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Sample records for prominent neuropsychiatric feature

  1. Featured Image: Solar Prominence Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-02-01

    In these images from the Solar Dynamics Observatorys AIA instrument (click for the full resolution!), two solar prominence eruptions (one from June 2011 and one from August 2012) are shown in pre- and post-eruption states. The images at the top are taken in the Fe XII 193 bandpass and the images at the bottom are taken in the He II 304 bandpass. When a team of scientists searched through seven years of solar images taken by the STEREO (Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory) spacecraft, these two eruptions were found to extend all the way out to a distance of 1 AU. They were the only two examples of clear, bright, and compact prominence eruptions found to do so. The scientists, led by Brian Wood (Naval Research Laboratory), used these observations to reconstruct the motion of the eruption and model how prominences expand as they travel away from the Sun. Theimage to the rightshowsa STEREO observation compared to the teams 3D model of theprominences shape and expansion. To learn more about theresults from this study, check out the paper below.CitationBrian E. Wood et al 2016 ApJ 816 67. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/816/2/67

  2. Prominent Optic Disc Featured in Inherited Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Todorova, M G; Bojinova, R I; Valmaggia, C; Schorderet, D F

    2017-02-01

    Background We investigated the relationship between prominent optic disc (POD) and inherited retinal dystrophy (IRD). Patients and Methods A cross-sectional consecutive study was performed in 10 children and 11 adults of 7 non-related families. We performed clinical phenotyping, including a detailed examination, fundus autofluorescence, and colour fundus and OCT imaging. Genetic testing was subsequently performed for all family members presenting retinal pathology. Results In 4 members of a 3-generation family, hyperfluorescent deposits on the surface of POD were related to a p.(L224M) heterozygous mutation in BEST1. In the second family, one member presented deposits located on the surface on hyperaemic OD and a compound p.(R141H);(A195V) mutation in BEST1. In the third family, POD was observed in father and child with early onset cone-rod dystrophy and a novel autosomal recessive p.(W31*) homozygous mutation in ABCA4. In the fourth family, POD with "mulberry-like" deposits and attenuated vessels were observed in a 7-year old girl, with a mutation in USH1A, and with early onset rod-cone dystrophy, associated with hearing loss. In the fifth family, blurry OD with tortuous vessels was observed in 4 consanguineous female carriers and a hemizygous boy with a p.(R200H) mutation in the X-linked retinoschisis RS1. In the sixth family, a mother and her son were both affected with POD and attenuated peripapillary vessels, and presented with a p.(Y836C) heterozygous mutation in TOPORS, thus confirming autosomal dominant RP. In the seventh family, in 3 family members with POD, compound p.(L541P;A1038 V);(G1961E) mutations in ABCA4 confirmed the diagnosis of Stargardt disease. Conclusions A variety of OD findings are found in a genetically heterogeneous group of IRDs. In the presence of POD, an inherited progressive photoreceptor disease should be ruled out.

  3. Prominent Feature Analysis: What It Means for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Sherry Seale; Graves, Richard L.; Morse, David T.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of a prominent feature analysis is to describe the stylistic flexibility that a young writer, or a group of young writers, exhibits on a given day, with a given prompt. In prominent feature analysis, there are no guidebooks, no rubrics--just student papers and the expertise of teachers. Teachers come to the papers individually and yet…

  4. Cross-linguistic evidence for gender as a prominence feature

    PubMed Central

    Esaulova, Yulia; von Stockhausen, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses recent findings in the online sentence processing research that suggest to consider gender information a prominence feature. Prominence features are hierarchically ordered information types that interact with formal features of arguments (e.g., grammatical functions, thematic roles) and thus determine the readers’ ability to efficiently interpret linguistic ambiguities. While previous research addressed a number of prominence features (e.g., animacy, definiteness, person), there is now first empirical evidence indicating that gender information also influences the assignment of thematic roles across languages. Grammatically masculine role nouns are processed faster as agents than patients compared to feminine ones. Stereotypically male role nouns (e.g., electrician) are integrated with an agent role easier than neutral ones (e.g., musician), which in turn are integrated easier than female ones (e.g., beautician). Conceptualizing gender as a prominence feature will not only expand our knowledge about information types relevant for online comprehension but also uncover subtle gender biases present in language. The present work explores the possibility for a theoretical integration of social psychological and psycholinguistic research focusing on gender with research on prominence. Potential advantages an interdisciplinary approach to the study of gender as a prominence feature, open questions and future directions are discussed. PMID:26441732

  5. Cross-linguistic evidence for gender as a prominence feature.

    PubMed

    Esaulova, Yulia; von Stockhausen, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses recent findings in the online sentence processing research that suggest to consider gender information a prominence feature. Prominence features are hierarchically ordered information types that interact with formal features of arguments (e.g., grammatical functions, thematic roles) and thus determine the readers' ability to efficiently interpret linguistic ambiguities. While previous research addressed a number of prominence features (e.g., animacy, definiteness, person), there is now first empirical evidence indicating that gender information also influences the assignment of thematic roles across languages. Grammatically masculine role nouns are processed faster as agents than patients compared to feminine ones. Stereotypically male role nouns (e.g., electrician) are integrated with an agent role easier than neutral ones (e.g., musician), which in turn are integrated easier than female ones (e.g., beautician). Conceptualizing gender as a prominence feature will not only expand our knowledge about information types relevant for online comprehension but also uncover subtle gender biases present in language. The present work explores the possibility for a theoretical integration of social psychological and psycholinguistic research focusing on gender with research on prominence. Potential advantages an interdisciplinary approach to the study of gender as a prominence feature, open questions and future directions are discussed.

  6. Study of Prominence Detection Based on Various Phone-Specific Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung Soo; Han, Chang Woo; Kim, Nam Soo

    In this letter, we present useful features accounting for pronunciation prominence and propose a classification technique for prominence detection. A set of phone-specific features are extracted based on a forced alignment of the test pronunciation provided by a speech recognition system. These features are then applied to the traditional classifiers such as the support vector machine (SVM), artificial neural network (ANN) and adaptive boosting (Adaboost) for detecting the place of prominence.

  7. Functional and Genomic Features of Human Genes Mutated in Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Forero, Diego A.; Prada, Carlos F.; Perry, George

    2016-01-01

    Background: In recent years, a large number of studies around the world have led to the identification of causal genes for hereditary types of common and rare neurological and psychiatric disorders. Objective: To explore the functional and genomic features of known human genes mutated in neuropsychiatric disorders. Methods: A systematic search was used to develop a comprehensive catalog of genes mutated in neuropsychiatric disorders (NPD). Functional enrichment and protein-protein interaction analyses were carried out. A false discovery rate approach was used for correction for multiple testing. Results: We found several functional categories that are enriched among NPD genes, such as gene ontologies, protein domains, tissue expression, signaling pathways and regulation by brain-expressed miRNAs and transcription factors. Sixty six of those NPD genes are known to be druggable. Several topographic parameters of protein-protein interaction networks and the degree of conservation between orthologous genes were identified as significant among NPD genes. Conclusion: These results represent one of the first analyses of enrichment of functional categories of genes known to harbor mutations for NPD. These findings could be useful for a future creation of computational tools for prioritization of novel candidate genes for NPD. PMID:27990183

  8. 22q11 deletion syndrome: a review of the neuropsychiatric features and their neurobiological basis

    PubMed Central

    Squarcione, Chiara; Torti, Maria Chiara; Di Fabio, Fabio; Biondi, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is caused by an autosomal dominant microdeletion of chromosome 22 at the long arm (q) 11.2 band. The 22q11DS is among the most clinically variable syndromes, with more than 180 features related with the deletion, and is associated with an increased risk of psychiatric disorders, accounting for up to 1%–2% of schizophrenia cases. In recent years, several genes located on chromosome 22q11 have been linked to schizophrenia, including those encoding catechol-O-methyltransferase and proline dehydrogenase, and the interaction between these and other candidate genes in the deleted region is an important area of research. It has been suggested that haploinsufficiency of some genes within the 22q11.2 region may contribute to the characteristic psychiatric phenotype and cognitive functioning of schizophrenia. Moreover, an extensive literature on neuroimaging shows reductions of the volumes of both gray and white matter, and these findings suggest that this reduction may be predictive of increased risk of prodromal psychotic symptoms in 22q11DS patients. Experimental and standardized cognitive assessments alongside neuroimaging may be important to identify one or more endophenotypes of schizophrenia, as well as a predictive prodrome that can be preventively treated during childhood and adolescence. In this review, we summarize recent data about the 22q11DS, in particular those addressing the neuropsychiatric and cognitive phenotypes associated with the deletion, underlining the recent advances in the studies about the genetic architecture of the syndrome. PMID:24353423

  9. Charge balancing and identification of prominent spectral features of M-shell W plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, G. C.; Safronova, A. S.; Safronova, U. I.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Williamson, K. M.; Shrestha, I.; Beiersdorfer, P.

    2008-11-01

    Charge balancing and identification of prominent spectral features in M-shell tungsten between 3 and 9 å has been performed for LLNL EBIT data collected at varying electron beam energies between 2.3 and 4.2 keV. Previous research [G.C. Osborne et al, RSI (2008, in press)] focused on the analysis of spectra corresponding to beam energies of 2.9 and 4.1 keV, while this paper mainly focuses on lower beam energy configurations. Diagnostic of these spectra is challenging due to numerous lower than Ni-like ionization stages within a relatively narrow region, so a procedure was developed utilizing a theoretical model for charge state balancing. Atomic data was calculated separately for transitions 3->4 and 3->5 from each ionization stage, including Co-Ge-like W ions using the HULLAC code. The synthetic spectra calculated at higher electron density as well as identified EBIT spectra then are used to identify spectral features and to determine charge balance of M-shell W spectra from Z-pinch plasmas produced on 1 MA Zebra generator at UNR. Work was supported by DOE under grant DE-FG02-08ER54951 and NNSA Coop. Agr. DE-FC52-06NA27588 and DE-FC52-06NA27586. Work at LLNL was performed under auspices of the DOE under contract DE-AC52-07NA2344.

  10. Prominent spectral features of Sm3+ ion in disordered zinc tellurite glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanko, Y. A.; Sahar, M. R.; Ghoshal, S. K.

    Trivalent rare earth doped glasses with modified spectroscopic features are essential for solid state lasers and diverse photonic applications. Glass composition optimisation may fulfil such demand. Stimulating the spectral properties of samarium (Sm3+) ions in tellurite glass host with desired enhancement is the key issue. Glasses with composition (80 - x)TeO2-20ZnO-(x)Sm2O3, where 0 ⩽ x ⩽ 1.5 mol% are prepared using melt quenching method. The role of varying Sm3+ contents to improving the absorption and emission properties of the prepared glasses are determined. XRD pattern verifies amorphous nature of synthesised glasses. FTIR spectroscopy has been used to observe the structural modification of (TeO4) trigonal bipyramid structural units. DTA traces display prominent transition peaks for glass transition, crystallisation and melting temperature. Samples are discerned to be stable with desired Hruby parameter and superior glass forming ability. The UV-Vis-NIR absorption spectra reveals nine peaks centred at 470, 548, 947, 1085, 1238, 1385, 1492, 1550 and 1589 nm. These bands arise due to 6H5/2 → 4I11/2, 4G5/2, 6F11/2, 6F9/2, 6F7/2, 6F5/2, 6F3/2, 6H15/2 and 6F1/2 transitions, respectively. The direct, indirect band gap and Urbach energy calculated from the absorption edge of UV-Vis-NIR spectra are found to appear within (2.75-3.18) eV, (3.22-3.40) eV, and (0.20-0.31) eV, respectively. The observed increase in refractive index from 2.45 to 2.47 is ascribed to the generation of non-bridging oxygen atoms via the conversion of TeO4 into TeO3 units. Conversely the decrease in refractive index to 2.39 is attributed to the lower ionic radii (1.079 Å) of Sm3+. PL spectra under the excitation of 452 nm display four emission bands centred at 563, 600, 644 and 705 nm corresponding to 4G5/2 → 6H5/2, 6H7/2, 6H9/2 and 6H11/2 transitions of samarium ions. Excellent features of the results nominate these compositions towards prospective applications.

  11. Solar Prominences Embedded in Flux Ropes: Morphological Features and Dynamics from 3D MHD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terradas, J.; Soler, R.; Luna, M.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L.; Wright, A. N.

    2016-04-01

    The temporal evolution of a solar prominence inserted in a three-dimensional magnetic flux rope is investigated numerically. Using the model of Titov & Démoulin under the regime of weak twist, the cold and dense prominence counteracts gravity by modifying the initially force-free magnetic configuration. In some cases a quasi-stationary situation is achieved after the relaxation phase, characterized by the excitation of standing vertical oscillations. These oscillations show a strong attenuation with time produced by the mechanism of continuum damping due to the inhomogeneous transition between the prominence and solar corona. The characteristic period of the vertical oscillations does not depend strongly on the twist of the flux rope. Nonlinearity is responsible for triggering the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability associated with the vertical oscillations and that eventually produces horizontal structures. Contrary to other configurations in which the longitudinal axis of the prominence is permeated by a perpendicular magnetic field, like in unsheared arcades, the orientation of the prominence along the flux rope axis prevents the development of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and therefore the appearance of vertical structuring along this axis.

  12. SOLAR PROMINENCES EMBEDDED IN FLUX ROPES: MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES AND DYNAMICS FROM 3D MHD SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Terradas, J.; Soler, R.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L.; Luna, M.; Wright, A. N.

    2016-04-01

    The temporal evolution of a solar prominence inserted in a three-dimensional magnetic flux rope is investigated numerically. Using the model of Titov and Démoulin under the regime of weak twist, the cold and dense prominence counteracts gravity by modifying the initially force-free magnetic configuration. In some cases a quasi-stationary situation is achieved after the relaxation phase, characterized by the excitation of standing vertical oscillations. These oscillations show a strong attenuation with time produced by the mechanism of continuum damping due to the inhomogeneous transition between the prominence and solar corona. The characteristic period of the vertical oscillations does not depend strongly on the twist of the flux rope. Nonlinearity is responsible for triggering the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability associated with the vertical oscillations and that eventually produces horizontal structures. Contrary to other configurations in which the longitudinal axis of the prominence is permeated by a perpendicular magnetic field, like in unsheared arcades, the orientation of the prominence along the flux rope axis prevents the development of Rayleigh–Taylor instabilities and therefore the appearance of vertical structuring along this axis.

  13. A Comparison Study of Cognitive and Neuropsychiatric Features of Essential Tremor and Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Puertas-Martín, Verónica; Villarejo-Galende, Alberto; Fernández-Guinea, Sara; Romero, Juan Pablo; Louis, Elan D.; Benito-León, Julián

    2016-01-01

    Background Essential tremor (ET) and Parkinson’s disease (PD) are two of the most common movement disorders. Leaving aside their motor features, these two conditions share several non-motor features, including cognitive dysfunction and personality changes. However, there are few data comparing the cognitive and personality profiles of ET with PD. Here we compare the cognitive and personality profiles of the two diseases. Methods Thirty-two consecutive non-demented ET patients (13 females and 19 males) (67.7±9.8 years), 32 non-demented PD patients (13 females and 19 males) (67.7±9.5 years), and 32 healthy matched controls (14 females and 18 males) (67.9±10.1 years) underwent a neuropsychological test battery, including a global cognitive assessment and tests of attention, executive function, memory, language, and visuospatial function, as well as the Personality Assessment Inventory. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed, adjusted for age, sex, years of education, medications that potentially affect cognitive function, number of medications, and the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale Total Score. Results Neuropsychological scores were similar in PD and ET patients, but patients with disease performed more poorly than control subjects in cognitive tasks such as attention, executive function, memory, and naming. Discussion ET and PD exhibited similar deficits in specific aspects of neuropsychological functioning, particularly those thought to rely on the integrity of the prefrontal cortex, and this suggests involvement of frontocerebellar circuits. These findings further challenge the traditional view of ET as a benign and monosymptomatic disorder. PMID:28105386

  14. Dropped head syndrome as prominent clinical feature in MuSK-positive Myasthenia Gravis with thymus hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Spengos, Konstantinos; Vassilopoulou, Sofia; Papadimas, Georgios; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Karandreas, Nikos; Zambelis, Thomas; Manta, Panagiota

    2008-02-01

    MuSK-positive Myasthenia Gravis is in most cases clinically characterized by a progressive course with severe oculobulbar involvement or prominent neck, shoulder and respiratory muscle weakness. It is also distinguished from other forms of myastehnia through its lack of germinal centers or lymphocytic infiltrates in the thymic tissue. We present the case of a MuSK-positive female myasthenic patient with over four years slowly progressive weakness of the neck extensor muscles in the presence of thymus hyperplasia and discuss its uncommon and markedly focal clinical and electrophysiological features, as well as the excellent course under medication with pyridostigmine and prednisone, especially after thymectomy.

