likely to have reported consistent condom use. Higher CBO engagement was associated with some measures of social capital, including participation in local and national elections, and participation in electoral campaigns. CBOs provide added value in addressing the HIV and AIDS epidemic in very targeted and specific ways that are closely tied to the services they provide (e.g., prevention education); thus, increasing CBO engagement can be an effective measure in scaling up prevention efforts in those areas.

  18. Why do some women know more? An exploration of the association of community socioeconomic characteristics, social capital, and HIV/AIDS knowledge.

    PubMed

    Jesmin, Syeda S; Chaudhuri, Sanjukta

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the associations of community-level socio-economic status (SES) characteristics and social capital with women's knowledge of HIV/AIDS. We used a representative national sample of 6,771 women ages 15-49 years from the Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey of 2007. We extended the findings of prior studies by providing new evidence that both community and social capital were related to having knowledge of AIDS. The significant community characteristics associated with women's greater knowledge of AIDS were: women's higher mean age at first marriage, higher mean years of education, the higher percentage of women in the community who work, and higher mean household living standard in the community. Regardless of individual-level SES, living in a community with higher community-level SES and having greater social capital were associated with having a greater likelihood of hearing about AIDS. However, we found that once women knew about AIDS, not all of the community-SES and social capital indicators explained their advanced knowledge of AIDS prevention and transmission. Our findings underscore the importance of HIV/AIDS education campaigns in the disadvantaged communities, specifically targeting women who are not members in any non-governmental organizations, as well as greater use of media in educating women about AIDS.

  19. Community reaction to persons with HIV/AIDS and their parents: an analysis of recent evidence from Thailand.

    PubMed

    VanLandingham, Mark J; Im-Em, Wassana; Saengtienchai, Chanpen

    2005-12-01

    We systematically examine community reaction to persons living with HIV/AIDS (PHAs) and their older parents in Thailand. We focus on parents as well as PHAs because parents are major providers of care for their ill adult children. Our analyses are based on several sources of recently collected survey and qualitative data from a wide range of perspectives. We find important variations in community reaction to PHAs and their families, but overall these reactions are much more positive than is widely assumed. We conclude that much existing research on community reaction to AIDS neglects both a rich body of social theory on stigma and a strong tradition of population-based empirical research in sociology. Much existing research also fails to adequately distinguish between key aspects of the social settings where most AIDS cases occur and the social settings where most of the stereotypes surrounding AIDS-related stigma have originated. A closer marriage between empirical and theoretical approaches to social stigma is required to advance our understanding of this critically important dimension of the AIDS epidemic.

  20. Learning through Community Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Gwynn M.

    2001-01-01

    In implementing community service programs, camps need to develop safe, specific projects. Key planning points for service projects are presented. Risk management considerations specific to community service projects include developing guidelines for camper interaction with the public; discussing first-aid and emergency precautions, including…

  1. Experiences and challenges in implementing complex community-based research project: the Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project.

    PubMed

    Schultz, J T; Moodie, M; Mavoa, H; Utter, J; Snowdon, W; McCabe, M P; Millar, L; Kremer, P; Swinburn, B A

    2011-11-01

    Policy makers throughout the world are struggling to find effective ways to prevent the rising trend of obesity globally, particularly among children. The Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project was the first large-scale, intervention research project conducted in the Pacific aiming to prevent obesity in adolescents. The project spanned four countries: Australia, New Zealand, Fiji and Tonga. This paper reports on the strengths and challenges experienced from this complex study implemented from 2004 to 2009 across eight cultural groups in different community settings. The key strengths of the project were its holistic collaborative approach, participatory processes and capacity building. The challenges inherent in such a large complex project were underestimated during the project's development. These related to the scale, complexity, duration, low research capacity in some sites and overall coordination across four different countries. Our experiences included the need for a longer lead-in time prior to intervention for training and up-skilling of staff in Fiji and Tonga, investment in overall coordination, data quality management across all sites and the need for realistic capacity building requirements for research staff. The enhanced research capacity and skills across all sites include the development and strengthening of research centres, knowledge translation and new obesity prevention projects.

  2. Community-Based Management of Child Malnutrition in Zambia: HIV/AIDS Infection and Other Risk Factors on Child Survival

    PubMed Central

    Moramarco, Stefania; Amerio, Giulia; Ciarlantini, Clarice; Chipoma, Jean Kasengele; Simpungwe, Matilda Kakungu; Nielsen-Saines, Karin; Palombi, Leonardo; Buonomo, Ersilia

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: Supplementary feeding programs (SFPs) are effective in the community-based treatment of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) and prevention of severe acute malnutrition (SAM); (2) Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on a sample of 1266 Zambian malnourished children assisted from 2012 to 2014 in the Rainbow Project SFPs. Nutritional status was evaluated according to WHO/Unicef methodology. We performed univariate and multivariate Cox proportional risk regression to identify the main predictors of mortality. In addition, a time-to event analysis was performed to identify predictors of failure and time to cure events; (3) Results: The analysis included 858 malnourished children (19 months ± 9.4; 49.9% males). Program outcomes met international standards with a better performance for MAM compared to SAM. Cox regression identified SAM (3.8; 2.1–6.8), HIV infection (3.1; 1.7–5.5), and WAZ <−3 (3.1; 1.6–5.7) as predictors of death. Time to event showed 80% of children recovered by SAM/MAM at 24 weeks. (4) Conclusions: Preventing deterioration of malnutrition, coupled to early detection of HIV/AIDS with adequate antiretroviral treatment, and extending the duration of feeding supplementation, could be crucial elements for ensuring full recovery and improve child survival in malnourished Zambian children. PMID:27376317

  3. Community-Based Management of Child Malnutrition in Zambia: HIV/AIDS Infection and Other Risk Factors on Child Survival.

    PubMed

    Moramarco, Stefania; Amerio, Giulia; Ciarlantini, Clarice; Chipoma, Jean Kasengele; Simpungwe, Matilda Kakungu; Nielsen-Saines, Karin; Palombi, Leonardo; Buonomo, Ersilia

    2016-01-01

    (1) BACKGROUND: Supplementary feeding programs (SFPs) are effective in the community-based treatment of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) and prevention of severe acute malnutrition (SAM); (2) METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on a sample of 1266 Zambian malnourished children assisted from 2012 to 2014 in the Rainbow Project SFPs. Nutritional status was evaluated according to WHO/Unicef methodology. We performed univariate and multivariate Cox proportional risk regression to identify the main predictors of mortality. In addition, a time-to event analysis was performed to identify predictors of failure and time to cure events; (3) RESULTS: The analysis included 858 malnourished children (19 months ± 9.4; 49.9% males). Program outcomes met international standards with a better performance for MAM compared to SAM. Cox regression identified SAM (3.8; 2.1-6.8), HIV infection (3.1; 1.7-5.5), and WAZ <-3 (3.1; 1.6-5.7) as predictors of death. Time to event showed 80% of children recovered by SAM/MAM at 24 weeks. (4) CONCLUSIONS: Preventing deterioration of malnutrition, coupled to early detection of HIV/AIDS with adequate antiretroviral treatment, and extending the duration of feeding supplementation, could be crucial elements for ensuring full recovery and improve child survival in malnourished Zambian children. PMID:27376317

  4. APPLICATION OF 3D COMPUTER-AIDED TOMOGRAPHY TO THE QUANTIFICATION OF MARINE SEDIMENT COMMUNITIES IN POLLUTION GRADIENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer-Aided Tomography (CT) has been demonstrated to be a cost efficient tool for the qualitative and quantitative study of estuarine benthic communities along pollution gradients.
    Now we have advanced this technology to successfully visualize and discriminate three dimen...

  5. Striving toward Self-Sufficiency: A Qualitative Study of Mutual Aid in an Old Order Mennonite Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gingrich, Luann Good; Lightman, Ernie

    2006-01-01

    Most contemporary groups limit attempts of mutuality to specific instances of need. This paper reports on a qualitative study of the structures and systems of mutual aid in a traditional, closed ethnoreligious Old Order Mennonite community in Ontario. We examine the structural characteristics, systems of mutuality, tensions, and conflicts that…

  6. Community health, media, and policy in sub-Saharan Africa: a primary prevention approach to the AIDS crisis.

    PubMed

    Ndiwane, A N

    2000-01-01

    Availability, access and utilization of essential health services present challenges to community health services in Sub-Saharan Africa. HIV/AIDS infection has added yet another dimension to a continent already experiencing economic crises. A primary prevention approach is emphasized as a means of addressing sexual behaviors that decrease risk of transmission. Educating the sexually active to use condom and also HIV/AIDS testing and counseling can be effective in curbing transmission of the virus. Community forums such as the local schools and churches, together with the political leadership need to coordinate primary prevention efforts against HIV/AIDS transmission. The media can be powerful in raising awareness, community activism, and mobilization of the masses at grass-roots level by advocating behaviors that promote health. African leaders must indicate a strong political will by shaping policies that address HIV/AIDS. These leaders need resources (both internally and externally) to fund primary prevention programs that are community-based and outcome-oriented. PMID:11760309

  7. Energy Efficient Community Development in California: Chula Vista Research Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gas Technology Institute

    2009-03-31

    In 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy joined the California Energy Commission in funding a project to begin to examine the technical, economic and institutional (policy and regulatory) aspects of energy-efficient community development. That research project was known as the Chula Vista Research Project for the host California community that co-sponsored the initiative. The researches proved that the strategic integration of the selected and economically viable buildings energy efficiency (EE) measures, photovoltaics (PV), distributed generation (DG), and district cooling can produce significant reductions in aggregate energy consumption, peak demand and emissions, compared to the developer/builder's proposed baseline approach. However, the central power plant emission reductions achieved through use of the EE-DG option would increase local air emissions. The electric and natural gas utility infrastructure impacts associated with the use of the EE and EE-PV options were deemed relatively insignificant while use of the EE-DG option would result in a significant reduction of necessary electric distribution facilities to serve a large-scale development project. The results of the Chula Vista project are detailed in three separate documents: (1) Energy-Efficient Community Development in California; Chula Vista Research Project report contains a detailed description of the research effort and findings. This includes the methodologies, and tools used and the analysis of the efficiency, economic and emissions impacts of alternative energy technology and community design options for two development sites. Research topics covered included: (a) Energy supply, demand, and control technologies and related strategies for structures; (b) Application of locally available renewable energy resources including solar thermal and PV technology and on-site power generation with heat recovery; (c) Integration of local energy resources into district energy systems and existing energy

  8. “The problem is ours, it is not CRAIDS’ ”. Evaluating sustainability of Community Based Organisations for HIV/AIDS in a rural district in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While sustainability of health programmes has been the subject of empirical studies, there is little evidence specifically on the sustainability of Community Based Organisations (CBOs) for HIV/AIDS. Debates around optimal approaches in community health have centred on utilitarian versus empowerment approaches. This paper, using the World Bank Multi-Country AIDS Program (MAP) in Zambia as a case study, seeks to evaluate whether or not this global programme contributed to the sustainability of CBOs working in the area of HIV/AIDS in Zambia. Lessons for optimising sustainability of CBOs in lower income countries are drawn. Methods In-depth interviews with representatives of all CBOs that received CRAIDS funding (n = 18) and district stakeholders (n= 10) in Mumbwa rural district in Zambia, in 2010; and national stakeholders (n=6) in 2011. Results Funding: All eighteen CBOs in Mumbwa that received MAP funding between 2003 and 2008 had existed prior to receiving MAP grants, some from as early as 1992. This was contrary to national level perceptions that CBOs were established to access funds rather than from the needs of communities. Funding opportunities for CBOs in Mumbwa in 2010 were scarce. Health services: While all CBOs were functioning in 2010, most reported reductions in service provision. Home visits had reduced due to a shortage of food to bring to people living with HIV/AIDS and scarcity of funding for transport, which reduced antiretroviral treatment adherence support and transport of patients to clinics. Organisational capacity and viability: Sustainability had been promoted during MAP through funding Income Generating Activities. However, there was a lack of infrastructure and training to make these sustainable. Links between health facilities and communities improved over time, however volunteers’ skills levels had reduced. Conclusions Whilst the World Bank espoused the idea of sustainability in their plans, it remained on the periphery of

  9. AIDS in the Black Community: Programmatic Directions for New York State. Preliminary Report, Human Services Subcommittee. The Governor's Advisory Committee for Black Affairs, Albany. Volume 2, Human Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Governor's Advisory Committee for Black Affairs, Albany.

    There is a critical need for culturally appropriate community-based services in the black community to stop the spread of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and to support those with the disease. AIDS is a priority health and social services issue for black New Yorkers, affecting not only individual men and women but whole families.…

  10. Tucson Solar Village: Project management. A project in sustainable community development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    The Tucson Solar Village is a Design/Build Project In Sustainable Community Development which responds to a broad spectrum of energy, environmental, and economic challenges. This project is designed for 820 acres of undeveloped State Trust Land within the Tucson city limits; residential population will be five to six thousand persons with internal employment provided for 1200. This is a 15 year project (for complete buildout and sales) with an estimated cost of $500 million. Details of the project are addressed with emphasis on the process and comments on its transferability.

  11. Community-based HIV/AIDS interventions to promote psychosocial well-being among people living with HIV/AIDS: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Liyun; Li, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Background: This review explores the current community-based psychosocial interventions among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) across the globe. Methods: Evaluation studies were retrieved and reviewed regarding study location, characteristics of participants, study design, intervention strategies, outcome indicators, and intervention findings. Results: The 28 studies spanned a broad range of intervention strategies, including coping skills, treatment and cure, cultural activities, community involvement, knowledge education, voluntary counseling and testing, peer-group support, three-layered service provision, child-directed group intervention, adult mentoring, and support group interventions. Regardless of study designs, all studies reported positive intervention effects, ranging from a reduction in HIV/AIDS stigma, loneliness, marginalization, distress, depression, anger, and anxiety to an increase in self-esteem, self-efficacy, coping skills, and quality of life. Conclusion: Although the existing studies have limitation with regard to program coverage, intensity, scope, and methodological challenges, they underscore the importance of developing community-based interventions to promote psychosocial well-being among PLWHA. Future studies need to employ more rigorous methodology and integrate contextual and institutional factors when implementing effective interventions. PMID:25264499

  12. Direct/community broadcast projects using space satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frutkin, A. W.

    1975-01-01

    A review is presented of direct/community broadcast projects which are currently in preparation in India, Canada, and Japan. It is shown that the satellite broadcast experiments involved are conducted for practical domestic reasons. The broadcast activities in all three projects will not reach other countries' TV receivers unless those countries take deliberate steps to enable themselves to receive such broadcasts. It is pointed out that for technological reasons problems of intrusion and interference connected with the use of satellites in broadcast operations may be much easier to handle than similar problems related to conventional radio broadcasting.

  13. HIV and AIDS vulnerability in fishing communities in Mangochi district, Malawi.

    PubMed

    Nagoli, Joseph; Holvoet, Katrien; Remme, Michelle

    2010-04-01

    The fisheries sector contributes significantly to Malawi's national economy and to the livelihoods of the poor as certain activities in the sector have relatively low barriers to entry. Various studies have shown that the fisheries sector suffers from high HIV prevalence in many low-income countries. In Malawi, HIV prevalence as well as the causes and impact of HIV infections among fisherfolk are yet to be assessed. Participatory action research was conducted in Mangochi District, in the southern part of Lake Malawi, between December 2007 and January 2008, to identify critical HIV-risk points along the value-chain for the Lake Sardine or usipa (Engraulicypris sardella) fishery. Data were collected through interviews with key informants and from focus group discussions at the community, institution, district and market levels. An analysis of vulnerability resulted in the formulation of mechanisms to redress HIV and AIDS prevention and mitigation at each point of vulnerability. The findings show that HIV and AIDS vulnerability in the fishery's market-chain is highest where fish processing and trading influence sexual relationships between fishermen and female fish traders. The period of high usipa catches (December to March) coincides with a period of food shortage and fishing offers income-generating opportunities for many food-insecure households. This increases competition in processing and trading fish, a socio-economic situation that may result in increased instances of transactional sex. The interactions along the usipa fishery's market-chain, from rural to urban settings, also favour the transmission of HIV from areas of high prevalence to areas with otherwise low HIV risk.

  14. Promoting cancer prevention and control in community-based HIV/AIDS service organizations: are they ready?

    PubMed

    Guidry, John A; Lubetkin, Erica; Corner, Geoffrey; Lord-Bessen, Jennifer; Kornegay, Mark; Burkhalter, Jack E

    2014-02-01

    Community-based organizations (CBOs) serving persons living with HIV or AIDS face the challenge of an aging population with more chronic diseases. This study assessed cancer programming needs of AIDS service organizations (ASOs) in New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut by conducting a community needs assessment. Sixty (58%) of 103 organizations completed the survey. ASOs conduct activities most related to early steps along the cancer care continuum, but they also express great interest in expanding cancer-focused programming into new areas. ASOs have resources or capacities in assisting HIV+ clients with mental health or substance abuse problems, but there exists a need for funding in undertaking or expanding cancer-focused programs. ASOs are receptive to collaborating with researchers on disseminating cancer prevention and control knowledge in their settings. Community-academic research partnerships enable resonant training and technical assistance methods to be explored that will enhance the abilities of ASOs to bring cancer-related programming to their clients.

  15. Repertoires: How to Transform a Project into a Research Community

    PubMed Central

    Leonelli, Sabina; Ankeny, Rachel A.

    2015-01-01

    How effectively communities of scientists come together and co-operate is crucial both to the quality of research outputs and to the extent to which such outputs integrate insights, data and methods from a variety of fields, laboratories and locations around the globe. This essay focuses on the ensemble of material and social conditions that makes it possible for a short-term collaboration, set up to accomplish a specific task, to give rise to relatively stable communities of researchers. We refer to these distinctive features as repertoires, and investigate their development and implementation across three examples of collaborative research in the life sciences. We conclude that whether a particular project ends up fostering the emergence of a resilient research community is partly determined by the degree of attention and care devoted by researchers to material and social elements beyond the specific research questions under consideration. PMID:26412866

  16. Community Outreach in Associate Degree Nursing Programs: AACC/Metropolitan Life Foundation Project, 1995-1996. AACC Project Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Lynn

    In January 1995, five community colleges were selected to participate in a year-long project to implement new teaching methods in associate degree nursing programs to better meet community needs. Supported by the American Association for Community Colleges, with seed money from the Metropolitan Life Foundation, all of the projects also had…

  17. Inadvertent insertion of hearing aid impression material into the middle ear: Case report and implications for future community hearing services☆

    PubMed Central

    Algudkar, Ashwin; Maden, Belma; Singh, Arvind; Tatla, Taran

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The creation of ear moulds for hearing aids is generally considered a safe and routine procedure for trained professionals. In the literature there are reports of otological complications caused by hearing aid mould impression material in the middle ear cavity but such complications are considered rare. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present the case of a patient in whom impression material entered the middle ear through a perforation of the tympanic membrane during the process of making a hearing aid mould and review how this was managed. DISCUSSION We discuss how many aspects of the British Society of Audiology guidelines were not followed during this procedure and make recommendations as to how independent community practitioners need to be closely supervised with regular review to minimise the risks of such complications. CONCLUSION Our report demonstrates how a serious otological complication from the creation of a hearing aid impression in a community based private hearing clinic was managed. The reporting of such complications is rare but the incidence is likely to be much higher than the literature would suggest. We recommend and advise how these adverse incidents may be minimised and managed through competency reviews and formal referral links from community centres to hospital otolaryngology/audiology departments. PMID:24262374

  18. Building adherence-competent communities: Factors promoting children's adherence to anti-retroviral HIV/AIDS treatment in rural Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Catherine; Skovdal, Morten; Mupambireyi, Zivai; Madanhire, Claudius; Nyamukapa, Constance; Gregson, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Given relatively high levels of adherence to HIV treatment in Africa, we explore factors facilitating children's adherence, despite poverty, social disruption and limited health infrastructure. Using interviews with 25 nurses and 40 guardians in Zimbabwe, we develop our conceptualisation of an ‘adherence competent community’, showing how members of five networks (children, guardians, community members, health workers and NGOs) have taken advantage of the gradual public normalisation of HIV/AIDS and improved drug and service availability to construct new norms of solidarity with HIV and AIDS sufferers, recognition of HIV-infected children's social worth, an ethic of care/assistance and a supporting atmosphere of enablement/empowerment. PMID:21975285

  19. Finding the "community" in community-level HIV/AIDS interventions: formative research with young African American men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Kraft, J M; Beeker, C; Stokes, J P; Peterson, J L

    2000-08-01

    Data from 76 qualitative interviews with 18- to 29-year-old African American men who have sex with men (MSM) in Chicago and Atlanta were examined to identify perceptions of "community" and components of a community-level HIV/AIDS intervention. Many men reported feeling marginal to African American and gay White communities because of perceived homophobia and racism. Those who reported feeling part of gay African American communities characterized communities in terms of settings, social structures, and functions, including social support, socialization, and mobility. Despite these positive functions, divisions among groups of MSM, lack of settings for nonsexual interaction with other MSM, lack of leadership, and negative attitudes toward homosexuality may make it difficult for men to participate in activities to alter community contexts that influence behavior. Rather, changing norms, increasing social support, and community building should be part of initial community-level interventions. Community building might identify leaders, create new settings, and create opportunities for dialogue between MSM and African American community groups to address negative perceptions of homosexuality.

  20. 7 CFR 1739.11 - Eligible Community Connect Competitive Grant Project.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible Community Connect Competitive Grant Project... UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BROADBAND GRANT PROGRAM Community Connect Grant Program § 1739.11 Eligible Community Connect Competitive Grant Project. To be eligible for a Community...

  1. Outcomes, Output, and Outlooks: A Report and Evaluation of Project CALL, a Project in Rural Community Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gober, Lydia A., Comp.; Wiseman, T. Jan, Comp.

    Communities Alive For Living and Learning (Project CALL), designed at Kishwaukee College to help three local, rural communities develop educational, recreational, and cultural programs, is described in this report. The first sections of the report consider the need for and purposes of the project. The Project Coordinator's report presents an…

  2. Life history analysis of HIV/AIDS-affected households in rice and cassava-based farming communities in Northern Malawi.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Midori; van Huis, Arnold; Jiggins, Janice

    2010-10-01

    The "New Variant Famine" hypothesis proposed that AIDS offers a major challenge to food security in this part of Africa by impairing the functioning of traditional support systems, leading to the collapse of "social immunity". This study explores the changing perceptions of HIV and AIDS and peoples' responses to its impact by eliciting life history narratives of 30 respondents in Northern Malawi. We classified respondents by means of gender, livelihood systems and AIDS impact levels. Respondents reported a range of critical events, recorded in the life histories, that threatened their "social immunity", including deaths, sicknesses, migration, marriages and divorces, and dropping out of school; i.e., a greater range of risks than AIDS alone, that need to be recognised in HIV and AIDS programming. For the respondents who were classified as "AIDS-affected", learning about their seropositive status was found to be an important, and in some cases a positive, turning point in their lives in terms of behavioural changes, such as joining support groups and opening up to discussion of the implications of their status. The emerging social organisations could re-create social capacity and check the downward spiral proposed by the "New Variant Famine" hypothesis. To promote this shift and to confer a higher level of "social immunity", investments in expanding access to voluntary counselling and testing and antiretroviral therapy services, and assistance to community-based organisations would be essential. PMID:20640952

  3. Network of communities in the fight against AIDS: local actions to address health inequities and promote health in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Edmundo, Kátia; Guimarães, Wanda; Vasconcelos, Maria do Socorro; Baptista, Ana Paula; Becker, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    When combined with major social inequities, the AIDS epidemic in Brazil becomes much more complex and requires effective and participatory community-based interventions. This article describes the experience of a civil society organisation, the Centre for Health Promotion (CEDAPS), in the slum communities (favelas) of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Using a community-based participatory approach, 55 community organisations were mobilised to develop local actions to address the increasing social vulnerability to HIV/AIDS of people living in squatter communities. This was done through on-going prevention initiatives based on the local culture and developed by a Network of Communities. The community movement has created a sense of "ownership" of social actions. The fight against AIDS has been a mobilising factor in engaging and organising communities and has contributed to raising awareness of health rights. Local actions included targeting the determinants of local vulnerability, as suggested by health promotion workers.

