Paquette, Max R; Peel, Shelby A; Schilling, Brian K; Melcher, Dan A; Bloomer, Richard J
Runners often experience delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), especially of the knee extensors, following prolonged running. Sagittal knee joint biomechanics are altered in the presence of knee extensor DOMS but it is unclear how muscle soreness affects lower limb biomechanics in other planes of motion. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of knee extensor DOMS on three-dimensional (3D) lower limb biomechanics during running. Thirty-three healthy men (25.8 ± 6.8 years; 84.1 ± 9.2 kg; 1.77 ± 0.07 m) completed an isolated eccentric knee extensor damaging protocol to elicit DOMS. Biomechanics of over-ground running at a set speed of 3.35 m s(-1)±5% were measured before eccentric exercise (baseline) and, 24 h and 48 h following exercise in the presence of knee extensor DOMS. Knee flexion ROM was reduced at 48 h (P = 0.01; d = 0.26), and peak knee extensor moment was reduced at 24 h (P = 0.001; d = 0.49) and 48 h (P < 0.001; d = 0.68) compared to baseline. Frontal and transverse plane biomechanics were unaffected by the presence of DOMS (P > 0.05). Peak positive ankle and knee joint powers and, peak negative knee joint power were all reduced from baseline to 24 h and 48 h (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that knee extensor DOMS greatly influences sagittal knee joint angular kinetics and, reduces sagittal power production at the ankle joint. However, knee extensor DOMS does not affect frontal and transverse plane lower limb joint biomechanics during running.
Kim, Do Kyung; Hwang, Ji Hye; Park, Won Hah
[Purpose] After an anterior cruciate ligament injury and subsequent reconstruction, quadriceps muscle weakness and disruption of proprioceptive function are common. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 4 weeks preoperative exercise intervention on knee strength power and function post-surgery. [Subjects and Methods] Eighty male patients (27.8±5.7 age), scheduled for reconstruction surgery, were randomly assigned to two groups, the preoperative exercise group (n=40) and a no preoperative exercise group (n=40). The preoperative exercise group participated in a 4-week preoperative and 12-week post-operative programs, while the no preoperative exercise group participated only in the 12-week postoperative exercise program. Isokinetic measured of quadriceps strength were obtained at 4 weeks before and 3 months after surgery. [Results] The knee extensor strength deficits measured at 60°/s and 180°/s was significantly lower in the preoperative exercise group compared with the no preoperative exercise group. At 3 months after surgery, the extensor strength deficit was 28.5±9.0% at 60°/sec and 23.3±9.0% at 180°/sec in the preoperative exercise group, whereas the no preoperative exercise group showed extensor strength deficits of 36.5±10.7% and 27.9±12.6% at 60°/sec and 180°/sec, respectively. The preoperative exercise group demonstrated significant improvement the single-leg hop distance. [Conclusion] Four week preoperative exercise may produce many positive effects post reconstruction surgery, including faster recovery of knee extensor strength and function, as measured by single-leg hop ability. PMID:26504270
Ferguson, R A; Krustrup, P; Kjaer, M; Mohr, M; Ball, D; Bangsbo, J
The present study examined the effect of elevated temperature on muscle energy turnover during dynamic exercise. Nine male subjects performed 10 min of dynamic knee-extensor exercise at an intensity of 43 W (SD 10) and a frequency of 60 contractions per minute. Exercise was performed under normal (C) and elevated muscle temperature (HT) through passive heating. Thigh oxygen uptake (V(O2)) was determined from measurements of thigh blood flow and femoral arterial-venous differences for oxygen content. Anaerobic energy turnover was estimated from measurements of lactate release as well as muscle lactate accumulation and phosphocreatine utilization based on analysis of muscle biopsies obtained before and after each exercise. At the start of exercise, muscle temperature was 34.5 degrees C (SD 1.7) in C compared with 37.2 degrees C (SD 0.5) during HT (P < 0.05). Thigh V(O2) after 3 min was 0.52 l/min (SD 0.11) in C and 0.63 l/min (SD 0.13) in HT, and at the end of exercise it was 0.60 l/min (SD 0.14) and 0.61 l/min (SD 0.10) in C and HT, respectively (not significant). Total lactate release was the same between the two temperature conditions, as was muscle lactate accumulation and PCr utilization. Total ATP production (aerobic + anaerobic) was the same between each temperature condition [505.0 mmol/kg (SD 107.2) vs. 527.1 mmol/kg (SD 117.6); C and HT, respectively]. In conclusion, within the range of temperatures studied, passively increasing muscle temperature before exercise has no effect on muscle energy turnover during dynamic exercise.
Saka, Tolga; Akova, Bedrettin; Yazici, Zeynep; Sekir, Ufuk; Gür, Hakan; Ozarda, Yesim
The aim of this study was to investigate the difference in the magnitude of muscle damage between maximal eccentric exercises of the elbow flexors (EF) and knee extensors (KE). Twelve sedentary male volunteers participated in the study. Range of motion (ROM), isometric peak torque (IPT), delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS), creatine kinase activity (CK), and myoglobin concentration (Mb) were evaluated before, immediately after, and on the 1st , 2nd, 3rd , and 7th days following exercise. Total work (TW) during exercises was recorded and corrected by muscle volume (TWc). TWc was greater (p < 0.01) for EF [24 (2) joule·cm-3] than for KE [7 (0.4) joule·cm-3]. Increases in CK on the 2nd , 3rd , and 7th days (p < 0.01) and increases in Mb on the 1st , 2nd , 3rd , and 7th days were significantly (p<0.01) larger for EF than for KE. The decline in IPT was greater (p < 0.05- 0.01) for EF at all test occasions compared with KE. The results of this study demonstrate that the magnitude of muscle damage is greater and the recovery is slower following maximal eccentric exercise of the EF than of the KE for sedentary males. Key points The magnitude of muscle damage is greater and the recovery is slower following maximal eccentric exercise of the EF than of the KE for sedentary males. This may be because of the higher total eccentric work per muscle unit in elbow flexors. PMID:24150563
Krustrup, Peter; Söderlund, Karin; Mohr, Magni; González-Alonso, José; Bangsbo, Jens
To investigate recruitment of slow-twitch (ST) and fast-twitch (FT) muscle fibres, as well as the involvement of the various quadriceps femoris muscle portions during repeated, intense, one-legged knee-extensor exercise, 12 healthy male subjects performed two 3-min exercise bouts at approximately 110% maximum thigh O2 consumption (EX1 and EX2) separated by 6 min rest. Single-fibre metabolites were determined in successive muscle biopsies obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle (n = 6) and intra-muscular temperatures were continuously measured at six quadriceps muscle sites (n = 6). Creatine phosphate (CP) had decreased (P < 0.05) by 27, 73 and 88% in ST fibres and 25, 71 and 89% in FT fibres after 15 and 180 s of EX1 and after 180 s of EX2, respectively. CP was below resting mean-1 SD in 15, 46, 84 and 100% of the ST fibres and 9, 48, 85 and 100% of the FT fibres at rest, after 15 and 180 s of EX1 and after 180 s of EX2, respectively. A significant muscle temperature increase (deltaTm) occurred within 2-4 s at all quadriceps muscle sites. DeltaTm varied less than 10% between sites during EX1, but was 23% higher (P < 0.05) in the vastus lateralis than in the rectus femoris muscle during EX2. DeltaTm in the vastus lateralis was 101 and 109% of the mean quadriceps value during EX1 and EX2, respectively. We conclude that both fibre types and all quadriceps muscle portions are recruited at the onset of intense knee-extensor exercise, that essentially all quadriceps muscle fibres are activated during repeated intense exercise and that metabolic measurements in the vastus lateralis muscle provide a good indication of the whole-quadriceps muscle metabolism during repeated, intense, one-legged knee-extensor exercise.
Krustrup, P; Söderlund, K; Relu, M U; Ferguson, R A; Bangsbo, J
The involvement of quadriceps femoris muscle portions and fibre type recruitment was studied during submaximal knee-extensor exercise without and with thigh occlusion (OCC) and compared with responses during intense exercise. Six healthy male subjects performed 90-s of moderate exercise without (MOD; 29+/-4 W) and with thigh OCC, and moderate exercise followed by 90-s of intense exercise (HI; 65+/-8 W). Temperatures were continuously measured in m. vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM) and rectus femoris (RF) and successive muscle biopsies were obtained from VL. During MOD, muscle temperature increase (DeltaT(m)) in RF was 0.52+/-0.09 degrees C, which was 57% and 73% higher (P<0.05) than in VL and VM, respectively. During OCC, DeltaT(m) in RF was 0.39+/-0.05 degrees C, which was not different from VM but 54% higher (P<0.05) than in VL. After MOD, muscle CP in slow twitch (ST) and fast twitch (FT) fibres was 81% and 91% of resting levels, respectively, with lower (P<0.05) values after OCC (15% and 22%) and HI (24% and 13%). After MOD, OCC and HI, a total of 48%, 93% and 96% of the ST fibres had CP levels below mean-1 SD, respectively, with corresponding values for FT fibres being 41%, 89% and 100%, respectively. In conclusion, a heterogeneous recruitment of the quadriceps muscle portions and muscle fibres was observed during submaximal knee-extensor exercise, whereas recruitment pattern was homogenous during intense exercise. Thigh OCC caused an altered recruitment of fibres and muscle portions, suggesting a significant afferent response affecting the activation of fibres in the contracting muscles.
Chen, Trevor C; Tseng, Wei-Chin; Huang, Guan-Ling; Chen, Hsin-Lian; Tseng, Kou-Wei; Nosaka, Kazunori
This study investigated whether low-intensity eccentric contractions of the knee extensors would attenuate the magnitude of muscle damage induced by maximal eccentric exercise of the same muscle performed 7 days later using elderly individuals. Healthy older men (66.4 ± 4.6 years) were assigned to control or experimental (Exp) group (n = 13 per group). The control group performed six sets of ten maximal eccentric contractions (MaxECC) of the knee extensors of non-dominant leg. The Exp group performed six sets of ten low-intensity eccentric contractions of the knee extensors on a leg extension machine by lowering a weight of 10 % maximal voluntary isometric knee extension strength (10 %ECC) 7 days prior to MaxECC. Changes in maximal voluntary isokinetic concentric torque (MVC-CON), angle at peak torque, range of motion (ROM), upper thigh circumference, muscle soreness, plasma creatine kinase activity and myoglobin (Mb) concentration and B-mode ultrasound echo-intensity before and for 5 days after MaxECC were compared between groups by a mixed factor ANOVA. No significant changes in any variables were observed following 10 %ECC. Following MaxECC, all variables changed significantly, and changes in all variables except for angle at peak torque were significantly different between groups. MVC-CON and ROM decreased smaller and recovered faster (P < 0.05) for Exp than control group, and changes in other variables were smaller (P < 0.05) for Exp group compared with control group. These results suggest that preconditioning knee extensor muscles with low-intensity eccentric contractions was effective for attenuating muscle damage induced by subsequent MaxECC of the knee extensors for elderly individuals.
Hody, S; Rogister, B; Leprince, P; Laglaine, T; Croisier, J-L
The aims of this study were first to compare the response of dominant and non-dominant legs to eccentric exercise and second, to examine whether there is an effect of exercise order on the magnitude of symptoms associated with intense eccentric protocols. Eighteen young men performed three sets of 30 maximal eccentric isokinetic (60° s(-1)) contractions of the knee extensors (range of motion, ROM: 0°-100°, 0 = full extension) using either dominant or non-dominant leg. They repeated a similar eccentric bout using the contralateral leg 6 weeks later. The sequence of leg's use was allocated to create equally balanced groups. Four indirect markers of muscle damage including subjective pain intensity, maximal isometric strength, muscle stiffness and plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity were measured before and 24 h after exercise. All markers changed significantly following the eccentric bout performed either by dominant or non-dominant legs, but no significant difference was observed between legs. Interestingly, the comparison between the first and second eccentric bouts revealed that muscle soreness (-42%, P<0.001), CK activity (-62%, P<0.05) and strength loss (-54%, P<0.01) were significantly lower after the second bout. This study suggests that leg dominance does not influence the magnitude of exercise-induced muscle damage and supports for the first time the existence of a contralateral protection against exercise-induced muscle damage in the lower limbs.
Nyberg, Michael; Christensen, Peter M; Mortensen, Stefan P; Hellsten, Ylva; Bangsbo, Jens
The present study examined whether an increase in leg blood flow and oxygen delivery at the onset of intense exercise would speed the rate of rise in leg oxygen uptake. Nine healthy men (25 ± 1 years old, mean ± SEM) performed one-leg knee-extensor exercise (62 ± 3 W, 86 ± 3% of incremental test peak power) for 4 min during a control setting (CON) and with infusion of ATP into the femoral artery in order to increase blood flow before and during exercise. In the presence of ATP, femoral arterial blood flow and O2 delivery were higher (P < 0.001) at the onset of exercise and throughout exercise (femoral arterial blood flow after 10 s, 5.1 ± 0.5 versus 2.7 ± 0.3 l min(-1); after 45 s, 6.0 ± 0.5 versus 4.1 ± 0.4 l min(-1); after 90 s, 6.6 ± 0.6 versus 4.5 ± 0.4 l min(-1); and after 240 s, 7.0 ± 0.6 versus 5.1 ± 0.3 l min(-1) in ATP and CON conditions, respectively). Leg oxygen uptake was not different in ATP and CON conditions during the first 20 s of exercise but was lower (P < 0.05) in the ATP compared with CON conditions after 30 s and until the end of exercise (30 s, 436 ± 42 versus 549 ± 45 ml min(-1); and 240 s, 705 ± 31 versus 814 ± 59 ml min(-1) in ATP and CON, respectively). Lactate release was lower after 60, 120 and 180 s of exercise with ATP infusion. These results suggest that O2 delivery is not limiting the rise in skeletal muscle oxygen uptake in the initial phase of intense exercise.
Cannon, Daniel T; Howe, Franklyn A; Whipp, Brian J; Ward, Susan A; McIntyre, Dominick J; Ladroue, Christophe; Griffiths, John R; Kemp, Graham J; Rossiter, Harry B
The integration of skeletal muscle substrate depletion, metabolite accumulation, and fatigue during large muscle-mass exercise is not well understood. Measurement of intramuscular energy store degradation and metabolite accumulation is confounded by muscle heterogeneity. Therefore, to characterize regional metabolic distribution in the locomotor muscles, we combined 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy, chemical shift imaging, and T2-weighted imaging with pulmonary oxygen uptake during bilateral knee-extension exercise to intolerance. Six men completed incremental tests for the following: (1) unlocalized 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy; and (2) spatial determination of 31P metabolism and activation. The relationship of pulmonary oxygen uptake to whole quadriceps phosphocreatine concentration ([PCr]) was inversely linear, and three of four knee-extensor muscles showed activation as assessed by change in T2. The largest changes in [PCr], [inorganic phosphate] ([Pi]) and pH occurred in rectus femoris, but no voxel (72 cm3) showed complete PCr depletion at exercise cessation. The most metabolically active voxel reached 11 ± 9 mM [PCr] (resting, 29 ± 1 mM), 23 ± 11 mM [Pi] (resting, 7 ± 1 mM), and a pH of 6.64 ± 0.29 (resting, 7.08 ± 0.03). However, the distribution of 31P metabolites and pH varied widely between voxels, and the intervoxel coefficient of variation increased between rest (∼10%) and exercise intolerance (∼30-60%). Therefore, the limit of tolerance was attained with wide heterogeneity in substrate depletion and fatigue-related metabolite accumulation, with extreme metabolic perturbation isolated to only a small volume of active muscle (<5%). Regional intramuscular disturbances are thus likely an important requisite for exercise intolerance. How these signals integrate to limit muscle power production, while regional "recruitable muscle" energy stores are presumably still available, remains uncertain.
Poitras, Veronica J.; Bentley, Robert F.; Hopkins-Rosseel, Diana H.; LaHaye, Stephen A.
We tested the hypothesis that type 2 diabetes (T2D), when present in the characteristic constellation of comorbidities (obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia) and medications, slows the dynamic adjustment of exercising muscle perfusion and blunts the steady state relative to that of controls matched for age, body mass index, fitness, comorbidities, and non-T2D medications. Thirteen persons with T2D and 11 who served as controls performed rhythmic single-leg isometric quadriceps exercise (rest-to-6 kg and 6-to-12 kg transitions, 5 min at each intensity). Measurements included leg blood flow (LBF, femoral artery ultrasound), mean arterial pressure (MAP, finger photoplethysmography), and leg vascular conductance (LVK, calculated). Dynamics were quantified using mean response time (MRT). Measures of amplitude were also used to compare response adjustment: the change from baseline to 1) the peak initial response (greatest 1-s average in the first 10 s; ΔLBFPIR, ΔLVKPIR) and 2) the on-transient (average from curve fit at 15, 45, and 75 s; ΔLBFON, ΔLVKON). ΔLBFPIR was significantly blunted in T2D vs. control individuals (P = 0.037); this was due to a tendency for reduced ΔLVKPIR (P = 0.063). In contrast, the overall response speed was not different between groups (MRT P = 0.856, ΔLBFON P = 0.150) nor was the change from baseline to steady state (P = 0.204). ΔLBFPIR, ΔLBFON, and LBF MRT did not differ between rest-to-6 kg and 6-to-12 kg workload transitions (all P > 0.05). Despite a transient amplitude impairment at the onset of exercise, there is no robust or consistent effect of T2D on top of the comorbidities and medications typical of this population on the overall dynamic adjustment of LBF, or the steady-state levels achieved during low- or moderate-intensity exercise. PMID:26048976
Kang, Jeong-Il; Park, Joon-Su; Choi, Hyun; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Kwon, Hye-Min; Moon, Young-Jun
[Purpose] For preventing the patellofemoral pain syndrome, this study aims to suggest a proper squat method, which presents selective muscle activity of Vastus Medialis Oblique and muscle activity ratios of Vastus Medialis Oblique/Vastus Lateralis by applying squat that is a representative weight bearing exercise method in various ways depending on the surface conditions and knee bending angles. [Subjects and Methods] An isometric squat that was accompanied by hip adduction, depending on the surface condition and the knee joint flexion angle, was performed by 24 healthy students. The muscle activity and the ratio of muscle activity were measured. [Results] In a comparison of muscle activity depending on the knee joint flexion angle on a weight-bearing surface, the vastus medialis oblique showed a significant difference at 15° and 60°. Meanwhile, in a comparison of the muscle activity ratio between the vastus medialis oblique and the vastus lateralis depending on the knee joint flexion angle on a weight-bearing surface, significant differences were observed at 15° and 60°. [Conclusion] An efficient squat exercise posture for preventing the patellofemoral pain syndrome is to increase the knee joint bending angle on a stable surface. But it would be efficient for patients with difficulties in bending the knee joint to keep a knee joint bending angle of 15 degrees or less on an unstable surface. It is considered that in future, diverse studies on selective Vastus Medialis Oblique strengthening exercise methods would be needed after applying them to patients with the patellofemoral pain syndrome. PMID:28210036
Kang, Jeong-Il; Park, Joon-Su; Choi, Hyun; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Kwon, Hye-Min; Moon, Young-Jun
[Purpose] For preventing the patellofemoral pain syndrome, this study aims to suggest a proper squat method, which presents selective muscle activity of Vastus Medialis Oblique and muscle activity ratios of Vastus Medialis Oblique/Vastus Lateralis by applying squat that is a representative weight bearing exercise method in various ways depending on the surface conditions and knee bending angles. [Subjects and Methods] An isometric squat that was accompanied by hip adduction, depending on the surface condition and the knee joint flexion angle, was performed by 24 healthy students. The muscle activity and the ratio of muscle activity were measured. [Results] In a comparison of muscle activity depending on the knee joint flexion angle on a weight-bearing surface, the vastus medialis oblique showed a significant difference at 15° and 60°. Meanwhile, in a comparison of the muscle activity ratio between the vastus medialis oblique and the vastus lateralis depending on the knee joint flexion angle on a weight-bearing surface, significant differences were observed at 15° and 60°. [Conclusion] An efficient squat exercise posture for preventing the patellofemoral pain syndrome is to increase the knee joint bending angle on a stable surface. But it would be efficient for patients with difficulties in bending the knee joint to keep a knee joint bending angle of 15 degrees or less on an unstable surface. It is considered that in future, diverse studies on selective Vastus Medialis Oblique strengthening exercise methods would be needed after applying them to patients with the patellofemoral pain syndrome.
Saito, Akira; Ando, Ryosuke; Akima, Hiroshi
Afferent inputs from Ia fibers in muscle spindles are essential for the control of force and prolonged vibration has been applied to muscle-tendon units to manipulate the synaptic input from Ia afferents onto α-motor neurons. The vastus intermedius (VI) reportedly provides the highest contribution to the low-level knee extension torque among the individual synergists of quadriceps femoris (QF). The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of prolonged vibration to the VI on force steadiness of the QF. Nine healthy men (25.1±4.3years) performed submaximal force-matching task of isometric knee extension for 15s before and after mechanical vibration to the superficial region of VI for 30min. Target forces were 2.5%, 10%, and 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and force steadiness was determined by the coefficient of variation (CV) of force. After the prolonged VI vibration, the CV of force at 2.5%MVC was significantly increased, but CVs at 10% and 30%MVCs were not significantly changed. The present study concluded that application of prolonged vibration to the VI increased force fluctuations of the QF during a very low-level force-matching task.
Šambaher, Nemanja; Aboodarda, Saied Jalal; Behm, David George
Exercise-induced fatigue affects muscle performance and modulates corticospinal excitability in non-exercised muscles. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of bilateral knee extensor fatigue on dominant elbow flexor (EF) maximal voluntary force production and corticospinal excitability. Transcranial magnetic, transmastoid electrical and brachial plexus electrical stimulation (BPES) were used to investigate corticospinal, spinal, and muscle excitability of the dominant EF before and after a bilateral knee extensor fatiguing protocol or time matched rest period (control). For both sessions three stimuli were delivered every 1.5 s during the three pre-test time points and during the 1st, 3rd, 6th, 9th and 12th post-test 5 s EF isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVC). In both conditions, overall, EF MVC force (p < 0.001) decreased progressively from repetition #1 to #12 during the post-test MVC protocol. EF MVC force (p < 0.001, ES = 0.9, Δ10.3%) decrements were more pronounced in the knee extensor fatigue intervention condition. In addition, there were no significant differences between conditions for biceps brachii electromyographic (EMG) activity (p = 0.43), motor evoked potentials (MEPs) amplitude (p = 0.908) or MEP silent period (SP; p = 0.776). However, the fatigue condition exhibited a lower MEP/cervicomedullary MEP (CMEP) ratio (p = 0.042, ES = 2.5, Δ25%) and a trend toward higher CMEP values (p = 0.08, ES = 0.5, Δ20.4%). These findings suggest that bilateral knee extensor fatigue can impair performance and modulate corticospinal excitability of the EF. PMID:26869902
Baroni, B M; Rodrigues, R; Franke, R A; Geremia, J M; Rassier, D E; Vaz, M A
This study investigated the chronology of neural and morphological adaptations to knee extensor eccentric training and their contribution to strength gains in isometric, concentric and eccentric muscle actions. 20 male healthy subjects performed a 12-week eccentric training program on an isokinetic dynamometer, and neuromuscular evaluations of knee extensors were performed every 4 weeks. After 12 training weeks, significant increases were observed for: isometric (24%), concentric (15%) and eccentric (29%) torques; isometric (29%) and eccentric (33%) electromyographic activity; muscle thickness (10%) and anatomical cross-sectional area (19%). Eccentric and isometric torques increased progressively until the end of the program. Concentric torque and muscle mass parameters increased until the eighth training week, but did not change from this point to the twelfth training week. Eccentric and isometric activation increased at 4 and 8 training weeks, respectively, while no change was found in concentric activation. These results suggest that: 1) the relative increment in concentric strength was minor and does not relate to neural effects; 2) eccentric and isometric strength gains up to 8 training weeks are explained by the increased neural activation and muscle mass, whereas the increments in the last 4 training weeks seem to be associated with other mechanisms.
Suzuki, Takahito; Shioda, Kohei; Kinugasa, Ryuta; Fukashiro, Senshi
Suzuki, T, Shioda, K, Kinugasa, R, and Fukashiro, S. Simultaneous knee extensor muscle action induces an increase in voluntary force generation of plantar flexor muscles. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 365-371, 2017-Maximum activation of the plantar flexor muscles is required for various sporting activities that involve simultaneous plantar flexion and knee extension. During a multi-joint movement, activation of the plantar flexor muscles is affected by the activity of the knee extensor muscles. We hypothesized that coactivation of the plantar flexor muscles and knee extensor muscles would result in a higher plantar flexion torque. To test this hypothesis, 8 male volunteers performed maximum voluntary isometric action of the plantar flexor muscles with and without isometric action of the knee extensor muscles. Surface electromyographic data were collected from 8 muscles of the right lower limb. Voluntary activation of the triceps surae muscles, evaluated using the interpolated twitch technique, significantly increased by 6.4 percentage points with intentional knee extensor action (p = 0.0491). This finding is in line with a significant increase in the average rectified value of the electromyographic activity of the vastus lateralis, fibularis longus, and soleus muscles (p = 0.013, 0.010, and 0.045, respectively). The resultant plantar flexion torque also significantly increased by 11.5% of the predetermined maximum (p = 0.031). These results suggest that higher plantar flexor activation coupled with knee extensor activation facilitates force generation during a multi-joint task.
Brønstad, Eivind; Rognmo, Oivind; Tjonna, Arnt Erik; Dedichen, Hans Henrich; Kirkeby-Garstad, Idar; Håberg, Asta K; Bjørk Ingul, Charlotte; Wisløff, Ulrik; Steinshamn, Sigurd
Improving reduced skeletal muscle function is important for optimising exercise tolerance and quality of life in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. By applying high-intensity training to a small muscle group, we hypothesised a normalisation of muscle function. Seven patients with COPD performed 6 weeks (3 days·week(-1)) of high-intensity interval aerobic knee extensor exercise training. Five age-matched healthy individuals served as a reference group. Muscle oxygen uptake and mitochondrial respiration of the vastus lateralis muscle were measured before and after the 6-week training programme. Initial peak work and maximal mitochondrial respiration were reduced in COPD patients and improved significantly after the training programme. Peak power and maximal mitochondrial respiration in vastus lateralis muscle increased to the level of the control subjects and were mainly mediated via improved complex I respiration. Furthermore, when normalised to citrate synthase activity, no difference in maximal respiration was found either after the intervention or compared to controls, suggesting normal functioning mitochondrial complexes. The present study shows that high-intensity training of a restricted muscle group is highly effective in restoring skeletal muscle function in COPD patients.
Caiozzo, V. J.; Haddad, F.; Lee, S.; Baker, M.; Baldwin, K. M.
The goal of this project was to examine the effects of artificial gravity (2.5 g) on skeletal muscle strength and key anabolic/catabolic markers known to regulate muscle mass. Two groups of subjects were selected for study: 1) a 21 day-bed rest (BR) control (C) group (N=7); and 2) an AG group (N=8), which was exposed to 21 days of bed-rest plus daily 1 hr exposures to AG (2.5 g). This particular experiment was part of an integrated AG Pilot Project sponsored by NASA/Johnson Space Center. The in vivo torque-velocity relationships of the knee extensors and plantar flexors of the ankle were determined pre and post treatment. Also, pre- and post treatment biopsy samples were obtained from both the vastus lateralis and soleus muscles and were used, in part, for a series of analyses on gene expression (mRNA abundance) of key factors implicated in the anabolic versus catabolic state of the muscle. Post/Pre toque-velocity determinations revealed greater decrements in knee extensor performance in the C versus AG group (P less than 0.04). The plantar flexor muscle group of the AG subjects actually demonstrated a net gain in torque-velocity relationship; whereas, in the C group the overall post/pre responses declined (AG vs C; P less than 0.001). Measurements of muscle fiber cross-sectional area (for both muscles) demonstrated a loss of approx. 20% in the C group while no losses were evident in the AG group. RT-PCR analyses of muscle biopsy specimens demonstrated that markers of growth and cytoskeletal integrity (IGF-1, IGF-1 BP4, mechano growth factor, total RNA, and pro-collagen 3a) were higher in the AG group, whereas catabolic markers (myostatin and atrogen) were elevated in the C group. Importantly, these patterns were seen in both muscles. Based on these observations we conclude that paradigms of AG have the potential to maintain the functional, biochemical, and structural homeostasis of skeletal muscle in the face of chronic unloading states. These findings also
Kek, Khai Jun; Miyakawa, Takahiro; Kudo, Nobuki; Yamamoto, Katsuyuki
In this study, we showed that exercise type- and intensity-dependent regional differences in muscle oxygenation and oxygen consumption rate (Vo II) of the knee extensor muscles could be imaged in real time with a multi-channel spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy (SR-NIRS) imaging device. Healthy subjects performed isometric knee extension exercise for 30 s (without- or with-leg-press action) at different exercise intensities [10%, 40% and 70% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)]. "Separation-type" probes were attached to the skin over the major knee extensor muscles: vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF) and vastus medialis (VM). Placement of the probes enabled simultaneously measurement of 12 sites over a skin area of about 30 cm2 (temporal resolution = 0.25 s). Local Vo II of each muscle, resting Vo II (Vo II, rest) and recovery Vo II (Vo II, rec ), were determined with arterial occlusion before the start and after the end of contraction, respectively. There was no significant difference between the values of Vo II rest, in the muscles. However, during knee extension exercise without-leg-press action, Vo II rec, value of the RF was significantly greater than the values of the VL and VM at all exercise intensities. In contrast, during exercise with-leg-press action, Vo II rec, values of the RF and VM were greater than those of the VL, especially during exercise at 40% and 70% MVC. In summary, the regional differences in muscle oxygenation and Vo II of the knee extensor muscles, probably due to the differences in relative contributions of muscles to exercise and in muscle architecture, were imaged using SR-NIRS.
Zhang, Tan; Birbrair, Alexander; Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, María L; Marsh, Anthony P; Leng, Iris; Nicklas, Barbara J; Delbono, Osvaldo
Regular exercise, particularly resistance training (RT), is the only therapy known to consistently improve muscle strength and quality (force per unit of mass) in older persons, but there is considerable variability in responsiveness to training. Identifying sensitive diagnostic biomarkers of responsiveness to RT may inform the design of a more efficient exercise regimen to improve muscle strength in older adults. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression. We quantified six muscle specific miRNAs (miR-1, -133a, -133b, -206, -208b and -499) in both muscle tissue and blood plasma, and their relationship with knee extensor strength in seven older (age=70.5 ± 2.5 years) adults before and after 5 months of RT. MiRNAs differentially responded to RT; muscle miR-133b decreased, while all plasma miRNAs tended to increase. Percent changes in knee extensor strength with RT showed strong positive correlations with percent changes in muscle miR-133a, -133b, and -206 and with percent changes in plasma and plasma/muscle miR-499 ratio. Baseline level of plasma or plasma/muscle miR-499 ratio further predicts muscle response to RT, while changes in muscle miR-133a, -133b, and -206 may correlate with muscle TNNT1 gene alternative splicing in response to RT. Our results indicate that RT alters muscle specific miRNAs in muscle and plasma, and that these changes account for some of the variation in strength responses to RT in older adults.
Zhang, Tan; Birbrair, Alexander; Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, María L.; Marsh, Anthony P.; Leng, Iris; Nicklas, Barbara J.; Delbono, Osvaldo
Regular exercise, particularly resistance training (RT), is the only therapy known to consistently improve muscle strength and quality (force per unit of mass) in older persons, but there is considerable variability in responsiveness to training. Identifying sensitive diagnostic biomarkers of responsiveness to RT may inform the design of a more efficient exercise regimen to improve muscle strength in older adults. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression. We quantified six muscle specific miRNAs (miR-1, -133a, -133b, -206, -208b and -499) in both muscle tissue and blood plasma, and their relationship with knee extensor strength in seven older (age = 70.5 ± 2.5 years) adults before and after 5 months of RT. MiRNAs differentially responded to RT; muscle miR-133b decreased, while all plasma miRNAs tended to increase. Percent changes in knee extensor strength with RT showed strong positive correlations with percent changes in muscle miR-133a, -133b, -206 and with percent changes in plasma and plasma/muscle miR-499 ratio. Baseline level of plasma or plasma/muscle miR-499 ratio further predicts muscle response to RT, while changes in muscle miR-133a, -133b, -206 may correlate with muscle TNNT1gene alternative splicing in response to RT. Our results indicate that RT alters muscle specific miRNAs in muscle and plasma, and that these changes account for some of the variation in strength responses to RT in older adults. PMID:25560803
Wyatt, L.; Ng, G. Y.
A test of 32 children's hip and knee extensors found that children born blind or with low vision are at risk of developing weak lower-limb extensors, with congenitally blind children at greatest risk. After correcting for lean body weight, the differences between sighted children and those with low vision were insignificant. Results support the…
Pincivero, Danny M; Salfetnikov, Yuliya; Campy, Robert M; Coelho, Alan J
The objectives were to examine knee angle-, and gender-specific knee extensor torque output and quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle recruitment during maximal effort, voluntary contractions. Fourteen young adult men and 15 young adult women performed three isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVC), in a random order, with the knee at 0 degrees (terminal extension), 10 degrees, 30 degrees, 50 degrees, 70 degrees, and 90 degrees flexion. Knee extensor peak torque (PT), and average torque (AT) were expressed in absolute (N m), relative (N m kg(-1)) and allometric-modeled (N m kg(-n)) units. Vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL), and rectus femoris (RF) muscle EMG signals were full-wave rectified and integrated over the middle 3 s of each contraction, averaged over the three trials at each knee angle, and normalized to the activity recorded at 0 degrees. Muscle recruitment efficiency was calculated as the ratio of the normalized EMG of each muscle to the allometric-modeled average torque (normalized to the values at 0 degrees flexion), and expressed as a percent. Men generated significantly greater knee extensor PT and AT than women in absolute, relative and allometric-modeled units. Absolute and relative PT and AT were significantly highest at 70 degrees, while allometric-modeled values were observed to increase significantly across knee joint angles 10-90 degrees. VM EMG was significantly greater than the VL and RF muscles across all angles, and followed a similar pattern to absolute knee extensor torque. Recruitment efficiency improved across knee joint angles 10-90 degrees and was highest for the VL muscle. VM recruitment efficiency improved more than the VL and RF muscles across 70-90 degrees flexion. The findings demonstrate angle-, and gender-specific responses of knee extensor torque to maximal-effort contractions, while superficial QF muscle recruitment was most efficient at 90 degrees, and less dependent on gender.
COTTINO, UMBERTO; DELEDDA, DAVIDE; ROSSO, FEDERICA; BLONNA, DAVIDE; BONASIA, DAVIDE EDOARDO; ROSSI, ROBERTO
Knee extensor mechanism rupture is a serious complication of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Its prevalence ranges from 1 to 10% and it is commonly observed as a chronic multifactorial pathology with the patellar tendon as the most common site of rupture. Knee extensor mechanism reconstruction can be performed using allogenic or synthetic grafts. In the literature it is still not clear whether one of these techniques is superior to the other and the choice is usually tailored to the patient case by case. Allografts allow better restoration of the anatomical landmarks, whereas the mesh technique is more reproducible and the graft does not elongate over time. Allografts carry an increased risk of infection compared with synthetic reconstructions, while the mesh technique is cheaper and more readily available. In this paper, we review the etiology, diagnosis and treatment of this pathology, drawing on the most recent literature. PMID:27900308
Pires e Albuquerque, Rodrigo; Prado, Juliano; Hara, Rafael; Ferreira, Evaldo; Schiavo, Leonardo; Giordano, Vincenzo; Amaral, Ney Pecegueiro do; Barretto, João Mauricio
Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to review the epidemiological aspects of tendon ruptures of the knee extensor apparatus at a level 1 hospital. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 76 lesions of the knee extensor apparatus that were treated surgically at the Miguel Couto Municipal Hospital between March 2004 and March 2011. We took into consideration age, sex, trauma mechanism, anatomical classification of the lesion, affected side, comorbidities and associated lesions. Results: Among the patients studied, 68 were male and the mean age was 36 years. Regarding the trauma mechanism, 62 lesions occurred due to direct trauma; the right side was affected in 21 cases; eight presented comorbidities and four presented associated lesions. Conclusion: The majority of the patients were male, at an economically active age (young people), and were victims of direct trauma. Ruptures of the patellar ligament were the most frequent lesions. Associated lesions were rare and comorbidities were infrequent in our sample. PMID:27047890
Tesch, Per A.; Berg, Hans E.; Bring, Daniel; Evans, Harlan J.; LeBlanc, Adrian D.
It is generally held that space travelers experience muscle dysfunction and atrophy during exposure to microgravity. However, observations are scarce and reports somewhat inconsistent with regard to the time course, specificity and magnitude of such changes. Hence, we examined four male astronauts (group mean approximately 43 years, 86 kg and 183 cm) before and after a 17-day spaceflight (Space Transport System-78). Knee extensor muscle function was measured during maximal bilateral voluntary isometric and iso-inertial concentric, and eccentric actions. Cross-sectional area (CSA) of the knee extensor and flexor, and gluteal muscle groups was assessed by means of magnetic resonance imaging. The decrease in strength (P<0.05) across different muscle actions after spaceflight amounted to 10%. Eight ambulatory men, examined on two occasions 20 days apart, showed unchanged (P>0.05) muscle strength. CSA of the knee extensor and gluteal muscles, each decreased (P<0.05) by 8%. Knee flexor muscle CSA showed no significant (P>0.05) change. The magnitude of these changes concord with earlier results from ground-based studies of similar duration. The results of this study, however, do contrast with the findings of no decrease in maximal voluntary ankle plantar flexor force previously reported in the same crew.
Raven, P. B.
Astronauts are often required to work (exercise) at moderate to high intensities for extended periods while performing extra-vehicular activities (EVA). Although the physiologic responses associated with prolonged exercise have been documented, the mechanisms involved in blood pressure regulation under these conditions have not yet been fully elucidated. An understanding of this issue is pertinent to the ability of humans to perform work in microgravity and complies with the emphasis of NASA's Space Physiology and Countermeasures Program. Prolonged exercise at a constant workload is know to result in a progressive decrease in mean arterial pressure (MAP) concomitant with a decrease in stroke volume and a compensatory increase in heart rate. The continuous decrease in MAP during the exercise, which is related to the thermoregulatory redistribution of circulating blood volume to the cutaneous circulation, raises the question as to whether there is a loss of baroreflex regulation of arterial blood pressure. We propose that with prolongation of the exercise to 60 minutes, progressive increases on central command reflect a progressive upward resetting of the carotid baroreflex (CBR) such that the operating point of the CBR is shifted to a pressure below the threshold of the reflex rendering it ineffectual in correcting the downward drift in MAP. In order to test this hypothesis, experiments have been designed to uncouple the global hemodynamic response to prolonged exercise from the central command mediated response via: (1) continuous maintenance of cardiac filling volume by intravenous infusion of a dextran solution; and (2) whole body surface cooling to counteract thermoregulatory cutaneous vasodialation. As the type of work (exercise) performed by astronauts is inherently arm and upper body dependent, we will also examine the physiologic responses to prolonged leg cycling and arm ergometry exercise in the supine positions with and without level lower body negative
temperature threshold for initiation of eccrine sweating and cutaneous vasodilation during exercise (15,15,17). It has also been suggested, in two widely...Local control of eccrine sweat gland function. Fed. Proc. 32:1583-1587, 1983. 4. Piorica, V., B.A. Higgins, P.F. lampietro, M.T. Lategola and A.W...reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP cutaneous blood flow, sleep loss, sweating , wakefulness 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on
Loenneke, Jeremy P; Kearney, Monica L; Thrower, Austin D; Collins, Sean; Pujol, Thomas J
Training at low intensities with moderate vascular occlusion results in increased muscle hypertrophy, strength, and endurance. Elastic knee wraps, applied to the proximal portion of the target muscle, might elicit a stimulus similar to the KAATSU Master Apparatus. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that intermittently occluding the leg extensors with elastic knee wraps would increase whole-blood lactate (WBL) over control (CON). Twelve healthy men and women participated in this study (age 21.2 ± 0.35 years, height 168.9 ± 2.60 cm, and body mass 71.2 ± 4.16 kg). One repetition maximum (1RM) testing for the leg extensors was performed on a leg extension machine for the first trial, followed by occlusion (OCC) and CON trials. Four sets of leg extension exercise (30-15-15-15) were completed with 150-second rest between sets at 30% 1RM. Whole-blood lactate, heart rate (HR), and ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs) were measured after every set of exercise and 3 minutes postexercise. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance with statistical significance set at p ≤ 0.05. Whole-blood lactate increased in response to exercise (p = 0.01) but was not different between groups (OCC 6.28 ± 0.66 vs. CON 5.35 ± 0.36 mmol·L, p = 0.051). Heart rate (OCC 128.86 ± 4.37 vs. CON 119.72 ± 4.10 b·min⁻¹) was higher with OCC from sets 2-4 (p ≤ 0.03), with no difference 3 minutes postexercise (p = 0.29). Rating of perceived exertion was higher with OCC after every set (OCC 15.10 ± 0.31 vs. CON 12.16 ± 0.50, p = 0.01). In conclusion, no differences exist for WBL between groups, although there was a trend for higher levels with OCC. The current protocol for practical occlusion did not significantly increase metabolic stress more than normal low-intensity exercise. This study does not support the use of knee wraps as a mode of blood-flow restriction.
Yeung, Simon S.; Yeung, Ella W.
Abstract Kinesio Tex tape (KT) is used to prevent and treat sports-related injuries and to enhance muscle performance. It has been proposed that the direction of taping may either facilitate or inhibit the muscle by having different effects on cutaneous receptors that modulate excitability of the motor neurons. This study had 2 goals. First, we wished to determine if KT application affects muscle performance and if the method of application facilitates or inhibits muscle performance. This was assessed by measuring isokinetic knee extension peak torque in the knee extensor. Second, we assessed neurological effects of taping on the excitability of the motor neurons by measuring the reflex latency and action potential by electromyography (EMG) in the patellar reflex. The study was a single-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial with 28 healthy volunteers with no history of knee injuries. Participants received facilitative KT treatment, inhibitory KT treatment, or Hypafix taping of the knee extensor. There were significant differences in the peak torque between 3 treatments (F(2,54) = 4.873, P < 0.01). Post hoc analysis revealed that facilitative KT treatment resulted in higher knee extensor peak torque performance than inhibitory KT treatment (P = 0.036, effect size 0.26). There were, however, no significant differences in the reflex latency (F(2,54) = 2.84, P = 0.067) nor in the EMG values (F(2,54) = 0.18, P = 0.837) in the patellar reflex between the 3 taping applications. The findings suggest that the direction of KT application over the muscle has specific effects on muscle performance. Given the magnitude of effect is small, interpretation of clinical significance should be considered with caution. The underlying mechanism warrants further investigation. PMID:26825916
Fukutani, Atsuki; Misaki, Jun; Isaka, Tadao
The stretch-shortening cycle is one of the most interesting topics in the field of sport sciences, because the performance of human movement is enhanced by the stretch-shortening cycle (eccentric contraction). The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the influence of preactivation on the torque enhancement by stretch-shortening cycle in knee extensors. Twelve men participated in this study. The following three conditions were conducted for knee extensors: (1) concentric contraction without preactivation (CON), (2) concentric contraction with eccentric preactivation (ECC), and (3) concentric contraction with isometric preactivation (ISO). Muscle contractions were evoked by electrical stimulation to discard the influence of neural activity. The range of motion of the knee joint was set from 80 to 140 degrees (full extension = 180 degrees). Angular velocities of the concentric and eccentric contractions were set at 180 and 90 degrees/s, respectively. In the concentric contraction phase, joint torques were recorded at 85, 95, and 105 degrees, and they were compared among the three conditions. In the early phase (85 degrees) of concentric contraction, the joint torque was larger in the ECC and ISO conditions than in the CON condition. However, these clear differences disappeared in the later phase (105 degrees) of concentric contraction. The results showed that joint torque was clearly different among the three conditions in the early phase whereas this difference disappeared in the later phase. Thus, preactivation, which is prominent in the early phase of contractions, plays an important role in torque enhancement by the stretch-shortening cycle in knee extensors. PMID:27414804
Pantović, Milan; Popović, Boris; Madić, Dejan; Obradović, Jelena
Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has recently drawn a lot of attention as means for strengthening of voluntary muscle contraction both in sport and rehabilitation. NMES training increases maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force output through neural adaptations. On the other hand, positive effects of resistance training (RT) on muscle strength are well known. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of a 5-week program of NMES compared to RT program of same duration. Sample of 15 students' of faculty of sport and physical education (age 22 ± 2) were randomized in two groups: NMES (N = 7) and RT (N = 8). NMES group performed NMES superimposed over voluntary muscle contraction, RT group performed resistance training with submaximal loads. Subjects were evaluated for knee isokinetic dynamometry on both sides (60° and 180° s). After intervention no significant difference between groups were observed in isokinetic dynamometry (p = 0.177). However, applying pair sample t test within each group revealed that peak torque increased in NMES-group (p = 0.002 for right knee extensors muscles, p = 0.003 for left, respectively, at 60° and p = 0.004 for left knee extensors muscles, at angular velocity 180°). In RT group (p = 0.033 for right knee extensors muscles, p = 0.029 for right knee flexor muscles, at angular velocity 60°). Our results indicate that NMES has equal potential if not in some way better than classical RT having in mind that overload on locomotor apparatus during NMES is minimal and force of muscle contraction is equal on both sides, for enhancement of knee muscles concentric peak torque.
Girard, Olivier; Brocherie, Franck; Millet, Grégoire P.
We assessed knee extensor neuromuscular adjustments following repeated treadmill sprints in different normobaric hypoxia conditions, with special reference to rapid muscle torque production capacity. Thirteen team- and racquet-sport athletes undertook 8 × 5-s “all-out” sprints (passive recovery = 25 s) on a non-motorized treadmill in normoxia (NM; FiO2 = 20.9%), at low (LA; FiO2 = 16.8%) and high (HA; FiO2 = 13.3%) normobaric hypoxia (simulated altitudes of ~1800 m and ~3600 m, respectively). Explosive (~1 s; “fast” instruction) and maximal (~5 s; “hard” instruction) voluntary isometric contractions (MVC) of the knee extensors (KE), with concurrent electromyographic (EMG) activity recordings of the vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles, were performed before and 1-min post-exercise. Rate of torque development (RTD) and EMG (i.e., Root Mean Square or RMS) rise from 0 to 30, −50, −100, and −200 ms were recorded, and were also normalized to maximal torque and EMG values, respectively. Distance covered during the first 5-s sprint was similar (P > 0.05) in all conditions. A larger (P < 0.05) sprint decrement score and a shorter (P < 0.05) cumulated distance covered over the eight sprints occurred in HA (−8 ± 4% and 178 ± 11 m) but not in LA (−7 ± 3% and 181 ± 10 m) compared to NM (−5 ± 2% and 183 ± 9 m). Compared to NM (−9 ± 7%), a larger (P < 0.05) reduction in MVC torque occurred post-exercise in HA (−14 ± 9%) but not in LA (-12 ± 7%), with no difference between NM and LA (P > 0.05). Irrespectively of condition (P > 0.05), peak RTD (−6 ± 11%; P < 0.05), and normalized peak RMS activity for VL (−8 ± 11%; P = 0.07) and RF (−14 ± 11%; P < 0.01) muscles were reduced post-exercise, whereas reductions (P < 0.05) in absolute RTD occurred within the 0–100 (−8 ± 9%) and 0–200 ms (−10 ± 8%) epochs after contraction onset. After normalization to MVC torque, there was no difference in RTD values
FORD, KEVIN R.; MYER, GREGORY D.; BRENT, JENSEN L.; HEWETT, TIMOTHY E.
Biomechanical factors, such as hip and knee extensor moments, related to drop jump (DJ) performance have not been investigated in adolescent girls. The purpose of this study was to determine the key independent biomechanical variables that predict overall vertical jump performance in adolescent girls. Sixteen high school adolescent girls from club–sponsored and high school–sponsored volleyball teams performed DJ at 3 different drop heights (15, 30, and 45 cm). A motion analysis system consisting of 10 digital cameras and a force platform was used to calculate vertical jump height, joint angles, and joint moments during the tasks. A multiple linear regression was used to determine the biomechanical parameters that were best predictive of vertical jump height at each box drop distance. The 2 predictor variables in all 3 models were knee and hip extensor moments. The models predicted 82.9, 81.9, and 88% of the vertical jump height variance in the 15, 30, and 45 cm trials, respectively. The results of the investigation indicate that knee and hip joint moments are the main contributors to vertical jump height during the DJ in adolescent girls. Strength and conditioning specialists attempting to improve vertical jump performance should target power and strength training to the hip and knee extensors in their athletes. PMID:19528842
de Ruiter, Cornelis J; Hutter, Vana; Icke, Chris; Groen, Bart; Gemmink, Anne; Smilde, Hiltsje; de Haan, Arnold
We hypothesized that imagery training would improve the fast onset of neuromuscular activation and thereby fast knee extensor isometric torque development. Forty young healthy participants, not involved in strength training, were assigned to one of four groups: physical training, imagery training, placebo training or control. The three training groups had three 15 min sessions per week for 4 weeks, with a 90 ° knee angle but were tested also at 120 °. At 90 ° knee angle, maximal torque increased (-8%) similarly in all three training groups. The torque-time integral (contractile impulse) over the first 40 ms after torque onset (TTI40) increased (P < 0.05) after physical training (by -100%), but only at 90 °. This increase was significantly different from the delta values (change pre to post) in the control and placebo groups, whereas delta values in the imagery group were similar to those in the placebo group. The increases in TTI40 following physical training were related (r (2) = 0.81, P < 0.05) to significant increases of knee extensor rectified surface EMG at torque onset (EMG40). In conclusion, only physical training led to a knee angle specific increase of contractile impulse that was significantly different from placebo and controls and that was related to improved onset of neuromuscular activation.
Ford, Kevin R; Myer, Gregory D; Brent, Jensen L; Hewett, Timothy E
Biomechanical factors, such as hip and knee extensor moments, related to drop jump (DJ) performance have not been investigated in adolescent girls. The purpose of this study was to determine the key independent biomechanical variables that predict overall vertical jump performance in adolescent girls. Sixteen high school adolescent girls from club-sponsored and high school-sponsored volleyball teams performed DJ at 3 different drop heights (15, 30, and 45 cm). A motion analysis system consisting of 10 digital cameras and a force platform was used to calculate vertical jump height, joint angles, and joint moments during the tasks. A multiple linear regression was used to determine the biomechanical parameters that were best predictive of vertical jump height at each box drop distance. The 2 predictor variables in all 3 models were knee and hip extensor moments. The models predicted 82.9, 81.9, and 88% of the vertical jump height variance in the 15, 30, and 45 cm trials, respectively. The results of the investigation indicate that knee and hip joint moments are the main contributors to vertical jump height during the DJ in adolescent girls. Strength and conditioning specialists attempting to improve vertical jump performance should target power and strength training to the hip and knee extensors in their athletes.
Voorn, Eric L.; Brehm, Merel A.; Beelen, Anita; de Haan, Arnold; Nollet, Frans; Gerrits, Karin H. L.
Objective To assess the reliability of contractile properties of the knee extensor muscles in 23 individuals with post-polio syndrome (PPS) and 18 age-matched healthy individuals. Methods Contractile properties of the knee extensors were assessed from repeated electrically evoked contractions on 2 separate days, with the use of a fixed dynamometer. Reliability was determined for fatigue resistance, rate of torque development (MRTD), and early and late relaxation time (RT50 and RT25), using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and standard error of measurement (SEM, expressed as % of the mean). Results In both groups, reliability for fatigue resistance was good, with high ICCs (>0.90) and small SEM values (PPS: 7.1%, healthy individuals: 7.0%). Reliability for contractile speed indices varied, with the best values found for RT50 (ICCs>0.82, SEM values <2.8%). We found no systematic differences between test and retest occasions, except for RT50 in healthy subjects (p = 0.016). Conclusions In PPS and healthy individuals, the reliability of fatigue resistance, as obtained from electrically evoked contractions is high. The reliability of contractile speed is only moderate, except for RT50 in PPS, demonstrating high reliability. Significance This was the first study to examine the reliability of electrically evoked contractile properties in individuals with PPS. Our results demonstrate its potential to study mechanisms underlying muscle fatigue in PPS and to evaluate changes in contractile properties over time in response to interventions or from natural course. PMID:25019943
Froyd, Christian; Beltrami, Fernando G.; Millet, Guillaume Y.; Noakes, Timothy D.
critical peripheral fatigue threshold during intermittent isometric exercise to task failure with the knee extensors. PMID:28066260
dos Santos, Adriana Neves; Pavao, Silvia Leticia; Santiago, Paulo Roberto Pereira; Salvini, Tania de Fatima; Rocha, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between sit-to-stand (STS) movement, knee extensor torque and social participation in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Seven spastic hemiplegic CP patients (8.0 plus or minus 2.2 years), classified by the Gross Motor Function Classification System as I and II, and 18 typical children (8.4 plus or…
Voorn, Eric L; Beelen, Anita; Gerrits, Karin H L; Nollet, Frans; de Haan, Arnold
The present study investigated whether intrinsic fatigability of the muscle fibers is reduced in patients with post-polio syndrome (PPS). This may contribute to the muscle fatigue complaints reported by patients with PPS. For this purpose, we assessed contractile properties and fatigue resistance of the knee extensor muscles using repeated isometric electrically evoked contractions in 38 patients with PPS and 19 age-matched healthy subjects. To determine whether any difference in fatigue resistance between both groups could be attributed to differences in aerobic capacity of the muscle fibers, 9 patients with PPS and 11 healthy subjects performed the same protocol under arterial occlusion. Results showed that fatigue resistance of patients with PPS was comparable to that in controls, both in the situation with intact circulation and with occluded blood flow. Together, our findings suggest that there are no differences in contractile properties and aerobic muscle capacity that may account for the increased muscle fatigue perceived in PPS.
Background We examined the effect of four weeks of β-alanine supplementation on isometric endurance of the knee extensors at 45% maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Methods Thirteen males (age 23 ± 6 y; height 1.80 ± 0.05 m; body mass 81.0 ± 10.5 kg), matched for pre-supplementation isometric endurance, were allocated to either a placebo (n = 6) or β-alanine (n = 7; 6.4 g·d-1 over 4 weeks) supplementation group. Participants completed an isometric knee extension test (IKET) to fatigue, at an intensity of 45% MVIC, before and after supplementation. In addition, two habituation tests were completed in the week prior to the pre-supplementation test and a further practice test was completed in the week prior to the post-supplementation test. MVIC force, IKET hold-time, and impulse generated were recorded. Results IKET hold-time increased by 9.7 ± 9.4 s (13.2%) and impulse by 3.7 ± 1.3 kN·s-1 (13.9%) following β-alanine supplementation. These changes were significantly greater than those in the placebo group (IKET: t(11) = 2.9, p ≤0.05; impulse: t(11) = 3.1, p ≤ 0.05). There were no significant changes in MVIC force in either group. Conclusion Four weeks of β-alanine supplementation at 6.4 g·d-1 improved endurance capacity of the knee extensors at 45% MVIC, which most likely results from improved pH regulation within the muscle cell as a result of elevated muscle carnosine levels. PMID:22697405
Manier, G; Moinard, J; Téchoueyres, P; Varène, N; Guénard, H
To determine the effect of strenuous prolonged exercise on alveolo-capillary membrane diffusing capacity, 11 marathon runners aged 37 +/- 7 years (mean +/- SD) were studied before and during early recovery (28 +/- 14 min) from a marathon race. Lung capillary blood volume (Vc) and the alveolo-capillary diffusing capacity (Dm) were determined in a one-step maneuver by simultaneous measurements of CO and NO lung transfer (DLCO and DLNO, respectively) using the single breath, breath-holding method. After the race, both DLCO and DLNO were significantly decreased in all subjects (-10.9 +/- 4.8%, P less than 10(-4) and -29.0 +/- 11.1%, P less than 10(-4), respectively). The mean value of the derived DmCO decreased by -29.3 +/- 11.1%, whereas Vc had not entirely returned to control resting value. Although these results do not indicate the detailed mechanism involved, interstitial lung fluid was suspected to accumulate, particularly in alveoli, during the race. We concluded that the high overall work load and the extended duration of the exercise both contributed to a transient change in the structure of the alveolo-capillary membrane thereby affecting the diffusing capacity of the alveolo-capillary membrane.
Kubo, Keitaro; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Fukunaga, Tetsuo
The purposes of this study were to compare the elasticity of tendon and aponeurosis in human knee extensors and ankle plantar flexors in vivo and to examine whether the maximal strain of tendon was correlated to that of aponeurosis. The elongation of tendon and aponeurosis during isometric knee extension (n = 23) and ankle plantar flexion (n = 22), respectively, were determined using a real-time ultrasonic apparatus, while the participants performed ramp isometric contractions up to voluntary maximum. To calculate the strain values from the measured elongation, we measured the respective length of tendon and aponeurosis. For the knee extensors, the maximal strain of aponeurosis (12.1 +/- 2.8 %) was significantly greater than that of the patella tendon (8.3 +/- 2.4 %), p < 0.001. On the contrary, the maximal strain of Achilles tendon (5.9 +/- 1.4 %) was significantly greater than that of aponeurosis in ankle plantar flexors (2.7 +/- 1.4 %), p < 0.001. Furthermore, for both knee extensors and ankle plantar flexors there was no significant correlation between maximal strain of tendon and aponeurosis. These results would be important for understanding the different roles of tendon and aponeurosis during human movements and for more accurate muscle modeling.
Pethick, Jamie; Winter, Samantha L; Burnley, Mark
Neuromuscular fatigue increases the amplitude of fluctuations in torque output during isometric contractions, but the effect of fatigue on the temporal structure, or complexity, of these fluctuations is not known. We hypothesised that fatigue would result in a loss of temporal complexity and a change in fractal scaling of the torque signal during isometric knee extensor exercise. Eleven healthy participants performed a maximal test (5 min of intermittent maximal voluntary contractions, MVCs), and a submaximal test (contractions at a target of 40% MVC performed until task failure), each with a 60% duty factor (6 s contraction, 4 s rest). Torque and surface EMG signals were sampled continuously. Complexity and fractal scaling of torque were quantified by calculating approximate entropy (ApEn), sample entropy (SampEn) and the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) scaling exponent α. Fresh submaximal contractions were more complex than maximal contractions (mean ± SEM, submaximal vs. maximal: ApEn 0.65 ± 0.09 vs. 0.15 ± 0.02; SampEn 0.62 ± 0.09 vs. 0.14 ± 0.02; DFA α 1.35 ± 0.04 vs. 1.55 ± 0.03; all P < 0.005). Fatigue reduced the complexity of submaximal contractions (ApEn to 0.24 ± 0.05; SampEn to 0.22 ± 0.04; DFA α to 1.55 ± 0.03; all P < 0.005) and maximal contractions (ApEn to 0.10 ± 0.02; SampEn to 0.10 ± 0.02; DFA α to 1.63 ± 0.02; all P < 0.01). This loss of complexity and shift towards Brownian-like noise suggests that as well as reducing the capacity to produce torque, fatigue reduces the neuromuscular system's adaptability to external perturbations. PMID:25664928
Kirking, Meghan; Berrios Barillas, Reivian; Nelson, Philip Andrew; Hunter, Sandra Kay; Hyngstrom, Allison
Background and Purpose: Despite the implications of optimizing strength training post-stroke, little is known about the differences in fatigability between men and women with chronic stroke. The purpose of this study was to determine the sex differences in knee extensor muscle fatigability and potential mechanisms in individuals with stroke. Methods: Eighteen participants (10 men, eight women) with chronic stroke (≥6 months) and 23 (12 men, 11 women) nonstroke controls participated in the study. Participants performed an intermittent isometric contraction task (6 s contraction, 3 s rest) at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque until failure to maintain the target torque. Electromyography was used to determine muscle activation and contractile properties were assessed with electrical stimulation of the quadriceps muscles. Results: Individuals with stroke had a briefer task duration (greater fatigability) than nonstroke individuals (24.1 ± 17 min vs. 34.9 ± 16 min). Men were more fatigable than women for both nonstroke controls and individuals with stroke (17.9 ± 9 min vs. 41.6 ± 15 min). Individuals with stroke had less fatigue-related changes in muscle contractile properties and women with stroke differed in their muscle activation strategy during the fatiguing contractions. Conclusions: Men and women fatigue differently post-stroke and this may be due to the way they neurally activate muscle groups. PMID:28085089
Hassani, A; Patikas, D; Bassa, E; Hatzikotoulas, K; Kellis, E; Kotzamanidis, C
The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in electromyographic activity of agonist and antagonist knee musculature between a maximal and a submaximal isokinetic fatigue protocol. Fourteen healthy males (age: 24.3+/-2.5 years) performed 25 maximal (MIFP) and 60 submaximal (SIFP) isokinetic concentric efforts of the knee extensors at 60 degrees s(-1), across a 90 degrees range of motion. The two protocols were performed a week apart. The EMG activity of vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL) and biceps femoris (BF) were recorded using surface electrodes. The peak torque (PT) and average EMG (aEMG) were expressed as percentages of pre-fatigue maximal value. One-way analysis of variance indicated a significant (p<0.05) decline of PT during the maximal (45.7%) and submaximal (46.8%) protocols. During the maximal test, the VM and VL aEMG initially increased and then decreased. In contrast, VM and VL aEMG continuously increased during submaximal testing (p<0.05). The antagonist (BF) aEMG remained constant during maximal test but it increased significantly and then declined during the submaximal testing. The above results indicate that agonist and antagonist activity depends on the intensity of the selected isokinetic fatigue test.
Hunter, A M; Watt, J M; Watt, V; Galloway, S D R
Objective To evaluate the effect of massage on force production and neuromuscular recruitment. Methods Ten healthy male subjects performed isokinetic concentric contractions on the knee extensors at speeds of 60, 120, 180, and 240°/s. These contractions were performed before and after a 30 minute intervention of either rest in the supine position or lower limb massage. Electromyography (EMG) and force data were captured during the contractions. Results The change in isokinetic mean force due to the intervention showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) at 60°/s and a trend for a decrease (p = 0.08) at 120°/s as a result of massage compared with passive rest. However, there were no corresponding differences in any of the EMG data. A reduction in force production was shown at 60°/s with no corresponding alteration in neuromuscular activity. Conclusions The results suggests that motor unit recruitment and muscle fibre conduction velocity are not responsible for the observed reductions in force. Although experimental confirmation is necessary, a possible explanation is that massage induced force loss by influencing “muscle architecture”. However, it is possible that the differences were only found at 60°/s because it was the first contraction after massage. Therefore muscle tension and architecture after massage and the duration of any massage effect need to be examined. PMID:16431996
Baroni, Bruno Manfredini; Geremia, Jeam Marcel; Rodrigues, Rodrigo; Borges, Marcelo Krás; Jinha, Azim; Herzog, Walter; Vaz, Marco Aurélio
It is not known if a physically active lifestyle, without systematic training, is sufficient to combat age-related muscle and strength loss. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate if the maintenance of a physically active lifestyle prevents muscle impairments due to aging. To address this issue, we evaluated 33 healthy men with similar physical activity levels (IPAQ = 2) across a large range of ages. Functional (torque-angle and torque-velocity relations) and morphological (vastus lateralis muscle architecture) properties of the knee extensor muscles were assessed and compared between three age groups: young adults (30 ± 6 y), middle-aged subjects (50 ± 7 y) and elderly subjects (69 ± 5 y). Isometric peak torques were significantly lower (30% to 36%) in elderly group subjects compared with the young adults. Concentric peak torques were significantly lower in the middle aged (18% to 32%) and elderly group (40% to 53%) compared with the young adults. Vastus lateralis thickness and fascicles lengths were significantly smaller in the elderly group subjects (15.8 ± 3.9 mm; 99.1 ± 25.8 mm) compared with the young adults (19.8 ± 3.6 mm; 152.1 ± 42.0 mm). These findings suggest that a physically active lifestyle, without systematic training, is not sufficient to avoid loss of strength and muscle mass with aging.
Halback, J; Straus, D
A clinical study of six individuals was set up to compare an Electro-Myo stimulation protocol to an isokinetic protocol. The objective of the study was to see which was more effective in increasing power in the knee extensor mechanism. Results of the study showed that isokinetics were superior to Electro-Myo stimulation in increasing power. One question that remained unanswered in the testing was whether a higher faradic current, if tolerated, would be more efficient in increasing the power of a muscle group than would isokinetics. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1980;2(1):20-24.
Muff, Guillaume; Dufour, Stéphane; Meyer, Alain; Severac, François; Favret, Fabrice; Geny, Bernard; Lecocq, Jehan; Isner-Horobeti, Marie-Eve
[Purpose] To compare measurements of knee extensor and flexor muscle strength performed using a hand-held dynamometer and an isokinetic dynamometer in apparently healthy subjects. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty adult volunteers underwent knee muscle strength evaluation using an isokinetic or a hand-held dynamometer. [Results] Strong positive correlations were found between the 2 methods, with correlation coefficients r ranging from 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48−0.86) to 0.87 (95% CI, 0.75−0.94), depending on the muscle group and the isokinetic evaluation mode. The reproducibility of the hand-held dynamometer findings was good, judged by a coefficient of variation of 3.2–4.2%. However, the correlation between the 2 methods for the assessment of flexor/extensor ratios ranged from −0.04 to 0.46. [Conclusion] Knee extensor and flexor muscle strength recorded with a hand-held dynamometer is reproducible and significantly correlated with the isokinetic values, indicating that this method may in some cases be a useful replacement for isokinetic strength measurement. However, for strength ratio assessment, and when judged against the isokinetic standard, a hand-held dynamometer is not a valid option. PMID:27799667
Shin, Seungsub; Lee, Kyeongjin; Song, Changho
[Purpose] This study aimed to investigate correlations between lumbar bone mineral density (BMD) and general characteristics of postmenopausal females, including body composition, knee extensor strength, standing balance, and femur BMD. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 40 postmenopausal females (55.6 ± 4.6 years) who were caregivers or guardians of patients in the K hospital were included in the study. The weight, height, body composition, left and right knee extensor strength, standing balance, femur BMD, and lumbar BMD measurements of the subjects were obtained. [Results] The effect of measurement variables on lumbar BMD was examined. Increases in age and menopausal duration were observed to significantly increase lumbar BMD, whereas an increase in height was found to significantly decrease lumbar BMD. An increase in soft lean mass, skeletal muscle mass, fat-free mass, and femur BMD was also associated with significantly decreased lumbar BMD. [Conclusion] Age, menopausal duration, soft lean mass, skeletal muscle mass, and fat-free mass were factors that decreased lumbar BMD in menopausal females. This study is expected to provide basic knowledge for osteoporosis prevention and treatment programs for postmenopausal females. PMID:27512276
Muff, Guillaume; Dufour, Stéphane; Meyer, Alain; Severac, François; Favret, Fabrice; Geny, Bernard; Lecocq, Jehan; Isner-Horobeti, Marie-Eve
[Purpose] To compare measurements of knee extensor and flexor muscle strength performed using a hand-held dynamometer and an isokinetic dynamometer in apparently healthy subjects. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty adult volunteers underwent knee muscle strength evaluation using an isokinetic or a hand-held dynamometer. [Results] Strong positive correlations were found between the 2 methods, with correlation coefficients r ranging from 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48-0.86) to 0.87 (95% CI, 0.75-0.94), depending on the muscle group and the isokinetic evaluation mode. The reproducibility of the hand-held dynamometer findings was good, judged by a coefficient of variation of 3.2-4.2%. However, the correlation between the 2 methods for the assessment of flexor/extensor ratios ranged from -0.04 to 0.46. [Conclusion] Knee extensor and flexor muscle strength recorded with a hand-held dynamometer is reproducible and significantly correlated with the isokinetic values, indicating that this method may in some cases be a useful replacement for isokinetic strength measurement. However, for strength ratio assessment, and when judged against the isokinetic standard, a hand-held dynamometer is not a valid option.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the intra-examiner and inter-examiner reliabilities of measurements of knee extensor muscle strength using a pull-type hand-held dynamometer (HHD). [Subjects] Fifty-four healthy adults (35 males; average age, 23 years) participated in this study. [Methods] Knee extensor muscle strength of each leg was measured three times using the HHD. To examine the intra- and inter-examiner reliabilities, measurements were performed by two examiners, a physical therapist and a physical therapy student. [Results] The intra-examiner reliabilities, ICC (1, 1) and ICC (1, 3) ranged from 0.94-0.99. The inter-examiner reliabilities, ICC (2, 1) and ICC (3, 1) ranged from 0.90-0.92 for the right leg, and 0.88-0.90 for the left leg. Neither constant nor proportional errors were found by Bland-Altman analysis. [Conclusion] Intra-examiner and inter-examiner reliabilities were acceptable, indicating that muscle strength can be measured with the pull-type HHD without dependence on skill of measurement. Pain was not caused by measurements with the pull-type HHD.