  15. Intrathymic Epstein-Barr virus infection is not a prominent feature of myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Kakalacheva, Kristina; Maurer, Michael A; Tackenberg, Björn; Münz, Christian; Willcox, Nick; Lünemann, Jan D

    2011-09-01

    Lymph node-type T- and B-cell infiltrates with germinal centers are characteristic features of the hyperplastic thymus in early onset myasthenia gravis (EOMG).Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection confers survival advantages on B cells, and has recently been implicated in tertiary lymphoid tissue formation in EOMG. We evaluated the frequency of intrathymic EBV-infected B-lineage cells and antiviral immune responses in treatment-naive patients with EOMG. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to quantify the content of genomic EBV DNA (BamHI-W repeat region) in thymic cell suspensions. Serial paraffin sections of EOMG thymi were analyzed for the presence of EBV-encoded RNA by in situ hybridization and for viral gene expression by immunohistochemistry. Humoral and cellular immune responses to viral antigens were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and flow cytometry-based intracellular cytokine staining. We detected minimal levels of viral DNA-corresponding to single viral genomes-in only 6 of 16 hyperplastic EOMG thymi, indicating extreme rarity of viral copy numbers in the investigated thymic samples. That was confirmed by similar rarity of EBV-encoded RNA and viral proteins identified in thymic sections. Furthermore, EBV-specific T- and B-cell responses were unchanged in patients with EOMG. These findings do not support an etiologic role for EBV in the initiation of EOMG.

  16. Prominence Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Holly; Kucera, Terry; Kawashima, Rei; DeVore, C.; Karpen, Judy; Antiochos, Spiro

    2011-01-01

    Fine structure prominence dynamics are visible in the majority of high-spatial resolution data from Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT). We present the results of a study investigating the nature of these horizontal and vertical flows and discuss them in the context of ion-neutral coupling in a partially ionized prominence plasma. We also discuss how models can help in the interpretation of these observations.

  17. Prominence Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arregui, I.; Ballester, J. L.; Oliver, R.; Soler, R.; Terradas, J.

    2012-05-01

    Given the difficulty in directly determining prominence physical parameters from observations, prominence seismology stands as an alternative method to probe the nature of these structures. We show recent examples of the application of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) seismology techniques to infer physical parameters in prominence plasmas. They are based on the application of inversion techniques using observed periods, damping times, and plasma flow speeds of prominence thread oscillations. The contribution of Hinode to the subject has been of central importance. We show an example based on data obtained with Hinode's Solar Optical Telescope. Observations show an active region limb prominence, composed by a myriad of thin horizontal threads that flow following a path parallel to the photosphere and display synchronous vertical oscillations. The coexistence of waves and flows can be firmly established. By making use of an interpretation based on transverse MHD kink oscillations, a seismological analysis of this event is performed. It is shown that the combination of high quality Hinode observations and proper theoretical models allows flows and waves to become two useful characteristics for our understanding of the nature of solar prominences.

  18. Brain iron accumulation affects myelin-related molecular systems implicated in a rare neurogenetic disease family with neuropsychiatric features

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, M; Johnstone, D M; Bassett, B; Graham, R M; Chua, A C G; House, M J; Collingwood, J F; Bettencourt, C; Houlden, H; Ryten, M; Olynyk, J K; Trinder, D; Milward, E A

    2016-01-01

    The ‘neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation' (NBIA) disease family entails movement or cognitive impairment, often with psychiatric features. To understand how iron loading affects the brain, we studied mice with disruption of two iron regulatory genes, hemochromatosis (Hfe) and transferrin receptor 2 (Tfr2). Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy demonstrated increased iron in the Hfe−/− × Tfr2mut brain (P=0.002, n ≥5/group), primarily localized by Perls' staining to myelinated structures. Western immunoblotting showed increases of the iron storage protein ferritin light polypeptide and microarray and real-time reverse transcription-PCR revealed decreased transcript levels (P<0.04, n ≥5/group) for five other NBIA genes, phospholipase A2 group VI, fatty acid 2-hydroxylase, ceruloplasmin, chromosome 19 open reading frame 12 and ATPase type 13A2. Apart from the ferroxidase ceruloplasmin, all are involved in myelin homeostasis; 16 other myelin-related genes also showed reduced expression (P<0.05), although gross myelin structure and integrity appear unaffected (P>0.05). Overlap (P<0.0001) of differentially expressed genes in Hfe−/− × Tfr2mut brain with human gene co-expression networks suggests iron loading influences expression of NBIA-related and myelin-related genes co-expressed in normal human basal ganglia. There was overlap (P<0.0001) of genes differentially expressed in Hfe−/− × Tfr2mut brain and post-mortem NBIA basal ganglia. Hfe−/− × Tfr2mut mice were hyperactive (P<0.0112) without apparent cognitive impairment by IntelliCage testing (P>0.05). These results implicate myelin-related systems involved in NBIA neuropathogenesis in early responses to iron loading. This may contribute to behavioral symptoms in NBIA and hemochromatosis and is relevant to patients with abnormal iron status and psychiatric disorders involving myelin abnormalities or resistant to conventional treatments. PMID:26728570

  19. A hybrid fuzzy-neural system for computer-aided diagnosis of ultrasound kidney images using prominent features.

    PubMed

    Bommanna Raja, K; Madheswaran, M; Thyagarajah, K

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this work is to develop and implement a computer-aided decision support system for an automated diagnosis and classification of ultrasound kidney images. The proposed method distinguishes three kidney categories namely normal, medical renal diseases and cortical cyst. For the each pre-processed ultrasound kidney image, 36 features are extracted. Two types of decision support systems, optimized multi-layer back propagation network and hybrid fuzzy-neural system have been developed with these features for classifying the kidney categories. The performance of the hybrid fuzzy-neural system is compared with the optimized multi-layer back propagation network in terms of classification efficiency, training and testing time. The results obtained show that fuzzy-neural system provides higher classification efficiency with minimum training and testing time. It has also been found that instead of using all 36 features, ranking the features enhance classification efficiency. The outputs of the decision support systems are validated with medical expert to measure the actual efficiency. The overall discriminating capability of the systems is accessed with performance evaluation measure, f-score. It has been observed that the performance of fuzzy-neural system is superior compared to optimized multi-layer back propagation network. Such hybrid fuzzy-neural system with feature extraction algorithms and pre-processing scheme helps in developing computer-aided diagnosis system for ultrasound kidney images and can be used as a secondary observer in clinical decision making.

  20. Solar prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, Brigitte; Aulanier, Guillaume; Török, Tibor

    2009-03-01

    Solar filaments (or prominences) are magnetic structures in the corona. They can be represented by twisted flux ropes in a bipolar magnetic environment. In such models, the dipped field lines of the flux rope carry the filament material and parasitic polarities in the filament channel are responsible for the existence of the lateral feet of prominences. Very simple laws do exist for the chirality of filaments, the so-called “filament chirality rules”: commonly dextral/sinistral filaments corresponding to left- (resp. right) hand magnetic twists are in the North/South hemisphere. Combining these rules with 3D weakly twisted flux tube models, the sign of the magnetic helicity in several filaments were identified. These rules were also applied to the 180° disambiguation of the direction of the photospheric transverse magnetic field around filaments using THEMIS vector magnetograph data (López Ariste et al. 2006). Consequently, an unprecedented evidence of horizontal magnetic support in filament feet has been observed, as predicted by former magnetostatic and recent MHD models. The second part of this review concerns the role of emerging flux in the vicinity of filament channels. It has been suggested that magnetic reconnection between the emerging flux and the pre-existing coronal field can trigger filament eruptions and CMEs. For a particular event, observed with Hinode/XRT, we observe signatures of such a reconnection, but no eruption of the filament. We present a 3D numerical simulation of emerging flux in the vicinity of a flux rope which was performed to reproduce this event and we briefly discuss, based on the simulation results, why the filament did not erupt.

  1. Prominent features in isotopic, chemical and dust stratigraphies from GV7, a drilling site in East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caiazzo, Laura

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of the new project "The IPICS 2k Array: a network of ice core climate and climate forcing records for the last two millennia", which represents a thematic research line of International Partnerships in Ice Core Sciences (IPICS), a 250 m deep ice core was retrieved (spanning roughly the last millennium) at GV7 site, together with several shallow firn cores and snow pits. The PNRA (Programma Nazionale di Ricerche in Antartide) project "IPICS-2kyr-It" represents the Italian contribution to IPICS "The 2k Array" and it is being accomplished in collaboration with KOPRI (Korean Polar Reasearch Institute). The availability of various records from the same site all spanning a temporal period ranging from the last decades to the last centuries will allow achieving a stacked record of chemical and isotopic markers and accumulation rate that is basic for a reliable climatic reconstruction. Previous surveys in the area of GV7 (70°41' S - 158°51' E, 1950 m a.s.l., East Antarctica) showed that this site is characterized by a relatively high snow accumulation (about 240 mm water eq./year), allowing a high resolution study of the climatic variability in the last millennium. Here we present the isotopic, chemical and dust stratigraphies of the snow pits sampled at GV7 during the 2013/14 field season and analysed in Italy and in Korea. Reversibly deposited components such as nitrate and methansulphonic acid (MSA) appear to be well preserved and show a clear seasonal profiles, as one can observe from the records achieved both by Italian and Korean labs. Such a feature, together with the high accumulation rate, allowed obtaining an accurate dating of the snow pits, based on the counting of annual layers. At this purpose, a multi-parametric approach was chosen by using MSA, non-sea-salt sulphate, and d18O as seasonal markers. The dating confirmed the value of the accumulation rate found during previous samplings.

  2. "Compound blue nevus": a reappraisal of "superficial blue nevus with prominent intraepidermal dendritic melanocytes" with emphasis on dermoscopic and histopathologic features.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Gerardo; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Zgavec, Borut; Bartenjev, Igor; Staibano, Stefania; De Rosa, Gaetano; Soyer, H Peter

    2002-01-01

    We describe 5 cases of "compound blue nevus" (CBN) ("superficial blue nevus with prominent intraepidermal dendritic melanocytes," "Kamino nevus"). Dermoscopically in 2 of 4 cases the bluish pigmentation characteristic of blue nevi was centrally replaced by a black lamella, with black dots and brown globules also observed in one case, thus revealing a structural asymmetry suggestive of melanoma. Histopathologically, pigmented parakeratosis was the underlying histopathologic finding of black lamella and dots/globules. Immunohistochemistry highlighted the unique histopathologic feature of CBN, namely, single dendritic melanocytes at the dermoepidermal junction with striking intraepidermal prolongations. Our findings confirm that CBN is a distinctive variant of blue nevus that may mimic cutaneous melanoma both clinically and dermoscopically.

  3. Recent progress in prominence seismology.

    PubMed

    Ballester, José Luis

    2006-02-15

    Prominence seismology is a rapidly developing topic which seeks to infer the internal structure and properties of solar prominences from the study of their oscillations. An extense observational background about oscillations in quiescent solar prominences has been gathered during the last 70 years. These observations point out the existence of two different types of oscillations: flare-induced oscillations (winking filaments) which affect the whole prominence and are of large amplitude and small amplitude oscillations which seem to be of local nature. From the theoretical point of view, few models have been set up to explain the phenomenon of winking filaments while, on the contrary, for small amplitude oscillations a large number of models trying to explain the observed features have been proposed. Here, recent theoretical and observational developments on both types of oscillations are reviewed, and suggestions about future research topics which should provide us with a more in-depth knowledge of solar prominences are made.

  4. Coronal and Prominence Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poland, Arthur I. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Various aspects of solar prominences and the solar corona are discussed. The formation of prominences, prominence diagnostics and structure, prominence dissappearance, large scale coronal structure, coronal diagnostics, small scale coronal structure, and non-equilibrium/coronal heating are among the topics covered.

  5. Prominence Structure and Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpen, Judy T.

    2009-01-01

    Nonerupting prominences are not dull, static objects. Rather, they are composed of fine-scale blobs and threads that are highly dynamic, often appearing to travel in opposite directions on adjacent tracks (denoted counterstreaming). Because the plasma is largely constrained to travel along the magnetic field, these cool, dense features can serve as tracers of the prominence magnetic structure, a valuable resource in view of the long-standing difficulty of observing the coronal field. Conversely, greater understanding of the fundamental magnetic geometry of filament channels can provide important constraints on the physical processes governing the accumulation, support, motion, and eruption of the cool plasma. Despite over a century of detailed observations, large gaps remain in our knowledge of filament channel/plasma formation and evolution. Resolving these issues will shed light on the physics of coronal heating, helicity transport throughout the solar cycle, and the origins of eruptive activity on the Sun. I will discuss the leading models for the magnetic and plasma structure, and outline how new observations and theory /modeling could solve long-standing uncertainties regarding this majestic solar phenomenon.

  6. Fractionating impulsivity: neuropsychiatric implications.

    PubMed

    Dalley, Jeffrey W; Robbins, Trevor W

    2017-02-17

    The ability to make decisions and act quickly without hesitation can be advantageous in many settings. However, when persistently expressed, impulsive decisions and actions are considered risky, maladaptive and symptomatic of such diverse brain disorders as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, drug addiction and affective disorders. Over the past decade, rapid progress has been made in the identification of discrete neural networks that underlie different forms of impulsivity - from impaired response inhibition and risky decision making to a profound intolerance of delayed rewards. Herein, we review what is currently known about the neural and psychological mechanisms of impulsivity, and discuss the relevance and application of these new insights to various neuropsychiatric disorders.