  4. The Astropy Project: A community Python library for astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipocz, Brigitta; Robitaille, Thomas; Tollerud, Erik

    2016-03-01

    The Astropy Project is a community effort to develop a single core package for Astronomy in Python and foster interoperability between Python Astronomy packages, and is one of the largest open-source collaborations in Astronomy. In this talk I present an overview of the project, provide an update on the latest status of the core package, which saw the v1.1 release late last year, and discuss our plans for the coming year. In addition, I describe the "affiliated packages": Python packages that use Astropy and are associated with the project, but are not actually a part of the core library itself. I also briefly talk about the infrastructural tools we provide for these packages.

  5. Community Adult Education; Evidence Submitted to the Russell Committee on Adult Education in England and Wales by the Workers' Educational Association (West Lancashire & Cheshire District) and the Liverpool Educational Priority Area Action/Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovett, T. O.

    This paper discusses six roles which an adult education agency can fill in an Educational Priority Area and illustrates each one with examples from the Liverpool E.P.A. Project. These roles are: (1) adult education cum community development; (2) adult education as a resource in community development work; (3) adult education as an aid to parents…

  6. Communications Skills Training in Bi-Lateral Aid Projects. Report on the Dunford House Seminar (England, United Kingdom, July 15-25, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgs, David, Ed.

    Proceedings of a seminar on communications skills training for English-as-a-Second-Language teachers in the context of aid projects overseas are presented in the form of papers, presentations, and summary narrative. They include: "Educational Project Management: Survey of Communications Skills Requirements in Aid Projects in Indonesia" (John Webb…

  7. Epidemiological measures of participation in community health promotion projects.

    PubMed

    Oddy, W H; Holman, C D; Corti, B; Donovan, R J

    1995-10-01

    The paper is concerned with the use of epidemiological methods to measure the rates at which different strata of a defined population participate in community health promotion projects. The specific aim was to estimate the incidence rates of participation in projects sponsored by the Western Australian Health Promotion Foundation (Healthway), separately for sociodemographic and health-related behavioral subgroups. Data were drawn from Healthway sponsorship projects in 1992. Each sport, arts, and racing project was associated with promotion of a health message and creation of a health promoting environment. The study used a 2-stage sampling design. 13 of 57 large sponsorship projects and 30 of 129 small projects were selected. In the second stage, respondents were randomly surveyed from among project participants. A total of 4060 respondents at least 10 years old was sampled from the 43 selected projects. Population-based incident participation were estimated and were related to person-years at risk. The total participation rate was 4.01 per person-year in people or= 10 years old. The rate was very high at ages 10-14 years and thereafter declined with increasing age. Compared with the least socially disadvantaged 25% of the population, the participation rate fell by around 1/3 in the medium and high disadvantaged groups, but exceeded the baseline by a ratio of 1.85 (95% confidence interval: 1.57-2.18) in the most disadvantaged 10% of the population. The comparatively high rate of participation in the most disadvantaged group occurred only at ages 50 years and the effect was most pronounced at ages 10-19 years. Compared with the least disadvantaged 25%, the rate ratio in the most disadvantaged 10% of the population was 2.50 in the metropolitan area and 1.25 in the country regions of western Australia. Participation was higher in those who smoked, drank alcohol unsafely, reported sunburn, and reported low consumption of fruit and vegetables. Epidemiological methods

  8. A Practical Tablet-Based Hearing Aid Configuration as an Exemplar Project for Students of Instrumentation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the configuration and digital signal processing details of a tablet-based hearing aid transmitting wirelessly to standard earphones, whereby the tablet performs full sound processing rather than solely providing a means of setting adjustment by streaming to conventional digital hearing aids. The presented device confirms the recognized advantages of this tablet-based approach (e.g., in relation to cost, frequency domain processing, amplification range, versatility of functionality, component battery rechargeability), and flags the future wider-spread availability of such hearing solutions within mainstream healthcare. The use of a relatively high sampling frequency was found to be beneficial for device performance, while the use of optional off-the-shelf add-on components (e.g., data acquisition device, high fidelity microphone, compact wireless transmitter/receiver, wired headphones) are also discussed in relation to performance optimization. The easy-to-follow configuration utilized is well suited to student learning/research instrumentation projects within the health and biomedical sciences. In this latter regard, the presented device was pedagogically integrated into a flipped classroom approach for the teaching of bioinstrumentation within an Allied Health Sciences School, with the subsequent establishment of positive student engagement outcomes. PMID:26779329

  9. A Practical Tablet-Based Hearing Aid Configuration as an Exemplar Project for Students of Instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Simeoni, Ricardo

    2015-06-11

    This paper presents the configuration and digital signal processing details of a tablet-based hearing aid transmitting wirelessly to standard earphones, whereby the tablet performs full sound processing rather than solely providing a means of setting adjustment by streaming to conventional digital hearing aids. The presented device confirms the recognized advantages of this tablet-based approach (e.g., in relation to cost, frequency domain processing, amplification range, versatility of functionality, component battery rechargeability), and flags the future wider-spread availability of such hearing solutions within mainstream healthcare. The use of a relatively high sampling frequency was found to be beneficial for device performance, while the use of optional off-the-shelf add-on components (e.g., data acquisition device, high fidelity microphone, compact wireless transmitter/receiver, wired headphones) are also discussed in relation to performance optimization. The easy-to-follow configuration utilized is well suited to student learning/research instrumentation projects within the health and biomedical sciences. In this latter regard, the presented device was pedagogically integrated into a flipped classroom approach for the teaching of bioinstrumentation within an Allied Health Sciences School, with the subsequent establishment of positive student engagement outcomes.

  10. Laying the foundation for Connect to Protect: a multi-site community mobilization intervention to reduce HIV/AIDS incidence and prevalence among urban youth.

    PubMed

    Ziff, Mauri A; Harper, Gary W; Chutuape, Kate S; Deeds, Bethany Griffin; Futterman, Donna; Francisco, Vincent T; Muenz, Larry R; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2006-05-01

    Despite the considerable resources that have been dedicated to HIV prevention interventions and services over the past decade, HIV incidence among young people in the United States remains alarmingly high. One reason is that the majority of prevention efforts continue to focus solely on modifying individual behavior, even though public health research strongly suggests that changes to a community's structural elements, such as their programs, practices, and laws or policies, may result in more effective and sustainable outcomes. Connect to Protect is a multi-city community mobilization intervention that focuses on altering or creating community structural elements in ways that will ultimately reduce youth HIV incidence and prevalence. The project, which spans 6 years, is sponsored by the Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions at multiple urban clinical research sites. This paper provides an overview of the study's three phases and describes key factors in setting a firm foundation for the initiation and execution of this type of undertaking. Connect to Protect's community mobilization approach to achieving structural change represents a relatively new and broad direction in HIV prevention research. To optimize opportunities for its success, time and resources must be initially placed into laying the groundwork. This includes activities such as building a strong overarching study infrastructure to ensure protocol tasks can be met across sites; tapping into local site and community expertise and knowledge; forming collaborative relationships between sites and community organizations and members; and fostering community input on and support for changes at a structural level. Failing to take steps such as these may lead to insurmountable implementation problems for an intervention of this kind. PMID:16739051

  11. Laying the Foundation for Connect to Protect®: A Multi-Site Community Mobilization Intervention to Reduce HIV/AIDS Incidence and Prevalence among Urban Youth

    PubMed Central

    Ziff, Mauri A.; Harper, Gary W.; Chutuape, Kate S.; Deeds, Bethany Griffin; Futterman, Donna; Francisco, Vincent T.; Muenz, Larry R.

    2006-01-01

    Despite the considerable resources that have been dedicated to HIV prevention interventions and services over the past decade, HIV incidence among young people in the United States remains alarmingly high. One reason is that the majority of prevention efforts continue to focus solely on modifying individual behavior, even though public health research strongly suggests that changes to a community's structural elements, such as their programs, practices, and laws or policies, may result in more effective and sustainable outcomes. Connect to Protect is a multi-city community mobilization intervention that focuses on altering or creating community structural elements in ways that will ultimately reduce youth HIV incidence and prevalence. The project, which spans 6 years, is sponsored by the Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions at multiple urban clinical research sites. This paper provides an overview of the study's three phases and describes key factors in setting a firm foundation for the initiation and execution of this type of undertaking. Connect to Protect's community mobilization approach to achieving structural change represents a relatively new and broad direction in HIV prevention research. To optimize opportunities for its success, time and resources must be initially placed into laying the groundwork. This includes activities such as building a strong overarching study infrastructure to ensure protocol tasks can be met across sites; tapping into local site and community expertise and knowledge; forming collaborative relationships between sites and community organizations and members; and fostering community input on and support for changes at a structural level. Failing to take steps such as these may lead to insurmountable implementation problems for an intervention of this kind. PMID:16739051

  12. Evaluating South Carolina's community cardiovascular disease prevention project.

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, F C; Lackland, D T; Mace, M L; Reddick, A; Hogelin, G; Remington, P L

    1991-01-01

    A community cardiovascular disease prevention program was undertaken as a cooperative effort of the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control and the Centers for Disease Control of the Public Health Service. As part of the evaluation of the project, a large scale community health survey was conducted by the State and Federal agencies. The successful design and implementation of the survey, which included telephone and in-home interviews as well as clinical assessments of participants, is described. Interview response rates were adequate, although physical assessments were completed on only 61 percent of those interviewed. Households without telephones were difficult and costly to identify, and young adults were difficult to locate for survey participation. The survey produced baseline data for program planning and for measuring the success of ongoing intervention efforts. Survey data also have been used to estimate the prevalence of selected cardiovascular disease risk factors. PMID:1910187

  13. Community-based family-style group homes for children orphaned by AIDS in rural China: an ethnographic investigation

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yan; Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Guoxiang; Zhao, Junfeng; Stanton, Bonita; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    As the number of children orphaned by AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) has reached 17.3 million, most living in resource-poor settings, interest has grown in identifying and evaluating appropriate care arrangements for them. In this study, we describe the community-based family-style group homes (‘group homes’) in rural China. Guided by an ecological framework of children’s wellbeing, we conducted a series of ethnographic observations, in-depth interviews and group discussions in the rural areas of Henan Province, which has been severely impacted by the AIDS endemic through commercial blood collection. Based on our observations and discussions, group homes appear to provide stable and safe living environments for children orphaned by AIDS. Adequate financial support from non-government organizations (NGOs) as well as the central and provincial governments has ensured a low child–caregiver ratio and attention to the basic needs of the children at group homes. The foster parents were selected from the local community and appear to have adequate qualifications and dedication. They receive a monthly stipend, periodical evaluation and parenting consultation from supporting NGOs. The foster parents and children in the group homes have formed strong bonds. Both children and foster parents reported positively on health and education. Characteristics of community-based group homes can be replicated in other care arrangements for AIDS orphans in resource-poor settings for the optimal health outcomes of those vulnerable children. We also call for capacity building for caregivers and communities to provide sustainable and supportive living environment for these children. PMID:25124083

  14. NIH support of Centers for AIDS Research and Department of Health Collaborative Public Health Research: advancing CDC's Enhanced Comprehensive HIV Prevention Planning project.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Alan E; Purcell, David W; Gordon, Christopher M; Flores, Stephen; Grossman, Cynthia; Fisher, Holly H; Barasky, Rebecca J

    2013-11-01

    The contributions reported in this supplemental issue highlight the relevance of NIH-funded CEWG research to health department–supported HIV prevention and care activities in the 9 US cities with the highest numbers of AIDS cases. The project findings have the potential to enhance ongoing HIV treatment and care services and to advance the wider scientific agenda. The HIV testing to care continuum, while providing a framework to help track progress on national goals, also can reflect the heterogeneities of local epidemics. The collaborative research that is highlighted in this issue not only reflects a locally driven research agenda but also demonstrates research methods, data collection tools, and collaborative processes that could be encouraged across jurisdictions. Projects such as these, capitalizing on the integrated efforts of NIH, CDC, DOH, and academic institutions, have the potential to contribute to improvements in the HIV care continuum in these communities, bringing us closer to realizing the HIV prevention and treatment goals of the NHAS.

  15. Perspectives on Efforts to Address HIV/AIDS of Religious Clergy Serving African American and Hispanic Communities in Utah

    PubMed Central

    Alder, Stephen C; Simonsen, Sara Ellis; Duncan, Megan; Shaver, John; DeWitt, Jan; Crookston, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The HIV/AIDS epidemic in America is rapidly progressing in certain subpopulations, including African-American and Hispanic communities. Churches may provide a means for reaching high-risk minority populations with effective HIV/AIDS prevention. We report on a series of focus group interviews conducted with Utah clergy who primarily serve African American and Hispanic congregations. Methods A total of three focus groups (two with Catholic clergy serving Hispanic congregations and one with protestant clergy serving African American congregations) were conducted with eleven participants, lasting approximately two hours each. Each focus group was audio-recorded and transcribed for analysis. Analysis of the data was conducted using a modified grounded theory approach. Results There were remarkable similarities in the attitudes and beliefs among all clergy participating in this study regarding HIV/AIDS and church-based prevention programs. All groups expressed concern about the diseases as a global epidemic and reported that the disease is highly preventable. Also, participants indicated a sense of responsibility to address the issues surrounding HIV/AIDS-related prevention, testing and care within their theological framework. Conclusion HIV/AIDS prevention and care for the infected are seen as falling within the scope of religious organizations. Openness to expanding efforts in this regard was shared by clergy participating in this study. Approaching religious leaders with tailored approaches that respect the values and practices of their particular religions will be more effective than attempting to impose approaches that do not achieve this standard. PMID:18923690

  16. Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Warren B. Mori

    2013-02-01

    The UCLA Plasma Simulation Group is a major partner of the "Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation. This is the final technical report. We include an overall summary, a list of publications and individual progress reports for each years. During the past five years we have made tremendous progress in enhancing the capabilities of OSIRIS and QuickPIC, in developing new algorithms and data structures for PIC codes to run on GPUS and many future core architectures, and in using these codes to model experiments and in making new scientific discoveries. Here we summarize some highlights for which SciDAC was a major contributor.

  17. The Tuskegee Syphilis Study, 1932 to 1972: implications for HIV education and AIDS risk education programs in the black community.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, S B; Quinn, S C

    1991-01-01

    The Tuskegee study of untreated syphilis in the Negro male is the longest nontherapeutic experiment on human beings in medical history. The strategies used to recruit and retain participants were quite similar to those being advocated for HIV/AIDS prevention programs today. Almost 60 years after the study began, there remains a trail of distrust and suspicion that hampers HIV education efforts in Black communities. The AIDS epidemic has exposed the Tuskegee study as a historical marker for the legitimate discontent of Blacks with the public health system. The belief that AIDS is a form of genocide is rooted in a social context in which Black Americans, faced with persistent inequality, believe in conspiracy theories about Whites against Blacks. These theories range from the belief that the government promotes drug abuse in Black communities to the belief that HIV is a manmade weapon of racial warfare. An open and honest discussion of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study can facilitate the process of rebuilding trust between the Black community and public health authorities. This dialogue can contribute to the development of HIV education programs that are scientifically sound, culturally sensitive, and ethnically acceptable. Images p1500-a p1502-a p1503-a PMID:1951814

  18. Vulnerable Children, Communities and Schools: Lessons from Three HIV/AIDS Affected Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Nancy; O'Gara, Chloe

    2007-01-01

    The growing number of children made vulnerable by HIV/AIDS threatens the achievement of Education for All (EFA) and Millennium Development goals. Policy recommendations assign schools key roles in meeting the needs of vulnerable children, but there is a dearth of evidence about how vulnerable children and schools interact in AIDS affected…

  19. Port Graham Community Building Biomass Heating Design Project

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, Patrick; Sink, Charles

    2015-04-30

    Native Village of Port Graham completed preconstruction activities to prepare for construction and operations of a cord wood biomass heating system to five or more community buildings in Port Graham, Alaska. Project Description Native Village of Port Graham (NVPG) completed preconstruction activities that pave the way towards reduced local energy costs through the construction and operations of a cord wood biomass heating system. NVPG plans include installation of a GARN WHS 3200 Boiler that uses cord wood as fuel source. Implementation of the 700,000 Btu per hour output biomass community building heat utility would heat 5-community buildings in Port Graham, Alaska. Heating system is estimated to displace 85% of the heating fuel oil or 5365 gallons of fuel on an annual basis with an estimated peak output of 600,000 Btu per hour. Estimated savings is $15,112.00 per year. The construction cost estimate made to install the new biomass boiler system is estimated $251,693.47 with an additional Boiler Building expansion cost estimated at $97,828.40. Total installed cost is estimated $349,521.87. The WHS 3200 Boiler would be placed inside a new structure at the old community Water Plant Building site that is controlled by NVPG. Design of the new biomass heat plant and hot water loop system was completed by Richmond Engineering, NVPG contractor for the project. A hot water heat loop system running off the boiler is designed to be placed underground on lands controlled by NVPG and stubbed to feed hot water to existing base board heating system in the following community buildings: 1. Anesia Anahonak Moonin Health and Dental Clinic 2. Native Village of Port Graham offices 3. Port Graham Public Safety Building/Fire Department 4. Port Graham Corporation Office Building which also houses the Port Graham Museum and Head Start Center 5. North Pacific Rim Housing Authority Workshop/Old Fire Hall Existing community buildings fuel oil heating systems are to be retro-fitted to

  20. 23 CFR 230.117 - Reimbursement procedures (Federal-aid highway construction projects only).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reimbursement procedures (Federal-aid highway... TRANSPORTATION CIVIL RIGHTS EXTERNAL PROGRAMS Equal Employment Opportunity on Federal and Federal-Aid Construction Contracts (Including Supportive Services) § 230.117 Reimbursement procedures (Federal-aid...

  1. Project-Based Teaching-Learning Computer-Aided Engineering Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoes, J. A.; Relvas, C.; Moreira, R.

    2004-01-01

    Computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, computer-aided analysis, reverse engineering and rapid prototyping are tools that play an important key role within product design. These are areas of technical knowledge that must be part of engineering and industrial design courses' curricula. This paper describes our teaching experience of…

  2. Earth Science community support in the EGI-Inspire Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwichtenberg, H.

    2012-04-01

    The Earth Science Grid community is following its strategy of propagating Grid technology to the ES disciplines, setting up interactive collaboration among the members of the community and stimulating the interest of stakeholders on the political level since ten years already. This strategy was described in a roadmap published in an Earth Science Informatics journal. It was applied through different European Grid projects and led to a large Grid Earth Science VRC that covers a variety of ES disciplines; in the end, all of them were facing the same kind of ICT problems. .. The penetration of Grid in the ES community is indicated by the variety of applications, the number of countries in which ES applications are ported, the number of papers in international journals and the number of related PhDs. Among the six virtual organisations belonging to ES, one, ESR, is generic. Three others -env.see-grid-sci.eu, meteo.see-grid-sci.eu and seismo.see-grid-sci.eu- are thematic and regional (South Eastern Europe) for environment, meteorology and seismology. The sixth VO, EGEODE, is for the users of the Geocluster software. There are also ES users in national VOs or VOs related to projects. The services for the ES task in EGI-Inspire concerns the data that are a key part of any ES application. The ES community requires several interfaces to access data and metadata outside of the EGI infrastructure, e.g. by using grid-enabled database interfaces. The data centres have also developed service tools for basic research activities such as searching, browsing and downloading these datasets, but these are not accessible from applications executed on the Grid. The ES task in EGI-Inspire aims to make these tools accessible from the Grid. In collaboration with GENESI-DR (Ground European Network for Earth Science Interoperations - Digital Repositories) this task is maintaining and evolving an interface in response to new requirements that will allow data in the GENESI-DR infrastructure to

  3. A Community-Based Participatory Research Approach for Preventing Childhood Obesity: The Communities and Schools Together Project

    PubMed Central

    Johnson-Shelton, Deb; Moreno-Black, Geraldine; Evers, Cody; Zwink, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is a systemic and complex multilevel public health problem. Research approaches are needed that effectively engage communities in reversing environmental determinants of child obesity. Objectives This article discusses the Communities and Schools Together Project (CAST) and lessons learned about the project’s community-based participatory research (CBPR) model. Methods A partnership of schools, community organizations, and researchers used multiple methods to examine environmental health risks for childhood obesity and conduct school–community health programs. Action work groups structured partner involvement for designing and implementing study phases. Lessons Learned CBPR in child obesity prevention involves engaging multiple communities with overlapping yet divergent goals. Schools are naturally situated to participate in child obesity projects, but engagement of key personnel is essential for functional partnerships. Complex societal problems require CBPR approaches that can align diverse communities and necessitate significant coordination by researchers. CBPR can provide simultaneous health promotion across multiple communities in childhood obesity prevention initiatives. Support for emergent partner activities is an essential practice for maintaining community interest and involvement in multi-year CBPR projects. Conclusion Investigator-initiated CBPR partnerships can effectively organize and facilitate large health-promoting partnerships involving multiple, diverse stakeholder communities. Lessons learned from CAST illustrate the synergy that can propel projects that are holistically linked to the agents of a community. PMID:26548786

  4. Youth Paeticipation in Community Action: Report of a Demonstration Training Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Rosalind

    Reporting a 1966 1-year demonstration project involving youth in community action, this pamphlet shows how the 24 community action programs in this California project selected and trained personnel, selected and trained youth trainees, established the needs of respective communities, set about to match these needs, and evaluated their action. The…

  5. After the Funding Is Gone: Evaluating the Sustainability of a Community-based Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulk, Debbie; Farley, Sharon; Coker, Renee

    2001-01-01

    The Rural Elderly Enhancement Project, in which a nursing school development a model of community participation and involvement, was evaluated through interviews with 73 community members. Many projects designed to foster community competence in elder care and youth/school-based health have been sustained. (SK)

  6. The Beacon Project--a community-based health improvement project.

    PubMed

    Stuteley, Hazel

    2002-10-01

    Inequality and socioeconomic deprivation remain powerful determinants of the nation's health. The Beacon Project, led by two primary health care visitors, was initiated to tackle the rapidly declining health and social needs of a community in Cornwall, southwest England. Significant improvements in conditions and a general sense of wellbeing on the estate, together with the improvements in social outcomes was observed over a period of four years.

  7. The Fourth Special Issue on HIV/AIDS Education and Prevention in Rural Communities. The Health Education Monograph Series, Volume 18, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torabi, Mohammad R., Ed.

    This collection of papers on HIV/AIDS prevention and education in rural communities includes: "Understudied HIV/STD Risk Behaviors among a Sample of Rural South Carolina Women: A Descriptive Pilot Study" (William L. Yarber, Richard A. Crosby, and Stephanie A. Sanders); "Risk and Co-Factors among Women Related to HIV Infection and AIDS Treatment"…

  8. Prevention of HIV/AIDS in Native American communities: promising interventions.

    PubMed Central

    Vernon, Irene S.; Jumper-Thurman, Pamela

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This article presents the latest data on trends in AIDS prevalence among Native American men and women and discusses problems of classification, data collection, factors that contribute to high risk, and factors that affect prevention and intervention. It presents a model for building effective prevention and intervention strategies. OBSERVATIONS: The number of people in the United States diagnosed with AIDS has risen by less than 5% per year since 1992, and the slowdown is estimated to continue in coming years. Among Native Americans, however, the number of people diagnosed with AIDS rose 8% in 1997, and nonwhites accounted for more than one-half of all reported AIDS cases through December 2000. For Native Americans, the rate of growth in AIDS prevalence has been steadily increasing since the early 1980s, and AIDS is now the ninth leading killer of Native Americans between the ages of 15 and 44. Factors that contribute to high risk include poverty, homophobia, denial, and mistrust. CONCLUSIONS: Effective strategies must include efforts to reduce the risk factors for AIDS. Future research should honor and celebrate diversity among people as an empowering force that facilitates collaboration and shared learning with tribes. PMID:12435833

  9. Community action for preventing HIV in Cambodia: evaluation of a 3-year project.

    PubMed

    Sopheab, Heng; Fylkesnes, Knut; Lim, Yi; Godwin, Peter

    2008-07-01

    The 'Community Action for Preventing HIV/AIDS Project' was implemented in four provinces in Cambodia (2001-04) to support a comprehensive set of HIV prevention efforts. Implementation was strictly monitored in terms of inputs, outputs and outcomes. We examine changes in these variables during the project period to assess the extent to which they were related to the project. Inputs and outputs were monitored regularly by supervision and quarterly project reports. Baseline and follow-up surveys were conducted on 10 target groups to measure changes in outcome indicators related to sexual risk behaviours, uses of HIV voluntary counselling and testing (VCT), self-reported sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and other indicators. The analyses use data from surveys and from project monitoring. Spending on HIV-related work at provincial level increased markedly, including investments in VCT, STI facilities and staff training. Yearly expenditure increased about 7-fold compared with years immediately preceding the project. VCT centres increased from 3 to 12, numbers of counsellors from 10 to 27, and numbers of client visits more than doubled. STI laboratory facilities increased from 0 to 6 with coverage of STI check-ups among sex workers increasing from 70% to 93% and a decline in men attending STI clinics. The survey results indicate significant changes in a number of major outcome indicators such as consistent condom use related to sex work (>80%), HIV testing and counselling after HIV tests, especially among police (42 to 72%, P < 0.001) and brothel-based sex workers (48 to 89%, P < 0.001). Self-reported STIs declined in most groups. Finally, the programmatic systems for planning, managing and monitoring implementation of activities at both central and provincial level, as well as technical guidelines, developed under the project have become the standard for the national programme. In conclusion, the project appears to have been comprehensive and a number of favourable

  10. AIDS and family planning counseling of psychiatrically ill women in community mental health clinics.

    PubMed

    Coverdale, J H; Aruffo, J F

    1992-02-01

    Eighty-two of 83 mental health professionals, including psychiatrists, were surveyed to determine their attitudes and behaviors toward AIDS prevention and family planning counseling with psychiatrically ill female outpatients. Nearly all reported that information should be provided on AIDS and family planning. However, they reported that they had raised topics of AIDS with only 19% of patients and family planning with only 25% of patients. This lack of communication was confirmed by patients' own reports. Factors which might relate to this lack of communication are explored.