Arnaud, S.; Berry, P; Cohen, M.; Danelis, J.; Deroshia, C.; Greenleaf, J.; Harris, B.; Keil, L.; Bernauer, E.; Bond, M.; Ellis, S.; Lee, P.; Selzer, R.; Wade, C.
Report describes experiment to investigate effects of isotonic and isokinetic leg exercises in counteracting effects of bed rest upon physical and mental conditions of subjects. Data taken on capacity for work, endurance and strength, tolerance to sitting up, equilibrium, posture, gait, atrophy, mineralization and density of bones, endocrine analyses concerning vasoactivity and fluid and electrolyte balances, intermediary metabolism of muscles, mood, and performance.
Coggan, Andrew R; Leibowitz, Joshua L; Kadkhodayan, Ana; Thomas, Deepak P; Ramamurthy, Sujata; Spearie, Catherine Anderson; Waller, Suzanne; Farmer, Marsha; Peterson, Linda R
Nitric oxide (NO) has been demonstrated to enhance the maximal shortening velocity and maximal power of rodent muscle. Dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) intake has been demonstrated to increase NO bioavailability in humans. We therefore hypothesized that acute dietary NO3(-) intake (in the form of a concentrated beetroot juice (BRJ) supplement) would improve muscle speed and power in humans. To test this hypothesis, healthy men and women (n = 12; age = 22-50 y) were studied using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design. After an overnight fast, subjects ingested 140 mL of BRJ either containing or devoid of 11.2 mmol of NO3(-). After 2 h, knee extensor contractile function was assessed using a Biodex 4 isokinetic dynamometer. Breath NO levels were also measured periodically using a Niox Mino analyzer as a biomarker of whole-body NO production. No significant changes in breath NO were observed in the placebo trial, whereas breath NO rose by 61% (P < 0.001; effect size = 1.19) after dietary NO3(-) intake. This was accompanied by a 4% (P < 0.01; effect size = 0.74) increase in peak knee extensor power at the highest angular velocity tested (i.e., 6.28 rad/s). Calculated maximal knee extensor power was therefore greater (i.e., 7.90 ± 0.59 vs. 7.44 ± 0.53 W/kg; P < 0.05; effect size = 0.63) after dietary NO3(-) intake, as was the calculated maximal velocity (i.e., 14.5 ± 0.9 vs. 13.1 ± 0.8 rad/s; P < 0.05; effect size = 0.67). No differences in muscle function were observed during 50 consecutive knee extensions performed at 3.14 rad/s. We conclude that acute dietary NO3(-) intake increases whole-body NO production and muscle speed and power in healthy men and women.
Chung-Hoon, Kaiwi; Tracy, Brian L.; Dibble, Leland E.; Marcus, Robin L.; Burgess, Paul; LaStayo, Paul C.
Background Older adults often experience impaired mobility, lower extremity muscle weakness, and increased fall risk. Furthermore, when older adults perform tasks that require control of submaximal force, impairments in their ability to maintain steady and accurate force output has been reported. Such problems may be related to deteriorating levels of mobility, particularly in older adults who have fallen. Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether an association exists between muscle force steadiness (MFS) or muscle force accuracy (MFA) of the knee extensors and mobility in older adults who have fallen. Methods Twenty older adults (x̄ = 77.5 ± 7yrs, 5 males and 15 females) with 2 or more co-morbid conditions and who experienced a fall in the past year underwent assessment of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of the knee extensors. A submaximal target force of 50% of their MVIC was used to determine concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) steadiness (the fluctuations in force production) and accuracy (the average distance of the mean force from the target force) measures. Mobility was indicated by the 6 minute walk test (6MWT), the timed up and go (TUG), stair ascent (StA), and stair descent (StD) tests. Correlation analysis was used to assess the relation between measures of muscle force control and mobility. Results The correlations between MFS and mobility were not significant (p>0.05) for either contraction type. However, MFA during ECC contractions only, were correlated significantly with all measures of mobility: 6MWT (r=−0.48, p=0.03), TUG (r=0.68, p=0.01), StA (r=0.60, p=0.01), StD (r=0.75, p<0.01). Conclusion The identification of the relationship between ECC MFA and mobility in older adults who have fallen is novel. While the correlations are not causal, these relationships suggest inaccurate force output during ECC contractions of the knee extensors is linked to impaired mobility. PMID:25695470
Miyamoto, Naokazu; Yanai, Toshimasa; Kawakami, Yasuo
The purpose of this study was to compare the extent of twitch potentiation (TP) after stimulated or voluntary contractions at identical intensities for the human knee extensor muscles. Isometric knee extensions of 10 s were performed at 20%, 40%, and 60% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque level, through percutaneous electrical stimulation of the quadriceps at 80 Hz or voluntary contraction. Twitch responses were evoked by stimulating the femoral nerve percutaneously with supramaximal intensity. The extent of TP after the stimulated contraction was greater than that after the voluntary contraction at the 20% MVC torque level, whereas a stimulated contraction induced a smaller extent of TP than did a voluntary contraction at contraction intensities higher than 40% MVC. We suggest that this contraction intensity dependence of differences in TP after stimulated and voluntary isometric conditioning contractions is responsible for differences in the recruitment pattern of motor units during the conditioning contractions.
Martin, B J
Acute loss of sleep produces few apparent physiological effects at rest. Nevertheless, many anecdotes suggest that adequate sleep is essential for optimum endurance athletic performance. To investigate this question, heavy exercise performance after 36 h without sleep was compared with that after normal sleep in eight subjects. During prolonged treadmill walking at about 80% of the VO2 max, sleep loss reduced work time to exhaustion by an average of 11% (p = 0.05). This decrease occurred despite doubling monetary incentives for subjects during work after sleeplessness. Subjects appeared to fall into "resistant" and "susceptible" categories: four showed less than a 5% change in performance after sleep loss, while four others showed decrements in exercise tolerance ranging from 15 to 40%. During the walk, sleep loss resulted in significantly greater perceived exertion (p less than 0.05), even though exercise heart rate and metabolic rate (VO2 and VCO2) were unchanged. Minute ventilation was significantly elevated during exercise after sleep loss ( p less than 0.05). Sleep loss failed to alter the continuous slow rises in VE and heart rate that occurred as work was prolonged. These findings suggest that the psychological effects of acute sleep loss may contribute to decreased tolerance of prolonged heavy exercise.
Mora-Rodríguez, R; Fernández-Elías, V E; Hamouti, N; Ortega, J F
We studied if dehydrating exercise would reduce muscle water (H2Omuscle ) and affect muscle electrolyte concentrations. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were collected prior, immediately after, and 1 and 4 h after prolonged dehydrating exercise (150 min at 33 ± 1 °C, 25% ± 2% humidity) on nine endurance-trained cyclists (VO2max = 54.4 ± 1.05 mL/kg/min). Plasma volume (PV) changes and fluid shifts between compartments (Cl(-) method) were measured. Exercise dehydrated subjects 4.7% ± 0.3% of body mass by losing 2.75 ± 0.15 L of water and reducing PV 18.4% ± 1% below pre-exercise values (P < 0.05). Right after exercise H2Omuscle remained at pre-exercise values (i.e., 398 ± 6 mL/100 g dw muscle(-1)) but declined 13% ± 2% (342 ± 12 mL/100 g dw muscle(-1); P < 0.05) after 1 h of supine rest. At that time, PV recovered toward pre-exercise levels. The Cl(-) method corroborated the shift of fluid between extracellular and intracellular compartments. After 4 h of recovery, PV returned to pre-exercise values; however, H2Omuscle remained reduced at the same level. Muscle Na(+) and K(+) increased (P < 0.05) in response to the H2Omuscle reductions. Our findings suggest that active skeletal muscle does not show a net loss of H2O during prolonged dehydrating exercise. However, during the first hour of recovery H2Omuscle decreases seemly to restore PV and thus cardiovascular stability.
Convertino, V. A.
Exercise represents the primary countermeasure used during spaceflight to maintain or restore maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max), musculoskeletal structure, and orthostatic function. However, no single exercise or combination of prescriptions has proven entirely effective in restoring cardiovascular and musculoskeletal functions to preflight levels following prolonged spaceflight. As human spaceflight exposures increase in duration, assessment and development of various effective exercise-based protective procedures become paramount. This must involve improvement in specific countermeasure prescription as well as development of additional approaches that will allow space travelers greater flexibility and medical safety during long flights. Effective exercise prescription will be based on identification of basic physiological stimuli that maintain normal function in terrestrial gravity and understanding of how specific combinations of exercise characteristics e.g., duration, frequency, intensity, mode) can mimic these stimuli and affect the overall process of adaptation to microgravity. This can be accomplished only with greater emphasis of research on ground-based experiments. Future attention must be directed to improving exercise compliance while minimizing both crew time and the impact of the exercise on life-support resources.
Aye, Thanda; Thein, Soe; Hlaing, Thaingi
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether strength training programs for hip extensors and knee extensors improve gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy in Myanmar. [Subjects and Methods] Forty children (25 boys and 15 girls, mean age: 6.07 ± 2.74 years) from National Rehabilitation Hospital, Yangon, Myanmar, who had been diagnosed with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy, Gross Motor Classification System I and II participated in a 6-week strength training program (45 minutes per day, 3 days per week) on hip and knee extensors. Assessment was made, before and after intervention, of the amount of training weight in pounds, as well as Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) dimensions D (standing) and E (walking, running, jumping). [Results] All scores had increased significantly after the strength-training program. [Conclusion] A simple method of strength-training program for hip and knee extensors might lead to improved muscle strength and gross motor function in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.
Aye, Thanda; Thein, Soe; Hlaing, Thaingi
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether strength training programs for hip extensors and knee extensors improve gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy in Myanmar. [Subjects and Methods] Forty children (25 boys and 15 girls, mean age: 6.07 ± 2.74 years) from National Rehabilitation Hospital, Yangon, Myanmar, who had been diagnosed with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy, Gross Motor Classification System I and II participated in a 6-week strength training program (45 minutes per day, 3 days per week) on hip and knee extensors. Assessment was made, before and after intervention, of the amount of training weight in pounds, as well as Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) dimensions D (standing) and E (walking, running, jumping). [Results] All scores had increased significantly after the strength-training program. [Conclusion] A simple method of strength-training program for hip and knee extensors might lead to improved muscle strength and gross motor function in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. PMID:27065561
Fernandez-del-Olmo, M; Rodriguez, F A; Marquez, G; Iglesias, X; Marina, M; Benitez, A; Vallejo, L; Acero, R M
Central and peripheral fatigue have been explored during and after running or cycling exercises. However, the fatigue mechanisms associated with a short maximal cycling exercise (30 s Wingate test) have not been investigated. In this study, 10 volunteer subjects performed several isometric voluntary contractions using the leg muscle extensors before and after two bouts of cycling at 25% of maximal power output and two bouts of Wingate tests. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electrical motor nerve stimulation (NM) were applied at rest and during the voluntary contractions. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), voluntary activation (VA), twitch amplitude evoked by electrical nerve stimulation, M wave and motor potential evoked by TMS (MEP) were recorded. MVC, VA and twitch amplitude evoked at rest by NM decreased significantly after the first and second Wingate tests, indicating central and peripheral fatigue. MVC and VA, but not the twitch amplitude evoked by NM, recovered before the second Wingate test. These results suggest that the Wingate test results in a decrease in MVC associated with peripheral and central fatigue. While the peripheral fatigue is associated with an intramuscular impairment, the central fatigue seems to be the main reason for the Wingate test-induced impairment of MVC.
Callahan, Damien M.; Tourville, Timothy W.; Slauterbeck, James R.; Ades, Philip A.; Stevens-Lapsley, Jennifer; Beynnon, Bruce D.; Toth, Michael J.
We examined the effect of knee osteoarthritis on the rate of torque development (RTD) of the knee extensors in older adults with advanced-stage knee osteoarthritis (OA; n=15) and recreationally-active controls (n=15) of similar age, sex and health status, as well as the relationship between RTD and the size and contractility of single muscle fibers. OA participants had lower RTD when expressed in absolute terms (Nm/ms). There were sex differences in peak RTD (P<0.05), with greater RTD in men, but no group by sex interaction effects for any variables. The lower RTD in OA versus controls was not explained by variation between groups in the fiber type admixture of the muscle, and was mitigated when RTD was normalized to peak torque (PT). In knee OA volunteers, we found strong correlations between the RTD expressed relative to PT and the velocity of contraction of single myosin heavy chain (MHC) I and IIA/X muscle fibers (r=0.652 and 0.862; both P<0.05) and power output of MHC I fibers (r=0.642; P<0.05). In controls, RTD relative to PT was related to fiber cross-sectional area of MHC IIA/X fibers (r=0.707; P<0.05), but not measures of single fiber contractile performance. To our knowledge, these results represent the first demonstration that variation in whole muscle contractile kinetics in patients with advanced-stage knee osteoarthritis and healthy older adults is related, in part, to the size and function of single muscle fibers. PMID:26343257
Vanderthommen, Marc; Triffaux, Mylène; Demoulin, Christophe; Crielaard, Jean-Michel; Croisier, Jean-Louis
The purpose was to study the effects on muscle function of an electrical stimulation bout applied unilaterally on thigh muscles in healthy male volunteers. One group (ES group, n = 10) received consecutively 100 isometric contractions of quadriceps and 100 isometric contractions of hamstrings (on-off ratio 6-6 s) induced by neuromuscular electrical stimulations (NMES). Changes in muscle torque, muscle soreness (0-10 VAS), muscle stiffness and serum creatine kinase (CK) activity were assessed before the NMES exercise (pre-ex) as well as 24h (d+1), 48h (d+2) and 120h (d+5) after the bout. A second group (control group, n = 10) were submitted to the same test battery than the ES group and with the same time-frame. The between-group comparison indicated a significant increase in VAS scores and in serum levels of CK only in the ES group. In the ES group, changes were more pronounced in hamstrings than in quadriceps and peaked at d+2 (quadriceps VAS scores = 2.20 ± 1.55 a.u. (0 at pre-ex); hamstrings VAS scores = 3.15 ± 2.14 a.u. (0 at pre-ex); hip flexion angle = 62 ± 5° (75 ± 6° at pre-ex); CK activity = 3021 ± 2693 IU·l-1 (136 ± 50 IU·l-1 at pre-ex)). The results of the present study suggested the occurrence of muscle damage that could have been induced by the peculiar muscle recruitment in NMES and the resulting overrated mechanical stress. The sensitivity to the damaging effects of NMES appeared higher in the hamstrings than in quadriceps muscles. Key points A stimulation bout of quadriceps and hamstrings that reflects usual application of NMES, increases indirect markers of muscle damage (muscle soreness, muscle weakness and stiffness and serum CK activity). The occurrence of muscle damage could have been induced by the peculiar muscle recruitment in NMES and the resulting overrated mechanical stress. The sensitivity to the damaging effects of NMES appears higher in the hamstrings than in quadriceps muscles. PMID:24150067
Zorn, Carina; Szekeres, Thomas; Keilani, Mohammad; Fialka‐Moser, Veronika; Crevenna, Richard
Aim To evaluate the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on muscle soreness and on a variety of serum parameters during and after NMES of knee extensor muscles of young, well trained subjects over a study period of 96 h. Methods Five male cyclists were included in this clinical observation. NMES (biphasic, asymmetric impulses) was applied through surface electrodes to both knee extensor muscles of each subject for 30 min. To determine changes in serum concentration of muscle proteins, blood samples were drawn at defined measure points before and after NMES. Muscle soreness was evaluated using a visual analogue scale at all measure points. Results There was a maximum (p<0.05) for “muscle pain” during stimulation but no significant changes could be detected after the stimulation period. Serum creatine kinase showed a peak with a significant increase (p<0.05) 24 h after NMES. Serum lactate levels only increased slightly (p = 0.08) during NMES. Conclusions Although the changes of blood parameters measured in the present work correspond to those reported in the literature on eccentric strength training, no delayed onset muscle pain could be detected. Further studies should be carried out, also investigating different stimulation protocols in non‐trained healthy subjects and in patients with less muscle mass. PMID:18037643
Earp, Jacob E; Newton, Robert U; Cormie, Prue; Blazevich, Anthony J
Tendon stiffness increases as the magnitude and rate of loading increases, according to its viscoelastic properties. Thus, under some loading conditions tendons should become exceptionally stiff and act almost as rigid force transducers. Nonetheless, observations of tendon behavior during multi-joint sprinting and jumping tasks have shown that tendon strain increases whilst muscle strain decreases as the loading intensity increases. The purpose of the current study was to examine the influence of external loading intensity on muscle-tendon unit (MTU) behavior during a high-speed single-joint, stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) knee extension task. Eighteen men (n = 9) and women (n = 9) performed single-leg, maximum intensity SSC knee extensions at loads of 20, 60 and 90% of their one repetition maximum. Vastus lateralis fascicle length (L(f)) and velocity (v(f)) as well as MTU (L(MTU)) and tendinous tissue (L(t)) length were measured using high-speed ultrasonography (96 Hz). Patellar tendon force (F(t)) and rate of force development (RFDt) were estimated using inverse dynamics. Results showed that as loading intensity increased, concentric joint velocity and shortening v f decreased whilst F t and RFDt increased, but no significant differences were observed in eccentric joint velocity or peak L(MTU) or L(f). In addition, the tendon lengthened significantly less at the end of the eccentric phase at heavier loads. This is the first observation that tendon strain decreases significantly during a SSC movement as loading intensity increases in vivo, resulting in a shift in the tendon acting as a power amplifier at light loads to a more rigid force transducer at heavy loads.
Caiozzo, V J; Haddad, F; Lee, S; Baker, M; Paloski, William; Baldwin, K M
The goal of this project was to examine the effects of artificial gravity (AG) on skeletal muscle strength and key anabolic/catabolic markers known to regulate muscle mass. Two groups of subjects were selected for study: 1) a 21 day-bed rest (BR) group (n = 7) and 2) an AG group (n = 8), which was subjected to 21 days of 6 degrees head-down tilt bed rest plus daily 1-h exposures to AG (2.5 G at the feet). Centrifugation was produced using a short-arm centrifuge with the foot plate approximately 220 cm from the center of rotation. The torque-velocity relationships of the knee extensors and plantar flexors of the ankle were determined pre- and posttreatment. Muscle biopsy samples obtained from the vastus lateralis and soleus muscles were used for a series of gene expression analyses (mRNA abundance) of key factors implicated in the anabolic vs. catabolic state of the muscle. Post/pre torque-velocity determinations revealed greater decrements in knee extensor performance in the BR vs. AG group (P < 0.04). The plantar flexors of the AG subjects actually demonstrated a net gain in the torque-velocity relationship, whereas in the BR group, the responses declined (AG vs. BR, P < 0.001). Muscle fiber cross-sectional area decreased by approximately 20% in the BR group, whereas no losses were evident in the AG group. RT-PCR analyses of muscle biopsy specimens demonstrated that markers of growth and cytoskeletal integrity were higher in the AG group, whereas catabolic markers were elevated in the BR group. Importantly, these patterns were seen in both muscles. We conclude that paradigms of AG have the potential to maintain the functional, biochemical, and structural homeostasis of skeletal muscle in the face of chronic unloading.
Silva, Andressa; Mello, Marco T.; Serrão, Paula R.; Luz, Roberta P.; Bittencourt, Lia R.; Mattiello, Stela M.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) alters the fluctuation of submaximal isometric torque of the knee extensors in patients with early-grade osteoarthritis (OA). METHOD: The study included 60 male volunteers, aged 40 to 70 years, divided into four groups: Group 1 (G1) - Control (n=15): without OA and without OSA; Group 2 (G2) (n=15): with OA and without OSA; Group 3 (G3) (n=15): without OA and with OSA; and Group 4 (G4) (n=15) with OA and with OSA. Five patients underwent maximal isometric contractions of 10 seconds duration each, with the knee at 60° of flexion to determine peak torque at 60°. To evaluate the fluctuation of torque, 5 submaximal isometric contractions (50% of maximum peak torque) of 10 seconds each, which were calculated from the standard deviation of torque and coefficient of variation, were performed. RESULTS: Significant differences were observed between groups for maximum peak torque, while G4 showed a lower value compared with G1 (p=0.005). Additionally, for the average torque exerted, G4 showed a lower value compared to the G1 (p=0.036). However, no differences were found between the groups for the standard deviation (p=0.844) and the coefficient of variation (p=0.143). CONCLUSION: The authors concluded that OSA did not change the parameters of the fluctuation of isometric submaximal torque of knee extensors in patients with early-grade OA. PMID:26443974
Hyun, Ju; Kim, Young Mi; Hwangbo, Kak; Kim, Young Mi
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise on muscle damage indices in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Two groups of rats were trained in either moderate- or high-intensity treadmill running for 4 weeks. Subsequently, the concentrations of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were examined following a single bout of prolonged (3-h) intensive exercise. [Subjects and Methods] The study included forty 6-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 150–180 g each. The aerobic exercise group was divided into high-intensity (28 m/min) and moderate-intensity (15 m/min) subgroups. Both subgroups were trained for 35 min daily for 6 days per week (excluding Sunday) over a 4-week period. Following training, the high- and moderate-intensity exercise groups and a non-exercise group performed one bout of prolonged (3-h) treadmill exercise for 3 hours at a speed of 15 m/min. [Results] Creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase levels differed significantly among the groups. [Conclusion] The preliminary exercise groups showed lower muscle damage and inflammatory response levels than the non-exercise group after the bout of prolonged intensive exercise. PMID:27390433
Kimura, Takehide; Matsuura, Ryouta; Arimitsu, Takuma; Yunoki, Takahiro; Yano, Tokuo
The aim of this study was to determine whether the increase in blood volume in resting muscle during moderately prolonged exercise is related to heart rate (HR) upward drift. Eight healthy men completed both arm-cranking moderately prolonged exercise (APE) and leg-pedaling moderately prolonged exercise (LPE) for 30 min. Exercise intensity was 120 bpm of HR that was determined by ramp incremental exercise. During both APE and LPE, HR significantly increased from 3 to 30 min (from 108±9.3 to 119±12 bpm and from 112±8.9 to 122±11 bpm, respectively). However, there was no significant difference between HR in APE and that in LPE. Oxygen uptake was maintained throughout the two exercises. Skin blood flow, deep temperature, and total Hb (blood volume) in resting muscle continuously increased for 30 min of exercise during both APE and LPE. During both APE and LPE, there was a significant positive correlation between total Hb and deep temperature in all subjects. Moreover, there was a significant positive correlation between HR and total Hb (in seven out of eight subjects) during LPE. However, during APE, there was no positive correlation between HR and total Hb (r=0.391). These findings suggest that an increase of blood pooling in resting muscle could be proposed as one of the mechanisms underlying HR upward drift during moderately prolonged exercise.
Giandolini, Marlene; Vernillo, Gianluca; Samozino, Pierre; Horvais, Nicolas; Edwards, W Brent; Morin, Jean-Benoît; Millet, Guillaume Y
Scientific experiments on running mainly consider level running. However, the magnitude and etiology of fatigue depend on the exercise under consideration, particularly the predominant type of contraction, which differs between level, uphill, and downhill running. The purpose of this review is to comprehensively summarize the neurophysiological and biomechanical changes due to fatigue in graded running. When comparing prolonged hilly running (i.e., a combination of uphill and downhill running) to level running, it is found that (1) the general shape of the neuromuscular fatigue-exercise duration curve as well as the etiology of fatigue in knee extensor and plantar flexor muscles are similar and (2) the biomechanical consequences are also relatively comparable, suggesting that duration rather than elevation changes affects neuromuscular function and running patterns. However, 'pure' uphill or downhill running has several fatigue-related intrinsic features compared with the level running. Downhill running induces severe lower limb tissue damage, indirectly evidenced by massive increases in plasma creatine kinase/myoglobin concentration or inflammatory markers. In addition, low-frequency fatigue (i.e., excitation-contraction coupling failure) is systematically observed after downhill running, although it has also been found in high-intensity uphill running for different reasons. Indeed, low-frequency fatigue in downhill running is attributed to mechanical stress at the interface sarcoplasmic reticulum/T-tubule, while the inorganic phosphate accumulation probably plays a central role in intense uphill running. Other fatigue-related specificities of graded running such as strategies to minimize the deleterious effects of downhill running on muscle function, the difference of energy cost versus heat storage or muscle activity changes in downhill, level, and uphill running are also discussed.
Walz, E; Lane, AR; Pebole, M; Hackney, AC
This study assessed the influence of estrogen (E2) on muscle damage biomarkers [skeletal muscle - creatine kinase (CK); cardiac muscle - CK-MB] responses to prolonged aerobic exercise. Eumenorrheic women (n=10) who were physically active completed two 60-minute treadmill running sessions at ∼60-65% maximal intensity during low E2 (midfollicular menstrual phase) and high E2 (midluteal menstrual phase) hormonal conditions. Blood samples were collected prior to exercise (following supine rest), immediately post-, 30 min post-, and 24 hours post-exercise to determine changes in muscle biomarkers. Resting blood samples confirmed appropriate E2 hormonal levels Total CK concentrations increased following exercise and at 24 hours post-exercise were higher in the midfollicular low E2 phase (p<0.001). However, CK-MB concentrations were unaffected by E2 level or exercise (p=0.442) resulting in the ratio of CK-MB to total CK being consistently low in subject responses (i.e., indicative of skeletal muscle damage). Elevated E2 levels reduce the CK responses of skeletal muscle, but had no effect on CK-MB responses following prolonged aerobic exercise. These findings support earlier work showing elevated E2 is protective of skeletal muscle from exercise-induced damage associated with prolonged aerobic exercise. PMID:26424921
Sinoway, L.; Shenberger, J.; Leaman, G.; Zelis, R.; Gray, K.; Baily, R.; Leuenberger, U.
We previously demonstrated that nonfatiguing rhythmic forearm exercise at 25% maximal voluntary contraction (12 2-s contractions/min) evokes sympathoexcitation without significant engagement of metabolite-sensitive muscle afferents (B.A. Batman, J.C. Hardy, U.A. Leuenberger, M.B. Smith, Q.X. Yang and L.I. Sinoway. J. Appl. Physiol. 76: 1077-1081, 1994). This is in contrast to the sympathetic nervous system responses observed during fatiguing static forearm exercise where metabolite-sensitive afferents are the key determinants of sympathetic activation. In this report we examined whether forearm exercise training would attenuate sympathetic nervous system responses to rhythmic forearm exercise. We measured heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), muscle sympathetic nerve activity (microneurography), plasma norepinephrine (NE), and NE spillover and clearance (tritiated NE kinetics) during nonfatiguing rhythmic forearm exercise before and after a 4-wk unilateral forearm training paradigm. Training had no effect on forearm mass, maximal voluntary contraction, or heart rate but did attenuate the increase in MAP (increase in MAP: from 15.2 +/- 1.8 before training to 11.4 +/- 1.4 mmHg after training; P < 0.017), muscle sympathetic nerve activity (increase in bursts: from 10.8 +/- 1.4 before training to 6.2 +/- 1.1 bursts/min after training; P < 0.030), and the NE spillover (increases in arterial spillover: from 1.3 +/- 0.2 before training to 0.6 +/- 0.2 nmol.min-1.m-2 after training, P < 0.014; increase in venous spillover: from 2.0 +/- 0.6 before training to 1.0 +/- 0.5 nmol.min-1.m-2 after training, P < 0.037) seen in response to exercise performed by the trained forearm. Thus forearm training reduces sympathetic responses during a nonfatiguing rhythmic handgrip paradigm that does not engage muscle metaboreceptors. We speculate that this effect is due to a conditioning-induced reduction in mechanically sensitive muscle afferent discharge.
Hargens, Alan R; Bhattacharya, Roshmi; Schneider, Suzanne M
When applied individually, exercise countermeasures employed to date do not fully protect the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems during prolonged spaceflight. Recent ground-based research suggests that it is necessary to perform exercise countermeasures within some form of artificial gravity to prevent microgravity deconditioning. In this regard, it is important to provide normal foot-ward loading and intravascular hydrostatic-pressure gradients to maintain musculoskeletal and cardiovascular function. Aerobic exercise within a centrifuge restores cardiovascular function, while aerobic exercise within lower body negative pressure restores cardiovascular function and helps protect the musculoskeletal system. Resistive exercise with vibration stimulation may increase the effectiveness of resistive exercise by preserving muscle function, allowing lower intensity exercises, and possibly reducing risk of loss of vision during prolonged spaceflight. Inexpensive methods to induce artificial gravity alone (to counteract head-ward fluid shifts) and exercise during artificial gravity (for example, by short-arm centrifuge or exercise within lower body negative pressure) should be developed further and evaluated as multi-system countermeasures.
Schumacher, Yorck O; Garvican, Laura A; Christian, Ryan; Lobigs, Louisa M; Qi, Jiliang; Fan, Rongyun; He, Yingying; Wang, Hailing; Gore, Christopher J; Ma, Fuhai
The Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) detects blood doping in athletes through longitudinal monitoring of erythropoietic markers. Mathematical algorithms are used to define individual reference ranges for these markers for each athlete. It is unclear if altitude and exercise can affect the variables included in these calculations in a way that the changes might be mistaken for blood manipulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the simultaneous strenuous exercise and low to high altitude exposure on the calculation algorithms of the ABP. 14 sea level (SL) and 11 altitude native (ALT) highly trained athletes participated in a 14-day cycling stage race taking place at an average altitude of 2496 m above sea level (min. 1014 m, max. 4120 m), race distances ranged between 96 and 227 km per day. ABP blood measures were taken on days -1,3,6,10,14 (SL) and -1,9,15 (ALT) of the race. Four results from three samples of two different SL athletes exceeded the individual limits at the 99% specificity threshold and one value at 99.9%. In ALT, three results from three samples of three different athletes were beyond the individual limits at 99%, one at 99.9%. The variations could be explained by the expected physiological reaction to exercise and altitude. In summary, the abnormalities observed in the haematological ABP´s of well-trained athletes during extensive exercise at altitude are limited and in line with expected physiological changes.
Benlikaya, Ruhan; Ege, Yavuz; Pündük, Zekine; Slobodian, Petr; Meriç, Gökhan
This study aimed to find out whether a wearable strain sensor including thermoplastic polyurethane composite with a multi-walled carbon nanotube network could be a viable alternative to an isokinetic dynamometer for the measurement of knee-extensor muscle strength. For the first time, the voltage-torque and angle–time relations of the sensor were determined to allow a comparison between the angle-dependent torque changes of the dynamometer and the sensor. This comparison suggested that the torque–angle relations of the dynamometer and the sensor did not have the same characteristics. In this regard, the sensor may be used in the torque measurements due to the moderate correlation between the torque values determined via the isokinetic dynamometer and the sensor and due to the significant difference between low and high torque values of the sensor. By the same token, the torque-angle graph of the sensor may be more informative than that of the dynamometer in evaluation of knee problems.
Tonkonogi, Michail; Harris, Beorn; Sahlin, Kent
The influence of prolonged exhaustive exercise on mitochondrial oxidative function was investigated in ten men. Muscle biopsies were taken before and after exercise and mitochondrial respiration investigated in fibre bundles made permeable by pretreatment with saponin. After exercise, respiration in the absence of ADP increased by 18 % (P < 0.01), but respiration at suboptimal ADP concentration (0.1 mM) and maximal ADP-stimulated respiration (1 mM ADP) remained unchanged. In the presence of creatine (20 mM), mitochondrial affinity for ADP increased markedly and respiration at suboptimal ADP concentration (0.1 mM) was similar (pre-exercise) or higher (post-exercise; P < 0.05) than with 1 mM ADP alone. The increase in respiratory rate with creatine was correlated to the relative type I fibre area (r = 0.84). Creatine-stimulated respiration increased after prolonged exercise (P < 0.01). The respiratory control index (6.8 ± 0.4, mean ± s.e.m.) and the ratio between respiration at 0.1 and 1 mM ADP (ADP sensitivity index, 0.63 ± 0.03) were not changed after exercise. The sensitivity index was negatively correlated to the relative type I fibre area (r = −0.86). The influence of exercise on muscle oxidative function has for the first time been investigated with the skinned-fibre technique. It is concluded that maximal mitochondrial oxidative power is intact or improved after prolonged exercise, while uncoupled respiration is increased. The latter finding may contribute to the elevated post-exercise oxygen consumption. The finding that the sensitivity of mitochondrial respiration for ADP and creatine are related to fibre-type composition indicates intrinsic differences in the control of mitochondrial respiration between fibres. PMID:9625884
Shockett, Penny E; Khanal, Januka; Sitaula, Alina; Oglesby, Christopher; Meachum, William A; Castracane, V Daniel; Kraemer, Robert R
Increased plasma cell-free mitochondrial DNA (cf-mDNA), a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) produced by cellular injury, contributes to neutrophil activation/inflammation in trauma patients and arises in cancer and autoimmunity. To further understand relationships between cf-mDNA released by tissue injury, inflammation, and health benefits of exercise, we examined cf-mDNA response to prolonged moderate aerobic exercise. Seven healthy moderately trained young men (age = 22.4 ± 1.2) completed a treadmill exercise trial for 90 min at 60% VO2 max and a resting control trial. Blood was sampled immediately prior to exercise (0 min = baseline), during (+18, +54 min), immediately after (+90 min), and after recovery (R40). Plasma was analyzed for cf-mDNA, IL-6, and lactate. A significant difference in cf-mDNA response was observed between exercise and control trials, with cf-mDNA levels reduced during exercise at +54 and +90 (with or without plasma volume shift correction). Declines in cf-mDNA were accompanied by increased lactate and followed by an increase in IL-6, suggesting a temporal association with muscle stress and inflammatory processes. Our novel finding of cf-mDNA decline with prolonged moderate treadmill exercise provides evidence for increased clearance from or reduced release of cf-mDNA into the blood with prolonged exercise. These studies contrast with previous investigations involving exhaustive short-term treadmill exercise, in which no change in cf-mDNA levels were reported, and contribute to our understanding of differences between exercise- and trauma-induced inflammation. We propose that transient declines in cf-mDNA may induce health benefits, by reducing systemic inflammation.
Thomas, D E; Brotherhood, J R; Miller, J B
It was hypothesized that slowly digested carbohydrates, that is, low glycemic index (GI) foods, eaten before prolonged strenuous exercise would increase the blood glucose concentration toward the end of exercise. Six trained cyclists pedaled on a cycle ergometer at 65-70% VO2max 60 min after ingestion of each of four test meals: a low-GI and a high-GI powdered food and a low-GI and a high-GI breakfast cereal, all providing 1 g of available carbohydrate per kilogram of body mass. Plasma glucose levels after more that 90 min of exercise were found to correlate inversely with the observed GI of the foods (p < .01). Free fatty acid levels during the last hour of exercise also correlated inversely with the GI (p < .05). The findings suggest that the slow digestion of carbohydrate in the prevent food favors higher concentrations of fuels in the blood toward the end of exercise.
Backhouse, S H; Ali, A; Biddle, S J H; Williams, C
This study was designed to determine the effects of ingesting a carbohydrate (CHO) solution on affective states and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during prolonged intermittent high-intensity exercise. Seventeen male soccer players completed a prolonged intermittent high-intensity exercise protocol for 90 min on two occasions, separated by at least 7 days. Participants consumed either a 6.4% CHO (0.6 g/kg body mass (BM)/h) or an artificially sweetened placebo (PLA) solution immediately before (8 mL/kg BM) and every 15 min (3 mL/kg BM) during exercise in a double-blind, counterbalanced design. Pleasure-displeasure, perceived activation, RPE and plasma glucose concentration was assessed. The results showed that compared with the CHO trial, perceived activation were lower in the placebo trial during the last 30 min of exercise and this was accompanied by lowered plasma glucose concentrations. In the CHO trial, RPE was maintained in the last 30 min of exercise but carried on increasing in the PLA trial. Therefore, CHO ingestion during prolonged high-intensity exercise appears to elicit an enhanced perceived activation profile that may impact upon task persistence and performance. This finding is in addition to the physiological and metabolic benefits of the exogenous energy supply.
Ditroilo, Massimiliano; Watsford, Mark; De Vito, Giuseppe
The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and inter-day reliability of musculo-articular stiffness (MAS) in the knee-extensor (KE) and knee-flexor (KF) muscle groups, measured with a free-oscillation technique. Fourteen participants were measured, on two occasions, for KE and KF maximal isometric voluntary contraction, rate of torque development (RTD) and electromechanical delay (EMD), along with MAS using multiple sub-maximal loads relative to the individual's maximal voluntary contraction (MAS(%MVC)). Furthermore, 18 participants were tested for MAS using one fixed assessment load for each muscle group (MAS(FL)) during a separate series of tests on three occasions. MAS(%MVC) was significantly increased as load increased both in KE and in KF (p<0.01) fitting a curvilinear relationship as depicted in similar studies. Validity was demonstrated relating MAS(%MVC) to RTD (r=0.51-0.71, p<0.05) and to EMD (r=-0.56 to -0.67, p<0.05). While MAS(%MVC) reliability (ICC=0.62-0.89; CV=8.1-13.1%) was questionable to acceptable, MAS(FL) exhibited good to excellent reliability (ICC=0.81-0.94; CV=3.7-6.5%). No significant systematic bias was detected for any of the variables considered. The assessment of KE and KF MAS using the free-oscillation technique appears to be valid and reliable, with the use of MAS(FL) yielding higher reliability than the use of MAS(%MVC).
Tempest, Gavin D; Davranche, Karen; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Perrey, Stephane; Radel, Rémi
The acute-exercise effects upon cognitive functions are varied and dependent upon exercise duration and intensity, and the type of cognitive tasks assessed. The hypofrontality hypothesis assumes that prolonged exercise, at physiologically challenging intensities, is detrimental to executive functions due to cerebral perturbations (indicated by reduced prefrontal activity). The present study aimed to test this hypothesis by measuring oxygenation in prefrontal and motor regions using near-infrared spectroscopy during two executive tasks (flanker task and 2-back task) performed while cycling for 60min at a very low intensity and an intensity above the ventilatory threshold. Findings revealed that, compared to very low intensity, physiologically challenging exercise (i) shortened reaction time in the flanker task, (ii) impaired performance in the 2-back task, and (iii) initially increased oxygenation in prefrontal, but not motor regions, which then became stable in both regions over time. Therefore, during prolonged exercise, not only is the intensity of exercise assessed important, but also the nature of the cognitive processes involved in the task. In contrast to the hypofrontality hypothesis, no inverse pattern of oxygenation between prefrontal and motor regions was observed, and prefrontal oxygenation was maintained over time. The present results go against the hypofrontality hypothesis.
Komiyama, Takaaki; Sudo, Mizuki; Higaki, Yasuki; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Ando, Soichi
It has been suggested that acute exercise improves cognitive function. However, little is known about how exercise under hypoxia affects cognitive function. The purpose of this study was to determine if hypoxia alters working memory and executive function during prolonged exercise. Sixteen participants performed cognitive tasks at rest and during exercise under normoxia and hypoxia [fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2)=0.15, corresponding to an altitude of approximately 2600 m]. The level of hypoxia was moderate. We used a combination of Spatial Delayed Response (Spatial DR) task and Go/No-Go (GNG) task, where spatial working memory and executive function are required. Working memory was assessed by the accuracy of the Spatial DR task, and executive function was assessed by the accuracy and reaction time in the GNG task. The participants cycled an ergometer for 30 min under normoxia and moderate hypoxia while keeping their heart rate (HR) at 140 beats/min. They performed the cognitive tasks 5 min and 23 min after their HR reached 140 beats/min. Moderate hypoxia did not alter the accuracy of the Spatial DR (P=0.38) and GNG tasks (P=0.14). In contrast, reaction time in the GNG task significantly decreased during exercise relative to rest under normoxia and moderate hypoxia (P=0.02). These results suggest that moderate hypoxia and resultant biological processes did not provide sufficient stress to impair working memory and executive function during prolonged exercise. The beneficial effects on speed of response appear to persist during prolonged exercise under moderate hypoxia.
van Loon, Luc J C; Tipton, Kevin D
Nutrition plays a key role in allowing the numerous training hours to be translated into useful adaptive responses of various tissues in the individual athlete. Research over the last decade has shown many examples of the impact of dietary interventions to modulate the skeletal muscle adaptive response to prolonged exercise training. Proper nutritional coaching should be applied throughout both training and competition, each with their specific requirements regarding nutrient provision. Such dietary support will improve exercise training efficiency and, as such, further increase performance capacity. Here, we provide an overview on the properties of various nutritional interventions that may be useful to support the adaptive response to exercise training and competition and, as such, to augment exercise training efficiency.
Nazar, K.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Philpott, D.; Pohoska, E.; Olszewska, K.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.
The effect of exhaustive treadmill exercise on ultrastructural changes in the quadriceps femoris muscle was studied in 7 normal, healthy dogs, before and after restricted activity (RA), and following a subsequent 2 month treadmill exercise retraining period for the 5 mo group. Mean time to exhaustion in the 2 mo group decreased from 177 + or - 22 min before to 90 + or - 32 min after RA. Retraining increased tolerance to 219 + or - 73 min; 24 pct. above the before RA and 143 pct. above the after RA time. After RA exhaustion time in the 5 mo group was 25 and 45 min. Before RA, pre-exercise muscle structure was normal and post exercise there was only slight swelling of mitochondria. After RA, pre-exercise, numerous glycogen granules and lipid droplets appeared in the muscle fibers, mitochondria were smaller, and sarcoplasmic reticulum channels widened; post exercise these changes were accentuated and some areas were devoid of glycogen, and there was fiber degradation. After 5 mo RA pre-exercise there were more pronounced changes; mitochondria were very small and dense, there were many lipid droplets, myofibrils were often separated, and the fibers appeared edematous and degenerating; post exercise the sarcoplasmic reticulum was swollen, no glycogen was present, and there was marked swelling and deformation of mitochondria. After retraining, both pre-exercise and post exercise there was still evidence of fiber degeneration. Thus, susceptibility of active skeletal muscle structures and subcellular elements, e.g., mitochondria, to the action of damaging factors occurring during exhaustive exercise is enhanced considerably by prolonged disuse.
Castell, L M; Newsholme, E A
Athletes undergoing intense, prolonged training or participating in endurance races suffer an increased risk of infection due to apparent immunosuppression. Glutamine is an important fuel for some cells of the immune system and may have specific immunostimulatory effects. The plasma glutamine concentration is lower after prolonged, exhaustive exercise: this may contribute to impairment of the immune system at a time when the athlete may be exposed to opportunistic infections. The effects of feeding glutamine was investigated both at rest in sedentary controls and after exhaustive exercise in middle-distance, marathon and ultra-marathon runners, and elite rowers, in training and competition. Questionnaires established the incidence of infection for 7 d after exercise: infection levels were highest in marathon and ultra-marathon runners, and in elite male rowers after intensive training. Plasma glutamine levels were decreased by approximately 20% 1 h after marathon running. A marked increase in numbers of white blood cells occurred immediately after exhaustive exercise, followed by a decrease in the numbers of lymphocytes. The provision of oral glutamine after exercise appeared to have a beneficial effect on the level of subsequent infections. In addition, the ratio of T-helper/T-suppressor cells appeared to be increased in samples from those who received glutamine, compared with placebo.
Gault, Mandy Lucinda; Willems, Mark Elizabeth Theodorus
An ageing related decline in muscle strength and steadiness decreases quality of life and increases the risk for falls. Downhill treadmill walking (DTW) may enhance muscle strength and steadiness in older adults. Eighteen healthy older adults (age: 67 ± 4, body mass: 75 ± 14 kg) completed 12-weeks of level treadmill walking (LTW, 0 %, n = 8) or DTW (-10 %, n = 10) (30 min, 3 days per week) at a self-selected walking speed (re-adjusted in week 4 and 8). Maximal voluntary isometric force (MVIF) and electromyography (EMG) of the m. quadriceps femoris (QF) were measured at baseline, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Steadiness of submaximal (5, 10 and 20 % MVIF) isometric contractions (i.e. coefficient of variation of the force signal) and EMG of QF were measured at baseline and 12 weeks. Baseline MVIF of LTW (340 ± 112 N) and DTW (368 ± 128 N) increased equally by 14 ± 6 and 5 ± 6 % (p < 0.05). Steadiness at 5 %MVIF improved following 12 weeks of LTW (baseline: 0.04 ± 0.01; 12 weeks: 0.03 ± 0.01) and DTW (baseline: 0.04 ± 0.02; 12 weeks: 0.03 ± 0.01 (p < 0.05). EMG root mean square of m. vastus lateralis during MVIF increased by 38 % following 12 weeks of LTW only (p < 0.05). The potential implications for an exercise modality, such as DTW, with a lower oxygen demand, to improve muscle strength could serve as a rehabilitative countermeasure for older adults.
González-Alonso, José; Calbet, José A L; Nielsen, Bodil
The present study examined whether the blood flow to exercising muscles becomes reduced when cardiac output and systemic vascular conductance decline with dehydration during prolonged exercise in the heat. A secondary aim was to determine whether the upward drift in oxygen consumption (V̇O2) during prolonged exercise is confined to the active muscles.Seven euhydrated, endurance-trained cyclists performed two bicycle exercise trials in the heat (35 °C; 40–50% relative humidity; 61 ± 2% of maximal V̇O2), separated by 1 week. During the first trial (dehydration trial, DE), they bicycled until volitional exhaustion (135 ± 4 min, mean ± s.e.m.), while developing progressive dehydration and hyperthermia (3.9 ± 0.3% body weight loss; 39.7 ± 0.2 °C oesophageal temperature, Toes). In the second trial (control trial), they bicycled for the same period of time while maintaining euhydration by ingesting fluids and stabilizing Toes at 38.2 ± 0.1 °C after 30 min exercise.In both trials, cardiac output, leg blood flow (LBF), vascular conductance and V̇O2 were similar after 20 min exercise. During the 20 min-exhaustion period of DE, cardiac output, LBF and systemic vascular conductance declined significantly (8–14%; P < 0.05) yet muscle vascular conductance was unaltered. In contrast, during the same period of control, all these cardiovascular variables tended to increase. After 135 ± 4 min of DE, the 2.0 ± 0.6 l min−1 lower blood flow to the exercising legs accounted for approximately two-thirds of the reduction in cardiac output. Blood flow to the skin also declined markedly as forearm blood flow was 39 ± 8% (P < 0.05) lower in DE vs. control after 135 ± 4 min.In both trials, whole body V̇O2 and leg V̇O2 increased in parallel and were similar throughout exercise. The reduced leg blood flow in DE was accompanied by an even greater increase in femoral arterial-venous O2 (a-vO2) difference.It is concluded that blood flow to the exercising muscles declines
Robson-Ansley, Paula; Walshe, Ian; Ward, Douglas
The aim of our study was twofold, firstly to examine the relationship between plasma concentrations of IL-6, hepcidin and iron following prolonged exercise and secondly, to assess the effect of carbohydrate ingestion on circulating hepcidin concentration post-exercise. The study was a randomised double-blind cross-over design, with participants consuming either a carbohydrate (CHO) or an isovolumetric placebo drink throughout the trial. Nine healthy, trained males completed a treadmill run at 60% vVO(2max) for 120 min followed by a 5 km time trial. Plasma concentrations of both IL-6 and hepcidin significantly increased post-exercise following both trials (p<.05) and returned to baseline by 24 h post (p>.05). A positive correlation between hepcidin and IL-6 was demonstrated immediately following exercise during PLA while there was a trend for a moderate correlation during CHO (PLA trial rho=0.81, p<0.001; CHO trial rho=0.36, p=0.07). Plasma iron was unaffected immediately post-exercise but significantly reduced by 24 h post-exercise compared to baseline. CHO ingestion significantly reduced post-exercise IL-6 (p<.05) but this had no effect on plasma hepcidin or iron concentration. Our data demonstrate CHO supplementation does not alter the rapid hepcidin response associated with exercise and does not prevent a subsequent fall in plasma iron concentration. This finding adds further support to the theory that an exercise-induced, up-regulation of hepcidin activity is a mechanism causing iron deficiency in endurance athletes.
Stavrianeas, Stasinos; Spangenburg, Espen; Batts, Tim; Williams, Jay H; Klug, Gary A
The effects of a single bout of prolonged treadmill exercise [mean=81 (13) min] on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release, uptake and ATPase activity were determined in the costal region of rat diaphragm (D) and red gastrocnemius (RG). Glycogen depletion measurements made immediately following exercise suggested that treadmill running substantially recruited the fibers throughout both muscles. SR Ca(2+) ATPase activity, measured in isolated SR vesicles, decreased in the RG by 33% but remained unchanged in D in response to the exercise bout. This effect in RG was matched by a 37% decline in Ca(2+) uptake and a 28% depression in Ca(2+) release when measured in muscle homogenates. Conversely, Ca(2+) uptake increased between 157% and 263% in the D in the absence of any change in Ca(2+) release. These data show that the attenuation of SR function that has been consistently observed in limb muscle over the last several decades is absent in diaphragm despite the fact that its fibers appear to experience sufficient activity to deplete their glycogen. In fact, the large increase in Ca(2+) uptake in D shows that prolonged activity actually potentiates the ability of SR vesicles to sequester Ca(2+) in the absence of any increase in energy cost. Thus, it appears necessary to re-evaluate the role of exercise in regulating Ca(2+) sequestration by the SR as different muscles may respond in ways that are dictated by their function.
Scoppetta, Fausto; Tartaglia, Micaela; Renzone, Giovanni; Avellini, Luca; Gaiti, Alberto; Scaloni, Andrea; Chiaradia, Elisabetta
Physical exercise induces various stress responses and metabolic adaptations that have not yet been completely elucidated. Novel biomarkers are needed in sport veterinary medicine to monitor training levels and to detect subclinical conditions that can develop into exercise-related diseases. In this study, protein modifications in horse plasma induced by prolonged, aerobic physical exercise were investigated by using a proteomic approach based on 2-DE and combined mass spectrometry procedures. Thirty-eight protein spots, associated with expression products of 13 genes, showed significant quantitative changes; spots identified as membrane Cu amine oxidase, α-1 antitrypsin, α-1 antitrypsin-related protein, caeruloplasmin, α-2 macroglobulin and complement factor C4 were augmented in relative abundance after the race, while haptoglobin β chain, apolipoprotein A-I, transthyretin, retinol binding protein 4, fibrinogen γ chain, complement factor B and albumin fragments were reduced. These results indicate that prolonged physical exercise affects plasma proteins involved in pathways related to inflammation, coagulation, immune modulation, oxidant/antioxidant activity and cellular and vascular damage, with consequent effects on whole horse metabolism.
Choi, Munsang; Yoo, Junsang; Shin, Soonyoung; Lee, Wanhee
[Purpose] This study investigated the effect of stepper exercise with visual feedback on strength, walking, and stair climbing in stroke patients. [Subjects] Twenty-six stroke patients were divided randomly into the stepper exercise with visual feedback group (n = 13) or the stepper exercise group (n = 13). [Methods] Subjects in the experimental group received feedback through the mirror during exercise, while those in the control group performed the exercise without visual feedback; both groups exercised for the 30 min thrice per week for 6 weeks. The hip extensor and knee extensor strength, 10-m walking test results, and 11-step stair climbing test results were evaluated before and after the intervention. [Results] The stepper exercise with visual feedback group showed significantly greater improvement for hip extensor strength and the 10-m walking test. The knee extensor strength and 11-step stair climbing in both groups showed significantly greater improvement after the intervention, but without any significant difference between groups. [Conclusion] The findings of this study indicate that the stepper exercise with visual feedback can help improve the strength of the hip extensor and the 10-m walking test; the stepper exercise alone may also improve the knee extensor strength and stair climbing ability. PMID:26180336
Nieman, D C; Nehlsen-Cannarella, S L; Fagoaga, O R; Henson, D A; Utter, A; Davis, J M; Williams, F; Butterworth, D E
The influence of exercise mode and 6% carbohydrate (C) vs. placebo (P) beverage ingestion on granulocyte and monocyte phagocytosis and oxidative burst activity (GMPOB) after prolonged and intensive exertion was measured in 10 triathletes. The triathletes acted as their own controls and ran or cycled for 2.5 h at approximately 75% maximal O2 uptake, ingesting C or P (4 total sessions, random order, with beverages administered in double-blind fashion). During the 2. 5-h exercise bouts, C or P (4 ml/kg) was ingested every 15 min. Five blood samples were collected (15 min before exercise, immediately after exercise, and 1.5, 3, and 6 h after exercise). The pattern of change over time for GMPOB was significantly different between C and P conditions (P = 0.05), with postexercise values lower during the C trials. Little difference was measured between running and cycling modes. C relative to P ingestion (but not exercise mode) was associated with higher plasma levels of glucose and insulin, lower plasma levels of cortisol and growth hormone, and lower blood neutrophil and monocyte cell counts. These data indicate that C vs. P ingestion is associated with higher plasma glucose levels, an attenuated cortisol response, and lower GMPOB.
Tesch, P A; Karlsson, J
Five elite flatwater kayak paddlers were studied during indoor simulated 500 and 10,000-m races, with performance times of 2 and 45 min, respectively. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the midportion of m. deltoideus immediately pre and post exercise. Concentrations of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), creatine phosphate (CP), glucose, glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P), glycogen, and lactate were subsequently determined. Short term exercise resulted in statistically significant increases in glucose (P less than 0.001), G-6-P (P less than 0.05) and lactate (P less than 0.01) concentration concomitant with decreased CP (P less than 0.05) and glycogen (P less than 0.01). Following prolonged exercise, a non-significant elevation in glucose and a reduction (P less than 0.01) in glycogen were demonstrated. Evidently the metabolic demands for kayak competitions at 500 and 10,000 m are different. Thus, the energy contribution from glycolytic precursors and the anaerobic component is of greater relative importance in short distances than in exercise of long duration. A generalization of the findings to other athletic events of varying distances is proposed. The present data on arm-exercise is consistent with previous findings obtained in connection with leg exercises.
Trinity, Joel D; Pahnke, Matthew D; Lee, Joshua F; Coyle, Edward F
People who become hyperthermic during exercise display large increases in heart rate (HR) and reductions in stroke volume (SV). It is not clear if the reduction in SV is due primarily to hyperthermia or if it is a secondary effect of an elevation in HR reducing ventricular filling. In the present study, the upward drift of HR during prolonged exercise was prevented by a very small dose of the β1-adrenoreceptor blocker (atenolol; βB), thus allowing SV to be compared at a given HR during normothermia and hyperthermia. Eleven men cycled for 60 min at 57% of peak O2 uptake after receiving placebo control (PL) or a low dose (0.2 mg/kg) of βB. Hyperthermia was induced by reducing heat dissipation during exercise. Four experimental conditions were studied: normothermia-PL, normothermia-βB, hyperthermia-PL, and hyperthermia-βB. Hyperthermia increased skin and core temperature by 4.3 degrees C and 0.8 degrees C (P<0.01), respectively. βB prevented HR elevation with hyperthermia: HR values were similar at minute 60 during normothermia-PL and hyperthermia-βB (155±11 and 154±13 beats/min, respectively, P=0.82). However, SV was increased by 7% during the final 20 min of exercise during hyperthermia-βB compared with normothermia-PL (treatment×time interaction, P=0.03). In conclusion, when matched for HR, mild hyperthermia increased SV during exercise. Furthermore, the reduction in SV throughout prolonged exercise under normothermic and mildly hyperthermic conditions appears to be due to the increase in HR.
Background Life expectancy at birth in the first world has increased from 35 years at the beginning of the 20th century to more than 80 years now. The increase in life expectancy has resulted in an increase in age-related diseases and larger numbers of frail and dependent people. The aim of our study was to determine whether life-long spontaneous aerobic exercise affects lifespan and healthspan in mice. Results Male C57Bl/6J mice, individually caged, were randomly assigned to one of two groups: sedentary (n = 72) or spontaneous wheel-runners (n = 72). We evaluated longevity and several health parameters including grip strength, motor coordination, exercise capacity (VO2max) and skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis. We also measured the cortical levels of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neurotrophin associated with brain plasticity. In addition, we measured systemic oxidative stress (malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl plasma levels) and the expression and activity of two genes involved in antioxidant defense in the liver (that is, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD)). Genes that encode antioxidant enzymes are considered longevity genes because their over-expression may modulate lifespan. Aging was associated with an increase in oxidative stress biomarkers and in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes, GPx and Mn-SOD, in the liver in mice. Life-long spontaneous exercise did not prolong longevity but prevented several signs of frailty (that is, decrease in strength, endurance and motor coordination). This improvement was accompanied by a significant increase in the mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle and in the cortical BDNF levels. Conclusion Life-long spontaneous exercise does not prolong lifespan but improves healthspan in mice. Exercise is an intervention that delays age-associated frailty, enhances function and can be translated into the clinic. PMID:24472376
Baggish, Aaron L; Park, Joseph; Min, Pil-Ki; Isaacs, Stephanie; Parker, Beth A; Thompson, Paul D; Troyanos, Chris; D'Hemecourt, Pierre; Dyer, Sophia; Thiel, Marissa; Hale, Andrew; Chan, Stephen Y
Short nonprotein coding RNA molecules, known as microRNAs (miRNAs), are intracellular mediators of adaptive processes, including muscle hypertrophy, contractile force generation, and inflammation. During basal conditions and tissue injury, miRNAs are released into the bloodstream as "circulating" miRNAs (c-miRNAs). To date, the impact of extended-duration, submaximal aerobic exercise on plasma concentrations of c-miRNAs remains incompletely characterized. We hypothesized that specific c-miRNAs are differentially upregulated following prolonged aerobic exercise. To test this hypothesis, we measured concentrations of c-miRNAs enriched in muscle (miR-1, miR-133a, miR-499-5p), cardiac tissue (miR-208a), and the vascular endothelium (miR-126), as well as those important in inflammation (miR-146a) in healthy male marathon runners (N = 21) at rest, immediately after a marathon (42-km foot race), and 24 h after the race. In addition, we compared c-miRNA profiles to those of conventional protein biomarkers reflective of skeletal muscle damage, cardiac stress and necrosis, and systemic inflammation. Candidate c-miRNAs increased immediately after the marathon and declined to prerace levels or lower after 24 h of race completion. However, the magnitude of change for each c-miRNA differed, even when originating from the same tissue type. In contrast, traditional biomarkers increased after exercise but remained elevated 24 h postexercise. Thus c-miRNAs respond differentially to prolonged exercise, suggesting the existence of specific mechanisms of c-miRNA release and clearance not fully explained by generalized cellular injury. Furthermore, c-miRNA expression patterns differ in a temporal fashion from corollary conventional tissue-specific biomarkers, emphasizing the potential of c-miRNAs as unique, real-time markers of exercise-induced tissue adaptation.
Bell, Phillip G.; Stevenson, Emma; Davison, Gareth W.; Howatson, Glyn
This study investigated Montmorency tart cherry concentrate (MC) supplementation on markers of recovery following prolonged, intermittent sprint activity. Sixteen semi-professional, male soccer players, who had dietary restrictions imposed for the duration of the study, were divided into two equal groups and consumed either MC or placebo (PLA) supplementation for eight consecutive days (30 mL twice per day). On day 5, participants completed an adapted version of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LISTADAPT). Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), 20 m Sprint, counter movement jump (CMJ), agility and muscle soreness (DOMS) were assessed at baseline, and 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise. Measures of inflammation (IL-1-β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, hsCRP), muscle damage (CK) and oxidative stress (LOOH) were analysed at baseline and 1, 3, 5, 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise. Performance indices (MVIC, CMJ and agility) recovered faster and muscle soreness (DOMS) ratings were lower in the MC group (p < 0.05). Additionally, the acute inflammatory response (IL-6) was attenuated in the MC group. There were no effects for LOOH and CK. These findings suggest MC is efficacious in accelerating recovery following prolonged, repeat sprint activity, such as soccer and rugby, and lends further evidence that polyphenol-rich foods like MC are effective in accelerating recovery following various types of strenuous exercise. PMID:27455316
Bell, Phillip G; Stevenson, Emma; Davison, Gareth W; Howatson, Glyn
This study investigated Montmorency tart cherry concentrate (MC) supplementation on markers of recovery following prolonged, intermittent sprint activity. Sixteen semi-professional, male soccer players, who had dietary restrictions imposed for the duration of the study, were divided into two equal groups and consumed either MC or placebo (PLA) supplementation for eight consecutive days (30 mL twice per day). On day 5, participants completed an adapted version of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LISTADAPT). Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), 20 m Sprint, counter movement jump (CMJ), agility and muscle soreness (DOMS) were assessed at baseline, and 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise. Measures of inflammation (IL-1-β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, hsCRP), muscle damage (CK) and oxidative stress (LOOH) were analysed at baseline and 1, 3, 5, 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise. Performance indices (MVIC, CMJ and agility) recovered faster and muscle soreness (DOMS) ratings were lower in the MC group (p < 0.05). Additionally, the acute inflammatory response (IL-6) was attenuated in the MC group. There were no effects for LOOH and CK. These findings suggest MC is efficacious in accelerating recovery following prolonged, repeat sprint activity, such as soccer and rugby, and lends further evidence that polyphenol-rich foods like MC are effective in accelerating recovery following various types of strenuous exercise.
Tesch, P A; Trieschmann, J T; Ekberg, A
In an effort to simulate the compromised function and atrophy of lower limb muscles experienced by astronauts after spaceflight, 21 men and women age 30-56 yr were subjected to unilateral lower limb unloading for 5 wk. Whereas 10 of these subjects performed unilateral knee extensor resistance exercise (ULRE) two or three times weekly, 11 subjects (UL) refrained from training. The exercise regimen consisted of four sets of seven maximal actions, using an apparatus that offers concentric and eccentric resistance by utilizing the inertia of rotating flywheel(s). Knee extensor muscle strength was measured before and after UL and ULRE, and knee extensor and ankle plantar flexor muscle volumes were determined by means of magnetic resonance imaging. Surface electromyographic activity measured after UL inferred increased muscle use to perform a given motor task. UL induced an 8.8% decrease (P < 0.05) in knee extensor muscle volume. After ULRE and as a result of only approximately 16 min of maximal contractile activity over the 5-wk course, muscle volume increased 7.7% (P < 0.05). Muscle strength decreased 24-32% (P < 0.05) in response to UL. Group ULRE showed maintained (P > 0.05) strength. Ankle plantar flexor muscle volume of the unloaded limb decreased (P < 0.05) in both groups (UL 10.5%; ULRE 11.1%). In neither group did the right weight-bearing limb show any change (P > 0.05) in muscle volume or strength. The results of this study provide evidence that resistance exercise not only may offset muscle atrophy but is in fact capable of promoting marked hypertrophy of chronically unloaded muscle.
Watson, Phillip; Enever, Sophie; Page, Andrew; Stockwell, Jenna; Maughan, Ronald J
Eight young men were recruited to a study designed to examine the effect of tyrosine (TYR) supplementation on the capacity to perform prolonged exercise in a warm environment. Subjects entered the laboratory in the morning and remained seated for 1 hr before cycling to exhaustion at 70% VO2peak. Two 250-ml aliquots of a placebo (PLA ) or a TYR solution were ingested at 30-min intervals before exercise, with an additional 150 ml consumed every 15 min throughout exercise (total TYR dose: 150 mg/kg BM). Cognitive function was assessed before drink ingestion, at the end of the rest period, and at exhaustion. TYR ingestion had no effect on exercise capacity (PLA 61.4 ± 13.7 min, TYR 60.2 ± 15.4 min; p = .505). No differences in heart rate (p = .380), core temperature (p = .554), or weighted mean skin temperature (p = .167) were apparent between trials. Ingestion of TYR produced a marked increase in serum TYR concentrations (+236 ± 46 μmol/L; p < .001), with this difference maintained throughout exercise. No change was apparent during the PLA trial (p = .924). Exercise caused an increase in error rate during the complex component of the Stroop test (p = .034), but this response was not influenced by the drink ingested. No other component of cognitive function was altered by the protocol (all p > .05). Ingestion of a TYR solution did not influence time to exhaustion or several aspects of cognitive function when exercise was undertaken in a warm environment.
Périard, Julien D; Cramer, Matthew N; Chapman, Phillip G; Caillaud, Corinne; Thompson, Martin W
It has been proposed that self-paced exercise in the heat is regulated by an anticipatory reduction in work rate based on the rate of heat storage. However, performance may be impaired by the development of hyperthermia and concomitant rise in cardiovascular strain increasing relative exercise intensity. This study evaluated the influence of thermal strain on cardiovascular function and power output during self-paced exercise in the heat. Eight endurance-trained cyclists performed a 40 km simulated time trial in hot (35°C) and thermoneutral conditions (20°C), while power output, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, oxygen uptake and cardiac output were measured. Time trial duration was 64.3 ± 2.8 min (242.1 W) in the hot condition and 59.8 ± 2.6 min (279.4 W) in the thermoneutral condition (P < 0.01). Power output in the heat was depressed from 20 min onwards compared with exercise in the thermoneutral condition (P < 0.05). Rectal temperature reached 39.8 ± 0.3 (hot) and 38.9 ± 0.2°C (thermoneutral; P < 0.01). From 10 min onwards, mean skin temperature was ~7.5°C higher in the heat, and skin blood flow was significantly elevated (P < 0.01). Heart rate was ~8 beats min(-1) higher throughout hot exercise, while stroke volume, cardiac output and mean arterial pressure were significantly depressed compared with the thermoneutral condition (P < 0.05). Peak oxygen uptake measured during the final kilometre of exercise at maximal effort reached 77 (hot) and 95% (thermoneutral) of pre-experimental control values (P < 0.01). We conclude that a thermoregulatory-mediated rise in cardiovascular strain is associated with reductions in sustainable power output, peak oxygen uptake and maximal power output during prolonged, intense self-paced exercise in the heat.
Price, M J; Campbell, I G
The thermoregulatory responses of upper-body trained athletes were examined at rest, during prolonged arm crank exercise and recovery in cool (21.5 +/- 0.9 degrees C, 43.9 +/- 10.1% relative humidity; mean +/- s) and warm (31.5 +/- 0.6 degrees C, 48.9 +/- 8.4% relative humidity) conditions. Aural temperature increased from rest by 0.7 +/- 0.7 degrees C (P< 0.05) during exercise in cool conditions and by 1.6 +/- 0.7 degrees C during exercise in warm conditions (P< 0.05). During exercise in cool conditions, calf skin temperature decreased (1.5 +/- 1.3 degrees C), whereas an increase was observed during exercise in warm conditions (3.0 +/- 1.7 degrees C). Lower-body skin temperatures tended to increase by greater amounts than upper-body skin temperatures during exercise in warm conditions. No differences were observed in blood lactate, heart rate or respiratory exchange ratio responses between conditions. Perceived exertion at 45 min of exercise was greater than that reported at 5 min of exercise during the cool trial (P< 0.05), whereas during exercise in the warm trial the rating of perceived exertion increased from initial values by 30 min (P < 0.05). Heat storage, body mass losses and fluid consumption were greater during exercise in warm conditions (7.06 +/- 2.25 J x g(-1) x degrees C(-1), 1.3 +/- 0.5 kg and 1,038 +/- 356 ml, respectively) than in cool conditions (1.35 +/- 0.23 J x g(-1) x degrees C(-1), 0.8 +/- 0.2 kg and 530 +/- 284 ml, respectively; P < 0.05). The results of this study indicate that the increasing thermal strain with constant thermal stress in warm conditions is due to heat storage within the lower body. These results may aid in understanding thermoregulatory control mechanisms of populations with a thermoregulatory dysfunction, such as those with spinal cord injuries.
Mitchell, T H; Abraham, G; Wing, S; Magder, S A; Cosio, M G; Deschamps, A; Marliss, E B
To determine the effects of neutralizing exercise systemic acidosis via the intravenous route upon endurance and metabolic responses, eight lean, normal, postabsorptive men exercised to exhaustion at about 80% of their VO2 max (69 +/- 3%, mean +/- SEM, of maximum power output) on a cycle ergometer. Exercise studies were performed either with no infusion (control) or with a total infusion volume of about 1.5 L, mainly as 1.3% sodium bicarbonate or as 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl), infused (double-blind) throughout exercise. The sodium bicarbonate was to prevent acid-base change, the sodium chloride was as a control for the volume infused. Arterialized venous blood and breath-by-breath analysis of expired gases were obtained. [H+] (nmol.L-1) and [HCO3-] (mmol.L-1) at exhaustion were similar in control and NaCl (46.5 +/- 1.8, 19.9 +/- 0.9), but remained unchanged from rest values with bicarbonate (38.4 +/- 0.9, 24.8 +/- 1.5, p less than 0.005 vs control and NaCl). At exhaustion, VO2, VCO2, RER, heart rate, and systolic BP as well as FFA, glycerol, alanine, insulin, norepinephrine, and epinephrine did not differ among protocols. Endurance was markedly prolonged (p less than 0.01) with bicarbonate (31.9 +/- 5.8 min) and NaCl (31.8 +/- 4.1 min) compared with the control (19.0 +/- 2.9 min) condition. Plasma glucose at exhaustion was higher (p less than 0.025) in the control compared to bicarbonate and NaCl experiments, while lactate was higher (p less than 0.025) in the bicarbonate than in the control and NaCl experiments. Thus, the prolonged endurance with sodium bicarbonate infusion could not be explained either by its effect of maintaining blood acid-base equilibrium or concomitant metabolic changes.