  7. Prominent rocks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  8. Reelin and Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Kazuhiro; Kubo, Ken-ichiro; Nakajima, Kazunori

    2016-01-01

    Proper neuronal migration and laminar formation during corticogenesis is essential for normal brain function. Disruption of these developmental processes is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of some neuropsychiatric conditions. Especially, Reelin, a glycoprotein mainly secreted by the Cajal-Retzius cells and a subpopulation of GABAergic interneurons, has been shown to play a critical role, both during embryonic and postnatal periods. Indeed, animal studies have clearly revealed that Reelin is an essential molecule for proper migration of cortical neurons and finally regulates the cell positioning in the cortex during embryonic and early postnatal stages; by contrast, Reelin signaling is closely involved in synaptic function in adulthood. In humans, genetic studies have shown that the reelin gene (RELN) is associated with a number of psychiatric diseases, including Schizophrenia (SZ), bipolar disorder (BP) and autistic spectrum disorder. Indeed, Reln haploinsufficiency has been shown to cause cognitive impairment in rodents, suggesting the expression level of the Reelin protein is closely related to the higher brain functions. However, the molecular abnormalities in the Reelin pathway involved in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders are not yet fully understood. In this article, we review the current progress in the understanding of the Reelin functions that could be related to the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, we discuss the basis for selecting Reelin and molecules in its downstream signaling pathway as potential therapeutic targets for psychiatric illnesses. PMID:27803648

  9. Reelin and Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kazuhiro; Kubo, Ken-Ichiro; Nakajima, Kazunori

    2016-01-01

    Proper neuronal migration and laminar formation during corticogenesis is essential for normal brain function. Disruption of these developmental processes is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of some neuropsychiatric conditions. Especially, Reelin, a glycoprotein mainly secreted by the Cajal-Retzius cells and a subpopulation of GABAergic interneurons, has been shown to play a critical role, both during embryonic and postnatal periods. Indeed, animal studies have clearly revealed that Reelin is an essential molecule for proper migration of cortical neurons and finally regulates the cell positioning in the cortex during embryonic and early postnatal stages; by contrast, Reelin signaling is closely involved in synaptic function in adulthood. In humans, genetic studies have shown that the reelin gene (RELN) is associated with a number of psychiatric diseases, including Schizophrenia (SZ), bipolar disorder (BP) and autistic spectrum disorder. Indeed, Reln haploinsufficiency has been shown to cause cognitive impairment in rodents, suggesting the expression level of the Reelin protein is closely related to the higher brain functions. However, the molecular abnormalities in the Reelin pathway involved in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders are not yet fully understood. In this article, we review the current progress in the understanding of the Reelin functions that could be related to the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, we discuss the basis for selecting Reelin and molecules in its downstream signaling pathway as potential therapeutic targets for psychiatric illnesses.

  10. First Light Prominence

    NASA Video Gallery

    Soon after the instruments opened their doors, the Sun began performing for SDO with this beautiful prominence eruption. This AIA data is from March 30, 2010, showing a wavelength band that is cent...

  11. Arching Solar Prominence

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA’s STEREO (Ahead) spacecraft watched as an eruptive prominence rose up and arched out in a horseshoe shape far above the Sun’s surface (Aug. 25, 2010). The image and movie show the action in a...

  12. Prominence Formation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsch, B. T.; DeVore, C. R.; Antiochos, S. K.

    2005-01-01

    Martens and Zwaan (ApJ v. 558 872) have proposed a prominence/ filament formation model in which differential rotation drives reconnection between two initially unconnected active regions to form helical field lines that support mass and are held down by overlying field. Using an MHD solver with adaptive refinement we simulated this process by imposing a shear flow meant to mimic differential rotation on two bipolar flux distributions meant to mimic distinct active regions. In some runs the flux systems are initially potential while in others they have been twisted by footpoint rotation to inject helicity prior to imposing the shear flow. The resulting structures are studied to understand the role of helicity in the formation of prominence-like structures.

  13. Solar Prominence Eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.

    1998-01-01

    The prominence that erupts in a prominence eruption is a magnetic structure in the chromosphere and corona. It is visible in chromospheric images by virtue of chromospheric-temperature plasma suspended in the magnetic field, and belongs to that large class of magnetic structures appropriately called filaments because of their characteristic sinewy sigmoidal form. Hence, the term "filament eruption" is used interchangeably with the term "prominence eruption". The magnetic field holding a filament is prone to undergo explosive changes in configuration. In these upheavals, because the filament material is compelled by its high conductivity to ride with the magnetic field that threads it, this material is a visible tracer of the field motion. The part of the magnetic explosion displayed by the entrained filament material is the phenomenon known as a filament eruption, the topic of this article. This article begins with a description of basic observed characteristics of filament eruptions, with attention to the magnetic fields, flares, and coronal mass ejections in which erupting filaments are embedded. The present understanding of these characteristics in terms of the form and action of the magnetic field is then laid out by means of a rudimentary three-dimensional model of the field. The article ends with basic questions that this picture leaves unresolved and with remarks on the observations needed to probe these questions.

  14. [Neuropsychiatric coaching of an adult with Asperger syndrome].

    PubMed

    Sihvonen, Janne

    2011-01-01

    Asperger syndrome is a lifelong neurodevelopmental condition. The major features of the syndrome include problems in social interaction and communication, narrow interests and stereotyped behaviour. Cognitive abilities are usually within normal. The syndrome potentially leads to a diminished level of life management in adulthood. Neuropsychiatric coaching is a solution-focused and practically oriented process of interventions for clients with neurodevelopmental problems. The methods include forms of evaluation and self reflection, structuring, guidance and visualization aids. Coaching does not exclude simultaneous therapeutic elements. The effectiveness has not yet been established by research, but the experiences reported have been encouraging. Neuropsychiatric coaching is recommended for adults with Asperger syndrome to rehabilitate life management skills.

  15. Impaired autophagy: a link between neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases

    PubMed Central

    Polajnar, Mira; Žerovnik, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Protein misfolding, and subsequent aggregation have been proven as the leading cause of most known dementias. Many of these, in addition to neurodegeneration, show profound changes in behaviour and thinking, thus, psychiatric symptoms. On the basis of the observation that progressive myoclonic epilepsies and neurodegenerative diseases share some common features of neurodegeneration, we proposed autophagy as a possible common impairment in these diseases. Here, we argue along similar lines for some neuropsychiatric conditions, among them depression and schizophrenia. We propose that existing and new therapies for these seemingly different diseases could be augmented with drugs used for neurodegenerative or neuropsychiatric diseases, respectively, among them some which modulate or augment autophagy. PMID:25139375

  16. Neuropsychiatric Symptoms, Endophenotypes, and Syndromes in Late-Onset Alzheimer's Disease: Focus on APOE Gene

    PubMed Central

    Panza, Francesco; Seripa, Davide; D'Onofrio, Grazia; Frisardi, Vincenza; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Mecocci, Patrizia; Pilotto, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms, previously denominated as behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia, are common features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and are one of the major risk factors for institutionalization. At present, the role of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene in the development of neuropsychiatric symptoms in AD patients is unclear. In this paper, we summarized the findings of the studies of neuropsychiatric symptoms and neuropsychiatric syndromes/endophenotypes in AD in relation to APOE genotypes, with special attention to the possible underlying mechanisms. While some studies failed to find a significant association between APOE and neuropsychiatric symptoms in late-onset AD, other studies reported a significant association between the APOE ε4 allele and an increase in agitation/aggression, hallucinations, delusions, and late-life depression or anxiety. Furthermore, some negative studies that focused on the distribution of APOE genotypes between AD patients with or without neuropsychiatric symptoms further emphasized the importance of subgrouping neuropsychiatric symptoms in distinct neuropsychiatric syndromes. Explanations for the variable findings in the existing studies included differences in patient populations, differences in the assessment of neuropsychiatric symptomatology, and possible lack of statistical power to detect associations in the negative studies. PMID:21559196

  17. Folic acid, neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disease.

    PubMed

    Kronenberg, Golo; Colla, Michael; Endres, Matthias

    2009-04-01

    Folic acid plays an important role in neuroplasticity and in the maintenance of neuronal integrity. Folate is a co-factor in one-carbon metabolism during which it promotes the regeneration of methionine from homocysteine, a highly reactive sulfur-containing amino acid. Methionine may then be converted to S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), the principal methyl donor in most biosynthetic methylation reactions. On the cellular level, folate deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia exert multiple detrimental effects. These include induction of DNA damage, uracil misincorporation into DNA and altered patterns of DNA methylation. Low folate status and elevated homocysteine increase the generation of reactive oxygen species and contribute to excitotoxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction which may lead to apoptosis. Strong epidemiological and experimental evidence links derangements of one-carbon metabolism to vascular, neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disease, including most prominently cerebral ischemia, Alzheimer's dementia and depression. Although firm evidence from controlled clinical trials is largely lacking, B-vitamin supplementation and homocysteine reduction may have a role especially in the primary prevention of stroke and dementia as well as as an adjunct to antidepressant pharmacotherapy.

  18. Prominences: The Key to Understanding Solar Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpen, Judy T.

    2011-01-01

    Prominences are spectacular manifestations of both quiescent and eruptive solar activity. The largest examples can be seen with the naked eye during eclipses, making prominences among the first solar features to be described and catalogued. Steady improvements in temporal and spatial resolution from both ground- and space-based instruments have led us to recognize how complex and dynamic these majestic structures really are. Their distinguishing characteristics - cool knots and threads suspended in the hot corona, alignment along inversion lines in the photospheric magnetic field within highly sheared filament channels, and a tendency to disappear through eruption - offer vital clues as to their origin and dynamic evolution. Interpreting these clues has proven to be contentious, however, leading to fundamentally different models that address the basic questions: What is the magnetic structure supporting prominences, and how does so much cool, dense plasma appear in the corona? Despite centuries of increasingly detailed observations, the magnetic and plasma structures in prominences are poorly known. Routine measurements of the vector magnetic field in and around prominences have become possible only recently, while long-term monitoring of the underlying filament-channel formation process also remains scarce. The process responsible for prominence mass is equally difficult to establish, although we have long known that the chromosphere is the only plausible source. As I will discuss, however, the motions and locations of prominence material can be used to trace the coronal field, thus defining the magnetic origins of solar eruptions. A combination of observations, theory, and numerical modeling must be used to determine whether any of the competing theories accurately represents the physics of prominences. I will discuss the criteria for a successful prominence model, compare the leading models, and present in detail one promising, comprehensive scenario for

  19. Recognition and management of neuropsychiatric complications in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ferreri, Florian; Agbokou, Catherine; Gauthier, Serge

    2006-12-05

    Parkinson's disease is primarily considered a motor disease characterized by rest tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia and postural disturbances. However, neuropsychiatric complications, including mood and anxiety disorders, fatigue, apathy, psychosis, cognitive impairment, dementia, sleep disorders and addictions, frequently complicate the course of the illness. The pathophysiologic features of these complications are multifaceted and include neuropathophysiologic changes of a degenerative disease, exposure to antiparkinsonian treatments and emotional reactions to having a disabling chronic illness. Changes in mental status have profound implications for the well-being of patients with Parkinson's disease and of their caregivers. Treatment is often efficacious but becomes a challenge in advanced stages of Parkinson's disease. In this article, we review the key clinical features of neuropsychiatric complications in Parkinson's disease as well as what is known about their epidemiologic characteristics, risk factors, pathophysiologic features and management.

  20. Synthetic polarimetric spectra from stellar prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felipe, T.; Martínez González, M. J.; Asensio Ramos, A.

    2017-02-01

    Stellar prominences detected in rapidly rotating stars serve as probes of the magnetism in the corona of cool stars. We have synthesized the temporal evolution of the Stokes profiles generated in the He I 10 830 and 5876 Å triplets during the rotation of a prominence around a star. The synthesis was performed with the HAZEL code using a cloud model in which the prominence is characterized by a slab located at a fixed latitude and height. It accounts for the scattering polarization and Zeeman and Hanle effects. Several cases with different prominence magnetic field strengths and orientations have been analysed. The results show an emission feature that drifts across the profile while the prominence is out of the stellar disc. When the prominence eclipses the star, the intensity profile shows an absorption. The scattering induced by the prominence generates linear polarization signals in Stokes Q and U profiles, which are modified by the Hanle effect when a magnetic field is present. Due to the Zeeman effect, Stokes V profiles show a signal with very low amplitude when the magnetic field along the line of sight is different from zero. The estimated linear polarization signals could potentially be detected with the future spectropolarimeter Mid-resolution InfRAreD Astronomical Spectrograph, to be attached to Gran Telescopio Canarias telescope.

  1. Solar Prominence - Sept 24, 2013

    NASA Video Gallery

    These movies show the highly dynamic motions in solar prominences. The movie on the right side shows the prominence motions of material at 65,000K. The vertical stripe in the center of the image is...

  2. The cerebellum and neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Rosa

    2012-08-15

    Relative to non-human primates, in humans the cerebellum, and prefrontal cortex are brain regions which have undergone major evolutionary changes. In recent decades, progress in molecular biology and advances in the development of functional neuroimaging analysis have shown that the evolution of the human cerebellum was accompanied by the acquisition of more functions than were previously deduced from human post-mortem studies and animal experimentation. These new cerebellar functions included the control of attention and other cognitive functions, emotions and mood, and social behavior, which were all thought to represent cortical functions. The importance of this new view of cerebellar physiology has been confirmed by the frequency of neuropsychiatric disorders in individuals with cerebellar abnormalities. The information collected in this review emphasizes the importance of cerebellar studies in establishing the physiological substrate of mental diseases.

  3. Neuropsychiatric symptoms and celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Urban-Kowalczyk, Małgorzata; Œmigielski, Janusz; Gmitrowicz, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Background Neuropsychiatric symptoms may represent an atypical manifestation of celiac disease that occur before a gastroenterological diagnosis is made. Some studies suggest that a gluten-free diet is effective in treating the depression, anxiety, and neurological complications associated with celiac disease. Method The article describes the case of a patient suffering from chronic, treatment-resistant symptoms of depression and anxiety. The diagnosis of celiac disease and introduction of an elimination diet caused a significant improvement in mental state and everyday functioning in the presenting patient. Conclusion The presence of persistent anxiety and depressive symptoms, with a poor reaction to pharmacological treatment, indicates a need to identify somatic reasons for the underlying condition. It is important to remember that celiac disease can occur at any age, not only in childhood. The presence of this somatic cause of persistent depressive and anxiety symptoms should be considered in the diagnostic process in adults. PMID:25342904

  4. 3D WHOLE-PROMINENCE FINE STRUCTURE MODELING. II. PROMINENCE EVOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Gunár, Stanislav; Mackay, Duncan H.

    2015-10-20

    We use the new three-dimensional (3D) whole-prominence fine structure model to study the evolution of prominences and their fine structures in response to changes in the underlying photospheric magnetic flux distribution. The applied model combines a detailed 3D prominence magnetic field configuration with a realistic description of the prominence plasma distributed along multiple fine structures. In addition, we utilize an approximate Hα visualization technique to study the evolution of the visible cool prominence plasma both in emission (prominence) and absorption (filament). We show that the initial magnetic field configuration of the modeled prominence is significantly disturbed by the changing position of a single polarity of a magnetic bipole as the bipole is advected toward the main body of the filament. This leads to the creation of a barb, which becomes the dominant feature visible in the synthetic Hα images of both the prominence and filament views. The evolution of the bipole also creates conditions that lead to the disappearance and reappearance of large portions of the main body. We also show that an arch-like region containing a dark void (a bubble) can be naturally produced in the synthetic prominence Hα images. While not visible in terms of the magnetic field lines, it is due to a lack of Hα emission from low-pressure, low-density plasma located in shallow magnetic dips lying along the lines of sight intersecting the dark void. In addition, a quasi-vertical small-scale feature consisting of short and deep dips, piled one above the other, is produced.

  5. Neuropsychiatric management of young-onset dementias.

    PubMed

    Shinagawa, Shunichiro

    2015-06-01

    A combination of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic approaches is necessary for the appropriate neuropsychiatric management of patients with young-onset dementia. Nonpharmacologic interventions, including psychological management, environmental strategies, and caregiver's support, should be the first choice for neuropsychiatric management. Pharmacologic interventions differ according to the underlying causes of dementia; thus, differential diagnoses are very important. Antipsychotics should be prescribed carefully; they should be used for the shortest time possible, at the lowest possible dose.

  6. The dynamics of funnel prominences

    SciTech Connect

    Keppens, R.; Xia, C.