  11. U.S. Aid to Education in Paraguay: The Rural Education Development Project. A.I.D. Project Impact Evaluation Report No. 46.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Ronald; And Others

    Between 1970 and 1976, with continued funding and personnel support from the Agency for International Development (AID), Paraguay instituted major rural educational reforms encompassing curriculum revision, teacher training and retraining, training of administrators and supervisors, new school construction, and provision of teaching materials and…

  12. It takes a village: community-based organizations and the availability and utilization of HIV/AIDS-related services in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Kakietek, Jakub; Geberselassie, Tesfayi; Manteuffel, Brigitte; Ogungbemi, Kayode; Krivelyova, Anya; Bausch, Sarah; Rodriguez-García, Rosalía; Bonnel, Rene; N'Jie, N'Della; Fruh, Joseph; Gar, Sani

    2013-01-01

    Community-based organizations (CBOs) have emerged as a vital part of the response to HIV/AIDs in Nigeria. The evaluation, on which this article is based, conducted in 28 communities in 6 states and the Federal capital Territory in Nigeria, assessed the effects of the CBO engagement on a set of outcomes related to HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices, stigma, service availably and utilization and social capital. It consisted of three components: a household survey conducted in all 28 communities, qualitative data collected from CBO staff and key informants (KIs), and a funding allocation study (qualitative interviews and the funding allocation study were conducted in a subset of 14 communities). This article focuses on the association between CBO engagement and reported availability and utilization of HIV/AIDS-related services. It shows that CBO engagement has a potential to add value to the national response to HIV/AIDS by increasing the awareness, availability, and utilization of HIV/AIDS-related services, especially in the area of prevention, care and support. The CBOs in the evaluation communities focused on prevention activities as well as on providing support for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and prevention and care and support were the highest expenditure categories reported by CBOs. Respondents in communities with a stronger CBO engagement were more likely to: (1) be aware of any HIV/AIDs-related services, (2) report that prevention and care services were available in their communities, and (3) have used any HIV/AIDS related services, prevention-related and care-related services than respondents in communities where CBO engagement was weaker. The association between service awareness and service use and CBO engagement was stronger in rural than in urban areas.

  13. The Chinese community smoking cessation project: a community sensitive intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Wong, Candice C; Tsoh, Janice Y; Tong, Elisa K; Hom, Fred B; Cooper, Bruce; Chow, Edward A

    2008-12-01

    This paper describes (1) the design, methods and baseline data of the first smoking cessation clinical trial for Chinese Americans with medical conditions - Chinese Community Smoking Cessation Project (CCSCP); (2) the collaborative process between researchers and the Chinese community; and (3) the barriers and facilitators of implementing the study. CCSCP was a culturally tailored, randomized, smoking cessation trial testing the efficacy of an intensive (physician advice, in-person counseling with nicotine replacement therapy, 5 telephone calls) compared to a minimal (physician advice and self-help manual) intervention. The study applied a community-sensitive research method involving community members in all phases of the research process in San Francisco Bay Area during 2001-2007. CCSCP recruited 464 smokers from health care facilities (79%) located in Chinese neighborhoods and through Chinese language media (21%). Baseline assessments and interventions were conducted in-person using translated and tested questionnaire and intervention materials. The majority of the participants were men (91%) with a mean age of 58.3 years, foreign born (98%), with less than high school education (58%), spoke no English (42%) and in non-skilled or semi-skilled occupations (60%) with <$20,000 household income (51%). Participants smoked regularly on an average 38.6 +/- 17 years, smoked 9.1 +/- 8 cigarettes per day and 85% smoked daily. Cultural tailoring of recruitment methods and intervention design led to successful enrollment and retention of participants, overcoming barriers faced by the participants. Community sensitive collaborative process facilitated implementation of study protocol in community health care settings.

  14. Paradoxes and asymmetries of transnational networks: a comparative case study of Mexico's community-based AIDS organizations.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Nielan

    2008-02-01

    This article examines whether transnational networks reconfigure state-civil society relationships in ways that lead to civil society empowerment and increased organizational capacity to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Mexico. Using a comparative case study, I identify the types of transnational networks and exchanges that both help and hinder community-based HIV/AIDS organizations (CBOs) that provide AIDS prevention and treatment services in Tijuana and Mexico City. Data derive from over 50 formal interviews, organizational documents and archival records, and observation. I argue that the form and function of transnational networks is shaped by the geo-political context of local organizational fields and that, in turn, transnational networks provide innovative opportunities for civil society-state partnerships that favor some local organizations over others. Ultimately, I take apart the prevailing assumption that transnational networks are inherently good, and show how they can (re)produce inter-organizational stratification at the local level. The conclusions of this research are helpful to international health practitioners and social scientists seeking to understand how civil society's participation in transnational networks can both challenge and reproduce existing community-state power regimes and health inequities.

  15. Embedded wisdom or rooted problems? Aid workers' perspectives on local social and political infrastructure in post-tsunami Aceh.

    PubMed

    Daly, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    This paper analyses the role of local social, cultural, and political institutions in post-disaster reconstruction projects. It contends that such institutions are important considerations within community-driven reconstruction initiatives, but are often viewed with ambivalence by external aid organisations. This paper draws upon in-depth qualitative interviews with aid workers involved in the post-tsunami reconstruction in Aceh, Indonesia, to establish: (i) what roles community institutions were suited to play in the reconstruction; (ii) what were the limitations of community institutions when engaging with external aid agencies; (iii) how did external aid agencies engage with local community institutions; and (iv) how did external aid agencies perceive community institutions.

  16. APPLICATION OF COMPUTER AIDED TOMOGRAPHY (CAT) TO THE STUDY OF MARINE BENTIC COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment cores were imaged using a Computer-Aided Tomography (CT) scanner at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States. Procedures were developed, using the attenuation of X-rays, to differentiate between sediment and the water contained in macrobenthic...

  17. Social support exchanges in a social media community for people living with HIV/AIDS in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Shi, Jingyuan

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, social media has become an important source of social support. People living with HIV/AIDS in China created an online support group (the HIV/AIDS Weibo Group) on Weibo, the Chinese version of Twitter, in January 2011. The current study examined how social support transmitted in this social media community. First, messages over five successive weeks (2 May 2011 to 13 June 2011) were randomly selected from the HIV/AIDS Weibo Group on Weibo. Next, we employed social network analysis to map the HIV/AIDS Weibo Group's structure and to measure the study variables. After that, a multivariate analysis of variance was applied to examine the influence of frequency of contact and reciprocity on informational and emotional social support exchanged in each dyad. The results revealed that pairs with a high level of contact frequency or reciprocity exchanged more informational support than do pairs with a low level of contact frequency or reciprocity. Moreover, dyadic partners with high frequency of contact exchanged a larger amount of emotional support than those with a low level frequency of contact; but strongly reciprocal dyads did not exchange significantly more emotional social support than their counterparts with a low level of reciprocity.

  18. Community Education across America. Profiles of State Networks and Local Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Larry E.; And Others

    This national reference manual identifies exemplary local community education projects and highlights the status of statewide community education initiatives and support networks. Information for the directory was gathered through the Community Education Network and National Community Education Association. Preliminary information in the directory…

  19. Do characteristics of HIV/AIDS education and training affect perceived training quality? Lessons from the evaluation of seven projects.

    PubMed

    Huba, G J; Panter, A T; Melchior, L A; Zalumas, J; Uldall, K K; Henderson, R; Henderson, H; German, V F; Driscoll, M; Anderson, D; Lalonde, B

    2000-10-01

    Initial and continuing HIV/AIDS education and training has been a critical way to bring the nation's health providers up to date on emerging developments and approaches. This study reports cross-cutting findings from seven HIV/AIDS education and training projects. Trainers described over 600 training sessions from these projects in terms of their structural characteristics and design elements, while trainees described these sessions on several dimensions related to training quality. Training characteristics were compared to trainee assessments of training quality. Using a decision-tree analytic approach for major training attributes, considerable support emerged for links between training characteristics and perceived quality of the HIV/AIDS training experience. More favorable quality ratings were associated with certain projects, the training setting, the types of trainees served by the training, the intended training impact, discussion of special populations, and training methods involving interactive learning. With increased knowledge regarding how these educational experiences relate to the ways they are perceived and processed, more targeted approaches to training design on HIV/AIDS can be developed. PMID:11063064

  20. The Community Climate System Model Project from an Interagency Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Bader, D C; Bamzai, A; Fein, J; Patrinos, A; Leinen, M

    2005-06-16

    In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) will publish its Fourth Assessment Report of the Scientific Basis of Climate Change (AR4). A significant portion of the AR4 will be the analysis of coupled general circulation model (GCM) simulations of the climate of the past century as well as scenarios of future climates under prescribed emission scenarios. Modeling groups worldwide have contributed to AR4, including three from the U.S., the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) project, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Institute for Space Sciences, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL). This collection of model results is providing a wealth of new information that will be used to examine the state of climate science, the potential impacts from climate changes, and the policy consequences that they imply. Our focus here is on the CCSM project. Although it is centered at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), the CCSM version 3 (CCSM3) was designed, developed, and applied in a uniquely distributed fashion with participation by many institutions. This model has produced some of the most scientifically complete and highest resolution simulations of climate change to date, thanks to the teamwork of many scientists and software engineers. Their contributions will become obvious as a steady stream of peer-reviewed publications appears in the scientific literature. Less obvious, however, is the largely hidden, unprecedented level of interagency cooperation and multi-institutional coordination that provided the direction and resources necessary to make the CCSM project successful. Contrary to the widely-held opinion that the US climate research effort in general, and the climate modeling effort in particular, is fragmented and disorganized (NRC 1998, 2001), the success of the CCSM project demonstrates that a uniquely US approach to model

  1. Knowledge-based indexing of the medical literature: the Indexing Aid Project.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, S M; Miller, N E

    1987-05-01

    This article describes the Indexing Aid Project for conducting research in the areas of knowledge representation and indexing for information retrieval in order to develop interactive knowledge-based systems for computer-assisted indexing of the periodical medical literature. The system uses an experimental frame-based knowledge representation language, FrameKit, implemented in Franz Lisp. The initial prototype is designed to interact with trained MEDLINE indexers who will be prompted to enter subject terms as slot values in filling in document-specific frame data structures that are derived from the knowledge-base frames. In addition, the automatic application of rules associated with the knowledge-base frames produces a set of Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) keyword indices to the document. Important features of the system are representation of explicit relationships through slots which express the relations; slot values, restrictions, and rules made available by inheritance through "is-a" hierarchies; slot values denoted by functions that retrieve values from other slots; and restrictions on slot values displayable during data entry. PMID:10301519

  2. The photovoltaic pilot projects of the European Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnell, W.

    The Commission of the European Communities has started in 1980 a programme for the design and construction of a series of photovoltaic pilot projects in the range of 30-300 kWp. Virtually all important industries and other development organisations in Europe working on photovoltaic cells and systems are involved in this programme. The different technologies which are being developed concern the modules, the cabling of the array, structure design, storage strategy and power conditioning. The various applications include powering of an island, villages, recreation centres, water desalination and disinfection, powering of radio transmitters, emergency power plants, dairy farm, training school, cooling, water pumping, powering of a solar heated swimming pool and last but not least, hydrogen production.

  3. A Study of Four Library Programs for Disadvantaged Persons. Part II, Appendices B: Brooklyn Public Library Community Coordinator Project, the New York Public Library North Manhattan Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsor, Charlotte B.; Burrows, Lodema

    This document contains observations of library staff and interviews with community members about the Brooklyn Public Library Community Coordinator Project and the New York Public Library North Manhattan Project. The Community Coordinator Project employs four professional librarians to take an active part in community institutions and organizations…

  4. Evaluation of a Community Health Worker Intervention to Reduce HIV/AIDS Stigma and Increase HIV Testing Among Underserved Latinos in the Southwestern U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Davida; Espinoza, Lilia; Nguyen-Rodriguez, Selena; Diaz, Gaby; Carricchi, Ana; Galvez, Gino; Garcia, Melawhy

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Latinos are at an elevated risk for HIV infection. Continued HIV/AIDS stigma presents barriers to HIV testing and affects the quality of life of HIV-positive individuals, yet few interventions addressing HIV/AIDS stigma have been developed for Latinos. Methods An intervention led by community health workers (promotores de salud, or promotores) targeting underserved Latinos in three southwestern U.S. communities was developed to decrease HIV/AIDS stigma and increase HIV knowledge and perception of risk. The intervention was led by HIV-positive and HIV-affected (i.e., those who have, or have had, a close family member or friend with HIV/AIDS) promotores, who delivered interactive group-based educational sessions to groups of Latinos in Spanish and English. To decrease stigma and motivate behavioral and attitudinal change, the educational sessions emphasized positive Latino cultural values and community assets. The participant pool comprised 579 Latino adults recruited in El Paso, Texas (n=204); San Ysidro, California (n=175); and Los Angeles, California (n=200). Results From pretest to posttest, HIV/AIDS stigma scores decreased significantly (p<0.001). Significant increases were observed in HIV/AIDS knowledge (p<0.001), willingness to discuss HIV/AIDS with one's sexual partner (p<0.001), and HIV risk perception (p=0.006). Willingness to test for HIV in the three months following the intervention did not increase. Women demonstrated a greater reduction in HIV/AIDS stigma scores when compared with their male counterparts, which may have been related to a greater increase in HIV/AIDS knowledge scores (p=0.016 and p=0.007, respectively). Conclusion Promotores interventions to reduce HIV/AIDS stigma and increase HIV-related knowledge, perception of risk, and willingness to discuss sexual risk with partners show promise in reaching underserved Latino communities. PMID:26327724

  5. Youths as partners in a community participatory project for substance use prevention.

    PubMed

    Kulbok, Pamela A; Meszaros, Peggy S; Bond, Donna C; Thatcher, Esther; Park, Eunhee; Kimbrell, Monica; Smith-Gregory, Tracey

    2015-01-01

    This community-based participatory research project aimed to develop strategies to prevent youth substance use in a rural county. This article (1) describes the project phases, (2) examines unique contributions and considerations of youth involvement, and (3) explores the youths' perspective. Twelve youths, aged 16 to 18 years, joined parents, community leaders, and research specialists on the community-based participatory research team. The youths were integrally involved in all phases including the community assessment, community leader interviews, selection of a substance use prevention program, and program implementation. Youths reported sustained enthusiasm, experiences of authentic leadership, development of research skills, and greater awareness of their community.

  6. The Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project — A Community-Level, Public Health Initiative to Build Community Disaster Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Eisenman, David; Chandra, Anita; Fogleman, Stella; Magana, Aizita; Hendricks, Astrid; Wells, Ken; Williams, Malcolm; Tang, Jennifer; Plough, Alonzo

    2014-01-01

    Public health officials need evidence-based methods for improving community disaster resilience and strategies for measuring results. This methods paper describes how one public health department is addressing this problem. This paper provides a detailed description of the theoretical rationale, intervention design and novel evaluation of the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project (LACCDR), a public health program for increasing community disaster resilience. The LACCDR Project utilizes a pretest–posttest method with control group design. Sixteen communities in Los Angeles County were selected and randomly assigned to the experimental community resilience group or the comparison group. Community coalitions in the experimental group receive training from a public health nurse trained in community resilience in a toolkit developed for the project. The toolkit is grounded in theory and uses multiple components to address education, community engagement, community and individual self-sufficiency, and partnerships among community organizations and governmental agencies. The comparison communities receive training in traditional disaster preparedness topics of disaster supplies and emergency communication plans. Outcome indicators include longitudinal changes in inter-organizational linkages among community organizations, community member responses in table-top exercises, and changes in household level community resilience behaviors and attitudes. The LACCDR Project is a significant opportunity and effort to operationalize and meaningfully measure factors and strategies to increase community resilience. This paper is intended to provide public health and academic researchers with new tools to conduct their community resilience programs and evaluation research. Results are not yet available and will be presented in future reports. PMID:25153472

  7. Retreat from Alma Ata? The WHO's report on Task Shifting to community health workers for AIDS care in poor countries.

    PubMed

    Campbell, C; Scott, K

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the potential of community health worker (CHW) programmes, as proposed by the 2008 World Health Organisation (WHO) document Task Shifting to tackle health worker shortages, to contribute to HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment and various Millennium Development Goals in low-income countries. It examines the WHO proposal through a literature review of factors that have facilitated the success of previous CHW experiences. The WHO has taken account of five key lessons learnt from past CHW programmes (the need for strong management, appropriate selection, suitable training, adequate retention structures and good relationships with other healthcare workers). It has, however, neglected to emphasise the importance of a sixth lesson, the 'community embeddedness' of CHWs, found to be of critical importance to the success of past CHW programmes. We have no doubt that the WHO plans will increase the number of workers able to perform medically oriented tasks. However, we argue that without community embeddedness, CHWs will be unable to successfully perform the socially oriented tasks assigned to them by the WHO, such as health education and counselling. We locate the WHO's neglect of community embeddedness within the context of a broader global public health trend away from community-focused primary healthcare towards biomedically focused selective healthcare.

  8. Retreat from Alma Ata? The WHO's report on Task Shifting to community health workers for AIDS care in poor countries.

    PubMed

    Campbell, C; Scott, K

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the potential of community health worker (CHW) programmes, as proposed by the 2008 World Health Organisation (WHO) document Task Shifting to tackle health worker shortages, to contribute to HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment and various Millennium Development Goals in low-income countries. It examines the WHO proposal through a literature review of factors that have facilitated the success of previous CHW experiences. The WHO has taken account of five key lessons learnt from past CHW programmes (the need for strong management, appropriate selection, suitable training, adequate retention structures and good relationships with other healthcare workers). It has, however, neglected to emphasise the importance of a sixth lesson, the 'community embeddedness' of CHWs, found to be of critical importance to the success of past CHW programmes. We have no doubt that the WHO plans will increase the number of workers able to perform medically oriented tasks. However, we argue that without community embeddedness, CHWs will be unable to successfully perform the socially oriented tasks assigned to them by the WHO, such as health education and counselling. We locate the WHO's neglect of community embeddedness within the context of a broader global public health trend away from community-focused primary healthcare towards biomedically focused selective healthcare. PMID:19916089

  9. Only Ex-Offenders Need Apply. The Ohio Parole Officer Aide Program. An Exemplary Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1976

    The Parole Officer Aide Program of Ohio employs qualified ex-offenders as Parole Officer Aides (POA). The POA is given on-the-job training for six months and assumes the identical tasks as parole officers with the exception of signing parole violation reports. The POA's background and familiarity with local situations gives him the ability to…

  10. New Hampshire HIV/AIDS Resource-Based Learning Curriculum Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snider, Susan C., Ed.

    The age appropriate units of AIDS/HIV instruction in this guide are based on the student outcomes listed in the "New Hampshire Educators HIV/AIDS Handbook: Curriculum and Policy Guide." All of the units, organized by grade levels, were written collaboratively by teams of New Hampshire educators, each team consisting of a library media generalist,…

  11. Computer Aided Design: Instructional Manual. The North Dakota High Technology Mobile Laboratory Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Wan-Lee

    This instructional manual contains 12 learning activity packets for use in a workshop in computer-aided design and drafting (CADD). The lessons cover the following topics: introduction to computer graphics and computer-aided design/drafting; coordinate systems; advance space graphics hardware configuration and basic features of the IBM PC…

  12. Community Cleavages: Gay and Bisexual Men’s Perceptions of Gay and Mainstream Community Acceptance in the Post-AIDS, Post-Rights Era

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Nathaniel M.; Bauer, Greta R.; Coleman, Todd A.; Blot, Soraya; Pugh, Daniel; Fraser, Meredith; Powell, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    Changes in gay and bisexual men’s connectedness to the gay community are related to the declining public visibility of HIV/AIDS and greater acceptance for homosexuality and bisexuality in mainstream society. Little work, however, has focused on perceived acceptance for subgroups within the gay community or broader society. Using interviews (n = 20) and a survey (n = 202) of gay and bisexual men in a mid-sized Canadian city, we find perceived hierarchies of acceptance for the various subgroups as well as an age effect wherein middle-aged men perceive the least acceptance for all groups. These differences are linked with the uneven impact of social, political, and institutional changes relevant to gay and bisexual men in Canada. PMID:26011048

  13. Community Cleavages: Gay and Bisexual Men's Perceptions of Gay and Mainstream Community Acceptance in the Post-AIDS, Post-Rights Era.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Nathaniel M; Bauer, Greta R; Coleman, Todd A; Blot, Soraya; Pugh, Daniel; Fraser, Meredith; Powell, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    Changes in gay and bisexual men's connectedness to the gay community are related to the declining public visibility of HIV/AIDS and greater acceptance for homosexuality and bisexuality in mainstream society. Little work, however, has focused on perceived acceptance for subgroups within the gay community or broader society. Using interviews (n = 20) and a survey (n = 202) of gay and bisexual men in a mid-sized Canadian city, we find perceived hierarchies of acceptance for the various subgroups as well as an age effect wherein middle-aged men perceive the least acceptance for all groups. These differences are linked with the uneven impact of social, political, and institutional changes relevant to gay and bisexual men in Canada.

  14. A Guide to Community Shared Solar: Utility, Private, and Non-Profit Project Development (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, J.; Grove, J.; Irvine, L.; Jacobs, J. F.; Johnson Phillips, S.; Sawyer, A.; Wiedman, J.

    2012-05-01

    This guide is organized around three sponsorship models: utility-sponsored projects, projects sponsored by special purpose entities - businesses formed for the purpose of producing community solar power, and non-profit sponsored projects. The guide addresses issues common to all project models, as well as issues unique to each model.

  15. A Survey of AIDS Knowledge and Attitudes among Prostitutes in an International Border Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peralta, Felipe; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed 60 prostitutes in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to AIDS. Found that the prostitutes are not utilizing risk reduction behaviors while having sexual relations with their clients. Provides implications for social workers and public health workers who must develop strategies to work effectively…

  16. Changing HIV and AIDS-Related Behavior: Promising Approaches at the Individual, Group, and Community Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinhardt, Lance S.