Quirion, A.; Boisvert, P.; Brisson, G. R.; Decarufel, D.; Laurencelle, L.; Dulac, S.; Vogelaere, P.; Therminarias, A.
Physiological and metabolic output responses to facial cooling during a graded maximal exercise and a prolonged submaximal exercise lasting 30 min at 65%dot VO_2 max were investigated in five male subjects. Pedalling on a cycle ergometer was performed both with and without facial cooling (10°C, 4.6 m s-1). Facial cooling at the end of graded maximal exercise apparently had no effect on plasma lactate (LA), maximal oxygen consumption (dot VO_2 max), maximal heart rate (HR max), rectal temperature ( T re), work-load, lactate threshold (LT), ventilatory threshold (VT) and onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA). However, the response to facial cooling after prolonged submaximal exercise is significantly different for heart rate and work-load. The results suggest that facial wind stimulation during maximal exercise does not produce a stress high enough to alter the metabolic and physiological responses.
Jeukendrup, Asker E; Raben, Anne; Gijsen, Annemie; Stegen, Jos H C H; Brouns, Fred; Saris, Wim H M; Wagenmakers, Anton J M
The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate whether glucose ingestion during prolonged exercise reduces whole body muscle glycogen oxidation, (2) to determine the extent to which glucose disappearing from the plasma is oxidized during exercise with and without carbohydrate ingestion and (3) to obtain an estimate of gluconeogenesis. After an overnight fast, six well-trained cyclists exercised on three occasions for 120 min on a bicycle ergometer at 50% maximum velocity of O2 uptake and ingested either water (Fast), or a 4% glucose solution (Lo-Glu) or a 22% glucose solution (Hi-Glu) during exercise. Dual tracer infusion of [U-13C]-glucose and [6,6-2H2]-glucose was given to measure the rate of appearance (Ra) of glucose, muscle glycogen oxidation, glucose carbon recycling, metabolic clearance rate (MCR) and non-oxidative disposal of glucose. Glucose ingestion markedly increased total Ra especially with Hi-Glu. After 120 min Ra and rate of disappearance (Rd) of glucose were 51-52 μmol kg−1 min−1 during Fast, 73-74 μmol kg−1 min−1 during Lo-Glu and 117–119 μmol kg−1 min−1 during Hi-Glu. The percentage of Rd oxidized was between 96 and 100% in all trials. Glycogen oxidation during exercise was not reduced by glucose ingestion. The vast majority of glucose disappearing from the plasma is oxidized and MCR increased markedly with glucose ingestion. Glucose carbon recycling was minimal suggesting that gluconeogenesis in these conditions is negligible. PMID:10050023
Lane, A R; O'Leary, C B; Hackney, A C
Research has shown that total testosterone (tT) levels in women increase acutely during a prolonged bout of aerobic exercise. Few studies, however, have considered the impact of the menstrual cycle phase on this response or have looked at the biologically active free testosterone (fT) form responses. Therefore, this study examined the fT concentration response independently and as a percentage (fT%) of tT to prolonged aerobic exercise during phases of the menstrual cycle with low estrogen-progesterone (L-EP; i.e., follicular phase) and high estrogen-progesterone (H-EP; i.e., luteal phase). Ten healthy, recreationally trained, eumennorrheic women (X ± SD: age = 20 ± 2 y, mass = 58.7 ± 8.3 kg, body fat = 22.3 ± 4.9 %, VO(2max) = 50.7 ± 9.0 ml/kg/min) participated in a laboratory based study and completed a 60-minute treadmill run during the L-EP and H-EP menstrual phases at ~70% of VO(2max). Blood was drawn prior to (PRE), immediately after (POST) and following 30 minutes of recovery (30POST) with each 60-minute run. During H-EP, there was a significant increase in fT concentrations from PRE to POST (p < 0.01) while in L-EP fT levels were unchanged; which resulted in fT being significantly higher at H-EP POST versus L-EP POST (p < 0.03). Area-under-the-curve (AUC) responses were calculated, for fT the total AUC was greater in H-EP than L-EP (p < 0.04). There was no significant interaction of fT% between phases and exercise sampling time. There was, however, a main effect for exercise where fT% POST was a greater proportion of tT than at PRE (p < 0.01). In summary, hormonal changes associated with the menstrual cycle impact fT response to a prolonged aerobic exercise bout; specifically, there being higher levels under H-EP conditions. This suggests more biologically active T is available during exercise in this phase. This response may be a function of the higher core temperatures found with H-EP causing greater sex hormone binding protein release of T, or could
Tsuji, Bun; Honda, Yasushi; Fujii, Naoto; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi
We investigated whether a core temperature threshold for hyperthermic hyperventilation is seen during prolonged submaximal exercise in the heat when core temperature before the exercise is reduced and whether the evoked hyperventilatory response is affected by altering the initial core temperature. Ten male subjects performed three exercise trials at 50% of peak oxygen uptake in the heat (37°C and 50% relative humidity) after altering their initial esophageal temperature (T(es)). Initial T(es) was manipulated by immersion for 25 min in water at 18°C (Precooling), 35°C (Control), or 40°C (Preheating). T(es) after the water immersion was significantly higher in the Preheating trial (37.5 ± 0.3°C) and lower in the Precooling trial (36.1 ± 0.3°C) than in the Control trial (36.9 ± 0.3°C). In the Precooling trial, minute ventilation (Ve) showed little change until T(es) reached 37.1 ± 0.4°C. Above this core temperature threshold, Ve increased linearly in proportion to increasing T(es). In the Control trial, Ve increased as T(es) increased from 37.0°C to 38.6°C after the onset of exercise. In the Preheating trial, Ve increased from the initially elevated levels of T(es) (from 37.6 to 38.6°C) and Ve. The sensitivity of Ve to increasing T(es) above the threshold for hyperventilation (the slope of the T(es)-Ve relation) did not significantly vary across trials (Precooling trial = 10.6 ± 5.9, Control trial = 8.7 ± 5.1, and Preheating trial = 9.2 ± 6.9 L·min(-1)·°C(-1)). These results suggest that during prolonged submaximal exercise at a constant workload in humans, there is a clear core temperature threshold for hyperthermic hyperventilation and that the evoked hyperventilatory response is unaffected by altering initial core temperature.
Trangmar, Steven J; Chiesa, Scott T; Llodio, Iñaki; Garcia, Benjamin; Kalsi, Kameljit K; Secher, Niels H; González-Alonso, José
Dehydration hastens the decline in cerebral blood flow (CBF) during incremental exercise, whereas the cerebral metabolic rate for O2 (CMRO2 ) is preserved. It remains unknown whether CMRO2 is also maintained during prolonged exercise in the heat and whether an eventual decline in CBF is coupled to fatigue. Two studies were undertaken. In study 1, 10 male cyclists cycled in the heat for ∼2 h with (control) and without fluid replacement (dehydration) while internal and external carotid artery blood flow and core and blood temperature were obtained. Arterial and internal jugular venous blood samples were assessed with dehydration to evaluate CMRO2 . In study 2, in 8 male subjects, middle cerebral artery blood velocity was measured during prolonged exercise to exhaustion in both dehydrated and euhydrated states. After a rise at the onset of exercise, internal carotid artery flow declined to baseline with progressive dehydration (P < 0.05). However, cerebral metabolism remained stable through enhanced O2 and glucose extraction (P < 0.05). External carotid artery flow increased for 1 h but declined before exhaustion. Fluid ingestion maintained cerebral and extracranial perfusion throughout nonfatiguing exercise. During exhaustive exercise, however, euhydration delayed but did not prevent the decline in cerebral perfusion. In conclusion, during prolonged exercise in the heat, dehydration accelerates the decline in CBF without affecting CMRO2 and also restricts extracranial perfusion. Thus, fatigue is related to a reduction in CBF and extracranial perfusion rather than CMRO2 .
Li, Tzai-Li; Gleeson, Michael
ingestion during the first or second bout of exercise, but not during the recovery interval, is likely to better maintain plasma glucose concentrations and attenuate the responses of plasma stress hormones to a second exercise bout than ingestion of fluid alone. Two bouts of 90 min cycling at 60% VO2max on the same day appears to inhibit saliva flow rate during the second exercise bout but does not alter sIgA transcytosis. Our results show that carbohydrate ingestion during any period of two prolonged exercise bouts does not induce different effects on oral immunity compared with placebo.
Junge, Nicklas; Jørgensen, Rasmus; Flouris, Andreas D.; Nybo, Lars
ABSTRACT In this review we examine how self-paced performance is affected by environmental heat stress factors during cycling time trial performance as well as considering the effects of exercise mode and heat acclimatization. Mean power output during prolonged cycling time trials in the heat (≥30°C) was on average reduced by 15% in the 14 studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Ambient temperature per se was a poor predictor of the integrated environmental heat stress and 2 of the prevailing heat stress indices (WBGT and UTCI) failed to predict the environmental influence on performance. The weighing of wind speed appears to be too low for predicting the effect for cycling in trained acclimatized subjects, where performance may be maintained in outdoor time trials at ambient temperatures as high as 36°C (36°C UTCI; 28°C WBGT). Power output during indoor trials may also be maintained with temperatures up to at least 27°C when humidity is modest and wind speed matches the movement speed generated during outdoor cycling, whereas marked reductions are observed when air movement is minimal. For running, representing an exercise mode with lower movement speed and higher heat production for a given metabolic rate, it appears that endurance is affected even at much lower ambient temperatures. On this basis we conclude that environmental heat stress impacts self-paced endurance performance. However, the effect is markedly modified by acclimatization status and exercise mode, as the wind generated by the exercise (movement speed) or the environment (natural or fan air movement) exerts a strong influence. PMID:28090557
Kuitunen, S; Avela, J; Kyröläinen, H; Nicol, C; Komi, P V
The purpose of the present study was to examine the acute and long-term fatigue effects of exhausting stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) exercise on the stiffness of ankle and knee joints. Five subjects were fatigued on a sledge apparatus by 100 maximal rebound jumps followed by continuous submaximal jumping until complete exhaustion. Neuromuscular fatigue effects were examined in submaximal hopping (HOP) and in maximal drop jumps (DJ) from 35 (DJ35) and 55 cm (DJ55) heights on a force plate. Additional force and reflex measurements were made using an ankle ergometer. Jumping tests and ankle ergometer tests were carried out before, immediately after, 2 h (2H), 2 days and 7 days (7D) after the SSC exercise. Kinematics, force and electromyography (EMG) recordings were complemented with inverse dynamics, which was used to calculate joint moments. The quotient of changes in joint moment divided by changes in joint angle was used as a value of joint stiffness (JS). In addition, blood lactate concentrations and serum creatine kinase activities were determined. The exercise induced a clear decrease in knee joint stiffness by [mean (SD)] 29 (13)% (P < 0.05) in HOP, 31 (6)% (P < 0.05) in DJ35 and 34 (14)% (P < 0.05) in DJ55. A similar trend was observed in the ankle joint stiffness with significant post-exercise reductions of 22 (8)% (P < 0.05) in DJ35 and of 27 (19)% (P < 0.05) at 2H in DJ55. The subsequent recovery of JS was slow and in some cases incomplete still at 7D. Generally, all the EMG parameters were fully recovered by 2H, whereas the force recovery was still incomplete at this time. These data indicate that the immediate reduction in JS was probably related to the effects of both central (neural) and peripheral (metabolic) fatigue, whereas the prolonged impairment was probably due to peripheral fatigue (muscle damage).
Junge, Nicklas; Jørgensen, Rasmus; Flouris, Andreas D; Nybo, Lars
In this review we examine how self-paced performance is affected by environmental heat stress factors during cycling time trial performance as well as considering the effects of exercise mode and heat acclimatization. Mean power output during prolonged cycling time trials in the heat (≥30°C) was on average reduced by 15% in the 14 studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Ambient temperature per se was a poor predictor of the integrated environmental heat stress and 2 of the prevailing heat stress indices (WBGT and UTCI) failed to predict the environmental influence on performance. The weighing of wind speed appears to be too low for predicting the effect for cycling in trained acclimatized subjects, where performance may be maintained in outdoor time trials at ambient temperatures as high as 36°C (36°C UTCI; 28°C WBGT). Power output during indoor trials may also be maintained with temperatures up to at least 27°C when humidity is modest and wind speed matches the movement speed generated during outdoor cycling, whereas marked reductions are observed when air movement is minimal. For running, representing an exercise mode with lower movement speed and higher heat production for a given metabolic rate, it appears that endurance is affected even at much lower ambient temperatures. On this basis we conclude that environmental heat stress impacts self-paced endurance performance. However, the effect is markedly modified by acclimatization status and exercise mode, as the wind generated by the exercise (movement speed) or the environment (natural or fan air movement) exerts a strong influence.
Pascual, Julio; González-Mandly, Andrés; Martín, Rubén; Oterino, Agustín
Headaches provoked by cough, prolonged physical exercise and sexual activity have not been studied prospectively, clinically and neuroradiologically. Our aim was to delimitate characteristics, etiology, response to treatment and neuroradiological diagnostic protocol of those patients who consult to a general Neurological Department because of provoked headache. Those patients who consulted due to provoked headaches between 1996 and 2006 were interviewed in depth and followed-up for at least 1 year. Neuroradiological protocol included cranio-cervical MRI for all patients with cough headache and dynamic cerebrospinal functional MRI in secondary cough headache cases. In patients with headache provoked by prolonged physical exercise or/and sexual activity cranial neuroimaging (CT and/or MRI) was performed and, in case of suspicion of subarachnoid bleeding, angioMRI and/or lumbar tap were carried out. A total of 6,412 patients consulted due to headache during the 10 years of the study. The number of patients who had consulted due to any of these headaches is 97 (1.5% of all headaches). Diagnostic distribution was as follows: 68 patients (70.1%) consulted due to cough headache, 11 (11.3%) due to exertional headache and 18 (18.6%) due to sexual headache. A total of 28 patients (41.2%) out of 68 were diagnosed of primary cough headache, while the remaining 40 (58.8%) had secondary cough headache, always due to structural lesions in the posterior fossa, which in most cases was a Chiari type I malformation. In seven patients, cough headache was precipitated by treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. As compared to the primary variety, secondary cough headache began earlier (average 40 vs. 60 years old), was located posteriorly, lasted longer (5 years vs. 11 months), was associated with posterior fossa symptoms/signs and did not respond to indomethacin. All those patients showed difficulties in the cerebrospinal fluid circulation in the foramen magnum region
Otani, Hidenori; Kaya, Mitsuharu; Tsujita, Junzo
This study examined the effect of the volume of fluid ingested on urine concentrating ability during prolonged heavy exercise in a hot environment at low levels of dehydration. Seven healthy males performed 105 min of intermittent cycle exercise at 70% maximum oxygen uptake (32°C, 60% relative humidity) while receiving no fluid ingestion (NF), voluntary fluid ingestion (VF), partial fluid ingestion equivalent to one-half of body mass loss (PF), and full fluid ingestion equivalent to body mass loss (FF). Fluid (5°C, 3.4% carbohydrate, 10.5 mmol·L-1 sodium) was ingested just before commencing exercise and at 15, 33, 51, 69, and 87 min of exercise, and the total amount of fluid ingested in PF and FF was divided into six equal volumes. During exercise, body mass loss was 2.2 ± 0.2, 1.1 ± 0.5, 1.1 ± 0.2, and 0.1 ± 0.2% in NF, VF, PF, and FF, respectively, whereas total sweat loss was about 2% of body mass in each trial. Subjects in VF ingested 719 ± 240 ml of fluid during exercise; the volume of fluid ingested was 1.1 ± 0.4% of body mass. Creatinine clearance was significantly higher and free water clearance was significantly lower in FF than in NF during exercise. Urine flow rate during exercise decreased significantly in NF. There were significant decreases in creatinine and osmolar clearance and was a significant increase in free water clearance during exercise in NF and VF. Creatinine clearance decreased significantly and free water clearance increased significantly during exercise in PF. There was no statistical change in urinary indices of renal function during exercise in FF. The findings suggest that full fluid ingestion equivalent to body mass loss has attenuated the decline in urine concentrating ability during prolonged heavy exercise in a hot environment at low levels of dehydration. Key points During prolonged heavy exercise in a hot environment at low levels of dehydration, fluid ingestion equivalent to body mass loss results in no changes in
Lee, Stuart; Hargens, A. R.; Schneider, S. M.; Watenpaugh, D. E.
An integrated exercise countermeasure for microgravity is needed to protect multiple physiologic systems and save crew time. Such a countermeasure should protect orthostatic tolerance, upright ambulatory capability (including sprinting), aerobic capacity, muscle strength/endurance, and other physiologic parameters relevant to human performance. We developed a novel physiologic countermeasure, treadmill exercise within LBNP, for preventing cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning associated with prolonged bed rest and spaceflight. We evaluated 40 min of daily LBNP treadmill exercise by a battery of physiologic parameters relevant to maintaining exercise performance and health of both women and men during bed-rest (simulated microgravity) studies lasting from 5 to 60 days. For 30 day studies, we employed identical twins with one twin as the control and the other twin as the exerciser to improve comparative power. During the WISE 60-day HDT study, the treadmill exercise within LBNP was performed 3-4 days each week and resistive exercise was performed 2-3 days each week. Our treadmill within LBNP protocol maintained plasma volume and sprint speed (30 day HDT bed-rest studies of identical twins), orthostatic tolerance to a degree, upright exercise capacity, muscle strength and endurance, and some bone parameters during 30 day (twin studies) and 60 day (WISE-2005) bed-rest simulations of microgravity. When combining treadmill exercise within LBNP and resistive exercise (WISE), cardiac mass increased significantly in the exercise (EX) group during bed rest relative to controls (CON). Upright peak VO2, and knee extensor strength and endurance decreased significantly in CON subjects; but these parameters were preserved in the EX group. In the 60 day WISE study, each LBNP exercise session was followed immediately by 10 minutes of static LBNP, and the last such session occurred three days before the end of bed rest. Still, orthostatic tolerance was better maintained
Kraemer, R R; Shockett, P; Webb, N D; Shah, U; Castracane, V D
Irisin, a newly discovered, PGC-1α dependent myokine, has recently been shown to increase in circulation in response to sprint exercise. This study examined the effect of prolonged exercise on irisin concentrations in young men (n=7) as well as in young women (n=5) during different stages of the menstrual cycle. Seven young men completed 90 min of treadmill exercise at 60% of VO2max and a resting control trial. Five women completed the same exercise protocol in two different trials: during the early follicular phase and mid-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for irisin concentrations immediately before exercise, at 54 and 90 min of exercise, and at 20 min of recovery (R20). Findings revealed that by 54 min of a 90 min treadmill exercise protocol at 60% of VO2max, irisin concentrations significantly increased 20.4% in young men and 20.3% as well as 24.6% in young women during the early follicular and mid-luteal phases of the menstrual cycle, respectively. However, by 90 min of exercise as well as R20, irisin concentrations were no longer elevated. Stage of the menstrual cycle did not affect responses in young women. Findings indicate that prolonged aerobic exercise produces a transient increase in irisin concentrations during the first hour of exercise for both genders and suggest that this form of moderate exercise may be helpful in improving fat metabolism.
Shultz, Sandra J.; Schmitz, Randy J.; Cone, John R.; Henson, Robert A.; Montgomery, Melissa M.; Pye, Michele L.; Tritsch, Amanda J.
Context: Knee laxity increases during exercise. However, no one, to our knowledge, has examined whether these increases contribute to higher-risk landing biomechanics during prolonged, fatiguing exercise. Objectives: To examine associations between changes in fatigue (measured as sprint time [SPTIME]), multiplanar knee laxity (anterior-posterior [APLAX], varus-valgus [VVLAX] knee laxity, and internal-external rotation [IERLAX]) knee laxity and landing biomechanics during prolonged, intermittent exercise. Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Setting: Laboratory and gymnasium. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 30 male (age = 20.3 ± 2.0 years, height = 1.79 ± 0.05 m, mass = 75.2 ± 7.2 kg) and 29 female (age = 20.5 ± 2.3 years, height = 1.67 ± 0.08 m, mass = 61.8 ± 9.0 kg) competitive athletes. Intervention(s): A 90-minute intermittent exercise protocol (IEP) designed to simulate the physiologic and biomechanical demands of a soccer match. Main Outcome Measure(s): We measured SPTIME, APLAX, and landing biomechanics before and after warm-up, every 15 minutes during the IEP, and every 15 minutes for 1 hour after the IEP. We measured VVLAX and IERLAX before and after the warm-up, at 45 and 90 minutes during the IEP, and at 30 minutes after the IEP. We used hierarchical linear modeling to examine associations between exercise-related changes in SPTIME and knee laxity with exercise-related changes in landing biomechanics while controlling for initial (before warm-up) knee laxity. Results: We found that SPTIME had a more global effect on landing biomechanics in women than in men, resulting in a more upright landing and a reduction in landing forces and out-of-plane motions about the knee. As APLAX increased with exercise, women increased their knee internal-rotation motion (P = .02), and men increased their hip-flexion motion and energy-absorption (P = .006) and knee-extensor loads (P = .04). As VVLAX and IERLAX increased, women went through greater knee
Min, Pil-Ki; Park, Joseph; Isaacs, Stephanie; Taylor, Beth A; Thompson, Paul D; Troyanos, Chris; D'Hemecourt, Pierre; Dyer, Sophia; Chan, Stephen Y; Baggish, Aaron L
Statins exacerbate exercise-induced skeletal muscle injury. Muscle-specific microRNAs (myomiRs) increase in plasma after prolonged exercise, but the patterns of myomiRs release after statin-associated muscle injury have not been examined. We examined the relationships between statin exposure, in vitro and in vivo muscle contraction, and expression of candidate circulating myomiRs. We measured plasma levels of myomiRs, circulating microRNA-1 (c-miR-1), c-miR-133a, c-miR-206, and c-miR-499-5p from 28 statin-using and 28 nonstatin-using runners before (PRE), immediately after (FINISH), and 24 h after they ran a 42-km footrace (the 2011 Boston marathon) (POST-24). To examine these cellular-regulation myomiRs, we used contracting mouse C2C12 myotubes in culture with and without statin exposure to compare intracellular and extracellular expression of these molecules. In marathoners, c-miR-1, c-miR-133a, and c-miR-206 increased at FINISH, returned to baseline at POST-24, and were unaffected by statin use. In contrast, c-miR-499-5p was unchanged at FINISH but increased at POST-24 among statin users compared with PRE and runners who did not take statins. In cultured C2C12 myotubes, extracellular c-miR-1, c-miR-133a, and c-miR-206 were significantly increased by muscle contraction regardless of statin use. In contrast, extracellular miR-499-5p was unaffected by either isolated statin exposure or isolated carbachol exposure but it was increased when muscle contraction was combined with statin exposure. In summary, we found that statin-potentiated muscle injury during exercise is accompanied by augmented extracellular release of miR-499-5p. Thus c-miR-499-5p may serve as a biomarker of statin-potentiated muscle damage.
Buono, Michael J.; Krippes, Taylor; Kolkhorst, Fred W.; Williams, Alexander T.; Cabrales, Pedro
Previous studies have reported that blood viscosity is significantly increased following exercise. However, these studies measured both pre- and post-exercise blood viscosity at 37 °C even though core and blood temperatures would be expected to have increased during the exercise. Consequently, the effect of exercise-induced hyperthermia on mitigating change in blood viscosity may have been missed. The purpose of this study was to isolate the effects of exercise-induced hemoconcentration and hyperthermia, as well as determine their combined effects, on blood viscosity. Nine subjects performed 2 h of moderate-intensity exercise in the heat (37 °C, 40% rH), which resulted in significant increases from pre-exercise values for rectal temperature (37.11 ± 0.35 °C to 38.76 ± 0.13 °C), hemoconcentration (hematocrit = 43.6 ± 3.6% to 45.6 ± 3.5%), and dehydration (Δbody weight = −3.6 ± 0.7%). Exercise-induced hemoconcentration significantly (P < 0.05) increased blood viscosity by 9% (3.97 to 4.30 cP at 300 s−1) while exercise-induced hyperthermia significantly decreased blood viscosity by 7% (3.97 to 3.70 cP at 300 s−1). However, when both factors were considered together, there was no overall change in blood viscosity (3.97 to 4.03 cP at 300 s−1). The effects of exercise-induced hemoconcentration, increased plasma viscosity, and increased red blood cell aggregation, all of which increased blood viscosity, were counterbalanced by increased RBC deformability (e.g., RBC membrane shear elastic modulus and elongation index) caused by the hyperthermia. Thus, blood viscosity remained unchanged following prolonged moderate-intensity exercise in the heat. PMID:26682653
Roy, B D; Bosman, M J; Tarnopolsky, M A
This study investigated the possible influence of oral caffeine administration on endogenous glucose production and energy substrate metabolism during prolonged endurance exercise. Twelve trained endurance athletes [seven male, five female; peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) = 65.5 ml.kg-1.min-1] performed 60 min of cycle ergometry at 65% VO2peak twice, once after oral caffeine administration (6 mg.kg-1) (CAF) and once following consumption of a placebo (PLA). CAF and PLA were administered in a randomized double-blind manner 75 min prior to exercise. Plasma glucose kinetics were determined with a primed-continuous infusion of [6,6-2H]glucose. No differences in oxygen consumption (VO2), and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) were observed between CAF and PLA, at rest or during exercise. Blood glucose concentrations were similar between the two conditions at rest and also during exercise. Exercise did lead to an increase in serum free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations for both conditions; however, no differences were observed between CAF and PLA. Both the plasma glucose rate of appearance (Ra) and disappearance (Rd) increased at the onset of exercise (P < 0.05), but were not affected by CAF, as compared to PLA. CAF did lead to a higher plasma lactate concentration during exercise (P < 0.05). It was concluded that an acute oral dose of caffeine does not influence plasma glucose kinetics or energy substrate oxidation during prolonged exercise in trained endurance athletes. However, CAF did lead to elevated plasma lactate concentrations. The exact mechanism of the increase in plasma lactate concentrations remains to be determined.
Sear, Joshua A; Hoare, Trent K; Scanlan, Aaron T; Abt, Grant A; Dascombe, Benjamin J
The current study investigated the effects of wearing whole-body compression garments (WBCGs) on prolonged high-intensity intermittent exercise (PHIIE) performance. Eight male team-sport athletes ([X +/- SD] 20.6 +/- 1.2 years; 72.9 +/- 5.9 kg; 57.5 +/- 3.7 ml.kg.min) completed a prescribed 45-minute PHIIE protocol on a nonmotorized treadmill in randomly assigned WBCG and control (typical soccer apparel) conditions. Subjects were given verbal and visual cues for movement categories, and they followed set target speeds, except when instructed of a variable run or sprint where the aim was to run as fast as possible. Total distance, velocity-specific distance, and high-intensity self-paced running speeds were taken as performance indicators. Heart rate, VO(2), tissue oxygenation index (TOI), and tissue hemoglobin index (nTHi) were continuously monitored across the protocol. Blood-lactate concentration ([BLa(-)]) was measured every 15 minutes. Magnitude-based inferences suggested that wearing WBCGs provided moderate strength likely improvements in total distance covered (5.42 +/- 0.63 vs. 5.88 +/- 0.64 km; 88:10:2%; and eta = 0.6) and low-intensity activity distance (4.21 +/- 0.51 vs. 4.56 +/- 0.57 km; 83:14:3%; and eta = 0.6) compared with the control. A similar likely increase was also observed in the average TOI of the WBCG condition (53.5 +/- 8.3% vs. 55.8 +/- 7.2%; 87:11:2%; and eta = 0.6). The current data demonstrated that wearing WBCGs likely increased physical performance, possibly because of improvements in muscle oxygenation and associated metabolic benefits. Therefore, wearing WBCGs during PHIIE may benefit the physical performance of team-sport athletes by likely metabolic changes within the muscle between high-intensity efforts.
Belavý, Daniel L; Armbrecht, Gabriele; Gast, Ulf; Richardson, Carolyn A; Hides, Julie A; Felsenberg, Dieter
To evaluate the effect of short-duration, high-load resistive exercise, with and without whole body vibration on lumbar muscle size, intervertebral disk and spinal morphology changes, and low back pain (LBP) incidence during prolonged bed rest, 24 subjects underwent 60 days of head-down tilt bed rest and performed either resistive vibration exercise (n = 7), resistive exercise only (n = 8), or no exercise (n = 9; 2nd Berlin Bed-Rest Study). Discal and spinal shape was measured from sagittal plane magnetic resonance images. Cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of the multifidus, erector spinae, quadratus lumborum, and psoas were measured on para-axial magnetic resonance images. LBP incidence was assessed with questionnaires at regular intervals. The countermeasures reduced CSA loss in the multifidus, lumbar erector spinae and quadratus lumborum muscles, with greater increases in psoas muscle CSA seen in the countermeasure groups (P ≤ 0.004). There was little statistical evidence for an additional effect of whole body vibration above resistive exercise alone on these muscle changes. Exercise subjects reported LBP more frequently in the first week of bed rest, but this was only significant in resistive exercise only (P = 0.011 vs. control, resistive vibration exercise vs. control: P = 0.56). No effect of the countermeasures on changes in spinal morphology was seen (P ≥ 0.22). The results suggest that high-load resistive exercise, with or without whole body vibration, performed 3 days/wk can reduce lumbar muscle atrophy, but further countermeasure optimization is required.
Nazar, K.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Pohoska, E.; Turlejska, E.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Kozlowski, S.
Physiological effects of restricted activity (RA) and subsequent retraining have been studied. Ten male mongrel dogs performed a submaximal exercise endurance test on a treadmill during kennel control, after 8 weeks of cage confinement and after eight weeks of retraining using the same treadmill protocol 1 h/d for 6 d/week. Data obtained show that RA reduces exercise endurance, the effectiveness of exercise thermoregulation, muscle glycogen stores, and the lipolytic response to exercise and to noradrenaline stimulation.
Betts, James A; Williams, Clyde
This review considers aspects of the optimal nutritional strategy for recovery from prolonged moderate to high intensity exercise. Dietary carbohydrate represents a central component of post-exercise nutrition. Therefore, carbohydrate should be ingested as early as possible in the post-exercise period and at frequent (i.e. 15- to 30-minute) intervals throughout recovery to maximize the rate of muscle glycogen resynthesis. Solid and liquid carbohydrate supplements or whole foods can achieve this aim with equal effect but should be of high glycaemic index and ingested following the feeding schedule described above at a rate of at least 1 g/kg/h in order to rapidly and sufficiently increase both blood glucose and insulin concentrations throughout recovery. Adding ≥0.3 g/kg/h of protein to a carbohydrate supplement results in a synergistic increase in insulin secretion that can, in some circumstances, accelerate muscle glycogen resynthesis. Specifically, if carbohydrate has not been ingested in quantities sufficient to maximize the rate of muscle glycogen resynthesis, the inclusion of protein may at least partially compensate for the limited availability of ingested carbohydrate. Some studies have reported improved physical performance with ingestion of carbohydrate-protein mixtures, both during exercise and during recovery prior to a subsequent exercise test. While not all of the evidence supports these ergogenic benefits, there is clearly the potential for improved performance under certain conditions, e.g. if the additional protein increases the energy content of a supplement and/or the carbohydrate fraction is ingested at below the recommended rate. The underlying mechanism for such effects may be partly due to increased muscle glycogen resynthesis during recovery, although there is varied support for other factors such as an increased central drive to exercise, a blunting of exercise-induced muscle damage, altered metabolism during exercise subsequent to
Francescato, Maria Pia; Stel, Giuliana; Geat, Mario; Cauci, Sabina
Presently, no clear-cut guidelines are available to suggest the more appropriate physical activity for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus due to paucity of experimental data obtained under patients' usual life conditions. Accordingly, we explored the oxidative stress levels associated with a prolonged moderate intensity, but fatiguing, exercise performed under usual therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and matched healthy controls. Eight patients (4 men, 4 women; 49±11 years; Body Mass Index 25.0±3.2 kg·m(-2); HbA1c 57±10 mmol·mol(-1)) and 14 controls (8 men, 6 women; 47±11 years; Body Mass Index 24.3±3.3 kg·m(-2)) performed a 3-h walk at 30% of their heart rate reserve. Venous blood samples were obtained before and at the end of the exercise for clinical chemistry analysis and antioxidant capacity. Capillary blood samples were taken at the start and thereafter every 30 min to determine lipid peroxidation. Patients showed higher oxidative stress values as compared to controls (95.9±9.7 vs. 74.1±12.2 mg·L(-1) H2O2; p<0.001). In both groups, oxidative stress remained constant throughout the exercise (p = NS), while oxidative defence increased significantly at the end of exercise (p<0.02) from 1.16±0.13 to 1.19±0.10 mmol·L(-1) Trolox in patients and from 1.09±0.21 to 1.22±0.14 mmol·L(-1) Trolox in controls, without any significant difference between the two groups. Oxidative stress was positively correlated to HbA1c (p<0.005) and negatively related with uric acid (p<0.005). In conclusion, we were the first to evaluate the oxidative stress in patients with type 1 diabetes exercising under their usual life conditions (i.e. usual therapy and diet). Specifically, we found that the oxidative stress was not exacerbated due to a single bout of prolonged moderate intensity aerobic exercise, a condition simulating several outdoor leisure time physical activities. Oxidative defence increased in both patients and controls, suggesting
Shipov, Anna; Sharir, Amnon; Zelzer, Elazar; Milgram, Joshua; Monsonego-Ornan, Efrat; Shahar, Ron
Many studies have described the effects of exercise restriction on the mammalian skeleton. In particular, human and animal models have shown that reduction in weight bearing leads to generalised bone loss and deterioration of its mechanical properties. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of prolonged exercise restriction coupled with heavy calcium demands on the micro-structural, compositional and mechanical properties of the avian skeleton. The tibiae and humeri of 2-year-old laying hens housed in conventional caging (CC) and free-range (FR) housing systems were compared by mechanical testing and micro-computed tomography (microCT) scanning. Analyses of cortical, cancellous and medullary bone were performed. Mechanical testing revealed that the tibiae and humeri of birds from the FR group had superior mechanical properties relative to those of the CC group, and microCT scanning indicated larger cortical and lower medullary regions in FR group bones. Cancellous bone analysis revealed higher trabecular thickness and a higher bone volume fraction in the FR group, but no difference in mineral density. The biomechanical superiority of bones from the FR group was primarily due to structural rather than compositional differences, and this was reflected in both the cortical and cancellous components of the bones. The study demonstrated that prolonged exercise restriction in laying hens resulted in major structural and mechanical effects on the bird skeleton.
Coso, Juan Del; Estevez, Emma; Baquero, Raúl Antonio; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo
The effects that rehydrating drinks ingested during exercise may have on anaerobic exercise performance are unclear. This study aimed to determine which of four commercial rehydrating drinks better maintains leg power and force during prolonged cycling in the heat. Seven endurance-trained and heat-acclimatized cyclists pedaled for 120 min at 63% maximum oxygen consumption in a hot, dry environment (36 degrees C; 29% humidity, 1.9 m.s-1 airflow). In five randomized trials, during exercise, subjects drank 2.4 +/- 0.1 L of (i) mineral water (WAT; San Benedetto), (ii) 6% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (Gatorade lemon), (iii) 8% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (Powerade Citrus Charge), (iv) 8% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution with lower sodium concentration than other sports drinks (Aquarius orange), or (v) did not ingest any fluid (DEH). Fluid balance, rectal temperature (Trec), maximal cycling power (Pmax), and leg maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) were measured. During DEH, subjects lost 3.7 +/- 0.2% of initial body mass, whereas subjects lost only 0.8% +/- 0.1% in the other trials (p < 0.05). Final Trec was higher in DEH than in the rest of the trials (39.4 +/- 0.1 degrees C vs. 38.7 +/- 0.1 degrees C; p < 0.05). Pmax was similar among all trials. Gatorade and Powerade preserved MVC better than DEH (-3.1% +/- 2% and -3.8% +/- 2% vs. -11% +/- 2%, p < 0.05), respectively, whereas WAT and Aquarius did not (-6% +/- 2%). Compared with DEH, rehydration with commercially available sports drinks during prolonged exercise in the heat preserves leg force, whereas rehydrating with water does not. However, low sodium concentration in a sports drink seems to preclude its ergogenic effects on force.
Hedayatpour, N; Arendt-Nielsen, L; Falla, D
Contracting the knee flexor muscles immediately before a maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) of knee extension increases the maximal force that the extensor muscles can exert. It is hypothesized that this phenomenon can be impaired by muscle fiber damage following eccentric exercise [delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS)]. This study investigates the effect of eccentric exercise and DOMS on knee extension MVC immediately following a reciprocal-resisted knee flexion contraction. Electromyography (EMG) was recorded from the knee extensors and flexors of 12 healthy men during knee extension MVCs performed in a reciprocal (maximal knee extension preceded by resisted knee flexion), and nonreciprocal condition (preceded by relaxation of the knee flexors). At baseline, knee extension MVC force was greater during the reciprocal condition (P < 0.001), whereas immediately after, 24 and 48 h after eccentric exercise, the MVC force was not different between conditions. Similarly, at baseline, the EMG amplitude of the quadriceps during the MVC was larger for the reciprocal condition (P < 0.001). However, immediately after, 24 and 48 h postexercise the EMG amplitude was similar between conditions. In conclusion, eccentric exercise abolished the facilitation of force production for the knee extensors, which normally occurs when maximum knee extension is preceded by activation of the knee flexors.
AC and CY exercise for any of the diff RPE. Local RPE was generally higher than central RPE. Selected physiological responses accounted for more... physiological responses was much higher for arm crank than cycle exercise for W7 T-7 7’v* 7 7. 7 77 7 9 w2 all differentiated RPE contrasts (ABS and REL-AC...total accountable variance from these selected physiological responses was greater for arm crank (median R2 = 0.99) than cycle exercise (median R 2 = 0.75
Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Lee, Stuart M. C.
Approximately 20% of Space Shuttle astronauts became presyncopal during operational stand and 80deg head-up tilt tests, and the prevalence of orthostatic intolerance increases after longer missions. Greater than 60% of the US astronauts participating in Mir and early International Space Station missions experienced presyncope during post-flight tilt tests, perhaps related to limitations of the exercise hardware that prevented high intensity exercise training until later ISS missions. The objective of this study was to determine whether an intense resistive and aerobic exercise countermeasure program designed to prevent cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning during 70 d of bed rest (BR), a space flight analog, would protect against post-BR orthostatic intolerance. METHODS Twenty-six subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups: non-exercise controls (n=11) or one of two exercise groups (ExA, n=8; ExB, n=7). Both ExA and ExB groups performed the same resistive and aerobic exercise countermeasures during BR, but one exercise group received testosterone supplementation while the other received a placebo during BR in a double-blinded fashion. On 3 d/wk, subjects performed lower body resistive exercise and 30 min of continuous aerobic exercise (=75% max heart rate). On the other 3 d/wk, subjects performed only highintensity, interval-style aerobic exercise. Orthostatic intolerance was assessed using a 15-min 80? head-up tilt test performed 2 d (BR-2) before and on the last day of BR (BR70). Plasma volume was measured using carbon monoxide rebreathing on BR-3 and before rising on the first recovery day (BR+0). The code for the exercise groups has not been broken, and results are reported here without group identification. RESULTS Only one subject became presyncopal during tilt testing on BR-2, but 7 of 11 (63%) controls, 3 of 8 (38%) ExA, and 4 of 7 (57%) ExB subjects were presyncopal on BR70. Survival analysis of post-BR tilt tests revealed no
Sumide, Takahiro; Sakuraba, Keishoku; Sawaki, Keisuke; Ohmura, Hirotoshi; Tamura, Yoshifumi
Previous studies have demonstrated that a low-intensity resistance exercise, combined with vascular occlusion, results in a marked increase in muscular size and strength. We investigated the optimal pressure for reduction of muscle blood flow with resistance exercise to increase the muscular strength and endurance. Twenty-one subjects were randomly divided into four groups by the different application of vascular occlusion pressure at the proximal of thigh: without any pressure (0-pressure group), with a pressure of 50mmHg (50-pressure group), with a pressure of 150mmHg (150-pressure group), and with a pressure of 250mmHg (250-pressure group). The isokinetic muscle strength at angular velocities of 60 and 180 degrees /s, total muscle work, and the cross-sectional knee extensor muscle area were assessed before and after exercise. Exercise was performed three times a week over an 8-week period at an intensity of approximately 20% of one-repetition maximum for straight leg raising and hip joint adduction and maximum force for abduction training. A significant increase in strength at 180 degrees /s was noted after exercise in all subjects who exercised under vascular occlusion. Total muscle work increased significantly in the 50- and 150-pressure groups (P<0.05, P<0.01, respectively). There was no significant increase in cross-sectional knee extensor muscle area in any groups. In conclusion, resistance exercise with relatively low vascular occlusion pressure is potentially useful to increase muscle strength and endurance without discomfort.
Nazar, K.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Philpott, D.; Pohoska, E.; Olszewska, K.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.
The effect of exhaustive treadmill exercise on mitochondrial density (MD) and ultrastructural changes in quadriceps femoris muscle was studied in 7 normal, healthy, male mongrel dogs before and after restricted activity (RA) and following a subsequent 2-month exercise retraining period. Mean time to exhaustion in the 2-month group decreased from 177 +/- 11 min before to 90 +/- 16 min after RA; retraining increased tolerance to 219 +/- 36 min above the pre-RA and 143 percent above the post-RA time. Post-RA exhaustion time in the 5-months group was 25 and 45 min. Muscle samples taken after RA showed abnormalities indicative of degeneration, which were reversed by retraining. Resting MD decreased from a control level of 27.8 percent to 14.7 percent and 16.3 percent, and was restored to 27.1 percent after retraining. Exhaustive exercise caused an increase in MD under control conditions and after RA, but not following retraining. Disruption of mitochondria after exercise was evident after 5-month confinement. Factors causing mitochondrial changes and eventually their disruption during exercise after restricted activity are not related as much to the state of fatigue as to the pre-exercise quality of the muscle modified by disease or training.
Vercruyssen, Fabrice; Easthope, Christopher; Bernard, Thierry; Hausswirth, Christophe; Bieuzen, Francois; Gruet, Mathieu; Brisswalter, Jeanick
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of wearing compression socks (CS) on performance indicators and physiological responses during prolonged trail running. Eleven trained runners completed a 15.6 km trail run at a competition intensity whilst wearing or not wearing CS. Counter movement jump, maximal voluntary contraction and the oxygenation profile of vastus lateralis muscle using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) method were measured before and following exercise. Run time, heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration and ratings of perceived exertion were evaluated during the CS and non-CS sessions. No significant difference in any dependent variables was observed during the run sessions. Run times were 5681.1 ± 503.5 and 5696.7 ± 530.7 s for the non-CS and CS conditions, respectively. The relative intensity during CS and non-CS runs corresponded to a range of 90.5-91.5% HRmax. Although NIRS measurements such as muscle oxygen uptake and muscle blood flow significantly increased following exercise (+57.7% and + 42.6%,+59.2% and + 32.4%, respectively for the CS and non-CS sessions, P<0.05), there was no difference between the run conditions. The findings suggest that competitive runners do not gain any practical or physiological benefits from wearing CS during prolonged off-road running.
Zaleski, Amanda; Capizzi, Jeffrey; Ballard, Kevin D.; Troyanos, Christopher; Baggish, Aaron; D'Hemecourt, Pierre; Thompson, Paul D.; Parker, Beth
Strenuous endurance exercise increases inflammatory markers and acutely increases cardiovascular risk; however, statins may mitigate this response. We measured serum levels of p-selectin in 37 runners treated with statins and in 43 nonstatin treated controls running the 2011 Boston Marathon. Venous blood samples were obtained the day before (PRE) as well as within 1 hour after (FINISH) and 24 hours after (POST) the race. The increase in p-selectin immediately after exercise was lower in statin users (PRE to FINISH: 20.5 ± 19.4 ng/mL) than controls (PRE to FINISH: 30.9 ± 27.1 ng/mL; P < 0.001). The increase in p-selectin 24 hours after exercise was also lower in statin users (PRE to POST: 21.5 ± 26.6 ng/mL) than controls (PRE to POST: 29.3 ± 31.9 ng/mL; P < 0.001). Furthermore, LDL-C was positively correlated with p-selectin at FINISH and POST (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, resp.), irrespective of drug treatment, suggesting that lower levels of LDL-C are associated with a reduced inflammatory response to exercise. We conclude that statins blunt the exercise-induced increase in p-selectin following a marathon and that the inflammatory response to a marathon varies directly with LDL-C levels. PMID:26464882
Caillaud, Corinne; Connes, Philippe; Ben Saad, Helmi; Mercier, Jacques
Animal studies have suggested that erythropoietin, besides its well-known hematopoietic effects, can modulate metabolism and prevent fat accumulation. We investigated the effects of repeated injections of recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) on the balance of substrate oxidation during aerobic exercise in humans. Twelve healthy aerobically trained males received subcutaneously either moderate dose of EPO (50 U/kg, EPO) or saline injections (NaCl 0.9 %, control) three times a week for 4 weeks. Body weight, % fat, maximal aerobic capacity, and substrate utilization during exercise were assessed before and after treatment, while hemoglobin and hematocrit were monitored regularly during the treatment. Carbohydrate and fat oxidation were evaluated via indirect calorimetry, during a submaximal exercise performed at 75 % of the participants' maximal aerobic capacity (V̇(O2max)) for 60 min. Results showed that 4 weeks of EPO treatment significantly enhanced fat oxidation (+56 % in EPO versus -9 % in control) during exercise, independent of its effects on hematological parameters or V̇(O2max). This study shows that EPO can modulate substrate utilization during exercise, leading to enhanced fat utilization and lower use of carbohydrates. This opens new research directions exploring whether systemic EPO levels, in physiological conditions, participate to the modulation of fat oxidation.
Coggan, A R; Spina, R J; Kohrt, W M; Holloszy, J O
It has been hypothesized that endurance training reduces carbohydrate utilization during exercise via citrate-mediated inhibition of phosphofructokinase (PFK). To test this hypothesis, vastus lateralis muscle biopsy samples were obtained from eight men before and immediately (approximately 10 s) after 2 h of cycle ergometer exercise at 60% of pretraining peak O2 uptake, both before and after 12 wk of endurance exercise training (3 days/wk running, 3 days/wk interval cycling). Training increased muscle citrate synthase (CS) activity from 3.69 +/- 0.48 (SE) to 5.30 +/- 0.42 mol.h-1.kg protein-1 and decreased the mean respiratory exchange ratio during exercise from 0.92 +/- 0.01 to 0.88 +/- 0.01 (both P < 0.001). Muscle citrate concentration at the end of exercise correlated significantly with CS activity (r = 0.70; P < 0.005) and was slightly but not significantly higher after training (0.80 +/- 0.19 vs. 0.54 +/- 0.19 mmol/kg dry wt; P = 0.16). Muscle glucose 6-phosphate (G-6-P) concentration at the end of exercise, however, was 31% lower in the trained state (1.17 +/- 0.10 vs. 1.66 +/- 0.27 mmol/kg dry wt; P < 0.05), in keeping with a 36% decrease in the amount of muscle glycogen utilized (133 +/- 22 vs. 209 +/- 19 mmol.kg dry wt-1.2 h-1; P < 0.01). The lower G-6-P concentration after training suggests that the training-induced reduction in carbohydrate utilization results from attenuation of flux before the PFK step in glycolysis and is not due to citrate-mediated inhibition of PFK.
Chan, Val; Duffield, Rob; Watsford, Mark
This study investigated the effects of wearing compression garments during and 24 h following a 4-h exercise protocol simulating manual-labour tasks. Ten physically trained male participants, familiar with labouring activities, undertook 4 h of work tasks characteristic of industrial workplaces. Participants completed 2 testing sessions, separated by at least 1 week. In the experimental condition, participants wore a full-length compression top and compression shorts during the exercise protocol and overnight recovery, with normal work clothes worn in the control condition. Testing for serum creatine kinase and C-reactive protein, handgrip strength, knee flexion and extension torque, muscle stiffness, perceived muscle soreness and fatigue as well as heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) responses to 4-min cycling were performed before, following, and 24 h after exercise. Creatine kinase, muscle soreness, and rating of perceived fatigue increased following the exercise protocol (p < 0.05) as did RPE to a standardised cycling warm-up bout. Conversely, no postexercise changes were observed in C-reactive protein, handgrip strength, peak knee flexion torque, or stiffness measures (p > 0.05). Knee extension torque was significantly higher in the control condition at 24 h postexercise (3.1% ± 5.4% change; compression: 2.2% ± 11.1% change), although no other variables were different between conditions at any time. However, compression demonstrated a moderate-large effect (d > 0.60) to reduce perceived muscle soreness, fatigue, and RPE from standardised warm-up at 24 h postexercise. The current findings suggest that compression may assist in perceptual recovery from manual-labour exercise with implications for the ability to perform subsequent work bouts.
Francescato, Maria Pia; Stel, Giuliana; Stenner, Elisabetta; Geat, Mario
Physical activity in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) is hindered because of the high risk of glycemic imbalances. A recently proposed algorithm (named Ecres) estimates well enough the supplemental carbohydrates for exercises lasting one hour, but its performance for prolonged exercise requires validation. Nine T1DM patients (5M/4F; 35-65 years; HbA1c 54 ± 13 mmol · mol(-1)) performed, under free-life conditions, a 3-h walk at 30% heart rate reserve while insulin concentrations, whole-body carbohydrate oxidation rates (determined by indirect calorimetry) and supplemental carbohydrates (93% sucrose), together with glycemia, were measured every 30 min. Data were subsequently compared with the corresponding values estimated by the algorithm. No significant difference was found between the estimated insulin concentrations and the laboratory-measured values (p = NS). Carbohydrates oxidation rate decreased significantly with time (from 0.84 ± 0.31 to 0.53 ± 0.24 g · min(-1), respectively; p < 0.001), being estimated well enough by the algorithm (p = NS). Estimated carbohydrates requirements were practically equal to the corresponding measured values (p = NS), the difference between the two quantities amounting to -1.0 ± 6.1 g, independent of the elapsed exercise time (time effect, p = NS). Results confirm that Ecres provides a satisfactory estimate of the carbohydrates required to avoid glycemic imbalances during moderate intensity aerobic physical activity, opening the prospect of an intriguing method that could liberate patients from the fear of exercise-induced hypoglycemia.
Schmitz, Randy J.; Cone, John C.; Tritsch, Amanda J.; Pye, Michele L.; Montgomery, Melissa M.; Henson, Robert A.; Shultz, Sandra J.
Background: As injury rates rise in the later stages of sporting activities, a better understanding of lower extremity biomechanics in the later phases of gamelike situations may improve training and injury prevention programs. Hypothesis: Lower extremity biomechanics of a drop-jump task (extracted from a principal components analysis) would reveal factors associated with risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury during a 90-minute individualized intermittent exercise protocol (IEP) and for 1 hour following the IEP. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Methods: Fifty-nine athletes (29 women, 30 men) completed 3 sessions. The first session assessed fitness for an IEP designed to simulate the demands of a soccer match. An experimental session assessed drop-jump biomechanics, after a dynamic warm-up, every 15 minutes during the 90-minute IEP, and for 1 hour following the IEP. A control session with no exercise assessed drop-jump performance at the same intervals. Results: Two biomechanical factors early in the first half (hip flexion at initial contact and hip loading; ankle loading and knee shear force) decreased at the end of the IEP and into the 60-minute recovery period, while a third factor (knee loading) decreased only during the recovery period (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: The individualized sport-specific IEP may have more subtle effects on landing biomechanics when compared with short-term, exhaustive fatigue protocols. Clinical Relevance: Potentially injurious landing biomechanics may not occur until the later stages of soccer activity. PMID:24587862
Waller, Amanda P; Heigenhauser, George J F; Geor, Raymond J; Spriet, Lawrence L; Lindinger, Michael I
We hypothesized that postexercise rehydration using a hypotonic electrolyte solution will increase the rate of recovery of whole body hydration, and that this is associated with increased muscle glycogen and electrolyte recovery in horses. Gluteus medius biopsies and jugular venous blood were sampled from six exercise-conditioned Standardbreds on two separate occasions, at rest and for 24 h following a competitive exercise test (CET) designed to simulate the speed and endurance test of a 3-day event. After the CETs, horses were given water ad libitum, and either a hypotonic commercial electrolyte solution (electrolyte) via nasogastric tube, followed by a typical hay/grain meal, or a hay/grain meal alone (control). The CET resulted in decreased total body water and muscle glycogen concentration of 8.4 +/- 0.3 liters and 22.6%, respectively, in the control treatment, and 8.2 +/- 0.4 liters and 21.9% in the electrolyte treatment. Electrolyte resulted in an enhanced rate of muscle glycogen resynthesis and faster restoration of hydration (as evidenced by faster recovery of plasma protein concentration, maintenance of plasma osmolality, and greater muscle intracellular fluid volume) during the recovery period compared with control. There were no differences in muscle Na, K, Cl, or Mg contents between the two treatments. It is concluded that oral administration of a hypotonic electrolyte solution after prolonged moderate-intensity exercise enhanced the rate of muscle glycogen resynthesis during the recovery period compared with control. It is speculated that postexercise dehydration may be one key contributor to the slow muscle glycogen replenishment in horses.
Price, Mike James; Cripps, David
This study examined the effects of combined glucose and sodium bicarbonate ingestion prior to intermittent exercise. Ninemales (mean ± s age 25.4 ± 6.6 years, body mass 78.8 ± 12.0 kg, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max)) 47.0 ± 7 ml · kg · min(-1)) undertook 4 × 45 min intermittent cycling trials including 15 × 10 s sprints one hour after ingesting placebo (PLA), glucose (CHO), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) or a combined CHO and NaHCO3 solution (COMB). Post ingestion blood pH (7.45 ± 0.03, 7.46 ± 0.03, 7.32 ± 0.05, 7.32 ± 0.01) and bicarbonate (30.3 ± 2.1, 30.7 ± 1.8, 24.2 ± 1.2, 24.0 ± 1.8 mmol · l(-1)) were greater for NaHCO3 and COMB when compared to PLA and CHO, remaining elevated throughout exercise (main effect for trial; P < 0.05). Blood lactate concentration was greatest throughout exercise for NaHCO3 and COMB (main effect for trial; P < 0.05). Blood glucose concentration was greatest 15 min post-ingestion for CHO followed by COMB, NaHCO3 and PLA (7.13 ± 0.60, 5.58 ± 0.75, 4.51 ± 0.56, 4.46 ± 0.59 mmol · l(-1), respectively; P < 0.05). Gastrointestinal distress was lower during COMB compared to NaHCO3 at 15 min post-ingestion (P < 0.05). No differences were observed for sprint performance between trials (P = 1.00). The results of this study suggest that a combined CHO and NaHCO3 beverage reduced gastrointestinal distress and CHO availability but did not improve performance. Although there was no effect on performance an investigation of the effects in more highly trained individuals may be warranted.
Vila-Chã, C; Hassanlouei, H; Farina, D; Falla, D
This study investigates the effects of eccentric exercise and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) of the quadriceps on agonist-antagonist activity during a range of motor tasks. Ten healthy volunteers (age, mean ± SD, 24.9 ± 3.2 years) performed maximum voluntary contractions (MVC) and explosive isometric contractions of the knee extensors followed by isometric contractions at 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30% MVC at baseline, immediately after and 24 h after eccentric exercise of the quadriceps. During each task, force of the knee extensors and surface EMG of the vasti and hamstrings muscles were recorded concurrently. Rate of force development (RFD) was computed from the explosive isometric contraction, and the coefficient of variation of the force (CoV) signal was estimated from the submaximal contractions. Twenty-four hours after exercise, the subjects rated their perceived pain intensity as 4.1 ± 1.2 (score out of 10). The maximum RFD and MVC of the knee extensors was reduced immediately post- and 24 h after eccentric exercise compared to baseline (average across both time points: 19.1 ± 17.1% and 11.9 ± 9.8% lower, respectively, P < 0.05). The CoV for force during the submaximal contractions was greater immediately after eccentric exercise (up to 66% higher than baseline, P < 0.001) and remained higher 24 h post-exercise during the presence of DOMS (P < 0.01). For the explosive and MVC tasks, the EMG amplitude of the vasti muscles decreased immediately after exercise and was accompanied by increased antagonist EMG for the explosive contraction only. On the contrary, reduced force steadiness was accompanied by a general increase in EMG amplitude of the vasti muscles and was accompanied by increased antagonist activity, but only at higher force levels (>15% MVC). This study shows that eccentric exercise and subsequent DOMS of the quadriceps reduce the maximal force, rate of force development and force steadiness of the knee extensors, and is
Da Boit, Mariasole; Sibson, Rachael; Meakin, Judith R; Aspden, Richard M; Thies, Frank; Mangoni, Arduino A; Gray, Stuart Robert
Resistance exercise training is known to be effective in increasing muscle mass in older people. Acute measurement of protein metabolism data has indicated that the magnitude of response may differ between sexes. We compared adaptive responses in muscle mass and function to 18 weeks resistance exercise training in a cohort of older (>65 years) men and women. Resistance exercise training improved knee extensor maximal torque, 4 m walk time, time to complete five chair rises, muscle anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA) and muscle quality with no effect on muscle fat/water ratio or plasma glucose, insulin, triacylglycerol, IL-6, and TNF-α Differences between sexes were observed for knee extensor maximal torque and muscle quality with greater increases observed in men versus women (P < 0.05). Maximal torque increased by 15.8 ± 10.6% in women and 41.7 ± 25.5% in men, whereas muscle quality increased by 8.8 ± 17.5% in women and by 33.7 ± 25.6% in men. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated a difference in the magnitude of adaptation, of some of the outcome measures employed, in response to 18 weeks of resistance exercise training between men and women. The mechanisms underlying this observation remain to be established.
Chiu, Loren Z F; Salem, George J
The most common modality for resistance exercise is free weight resistance. Alternative methods of providing external resistance have been investigated, in particular for use in microgravity environments such as space flight. One alternative modality is flywheel inertial resistance, which generates resistance as a function of the mass, distribution of mass, and angular acceleration of the flywheel. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize net joint kinetics of multijoint exercises performed with a flywheel inertial resistance device in comparison to free weights. Eleven trained men and women performed the front squat, lunge, and push press on separate days with free weight or flywheel resistance, while instrumented for biomechanical analysis. Front squats performed with flywheel resistance required greater contribution of the hip and ankle, and less contribution of the knee, compared to free weight. Push presses performed with flywheel resistance had similar impulse requirements at the knee compared to free weight, but greater impulse requirement at the hip and ankle. As used in this investigation, flywheel inertial resistance increases the demand on the hip extensors and ankle plantarflexors and decreases the mechanical demand on the knee extensors for lower extremity exercises such as the front squat and lunge. Exercises involving dynamic lower and upper extremity actions, such as the push press, may benefit from flywheel inertial resistance, due to the increased mechanical demand on the knee extensors.
Wu, Wei-Jie; Wang, Shan-Huan; Ling, Wei; Geng, Li-Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Xi; Yu, Lan; Chen, Jun; Luo, Jiang-Xi; Zhao, Hai-Lu
Abstract Disturbance of oxygen–carbon dioxide homeostasis has an impact on cancer. Little is known about the effect of breath training on cancer patients. Here we report our 10-year experience with morning breathing exercises (MBE) in peer-support programs for cancer survivors. We performed a cohort study to investigate long-term surviving patients with lung cancer (LC) and nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) who practiced MBE on a daily basis. End-tidal breath holding time (ETBHT) after MBE was measured to reflect improvement in alveolar O2 pressure and alveolar CO2 pressure capacity. Patients (female, 57) with a diagnosis of LC (90 patients) and NPC (32 patients) were included. Seventy-six of them were MBE trainees. Average survival years were higher in MBE trainees (9.8 ± 9.5) than nontrainees (3.3 ± 2.8). The 5-year survival rate was 56.6% for MBE trainees and 19.6% for nontrainees (RR = 5.371, 95% CI = 2.271–12.636, P < 0.001). Survival probability of the trainees further increased 17.9-fold for the 10-year survival rate. Compared with the nontrainees, the MBE trainees shows no significant differences in ETBHT (baseline, P = 0.795; 1–2 years, P = 0.301; 3–4 years, P = 0.059) at baseline and within the first 4 years. From the 5th year onwards, significant improvements were observed in ETBHT, aCO2%, PaCO2, and PaO2 (P = 0.028). In total, 18 trainees (40.9%) and 20 nontrainees (74.1%) developed new metastasis (RR = 0.315, 95% CI = 0.108–0.919, P = 0.031). MBE might benefit for the long-term survival in patients with LC and NPC due to improvement in hyperventilation. PMID:28079815
Kak, Hwang-Bo; Park, Sun-Ja; Park, Byun-Joon
[Purpose] The gluteus medius, a hip abductor, controls femoral movement and stabilizes the pelvis during lower extremity mobilization. [Subjects] This study enrolled 24 subjects into control and experimental groups. [Methods] This randomized controlled study included patients who underwent arthroscopy after meniscus injury and started a rehabilitative exercise program 8 weeks after surgery. Subjects were divided into the experimental gluteus medius resistance exercise group (n=12) and the control group (n=12). The study investigated muscle strength and balance of the flexors, extensors, and abductors of the knee for 8 weeks. [Results] Strengths of knee extensors in patients who underwent rehabilitative exercise for 8 weeks were measured. Strength of the knee extensors of the experimental and control groups increased by 40% and 31%, respectively; strength of the hip flexors of the experimental and control groups increased by 31% and 18%, respectively. Strength of the hip joint muscles showed a 40% increase in the experimental group and a 14% increase in the control group. However, there was a significant difference (18%) in muscle strength of the hip abductors between the groups. Measurements of trunk lateral flexion showed a difference within a group, but no intergroup difference was found. [Conclusion] This study investigated the effect of hip abductor exercise on muscular strength and trunk stability in patients with a meniscus injury. PMID:27134387
Caruso, John F; Hamill, John L; Yamauchi, Miki; Saito, Kyoko; Cook, Tim D; Mercado, Dean R
To assess unloaded knee extensor temporal strength changes, healthy subjects without asthma performed 40 continuous days of unilateral limb suspension, whereby their left leg refrained from normal weight-bearing and ambulatory activity. During the 40-day period, subjects performed resistance exercise (REX) with their unloaded leg on an inertial resistance ergometer and, as part of a double-blind design, consumed the maximal oral therapeutic dosage of albuterol (i.e., 16 mg.d) or a placebo (i.e., lactose) with no crossover. Workout data were partitioned into 4 10-day periods that ran consecutively. Dependent strength variables included concentric total work, eccentric total work, concentric average power (CAP), and eccentric average power (EAP). Dependent variables were analyzed with 5 (time) x 2 (group) x 2 (gender) mixed factorial analyses of variance and the Tukey honestly significant difference test. Concentric total work, CAP, and EAP each demonstrated a time-group-gender (p < 0.05) interaction. Female REX-placebo subjects had the greatest percentage of unloaded knee extensor strength loss. However, female REX-albuterol subjects fared best throughout the 40-day period and incurred significant unloaded knee extensor strength gains. Differences in strength changes between male and female REX-albuterol subjects was likely due to the higher relative dosage administered to the latter, as body mass showed a gender (i.e., men > women) effect. Future research may elucidate the ideal dose-response relationship for REX-albuterol treatment for use aboard manned space flights and in other disuse models. Coaches and practitioners should carefully examine their sport-governing bodies' rules on albuterol administration and give the drug only if an athlete's health warrants such treatment.
Alba-Martín, Pablo; Gallego-Izquierdo, T; Plaza-Manzano, Gustavo; Romero-Franco, Natalia; Núñez-Nagy, Susana; Pecos-Martín, Daniel
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of conservative treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome with physical exercise. [Subjects and Methods] A computer-based review conducted of four databases (PubMed, the Cochrane Library, PEDro, and the University Library) was completed based on the inclusion criteria of patellofemoral pain syndrome patients treated with physical exercise methods and examination with self-reported pain and/or functional questionnaires. [Results] The findings of ten clinical trials of moderate to high quality were evaluated to determine the effectiveness of physical exercise as conservative management for patellofemoral pain syndrome. [Conclusion] The intervention programs that were most effective in relieving pain and improving function in patellofemoral pain syndrome included proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching and strengthening exercises for the hip external rotator and abductor muscles and knee extensor muscles.
Gonzalez, Javier T; Fuchs, Cas J; Smith, Fiona E; Thelwall, Pete E; Taylor, Roy; Stevenson, Emma J; Trenell, Michael I; Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C
The purpose of this study was to define the effect of glucose ingestion compared with sucrose ingestion on liver and muscle glycogen depletion during prolonged endurance-type exercise. Fourteen cyclists completed two 3-h bouts of cycling at 50% of peak power output while ingesting either glucose or sucrose at a rate of 1.7 g/min (102 g/h). Four cyclists performed an additional third test for reference in which only water was consumed. We employed (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine liver and muscle glycogen concentrations before and after exercise. Expired breath was sampled during exercise to estimate whole body substrate use. After glucose and sucrose ingestion, liver glycogen levels did not show a significant decline after exercise (from 325 ± 168 to 345 ± 205 and 321 ± 177 to 348 ± 170 mmol/l, respectively; P > 0.05), with no differences between treatments. Muscle glycogen concentrations declined (from 101 ± 49 to 60 ± 34 and 114 ± 48 to 67 ± 34 mmol/l, respectively; P < 0.05), with no differences between treatments. Whole body carbohydrate utilization was greater with sucrose (2.03 ± 0.43 g/min) vs. glucose (1.66 ± 0.36 g/min; P < 0.05) ingestion. Both liver (from 454 ± 33 to 283 ± 82 mmol/l; P < 0.05) and muscle (from 111 ± 46 to 67 ± 31 mmol/l; P < 0.01) glycogen concentrations declined during exercise when only water was ingested. Both glucose and sucrose ingestion prevent liver glycogen depletion during prolonged endurance-type exercise. Sucrose ingestion does not preserve liver glycogen concentrations more than glucose ingestion. However, sucrose ingestion does increase whole body carbohydrate utilization compared with glucose ingestion. This trial was registered at https://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02110836.