    2014-07-01

    We present numerical simulations in 2.5D settings where large-scale prominences form in situ out of coronal condensation in magnetic dips, in close agreement with early as well as recent reporting of funnel prominences. Our simulation uses full thermodynamic magnetohydrodynamics with anisotropic thermal conduction, optically thin radiative losses, and parameterized heating as main ingredients to establish a realistic arcade configuration from chromosphere to corona. The chromospheric evaporation, especially from transition region heights, ultimately causes thermal instability, and we witness the growth of a prominence suspended well above the transition region, continuously gaining mass and cross-sectional area. Several hours later, the condensation has grown into a structure connecting the prominence-corona transition region with the underlying transition region, and a continuous downward motion from the accumulated mass represents a drainage that matches observational findings. A more dynamic phase is found as well, with coronal rain, induced wave trains, and even a reconnection event when the core prominence plasma weighs down the field lines until a flux rope is formed. The upper part of the prominence is then trapped in a flux-rope structure, and we argue for its violent kink-unstable eruption as soon as the (ignored) length dimension would allow for ideal kink deformations.

  7. Automated image based prominent nucleoli detection

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Choon K.; Kalaw, Emarene M.; Singh, Malay; Chong, Kian T.; Giron, Danilo M.; Huang, Chao-Hui; Cheng, Li; Law, Yan N.; Lee, Hwee Kuan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Nucleolar changes in cancer cells are one of the cytologic features important to the tumor pathologist in cancer assessments of tissue biopsies. However, inter-observer variability and the manual approach to this work hamper the accuracy of the assessment by pathologists. In this paper, we propose a computational method for prominent nucleoli pattern detection. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five hematoxylin and eosin stained images were acquired from prostate cancer, breast cancer, renal clear cell cancer and renal papillary cell cancer tissues. Prostate cancer images were used for the development of a computer-based automated prominent nucleoli pattern detector built on a cascade farm. An ensemble of approximately 1000 cascades was constructed by permuting different combinations of classifiers such as support vector machines, eXclusive component analysis, boosting, and logistic regression. The output of cascades was then combined using the RankBoost algorithm. The output of our prominent nucleoli pattern detector is a ranked set of detected image patches of patterns of prominent nucleoli. Results: The mean number of detected prominent nucleoli patterns in the top 100 ranked detected objects was 58 in the prostate cancer dataset, 68 in the breast cancer dataset, 86 in the renal clear cell cancer dataset, and 76 in the renal papillary cell cancer dataset. The proposed cascade farm performs twice as good as the use of a single cascade proposed in the seminal paper by Viola and Jones. For comparison, a naive algorithm that randomly chooses a pixel as a nucleoli pattern would detect five correct patterns in the first 100 ranked objects. Conclusions: Detection of sparse nucleoli patterns in a large background of highly variable tissue patterns is a difficult challenge our method has overcome. This study developed an accurate prominent nucleoli pattern detector with the potential to be used in the clinical settings. PMID:26167383

  8. Coronal transient--eruptive prominence of 1980 August 5

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R.; Garcia, C.J.; Seagraves, P.

    1981-06-15

    A coronal transient was observed in association with an eruptive prominence event using the Mauna Loa experiment system. The transient, a rarefaction, formed before the acceleration of the eruptive prominence. Upward velocities of various features, as seen in the plane of the sky, show a marked difference as a function of time between the transient and the eruptive prominence. A region of enhanced electron density formed slowly in front of the rarefaction.

  9. Slitrks as emerging candidate genes involved in neuropsychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Proenca, Catia C.; Gao, Kate P.; Shmelkov, Sergey V.; Rafii, Shahin; Lee, Francis S.

    2011-01-01

    Slitrks are a family of structurally-related transmembrane proteins belonging to the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) superfamily. Six family members exist (Slitrk1–Slitrk6), and all are highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS). Slitrks have been implicated in mediating basic neuronal processes ranging from neurite outgrowth and dendritic elaboration to neuronal survival. Recent studies in humans and genetic mouse models have led to the identification of Slitrks as candidate genes that may be involved in the development of neuropsychiatric conditions such as obsessive compulsive spectrum disorders and schizophrenia. While these system level approaches have suggested that Slitrks play prominent roles in CNS development, key questions remain regarding the molecular mechanisms through which Slitrks mediate neuronal signaling and connectivity. PMID:21315458

  10. Attenuation of neuropsychiatric symptoms and caregiver burden in Alzheimer's disease by motor intervention: a controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Stella, Florindo; Canonici, Ana Paula; Gobbi, Sebastião; Santos-Galduroz, Ruth Ferreira; de Castilho Cação, João; Gobbi, Lílian Teresa Bucken

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effects of motor intervention on the neuropsychiatric symptoms of Alzheimer's disease and on the caregivers' burden. DESIGN: This is a controlled trial evaluating the effects of a motor intervention program on the neuropsychiatric symptoms. SETTING: The intervention was performed on community patients from two university centers specializing in physical exercise for the elderly. SUBJECTS: Patients with Alzheimer's disease were divided into two groups: sixteen received the motor intervention and sixteen controls (five controls were excluded because of clinical intercurrences). INTERVENTIONS: Aerobic exercises (flexibility, strength, and agility) and functional balance exercises were conducted over six months for 60 minutes three times per week. MAIN MEASURES: Psychopathological features of patients were evaluated with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory and Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia. Caregivers were evaluated using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Distress and Burden Interview. A two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to observe interactions (pre- vs. post-intervention; participants vs. controls). RESULTS: Patients from the intervention presented a significant reduction in neuropsychiatric conditions when compared to controls (Neuropsychiatric Inventory: F∶11.12; p = 0.01; Cornell Depression scale: F∶11.97; p = 0.01). The burden and stress of caregivers responsible for patients who participated in the intervention significantly decreased when compared to caregivers responsible for controls (Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Distress: F: 9.37; p = 0.01; Burden Interview: F: 11.28; p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Aerobic exercise was associated with a reduction in the neuropsychiatric symptoms and contributed to attenuate the caregivers' burden. However, the researchers were not blinded to the patient's intervention status, which constitutes an important limitation of this study. PMID:21915483

  11. Vertical Localization of the Malar Prominence

    PubMed Central

    Kaptein, John S.; Markarian, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Background: During reconstruction or augmentation, it is important to localize the malar complex in a symmetrical and aesthetically pleasing position. Few studies have determined the location of this feature and none related the location to gender, age, or ethnicity. Some of these have attempted to relate the position to the aesthetically pleasing Golden Ratio φ. Methods: We assessed the vertical location of the malar prominence relative to other facial landmarks, determined consistency among individuals, and compared this with values used in artistry. Study population consisted of a convenience sample of 67 patients taken from an otolaryngology practice at a large urban medical center. Coordinates of the malar prominence were referenced to distinct facial landmarks from which the ratio of chin-to-malar prominence to chin-to-eye canthus was determined. Results: Average chin-to-malar prominence distance was 0.793 ± 0.023 (SD) of the chin-to-eye canthus distance. Variability due to the specific image chosen [coefficient of variation (CV) = 1.19%] and combined inter/intrareader variability (CV = 1.71%) validate the methodology. Variability among individuals (CV = 2.84%) indicates population consistency. No difference was found between gender and age groups or between whites and Hispanics. Individuals of other/unknown ethnicities were within the range common to whites and Hispanics. Our population’s value is not different from the value of 0.809 used in artistry, which is based on the Golden Ratio φ. Conclusions: The vertical position of the malar prominence is consistent among individuals, is clinically well-approximated by the value based on the Golden Ratio, and may be useful as a reference for surgical reconstruction or augmentation. PMID:26180712

  12. Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Diagnostic Conundrum

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Vivek; Anil, Rahul; Aristy, Sary

    2016-01-01

    A 70-year-old man presented with complaints of rapid cognitive decline and new onset leukopenia. The patient had a 17-year history of refractory seizures. Detailed review of symptoms and investigations revealed the patient met American College of Rheumatology (ACR) diagnostic criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The patient had high titer ANA with a strongly positive dsDNA. Immunosuppressive therapy with hydroxychloroquine and mycophenolate mofetil led to significant improvement in cognition and seizures. Neuropsychiatric SLE should be considered a potential differential diagnosis for patients presenting with seizures or cognitive decline. Moreover, neuropsychiatric manifestations especially seizures are an early event in the disease course of SLE. Hence, we believe that early diagnosis of SLE by neuropsychiatric manifestations will not only lead to better control of CNS symptoms but early immunosuppressive therapy could control the progression of the underlying autoimmune disease. PMID:27635183

  13. Scurvy hidden behind neuropsychiatric symptoms.

    PubMed

    Estienne, Margherita; Bugiani, Marianna; Bizzi, Alberto; Granata, Tiziana

    2011-12-01

    Approaching an uncommon disease may result in diagnostic delay even in patients with typical clinical features. In this respect, diseases related to nutritional deficiencies may represent a diagnostic challenge. We describe a 2.5-year-old child with typical features of scurvy, who was referred for autistic-like behavior and severe muscle weakness and pain in lower limbs. Extensive investigations for non-nutrition-related disorders were first performed, including a muscle biopsy showing a selective type II fibers hypotrophy. Scurvy was eventually considered, after recalling the child's peculiar dietary habits.

  14. Omega-3 fatty acids and neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Young, Genevieve; Conquer, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that dietary consumption of the long chain omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), commonly found in fish or fish oil, may modify the risk for certain neuropsychiatric disorders. As evidence, decreased blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids have been associated with several neuropsychiatric conditions, including Attention Deficit (Hyperactivity) Disorder, Alzheimer's Disease, Schizophrenia and Depression. Supplementation studies, using individual or combination omega-3 fatty acids, suggest the possibility for decreased symptoms associated with some of these conditions. Thus far, however, the benefits of supplementation, in terms of decreasing disease risk and/or aiding in symptom management, are not clear and more research is needed. The reasons for blood fatty acid alterations in these disorders are not known, nor are the potential mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may function in normal neuronal activity and neuropsychiatric disease prevention and/or treatment. It is clear, however, that DHA is the predominant n-3 fatty acid found in the brain and that EPA plays an important role as an anti-inflammatory precursor. Both DHA and EPA can be linked with many aspects of neural function, including neurotransmission, membrane fluidity, ion channel and enzyme regulation and gene expression. This review summarizes the knowledge in terms of dietary omega-3 fatty acid intake and metabolism, as well as evidence pointing to potential mechanisms of omega-3 fatty acids in normal brain functioning, development of neuropsychiatric disorders and efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in terms of symptom management.

  15. Corticosteroid-induced neuropsychiatric disorders: review and contrast with neuropsychiatric lupus.

    PubMed

    Bhangle, Samir D; Kramer, Neil; Rosenstein, Elliot D

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this review is to analyze the available literature regarding the neuropsychiatric (NP) disturbances associated with corticosteroid (CS) therapy; to determine the nature, severity, and frequency of these NP symptoms; and to identify the various risk factors involved in the development of CS-induced NP disturbances. We searched the available literature since the advent of corticosteroid therapy (1950) utilizing the PubMed database ( www.pubmed.gov). Primary articles were identified, and they and their pertinent references were reviewed. Due to potential confusion between NP manifestations of CS therapy and central nervous system (CNS) involvement of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a condition often treated with CS, a brief review of NP manifestations of SLE was also performed. The presentation of CS-induced neuropsychiatric disorders (CIPD) can be quite varied with depression, hypomania, and overt psychosis being the most common manifestations. CIPD can also include bipolar affective changes, delirium, panic attacks, agoraphobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety, insomnia, restlessness, fatigue, catatonia, reversible dementia-like cognitive changes, impaired memory, and concentration. No factors have been identified that allow for the accurate prediction of development of CIPD. A dose-dependent relationship (increased risk when the daily prednisone-equivalent dose is ≥40 mg) has been observed in most cases of CIPD, although there have been case reports with lower doses, alternate-day therapy, and even inhaled CS. Women are more commonly affected with most symptoms occurring in the first 6 weeks of starting treatment. SLE has been the only specific illness that has been linked to a greater risk of CIPD and the NP manifestations of SLE may mimic those of CIPD, with most occurring in the first year of diagnosis. Antiribosomal P, antineuronal, or antiphospholipid antibodies are frequently seen in patients with SLE developing CIPD. Imaging and EEG

  16. Determining Prominent Subdomains in Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Bernhardt, Powell J.; Humphrey, Susanne M.; Rindflesch, Thomas C.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss an automated method for identifying prominent subdomains in medicine. The motivation is to enhance the results of natural language processing by focusing on sublanguages associated with medical specialties concerned with prevalent disorders. At the core of our approach is a statistical system for topical categorization of medical text. A method based on epidemiological evidence is compared to another that considers frequency of occurrence of Medline citations. We suggest the isolation of UMLS terminology peculiar to individual medical specialties as a way of enhancing natural language processing systems in the biomedical domain. PMID:16778999

  17. Neuropsychiatric manifestations of alkali metal deficiency and excess.

    PubMed

    Yung, C Y

    1984-01-01

    The alkali metals from the Group IA of the periodic table (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium and francium) are reviewed. The neuropsychiatric aspects of alkali metal deficiencies and excesses (intoxications) are described. Emphasis was placed on lithium due to its clinical uses. The signs and symptoms of these conditions are characterized by features of an organic brain syndrome with delirium and encephalopathy prevailing. There are no clinically distinctive features that could be reliably used for diagnoses. Sodium and potassium are two essential alkali metals in man. Lithium is used as therapeutic agent in bipolar affective disorders. Rubidium has been investigated for its antidepressant effect in a group of psychiatric disorders. Cesium is under laboratory investigation for its role in carcinogenesis and in depressive illness. Very little is known of francium due to its great instability for experimental study.

  18. Neuropsychiatric manifestations of alkali metal deficiency and excess

    SciTech Connect

    Yung, C.Y.

    1984-01-01

    The alkali metals from the Group IA of the periodic table (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium and francium) are reviewed. The neuropsychiatric aspects of alkali metal deficiencies and excesses (intoxications) are described. Emphasis was placed on lithium due to its clinical uses. The signs and symptoms of these conditions are characterized by features of an organic brain syndrome with delirium and encephalopathy prevailing. There are no clinically distinctive features that could be reliably used for diagnoses. Sodium and potassium are two essential alkali metals in man. Lithium is used as therapeutic agent in bipolar affective disorders. Rubidium has been investigated for its antidepressant effect in a group of psychiatric disorders. Cesium is under laboratory investigation for its role in carcinogenesis and in depressive illness. Very little is known of francium due to its great instability for experimental study.

  19. Neuropsychiatric symptoms in untreated Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Szatmari, Szabolcs; Illigens, Ben Min-Woo; Siepmann, Timo; Pinter, Alexandra; Takats, Annamaria; Bereczki, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric and cognitive symptoms are common in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and may precede and exceed motor symptoms as major factors impacting disease course and quality of life. Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in PD are various and are attributed to pathologic changes within multiple brain regions, to psychological stress, and to adverse effects of dopamine replacement therapy. Sleep disorders and mood symptoms such as apathy, depression, and anxiety may antedate the development of motor symptoms by years, while other NPS such as impulse control disorders, psychosis, and cognitive impairment are more common in later stages of the disease. Few studies report on NPS in the early, untreated phase of PD. We reviewed the current literature on NPS in PD with a focus on the early, drug-naive stages of PD. Among these early disease stages, premotor and early motor phases were separately addressed in our review, highlighting the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms as well as epidemiological characteristics, clinical features, risk factors, and available techniques of clinical assessment. PMID:28352181

  20. Mass flows in a prominence spine as observed in EUV

    SciTech Connect

    Kucera, T. A.; Gilbert, H. R.

    2014-07-20

    We analyze a quiescent prominence observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) with a focus on mass and energy flux in the spine, measured using Lyman continuum absorption. This is the first time this type of analysis has been applied with an emphasis on individual features and fluxes in a quiescent prominence. The prominence, observed on 2010 September 28, is detectable in most AIA wavebands in absorption and/or emission. Flows along the spine exhibit horizontal bands 5''-10'' wide and kinetic energy fluxes on the order of a few times 10{sup 5} erg s{sup –1}cm{sup –2}, consistent with quiet sun coronal heating estimates. For a discrete moving feature we estimate a mass of a few times 10{sup 11} g. We discuss the implications of our derived properties for a model of prominence dynamics, the thermal non-equilibrium model.