    2005-01-01

    In this special issue, six groups of clinician-researchers focusing on HIV and AIDS-related behavior present their most recent intervention strategies. The articles included represent interventions for a range of target behaviors, including sexual activity, injection drug use, and HIV medication adherence. The interventions described were designed…

  17. The Children's Aid Society Community Schools: A Full-Service Partnership Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Jane

    2005-01-01

    In 1989, the Children's Aid Society (CAS)--New York City's oldest and largest youth-serving organization--created an unprecedented partnership with the New York City Board of Education by developing a comprehensive response to the pressing needs of children and families in the northern Manhattan neighborhood of Washington Heights. After three…

  18. Interface of culture, insecurity and HIV and AIDS: Lessons from displaced communities in Pader District, Northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Northern Uganda unlike other rural regions has registered high HIV prevalence rates comparable to those of urbanized Kampala and the central region. This could be due to the linkages of culture, insecurity and HIV. We explored community perceptions of HIV and AIDS as a problem and its inter-linkage with culture and insecurity in Pader District. Methods A cross sectional qualitative study was conducted in four sub-counties of Pader District, Uganda between May and June 2008. Data for the study were collected through 12 focus group discussions (FGDs) held separately; 2 FGDs with men, 6 FGDs with women, and 4 FGDs with the youth (2 for each sex). In addition we conducted 15 key informant interviews with; 3 health workers, 4 community leaders at village and parish levels, 3 persons living with HIV and 5 district officials. Data were analysed using the content thematic approach. This process involved identification of the study themes and sub-themes following multiple reading of interview and discussion transcripts. Relevant quotations per thematic area were identified and have been used in the presentation of study findings. Results The struggles to meet the basic and survival needs by individuals and households overshadowed HIV as a major community problem. Conflict and risky sexual related cultural practices were perceived by communities as major drivers of HIV and AIDS in the district. Insecurity had led to congestion in the camps leading to moral decadence, rape and defilement, prostitution and poverty which increased vulnerability to HIV infection. The cultural drivers of HIV and AIDS were; widow inheritance, polygamy, early marriages, family expectations, silence about sex and alcoholism. Conclusions Development partners including civil society organisations, central government, district administration, religious and cultural leaders as well as other stakeholders should mainstream HIV in all community development and livelihood interventions in the

  19. MERMAID 1996--report on the implementation of a European Project on "medical emergency aid through telematics".

    PubMed

    Anogianakis, G; Maglavera, S

    1997-01-01

    MERMAID is a project that intends to provide multilingual medical emergency services to seaborne vessels around the world. MERMAID uses two-way transmission of live images in marine medical teleconsultation, greatly improving services that up to now depended on short-wave and VHF radio alone. Transmission of high resolution still pictures is also possible, so that the teleconsulting physician may closely (visually) examine his patient, along with transmission of biological signals and patient anamnesis details. Telemedical interventions are critically dependent on local paramedics. Merchant marine officers are trained in first-aid procedures and basic medical transactions. In practice, however, this training is often inadequate. For this reason MERMAID uses a multimedia medical guide that covers the absolutely necessary basics to handle medical emergencies and common medical problems on board. This application is based on the WHO "Medical guide for ships" and EU Council Directive 92/29. The delivery of medical and mental health care to distant populations has never been easy. In addition, the progress of technology has widened the disparity between the quality of care available to the urban citizen and that available to the rural or remote location resident. The only viable solution to the problem seems to come from telecommunications technologies. Indeed, ISDN is the first widely available public network that supports integrated services and can serve as a reliable backbone for telemedical services. Communications satellites provide a means of expanding ISDN network to geographically remote locations. Against this background, MERMAID combines mobile satellite technologies, VSAT technologies and ISDN protocols in order to realise a Global Telemedicine System that is reliable, exhibits, continuity, is seamlessly connected, has low cost and is downward compatible. PMID:10168920

  20. [Recreation in community--experiences of the SUPRA pilot project].

    PubMed

    Srsek-Cerkvenik, Vlasta

    2007-01-01

    Objectives of the SUPRA pilot project are establishment, promotion and support of support groups in health for strengthening and self-assistance (SUPRA groups) as well as development of the network of SUPRA groups. In the period of 18 months (January 2006 - June 2007), the SUPRA pilot project focused on the following target groups: 160 adult persons with initial and chronic stages of diseases of bones, joints, muscles and connecting tissue, all of them members of the Croatian League against Rheumatism, aged from 45 to 65 years and residing in five districts of the City of Zagreb. The starting points for the development of the network of SUPRA groups are that they are located in the "neighbourhood" and use public resources (local authority and community premises). Synergy also plays an important role in the SUPRA pilot project in terms of cooperation with other institutions in Zagreb that focus on health prevention: Clinic for Rheumatology, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department of the Sestre Milosrdnice University Hospital, Applied Health Studies and Faculty of Nutritional Biology are involved in the SUPRA pilot project through their students of physical and work therapy and students of nutrition who volunteer in SUPRA groups. SUPRA groups are supposed to strengthen and initiate the "affected" persons to focus their activity to overcome their disease, learn how to handle the disease and how to manage the changes in family and business routine--as an unavoidable consequence of the disease. But, in order to achieve that, they need to educate themselves about their health and make another, much harder step--integrate health education into their own lives. In addition to health education, it is necessary to undergo education in other areas in order to adapt the life style, life and work conditions to the limitations set by the disease. The SUPRA group concept: each group consists of five to ten basic members and more supporting members. Supporting members

  1. Experiences and challenges of an interprofessional community of practice in HIV and AIDS in Tshwane district, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Doriccah Peu, Mmapheko; Mataboge, Sanah; Chinouya, Martha; Jiyane, Priscilla; Rikhotso, Richard; Ngwenya, Tsakani; Mavis Mulaudzi, Fhumulani

    2014-11-01

    Collaboration amongst stakeholders remains a central tenet to achieving goals in planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of HIV and AIDS prevention and care strategies. This paper describes the experiences of members of a health care team who joined efforts to collaborate and form a community of practice (CoP) in HIV and AIDS. Qualitative, exploratory case study methods were used. Twenty-six participants were interviewed. Transcripts from the interviews were subjected to the thematic framework of data analysis. Based on the analysis, three themes emerged as impacting on collaboration and these were: the understanding and expectations of being a CoP member; professionalism and ethics within the CoP and collaboration in HIV and AIDS care. The key findings were that the understanding and expectations from the CoP varied. Ethical principles including respect, trust and confidentiality were identified as key tenets of collaboration and were expressed in various ways. The expectations of being a CoP member, the ethical principles within the CoP all impacted in differing ways on how they collaborated. The implication of this study suggests that consultation during inception and throughout the process, clarification of roles, transparency and respect are cardinal points in professional relationships.

  2. Apply to Succeed: Ensuring Community College Students Benefit from Need-Based Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Community colleges play an important role in bachelor's degree attainment, especially for the most economically vulnerable students. However, the community college pathway to a bachelor's degree is not as strong as that of students who begin at a four-year institution. Strengthening this pathway is a necessary means to improving America's ability…

  3. Seeking Assistance: Who Gets Financial Aid at California Community Colleges. MPR Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Jennie H.

    2009-01-01

    California community colleges (CCC) enroll nearly one-quarter of the nation's community college students. Low fees and open-admission policies in this sector provide critical access to many students who otherwise might not attend college. This is particularly true of low-income students, at least one-quarter of all CCC students. Even though CCCs…

  4. The Effect of a Community Project on Sense of Community among Social Work Students: An Exploratory Evaluative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehm, Amnon; Moin, Victor

    2014-01-01

    This article evaluates the effect of a community project that was adopted by the students of a school of social work in Israel. A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design was used. The pretest was administered during the planning stage of the project and the posttest a year later, during the implementation period. The findings show a significant…

  5. The Community Involvement Program: Recognizing Community-Based Learning. A Report of the National Dissemination Project for the Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community Coll. Education, Seattle. Research and Planning Office.

    The Community Involvement Program is a statewide community college program in Washington offering credit for community-based learning. Excerpts from several Community Involvement Program reports are presented: (1) overview of the Community Involvement Program (from the final report)--the CIP facilitated the development of a community-based…

  6. Teenmom.ca: A Community Arts-Based New Media Empowerment Project for Teenage Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Leanne; Weber, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a community activist arts-based media production research project. Project TEEN Mirrors Of Motherhood (M.O.M.), was designed by the authors, who are art educators and arts-based researchers, in collaboration with Elizabeth House, a Montreal community organization dedicated to meeting the needs of pregnant teenagers and…

  7. Hand-Drumming to Build Community: The Story of the Whittier Drum Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Nathan Neil

    2005-01-01

    In this article the author shares the story of the Whittier Drum Project and how it succeeded. The Whittier Drum Project has brought the community together through the talents of youth and their dedication to drumming, and has used drumming to link professionals to their own communities. The author adapted the model to meet the therapeutic needs…

  8. Caring School Community[TM] (Formerly, the Child Development Project). What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Caring School Community[TM]" ("CSC") is a modified version of a program formerly known as the "Child Development Project." The program aims to promote core values, prosocial behavior, and a schoolwide feeling of community. The program consists of four elements originally developed for the "Child Development Project": (1) class meeting lessons;…

  9. From Disenchantment to Dialogue and Action: The "Transforming Community" Project at Emory University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Leslie M.; Usher, Jody

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe the "Transforming Community Project" (TCP) at Emory University. Emory University is large and dispersed: It comprises approximately 2,700 faculty, 6,400 staff members, and 12,300 students across nine academic divisions. The Transforming Community Project is oriented to both process and product. The process of…

  10. Report on Exxon Education Foundation-Funded Project to Increase International Dimensions of Community College Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitzer, Manon

    A description is provided of a project conducted by Universities Field Staff International (UFSI) to increase the international dimension of community college education in the Northeastern U.S. through a series of faculty and curriculum development workshops. Section I defines the origins of the project, describing community college interest in…

  11. A Cross-Curricular, Problem-Based Project to Promote Understanding of Poverty in Urban Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Daniel S.; Tuchman, Ellen; Hawkins, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the use of problem-based learning to teach students about the scope and consequences of urban poverty through an innovative cross-curricular project. We illustrate the process, goals, and tasks of the Community Assessment Project, which incorporates community-level assessment, collection and analysis of public data, and…

  12. Innovative primary care delivery in rural Alaska: a review of patient encounters seen by community health aides

    PubMed Central

    Golnick, Christine; Asay, Elvin; Provost, Ellen; Van Liere, Dabney; Bosshart, Cora; Rounds-Riley, Jean; Cueva, Katie; Hennessy, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    Background For more than 50 years, Community Health Aides and Community Health Practitioners (CHA/Ps) have resided in and provided care for the residents of their villages. Objectives This study is a systematic description of the clinical practice of primary care health workers in rural Alaska communities. This is the first evaluation of the scope of health problems seen by these lay health workers in their remote communities. Study design Retrospective observational review of administrative records for outpatient visits seen by CHA/Ps in 150 rural Alaska villages (approximate population 47,370). Methods Analysis of electronic records for outpatient visits to CHA/Ps in village clinics from October 2004 through September 2006. Data included all outpatient visits from the Indian Health Service National Patient Information Reporting System. Descriptive analysis included comparisons by region, age, sex, clinical assessment and treatment. Results In total 272,242 visits were reviewed. CHA/Ps provided care for acute, chronic, preventive, and emergency problems at 176,957 (65%) visits. The remaining 95,285 (35%) of records did not include a diagnostic code, most of which were for administrative or medication-related encounters. The most common diagnostic codes were: pharyngitis (11%), respiratory infections (10%), otitis media (8%), hypertension (6%), skin infections (4%), and chronic lung disease (4%). Respiratory distress and chest pain accounted for 75% (n=10,552) of all emergency visits. Conclusions CHA/Ps provide a broad range of primary care in remote Alaskan communities whose residents would otherwise be without consistent medical care. Alaska's CHA/P program could serve as a health-care delivery model for other remote communities with health care access challenges. PMID:22765934

  13. Community College Economics Instruction: Results from a National Science Foundation Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Mark; Chi, W. Edward

    2016-01-01

    The principal investigator of a National Science Foundation project, "Economics at Community Colleges," surveyed community college economics faculty and organized workshops, webinars, and regional meetings to address community college faculty isolation from new ideas in economics and economics instruction. Survey results, combined with…

  14. Improving community support for HIV and AIDS prevention through national partnerships.

    PubMed

    Williams, K R; Scarlett, M I; Jimenez, R; Schwartz, B; Stokes-Nielson, P

    1991-01-01

    If the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is to be prevented, the environment in which people live should predispose them to engage in and sustain safe behaviors. Too often in public health, the range of organizations that make up that environment are overlooked, and prevention strategies are limited to familiar medical and public health institutions. Improvement in public health does not occur in isolation, apart from the other institutions of society--and so it is with the HIV-AIDS epidemic. Education; business and labor; religion; government; voluntary, civic, and social organizations; and the media can all serve as facilitators or as barriers to creating the environment--at the national, regional, State, or local level--that will prevent and control the spread of HIV infection and AIDS and support the needs of those already infected. Collectively, they become a comprehensive HIV prevention network with access to and influence on the total public. One of the most significant benefits of this network is the multiplier effect on the limited resources of public health. Therefore, as part of its HIV and AIDS prevention strategy, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has developed national partnerships to involve the leadership of business, labor and industry, religious institutions and organizations, and voluntary organizations in HIV and AIDS prevention and service. Some of these partnerships are federally funded, others are not. The national partnership program described in this paper has produced increased resources for HIV education and services and has demonstrated the synergistic benefits resulting from public and private cooperation in addressing the HIV epidemic.

  15. Building Software, Building Community: Lessons from the Ropensci Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boettiger, C.

    2014-12-01

    rOpenSci is a developer collective originally formed in 2011 by graduate students and post-docs from ecology and evolutionary biology to collaborate on building software tools to facilitate a more open and synthetic approach in the face of transformative rise of large and heterogeneous data. Born on the internet (the collective only began through chance discussions over social media), we have grown into a widely recognized effort that supports an ecosystem of some 45software packages, engages scores of collaborators, has taught dozens of workshops around the world, and has secured over $480,000 in grant support. As young scientists working in an academic context largely without direct support for our efforts, we have first hand experience with most of the the technical and social challenges in developing sustainable scientific software. I will summarize our experiences, the challenges we have faced, and describe our approach and success in building an effective and diverse community around the rOpenSci project.

  16. The Galileoscope project: community-based technology education in Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompea, Stephen M.; Fine, Leonard W.; Sparks, Robert T.; Walker, Constance E.; Dugan, Charles L.; Dokter, Erin F. C.

    2014-07-01

    A program model has been developed and implemented over the last three years to provide a robust optical technologybased science education program to students aged 9-11 years (5th grade), a formative time in the development of a student's interest in science and engineering. We have created well-tested and evaluated teaching kits for the classroom to teach about the basics of image formation and telescopes. In addition we provide professional development to the teachers of these students on principles of optics and on using the teaching kits. The program model is to reach every teacher and every student in a number of mid-sized rural communities across the state of Arizona. The Galileoscope telescope kit is a key part of this program to explore optics and the nature of science. The program grew out of Module 3 of the NSF-Supported Hands-On Optics project (SPIE, OSA, and NOAO) and from the Science Foundation Arizona-supported Hands-On Optics Arizona program. NOAO has conducted this program in Flagstaff, Yuma, Globe, and Safford, Arizona and is being expanded to sites across the entire state of Arizona (295,254 square kilometers). We describe the educational goals, evaluations, and logistical issues connected to the program. In particular, we proposed that this model can be adapted for any rural or urban locations in order to encourage interest in science, astronomy and optics.-

  17. An Examination of Users' Influence in Online HIV/AIDS Communities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohui; Shi, Jingyuan; Chen, Liang; Peng, Tai-Quan

    2016-05-01

    A network perspective was adopted in this study to identify influential users in an online HIV community in China. Specifically, the indegree centrality, outdegree centrality, betweenness centrality, eigenvector centrality, and clustering coefficient of individuals were evaluated to measure the user influence in such a community. Moreover, this study examined how the digital divide, which is presently one of the major social equity issues in the information society, is associated with an individual's influence within the community. Two networks were formed on the basis of the behavioral data retrieved from the HIV community: the follower-followee network and the post-reply network. In the follower-followee network, members from areas with well-developed technologies demonstrated more connections, received more attention, and secured more critical positions in the network than their counterparts. However, such differences were insignificant in the post-reply network. PMID:27186897

  18. Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauer, Kit, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Art in context of community is the theme of this newsletter. The theme is introduced in an editorial "Community-Enlarging the Definition" (Kit Grauer). Related articles include: (1) "The Children's Bridge is not Destroyed: Heart in the Middle of the World" (Emil Robert Tanay); (2) "Making Bridges: The Sock Doll Project" (Anami Naths); (3)…

  19. An AIDS-Denialist Online Community on a Russian Social Networking Service: Patterns of Interactions With Newcomers and Rhetorical Strategies of Persuasion

    PubMed Central

    Rykov, Yuri; Koltsova, Olessia; Koltsov, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Background The rise of social media proved to be a fertile ground for the expansion of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-denialist movement (in the form of online communities). While there is substantial literature devoted to disproving AIDS-denialist views, there is a lack of studies exploring AIDS-denialists online communities that interact with an external environment. Objective We explored three research areas: (1) reasons for newcomers to come to an AIDS-denialist community, (2) the patterns of interactions of the community with the newcomers, and (3) rhetorical strategies that denialists use for persuasion in the veracity of their views. Methods We studied the largest AIDS-denialist community on one of the most popular social networking services in Russia. We used netnography as a method for collecting data for qualitative analysis and observed the community for 9 months (at least 2-3 times a week). While doing netnography, we periodically downloaded community discussions. In total, we downloaded 4821 posts and comments for analysis. Grounded theory approach was used for data analysis. Results Most users came to the community for the following reasons: their stories did not fit the unitary picture of AIDS disease progression translated by popular medical discourse, health problems, concern about HIV-positive tests, and desire to dissuade community members from false AIDS beliefs. On the basis of strength in AIDS-denialist beliefs, we constructed a typology of the newcomers consisting of three ideal-typical groups: (1) convinced: those who already had become denialists before coming to the group, (2) doubters: those who were undecided about the truth of either human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) science theory or AIDS-denialist theory, and (3) orthodox: those who openly held HIV science views. Reception of a newcomer mainly depended on the newcomer’s belief status. Reception was very warm for the convinced, cold or slightly hostile for the

  20. East-West Community College Project Leadership Training Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Colleges for International Development, Inc.

    This document summarizes the history and planning efforts of the East-West Community Consortium for Community College Development in Thailand, a group of Thai and U.S. education officials charged with coordinating the establishment of ten community colleges in rural Thailand and Bangkok. This report outlines the timeline, content, format and…

  1. Communities in Nature. Environmental Ecological Education Project. Revised June, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Verlin M.

    This unit, an interdisciplinary ecological approach to study communities in nature, considers various types of relationships such as mutualism, commensalism and succession to determine general characteristics of a community and interrelationships between communities. Designed for primary school children, food chains, food webs, reproduction,…

  2. The Impact of a Community Mobilization Project on Health-Related Knowledge and Practices in Cameroon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babalola, Stella; Sakolsky, Natasha; Vondrasek, Claudia; Mounlom, Damaris; Brown, Jane; Tchupo, Jean-Paul

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated the impact of a reproductive health community mobilization initiative in Cameroon. Baseline and followup survey data indicated that at a rural site, the intervention positively influenced family planning knowledge and practices, HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted disease knowledge and attitudes, and use of health services. At an urban…

  3. Perceptions of Parents on How Religion Influences Adolescents’ Sexual Behaviours in Two Ghanaian Communities: Implications for HIV and AIDS Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Asampong, Emmanuel; Langmagne, Sussan; Ahiedeke, Clement

    2013-01-01

    To understand the role of religion in the sexual behaviours of adolescents, the views of parents who are key agents of socialization were examined from two south-eastern communities in Ghana. Focus Group interviews were conducted with mothers (and female caregivers) of adolescents and one with fathers (and male caregivers) of adolescents. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Findings indicated that parents from one community perceived religion as playing a double-edged role in adolescents’ sexual behaviours as on one hand it played a protective role by restraining adolescents from risky sexual behaviours; on the other hand it disparaged the existing traditional measures that regulated adolescents’ sexual behaviour. However, parents from the other community found a collaborative interface between the existing social control measures—communal socialization and proscriptive morality with religious ethics. Religious socialization, social capital theory and the concept of social suffering are used to explain some of the findings of this study. Implications for HIV and AIDS education and prevention are also discussed. PMID:23440475

  4. The School in Its Relations with the Community. Research Projects EUDISED 1975-1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Documentation Centre for Education in Europe, Strasbourg (France).

    The document presents abstracts of 40 research projects dealing with the relationship between school and community in Europe. These have been compiled by the European Documentation and Information System for the Education Project, (EUDISED). The aim of the EUDISED project is to create a computer-based network of national agencies dealing with…

  5. Project ProBase and the Process to Design Bridge Competencies for Community College Technical Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Custer, Rodney L.; Daugherty, Michael K.

    2004-01-01

    Project ProBase (problem-based technology curriculum) is a National Science Foundation funded project designed to develop an innovative curriculum that more adequately prepares high school technology education students for success in advanced technical studies at the community college level. The purpose of the project is to design and test…

  6. How to organize a community energy project: a profile of C. A. N. 's Stamford, Connecticut, project for women. [Monograph

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The Consumer Action Now (CAN) National Energy Project for Women is an outreach program that recognizes women's role in the control of residential energy consumption, consumer purchasing, and family managements as well as their participation in the work force. A two-stage problem-solving approach outlines how to organize a community awareness project which will maximize local participation and support for a fair. The second stage involves showing appreciation and evaluating what was accomplished. A CAN community project in Stamford, Connecticut which led to a citizens energy committee, proposal for a community energy planner, an energy curriculum in the elementary schools, a summer conservation course, and a car clinic illustrates how organizing an awareness project can produce long-term benefits. (DCK)

  7. Outcomes of Project Wall Talk: An HIV/AIDS Peer Education Program Implemented within the Texas State Prison System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Michael W.; Harzke, Amy Jo; Scott, Deborah P.; McCann, Kelly; Kelley, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We report select outcomes from an evaluation of Project Wall Talk, a community-based, peer-led HIV prevention education program implemented in 36 Texas State prison units. Peer educators completed questionnaires prior to receipt of a 40-hour intensive training (N = 590) and at 9-month follow-up (N = 257). Students (N = 2506) completed…

  8. Implementing “insider” ethnography: lessons from the Public Conversations about HIV/AIDS project in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Angotti, Nicole; Sennott, Christie

    2015-01-01

    We describe the conceptualization and implementation of a research methodology in which “insider” community members work with “outsider” investigators as participant observers to document everyday conversations taking place in public settings in their communities. Our study took place in a resource-poor area of rural South Africa and focused on HIV/AIDS, yet we aim here to provide a road map for those interested in implementing this approach in other contexts for various empirical ends. Because this approach is unusual, we highlight considerations in selecting a team of ethnographers, describe the training process, and offer ways to ensure the data collected are trustworthy and confidential. We describe the advantages and limitations of utilizing “insider ethnography” in contexts where being indigenous to the study site provides access to perspectives that cannot be obtained through other methods. Finally, we examine how mutuality and the positionality of the research team affect data collection and quality. PMID:26451131

  9. Decreases in Smoking Prevalence in Asian Communities Served by the Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) Project

    PubMed Central

    Tsoh, Janice Y.; Chen, Roxana; Foo, Mary Anne; Garvin, Cheza C.; Grigg-Saito, Dorcas; Liang, Sidney; McPhee, Stephen; Nguyen, Tung T.; Tran, Jacqueline H.; Giles, Wayne H.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We examined trends in smoking prevalence from 2002 through 2006 in 4 Asian communities served by the Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) intervention. Methods. Annual survey data from 2002 through 2006 were gathered in 4 REACH Asian communities. Trends in the age-standardized prevalence of current smoking for men in 2 Vietnamese communities, 1 Cambodian community, and 1 Asian American/Pacific Islander (API) community were examined and compared with nationwide US and state-specific data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Results. Prevalence of current smoking decreased dramatically among men in REACH communities. The reduction rate was significantly greater than that observed in the general US or API male population, and it was greater than reduction rates observed in the states in which REACH communities were located. There was little change in the quit ratio of men at the state and national levels, but there was a significant increase in quit ratios in the REACH communities, indicating increases in the proportions of smokers who had quit smoking. Conclusions. Smoking prevalence decreased in Asian communities served by the REACH project, and these decreases were larger than nationwide decreases in smoking prevalence observed for the same period. However, disparities in smoking prevalence remain a concern among Cambodian men and non–English-speaking Vietnamese men; these subgroups continue to smoke at a higher rate than do men nationwide. PMID:20299646

  10. The Board of Governors Fee Waiver, Financial Aid, and Community College Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coria, Elizabeth F.