Banzet, Sébastien; Koulmann, Nathalie; Simler, Nadine; Sanchez, Hervé; Chapot, Rachel; Serrurier, Bernard; Peinnequin, André; Bigard, Xavier
Prolonged intense exercise is challenging for the liver to maintain plasma glucose levels. Hormonal changes cannot fully account for exercise-induced hepatic glucose production (HGP). Contracting skeletal muscles release interleukin-6 (IL-6), a cytokine able to increase endogenous glucose production during exercise. However, whether this is attributable to a direct effect of IL-6 on liver remains unknown. Here, we studied hepatic glycogen, gluconeogenic genes, and IL-6 signaling in response to one bout of exhaustive running exercise in rats. To determine whether IL-6 can modulate gluconeogenic gene mRNA independently of exercise, we injected resting rats with recombinant IL-6. Exhaustive exercise resulted in a profound decrease in liver glycogen and an increase in gluconeogenic gene mRNA levels, phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxykinase (PEPCK), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6P), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha), suggesting a key role for gluconeogenesis in hepatic glucose production. This was associated to an active IL-6 signaling in liver tissue, as shown by signal transducer and activator of transcription and CAAT/enhancer binding protein-beta phosphorylation and IL-6-responsive gene mRNA levels at the end of exercise. Recombinant IL-6 injection resulted in an increase in IL-6-responsive gene mRNA levels in the liver. We found a dose-dependent increase in PEPCK gene mRNA strongly correlated with IL-6-induced gene mRNA levels. No changes in G6P and PGC-1alpha mRNA levels were found. Taken together, our results suggest that, during very demanding exercise, muscle-derived IL-6 could help increase HGP by directly upregulating PEPCK mRNA abundance.
van Saase, J L; Noteboom, W M; Vandenbroucke, J P
OBJECTIVE--To compare the long term survival of a group of athletes taking prolonged vigorous physical exercise to that of the general population. DESIGN--Follow up of a cohort of participants in the Dutch eleven cities ice skating tour (a race and recreational tour) over a distance of 200 kilometers. SETTING--Data on participation from the organising committee and data on mortality from all municipalities in The Netherlands. SUBJECTS--2259 Male athletes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Comparison of all cause mortality in male participants in the tour with that in the general population of The Netherlands. RESULTS--The standardised mortality ratio for all participants during 32 years of follow up was 0.76 (95% confidence interval 0.68 to 0.85), and 0.90 (0.48 to 1.44) for participants in the race, and 0.72 (0.60 to 0.86) for participants in the recreational tour who finished within the time limit. CONCLUSIONS--The capacity for prolonged and vigorous physical exercise, particularly if the exercise is recreational, is a strong indicator of longevity. Images p1409-a p1411-a PMID:2279154
Oosthuyse, Tanja; Carstens, Matthew; Millen, Aletta M
Certain commercial carbohydrate replacement products include slowly absorbed carbohydrates such as isomaltulose. Few studies have investigated the metabolic effects of ingesting isomaltulose during exercise and none have evaluated exercise performance and gastrointestinal comfort. Nine male cyclists participated postprandially during three trials of 2-h steady-state (S-S) exercise (60%Wmax) followed by a 16 km time trial (TT) while ingesting 63 g·h-1 of either, 0.8:1 fructose: maltodextrin (F:M) or isomaltulose (ISO) or placebo- flavored water (PL). Data were analyzed by magnitude-based inferences. During S-S exercise, ISO and PL similarly increased plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration (mean change ISO versus F:M: 0.18, 90%CI ±0.21 mmol·L-1, 88% likelihood) and fat oxidation (10, 90%CI ±9 g, 89% likelihood) while decreasing carbohydrate oxidation (-36, 90%CI ±30.2 g, 91% likelihood) compared with F:M, despite equal elevations in blood glucose concentration with ISO and F:M. Rating of stomach cramps and bloating increased progressively with ISO (rating: 0-90 min S-S, weak; 120 min S-S, moderate; TT, strong) compared with F:M and PL (0-120 min S-S and TT, very weak). TT performance was substantially slower with ISO (mean change: 1.5, 90%CI ±1.4 min, 94% likely harmful) compared with F:M. The metabolic response of ISO ingestion during moderate exercise to increase NEFA availability and fat oxidation despite elevating blood glucose concentration is anomalous for a carbohydrate supplement. However, ingesting isomaltulose at a continuous high frequency to meet the recommended carbohydrate replacement dose, results in severe gastrointestinal symptoms during prolonged or high intensity exercise and negatively affects exercise performance compared with fructose-maltodextrin supplementation.
Meuche, S.; Schneider, S. M.; Lee, S. M. C.; Macias, B. R.; Smith, S. M.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.
Long-term exposure to microgravity can cause a severe musculoskeletal loss and cardiovascular deconditioning in astronauts. In this report, the effectiveness of combined supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (LBNPex) and flywheel resistive exercise (Rex) countermeasures was determined to prevent bone loss, reduced aerobic upright exercise capacity and reduced muscle strength. We hypothesized that exercise subjects (EX) would show less decrease in bone mineral density (BMD), peak oxygen consumption (VO2pk) and knee extensor strength (KES) than control subjects (CON). Sixteen healthy female subjects (34 plus or minus 4yrs, 164 plus or minus 6.5cm, 58 plus or minus 5kg; mean plus or minus SD) participated in a 60-d 6 degree head-down tilt bed rest (BR) study after providing written informed consent. Subjects were assigned to one of two groups: a non- exercising CON group or an EX group performing LBNPex 2-4 d/wk and Rex every 3rd-d. VO2pk was measured with a maximal, graded, upright treadmill test performed pre-BR and on 3-d after BR. BMD was assessed pre-BR and 3-d after BR by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry total body DEXA scan (DEXA; HOLOGIC QDR 4500 Elite ). A Cybex dynamometer was employed to measure the isokinetic KES before and 5-d after BR. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA were performed with time as the repeated factor. Statistical significance was set at p less than 0.05. CON experienced a significant decrease in BMD in the trochanter (PRE: 0.670 0.045; POST: 0.646 0.352 g(raised dot) per square centimeter) and in the whole hip (PRE: 0.894 0.059; POST: 0.858 0.057 g(raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD also decreased significantly in EX in the trochanter (PRE: 0.753 plus or minus 0.0617; POST: 0.741 plus or minus 0.061 g(raised dot) per square centimeter) and whole hip (PRE: 0.954 plus or minus 0.067; POST: 0.935 plus or minus 0.069 g(raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD losses were significantly less in EX than in CON
King, James A; Garnham, Jack O; Jackson, Andrew P; Kelly, Benjamin M; Xenophontos, Soteris; Nimmo, Myra A
Exercise increases energy expenditure however acutely this does not cause compensatory changes in appetite or food intake. This unresponsiveness contrasts the rapid counter-regulatory changes seen after food restriction. The present investigation examined whether corrective changes in appetite-regulatory parameters occur after a time delay, namely, on the day after a single bout of exercise. Nine healthy males completed two, two-day trials (exercise & control) in a random order. On the exercise trial participants completed 90 min of moderate-intensity treadmill running on day one (10:30-12:00h). On day two appetite-regulatory hormones and subjective appetite perceptions were assessed frequently in response to two test meals provided at 08:00 and 12:00 h. Identical procedures occurred in the control trial except no exercise was performed on day one. Circulating levels of leptin were reduced on the day after exercise (AUC 5841 ± 3335 vs. 7266 ± 3949 ng(-1)·mL(-1)·7h, P=0.012). Conversely, no compensatory changes were seen for circulating acylated ghrelin, total PYY, insulin or appetite perceptions. Unexpectedly, levels of acylated ghrelin were reduced on the exercise trial following the second test meal on day two (AUC 279 ± 136 vs. 326 ± 136 pg(-1)·mL(-1)·3h, P=0.021). These findings indicate that short-term energy deficits induced by exercise initially prompt a compensatory response by chronic but not acute hormonal regulators of appetite and energy balance. Within this 24h time-frame however there is no conscious recognition of the perturbation to energy balance.
Carfagna, Simona; Napolitano, Gaetana; Barone, Daniela; Pinto, Gabriele; Venditti, Paola
We studied the effects of ten-day 1% Galdieria sulphuraria dietary supplementation on oxidative damage and metabolic changes elicited by acute exercise (6-hour swimming) determining oxygen consumption, lipid hydroperoxides, protein bound carbonyls in rat tissue (liver, heart, and muscle) homogenates and mitochondria, tissue glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities, glutathione content, and rates of H2O2 mitochondrial release. Exercise increased oxidative damage in tissues and mitochondria and decreased tissue content of reduced glutathione. Moreover, it increased State 4 and decreased State 3 respiration in tissues and mitochondria. G. sulphuraria supplementation reduced the above exercise-induced variations. Conversely, alga supplementation was not able to modify the exercise-induced increase in mitochondrial release rate of hydrogen peroxide and in liver and heart antioxidant enzyme activities. The alga capacity to reduce lipid oxidative damage without reducing mitochondrial H2O2 release can be due to its high content of C-phycocyanin and glutathione, which are able to scavenge peroxyl radicals and contribute to phospholipid hydroperoxide metabolism, respectively. In conclusion, G. sulphuraria ability to reduce exercise-linked oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction makes it potentially useful even in other conditions leading to oxidative stress, including hyperthyroidism, chronic inflammation, and ischemia/reperfusion. PMID:25874021
Meuche, Sabine; Schneider, S. M.; Lee, S. M. C.; Macias, B. R.; Smith, S. M.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.
Long-term exposure to weightlessness leads to cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning. In this report, the effectiveness of combined supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (LBNPex) and flywheel resistive exercise (Rex) countermeasures was determined to prevent bone loss, reduced aerobic upright exercise capacity and reduced muscle strength. We hypothesized that exercise subjects would show less decrease in bone mineral density (BMD), peak oxygen consumption (VO2pk) and knee extensor strength (KES) than control subjects. Sixteen healthy female subjects participated in a 60-d 6(sup 0) head-down tilt bed rest (BR) study after providing written informed consent. Subjects were assigned to one of two groups: a non-exercising control group CON or an exercise group EX performing LBNPex 2-4 d/wk and Rex every 3rd-d. VO2pk was measured with a maximal, graded, upright treadmill test performed pre-BR and on 3-d after BR. BMD was assessed before and 3-d after BR. Isokinetic KES was measured before and 5-d after BR. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA were performed. Statistical significance was set at p less than 0.05. CON experienced a significant decrease in BMD in the trochanter (PRE: 0.670 plus or minus 0.045; POST: 0.646 plus or minus 0.352 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and in the whole hip (PRE=0.894 plus or minus 0.059; POST: 0.858 plus or minus 0.057 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD also decreased significantly in EX in the trochanter (PRE: 0.753 plus or minus 0.0617; POST: 0.741 plus or minus 0.061 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and whole hip (PRE: 0.954 plus or minus 0.067; POST: 0.935 plus or minus 0.069 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD losses were significantly less in EX than in CON subjects. VO2pk was significantly decreased in the CON after BR (PRE: 38.0 plus or minus 4.8; POST: 29.9 plus or minus 4.2 ml (raised dot) per kilogram per minute), but not in the EX (PRE: 39.0 plus or minus 2.0; POST
Smith, Gordon I; Jeukendrup, Asker E; Ball, Derek
At rest, administration of the short-chain fatty acid acetate suppresses fat oxidation without affecting carbohydrate utilization. The combined effect of increased acetate availability and exercise on substrate utilization is, however, unclear. With local ethics approval, we studied the effect of ingesting either sodium acetate (NaAc) or sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) at a dose of 4 mmol·kg-1 body mass 90 min before completing 120 min of exercise at 50% VO2peak. Six healthy young men completed the trials after an overnight fast and ingested the sodium salts in randomized order. As expected NaAc ingestion decreased resting fat oxidation (mean ± SD; 0.09 ± 0.02 vs. 0.07 ± 0.02 g·min-1 pre- and post-ingestion respectively, p < .05) with no effect upon carbohydrate utilization. In contrast, NaHCO3 ingestion had no effect on substrate utilization at rest. In response to exercise, fat and CHO oxidation increased in both trials, but fat oxidation was lower (0.16 ± 0.10 vs. 0.29 ± 0.11 g·min-1, p < .05) and carbohydrate oxidation higher (1.67 ± 0.35 vs. 1.44 ± 0.22 g·min-1, p < .05) in the NaAc trial compared with the NaHCO3 trial during the first 15 min of exercise. Over the final 75 min of exercise an increase in fat oxidation and decrease in carbohydrate oxidation was observed only in the NaAc trial. These results demonstrate that increasing plasma acetate concentration suppresses fat oxidation both at rest and at the onset of moderate-intensity exercise.
Murphy, K T; Petersen, A C; Goodman, C; Gong, X; Leppik, J A; Garnham, A P; Cameron-Smith, D; Snow, R J; McKenna, M J
This study investigated effects of prolonged submaximal exercise on Na+-K+-ATPase mRNA and protein expression, maximal activity, and content in human skeletal muscle. We also investigated the effects on mRNA expression of the transcription initiator gene, RNA polymerase II (RNAP II), and key genes involved in protein translation, eukaryotic initiation factor-4E (eIF-4E) and 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1). Eleven subjects (6 men, 5 women) cycled at 75.5% (SD 4.8%) peak O2 uptake and continued until fatigue. A vastus lateralis muscle biopsy was taken at rest, fatigue, and 3 and 24 h postexercise. We analyzed muscle for Na+-K+-ATPase alpha1, alpha2, alpha3, beta1, beta2, and beta3, as well for RNAP II, eIF-4E, and 4E-BP1 mRNA expression by real-time RT-PCR and Na+-K+-ATPase isoform protein abundance using immunoblotting. Muscle homogenate maximal Na+-K+-ATPase activity was determined by 3-O-methylfluorescein phosphatase activity and Na+-K+-ATPase content by [3H]ouabain binding. Cycling to fatigue [54.5 (SD 20.6) min] immediately increased alpha3 (P = 0.044) and beta2 mRNA (P = 0.042) by 2.2- and 1.9-fold, respectively, whereas alpha1 mRNA was elevated by 2.0-fold at 24 h postexercise (P = 0.036). A significant time main effect was found for alpha3 protein abundance (P = 0.046). Exercise transiently depressed maximal Na+-K+-ATPase activity (P = 0.004), but Na+-K+-ATPase content was unaltered throughout recovery. Exercise immediately increased RNAP II mRNA by 2.6-fold (P = 0.011) but had no effect on eIF-4E and 4E-BP1 mRNA. Thus a single bout of prolonged submaximal exercise induced isoform-specific Na+-K+-ATPase responses, increasing alpha1, alpha3, and beta2 mRNA but only alpha3 protein expression. Exercise also increased mRNA expression of RNAP II, a gene initiating transcription, but not of eIF-4E and 4E-BP1, key genes initiating protein translation.
McKenna, Michael J; Medved, Ivan; Goodman, Craig A; Brown, Malcolm J; Bjorksten, Andrew R; Murphy, Kate T; Petersen, Aaron C; Sostaric, Simon; Gong, Xiaofei
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been linked with both depressed Na+,K+-pump activity and skeletal muscle fatigue. This study investigated N-acetylcysteine (NAC) effects on muscle Na+,K+-pump activity and potassium (K+) regulation during prolonged, submaximal endurance exercise. Eight well-trained subjects participated in a double-blind, randomised, crossover design, receiving either NAC or saline (CON) intravenous infusion at 125 mg kg−1 h−1 for 15 min, then 25 mg kg−1 h−1 for 20 min prior to and throughout exercise. Subjects cycled for 45 min at 71% V˙O2peak, then continued at 92% V˙O2peak until fatigue. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were taken before exercise, at 45 min and fatigue and analysed for maximal in vitro Na+,K+-pump activity (K+-stimulated 3-O-methyfluorescein phosphatase; 3-O-MFPase). Arterialized venous blood was sampled throughout exercise and analysed for plasma K+ and other electrolytes. Time to fatigue at 92% V˙O2peak was reproducible in preliminary trials (c.v. 5.6 ± 0.6%) and was prolonged with NAC by 23.8 ± 8.3% (NAC 6.3 ± 0.5 versus CON 5.2 ± 0.6 min, P < 0.05). Maximal 3-O-MFPase activity decreased from rest by 21.6 ± 2.8% at 45 min and by 23.9 ± 2.3% at fatigue (P < 0.05). NAC attenuated the percentage decline in maximal 3-O-MFPase activity (%Δactivity) at 45 min (P < 0.05) but not at fatigue. When expressed relative to work done, the %Δactivity-to-work ratio was attenuated by NAC at 45 min and fatigue (P < 0.005). The rise in plasma [K+] during exercise and the Δ[K+]-to-work ratio at fatigue were attenuated by NAC (P < 0.05). These results confirm that the antioxidant NAC attenuates muscle fatigue, in part via improved K+ regulation, and point to a role for ROS in muscle fatigue. PMID:16840514
Radel, Rémi; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Perrey, Stéphane
Executive functioning and attention require mental effort. In line with the resource conservation principle, we hypothesized that mental effort would be saved when individuals expected to exercise for a long period. Twenty-two study participants exercised twice on a cycle ergometer for 10 min at 60% of their maximal aerobic power, with the expectation of exercising for either 10 min or 60 min. Changes in activity in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (rdlPFC) and right medial frontal cortex (rmPFC) were investigated by measuring oxyhemoglobin using near-infrared spectroscopy. Attentional focus and ratings of perceived exertion were assessed at three time points (200, 400, and 600 s). The oxyhemoglobin concentration was lower in the rdlPFC and higher in the rmPFC under the 60-min than under the 10-min condition. Also, attention was less focused in the 60-min than in the 10-min condition. We discuss these results as possible evidence of a disengagement of the brain regions associated with mental effort (executive network), in favor of brain regions linked to resting activity (the default network), in order to save mental resources for the maintenance of exercise.
Byrne, C; Eston, R G; Edwards, R H
Angle-specific isometric strength and angular velocity-specific concentric strength of the knee extensors were studied in eight subjects (5 males and 3 females) following a bout of muscular damaging exercise. One hundred maximal voluntary eccentric contractions of the knee extensors were performed in the prone position through a range of motion from 40 degrees to 140 degrees (0 degrees = full extension) at 1.57 rads(-1). Isometric peak torque was measured whilst seated at 10 degrees and 80 degrees knee flexion, corresponding to short and optimal muscle length, respectively. Isokinetic concentric peak torque was measured at 0.52 and 3.14 rad x s(-1). Plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity was also measured from a fingertip blood sample. These measures were taken before, immediately after and on days 1, 2, 4, and 7 following the eccentric exercise. The eccentric exercise protocol resuited in a greater relative loss of strength (P< 0.05) at short muscle length (76.3 +/- 2.5% of pre-exercise values) compared to optimal length (82.1 +/- 2.7%). There were no differences in the relative strength loss between isometric strength at optimal length and isokinetic concentric strength at 0.52 and 3.14 rad x s(-1). CK activity was significantly elevated above baseline at days 4 (P < 0.01) and 7 (P < 0.01). The greater relative strength loss at short muscle length appeared to persist throughout the seven-day testing period and provides indirect evidence of a shift in the angle-torque relationship towards longer muscle lengths. The results lend partial support to the popping sarcomere hypothesis of muscle damage, but could also be explained by an impairment of activation at short muscle lengths.
Crane, Justin D; Macneil, Lauren G; Tarnopolsky, Mark A
Aging is associated with a progressive decline in muscle strength, muscle mass, and aerobic capacity, which reduces mobility and impairs quality of life in elderly adults. Exercise is commonly employed to improve muscle function in individuals of all ages; however, chronic aerobic exercise is believed to largely impact cardiovascular function and oxidative metabolism, with minimal effects on muscle mass and strength. To study the effects of long-term aerobic exercise on muscle strength, we recruited 74 sedentary (SED) or highly aerobically active (ACT) men and women from within three distinct age groups (young: 20-39 years, middle: 40-64 years, and older: 65-86 years) and tested their aerobic capacity, isometric grip and knee extensor strength, and dynamic 1 repetition maximum knee extension. As expected, ACT subjects had greater maximal oxygen uptake and peak aerobic power output compared with SED subjects (p < .05). Grip strength relative to body weight declined with age (p < .05) and was greater in ACT compared with SED subjects in both hands (p < .05). Similarly, relative maximal isometric knee extension torque declined with age (p < .05) and was higher in ACT versus SED individuals in both legs (p < .05). Absolute and relative 1 repetition maximum knee extension declined with age (p < .05) and were greater in ACT versus SED groups (p < .05). Knee extensor strength was associated with a greater amount of leg lean mass in the ACT subjects (p < .05). In summary, long-term aerobic exercise appears to attenuate age-related reductions in muscle strength in addition to its cardiorespiratory and metabolic benefits.
Pinto, Stephanie S; Alberton, Cristine L; Bagatini, Natália C; Zaffari, Paula; Cadore, Eduardo L; Radaelli, Régis; Baroni, Bruno M; Lanferdini, Fábio J; Ferrari, Rodrigo; Kanitz, Ana Carolina; Pinto, Ronei S; Vaz, Marco Aurélio; Kruel, Luiz Fernando M
This study investigated the effects of different exercise sequences on the neuromuscular adaptations induced by water-based concurrent training in postmenopausal women. Twenty-one healthy postmenopausal women (57.14 ± 2.43 years) were randomly placed into two water-based concurrent training groups: resistance training prior to (RA, n = 10) or after (AR, n = 11) aerobic training. Subjects performed resistance and aerobic training twice a week over 12 weeks, performing both exercise types in the same training session. Upper (elbow flexors) and lower-body (knee extensors) one-repetition maximal test (1RM) and peak torque (PT) (knee extensors) were evaluated. The muscle thickness (MT) of upper (biceps brachii) and lower-body (vastus lateralis) was determined by ultrasonography. Moreover, the maximal and submaximal (neuromuscular economy) electromyographic activity (EMG) of lower-body (vastus lateralis and rectus femoris) was measured. Both RA and AR groups increased the upper- and lower-body 1RM and PT, while the lower-body 1RM increases observed in the RA was greater than AR (34.62 ± 13.51 vs. 14.16 ± 13.68 %). RA and AR showed similar MT increases in upper- and lower-body muscles evaluated. In addition, significant improvements in the maximal and submaximal EMG of lower-body muscles in both RA and AR were found, with no differences between groups. Both exercise sequences in water-based concurrent training presented relevant improvements to promote health and physical fitness in postmenopausal women. However, the exercise sequence resistance-aerobic optimizes the strength gains in lower limbs.
Chmelo, Elizabeth A.; Crotts, Charlotte I.; Newman, Jill C.; Brinkley, Tina E.; Lyles, Mary F.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Marsh, Anthony P.; Nicklas, Barbara J.
OBJECTIVES To describe the inter-individual variability in physical function responses to supervised, resistance and aerobic exercise training interventions in older adults. PARTICIPANTS Ninety-five older (65–79 years), overweight and obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥27 kg/m2), sedentary men and women. INTERVENTION Five-months of either 4 d/wk of aerobic training (AT, n=40) or 3 d/wk of resistance training (RT, n=55). MEASUREMENTS Physical function assessments: global measure of lower extremity function (short physical performance battery; SPPB), 400-meter walk, peak aerobic capacity (VO2peak), and knee extensor strength. RESULTS On average, both exercise interventions significantly improved physical function. For AT, there was a 7.9% increase in VO2peak; individual absolute increases varied from 0.4–4.3 ml/kg/min and four participants (13%) showed no change or a decrease in VO2peak. For RT, knee extensor strength improved an average of 8.1%, but individual increases varied from 1.2–63.7 Nm, and 16 participants (30%) showed no change or a decrease in strength. Majority of participants improved 400-m walk time, usual gait speed, chair rise time, and SPPB with AT, and improved usual gait speed, chair rise time, and SPPB with RT; but, there was wide variation in the magnitude of improvement. Compliance was only related to change in 400-m walk time following RT (r= −0.31; p<0.05). CONCLUSION Despite sufficient levels of adherence to both exercise interventions, some participants did not improve function, and the magnitude of improvement varied widely. Additional research is needed to identify factors that optimize responsiveness to exercise to maximize its functional benefits in older adults. PMID:25752778
Greenleaf, J. E.; Starr, J. C.; Van Beaumont, W.; Convertino, V. A.
Measurements of maximal grip strength and endurance at 40 percent max strength were obtained for 7 men 19-21 years of age, 1-2 days before and on the first recovery day during three 2-week bedrest (BR) periods, each separated by a 3-week ambulatory recovery period. The subjects performed isometric exercise (IME) for 1 hr/day, isotonic exercise (ITE) for 1 hr/day, and no exercise (NOE) in the three BR periods. It was found that the mean maximal grip strength was unchanged after all three BR periods. Mean grip endurance was found to be unchanged after IME and ITE training, but was significantly reduced after NOE. These results indicate that IME and ITE training during BR do not increase or decrease maximal grip strength, alghough they prevent loss of grip endurance, while the maximal strength of all other major muscle groups decreases in proportion to the length of BR to 70 days. The maximal strength reduction of the large muscle groups was found to be about twice that of the small muscle groups during BR. In addition, it is shown that changes in maximal strength after spaceflight, BR, or water immersion deconditioning cannot be predicted from changes in submaximal or maximal oxygen uptake values.
Burdon, Catriona A; Ruell, Patricia; Johnson, Nathan; Chapman, Phillip; O'Brien, Sinead; O'Connor, Helen T
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of exercise in the heat on thermoregulatory responses and plasma vasoactive intestinal peptide concentration (VIP) and whether it is modulated by ice-slushy consumption. Ten male participants cycled at 62% V̇O2max for 90min in 32°C and 40% relative humidity. A thermoneutral (37°C) or ice-slushy (-1°C) sports drink was given at 3.5mlkg(-1) body mass every 15min during exercise. VIP and rectal temperature increased during exercise (mean±standard deviation: 4.6±4.4pmolL(-1), P=0.005; and 1.3±0.4°C, P<0.001 respectively) and were moderately associated (r=0.35, P=0.008). While rectal temperature and VIP were not different between trials, ice-slushy significantly reduced heat storage (P=0.010) and skin temperature (time×trial interaction P=0.038). It appears that VIP does not provide the signal linking cold beverage ingestion and lower skin temperature in the heat.
O'Hara, John P; Woods, David R; Mellor, Adrian; Boos, Christopher; Gallagher, Liam; Tsakirides, Costas; Arjomandkhah, Nicola C; Holdsworth, David A; Cooke, Carlton B; Morrison, Douglas J; Preston, Thomas; King, Roderick Fgj
This study compared the effects of coingesting glucose and fructose on exogenous and endogenous substrate oxidation during prolonged exercise at altitude and sea level, in men. Seven male British military personnel completed two bouts of cycling at the same relative workload (55% Wmax) for 120 min on acute exposure to altitude (3375 m) and at sea level (~113 m). In each trial, participants ingested 1.2 g·min(-1) of glucose (enriched with (13)C glucose) and 0.6 g·min(-1) of fructose (enriched with (13)C fructose) directly before and every 15 min during exercise. Indirect calorimetry and isotope ratio mass spectrometry were used to calculate fat oxidation, total and exogenous carbohydrate oxidation, plasma glucose oxidation, and endogenous glucose oxidation derived from liver and muscle glycogen. Total carbohydrate oxidation during the exercise period was lower at altitude (157.7 ± 56.3 g) than sea level (286.5 ± 56.2 g, P = 0.006, ES = 2.28), whereas fat oxidation was higher at altitude (75.5 ± 26.8 g) than sea level (42.5 ± 21.3 g, P = 0.024, ES = 1.23). Peak exogenous carbohydrate oxidation was lower at altitude (1.13 ± 0.2 g·min(-1)) than sea level (1.42 ± 0.16 g·min(-1), P = 0.034, ES = 1.33). There were no differences in rates, or absolute and relative contributions of plasma or liver glucose oxidation between conditions during the second hour of exercise. However, absolute and relative contributions of muscle glycogen during the second hour were lower at altitude (29.3 ± 28.9 g, 16.6 ± 15.2%) than sea level (78.7 ± 5.2 g (P = 0.008, ES = 1.71), 37.7 ± 13.0% (P = 0.016, ES = 1.45). Acute exposure to altitude reduces the reliance on muscle glycogen and increases fat oxidation during prolonged cycling in men compared with sea level.
Effectiveness of a portable, ice-pack cooling vest (Steelevest) in prolonging work tolerance time in chemical defense clothing in the heat (33 C dry bulb, 33% relative humidity or 25 C WBGT) was evaluated while subjects exercised at a metabolic rate of approx. 700 watts. Subjects were six male volunteers. The protocol consisted of a 20 minute treadmill walk at 1.33 m/s. and 7.5% grade, followed by 15 minutes of a lifting task, 5 minutes rest, then another 20 minutes of lifting task for a total of one hour. The lifting task consisted of lifting of 20 kg box, carrying it 3 meters and setting it down. This was followed by a 6 m walk (3m back to the start point and 3 m back to the box) 15 sec after which the lifting cycle began again. The work was classified as heavy as previously defined. This protocol was repeated until the subjects were unable to continue or they reached a physiological endpoint. Time to voluntary cessation or physiological endpoint was called the work tolerance time. Physiological endpoints were rectal temperature of 39 C, heart rate exceeding 95% of maximum for two consecutive minutes or visible loss of motor control or nausea. The cooling vest had no effect on work tolerance time, rate of rise of rectal temperature or sweat loss. It was concluded that the Steelvest ice-vest is ineffective in prolonging work tolerance time and preventing increases in rectal temperature while wearing chemical protective clothing.
Saito, Akira; Ando, Ryosuke; Akima, Hiroshi
The quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle group plays an essential role in human movement, such as standing, walking and running. The ability to maintain a steady force during physical activity of the human lower limb is important for mobility, postural control and balance. Although prolonged mechanical vibration of the muscle-tendon unit can moderate the efficacy of synaptic input from Ia afferent onto the α-motor neuron pathway, the effect of prolonged tendon vibration on fluctuations of knee extensor force has received little attention. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of prolonged patellar tendon vibration on the force steadiness of the QF muscle. Nine healthy men performed a submaximal force-matching task involving isometric knee extension before and after patellar tendon vibration or quiet seated rest (n = 7, control condition) for 30 min. The target force was 2.5, 10 and 30 % of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Surface electromyography (EMG) of the four QF synergists was recorded and normalized to EMG amplitude during the MVC. The knee extension force and the EMG amplitude of vastus medialis during the MVC were significantly reduced after the vibration, but did not significantly decrease in the control condition. Fluctuations of force and normalized EMG of individual QF muscles at each submaximal force level did not significantly change after the vibration. We conclude that prolonged patellar tendon vibration does not influence the force steadiness of the QF muscle during an isometric force-matching task.
Viggiani, Daniel; Callaghan, Jack P
Persons who develop low back pain from prolonged standing exhibit increased muscle cocontraction, decreased movement and increased spine extension. However, it is unclear how these factors relate to pain development. The purpose of this study was to use hip abductor fatigue to manipulate muscle activity patterns and determine its effects on standing behaviours and pain development. Forty participants stood for two hours twice, once following a hip abductor fatigue exercise (fatigue), and once without exercise beforehand (control). Trunk and gluteal muscle activity were measured to determine cocontraction. Lumbo-pelvic angles and force plates were used to assess posture and movement strategies. Visual analog scales differentiated pain (PDs) and non-pain developers (NPDs). PDs reported less low back pain during the fatigue session, with females having earlier reductions of similar scale than males. The fatigue session reduced gluteal and trunk cocontraction and increased centre of pressure movement; male and female PDs had opposing spine posture compensations. Muscle fatigue prior to standing reduced cocontraction, increased movement during standing and reduced the low back pain developed by PDs; the timing of pain reductions depended on spine postures adopted during standing.
Stagos, Dimitrios; Goutzourelas, Nikolaos; Ntontou, Amalia-Maria; Kafantaris, Ioannis; Deli, Chariklia K; Poulios, Athanasios; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Bar-Or, David; Kouretas, Dimitrios
The aim of the present study was to investigate the use of static (sORP) and capacity ORP (cORP) oxidation-reduction potential markers as measured by the RedoxSYS Diagnostic System in plasma, for assessing eccentric exercise-induced oxidative stress. Nineteen volunteers performed eccentric exercise with the knee extensors. Blood was collected before, immediately after exercise, and 24, 48, and 72 h after exercise. Moreover, common redox biomarkers were measured, which were protein carbonyls, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, total antioxidant capacity in plasma, and catalase activity and glutathione levels in erythrocytes. When the participants were examined as one group, there were not significant differences in any marker after exercise. However, in 11 participants there was a high increase in cORP after exercise, while in 8 participants there was a high decrease. Thus, the participants were divided in low cORP group exhibiting significant decrease in cORP after exercise and in high cORP group exhibiting significant increase. Moreover, only in the low cORP group there was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation after exercise suggesting induction of oxidative stress. The results suggested that high decreases in cORP values after exercise may indicate induction of oxidative stress by eccentric exercise, while high increases in cORP values after exercise may indicate no existence of oxidative stress.
Di Filippo, C; Trotta, M C; Maisto, R; Siniscalco, D; Luongo, M; Mascolo, L; Alfano, R; Accardo, M; Rossi, C; Ferraraccio, F; D'Amico, M
Rats receiving daily intraperitoneal administration of O2 and running on a treadmill covered an average distance of 482.8 ± 21.8 m/week as calculated during 5-week observation. This distance was increased in rats receiving daily intraperitoneal administration of an oxygen/O3 mixture at a dose of 100; 150; and 300 μg/kg with the maximum increase being +34.5% at 300 μg/kg and still present after stopping the administration of oxygen/O3. Oxygen/O3 decreased the mean arterial blood pressure (-13%), the heart rate (-6%), the gastrocnemius and cardiac hypertrophy, and fibrosis and reduced by 49% the left ventricular mass and relative wall thickness measurements. Systolic and diastolic functions were improved in exercised oxygen/O3 rats compared to O2 rats. Oxygen/O3 treatment led to higher MPI index starting from the dose of 150 μg/kg (p < 0.05) and more effective (+14%) at a dose of 300 μg/kg oxygen/O3. Oxygen/O3 dose-dependently increased the expression of the antioxidant enzymes Mn-SOD and GPx1 and of eNOS compared to the exercised O2 rats. The same doses resulted in decrease of LDH levels, CPK, TnI, and nitrotyrosine concentration in the heart and gastrocnemius tissues, arguing a beneficial effect of the ozone molecule against the fatigue induced by a prolonged high intensity exercise.
Marcell, Taylor J; Hawkins, Steven A; Wiswell, Robert A
Age-associated loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia) and strength (dynapenia) is associated with a loss of independence that contributes to falls, fractures, and nursing home admissions, whereas regular physical activity has been suggested to offset these losses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of habitual endurance exercise on muscle mass and strength in active older adults. A longitudinal analysis of muscle strength (≈4.8 years apart) was performed on 59 men (age at start of study: 58.6 ± 7.3 years) and 35 women (56.9 ± 8.2 years) who used endurance running as their primary mode of exercise. There were no changes in fat-free mass although body fat increased minimally (1.0-1.5%). Training volume (km·wk, d·wk) decreased in both the men and women. There was a significant loss of both isometric knee extension (≈5% per year) and knee flexion (≈3.6% per year) strength in both the men and women. However, there was no significant change in either isokinetic concentric or eccentric torque of the knee extensors. Our data demonstrated a significant decline in isometric knee extensor and knee flexor strength although there were no changes in body mass in this group of very active older men and women. Our data support newer exercise guidelines for older Americans suggesting resistance training be an integral component of a fitness program and that running alone was not sufficient to prevent the loss in muscle strength (dynapenia) with aging.
Lepers, Romuald; Marcora, Samuele M.
We recently developed a high intensity one leg dynamic exercise (OLDE) protocol to measure muscle endurance and investigate the central and peripheral mechanisms of muscle fatigue. The aims of the present study were to establish the reliability of this novel protocol and describe the isokinetic muscle fatigue induced by high intensity OLDE and its recovery. Eight subjects performed the OLDE protocol (time to exhaustion test of the right leg at 85% of peak power output) three times over a week period. Isokinetic maximal voluntary contraction torque at 60 (MVC60), 100 (MVC100) and 140 (MVC140) deg/s was measured pre-exercise, shortly after exhaustion (13 ± 4 s), 20 s (P20) and 40 s (P40) post-exercise. Electromyographic (EMG) signal was analyzed via the root mean square (RMS) for all three superficial knee extensors. Mean time to exhaustion was 5.96 ± 1.40 min, coefficient of variation was 8.42 ± 6.24%, typical error of measurement was 0.30 min and intraclass correlation was 0.795. MVC torque decreased shortly after exhaustion for all angular velocities (all P < 0.001). MVC60 and MVC100 recovered between P20 (P < 0.05) and exhaustion and then plateaued. MVC140 recovered only at P40 (P < 0.05). High intensity OLDE did not alter maximal EMG RMS of the three superficial knee extensors during MVC. The results of this study demonstrate that this novel high intensity OLDE protocol could be reliably used to measure muscle endurance, and that muscle fatigue induced by high intensity OLDE should be examined within ~ 30 s following exhaustion. PMID:27706196
Vanderthommen, Marc; Makrof, Souleyma; Demoulin, Christophe
The purpose of this study was to compare an electrostimulated to an active recovery strategy after a submaximal isometric fatiguing exercise. Nineteen healthy men completed three sessions (separated by at least 4 weeks) which included a knee extensors provocation exercise consisting of 3 sets of 25 isometric contractions. Contraction intensity level was fixed respectively at 60%, 55% and 50% of previously determined maximal voluntary contraction for the first, second and third sets. This provocation exercise was followed by either an active (AR) recovery (25 min pedaling on a cycle ergometer), an electrostimulated (ESR) recovery (25-min continuous and non-tetanic (5 Hz) stimulation of the quadriceps) or a strictly passive recovery (PR). Peak torques of knee extensors and subjective perception of muscle pain (VAS, 0-10) were evaluated before (pre-ex), immediately after the provocation exercise (post-ex), after the recovery period (post-rec), as well as 75 minutes (1h15) and one day (24h) after the exercise bout. Time course of peak torque was similar among the different recovery modes: ~ 75% of initial values at post-ex, ~ 90% at post-rec and at 1h15. At 24h, peak torque reached a level close to baseline values (PR: 99.1 ± 10.7%, AR: 105.3 ± 12.2%, ESR: 104.4 ± 10.5%). VAS muscle pain scores decreased rapidly between post-ex and post-rec (p < 0.001); there were no significant differences between the three recovery modes (p = 0.64). In conclusion, following a submaximal isometric knee extension exercise, neither electrostimulated nor active recovery strategies significantly improved the time course of muscle function recovery. Key points Three sets of submaximal isometric contractions at 60%, 55% and 50% of MVC induced an early fatigue without DOMS but did not lead to exhaustion. In comparison with passive recovery, active and electrostimulated recovery did not lead to significantly higher MVC torques 24h after the exercise bout. No significant differences were
Paschalis, Vassilis; Giakas, Giannis; Baltzopoulos, Vassilios; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Theoharis, Vassilios; Kotzamanidis, Christos; Koutedakis, Yiannis
To examine the effects of knee extensors muscle damage on walking and running biomechanics in healthy males. Muscle damage was caused by 60 (6x10) maximal eccentric knee flexions of both legs, selected in a random order, at an angular velocity of 1.05rad/s in 10 volunteers (mean age 20+/-1.0 years). Muscle damage indicators (creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), eccentric and isometric (110 degrees knee flexion) peak torque), pelvic three dimensional (3D) orientation, as well as hip, knee and ankle-joint flexion/extension angles during gait (walking at 1.2m/s and running at 2.8m/s) were assessed pre- and 48h post-eccentric exercise. All muscle damage indicators revealed significant changes post- compared to pre-exercise data (P<0.05) confirming that muscle damage did occur. Kinematic analysis revealed that muscle damage significantly decreased the knee-joint angle range of movement at the stance and swing phases during walking (P<0.05) and running (P<0.05), respectively. These changes were accompanied by corresponding increases of pelvic rotation (P<0.05) and decrease of pelvic tilt (P<0.05). The present data demonstrate that damage of knee extensors result in changes of treadmill walking and running kinematics at both knee joint and pelvis. The fact that these alterations occur at different gait phases could be attributed to the speed of movement and to a self-protection mechanism to prevent further damage.
Lundberg, Tommy R; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Gustafsson, Thomas; Tesch, Per A
This study tested the hypothesis that chronic aerobic and resistance exercise (AE+RE) would elicit greater muscle hypertrophy than resistance exercise only (RE). Ten men (25 ± 4 yr) performed 5 wk unilateral knee extensor AE+RE. The opposing limb was subjected to RE. AE completed 6 hr prior to RE consisted of ~45 min one-legged cycle ergometry. RE comprised 4 × 7 maximal concentric-eccentric knee extensions. Various indexes of in vivo knee extensor function were measured before and after training. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessed m. quadricep femoris (QF) cross-sectional area (CSA), volume, and signal intensity (SI). Biopsies obtained from m. vastus lateralis determined fiber CSA, enzyme levels, and gene expression of myostatin, atrogin-1, MuRF-1, PGC-1α, and VEGF. Increases (P < 0.05) in isometric strength and peak power, respectively, were comparable in AE+RE (9 and 29%) and RE (11 and 24%). AE+RE showed greater increase (14%; P < 0.05) in QF volume than RE (8%). Muscle fiber CSA increased 17% after AE+RE (P < 0.05) and 9% after RE (P > 0.05). QF SI increased (12%; P < 0.05) after AE+RE, but not RE. Neither AE+RE nor RE showed altered mRNA levels. Citrate synthase activity increased (P < 0.05) after AE+RE. The results suggest that the increased aerobic capacity shown with AE+RE was accompanied by a more robust increase in muscle size compared with RE. Although this response was not carried over to greater improvement in muscle function, it remains that intense AE can be executed prior to RE without compromising performance outcome.
Cotter, Joshua A.; Yu, Alvin; Haddad, Fadia; Kreitenberg, Arthur; Baker, Michael J.; Tesch, Per A.; Baldwin, Kenneth M.; Caiozzo, Vincent J.; Adams, Gregory R.
Purpose To examine the effect of a high-intensity concurrent training program utilizing a single gravity-independent device on maintaining skeletal muscle function and aerobic capacity during short-term unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS). Methods Nineteen subjects (10 male; 9 female; 21.0 ± 2.5 yr, 65.4 ± 12.2 kg) were separated into 2 groups: 1) 10 day unilateral lower limb suspension only (ULLS; n = 9) and 2) 10 day ULLS plus aerobic and resistance training (ULLS+EX; n = 10). Exercise was performed on a single gravity-independent Multi-Mode Exercise Device (M-MED) with alternating days of high-intensity interval aerobic training and maximal exertion resistance training. Results Aerobic capacity increased by 7% in ULLS+EX (P < 0.05). Knee extensor and ankle plantar flexor three repetition max increased in the ULLS+EX group (P < 0.05) but this change was only different than ULLS in the plantar flexors (P < 0.05). Peak torque levels decreased with ULLS but were increased for the knee extensors and attenuated for the ankle plantar flexors with ULLS+EX (P < 0.05). A shift towards type IIx myosin heavy chain mRNA occurred with ULLS and was reversed with ULLS+EX in the vastus lateralis (P < 0.05) but not the soleus. Myostatin and atrogin increased with ULLS in both the vastus lateralis and soleus but this change was mitigated with ULLS+EX only in the vastus lateralis (P = 0.0551 for myostatin; P < 0.05 for atrogin). Citrate synthase was decreased in the soleus during ULLS but was increased with ULLS+EX (P < 0.05). Conclusion These results indicate that an M-MED class countermeasure device appears to be effective at mitigating the deconditioning effects of microgravity simulated during a modified-ULLS protocol. PMID:25160844
Christensen, Peter M; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Nybo, Lars; Mortensen, Stefan P; Sander, Mikael; Secher, Niels H; Bangsbo, Jens
In response to hypoxic breathing most studies report slower pulmonary oxygen uptake (Vo2) kinetics at the onset of exercise, but it is not known if this relates to an actual slowing of the Vo2 in the active muscles(.) The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether thigh Vo2 is slowed at the onset of intense exercise during acute exposure to hypoxia. Six healthy male subjects (25.8 ± 1.4 yr, 79.8 ± 4.0 kg, means ± SE) performed intense (100 ± 6 watts) two-legged knee-extensor exercise for 2 min in normoxia (NOR) and hypoxia [fractional inspired oxygen concentration (Fi(O2)) = 0.13; HYP]. Thigh Vo2 was measured by frequent arterial and venous blood sampling and blood flow measurements. In arterial blood, oxygen content was reduced (P < 0.05) from 191 ± 5 ml O2/l in NOR to 180 ± 5 ml O2/l in HYP, and oxygen pressure was reduced (P < 0.001) from 111 ± 4 mmHg in NOR to 63 ± 4 mmHg in HYP. Thigh blood flow was the same in NOR and HYP, and thigh oxygen delivery was consequently reduced (P < 0.05) in HYP, but femoral arterial-venous oxygen difference and thigh Vo(2) were similar in NOR and HYP. In addition, muscle lactate release was the same in NOR and HYP, and muscle lactate accumulation during the first 25 s of exercise determined from muscle biopsy sampling was also similar (0.35 ± 0.07 and 0.36 ± 0.07 mmol·kg dry wt(-1)·s(-1) in NOR and HYP). Thus the increase in thigh Vo2 was not attenuated at the onset of intense knee-extensor exercise despite a reduction in oxygen delivery and pressure.
Delecroix, Barthélémy; Abaïdia, Abd Elbasset; Leduc, Cédric; Dawson, Brian; Dupont, Grégory
The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of oral consumption of curcumin and piperine in combination on the recovery kinetics after exercise-induced muscle damage. Forty-eight hours before and following exercise-induced muscle damage, ten elite rugby players consumed curcumin and piperine (experimental condition) or placebo. A randomized cross-over design was performed. Concentric and isometric peak torque for the knee extensors, one leg 6 seconds sprint performance on a non-motorized treadmill, counter movement jump performance, blood creatine kinase concentration and muscle soreness were assessed immediately after exercise, then at 24h, 48h and 72h post-exercise. There were moderate to large effects of the exercise on the concentric peak torque for the knee extensors (Effect size (ES) = -1.12; Confidence interval at 90% (CI90%): -2.17 to -0.06), the one leg 6 seconds sprint performance (ES=-1.65; CI90% = -2.51to -0.80) and the counter movement jump performance (ES = -0.56; CI90% = -0.81 to -0.32) in the 48h following the exercise. There was also a large effect of the exercise on the creatine kinase level 72h after the exercise in the control group (ES = 3.61; CI90%: 0.24 to 6.98). This decrease in muscle function and this elevation in creatine kinase indicate that the exercise implemented was efficient to induce muscle damage. Twenty four hours post-exercise, the reduction (from baseline) in sprint mean power output was moderately lower in the experimental condition (-1.77 ± 7.25%; 1277 ± 153W) in comparison with the placebo condition (-13.6 ± 13.0%; 1130 ± 241W) (Effect Size = -1.12; Confidence Interval 90%=-1.86 to -0.86). However, no other effect was found between the two conditions. Curcumin and piperine supplementation before and after exercise can attenuate some, but not all, aspects of muscle damage. Key points When the recovery period between competitions was short, a curcumin and piperine supplementation could be an effective recovery
Lattier, G; Millet, G Y; Martin, A; Martin, V
The contribution of central and peripheral factors to muscle fatigue were quantified following a high-intensity uphill running exercise. Eight male volunteers performed an intermittent exercise at 120 % of maximal aerobic speed on a treadmill with an 18 % grade. Electrically evoked and voluntary contractions of the knee extensors and EMG of the two vastii were analyzed before and immediately after the high-intensity exercise. Isometric maximal voluntary contraction decreased slightly (-7+/-8 %; p < 0.05) after exercise but no changes were found in the level of maximal activation or in the torque produced by a 80 Hz maximal stimulation applied to the femoral nerve. Following exercise, the single twitch was characterized by lower peak torque, maximal rate of force development, and relaxation (-28+/-11%, -25+/-12%, -31+/-15% respectively, p < 0.001), and higher surface of the M-wave for both vastii. The ratio between the torques evoked by 20 Hz and 80 Hz stimulation declined significantly (-22+/-10%, p < 0.01) after exercise. These findings indicate that muscle fatigue after high-intensity running exercise is due to significant alteration in excitation-contraction coupling and that this type of exercise does not induce significant central fatigue or changes at the crossbridge level.
Nyberg, Michael; Mortensen, Stefan P; Saltin, Bengt; Hellsten, Ylva; Bangsbo, Jens
The effect of low blood flow at onset of moderate-intensity exercise on the rate of rise in muscle oxygen uptake was examined. Seven male subjects performed a 3.5-min one-legged knee-extensor exercise bout (24 +/- 1 W, mean +/- SD) without (Con) and with (double blockade; DB) arterial infusion of inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine) and cyclooxygenase (indomethacin) to inhibit the synthesis of nitric oxide and prostanoids, respectively. Leg blood flow and leg oxygen delivery throughout exercise was 25-50% lower (P < 0.05) in DB compared with Con. Leg oxygen extraction (arteriovenous O(2) difference) was higher (P < 0.05) in DB than in Con (5 s: 127 +/- 3 vs. 56 +/- 4 ml/l), and leg oxygen uptake was not different between Con and DB during exercise. The difference between leg oxygen delivery and leg oxygen uptake was smaller (P < 0.05) during exercise in DB than in Con (5 s: 59 +/- 12 vs. 262 +/- 39 ml/min). The present data demonstrate that muscle blood flow and oxygen delivery can be markedly reduced without affecting muscle oxygen uptake in the initial phase of moderate-intensity exercise, suggesting that blood flow does not limit muscle oxygen uptake at the onset of exercise. Additionally, prostanoids and/or nitric oxide appear to play important roles in elevating skeletal muscle blood flow in the initial phase of exercise.
Margaritelis, Nikos V; Theodorou, Anastasios A; Baltzopoulos, Vasilios; Maganaris, Constantinos N; Paschalis, Vassilis; Kyparos, Antonios; Nikolaidis, Michalis G
The current consensus in exercise physiology is that the repeated bout effect always appears after few eccentric exercise sessions. This is the first attempt to challenge this tenet, by exploiting specificity in muscle plasticity. More specifically, we examined whether the opposing adaptations in muscle induced after concentric and eccentric exercise can attenuate and/or remove the repeated bout effect. Seventeen young men were randomly assigned into one of the following groups: (1) the alternating eccentric-concentric exercise group; and (2) the eccentric-only exercise group. Both groups performed 8 weeks of resistance exercise using the knee extensors of both legs on an isokinetic dynamometer. The alternating eccentric-concentric exercise group performed an alternating exercise protocol, switching between eccentric-only and concentric-only exercise every 4 weeks, while the eccentric-only group performed eccentric exercise. Evaluation of muscle damage using physiological (isometric torque, delayed onset muscle soreness, and range of movement) and biochemical (creatine kinase) markers and inflammation (C-reactive protein) was performed at weeks 1, 5, and 10. Baseline isometric peak torque was also evaluated at week 14 after another cycle (4 weeks) of alternating or eccentric-only exercise training. In the alternating eccentric-concentric exercise group, the concentric exercise training performed prior to eccentric exercise reduced dramatically the repeated bout effect by reversing muscle back to its unaccustomed state. On the contrary, the eccentric-only exercise group exhibited a typical manifestation of the repeated bout effect. Interestingly, muscle strength was elevated similarly for both alternating and eccentric-only exercise groups after 13 weeks of training. The alternating eccentric-concentric exercise scheme, implemented in the present study, has for the first time successfully overcame the repeated bout effect. The similarity in muscle strength
Gavin, James Peter; Myers, Stephen; Willems, Mark Elisabeth Theodorus
The study investigated the accumulative effect of concentric-biased and eccentric-biased exercise on cardiorespiratory, metabolic and neuromuscular responses to low-intensity exercise performed hours later. Fourteen young men cycled at low-intensity (~60 rpm at 50% maximal oxygen uptake) for 10 min before, and 12 h after: concentric-biased, single-leg cycling exercise (CON) (performed ~19:30 h) and eccentric-biased, double-leg knee extension exercise (ECC) (~06:30 h the following morning). Respiratory measures were sampled breath-by-breath, with oxidation values derived from stoichiometry equations. Knee extensor neuromuscular function was assessed before and after CON and ECC. Cardiorespiratory responses during low-intensity cycling were unchanged by accumulative CON and ECC. The RER was lower during low-intensity exercise 12 h after CON and ECC (0.88 ± 0.08), when compared to baseline (0.92 ± 0.09; p = 0.02). Fat oxidation increased from baseline (0.24 ± 0.2 g·min−1) to 12 h after CON and ECC (0.39 ± 0.2 g·min−1; p = 0.01). Carbohydrate oxidation decreased from baseline (1.59 ± 0.4 g·min−1) to 12 h after CON and ECC (1.36 ± 0.4 g·min−1; p = 0.03). These were accompanied by knee extensor force loss (right leg: −11.6%, p < 0.001; left leg: −10.6%, p = 0.02) and muscle soreness (right leg: 2.5 ± 0.9, p < 0.0001; left leg: 2.3 ± 1.2, p < 0.01). Subsequent concentric-biased and eccentric-biased exercise led to increased fat oxidation and decreased carbohydrate oxidation, without impairing cardiorespiration, during low-intensity cycling. An accumulation of fatiguing and damaging exercise increases fat utilisation during low intensity exercise performed as little as 12 h later. PMID:26839613
Gavin, James Peter; Myers, Stephen; Willems, Mark Elisabeth Theodorus
The study investigated the accumulative effect of concentric-biased and eccentric-biased exercise on cardiorespiratory, metabolic and neuromuscular responses to low-intensity exercise performed hours later. Fourteen young men cycled at low-intensity (~60 rpm at 50% maximal oxygen uptake) for 10 min before, and 12 h after: concentric-biased, single-leg cycling exercise (CON) (performed ~19:30 h) and eccentric-biased, double-leg knee extension exercise (ECC) (~06:30 h the following morning). Respiratory measures were sampled breath-by-breath, with oxidation values derived from stoichiometry equations. Knee extensor neuromuscular function was assessed before and after CON and ECC. Cardiorespiratory responses during low-intensity cycling were unchanged by accumulative CON and ECC. The RER was lower during low-intensity exercise 12 h after CON and ECC (0.88 ± 0.08), when compared to baseline (0.92 ± 0.09; p = 0.02). Fat oxidation increased from baseline (0.24 ± 0.2 g·min(-1)) to 12 h after CON and ECC (0.39 ± 0.2 g·min(-1); p = 0.01). Carbohydrate oxidation decreased from baseline (1.59 ± 0.4 g·min(-1)) to 12 h after CON and ECC (1.36 ± 0.4 g·min(-1); p = 0.03). These were accompanied by knee extensor force loss (right leg: -11.6%, p < 0.001; left leg: -10.6%, p = 0.02) and muscle soreness (right leg: 2.5 ± 0.9, p < 0.0001; left leg: 2.3 ± 1.2, p < 0.01). Subsequent concentric-biased and eccentric-biased exercise led to increased fat oxidation and decreased carbohydrate oxidation, without impairing cardiorespiration, during low-intensity cycling. An accumulation of fatiguing and damaging exercise increases fat utilisation during low intensity exercise performed as little as 12 h later.
Olesen, Jesper; Gliemann, Lasse; Biensø, Rasmus; Schmidt, Jakob; Hellsten, Ylva; Pilegaard, Henriette
The aim was to investigate the metabolic and anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol alone and when combined with exercise training in skeletal muscle of aged human subjects. Healthy, physically inactive men (60–72 years old) were randomized to either 8 weeks of daily intake of 250 mg resveratrol or placebo or to 8 weeks of high-intensity exercise training with 250 mg resveratrol or placebo. Before and after the interventions, resting blood samples and muscle biopsies were obtained and a one-legged knee-extensor endurance exercise test was performed. Exercise training increased skeletal muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ co-activator-1α mRNA ∼1.5-fold, cytochrome c protein ∼1.3-fold, cytochrome c oxidase I protein ∼1.5-fold, citrate synthase activity ∼1.3-fold, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity ∼1.3-fold, inhibitor of κB-α and inhibitor of κB-β protein content ∼1.3-fold and time to exhaustion in the one-legged knee-extensor endurance exercise test by ∼1.2-fold, with no significant additive or adverse effects of resveratrol on these parameters. Despite an overall ∼25% reduction in total acetylation level in skeletal muscle with resveratrol, no exclusive resveratrol-mediated metabolic effects were observed on the investigated parameters. Notably, however, resveratrol blunted an exercise training-induced decrease (∼20%) in protein carbonylation and decrease (∼40%) in tumour necrosis factor α mRNA content in skeletal muscle. In conclusion, resveratrol did not elicit metabolic improvements in healthy aged subjects; in fact, resveratrol even impaired the observed exercise training-induced improvements in markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in skeletal muscle. Collectively, this highlights the metabolic efficacy of exercise training in aged subjects and does not support the contention that resveratrol is a potential exercise mimetic in healthy aged subjects. PMID:24514907
Oosthuyse, Tanja; Millen, Aletta M E
Cardiac function is often suppressed following prolonged strenuous exercise and this may occur partly because of an energy deficit. This study compared left ventricular (LV) function by 2-dimensional echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) before and after ∼2.5 h of cycling (2-h steady-state 60% peak aerobic power output plus 16 km time trial) in 8 male cyclists when they ingested either placebo, carbohydrate-only (CHO-only), carbohydrate-casein hydrolysate (CHO-casein), or carbohydrate-whey hydrolysate (CHO-whey). No treatment-by-time interactions occurred, but pre-to-postexercise time effects occurred selectively. Although diastolic function measured by pulsed-wave Doppler early-to-late (E/A) transmitral blood flow velocity was suppressed in all trials from pre- to postexercise (mean change post-pre exercise: -0.53 (95% CI -0.15 to -0.91)), TDI early-to-late (e'/a') tissue velocity was significantly suppressed pre- to postexercise only with placebo, CHO-only, and CHO-whey (septal and lateral wall e'/a' average change: -0.62 (95% CI -1.12 to -0.12); -0.69 (95% CI -1.19 to -0.20); and -0.79 (95% CI -1.28 to -0.29), respectively) but not with CHO-casein (-0.40 (95% CI -0.90 to 0.09)). LV contractility was, or tended to be, significantly reduced pre- to postexercise with placebo, CHO-only, and CHO-whey (systolic blood pressure/end systolic volume change, mm Hg·mL(-1): -0.8 (95% CI -1.2 to -0.4), p = 0.0003; -0.5 (95% CI -0.9 to -0.02), p = 0.035; and -0.4 (95% CI -0.8 to 0.04), p = 0.086, respectively), but not with CHO-casein (-0.3 (95% CI -0.8 to 0.1), p = 0.22). However, ejection fraction (EF) and ventricular-arterial coupling were significantly reduced pre- to postexercise only with placebo (placebo change: EF, -4.6 (95% CI -8.4 to -0.7)%; stroke volume/end systolic volume, -0.3 (95% CI -0.6 to -0.04)). Despite no treatment-by-time interactions, pre-to-postexercise time effects observed with specific beverages may be meaningful for athletes
Rudroff, Thorsten; Weissman, Jessica A; Bucci, Marco; Seppänen, Marko; Kaskinoro, Kimmo; Heinonen, Ilkka; Kalliokoski, Kari K
The purpose of this study was to investigate blood flow and its heterogeneity within and among the knee muscles in five young (26 ± 6 years) and five old (77 ± 6 years) healthy men with similar levels of physical activity while they performed two types of submaximal fatiguing isometric contraction that required either force or position control. Positron emission tomography (PET) and [(15)O]-H2O were used to determine blood flow at 2 min (beginning) and 12 min (end) after the start of the tasks. Young and old men had similar maximal forces and endurance times for the fatiguing tasks. Although muscle volumes were lower in the older subjects, total muscle blood flow was similar in both groups (young men: 25.8 ± 12.6 ml min(-1); old men: 25.1 ± 15.4 ml min(-1); age main effect, P = 0.77) as blood flow per unit mass of muscle in the exercising knee extensors was greater in the older (12.5 ± 6.2 ml min(-1) (100 g)(-1)) than the younger (8.6 ± 3.6 ml min(-1) (100 g)(-1)) men (age main effect, P = 0.001). Further, blood flow heterogeneity in the exercising knee extensors was significantly lower in the older (56 ± 27%) than the younger (67 ± 34%) men. Together, these data show that although skeletal muscles are smaller in older subjects, based on the intact neural drive to the muscle and the greater, less heterogeneous blood flow per gram of muscle, old fit muscle achieves adequate exercise hyperaemia.
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Parker, Beth A.; Capizzi, Jeffrey A.; Augeri, Amanda L.; Grimaldi, Adam S.; White, C. Michael; Thompson, Paul D.
OBJECTIVES We sought to examine the effect of atorvastatin therapy on exercise leg blood flow in healthy middle-aged and older, men and women. BACKGROUND The vasodilatory response to exercise decreases in humans with aging and disease and this reduction may contribute to reduced exercise capacity. METHODS We used a double-blind, randomly assigned, placebo-controlled protocol to assess the effect of atorvastatin treatment on exercising leg hemodynamics. We measured femoral artery blood flow (FBF) using Doppler ultrasound and calculated femoral vascular conductance (FVC) from brachial mean arterial pressure (MAP) before and during single knee-extensor exercise in healthy adults (ages 40–71) before (PRE) and after (POST) 6 months of 80 mg atorvastatin (A: 14 men, 16 women) or placebo (P: 14 men, 22 women) treatment. FBF and FVC were normalized to exercise power output and estimated quadriceps muscle mass. RESULTS Atorvastatin reduced LDL cholesterol by approximately 50%, but not in the placebo group (p < 0.01). Atorvastatin also increased exercise FBF from 44.2 ± 19.0 to 51.4 ± 22.0 mL/min/W/kg muscle whereas FBF in the placebo group was unchanged (40.1 ± 16.0 vs 39.5 ± 16.1) (p <0.01). FVC also increased with atorvastatin from 0.5 ± 0.2 to. 0.6 ± 0.2 mL/min/mmHg/W/kg muscle, but not in the placebo subjects (P: 0.4 ± 0.2 vs 0.4 ± 0.2) ( p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS High-dose atorvastatin augments exercising leg hyperemia. Statins may mitigate reductions in the exercise vasodilatory response in humans that are associated with aging and disease. PMID:22018642
Garten, Ryan S; Groot, H Jonathan; Rossman, Matthew J; Gifford, Jayson R; Richardson, Russell S
Exercise-induced hyperemia is often normalized for muscle mass, and this value is sometimes evaluated at relative exercise intensities to take muscle recruitment into account. Therefore, this study sought to better understand the impact of muscle mass on leg blood flow (LBF) during exercise. LBF was assessed by Doppler ultrasound in 27 young healthy male subjects performing knee-extensor (KE) exercise at three absolute (5, 15, and 25 W) and three relative [20, 40, and 60% of maximum KE (KEmax)] workloads. Thigh muscle mass (5.2-8.1 kg) and LBF were significantly correlated at rest (r = 0.54; P = 0.004). Exercise-induced hyperemia was linearly related to absolute workload, but revealed substantial between-subject variability, documented by the coefficient of variation (5 W: 17%; 15 W: 16%; 25 W: 16%). Quadriceps muscle mass (1.5-2.7 kg) and LBF were not correlated at 5, 15, or 25 W (r = 0.09-0.01; P = 0.7-0.9). Normalizing blood flow for quadriceps muscle mass did not improve the coefficient of variation at each absolute workload (5 W: 21%; 15 W: 21%; 25 W: 22%), while the additional evaluation at relative exercise intensities resulted in even greater variance (20% KEmax: 29%; 40% KEmax: 29%; 60% KEmax: 27%). Similar findings were documented when subjects were parsed into high and low aerobic capacity. Thus, in contrast to rest, blood flow during exercise is unrelated to muscle mass, and simply normalizing for muscle mass or comparing normalized blood flow at a given relative exercise intensity has no effect on the inherent blood flow variability. Therefore, during exercise, muscle mass does not appear to be a determinant of the hyperemic response.
Andonian, Pierre; Viallon, Magalie; Le Goff, Caroline; de Bourguignon, Charles; Tourel, Charline; Morel, Jérome; Giardini, Guido; Gergelé, Laurent; Millet, Grégoire P; Croisille, Pierre
In sports medicine, there is increasing interest in quantifying the elastic properties of skeletal muscle, especially during extreme muscular stimulation, to improve our understanding of the impact of alterations in skeletal muscle stiffness on resulting pain or injuries, as well as the mechanisms underlying the relationships between these parameters. Our main objective was to determine whether real-time shear-wave elastography (SWE) can monitor changes in quadriceps muscle elasticity during an extreme mountain ultra-marathon, a powerful mechanical stress model. Our study involved 50 volunteers participating in an extreme mountain marathon (distance: 330 km, elevation: +24,000 m). Quantitative SWE velocity and shear modulus measurements were performed in most superficial quadriceps muscle heads at the following 4 time points: before the race, halfway through the race, upon finishing the race and after recovery (+48 h). Blood biomarker levels were also measured. A significant decrease in the quadriceps shear modulus was observed upon finishing the race (3.31±0.61 kPa) (p<0.001) compared to baseline (3.56±0.63 kPa), followed by a partial recovery +48 h after the race (3.45±0.6 kPa) (p = 0.002) across all muscle heads, as well as for each of the following three muscle heads: the rectus femoris (p = 0.003), the vastus medialis (p = 0.033) and the vastus lateralis (p = 0.001). Our study is the first to assess changes in muscle stiffness during prolonged extreme physical endurance exercises based on shear modulus measurements using non-invasive SWE. We concluded that decreases in stiffness, which may have resulted from quadriceps overuse in the setting of supra-physiological stress caused by the extreme distance and unique elevation of the race, may have been responsible for the development of inflammation and muscle swelling. SWE may hence represent a promising tool for monitoring physiologic or pathological variations in muscle stiffness and may be useful for
Andonian, Pierre; Viallon, Magalie; Le Goff, Caroline; de Bourguignon, Charles; Tourel, Charline; Morel, Jérome; Giardini, Guido; Gergelé, Laurent; Millet, Grégoire P.; Croisille, Pierre
In sports medicine, there is increasing interest in quantifying the elastic properties of skeletal muscle, especially during extreme muscular stimulation, to improve our understanding of the impact of alterations in skeletal muscle stiffness on resulting pain or injuries, as well as the mechanisms underlying the relationships between these parameters. Our main objective was to determine whether real-time shear-wave elastography (SWE) can monitor changes in quadriceps muscle elasticity during an extreme mountain ultra-marathon, a powerful mechanical stress model. Our study involved 50 volunteers participating in an extreme mountain marathon (distance: 330 km, elevation: +24,000 m). Quantitative SWE velocity and shear modulus measurements were performed in most superficial quadriceps muscle heads at the following 4 time points: before the race, halfway through the race, upon finishing the race and after recovery (+48 h). Blood biomarker levels were also measured. A significant decrease in the quadriceps shear modulus was observed upon finishing the race (3.31±0.61 kPa) (p<0.001) compared to baseline (3.56±0.63 kPa), followed by a partial recovery +48 h after the race (3.45±0.6 kPa) (p = 0.002) across all muscle heads, as well as for each of the following three muscle heads: the rectus femoris (p = 0.003), the vastus medialis (p = 0.033) and the vastus lateralis (p = 0.001). Our study is the first to assess changes in muscle stiffness during prolonged extreme physical endurance exercises based on shear modulus measurements using non-invasive SWE. We concluded that decreases in stiffness, which may have resulted from quadriceps overuse in the setting of supra-physiological stress caused by the extreme distance and unique elevation of the race, may have been responsible for the development of inflammation and muscle swelling. SWE may hence represent a promising tool for monitoring physiologic or pathological variations in muscle stiffness and may be useful for
Spring, Jérôme Nicolas; Place, Nicolas; Borrani, Fabio; Kayser, Bengt; Barral, Jérôme
Exercise-induced fatigue affects the motor control and the ability to generate a given force or power. Surface electroencephalography allows researchers to investigate movement-related cortical potentials (MRCP), which reflect preparatory brain activity 1.5 s before movement onset. Although the MRCP amplitude appears to increase after repetitive single-joint contractions, the effects of large-muscle group dynamic exercise on such pre-motor potential remain to be described. Sixteen volunteers exercised 30 min at 60% of the maximal aerobic power on a cycle ergometer, followed by a 10-km all-out time trial. Before and after each of these tasks, knee extensor neuromuscular function was investigated using maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) combined with electrical stimulations of the femoral nerve. MRCP was recorded during 60 knee extensions after each neuromuscular sequence. The exercise resulted in a significant decrease in the knee extensor MVC force after the 30-min exercise (−10 ± 8%) and the time trial (−21 ± 9%). The voluntary activation level (VAL; −6 ± 8 and −12 ± 10%), peak twitch (Pt; −21 ± 16 and −32 ± 17%), and paired stimuli (P100 Hz; −7 ± 11 and −12 ± 13%) were also significantly reduced after the 30-min exercise and the time trial. The first exercise was followed by a decrease in the MRCP, mainly above the mean activity measured at electrodes FC1-FC2, whereas the reduction observed after the time trial was related to the FC1-FC2 and C2 electrodes. After both exercises, the reduction in the late MRCP component above FC1-FC2 was significantly correlated with the reduction in P100 Hz (r = 0.61), and the reduction in the same component above C2 was significantly correlated with the reduction in VAL (r = 0.64). In conclusion, large-muscle group exercise induced a reduction in pre-motor potential, which was related to muscle alterations and resulted in the inability to produce a maximal voluntary contraction. PMID:27313522
Spring, Jérôme Nicolas; Place, Nicolas; Borrani, Fabio; Kayser, Bengt; Barral, Jérôme
Exercise-induced fatigue affects the motor control and the ability to generate a given force or power. Surface electroencephalography allows researchers to investigate movement-related cortical potentials (MRCP), which reflect preparatory brain activity 1.5 s before movement onset. Although the MRCP amplitude appears to increase after repetitive single-joint contractions, the effects of large-muscle group dynamic exercise on such pre-motor potential remain to be described. Sixteen volunteers exercised 30 min at 60% of the maximal aerobic power on a cycle ergometer, followed by a 10-km all-out time trial. Before and after each of these tasks, knee extensor neuromuscular function was investigated using maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) combined with electrical stimulations of the femoral nerve. MRCP was recorded during 60 knee extensions after each neuromuscular sequence. The exercise resulted in a significant decrease in the knee extensor MVC force after the 30-min exercise (-10 ± 8%) and the time trial (-21 ± 9%). The voluntary activation level (VAL; -6 ± 8 and -12 ± 10%), peak twitch (Pt; -21 ± 16 and -32 ± 17%), and paired stimuli (P100 Hz; -7 ± 11 and -12 ± 13%) were also significantly reduced after the 30-min exercise and the time trial. The first exercise was followed by a decrease in the MRCP, mainly above the mean activity measured at electrodes FC1-FC2, whereas the reduction observed after the time trial was related to the FC1-FC2 and C2 electrodes. After both exercises, the reduction in the late MRCP component above FC1-FC2 was significantly correlated with the reduction in P100 Hz (r = 0.61), and the reduction in the same component above C2 was significantly correlated with the reduction in VAL (r = 0.64). In conclusion, large-muscle group exercise induced a reduction in pre-motor potential, which was related to muscle alterations and resulted in the inability to produce a maximal voluntary contraction.