  1. Crosstalk between metabolic and neuropsychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Danielle S.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence supporting the concurrence of metabolic disturbances (e.g. insulin resistance, diabetes and obesity) and neuropsychiatric disorders has been demonstrated in both human and animal studies, suggesting the possibility that they have shared pathophysiological mechanisms. During the past decade, our understanding for the role of insulin in both normal and abnormal central nervous system (CNS) processes has become increasingly refined. Evidence indicates that insulin is a pleiotropic peptide, critical to neurotrophism, neuroplasticity, and neuromodulation. Moreover, the role of insulin underscores its importance in the development of several neuropsychiatric disorders, including, but not limited to, mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis and progression towards diabetes, obesity, and neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease. This review focuses on the insulin-mediated effects on normal and abnormal brain function and discusses why targeting insulin-related pathways in the brain may emerge as a new approach for refining treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders. PMID:22802875

  2. Redox Modulations, Antioxidants, and Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fraunberger, Erik A.; Scola, Gustavo; Laliberté, Victoria L. M.; Duong, Angela; Andreazza, Ana C.

    2016-01-01

    Although antioxidants, redox modulations, and neuropsychiatric disorders have been widely studied for many years, the field would benefit from an integrative and corroborative review. Our primary objective is to delineate the biological significance of compounds that modulate our redox status (i.e., reactive species and antioxidants) as well as outline their current role in brain health and the impact of redox modulations on the severity of illnesses. Therefore, this review will not enter into the debate regarding the perceived medical legitimacy of antioxidants but rather seek to clarify their abilities and limitations. With this in mind, antioxidants may be interpreted as natural products with significant pharmacological actions in the body. A renewed understanding of these often overlooked compounds will allow us to critically appraise the current literature and provide an informed, novel perspective on an important healthcare issue. In this review, we will introduce the complex topics of redox modulations and their role in the development of select neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26640614

  3. Paraneoplastic neuropsychiatric syndrome presenting as delirium.

    PubMed

    Roldan Urgoiti, Gloria; Sinnarajah, Aynharan; Hussain, Seema; Hao, Desiree

    2016-07-28

    Delirium in patients with cancer is associated with poor outcomes, but reversible causes need to be ruled out. We report the case of a 59-year-old woman who was presented with behavioural and cognitive changes over 2 weeks. She was non-verbal and combative, requiring involuntary admission and declaration of incompetence to make healthcare treatment decisions. Infectious and metabolic investigations and initial brain imaging were unremarkable. She was diagnosed with limited-stage small cell lung cancer and a paraneoplastic neuropsychiatric syndrome. Owing to the patient's delirium, chemotherapy delivery required pharmacological and physical restraints. After 2 cycles of chemotherapy, she could participate in the decision process and was discharged home. She completed radical chemo-radiotherapy and has remained free of disease progression for 18 months. Paraneoplastic neuropsychiatric syndromes, although rare, are potentially treatable and need to be excluded as a cause of delirium.

  4. Redox Modulations, Antioxidants, and Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Fraunberger, Erik A; Scola, Gustavo; Laliberté, Victoria L M; Duong, Angela; Andreazza, Ana C

    2016-01-01

    Although antioxidants, redox modulations, and neuropsychiatric disorders have been widely studied for many years, the field would benefit from an integrative and corroborative review. Our primary objective is to delineate the biological significance of compounds that modulate our redox status (i.e., reactive species and antioxidants) as well as outline their current role in brain health and the impact of redox modulations on the severity of illnesses. Therefore, this review will not enter into the debate regarding the perceived medical legitimacy of antioxidants but rather seek to clarify their abilities and limitations. With this in mind, antioxidants may be interpreted as natural products with significant pharmacological actions in the body. A renewed understanding of these often overlooked compounds will allow us to critically appraise the current literature and provide an informed, novel perspective on an important healthcare issue. In this review, we will introduce the complex topics of redox modulations and their role in the development of select neuropsychiatric disorders.

  5. Brain CB₂ Receptors: Implications for Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Roche, Michelle; Finn, David P

    2010-08-10

    Although previously thought of as the peripheral cannabinoid receptor, it is now accepted that the CB₂ receptor is expressed in the central nervous system on microglia, astrocytes and subpopulations of neurons. Expression of the CB₂ receptor in the brain is significantly lower than that of the CB₁ receptor. Conflicting findings have been reported on the neurological effects of pharmacological agents targeting the CB₂ receptor under normal conditions. Under inflammatory conditions, CB₂ receptor expression in the brain is enhanced and CB2 receptor agonists exhibit potent anti-inflammatory effects. These findings have prompted research into the CB₂ receptor as a possible target for the treatment of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders. Neuroinflammatory alterations are also associated with neuropsychiatric disorders and polymorphisms in the CB₂ gene have been reported in depression, eating disorders and schizophrenia. This review will examine the evidence to date for a role of brain CB₂ receptors in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  6. An Acoustic Measure for Word Prominence in Spontaneous Speech

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dagen; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2010-01-01

    An algorithm for automatic speech prominence detection is reported in this paper. We describe a comparative analysis on various acoustic features for word prominence detection and report results using a spoken dialog corpus with manually assigned prominence labels. The focus is on features such as spectral intensity and speech rate that are directly extracted from speech based on a correlation-based approach without requiring explicit linguistic or phonetic knowledge. Additionally, various pitch-based measures are studied with respect to their discriminating ability for prominence detection. A parametric scheme for modeling pitch plateau is proposed and this feature alone is found to outperform the traditional local pitch statistics. Two sets of experiments are used to explore the usefulness of the acoustic score generated using these features. The first set focuses on a more traditional way of word prominence detection based on a manually-tagged corpus. A 76.8% classification accuracy was achieved on a corpus of role-playing spoken dialogs. Due to difficulties in manually tagging speech prominence into discrete levels (categories), the second set of experiments focuses on evaluating the score indirectly. Specifically, through experiments on the Switchboard corpus, it is shown that the proposed acoustic score can discriminate between content word and function words in a statistically significant way. The relation between speech prominence and content/function words is also explored. Since prominent words tend to be predominantly content words, and since content words can be automatically marked from text-derived part of speech (POS) information, it is shown that the proposed acoustic score can be indirectly cross-validated through POS information. PMID:20454538

  7. The Temperature of Quiescent Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiehr, E.; Stellmacher, G.

    We simultaneously observed in solar prominences faint metallic emission lines together with Hγand two He I lines from the singlet and triplet systems, respectively. We find that the reduced widths ΔλD/λ0 are not linearly related to the square-root of the inverse atomic mass, as is expected from the Doppler formula. Instead, each emission line is individually broadened. The gradients in the VD2(1/μ) diagrams correspond to unrealistically high Tkin≥104 K, which contradict values deduced from line radiance observations yielding temperatures down to at most 5000 K. A scenario of down-falling gas clumps by Low et al. (2012) offers a plausible explanation for these discrepancies.

  8. Neuropsychiatric genetics in developing countries: Current challenges.

    PubMed

    Forero, Diego A; Vélez-van-Meerbeke, Alberto; Deshpande, Smita N; Nicolini, Humberto; Perry, George

    2014-12-22

    Neuropsychiatric disorders (NPDs) constitute a heavy burden on public health systems around the world and studies have demonstrated that the negative impact of NPDs is larger in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs). In recent decades, several studies have come to the understanding that genetic factors play a major role in the risk for a large number of NPDs. However, few neuropsychiatric genetics studies have been published from LMICs. In this Editorial, we discuss important issues impinging on advances in neuropsychiatric genetics research in LMICs. It is essential that scientists educate policymakers and officials of funding agencies on the importance of providing adequate funding for research in these areas. Development of local well-supported research programs focused on NPD genetics should be an important asset to develop; it would facilitate the establishment of sustainable research efforts that could lead to appropriate diagnosis and specific, affordable and feasible interventions in LMICs. It is important to point out that research into the biological basis of human NPDs is not only an academic effort reserved for a few elite institutions in economically developed countries, but it is vitally important for the mental health of people around the world.

  9. Neuropsychiatric manifestations of some tropical diseases.

    PubMed

    Moryś, Joanna M; Jeżewska, Maria; Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Some tropical diseases are the direct cause of severe disturbances of cerebral function while others affect only finer cerebral systems controlling fears, anxiety and personality traits. The mechanisms by which psychiatric symptoms are produced in tropical disorders are not any different from the mechanisms that relate to any physical disorders. Neuropsychiatric symptoms may be caused by a number of different mechanisms including bacterial toxins, release of cytokines, hyperthermia, shock (poor perfusion), acute renal insufficiency, pulmonary failure (shock lung), coagulopathy, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, and/or the nest of pathogens into the central nervous system. The following tropical illnesses can be associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms: neurocysticercosis, malaria, trypanosomiasis, dengue, and schistosomiasis. Neurological and psychiatric impairments induced by tropical diseases both represent a major category of invalidating disorders, which cause profound changes in the nervous system functions, often associated with severe sequels or late-onset disturbances. It is therefore important to disseminate knowledge of the neuropsychiatric symptoms accompanying tropical diseases in order to increase the awareness of these problems and challenges.

  10. BRAIN MYELINATION IN PREVALENT NEUROPSYCHIATRIC DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    BARTZOKIS, GEORGE

    2008-01-01

    Current concepts of addiction focus on neuronal neurocircuitry and neurotransmitters and are largely based on animal model data, but the human brain is unique in its high myelin content and extended developmental (myelination) phase that continues until middle age. The biology of our exceptional myelination process and factors that influence it have been synthesized into a recently published myelin model of human brain evolution and normal development that cuts across the current symptom-based classification of neuropsychiatric disorders. The developmental perspective of the model suggests that dysregulations in the myelination process contribute to prevalent early-life neuropsychiatric disorders, as well as to addictions. These disorders share deficits in inhibitory control functions that likely contribute to their high rates of comorbidity with addiction and other impulsive behaviors. The model posits that substances such as alcohol and psychostimulants are toxic to the extremely vulnerable myelination process and contribute to the poor outcomes of primary and comorbid addictive disorders in susceptible individuals. By increasing the scientific focus on myelination, the model provides a rational biological framework for the development of novel, myelin-centered treatments that may have widespread efficacy across multiple disease states and could potentially be used in treating, delaying, or even preventing some of the most prevalent and devastating neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:18668184

  11. Understanding the neuropsychiatric phenotype of fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Birch, R C; Cornish, K M; Hocking, D R; Trollor, J N

    2014-12-01

    Fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a recently identified X-linked neurodegenerative disorder affecting a proportion of premutation carriers of the Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. Previous research suggests that cognitive and psychiatric features of FXTAS may include primary impairments in executive function and increased vulnerability to mood and anxiety disorders. A number of these reports, however, are based on overlapping cohorts or have produced inconsistent findings. A systematic review was therefore conducted to further elucidate the neuropsychiatric features characteristic of FXTAS. Fourteen papers met inclusion criteria for the review and were considered to represent nine independent FXTAS cohorts. Findings from the review suggest that the neuropsychiatric phenotype of FXTAS is characterised primarily by poorer performance on measures of executive function, working memory, information processing speed, and fine motor control when compared to matched comparison groups. Two studies were identified in which psychiatric symptoms in FXTAS were compared with controls, and these yielded mixed results. Overall the results of this review support previous reports that the neuropsychiatric profile of FXTAS is consistent with a dysexecutive fronto-subcortical syndrome. However, additional controlled studies are required to progress our understanding of FXTAS and how the neuropsychiatric profile relates to underlying pathological mechanisms.

  12. Observations of loops and prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strong, Keith T.

    1994-01-01

    We review recent observations by the Yohkoh-SXT (Soft X-ray Telescope) in collaboration with other spacecraft and ground-based observatories of coronal loops and prominences. These new results point to problems that SoHO will be able to address. With a unique combination of rapid-cadence digital imaging (greater than or equal to 32 s full-disk and greater than or equal to 2 s partial-frame images), high spatial resolution (greater than or equal to 2.5 arcsec pixels), high sensitivity (EM less than or equal to 10(exp 42) cm(exp -3)), a low-scatter mirror, and large dynamic range, SXT can observe a vast range of targets on the Sun. Over the first 21 months of Yohkoh operations SXT has taken over one million images of the corona and so is building up an invaluable long-term database on the large-scale corona and loop geometry. The most striking thing about the SXT images is the range of loop sizes and shapes. The active regions are a bright tangle of magnetic field lines, surrounded by a network of large-scale quiet-Sun loops stretching over distances in excess of 105 km. The cross-section of most loops seems to be constant. Loops displaying significant Gamma's are the exception, not the rule, implying the presence of widespread currents in the corona. All magnetic structures show changes. Time scales range from seconds to months. The question of how these structures are formed, become filled with hot plasma, and are maintained is still open. While we see the propagation of brightenings along the length of active-region loops and in X-ray jets with velocities of several hundred km/s, much higher velocities are seen in the quiet Sun. In XBP flares, for example, velocities of over 1000 km/s are common. Active-region loops seem to be in constant motion, moving slowly outward, carrying plasma with them. During flares, loops often produce localized brightenings at the base and later at the apex of the loop. Quiescent filaments and prominences have been observed regularly

  13. Parker Lecture - Prominences: the key to understanding solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpen, Judith T.

    2011-05-01

    Prominences are spectacular manifestations of both quiescent and eruptive solar activity. The largest examples can be seen with the naked eye during eclipses, making prominences among the first solar features to be described and catalogued. Steady improvements in temporal and spatial resolution from both ground- and space-based instruments have led us to recognize how complex and dynamic these majestic structures really are. Their distinguishing characteristics - cool knots and threads suspended in the hot corona, alignment along inversion lines in the photospheric magnetic field within highly sheared filament channels, and a tendency to disappear through eruption - offer vital clues as to their origin and dynamic evolution. Interpreting these clues has proven to be contentious, however, leading to fundamentally different models that address the basic questions: What is the magnetic structure supporting prominences, and how does so much cool, dense plasma appear in the corona? Despite centuries of increasingly detailed observations, the magnetic and plasma structures in prominences are poorly known. Routine measurements of the vector magnetic field in and around prominences have become possible only recently, while long-term monitoring of the underlying filament-channel formation process remains scarce. The process responsible for prominence mass is equally difficult to establish, although we have long known that the chromosphere is the only plausible source. As I will discuss, however, the motions and locations of prominence material can be used to trace the coronal field, thus defining the magnetic origins of solar eruptions. A combination of observations, theory, and numerical modeling must be used to determine whether any of the competing theories accurately represents the physics of prominences. I will discuss the criteria for a successful prominence model, compare the leading models, and present in detail one promising, comprehensive scenario for prominence

  14. Brain insulin dysregulation: implication for neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Rasoul; Dargahi, Leila; Haeri, Ali; Moosavi, Maryam; Mohamed, Zahurin; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan

    2013-06-01

    Arduous efforts have been made in the last three decades to elucidate the role of insulin in the brain. A growing number of evidences show that insulin is involved in several physiological function of the brain such as food intake and weight control, reproduction, learning and memory, neuromodulation and neuroprotection. In addition, it is now clear that insulin and insulin disturbances particularly diabetes mellitus may contribute or in some cases play the main role in development and progression of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. Focusing on the molecular mechanisms, this review summarizes the recent findings on the involvement of insulin dysfunction in neurological disorders like Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease and also mental disorders like depression and psychosis sharing features of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration.

  15. Observation of Intense Streams of Plasma from Laboratory Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, S. K. P.; Bellan, P. M.