    2013-01-01

    California established the Board of Governors (BOG) fee waiver in 1984 to maintain educational access after the implementation of the state's first ever unit-based fees for community college attendance. Although it was not designed as an incentive to stimulate higher levels of academic achievement or student success, recent accountability policy…

  11. The Effectiveness of Mutual Aid Learning Communities in Online MSW Practice Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douville, M. Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Online social work education has grown rapidly in recent years, and practice courses now are frequently taught online. The present study contributes to the growing body of knowledge regarding best practices in online social work education by examining the effects of small-group learning communities on student learning and on student satisfaction…

  12. The impact of community support initiatives on the stigma experienced by people living with HIV/AIDS in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Masquillier, Caroline; Wouters, Edwin; Mortelmans, Dimitri; le Roux Booysen, Frederik

    2015-02-01

    In the current context of human resource shortages in South Africa, various community support interventions are being implemented to provide long-term psychosocial care to persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). However, it is important to analyze the unintended social side effects of such interventions in regards to the stigma felt by PLWHA, which might threaten the successful management of life-long treatment. Latent cross-lagged modeling was used to analyze longitudinal data on 294 PLWHA from a randomized controlled trial (1) to determine whether peer adherence support (PAS) and treatment buddying influence the stigma experienced by PLWHA; and (2) to analyze the interrelationships between each support form and stigma. Results indicate that having a treatment buddy decreases felt stigma scores, while receiving PAS increases levels of felt stigma at the second follow up. However, the PAS intervention was also found to have a positive influence on having a treatment buddy at this time. Furthermore, a treatment buddy mitigates the stigmatizing effect of PAS, resulting in a small negative indirect effect on stigma. The study indicates the importance of looking beyond the intended effects of an intervention, with the goal of minimizing any adverse consequences that might threaten the successful long-term management of HIV/AIDS and maximizing the opportunities created by such support.

  13. All Individuals Deserve Support: Collaborating To Prevent HIV/AIDS among Homeless Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Nancy E.

    All Individuals Deserve Support (AIDS) is a collaborative prevention program between graduate students in a Community/Agency Counseling program and the Children's Home Homeless Youth Program in Peoria, Illinois. Graduate students developed a comprehensive HIV/AIDS prevention program for homeless youth as a class project. Project design involved:…

  14. Community Health and the Built Environment: examining place in a Canadian chronic disease prevention project.

    PubMed

    Nykiforuk, Candace I J; Schopflocher, Donald; Vallianatos, Helen; Spence, John C; Raine, Kim D; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Vanspronsen, Eric; Nieuwendyk, Laura

    2013-06-01

    The Community Health and the Built Environment (CHBE) project investigated the role of place in interventions for chronic disease prevention in order to identify contextual factors that may foster or inhibit intervention success. This paper presents a project model comprising objective-outsider and subjective-insider perspectives in a multi-method, community-based participatory research approach with an emphasis on knowledge exchange. The collaborative process generated valuable lessons concerning effective conduct of community-based research. The CHBE project model contributes a mechanism for investigating how place influences health behaviours and the outcomes of health promotion interventions.

  15. MANAGEMENT AIDE IN LOW-RENT PUBLIC HOUSING PROJECTS, A SUGGESTED TRAINING PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    RESOURCE MATERIAL IS PROVIDED FOR USE IN DEVELOPING A TRAINING PROGRAM FOR MANAGEMENT AIDES, PERSONS WHO ASSIST HOUSING MANAGERS OF LOCAL HOUSING AUTHORITIES IN ORIENTING RESIDENTS TO LIVING IN A NEW ENVIRONMENT. THE PROGRAM OBJECTIVE IS TO PREPARE TRAINEES TO ESTABLISH WORKING RELATIONSHIPS WITH PEOPLE OF VARYING BACKGROUNDS, INTERPRET…

  16. HIV/AIDS Education in Schools: The "Unassembled" Youth as a Curricular Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schee, Carolyn Vander; Baez, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the ways in which administrative structures of the state, techniques of self-government, and practices of social relations exist within HIV/AIDS curricular discourses, a critique enabled by a Foucauldian analytical frame. We argue that youth have been singled out as a particularly risky lot and are therefore prime candidates…

  17. The epistemology of AIDS in South Africa: lessons from three scenario projects.

    PubMed

    Swart, Charl; Fourie, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the methodology of future scenario-building in the context of HIV and AIDS in Africa. It considers three scenario studies conducted in the past decade: UNAIDS (2005), Metropolitan Holdings (2006) and the AIDS Governance scenarios (2015). The article is a critical reflection of Future Studies epistemology which claims to contribute a unique heuristic niche in the study of AIDS. The article offers several methodological insights: (1) despite claims to the contrary, scenario methodology remains profoundly influenced by existing political and research agenda; instead of denying these, scenarists should acknowledge this; (2) the utility of scenario studies is strongly influenced by their unit of analysis and their time frame, which determine their applicability and therefore their policy relevance; and (3) scenario planners should guard against perpetuating the myth that this methodology is a crystal ball into the future because they are powerful tools for strategic planning about the present, rather than the distant future. In addition to these methodological insights, the article finds that future scenario studies are useful in identifying significant discursive and policy shifts in the AIDS response.

  18. Measuring HIV- and AIDS-related stigma and discrimination in Nicaragua: results from a community-based study.

    PubMed

    Ugarte, William J; Högberg, Ulf; Valladares, Eliette C; Essén, Birgitta

    2013-04-01

    Psychometric properties of external HIV-related stigma and discrimination scales and their predictors were investigated. A cross-sectional community-based study was carried out among 520 participants using an ongoing health and demographic surveillance system in León, Nicaragua. Participants completed an 18-item HIV stigma scale and 19 HIV and AIDS discrimination-related statements. A factor analysis found that 15 of the 18 items in the stigma scale and 18 of the 19 items in the discrimination scale loaded clearly into five- and four-factor structures, respectively. Overall Cronbach's alpha of .81 for the HIV stigma scale and .91 for the HIV discrimination scale provided evidence of internal consistency. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis identified that females, rural residents, people with insufficient HIV-related transmission knowledge, those not tested for HIV, those reporting an elevated self-perception of HIV risk, and those unwilling to disclose their HIV status were associated with higher stigmatizing attitudes and higher discriminatory actions towards HIV-positive people. This is the first community-based study in Nicaragua that demonstrates that overall HIV stigma and discrimination scales were reliable and valid in a community-based sample comprised of men and women of reproductive age. Stigma and discrimination were reported high in the general population, especially among sub-groups. The findings in the current study suggest community-based strategies, including the monitoring of stigma and discrimination, and designing and implementing stigma reduction interventions, are greatly needed to reduce inequities and increase acceptance of persons with HIV.

  19. The 1000 Genomes Project: data management and community access.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Laura; Zheng-Bradley, Xiangqun; Smith, Richard; Kulesha, Eugene; Xiao, Chunlin; Toneva, Iliana; Vaughan, Brendan; Preuss, Don; Leinonen, Rasko; Shumway, Martin; Sherry, Stephen; Flicek, Paul

    2012-04-27

    The 1000 Genomes Project was launched as one of the largest distributed data collection and analysis projects ever undertaken in biology. In addition to the primary scientific goals of creating both a deep catalog of human genetic variation and extensive methods to accurately discover and characterize variation using new sequencing technologies, the project makes all of its data publicly available. Members of the project data coordination center have developed and deployed several tools to enable widespread data access.

  20. Ladybirds as Teaching Aids: 2. Potential for Practical and Project Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majerus, M. E. N.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presented are several ideas for projects involving ladybird beetles. Discussed is background information about the insects; and projects involving life histories, intra-specific variation, taxonomy, genetics, behavior, ecology, habitat surveys, population biology, and overwintering biology. Lists 12 references. (CW)

  1. Community Action Projects: Applying Biotechnology in the Real World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Phuong D.; Siegel, Marcelle A.

    2015-01-01

    Project-based learning and action research are powerful pedagogies in improving science education. We implemented a semester-long course using project-based action research to help students apply biotechnology knowledge learned in the classroom to the real world. Students had several choices to make in the project: working individually or as a…

  2. Geographic information system (G.I.S.) research project at Navajo Community College - Shiprock Campus

    SciTech Connect

    Yazzie, R.; Peter, C.; Aaspas, B.; Isely, D.; Grey, R.

    1995-12-31

    The Navajo and Hopi GIS Project was established to assess the feasibility and impact of implementing GIS techology at Tribal institutions. Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories funded the Navajo and Hopi Geographic Information System (G.I.S.) Project and assigned a mentor from LANL to help guide the project for three summer months of 1995. The six organizations involved were: LANL, LLNL, Navajo Community College, Navajo Nation Land Office, Northern Arizona University and San Juan College. The Navajo Land Office provided the system software, hardware and training. Northern Arizona University selected two students to work at Hopi Water Resource Department. Navajo Community College provided two students and two faculty members. San Juan College provided one student to work with the N.C.C. group. This made up two project teams which led to two project sites. The project sites are the Water Resource Department on the Hopi reservation and Navajo Community College in Shiprock, New Mexico.

  3. Assessing Learning from a Student Community Engagement Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to chart developments in a community engagement scheme run by two Universities in the North East, offering students academic credit in return for work within the local community. The particular focus is on how learning has been assessed from this work experience, within the requirements of higher education…

  4. Economic Development Impacts of Community Wind Projects: A Review and Empirical Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.

    2009-01-01

    Community wind projects have long been touted (both anecdotally and in the literature) to increase the economic development impacts of wind projects, but most analyses of community wind have been based on expected results from hypothetical projects. This report provides a review of previous economic development analyses of community wind projects and compares these projected results with empirical impacts from projects currently in operation. A review of existing literature reveals two primary conclusions. First, construction-period impacts are often thought to be comparable for both community-and absentee-owned facilities. Second, operations-period economic impacts are observed to be greater for community-owned projects. The majority of studies indicate that the range of increased operations-period impact is on the order of 1.5 to 3.4 times. New retrospective analysis of operating community wind projects finds that total employment impacts from completed community wind projects are estimated to be on the order of four to six 1-year jobs per-MW during construction and 0.3 to 0.6 long-term jobs per-MW during operations. In addition, when comparing retrospective results of community wind to hypothetical average absentee projects, construction-period employment impacts are 1.1 to 1.3 times higher and operations-period impacts are 1.1 to 2.8 times higher for community wind. Comparing the average of the completed community wind projects studied here with retrospective analysis of the first 1,000 MW of wind in Colorado and Iowa indicates that construction-period impacts are as much as 3.1 times higher for community wind, and operations-period impacts are as much as 1.8 times higher. Ultimately, wind projects are a source of jobs and economic development, and community wind projects are shown to have increased impact both during the construction and operations-period of a wind power plant. The extent of increased impact is primarily a function of local ownership and

  5. HIV/AIDS Competent Households: Interaction between a Health-Enabling Environment and Community-Based Treatment Adherence Support for People Living with HIV/AIDS in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Masquillier, Caroline; Wouters, Edwin; Mortelmans, Dimitri; van Wyk, Brian; Hausler, Harry; Van Damme, Wim

    2016-01-01

    In the context of severe human resource shortages in HIV care, task-shifting and especially community-based support are increasingly being cited as potential means of providing durable care to chronic HIV patients. Socio-ecological theory clearly stipulates that-in all social interventions-the interrelatedness and interdependency between individuals and their immediate social contexts should be taken into account. People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) seldom live in isolation, yet community-based interventions for supporting chronic HIV patients have largely ignored the social contexts in which they are implemented. Research is thus required to investigate such community-based support within its context. The aim of this study is to address this research gap by examining the way in which HIV/AIDS competence in the household hampers or facilitates community-based treatment adherence support. The data was analyzed carefully in accordance with the Grounded Theory procedures, using Nvivo 10. More specifically, we analyzed field notes from participatory observations conducted during 48 community-based treatment adherence support sessions in townships on the outskirts of Cape Town, transcripts of 32 audio-recorded in-depth interviews with PLWHA and transcripts of 4 focus group discussions with 36 community health workers (CHWs). Despite the fact that the CHWs try to present themselves as not being openly associated with HIV/AIDS services, results show that the presence of a CHW is often seen as a marker of the disease. Depending on the HIV/AIDS competence in the household, this association can challenge the patient's hybrid identity management and his/her attempt to regulate the interference of the household in the disease management. The results deepen our understanding of how the degree of HIV/AIDS competence present in a PLWHA's household affects the manner in which the CHW can perform his or her job and the associated benefits for the patient and his/her household

  6. HIV/AIDS Competent Households: Interaction between a Health-Enabling Environment and Community-Based Treatment Adherence Support for People Living with HIV/AIDS in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Masquillier, Caroline; Wouters, Edwin; Mortelmans, Dimitri; van Wyk, Brian; Hausler, Harry; Van Damme, Wim

    2016-01-01

    In the context of severe human resource shortages in HIV care, task-shifting and especially community-based support are increasingly being cited as potential means of providing durable care to chronic HIV patients. Socio-ecological theory clearly stipulates that-in all social interventions-the interrelatedness and interdependency between individuals and their immediate social contexts should be taken into account. People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) seldom live in isolation, yet community-based interventions for supporting chronic HIV patients have largely ignored the social contexts in which they are implemented. Research is thus required to investigate such community-based support within its context. The aim of this study is to address this research gap by examining the way in which HIV/AIDS competence in the household hampers or facilitates community-based treatment adherence support. The data was analyzed carefully in accordance with the Grounded Theory procedures, using Nvivo 10. More specifically, we analyzed field notes from participatory observations conducted during 48 community-based treatment adherence support sessions in townships on the outskirts of Cape Town, transcripts of 32 audio-recorded in-depth interviews with PLWHA and transcripts of 4 focus group discussions with 36 community health workers (CHWs). Despite the fact that the CHWs try to present themselves as not being openly associated with HIV/AIDS services, results show that the presence of a CHW is often seen as a marker of the disease. Depending on the HIV/AIDS competence in the household, this association can challenge the patient's hybrid identity management and his/her attempt to regulate the interference of the household in the disease management. The results deepen our understanding of how the degree of HIV/AIDS competence present in a PLWHA's household affects the manner in which the CHW can perform his or her job and the associated benefits for the patient and his/her household

  7. HIV/AIDS Competent Households: Interaction between a Health-Enabling Environment and Community-Based Treatment Adherence Support for People Living with HIV/AIDS in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Masquillier, Caroline; Wouters, Edwin; Mortelmans, Dimitri; van Wyk, Brian; Hausler, Harry; Van Damme, Wim

    2016-01-01

    In the context of severe human resource shortages in HIV care, task-shifting and especially community-based support are increasingly being cited as potential means of providing durable care to chronic HIV patients. Socio-ecological theory clearly stipulates that–in all social interventions–the interrelatedness and interdependency between individuals and their immediate social contexts should be taken into account. People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) seldom live in isolation, yet community-based interventions for supporting chronic HIV patients have largely ignored the social contexts in which they are implemented. Research is thus required to investigate such community-based support within its context. The aim of this study is to address this research gap by examining the way in which HIV/AIDS competence in the household hampers or facilitates community-based treatment adherence support. The data was analyzed carefully in accordance with the Grounded Theory procedures, using Nvivo 10. More specifically, we analyzed field notes from participatory observations conducted during 48 community-based treatment adherence support sessions in townships on the outskirts of Cape Town, transcripts of 32 audio-recorded in-depth interviews with PLWHA and transcripts of 4 focus group discussions with 36 community health workers (CHWs). Despite the fact that the CHWs try to present themselves as not being openly associated with HIV/AIDS services, results show that the presence of a CHW is often seen as a marker of the disease. Depending on the HIV/AIDS competence in the household, this association can challenge the patient’s hybrid identity management and his/her attempt to regulate the interference of the household in the disease management. The results deepen our understanding of how the degree of HIV/AIDS competence present in a PLWHA’s household affects the manner in which the CHW can perform his or her job and the associated benefits for the patient and his

  8. Community Leaders' Training in Environmental Studies: A Cooperative Community Project Funded under Title I of the Higher Education Act of 1965. Warp to Environmental Education. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F.; LaHart, David

    This document is the final report of the Community Leaders' Training in Environmental Studies Project conducted at Florida State University. The project sought to increase community environmental awareness and to expand the educational uses of the Tallahassee Junior Museum through the cooperation of museum staff, a variety of community groups, and…

  9. Registry of Communication Research: An Identification of Selected Communication Research Projects in the Academic Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elbert J., Ed.

    This Registry is designed to be a single-source reference to aid in determining the kinds of communication research in process, where it is being conducted, and by whom. The projects are categorized by one or more primary areas of communication and then as to the most applicable basic form of communication. Basic areas of communication research…

  10. The incidence and prevalence of AIDS and prevalence of other severe HIV disease in England and Wales for 1995 to 1999: projections using data to the end of 1994.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    unchanged. Compared with the report published in June 1993, the planning projections for 1997 are 37% lower for cases acquired heterosexually, and the upper boundary of the range in this exposure category has fallen from 1140 to 495. The reduction in the planning projection has resulted from a substantial decline in the rate of increase in the number of new AIDS cases arising each year from heterosexual exposure. The range of uncertainty has narrowed largely because more extensive seroprevalence data are now available. For homo/bisexual males, the planning projection for 1997 has fallen by 3%, because the 1993 report presented an over optimistic view of the extent to which patients received treatment and prophylaxis before the onset of AIDS, since such management became available in 1988. Unlike the 1993 working group, the 1995 working group has access to data from several years on the uptake of treatment and prophylaxis given before the diagnosis of AIDS. It is estimated that about 21,900 adults (range 20,400 to 23,400) were infected with HIV in England and Wales at the end of 1993. This total includes 12,350 who had been infected through male homosexual exposure, 2050 men and women infected through injecting drug use, 6800 men and women infected through heterosexual exposure, and about 3000 adults alive with AIDS. Various data indicate that HIV transmission among homo/bisexual men has been substantial since 1989. Use of data from the unlinked anonymous HIV prevalence monitoring programme suggest that between 500 and 1000 HIV infections due to homosexual male exposure occurred each year in 1992 and 1993. Should HIV transmission continue at this level, a high incidence of AIDS within the homo/bisexual male community will be inevitable for many more years. Most HIV infections and AIDS cases due to heterosexual exposure are thought to have been acquired abroad. The future of the epidemic in this exposure category is therefore unclear.

  11. Linking with Community To Reclaim Natural Areas for Education: The McLane Elementary School Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Melinda; Smith, Kathy Kurtz

    2002-01-01

    Describes a project in which students, teachers, and the community work to reclaim neglected wetlands and forested areas for use as an environmental study site for interdisciplinary learning. (Author/MM)

  12. Closing Doors of Opportunity? Trends in Enrollment, College Costs, and Direct Grant Aid at Community Colleges in the United States, 2000-2001 to 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennamer, Michael A.; Katsinas, Stephen G.; Hardy, David E.; Roessler, Billy

    2010-01-01

    This study had two major purposes. The first purpose was to compare federal, state, and institutional direct grant aid, unmet needs, and headcount in 2000-2001 and 2005-2006. The second was to assess if any changes found related to the presence or absence of two key factors identified by experts as important to understanding the community college…

  13. A taxonomy for community-based care programs focused on HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, and care in resource-poor settings.

    PubMed

    Rachlis, Beth; Sodhi, Sumeet; Burciul, Barry; Orbinski, James; Cheng, Amy H Y; Cole, Donald

    2013-04-16

    Community-based care (CBC) can increase access to key services for people affected by HIV/AIDS through the mobilization of community interests and resources and their integration with formal health structures. Yet, the lack of a systematic framework for analysis of CBC focused on HIV/AIDS impedes our ability to understand and study CBC programs. We sought to develop taxonomy of CBC programs focused on HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings in an effort to understand their key characteristics, uncover any gaps in programming, and highlight the potential roles they play. Our review aimed to systematically identify key CBC programs focused on HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings. We used both bibliographic database searches (Medline, CINAHL, and EMBASE) for peer-reviewed literature and internet-based searches for gray literature. Our search terms were 'HIV' or 'AIDS' and 'community-based care' or 'CBC'. Two co-authors developed a descriptive taxonomy through an iterative, inductive process using the retrieved program information. We identified 21 CBC programs useful for developing taxonomy. Extensive variation was observed within each of the nine categories identified: region, vision, characteristics of target populations, program scope, program operations, funding models, human resources, sustainability, and monitoring and evaluation strategies. While additional research may still be needed to identify the conditions that lead to overall program success, our findings can help to inform our understanding of the various aspects of CBC programs and inform potential logic models for CBC programming in the context of HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings. Importantly, the findings of the present study can be used to develop sustainable HIV/AIDS-service delivery programs in regions with health resource shortages.

  14. Preparation aids for the development of Category 2 quality-assurance project plans

    SciTech Connect

    Simes, G.F.

    1991-02-01

    Data collection activities performed for the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are divided into four categories, depending on the intended use of the data. Quality Assurance (QA) Project Plans are written to ensure that project needs will be met and that quality control procedures are sufficient for obtaining data of known quality. Projects that are of sufficient scope and substance that their results could be combined with the results of other projects of similar scope to produce narratives that would be used for rule-making, regulation making, or policy making are identified as Category 2 projects. The Category 2 manual contains detailed descriptions of each of the 12 required elements of a Category 2 QA Project Plan. Also included are definitions and explanations of frequently used terms, examples of QA forms and charts, sample equations and numerous types of tables suggested for summarizing information.

  15. How sustainable is Japan's foreign aid policy? An analysis of Japan's official development assistance and funding for energy sector projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hideka

    Japan has adopted a sustainable development strategy since the late 1980s in the effort to address social and environmental damages caused by past Japan-funded projects in partner nations. Even after about a decade and a half of the policy implementation, however, there are few reports which critically examine effects of the adoption of the idea of sustainable development. This dissertation evaluates Japan's foreign aid policy to determine the extent to which new revisions of aid policy have improved the environmental sustainability of the policy. This dissertation reviews the mainstream idea of sustainable development (also known as the sustainable development paradigm in this dissertation) to reveal the nature of the idea of sustainable development that Japan's foreign aid policy depends on. A literature review of two development discourses---modernization theory and ecological modernization theory---and three types of critiques against the sustainable development paradigm---focused on adverse impacts of modern science, globalization, and environmental overuse---reveals core logics of and problems with the sustainable development paradigm. Japan's foreign aid policy impacts on energy sector development in recipient countries is examined by means of a quantitative analysis and a qualitative analysis. Specifically, it examines the effect of Japan's ODA program over fifteen years that proposed to facilitate sustainable development in developing countries. Special emphasis is given to investigation of ODA disbursements in the energy sector and detailed case studies of several individual energy projects are performed. The dissertation discovers that the sustainable development paradigm guiding Japan's ODA has little capacity to accomplish its goals to bring about social and ecological improvement in developing countries. This dissertation finds three fundamental weaknesses in Japanese ODA policy on energy sector development as well as the sustainable development

  16. Community health outreach program of the Chad-Cameroon petroleum development and pipeline project.

    PubMed

    Utzinger, Jürg; Wyss, Kaspar; Moto, Daugla D; Tanner, Marcel; Singer, Burton H

    2004-02-01

    applying a systemic approach. Other innovations of the project in general, and the CHOP in particular, are the strong emphases on institutional-capacity building, integration, and sustainability. In countries like Chad and Cameroon, there are serious shortages of well-qualified health personnel. The CHOP described in this article provides leverage for initiating better healthcare that will reduce the high burden of disease in the developing world. Reducing mortality rates for infants and children younger than 5 years in sub-Saharan Africa requires massive scaling-up of malaria-control interventions (eg, large-scale distribution of ITNs to protect millions of African children), thereby approaching the Abuja targets (see Armstrong Schellenberg et al). The local NGOs that took a lead within the framework of the CHOP in the distribution of ITNs and accompanying health education messages can extend these activities to communities living outside the vicinity of the project area. Serious shortcomings of the current CHOP, consistently identified by the external monitoring groups, include the lack of a regional health plan, cumulative impact assessment, and provision of clean water and sanitation outside the narrowly defined project area. This point is of central importance, particularly for Chad, where access to clean water and improved sanitation facilities is low. Another limitation of the current CHOP is the insufficient amount of significance addressed to tuberculosis and the apparent lack of concerted control efforts against HIV infection, AIDS, and tuberculosis. These criticisms, however, must be balanced against the lack of clarity in international discourse about the proper extent of responsibility of the corporate sector for dealing with the health problems of countries in which they do business. In an elegant analysis, the environmental risk factor "unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene" was shown to be one of the major contributors to loss of healthy life, particularly

  17. Economic Development Impacts of Community Wind Projects: A Review and Empirical Evaluation; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.