Nunan, David; Howatson, Glyn; van Someren, Ken A
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of combined oral beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) and alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) supplementation on indices of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) after an acute bout of eccentric-biased exercise. Fourteen male subjects were allocated to 2 groups: a placebo group (3 g.d corn flour, N = 7) or an HMB + KIC group (3 g.d HMB and 0.3 g.d KIC, N = 7). Supplementation commenced 11 days before a 40-minute bout of downhill running and continued for 3 days post-exercise. Delayed-onset muscle soreness, mid-thigh girth, knee extensor range of motion, serum creatine kinase (CK) activity, and isometric and concentric torque were assessed pre-exercise and at 24, 48, and 72 hours post-exercise. Delayed-onset muscle soreness, CK activity, and isometric and concentric torque all changed over the 72-hour period (p < 0.05); however, HMB + KIC had no significant effect on any of the indices of muscle damage. Although 14 days HMB and KIC supplementation did not attenuate indices of EIMD after an acute bout of unaccustomed eccentric-biased exercise, there was a trend for a more rapid rate of recovery in isometric and isokinetic muscle function. beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate and KIC may therefore provide limited benefit in the recovery of muscle function after EIMD in untrained subjects or after unaccustomed exercise.
Pilegaard, Henriette; Birk, Jesper B; Sacchetti, Massimo; Mourtzakis, Marina; Hardie, D Graham; Stewart, Greg; Neufer, P Darrell; Saltin, Bengt; van Hall, Gerrit; Wojtaszewski, Jorgen F P
To investigate pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH)-E1alpha subunit phosphorylation and whether free fatty acids (FFAs) regulate PDH activity, seven subjects completed two trials: saline (control) and intralipid/heparin (intralipid). Each infusion trial consisted of a 4-h rest followed by a 3-h two-legged knee extensor exercise at moderate intensity. During the 4-h resting period, activity of PDH in the active form (PDHa) did not change in either trial, yet phosphorylation of PDH-E1alpha site 1 (PDH-P1) and site 2 (PDH-P2) was elevated in the intralipid compared with the control trial. PDHa activity increased during exercise similarly in the two trials. After 3 h of exercise, PDHa activity remained elevated in the intralipid trial but returned to resting levels in the control trial. Accordingly, in both trials PDH-P1 and PDH-P2 decreased during exercise, and the decrease was more marked during intralipid infusion. Phosphorylation had returned to resting levels at 3 h of exercise only in the control trial. Thus, an inverse association between PDH-E1alpha phosphorylation and PDHa activity exists. Short-term elevation in plasma FFA at rest increases PDH-E1alpha phosphorylation, but exercise overrules this effect of FFA on PDH-E1alpha phosphorylation leading to even greater dephosphorylation during exercise with intralipid infusion than with saline.
Kamandulis, Sigitas; Skurvydas, Albertas; Snieckus, Audrius; Masiulis, Nerijus; Aagaard, Per; Dargeviciute, Gintare; Brazaitis, Marius
The aim of this study was to examine changes in indirect markers of muscle damage during 3 weeks of stretch-shortening exercise with a progressively increasing load and continued modulation of various key training variables. Eight healthy untrained men performed a drop-jump programme involving a progressive increase in load impact with respect to the number of jumps performed, drop (platform) height, squat depth amplitude, and addition of weights. Maximal concentric and isometric knee extensor strength were assessed immediately before and 10 min after each training session. Voluntary and 100 Hz-stimulation-evoked torque decreased acutely after each training session relative to pre-exercise values (P < 0.05) but recovered before the subsequent training session. Post-exercise plasma creatine kinase activity increased from 162.2 ± 56.2 IU · l(-1) to 284.3 ± 116.3 IU · l(-1) at 48 h after the first training session (P < 0.05) and remained marginally elevated throughout the training period. The present results indicate that detrimental muscle damage can be avoided with drop-jump training even with the gradual introduction of more demanding exercise induced by increasing the volume, intensity, and muscle stretch amplitude. These findings suggest that the human neuromuscular system is highly adaptable to progressively varied loading demands during stretch-shortening exercise training.
Hody, S; Rogister, B; Leprince, P; Wang, F; Croisier, J-L
Unaccustomed eccentric exercise may cause skeletal muscle damage with an increase in plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity. Although the wide variability among individuals in CK response to standardized lengthening contractions has been well described, the reasons underlying this phenomenon have not yet been understood. Therefore, this study investigated a possible correlation of the changes in muscle damage indirect markers after an eccentric exercise with the decline in muscle performance during the exercise. Twenty-seven healthy untrained male subjects performed three sets of 30 maximal isokinetic eccentric contractions of the knee extensors. The muscular work was recorded using an isokinetic dynamometer to assess muscle fatigue by means of various fatigue indices. Plasma CK activity, muscle soreness, and stiffness were measured before (pre) and one day after (post) exercise. The eccentric exercise bout induced significant changes of the three muscle damage indirect markers. Large inter-subject variability was observed for all criteria measured. More interestingly, the log (CK(post) /CK(pre)) and muscle stiffness appeared to be closely correlated with the relative work decrease (r = 0.84, r(2) = 0.70 and r = 0.75, r(2) = 0.56, respectively). This is the first study to propose that the muscle fatigue profile during maximal eccentric protocol could predict the magnitude of the symptoms associated with muscle damage in humans.
Rossiter, H B; Ward, S A; Kowalchuk, J M; Howe, F A; Griffiths, J R; Whipp, B J
A prior bout of high-intensity square-wave exercise can increase the temporal adaptation of pulmonary oxygen uptake () to a subsequent bout of high-intensity exercise. The mechanisms controlling this adaptation, however, are poorly understood. We therefore determined the dynamics of intramuscular [phosphocreatine] ([PCr]) simultaneously with those of in seven males who performed two consecutive bouts of high-intensity square-wave, knee-extensor exercise in the prone position for 6 min with a 6 min rest interval. A magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) transmit-receive surface coil under the quadriceps muscle allowed estimation of [PCr]; was measured breath-by-breath using a custom-designed turbine and a mass spectrometer system. The kinetics of the second exercise bout were altered compared with the first such that (a) not only was the instantaneous rate of change (at a given level of ) greater but the phase II τ was also reduced – averaging 46.6 ± 6.0 s (bout 1) and 40.7 ± 8.4 s (bout 2) (mean ± s.d.) and (b) the magnitude of the later slow component was reduced. This was associated with a reduction of, on average, 16.1 % in the total exercise-induced [PCr] decrement over the 6 min of the exercise, of which 4.0 % was due to a reduction in the slow component of [PCr]. There was no discernable alteration in the initial rate of [PCr] change. The prior exercise, therefore, changed the multi-compartment behaviour towards that of functionally first-order dynamics. These observations demonstrate that the responses relative to the work rate input for high-intensity exercise are non-linear, as are, it appears, the putative phosphate-linked controllers for which [PCr] serves as a surrogate. PMID:11711581
Che Muhamed, Ahmad Munir; Atkins, Kerry; Stannard, Stephen R.; Mündel, Toby; Thompson, Martin William
ABSTRACT This study examined the thermoregulatory and circulatory responses, and exercise performance of trained distance runners during exercise in the heat (31°C) at varying relative humidity (RH). In a randomized order, 11 trained male distance runners performed 5 60 min steady-state runs at a speed eliciting 70% of VO2max in RH of 23, 43, 52, 61 and 71%. This was followed immediately with an incremental exercise test to volitional exhaustion. Core (Tre) and mean skin temperature (T¯sk), cardiac output (Q), heart rate (HR), and stroke volume (SV) were recorded at regular intervals. A significant (P = 0.003) main effect was detected for RH on mean body temperature (Tb), with a significantly higher Tb detected during steady-state exercise in the 61 and 71% RH compared to that in the 23% RH. During the steady-state exercise, no differences were detected in whole body sweat loss (P = 0.183). However, a significant main effect of RH was observed for HR and SV (P = 0.001 and 0.006, respectively) but not Q (P = 0.156). The time to exhaustion of the incremental exercise test was significantly reduced at 61 and 71% RH compared with 23% RH (P = 0.045 and 0.005, respectively). Despite an increase in dry heat loss, a greater thermoregulatory and circulatory stress was evident during steady-state exercise at 61 and 71% RH. This ultimately limits the capacity to perform the subsequent incremental exercise to exhaustion. This study highlighted that in a warm environment, the range of the prescriptive zone progressively narrows as RH increases. PMID:28349085
Wiskemann, J; Kuehl, R; Dreger, P; Schwerdtfeger, R; Huber, G; Ulrich, C M; Jaeger, D; Bohus, M
Patients undergoing allo-HCT often experience a substantial loss in physical performance. We have recently published the general effectiveness of an exercise intervention in 105 allo-HCT patients on physical performance and psychosocial well-being. However, predictor variables for differentiated treatment response remained unclear. To determine the impact of basic physical performance on treatment response, we assessed muscle strength and endurance performance at four assessment points before and after allo-HCT. The exercise group started training 2 weeks before admission and ended 6-8 weeks after discharge. Comparing initially fit with unfit classified patients, the fit patients lost 31% of the strength of the knee-extensors, whereas the unfit patients lost only 1% (P<0.05). For endurance capacity, fit patients lost 4% of their walking capability, whereas unfit patients gained 13% (P<0.05). The individual percent change was statistically different at the 0.05 level in all measures of physical performance. Individual training response in allo-HCT patients strongly depends on the initial physical performance level. Unfit patients can be trained safely and may benefit more from this exercise intervention than fit patients. This result is of major clinical relevance and should encourage hematologists to promote exercise even more in impaired/unfit allo-HCT patients.
Lima, Leonardo C. R.; Denadai, Benedito S.
Although, beneficial in determined contexts, eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) might be unwanted during training regimens, competitions and daily activities. There are a vast number of studies investigating strategies to attenuate EIMD response after damaging exercise bouts. Many of them consist of performing exercises that induce EIMD, consuming supplements or using equipment that are not accessible for most people. It appears that performing maximal isometric contractions (ISOs) 2–4 days prior to damaging bouts promotes significant attenuation of EIMD symptoms that are not related to muscle function. It has been shown that the volume of ISOs, muscle length in which they are performed, and interval between them and the damaging bout influence the magnitude of this protection. In addition, it appears that this protection is not long-lived, lasting no longer than 4 days. Although no particular mechanisms for these adaptations were identified, professionals should consider applying this non-damaging stimulus before submitting their patients to unaccustomed exercised. However, it seems not to be the best option for athletes or relatively trained individuals. Future, studies should focus on establishing if ISOs protect other populations (i.e., trained individuals) or muscle groups (i.e., knee extensors) against EIMD, as well as investigate different mechanisms for ISO-induced protection. PMID:26578972
Paschalis, Vassilis; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Theodorou, Anastasios A; Deli, Chariklia K; Raso, Vagner; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Giakas, Giannis; Koutedakis, Yiannis
The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of being overweight or underweight on proprioception at rest and after muscle damaging eccentric exercise. Twelve lean, 12 overweight, and 8 underweight female participants performed an eccentric exercise session using the knee extensor muscles of the dominant leg. Muscle damage indices and proprioception were assessed up to 3 days postexercise. The results indicated that proprioception at baseline of the lean individuals was superior to that of the other 2 groups. The overweight individuals exhibited a smaller knee joint reaction angle to release than did the lean group, whereas the underweight individuals exhibited a larger reaction angle to release than did the lean group. After eccentric exercise, proprioception was affected more in the overweight and the underweight groups than in the lean group. The greater exercise-induced muscle damage appeared in the overweight group, and the deficient muscle mass of the underweight participants could explain in part the greater disturbances that appeared in proprioception in these 2 groups than for the lean counterparts. In conclusion, deviating from the normal body mass is associated with significant disturbances in the proprioception of the legs at rest and after participation in activities involving eccentric actions.
Acute changes in endocrine and fluid balance markers during high-intensity, steady-state, and prolonged endurance running: unexpected increases in oxytocin and brain natriuretic peptide during exercise.
Hew-Butler, Tamara; Noakes, Timothy D; Soldin, Steven J; Verbalis, Joseph G
Maintenance of fluid homeostasis during periods of heightened physical stress can be best evaluated in humans using exercise as a model. Although it is well established that arginine vasopressin (AVP), aldosterone and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) are the principle hormones regulating fluid balance at rest, the potential contributions of other related endocrine factors, such as oxytocin (OT) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), have not been well described during exercise. Seven endurance-trained runners completed three separate running trials: a maximal test to exhaustion (high intensity), a 60-min treadmill run (steady state), and a 56 km ultramarathon (prolonged endurance exercise). Statistically significant pre- to post-run increases were found only following the ultramarathon in [AVP](p) (1.9 vs 6.7 pg/ml; P<0.05), [OT](p) (1.5 vs 3.5 pg/ml; P<0.05), [NT-proBNP](p) (23.6 vs 117.9 pg/ml; P<0.01), [interleukin 6](p) (4.0 vs 59.6 pg/ml; P<0.05), [cortisol](p) (14.6 vs 32.6 microg/ml; P<0.01), [corticosterone](p) (652.8 vs 3491.4 ng/ml; P<0.05) and [11-deoxycortisol](p) (0.1 vs 0.5 microg/ml; P<0.05) while a significant post-run increase in [aldosterone](p) was documented after high-intensity (4.9 vs 12.5 ng/ml; P<0.05), steady-state (6.1 vs 16.9 ng/ml; P<0.05) and prolonged endurance running (2.6 vs 19.7 ng/ml; P<0.05). Similarly, changes in fluid balance parameters were significantly different between the ultramarathon versus high-intensity and steady-state running with regard to plasma volume contraction (less % contraction), body weight loss (increased % weight loss), plasma [Na(+)] Delta (decreased from baseline), and urine osmolality Delta (increase from baseline). Hypothetically driven relationships between [OT](p) and [AVP](p) (r=0.69; P<0.01) and between [NT-proBNP](p) Delta and plasma [Na(+)] Delta (r=-0.79; P<0.001)--combined with the significant and unexpected pre- to post-race increases after prolonged endurance exercise--allows for possible
Burt, Dean Gareth; Lamb, Kevin; Nicholas, Ceri; Twist, Craig
Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), described as the acute weakness of the musculature after unaccustomed eccentric exercise, increases oxidative metabolism at rest and during endurance exercise. However, it is not known whether oxygen uptake during recovery from endurance exercise is increased when experiencing symptoms of EIMD. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of EIMD on physiological and metabolic responses before, during and after sub-maximal running. After a 12 h fast, eight healthy male participants completed baseline measurements comprising resting metabolic rate (RMR), indirect markers of EIMD, 10 min of sub-maximal running and 30 min of recovery to ascertain excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). Measurements were then repeated at 24 and 48 h after 100 Smith-machine squats. Data analysis revealed significant (P<0.05) increases in muscle soreness and creatine kinase (CK) and decreases in peak knee extensor torque at 24 and 48 h after squatting exercise. Moreover, RMR, physiological, metabolic and perceptual responses during sub-maximal running and EPOC were increased in the two days after squatting exercise (P<0.05). It is suggested that the elevated RMR was a consequence of a raised energy requirement for the degradation and resynthesis of damaged muscle fibres. The increased oxygen demand during sub-maximal running after muscle damage was responsible for the increase in EPOC. Individuals engaging in unaccustomed resistance exercise that results in muscle damage should be mindful of the increases in resting energy expenditure and increased metabolic demand to exercise in the days that follow.
Rosene, John; Matthews, Tracey; Ryan, Christine; Belmore, Keith; Bergsten, Alisa; Blaisdell, Jill; Gaylord, James; Love, Rebecca; Marrone, Michael; Ward, Kristine; Wilson, Eric
The purpose of this investigation was to determine if creatine supplementation assisted with reducing the amount of exercise induced muscle damage and if creatine supplementation aided in recovery from exercise induced muscle damage. Two groups of subjects (group 1 = creatine; group 2 = placebo) participated in an eccentric exercise protocol following 7 and 30 days of creatine or placebo supplementation (20 g.d(-1) for 7 d followed by 6g.d(-1) for 23 d = 30 d). Prior to the supplementation period, measurements were obtained for maximal dynamic strength, maximal isometric force, knee range of motion, muscle soreness, and serum levels of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Following 7 days of creatine supplementation, on day 8, subjects began consuming 6 g.d(-1) of creatine for 23 days. Additionally on days 8 and 31, subjects performed an eccentric exercise protocol using the knee extensors to induce muscle damage. Indirect markers of muscle damage, including maximal isometric force, knee range of motion, muscle soreness, and serum levels of CK and LDH, were collected at 12, 24, and 48 hours following each exercise bout. The results indicated that acute bouts of creatine have no effect on indirect markers of muscle damage for the acute (7 days) bout. However, maximal isometric force was greater for the creatine group versus placebo for the chronic (30 days) bout. This suggests that the ergogenic effect of creatine following 30 days of supplementation may have a positive impact on exercise induced muscle damage. Key pointsEccentric muscle actions highly associated with exercise induced muscle damage.Creatine supplementation has ergogenic effect to increase protein synthesis.Creatine supplementation does not attenuate exercise induced muscle damage with short term supplementation (7 days).Increased maximal isometric force seen with creatine supplementation after 30 days following exercise induced muscle damage.Ergogenic effect of creatine
Rosene, John; Matthews, Tracey; Ryan, Christine; Belmore, Keith; Bergsten, Alisa; Blaisdell, Jill; Gaylord, James; Love, Rebecca; Marrone, Michael; Ward, Kristine; Wilson, Eric
The purpose of this investigation was to determine if creatine supplementation assisted with reducing the amount of exercise induced muscle damage and if creatine supplementation aided in recovery from exercise induced muscle damage. Two groups of subjects (group 1 = creatine; group 2 = placebo) participated in an eccentric exercise protocol following 7 and 30 days of creatine or placebo supplementation (20 g.d-1 for 7 d followed by 6g.d-1 for 23 d = 30 d). Prior to the supplementation period, measurements were obtained for maximal dynamic strength, maximal isometric force, knee range of motion, muscle soreness, and serum levels of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Following 7 days of creatine supplementation, on day 8, subjects began consuming 6 g.d-1 of creatine for 23 days. Additionally on days 8 and 31, subjects performed an eccentric exercise protocol using the knee extensors to induce muscle damage. Indirect markers of muscle damage, including maximal isometric force, knee range of motion, muscle soreness, and serum levels of CK and LDH, were collected at 12, 24, and 48 hours following each exercise bout. The results indicated that acute bouts of creatine have no effect on indirect markers of muscle damage for the acute (7 days) bout. However, maximal isometric force was greater for the creatine group versus placebo for the chronic (30 days) bout. This suggests that the ergogenic effect of creatine following 30 days of supplementation may have a positive impact on exercise induced muscle damage. Key points Eccentric muscle actions highly associated with exercise induced muscle damage. Creatine supplementation has ergogenic effect to increase protein synthesis. Creatine supplementation does not attenuate exercise induced muscle damage with short term supplementation (7 days). Increased maximal isometric force seen with creatine supplementation after 30 days following exercise induced muscle damage. Ergogenic effect of creatine
Nordsborg, Nikolai B; Calbet, José A L; Sander, Mikael; van Hall, Gerrit; Juel, Carsten; Saltin, Bengt; Lundby, Carsten
It was investigated whether skeletal muscle K(+) release is linked to the degree of anaerobic energy production. Six subjects performed an incremental bicycle exercise test in normoxic and hypoxic conditions prior to and after 2 and 8 wk of acclimatization to 4,100 m. The highest workload completed by all subjects in all trials was 260 W. With acute hypoxic exposure prior to acclimatization, venous plasma [K(+)] was lower (P < 0.05) in normoxia (4.9 +/- 0.1 mM) than hypoxia (5.2 +/- 0.2 mM) at 260 W, but similar at exhaustion, which occurred at 400 +/- 9 W and 307 +/- 7 W (P < 0.05), respectively. At the same absolute exercise intensity, leg net K(+) release was unaffected by hypoxic exposure independent of acclimatization. After 8 wk of acclimatization, no difference existed in venous plasma [K(+)] between the normoxic and hypoxic trial, either at submaximal intensities or at exhaustion (360 +/- 14 W vs. 313 +/- 8 W; P < 0.05). At the same absolute exercise intensity, leg net K(+) release was less (P < 0.001) than prior to acclimatization and reached negative values in both hypoxic and normoxic conditions after acclimatization. Moreover, the reduction in plasma volume during exercise relative to rest was less (P < 0.01) in normoxic than hypoxic conditions, irrespective of the degree of acclimatization (at 260 W prior to acclimatization: -4.9 +/- 0.8% in normoxia and -10.0 +/- 0.4% in hypoxia). It is concluded that leg net K(+) release is unrelated to anaerobic energy production and that acclimatization reduces leg net K(+) release during exercise.
Tsatalas, Themistoklis; Giakas, Giannis; Spyropoulos, Giannis; Sideris, Vasileios; Kotzamanidis, Christos; Koutedakis, Yiannis
The goal of this investigation was to investigate how walking patterns are affected following muscle-damaging exercise by quantifying both lower limb kinematics and kinetics. Fifteen young women conducted a maximal isokinetic eccentric exercise (EE) muscle damage protocol (5×15) of the knee extensors and flexors of both legs at 60°/s. Three-dimensional motion data and ground reaction forces (GRFs) were collected 24h pre-EE while the participants walked at their preferred self-selected walking speed (SWS). Participants were asked to perform two gait conditions 48h post-EE. The first condition (COND1) was to walk at their own speed and the second condition (COND2) to maintain the SWS (±5%) they had 24h pre-EE. Walking speed during COND1 was significantly lower compared to pre-exercise values. When walking speed was controlled during COND2, significant effects of muscle damage were noticed, among other variables, for stride frequency, loading rate, lateral and vertical GRFs, as well as for specific knee kinematics and kinetics. These findings provide new insights into how walking patterns are adapted to compensate for the impaired function of the knee musculature following muscle damage. The importance to distinguish the findings caused by muscle damage from those exhibited in response to changes in stride frequency is highlighted.
Cè, Emiliano; Limonta, Eloisa; Maggioni, Martina A; Rampichini, Susanna; Veicsteinas, Arsenio; Esposito, Fabio
The study aimed to assess the role of deep and superficial massage and passive stretching recovery on blood lactate concentration ([La(-)]) kinetics after a fatiguing exercise compared to active and passive recovery. Nine participants (age 23 ± 1 years; stature 1.76 ± 0.02 m; body mass 74 ± 4 kg) performed on five occasions an 8-min fatiguing exercise at 90% of maximum oxygen uptake, followed by five different 10-min interventions in random order: passive and active recovery, deep and superficial massage and stretching. Interventions were followed by 1 hour of recovery. Throughout each session, maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) of the knee extensor muscles, [La(-)], cardiorespiratory and metabolic variables were determined. Electromyographic signal (EMG) from the quadriceps muscles was also recorded. At the end of the fatiguing exercise, [La(-)], MVC, EMG amplitude, and metabolic and cardiorespiratory parameters were similar among conditions. During intervention administration, [La(-)] was lower and metabolic and cardiorespiratory parameters were higher in active recovery compared to the other modalities (P < 0.05). Stretching and deep and superficial massage did not alter [La(-)] kinetics compared to passive recovery. These findings indicate that the pressure exerted during massage administration and stretching manoeuvres did not play a significant role on post-exercise blood La(-) levels.
Doheny, Emer P; McGrath, Denise; Ditroilo, Massimiliano; Mair, Jacqueline L; Greene, Barry R; Caulfield, Brian; De Vito, Giuseppe; Lowery, Madeleine M
Aging-related decline in functional mobility is associated with loss of independence. This decline may be mitigated through programs of physical activity. Despite reports of aging-related mobility impairment in middle-aged adults, this age group has been largely overlooked in terms of exercise programs that target functional mobility and the preservation of independence in older age. A method to quantitatively assess changes in functional mobility could direct rehabilitation in a proactive rather than reactive manner. Thirty-three healthy but sedentary middle-aged adults participated in a four week low-volume, vigorous intensity stepping exercise program. Two baseline testing sessions and one post-training testing session were conducted. Functional mobility was assessed using the timed up and go (TUG) test, with its constituent sit-to-walk and walk-to-sit phases examined using a novel inertial sensor-based method. Additionally, semi-tandem balance and knee extensor muscle isometric torque were assessed. Trunk acceleration during walk-to-sit reduced significantly post-training, suggesting altered movement control due to the exercise program. No significant training-induced changes in sit-to-walk acceleration, TUG time, balance or torque were observed. The novel method of functional mobility assessment presented provides a reliable means to quantify subtle changes in mobility during postural transitions. Over time, this exercise program may improve functional mobility.
Krustrup, Peter; Hellsten, Ylva; Bangsbo, Jens
The present study tested the hypothesis that intense interval training enhances human skeletal muscle blood flow and oxygen uptake (VO2) at the onset of dynamic exercise. We also investigated whether possible training effects were dependent on exercise intensity. Six habitually active males carried out 7 weeks of intermittent-exercise one-legged knee-extensor training at an intensity corresponding to approximately 150% of peak thigh VO2 on three to five occasions per week. After the training period, cardiovascular and metabolic measurements were performed during knee-extensor exercise with the trained leg (TL) and the control leg (CL) for 10 min at intensities of 10 and 30 W, and also for 4 min at 50 W. Femoral venous blood flow was higher (P < 0.05) in TL than CL from 75 to 180 s at 30 W ( approximately 75 s: 3.43 +/- 0.20 versus 2.99 +/- 0.18 l min(-1)) and from 40 to 210 s at 50 W ( approximately 75 s: 5.03 +/- 0.41 versus 4.13 +/- 0.33 l min(-1)). Mean arterial pressure was not different between legs. Thus, thigh vascular conductance was higher (P < 0.05) in TL than CL from 35 to 270 s at 30 W and from 150 to 240 s at 50 W. Femoral arterial-venous (a-v) O2 difference was higher (P < 0.05) in TL than CL from 20 to 70 s at 30 W, but not different between TL and CL at 50 W. Thigh VO2 was higher (P < 0.05) in TL than CL from 20 to 110 s at 30 W ( approximately 45 s: 0.38 +/- 0.04 versus 0.30 +/- 0.03 l min(-1)), and from 45 to 240 s at 50 W ( approximately 45 s: 0.64 +/- 0.06 versus 0.44 +/- 0.08 l min(-1)). No differences were observed between TL and CL during exercise at 10 W. The present data demonstrate that intense interval training elevates muscle oxygen uptake, blood flow and vascular conductance in the initial phase of exercise at high, but not at low, intensities.
Mortensen, Stefan P; Svendsen, Jesper H; Ersbøll, Mads; Hellsten, Ylva; Secher, Niels H; Saltin, Bengt
Endurance training lowers heart rate and blood pressure responses to exercise, but the mechanisms and consequences remain unclear. To determine the role of skeletal muscle for the cardioventilatory response to exercise, 8 healthy young men were studied before and after 5 weeks of 1-legged knee-extensor training and 2 weeks of deconditioning of the other leg (leg cast). Hemodynamics and muscle interstitial nucleotides were determined during exercise with the (1) deconditioned leg, (2) trained leg, and (3) trained leg with atrial pacing to the heart rate obtained with the deconditioned leg. Heart rate was ≈ 15 bpm lower during exercise with the trained leg (P<0.05), but stroke volume was higher (P<0.05) and cardiac output was similar. Arterial and central venous pressures, rate-pressure product, and ventilation were lower during exercise with the trained leg (P<0.05), whereas pulmonary capillary wedge pressure was similar. When heart rate was controlled by atrial pacing, stroke volume decreased (P<0.05), but cardiac output, peripheral blood flow, arterial pressures, and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure remained unchanged. Circulating [norepinephrine], [lactate] and [K(+)] were lower and interstitial [ATP] and pH were higher in the trained leg (P<0.05). The lower cardioventilatory response to exercise with the trained leg is partly coupled to a reduced signaling from skeletal muscle likely mediated by K(+), lactate, or pH, whereas the lower cardiac afterload increases stroke volume. These results demonstrate that skeletal muscle training reduces the cardioventilatory response to exercise without compromising O2 delivery, and it can therefore be used to reduce the load on the heart during physical activity.
Galloway, Stuart D R; Talanian, Jason L; Shoveller, Anna K; Heigenhauser, George J F; Spriet, Lawrence L
This study examined 1) the plasma taurine response to acute oral taurine supplementation (T), and 2) the effects of 7 days of T on muscle amino acid content and substrate metabolism during 2 h of cycling at approximately 60% peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak). In the first part of the study, after an overnight fast, 7 volunteers (28+/-3 yr, 184+/-2 cm, 88.0+/-6.6 kg) ingested 1.66 g oral taurine doses with breakfast (8 AM) and lunch (12 noon), and blood samples were taken throughout the day. In the second part of the study, eight men (22+/-1 yr, 181+/-1 cm, 80.9+/-3.8 kg, 4.21+/-0.16 l/min VO2peak) cycled for 2 h after 7 days of placebo (P) ingestion (6 g glucose/day) and again following 7 days of T (5 g/day). In the first part of the study, plasma taurine was 64+/-4 microM before T and rose rapidly to 778+/-139 microM by 10 AM and remained elevated at noon (359+/-56 microM). Plasma taurine reached 973+/-181 microM at 1 PM and was 161+/-31 microM at 4 PM. In the second part of the study, seven days of T had no effect on muscle taurine content (mmol/kg dry muscle) at rest (P, 44+/-15 vs. T, 42+/-15) or after exercise (P, 43+/-12 vs. T, 43+/-11). There was no difference in muscle glycogen or other muscle metabolites between conditions, but there were notable interaction effects for muscle valine, isoleucine, leucine, cystine, glutamate, alanine, and arginine amino acid content following exercise after T. These data indicate that 1) acute T produces a 13-fold increase in plasma taurine concentration; 2) despite the ability to significantly elevate plasma taurine for extended periods throughout the day, 7 days of T does not alter skeletal muscle taurine content or carbohydrate and fat oxidation during exercise; and 3) T appears to have some impact on muscle amino acid response to exercise.
Barrett-O'Keefe, Zachary; Lee, Joshua F; Berbert, Amanda; Witman, Melissa A H; Nativi-Nicolau, Jose; Stehlik, Josef; Richardson, Russell S; Wray, D Walter
To better understand the mechanisms responsible for exercise intolerance in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), the present study sought to evaluate the hemodynamic responses to small muscle mass exercise in this cohort. In 25 HFrEF patients (64 ± 2 yr) and 17 healthy, age-matched control subjects (64 ± 2 yr), mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO), and limb blood flow were examined during graded static-intermittent handgrip (HG) and dynamic single-leg knee-extensor (KE) exercise. During HG exercise, MAP increased similarly between groups. CO increased significantly (+1.3 ± 0.3 l/min) in the control group, but it remained unchanged across workloads in HFrEF patients. At 15% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), forearm blood flow was similar between groups, while HFrEF patients exhibited an attenuated increase at the two highest intensities compared with controls, with the greatest difference at the highest workload (352 ± 22 vs. 492 ± 48 ml/min, HFrEF vs. control, 45% MVC). During KE exercise, MAP and CO increased similarly across work rates between groups. However, HFrEF patients exhibited a diminished leg hyperemic response across all work rates, with the most substantial decrement at the highest intensity (1,842 ± 64 vs. 2,675 ± 81 ml/min; HFrEF vs. control, 15 W). Together, these findings indicate a marked attenuation in exercising limb perfusion attributable to impairments in peripheral vasodilatory capacity during both arm and leg exercise in patients with HFrEF, which likely plays a role in limiting exercise capacity in this patient population.
Vasconcelos, Karina S. S.; Dias, João M. D.; Araújo, Marília C.; Pinheiro, Ana C.; Moreira, Bruno S.; Dias, Rosângela C.
ABSTRACT Background Sarcopenic obesity is associated with disability in older people, especially in women. Resistance exercises are recommended for this population, but their efficacy is not clear. Objective To evaluate the effects of a progressive resistance exercise program with high-speed component on the physical function of older women with sarcopenic obesity. Method Twenty-eight women 65 to 80 years old, with a body mass index ≥30kg/m2 and handgrip strength ≤21kg were randomly allocated to two groups. The experimental group underwent a 10-week resistance exercise program designed to improve strength, power, and endurance of lower-limb muscles, with open chain and closed chain exercises. The control group had their health status monitored through telephone calls. The primary outcomes were lower limb muscle performance measured by knee extensor strength, power and fatigue by isokinetic dynamometry, and mobility measured by the Short Physical Performance Battery and by gait velocity. The secondary outcome was health-related quality of life assessed by the SF-36 Questionnaire. Results The average rate of adherence was 85%, with few mild adverse effects. There were no significant between-group differences for any of the outcomes. Conclusion In this study, a progressive resistance exercise program with high-speed component was not effective for improving the physical function of older women with sarcopenic obesity. PMID:27410162
Zhang, Haifeng; Tong, Tom K.; Qiu, Weifeng; Zhang, Xu; Zhou, Shi
This study compared the effect of prolonged moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on reducing abdominal visceral fat in obese young women with that of work-equivalent (300 kJ/training session) high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Forty-three participants received either HIIT (n = 15), MICT (n = 15), or no training (CON, n = 13) for 12 weeks. The abdominal visceral fat area (AVFA) and abdominal subcutaneous fat area (ASFA) of the participants were measured through computed tomography scans preintervention and postintervention. Total fat mass and the fat mass of the android, gynoid, and trunk regions were assessed through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Following HIIT and MICT, comparable reductions in AVFA (−9.1, −9.2 cm2), ASFA (−35, −28.3 cm2), and combined AVFA and ASFA (−44.7, −37.5 cm2, p > 0.05) were observed. Similarly, reductions in fat percentage (−2.5%, −2.4%), total fat mass (−2.8, −2.8 kg), and fat mass of the android (−0.3, −0.3 kg), gynoid (−0.5, −0.7 kg), and trunk (−1.6, −1.2 kg, p > 0.05) regions did not differ between HIIT and MICT. No variable changed in CON. In conclusion, MICT consisting of prolonged sessions has no quantitative advantage, compared with that resulting from HIIT, in abdominal visceral fat reduction. HIIT appears to be the predominant strategy for controlling obesity because of its time efficiency. PMID:28116314
Avelar, Bruna Pereira; Costa, Juliana Nunes de Almeida; Safons, Marisete Peralta; Dutra, Maurílio Tiradentes; Bottaro, Martim; Gobbi, Sebastião; Tiedemann, Anne; de David, Ana Cristina; Lima, Ricardo Moreno
This study introduces the Balance Exercises Circuit (BEC) and examines its effects on muscle strength and power, balance, and functional performance in older women. Thirty-five women aged 60+ (mean age = 69.31, SD = 7.35) were assigned to either a balance exercises group (BG, n = 14) that underwent 50-min sessions twice weekly, of a 12-week BEC program, or a wait-list control group (CG, n = 21). Outcome measures were knee extensor peak torque (PT), rate of force development (RFD), balance, Timed Up & Go (TUG), 30-s chair stand, and 6-min walk tests, assessed at baseline and 12 weeks. Twenty-three participants completed follow-up assessments. Mixed analysis of variance models examined differences in outcomes. The BG displayed improvements in all measures at follow-up and significantly improved compared with CG on, isokinetic PT60, PT180 (p = 0.02), RFD (p < 0.05), balance with eyes closed (p values range .02 to <.01) and TUG (p = 0.03), all with medium effect sizes. No changes in outcome measures were observed in the CG. BEC improved strength, power, balance, and functionality in older women. The BEC warrants further investigation as a fall prevention intervention.
Bada, A A; Svendsen, J H; Secher, N H; Saltin, B; Mortensen, S P
In dogs, manipulation of heart rate has no effect on the exercise-induced increase in cardiac output. Whether these findings apply to humans remain uncertain, because of the large differences in cardiovascular anatomy and regulation. To investigate the role of heart rate and peripheral vasodilatation in the regulation of cardiac output during steady-state exercise, we measured central and peripheral haemodynamics in 10 healthy male subjects, with and without atrial pacing (100–150 beats min(−1)) during: (i) resting conditions, (ii) one-legged knee extensor exercise (24 W) and (iii) femoral arterial ATP infusion at rest. Exercise and ATP infusion increased cardiac output, leg blood flow and vascular conductance (P < 0.05), whereas cerebral perfusion remained unchanged. During atrial pacing increasing heart rate by up to 54 beats min(−1), cardiac output did not change in any of the three conditions, because of a parallel decrease in stroke volume (P < 0.01). Atrial pacing increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) at rest and during ATP infusion (P < 0.05), whereas MAP remained unchanged during exercise. Atrial pacing lowered central venous pressure (P < 0.05) and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (P < 0.05) in all conditions, whereas it did not affect pulmonary mean arterial pressure. Atrial pacing lowered the left ventricular contractility index (dP/dt) (P < 0.05) in all conditions and plasma noradrenaline levels at rest (P < 0.05), but not during exercise and ATP infusion. These results demonstrate that the elevated cardiac output during steady-state exercise is regulated by the increase in skeletal muscle blood flow and venous return to the heart, whereas the increase in heart rate appears to be secondary to the regulation of cardiac output.
Chen, Trevor C; Lin, Kun-Yi; Chen, Hsin-Lian; Lin, Ming-Ju; Nosaka, Kazunori
This study tested the hypothesis that changes in indirect markers of muscle damage following maximal eccentric exercise would be smaller for the knee extensors (KE) and flexors (KF) compared with the elbow flexors (EF) and extensors (EE). A total of 17 sedentary men performed five sets of six maximal isokinetic (90° s(-1)) eccentric contractions of EF (range of motion, ROM: 90°-0°, 0 = full extension), EE (55°-145°), KF (90°-0°), and KE (30°-120°) using a different limb with a 4-5-week interval in a counterbalanced order. Changes in maximal isometric and concentric isokinetic strength, optimum angle, limb circumference, ROM, plasma creatine kinase activity and myoglobin concentration, muscle soreness, and echo-intensity of B-mode ultrasound images before and for 5 days following exercise were compared amongst the four exercises using two-way repeated-measures ANOVA. All variables changed significantly following EF, EE, and KF exercises, but KE exercise did not change the optimum angle, limb circumference, and echo-intensity. Compared with KF and KE, EF and EE showed significantly greater changes in all variables, without significant differences between EF and EE. Changes in all variables were significantly greater for KF than KE. For the same subjects, the magnitude of change in the dependent variables following exercise varied among the exercises. These results suggest that the two arm muscles are equally more susceptible to muscle damage than leg muscles, but KF is more susceptible to muscle damage than KE. The difference in the susceptibility to muscle damage seems to be associated with the use of muscles in daily activities.
Hellsten, Ylva; Krustrup, Peter; Iaia, F Marcello; Secher, Niels H; Bangsbo, Jens
This study examined the role of acetylcholine for skeletal muscle blood flow during exercise by use of the competitive neuromuscular blocking agent cisatracurium in combination with the acetylcholine receptor blocker glycopyrrone. Nine healthy male subjects performed a 10-min bout of one-legged knee-extensor exercise (18 W) during control conditions and with cisatracurium blockade, as well as with cisatracurium blockade with prior glycopyrrone infusion. Thigh blood flow and vascular conductance in control and with cisatracurium infusion were similar at rest and during passive movement of the leg, but higher (P < 0.05) during exercise with cisatracurium than in control (3.83 +/- 0.42 vs. 2.78 +/- 0.21 l/min and 26.9 +/- 3.4 vs. 21.8 +/- 2.0 ml.min(-1).mmHg(-1) at the end of exercise). Thigh oxygen uptake was similar in control and with cisatracurium infusion both at rest and during exercise, being 354 +/- 33 and 406 +/- 34 ml/min, at the end of exercise. Combined infusion of cisatracurium and glycopyrrone caused a similar increase in blood flow as cisatracurium infusion alone. The current results demonstrate that neuromuscular blockade leads to enhanced thigh blood flow and vascular conductance during exercise, events that are not associated with either acetylcholine or an increased oxygen demand. The results do not support an essential role for acetylcholine, released form the neuromuscular junction, in exercise hyperemia or for the enhanced blood flow during neuromuscular blockade. The enhanced exercise hyperemia during partial neuromuscular blockade may be related to a greater recruitment of fast-twitch muscle fibers.
Falavigna, Gina; Junior, Jonas Alves de Araújo; Rogero, Marcelo Macedo; Pires, Ivanir Santana de Oliveira; Pedrosa, Rogério Graça; Junior, Eivor Martins; de Castro, Inar Alves; Tirapegui, Julio
This study aimed to determine the effects of diets chronically supplemented with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) on the fatigue mechanisms of trained rats. Thirty-six adult Wistar rats were trained for six weeks. The training protocol consisted of bouts of swimming exercise (one hour a day, five times a week, for six weeks). The animals received a control diet (C) (n = 12), a diet supplemented with 3.57% BCAA (S1) (n = 12), or a diet supplemented with 4.76% BCAA (S2) (n = 12). On the last day of the training protocol, half the animals in each group were sacrificed after one hour of swimming (1H), and the other half after a swimming exhaustion test (EX). Swimming time until exhaustion was increased by 37% in group S1 and reduced by 43% in group S2 compared to group C. Results indicate that the S1 diet had a beneficial effect on performance by sparing glycogen in the soleus muscle (p < 0.05) and by inducing a lower concentration of plasma ammonia, whereas the S2 diet had a negative effect on performance due to hyperammonemia (p < 0.05). The hypothalamic concentration of serotonin was not significantly different between the 1H and EX conditions. In conclusion, chronic BCAA supplementation led to increased performance in rats subjected to a swimming test to exhaustion. However, this is a dose-dependent effect, since chronic ingestion of elevated quantities of BCAA led to a reduction in performance. PMID:23201847
Rossman, Matthew J; Trinity, Joel D; Garten, Ryan S; Ives, Stephen J; Conklin, Jamie D; Barrett-O'Keefe, Zachary; Witman, Melissa A H; Bledsoe, Amber D; Morgan, David E; Runnels, Sean; Reese, Van R; Zhao, Jia; Amann, Markus; Wray, D Walter; Richardson, Russell S
The consequence of elevated oxidative stress on exercising skeletal muscle blood flow as well as the transport and utilization of O2 in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not well understood. The present study examined the impact of an oral antioxidant cocktail (AOC) on leg blood flow (LBF) and O2 consumption during dynamic exercise in 16 patients with COPD and 16 healthy subjects. Subjects performed submaximal (3, 6, and 9 W) single-leg knee extensor exercise while LBF (Doppler ultrasound), mean arterial blood pressure, leg vascular conductance, arterial O2 saturation, leg arterial-venous O2 difference, and leg O2 consumption (direct Fick) were evaluated under control conditions and after AOC administration. AOC administration increased LBF (3 W: 1,604 ± 100 vs. 1,798 ± 128 ml/min, 6 W: 1,832 ± 109 vs. 1,992 ± 120 ml/min, and 9W: 2,035 ± 114 vs. 2,187 ± 136 ml/min, P < 0.05, control vs. AOC, respectively), leg vascular conductance, and leg O2 consumption (3 W: 173 ± 12 vs. 210 ± 15 ml O2/min, 6 W: 217 ± 14 vs. 237 ± 15 ml O2/min, and 9 W: 244 ± 16 vs 260 ± 18 ml O2/min, P < 0.05, control vs. AOC, respectively) during exercise in COPD, whereas no effect was observed in healthy subjects. In addition, the AOC afforded a small, but significant, improvement in arterial O2 saturation only in patients with COPD. Thus, these data demonstrate a novel beneficial role of AOC administration on exercising LBF, O2 consumption, and arterial O2 saturation in patients with COPD, implicating oxidative stress as a potential therapeutic target for impaired exercise capacity in this population.
Molina, Renato; Denadai, Benedito S
This study investigated the association between isokinetic peak torque (PT) of quadriceps and the corresponding peak rate of force development (peak RFD) during the recovery of eccentric exercise. Twelve untrained men (aged 21·7 ± 2·3 year) performed 100 maximal eccentric contractions for knee extensors (10 sets of 10 repetitions with a 2-min rest between each set) on isokinetic dynamometer. PT and peak RFD accessed by maximal isokinetic knee concentric contractions at 60° s(-1) were obtained before (baseline) and at 24 and 48 h after eccentric exercise. Indirect markers of muscle damage included delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS) and plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity. The eccentric exercise resulted in elevated DOMS and CK compared with baseline values. At 24 h, PT (-15·3%, P = 0·002) and peak RFD (-13·1%, P = 0·03) decreased significantly. At 48 h, PT (-7·9%, P = 0·002) was still decreased but peak RFD have returned to baseline values. Positive correlation was found between PT and peak RFD at baseline (r = 0·62, P = 0·02), 24 h (r = 0·99, P = 0·0001) and 48 h (r = 0·68, P = 0·01) after eccentric exercise. The magnitude of changes (%) in PT and peak RFD from baseline to 24 h (r = 0·68, P = 0·01) and from 24 to 48 h (r = 0·68, P = 0·01) were significantly correlated. It can be concluded that the muscle damage induced by the eccentric exercise affects differently the time course of PT and peak RFD recovery during isokinetic concentric contraction at 60° s(-1). During the recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage, PT and peak RFD are determined but not fully defined by shared putative physiological mechanisms.
Rossman, Matthew J.; Trinity, Joel D.; Garten, Ryan S.; Ives, Stephen J.; Conklin, Jamie D.; Barrett-O'Keefe, Zachary; Witman, Melissa A. H.; Bledsoe, Amber D.; Morgan, David E.; Runnels, Sean; Reese, Van R.; Zhao, Jia; Amann, Markus; Wray, D. Walter
The consequence of elevated oxidative stress on exercising skeletal muscle blood flow as well as the transport and utilization of O2 in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not well understood. The present study examined the impact of an oral antioxidant cocktail (AOC) on leg blood flow (LBF) and O2 consumption during dynamic exercise in 16 patients with COPD and 16 healthy subjects. Subjects performed submaximal (3, 6, and 9 W) single-leg knee extensor exercise while LBF (Doppler ultrasound), mean arterial blood pressure, leg vascular conductance, arterial O2 saturation, leg arterial-venous O2 difference, and leg O2 consumption (direct Fick) were evaluated under control conditions and after AOC administration. AOC administration increased LBF (3 W: 1,604 ± 100 vs. 1,798 ± 128 ml/min, 6 W: 1,832 ± 109 vs. 1,992 ± 120 ml/min, and 9W: 2,035 ± 114 vs. 2,187 ± 136 ml/min, P < 0.05, control vs. AOC, respectively), leg vascular conductance, and leg O2 consumption (3 W: 173 ± 12 vs. 210 ± 15 ml O2/min, 6 W: 217 ± 14 vs. 237 ± 15 ml O2/min, and 9 W: 244 ± 16 vs 260 ± 18 ml O2/min, P < 0.05, control vs. AOC, respectively) during exercise in COPD, whereas no effect was observed in healthy subjects. In addition, the AOC afforded a small, but significant, improvement in arterial O2 saturation only in patients with COPD. Thus, these data demonstrate a novel beneficial role of AOC administration on exercising LBF, O2 consumption, and arterial O2 saturation in patients with COPD, implicating oxidative stress as a potential therapeutic target for impaired exercise capacity in this population. PMID:26188020
Tanimoto, Michiya; Ishii, Naokata
We investigated the acute and long-term effects of low-intensity resistance exercise (knee extension) with slow movement and tonic force generation on muscular size and strength. This type of exercise was expected to enhance the intramuscular hypoxic environment that might be a factor for muscular hypertrophy. Twenty-four healthy young men without experience of regular exercise training were assigned into three groups (n = 8 for each) and performed the following resistance exercise regimens: low-intensity [ approximately 50% of one-repetition maximum (1RM)] with slow movement and tonic force generation (3 s for eccentric and concentric actions, 1-s pause, and no relaxing phase; LST); high-intensity ( approximately 80% 1RM) with normal speed (1 s for concentric and eccentric actions, 1 s for relaxing; HN); low-intensity with normal speed (same intensity as for LST and same speed as for HN; LN). In LST and HN, the mean repetition maximum was 8RM. In LN, both intensity and amount of work were matched with those for LST. Each exercise session consisting of three sets was performed three times a week for 12 wk. In LST and HN, exercise training caused significant (P < 0.05) increases in cross-sectional area determined with MRI and isometric strength (maximal voluntary contraction) of the knee extensors, whereas no significant changes were seen in LN. Electromyographic and near-infrared spectroscopic analyses showed that one bout of LST causes sustained muscular activity and the largest muscle deoxygenation among the three types of exercise. The results suggest that intramuscular oxygen environment is important for exercise-induced muscular hypertrophy.
Christensen, Peter M; Nyberg, Michael; Mortensen, Stefan P; Nielsen, Jens Jung; Secher, Niels H; Damsgaard, Rasmus; Hellsten, Ylva; Bangsbo, Jens
The present study examined whether a marked reduction in oxygen delivery, unlike findings in moderate-intensity exercise, would slow leg oxygen uptake (Vo2) kinetics during intense exercise (86 ± 3% of incremental test peak power). Seven healthy males (26 ± 1 years, means ± SE) performed one-legged knee-extensor exercise (60 ± 3 W) for 4 min in a control setting (CON) and with arterial infusion of N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine and indomethacin in the working leg to reduce blood flow by inhibiting formation of nitric oxide and prostanoids (double blockade; DB). In DB leg blood flow (LBF) and oxygen delivery during the first minute of exercise were 25-50% lower (P < 0.01) compared with CON (LBF after 10 s: 1.1 ± 0.2 vs. 2.5 ± 0.3 l/min and 45 s: 2.7 ± 0.2 vs. 3.8 ± 0.4 l/min) and 15% lower (P < 0.05) after 2 min of exercise. Leg Vo2 in DB was attenuated (P < 0.05) during the first 2 min of exercise (10 s: 161 ± 26 vs. 288 ± 34 ml/min and 45 s: 459 ± 48 vs. 566 ± 81 ml/min) despite a higher (P < 0.01) oxygen extraction in DB. Net leg lactate release was the same in DB and CON. The present study shows that a marked reduction in oxygen delivery can limit the rise in Vo2 during the initial part of intense exercise. This is in contrast to previous observations during moderate-intensity exercise using the same DB procedure, which suggests that fast-twitch muscle fibers are more sensitive to a reduction in oxygen delivery than slow-twitch fibers.
Fritsch, Carolina Gassen; Dornelles, Maurício Pinto; Severo-Silveira, Lucas; Marques, Vanessa Bernardes; Rosso, Isabele de Albuquerque; Baroni, Bruno Manfredini
Promising effects of phototherapy on markers of exercise-induced muscle damage has been already demonstrated in constant load or isokinetic protocols. However, its effects on more functional situations, such as plyometric exercises, and when is the best moment to apply this treatment (pre- or post-exercise) remain unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) before or after plyometric exercise on quadriceps muscle damage markers. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was conducted with 24 healthy men, 12 at pre-exercise treatment group and 12 at post-exercise treatment group. Placebo and LLLT (810 nm, 200 mW per diode, 6 J per diode, 240 J per leg) were randomly applied on right/left knee extensor muscles of each volunteer before/after a plyometric exercise protocol. Muscular echo intensity (ultrasonography images), soreness (visual analogue scale - VAS), and strength impairment (maximal voluntary contraction - MVC) were assessed at baseline, 24, 48, and 72 h post-exercise. Legs treated with LLLT before or after exercise presented significantly smaller increments of echo intensity (values up to 1 %) compared to placebo treatments (increased up to ∼7 %). No significant treatment effect was found for VAS and MVC, although a trend toward better results on LLLT legs have been found for VAS (mean values up to 30 % lesser than placebo leg). In conclusion, LLLT applied before or after plyometric exercise reduces the muscle echo intensity response and possibly attenuates the muscle soreness. However, these positive results were not observed on strength impairment.
Burt, Dean; Lamb, Kevin; Nicholas, Ceri; Twist, Craig
It is well established that exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) has a detrimental effect on endurance exercise performed in the days that follow. However, it is unknown whether such effects remain after a repeated bout of EIMD. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of repeated bouts of muscle-damaging exercise on sub-maximal running exercise. Nine male participants completed baseline measurements associated with a sub-maximal running bout at lactate turn point. These measurements were repeated 24-48 h after EIMD, comprising 100 squats (10 sets of 10 at 80 % body mass). Two weeks later, when symptoms from the first bout of EIMD had dissipated, all procedures performed at baseline were repeated. Results revealed significant increases in muscle soreness and creatine kinase activity and decreases in peak knee extensor torque and vertical jump performance at 24-48 h after the initial bout of EIMD. However, after the repeated bout, symptoms of EIMD were reduced from baseline at 24-48 h. Significant increases in oxygen uptake (.VO2), minute ventilation (.VE), blood lactate ([BLa]), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), stride frequency and decreases in stride length were observed during sub-maximal running at 24-48 h following the initial bout of EIMD. However, following the repeated bout of EIMD, .VO2, .VE, [BLa], RPE and stride pattern responses during sub-maximal running remained unchanged from baseline at all time points. These findings confirm that a single resistance session protects skeletal muscle against the detrimental effects of EIMD on sub-maximal running endurance exercise.
Pearson, James; Kalsi, Kameljit K; Stöhr, Eric J; Low, David A; Barker, Horace; Ali, Leena; González-Alonso, José
Dehydration and hyperthermia reduces leg blood flow (LBF), cardiac output ([Formula: see text]) and arterial pressure during whole-body exercise. It is unknown whether the reductions in blood flow are associated with dehydration-induced alterations in arterial blood oxygen content (C aO2) and O2-dependent signalling. This study investigated the impact of dehydration and concomitant alterations in C aO2 upon LBF and [Formula: see text]. Haemodynamics, arterial and femoral venous blood parameters and plasma [ATP] were measured at rest and during one-legged knee-extensor exercise in 7 males in four conditions: (1) control, (2) mild dehydration, (3) moderate dehydration, and (4) rehydration. Relative to control, C aO2 and LBF increased with dehydration at rest and during exercise (C aO2: from 199 ± 1 to 208 ± 2, and 202 ± 2 to 210 ± 2 ml L(-1) and LBF: from 0.38 ± 0.04 to 0.77 ± 0.09, and 1.64 ± 0.09 to 1.88 ± 0.1 L min(-1), respectively). Similarly, [Formula: see text] was unchanged or increased with dehydration at rest and during exercise, whereas arterial and leg perfusion pressures declined. Following rehydration, C aO2 declined (to 193 ± 2 mL L(-1)) but LBF remained elevated. Alterations in LBF were unrelated to C aO2 (r (2) = 0.13-0.27, P = 0.48-0.64) and plasma [ATP]. These findings suggest dehydration and concomitant alterations in C aO2 do not compromise LBF despite reductions in plasma [ATP]. While an additive or synergistic effect cannot be excluded, reductions in LBF during exercise with dehydration may not necessarily be associated with alterations in C aO2 and/or intravascular [ATP].
Bieuzen, François; Pournot, Hervé; Roulland, Rémy; Hausswirth, Christophe
Context Electric muscle stimulation has been suggested to enhance recovery after exhaustive exercise by inducing an increase in blood flow to the stimulated area. Previous studies have failed to support this hypothesis. We hypothesized that the lack of effect shown in previous studies could be attributed to the technique or device used. Objective To investigate the effectiveness of a recovery intervention using an electric blood-flow stimulator on anaerobic performance and muscle damage in professional soccer players after intermittent, exhaustive exercise. Design Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting National Institute of Sport, Expertise, and Performance (INSEP). Patients or Other Participants Twenty-six healthy professional male soccer players. Intervention(s) The athletes performed an intermittent fatiguing exercise followed by a 1-hour recovery period, either passive or using an electric blood-flow stimulator (VEINOPLUS). Participants were randomly assigned to a group before the experiment started. Main Outcome Measures(s) Performances during a 30-second all-out exercise test, maximal vertical countermovement jump, and maximal voluntary contraction of the knee extensor muscles were measured at rest, immediately after the exercise, and 1 hour and 24 hours later. Muscle enzymes indicating muscle damage (creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase) and hematologic profiles were analyzed before and 1 hour and 24 hours after the intermittent fatigue exercise. Results The electric-stimulation group had better 30-second all-out performances at 1 hour after exercise (P = .03) in comparison with the passive-recovery group. However, no differences were observed in muscle damage markers, maximal vertical countermovement jump, or maximal voluntary contraction between groups (P > .05). Conclusions Compared with passive recovery, electric stimulation using this blood-flow stimulator improved anaerobic performance at 1 hour postintervention. No changes in muscle damage
Hellsten, Ylva; Nielsen, Jens J; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Bruhn, Maria; Silveira, Leonardo; Pilegaard, Henriette; Bangsbo, Jens
The effects of acute exercise on the mRNA content of selected genes were examined during control conditions and after oral intake of antioxidants. In addition, to provide evidence for formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human skeletal muscle during exercise, cytochrome c reduction was measured in microdialysate from the muscle. For the study on the effects of antioxidants on mRNA content, seven healthy, habitually active, male subjects participated in a double-blinded experimental design in which they, on one occasion, received a placebo and, on another, a mixture of antioxidants containing 1500 mg vitamin C, 120 mg coenzyme Q, and 345 mg alpha-tocopherol every day for 7 days before the experiment. On the experimental day the subjects cycled for 90 min and muscle biopsies were taken preexercise and at 1, 3, and 5 h after exercise. Exercise induced an increase in the eNOS, UCP3, PGC-1alpha, VEGF, Hsp72, and HO-1 mRNA content (p < 0.001), whereas there was no change in the Hsc70 mRNA level. Prior antioxidant treatment further enhanced (p < 0.05) the eNOS and UCP3 mRNA content after exercise. Moreover, the overall level of Hsc70 mRNA tended (p = 0.07) to be higher after antioxidant treatment. In another group of healthy male subjects, cytochrome c reduction was determined in microdialysate from the thigh muscle at rest and during knee extensor exercise to determine ROS formation. There was a significant increase in cytochrome c reduction with exercise both at 14 ( approximately 25%) and at 30 W ( approximately 50%). The data show that ROS are formed within skeletal muscle during exercise and that oral intake of antioxidants can enhance the exercise-induced adaptive mRNA responses of eNOS and UCP3.
Nyberg, Michael; Egelund, Jon; Mandrup, Camilla M; Andersen, Caroline B; Hansen, Karen M B E; Hergel, Ida-Marie F; Valbak-Andersen, Nicholai; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Stallknecht, Bente; Bangsbo, Jens; Hellsten, Ylva
Exercise training leads to favourable adaptations within skeletal muscle; however, this effect of exercise training may be blunted in postmenopausal women due to the loss of oestrogens. Furthermore, postmenopausal women may have an impaired vascular response to acute exercise. We examined the haemodynamic response to acute exercise in matched pre- and postmenopausal women before and after 12 weeks of aerobic high intensity exercise training. Twenty premenopausal and 16 early postmenopausal (3.1 ± 0.5 [mean ± SEM] years after final menstrual period) women only separated by 4 (50 ± 0 versus 54 ± 1) years of age were included. Before training, leg blood flow, O2 delivery, O2 uptake, and lactate release during knee-extensor exercise were similar in pre- and postmenopausal women. Exercise training reduced (P < 0.05) leg blood flow, O2 delivery, O2 uptake, lactate release, blood pressure and heart rate during the same absolute workloads in the postmenopausal women. These effects were not detected in the premenopausal women. Quadriceps muscle protein contents of mitochondrial complex II, III, and IV, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), cyclooxygenase-1 (COX.1), COX-2, and oestrogen related receptor α (ERRα) were increased (P < 0.05) with training in the postmenopausal women whereas only the levels of mitochondrial complex V, eNOS, and COX-2 were increased (P < 0.05) in the premenopausal women. These findings demonstrate that vascular and skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptations to aerobic high intensity exercise training are more pronounced in recent post- compared to premenopausal women, possibly as an effect of enhanced ERRα signalling. Also, the hyperaemic response to acute exercise appears to be preserved in the early postmenopausal phase. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Krainski, Felix; Hastings, Jeffrey L; Heinicke, Katja; Romain, Nadine; Pacini, Eric L; Snell, Peter G; Wyrick, Phil; Palmer, M Dean; Haller, Ronald G; Levine, Benjamin D
Exposure to microgravity causes functional and structural impairment of skeletal muscle. Current exercise regimens are time-consuming and insufficiently effective; an integrated countermeasure is needed that addresses musculoskeletal along with cardiovascular health. High-intensity, short-duration rowing ergometry and supplemental resistive strength exercise may achieve these goals. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers completed 5 wk of head-down-tilt bed rest (HDBR): 18 were randomized to exercise, 9 remained sedentary. Exercise consisted of rowing ergometry 6 days/wk, including interval training, and supplemental strength training 2 days/wk. Measurements before and after HDBR and following reambulation included assessment of strength, skeletal muscle volume (MRI), and muscle metabolism (magnetic resonance spectroscopy); quadriceps muscle biopsies were obtained to assess muscle fiber types, capillarization, and oxidative capacity. Sedentary bed rest (BR) led to decreased muscle volume (quadriceps: -9 ± 4%, P < 0.001; plantar flexors: -19 ± 6%, P < 0.001). Exercise (ExBR) reduced atrophy in the quadriceps (-5 ± 4%, interaction P = 0.018) and calf muscle, although to a lesser degree (-14 ± 6%, interaction P = 0.076). Knee extensor and plantar flexor strength was impaired by BR (-14 ± 15%, P = 0.014 and -22 ± 7%, P = 0.001) but preserved by ExBR (-4 ± 13%, P = 0.238 and +13 ± 28%, P = 0.011). Metabolic capacity, as assessed by maximal O2 consumption, (31)P-MRS, and oxidative chain enzyme activity, was impaired in BR but stable or improved in ExBR. Reambulation reversed the negative impact of BR. High-intensity, short-duration rowing and supplemental strength training effectively preserved skeletal muscle function and structure while partially preventing atrophy in key antigravity muscles. Due to its integrated cardiovascular benefits, rowing ergometry could be a primary component of exercise prescriptions for astronauts or patients suffering from severe
Owerkowicz, Tomasz; Cotter, Joshua A.; Haddad, Fadia; Yu, Alvin M.; Camilon, Marinelle L.; Hoang, Theresa; Jimenez, Daniel; Kreitenberg, Arthur; Tesch, Per A.; Caiozzo, Vincent J.; Adams, Gregory R.
Background Although a number of exercise systems have been developed to mitigate the physiological deconditioning that occurs in microgravity, few have the capacity to positively impact multiple physiological systems and still meet the volume/mass requirements needed for missions beyond low earth orbit. The purpose of this study was to test the gravity-independent Multi-Mode Exercise Device (M-MED) for both resistance (RE) and aerobic (AE) training stimuli. Methods Eight men and nine women (mean age 22.0±0.4 years) completed five weeks of training on the M-MED: RE 4×7 squats two days a week, and AE 4×4-min rowing bouts at ~90% VO2max three days a week. Pre- and post-training data collection included an aerobic capacity test, MR imaging, strength testing, and vastus lateralis muscle biopsy. Results VO2max increased 8%, 3RM strength 18%, and quadriceps femoris cross-sectional area (CSA) 10%. Knee extensor strength increased at all isokinetic speeds tested. Subjects also demonstrated improved resistance to fatigue in knee extension. At the cellular and molecular level, the biopsy revealed increases in mixed myofiber CSA (13%), citrate synthase activity (26%), total RNA concentration (24%), IGF-I mRNA (77%), Type IIa Myosin Heavy Chain (MHC) mRNA (8%), and concomitant decrease in Type IIx MHC mRNA (−23%). None of the changes were gender-specific. Discussion Both the functional outcomes and biomarker changes indicate that a very low volume of M-MED exercise results in robust adaptation in the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems. The M-MED has the potential to provide a wide range of countermeasure exercises and should be considered for testing in ground-based spaceflight simulation. PMID:26802373
Bamman, M. M.; Clarke, M. S.; Feeback, D. L.; Talmadge, R. J.; Stevens, B. R.; Lieberman, S. A.; Greenisen, M. C.
Because resistance exercise (REx) and bed-rest unloading (BRU) are associated with opposing adaptations, our purpose was to test the efficacy of REx against the effects of 14 days of BRU on the knee-extensor muscle group. Sixteen healthy men were randomly assigned to no exercise (NoEx; n = 8) or REx (n = 8). REx performed five sets of leg press exercise with 80-85% of one repetition maximum (1 RM) every other day during BRU. Muscle samples were removed from the vastus lateralis muscle by percutaneous needle biopsy. Myofiber distribution was determined immunohistochemically with three monoclonal antibodies against myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms (I, IIa, IIx). MHC distribution was further assessed by quantitative gel electrophoresis. Dynamic 1-RM leg press and unilateral maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) were determined. Maximal neural activation (root mean squared electromyogram) and rate of torque development (RTD) were measured during MVC. Reductions (P < 0.05) in type I (15%) and type II (17%) myofiber cross-sectional areas were found in NoEx but not in REx. Electrophoresis revealed no changes in MHC isoform distribution. The percentage of type IIx myofibers decreased (P < 0.05) in REx from 9 to 2% and did not change in NoEx. 1 RM was reduced (P < 0.05) by 9% in NoEx but was unchanged in REx. MVC fell by 15 and 13% in NoEx and REx, respectively. The agonist-to-antagonist root mean squared electromyogram ratio decreased (P < 0.05) 19% in REx. RTD slowed (P < 0.05) by 54% in NoEx only. Results indicate that REx prevented BRU-induced myofiber atrophy and also maintained training-specific strength. Unlike spaceflight, BRU did not induce shifts in myosin phenotype. The reported benefits of REx may prove useful in prescribing exercise for astronauts in microgravity.
Morgan, Paul M; Salacinski, Amanda J; Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A
Flotation restricted environmental stimulation technique (REST) involves compromising senses of sound, sight, and touch by creating a quiet dark environment. The individual lies supine in a tank of Epsom salt and water heated to roughly skin temperature (34-35° C). This study was performed to determine if a 1-hour flotation REST session would aid in the recovery process after maximal eccentric knee extensions and flexions. Twenty-four untrained male students (23.29 ± 2.1 years, 184.17 ± 6.85 cm, 85.16 ± 11.54 kg) participated in a randomized, repeated measures crossover study. The participants completed 2 exercise and recovery protocols: a 1-hour flotation REST session and a 1-hour seated control (passive recovery). After isometric muscle strength testing, participants were fatigued with eccentric isokinetic muscle contractions (50 repetitions at 60°·s) of the nondominant knee extensors and flexors. Blood lactate, blood glucose, heart rate, OMNI-rating of perceived exertion for resistance exercise (OMNI-RPE), perceived pain, muscle soreness, and isometric strength were collected before exercise, after treatment, and 24 and 48 hours later. A multivariate analysis of covariance found that treatment had a significant main effect on blood lactate, whereas subsequent univariate analyses of variance found statistical significance with the immediate posttreatment blood lactate measures. The results indicate that flotation REST appears to have a significant impact on blood lactate and perceived pain compared with a 1-hour passive recovery session in untrained healthy men. No difference was found between conditions for muscle strength, blood glucose, muscle soreness, heart rate, or OMNI-RPE. Flotation REST may be used for recreational and professional athletes to help reduce blood lactate levels after eccentric exercise.