    2004-11-01

    The evolution of two adjacent solar prominences has been simulated in a laboratory plasma experiment [1]. In this experiment, two side-by-side solar prominence-like plasma structures are produced using a four-electrode magnetized plasma source in a large vacuum chamber (1.4 m diameter, 2.0 m long). This plasma source is used to produce single prominences with either left or right handed twists. An ultra-high speed intensified CCD camera records visual images of the prominence-evolution. Except for the sense of the twists, the left and the right-handed single laboratory prominences produced by hydrogen have similar features. However, the left and the right-handed prominences produced by argon show a remarkable difference, namely, the emergence of a strong stream of plasma from the apex of only the left-handed argon single prominence. A magnetic loop probe array has been designed to map the 3-D magnetic field. It is expected that preliminary results on the magnetic field topology and the effect of the gas on these plasma-streams will be presented. [1] J. F. Hansen, S. K. P. Tripathi, and P. M. Bellan, Phys. Plasmas 11(6), 3177 (2004)

  16. Solar Prominence Fine Structure and Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We review recent observational and theoretical results on the fine structure and dynamics of solar prominences, beginning with an overview of prominence classifications, the proposal of possible new ``funnel prominence'' classification, and a discussion of the recent ``solar tornado'' findings. We then focus on quiescent prominences to review formation, down-flow dynamics, and the ``prominence bubble'' phenomena. We show new observations of the prominence bubble Rayleigh-Taylor instability triggered by a Kelvin-Helmholtz shear flow instability occurring along the bubble boundary. Finally we review recent studies on plasma composition of bubbles, emphasizing that differential emission measure (DEM) analysis offers a more quantitative analysis than photometric comparisons. In conclusion, we discuss the relation of prominences to coronal magnetic flux ropes, proposing that prominences can be understood as partially ionized condensations of plasma forming the return flow of a general magneto-thermal convection in the corona.

  17. Gestational outcomes in patients with neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    de Jesus, G R; Rodrigues, B C; Lacerda, M I; Dos Santos, F C; de Jesus, N R; Klumb, E M; Levy, R A

    2017-04-01

    This study analyzed maternal and fetal outcomes of pregnancies of neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus patients followed in a reference unit. This retrospective cohort study included 26 pregnancies of patients seen between 2011 and 2015 included with history and/or active neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus among 135 pregnancies. Three patients had active neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus at conception, but only one remained with neurological activity during gestation, characteristically related to the inadvertent suspension of medications. Twenty six percent of the newborns were small for gestational age and 40% of live births were premature, with no neonatal death or early complications of prematurity. Preeclampsia was diagnosed in nine pregnancies, with two cases of early severe form that resulted in intrauterine fetal death. Patients with neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus had more prematurity and preeclampsia compared to patients without neuropsychiatric disease. However, when concomitant lupus nephritis was excluded, the gestational results of neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus patients were more favorable.

  18. Neuropsychiatric Profile in Malaria: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Veer Bahadur; Meena, Babu Lal; Chandra, Subhash; Agrawal, Jatin; Kanogiya, Naresh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Malaria is the most important parasitic disease of humans causes clinical illness over 300-500 million people globally and over one million death every year globally. The involvement of the nervous system in malaria is studied in this paper, to help formulate a strategy for better malaria management. Aim To study the Neuropsychiatric manifestation in malaria. Materials and Methods This was a prospective observational study in 170 patients with a clinical diagnosis of malaria admitted in various medical wards of medicine department of PBM Hospital, Bikaner during epidemic of malaria. It included both sexes of all age groups except the paediatric range. The diagnosis of malaria was confirmed by examination of thick and thin smear/optimal test/strip test. Only those cases that had asexual form of parasite of malaria in the blood by smear examination or optimal test were included in the study. Results Out of total 170 patients 104 (62%) reported Plasmodium falciparum (PF), Plasmodium vivax (PV) were 57 (33.5%) followed by mixed (PF+PV) 9 (5.3%) cases. The total PBF-MP test positivity was 84.5%. Maximum patients were belonging to the age range of 21-40 year with male predominance. Neuropsychiatric manifestation seen in falciparum malaria (n=111) as follow: altered consciousness 20 (18.01%), headache 17 (15.32%), neck rigidity 5 (4.5%), convulsion 5 (4.55%), extra pyramidal rigidity 2 (1.8%), decorticate rigidity 1 (0.90%), decerebrate rigidity 1 (0.90%), cerebellar ataxia 3 (2.7%), subarachnoid haemorrhage 1 (0.90%), aphasia 2 (1.8%), subconjunctival haemorrhage 1 (0.90%), conjugate deviation of eye 1 (0.90%) and psychosis 6 (5.40%). Twenty one patients presented with cerebral malaria out of 111 patients. Most patients of cerebral malaria presented with altered level of consciousness followed by headache and psychosis. Acute confusional state with clouding of consciousness was the most common presentation of psychosis (50%). Conclusion Neuropsychiatric

  19. [Gliomatosis cerebri as cause of neuropsychiatric symptoms].

    PubMed

    Tikkakoski, Tapani; Ostrovska, Victoria; Ingo, Sinikka; Bode, Michaela K; Timo, Kumpulainen; Tuominen, Hannu

    2014-01-01

    Gliomatosis cerebri (GC) is a rare cancer of the central nervous system, having already penetrated into various areas of the central nervous system upon becoming manifest. In tissue specimens the histopathologic picture of the tumor appears similar to that seen in diffuse gliomas at different stages of disease. Typical MRI findings in GC include diffuse increases in signal intensity in the brain, and indistinct gray-white matter demarcation in T2-weighted images. Surgical treatment is usually not possible. We describe a patient, in whom CG turned eventually out to be the cause of severe neuropsychiatric symptoms.

  20. Neuropsychiatric disorders and voiding problems in children.

    PubMed

    Franco, Israel

    2011-04-01

    In the literature, it is well documented that children who have daytime incontinence issues have a higher chance of having some form of behavioral or learning problem. It has been speculated that these issues may be related to their incontinence. On the other hand correction of the central nervous system problem may make these wetting problems disappear. We explore the most recent literature in functional imaging of the brain and the relationship between inherited neuropsychiatric problems and daytime wetting. The findings appear to dispel the aforementioned conclusions and tend to support an inherited or at least an altered developmental pathway for the development of daytime wetting issues.

  1. Phosphodiesterase: an interface connecting cognitive deficits to neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen-Zhen; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Han-Ting; Li, Yun-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are the only known enzymes to degrade intracellular cyclic AMP and/or cyclic GMP. The PDE superfamily consists of 11 families (PDE1- PDE11), each of which has 1 to 4 subtypes. Some of the subtypes may have multiple splice variants (e.g. PDE4D1-PDE4D11), leading to a total of more than 100 known proteins to date. Growing attention has been paid to the potential of PDEs as therapeutic targets for mood disorders and/or diseases affecting cognitive activity by controlling the rate of hydrolysis of the two aforementioned second messengers in recent years. The loss of cognitive functions is one of the major complaints most patients with CNS diseases face; it has an even more prominent negative impact on the quality of daily life. Cognitive dysfunction is usually a prognosis in patients suffering from neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases, including depression, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease. This review will focus on the contributions of PDEs to the interface between cognitive deficits and neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. It is expected to make for the understanding and discovery that selective PDE inhibitors have the therapeutic potential for cognitive dysfunctions associated with neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders.

  2. Neuropsychiatric effects of cocaine use disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Nnadi, Charles U.; Mimiko, Olubansile A.; McCurtis, Henry L.; Cadet, Jean Lud

    2005-01-01

    Individuals who use cocaine report a variety of neuropsychiatric symptoms that are yet to be adequately targeted with treatment modalities. To address this problem requires an understanding of these symptoms and their neurobiological origins. Our paper reviewed the existing data on the neuropsychiatic implications of cocaine. We conducted a Medline search from 1984-2004 using terms, such as "cocaine", "cocaine addiction", "cocaine abuse", "cocaine neuropsychiatry" and "dual diagnosis". The search produced additional reference materials that were used in this review, although we focused on data that have likely clinical implications. The literature evidence suggested that, whereas acute cocaine overdose is potentially fatal, the ingestion of mild-to-moderate doses could result in fatal or nonfatal neuropsychiatric events. Also, chronic cocaine use may be associated with deficits in neurocognition, brain perfusion and brain activation patterns. Some of these deficits were unresolved with periods of abstinence ranging from 3-200 days. Taken together, these studies suggest the need for further investigations to fully characterize the neurobiological substrates of cocaine use disorders (CUDs) with the future possibility of more efficient treatment modalities. PMID:16334497

  3. Causal information quantification of prominent dynamical features of biological neurons.

    PubMed

    Montani, Fernando; Baravalle, Roman; Montangie, Lisandro; Rosso, Osvaldo A

    2015-12-13

    Neurons tend to fire a spike when they are near a bifurcation from the resting state to spiking activity. It is a delicate balance between noise, dynamic currents and initial condition that determines the phase diagram of neural activity. Many possible ionic mechanisms can be accounted for as the source of spike generation. Moreover, the biophysics and the dynamics behind it can usually be described through a phase diagram that involves membrane voltage versus the activation variable of the ionic channel. In this paper, we present a novel methodology to characterize the dynamics of this system, which takes into account the fine temporal 'structures' of the complex neuronal signals. This allows us to accurately distinguish the most fundamental properties of neurophysiological neurons that were previously described by Izhikevich considering the phase-space trajectory, using a time causal space: statistical complexity versus Fisher information versus Shannon entropy.

  4. The Most Prominent Roles of an ESP Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghafournia, Narjes; Sabet, Shokoofeh Ahmadian

    2014-01-01

    One prominent feature of many ESP (English for Specific Purposes) courses, which make them rather different from EGP (English for General Purposes) courses, is the presence of adult learners, who are primary workers and secondary learners. As ESP is a highly learner-cantered approach, paying close attention to the multidimensional needs of…

  5. Neuropsychiatric Disorders of Childhood. Matrix No. 11B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Donald J.; And Others

    The general nature of neuropsychiatric disorders of childhood, and the areas in which gains in understanding such disorders have been made are discussed in the first portion of this paper. Thereafter, discussion focuses on the contemporary approach to neuropsychiatric disorders of childhood as exemplified by three serious disturbances: attention…

  6. A Simple Cell-Based Assay Reveals That Diverse Neuropsychiatric Risk Genes Converge on Primary Cilia

    PubMed Central

    Marley, Aaron; von Zastrow, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Human genetic studies are beginning to identify a large number of genes linked to neuropsychiatric disorders. It is increasingly evident that different genes contribute to risk for similar syndromes and, conversely, the same genes or even the same alleles cross over traditional diagnostic categories. A current challenge is to understand the cellular biology of identified risk genes. However, most genes associated with complex neuropsychiatric phenotypes are not related through a known biochemical pathway, and many have an entirely unknown cellular function. One possibility is that diverse disease-linked genes converge at a higher-level cellular structure. The synapse is already known to be one such convergence, and emerging evidence suggests the primary cilium as another. Because many genes associated with neuropsychiatric illness are expressed also outside the nervous system, as are cilia, we tested the hypothesis that such genes affect conserved features of the primary cilium. Using RNA interference to test 41 broadly expressed candidate genes associated with schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability, we found 20 candidates that reduce ciliation in NIH3T3 cells when knocked down, and three whose manipulation increases cilia length. Three of the candidate genes were previously implicated in cilia formation and, altogether, approximately half of the candidates tested produced a ciliary phenotype. Our results support the hypothesis that primary cilia indeed represent a conserved cellular structure at which the effects of diverse neuropsychiatric risk genes converge. More broadly, they suggest a relatively simple cell-based approach that may be useful for exploring the complex biological underpinnings of neuropsychiatric disease. PMID:23056384

  7. Sleep Patterns and Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Hospitalized Patients With Dementia.

    PubMed

    Tanev, Kaloyan S; Winokur, Andrew; Pitman, Roger K

    2017-03-15

    The authors examined 28 dementia inpatients receiving treatment as usual. Beginning-to-end differences in neuropsychiatric symptoms and actigraphic sleep patterns were measured. Using a mixed-model, the authors regressed neuropsychiatric symptoms on average sleep minutes (between-subjects effect) and each night's deviation from average (within-subject effect). Sleep did not significantly differ from beginning to end of participation, whereas neuropsychiatric symptoms did. Average sleep minutes predicted average neuropsychiatric symptoms (p=0.002), but each night's deviation from the average did not predict next day's symptoms (p=0.90). These findings raise questions about the immediate benefits of treating sleep-wake disturbances on neuropsychiatric symptoms in hospitalized inpatients with dementias.

  8. Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS): An Evolving Concept.

    PubMed

    Macerollo, Antonella; Martino, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus infections (PANDAS) originated from the observational work of Swedo and collaborators, who formalized their definition in 1998 in a set of operational criteria. The application of these criteria, which focuses on tics and obsessive-compulsive symptoms as core symptoms, has encountered difficulties, eventually leading to a high rate of misdiagnosis. In particular, the core feature represented by the association between newly diagnosed infections and neuropsychiatric symptom relapses in youths with this diagnosis could not be demonstrated by longitudinal studies. Exploratory studies aiming to identify clinical or cognitive features that could discriminate PANDAS from other pediatric obsessive-compulsive and tic disorders present methodological limitations, and therefore are not conclusive. Other behavioral features, in addition to obsessive-compulsive symptoms and tics, have been included in pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndromes (PANS) and childhood acute neuropsychiatric syndromes (CANS), two new concepts recently proposed in order to define a much broader clinical spectrum encompassing etiologically diverse entities. Given the uncertainties on the clinical definition of PANDAS, it is not surprising that evidence in support of a post-infectious, immune-mediated pathophysiology is also insufficient. Anti-dopamine receptor antibodies might be relevant to both Sydenham's chorea (SC)-the prototypical post-streptococcal neuropsychiatric disorder-and some rare forms of encephalitis targeting the basal ganglia specifically, but studies exploring their association with children fulfilling Swedo's criteria for PANDAS have been inconclusive. Moreover, we lack evidence in favor of the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis or tonsillectomy in patients fulfilling Swedo's criteria for PANDAS, whereas a response to immune-mediated treatments like intravenous immunoglobulins has been documented by

  9. Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS): An Evolving Concept

    PubMed Central

    Macerollo, Antonella; Martino, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus infections (PANDAS) originated from the observational work of Swedo and collaborators, who formalized their definition in 1998 in a set of operational criteria. The application of these criteria, which focuses on tics and obsessive-compulsive symptoms as core symptoms, has encountered difficulties, eventually leading to a high rate of misdiagnosis. In particular, the core feature represented by the association between newly diagnosed infections and neuropsychiatric symptom relapses in youths with this diagnosis could not be demonstrated by longitudinal studies. Exploratory studies aiming to identify clinical or cognitive features that could discriminate PANDAS from other pediatric obsessive-compulsive and tic disorders present methodological limitations, and therefore are not conclusive. Other behavioral features, in addition to obsessive-compulsive symptoms and tics, have been included in pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndromes (PANS) and childhood acute neuropsychiatric syndromes (CANS), two new concepts recently proposed in order to define a much broader clinical spectrum encompassing etiologically diverse entities. Given the uncertainties on the clinical definition of PANDAS, it is not surprising that evidence in support of a post-infectious, immune-mediated pathophysiology is also insufficient. Anti-dopamine receptor antibodies might be relevant to both Sydenham’s chorea (SC)—the prototypical post-streptococcal neuropsychiatric disorder—and some rare forms of encephalitis targeting the basal ganglia specifically, but studies exploring their association with children fulfilling Swedo’s criteria for PANDAS have been inconclusive. Moreover, we lack evidence in favor of the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis or tonsillectomy in patients fulfilling Swedo’s criteria for PANDAS, whereas a response to immune-mediated treatments like intravenous immunoglobulins has been

  10. Abnormal Kalirin Signaling in Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Remmers, Christine; Sweet, Robert A.; Penzes, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Changes in dendritic spines structure and function play a critical role in a number of physiological processes, including synaptic transmission and plasticity, and are intimately linked to cognitive function. Alterations in dendritic spine morphogenesis occur in a number of neuropsychiatric disorders and likely underlie the cognitive and behavioral changes associated with these disorders. The neuronal guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) kalirin is emerging as a key regulator of structural and functional plasticity at dendritic spines. Moreover, a series of recent studies have genetically and functionally linked kalirin signaling to several disorders, including schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease. Kalirin signaling may thus represent a disease mechanism and provide a novel therapeutic target. PMID:24334022

  11. Tornados and Transverse Oscillations during Prominence Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Dipankar; Chandrashekhar, K.; Morton, Richard; Pant, Vaibhav; Datta, Ajanta

    2016-07-01

    We report and analyse different phases of a prominence eruption. The winding-unwinding of two footpoints and a tornado like swirling motion is studied. The prominence eruption is observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). This prominence eruption is associated with a CME at a central principal angle of 340 degree, according to the SOHO/LASCO CME catalogue. We can observe the prominence threads and the time distance maps reveal that the loop threads are entangled. We also study the transverse oscillations in the threads. Swirling motions after the eruptions are also quantified and its possible link with the CME kinematics is also studied

  12. Quiescent prominences - Where are they formed?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Frances

    1987-01-01

    An investigation of two years of quiescent prominences shows that substantially more (20 percent in 1973 and 96 percent in 1979) quiescent prominences were formed on neutral lines between bipolar regions than on neutral lines inside bipolar regions. An examination of the associated solar activity of the seven white light coronal transients observed by Skyklab indicates that regardless of where the prominences were formed, their eruptions can cause observable coronal mass ejections. The present results suggest that a prominence model is needed in which the evolution begins at the boundary of two adjacent bipolar regions.