    2009-04-01

    'Community wind' refers to a class of wind energy ownership structures. The extent of local ownership may range from a small minority share to full ownership by persons in the immediate area surrounding the wind project site. Potential project owners include local farmers, businesses, Native American tribes, universities, cooperatives, or any other local entity seeking to invest in wind energy. The opposite of community wind is an 'absentee' project, in which ownership is completely removed from the state and community surrounding the facility. Thus, there is little or no ongoing direct financial benefit to state and local populations aside from salaries for local repair technicians, local property tax payments, and land lease payments. In recent years, the community wind sector has been inhibited by manufacturers' preference for larger turbine orders. This often puts smaller community wind developers and projects at a competitive disadvantage. However, state policies specifically supporting community wind may become a more influential market factor as turbines are now more readily available given manufacturer ramp-ups and the slow-down in the industry that has accompanied the recent economic and financial crises. This report examines existing literature to provide an overview of economic impacts resulting from community wind projects, compares results, and explains variability.

  18. Economic Development Impacts of Community Wind Projects. A Review and Empirical Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.

    2009-04-01

    "Community wind" refers to a class of wind energy ownership structures. The extent of local ownership may range from a small minority share to full ownership by persons in the immediate area surrounding the wind project site. Potential project owners include local farmers, businesses, Native American tribes, universities, cooperatives, or any other local entity seeking to invest in wind energy. The opposite of community wind is an "absentee" project, in which ownership is completely removed from the state and community surrounding the facility. Thus, there is little or no ongoing direct financial benefit to state and local populations aside from salaries for local repair technicians, local property tax payments, and land lease payments. In recent years, the community wind sector has been inhibited by manufacturers' preference for larger turbine orders. This often puts smaller community wind developers and projects at a competitive disadvantage. However, state policies specifically supporting community wind may become a more influential market factor as turbines are now more readily available given manufacturer ramp-ups and the slow-down in the industry that has accompanied the recent economic and financial crises. This report examines existing literature to provide an overview of economic impacts resulting from community wind projects, compares results, and explains variability.

  19. AIDS and racism in America.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, J

    1992-02-01

    Institutionalized racism affects general health care as well as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) health intervention and services in minority communities. The overrepresentation of minorities in various disease categories, including AIDS, is partially related to racism. The national response to the AIDS epidemic in minority communities has been slow, showing an insensitivity to ethnic diversity in prevention efforts and AIDS health services.

  20. Main factors controlling microbial community structure, growth and activity after reclamation of a tailing pond with aided phytostabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zornoza, Raúl; Acosta, José A.; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; Faz, Ángel; Bååth, Erland

    2015-04-01

    Reclamation on bare tailing ponds has the potential to represent soil genesis in Technosols favoring the understanding of the changes of microbial communities and function. In this study we used phytostabilization aided with calcium carbonate and pig slurry/manure to reclaim an acidic bare tailing pond with the aim of investigating the effect of amending and different species on microbial community structure and function. We sampled after two years of amending and planting: unamended tailing soil (UTS), non-rhizospheric amended tailing soil (ATS), rhizospheric soil from four species, and non-rhizospheric native forest soil (NS), which acted as reference. The application of amendments increased pH up to neutrality, organic carbon (Corg), C/N and aggregate stability, while decreased salinity and heavy metals availability. No effect of rhizosphere was observed on physicochemical properties, metals immobilization and microbial community structure and function. To account for confounding effects due to soil organic matter, microbial properties were expressed per Corg. The high increments in pH and Corg have been the main factors driving changes in microbial community structure and function. Bacterial biomass was higher in UTS, without significant differences among the rest of soils. Fungal biomass followed the trend UTS < ATS = rhizospheric soils < NS. Bacterial growth increased and fungal growth decreased with increasing pH, despite the high availability of metals at low pH. Enzyme activities were lower in UTS, being β-glucosidase and β-glucosaminidase activities highly correlated with bacterial growth. Microbial activities were not correlated with the exchangeable fraction of heavy metals, indicating that microbial function is not strongly affected by these metals, likely due to the efficiency of the reclamation procedure to reduce metals toxicity. Changes in microbial community composition were largely explained by changes in pH, heavy metals availability and Corg

  1. COMMUNITY COLLEGE HEALTH CAREERS PROJECT PHASE II--TEACHER PREPARATION. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RATNER, MURIEL

    THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK AT BUFFALO AND CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK COOPERATED WITH THE COMMUNITY COLLEGE HEALTH CAREERS PROJECT BY ESTABLISHING PROGRAMS TO PREPARE PRACTITIONERS TO TEACH IN COMMUNITY COLLEGE PROGRAMS IN (1) OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY ASSISTING, (2) DENTAL ASSISTING, (3) OPHTHALMIC DISPENSING, AND (4) MEDICAL RECORD,…

  2. A Community-University Exchange Project Modeled after Europe's Science Shops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tryon, Elizabeth; Ross, J. Ashleigh

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a pilot project of the Morgridge Center for Public Service at the University of Wisconsin-Madison for a new structure for community-based learning and research. It is based on the European-derived science shop model for democratizing campus-community partnerships using shared values of mutual respect and validation of…

  3. A PLANNED COMMUNITY FOR MIGRATORY FARM WORKERS--A PROPOSAL FOR A DEMONSTRATION PROJECT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEERY, A.B.

    A DEMONSTRATION PROJECT FOR MIGRATORY FARM LABORERS HOME-BASED IN SOUTH TEXAS IS PROPOSED. THE PURPOSE IS TO DESIGN A PLANNED COMMUNITY CONTAINING HOUSING, HEALTH FACILITIES, ORIENTATION AND EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES, JOB-PLACEMENT FACILITIES, AND SOCIAL, RECREATIONAL, AND COMMERCIAL FACILITIES. THE PLANNED COMMUNITY WOULD PROVIDE SAFE, SANITARY, AND…

  4. Evaluation of Supported Placements in Integrated Community Environments Project (SPICE). Executive Summary of the Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Leslie; And Others

    This executive summary presents highlights of a study which sought to determine whether participants in the Supported Placements in Integrated Community Environments project were better off after moving to community homes from intermediate care facilities and skilled nursing facilities, and to determine the variables that contribute to quality…

  5. The Little Village Project: A Community Approach to the Gang Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spergel, Irving A.; Grossman, Susan F.

    1997-01-01

    Reports preliminary evidence on an innovative approach to gang violence which relies on community mobilization, social intervention, suppression, opportunities provision, organizational development, and targeting. Describes program processes and outcomes. The project involved teams of community youth workers, tactical police officers, adult…

  6. Evaluating Statewide Priorities. Improving Community College Evaluation and Planning: Project Working Paper Number Nine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Office of the Chancellor.

    One of a series of papers resulting from a Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE) project to improve planning and evaluation in community colleges, this working paper is intended for use by 20 community colleges in California undergoing accreditation self-studies during 1982-83, who were asked to evaluate their performance…

  7. Homelessness: HUD Funds Eligible Projects According to Communities' Priorities. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerwinski, Stanley J.

    In response to a Congressional request, the General Accounting Office studied the process that the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) uses to select projects for the homeless for funding, whether this process is consistent with statutes and community priorities, whether communities face any common problems when applying for HUD…

  8. Unraveling Ethics: Reflections from a Community-Based Participatory Research Project with Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Christine A.; Hewson, Jennifer; Shier, Michael; Morales, Edwin

    2008-01-01

    There is limited literature describing the ethical dilemmas that arise when conducting community-based participatory research. The following provides a case example of ethical dilemmas that developed during a multi-method community-based participatory action research project with youth in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Several ethical dilemmas emerged…

  9. Newspaper Content Analysis in Evaluation of a Community-Based Participatory Project to Increase Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granner, Michelle L.; Sharpe, Patricia A.; Burroughs, Ericka L.; Fields, Regina; Hallenbeck, Joyce

    2010-01-01

    This study conducted a newspaper content analysis as part of an evaluation of a community-based participatory research project focused on increasing physical activity through policy and environmental changes, which included activities related to media advocacy and media-based community education. Daily papers (May 2003 to December 2005) from both…

  10. Field Assessment of the Village Green Project: An Autonomous Community Air Quality Monitoring System

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent findings on air pollution levels in communities motivate new technologies to assess air pollution at finer spatial scale. The Village Green Project (VGP) is a novel approach using commercially-available technology for long-term community environments air pollution measure...

  11. Opening the Doors of Your Community. Pennsylvania Youth in Action. Project 2--Member Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park. Dept. of Agricultural and Extension Education.

    This student workbook is for 12- to 14-year-olds participating in the Pennsylvania 4-H "Opening the Doors of Your Community" project which is designed to involve youth in improving the quality of community life, learning about the role and functions of local government, understanding public issues, becoming involved in the process of community…

  12. They Can Do It: Kids Take Primary Role in Community Project, Make Learning Meaningful.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Active Learner: A Foxfire Journal for Teachers, 2000

    2000-01-01

    An Idaho community worked together to build a performing arts building on school property. Students from the school, which had been using the Foxfire approach for several years, selected the site, did the surveying, and helped with the timber frame construction. The project fostered a renewed sense of community for a town suffering from declining…

  13. Strengthening Pre-collegiate Education in Community Colleges: Project Summary and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document is intended for leaders and decision makers who work with community colleges at the classroom, college, and system level. Readers will find an overview of the purpose, activities, findings, and recommendations from a three-year project involving 11 California community colleges, undertaken as a partnership between The Carnegie…

  14. Project-Based Learning Communities in Developmental Education: A Case Study of Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Alison; Christofili, Monica

    2014-01-01

    This case study tracks the application of project-based learning (PBL) during four separate college terms at Portland Community College in Portland, Oregon. Each term follows a different learning community of first-term college students enrolled in a program of developmental education (DE), reading, writing, math, and college survival and success…

  15. Community-Based Interventions for Young Adolescents: The Penn State PRIDE Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHale, Susan M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    With local Cooperative Extension agents serving as a bridge between university-based researchers and local community members, the PRIDE Project's collaborative activities have included building university-community relationships; carrying out needs assessments, program planning, and program evaluation research; and conducting policy seminars at…

  16. Indianapolis resource recovery facility; Community efforts and technology required for a successful project

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, P.L. ); Henderson, J.S. ); Tulli, R. )

    1990-01-01

    There are many community needs. Refuse is an abundant byproduct of our civilization. The disposal of this byproduct has become a major problem for our cities. This paper describes on community's efforts to turn a community problem, refuse disposal, into a community asset. The paper describes the many aspects of effort and technology required to develop the Indianapolis Resource Recovery Facility. This facility required the cooperation of the public and private sectors to blend technology into a successful project. Special efforts were required to match appropriate technology to specific community needs and produce a successful and economically sound project. Five basic activities are presented. The first four activities are essential steps for any community to assure the right project fit to community needs. The areas presented are: defining community needs, technology evaluation (approaches evaluated), feasibility studies (economic studies), project implementation (bids and contracts), and a description of the Indianapolis resource recovery facility. A review of these five areas places a real world perspective on refuse as an alternative fuel and source of resource recovery.

  17. Kero Community School Field Report. Indigenous Mathematics Project. Working Paper 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Karen L.

    This report summarizes field work at Kero School in Papua New Guinea, one of five community schools participating in the ongoing research and development efforts of the Indigenous Mathematics Project (IMP). The introductory material describes the site, the school setting, and the community setting. Background on the IMP teacher and the size of…

  18. Ororo Community School Field Report. Indigenous Mathematics Project. Working Paper 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lineberger, Julie Diane

    This report summarizes field work in Ororo Community School located in Tokorara, a suburb of Port Moresby, the capital of Papua New Guinea. It is one of five community schools participating in the ongoing research and development efforts of the Indigenous Mathematics Project (IMP). The study opens with an introduction to the site, the school…

  19. Andra Community School Field Report. Indigenous Mathematics Project. Working Paper 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Paula

    This report summarizes field work on Andra Island, Papua New Guinea, one of five community schools participating in the ongoing research and development efforts of the Indigenous Mathematics Project (IMP). It opens with an introduction to the site, the school setting, and the community setting. Background on the IMP teacher and the size of classes…

  20. Divanap Community School Field Report. Indigenous Mathematics Project. Working Paper 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gearhart, Maryl

    This report summarizes field work in Divanap, Papua New Guinea, one of five community schools participating in the ongoing research and development efforts of the Indigenous Mathematics Project (IMP). The site is described, with detailed comments on the school and the community. Background on the teacher is provided. Sizes of the two grade 2, one…

  1. Muglamp Community School Field Report. Indigenous Mathematics Project. Working Paper 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Robert D.

    This report summarizes field work in Muglamp, Papua New Guinea, one of five community schools participating in the ongoing research and development efforts of the Indigenous Mathematics Project (IMP). It begins with an introduction to the site, the school setting, and the community setting. The teacher's history and the number of students in one…

  2. Community organizing and community health: piloting an innovative approach to community engagement applied to an early intervention project in south London

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, Matthew; Moore, Imogen; Ferreira, Ana; Day, Crispin; Bolton, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Background The importance of community engagement in health is widely recognized, and key themes in UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) recommendations for enhancing community engagement are co-production and community control. This study reports an innovative approach to community engagement using the community-organizing methodology, applied in an intervention of social support to increase social capital, reduce stress and improve well-being in mothers who were pregnant and/or with infants aged 0–2 years. Methods Professional community organizers in Citizens-UK worked with local member civic institutions in south London to facilitate social support to a group of 15 new mothers. Acceptability of the programme, adherence to principles of co-production and community control, and changes in the outcomes of interest were assessed quantitatively in a quasi-experimental design. Results The programme was found to be feasible and acceptable to participating mothers, and perceived by them to involve co-production and community control. There were no detected changes in subjective well-being, but there were important reductions in distress on a standard self-report measure (GHQ-12). There were increases in social capital of a circumscribed kind associated with the project. Conclusions Community organizing provides a promising model and method of facilitating community engagement in health. PMID:25724610

  3. Technology, Learning Communities and Young People: The Future Something Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herne, Steve; Adams, Jeff; Atkinson, Dennis; Dash, Paul; Jessel, John

    2013-01-01

    The "Future Something Project" ("FSP"), a two-year action research project, was devised to nurture the creative and technological talent of small groups of young people at risk by creating a structured network, mentored and driven by creative professionals exploring innovative ways for the two distinct target groups to work together. The project…

  4. Campus and Community Connections: The Evolving IUPUI Common Theme Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, IUPUI launched the Common Theme Project, designed to "promote campus unity, conversation, and collaboration on timely issues that connect IUPUI to central Indiana and the world." This paper briefly discusses the evolution of the Common Theme Project, from its roots as a freshman common reader to the current campus focus on…

  5. An Action-Research Project: Community Lead Poisoning Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajaram, Shireen S.

    2007-01-01

    This action-research project focused on gathering data on awareness of lead poisoning, as well as disseminating information on lead poisoning prevention in a metropolitan midwestern city. This project reflects an action-research approach to service learning and was in collaboration with a grass-roots organization. This paper outlines the daunting…

  6. Project Profiles. A.I.D. Studies in Educational Technology and Development Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (Dept. of State), Washington, DC. Clearinghouse on Development Communication.

    These profiles contain brief case studies showing how communication media are successfully used to support development projects in a variety of fields and international settings. Projects listed emphasize agriculture, health, nutrition, population, education (primary and middle grades, adult, and distance), and integrated development. Project…

  7. "Infotectives" on the "Infobahn": Designing Internet-Aided Projects for the Social Studies Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maskin, Melvin R.

    1996-01-01

    Describes three social studies projects tackled by students at the Bronx High School of Science: an extracredit activity on doing business in Manhattan, a citizen-participation project on fixing the United States, and a cooperative activity to identify problems common to Tokyo and New York City. Using the Internet to solve real-world problems…

  8. PREPARATION AIDS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF CATEGORY I QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data collection activities performed for the Risk Reduction Engineering aboratory (RREL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are divided into tour categories, depending on the intended use of the data. uality Assurance (QA) Project Plans are written to ensure that project...

  9. PREPARATION AIDS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF CATEGORY II QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data collection activities performed for the Risk Reduction Engineering aboratory (RREL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are divided into tour categories, depending on the intended use of the data. uality Assurance (QA) Project Plans are written to ensure that project...

  10. Women and food aid: a developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Katona-apte, J

    1986-08-01

    The unique aspect of food aid projects is that food, rather than money, is used for achieving developmental objectives. As food is usually controlled by women, they benefit most from considering it to be of economic value. Poor women seem to be short of resources--time and money--which can be supplemented by food aid. Through its income-transfer effect, food aid can enable women to work fewer hours/day and thus have more discretionary time. It can also provide, directly or indirectly, the cash necessary for women to use skills they already possess to set themselves up in small businesses. Food aid projects achieve their developmental objectives through: the nutritional content of the distributed commodity; the income transfer effect; cooperatives or associations; specific activities associated with the project; community improvement aspects resulting from the project; and provision of budgetary support to release resources for additional developmental activities. There are a number of ways through which food aid exerts its effect on women from a developmental perspective. Consumption of the food aid commodity provides women with an improved diet. Food aid as an income transfer can enable women to have more discretionary time. Providing women with opportunities for income-generating activities is an important aspect of development. Women's cooperatives or associations funded by food aid commodities can provide women with income. Current food aid projects, if properly planned, can be beneficial to women without the incorporation of specific activities or skills training. One way that food aid helps women gain more time is by freeing them from wage employment. Another way is to use the income transfer for the purchasing of consumer goods that reduce their labor.

  11. Camp For All Connection: a community health information outreach project*

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Jeffrey T.; Walsh, Teresa J.; Varman, Beatriz

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the Camp For All Connection project is to facilitate access to electronic health information resources at the Camp For All facility. Setting/Participants/Resources: Camp For All is a barrier-free camp working in partnership with organizations to enrich the lives of children and adults with chronic illnesses and disabilities and their families by providing camping and retreat experiences. The camp facility is located on 206 acres in Burton, Texas. The project partners are Texas Woman's University, Houston Academy of Medicine-Texas Medical Center Library, and Camp For All. Brief Description: The Camp For All Connection project placed Internet-connected workstations at the camp's health center in the main lodge and provided training in the use of electronic health information resources. A train-the-trainer approach was used to provide training to Camp For All staff. Results/Outcome: Project workstations are being used by health care providers and camp staff for communication purposes and to make better informed health care decisions for Camp For All campers. Evaluation Method: A post-training evaluation was administered at the end of the train-the-trainer session. In addition, a series of site visits and interviews was conducted with camp staff members involved in the project. The site visits and interviews allowed for ongoing dialog between project staff and project participants. PMID:16059424

  12. Evaluation of a Three-Stage, Community Smoke-Free Homes Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacker, J.; Wigg, E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to review the effectiveness of a Smoke-free Homes Project in a deprived area, Salford, in the UK. The project aimed to reduce exposure to secondhand smoke within the home, chiefly amongst households with resident smokers. Design/methodology/approach: Local people from ten deprived communities were recruited as Smoke-free…

  13. The Charlotte Action Research Project: A Model for Direct and Mutually Beneficial Community-University Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Elizabeth; Sorensen, Janni; Howarth, Joe

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the evolution of the Charlotte Action Research Project (CHARP), a community-university partnership founded in 2008 at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, and focuses particularly on the program's unique organizational structure. Research findings of a project evaluation suggest that the CHARP model's unique…

  14. Building Capacity through Sustainable Engagement: Lessons for the Learning Community from the "GraniteNet" Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arden, Catherine; McLachlan, Kathryn; Cooper, Trevor

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports an exploration into critical success factors for the sustainability of the partnership between the University of Southern Queensland and the Stanthorpe community during the GraniteNet Phoenix Project--the first phase of a three-phase participatory action research project conducted during 2007-2008. The concepts of learning…

  15. Project WE CARE (Workers' Education and Community Awareness of Resources for Education). [August 1980-June 1981].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogoros, Anne Walsh

    Project WE CARE (Workers' Education and Community Awareness of Resources for Education), in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, developed, implemented, and documented the process of implementing adult basic education program linkage/outreach with business, industry, and human service organizations. The project emphasis was on educating human service…

  16. Children as Community Planners: Report on an Environmental Design Project 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanley, Gerard L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes a six-month project emphasizing participant-observation teaching strategy in which a third-grade class of 24 students employed methods of environmental design to design communities within a modern forest and more primitive tundra and desert regions. Discusses project goals, results, and implications for future use of environmental design…

  17. Community Learning Campus: It Takes a Simple Message to Build a Complex Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, George

    2012-01-01

    Education Canada asked Tom Thompson, president of Olds College and a prime mover behind the Community Learning Campus (CLC): What were the lessons learned from this unusually ambitious education project? Thompson mentions six lessons he learned from this complex project which include: (1) Dream big, build small, act now; (2) Keep a low profile at…

  18. Project CASAS: Facilitating the Adaptation of Recent Immigrant Students through Complex Community-Wide Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoorman, Dilys; Jean-Jacques, Velouse

    2003-01-01

    The primary focus of this article is a community-based project initiated under the auspices of the Palm Beach County School District's Office of Multicultural Affairs. The students in this district represent 150 countries and 104 language groups. The nation with the highest representation among this population is Haiti. Project CASAS (Community…

  19. Project Return: Community Education Initiative and Babygram Hospital Outreach, 1991-92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Research, Evaluation, and Assessment.

    Project Return, a dropout recovery program to assist pregnant and parenting teenagers and parents of elementary school children to return to school, was first implemented in 1989-90. By 1991-92, there were two components of Project Return: its community education initiative in seven elementary schools, and the Babygram Hospital Outreach Program…

  20. UNESCO and the Associated Schools Project: Symbolic Affirmation of World Community, International Understanding, and Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, David F.; Ramirez, Francisco O.; Koo, Jeong-Woo

    2009-01-01

    The UNESCO Associated Schools Project emphasizes world community, human rights, and international understanding. This article investigates the emergence and global diffusion of the project from 1953 to 2001, estimating the influence of national, regional, and world characteristics on the likelihood of a country adopting a UNESCO school. It also…

  1. Geothermal project produces enough power for small community

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    The Salton Sea Geothermal-Electric Project is briefly discussed. The power plant allows Edison to conduct studies on plant economics, operations, performance, reliability and environmental effects to optimize the design of future plants.

  2. Pueblo Community College Objectives: 1990-91 Completed, 1991-92 Current, 1992-93 Projected, 1995-96 Projected.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pueblo Community Coll., CO.