Bangsbo, J; Aagaard, T; Olsen, M; Kiens, B; Turcotte, L P; Richter, E A
1. The present study examined how uptake of lactate and H+ in resting muscle is affected by blood flow, arterial lactate concentration and muscle metabolism. 2. Six males subjects performed intermittent arm exercise in two separate 32 min periods (Part I and Part II) and in one subsequent 20 min period in which one leg knee-extensor exercise was also performed (Part III). The exercise was performed at various intensities in order to obtain different steady-state arterial blood lactate concentrations. In the inactive leg, femoral venous blood flow (draining about 7.7 kg of muscles) was measured and femoral arterial and venous blood was collected frequently. Biopsies were taken from m. vastus lateralis of the inactive leg at rest and 10 and 30 min into both Part I and Part II as well as 10 min into recovery from Part II. 3. The arterial plasma lactate concentrations were 7, 9 and 16 mmol l-1 after 10 min of Parts I, II and III, respectively, and the corresponding arterial-venous difference (a-vdiff) for lactate in the resting leg was 1.3, 1.4 and 2.0 mmol l-1. The muscle lactate concentration was 2.8 mmol (kg wet wt)-1 after 10 min of Part I and remained constant throughout the experiment. During Parts I and II, a-vdiff lactate decreased although the arterial lactate concentration and plasma-muscle lactate gradient were unaltered throughout each period. Thus, membrane transport of lactate decreased during each period. 4. Blood flow in the inactive leg was about 2-fold higher during arm exercise compared to the rest periods, resulting in a 2-fold higher lactate uptake. Thus, lactate uptake by inactive muscles was closely related to blood flow. 5. Throughout the experiment a-vdiff for actual base excess and for lactate were of similar magnitude. Thus, in inactive muscles lactate uptake appears to be coupled to the transport of H+. PMID:8568658
Farup, J; Rahbek, S K; Bjerre, J; de Paoli, F; Vissing, K
The present study investigated the changes in contractile rate of force development (RFD) and the neural drive following a single bout of eccentric exercise. Twenty-four subjects performed 15 × 10 maximal isokinetic eccentric knee extensor contractions. Prior to and at 24, 48, 72, 96, and 168 h during post-exercise recovery, isometric RFD (30, 50 100, and 200 ms), normalized RFD [1/6,1/2, and 2/3 of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)] and rate of electromyography rise (RER; 30, 50, and 75 ms) were measured. RFD decreased by 28-42% peaking at 48 h (P < 0.01-P < 0.001) and remained depressed at 168 h (P < 0.05). Normalized RFD at 2/3 of MVC decreased by 22-39% (P < 0.01), peaked at 72 h and returned to baseline at 168 h. These changes in RFD were associated with a decrease in RER at 48 h-96 h (P < 0.05-P < 0.001). Accumulated changes (area under curve) revealed a greater relative decrease in accumulated RFD at 100 ms by -2727 ± 309 (%h; P < 0.05) and 200 ms by -3035 ± 271 (%h; P < 0.001) compared with MVC, which decreased, by -1956 ± 234 (%h). In conclusion, RFD and RER are both markedly reduced following a bout of maximal eccentric exercise. This association suggests that exercise-induced decrements in RFD can, in part, be explained decrements in neural drive.
Dargeviciute, Gintare; Masiulis, Nerijus; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Skurvydas, Albertas; Westerblad, Håkan
We studied the relation between two common force modifications in skeletal muscle: the prolonged force depression induced by unaccustomed eccentric contractions, and the residual force depression (rFD) observed immediately after active shortening. We hypothesized that rFD originates from distortion within the sarcomeres and the extent of rFD: 1) correlates to the force and work performed during the shortening steps, which depend on sarcomeric integrity; and 2) is increased by sarcomeric disorganization induced by eccentric contractions. Nine healthy untrained men (mean age 26 yr) participated in the study. rFD was studied in electrically stimulated knee extensor muscles. rFD was defined as the reduction in isometric torque after active shortening compared with the torque in a purely isometric contraction. Eccentric contractions were performed as 50 repeated drop jumps with active deceleration to 90° knee angle, immediately followed by a maximal upward jump. rFD was assessed before and 5 min to 72 h after drop jumps. The series of drop jumps caused a prolonged force depression, which was about two times larger at 20-Hz than at 50-Hz stimulation. There was a significant correlation between increasing rFD and increasing mechanical work performed during active shortening both before and after drop jumps. In addition, a given rFD was obtained at a markedly lower mechanical work after drop jumps. In conclusion, the extent of rFD correlates to the mechanical work performed during active shortening. A series of eccentric contractions causes a prolonged reduction of isometric force. In addition, eccentric contractions exaggerate rFD, which further decreases muscle performance during dynamic contractions.
Harris-Love, Michael O.; Seamon, Bryant A.; Gonzales, Tomas I.; Hernandez, Haniel J.; Pennington, Donte; Hoover, Brian M.
The applied use of eccentric muscle actions for physical rehabilitation may utilize the framework of periodization. This approach may facilitate the safe introduction of eccentric exercise and appropriate management of the workload progression. The purpose of this data-driven Hypothesis and Theory paper is to present a periodization model for isokinetic eccentric strengthening of older adults in an outpatient rehabilitation setting. Exemplar and group data are used to describe the initial eccentric exercise prescription, structured familiarization procedures, workload progression algorithm, and feasibility of the exercise regimen. Twenty-four men (61.8 ± 6.3 years of age) completed a 12-week isokinetic eccentric strengthening regimen involving the knee extensors. Feasibility and safety of the regimen was evaluated using serial visual analog scale (VAS, 0–10) values for self-reported pain, and examining changes in the magnitude of mean eccentric power as a function of movement velocity. Motor learning associated with the familiarization sessions was characterized through torque-time curve analysis. Total work was analyzed to identify relative training plateaus or diminished exercise capacity during the progressive phase of the macrocycle. Variability in the mean repetition interval decreased from 68 to 12% during the familiarization phase of the macrocycle. The mean VAS values were 2.9 ± 2.7 at the start of the regimen and 2.6 ± 2.9 following 12 weeks of eccentric strength training. During the progressive phase of the macrocycle, exercise workload increased from 70% of the estimated eccentric peak torque to 141% and total work increased by 185% during this training phase. The slope of the total work performed across the progressive phase of the macrocycle ranged from −5.5 to 29.6, with the lowest slope values occurring during microcycles 8 and 11. Also, mean power generation increased by 25% when eccentric isokinetic velocity increased from 60 to 90° s−1
Harris-Love, Michael O; Seamon, Bryant A; Gonzales, Tomas I; Hernandez, Haniel J; Pennington, Donte; Hoover, Brian M
The applied use of eccentric muscle actions for physical rehabilitation may utilize the framework of periodization. This approach may facilitate the safe introduction of eccentric exercise and appropriate management of the workload progression. The purpose of this data-driven Hypothesis and Theory paper is to present a periodization model for isokinetic eccentric strengthening of older adults in an outpatient rehabilitation setting. Exemplar and group data are used to describe the initial eccentric exercise prescription, structured familiarization procedures, workload progression algorithm, and feasibility of the exercise regimen. Twenty-four men (61.8 ± 6.3 years of age) completed a 12-week isokinetic eccentric strengthening regimen involving the knee extensors. Feasibility and safety of the regimen was evaluated using serial visual analog scale (VAS, 0-10) values for self-reported pain, and examining changes in the magnitude of mean eccentric power as a function of movement velocity. Motor learning associated with the familiarization sessions was characterized through torque-time curve analysis. Total work was analyzed to identify relative training plateaus or diminished exercise capacity during the progressive phase of the macrocycle. Variability in the mean repetition interval decreased from 68 to 12% during the familiarization phase of the macrocycle. The mean VAS values were 2.9 ± 2.7 at the start of the regimen and 2.6 ± 2.9 following 12 weeks of eccentric strength training. During the progressive phase of the macrocycle, exercise workload increased from 70% of the estimated eccentric peak torque to 141% and total work increased by 185% during this training phase. The slope of the total work performed across the progressive phase of the macrocycle ranged from -5.5 to 29.6, with the lowest slope values occurring during microcycles 8 and 11. Also, mean power generation increased by 25% when eccentric isokinetic velocity increased from 60 to 90° s(-1) while
Gifford, Jayson R; Trinity, Joel D; Layec, Gwenael; Garten, Ryan S; Park, Song-Young; Rossman, Matthew J; Larsen, Steen; Dela, Flemming; Richardson, Russell S
This study sought to determine if qualitative alterations in skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration, associated with decreased mitochondrial efficiency, contribute to exercise intolerance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Using permeabilized muscle fibers from the vastus lateralis of 13 patients with COPD and 12 healthy controls, complex I (CI) and complex II (CII)-driven State 3 mitochondrial respiration were measured separately (State 3:CI and State 3:CII) and in combination (State 3:CI+CII). State 2 respiration was also measured. Exercise tolerance was assessed by knee extensor exercise (KE) time to fatigue. Per milligram of muscle, State 3:CI+CII and State 3:CI were reduced in COPD (P < 0.05), while State 3:CII and State 2 were not different between groups. To determine if this altered pattern of respiration represented qualitative changes in mitochondrial function, respiration states were examined as percentages of peak respiration (State 3:CI+CII), which revealed altered contributions from State 3:CI (Con 83.7 ± 3.4, COPD 72.1 ± 2.4%Peak, P < 0.05) and State 3:CII (Con 64.9 ± 3.2, COPD 79.5 ± 3.0%Peak, P < 0.05) respiration, but not State 2 respiration in COPD. Importantly, a diminished contribution of CI-driven respiration relative to the metabolically less-efficient CII-driven respiration (CI/CII) was also observed in COPD (Con 1.28 ± 0.09, COPD 0.81 ± 0.05, P < 0.05), which was related to exercise tolerance of the patients (r = 0.64, P < 0.05). Overall, this study indicates that COPD is associated with qualitative alterations in skeletal muscle mitochondria that affect the contribution of CI and CII-driven respiration, which potentially contributes to the exercise intolerance associated with this disease.
Krustrup, Peter; Secher, Niels H; Relu, Mihai U; Hellsten, Ylva; Söderlund, Karin; Bangsbo, Jens
We tested the hypothesis that a greater activation of fast-twitch (FT) fibres during dynamic exercise leads to a higher muscle oxygen uptake () and energy turnover as well as a slower muscle on-kinetics. Subjects performed one-legged knee-extensor exercise for 10 min at an intensity of 30 W without (CON) and with (CUR) arterial injections of the non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent cisatracurium. In CUR, creatine phosphate (CP) was unaltered in slow twitch (ST) fibres and decreased (P < 0.05) by 28% in FT fibres, whereas in CON, CP decreased (P < 0.05) by 33% and 23% in ST and FT fibres, respectively. From 127 s of exercise, muscle was higher (P < 0.05) in CUR compared to CON (425 ± 25 (±s.e.m.) versus 332 ± 30 ml min−1) and remained higher (P < 0.05) throughout exercise. Using monoexponential fitting, the time constant of the exercise-induced muscle response was slower (P < 0.05) in CUR than in CON (55 ± 6 versus 33 ± 5 s). During CUR and CON, muscle homogenate CP was lowered (P < 0.05) by 32 and 35%, respectively, and also muscle lactate production was similar in CUR and CON (37.8 ± 4.1 versus 35.2 ± 6.2 mmol). Estimated total muscle ATP turnover was 19% higher (P < 0.05) in CUR than in CON (1196 ± 90 versus 1011 ± 59 mmol) and true mechanical efficiency was lower (P < 0.05) in CUR than in CON (26.2 ± 2.0 versus 30.9 ± 1.5%). In conclusion, the present findings provide evidence that FT fibres are less efficient than ST fibres in vivo at a contraction frequency of 1 Hz, and that the muscle kinetics is slowed by FT fibre activation. PMID:18955384
Krustrup, Peter; Secher, Niels H; Relu, Mihai U; Hellsten, Ylva; Söderlund, Karin; Bangsbo, Jens
We tested the hypothesis that a greater activation of fast-twitch (FT) fibres during dynamic exercise leads to a higher muscle oxygen uptake (VO2 ) and energy turnover as well as a slower muscle on-kinetics. Subjects performed one-legged knee-extensor exercise for 10 min at an intensity of 30 W without (CON) and with (CUR) arterial injections of the non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent cisatracurium. In CUR, creatine phosphate (CP) was unaltered in slow twitch (ST) fibres and decreased (P < 0.05) by 28% in FT fibres, whereas in CON, CP decreased (P < 0.05) by 33% and 23% in ST and FT fibres, respectively. From 127 s of exercise, muscle VO2 was higher (P < 0.05) in CUR compared to CON (425 +/- 25 (+/- S.E.M.) versus 332 +/- 30 ml min(-1)) and remained higher (P < 0.05) throughout exercise. Using monoexponential fitting, the time constant of the exercise-induced muscle VO2 response was slower (P < 0.05) in CUR than in CON (55 +/- 6 versus 33 +/- 5 s). During CUR and CON, muscle homogenate CP was lowered (P < 0.05) by 32 and 35%, respectively, and also muscle lactate production was similar in CUR and CON (37.8 +/- 4.1 versus 35.2 +/- 6.2 mmol). Estimated total muscle ATP turnover was 19% higher (P < 0.05) in CUR than in CON (1196 +/- 90 versus 1011 +/- 59 mmol) and true mechanical efficiency was lower (P < 0.05) in CUR than in CON (26.2 +/- 2.0 versus 30.9 +/- 1.5%). In conclusion, the present findings provide evidence that FT fibres are less efficient than ST fibres in vivo at a contraction frequency of 1 Hz, and that the muscle VO2 kinetics is slowed by FT fibre activation.
Pehmøller, Christian; Brandt, Nina; Birk, Jesper B; Høeg, Louise D; Sjøberg, Kim A; Goodyear, Laurie J; Kiens, Bente; Richter, Erik A; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P
Excess lipid availability causes insulin resistance. We examined the effect of acute exercise on lipid-induced insulin resistance and TBC1 domain family member 1/4 (TBCD1/4)-related signaling in skeletal muscle. In eight healthy young male subjects, 1 h of one-legged knee-extensor exercise was followed by 7 h of saline or intralipid infusion. During the last 2 h, a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp was performed. Femoral catheterization and analysis of biopsy specimens enabled measurements of leg substrate balance and muscle signaling. Each subject underwent two experimental trials, differing only by saline or intralipid infusion. Glucose infusion rate and leg glucose uptake was decreased by intralipid. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was higher in the prior exercised leg in the saline and the lipid trials. In the lipid trial, prior exercise normalized insulin-stimulated glucose uptake to the level observed in the resting control leg in the saline trial. Insulin increased phosphorylation of TBC1D1/4. Whereas prior exercise enhanced TBC1D4 phosphorylation on all investigated sites compared with the rested leg, intralipid impaired TBC1D4 S341 phosphorylation compared with the control trial. Intralipid enhanced pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) phosphorylation and lactate release. Prior exercise led to higher PDH phosphorylation and activation of glycogen synthase compared with resting control. In conclusion, lipid-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle was associated with impaired TBC1D4 S341 and elevated PDH phosphorylation. The prophylactic effect of exercise on lipid-induced insulin resistance may involve augmented TBC1D4 signaling and glycogen synthase activation.
Chausow, Sharon A.; And Others
Metabolic and cardiovascular responses during 45 minutes of continuous moderate intensity exercise were investigated in 11 children, 8-11 years of age. Results indicate that children exhibit metabolic and cardiovascular adjustments similar to those noted in adults during prolonged exercise. (Author/JMK)
Wyatt, Frank; Pawar, Ganesh; Kilgore, Lon
The purpose of this study was to examine cardiac function following a 100-mile ride in high ambient temperatures by healthy, competitive cyclists. Methods: Subjects were six (n=6) competitive cyclists racing in a 100-mile road race. Measures (pre/post) included: body mass (kg); E:A ratio (ventricular compliance); stroke volume (ml); ejection…
Reihmane, Dace; Gram, Martin; Vigelsø, Andreas; Wulff Helge, Jørn; Dela, Flemming
Physical inactivity is a major contributor to low-grade systemic inflammation. Most of the studies characterizing interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) release from exercising legs have been done in young, healthy men, but studies on inactivity in older people are lacking. The impact of 14 days of one-leg immobilization (IM) on IL-6 and TNF-α release during exercise in comparison to the contralateral control (CON) leg was investigated. Fifteen healthy men (age 68.1 ± 1.1 year (mean ± SEM); BMI 27.0 ± 0.4 kg·m(2); VO2max 33.3 ± 1.6 ml·kg(‒1)·min(‒1)) performed 45 min of two-leg dynamic knee extensor exercise at 19.5 ± 0.9 W. Arterial and femoral venous blood samples from the CON and the IM legs were collected every 15 min during exercise, and thigh blood flow was measured with ultrasound Doppler. Arterial plasma IL-6 concentration increased with exercise (rest vs. 45 min, main effect p < .05). IL-6 release increased with exercise (rest vs. 30 min, main effect p < .05). Furthermore, IL-6 release was borderline (main effect, p = .085, effect size 0.28) higher in the IM leg compared to the CON leg (288 (95% CI: 213-373) vs. 220 (95% CI: 152-299) pg·min(‒1), respectively). There was no release of TNF-α in either leg and arterial concentrations remained unchanged during exercise (p > .05). In conclusion, exercise induces more pronounced IL-6 secretion in healthy older men. Two weeks of unilateral immobilization on the other hand had only a minor influence on IL-6 release. Neither immobilization nor exercise had an effect on TNF-α release across the working legs in older men.
Krustrup, Peter; González-Alonso, José; Quistorff, Bjørn; Bangsbo, Jens
The aim of the present study was to examine muscle heat production, oxygen uptake and anaerobic energy turnover throughout repeated intense exercise to test the hypotheses that (i) energy turnover is reduced when intense exercise is repeated and (ii) anaerobic energy production is diminished throughout repeated intense exercise. Five subjects performed three 3 min intense one-legged knee-extensor exercise bouts (EX1, EX2 and EX3) at a power output of 65 ± 5 W (mean ±s.e.m.), separated by 6 min rest periods. Muscle, femoral arterial and venous temperatures were measured continuously during exercise for the determination of muscle heat production. In addition, thigh blood flow was measured and femoral arterial and venous blood were sampled frequently during exercise for the determination of muscle oxygen uptake. Anaerobic energy turnover was estimated as the difference between total energy turnover and aerobic energy turnover. Prior to exercise, the temperature of the quadriceps muscle was passively elevated to 37.02 ± 0.12 °C and it increased 0.97 ± 0.08 °C during EX1, which was higher (P < 0.05) than during EX2 (0.79 ± 0.05 °C) and EX3 (0.77 ± 0.06 °C). In EX1 the rate of muscle heat accumulation was higher (P < 0.05) during the first 120 s compared to EX2 and EX3, whereas the rate of heat release to the blood was greater (P < 0.05) throughout EX2 and EX3 compared to EX1. The rate of heat production, determined as the sum of heat accumulation and release, was the same in EX1, EX2 and EX3, and it increased (P < 0.05) from 86 ± 8 during the first 15 s to 157 ± 7 J s−1 during the last 15 s of EX1. Oxygen extraction was higher during the first 60 s of EX2 and EX3 than in EX 1 and thigh oxygen uptake was elevated (P < 0.05) during the first 120 s of EX2 and throughout EX3 compared to EX1. The anaerobic energy production during the first 105 s of EX2 and 150 s of EX3 was lower (P < 0.05) than in EX1. The present study demonstrates that when intense exercise
MacLean, D A; Graham, T E; Saltin, B
1. This study examined the effects of a large (308 mg kg-1) oral dose of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) on muscle amino acid and ammonia (NH3) metabolism during 90 min of dynamic knee extensor exercise (64 +/- 2% of maximum workload). 2. BCAA supplementation resulted in a 4-fold increase in the arterial BCAA level (from 373 to 1537 microM, P < 0.05) and a 1.5-fold increase in the intramuscular BCAA level (from 3.4 +/- 0.2 to 5.2 +/- 0.5 mmol (kg dry weight)-1, P < 0.05) by the onset of exercise. Over the 90 min exercise period, the exercising muscle removed a total of 7104 +/- 2572 mumol kg-1 of BCAAs. In contrast, in the control trial, there was a total release of 588 +/- 86 mumol kg-1 (P < 0.05) of BCAAs. 3. The total release of NH3 over the 90 min exercise period was 2889 +/- 317 mumol kg-1 (P < 0.05) in the control trial and 4223 +/- 552 mumol kg-1 (P < 0.05) in the BCAA trial. Similarly, the total release of alanine and glutamine was 1557 +/- 153 and 2213 +/- 270 mumol kg-1, respectively, for the control trial and 2771 +/- 178 and 3476 +/- 217 mumol kg-1, respectively, for the BCAA trial. 4. The lactate release and arterial lactate values were all consistently lower in the BCAA trial than in the control trial. The net production of lactate (intramuscular shifts + total release) was lower (P < 0.05) in the BCAA trial (49.9 +/- 11.4 mmol kg-1) than in the control trial (64.0 +/- 11.7 mmol kg-1). 5. It is concluded that: (1) the administration of BCAAs can greatly increase their concentration in plasma and subsequently their uptake by muscle during exercise, and (2) long-term exercise following BCAA administration results in significantly greater muscle NH3, alanine and glutamine production, as well as lower lactate production, than is observed during exercise without BCAA supplementation. These data strongly suggest that BCAAs are an important source of NH3 during submaximal exercise and that their contribution to NH3, alanine and glutamine production can be
Croisier, J L; Camus, G; Deby-Dupont, G; Bertrand, F; Lhermerout, C; Crielaard, J M; Juchmès-Ferir, A; Deby, C; Albert, A; Lamy, M
To address the question of whether delayed onset muscular soreness (DOMS) following intense eccentric muscle contraction could be due to increased production of the arachidonic acid derived product prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). 10 healthy male subjects were submitted to eccentric and concentric isokinetic exercises on a Kin Trex device at 60 degrees/s angular velocity. Exercise consisted of 8 stages of 5 maximal contractions of the knee extensor and flexor muscle groups of both legs separated by 1 min rest phases. There was an interval of at least 30 days between eccentric and concentric testing, and the order of the two exercise sessions was randomly assigned. The subjective presence and intensity of DOMS was evaluated using a visual analogue scale, immediately, following 24 h and 48 h after each test. Five blood samples were drawn from an antecubital vein: at rest before exercise, immediately after, after 30 min recovery, 24 h and 48 h after the tests. The magnitude of the acute inflammatory response to exercise was assessed by measuring plasma levels of polymorphonuclear elastase ([EL]), myeloperoxidase ([MPO]) and PGE2 ([PGE2]). Using two way analysis of variance, it appeared that only eccentric exercise significantly increased [EL] and DOMS, especially of the hamstring muscles. Furthermore, a significant decrease in eccentric peak torque of this muscle group only was observed on day 2 after eccentric work (- 21%; P < 0.002). Serum activity of creatine kinase and serum concentration of myoglobin increased significantly 24 and 48 h after both exercise tests. However, these variables reached significantly higher values following eccentric contractions 48 h after exercise. Mean [PGE2] in the two exercise modes remained unchanged over time and were practically equal at each time point. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that the magnitude of polymorphonuclear (PMN) activation, muscle damage, and DOMS are greater after eccentric than after concentric muscle
Rossman, Matthew J; Garten, Ryan S; Venturelli, Massimo; Amann, Markus; Richardson, Russell S
Greater peripheral quadriceps fatigue at the voluntary termination of single-leg knee-extensor exercise (KE), compared with whole-body cycling, has been attributed to confining group III and IV skeletal muscle afferent feedback to a small muscle mass, enabling the central nervous system (CNS) to tolerate greater peripheral fatigue. However, as task specificity and vastly differing systemic challenges may have complicated this interpretation, eight males were studied during constant workload trials to exhaustion at 85% of peak workload during single-leg and double-leg KE. It was hypothesized that because of the smaller muscle mass engaged during single-leg KE, a greater magnitude of peripheral quadriceps fatigue would be present at exhaustion. Vastus lateralis integrated electromyogram (iEMG) signal relative to the first minute of exercise, preexercise to postexercise maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of the quadriceps, and twitch-force evoked by supramaximal magnetic femoral nerve stimulation (Qtw,pot) quantified peripheral quadriceps fatigue. Trials performed with single-leg KE (8.1 ± 1.2 min; 45 ± 4 W) resulted in significantly greater peripheral quadriceps fatigue than double-leg KE (10 ± 1.3 min; 83 ± 7 W), as documented by changes in the iEMG signal (147 ± 24 vs. 85 ± 13%), MVC (-25 ± 3 vs. -12 ± 3%), and Qtw,pot (-44 ± 6 vs. -33 ± 7%), for single-leg and double-leg KE, respectively. Therefore, avoiding concerns over task specificity and cardiorespiratory limitations, this study reveals that a reduction in muscle mass permits the development of greater peripheral muscle fatigue and supports the concept that the CNS tolerates a greater magnitude of peripheral fatigue when the source of group III/IV afferent feedback is limited to a small muscle mass.
Fahs, Christopher A; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Thiebaud, Robert S; Rossow, Lindy M; Kim, Daeyeol; Abe, Takashi; Beck, Travis W; Feeback, Daniel L; Bemben, Debra A; Bemben, Michael G
The purpose of this study was to determine the muscular adaptations to low-load resistance training performed to fatigue with and without blood flow restriction (BFR). Middle-aged (42-62 years) men (n = 12) and women (n = 6) completed 18 sessions of unilateral knee extensor resistance training to volitional fatigue over 6 weeks. One limb trained under BFR, and the contralateral limb trained without BFR [free flow (FF)]. Before and after the training, measures of anterior and lateral quadriceps muscle thickness (MTh), strength, power and endurance were assessed on each limb. The total exercise training volume was significantly greater for the FF limb compared with the BFR limb (P<0·001). Anterior quadriceps thickness and muscle function increased following the training in each limb with no differences between limbs. Lateral quadriceps MTh increased significantly more (P<0·05) in the limb trained under BFR (BFR: 3·50 ± 0·61 to 3·67 ± 0·62 cm; FF: 3·49 ± 0·73 to 3·56 ± 0·70 cm). Low-load resistance training to volitional fatigue both with and without BFR is viable options for improving muscle function in middle-aged individuals. However, BFR enhanced the hypertrophic effect of low-load training and reduced the volume of exercise needed to elicit increases in muscle function.
Hayter, Kane J.; Schumann, Moritz; Deakin, Glen B.
This study examined the effects of cold-water immersion (CWI) and cold air therapy (CAT) on maximal cycling performance (i.e. anaerobic power) and markers of muscle damage following a strength training session. Twenty endurance-trained but strength-untrained male (n = 10) and female (n = 10) participants were randomised into either: CWI (15 min in 14 °C water to iliac crest) or CAT (15 min in 14 °C air) immediately following strength training (i.e. 3 sets of leg press, leg extensions and leg curls at 6 repetition maximum, respectively). Creatine kinase, muscle soreness and fatigue, isometric knee extensor and flexor torque and cycling anaerobic power were measured prior to, immediately after and at 24 (T24), 48 (T48) and 72 (T72) h post-strength exercises. No significant differences were found between treatments for any of the measured variables (p > 0.05). However, trends suggested recovery was greater in CWI than CAT for cycling anaerobic power at T24 (10% ± 2%, ES = 0.90), T48 (8% ± 2%, ES = 0.64) and T72 (8% ± 7%, ES = 0.76). The findings suggest the combination of hydrostatic pressure and cold temperature may be favourable for recovery from strength training rather than cold temperature alone. PMID:27069791
Background Intracellular skeletal muscle water is redistributed into the extracellular compartment during periods of dehydration, suggesting an associated decline in muscle volume. The purpose of this study was to evaluate skeletal muscle volume in active (knee extensors (KE)) and less active (biceps/triceps brachii, deltoid) musculature following dehydration induced by exercise in heat. Methods Twelve participants (seven men, five women) cycled in the heat under two conditions: (1) dehydration (DHYD) resulting in 3% and 5% losses of estimated total body water (ETBW), which was assessed by changes in body mass, and (2) fluid replacement (FR) where 3% and 5% losses of ETBW were counteracted by intermittent (20 to 30 min) fluid ingestion via a carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage. During both conditions, serum osmolality and skeletal muscle volume (assessed by magnetic resonance imaging) were measured at baseline and at the 3% and 5% ETBW loss measurement points. Results In DHYD, serum osmolality increased at 3% (p = 0.005) and 5% (p < 0.001) ETBW losses, while FR decreased serum osmolality at the 5% loss of ETBW time point (p = 0.009). In DHYD, KE muscle volume declined from 1,464 ± 446 ml to 1,406 ± 425 ml (3.9%, p < 0.001) at 3% ETBW loss and to 1,378 ± 421 ml (5.9%, p < 0.001) at 5% ETBW loss. The largest decline in KE volume in DYHD occurred in the mid-belly (31 ml, p = 0.001) and proximal (24 ml, p = 0.001) regions of the grouped vasti muscles. There were no changes in volume for the biceps/triceps (p = 0.35) or deltoid (p = 0.92) during DHYD. FR prevented the loss of KE muscle volume at 3% (1,430 ± 435 ml, p = 0.074) and 5% (1,431 ± 439 ml, p = 0.156) ETBW loss time points compared to baseline (1,445 ± 436 ml). Conclusions Following exercise in the heat, the actively contracting muscles lost volume, while replacing lost fluids intermittently during exercise in heat prevented this decline
Antich, T J; Randall, C C; Westbrook, R A; Morrissey, M C; Brewster, C E
Results of physical therapy evaluation of 112 patients with extensor mechanism disorders (chondromalacia patella, infrapatellar tendinitis, and peripatellar pain) are presented. An equal number of male and female patients were evaluated and of the 73 patients with unilateral involvement (65%) there were equal numbers of right and left involved knees. Running was the activity most commonly associated with pain, followed by basketball and tennis. Stairclimbing was painful in 79% of the patients, with ascending being more painful than descending in patients reporting a clear-cut difference. Hamstring and quadriceps tightness was statistically significant relative to the uninvolved limb although clinically, negligible differences were measured. The inferior pole of the patella was the most tender site to palpation, followed by medial peripatellar structures, then lateral sites. Biomechanical malalignment was not detected by the attending therapist in the majority of patients. The authors emphasize careful assessment of flexibility, quadriceps (VMOIVL) imbalance, and biomechanical alignment in performing a thorough evaluation of patients with extensor mechanism disorders. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1986;8(5):248-254.
Dirnberger, Johannes; Wiesinger, Hans-Peter; Wiemer, Nicolas; Kösters, Alexander; Müller, Erich
The present study was conducted to assess test-retest reproducibility of explosive strength measurements during single-joint isometric knee extension using the IsoMed 2000 dynamometer. Thirty-one physically active male subjects (mean age: 23.7 years) were measured on two occasions separated by 48-72 h. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC 2,1) and the coefficient of variation (CV) were calculated for (i) maximum torque (MVC), (ii) the peak rate of torque development (RTDpeak) as well as for (iii) the average rate of torque development (RTD) and the impulse taken at several predefined time intervals (0-30 to 0-300 ms); thereby explosive strength variables were derived in two conceptually different versions: on the one hand from the MVC-trial (version I), on the other hand from the trial showing the RTDpeak (version II). High ICC-values (0.80-0.99) and acceptable CV-values (1.9-8.7%) could be found for MVC as well as for the RTD and the impulse taken at time intervals of ≥100 ms, regardless of whether version I or II was used. In contrast, measurements of the RTDpeak as well as the RTD and the impulse taken during the very early contraction phase (i.e. RTD/impulse0-30ms and RTD/impulse0-50ms) showed clearly weaker reproducibility results (ICC: 0.53-0.84; CV: 7.3-16.4%) and gave rise to considerable doubts as to clinical usefulness, especially when derived using version I. However, if there is a need to measure explosive strength for earlier time intervals in practice, it is, in view of stronger reproducibility results, recommended to concentrate on measures derived from version II, which is based on the RTDpeak-trial.
Miller, Larry E.; Pierson, Lee M.; Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M.; Wootten, David F.; Selmon, Serah E.; Ramp, Warren K.; Herbert, William G.
This study assessed muscular torque and rate of torque development following concentric (CON) or eccentric (ECC) isokinetic training. Thirty-eight women were randomly assigned to either CON or ECC training groups. Training consisted of knee extension and flexion of the nondominant leg three times per week for 20 weeks (SD = 1). Eccentric training…
Arguello Frutos, Carlos Francisco; Arbix Camargo, Osmar Pedro; Severino, Nilson Roberto; Leite Cury, Ricardo de Paula; de Oliveira, Victor Marques; Aihara, Tatsuo; Avakian, Roger
To evaluate results obtained using the protection device technique for osteosintesis or suture of extensor mechanism lesions. Material and Methods: The authors reviewed 18 charts of patients submitted to protection device technique due to traumatic lesion of extensor mechanism that had occurred between the anterior tibial tuberosity and the apical portion of patella. Age ranged from 22 to 69 years, with a mean of 44 years. Male patients prevailed, with 67% of the cases. The most affected spot was, in 83% of the cases, the apical distal third. A protocol was created to collect data, listing the patients and the clinical history from their medical records. Results: The authors observed consolidation of the patella fracture in all 17 patients, and cicatrization of the patellar ligament in one patient. Pain was described in four patients. There were no complications related to the procedure. Conclusion: The protection device showed to be efficient when used in surgical treatment of lesions between the apical patella and the anterior tibial tuberosity, providing active and passive mobility in the early postoperative time. PMID:26998454
Albuquerque, Rodrigo Pires; Giordano, Vincenzo; Albuquerque, Maria Isabel Pires; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Pires; do Amaral, Ney Pecegueiro; Barretto, João Maurício
Unilateral tearing of a patellar tendon and a contralateral sleeve fracture in a pre-adolescent are rare lesions. We report a case in which a pre-adolescent sustained a fall while jumping during a soccer match. No predisposing risk factors were identified. The injuries were treated with surgical repairs and transosseous suturing. The aim of this study was to present a case of spontaneous concurrent tearing of the extensor mechanism of the knee in a pre-adolescent. PMID:27047882
Protection of total body water content and absence of hyperthermia despite 2% body mass loss ('voluntary dehydration') in soldiers drinking ad libitum during prolonged exercise in cool environmental conditions.
Nolte, Heinrich W; Noakes, Timothy D; van Vuuren, Bernard
The extent to which humans need to replace fluid losses during exercise remains contentious despite years of focused research. The primary objective was to evaluate ad libitum drinking on hydration status to determine whether body mass loss can be used as an accurate surrogate for changes in total body water (TBW) during exercise. Data were collected during a 14.6-km route march (wet bulb globe temperature of 14.1°C ). 18 subjects with an average age of 26 ± 2.5 (SD) years participated. Their mean ad libitum total fluid intake was 2.1 ± 1.4 litres during the exercise. Predicted sweat rate was 1.289 ± 0.530 l/h. There were no significant changes (p>0.05) in TBW, urine specific gravity or urine osmolality despite an average body mass loss (p<0.05) of 1.3 ± 0.45 kg during the march. Core temperature rose as a function of marching speed and was unrelated to the % change in body mass. This suggests that changes in mass do not accurately predict changes in TBW (r=-0.16) because either the body mass loss during exercise includes losses other than water or there is an endogenous body water source that is released during exercise not requiring replacement during exercise, or both. Ad libitum water replacement between 65% and 70% of sweat losses maintained safe levels of hydration during the experiment. The finding that TBW was protected by ad libitum drinking despite approximately 2% body mass loss suggests that the concept of 'voluntary dehydration' may require revision.
Kuennen, M.; Gourley, C.; Schneider, S.; Dokladny, K.; Moseley, P.
Introduction Prolonged exercise may compromise immunity through a reduction of salivary antimicrobial proteins (AMPs). Salivary IgA (IgA) has been extensively studied, but little is known about the effect of acute, prolonged exercise on AMPs including lysozyme (Lys) and lactoferrin (Lac). Objective To determine the effect of a 50-km trail race on salivary cortisol (Cort), IgA, Lys, and Lac. Methods 14 subjects: (6 females, 8 males) completed a 50km ultramarathon. Saliva was collected pre, immediately after (post) and 1.5 hrs post race (+1.5). Results Lac concentration was higher at +1.5 hrs post race compared to post exercise (p < 0.05). Lys was unaffected by the race (p > 0.05). IgA concentration, secretion rate, and IgA/Osm were lower +1.5 hrs post compared to pre race (p < 0.05). Cort concentration was higher at post compared to +1.5 (p < 0.05), but was unaltered from pre race levels. Subjects finished in 7.81±1.2 hrs. Saliva flow rate did not differ between time points. Saliva Osm increased at post (p < 0.05) compared to pre race. Conclusions The intensity could have been too low to alter Lys and Lac secretion rates and thus, may not be as sensitive as IgA to changes in response to prolonged running. Results expand our understanding of the mucosal immune system and may have implications for predicting illness after prolonged running. PMID:24744458
Behringer, Michael; Jedlicka, Diana; McCourt, Molly; Ring, Matthias; Mester, Joachim
Summary Background Recovery from exercise and competition is important in sports medicine, particularly when rest periods are short. The objective is to determine the efficacy of cryo exposition (CRY) and manual lymphatic drainage (MLD) to hasten short term recovery of muscle performance after eccentric contractions. Methods In a randomized controlled trial, 30 healthy sport students (21 males, 9 females; age: 25.7±2.8 years) performed 4×20 eccentric contractions of knee extensors, followed by 30 min MLD, CRY, or rest (RST) under controlled laboratory environment. Maximal voluntary contractions (MVC), electrically induced muscle fatigue (FI), and electrically induced tetani (EIT) at low (T2: 20 Hz) and high frequencies were tested. Results Force decline and recovery kinetics regarding MVC, FI, and EIT did not differ significantly (p<0.05) between groups. That is, 24 h after the intervention, MVC (MLD: 80.9±5.5%; CRY: 81.1±8.5%; RST: 83.5±7.3%), FI (MLD: 83.2±23.7%; CRY: 81.2±38.8%; RST: 93.2±22.9%), and EIT (T1: MLD: 53.0±29.5%; CRY: 39.0±32.9%; RST: 46.3±26.1%; T2: MLD: 84.2±27.2%; CRY: 64.2±24.2%; RST: 66.6±22.3%) were similarly depressed irrespective of applied treatments. Conclusion Neither CRY nor MLD hastened the recovery of muscle performance, when applied for 30 min. Identification number of the Primary Registry Network: DRKS00007608. PMID:27900297
Galen, Sujay S; Malek, Moh H
Two different protocols for estimating the electromyographic fatigue threshold (EMGFT) have been proposed in the literature. These protocols are distinguished by the number of visits required to determine the EMGFT. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to statistically compare the estimated EMGFT from the single-visit incremental test and the multiple-visit constant workload tests for single-leg knee-extensor exercise. Seven healthy college-aged men [mean ± SEM; age = 25.0 ± 0.7 years] performed the incremental test and on separate occasions also performed 4 constant workload tests to voluntary exhaustion. The EMG amplitude was recorded from the rectus femoris muscle during all the testing sessions. For the single-visit test, the EMG amplitude vs. time relationship for each power output was examined using linear regression. For the multiple-visit tests, the EMG amplitude vs. time relationship was calculated for each constant power output. Thereafter, the power outputs were plotted as a function of the slope coefficient for the EMG amplitude vs. time relationships, and linear regression was performed. The EMGFT was defined as the intersection of the regression line with the y-intercept of the power output vs. slope coefficient plot. The results indicated that the estimated EMGFT from the single-visit test was significantly (p = 0.012) lower than the estimate from the multiple-visit tests. Because this test is performed during a single visit and concludes within 20 minutes, it may also have application in clinical rehabilitation settings and not merely for an athletic population.
Duffield, Rob; Cannon, Jack; King, Monique
This study compared the effects of compression garments on recovery of evoked and voluntary performance following fatiguing exercise. Eleven participants performed 2 sessions separated by 7 days, with and without lower-body compression garments during and 24h post-exercise. Participants performed a 10-min exercise protocol of a 20-m sprint and 10 plyometric bounds every minute. Before, following, 2h and 24h post-exercise, evoked twitch properties of the knee extensors, peak concentric knee extension and flexion force were assessed, with blood samples drawn to measure lactate [La(-)], pH, creatine kinase (CK), aspartate transaminase (AST) and c-reactive protein (C-RP). Heart rate, exertion (RPE) and muscle soreness (MS) measures were obtained pre- and post-exercise. No differences (P=0.50-0.80) and small effect sizes (d<0.3) were present for 20-m sprint (3.59+/-0.22 vs. 3.59+/-0.18s) or bounding performance (17.13+/-1.4 vs. 17.21+/-1.7 m) in garment and control conditions. The decline and recovery in concentric force were not different (P=0.40) between conditions. Full recovery of voluntary performance was observed 2h post-exercise, however, evoked twitch properties remained suppressed 2h post-exercise in both conditions. No differences (P=0.40-0.80, d<0.3) were present between conditions for heart rate, RPE, [La(-)], pH, CK or C-RP. However, 24h post-exercise a smaller change (P=0.08; d=2.5) in AST (23.1+/-3.1 vs. 26.0+/-4.0) and reduced (P=0.01; d=1.1) MS (2.8+/-1.2 vs. 4.5+/-1.4) were present in the garments. In conclusion the effects of compression garments on voluntary performance and recovery were minimal; however, reduced levels of perceived MS were reported following recovery in the garments.
Krustrup, Peter; Ferguson, Richard A; Kjær, Michael; Bangsbo, Jens
The aim of the present study was to simultaneously examine skeletal muscle heat production and ATP turnover in humans during dynamic exercise with marked differences in aerobic metabolism. This was done to test the hypothesis that efficiency is higher in anaerobic than aerobic ATP resynthesis. Six healthy male subjects performed 90 s of low intensity knee-extensor exercise with (OCC) and without thigh occlusion (CON-LI) as well as 90 s of high intensity exercise (CON-HI) that continued from the CON-LI bout. Muscle heat production was determined by continuous measurements of muscle heat accumulation and heat release to the blood. Muscle ATP production was quantified by repeated measurements of thigh oxygen uptake as well as blood and muscle metabolite changes. All temperatures of the thigh were equalized to ≈37 °C prior to exercise by a water-perfused heating cuff. Oxygen uptake accounted for 80 ± 2 and 59 ± 4 %, respectively, of the total ATP resynthesis in CON-LI and CON-HI, whereas it was negligible in OCC. The rise in muscle temperature was lower (P < 0.05) in OCC than CON-LI (0.32 ± 0.04 vs. 0.37 ± 0.03 °C). The mean rate of heat production was also lower (P < 0.05) in OCC than CON-LI (36 ± 4 vs. 57 ± 4 J s−1). Mechanical efficiency was 52 ± 4 % after 15 s of OCC and remained constant, whereas it decreased (P < 0.05) from 56 ± 5 to 32 ± 3 % during CON-LI. During CON-HI, mechanical efficiency transiently increased (P < 0.05) to 47 ± 4 %, after which it decreased (P < 0.05) to 36 ± 3 % at the end of CON-HI. Assuming a fully coupled mitochondrial respiration, the ATP turnover per unit of work was calculated to be unaltered during OCC (≈20 mmol ATP kJ−1), whereas it increased (P < 0.05) from 21 ± 4 to 29 ± 3 mmol ATP kJ−1 during CON-LI and further (P < 0.05) to 37 ± 3 mmol ATP kJ−1 during CON-HI. The present data confirm the hypothesis that heat loss is lower in anaerobic ATP resynthesis than in oxidative phosphorylation and can in part
Filatova, L. M.; Anashkin, O. D.
Changes in the coagulating system of the blood were studied in six subjects during prolonged hypokinesia. Thrombogenic properties of the blood rose in all cases on the 8th day. These changes are explained by stress reaction due to unusual conditions for a healthy person. Changes in the blood coagulating system in the group subjected to physical exercise and without it ran a practically parallel course. Apparently physical exercise is insufficient to prevent such changes that appear in the coagulating system of the blood during prolonged hypokinesia.
Chiesa, Scott T.; Trangmar, Steven J.; Kalsi, Kameljit K.; Rakobowchuk, Mark; Banker, Devendar S.; Lotlikar, Makrand D.; Ali, Leena
Limb tissue and systemic blood flow increases with heat stress, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we tested the hypothesis that heat stress-induced increases in limb tissue perfusion are primarily mediated by local temperature-sensitive mechanisms. Leg and systemic temperatures and hemodynamics were measured at rest and during incremental single-legged knee extensor exercise in 15 males exposed to 1 h of either systemic passive heat-stress with simultaneous cooling of a single leg (n = 8) or isolated leg heating or cooling (n = 7). Systemic heat stress increased core, skin and heated leg blood temperatures (Tb), cardiac output, and heated leg blood flow (LBF; 0.6 ± 0.1 l/min; P < 0.05). In the cooled leg, however, LBF remained unchanged throughout (P > 0.05). Increased heated leg deep tissue blood flow was closely related to Tb (R2 = 0.50; P < 0.01), which is partly attributed to increases in tissue V̇O2 (R2 = 0.55; P < 0.01) accompanying elevations in total leg glucose uptake (P < 0.05). During isolated limb heating and cooling, LBFs were equivalent to those found during systemic heat stress (P > 0.05), despite unchanged systemic temperatures and hemodynamics. During incremental exercise, heated LBF was consistently maintained ∼0.6 l/min higher than that in the cooled leg (P < 0.01), with LBF and vascular conductance in both legs showing a strong correlation with their respective local Tb (R2 = 0.85 and 0.95, P < 0.05). We conclude that local temperature-sensitive mechanisms are important mediators in limb tissue perfusion regulation both at rest and during small-muscle mass exercise in hyperthermic humans. PMID:25934093
Mortensen, Stefan P; González-Alonso, José; Damsgaard, Rasmus; Saltin, Bengt; Hellsten, Ylva
Prostaglandins, nitric oxide (NO) and endothelial-derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs) are substances that have been proposed to be involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow during physical activity. We measured haemodynamics, plasma ATP at rest and during one-legged knee-extensor exercise (19 +/- 1 W) in nine healthy subjects with and without intra-arterial infusion of indomethacin (Indo; 621 +/- 17 microg min(-1)), Indo + N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA; 12.4 +/- 0.3 mg min(-1)) (double blockade) and Indo + L-NMMA + tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA; 12.4 +/- 0.3 mg min(-1)) (triple blockade). Double and triple blockade lowered leg blood flow (LBF) at rest (P<0.05), while it remained unchanged with Indo. During exercise, LBF and vascular conductance were 2.54 +/- 0.10 l min(-1) and 25 +/- 1 mmHg, respectively, in control and they were lower with double (33 +/- 3 and 36 +/- 4%, respectively) and triple (26 +/- 4 and 28 +/- 3%, respectively) blockade (P<0.05), while there was no difference with Indo. The lower LBF and vascular conductance with double and triple blockade occurred in parallel with a lower O(2) delivery, cardiac output, heart rate and plasma [noradrenaline] (P<0.05), while blood pressure remained unchanged and O(2) extraction and femoral venous plasma [ATP] increased. Despite the increased O(2) extraction, leg was 13 and 17% (triple and double blockade, respectively) lower than control in parallel to a lower femoral venous temperature and lactate release (P<0.05). These results suggest that NO and prostaglandins play important roles in skeletal muscle blood flow regulation during moderate intensity exercise and that EDHFs do not compensate for the impaired formation of NO and prostaglandins. Moreover, inhibition of NO and prostaglandin formation is associated with a lower aerobic energy turnover and increased concentration of vasoactive ATP in plasma.
Li, Shunchang; Laher, Ismail
Sedentary lifestyles, limited physical exercise, and prolonged inactivity undoubtedly increase chronic diseases, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. It is widely acknowledged that exercise induces a number of physiological adaptations that have beneficial effects in the prevention and treatment of these chronic metabolic diseases. Unfortunately, exercise compliance is extremely low and often not possible. The development of exercise science and molecular techniques has increased our understanding of the molecular pathways responsive to exercise. Knowledge of these molecular targets has led to the development of chemical interventions that can mimic the beneficial effects of exercise without requiring actual muscle activity. This review focuses on the concept of 'exercise pills' and how they mimic the effects produced by physical exercise including oxidative fiber-type transformation, mitochondrial biogenesis, increased fat oxidation, angiogenesis, and improvement of exercise capacity. We also review candidate exercise pills, and contrast the beneficial effects and molecular mechanisms between physical exercise and exercise pills.
Paleckis, Vidas; Mickevičius, Mantas; Snieckus, Audrius; Streckis, Vytautas; Pääsuke, Mati; Rutkauskas, Saulius; Steponavičiūtė, Rasa; Skurvydas, Albertas; Kamandulis, Sigitas
The aim of this study was to assess changes in indirect markers of muscle damage and type I collagen degradation, as well as, patellar and Achilles tendon morphological differences during nine daily drop-jumps sessions with constant load alternated with rapid increases in load to test the hypothesis that frequent drop-jump training results in negative muscular and tendon adaptation. Young men (n = 9) performed daily drop jump workouts with progression every 3 days in terms of number of jumps, platform height and squat amplitude. Voluntary and electrically evoked knee extensor torque, muscle soreness, blood plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity and carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide (ICTP), patellar and Achilles tendon thickness and cross-sectional area (CSA) were assessed at different time points during the training period and again on days 1, 3, 10 and 17 after the training. The findings were as follows: (1) steady decline in maximal muscle strength with major recovery within 24 hours after the first six daily training sessions; (2) larger decline in electrically induced muscle torque and prolonged recovery during last three training sessions; (3) increase in patellar and Achilles tendons CSA without change in thickness towards the end of training period; (4) increase in jump height but not in muscle strength after whole training period. Our findings suggest that frequent drop-jump sessions with constant load alternated with rapid increases in load do not induce severe muscle damage or major changes in tendons, nonetheless, this type of loading is not advisable for muscle strength improvement. Key points Frequent drop jump training induces activation mode dependent muscle torque depression late in the training period. No significant changes in the thickness of patellar and Achilles tendons are observed during frequent training, while CSA increases towards the end of training period. Longitudinal effect for jump height but not for muscle strength is evident
Croisier, J-L.; Monfils, T.; Deby-Dupon, G.; Fafchamps, M.; Venneman, I.; Crielaard, J-M.; Juchmès-Ferir, A.; Lhermerout, C.; Lamy, M.; Deby, C.
To test the hypothesis that delayed onset muscular soreness (DOMS) following intense eccentric muscle contraction could be due to increased production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), ten healthy male subjects were studied. Using a double-blind randomized crossover design, each subject performed two isokinetic tests separated by a period of at least 6 weeks: once with placebo, and once with piroxicam (Feldene®). They were given one capsule containing either placebo or piroxicam (20 mg) per day for 6 days with initial doses given starting 3 days prior to isokinetic testing. Exercise consisted of eight stages of five maximal contractions of the knee extensor and flexor muscle groups of both legs separated by 1 min rest phases, on a Kin Trex device at 60°/s angular velocity. The subjective presence and intensity of DOMS were evaluated using a visual analogue scale immediately after, and 24 and 48 h after each test. The mean plasma concentration of PGE2 measured at rest and after exercise was significantly lower in the group treated with piroxicam (p < 0.05). However, statistical analysis (two-way ANOVA test) revealed that exercise did not cause any significant change of mean plasma PGE2 over time in either of the two groups. Eccentric work was followed by severe muscle pain in extensor and flexor muscle groups. Maximal soreness was noted 48 h postexercise. Serum creatine kinase activity and the serum concentration of myoglobin increased significantly, and reached peak values 48 h after exercise in both experimental conditions (p < 0.001). By paired t-test, it appeared that there were no significant differences in the serum levels of these two markers of muscle damage between the two groups at any time point. We conclude that: (1) oral administration of piroxicam fails to reduce muscle damage and DOMS caused by strenuous eccentric exercise; and (2) the hypothetical role of increased PGE2 production in eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage, DOMS, and reduced isokinetic
Mortensen, S P; Mørkeberg, J; Thaning, P; Hellsten, Y; Saltin, B
During exercise, contracting muscles can override sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity (functional sympatholysis). ATP and adenosine have been proposed to play a role in skeletal muscle blood flow regulation. However, little is known about the role of muscle training status on functional sympatholysis and ATP- and adenosine-induced vasodilation. Eight male subjects (22 ± 2 yr, Vo(2max): 49 ± 2 ml O(2)·min(-1)·kg(-1)) were studied before and after 5 wk of one-legged knee-extensor training (3-4 times/wk) and 2 wk of immobilization of the other leg. Leg hemodynamics were measured at rest, during exercise (24 ± 4 watts), and during arterial ATP (0.94 ± 0.03 μmol/min) and adenosine (5.61 ± 0.03 μmol/min) infusion with and without coinfusion of tyramine (11.11 μmol/min). During exercise, leg blood flow (LBF) was lower in the trained leg (2.5 ± 0.1 l/min) compared with the control leg (2.6 ± 0.2 l/min; P < 0.05), and it was higher in the immobilized leg (2.9 ± 0.2 l/min; P < 0.05). Tyramine infusion lowers LBF similarly at rest, but, when tyramine was infused during exercise, LBF was blunted in the immobilized leg (2.5 ± 0.2 l/min; P < 0.05), whereas it was unchanged in the control and trained leg. Mean arterial pressure was lower during exercise with the trained leg compared with the immobilized leg (P < 0.05), and leg vascular conductance was similar. During ATP infusion, the LBF response was higher after immobilization (3.9 ± 0.3 and 4.5 ± 0.6 l/min in the control and immobilized leg, respectively; P < 0.05), whereas it did not change after training. When tyramine was coinfused with ATP, LBF was reduced in the immobilized leg (P < 0.05) but remained similar in the control and trained leg. Training increased skeletal muscle P2Y2 receptor content (P < 0.05), whereas it did not change with immobilization. These results suggest that muscle inactivity impairs functional sympatholysis and that the magnitude of hyperemia and blood pressure response to exercise
Hyldahl, Robert D.; Olson, Ty; Welling, Tyson; Groscost, Logan; Parcell, Allen C.
Optimal repair and adaptation of skeletal muscle is facilitated by resident stem cells (satellite cells). To understand how different exercise modes influence satellite cell dynamics, we measured satellite cell activity in conjunction with markers of muscle damage and inflammation in human skeletal muscle following a single work- and intensity-matched bout of eccentric (ECC) or concentric contractions (CON). Participants completed a single bout of ECC (n = 7) or CON (n = 7) of the knee extensors. A muscle biopsy was obtained before and 24 h after exercise. Functional measures and immunohistochemical analyses were used to determine the extent of muscle damage and indices of satellite cell activity. Cytokine concentrations were measured using a multiplexed magnetic bead assay. Isokinetic peak torque decreased following ECC (p < 0.05) but not CON. Greater histological staining of the damage marker Xin was observed in muscle samples of ECC vs. CON. Tenasin C immunoreactivity increased 15 fold (p < 0.01) following ECC and was unchanged following CON. The inflammatory cytokines interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) increased pre- to post-ECC (4.26 ± 1.4 vs. 10.49 ± 5.8 pg/ml, and 3.06 ± 0.7 vs. 6.25 ± 4.6 pg/ml, respectively; p < 0.05). There was no change in any cytokine post-CON. Satellite cell content increased 27% pre- to post-ECC (0.10 ± 0.031 vs. 0.127 ± 0.041, respectively; p < 0.05). There was no change in satellite cell number in CON (0.099 ± 0.027 vs. 0.102 ± 0.029, respectively). There was no fiber type-specific satellite cell response following either exercise mode. ECC but not CON resulted in an increase in MyoD positive nuclei per myofiber pre- to post-exercise (p < 0.05), but there was no change in MyoD DNA binding activity in either condition. In conclusion, ECC but not CON results in functional and histological evidence of muscle damage that is accompanied by increased satellite cell activity 24 h
Backhouse, Susan H; Biddle, Stuart J H; Bishop, Nicolette C; Williams, Clyde
Caffeine's metabolic and performance effects have been widely reported. However, caffeine's effects on affective states during prolonged exercise are unknown. Therefore, this was examined in the present study. Following an overnight fast and in a randomised, double-blind, counterbalanced design, twelve endurance trained male cyclists performed 90 min of exercise at 70% VO(₂ max) 1h after ingesting 6 mg kg⁻¹ BM of caffeine (CAF) or placebo (PLA). Dimensions of affect and perceived exertion were assessed at regular intervals. During exercise, pleasure ratings were better maintained (F(₃,₃₈)=4.99, P < 0.05) in the CAF trial compared to the PLA trial with significantly higher ratings at 15, 30 and 75 min (all P < 0.05). Perceived exertion increased (F(₃,₃₈) = 19.86, P < 0.01) throughout exercise and values, overall, were significantly lower (F(₁,₁₁) = 9.26, P < 0.05) in the CAF trial compared to the PLA trial. Perceived arousal was elevated during exercise but did not differ between trials. Overall, the results suggest that a moderate dose of CAF ingested 1h prior to exercise maintains a more positive subjective experience during prolonged cycling. This observation may partially explain caffeine's ergogenic effects.
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Legault, Zachary; Bagnall, Nicholas; Kimmerly, Derek S
The study aimed to examine the effects that L-glutamine supplementation has on quadriceps muscle strength and soreness ratings following eccentric exercise. It was hypothesized that glutamine ingestion would quicken the recovery rate of peak force production and decrease muscle soreness ratings over a 72-hr recovery period. Sixteen healthy participants (8♀/8♂; 22 ± 4 years) volunteered in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study. Supplement conditions consisted of isoenergetic placebo (maltodextrin, 0.6 g·kg-1·day-1) and L-glutamine (0.3 g·kg-1·day-1 + 0.3 g·kg-1·day-1 maltodextrin) ingestion once per day over 72 hr. Knee extensor peak torque at 0°, 30°, and 180° per second and muscle soreness were measured before, immediately following, 24, 48, and 72 hr posteccentric exercise. Eccentric exercise consisted of 8 sets (10 repetitions/set) of unilateral knee extension at 125% maximum concentric force with 2-min rest intervals. L-glutamine resulted in greater relative peak torque at 180°/sec both immediately after (71 ± 8% vs. 66 ± 9%), and 72 hr (91 ± 8% vs. 86 ± 7%) postexercise (all, p < .01). In men, L-glutamine produced greater (p < .01) peak torques at 30°/ sec postexercise. Men also produced greater normalized peak torques at 30°/sec (Nm/kg) in the L-glutamine condition than women (all, p < .05). In the entire sample, L-glutamine resulted in lower soreness ratings at 24 (2.8 ± 1.2 vs. 3.4 ± 1.2), 48 (2.6 ± 1.4 vs. 3.9 ± 1.2), and 72 (1.7 ± 1.2 vs. 2.9 ± 1.3) hr postexercise (p < .01). The L-glutamine supplementation resulted in faster recovery of peak torque and diminished muscle soreness following eccentric exercise. The effect of L-glutamine on muscle force recovery may be greater in men than women.
Tsai, Y-J; Hsue, B-J; Lin, C-J; Su, F-C
The current study aimed to investigate the stair-climbing biomechanics related to the lower extremities when subjects used the novel designed stair-climber, which could provide opportunity for both sagittal and frontal movements. 12 volunteers were required to step while either keeping the trunk static (STATIC) or allowing the trunk to shift with weight bearing (SHIFT). A motion analysis system and the 6-axis force and torque sensor embedded in the pedal were used to collect data. Foot contact forces and joint moments were calculated to represent loading characteristics. The joint angle and corresponding moments at the terminal point of the stance phase were computed to serve as the indicator of safety. Significant differences were found in peak foot contact forces, knee extensor moment, and hip abductor moment. At the end of the stance phase, various directions of moment between conditions were found in the knee and the ankle. The knee valgus angle, hip abductor moment, and knee extensor moment were significantly greater in SHIFT than in STATIC. The various stepping strategies caused differences in joint loading characteristics; therefore, these findings need to be given greater consideration in the design of training protocols.
Durand, Matthew J.; Murphy, Spencer A.; Schaefer, Kathleen K.; Hunter, Sandra K.; Schmit, Brian D.; Gutterman, David D.; Hyngstrom, Allison S.
Individuals with chronic stroke have reduced perfusion of the paretic lower limb at rest; however, the hyperemic response to graded muscle contractions in this patient population has not been examined. This study quantified blood flow to the paretic and non-paretic lower limbs of subjects with chronic stroke after submaximal contractions of the knee extensor muscles and correlated those measures with limb function and activity. Ten subjects with chronic stroke and ten controls had blood flow through the superficial femoral artery quantified with ultrasonography before and immediately after 10 second contractions of the knee extensor muscles at 20, 40, 60, and 80% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the test limb. Blood flow to the paretic and non-paretic limb of stroke subjects was significantly reduced at all load levels compared to control subjects even after normalization to lean muscle mass. Of variables measured, increased blood flow after an 80% MVC was the single best predictor of paretic limb strength, the symmetry of strength between the paretic and non-paretic limbs, coordination of the paretic limb, and physical activity. The impaired hemodynamic response to high intensity contractions was a better predictor of lower limb function than resting perfusion measures. Stroke-dependent weakness and atrophy of the paretic limb do not explain the reduced hyperemic response to muscle contraction alone as the response is similarly reduced in the non-paretic limb when compared to controls. These data may suggest a role for perfusion therapies to optimize rehabilitation post stroke. PMID:26630380
Greenleaf, John E.; Bernauer, Edmund M.
Pair of reports adds to growing body of knowledge of physical deconditioning caused by prolonged bed rest and effectiveness of various exercise regimens in preserving or restoring fitness. Major objective to determine what regimens to prescribe to astronauts before flight, during prolonged weightlessness, and immediately before returning to Earth. Knowledge also benefits patients confined by illness or injury. First report discusses experiment on effects of two types of periodic, intense, short-duration exercise during bed rest. Experiment also discussed in documents "Effects Of Exercise During Prolonged Bed Rest" (ARC-12190), and "Isotonic And Isokinetic Exercise During Bed Rest" (ARC-12180). Second report reviews knowledge acquired with view toward development of protocols for exercise regimens.
van Loon, Luc J C
Dietary protein ingestion following exercise increases muscle protein synthesis rates, stimulates net muscle protein accretion, and facilitates the skeletal muscle adaptive response to prolonged exercise training. Furthermore, recent studies show that protein ingestion before and during exercise also increases muscle protein synthesis rates during resistance- and endurance-type exercise. Therefore, protein ingestion before and during prolonged exercise may represent an effective dietary strategy to enhance the skeletal muscle adaptive response to each exercise session by extending the window of opportunity during which the muscle protein synthetic response is facilitated. Protein ingestion during exercise has also been suggested to improve performance capacity acutely. However, recent studies investigating the impact of protein ingestion during exercise on time trial performance, as opposed to time to exhaustion, do not report ergogenic benefits of protein ingestion. Therefore, it is concluded that protein ingestion with carbohydrate during exercise does not further improve exercise performance when compared with the ingestion of ample amounts of carbohydrate only.
Périard, Julien D; Christian, Ryan J; Knez, Wade L; Racinais, Sébastien
This study examined whether central fatigue was exacerbated by an increase in muscle contractile speed caused by passive hyperthermia (PaH) and whether exercise-induced hyperthermia (ExH) combined with related peripheral fatigue influenced this response. The ExH was induced by cycling at 60% of maximal oxygen uptake in 38°C conditions and the PaH by sitting in a 48°C climate chamber. Ten men performed brief (≈ 5 s) and sustained (30 s) maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVCs) of the knee extensors at baseline (CON, ∼37.1°C) and during moderate (MOD, ≈ 38.5°C) and severe (SEV, ∼39.5°C) hyperthermia. Motor nerve and transcranial magnetic stimulation were used to assess voluntary muscle and cortical activation level, along with contractile properties. Brief MVC force decreased to a similar extent during SEV-ExH (-8%) and SEV-PaH (-6%; P < 0.05 versus CON). Sustained MVC force also decreased during MOD-ExH (-10%), SEV-ExH (-13%) and SEV-PaH (-7%; P < 0.01 versus CON). Motor nerve and cortical activation were reduced on reaching MOD (≈ 3%) and SEV (≈ 5%) ExH and PaH during the brief and sustained MVCs (P < 0.01 versus CON). Peak twitch force decreased on reaching SEV-ExH and SEV-PaH (P < 0.05 versus CON). Following transcranial magnetic stimulation, during the brief and sustained MVCs the peak muscle relaxation rate increased in ExH and PaH (P < 0.01 versus CON). The increase was greatest during the sustained contraction in SEV-PaH (P < 0.01), but this did not exacerbate central fatigue relative to ExH. These results indicate that during fatiguing cycling exercise in the heat, quadriceps peak relaxation rate increases. However, the centrally mediated rate of activation appears sufficient to overcome even the largest increase in muscle relaxation rate, seen during SEV-PaH.
Crystal, Naomi J; Townson, David H; Cook, Summer B; LaRoche, Dain P
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of cryotherapy on the inflammatory response to muscle-damaging exercise using a randomized trial. Twenty recreationally active males completed a 40-min run at a -10 % grade to induce muscle damage. Ten of the subjects were immersed in a 5 °C ice bath for 20 min and the other ten served as controls. Knee extensor peak torque, soreness rating, and thigh circumference were obtained pre- and post-run, and 1, 6, 24, 48, and 72 h post-run. Blood samples were obtained pre- and post-run, and 1, 6 and 24 h post-run for assay of plasma chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2). Peak torque decreased from 270 ± 57 Nm at baseline to 253 ± 65 Nm post-run and increased to 295 ± 68 Nm by 72 h post-run with no differences between groups (p = 0.491). Soreness rating increased from 3.6 ± 6.0 mm out of 100 mm at baseline to 47.4 ± 28.2 mm post-run and remained elevated at all time points with no differences between groups (p = 0.696). CCL2 concentrations increased from 116 ± 31 pg mL(-1) at baseline to 293 ± 109 pg mL(-1) at 6 h post-run (control) and from 100 ± 27 pg mL(-1) at baseline to 208 ± 71 pg mL(-1) at 6 h post-run (cryotherapy). The difference between groups was not significant (p = 0.116), but there was a trend for lower CCL2 in the cryotherapy group at 6 h (p = 0.102), though this measure was highly variable. In conclusion, 20 min of cryotherapy was ineffective in attenuating the strength decrement and soreness seen after muscle-damaging exercise, but may have mitigated the rise in plasma CCL2 concentration. These results do not support the use of cryotherapy during recovery.
Liemohn, Wendell; Haydu, Traci; Phillips, Dawn
This publication presents general guidelines for exercise prescription that have an anatomical basis but also consider the exerciser's ability to do the exercise correctly. It reviews various common questionable exercises, explaining how some exercises, especially those designed for flexibility and muscle fitness, can cause harm. Safer…
Hackney, K. J.; Everett, M.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.
High-load resistance exercise (HRE) and low-load blood flow restricted (BFR) exercise have demonstrated efficacy for attenuating unloading related muscle atrophy and dysfunction. In recreational exercisers, protein consumption immediately before and/or after exercise has been shown to increase the skeletal muscle anabolic response to resistance training. PURPOSE: To compare the skeletal muscle adaptations when chocolate milk intake was coupled with HRE or low-load BFR exercise [3 d/wk] during simulated lower limb weightlessness. METHODS: Eleven subjects were counterbalanced [based on age and gender] to HRE (31 +/- 14 yr, 170 +/- 13 cm, 71 +/- 18 kg, 2M/3W) or low-load BFR exercise (31 +/- 12 yr, 169 +/- 13 cm, 66 +/- 14 kg, 2M/4W) during 30 days of unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS). Both HRE and BFR completed 3 sets of single leg press and calf raise exercise during ULLS. BFR exercise intensity was 20% of repetition maximum (1RM) with a cuff inflation pressure of 1.3 systolic blood pressure (143 4 mmHg). Cuff pressure was maintained during all 3 sets including rest intervals (90s). HRE intensity was 75% 1RM and was performed without cuff inflation. Immediately (<10 min) before and after exercise 8 fl oz of chocolate milk (150 kcal, 2.5g total fat, 22g total carbohydrate, 8g protein) was consumed to optimize acute exercise responses in favor of muscle anabolism. ULLS analog compliance was assessed from leg skin temperature recordings and plantar accelerometry. Muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) for knee extensor and plantar flexor muscle groups were determined from analysis of magnetic resonance images using ImageJ software. 1RM strength for leg press and calf raise was assessed on the Agaton exercise system. Muscular endurance during leg press and calf raise was evaluated from the maximal number of repetitions performed to volitional fatigue using 40% of pre-ULLS 1RM. RESULTS: Steps detected by plantar acceleometry declined by 98.9% during ULLS relative to an
Gifford, Jayson R; Garten, Ryan S; Nelson, Ashley D; Trinity, Joel D; Layec, Gwenael; Witman, Melissa A H; Weavil, Joshua C; Mangum, Tyler; Hart, Corey; Etheredge, Cory; Jessop, Jake; Bledsoe, Amber; Morgan, David E; Wray, D Walter; Rossman, Matthew J; Richardson, Russell S
The concept of symmorphosis postulates a matching of structural capacity to functional demand within a defined physiological system, regardless of endurance exercise training status. Whether this concept applies to oxygen (O2 ) supply and demand during maximal skeletal muscle O2 consumption (V̇O2 max ) in humans is unclear. Therefore, in vitro skeletal muscle mitochondrial V̇O2 max (Mito V̇O2 max , mitochondrial respiration of fibres biopsied from vastus lateralis) was compared with in vivo skeletal muscle V̇O2 max during single leg knee extensor exercise (KE V̇O2 max , direct Fick by femoral arterial and venous blood samples and Doppler ultrasound blood flow measurements) and whole-body V̇O2 max during cycling (Body V̇O2 max , indirect calorimetry) in 10 endurance exercise-trained and 10 untrained young males. In untrained subjects, during KE exercise, maximal O2 supply (KE Q̇O2max ) exceeded (462 ± 37 ml kg(-1) min(-1) , P < 0.05) and KE V̇O2 max matched (340 ± 22 ml kg(-1) min(-1) , P > 0.05) Mito V̇O2 max (364 ± 16 ml kg(-1) min(-1) ). Conversely, in trained subjects, both KE Q̇O2max (557 ± 35 ml kg(-1) min(-1) ) and KE V̇O2 max (458 ± 24 ml kg(-1) min(-1) ) fell far short of Mito V̇O2 max (743 ± 35 ml kg(-1) min(-1) , P < 0.05). Although Mito V̇O2 max was related to KE V̇O2 max (r = 0.69, P < 0.05) and Body V̇O2 max (r = 0.91, P < 0.05) in untrained subjects, these variables were entirely unrelated in trained subjects. Therefore, in untrained subjects, V̇O2 max is limited by mitochondrial O2 demand, with evidence of adequate O2 supply, whereas, in trained subjects, an exercise training-induced mitochondrial reserve results in skeletal muscle V̇O2 max being markedly limited by O2 supply. Taken together, these in vivo and in vitro measures reveal clearly differing limitations and excesses at V̇O2 max in untrained and trained humans and challenge the concept of symmorphosis as it applies to O2 supply and demand in humans.