  13. MAGNETIC TOPOLOGY OF BUBBLES IN QUIESCENT PROMINENCES

    SciTech Connect

    Dudik, J.; Aulanier, G.; Schmieder, B.; Zapior, M.; Heinzel, P.

    2012-12-10

    We study a polar-crown prominence with a bubble and its plume observed in several coronal filters by the SDO/AIA and in H{alpha} by the MSDP spectrograph in Bialkow (Poland) to address the following questions: what is the brightness of prominence bubbles in EUV with respect to the corona outside of the prominence and the prominence coronal cavity? What is the geometry and topology of the magnetic field in the bubble? What is the nature of the vertical threads seen within prominences? We find that the brightness of the bubble and plume is lower than the brightness of the corona outside of the prominence, and is similar to that of the coronal cavity. We constructed linear force-free models of prominences with bubbles, where the flux rope is perturbed by inclusion of parasitic bipoles. The arcade field lines of the bipole create the bubble, which is thus devoid of magnetic dips. Shearing the bipole or adding a second one can lead to cusp-shaped prominences with bubbles similar to the observed ones. The bubbles have complex magnetic topology, with a pair of coronal magnetic null points linked by a separator outlining the boundary between the bubble and the prominence body. We conjecture that plume formation involves magnetic reconnection at the separator. Depending on the viewing angle, the prominence can appear either anvil-shaped with predominantly horizontal structures, or cusp-shaped with predominantly vertical structuring. The latter is an artifact of the alignment of magnetic dips with respect to the prominence axis and the line of sight.

  14. Video-based eye tracking for neuropsychiatric assessment.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Sam; Stark, David E

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a video-based eye-tracking method, ideally deployed via a mobile device or laptop-based webcam, as a tool for measuring brain function. Eye movements and pupillary motility are tightly regulated by brain circuits, are subtly perturbed by many disease states, and are measurable using video-based methods. Quantitative measurement of eye movement by readily available webcams may enable early detection and diagnosis, as well as remote/serial monitoring, of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. We successfully extracted computational and semantic features for 14 testing sessions, comprising 42 individual video blocks and approximately 17,000 image frames generated across several days of testing. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of collecting video-based eye-tracking data from a standard webcam in order to assess psychomotor function. Furthermore, we were able to demonstrate through systematic analysis of this data set that eye-tracking features (in particular, radial and tangential variance on a circular visual-tracking paradigm) predict performance on well-validated psychomotor tests.

  15. IMAGING PROMINENCE ERUPTIONS OUT TO 1 AU

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Brian E.; Howard, Russell A.; Linton, Mark G.

    2016-01-10

    Views of two bright prominence eruptions trackable all the way to 1 AU are here presented, using the heliospheric imagers on the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) spacecraft. The two events first erupted from the Sun on 2011 June 7 and 2012 August 31, respectively. Only these two examples of clear prominence eruptions observable this far from the Sun could be found in the STEREO image database, emphasizing the rarity of prominence eruptions this persistently bright. For the 2011 June event, a time-dependent 3D reconstruction of the prominence structure is made using point-by-point triangulation. This is not possible for the August event due to a poor viewing geometry. Unlike the coronal mass ejection (CME) that accompanies it, the 2011 June prominence exhibits little deceleration from the Sun to 1 AU, as a consequence moving upwards within the CME. This demonstrates that prominences are not necessarily tied to the CME's magnetic structure far from the Sun. A mathematical framework is developed for describing the degree of self-similarity for the prominence's expansion away from the Sun. This analysis suggests only modest deviations from self-similar expansion, but close to the Sun the prominence expands radially somewhat more rapidly than self-similarity would predict.

  16. Ion-Neutral Coupling in Solar Prominence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, H.; DeVore, C. R.; Karpen, J.; Kucera, T.; Antiochos, S.; Kawashima, R.

    2011-01-01

    Coupling between ions and neutrals in magnetized plasmas is fundamentally important to many aspects of heliophysics, including our ionosphere, the solar chromosphere, the solar wind interaction with planetary atmospheres, and the interface between the heliosphere and the interstellar medium. Ion-neutral coupling also plays a major role in the physics of solar prominences. By combining theory, modeling, and observations we are working toward a better understanding of the structure and dynamics of partially ionized prominence plasma. Two key questions are addressed in the present work: 1) what physical mechanism(s) sets the cross-field scale of prominence threads? 2) Are ion-neutral interactions responsible for the vertical flows and structure in prominences? We present initial results from a study investigating what role ion-neutral interactions play in prominence dynamics and structure. This research was supported by NASA.

  17. Neuropsychiatric Symptoms and the Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Maulik P.; Wells, Rebecca Erwin; Zafonte, Ross D.; Davis, Roger B.; Phillips, Russell S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess the prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use by U.S. adults reporting neuropsychiatric symptoms and whether this prevalence changes based on the number of symptoms reported. Additional objectives include identifying patterns of CAM use, reasons for use, and disclosure of use with conventional providers in U.S. adults with neuropsychiatric symptoms. Design Secondary database analysis of a prospective survey. Participants A total of 23,393 U.S. adults from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey. Methods We compared CAM use between adults with and without neuropsychiatric symptoms. Symptoms included self-reported anxiety, depression, insomnia, headaches, memory deficits, attention deficits, and excessive sleepiness. CAM use was defined as use of mind—body therapies (eg, meditation), biological therapies (eg, herbs), or manipulation therapies (eg, massage) or alternative medical systems (eg, Ayurveda). Statistical analysis included bivariable comparisons and multivariable logistical regression analyses. Main Outcome Measures The prevalence of CAM use among adults with neuropsychiatric symptoms within the previous 12 months and the comparison of CAM use between those with and without neuropsychiatric symptoms. Results Adults with neuropsychiatric symptoms had a greater prevalence of CAM use compared with adults who did not have neuropsychiatric symptoms (43.8% versus 29.7%, P < .001); this prevalence increased with an increasing number of symptoms (trend, P < .001). Differences in the likelihood of CAM use as determined by the number of symptoms persisted after we adjusted for covariates. Twenty percent of patients used CAM because standard treatments were either too expensive or ineffective, and 25% used CAM because it was recommended by a conventional provider. Adults with at least one neuropsychiatric symptom were more likely to disclose the use of CAM to a conventional provider (47.9% versus 39.0%, P < .001

  18. Role of Hybrid Brain Imaging in Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Burhan, Amer M.; Marlatt, Nicole M.; Palaniyappan, Lena; Anazodo, Udunna C.; Prato, Frank S.

    2015-01-01

    This is a focused review of imaging literature to scope the utility of hybrid brain imaging in neuropsychiatric disorders. The review focuses on brain imaging modalities that utilize hybrid (fusion) techniques to characterize abnormal brain molecular signals in combination with structural and functional changes that have been observed in neuropsychiatric disorders. An overview of clinical hybrid brain imaging technologies for human use is followed by a selective review of the literature that conceptualizes the use of these technologies in understanding basic mechanisms of major neuropsychiatric disorders and their therapeutics. Neuronal network abnormalities are highlighted throughout this review to scope the utility of hybrid imaging as a potential biomarker for each disorder. PMID:26854172

  19. UV Observations of Prominence Activation and Cool Loop Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucera, Therese A.; Landi, Enrico

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the thermal and dynamic properties of dynamic structures in and around a prominence channel observed on the limb on 17 April 2003. Observations were taken with the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory's Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (SOHO/SUMER) in lines formed at temperatures from 80,000 to 1.6 MK. The instrument was pointed to a single location and took a series of 90 s exposures. Two-dimensional context was provided by the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) in the UV and EUV and the Kanzelhohe Solar Observatory in H-alpha. Two dynamic features were studied in depth: an activated prominence and repeated motions in a loop near the prominence. We calculated three-dimensional geometries and trajectories, differential emission measure, and limits on the mass, pressure, average density, and kinetic and thermal energies. These observations provide important tests for models of dynamics in prominences and cool (approx. 10(exp 5) K)loops, which will ultimately lead to a better understanding the mechanism(s) leading to energy and mass flow in these solar features.

  20. Ion-Neutral Coupling in Solar Prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Holly

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between ions and neutrals in a partially ionized plasma are important throughout heliophysics, including near the solar surface in prominences. Understanding how ion-neutral coupling affects formation, support, structure, and dynamics of prominences will advance our physical understanding of magnetized systems involving a transition from a weakly ionized dense gas to a fully ionized tenuous plasma. We address the fundamental physics of prominence support, which is normally described in terms of a magnetic force on the prominence plasma that balances the solar gravitational force, and the implications for observations. Because the prominence plasma is only partially ionized, it is necessary to consider the support of the both the ionized and neutral components. Support of the neutrals is accomplished through a frictional interaction between the neutral and ionized components of the plasma, and its efficacy depends strongly on the degree of ionization of the plasma. More specifically, the frictional force is proportional to the relative flow of neutral and ion species, and for a sufficiently weakly ionized plasma, this flow must be relatively large to produce a frictional force that balances gravity. A large relative flow, of course, implies significant draining of neutral particles from the prominence. We evaluate the importance of this draining effect for a hydrogen-helium plasma, and consider the observational evidence for cross-field diffusion of neutral prominence material.

  1. Nonlinear MHD Waves in a Prominence Foot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofman, L.; Knizhnik, K.; Kucera, T.; Schmieder, B.

    2015-11-01

    We study nonlinear waves in a prominence foot using a 2.5D MHD model motivated by recent high-resolution observations with Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope in Ca ii emission of a prominence on 2012 October 10 showing highly dynamic small-scale motions in the prominence material. Observations of Hα intensities and of Doppler shifts show similar propagating fluctuations. However, the optically thick nature of the emission lines inhibits a unique quantitative interpretation in terms of density. Nevertheless, we find evidence of nonlinear wave activity in the prominence foot by examining the relative magnitude of the fluctuation intensity (δI/I ˜ δn/n). The waves are evident as significant density fluctuations that vary with height and apparently travel upward from the chromosphere into the prominence material with quasi-periodic fluctuations with a typical period in the range of 5-11 minutes and wavelengths <2000 km. Recent Doppler shift observations show the transverse displacement of the propagating waves. The magnetic field was measured with the THEMIS instrument and was found to be 5-14 G. For the typical prominence density the corresponding fast magnetosonic speed is ˜20 km s-1, in qualitative agreement with the propagation speed of the detected waves. The 2.5D MHD numerical model is constrained with the typical parameters of the prominence waves seen in observations. Our numerical results reproduce the nonlinear fast magnetosonic waves and provide strong support for the presence of these waves in the prominence foot. We also explore gravitational MHD oscillations of the heavy prominence foot material supported by dipped magnetic field structure.

  2. Topological Analyses of Symmetric Eruptive Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panasenco, O.; Martin, S. F.

    Erupting prominences (filaments) that we have analyzed from Hα Doppler data at Helio Research and from SOHO/EIT 304 Å, show strong coherency between their chirality, the direction of the vertical and lateral motions of the top of the prominences, and the directions of twisting of their legs. These coherent properties in erupting prominences occur in two patterns of opposite helicity; they constitute a form of dynamic chirality called the ``roll effect." Viewed from the positive network side as they erupt, many symmetrically-erupting dextral prominences develop rolling motion toward the observer along with right-hand helicity in the left leg and left-hand helicity in the right leg. Many symmetricaly-erupting sinistral prominences, also viewed from the positive network field side, have the opposite pattern: rolling motion at the top away from the observer, left-hand helical twist in the left leg, and right-hand twist in the right leg. We have analysed the motions seen in the famous movie of the ``Grand Daddy" erupting prominence and found that it has all the motions that define the roll effect. From our analyses of this and other symmetric erupting prominences, we show that the roll effect is an alternative to the popular hypothetical configuration of an eruptive prominence as a twisted flux rope or flux tube. Instead we find that a simple flat ribbon can be bent such that it reproduces nearly all of the observed forms. The flat ribbon is the most logical beginning topology because observed prominence spines already have this topology prior to eruption and an initial long magnetic ribbon with parallel, non-twisted threads, as a basic form, can be bent into many more and different geometrical forms than a flux rope.

  3. NONLINEAR MHD WAVES IN A PROMINENCE FOOT

    SciTech Connect

    Ofman, L.; Knizhnik, K.; Kucera, T.; Schmieder, B.

    2015-11-10

    We study nonlinear waves in a prominence foot using a 2.5D MHD model motivated by recent high-resolution observations with Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope in Ca ii emission of a prominence on 2012 October 10 showing highly dynamic small-scale motions in the prominence material. Observations of Hα intensities and of Doppler shifts show similar propagating fluctuations. However, the optically thick nature of the emission lines inhibits a unique quantitative interpretation in terms of density. Nevertheless, we find evidence of nonlinear wave activity in the prominence foot by examining the relative magnitude of the fluctuation intensity (δI/I ∼ δn/n). The waves are evident as significant density fluctuations that vary with height and apparently travel upward from the chromosphere into the prominence material with quasi-periodic fluctuations with a typical period in the range of 5–11 minutes and wavelengths <2000 km. Recent Doppler shift observations show the transverse displacement of the propagating waves. The magnetic field was measured with the THEMIS instrument and was found to be 5–14 G. For the typical prominence density the corresponding fast magnetosonic speed is ∼20 km s{sup −1}, in qualitative agreement with the propagation speed of the detected waves. The 2.5D MHD numerical model is constrained with the typical parameters of the prominence waves seen in observations. Our numerical results reproduce the nonlinear fast magnetosonic waves and provide strong support for the presence of these waves in the prominence foot. We also explore gravitational MHD oscillations of the heavy prominence foot material supported by dipped magnetic field structure.