    This report focuses on the institutional goals of Pueblo Community College (PCC), including completed, planned, and projected objectives classified by administrative division. First, goals for the President's Office are presented, covering affirmative action and activities of the Business and Industry Services Division (i.e., customized training,…

  3. A taxonomy for community-based care programs focused on HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, and care in resource-poor settings

    PubMed Central

    Rachlis, Beth; Sodhi, Sumeet; Burciul, Barry; Orbinski, James; Cheng, Amy H.Y.; Cole, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Community-based care (CBC) can increase access to key services for people affected by HIV/AIDS through the mobilization of community interests and resources and their integration with formal health structures. Yet, the lack of a systematic framework for analysis of CBC focused on HIV/AIDS impedes our ability to understand and study CBC programs. We sought to develop taxonomy of CBC programs focused on HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings in an effort to understand their key characteristics, uncover any gaps in programming, and highlight the potential roles they play. Our review aimed to systematically identify key CBC programs focused on HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings. We used both bibliographic database searches (Medline, CINAHL, and EMBASE) for peer-reviewed literature and internet-based searches for gray literature. Our search terms were ‘HIV’ or ‘AIDS’ and ‘community-based care’ or ‘CBC’. Two co-authors developed a descriptive taxonomy through an iterative, inductive process using the retrieved program information. We identified 21 CBC programs useful for developing taxonomy. Extensive variation was observed within each of the nine categories identified: region, vision, characteristics of target populations, program scope, program operations, funding models, human resources, sustainability, and monitoring and evaluation strategies. While additional research may still be needed to identify the conditions that lead to overall program success, our findings can help to inform our understanding of the various aspects of CBC programs and inform potential logic models for CBC programming in the context of HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings. Importantly, the findings of the present study can be used to develop sustainable HIV/AIDS-service delivery programs in regions with health resource shortages. PMID:23594416

  4. Biotic Communities. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Amoe-Thorson Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amoe, Ruth; Thorson, Michael

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit provides a number of activities to introduce students to ways of studying biotic communities, help them become good observers, and provide them with opportunities to use their skills. The materials include suggested activities, and…

  5. A Community Project in Religion and Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Indianapolis. Medical Center.

    Supported by the National Institue of Mental Health and Lilly Endowment, Inc., a demonstration program in continuing education for clergy and related professions in the field of mental health was conducted from 1964 to 1967. The purpose was to provide clinical pastoral education within the clergtman's home community where he could learn to work…

  6. Adult Resource Center--A Community/University Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vegso, Kathryn A.

    Cooperative planning, based upon a decade of reentry programs for adults, culminated in the establishment of a public service known as the Adult Resource Center at the University of Akron (Ohio). Located in a renovated building between the campus and the downtown community, the Adult Resource Center serves as a liaison with social service…

  7. Project Energize: Outcomes of a Community Confernece on Energy Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Patricia; Deshler, David

    Intended to help program planners and evaluators in providing insight as to what can be accomplished in an educational program dealing with energy conservation, this report is an evaluation of the outcomes of a community conference on energy conservation. There is a brief description of the day-long energy conference attended by 178 people (38 of…

  8. Community-Based Ecological Restoration: The Wingra Oak Savanna Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bader, Brian J.; Egan, Dave

    1999-01-01

    The University of Wisconsin-Madison Arboretum, a pioneer in ecological restoration, is involving the local community in restoring a site to its presettlement condition as an oak savanna. Besides providing the manual labor of restoration, volunteers learn about the land and the ecological processes that tie nature and culture together. A 60-hour…

  9. A Freshman Retention Project at Borough of Manhattan Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Stephen M.; Harte, Joyce

    At Borough of Manhattan Community College (BMCC) in New York, the student body is 55% Black, 29% Hispanic, 7% Asian, and 9% White and other ethnic groups. Placement testing indicates that 70% of entering freshmen require some form of remediation. As part of BMCC's efforts to improve first-year retention rates, students requiring remediation have…

  10. Target School Research Project: Change and Learning Community Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmerman, Herbert R., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the use of organizational learning community principles to effectively manage organizational change. Target is a pseudonym for a small public school in Southern New Jersey that has provided educational services to students with special needs since 1969. In 2004 Target began providing services to a new population of students…

  11. Passing the Torch: A Model School-Community Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Arlene F.; Robinson, Donald

    During the 1988-89 school year, a Bicentennial Model Site Program was conducted by the American Bar Association's Special Committee on Youth Education for Citizenship. This program was designed to improve students' understanding of the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights by forging partnerships between schools and communities at the local…

  12. Writing a Mathematics Community: A Pen Pal Inquiry Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton-Meier, Lori; Drake, Corey; Tidwell, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Elementary school classrooms and preservice teachers rarely perceive math as a form of communication or as a foundation for community. Instead, it often takes the shape of numbered problems with very specific answers compiled into textbooks and worksheets. In an effort to make connections between literacy and mathematics for preservice teachers,…

  13. Community-Engaged Teaching: A Project-Based Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Carrie Ann

    2015-01-01

    The classroom offers a unique and effective venue for community engagement and an opportunity for teaching artists to dive into a topic on both practical and theoretical levels, resulting in well-informed input. That well-informed input is then translated into thoughtful action. It is exciting to engage students early on in shaping their community…

  14. No “Magic Bullet”: Exploring Community Mobilization Strategies Used in a Multi-site Community Based Randomized Controlled Trial: Project Accept (HPTN 043)

    PubMed Central

    Tedrow, Virginia A.; Zelaya, Carla E.; Kennedy, Caitlin E.; Morin, Stephen F.; Khumalo-Sakutukwa, Gertrude; Sweat, Michael D.; Celentano, David D.

    2012-01-01

    As community-level interventions become more common in HIV prevention, processes such as community mobilization (CM) are increasingly utilized in public health programs and research. Project Accept, a multi-site community randomized controlled trial, is testing the hypothesis that CM coupled with community-based mobile voluntary counseling and testing and post-test support services will alter community norms and reduce the incidence of HIV. By using a multiple-case study approach, this qualitative study identifies seven major community mobilization strategies used in Project Accept, including stakeholder buy-in, formation of community coalitions, community engagement, community participation, raising community awareness, involvement of leaders, and partnership building, and describes three key elements of mobilization success. PMID:21822627

  15. Back-calculation and projection of the HIV/AIDS epidemic among homosexual/ bisexual men in three European countries: evalution of past projections and updates allowing for treatment effects.

    PubMed

    Artzrouni, Marc

    2004-01-01

    This study critically evaluates the quality of 1990 back-calculations and long-term projections of the HIV/AIDS epidemic for homosexual/bisexual men in France, the Federal Republic of Germany, and the UK. The projection captured the general pattern observed in all three countries although the observed AIDS incidence peaked 2-3 years later and declined faster than had been projected. Total AIDS incidences from 1989 to 2000 were overestimated by 38.5% in France, and underestimated by 23.9 and 17.5% in western Germany and the UK. Updated back-calculations and projections to 2020 use AIDS incidence data up to 2000. The procedure incorporates an asymmetric long-tailed cumulative HIV curve as well as the increase in the median incubation period brought about by new therapies introduced during the 1990s. The results suggest that: (i) The rapid decrease in cases during the late 1990s was caused by a median incubation period that increased from 10 years to 21-23 years by the late 1990s. (ii) An imminent bottoming out followed by a protracted increase in AIDS cases from 2000 to at least 2010 could be the consequence of a leveling off of the median incubation period. (iii) A low variant of the projections shows that at least 40,000 homosexual men could develop AIDS in the three countries after 2000.

  16. Nourishing a partnership to improve middle school lunch options: a community-based participatory research project.

    PubMed

    Reich, Stephanie M; Kay, Joseph S; Lin, Grace C

    2015-01-01

    Community-based participatory research is predicated on building partnerships that tackle important issues to the community and effectively improve these issues. Community-based participatory research can also be an empowering experience, especially for children. This article describes a university-community partnership in which students at a low-income middle school worked to improve the quality of the cafeteria food provided to the 986 students eligible for free and reduced price lunches. The project led to menu changes, improved communication between youth, school administrators, and district staff, and enabled youth to enact school improvements that were beneficial for their health.

  17. Nourishing a partnership to improve middle school lunch options: a community-based participatory research project.

    PubMed

    Reich, Stephanie M; Kay, Joseph S; Lin, Grace C

    2015-01-01

    Community-based participatory research is predicated on building partnerships that tackle important issues to the community and effectively improve these issues. Community-based participatory research can also be an empowering experience, especially for children. This article describes a university-community partnership in which students at a low-income middle school worked to improve the quality of the cafeteria food provided to the 986 students eligible for free and reduced price lunches. The project led to menu changes, improved communication between youth, school administrators, and district staff, and enabled youth to enact school improvements that were beneficial for their health. PMID:25423246

  18. Teaching the Rhetoric of AIDS: Blurring the Boundaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himley, Margaret

    1999-01-01

    Describes an upper-division English course called "The Rhetoric of AIDS," focusing on learning to read the cultural discourses of science, medicine, government, public policy, sexuality, and social justice. Discusses classroom discussions, teaching collectives, collective educational projects for the rest of campus, and community-service projects,…

  19. African American community leaders' policy recommendations for reducing racial disparities in HIV infection, treatment and care: results from a community-based participatory research project in Philadelphia, PA

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Amy; Sanders, Julia; Carson, Lee; Thomas, Gladys; Cornwall, Alexandra; Towey, Caitlin; Lee, Hwajin; Tasco, Marian; Shabazz-El, Waheedah; Yolken, Annajane; Smith, Tyrone; Bell, Gary; Feller, Sophie; Smith, Erin; James, George; Dunston, Brenda Shelton; Green, Derek

    2015-01-01

    African Americans account for 45% of new HIV infections in the United States. Little empirical research investigates African American community leaders' normative recommendations for addressing these disparities. Philadelphia's HIV infection rate is five times the national average, nearly 70% of new infections are among African Americans, and 2% of African Americans in Philadelphia are living with HIV/AIDS. Using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach, we convened focus groups among 52 African American community leaders from diverse backgrounds to solicit normative recommendations for reducing Philadelphia's racial disparities in HIV infection. Leaders recommended: 1) Philadelphia's city government should raise awareness about HIV/AIDS with media campaigns featuring local leaders; 2) Local HIV prevention interventions should address social and structural factors influencing HIV risks rather than focus exclusively on mode of HIV transmission; 3) Resources should be distributed to the most heavily impacted neighborhoods of Philadelphia; and 4) Faith institutions should play a critical role in HIV testing, treatment and prevention efforts. We developed a policy memo highlighting these normative recommendations for how to enhance local HIV prevention policy. This policy memo led to Philadelphia City Council hearings about HIV/AIDS in October 2010 and subsequently informed local HIV/AIDS prevention policy and development of local HIV prevention interventions. This CBPR case study offers important lessons for effectively engaging community leaders in research to promote HIV/AIDS policy change. PMID:24879446

  20. Regional Community Wind Conferences, Great Plains Windustry Project

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, Lisa

    2013-02-28

    Windustry organized and produced five regional Community Wind Across America (CWAA) conferences in 2010 and 2011 and held two CWAA webinars in 2011 and 2012. The five conferences were offered in regions throughout the United States: Denver, Colorado October 2010 St. Paul, Minnesota November 2010 State College, Pennsylvania February 2011 Ludington, Michigan (co-located with the Michigan Energy Fair) June 2011 Albany, New York October 2011

  1. Universal Prevention Exposure as a Moderator of the Community Context: Findings from the PROSPER Project.

    PubMed

    Chilenski, Sarah M; Welsh, Janet A; Perkins, Daniel F; Feinberg, Mark E; Greenberg, Mark T

    2016-03-01

    This study examined how participation in a universal family skills-building program may interact with community risks and resources to produce youth outcomes. Prior research has noted community-level variability in risk and protective factors, but thus far no study has examined the role that participation on a community-wide intervention may play in moderating the effects of community risks or resources. The study included 14 communities (seven in Iowa, seven in Pennsylvania) that implemented a family focused evidence-based program as part of the PROSPER project. Community level variables included both risk factors (percent of low income families, the availability of alcohol and tobacco, norms regarding adolescent substance use, incidence of drug-related crimes) and community resources (proactive school leadership, availability of youth-serving organizations, and student involvement in youth activities). The proximal youth and family outcomes included youth perceptions of their parents' management skills, parent-child activities, and family cohesion. Results indicated that the Strengthening Families Program:10-14 may have moderated the impact of the community risks and resources on community-level youth outcomes; risk levels meaningfully associated with community-level change in program participants, though these results varied somewhat by outcome. Generally, higher levels of resources also meaningfully associated with more positive change after participating in the family-focused intervention. These results suggest that the effect of some evidence-based programs may be even stronger in some communities than others; more research in this area is needed.

  2. Universal Prevention Exposure as a Moderator of the Community Context: Findings from the PROSPER Project.

    PubMed

    Chilenski, Sarah M; Welsh, Janet A; Perkins, Daniel F; Feinberg, Mark E; Greenberg, Mark T

    2016-03-01

    This study examined how participation in a universal family skills-building program may interact with community risks and resources to produce youth outcomes. Prior research has noted community-level variability in risk and protective factors, but thus far no study has examined the role that participation on a community-wide intervention may play in moderating the effects of community risks or resources. The study included 14 communities (seven in Iowa, seven in Pennsylvania) that implemented a family focused evidence-based program as part of the PROSPER project. Community level variables included both risk factors (percent of low income families, the availability of alcohol and tobacco, norms regarding adolescent substance use, incidence of drug-related crimes) and community resources (proactive school leadership, availability of youth-serving organizations, and student involvement in youth activities). The proximal youth and family outcomes included youth perceptions of their parents' management skills, parent-child activities, and family cohesion. Results indicated that the Strengthening Families Program:10-14 may have moderated the impact of the community risks and resources on community-level youth outcomes; risk levels meaningfully associated with community-level change in program participants, though these results varied somewhat by outcome. Generally, higher levels of resources also meaningfully associated with more positive change after participating in the family-focused intervention. These results suggest that the effect of some evidence-based programs may be even stronger in some communities than others; more research in this area is needed. PMID:27217308

  3. Designing State Aid Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

  4. Community participation: so what? Evidence from a comparative study of two rural water supply and sanitation projects in India.

    PubMed

    Manikutty, S

    1997-06-01

    This comparative study on the two rural drinking water supply and sanitation projects in the state of Kerala, India, was conducted to determine the impact of community participation on the project outcomes. Both were piped water schemes delivered by the Kerala Water Authority (KWA); one had adopted community participation by the beneficiary community, the other contained no community participation component. Project 1 was served by the Dutch/Danish project and Project 2 was served by KWA alone. A total of 160 respondents were involved in the study, 80 individuals belonged to each project. Technological outcomes, particularly in terms of water quality, were found to be better in project 1 than in project 2. 40% of the people in Project 1 villages and 25% in Project 2 villages switched over completely to the "safe" water supply provided by the project. It was also found that the health habits of the beneficiaries in project 1 were far better compared to project 2, specifically in covering drinking water containers and use of latrines. In addition, there was more continued community involvement in project 1 than in project 2. Satisfaction-wise, the majority (75%) of respondents in project 1 areas claimed satisfaction with the project as compared to 30% of project 2 respondents.

  5. Bringing Community and Academic Scholars Together to Facilitate and Conduct Authentic Community Based Participatory Research: Project UNITED

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Dwight; Yerby, Lea; Tucker, Melanie; Foster, Pamela Payne; Hamilton, Kara C.; Fifolt, Matthew M.; Hites, Lisle; Shreves, Mary Katherine; Page, Susan B.; Bissell, Kimberly L.; Lucky, Felecia L.; Higginbotham, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Cultural competency, trust, and research literacy can affect the planning and implementation of sustainable community-based participatory research (CBPR). The purpose of this manuscript is to highlight: (1) the development of a CBPR pilot grant request for application; and (2) a comprehensive program supporting CBPR obesity-related grant proposals facilitated by activities designed to promote scholarly collaborations between academic researchers and the community. After a competitive application process, academic researchers and non-academic community leaders were selected to participate in activities where the final culminating project was the submission of a collaborative obesity-related CBPR grant application. Teams were comprised of a mix of academic researchers and non-academic community leaders, and each team submitted an application addressing obesity-disparities among rural predominantly African American communities in the US Deep South. Among four collaborative teams, three (75%) successfully submitted a grant application to fund an intervention addressing rural and minority obesity disparities. Among the three submitted grant applications, one was successfully funded by an internal CBPR grant, and another was funded by an institutional seed funding grant. Preliminary findings suggest that the collaborative activities were successful in developing productive scholarly relationships between researchers and community leaders. Future research will seek to understand the full-context of our findings. PMID:26703675

  6. Bringing Community and Academic Scholars Together to Facilitate and Conduct Authentic Community Based Participatory Research: Project UNITED.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Dwight; Yerby, Lea; Tucker, Melanie; Foster, Pamela Payne; Hamilton, Kara C; Fifolt, Matthew M; Hites, Lisle; Shreves, Mary Katherine; Page, Susan B; Bissell, Kimberly L; Lucky, Felecia L; Higginbotham, John C

    2016-01-01

    Cultural competency, trust, and research literacy can affect the planning and implementation of sustainable community-based participatory research (CBPR). The purpose of this manuscript is to highlight: (1) the development of a CBPR pilot grant request for application; and (2) a comprehensive program supporting CBPR obesity-related grant proposals facilitated by activities designed to promote scholarly collaborations between academic researchers and the community. After a competitive application process, academic researchers and non-academic community leaders were selected to participate in activities where the final culminating project was the submission of a collaborative obesity-related CBPR grant application. Teams were comprised of a mix of academic researchers and non-academic community leaders, and each team submitted an application addressing obesity-disparities among rural predominantly African American communities in the US Deep South. Among four collaborative teams, three (75%) successfully submitted a grant application to fund an intervention addressing rural and minority obesity disparities. Among the three submitted grant applications, one was successfully funded by an internal CBPR grant, and another was funded by an institutional seed funding grant. Preliminary findings suggest that the collaborative activities were successful in developing productive scholarly relationships between researchers and community leaders. Future research will seek to understand the full-context of our findings. PMID:26703675

  7. Alaska Native Community Energy Planning and Projects (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-06-01

    This fact sheet provides information on the Alaska Native villages selected to receive assistance from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy 2013 Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) Program, which provides technical expertise to support the development of next-generation energy projects on tribal lands.

  8. PREPARATION AIDS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF CATEGORY IV QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data collection activities performed for the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are divided into four categories, depending on the intended use of the data. uality Assurance (QA) Project Plans are written to ensure that projec...

  9. PREPARATION AIDS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF CATEGORY III QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data collection activities performed for the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are divided into four categories, depending on the intended use of the data. uality Assurance (QA) Project Plans are written to ensure that projec...

  10. Computer-Aided Systems Engineering for Flight Research Projects Using a Workgroup Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizukami, Masahi

    2004-01-01

    An online systems engineering tool for flight research projects has been developed through the use of a workgroup database. Capabilities are implemented for typical flight research systems engineering needs in document library, configuration control, hazard analysis, hardware database, requirements management, action item tracking, project team information, and technical performance metrics. Repetitive tasks are automated to reduce workload and errors. Current data and documents are instantly available online and can be worked on collaboratively. Existing forms and conventional processes are used, rather than inventing or changing processes to fit the tool. An integrated tool set offers advantages by automatically cross-referencing data, minimizing redundant data entry, and reducing the number of programs that must be learned. With a simplified approach, significant improvements are attained over existing capabilities for minimal cost. By using a workgroup-level database platform, personnel most directly involved in the project can develop, modify, and maintain the system, thereby saving time and money. As a pilot project, the system has been used to support an in-house flight experiment. Options are proposed for developing and deploying this type of tool on a more extensive basis.

  11. Interagency Partnerships in Aid-Recipient Countries: Lessons from an Aquaculture Project in Bangladesh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, David J.

    1998-01-01

    An action research investigation of an aquaculture project in Bangladesh resulted in a process model of interagency partnerships between nongovernmental organizations and government. Findings showed partnerships are diverse and highly vulnerable to external forces such as economics, politics, culture, and support of those in power. (SK)

  12. Making Sense of Knowledge Transfer and Social Capital Generation for a Pacific Island Aid Infrastructure Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manu, Christopher; Walker, Derek H. T.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to investigate how lessons learned from a case study of a construction project undertaken in the Pacific Islands relates to the interaction between social capital and knowledge transfer. The paper is reflective in nature focusing upon the experiences of one of the authors, being a Pacific Islander and…

  13. Community responses to government defunding of watershed projects: a comparative study in India and the USA.

    PubMed

    Koontz, Tomas M; Sen, Sucharita

    2013-03-01

    When central governments decentralize natural resource management (NRM), they often retain an interest in the local efforts and provide funding for them. Such outside investments can serve an important role in moving community-based efforts forward. At the same time, they can represent risks to the community if government resources are not stable over time. Our focus in this article is on the effects of withdrawal of government resources from community-based NRM. A critical question is how to build institutional capacity to carry on when the government funding runs out. This study compares institutional survival and coping strategies used by community-based project organizations in two different contexts, India and the United States. Despite higher links to livelihoods, community participation, and private benefits, efforts in the Indian cases exhibited lower survival rates than did those in the U.S. cases. Successful coping strategies in the U.S. context often involved tapping into existing institutions and resources. In the Indian context, successful coping strategies often involved building broad community support for the projects and creatively finding additional funding sources. On the other hand, the lack of local community interest, due to the top-down development approach and sometimes narrow benefit distribution, often challenged organizational survival and project maintenance.

  14. Decreased smoking disparities among Vietnamese and Cambodian communities - Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) project, 2002-2006.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hong; Tsoh, Janice Y; Grigg-Saito, Dorcas; Tucker, Pattie; Liao, Youlian

    2014-04-18

    Since 1964, smoking prevalence in the United States has declined because of nationwide intervention efforts. However, smoking interventions have not been implemented uniformly throughout all communities. Some of the highest smoking rates in the United States have been reported among Southeast Asian men, and socioeconomic status has been strongly associated with smoking. To compare the effect in reducing racial and ethnic disparities between men in Southeast Asian (Vietnamese and Cambodian) communities and men residing in the same states, CDC analyzed 2002-2006 data from The Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) project. The prevalence of current smoking significantly decreased and the quit ratio (percentage of ever smokers who have quit) significantly increased in REACH Vietnamese and Cambodian communities, but changes were minimal among all men in California or all men in Massachusetts (where these communities were located). The smoking rate also declined significantly, and the quit ratio showed an upward trend in U.S. men overall; however, the changes were significantly greater in REACH communities than in the nation. Stratified analyses showed decreasing trends of smoking and increasing trends of quit ratio in persons of both high and low education levels in Vietnamese REACH communities. The relative disparities in the prevalence of smoking and in the quit ratio decreased or were eliminated between less educated Vietnamese and less educated California men and between Cambodian and Massachusetts men regardless of education level. Eliminating health disparities related to tobacco use is a major public health challenge facing Asian communities. The decline in smoking prevalence at the population level in the three REACH Vietnamese and Cambodian communities as described in this report might serve as a model for promising interventions in these populations. The results highlight the potential effectiveness of community-level interventions, such as

  15. A Neglected Dimension in Service-Learning Pedagogy: Developing Projects from the Perspective of Rural Community Stakeholders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toledano, Lemuel Sollano; Lapinid, Minie Rose C.

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that a commonly neglected dimension in service-learning pedagogy is the consideration of community perspectives in developing these service-learning projects. Areas considered in this study were: (1) Community members' needs and problems, (2) Community members' perceived roles and participation, and (3) Community members'…

  16. The Community Pulling Together: A Tribal Community-University Partnership Project to Reduce Substance Abuse and Promote Good Health in a Reservation Tribal Community

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Lisa R.; Donovan, Dennis M.; Sigo, Robin LW.; Austin, Lisette; Marlatt, G. Alan

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol and drug abuse are major areas of concern for many American Indian/Alaska Native communities. Research on these problems has often been less than successful, in part because many researchers are not sensitive to the culture and traditions of the tribes and communities with which they are working. They also often fail to incorporate tribal customs, traditions, and values into the interventions developed to deal with substance abuse. We describe the use of Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) and Tribal Participatory Research (TPR) approaches to develop a culturally sensitive substance abuse prevention program for Native youth. This project, The Community Pulling Together: Healing of the Canoe, is a collaboration between the Suquamish Tribe and the Alcohol and Drug Abuse Institute at the University of Washington. PMID:20157631

  17. Stable isotope aided evaluation of community nutrition program: effect of food supplementation schemes on maternal and infant nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Cissé, Aïta Sarr; Dossou, Nicole; Ndiaye, Mamadou; Guèye, Amadou Lamine; Diop, El Hadji Issakha; Diaham, Babou; Guiro, Amadou Tidiane; Cissé, Djibril; Sarr, Cheikh Saad Bouh; Wade, Salimata

    2002-09-01

    The supplementation program of the community nutrition project (PNC) launched by the Senegalese Government in order to protect the most vulnerable groups (children and women) was evaluated. Using a stable isotope (deuterium), we assessed the effect of the PNC on breastmilk output, mother's body composition, and baby's growth at three months of lactation. Breastmilk triglycerides, lactose, protein, and zinc were also determined. Mothers who were supplemented more than 60 days during pregnancy showed a significant increase in fat-free mass as compared to those who were supplemented for less than 30 days (p = .03). Breastmilk output was not influenced by the supplementation, but breastmilk lactose, total protein, and zinc contents increased significantly (p < .01) in the supplemented mothers. Growth of the babies of the supplemented mothers was better than that of those whose mothers were not supplemented. It was concluded that the food supplementation had beneficial effects on both mothers' and babies' nutritional status depending on the onset of the supplementation.

  18. Diabetes education project: community networking in rural Utah.

    PubMed

    DeBry, S M; Smith, A; Wittenberg, M; Mortensen, V

    1996-01-01

    People in rural areas often lack the financial resources, workforce, and professional network needed to sustain a diabetes education pro gram in their own community. HealthInsight, a nonprofit organization that works to improve the quality of health care in its community, developed a 2-day seminar in an effort to facilitate the networking of rural health professionals who educate patients with diabetes and to help those educators better learn how to use existing resources. Participants included nurses, dietitians, diabetes educators, quality managers, and education directors from hospitals and home health agencies in both rural and metropolitan areas. Speakers presented information on a variety of topics related to program development, and a resource manual containing numerous materials was given to each participant. At the end of the seminar, the group turned in goals for their own programs. Too often, providers of health care compete rather than collaborate with one another. There is a great need for such networking opportunities among health care professionals working on common goals--especially in rural areas.