Prolonged exposure to microgravity results in chronic physiological adaptations including skeletal muscle atrophy, cardiovascular deconditioning, and bone demineralization. To attenuate the negative consequences of weightlessness during spaceflight missions, crewmembers perform moderate- to high-load resistance exercise in conjunction with aerobic (cycle and treadmill) exercise. Recent evidence from ground-based studies suggests that low-load blood flow-restricted (BFR) resistance exercise training can increase skeletal muscle size, strength, and endurance when performed in a variety of ambulatory populations. This training methodology couples a remarkably low exercise training load (approximately 20%–50% one repetition maximum (1RM)) with an inflated external cuff (width, ranging between approximately 30–90 mm; pressure, ranging between approximately 100–250 mmHg) that is placed around the exercising limb. BFR aerobic (walking and cycling) exercise training methods have also recently emerged in an attempt to enhance cardiovascular endurance and functional task performance while incorporating minimal exercise intensity. Although both forms of BFR exercise training have direct implications for individuals with sarcopenia and dynapenia, the application of BFR exercise training during exposure to microgravity to prevent deconditioning remains controversial. The aim of this review is to present an overview of BFR exercise training and discuss the potential usefulness of this method as an adjunct exercise countermeasure during prolonged spaceflight. The work will specifically emphasize ambulatory BFR exercise training adaptations, mechanisms, and safety and will provide directions for future research. PMID:23849078
Dilani Mendis, M; Hides, Julie A; Wilson, Stephen J; Grimaldi, Alison; Belavý, Daniel L; Stanton, Warren; Felsenberg, Dieter; Rittweger, Joern; Richardson, Carolyn
Prolonged bed rest and inactivity is known to cause muscular atrophy with previous research indicating that muscles involved in joint stabilisation are more susceptible. The anterior hip muscles are important for hip joint function and stability but little is known about the effects of prolonged inactivity on their function. This study investigated the effect of prolonged bed rest on the size of the anterior hip muscles and their pattern of recovery. The effect of resistive vibration exercise (RVE) as a countermeasure to muscle atrophy was also investigated. 12 male participants, randomly assigned to either a control or an exercise group, underwent 8 weeks of bed rest with 6 months follow-up. Changes in muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) of the iliacus, psoas, iliopsoas, sartorius and rectus femoris muscles were measured by magnetic resonance imaging at regular intervals during bed rest and recovery phases. CSAs of iliopsoas and sartorius decreased at the hip joint (p<0.05) during bed rest but iliacus, psoas, and rectus femoris CSAs were unchanged (p>0.05). No significant difference was found between the two groups for all muscles (all p>0.1), suggesting inefficacy of the countermeasure in this sample. These findings suggest that prolonged bed rest can result in the atrophy of specific muscles across the hip joint which may affect its stability and function.
Chennaoui, Mounir; Arnal, Pierrick J; Sauvet, Fabien; Léger, Damien
Sleep and exercise influence each other through complex, bilateral interactions that involve multiple physiological and psychological pathways. Physical activity is usually considered as beneficial in aiding sleep although this link may be subject to multiple moderating factors such as sex, age, fitness level, sleep quality and the characteristics of the exercise (intensity, duration, time of day, environment). It is therefore vital to improve knowledge in fundamental physiology in order to understand the benefits of exercise on the quantity and quality of sleep in healthy subjects and patients. Conversely, sleep disturbances could also impair a person's cognitive performance or their capacity for exercise and increase the risk of exercise-induced injuries either during extreme and/or prolonged exercise or during team sports. This review aims to describe the reciprocal fundamental physiological effects linking sleep and exercise in order to improve the pertinent use of exercise in sleep medicine and prevent sleep disorders in sportsmen.
Børsheim, Elisabet; Bahr, Roald
In the recovery period after exercise there is an increase in oxygen uptake termed the 'excess post-exercise oxygen consumption' (EPOC), consisting of a rapid and a prolonged component. While some studies have shown that EPOC may last for several hours after exercise, others have concluded that EPOC is transient and minimal. The conflicting results may be resolved if differences in exercise intensity and duration are considered, since this may affect the metabolic processes underlying EPOC. Accordingly, the absence of a sustained EPOC after exercise seems to be a consistent finding in studies with low exercise intensity and/or duration. The magnitude of EPOC after aerobic exercise clearly depends on both the duration and intensity of exercise. A curvilinear relationship between the magnitude of EPOC and the intensity of the exercise bout has been found, whereas the relationship between exercise duration and EPOC magnitude appears to be more linear, especially at higher intensities. Differences in exercise mode may potentially contribute to the discrepant findings of EPOC magnitude and duration. Studies with sufficient exercise challenges are needed to determine whether various aerobic exercise modes affect EPOC differently. The relationships between the intensity and duration of resistance exercise and the magnitude and duration of EPOC have not been determined, but a more prolonged and substantial EPOC has been found after hard- versus moderate-resistance exercise. Thus, the intensity of resistance exercise seems to be of importance for EPOC. Lastly, training status and sex may also potentially influence EPOC magnitude, but this may be problematic to determine. Still, it appears that trained individuals have a more rapid return of post-exercise metabolism to resting levels after exercising at either the same relative or absolute work rate; however, studies after more strenuous exercise bouts are needed. It is not determined if there is a sex effect on EPOC
Ribisl, Paul M.
If exercise programs are to become effective in producing the desired results, then the correct exercise prescription must be applied. Four variables should be controlled in the prescription of exercise: (a) type of activity, (b) intensity, (c) duration, and (d) frequency. The long-term prescription of exercise involves the use of a (a) starter…
Lu, Tung-Wu; Chien, Hui-Lien; Chang, Ling-Ying; Hsu, Horng-Chaung
The purposes of this study were to test whether an examiner's strength may affect the validity of the knee muscle strength measurements using a hand-held dynamometer (HHD) and whether enhancing the forces applied by an examiner using a resistance-enhanced dynamometer (RED) would improve measurement validity. Twenty-five young male volunteers (mean [±SD] age: 22.5 ± 1.7 years) without a history of injury to the test limb and 6 male and 6 female experienced examiners participated in this study. Maximum resisting forces of the knee flexors and extensors were measured using RED, HHD, and a dynamometer (Kin-Com). For all testing conditions, poor to moderate associations were found between the HHD and Kin-Com, whereas there was a good to excellent relationship between RED and Kin-Com. The systematic variations between RED and Kin-Com were also smaller than those between HHD and Kin-Com. The force values measured by RED were very close to those measured by Kin-Com. An examiner's strength affects the validity of the measurements using HHD. Enhancing the forces applied by the examiner to the tested segment using RED appeared to improve the validity of muscle strength measurements.
Carr, Jennifer A.; Ellerby, David J.; Marsh, Richard L.
SUMMARY Physiological and anatomical evidence suggests that in birds the iliotibialis lateralis pars postacetabularis (ILPO) is functionally important for running. Incorporating regional information, we estimated the mean sarcomere strain trajectory and electromyographic (EMG) amplitude of the ILPO during level and incline walking and running. Using these data and data in the literature of muscle energy use, we examined three hypotheses: (1) active lengthening will occur on the ascending limb of the length–tension curve to avoid potential damage caused by stretch on the descending limb; (2) the active strain cycle will shift to favor active shortening when the birds run uphill and shortening will occur on the plateau and shallow ascending limb of the length–tension curve; and (3) measures of EMG intensity will correlate with energy use when the mechanical function of the muscle is similar. Supporting the first hypothesis, we found that the mean sarcomere lengths at the end of active lengthening during level locomotion were smaller than the predicted length at the start of the plateau of the length–tension curve. Supporting the second hypothesis, the magnitude of active lengthening decreased with increasing slope, whereas active shortening increased. In evaluating the relationship between EMG amplitude and energy use (hypothesis 3), we found that although increases in EMG intensity with speed, slope and loading were positively correlated with muscle energy use, the quantitative relationships between these variables differed greatly under different conditions. The relative changes in EMG intensity and energy use by the muscle probably varied because of changes in the mechanical function of the muscle that altered the ratio of muscle energy use to active muscle volume. Considering the overall function of the cycle of active lengthening and shortening of the fascicles of the ILPO, we conclude that the function of active lengthening is unlikely to be energy conservation and may instead be related to promoting stability at the knee. The work required to lengthen the ILPO during stance is provided by co-contracting knee flexors. We suggest that this potentially energetically expensive co-contraction serves to stabilize the knee in early stance by increasing the mechanical impedance of the joint. PMID:21957104
Knight, C A; Kamen, G
The purpose of this study was to compare the extent of muscular activation during maximal voluntary knee extension contractions in old and young individuals and to examine the effects of resistance training on muscular activation in each group. The interpolated twitch technique was used to estimate muscular activation during two pre-training baseline tests, and after two and six weeks of resistance training. Throughout the study, the older group was 30% less strong than the young group (p=0.02). The training protocol was effective in both groups with overall isometric strength gains of 30 and 36% in the older (p=0.01) and young (p<0.01) groups, respectively. 10-RM training loads increased by 66% in the old group (p<0.01) and by 77% in the young group (p<0.01) throughout training. At the first baseline test, a 2% difference in muscular activation between groups (p=0.3) did not explain the large disparity in strength. Muscular activation increased by 2% in both groups throughout training (p<0.01). Despite considerably less muscular strength in the older group, muscular activation was greater than 95% of maximum and appears to be equal in both young and older individuals. Both groups demonstrated similar but small increases in muscular activation throughout training.
Carr, Jennifer A; Ellerby, David J; Marsh, Richard L
Physiological and anatomical evidence suggests that in birds the iliotibialis lateralis pars postacetabularis (ILPO) is functionally important for running. Incorporating regional information, we estimated the mean sarcomere strain trajectory and electromyographic (EMG) amplitude of the ILPO during level and incline walking and running. Using these data and data in the literature of muscle energy use, we examined three hypotheses: (1) active lengthening will occur on the ascending limb of the length-tension curve to avoid potential damage caused by stretch on the descending limb; (2) the active strain cycle will shift to favor active shortening when the birds run uphill and shortening will occur on the plateau and shallow ascending limb of the length-tension curve; and (3) measures of EMG intensity will correlate with energy use when the mechanical function of the muscle is similar. Supporting the first hypothesis, we found that the mean sarcomere lengths at the end of active lengthening during level locomotion were smaller than the predicted length at the start of the plateau of the length-tension curve. Supporting the second hypothesis, the magnitude of active lengthening decreased with increasing slope, whereas active shortening increased. In evaluating the relationship between EMG amplitude and energy use (hypothesis 3), we found that although increases in EMG intensity with speed, slope and loading were positively correlated with muscle energy use, the quantitative relationships between these variables differed greatly under different conditions. The relative changes in EMG intensity and energy use by the muscle probably varied because of changes in the mechanical function of the muscle that altered the ratio of muscle energy use to active muscle volume. Considering the overall function of the cycle of active lengthening and shortening of the fascicles of the ILPO, we conclude that the function of active lengthening is unlikely to be energy conservation and may instead be related to promoting stability at the knee. The work required to lengthen the ILPO during stance is provided by co-contracting knee flexors. We suggest that this potentially energetically expensive co-contraction serves to stabilize the knee in early stance by increasing the mechanical impedance of the joint.
van der Ven, A. H. G. S.; And Others
A new model is presented that explains reaction time fluctuations in prolonged work tasks. The model extends the so-called Poisson-Erlang model and accounts for long-term trend effects in the reaction time curve. The model is consistent with Spearman's hypothesis that inhibition increases during work and decreases during rest. (TJH)
Greenleaf, John E.
Report describes physiological effects of prolonged bed rest. Rest for periods of 24 hours or longer deconditions body to some extent; healing proceeds simultaneously with deconditioning. Report provides details on shifts in fluid electrolytes and loss of lean body mass, which comprises everything in body besides fat - that is, water, muscle, and bone. Based on published research.
Elder, Christopher P; Mahoney, Edward T; Black, Christopher D; Slade, Jill M; Dudley, Gary A
Background Oxygen cost of different muscle actions may be influenced by different recruitment and rate coding strategies. The purpose of this study was to account for these strategies by comparing the oxygen cost of dynamic and isometric muscle actions relative to the muscle mass recruited via surface electrical stimulation of the knee extensors. Methods Comparisons of whole body pulmonary Δ V˙ MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafiart1ev1aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8akY=wiFfYdH8Gipec8Eeeu0xXdbba9frFj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqai=hGuQ8kuc9pgc9s8qqaq=dirpe0xb9q8qiLsFr0=vr0=vr0dc8meaabaqaciaacaGaaeqabaqabeGadaaakeaacuWGwbGvgaGaaaaa@2DEA@O2 were made in seven young healthy adults (1 female) during 3 minutes of dynamic or isometric knee extensions, both induced by surface electrical stimulation. Recruited mass was quantified in T2 weighted spin echo magnetic resonance images. Results The Δ V˙ MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafiart1ev1aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8akY=wiFfYdH8Gipec8Eeeu0xXdbba9frFj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqai=hGuQ8kuc9pgc9s8qqaq=dirpe0xb9q8qiLsFr0=vr0=vr0dc8meaabaqaciaacaGaaeqabaqabeGadaaakeaacuWGwbGvgaGaaaaa@2DEA@O2 for dynamic muscle actions, 242 ± 128 ml • min-1 (mean ± SD) was greater (p = 0.003) than that for isometric actions, 143 ± 99 ml • min-1. Recruited muscle mass was also greater (p = 0.004) for dynamic exercise, 0.716 ± 282 versus 0.483 ± 0.139 kg. The rate of oxygen consumption per unit of recruited muscle (V˙O2RM MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafiart1ev1aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8akY=wiFfYdH8Gipec8Eeeu0xXdbba9frFj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqai=hGuQ8kuc9pgc9s8qqaq=dirpe0xb9q8qiLsFr0=vr0=vr0dc8meaabaqaciaacaGaaeqabaqabeGadaaakeaacuqGwbGvgaGaaiabb+eapnaaBaaaleaacqaIYaGmdaahaaadbeqaaiabbkfasjabb2eanbaaaSqabaaaaa@32B0@) was similar in dynamic and isometric exercise (346 ± 162 versus 307 ± 198 ml • kg-1 • min-1; p = 0.352), but the V˙O2RM MathType@MTEF@5
... on. Feature: Back to School, the Healthy Way Exercise & Sleep Past Issues / Fall 2012 Table of Contents ... helps kids. Photo: iStock 6 "Bests" About Kids' Exercise At least one hour of physical activity a ...
... overdoing it for almost anyone. Much like with eating disorders, many people who engage in compulsive exercise do ... compulsive exercising doesn't have to accompany an eating disorder, the two often go hand in hand. In ...
... To do Kegel exercises, you just squeeze your pelvic floor muscles. The part of your body including your ... bone. Kegel exercises are designed to make your pelvic floor muscles stronger. These are the muscles that hold ...
... also can help prevent exercise headaches. References Cutrer FM, et al. Cough, exercise, and sex headaches. Neurology ... aspx?bookid=690. Accessed Jan. 19, 2015. Cutrer FM. Exertional headaches. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed ...
Campbell, A G; McHaffie, H E
Dilemmas about resuscitation and life-prolonging treatment for severely compromised infants have become increasingly complex as skills in neonatal care have developed. Quality of life and resource issues necessarily influence management. Our Institute of Medical Ethics working party, on whose behalf this paper is written, recognises that the ultimate responsibility for the final decision rests with the doctor in clinical charge of the infant. However, we advocate a team approach to decision-making, emphasising the important role of parents and nurses in the process. Assessing the relative burdens and benefits can be troubling, but doctors and parents need to retain a measure of discretion; legislation which would determine action in all cases is inappropriate. Caution should be exercised in involving committees in decision-making and, where they exist, their remit should remain to advise rather than to decide. Support for families who bear the consequences of their decisions is often inadequate, and facilitating access to such services is part of the wider responsibilities of the intensive care team. The authors believe that allowing death by withholding or withdrawing treatment is legitimate, where those closely involved in the care of the infant together deem the burdens to be unacceptable without compensating benefits for the infant. As part of the process accurate and careful recording is essential.
Paluska, Scott A
Caffeine is the most commonly consumed drug in the world, and athletes frequently use it as an ergogenic aid. It improves performance and endurance during prolonged, exhaustive exercise. To a lesser degree it also enhances short-term, high-intensity athletic performance. Caffeine improves concentration, reduces fatigue, and enhances alertness. Habitual intake does not diminish caffeine's ergogenic properties. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the physiologic effects of caffeine, but adenosine receptor antagonism most likely accounts for the primary mode of action. It is relatively safe and has no known negative performance effects, nor does it cause significant dehydration or electrolyte imbalance during exercise. Routine caffeine consumption may cause tolerance or dependence, and abrupt discontinuation produces irritability, mood shifts, headache, drowsiness, or fatigue. Major sport governing bodies ban excessive use of caffeine, but current monitoring techniques are inadequate, and ethical dilemmas persist regarding caffeine intake by athletes.
... minutes at a time throughout your day. Remember: exercise has so many health benefits that any amount is better than none.How ... The cost might give you an incentive to exercise on a regular basis.Benefits of regular exerciseReduces your risk of heart disease, ...
Schmitt, Natalie Crohn
In this article, Natalie Schmitt recalls her teaching experiences with morning exercise programs, beginning with her first teaching job as assistant Morning Exercise teacher at the Francis W. Parker School in Chicago. In the Morning Exercises, students were encouraged to employ all means of expression: speaking, drawing, dancing, singing, acting.…
... It is never too late to start exercising. Exercise has benefits at any age. Don't worry if you ... to tie your shoes Alternative Names Age and exercise Images Benefit of regular exercise Flexibility exercise Exercise and age ...
Rossiter, H B; Ward, S A; Kowalchuk, J M; Howe, F A; Griffiths, J R; Whipp, B J
The on- and off-transient (i.e. phase II) responses of pulmonary oxygen uptake (V(O(2))) to moderate-intensity exercise (i.e. below the lactate threshold, theta;(L)) in humans has been shown to conform to both mono-exponentiality and 'on-off' symmetry, consistent with a system manifesting linear control dynamics. However above theta;(L) the V(O(2)) kinetics have been shown to be more complex: during high-intensity exercise neither mono-exponentiality nor 'on-off' symmetry have been shown to appropriately characterise the V(O(2)) response. Muscle [phosphocreatine] ([PCr]) responses to exercise, however, have been proposed to be dynamically linear with respect to work rate, and to demonstrate 'on-off' symmetry at all work intenisties. We were therefore interested in examining the kinetic characteristics of the V(O(2)) and [PCr] responses to moderate- and high-intensity knee-extensor exercise in order to improve our understanding of the factors involved in the putative phosphate-linked control of muscle oxygen consumption. We estimated the dynamics of intramuscular [PCr] simultaneously with those of V(O(2)) in nine healthy males who performed repeated bouts of both moderate- and high-intensity square-wave, knee-extension exercise for 6 min, inside a whole-body magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) system. A transmit-receive surface coil placed under the right quadriceps muscle allowed estimation of intramuscular [PCr]; V(O(2)) was measured breath-by-breath using a custom-designed turbine and a mass spectrometer system. For moderate exercise, the kinetics were well described by a simple mono-exponential function (following a short cardiodynamic phase for V(O(2))), with time constants (tau) averaging: tauV(O(2))(,on) 35 +/- 14 s (+/- S.D.), tau[PCr](on) 33 +/- 12 s, tauV(O(2))(,off) 50 +/- 13 s and tau[PCr](off) 51 +/- 13 s. The kinetics for both V(O(2)) and [PCr] were more complex for high-intensity exercise. The fundamental phase expressing average tau values of tau
Nilsson, Johnny; Haugen, Per
Much of the training of competitive telemark skiers is performed as dry-land exercises. The specificity of these exercises is important for optimizing the training effect. Our aim here was to study the activation of the knee extensor musculature and knee angular displacement during competitive telemark skiing and during dry-land strength training exercises to determine the specificity of the latter. Specificity was analysed with respect to angular amplitude, angular velocity, muscle action and electromyographic (EMG) activity. Five male telemark skiers of national and international standard volunteered to participate in the study, which consisted of two parts: (1) skiing a telemark ski course and (2) specific dry-land strength training exercises for telemark skiing (telemark jumps and barbell squats). The angular displacement of the right knee joint was recorded with an electrogoniometer. A tape pressure sensor was used to measure pressure between the sole of the foot and the bottom of the right ski boot. Electromyographic activity in the right vastus lateralis was recorded with surface electrodes. The EMG activity recorded during maximum countermovement jumps was used to normalize the EMG activity during telemark skiing, telemark jumps and barbell squats. The results showed that knee angular displacement during telemark skiing and dry-land telemark jumps had four distinct phases: a flexion (F1) and extension (E1) phase during the thrust phase of the outside ski/leg in the turn/jump and a flexion (F2) and extension (E2) phase when the leg was on the inside of the turn/jump. The vastus lateralis muscle was activated during F1 and E1 in the thrust phase during telemark skiing and telemark jumps. The overall net knee angular amplitude was significantly greater (P < 0.05) for telemark jumps than for telemark skiing. Barbell squats showed a knee angular amplitude significantly greater than that in telemark skiing (P < 0.05). The mean knee angular velocity of the F1 and
... CAAHEP). High school students interested in postsecondary exercise physiology programs should take courses in anatomy, physiology, and physics. Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations Louisiana is ...
Estabrook, F. B.
Differential ideals generated by sets of 2-forms which can be written with constant coefficients in a canonical basis of 1-forms are considered. By setting up a Cartan-Ehresmann connection, in a fiber bundle over a base space in which the 2-forms live, one finds an incomplete Lie algebra of vector fields in the fields in the fibers. Conversely, given this algebra (a prolongation algebra), one can derive the differential ideal. The two constructs are thus dual, and analysis of either derives properties of both. Such systems arise in the classical differential geometry of moving frames. Examples of this are discussed, together with examples arising more recently: the Korteweg-de Vries and Harrison-Ernst systems.
... of a Good Thing? We all know the benefits of exercise, and it seems that everywhere we turn, we ... stress. So how can something with so many benefits have the potential to cause ... out because it's fun or it makes them feel good, but exercise can become a compulsive habit when it is ...
... eating . Compulsive exercise behavior can grow out of student athletes' demanding practice schedules and their quest to ... negative image of themselves and feel worthless. Their social and academic lives may suffer as they ... and abandons responsibilities to make more time for exercise seems to ...
Matsui, Takashi; Ishikawa, Taro; Ito, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Masahiro; Inoue, Koshiro; Lee, Min-Chul; Fujikawa, Takahiko; Ichitani, Yukio; Kawanaka, Kentaro; Soya, Hideaki
Brain glycogen localized in astrocytes, a critical energy source for neurons, decreases during prolonged exhaustive exercise with hypoglycaemia. However, it is uncertain whether exhaustive exercise induces glycogen supercompensation in the brain as in skeletal muscle. To explore this question, we exercised adult male rats to exhaustion at moderate intensity (20 m min(-1)) by treadmill, and quantified glycogen levels in several brain loci and skeletal muscles using a high-power (10 kW) microwave irradiation method as a gold standard. Skeletal muscle glycogen was depleted by 82-90% with exhaustive exercise, and supercompensated by 43-46% at 24 h after exercise. Brain glycogen levels decreased by 50-64% with exhaustive exercise, and supercompensated by 29-63% (whole brain 46%, cortex 60%, hippocampus 33%, hypothalamus 29%, cerebellum 63% and brainstem 49%) at 6 h after exercise. The brain glycogen supercompensation rates after exercise positively correlated with their decrease rates during exercise. We also observed that cortical and hippocampal glycogen supercompensation were sustained until 24 h after exercise (long-lasting supercompensation), and their basal glycogen levels increased with 4 weeks of exercise training (60 min day(-1) at 20 m min(-1)). These results support the hypothesis that, like the effect in skeletal muscles, glycogen supercompensation also occurs in the brain following exhaustive exercise, and the extent of supercompensation is dependent on that of glycogen decrease during exercise across brain regions. However, supercompensation in the brain preceded that of skeletal muscles. Further, the long-lasting supercompensation of the cortex and hippocampus is probably a prerequisite for their training adaptation (increased basal levels), probably to meet the increased energy demands of the brain in exercising animals.
LaForgia, J; Withers, R T; Gore, C J
Recovery from a bout of exercise is associated with an elevation in metabolism referred to as the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). A number of investigators in the first half of the last century reported prolonged EPOC durations and that the EPOC was a major component of the thermic effect of activity. It was therefore thought that the EPOC was a major contributor to total daily energy expenditure and hence the maintenance of body mass. Investigations conducted over the last two or three decades have improved the experimental protocols used in the pioneering studies and therefore have more accurately characterized the EPOC. Evidence has accumulated to suggest an exponential relationship between exercise intensity and the magnitude of the EPOC for specific exercise durations. Furthermore, work at exercise intensities >or=50-60% VO2max stimulate a linear increase in EPOC as exercise duration increases. The existence of these relationships with resistance exercise at this stage remains unclear because of the limited number of studies and problems with quantification of work intensity for this type of exercise. Although the more recent studies do not support the extended EPOC durations reported by some of the pioneering investigators, it is now apparent that a prolonged EPOC (3-24 h) may result from an appropriate exercise stimulus (submaximal: >or=50 min at >or=70% VO2max; supramaximal: >or=6 min at >or=105% VO2max). However, even those studies incorporating exercise stimuli resulting in prolonged EPOC durations have identified that the EPOC comprises only 6-15% of the net total oxygen cost of the exercise. But this figure may need to be increased when studies utilizing intermittent work bouts are designed to allow the determination of rest interval EPOCs, which should logically contribute to the EPOC determined following the cessation of the last work bout. Notwithstanding the aforementioned, the earlier research optimism regarding an important role
Long, Littleton, Ed.
This collection focuses on writing exercises, both expository and creative, as well as areas of adjacent concern. The book is divided into nine major sections: prewriting; diction; theme, thesis, and paragraph; style; ideas for whole papers and special topics; description; research; the short story; and rewriting. The exercises deal with such…
Greenleaf, J. E.
Bed rest has been a normal procedure used by physicians for centuries in the treatment of injury and disease. Exposure of patients to prolonged bed rest in the horizontal position induces adaptive deconditioning responses. While deconditioning responses are appropriate for patients or test subjects in the horizontal position, they usually result in adverse physiological responses (fainting, muscular weakness) when the patient assume the upright posture. These deconditioning responses result from reduction in hydrostatic pressure within the cardiovascular system, virtual elimination of longitudinal pressure on the long bones, some decrease in total body metabolism, changes in diet, and perhaps psychological impact from the different environment. Almost every system in the body is affected. An early stimulus is the cephalic shift of fluid from the legs which increases atrial pressure and induces compensatory responses for fluid and electrolyte redistribution. Without countermeasures, deterioration in strength and muscle function occurs within 1 wk while increased calcium loss may continue for months. Research should also focus on drug and carbohydrate metabolism.
... diets, and for some, this may develop into eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia. And some people ... exercise, especially when it is combined with an eating disorder, can cause serious and permanent health problems, and ...
Richardson, R S; Grassi, B; Gavin, T P; Haseler, L J; Tagore, K; Roca, J; Wagner, P D
Maximal O2 delivery and O2 uptake (VO2) per 100 g of active muscle mass are far greater during knee extensor (KE) than during cycle exercise: 73 and 60 ml. min-1. 100 g-1 (2.4 kg of muscle) (R. S. Richardson, D. R. Knight, D. C. Poole, S. S. Kurdak, M. C. Hogan, B. Grassi, and P. D. Wagner. Am. J. Physiol. 268 (Heart Circ. Physiol. 37): H1453-H1461, 1995) and 28 and 25 ml. min-1. 100 g-1 (7.5 kg of muscle) (D. R. Knight, W. Schaffartzik, H. J. Guy, R. Predilleto, M. C. Hogan, and P. D. Wagner. J. Appl. Physiol. 75: 2586-2593, 1993), respectively. Although this is evidence of muscle O2 supply dependence in itself, it raises the following question: With such high O2 delivery in KE, are the quadriceps still O2 supply dependent at maximal exercise? To answer this question, seven trained subjects performed maximum KE exercise in hypoxia [0.12 inspired O2 fraction (FIO2)], normoxia (0.21 FIO2), and hyperoxia (1.0 FIO2) in a balanced order. The protocol (after warm-up) was a square wave to a previously determined maximum work rate followed by incremental stages to ensure that a true maximum was achieved under each condition. Direct measures of arterial and venous blood O2 concentration in combination with a thermodilution blood flow technique allowed the determination of O2 delivery and muscle VO2. Maximal O2 delivery increased with inspired O2: 1.3 +/- 0.1, 1.6 +/- 0.2, and 1.9 +/- 0.2 l/min at 0.12, 0.21, and 1.0 FIO2, respectively (P < 0.05). Maximal work rate was affected by variations in inspired O2 (-25 and +14% at 0.12 and 1.0 FIO2, respectively, compared with normoxia, P < 0.05) as was maximal VO2 (VO2 max): 1.04 +/- 0.13, 1. 24 +/- 0.16, and 1.45 +/- 0.19 l/min at 0.12, 0.21, and 1.0 FIO2, respectively (P < 0.05). Calculated mean capillary PO2 also varied with FIO2 (28.3 +/- 1.0, 34.8 +/- 2.0, and 40.7 +/- 1.9 Torr at 0.12, 0.21, and 1.0 FIO2, respectively, P < 0.05) and was proportionally related to changes in VO2 max, supporting our previous finding that a
Uehara, Kouhei; Sone, Ryoko; Yamazaki, Fumio
In the present study, to test the hypothesis that cigarette smoking and physical exercise induce different influences on peripheral vasomotor control after mental stress, we examined the physiological responses, including skin vasomotor responses, to smoking and exercise in six healthy smokers. The smokers performed 2 hr of mental arithmetic tasks (MT) followed by smoking or bicycle exercise (108 +/- 7W) for 10 min or a time control (i.e., rest without smoking) under thermally comfortable conditions (25 degrees C). Skin blood flow (laser-Doppler flowmetry) was monitored at glabrous (palm) and nonglabrous (forearm, forehead) sites. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was evaluated from the ratio of blood flow to mean arterial pressure (MAP). The prolonged MT increased MAP from 77.7 +/- 2.7 mmHg to 86.0 +/- 3.0 mmHg and reduced CVC in the palm by 27.4 +/- 5.6%, but did not change those in the forearm and forehead. Smoking after MT further decreased CVC in the palm, and the smoking-induced reduction in CVC persisted until 20 min after smoking. Meanwhile, CVC in the forearm and forehead transiently and minimally decreased during smoking. Exercise after MT increased CVC at the three sites, and the exercise-induced elevation of CVC in the palm persisted until 30 min after exercise. In the time control experiments, each variable remained unchanged throughout the recovery period of MT. It was suggested that smoking causes additional vasoconstriction in glabrous skin after prolonged MT, while the exercise-associated vasodilator effect counteracts the vasoconstrictor action of MT. We speculate that long-term mental stress and smoking behavior may synergistically develop chronic stress-induced vascular dysfunction, and the stress-related disorders may be reduced by habitual enforcement of moderate exercise.
Gleeson, Michael; Nieman, David C; Pedersen, Bente K
Strenuous bouts of prolonged exercise and heavy training are associated with depressed immune cell function. Furthermore, inadequate or inappropriate nutrition can compound the negative influence of heavy exertion on immunocompetence. Dietary deficiencies of protein and specific micronutrients have long been associated with immune dysfunction. An adequate intake of iron, zinc and vitamins A, E, B6 and B12 is particularly important for the maintenance of immune function, but excess intakes of some micronutrients can also impair immune function and have other adverse effects on health. Immune system depression has also been associated with an excess intake of fat. To maintain immune function, athletes should eat a well-balanced diet sufficient to meet their energy requirements. An athlete exercising in a carbohydrate-depleted state experiences larger increases in circulating stress hormones and a greater perturbation of several immune function indices. Conversely, consuming 30-60 g carbohydrate x h(-1) during sustained intensive exercise attenuates rises in stress hormones such as cortisol and appears to limit the degree of exercise-induced immune depression. Convincing evidence that so-called 'immune-boosting' supplements, including high doses of antioxidant vitamins, glutamine, zinc, probiotics and Echinacea, prevent exercise-induced immune impairment is currently lacking.
Zuhl, Micah; Schneider, Suzanne; Lanphere, Katherine; Conn, Carole; Dokladny, Karol; Moseley, Pope
Gastrointestinal distress, such as diarrhoea, cramping, vomiting, nausea and gastric pain are common among athletes during training and competition. The mechanisms that cause these symptoms are not fully understood. The stress of heat and oxidative damage during exercise causes disruption to intestinal epithelial cell tight junction proteins resulting in increased permeability to luminal endotoxins. The endotoxin moves into the blood stream leading to a systemic immune response. Tight junction integrity is altered by the phosphoylation state of the proteins occludin and claudins, and may be regulated by the type of exercise performed. Prolonged exercise and high-intensity exercise lead to an increase in key phosphorylation enzymes that ultimately cause tight junction dysfunction, but the mechanisms are different. The purpose of this review is to (1) explain the function and physiology of tight junction regulation, (2) discuss the effects of prolonged and high-intensity exercise on tight junction permeability leading to gastrointestinal distress and (3) review agents that may increase or decrease tight junction integrity during exercise.
Kim, Hyeon-Ki; Ando, Karina; Tabata, Hiroki; Konishi, Masayuki; Takahashi, Masaki; Nishimaki, Mio; Xiang, Mi; Sakamoto, Shizuo
To study the effects of different exercise intensity performed at different exercise times on lipid metabolism response during prolonged exercise. Nine young men performed endurance exercise at different exercise intensities (60%VO2max or Fatmax) in the morning (9 am to 10 am) or evening (5 pm to 6 pm); blood samples were collected before exercise and immediately and one and two hours after exercise completion. Expired gas was analyzed from the start of exercise until two hours after exercise completion. There were no significant changes in catecholamine (adrenaline and noradrenaline) and free fatty acid levels between morning and evening trials for each endurance exercise intensity. However, the morning and evening trials both exhibited significantly higher lipid oxidation at Fatmax than that at 60%VO2max. These results suggest that exercise at Fatmax offers greater lipid oxidation than that at 60%VO2max, regardless of exercise timing. Key points It is important to consider exercise intensity when evaluating lipid oxidation. Few studies have investigated the effects of the intensity of exercise on lipid oxidation in the morning and evening. Fatmax exhibited greater total lipid oxidation compared to that of 60%VO2max when energy expenditure was equated, but time of day did not affect lipid oxidation in prolonged exercise. PMID:27803625
Bernardo, Bianca C; McMullen, Julie R
Exercise-induced cardiac remodeling is typically an adaptive response associated with cardiac myocyte hypertrophy and renewal, increased cardiac myocyte contractility, sarcomeric remodeling, cell survival, metabolic and mitochondrial adaptations, electrical remodeling, and angiogenesis. Initiating stimuli/triggers of cardiac remodeling include increased hemodynamic load, increased sympathetic activity, and the release of hormones and growth factors. Prolonged and strenuous exercise may lead to maladaptive exercise-induced cardiac remodeling including cardiac dysfunction and arrhythmia. In addition, this article describes novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of heart failure that target mechanisms responsible for adaptive exercise-induced cardiac remodeling, which are being developed and tested in preclinical models.
Cook, Summer B; Brown, Kimberly A; Deruisseau, Keith; Kanaley, Jill A; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L
This study evaluated the effectiveness of low-load resistance training with a blood flow restriction (LL(BFR)) to attenuate muscle loss and weakness after 30 days of unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS). Sixteen subjects (ages 18-50 yr) underwent 30 days of ULLS. Measurements of muscle strength, cross-sectional area, and endurance on the knee extensors and plantar flexors were collected before and after ULLS. Plasma concentrations of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 were also assessed. During ULLS, eight subjects (5 males, 3 females) participated in LL(BFR) three times per week (ULLS + Exercise) while eight subjects (4 males, 4 females) did not exercise (ULLS). The blood flow-restricted exercise consisted of dynamic knee extension at 20% of the subject's isometric maximum voluntary contraction coupled with a suprasystolic blood flow restriction. After 30 days of limb suspension, the ULLS + Exercise group experienced minimal and insignificant losses in knee extensor cross-sectional area and strength (1.2% and 2.0%, respectively; P = 0.05), while the ULLS group demonstrated significant reductions in cross-sectional area and strength (7.4% and 21%, respectively). Decrements in plantar flexor strength (23.7%) and cross-sectional area (7.4%) were observed after ULLS (P < 0.05) and were of similar magnitude between the experimental groups (P > 0.05). Muscular endurance in the knee extensors improved 31% in the ULLS + Exercise group, while it decreased 24% in the ULLS group (P = 0.01). No changes were seen in hormone concentrations throughout the study. In conclusion, LL(BFR) of the knee extensors is effective in maintaining muscle strength and size during 30 days of ULLS and results in improved knee extensor muscular endurance.
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... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000083.htm Diabetes and exercise To use the sharing features on this page, ... not exercising at all. Your Blood Sugar and Exercise Check your blood sugar before you exercise. Also, ...
Wheezing - exercise-induced; Reactive airway disease - exercise ... Having asthma symptoms when you exercise does not mean you cannot or should not exercise. But be aware of your EIA triggers. Cold or dry air may ...
Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Winget, C. M.; Leach, C. S.; Rambaut, P. C.
Two bedrest studies of 56 days each have been conducted to evaluate the effects of prolonged bedrest on circadian synchrony and endocrine and metabolic function. Measurements included the pituitary-adrenal, thyroid, parathyroid, insulin-glucose-growth hormones, catecholamine excretion, body temperature, and heart rate. The results indicated that a rigorous regimen of exercise did not prevent the endocrine and metabolic effects of prolonged bedrest. Changes in circadian, endocrine, and metabolic functions in bedrest appear to be due to changes in hydrostatic pressure and lack of postural cues rather than to inactivity, confinement, or the bleeding schedule. Prolonged bedrest, particularly beyond 24 days, resulted in rhythm desynchronization in spite of well regulated light/dark cycles, temperature, humidity, activity, and meal times and meal composition and in increased lability of all endocrine parameter measured. It also resulted in an apparent insensitivity of the glucose response to insulin, of cortisol secretion to ACTH, and of growth hormone secretion to hypoglycemia.
The case study of a patient with prolonged partial epilepsy is presented. There was a discrepancy between the extent of the abnormality seen on the radionuclide angiogram and that seen on the static brain scan.
Deol, Nisha; Tolly, Renee; Manocha, Rohan; Naseer, Maliha
Hyperthyroidism is a highly prevalent disease affecting over 4 million people in the US. The disease is associated with many cardiac complications including atrial fibrillation and also less commonly with ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. Many cardiac pathologies have been extensively studied; however, the relationship between hyperthyroidism and rate of ventricular repolarization manifesting as a prolonged QTc interval is not well known. Prolonged QTc interval regardless of thyroid status is a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia. The mechanism regarding the prolongation of the QT interval in a hyperthyroid patient has not been extensively investigated although its clinical implications are relevant. Herein, we describe a case of prolonged QTc in a patient who presented with signs of hyperthyroidism that was corrected with return to euthyroid status. PMID:28154763
Scheer, Bernd Volker; Valero-Burgos, Encarna; Costa, Ricardo
This is the first report of a runner with myasthenia gravis who completed an ultra endurance event. Myasthenia gravis, a neuromuscular disease that usually results in skeletal muscle weakness, which worsens with exercise and strenuous aerobic exercise, is generally contraindicated. Our runner completed a 220-km, 5-day ultramarathon and presented with various symptoms including muscular skeletal weakness, cramps, generalized fatigue, unintelligible speech, involuntary eye and mouth movements, problems swallowing, food lodging in his throat, and problems breathing. Risk factors identified for exacerbations are running in extreme temperatures, prolonged runs (especially a distance of 30 km or more), running uphill, lack of sleep, and stress. The medical team was in the novel situation to look after a runner with myasthenia gravis and needed to be aware of the patient's condition, symptoms, and risk factors to safely care for him.
levels. Prolonged food deprivation (48 and 72h) resulted in significant (p 0.01) hypertriglyceridemia and hyperlactacidemia subsequent (p 0.01... hypertriglyceridemia and hyperlactacidemia subsequent to exercise. Levels of sodium, potassium, urea nitrogen, and creatine phosphokiinase were unaffected
reductions in circula- ting insulin levels. Prolonged food deprivation (48 and 72h) resulted in significant (P .01) hypertriglyceridemia and... hypertriglyceridemia and hyperlactacidemia subsequent to exercise. Levels of sodium, potassium, urea nitrogen, and creatine phosphokinase were
Hyun, Seung Hee; Kim, Young Mi; Park, Su Jin
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise on myocardial injury in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Two groups of rats were trained with either moderate- or high-intensity treadmill running for four weeks. Subsequently, the concentrations of cardiac troponin and the N-terminal of prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were examined following a single bout of prolonged intensive exercise (lasting 3 h). [Subjects and Methods] The study included 40 six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 150–180 g each. The aerobic exercise group was divided into high-intensity (28 m/min) and moderate-intensity (15 m/min) subgroups. Both subgroups were trained for 35 min daily for six days per week (excluding Sunday) over a four-week period. Following training, the high- and moderate-intensity exercise groups and a nonexercise group performed one bout of prolonged treadmill exercise for 3 h at a speed of 15 m/min. [Results] The cardiac troponin and NT-proBNP levels differed significantly between the groups. [Conclusion] The exercise groups showed lower levels of cardiac troponin and NT-proBNP than the nonexercise group after the bout of prolonged intensive exercise. PMID:28356642
Schaffner, Grant (Inventor); Bentley, Jason R. (Inventor); Loehr, James A. (Inventor); Gundo, Daniel P. (Inventor)
An apparatus and method for exercising whereby the user is supported by various mechanisms in such as way that the user's shoulder area is free to translate and rotate; the user's pelvic area is free to translate and rotate; or in any combination.
Stuempfle, Kristin J
Exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) is hyponatremia that occurs
Convertino, Victor A.
A number of past and most recent research findings that describe some of the physiological responses to exercise in man and their relationship with exposure to various gravitational environments are discussed. Most of the data pertain to adaptations of the cardiovascular and body fluid systems. It should be kept in mind that the data from studies on microgravity simulation in man include exposures of relatively short duration (5 hours to 14 days). However, it is argued that the results may provide important guidelines for the consideration of many variables which are pertinent to the development of exercise prescription for long-duration space flight. The following considerations for exercise prescriptions during long-duration space flight are noted: (1) Relatively high aerobic fitness and strength, especially of the upper body musculature, should be a criterion for selection of astronauts who will be involved in EVA, since endurance and strength appear to be predominant characteristics for work performance. (2) Some degree of upper body strength will probably be required for effective performance of EVA. However, the endurance and strength required by the upper body for EVA can probably be obtained through preflight exercise prescription which involves swimming. (3) Although some degree of arm exercise may be required to maintain preflight endurance and strength, researchers propose that regular EVA will probably be sufficient to maintain the endurance and strength required to effectively perform work tasks during space flight. (4) A minimum of one maximal aerobic exercise every 7 to 10 days during space flight may be all that is necessary for maintenance of normal cardiovascular responsiveness and replacement of body fluids for reentry following prolonged space flight. (5) The possible reduction in the amount of exercise required for maintenance of cardiovascular system and body fluids in combination with the use of electromyostimulation (EMS) or methods other
Roelands, B; De Pauw, K; Meeusen, R
Fatigue during prolonged exercise is a multifactorial phenomenon. The complex interplay between factors originating from both the periphery and the brain will determine the onset of fatigue. In recent years, electrophysiological and imaging tools have been fine-tuned, allowing for an improved understanding of what happens in the brain. In the first part of the review, we present literature that studied the changes in electrocortical activity during and after exercise in normal and high ambient temperature. In general, exercise in a thermo-neutral environment or at light to moderate intensity increases the activity in the β frequency range, while exercising at high intensity or in the heat reduces β activity. In the second part, we review literature that manipulated brain neurotransmission, through either pharmacological or nutritional means, during exercise in the heat. The dominant outcomes were that manipulations changing brain dopamine concentration have the potential to delay fatigue, while the manipulation of serotonin had no effect and noradrenaline reuptake inhibition was detrimental for performance in the heat. Research on the effects of neurotransmitter manipulations on brain activity during or after exercise is scarce. The combination of brain imaging techniques with electrophysiological measures presents one of the major future challenges in exercise physiology/neurophysiology.
Li, Tzai-Li; Gleeson, Michael
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of carbohydrate (CHO) feeding during the second of two 90-min cycling bouts (EX1 started at 09:00 and EX2 started at 13:30) at 60% VO2max on leucocyte redistribution, neutrophil degranulation and oxidative burst and plasma IL-6 and stress hormone responses. This study consisted of two trials, which were completed in a counterbalanced order and separated by at least 4 days. Subjects (n=9) consumed a lemon flavoured 10% w/v CHO (glucose) or placebo (PLA) beverage during EX2: 500 ml just before exercise and 250 ml every 20 min during exercise. Venous blood samples were taken 5 min before exercise, immediately post-exercise, and 18-h post-EX2 for both trials. The main findings of this study were that ingestion of CHO compared with PLA during EX2 better maintained plasma glucose concentration, blunted the responses of plasma adrenaline, ACTH, cortisol, GH and IL-6, and attenuated the leukocytosis and monocytosis, but had no effect on neutrophil degranulation and oxidative burst activity. Furthermore, the immunoendocrine disturbances induced by two bouts of prolonged exercise returned to resting values within 18 h. These findings suggest that ingestion of CHO compared with PLA during the second of two bouts of 90-min cycling at 60% VO2max better maintains plasma glucose, blunts hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activation, and attenuates leucocyte trafficking, but does not affect neutrophil function. Furthermore, the disturbances of immunoendocrine responses induced by two bouts of prolonged exercise on the same day recover within 18 h.
Kumar, Dodda Kiran; Mohan, Sreevalli; Begum, Mohammadi; Prasad, Bhanu; Prasad, Eswar Ravi Vara
Since the number of dental patients is increasing day by day dentists are forced to spend longer times in dental chairs. This is increasing the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in dentists. This article reviews the mechanisms causing musculoskeletal disorders among dentists and also covers the exercises that can be done to prevent them. Exercises that increase the fitness of a dentist are divided into aerobic exercises – concentrating on total body fitness, stretching exercises – that concentrate on the muscles that tend to tighten in prolonged dental postures and strengthening exercises – that concentrate on the muscles that are opposite to the tight muscles. These exercises are made simple and of minimal intensity so that a dentist can practice them independently. PMID:25177661
Barton, Emily A; Lu, Yanbin; Megjhani, Murad; Maynard, Mark E; Kulkarni, Prathamesh M; Roysam, Badrinath; Leasure, J Leigh
Exercise is increasingly being used as a treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUD), but the interactive effects of alcohol and exercise on the brain remain largely unexplored. Alcohol damages the brain, in part by altering glial functioning. In contrast, exercise promotes glial health and plasticity. In the present study, we investigated whether binge alcohol would attenuate the effects of subsequent exercise on glia. We focused on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), an alcohol-vulnerable region that also undergoes neuroplastic changes in response to exercise. Adult female Long-Evans rats were gavaged with ethanol (25% w/v) every 8h for 4days. Control animals received an isocaloric, non-alcohol diet. After 7days of abstinence, rats remained sedentary or exercised for 4weeks. Immunofluorescence was then used to label microglia, astrocytes, and neurons in serial tissue sections through the mPFC. Confocal microscope images were processed using FARSIGHT, a computational image analysis toolkit capable of automated analysis of cell number and morphology. We found that exercise increased the number of microglia in the mPFC in control animals. Binged animals that exercised, however, had significantly fewer microglia. Furthermore, computational arbor analytics revealed that the binged animals (regardless of exercise) had microglia with thicker, shorter arbors and significantly less branching, suggestive of partial activation. We found no changes in the number or morphology of mPFC astrocytes. We conclude that binge alcohol exerts a prolonged effect on morphology of mPFC microglia and limits the capacity of exercise to increase their numbers.
Giannattasio, Antonietta; Guarino, Alfredo; Lo Vecchio, Andrea
Prolonged diarrhea is usually defined as acute-onset diarrhea lasting 7 days or more, but less than 14 days. Its trend has been declining in recent years because of improvement in the management of acute diarrhea, which represents the ideal strategy to prevent prolonged diarrhea. The pathogenesis of prolonged diarrhea is multifactorial and essentially based on persistent mucosal damage due to specific infections or sequential infections with different pathogens, host-related factors including micronutrient and/or vitamin deficiency, undernutrition and immunodeficiency, high mucosal permeability due to previous infectious processes and nutrient deficiency with consequential malabsorption, and microbiota disruption. Infections seem to play a major role in causing prolonged diarrhea in both developing and developed areas. However, single etiologic pathogens have not been identified, and the pattern of agents varies according to settings, host risk factors, and previous use of antibiotics and other drugs. The management of prolonged diarrhea is complex. Because of the wide etiologic spectrum, diagnostic algorithms should take into consideration the age of the patient, clinical and epidemiological factors, and the nutritional status and should always include a search for enteric pathogens. Often, expensive laboratory evaluations are of little benefit in guiding therapy, and an empirical approach may be effective in the majority of cases. The presence or absence of weight loss is crucial for driving the initial management of prolonged diarrhea. If there is no weight loss, generally there is no need for further evaluation. If weight loss is present, empiric anti-infectious therapy or elimination diet may be considered once specific etiologies have been excluded. PMID:26962439
Wahlquist, H. D.; Estabrook, F. B.
A technique is developed for systematically deriving a 'prolongation structure' - a set of interrelated potentials and pseudopotentials - for nonlinear partial differential equations in two independent variables. When this is applied to the Korteweg-de Vries equation, a new infinite set of conserved quantities is obtained. Known solution techniques are shown to result from the discovery of such a structure: related partial differential equations for the potential functions, linear 'inverse scattering' equations for auxiliary functions, Backlund transformations. Generalizations of these techniques will result from the use of irreducible matrix representations of the prolongation structure.
Geelen, G.; Greenleaf, J. E.
There are two major problems here that are not independent. One is the more practically oriented problem of determining the effect of various modes of exercise training on gravitational tolerances, i.e., the point of syncope (unconsciousness) usually estimated from the time of appearance of presyncopal signs and symptoms. The other is more theoretical and concerns the mechanism of blood pressure failure that results in syncope. In many experimental designs these two problems or purposes have been intermingled, with equivocal results.
Polivy, Janet; Clendenen, Vanessa
Although reports on the positive effects of fitness and exercise predominate in the exercise literature, some researchers describe frequent exercise as compulsive or addictive behavior. This paper addresses these "negative addictions" of exercise. As early as 1970, researchers recognized the addictive qualities of exercise. Short-term…
Porter, Craig; Hardee, Justin P; Herndon, David N; Suman, Oscar E
Severe burn trauma results in persistent skeletal muscle catabolism and prolonged immobilization. We hypothesize that structured rehabilitative exercise is a safe and efficacious strategy to restore lean body mass and physical function in burn victims. Here, we review the evidence for the utility of rehabilitative exercise training in restoring physiological function in burn survivors.
Lewis, R V; Ramsay, L E; Jackson, P R; Yeo, W W; Lennard, M S; Tucker, G T
1. The effects of single doses of metoprolol 50 mg, metoprolol 100 mg and atenolol 100 mg on exercise tolerance were compared with placebo in a double-blind random cross-over study in 12 healthy subjects. Nine subjects were extensive metabolisers of debrisoquine, and three were poor metabolisers. 2. Three hours after dosing beta-adrenoceptor blocker treatments significantly reduced exercise heart rate, prolonged time to complete exercise, and increased subjective fatigue measured by visual analogue scale. 3. Scores for subjective fatigue did not correlate with reduction in exercise heart rate or prolongation of exercise time. Exercise time prolongation was weakly but not significantly correlated with exercise heart rate reduction. 4. When compared with placebo, prolongation of exercise time and increased fatigue with metoprolol were not significantly related to debrisoquine oxidation phenotype or to the debrisoquine/4-hydroxydebrisoquine (D/4OH-D) ratio. 5. When metoprolol responses were compared with those for atenolol, changes in exercise time and fatigue scores were significantly related to oxidation phenotype. For metoprolol 100 mg, poor metabolisers required 20.8 s longer to complete exercise (P less than 0.05) and had higher fatigue scores by 78% (P less than 0.05) as compared with extensive metabolisers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2049246
Fouré, Alexandre; Nosaka, Kazunori; Wegrzyk, Jennifer; Duhamel, Guillaume; Le Troter, Arnaud; Boudinet, Hélène; Mattei, Jean-Pierre; Vilmen, Christophe; Jubeau, Marc; Bendahan, David; Gondin, Julien
Isometric contractions induced by neuromuscular electrostimulation (NMES) have been shown to result in a prolonged force decrease but the time course of the potential central and peripheral factors have never been investigated. This study examined the specific time course of central and peripheral factors after isometric NMES-induced muscle damage. Twenty-five young healthy men were subjected to an NMES exercise consisting of 40 contractions for both legs. Changes in maximal voluntary contraction force of the knee extensors (MVC), peak evoked force during double stimulations at 10 Hz (Db10) and 100 Hz (Db100), its ratio (10∶100), voluntary activation, muscle soreness and plasma creatine kinase activity were assessed before, immediately after and throughout four days after NMES session. Changes in knee extensors volume and T2 relaxation time were also assessed at two (D2) and four (D4) days post-exercise. MVC decreased by 29% immediately after NMES session and was still 19% lower than the baseline value at D4. The decrease in Db10 was higher than in Db100 immediately and one day post-exercise resulting in a decrease (−12%) in the 10∶100 ratio. On the contrary, voluntary activation significantly decreased at D2 (−5%) and was still depressed at D4 (−5%). Muscle soreness and plasma creatine kinase activity increased after NMES and peaked at D2 and D4, respectively. T2 was also increased at D2 (6%) and D4 (9%). Additionally, changes in MVC and peripheral factors (e.g., Db100) were correlated on the full recovery period, while a significant correlation was found between changes in MVC and VA only from D2 to D4. The decrease in MVC recorded immediately after the NMES session was mainly due to peripheral changes while both central and peripheral contributions were involved in the prolonged force reduction. Interestingly, the chronological events differ from what has been reported so far for voluntary exercise-induced muscle damage. PMID:25215511
Calbet, José A. L.; Boushel, Robert; Helge, Jørn W.; Søndergaard, Hans; Munch‐Andersen, Thor; van Hall, Gerrit; Mortensen, Stefan P.; Secher, Niels H.
New Findings What is the central question of this study? Temperature‐sensitive mechanisms are thought to contribute to blood‐flow regulation, but the relationship between exercising and non‐exercising limb perfusion and blood temperature is not established. What is the main finding and its importance? The close coupling among perfusion, blood temperature and aerobic metabolism in exercising and non‐exercising extremities across different exercise modalities and activity levels and the tight association between limb vasodilatation and increases in plasma ATP suggest that both temperature‐ and metabolism‐sensitive mechanisms are important for the control of human limb perfusion, possibly by activating ATP release from the erythrocytes. Temperature‐sensitive mechanisms may contribute to blood‐flow regulation, but the influence of temperature on perfusion to exercising and non‐exercising human limbs is not established. Blood temperature (T B), blood flow and oxygen uptake (V˙O2) in the legs and arms were measured in 16 healthy humans during 90 min of leg and arm exercise and during exhaustive incremental leg or arm exercise. During prolonged exercise, leg blood flow (LBF) was fourfold higher than arm blood flow (ABF) in association with higher T B and limb V˙O2. Leg and arm vascular conductance during exercise compared with rest was related closely to T B (r 2 = 0.91; P < 0.05), plasma ATP (r 2 = 0.94; P < 0.05) and limb V˙O2 (r 2 = 0.99; P < 0.05). During incremental leg exercise, LBF increased in association with elevations in T B and limb V˙O2, whereas ABF, arm T B and V˙O2 remained largely unchanged. During incremental arm exercise, both ABF and LBF increased in relationship to similar increases in V˙O2. In 12 trained males, increases in femoral T B and LBF during incremental leg exercise were mirrored by similar pulmonary artery T B and cardiac output dynamics, suggesting that processes in active limbs dominate central
... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Exercise-Induced Asthma KidsHealth > For Parents > Exercise-Induced Asthma ... they choose. previous continue Tips for Kids With Exercise-Induced Asthma For the most part, kids with ...
... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Why Exercise Is Cool KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Exercise Is ... day and your body will thank you later! Exercise Makes Your Heart Happy You may know that ...
Prevention - learn to love exercise; Wellness - learn to love exercise ... With so many options for exercise, there is no need to suffer through a workout you do not like. Be true to yourself. Look for activities that ...
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007165.htm Exercise and immunity To use the sharing features on ... take a daily walk or follow a simple exercise routine a few times a week. Exercise helps ...
Gazenko, O. G.; Shulzhenko, E. B.; Turchaninova, V. F.; Egorov, A. D.
This paper presents the results of measuring central and regional (head, forearm, calf) hemodynamics at rest and during provocative tests by the method of tetrapolar rheography in the course of Salyut-6-Soyuz and Salyut-7-Soyuz missions. The measurements were carried out during short-term (19 man-flights of 7 days in duration) and long-term (21 man-flights of 65-237 days in duration) manned missions. At rest, stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) as well as heart rate (HR) decreased insignificantly (in short-term flights) or remained essentially unchanged (in long-term flights). In prolonged flights CO increased significantly in response to exercise tests due to an increase in HR and the lack of changes in SV. After exercise tests SV and CO decreased as compared to the preflight level. During lower body negative pressure (LBNP) tests HR and CO were slightly higher than preflight. Changes in regional hemodynamics included a distinct decrease of pulse blood filling (PBF) of the calf, a reduction of the tone of large vessels of the calf and small vessels of the forearm. Head examination (in the region of the internal carotid artery) showed a decrease of PBF of the left hemisphere (during flight months 2-8) and a distinct decline of the tone of small vessels, mainly, in the right hemisphere. During LBNP tests the tone of pre- and postcapillary vessels of the brain returned to normal while PBF of the right and left hemisphere vessels declined. It has been shown that regional circulation variations depend on the area examined and are induced by a rearrangement of total hemodynamics of the human body in microgravity. This paper reviews the data concerning changes in central and regional circulation of men in space flights of different duration.
Montner, P.; Stark, D. M.; Riedesel, M. L.; Murata, G.; Robergs, R.; Timms, M.; Chick, T. W.
The effects of glycerol ingestion (GEH) on hydration and subsequent cycle ergometer submaximal load exercise were examined in well conditioned subjects. We hypothesized that GEH would reduce physiologic strain and increase endurance. The purpose of Study I (n = 11) was to determine if pre-exercise GEH (1.2 gm/kg glycerol in 26 ml/kg solution) compared to pre-exercise placebo hydration (PH) (26 ml/kg of aspartame flavored water) lowered heart rate (HR), lowered rectal temperature (Tc), and prolonged endurance time (ET) during submaximal load cycle ergometry. The purpose of Study II (n = 7) was to determine if the same pre-exercise regimen followed by carbohydrate oral replacement solution (ORS) during exercise also lowered HR, Tc, and prolonged ET. Both studies were double-blind, randomized, crossover trials, performed at an ambient temperature of 23.5-24.5 degrees C, and humidity of 25-27%. Mean HR was lower by 2.8 +/- 0.4 beats/min (p = 0.05) after GEH in Study I and by 4.4 +/- 1.1 beats/min (p = 0.01) in Study II. Endurance time was prolonged after GEH in Study I (93.8 +/- 14 min vs. 77.4 +/- 9 min, p = 0.049) and in Study II (123.4 +/- 17 min vs. 99.0 +/- 11 min, p = 0.03). Rectal temperature did not differ between hydration regimens in both Study I and Study II. Thus, pre-exercise glycerol-enhanced hyperhydration lowers HR and prolongs ET even when combined with ORS during exercise. The regimens tested in this study could potentially be adapted for endurance activities.
Ozkan, Cenk; Sarpel, Yaman; Biçer, O Sunkar
The effect of exercise on articular cartilage has been assessed on animal models and on humans using various imaging techniques. Joint cartilage, whose water content decreases itself thanks to its unique permeable medium, maintains load distribution and joint function together with the synovial fluid under physiologic conditions and sports activities. The adaptive capacity of joint cartilage is limited under various conditions such as excessive load bearing or prolonged immobilization; however, when these factors are reversed deformed cartilage returns to its former state under normal conditions. Due to its adverse effect on joint cartilage, immobilization period following cartilage damage or operation should be as short as possible for wound healing. It is reported that exercise contributes to cartilage healing and reduces risk for injury, and that moderate exercise can even decrease the number of cases requiring arthroplasty. Conversely, excessive (harsh) exercise may be associated with increased cartilage damage or degenerative changes. Despite the presence of osteophytic changes in joint cartilage of athletes performing mild sports activities, these may not result in osteoarthritis due to the adaptive feature of joint cartilage. In contrast, the risk for osteoarthritis is increased in professional sportsmen exposed to acute repetitive impact and torsional loading. This article reviews the influence of controlled, passive-active exercise on healing, and on the development of osteoarthritis and the short- and long-term changes in articular cartilage associated with exercise and participation in sports of different duration and intensity.
Hulton, A T; Gregson, W; Maclaren, D; Doran, D A
Pre-exercise meals or single foods containing low glycaemic index (LGI) carbohydrates (CHO) have been shown to enhance performance prior to prolonged steady state exercise compared to high glycaemic index (HGI) CHO. This study investigated the impact of HGI and LGI pre-exercise meals on intermittent high intensity exercise. Nine male recreational football players performed a football specific protocol followed by a 1 km time trial 3.5 h after ingesting 1 of 2 isoenergetic test meals (HGI: 870.3 kcal, LGI: 889.5 kcal), which were either HGI (GI: 80) or LGI (GI: 44). Blood glucose, fatty acids (FA), glycerol, β-hydroxybutyrate, lactate and insulin were assessed before, during, and after the exercise bout, whilst rates of CHO and fat oxidation were determined at 4 time points during the protocol. No significant differences were found for the 1 km time trial (LGI: 210.2 ± 19.1 s: HGI: 215.8 ± 22.6 s) (mean ± SD), nor for any of the other variables measured (P>0.05) apart from a significant condition effect with FA and significant interaction effects observed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate and lactate (P<0.05). These findings suggest that the type of CHO ingested in a pre-match meal has no significant impact on performance or metabolic responses during 90 min of intermittent high intensity exercise.
Cox, Pete J; Clarke, Kieran
Ketone bodies acetoacetate (AcAc) and D-β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB) may provide an alternative carbon source to fuel exercise when delivered acutely in nutritional form. The metabolic actions of ketone bodies are based on sound evolutionary principles to prolong survival during caloric deprivation. By harnessing the potential of these metabolic actions during exercise, athletic performance could be influenced, providing a useful model for the application of ketosis in therapeutic conditions. This article examines the energetic implications of ketone body utilisation with particular reference to exercise metabolism and substrate energetics.
Ketone bodies acetoacetate (AcAc) and D-β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB) may provide an alternative carbon source to fuel exercise when delivered acutely in nutritional form. The metabolic actions of ketone bodies are based on sound evolutionary principles to prolong survival during caloric deprivation. By harnessing the potential of these metabolic actions during exercise, athletic performance could be influenced, providing a useful model for the application of ketosis in therapeutic conditions. This article examines the energetic implications of ketone body utilisation with particular reference to exercise metabolism and substrate energetics. PMID:25379174
Shackelford, Linda; Valle, Paul
Load Bearing Equipment for Neutral Buoyancy (LBE-NB) is an exercise frame that holds two exercising subjects in position as they apply counter forces to each other for lower extremity and spine loading resistance exercises. Resistance exercise prevents bone loss on ISS, but the ISS equipment is too massive for use in exploration craft. Integrating the human into the load directing, load generating, and motion control functions of the exercise equipment generates safe exercise loads with less equipment mass and volume.
van Loon, Luc J C
Dietary protein ingestion after exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis, inhibits protein breakdown and, as such, stimulates net muscle protein accretion following resistance as well as endurance type exercise. Protein ingestion during and/or immediately after exercise has been suggested to facilitate the skeletal muscle adaptive response to each exercise session, resulting in more effective muscle reconditioning. A few basic guidelines can be defined with regard to the preferred type and amount of dietary protein and the timing by which protein should be ingested. Whey protein seems to be most effective to increase post-exercise muscle protein synthesis rates. This is likely attributed to its rapid digestion and absorption kinetics and specific amino acid composition. Ingestion of approximately 20 g protein during and/or immediately after exercise is sufficient to maximize post-exercise muscle protein synthesis rates. Additional ingestion of large amounts of carbohydrate does not further increase post-exercise muscle protein synthesis rates when ample protein is already ingested. Dietary protein should be ingested during and/or immediately after cessation of exercise to allow muscle protein synthesis rates to reach maximal levels. Future research should focus on the impact of the timing of protein provision throughout the day on the adaptive response to more prolonged exercise training.
Wilson, Mathew G; Ellison, Georgina M; Cable, N Tim
Cardiorespiratory fitness is a strong predictor of cardiovascular (CV) disease and all-cause mortality, with increases in cardiorespiratory fitness associated with corresponding decreases in CV disease risk. The effects of exercise upon the myocardium and vascular system are dependent upon the frequency, intensity and duration of the exercise itself. Following a prolonged period (≥6 months) of regular intensive exercise in previously untrained individuals, resting and submaximal exercising heart rates are typically 5-20 beats lower, with an increase in stroke volume of ∼20% and enhanced myocardial contractility. Structurally, all four heart chambers increase in volume with mild increases in wall thickness, resulting in greater cardiac mass due to increased myocardial cell size. With this in mind, the present paper aims to review the basic science behind the CV benefits of exercise. Attention will be paid to understanding (1) the relationship between exercise and cardiac remodelling; (2) the cardiac cellular and molecular adaptations in response to exercise, including the examination of molecular mechanisms of physiological cardiac growth and applying these mechanisms to identify new therapeutic targets to prevent or reverse pathological remodelling and heart failure; and (3) vascular adaptations in response to exercise. Finally, this review will briefly examine how to optimise the CV benefits of exercise by considering how much and how intense exercise should be.
Wilson, Mathew G; Ellison, Georgina M; Cable, N Tim
Cardiorespiratory fitness is a strong predictor of cardiovascular (CV) disease and all-cause mortality, with increases in cardiorespiratory fitness associated with corresponding decreases in CV disease risk. The effects of exercise upon the myocardium and vascular system are dependent upon the frequency, intensity and duration of the exercise itself. Following a prolonged period (≥6 months) of regular intensive exercise in previously untrained individuals, resting and submaximal exercising heart rates are typically 5-20 beats lower, with an increase in stroke volume of ∼20% and enhanced myocardial contractility. Structurally, all four heart chambers increase in volume with mild increases in wall thickness, resulting in greater cardiac mass due to increased myocardial cell size. With this in mind, the present paper aims to review the basic science behind the CV benefits of exercise. Attention will be paid to understanding (1) the relationship between exercise and cardiac remodelling; (2) the cardiac cellular and molecular adaptations in response to exercise, including the examination of molecular mechanisms of physiological cardiac growth and applying these mechanisms to identify new therapeutic targets to prevent or reverse pathological remodelling and heart failure; and (3) vascular adaptations in response to exercise. Finally, this review will briefly examine how to optimise the CV benefits of exercise by considering how much and how intense exercise should be.
Van Beaumont, W.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Juhos, L.
The interrelationships between the changes in plasma volume, hematocrit, and plasma proteins during muscular exercise and bed rest were investigated. Proportionally, the changes in hematocrit are always smaller than the changes in plasma volume. For this reason changes in the concentration of blood constituents can only be quantitated on the basis of plasma volume changes. During short periods of intensive exercise, there was a small loss of plasma proteins. With prolonged submaximal exercise there was a net gain in plasma protein, which contributes to stabilization of the vascular volume. Prolonged bed rest induced hypoproteinemia; this loss of plasma protein probably plays an important role in recumbency hypovolemia.