  19. Community participation in primary health care projects of the Muldersdrift Health and Development Programme.

    PubMed

    Barker, M; Klopper, H

    2007-06-01

    After numerous teething problems (1974-1994), the Department of Nursing Education of WITS University took responsibility for the Muldersdrift Health and Development Programme (MHDP). The nursing science students explored and implemented an empowerment approach to community participation. The students worked with MHDP health workers to improve health through community participation, in combination with primary health care (PHC) activities and the involvement of a variety of community groups. As the PHC projects evolved over time, the need arose to evaluate the level of community participation and how much community ownership was present over decision-making and resources. This led to the question "What was the level of community participation in PHC projects of the MHDP?" Based on the question the following objectives were set, i.e. (i) to evaluate the community participation in PHC initiatives; (ii) to provide the project partners with motivational affirmation on the level of community participation criteria thus far achieved; (iii) to indicate to participants the mechanisms that should still be implemented if they wanted to advance to higher levels of community participation; (iv) to evaluate the MHDP's implementation of a people-centred approach to community participation in PHC; and (v) the evaluation of the level of community participation in PHC projects in the MHDP. An evaluative, descriptive, contextual and quantitative research design was used. Ethical standards were adhered to throughout the study. The MHDP had a study population of twenty-three (N=23) PHC projects. A purposive sample of seven PHC initiatives was chosen according to specific selection criteria and evaluated according to the "Criteria to evaluate community participation in PHC projects" instrument (a quantitative tool). Structured group interviews were done with PHC projects' executive committee members. The Joint Management Committee's data was collected through mailed self

  20. The School-Community Cookbook: Recipes for Successful Projects in the Schools. A "How-To" Manual for Teachers, Parents & Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyman, Carl S., Ed.

    Guidelines and ideas for creating successful school/community projects are provided in this handbook. Organized like a cookbook, the book contains 43 chapters by individual contributors who take a community-based approach to education, in which the schools are the pivotal institutions of a community. The first section outlines the roles, or "main…

  1. Combining Dedicated Online Training and Apprenticeships in the Field to Assist in Professionalization of Humanitarian Aid Workers: a 2-year Pilot Project for Anesthesia and Intensive Care Residents Working in Resource Constrained and Low-income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Foletti, Marco; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi; Ragazzoni, Luca; Djalali, Ahmadreza; Ripoll Gallardo, Alba; Burkle, Frederick M.; Della Corte, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: As a result of the gaps in humanitarian response highlighted by several reports, the international community called for an increased professionalization of humanitarian aid workers. This paper describes a pilot project by an Italian university and a non-profit, non-governmental organization to implement a medical apprenticeship in low-income countries during Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine residencies. Methods: Before deployment, participants were required to complete a dedicated online training course about safety and security in the field, principles of anesthesia at the district hospital level, emergency and essential surgical care, essentials of medical treatment in resource-constrained environments and psychological support in emergencies. Results: At the end of the program, a qualitative self-evaluation questionnaire administered to participants highlighted how the project allowed the participants to advance their professional skills when working in a low-resource environment, while also mastering their adapting skills and the ability to interact and cooperate with local healthcare personnel. The project also proved to be a means for personal growth, making these experiences a recommendation for all residents as a necessary step for the professionalization of healthcare personnel involved in humanitarian aid. PMID:25642362

  2. Community Renewable Energy Deployment Provides Replicable Examples of Clean Energy Projects (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    This fact sheet describes the U.S. Department of Energy's Community Renewable Energy Deployment (CommRE) program, which is a more than $20 million effort funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, to promote investment in clean energy solutions and provide real-life examples for other local governments, campuses, and small utilities to replicate. Five community-based renewable energy projects received funding from DOE through the CommRE and their progress is detailed.

  3. A Renewably Powered Hydrogen Generation and Fueling Station Community Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Valerie J.; Sekura, Linda S.; Prokopius, Paul; Theirl, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The proposed project goal is to encourage the use of renewable energy and clean fuel technologies for transportation and other applications while generating economic development. This can be done by creating an incubator for collaborators, and creating a manufacturing hub for the energy economy of the future by training both white- and blue-collar workers for the new energy economy. Hydrogen electrolyzer fueling stations could be mass-produced, shipped and installed in collaboration with renewable energy power stations, or installed connected to the grid with renewable power added later.

  4. Digital breast tomosynthesis: computer-aided detection of clustered microcalcifications on planar projection images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samala, Ravi K.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Lu, Yao; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Wei, Jun; Helvie, Mark A.

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes a new approach to detect microcalcification clusters (MCs) in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) via its planar projection (PPJ) image. With IRB approval, two-view (cranio-caudal and mediolateral oblique views) DBTs of human subject breasts were obtained with a GE GEN2 prototype DBT system that acquires 21 projection angles spanning 60° in 3° increments. A data set of 307 volumes (154 human subjects) was divided by case into independent training (127 with MCs) and test sets (104 with MCs and 76 free of MCs). A simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique with multiscale bilateral filtering (MSBF) regularization was used to enhance microcalcifications and suppress noise. During the MSBF regularized reconstruction, the DBT volume was separated into high frequency (HF) and low frequency components representing microcalcifications and larger structures. At the final iteration, maximum intensity projection was applied to the regularized HF volume to generate a PPJ image that contained MCs with increased contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and reduced search space. High CNR objects in the PPJ image were extracted and labeled as microcalcification candidates. Convolution neural network trained to recognize the image pattern of microcalcifications was used to classify the candidates into true calcifications and tissue structures and artifacts. The remaining microcalcification candidates were grouped into MCs by dynamic conditional clustering based on adaptive CNR threshold and radial distance criteria. False positive (FP) clusters were further reduced using the number of candidates in a cluster, CNR and size of microcalcification candidates. At 85% sensitivity an FP rate of 0.71 and 0.54 was achieved for view- and case-based sensitivity, respectively, compared to 2.16 and 0.85 achieved in DBT. The improvement was significant (p-value = 0.003) by JAFROC analysis.

  5. Digital breast tomosynthesis: computer-aided detection of clustered microcalcifications on planar projection images.

    PubMed

    Samala, Ravi K; Chan, Heang-Ping; Lu, Yao; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M; Wei, Jun; Helvie, Mark A

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes a new approach to detect microcalcification clusters (MCs) in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) via its planar projection (PPJ) image. With IRB approval, two-view (cranio-caudal and mediolateral oblique views) DBTs of human subject breasts were obtained with a GE GEN2 prototype DBT system that acquires 21 projection angles spanning 60° in 3° increments. A data set of 307 volumes (154 human subjects) was divided by case into independent training (127 with MCs) and test sets (104 with MCs and 76 free of MCs). A simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique with multiscale bilateral filtering (MSBF) regularization was used to enhance microcalcifications and suppress noise. During the MSBF regularized reconstruction, the DBT volume was separated into high frequency (HF) and low frequency components representing microcalcifications and larger structures. At the final iteration, maximum intensity projection was applied to the regularized HF volume to generate a PPJ image that contained MCs with increased contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and reduced search space. High CNR objects in the PPJ image were extracted and labeled as microcalcification candidates. Convolution neural network trained to recognize the image pattern of microcalcifications was used to classify the candidates into true calcifications and tissue structures and artifacts. The remaining microcalcification candidates were grouped into MCs by dynamic conditional clustering based on adaptive CNR threshold and radial distance criteria. False positive (FP) clusters were further reduced using the number of candidates in a cluster, CNR and size of microcalcification candidates. At 85% sensitivity an FP rate of 0.71 and 0.54 was achieved for view- and case-based sensitivity, respectively, compared to 2.16 and 0.85 achieved in DBT. The improvement was significant (p-value = 0.003) by JAFROC analysis. PMID:25393654

  6. Digital breast tomosynthesis: Computer-aided detection of clustered microcalcifications on planar projection images

    PubMed Central

    Samala, Ravi K; Chan, Heang-Ping; Lu, Yao; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M; Wei, Jun; Helvie, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach to detection of microcalcification clusters (MCs) in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) via its planar projection (PPJ) image. With IRB approval, two-view (cranio-caudal and mediolateral oblique views) DBTs of human subject breasts were obtained with a GE GEN2 prototype DBT system that acquires 21 projection angles spanning 600 in 30 increments. A data set of 307 volumes (154 human subjects) was divided by case into independent training (127 with MCs) and test sets (104 with MCs and 76 free of MCs). Simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique with multiscale bilateral filtering (MSBF) regularization was used to enhance microcalcifications and suppress noise. During the MSBF regularized reconstruction, the DBT volume was separated into high frequency (HF) and low frequency components representing microcalcifications and larger structures. At the final iteration, maximum intensity projection was applied to the regularized HF volume to generate a PPJ image that contained MCs with increased contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and reduced search space. High CNR objects in the PPJ image were extracted and labeled as microcalcification candidates. Convolution neural network (CNN) trained to recognize the image pattern of microcalcifications was used to classify the candidates into true calcifications and tissue structures and artifacts. The remaining microcalcification candidates were grouped into MCs by dynamic conditional clustering based on adaptive CNR threshold and radial distance criteria. False positive (FP) clusters were further reduced using the number of candidates in a cluster, CNR and size of microcalcification candidates. At 85% sensitivity an FP rate of 0.71 and 0.54 was achieved for view- and case-based sensitivity, respectively, compared to 2.16 and 0.85 achieved in DBT. The improvement was significant (p-value = 0.003) by JAFROC analysis. PMID:25393654

  7. University-community partnerships for health: a model interdisciplinary service-learning project.

    PubMed

    Rudmann, S V; Ward, K M; Varekojis, S M

    1999-01-01

    This project is an example of a successful service-learning experiment at a major university. The program was successful in providing service-learning experiences for an interdisciplinary group of health-professions students, delivering essential health services to a community at risk, providing health-risk and demographic data, and offering opportunities for scholarly productivity for faculty. This was accomplished with a modest investment of internal start-up funding. Goals of the project were achieved, and the program and course were viewed as successful by students, faculty, and community partners.

  8. Advantages and disadvantages for receiving Internet-based HIV/AIDS interventions at home or at community-based organizations.

    PubMed

    Green, Shana M; Lockhart, Elizabeth; Marhefka, Stephanie L

    2015-01-01

    Within recent years, public health interventions have become technology based to reflect the digital age we currently live in and appeal to the public in innovative and novel ways. The Internet breaks down boundaries distance imposes and increases our ability to reach and connect with people. Internet-based interventions have the potential to expand access to effective behavioral interventions (EBIs). The US National HIV/AIDS Strategy states that people living with HIV should have access to EBIs such as healthy relationships (HR) to help them develop safe sex and disclosure skills. However, access to HR is limited across the country, especially for people in remote or rural areas. Internet-based healthy relationships video groups (HR-VG) delivered at home or community-based organizations (CBOs) can possibly expand access. This study assesses the preferences of women living with HIV (WLH) for participation in HR-VG among 21 WLH who participated in a randomized control trial (RCT) testing HR-VG and completed open-ended semi-structured telephone interviews. Transcripts were thematically analyzed to determine advantages and disadvantages of home or CBO delivery of HR-VG. Themes relating to convenience, technology access, privacy, distractions, HIV serostatus disclosure, and social opportunities were identified as advantages or disadvantages to participating in HR-VG at each location. Overall, privacy was the most salient concern of accessing HR-VG at home or at a CBO. Considering the concerns expressed by WLH, further studies are needed to assess how an Internet-based intervention delivered at home for WLH can maintain privacy while being cost effective. PMID:26357907

  9. Advantages and Disadvantages for Receiving Internet-Based HIV/AIDS Interventions at Home or at Community Based Organization

    PubMed Central

    Green, Shana M.; Lockhart, Elizabeth; Marhefka, Stephanie L.

    2015-01-01

    Within recent years public health interventions have become technologically based to reflect the digital age we currently live in and appeal to the public in innovative and novel ways. The Internet breaks down boundaries distance imposes and increases our ability to reach and connect with people. Internet-based interventions have the potential to expand access to effective behavioral interventions. The US National HIV/AIDS Strategy states that people living with HIV should have access to effective behavioral interventions like Healthy Relationships (HR) to help them develop safe sex and disclosure skills. However, access to HR is limited across the country, especially for people in remote or rural areas. Internet-based Healthy Relationships Video Groups (HR-VG) delivered at home or community based organizations (CBOs) can possibly expand access. This study assesses the preferences of women living with HIV (WLH) for participation in HR-VG among 21 WLH who participated in a randomized control trial (RCT) testing HR-VG and completed open-ended semi-structured telephone interviews. Transcripts were thematically analyzed to determine advantages, disadvantages and overall preference for home or agency delivery of HR-VG. Themes relating to convenience, technology access, privacy, distractions, HIV serostatus disclosure and social opportunities were identified as advantages or disadvantages to participating in HR-VG at each location. Overall privacy was the most salient concern of accessing HR-VG at home or at a CBO. Considering the concerns expressed by WLH, further studies are needed to assess how an Internet-based intervention delivered at home for WLH can maintain privacy while being cost effective. PMID:26357907

  10. Advantages and disadvantages for receiving Internet-based HIV/AIDS interventions at home or at community-based organizations.

    PubMed

    Green, Shana M; Lockhart, Elizabeth; Marhefka, Stephanie L

    2015-01-01

    Within recent years, public health interventions have become technology based to reflect the digital age we currently live in and appeal to the public in innovative and novel ways. The Internet breaks down boundaries distance imposes and increases our ability to reach and connect with people. Internet-based interventions have the potential to expand access to effective behavioral interventions (EBIs). The US National HIV/AIDS Strategy states that people living with HIV should have access to EBIs such as healthy relationships (HR) to help them develop safe sex and disclosure skills. However, access to HR is limited across the country, especially for people in remote or rural areas. Internet-based healthy relationships video groups (HR-VG) delivered at home or community-based organizations (CBOs) can possibly expand access. This study assesses the preferences of women living with HIV (WLH) for participation in HR-VG among 21 WLH who participated in a randomized control trial (RCT) testing HR-VG and completed open-ended semi-structured telephone interviews. Transcripts were thematically analyzed to determine advantages and disadvantages of home or CBO delivery of HR-VG. Themes relating to convenience, technology access, privacy, distractions, HIV serostatus disclosure, and social opportunities were identified as advantages or disadvantages to participating in HR-VG at each location. Overall, privacy was the most salient concern of accessing HR-VG at home or at a CBO. Considering the concerns expressed by WLH, further studies are needed to assess how an Internet-based intervention delivered at home for WLH can maintain privacy while being cost effective.

  11. Economic evaluation in primary health care: the case of Western Kenya community based health care project.

    PubMed

    Wang'ombe, J K

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and presents preliminary results of an economic appraisal of a community based health care project in Kenya. Community health workers, trained for 12 weeks and deployed in two locations in Kenya's Western Province, act as first contact providers of basic health care and promoters of selected health, sanitation and nutrition practices. A Cost Benefit Analysis has been undertaken using the Willingness to Pay approach to compare the costs of the project and its benefits. The benefits are in the form of more easily accessible basic health care and are measured as consumer surplus accruing to the community. Gain in consumer surplus is consequent on the fall of average user costs and rise in utilisation of the project established points of first contact with primary health care. The argument for the economic viability of the project is validated by the large Net Present Value and Benefit Cost Ratio obtained for the whole of the project area and for the two locations separately. Although the evaluation technique used faces the problem of valuation of community time, aggregation of health care services at all points of first contact and the partial nature of cost benefit analysis evaluations, the results are strongly in favour of decentralisation of primary health care on similar lines in the rest of the country. PMID:6427933

  12. Confronting AIDS.

    PubMed

    Squire, L

    1998-03-01

    By 2020, HIV/AIDS will be the leading infectious killer of young and middle-aged adults in the developing world. Past gains in life expectancy are already being eroded in some countries. Millions of lives can, however, be saved if developing country governments, the international community, and nongovernmental organizations act now. Although more than 11 million people have already died of AIDS, 2.3 billion people live in developing countries in which the disease has not yet spread beyond certain risk groups. If the spread of HIV is checked, the quality of care available to people who are infected with HIV will probably be better than it would be in the context of a full-blown AIDS epidemic. However, while governments need to respond urgently to HIV/AIDS, using resources to help people with AIDS will reduce the resources available for other investments, such as child education, providing safe drinking water, and building roads. Economics can help governments set priorities as they decide how best to allocate their available resources. Externalities, public goods, and redistribution are discussed. All countries will need to use some combination of preventive and coping measures. PMID:12293445

  13. Rural Community College Initiative IV: Capacity for Leading Institutional and Community Change. AACC Project Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eller, Ronald; Martinez, Ruben; Pace, Cynthia; Pavel, Michael; Barnett, Lynn

    This brief reports on the Ford Foundation's establishment of the Rural Community College Initiative (RCCI) for selected institutions in economically distressed areas of the Southeast, Deep South, Southwest, Appalachia, and western Indian reservations. This is the fourth report in a series by the RCCI Documentation Team. The RCCI program challenges…

  14. Soliciting views of various communities on health research: a prelude to engagement in specific research projects

    PubMed Central

    Taras, Howard L.; Kalichman, Michael W.; Schulteis, Gery; Dumbauld, Jill; Bell, Yvonne; Seligman, Fe Fidelis; West, Kathy D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Members of the public are increasingly engaged in health-service and biomedical research and provide input into the content of research, design and data sharing. As there is variation among different communities on how research is perceived, to engage all sectors of the general public research institutions need to customize their approach. Objective This paper explores how research institutions and community leaders can partner to determine the best ways to engage different sectors of the public in research. Design Following a literature review, a research institution engaged with four different sectors of the public through their respective representative community-based organizations (CBOs) by interviews with leaders, community member focus groups and a joint project. Setting San Diego and Imperial Counties, California, United States of America (USA). Conclusion Before embarking on more specific research projects, investigators can gain valuable insights about different communities’ attitudes to, and understanding of, health services and biomedical research by interacting directly with members of the community, collaborating with community leaders, and jointly identifying steps of engagement tailored to the community. PMID:25103450

  15. The Correlation between Visual-Haptic Perceptual Style and Student Ability To Solve Orthographic Projection Problems in a Beginning College Drafting Course Incorporating Computer Aided Drafting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, David A.

    A study determined the effectiveness of computer-aided drafting (CAD) and standard drafting instruction on the ability of students with differing visual-haptic perceptual styles to solve orthographic projection problems. A 2x2x2 factorial design was chosen to compare two levels of perceptual style with two levels of treatment and two levels of…

  16. Active Learning in a Large First Year Biology Class: A Collaborative Resource-Based Study Project on "AIDS in Science and Society".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutcliffe, Roger G.; Cogdell, Barbara; Hansell, Mike H.; McAteer, Erica

    1999-01-01

    Describes a student-directed learning program called "AIDS in Science and Society" that was developed as a resource-based, collaborative project at the University of Glasgow (United Kingdom) for a first-year biology class. Discusses materials, written assignments, oral presentations, and feedback from students and faculty, and includes a list of…

  17. The Tuskegee Syphilis Study, 1932 to 1972: Implications for HIV Education and AIDS Risk Education Programs in the Black Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Stephen B.; Quinn, Sandra Crouse

    1991-01-01

    The Tuskegee study of untreated syphilis in black males caused distrust by blacks of the public health system that has implications for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) studies. AIDS prevention among blacks may require openness about the Tuskegee study to allay fears of repetition. (SLD)

  18. Projected range contractions of European protected oceanic montane plant communities: focus on climate change impacts is essential for their future conservation.

    PubMed

    Hodd, Rory L; Bourke, David; Skeffington, Micheline Sheehy

    2014-01-01

    Global climate is rapidly changing and while many studies have investigated the potential impacts of this on the distribution of montane plant species and communities, few have focused on those with oceanic montane affinities. In Europe, highly sensitive bryophyte species reach their optimum occurrence, highest diversity and abundance in the north-west hyperoceanic regions, while a number of montane vascular plant species occur here at the edge of their range. This study evaluates the potential impact of climate change on the distribution of these species and assesses the implications for EU Habitats Directive-protected oceanic montane plant communities. We applied an ensemble of species distribution modelling techniques, using atlas data of 30 vascular plant and bryophyte species, to calculate range changes under projected future climate change. The future effectiveness of the protected area network to conserve these species was evaluated using gap analysis. We found that the majority of these montane species are projected to lose suitable climate space, primarily at lower altitudes, or that areas of suitable climate will principally shift northwards. In particular, rare oceanic montane bryophytes have poor dispersal capacity and are likely to be especially vulnerable to contractions in their current climate space. Significantly different projected range change responses were found between 1) oceanic montane bryophytes and vascular plants; 2) species belonging to different montane plant communities; 3) species categorised according to different biomes and eastern limit classifications. The inclusion of topographical variables in addition to climate, significantly improved the statistical and spatial performance of models. The current protected area network is projected to become less effective, especially for specialised arctic-montane species, posing a challenge to conserving oceanic montane plant communities. Conservation management plans need significantly

  19. Projected range contractions of European protected oceanic montane plant communities: focus on climate change impacts is essential for their future conservation.

    PubMed

    Hodd, Rory L; Bourke, David; Skeffington, Micheline Sheehy

    2014-01-01

    Global climate is rapidly changing and while many studies have investigated the potential impacts of this on the distribution of montane plant species and communities, few have focused on those with oceanic montane affinities. In Europe, highly sensitive bryophyte species reach their optimum occurrence, highest diversity and abundance in the north-west hyperoceanic regions, while a number of montane vascular plant species occur here at the edge of their range. This study evaluates the potential impact of climate change on the distribution of these species and assesses the implications for EU Habitats Directive-protected oceanic montane plant communities. We applied an ensemble of species distribution modelling techniques, using atlas data of 30 vascular plant and bryophyte species, to calculate range changes under projected future climate change. The future effectiveness of the protected area network to conserve these species was evaluated using gap analysis. We found that the majority of these montane species are projected to lose suitable climate space, primarily at lower altitudes, or that areas of suitable climate will principally shift northwards. In particular, rare oceanic montane bryophytes have poor dispersal capacity and are likely to be especially vulnerable to contractions in their current climate space. Significantly different projected range change responses were found between 1) oceanic montane bryophytes and vascular plants; 2) species belonging to different montane plant communities; 3) species categorised according to different biomes and eastern limit classifications. The inclusion of topographical variables in addition to climate, significantly improved the statistical and spatial performance of models. The current protected area network is projected to become less effective, especially for specialised arctic-montane species, posing a challenge to conserving oceanic montane plant communities. Conservation management plans need significantly

  20. Earth Observation in aid of surge monitoring and forecasting: ESA's eSurge Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwood, Phillip; Cipollini, Paolo; Snaith, Helen; Høyer, Jacob; Dwyer, Ned; Dunne, Declan; Stoffelen, Ad; Donlon, Craig

    2013-04-01

    The understanding and realistic modelling of surges supports both preparation and mitigation activities and should eventually bring enormous societal benefits, especially to some of the world's poorest countries. Earth Observation data from satellites have an important role to play in storm surge monitoring and forecasting, but the full uptake of these data by the users (such as environmental agencies and tidal prediction centres) must be first encouraged by showcasing their usefulness, and then supported by providing easy access. The European Space Agency has recognized the above needs and, through its Data User Element (DUE) programme, has initiated in 2011 the eSurge project, whose aims are: a) to contribute through Earth Observation to an integrated approach to storm surge, wave, sea-level and flood forecasting as part of a wider optimal strategy for building an improved forecast and warning capability for coastal inundation; and b) to increase the use of the advanced capabilities of ESA and other satellite data for storm surge applications. The project is led by Logica UK, with NOC (UK), DMI (Denmark), CMRC (Ireland) and KNMI (Netherlands) as scientific partners. eSurge aims to provide easy access to a wide range of relevant data for a range of historical surge events, as well as performing a series of experiments to demonstrate the value of this data, and running workshops and training courses to help users make use of the available data. The eSurge database of Earth Observation and in situ measurements for past surge events is now publicly available. In 2013 the project moves into its service demonstration phase, adding more data and events, including a demonstration near real time service. The project works closely with its users in order to meet their needs and to maximise the return of this data. A novel dataset provided by eSurge is coastal altimetry. Coastal altimetry has a prominent role to play as it measures directly the total water level envelope