Barrows, Linda H.; Harris, Bernard A.; Moore, Alan D.; Siconolfi, Steven F.
Energy yield from carbohydrate, fat, and protein during physical activity is partially dependent on an individual's fitness level. Prolonged exposure to microgravity causes musculoskeletal and cardiovascular deconditioning; these adaptations may alter fuel utilization during space flight. Carbohydrate and fat metabolism during exercise were analyzed before and after 7 days of horizontal bed rest.
Kruk, B.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Nazar, K.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Kozlowski, S.
An experimental investigation of the mechanisms of performance prolongation during exercise is presented. Measurements were obtained of the rectal, muscle, and hypothalamic temperature of dogs during treadmill exercise at an ambient temperature of 22 + or - 1 C, with and without cooling by use of ice packs. In comparison with exercise without cooling, exercise with cooling was found to: (1) increase exercise duration from 90 + or - 14 to 145 + or - 15 min; (2) attenuate increases in hypothalamic, rectal and muscle temperature; (3) decrease respiratory and heart rates; and (4) lower blood lactic acid content. It is shown that although significant differences were found between the brain, core, and muscle temperatures during exercise with and without cooling, an inverse relation was observed between muscle temperature and the total duration of exercise. It is suggested that sustained muscle hyperthermia may have contributed to the limitation of working ability in exercise with and without cooling.
Osteoporosis - exercise; Low bone density - exercise; Osteopenia - exercise ... To build up bone density, the exercise must make your muscles pull on your bones. These are called weight-bearing exercises. Some of them are: ...
Sanders, Grant D.; Nitz, Arthur J.; Abel, Mark G.; Symons, T. Brock; Shapiro, Robert; Black, W. Scott; Yates, James W.
Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of manual manipulations targeting the lumbar spine and/or sacroiliac joint on concentric knee extension and flexion forces. Torque production was measured during isometric and isokinetic contractions. Methods This was a randomized, controlled, single-blind crossover design with 21 asymptomatic, college-aged subjects who had never received spinal manipulation. During 2 separate sessions, subjects’ peak torques were recorded while performing maximal voluntary contractions on an isokinetic dynamometer. Isometric knee extension and flexion were recorded at 60° of knee flexion, in addition to isokinetic measurements obtained at 60°/s and 180°/s. Baseline measurements were acquired before either treatment form of lumbosacral manipulation or sham manipulation, followed by identical peak torque measurements within 5 and 20 minutes posttreatment. Data were analyzed with a repeated measures analysis of variance. Results A statistically significant difference did not occur between the effects of lumbosacral manipulation or the sham manipulation in the percentage changes of knee extension and flexion peak torques at 5 and 20 minutes posttreatment. Similar, nonsignificant results were observed in the overall percentage changes of isometric contractions (spinal manipulation 4.0 ± 9.5 vs sham 1.2 ± 6.3, P = .067), isokinetic contractions at 60°/s (spinal manipulation − 4.0 ± 14.2 vs sham − 0.3 ± 8.2, P = .34), and isokinetic contractions at 180°/s (spinal manipulation − 1.4 ± 13.9 vs sham − 5.5 ± 20.0, P = .18). Conclusion The results of the current study suggest that spinal manipulation does not yield an immediate strength-enhancing effect about the knee in healthy, college-aged subjects when measured with isokinetic dynamometry. PMID:26793035
Bennett, D H
Sotalol, a beta adrenoceptor antagonist, was given intravenously to 15 patients with accessory atrioventricular pathways during intracardiac electrophysiological studies. Eleven patients had the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and four patients had concealed left sided accessory pathways. Four patients were restudied while receiving oral sotalol. In contrast to the actions typical of beta blocking agents, intravenous sotalol prolonged the effective refractory periods of the ventricles and accessory pathways and reduced the ventricular response to atrial fibrillation in the patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Similar results were obtained with oral administration. These findings support the observation that sotalol, unlike other beta blocking agents. causes acute prolongation of the myocardial action potential and suggest that this action might be of therapeutic use. PMID:7082500
Burgeat, M.; Toupet, M.; Loth, D.; Ingster, I.; Guell, A.; Coll, J.
6 young, healthy, male volunteers were submitted to one week of head down (-4°) bedrest. This position simulates the cerebral hemodynamic conditions in weightlessness. Measurements of vestibular equilibrium and of oculomotor system function were made before and after the prolonged bedrest. Analysis of the results indicates that vestibular responses, as measured by the maximal speed of the slow phase of the provoked nystagmus (caloric and sinusoidal rotatory stimulations), are decreased after prolonged bedrest. This statistically significant diminution requires confirmation with a greater number of cases. The reflex conflicting or interacting with the cervico-ocular and optokinetic reflexes on the one hand and the foveal vision on the other, is one of several possible explanations for the observed changes.
Chan, Thomas Yan Keung
Ciguatera results when ciguatoxin-contaminated coral reef fish from tropical or subtropical waters are consumed. The clinical features that present in affected persons are mainly gastrointestinal, neurological, general, and much less commonly, cardiovascular. We report the case of a 50-year-old man who developed the characteristic combination of acute gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms after the consumption of an unidentified coral reef fish head. In addition to those symptoms, he developed dizziness, severe bradycardia (46 bpm) and prolonged hypotension, which required the administration of intravenous atropine and over three days of intravenous fluid replacement with dopamine infusion. Patients with ciguatera can develop severe bradycardia and prolonged hypotension. Physicians should recognise the possible cardiovascular complications of ciguatera and promptly initiate treatment with intravenous atropine, intravenous fluid replacement and inotropic therapy if such complications are observed.
Lovallo, William R
Researchers and laypersons have long argued that stress is bad for health, particularly when responses are large, prolonged, and frequent. By extension, individuals who have the largest and the most prolonged responses are assumed to have worse outcomes than do less reactive persons. Research in animals has been supportive of the connection between stress and poor health, but evidence in humans has been slow to accumulate. The current issue of Psychosomatic Medicine presents a meta-analysis of 33 studies of delayed recovery from stress and its association with poor cardiovascular disease outcomes and all-cause mortality. The analysis supports the contention that slower recovery to baseline after exercise or psychological stress may predict earlier death due to all causes. This finding raises questions for psychosomatic theories of disease and points the direction for further study of how or whether to incorporate reactivity measures into standard risk profiles.
Paulson, Steve; Comfort, Christopher P; Lee, Barbara Coombs; Shemie, Sam; Solomon, Mildred Z
The ability of modern medicine to prolong life has raised a variety of difficult legal, ethical, and social issues on which reasonable minds can differ. Among these are the morality of euthanasia in cases of deep coma or irreversible injury, as well as the Dead Donor Rule with respect to organ harvesting and transplants. As science continues to refine and develop lifesaving technologies, questions remain as to how much medical effort and financial resources should be expended to prolong the lives of patients suspended between life and death. At what point should death be considered irreversible? What criteria should be used to determine when to withhold or withdraw life-prolonging treatments in cases of severe brain damage and terminal illness? To explore these complex dilemmas, Steve Paulson, executive producer and host of To the Best of Our Knowledge, moderated a discussion panel. Pediatrician Sam Shemie, hospice medical director Christopher P. Comfort, bioethicist Mildred Z. Solomon, and attorney Barbara Coombs Lee examined the underlying assumptions and considerations that ultimately shape individual and societal decisions surrounding these issues. The following is an edited transcript of the discussion that occurred November 12, 2013, 7:00-8:30 PM, at the New York Academy of Sciences in New York City.
Tsukamoto, Hayato; Suga, Tadashi; Takenaka, Saki; Tanaka, Daichi; Takeuchi, Tatsuya; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Isaka, Tadao; Hashimoto, Takeshi
Aerobic moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MCE) can improve executive function (EF) acutely, potentially through the activation of both physiological and psychological factors. Recently, high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) has been reported to be more beneficial for physical adaptation than MCE. Factors for EF improvement can potentially be more enhanced by HIIE than by MCE; but the effects of HIIE on EF remain unknown. Therefore, we aimed to examine to what extent HIIE impacts post-exercise EF immediately after exercise and during post-exercise recovery, compared with traditional MCE. Twelve healthy male subjects performed cycle ergometer exercise based on either HIIE or MCE protocols in a randomized and counterbalanced order. The HIIE protocol consisted of four 4-min bouts at 90% of peak VO2 with 3-min active recovery at 60% of peak VO2. A volume-matched MCE protocol was applied at 60% of peak VO2. To evaluate EF, a color-words Stroop task was performed pre- and post-exercise. Improvement in EF immediately after exercise was the same for the HIIE and MCE protocols. However, the improvement of EF by HIIE was sustained during 30 min of post-exercise recovery, during which MCE returned to the pre-exercise level. The EF response in the post-exercise recovery was associated with changes in physiological and psychological responses. The present findings showed that HIIE and MCE were capable of improving EF. Moreover, HIIE could prolong improvement in EF during post-exercise recovery. For the first time, we suggest that HIIE may be more effective strategy than MCE for improving EF.
Lawrenson, L; Hoff, J; Richardson, R S
The interactions between exercise, vascular and metabolic plasticity, and aging have provided insight into the prevention and restoration of declining whole body and small muscle mass exercise performance known to occur with age. Metabolic and vascular adaptations to normoxic knee-extensor exercise training (1 h 3 times a week for 8 wk) were compared between six sedentary young (20 +/- 1 yr) and six sedentary old (67 +/- 2 yr) subjects. Arterial and venous blood samples, in conjunction with a thermodilution technique facilitated the measurement of quadriceps muscle blood flow and hematologic variables during incremental knee-extensor exercise. Pretraining, young and old subjects attained a similar maximal work rate (WR(max)) (young = 27 +/- 3, old = 24 +/- 4 W) and similar maximal quadriceps O(2) consumption (muscle Vo(2 max)) (young = 0.52 +/- 0.03, old = 0.42 +/- 0.05 l/min), which increased equally in both groups posttraining (WR(max), young = 38 +/- 1, old = 36 +/- 4 W, Muscle Vo(2 max), young = 0.71 +/- 0.1, old = 0.63 +/- 0.1 l/min). Before training, muscle blood flow was approximately 500 ml lower in the old compared with the young throughout incremental knee-extensor exercise. After 8 wk of knee-extensor exercise training, the young reduced muscle blood flow approximately 700 ml/min, elevated arteriovenous O(2) difference approximately 1.3 ml/dl, and increased leg vascular resistance approximately 17 mmHg x ml(-1) x min(-1), whereas the old subjects revealed no training-induced changes in these variables. Together, these findings indicate that after 8 wk of small muscle mass exercise training, young and old subjects of equal initial metabolic capacity have a similar ability to increase quadriceps muscle WR(max) and muscle Vo(2 max), despite an attenuated vascular and/or metabolic adaptation to submaximal exercise in the old.
Houghton, Laurence; Dawson, Brian; Rubenson, Jonas
Effects of prolonged running on Achilles tendon properties were assessed after a 60 min treadmill run and 140 min intermittent shuttle running (simulated cricket batting innings). Before and after exercise, 11 participants performed ramp-up plantar flexions to maximum-voluntary-contraction before gradual relaxation. Muscle-tendon-junction displacement was measured with ultrasonography. Tendon force was estimated using dynamometry and a musculoskeletal model. Gradients of the ramp-up force-displacement curves fitted between 0-40% and 50-90% of the preexercise maximal force determined stiffness in the low- and high-force-range, respectively. Hysteresis was determined using the ramp-up and relaxation force-displacement curves and elastic energy storage from the area under the ramp-up curve. In simulated batting, correlations between tendon properties and shuttle times were also assessed. After both protocols, Achilles tendon force decreased (4% to 5%, P < .050), but there were no changes in stiffness, hysteresis, or elastic energy. In simulated batting, Achilles tendon force and stiffness were both correlated to mean turn and mean sprint times (r = -0.719 to -0.830, P < .050). Neither protocol resulted in fatigue-related changes in tendon properties, but higher tendon stiffness and plantar flexion force were related to faster turn and sprint times, possibly by improving force transmission and control of movement when decelerating and accelerating.
... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Easy Exercises for Teens KidsHealth > For Teens > Easy Exercises for Teens A A A en español Ejercicios ... all the running around we do counts as exercise. (It does. But if it's the only exercise ...
... moderate-intensity exercise. Remember, even 10 minutes of exercise benefits your body. If you exercised vigorously before pregnancy ... want to join a gym but want the benefits of having someone to exercise with, ask a friend to be your workout ...
Gualtierotti, T.; Bracchi, F.
The technique of single unit recording from body systems generating electrical pulses coherent with their basic function (CNS, muscles, sense organs) has been proved feasible during the OFO A orbital flight, an automatic physiological experiment. The results of recording 155 hours of orbital flight of pulses from the nerve fibres of four vestibular gravity sensors in two bull frogs indicate that the vestibular organ adjusts to zero g. As all the other biological changes observed during orbit are due to lack of exercise, it is concluded that artificial gravity might not be necessary during prolonged space missions or on low gravity celestial bodies.
Vainshtein, Anna; Hood, David A
The merits of exercise on muscle health and well-being are numerous and well documented. However, the mechanisms underlying the robust adaptations induced by exercise, particularly on mitochondria, are less clear and much sought after. Recently, an evolutionary conserved cellular recycling mechanism known as autophagy has been implicated in the adaptations to acute and chronic exercise. A basal level of autophagy is constantly ongoing in cells and tissues, ensuring cellular clearance and energy homeostasis. This pathway can be further induced, as a survival mechanism, by cellular perturbations, such as energetic imbalance and oxidative stress. During exercise, a biphasic autophagy response is mobilized, leading to both an acute induction and a long-term potentiation of the process. Posttranslational modifications arising from upstream signaling cascades induce an acute autophagic response during a single bout of exercise by mobilizing core autophagy machinery. A transcriptional program involving the regulators Forkhead box O, transcription factor EB, p53, and peroxisome proliferator coactivator-1α is also induced to fuel sustained increases in autophagic capacity. Autophagy has also been documented to mediate chronic exercise-induced metabolic benefits, and animal models in which autophagy is perturbed do not adapt to exercise to the same extent. In this review, we discuss recent developments in the field of autophagy and exercise. We specifically highlight the molecular mechanisms activated during acute exercise that lead to a prolonged adaptive response.
Walker, Simon; Santolamazza, Fabrizio; Kraemer, William; Häkkinen, Keijo
The present study investigated changes in acute serum hormone responses to a resistance exercise bout following a prolonged period of hypertrophic resistance training in young (YM) and older men (OM). Subjects performed a 5 × 10RM leg press exercise protocol before and after 20 weeks of hypertrophic resistance training. In YM, the acute responses in growth hormone were greater compared with before training (p < .05), and cortisol concentration did not increase after training. Endocrine responses in OM were similar before and after training. Greater acute growth hormone responses after training were associated with larger gains in lean mass in the entire subject group (r = .596, p = .019). These findings suggest that, in general, YM demonstrate greater adaptability within the endocrine system compared with OM. However, adaptability in growth hormone response was associated with larger training-induced gains independent of age.
Walker, Simon; Santolamazza, Fabrizio; Kraemer, William; Häkkinen, Keijo
The present study investigated changes in acute serum hormone responses to a resistance exercise bout following a prolonged period of hypertrophic resistance training in young (YM) and older men (OM). Subjects performed a 5 × 10RM leg press exercise protocol before and after 20 weeks of hypertrophic resistance training. In YM, the acute responses in growth hormone were greater compared to before training (P < 0.05), and cortisol concentration did not increase after training. Endocrine responses in OM were similar before and after training. Greater acute growth hormone responses after training were associated with larger gains in lean mass in the entire subject group (r = 0.596, P = 0.019). These findings suggest that, in general, YM demonstrate greater adaptability within the endocrine system compared to OM. However, adaptability in growth hormone response was associated with larger training-induced gains independent of age.
Peinado, Ana B; Rojo-Tirado, Miguel A; Benito, Pedro J
Muscle glycogen, the predominant form of stored glucose in the body, and blood glucose are the main energy substrates for muscle contraction during exercise. Sucrose is an ideal substance for athletes to incorporate because it provides both glucose and fructose. Therefore, it is essential that athletes monitor their diet to maintain and increase muscle glycogen deposits, since they are a major limiting factor of prolonged exercise performance. Carbohydrate-rich diets are also recommended for endurance and ultra-endurance exercise, because they are associated with increased muscle glycogen stores, as well as delayed onset of fatigue. In addition, high carbohydrate diets and carbohydrate intake before and during exercise have shown to be beneficial due to increased concentrations of hepatic glycogen and maintenance of blood glucose. The effect of carbohydrate intake on athletic performance mainly depends on the characteristics of the exercise, the type and amount of carbohydrate ingested and the time of intake. A combination of these factors must be taken into account when analysing individual athletic performance.
Skurvydas, Albertas; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Stanislovaitis, Aleksas; Streckis, Vytautas; Mamkus, Gediminas; Drazdauskas, Adomas
Context: Whether muscle warming protects against exercise-induced muscle damage is unknown. Objective: To determine the effect of leg immersion in warm water before stretch-shortening exercise on the time course of indirect markers of exercise-induced muscle damage. Design: Crossover trial. Setting: Human kinetics laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Eleven healthy, untrained men (age = 21.5 ± 1.7 years). Intervention(s): Participants' legs were immersed in a water bath at 44 ± 1°C for 45 minutes. Main Outcome Measure(s): Creatine kinase changes in the blood, muscle soreness, prolonged (within 72 hours) impairment in maximal voluntary contraction force and height of drop jump, and electrically evoked muscle force at low and high stimulation frequencies at short and long muscle lengths. Results: Leg immersion in warm water before stretch-shortening exercise reduced most of the indirect markers of exercise-induced muscle damage, including creatine kinase activity in the blood, muscle soreness, maximal voluntary contraction force, and jump height. The values for maximal voluntary contraction force and jump height, however, were higher during prewarming than for the control condition at 48 hours after stretch-shortening exercise, but this difference was only minor at other time points. Muscle prewarming did not bring about any changes in the dynamics of low-frequency fatigue, registered at either short or long muscle length, within 72 hours of stretch-shortening exercise. Conclusions: Leg immersion in warm water before stretch-shortening exercise reduced most of the indirect markers of exercise-induced muscle damage. However, the clinical application of muscle prewarming may be limited, because decreasing muscle damage did not necessarily lead to improved voluntary performance. PMID:19030137
Kim, Sang Hyun; Koh, Jin Ho; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Jung, Su Ryun; Holloszy, John O; Han, Dong-Ho
Endurance exercise training can increase the ability to perform prolonged strenuous exercise. The major adaptation responsible for this increase in endurance is an increase in muscle mitochondria. This adaptation occurs too slowly to provide a survival advantage when there is a sudden change in environment that necessitates prolonged exercise. In the present study, we discovered another, more rapid adaptation, a downregulation of expression of the glycogenolytic and glycolytic enzymes in muscle that mediates a slowing of muscle glycogen depletion and lactic acid accumulation. This adaptation, which appears to be mediated by PGC-1α, occurs in response to a single exercise bout and is further enhanced by two additional daily exercise bouts. It is biologically significant, because glycogen depletion and lactic acid accumulation are two of the major causes of muscle fatigue and exhaustion. PMID:25416622
Vasilyev, P. V.
An analysis of published data are presented as well as the results of experiments which show that the state of weightlessness and hypodynamia result in a reduced orthostatic and vestibular resistance, increased sensitivity to infections, decreased endurance of accelerations and physical exercises, and altered reactivity of the organism to drugs. Various consequences of weightlessness on the human body, especially weightlessness combined with other factors linked to long space flights are also considered.
Mahler, J F
Aging is an important biological process that affects all creatures. For humans, age-related diseases and the question of why we age and die also have tremendous social and philosophical impact. We can therefore expect that models to study mechanisms of the aging process will always attract much interest. Until recently, the mutant model approach to study molecular mechanisms of aging has been limited to lower animals such as yeast, worms, and flies. However, given the current power of genetic technology in mammals, we can expect that phenotypes of prolonged life span will increasingly be seen in mice and subject to evaluation by pathologists. A brief review of current models is presented.
Ahmad, Maqsood; Shabbir, Khawar
Electrical shock is typically an untoward exposure of human body to any source of electricity that causes a sufficient current to pass through the skin, muscles or hair causing undesirable effects ranging from simple burns to death. Ventricular fibrillation is believed to be the most common cause of death following electrical shock. The case under discussion is of a young man who survived following electrical shock after prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), multiple defibrillations and artificial ventilation due to poor respiratory effort. Early start of chest compressions played a vital role in successful CPR.
Chen, M.; Alexander, M.
A determination was made of the kinds and numbers of bacteria surviving when two soils were maintained in the laboratory under dry conditions for more than half a year. Certain non-spore-forming bacteria were found to survive in the dry condition for long periods. A higher percentage of drought-tolerant than drought-sensitive bacteria was able to grow at low water activities. When they were grown in media with high salt concentrations, bacteria generally became more tolerant of prolonged drought and they persisted longer. The percent of cells in a bacterial population that remained viable when exposed to drought stress varied with the stage of growth.
Greenleaf, J. E.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)
A 30-day 6 deg. head-down bed rest study was conducted to evaluate high-intensity, short-duration, alternating isotonic cycle ergometer exercise (ITE) training and high-intensity intermittent isokinetic exercise (IKE) training regiments designed to maintain peak VO2 and muscle mass, strength, and endurance at ambulatory control levels throughout prolonged bed rest. Other elements of the deconditioning (acclimation) syndrome, such as proprioception, psychological performance, hypovolemia, water balance, body composition, and orthostatic tolerance, were also measured. Compared with response during bed rest of the no exercise (NOE) control group: the ITE training regimen (a) maintained work capacity (peak VO2), (b) maintained plasma and red cell volume, (c) induced positive body water balance, (d) decreased quality of sleep and mental concentration, and (e) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance; the IKE training regimen (a) attenuated the decrease in peak VO2 by 50%, (b) attenuated loss of red cell volume by 40%, but had no effect on loss of plasma volume, (c) induced positive body water balance, (d) had no adverse effect on quality of sleep or concentration, and (e) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance. These findings suggest that various elements of the deconditioning syndrome can be manipulated by duration and intensity of ITE or IKE training regiments, and that several different training protocols will be required to maintain or restore physiological and psychological performance of individuals confined to prolonged bed rest.
Carroll, Timothy John; Taylor, Janet L; Gandevia, Simon C
Sustained physical exercise leads to a reduced capacity to produce voluntary force that typically outlasts the exercise bout. This "fatigue" can be due both to impaired muscle function, termed "peripheral fatigue", and a reduction in the capacity of the central nervous system to activate muscles, termed "central fatigue". In this mini-review we consider the factors that determine the recovery of voluntary force generating capacity after various types of exercise. After brief, high-intensity exercise there is typically a rapid restitution of force that is due to recovery of central fatigue (typically within 2min) and aspects of peripheral fatigue associated with excitation-contraction coupling and re-perfusion of muscles (typically within 3-5 min). Complete recovery of muscle function may be incomplete for some hours, however, due to prolonged impairment in intracellular Ca(2+) release or sensitivity. After low-intensity exercise of long duration, voluntary force typically shows rapid, partial, recovery within the first few minutes, due largely to recovery of the central, neural component. However, this ability to voluntarily activate muscles may not recover completely within 30 minutes after exercise. Recovery of peripheral fatigue contributes comparatively little to the fast initial force restitution, and is typically incomplete for at least 20-30 minutes. Work remains to identify what factors underlie the prolonged central fatigue that usually accompanies long-duration single joint and locomotor exercise, and to document how the time-course of neuromuscular recovery is affected by exercise intensity and duration in locomotor exercise. Such information could be useful to enhance rehabilitation and sports performance.
Peng, Cheng; Zuo, Yuanyuan; Kwan, Kin Ming; Liang, Yintong; Ma, Ka Ying; Chan, Ho Yin Edwin; Huang, Yu; Yu, Hongjian; Chen, Zhen-Yu
Blueberry possesses greater antioxidant capacity than most other fruits and vegetables. The present study investigated the lifespan-prolonging activity of blueberry extracts in fruit flies and explored its underlying mechanism. Results revealed that blueberry extracts at 5mg/ml in diet could significantly extend the mean lifespan of fruit flies by 10%, accompanied by up-regulating gene expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and Rpn11 and down-regulating Methuselah (MTH) gene. Intensive H(2)O(2) and Paraquat challenge tests showed that lifespan was only extended in Oregon-R wild type flies but not in SOD(n108) or Cat(n1) mutant strains. Chronic Paraquat exposure shortened the maximum survival time from 73 to 35days and decreased the climbing ability by 60% while blueberry extracts at 5mg/ml in diet could significantly increase the survival rate and partially restore the climbing ability with up-regulating SOD, CAT, and Rpn11. Furthermore, gustatory assay demonstrated that those changes were not due to the variation of food intake between the control and the experimental diet containing 5mg/ml blueberry extracts. It was therefore concluded that the lifespan-prolonging activity of blueberry extracts was at least partially associated with its interactions with MTH, Rpn11, and endogenous antioxidant enzymes SOD and CAT.
Wang, Liqiang; Shankarappa, Sahadev A.; Tong, Rong; Ciolino, Joseph B.; Tsui, Jonathan H.; Chiang, Homer H.; Kohane, Daniel S.
Purpose Ocular local anesthetics (OLA’s) currently used in routine clinical practice for corneal anesthesia are short acting and their ability to delay corneal healing makes them unsuitable for long-term use. In this study, we examined the effect on the duration of corneal anesthesia of the site-1 sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX), applied with either proparacaine or the chemical permeation enhancer OTAB. The effect of test solutions on corneal healing was also studied. Methods Solutions of TTX, proparacaine, and OTAB, singly or in combination were applied topically to the rat cornea. The blink response, an indirect measure of corneal sensitivity, was recorded using a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer, and the duration of corneal anesthesia calculated. The effect of test compounds on the rate of corneal epithelialization was studied in vivo following corneal debridement. Results Combination of TTX and proparacaine resulted in corneal anesthesia that was 8–10 times longer in duration than that from either drug administered alone, while OTAB did not prolong anesthesia. The rate of corneal healing was moderately delayed following co-administration of TTX and proparacaine. Conclusion Co-administration of TTX and proparacaine significantly prolonged corneal anesthesia but in view of delayed corneal re-epithelialization, caution is suggested in use of the combination. PMID:23615270
Youness, Houssein; Al Halabi, Tarek; Hussein, Hussein; Awab, Ahmed; Jones, Kellie; Keddissi, Jean
The maximal duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is unknown. We report a case of prolonged CPR. We have then reviewed all published cases with CPR duration equal to or more than 20 minutes. The objective was to determine the survival rate, the neurological outcome, and the characteristics of the survivors. Measurements and Main Results. The CPR data for 82 patients was reviewed. The median duration of CPR was 75 minutes. Patients mean age was 43 ± 21 years with no significant comorbidities. The main causes of the cardiac arrests were myocardial infarction (29%), hypothermia (21%), and pulmonary emboli (12%). 74% of the arrests were witnessed, with a mean latency to CPR of 2 ± 6 minutes and good quality chest compression provided in 96% of the cases. Adjunct therapy included extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (18%), thrombolysis (15.8%), and rewarming for hypothermia (19.5%). 83% were alive at 1 year, with full neurological recovery reported in 63 patients. Conclusion. Patients undergoing prolonged CPR can survive with good outcome. Young age, myocardial infarction, and potentially reversible causes of cardiac arrest such as hypothermia and pulmonary emboli predict a favorable result, especially when the arrest is witnessed and followed by prompt and good resuscitative efforts. PMID:26885387
Ferrando-Castagnetto, Federico; Ricca-Mallada, Roberto; Vidal, Alejandro; Martínez, Fabián; Ferrando, Rodolfo
Pacemaker stimulation is associated with unpredictable severe cardiac events. We evaluated left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony (LVMD) during prolonged septal right ventricular pacing. We performed 99mTc-MIBI gated-SPECT and phase analysis in 6 patients with pacemakers implanted at least one year before scintigraphy due to advanced atrioventricular block. Using V-Sync of Emory Cardiac Toolbox we obtained phase bandwidth (PBW) and standard deviation (PSD) from rest phase histogram. Clinical variables, QRS duration, rate and mode of pacing in septal right ventricle wall, chamber diameters, presence and extension of myocardial scar and ischemia and rest LVEF were recorded. Prolonged septal endocardial pacing is associated with marked LVMD, even when systolic function was preserved. More severe dyssynchrony was found in patients with impaired LVEF, higher left ventricle diameters, extensive infarct or severe ischemia than in patients with preserved LVEF (PBW: 177.3o vs. 88.3o; PSD: 53.1o vs. 33.8o). In the patients with ischemic heart disease and pacemaker, gated-SPECT phase analysis is a valid and potentially useful technique to evaluate LMVD associated with myocardial scar and to decide the upgrading to biventricular pacing mode.
Trottier, N L; Nielsen, B D; Lang, K J; Ku, P K; Schott, H C
Six 2-year-old Arabian horses were used to determine whether 60 km prolonged endurance exercise (approximately 4 h) alters amino acid concentrations in serum and muscle, and the time required for serum amino acid concentrations to return to basal resting values. Blood and muscle samples were collected throughout exercise and during a 3 day recovery period. Isoleucine concentration in muscle tended to increase and leucine and valine did not change due to exercise. Serum alanine concentrations did not increase immediately after exercise, but increased at 24, 48 and 72 h postexercise. Serum isoleucine, leucine, and valine concentrations decreased after exercise and time required to reach pre-exercising concentrations was 48 h. In conclusion, endurance exercise in the horse decreases serum isoleucine, leucine, and valine concentrations, and increases serum alanine concentration. The decrease in serum branched-chain amino acid concentrations did not correspond to a measurable increase in total muscle branched-chain amino acid concentrations.
Aschar-Sobbi, Roozbeh; Izaddoustdar, Farzad; Korogyi, Adam S.; Wang, Qiongling; Farman, Gerrie P.; Yang, FengHua; Yang, Wallace; Dorian, David; Simpson, Jeremy A.; Tuomi, Jari M.; Jones, Douglas L.; Nanthakumar, Kumaraswamy; Cox, Brian; Wehrens, Xander H.T.; Dorian, Paul; Backx, Peter H.
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common supraventricular arrhythmia that, for unknown reasons, is linked to intense endurance exercise. Our studies reveal that 6 weeks of swimming or treadmill exercise improves heart pump function and reduces heart-rates. Exercise also increases vulnerability to AF in association with inflammation, fibrosis, increased vagal tone, slowed conduction velocity, prolonged cardiomyocyte action potentials and RyR2 phosphorylation (CamKII-dependent S2814) in the atria, without corresponding alterations in the ventricles. Microarray results suggest the involvement of the inflammatory cytokine, TNFα, in exercised-induced atrial remodelling. Accordingly, exercise induces TNFα-dependent activation of both NFκB and p38MAPK, while TNFα inhibition (with etanercept), TNFα gene ablation, or p38 inhibition, prevents atrial structural remodelling and AF vulnerability in response to exercise, without affecting the beneficial physiological changes. Our results identify TNFα as a key factor in the pathology of intense exercise-induced AF. PMID:25598495
Linderman, J K; Whittall, J B; Gosselink, K L; Wang, T J; Mukku, V R; Booth, F W; Grindeland, R E
The objective of this study was to determine the ability of a single bout of resistance exercise alone or in combination with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) to stimulate myofibrillar protein synthesis (Ks) in hindlimb suspended (HLS) adult female rats. Plantar flexor muscles were stimulated with resistance exercise, consisting of 10 repetitions of ladder climbing on a 1 m grid (85 degrees), carrying an additional 50% of their body weight attached to their tails. Saline or rhGH (1 mg/kg) was administered 30' prior to exercise, and Ks was determined with a constant infusion of 3H-Leucine at 15', 60', 180', and 360' following exercise. Three days of HLS depressed Ks approximately 65% and 30-40% in the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles, respectively (p < or = 0.05). Exercise increased soleus Ks in saline-treated rats 149% 60' following exercise (p < or = 0.05), decaying to that of non-exercised animals during the next 5 hours. Relative to suspended, non-exercised rats rhGH+exercise increased soleus Ks 84%, 108%, and 72% at 15', 60' and 360' following exercise (p < or = 0.05). Gastrocnemius Ks was not significantly increased by exercise or the combination of rhGH and exercise up to 360' post-exercise. Results from this study indicate that resistance exercise stimulated Ks 60' post-exercise in the soleus of HLS rats, with no apparent effect of rhGH to enhance or prolong exercise-induced stimulation. Results suggests that exercise frequency may be important to maintenance of the slow-twitch soleus during non-weightbearing, but that the ability of resistance exercise to maintain myofibrillar protein content in the gastrocnemius of hindlimb suspended rats cannot be explained by acute stimulation of synthesis.
Linderman, Jon K.; Whittall, Justen B.; Gosselink, Kristin L.; Wang, Tommy J.; Mukku, Venkat R.; Booth, Frank W.; Grindeland, Richard E.
The objective of this study was to determine the ability of a single bout of resistance exercise alone or in combination with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) to stimulate myofibrillar protein synthesis (Ks) in hindlimb suspended (HLS) adult female rats. Plantar flexor muscles were stimulated with resistance exercise, consisting of 10 repetitions of ladder climbing on a 1 m grid (85 deg.), carrying an additional 50% of their body weight attached to their tails. Saline or rhGH (1 mg/kg) was administered 30' prior to exercise, and Ks was determined with a constant infusion of H-3-Leucine at 15', 60', 180', and 360' following exercise. Three days of HLS depressed Ks is approx. equal to 65% and 30-40% in the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles, respectively (p is less than or equal to 0.05). Exercise increased soleus Ks in saline-treated rats 149% 60' following exercise (p less than or equal to 0.05), decaying to that of non-exercised animals during the next 5 hours. Relative to suspended, non-exercised rats rhGH + exercise increased soleus Ks 84%, 108%, and 72% at 15', 60' and 360' following exercise (p is less than or equal to 0.05). Gastrocnemius Ks was not significantly increased by exercise or the combination of rhGH and exercise up to 360' post-exercise. Results from this study indicate that resistance exercise stimulated Ks 60' post-exercise in the soleus of HLS rats, with no apparent effect of rhGH to enhance or prolong exercise-induced stimulation. Results suggests that exercise frequency may be important to maintenance of the slow-twitch soleus during non-weightbearing, but that the ability of resistance exercise to maintain myofibrillar protein content in the gastrocnemius of hindlimb suspended rats cannot be explained by acute stimulation of synthesis.
Deroshia, Charles W.; Greenleaf, J. E.
A study aimed at determining if the performance and mood impairments occur in bed-rested subjects, and if different exercise-training regimens modify or prevent them is presented. Eighteen healthy men were divided into three groups performing no exercise, isotonic exercise, and isokinetic exercise. Few deleterious changes occurred in performance and mood of the three groups which did not exceed baseline ambulatory levels. It is concluded that mood and performance did not deteriorate in response to prolonged bedrest and were not altered by exercise training.
Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Pehlivanidis, Hercules; Papadopoulou, Sofia; Valle, Xavier; Malliaras, Peter; Maffulli, Nicola
Hamstring strain injuries are the most prevalent muscle injuries in track and field (TF). These injuries often cause prolonged symptoms and a high risk of re-injury. Strengthening of the hamstring muscles has been recommended for injury prevention. The authors review the possible role of eccentric training in TF hamstring injury prevention and introduce exercise classification criteria to guide clinicians in designing strengthening programmes adapted to TF. The principles exposed may serve as a foundation for future development and application of new eccentric programmes to decrease the high incidence of this type of injury in other sports.
Rodriguez, I; Diaz, A; Vaamonde, D
As physical exercise has been shown to negatively affect sperm morphology, this study was undertaken to assess the effect of a 3-min forced swimming protocol during 50 days, with and without administration of antioxidants [N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and trans-resveratrol], on sperm morphology in CD-1 mice. Forty-four 13-week-old CD-1 mice were randomly allocated to four different groups: mice not submitted to exercise, control group (CG), mice submitted to swimming without administration of antioxidants (EX), mice submitted to swimming that received trans-resveratrol supplementation [exercise group (EX)+Resv] and mice submitted to swimming exercise that received NAC supplementation (EX+NAC). The EX showed 30.5% of spermatozoa with normal morphology, showing significant differences with regard to the CG, which showed 58.5%. The groups receiving antioxidant supplements showed significantly higher percentages of spermatozoa with normal morphology in comparison with the EX group (EX+Resv: 64.1%, EX+NAC: 48.2%). The imposed model of forced swimming caused alterations in sperm morphology. The antioxidants employed seem to be suitable antioxidants for avoiding exercise-associated sperm morphology anomalies in prolonged forced swimming exercise. Trans-resveratrol has proven to be more efficient for this purpose.
Nachimuthu, Senthil; Assar, Manish D.
The prolonged QT interval is both widely seen and associated with the potentially deadly rhythm, Torsades de Pointes (TdP). While it can occur spontaneously in the congenital form, there is a wide array of drugs that have been implicated in the prolongation of the QT interval. Some of these drugs have either been restricted or withdrawn from the market due to the increased incidence of fatal polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. The list of drugs that cause QT prolongation continues to grow, and an updated list of specific drugs that prolong the QT interval can be found at www.qtdrugs.org. This review focuses on the mechanism of drug-induced QT prolongation, risk factors for TdP, culprit drugs, prevention and monitoring of prolonged drug-induced QT prolongation and treatment strategies. PMID:25083239
Isometric exercise works muscles and strengthens bone. Increased muscle mass elevates metabolism, which in turn burns fat. Strength training is also called anaerobic exercise, as opposed to aerobic, because ...
... third component of well-rounded exercise. Check out yoga as one way to stay flexible. You can ... Sports and Exercise Safety Stretching Dynamic Stretching (Video) Yoga Welcome Home Yoga (Video) Study Break Yoga (Video) ...
Patients with chronic conditions such as coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity might benefit from prescribed exercise. Although exercise does not reverse pathologic changes, it may play a role in disease management. (JD)
... Types Risk Factors Prevention & Early Detection Diet And Exercise Transplant recipients need to be aware of the ... help arrange for counseling and other support services. Exercise After a Transplant Most people are weak after ...
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... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... the reasons: Exercise benefits every part of the body, including the mind. Exercising causes the body to produce endorphins, chemicals ...
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Ottenweller, J E; Sisto, S A; McCarty, R C; Natelson, B H
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating disease characterized by severe, unexplained fatigue and postexertional exacerbation of symptoms. We examined basal endocrine function in a group of CFS patients and a carefully matched group of sedentary controls. The subjects then completed a graded, maximal exercise test on a treadmill, and additional blood samples were drawn 4 min and a day after the end of exercise. There were no differences in basal hormone levels before exercise. Plasma adrenocorticotropin, epinephrine, prolactin and thyrotropin responses 4 min after exercise were lower in the CFS group, but the growth hormone response may have been exaggerated, and the plasma norepinephrine response was similar to that in controls. The next day, there were no differences in hormone levels between the groups, which suggests that long-term changes in endocrine function are unlikely to be a cause of the prolonged fatigue that occurs in CFS patients after a bout of exertion.
Kamil, S M; Mohamad, N H; Narazah, M Y; Khan, F A
We describe a case of dengue haemorrhagic fever with prolonged thrombocytopaenia. A 22-year-old Malay man with no prior illness presented with a history of fever and generalised macular rash of four days duration. Initial work-up suggested the diagnosis of dengue haemorrhagic fever based on thrombocytopaenia and positive dengue serology. Patient recovered from acute illness by day ten, and was discharged from the hospital with improving platelet count. He was then noted to have declining platelet count on follow-up and required another hospital admission on day 19 of his illness because of declining platelet count. The patient remained hospitalised till day 44 of his illness and managed with repeated platelet transfusion and supportive care till he recovered spontaneously.
Schreinemakers, J. Rieneke; van Noort, Arthur; Rademakers, Maarten V.
This case demonstrates a rarely reported bilateral scapulohumeral bony ankylosis. A young woman developed extensive heterotopic ossifications (HOs) in both shoulder joints after being mechanically ventilated for several months at the intensive care unit in a comatose status. She presented with a severe movement restriction of both shoulder joints. Surgical resection of the bony bridges was performed in 2 separate sessions with a significant improvement of shoulder function afterwards. No postoperative complications, pain, or recurrence of HOs were noted at 1-year follow-up. Mechanical ventilation, immobilization, neuromuscular blockage, and prolonged sedation are known risk factors for the development of HOs in the shoulder joints. Relatively early surgical resection of the HOs can be performed safely in contrary to earlier belief. Afterwards, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and/or radiation therapy can be possible treatment modalities to prevent recurrence of HOs. PMID:27583120
Stickland, Michael K.; Butcher, Scott J.; Marciniuk, Darcy D.; Bhutani, Mohit
The cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) is an important physiological investigation that can aid clinicians in their evaluation of exercise intolerance and dyspnea. Maximal oxygen consumption (V˙O2max) is the gold-standard measure of aerobic fitness and is determined by the variables that define oxygen delivery in the Fick equation (V˙O2 = cardiac output × arterial-venous O2 content difference). In healthy subjects, of the variables involved in oxygen delivery, it is the limitations of the cardiovascular system that are most responsible for limiting exercise, as ventilation and gas exchange are sufficient to maintain arterial O2 content up to peak exercise. Patients with lung disease can develop a pulmonary limitation to exercise which can contribute to exercise intolerance and dyspnea. In these patients, ventilation may be insufficient for metabolic demand, as demonstrated by an inadequate breathing reserve, expiratory flow limitation, dynamic hyperinflation, and/or retention of arterial CO2. Lung disease patients can also develop gas exchange impairments with exercise as demonstrated by an increased alveolar-to-arterial O2 pressure difference. CPET testing data, when combined with other clinical/investigation studies, can provide the clinician with an objective method to evaluate cardiopulmonary physiology and determination of exercise intolerance. PMID:23213518
Duke, Charles R., Ed.
Reflecting current practices in the teaching of writing, the exercises in this compilation were drawn from the journal "Exercise Exchange." The articles are arranged into six sections: sources for writing; prewriting; modes for writing; writing and reading; language, mechanics, and style; and revising, responding, and evaluating. Among the topics…
Convertino, Victor A.
The paper reviews data obtained at the Human Life Sciences Research Program at the Kennedy Space Center on the structural and functional characteristics of the human muscle and on the effects of simulated microgravity (head-down bed rest) and exercise on the muscle. It is shown that prolonged exposure to microgravity induced ultrastructural abnormalities and the atrophy of muscle and impaired muscle functioning (especially upon return to terrestrial gravity) and that ground-based models can be effectively used to study these changes. Results indicate that the incorporation of resistive exercise with a strong emphasis on the use of eccentric muscle action, in addition to concentric action, may provide a very effective countermeasure against muscle atrophy and dysfunction caused by long-duration exposures to microgravity.
all parties benefit from the exercise experience. Exercises are not performed to make an organization look bad; instead, they help to train and...techniques it utilized to attack a security posture. All parties benefit from an exercise that underscores the RT motto: ”we win, we lose. 23 Appendix...Jason Kick November 2014 Cyber Exercise Playbook The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of The
De Pauw, Kevin; Roelands, Bart; Marusic, Uros; Tellez, Helio Fernandez; Knaepen, Kristel; Meeusen, Romain
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of prolonged intensive cycling and postexercise recovery in the heat on brain sources of altered brain oscillations. After a max test and familiarization trial, nine trained male subjects (23 ± 3 yr; maximal oxygen uptake = 62.1 ± 5.3 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1)) performed three experimental trials in the heat (30°C; relative humidity 43.7 ± 5.6%). Each trial consisted of two exercise tasks separated by 1 h. The first was a 60-min constant-load trial, followed by a 30-min simulated time trial (TT1). The second comprised a 12-min simulated time trial (TT2). After TT1, active recovery (AR), passive rest (PR), or cold water immersion (CWI) was applied for 15 min. Electroencephalography was measured at baseline and during postexercise recovery. Standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography was applied to accurately pinpoint and localize altered electrical neuronal activity. After CWI, PR and AR subjects completed TT2 in 761 ± 42, 791 ± 76, and 794 ± 62 s, respectively. A prolonged intensive cycling performance in the heat decreased β activity across the whole brain. Postexercise AR and PR elicited no significant electrocortical differences, whereas CWI induced significantly increased β3 activity in Brodmann areas (BA) 13 (posterior margin of insular cortex) and BA 40 (supramarginal gyrus). Self-paced prolonged exercise in the heat seems to decrease β activity, hence representing decreased arousal. Postexercise CWI increased β3 activity at BA 13 and 40, brain areas involved in somatosensory information processing.
De Pauw, Kevin; Roelands, Bart; Marušič, Uroš; Tellez, Helio Fernandez; Knaepen, Kristel
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of prolonged intensive cycling and postexercise recovery in the heat on brain sources of altered brain oscillations. After a max test and familiarization trial, nine trained male subjects (23 ± 3 yr; maximal oxygen uptake = 62.1 ± 5.3 ml·min−1·kg−1) performed three experimental trials in the heat (30°C; relative humidity 43.7 ± 5.6%). Each trial consisted of two exercise tasks separated by 1 h. The first was a 60-min constant-load trial, followed by a 30-min simulated time trial (TT1). The second comprised a 12-min simulated time trial (TT2). After TT1, active recovery (AR), passive rest (PR), or cold water immersion (CWI) was applied for 15 min. Electroencephalography was measured at baseline and during postexercise recovery. Standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography was applied to accurately pinpoint and localize altered electrical neuronal activity. After CWI, PR and AR subjects completed TT2 in 761 ± 42, 791 ± 76, and 794 ± 62 s, respectively. A prolonged intensive cycling performance in the heat decreased β activity across the whole brain. Postexercise AR and PR elicited no significant electrocortical differences, whereas CWI induced significantly increased β3 activity in Brodmann areas (BA) 13 (posterior margin of insular cortex) and BA 40 (supramarginal gyrus). Self-paced prolonged exercise in the heat seems to decrease β activity, hence representing decreased arousal. Postexercise CWI increased β3 activity at BA 13 and 40, brain areas involved in somatosensory information processing. PMID:23990240
Trommelen, Jorn; van Loon, Luc J C
Protein ingestion following resistance-type exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis rates, and enhances the skeletal muscle adaptive response to prolonged resistance-type exercise training. As the adaptive response to a single bout of resistance exercise extends well beyond the first couple of hours of post-exercise recovery, recent studies have begun to investigate the impact of the timing and distribution of protein ingestion during more prolonged recovery periods. Recent work has shown that overnight muscle protein synthesis rates are restricted by the level of amino acid availability. Protein ingested prior to sleep is effectively digested and absorbed, and thereby stimulates muscle protein synthesis rates during overnight recovery. When applied during a prolonged period of resistance-type exercise training, protein supplementation prior to sleep can further augment gains in muscle mass and strength. Recent studies investigating the impact of pre-sleep protein ingestion suggest that at least 40 g of protein is required to display a robust increase in muscle protein synthesis rates throughout overnight sleep. Furthermore, prior exercise allows more of the pre-sleep protein-derived amino acids to be utilized for de novo muscle protein synthesis during sleep. In short, pre-sleep protein ingestion represents an effective dietary strategy to improve overnight muscle protein synthesis, thereby improving the skeletal muscle adaptive response to exercise training.
Trommelen, Jorn; van Loon, Luc J. C.
Protein ingestion following resistance-type exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis rates, and enhances the skeletal muscle adaptive response to prolonged resistance-type exercise training. As the adaptive response to a single bout of resistance exercise extends well beyond the first couple of hours of post-exercise recovery, recent studies have begun to investigate the impact of the timing and distribution of protein ingestion during more prolonged recovery periods. Recent work has shown that overnight muscle protein synthesis rates are restricted by the level of amino acid availability. Protein ingested prior to sleep is effectively digested and absorbed, and thereby stimulates muscle protein synthesis rates during overnight recovery. When applied during a prolonged period of resistance-type exercise training, protein supplementation prior to sleep can further augment gains in muscle mass and strength. Recent studies investigating the impact of pre-sleep protein ingestion suggest that at least 40 g of protein is required to display a robust increase in muscle protein synthesis rates throughout overnight sleep. Furthermore, prior exercise allows more of the pre-sleep protein-derived amino acids to be utilized for de novo muscle protein synthesis during sleep. In short, pre-sleep protein ingestion represents an effective dietary strategy to improve overnight muscle protein synthesis, thereby improving the skeletal muscle adaptive response to exercise training. PMID:27916799
Greenleaf, J. E.
Altered thermoregulation following exposure to prolonged (12-14 days) of bed rest and 6 hr of head-down thermoneutral water immersion in humans, and cage confinement (8 weeks) in male, mongrel dogs resulted in occasional increased core temperature (Tcore) at rest, but consistent "excessive" increase in Tcore during submaximal exercise. This excessive increase in Tcore in nonexercising and exercising subjects was independent of the mode (isometric or isotonic) of exercise training during bed rest, and was associated with the consistent hypovolemia in men but not in women taking estrogen supplementation (1.25 mg premarin/ day) which restored plasma volume during bed rest to ambulatory control levels. Post-bed rest exercise sweating (evaporative heat loss) was unchanged or higher than control levels; however, calculated tissue heat conductance was significantly lower in men, and forearm venoconstriction was greater (venous volume was reduced) in women during exercise after bed rest. Because sweating appeared proportional to the increased level of Tcore, these findings suggest that one major factor for the excessive hyperthermia is decreased core to periphery heat conduction. Exercising dogs respond like humans with excessive increase in both rectal (Tre) and exercising muscle temperatures (Tmu) after confinement and, after eight weeks of exercise training on a treadmill following confinement, they had an attenuated rate of increase of Tre even below ambulatory control levels. Intravenous infusion of glucose also attenuated not only the rise in Tre during exercise in normal dogs, but also the excessive rise in Tre and exercising Tmu after confinement. Oral glucose also appeared to reduce the rate of increase in excessive Tre in men after immersion deconditioning. There was a greater rate of rise in Tcore in two cosmonauts during supine submaximal exercise (65% VO2 max) on the fifth recovery day after the 115-day Mir 18 mission. Thus, the excessive rise in core
Raboin, Jasen L. (Inventor); Niebuhr, Jason (Inventor); Cruz, Santana F. (Inventor); Lamoreaux, Christopher D. (Inventor)
The present invention relates to an exercise device, which includes a vacuum cylinder and a flywheel. The flywheel provides an inertial component to the load, which is particularly well suited for use in space as it simulates exercising under normal gravity conditions. Also, the present invention relates to an exercise device, which has a vacuum cylinder and a load adjusting armbase assembly.
... hand. When and what you eat can be important to how you feel when you exercise, whether it's a casual workout or training for a competition. Consider these eating and exercise tips. If you exercise in the morning, get up early enough to finish breakfast at least one hour before your workout. Be ...
... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Getting Exercise in College KidsHealth > For Teens > Getting Exercise in College A A A What's in this ... energy, both your body and mind need physical exercise to function at their peak. But with high ...
National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.
This pamphlet presents information on the effects of physical activity on the heart and practical guidelines for starting and staying on an exercise program. The following topics are discussed: (1) the benefits of getting sufficient exercise; (2) possible risks in exercising compared to benefits; (3) when to seek doctor's advice and prevention of…
Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others
The first part of this booklet concerns why sleep and exercise are necessary. It includes a discussion of what occurs during sleep and what dreams are. It also deals with the benefits of exercise, fatigue, posture, and the correlation between exercise and personality. The second part concerns nutrition and the importance of food. This part covers…
In this review of recent research on prenatal exercise, studies from several different countries suggest that only approximately 40% of pregnant women exercise, even though about 92% are encouraged by their physicians to exercise, albeit with some 69% of the women being advised to limit their exercise. A moderate exercise regime reputedly increases infant birthweight to within the normal range, but only if exercise is decreased in late pregnancy. Lower intensity exercise such as water aerobics has decreased low back pain more than land-based physical exercise. Heart rate and blood pressure have been lower following yoga than walking, and complications like pregnancy-induced hypertension with associated intrauterine growth retardation and prematurity have been less frequent following yoga. No studies could be found on tai chi with pregnant women even though balance and the risk of falling are great concerns during pregnancy, and tai chi is one of the most effective forms of exercise for balance. Potential underlying mechanisms for exercise effects are that stimulating pressure receptors during exercise increases vagal activity which, in turn, decreases cortisol, increases serotonin and decreases substance P, leading to decreased pain. Decreased cortisol is particularly important inasmuch as cortisol negatively affects immune function and is a significant predictor of prematurity. Larger, more controlled trials are needed before recommendations can be made about the type and amount of pregnancy exercise.
... or when playing tag. The Many Benefits of Exercise Everyone can benefit from regular exercise. Kids who are active will: have stronger muscles ... better outlook on life Besides enjoying the health benefits of regular exercise, kids who are physically fit sleep better. They' ...
Skirka, Nicholas; Hume, Donald
This article discusses how to use stretch bands for improving total body fitness and quality of life. A stretch band exercise program offers a versatile and inexpensive option to motivate participants to exercise. The authors suggest practical exercises that can be used in physical education to improve or maintain muscular strength and endurance,…
Eijsvogels, Thijs M H; Fernandez, Antonio B; Thompson, Paul D
Multiple epidemiological studies document that habitual physical activity reduces the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), and most demonstrate progressively lower rates of ASCVD with progressively more physical activity. Few studies have included individuals performing high-intensity, lifelong endurance exercise, however, and recent reports suggest that prodigious amounts of exercise may increase markers for, and even the incidence of, cardiovascular disease. This review examines the evidence that extremes of endurance exercise may increase cardiovascular disease risk by reviewing the causes and incidence of exercise-related cardiac events, and the acute effects of exercise on cardiovascular function, the effect of exercise on cardiac biomarkers, including "myocardial" creatine kinase, cardiac troponins, and cardiac natriuretic peptides. This review also examines the effect of exercise on coronary atherosclerosis and calcification, the frequency of atrial fibrillation in aging athletes, and the possibility that exercise may be deleterious in individuals genetically predisposed to such cardiac abnormalities as long QT syndrome, right ventricular cardiomyopathy, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. This review is to our knowledge unique because it addresses all known potentially adverse cardiovascular effects of endurance exercise. The best evidence remains that physical activity and exercise training benefit the population, but it is possible that prolonged exercise and exercise training can adversely affect cardiac function in some individuals. This hypothesis warrants further examination.
Eijsvogels, Thijs M. H.; Fernandez, Antonio B.; Thompson, Paul D.
Multiple epidemiological studies document that habitual physical activity reduces the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), and most demonstrate progressively lower rates of ASCVD with progressively more physical activity. Few studies have included individuals performing high-intensity, lifelong endurance exercise, however, and recent reports suggest that prodigious amounts of exercise may increase markers for, and even the incidence of, cardiovascular disease. This review examines the evidence that extremes of endurance exercise may increase cardiovascular disease risk by reviewing the causes and incidence of exercise-related cardiac events, and the acute effects of exercise on cardiovascular function, the effect of exercise on cardiac biomarkers, including “myocardial” creatine kinase, cardiac troponins, and cardiac natriuretic peptides. This review also examines the effect of exercise on coronary atherosclerosis and calcification, the frequency of atrial fibrillation in aging athletes, and the possibility that exercise may be deleterious in individuals genetically predisposed to such cardiac abnormalities as long QT syndrome, right ventricular cardiomyopathy, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. This review is to our knowledge unique because it addresses all known potentially adverse cardiovascular effects of endurance exercise. The best evidence remains that physical activity and exercise training benefit the population, but it is possible that prolonged exercise and exercise training can adversely affect cardiac function in some individuals. This hypothesis warrants further examination. PMID:26607287
Kariya, Fumihiko; Yamauchi, Hideki; Kobayashi, Keizo; Narusawa, Mistuo; Nakahara, Yoshibumi
We examined the effects of prolonged voluntary wheel-running on skeletal muscle functional and/or structural characteristics in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (5 weeks old) were divided into five groups: (1) 15W-SC, sedentary controls housed in normal plastic cages until age 15 weeks; (2) 15W-VE, housed in a voluntary-exercise (running-wheel) device equipped with housing space until age 15 weeks; (3) 35W-SC, housed in normal plastic cages until age 35 weeks; (4) 35W-VE, housed in the voluntary-exercise device until age 35 weeks, and (5) 35W-MVE, housed in normal plastic cages until age 15 weeks, then in the voluntary-exercise device from age 16 weeks to 35 weeks ("middle age"). At the end of each rat's experimental period, the plantaris muscle was dissected from each hindlimb for analysis of the muscle's functional and/or structural characteristics. Total running distance was similar in 15W-VE and 35W-VE, both being significantly greater than in 35-MVE. The percentage of type IIb myosin heavy chain isoform was significantly lower in each VE group than in the corresponding SC group. This shift from type IIb was significantly greater for 35W-VE than for the other VE groups, which were similar to each other. The cross-sectional area of type IIx fibers was significantly greater in 35W-VE than in 35W-SC, but this was not true for 15W-VE versus 15W-SC or for 35W-MVE versus 35W-SC. No significant difference in citrate synthase activity was detected between any VE group and the corresponding SC group. These results suggest that a prolongation of voluntary wheel-running leads to some advantageous enhancements of functional and/or structural characteristics in rat plantaris.
Fitts, R H; Trappe, S W; Costill, D L; Gallagher, P M; Creer, A C; Colloton, P A; Peters, J R; Romatowski, J G; Bain, J L; Riley, D A
The primary goal of this study was to determine the effects of prolonged space flight (∼180 days) on the structure and function of slow and fast fibres in human skeletal muscle. Biopsies were obtained from the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles of nine International Space Station crew members ∼45 days pre- and on landing day (R+0) post-flight. The main findings were that prolonged weightlessness produced substantial loss of fibre mass, force and power with the hierarchy of the effects being soleus type I > soleus type II > gastrocnemius type I > gastrocnemius type II. Structurally, the quantitatively most important adaptation was fibre atrophy, which averaged 20% in the soleus type I fibres (98 to 79 μm diameter). Atrophy was the main contributor to the loss of peak force (P0), which for the soleus type I fibre declined 35% from 0.86 to 0.56 mN. The percentage decrease in fibre diameter was correlated with the initial pre-flight fibre size (r = 0.87), inversely with the amount of treadmill running (r = 0.68), and was associated with an increase in thin filament density (r = 0.92). The latter correlated with reduced maximal velocity (V0) (r = −0.51), and is likely to have contributed to the 21 and 18% decline in V0 in the soleus and gastrocnemius type I fibres. Peak power was depressed in all fibre types with the greatest loss (∼55%) in the soleus. An obvious conclusion is that the exercise countermeasures employed were incapable of providing the high intensity needed to adequately protect fibre and muscle mass, and that the crew's ability to perform strenuous exercise might be seriously compromised. Our results highlight the need to study new exercise programmes on the ISS that employ high resistance and contractions over a wide range of motion to mimic the range occurring in Earth's 1 g environment. PMID:20660569
Couto, Mariana; Silva, Diana; Delgado, Luis; Moreira, André
Olympic level athletes present an increased risk for asthma and allergy, especially those who take part in endurance sports, such as swimming or running, and in winter sports. Classical postulated mechanisms behind EIA include the osmotic, or airway-drying, hypothesis. Hyperventilation leads to evaporation of water and the airway surface liquid becomes hyperosmolar, providing a stimulus for water to move from any cell nearby, which results in the shrinkage of cells and the consequent release of inflammatory mediators that cause airway smooth muscle contraction. But the exercise-induced asthma/bronchoconstriction explanatory model in athletes probably comprises the interaction between environmental training factors, including allergens and ambient conditions such as temperature, humidity and air quality; and athlete's personal risk factors, such as genetic and neuroimmuneendocrine determinants. After the stress of training and competitions athletes experience higher rate of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), compared with lesser active individuals. Increasing physical activity in non-athletes is associated with a decreased risk of URTI. Heavy exercise induces marked immunodepression which is multifactorial in origin. Prolonged, high intensity exercise temporarily impairs the immune competence while moderate activity may enhance immune function. The relationship between URTI and exercise is affected by poorly known individual determinants such genetic susceptibility, neurogenic mediated immune inflammation and epithelial barrier dysfunction. Further studies should better define the aetiologic factors and mechanisms involved in the development of asthma in athletes, and propose relevant preventive and therapeutic measures.
further interest are the effects of many factors on sweat electrolyte composition . Robinson and Robinson have identified seven factors which alter the...1962. The correlation of structure and function in the human eccrine sweat gland. In: W. Montagna, R. A. Ellis and A. I F. Silver (Ed.) Advances of...Corp., pp. 2:7. 21. Mickelson, 0, and A. Keys. 1943. The composition of sweat , with special reference to the vitamins. J Biol Chem 149:479-490. 22
Burke, Louise M; Collier, Greg R; Broad, Elizabeth M; Davis, Peter G; Martin, David T; Sanigorski, Andrew J; Hargreaves, Mark
We studied the effects of alcohol intake on postexercise muscle glycogen restoration with samples from vastus lateralis being collected immediately after glycogen-depleting cycling and after a set recovery period. Six well-trained cyclists undertook a study of 8-h recovery (2 meals), and another nine cyclists undertook a separate 24-h protocol (4 meals). In each study, subjects completed three trials in crossover order: control (C) diet [meals providing carbohydrate (CHO) of 1.75 g/kg]; alcohol-displacement (A) diet (1.5 g/kg alcohol displacing CHO energy from C) and alcohol + CHO (AC) diet (C + 1.5 g/kg alcohol). Alcohol intake reduced postmeal glycemia especially in A trial and 24-h study, although insulin responses were maintained. Alcohol intake increased serum triglycerides, particularly in the 24-h study and AC trial. Glycogen storage was decreased in A diets compared with C at 8 h (24.4 +/- 7 vs. 44.6 +/- 6 mmol/kg wet wt, means +/- SE, P < 0.05) and 24 h (68 +/- 5 vs. 82 +/- 5 mmol/kg wet wt, P < 0.05). There was a trend to reduced glycogen storage with AC in 8 h (36.2 +/- 8 mmol/kg wet wt, P = 0.1) but no difference in 24 h (85 +/- 9 mmol/kg wet wt). We conclude that 1). the direct effect of alcohol on postexercise glycogen synthesis is unclear, and 2). the main effect of alcohol intake is indirect, by displacing CHO intake from optimal recovery nutrition practices.
Davis, Greggory R; Etheredge, Corey E; Marcus, Lena; Bellar, David
The purpose of this study was to examine tympanic temperature, melatonin, and cognitive function during a 36-hour endurance event. Nine male and three female participants took part in a 36-hour sustained endurance event without sleep (N = 12, mean age = 31.8 ± 5.0 yrs). Participants were stopped for data collection at checkpoints throughout the 36-hour event. Tympanic temperature was assessed, a psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) was administered, and saliva samples were collected. Salivary melatonin was determined via immunoassay. During the 36 hours of competition, melatonin levels were negatively correlated with the day of the race (rs = -0.277, P = 0.039) and positively associated with nighttime (rs = 0.316, P = 0.021). Significant main effects of tympanic temperature (P < 0.001), day of the competition (P = 0.018), and a tympanic temperature ∗ day of competition interaction (P < 0.001) were used to predict minor lapses in attention. No associations between melatonin levels and cognitive function were observed (P > 0.05). During the event tympanic temperature declined and was associated with an increase in lapses in attention. With sustained endurance events becoming more popular future research is warranted to evaluate the physiological impact of participation.
Hinman, Sally K.; Smith, Kristy B.; Quillen, David M.; Smith, M. Seth
Context: Health professionals who care for pregnant women should discuss potential health benefits and harms of exercise. Although most pregnant women do not meet minimal exercise recommendations, there are a growing number of physically active women who wish to continue training throughout pregnancy. Evidence Acquisition: A search of the Web of Science database of articles and reviews available in English through 2014. The search terms exercise pregnancy, strenuous exercise pregnancy, and vigorous exercise pregnancy were used. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Results: With proper attention to risk stratification and surveillance, exercise is safe for the mother and fetus. Benefits of exercise in pregnancy include reduction in Cesarean section rates, appropriate maternal and fetal weight gain, and managing gestational diabetes. Exercise as a means of preventing gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, or perinatal depression cannot be reliably supported. Overall, the current evidence suffers from a lack of rigorous study design and compliance with physical activity interventions. Conclusion: Research thus far has been unable to consistently demonstrate proposed benefits of exercise in pregnancy, such as preventing gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, or perinatal depression. However, moderate- and high-intensity exercise in normal pregnancies is safe for the developing fetus and clearly has several important benefits. Thus, exercise should be encouraged according to the woman’s preconception physical activity level. PMID:26502446
Some sexually abused women in mental health settings are reporting prolonged incest and yet little is known about the circumstances that enable fathers to sexually abuse their daughters over a period of decades. This article draws from the life history of Grace, a woman who survived prolonged incest, in order to document and analyze the interplay of familial, social, and political factors that entrap girls and women within prolonged incestuous abuse.
Trak-Smayra, Viviane; Cazals-Hatem, Dominique; Asselah, Tarik; Duchatelle, Veronique; Degott, Claude
Cholestatic liver diseases leading to progressive destruction of intra-hepatic bile ducts and ductopenia encompass multiple etiologies. Pathophysiology and natural history of drug-induced cholangiopathies remain unclear. We report a case of prolonged ductopenia attributed to Tenoxicam (Tilcotil o--a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug of the oxicam family) ingested at therapeutic dose. A 36 year-old male patient was admitted for jaundice and Lyell syndrome starting 1 week after the ingestion of Tenoxicam. Liver biopsy showed cholestasis, non-suppurative cholangitis and polymorphous inflammatory infiltrate of the portal tracts (round cells, macrophages an eosinophils). Treatment with ursodesoxycholic acid and cholestyramine was instituted and the patient was asymptomatic 1 year after. Three years later mild biological cholestasis persisted and ductopenia was evidenced on liver biopsy. In this report we found that: (1) The toxicity of tenoxicam was probably mediated by an immunoallergic mechanism (Lyell syndrome and eosinophils on histology); (2) ductopenia was secondary to inflammatory cholangitis. Factors responsible for this chronic evolution are still unknown (genetic predisposition, vascular factors, etc.); and (3) the presence of ductopenia contrasted with the "clinical recovery" of the disease suggesting accessory bile drainage by cholangioles or partial reconstruction of the biliary tree.
Yamamoto, Akiko; Ide, Shuhei; Iwasaki, Yuji; Kaga, Makiko; Arima, Masataka
We report the case of a 4-year-old girl who presented with paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH), after developing severe hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy because of cardiopulmonary arrest. She showed dramatic paroxysmal sympathetic activity with dystonia. She was treated with wide variety of medications against PSH, which were found to be effective in previous studies. Among them, morphine, bromocriptine, propranolol, and clonidine were effective in reducing the frequency of her attacks while gabapentin, baclofen, dantrolene, and benzodiazepine were ineffective. Though the paroxysms decreased markedly after the treatment, they could not be completely controlled beyond 500 days. Following the treatment, levels of plasma catecholamines and their urinary metabolites decreased to normal during inter- paroxysms. However, once a paroxysm had recurred, these levels were again very high. This case study is considered significant for two rea- sons. One is that PSH among children have been rarely reported, and the other is that this case of prolonged PSH delineated the transition of plasma catecholamines during the treatment. The excitatory: inhibitory ratio (EIR) model proposed by Baguley was considered while dis- cussing drug sensitivity in this case. Accumulation of similar case studies will help establish more effective treatment strategies and elucidate the pathophysiology of PSH.
Kim, Mi Kyung; Smith, Susan
Telomeres use distinct mechanisms (not used by arms or centromeres) to mediate cohesion between sister chromatids. However, the motivation for a specialized mechanism at telomeres is not well understood. Here we show, using fluorescence in situ hybridization and live-cell imaging, that persistent sister chromatid cohesion at telomeres triggers a prolonged anaphase in normal human cells and cancer cells. Excess cohesion at telomeres can be induced by inhibition of tankyrase 1, a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase that is required for resolution of telomere cohesion, or by overexpression of proteins required to establish telomere cohesion, the shelterin subunit TIN2 and the cohesin subunit SA1. Regardless of the method of induction, excess cohesion at telomeres in mitosis prevents a robust and efficient anaphase. SA1- or TIN2-induced excess cohesion and anaphase delay can be rescued by overexpression of tankyrase 1. Moreover, we show that primary fibroblasts, which accumulate excess telomere cohesion at mitosis naturally during replicative aging, undergo a similar delay in anaphase progression that can also be rescued by overexpression of tankyrase 1. Our study demonstrates that there are opposing forces that regulate telomere cohesion. The observation that cells respond to unresolved telomere cohesion by delaying (but not completely disrupting) anaphase progression suggests a mechanism for tolerating excess cohesion and maintaining telomere integrity. This attempt to deal with telomere damage may be ultimately futile for aging fibroblasts but useful for cancer cells.