  4. Neuropsychiatric SLE: from animal model to human.

    PubMed

    Pikman, R; Kivity, S; Levy, Y; Arango, M-T; Chapman, J; Yonath, H; Shoenfeld, Y; Gofrit, S G

    2017-04-01

    Animal models are a key element in disease research and treatment. In the field of neuropsychiatric lupus research, inbred, transgenic and disease-induced mice provide an opportunity to study the pathogenic routes of this multifactorial illness. In addition to achieving a better understanding of the immune mechanisms underlying the disease onset, supplementary metabolic and endocrine influences have been discovered and investigated. The ever-expanding knowledge about the pathologic events that occur at disease inception enables us to explore new drugs and therapeutic approaches further and to test them using the same animal models. Discovery of the molecular targets that constitute the pathogenic basis of the disease along with scientific advancements allow us to target these molecules with monoclonal antibodies and other specific approaches directly. This novel therapy, termed "targeted biological medication" is a promising endeavor towards producing drugs that are more effective and less toxic. Further work to discover additional molecular targets in lupus' pathogenic mechanism and to produce drugs that neutralize their activity is needed to provide patients with safe and efficient methods of controlling and treating the disease.

  5. [Treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Kaufer, D

    The overall goal of all therapeutic interventions in Alzheimer s disease (AD) is the optimisation of the adaptive functions and quality of life of these patients. The general strategy for the use of pharmacological interventions in the treatment of neuropsychiatric manifestations of AD includes the following: 1) An exhaustive evaluation of the psychiatric symptomatology; 2) Establish a hierachy of the simptoms to treat based on their severity of symptoms and on their impact on the caregiver; 3) The identification of an adequate agent based on the type of symptoms and subject s characteristics; 4) The initial use of low doses with gradual titration, and 5) Changing one drug at a time. Regarding psychotic symptons, the introduction of new agents (e.g., risperidone) has replaced the use of traditional treatments (e.g., thioridazine) in patients with AD. The presence of psychomotor agitation and aggression can be treated with great variety of drugs, such as antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, and sedatives. Selective serotonine re uptake inhibitors are the treatment of choice for depressive symptomatology. The cholinesterase inhibitors have shown to be useful in the treatment of hallucinations, anxiety and apathy.

  6. Radiation damage to the brain: neuropsychiatric aspects

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, T.; Vahora, S.

    1986-11-01

    Although radiation necrosis of the brain is a recognized complication of irradiation of the central nervous system, the psychiatric aspects of this phenomenon are less well defined. Two cases of radiation necrosis in which psychiatric symptoms were a prominent part of the clinical picture are presented. Factors that determine the evolution and clinical presentation of radiation necrosis are reviewed. In particular, the role of the consultation psychiatrist in the diagnosis and management of such patients is discussed.

  7. Modeling complex neuropsychiatric disorders with human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Tobe, Brian T D; Snyder, Evan Y; Nye, Jeffrey S

    2011-10-01

    Identifying the molecular and cellular basis of complex neuropsychiatric disorders (cNPDs) has been limited by the inaccessibility of central neurons, variability within broad diagnostic classifications, and the interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Recent work utilizing neuronally differentiated human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from Mendelian and polygenic cNPDs is beginning to illuminate neuritic, synaptic or cell body variations accompanied by specific gene or protein expression alterations largely mimicking known pathology. In some cases, phenotypes have only emerged after application of cellular stress or long duration of differentiation. Pathological and cellular expression features are fully or partially responsive to pharmacological treatment highlighting the potential utility of differentiated hiPSCs for discovery of personalized therapeutics and for identifying pathogenetically relevant targets in subgroups of patients within a broad syndromic classification. Because of the inherent variability in developing and differentiating hiPSC lines and the multiple comparisons implicit in 'omics' technologies, rigorous algorithms for assuring statistical significance and independent confirmation of results, will be required for robust modeling of cNPDs.

  8. NASA's SDO Sees Unraveling Solar Prominence

    NASA Video Gallery

    An elongated solar prominence rose up above the sun’s surface and slowly unraveled on Feb. 3, 2016, as seen in this video by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory, or SDO. The sun appears to move in th...

  9. A distinctive type of ascending prominence - 'Fountain'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Hansen, R. T.; Riddle, A. C.

    1975-01-01

    Cinematographic observations of solar prominences made at Mauna Loa, Hawaii, during the past few years suggest that there is a well-defined subclass of ascending prominences characterized by closed-system transference of chromospheric material along an arch or loop (up one leg and down the other). While this occurs, the entire prominence envelope steadily rises upward and expands through the corona. These prominences are denoted as 'fountains'. Several examples are described. Fountains appear to be well contained by coronal magnetic fields. Their total kinetic energy is of the order of 10 to the 30th power erg, but dissipation is typically quite slow (over time periods of 100 min or so), so that the correlative disturbances (radio bursts, coronal transients, chromospheric brightenings) are generally not spectacular or nonexistent.

  10. Ring-shaped Prominence Erupts from Sun

    NASA Video Gallery

    A coronal mass ejection (CME) on Jan. 31, 2013 was accompanied by a large prominence eruption best visible in light with a wavelength of 304 angstroms. NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory captured ...

  11. Hefty Prominence Eruption Observed by SDO

    NASA Video Gallery

    A mass of solar material gathered itself into a twisting mass, spun around for a bit, then rose up and broke apart over a 10-hour period on Oct. 13, 2015. Prominences are unstable clouds of gas tet...

  12. EUV observations of quiescent prominences from Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, O. K.; Cook, J. W.; Mango, S. A.

    1979-01-01

    Measurements of line intensities and line widths for three quiescent prominences observed with Naval Research Laboratory slit spectrograph on ATM/Skylab are reported. The wavelengths of the observed lines cover the range 1175 A to 1960 A. The measured intensities have been calibrated to within approximately a factor 2 and are average intensities over a 2 arcsec by 60 arcsec slit. Nonthermal velocities from the measured line widths are derived. The nonthermal velocity is found to increase with temperature in the prominence transition zone. Electron densities and pressures are derived from density sensitive line ratios. Electron pressures for two of the prominences are found to lie in the range 0.04-0.08 dyn/sq cm, while values for the third and most intense and active of the three prominences are in the range 0.07-0.22 dyn/sq cm.

  13. Genes, brains, and behavior: imaging genetics for neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Ayla

    2015-01-01

    The majority of neuropsychiatric disorders show a strong degree of heritability, yet little is known about molecular factors involved in the pathophysiology of diseases like schizophrenia. After a brief historical introduction into the current understanding of neuropsychiatric disorders, the aim of this study is to discuss imaging genetics as a strategy to explore the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. The candidate gene approach of imaging genetics is used for validation/replication studies of genes, whereas the hypothesis-free, noncandidate gene approach appears to be a tool for gene discovery. Besides, integration of environmental factors into neuroimaging begins to converge on neuroimaging studies of genetic variation. In the light of data from other avenues such as animal experimentation, these developments show a model of interdisciplinary research, which may lead to identifying markers for neuropsychiatric disorders.

  14. A DROPLET MODEL OF QUIESCENT PROMINENCE DOWNFLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Haerendel, G.; Berger, T.

    2011-04-20

    Observations of quiescent prominences with the Solar Optical Telescope on the Hinode satellite have revealed the ubiquitous existence of downflows forming coherent thin and highly structured vertically oriented threads with velocities between 10 and 20 km s{sup -1}. Their widths range between 300 and 500 km. They are often initiated at the top of the visible prominence, but sometimes also at intermediate level. We propose that the downflows are made of plasma packets that squeeze themselves through the dominantly horizontal field under the action of gravity. Their origin is assumed to be hot plasma supplied from either inside or the immediate vicinity of the prominence and condensing at its top. Under compression and further cooling, the matter overflows to the flanks of the prominence dragging its magnetic field with it. Under the increasing action of gravity, vertical structures are forming which eventually disconnect from the field of the inflow channel thus forming finite plasma packets. This process is reminiscent of water flowing over a mountain ridge and breaking up into a multitude of droplets. Like water droplets being subject to air drag, the falling plasma droplets experience a drag force by the horizontal prominence field and assume a steady vertical velocity. This happens via the excitation of Alfven waves. Lateral confinement by the prominence field determines their spatial extent. The small scales of the droplets and the directional balance of their internal tangled magnetic fields can explain the absence of appreciable vertical components in magnetic field measurements. On the basis of the observed width and vertical speed of the downflows and by adopting a prominence field of about 8 G, we derive central density and temperature of the droplets, which turn out to be quite consistent with known prominence characteristics. In the formulation of the drag force a dimensionless 'magnetic drag coefficient' has been introduced with a value well below unity.

  15. Neuropsychiatric Symptoms and Expenditure on Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Maulik P.; Zafonte, Ross D.; Sherman, Laura M.; Davis, Roger B.; Giwerc, Michelle Y.; Shenton, Martha E.; Yeh, Gloria Y.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Neuropsychiatric symptoms affect 37% of US adults. These symptoms are often refractory to standard therapies, and patients may consequently opt for complementary and alternative medicine therapies (CAM). We sought to determine the demand for CAM by those with neuropsychiatric symptoms compared to those without neuropsychiatric symptoms as measured by out-of-pocket expenditure. Method We compared CAM expenditure between US adults with and without neuropsychiatric symptoms (n = 23,393) using the 2007 National Health Interview Survey. Symptoms included depression, anxiety, insomnia, attention deficits, headaches, excessive sleepiness, and memory loss. CAM was defined per guidelines from the National Institutes of Health as mind-body therapies, biological therapies, manipulation therapies, or alternative medical systems. Expenditure on CAM by those without neuropsychiatric symptoms was compared to those with neuropsychiatric symptoms. Results Of the adults surveyed, 37% had ≥ 1 neuropsychiatric symptom and spent $ 14.8 billion out-of-pocket on CAM. Those with ≥ 1 neuropsychiatric symptom were more likely than those without neuropsychiatric symptoms to spend on CAM (27.4% vs 20.3%, P < .001). Likelihood to spend on CAM increased with number of symptoms (27.2% with ≥ 3 symptoms, P < .001). After adjustment was made for confounders using logistic regression, those with ≥ 1 neuropsychiatric symptom remained more likely to spend on CAM (odds ratio [OR] = 1.34; 95% Cl, 1.22–1.48), and the likelihood increased to 1.55 (95% Cl, 1.34–1.79) for ≥ 3 symptoms. Anxiety (OR = 1.40 [95% Cl, 1.22–1.60]) and excessive sleepiness (OR=1.36 [95% Cl, 1.21–1.54]) were the most closely associated with CAM expenditure. Conclusions Those with ≥ 1 neuropsychiatric symptom had disproportionately higher demand for CAM than those without symptoms. Research regarding safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of CAM is limited; therefore, future research should evaluate

  16. An arcade-like eruptive prominence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Shu-Hua; Zhan, La-Sheng

    2004-12-01

    An eruptive prominence happened on the east-northern limb of the Sun on March 7, 1991. It appeared in a relatively quiet region where any activity phenomena such as flare, filament and sunspot etc. was not found. The maximum height reachable of the prominence was 6.97×104km and its maximum length reached as 11.6×104km. The eruptive prominence might belong to the one of the middle-smaller scale according to its size in morphology. The course of the eruption exhibited some properties: ascending rapidly and descending slowly just like the process of the flare eruption. After the eruption, the most material in the prominence basically moved along a parabola under the action of magnetic force lines forming the arcade-like shape and keeping it till to the disappearance of the prominence. Before and after descending, a little matter came from the top part was ejected and divorced from the main body of the prominence and diffused into the interplanetary space.

  17. Homologous prominence non-radial eruptions: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchlev, P.; Koleva, K.; Madjarska, M. S.; Dechev, M.

    2016-10-01

    The present study provides important details on homologous eruptions of a solar prominence that occurred in active region NOAA 10904 on 2006 August 22. We report on the pre-eruptive phase of the homologous feature as well as the kinematics and the morphology of a forth from a series of prominence eruptions that is critical in defining the nature of the previous consecutive eruptions. The evolution of the overlying coronal field during homologous eruptions is discussed and a new observational criterion for homologous eruptions is provided. We find a distinctive sequence of three activation periods each of them containing pre-eruptive precursors such as a brightening and enlarging of the prominence body followed by small surge-like ejections from its southern end observed in the radio 17 GHz. We analyse a fourth eruption that clearly indicates a full reformation of the prominence after the third eruption. The fourth eruption although occurring 11 h later has an identical morphology, the same angle of propagation with respect to the radial direction, as well as similar kinematic evolution as the previous three eruptions. We find an important feature of the homologous eruptive prominence sequence that is the maximum height increase of each consecutive eruption. The present analysis establishes that all four eruptions observed in Hα are of confined type with the third eruption undergoing a thermal disappearance during its eruptive phase. We suggest that the observation of the same direction of the magnetic flux rope (MFR) ejections can be consider as an additional observational criterion for MFR homology. This observational indication for homologous eruptions is important, especially in the case of events of typical or poorly distinguishable morphology of eruptive solar phenomena.

  18. Omics-Based Biomarkers: Application of Metabolomics in Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Sumit

    2016-01-01

    One of the major concerns of modern society is to identify putative biomarkers that serve as a valuable early diagnostic tool to identify a subset of patients with increased risk to develop neuropsychiatric disorders. Biomarker identification in neuropsychiatric disorders is proposed to offer a number of important benefits to patient well-being, including prediction of forthcoming disease, diagnostic precision, and a level of disease description that would guide treatment choice. Nowadays, the metabolomics approach has unlocked new possibilities in diagnostics of devastating disorders like neuropsychiatric disorders. Metabolomics-based technologies have the potential to map early biochemical changes in disease and hence provide an opportunity to develop predictive biomarkers that can be used as indicators of pathological abnormalities prior to development of clinical symptoms of neuropsychiatric disorders. This review highlights different -omics strategies for biomarker discovery in neuropsychiatric disorders. We also highlight initial outcomes from metabolomics studies in psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and addictive disorders. This review will also present issues and challenges regarding the implementation of the metabolomics approach as a routine diagnostic tool in the clinical laboratory in context with neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26453695

  19. 3D Reconstruction of a Rotating Erupting Prominence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, W. T.; Kliem, B.; Torok, T.

    2011-01-01

    A bright prominence associated with a coronal mass ejection (CME) was seen erupting from the Sun on 9 April 2008. This prominence was tracked by both the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) EUVI and COR1 telescopes, and was seen to rotate about the line of sight as it erupted; therefore, the event has been nicknamed the "Cartwheel CME." The threads of the prominence in the core of the CME quite clearly indicate the structure of a weakly to moderately twisted flux rope throughout the field of view, up to heliocentric heights of 4 solar radii. Although the STEREO separation was 48 deg, it was possible to match some sharp features in the later part of the eruption as seen in the 304 Angstrom line in EUVI and in the H alpha-sensitive bandpass of COR1 by both STEREO Ahead and Behind. These features could then be traced out in three dimensional space, and reprojected into a view in which the eruption is directed towards the observer. The reconstructed view shows that the alignment of the prominence to the vertical axis rotates as it rises up to a leading-edge height of approximately equals 2.5 solar radii, and then remains approximately constant. The alignment at 2.5 solar radii differs by about 115 deg. from the original filament orientation inferred from H alpha and EUV data, and the height profile of the rotation, obtained here for the first time, shows that two thirds of the total rotation is reached within approximately equals 0.5 solar radii above the photosphere. These features are well reproduced by numerical simulations of an unstable moderately twisted flux rope embedded in external flux with a relatively strong shear field component.

  20. 3D Reconstruction of a Rotating Erupting Prominence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, W. T.; Kliem, B.; Toeroek, T.

    2011-01-01

    A bright prominence associated with a coronal mass ejection (CME) was seen erupting from the Sun on 9 April 2008. This prominence was tracked by both the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) EUVI and COR1 telescopes, and was seen to rotate about the line of sight a it erupted; therefore, the event has been nicknamed the "Cartwheel CME." The threads of the prominence in the core of the CME quite clearly indicate the structure of a weakly to moderately twisted flux rope throughout the field of view, up to heliocentric heights of 4 solar radii. Although the STEREO separation was 48 deg, it was possible to match some sharp features in the later part of the eruption as seen in the 304 A line in EUVI and in the H-alpha-sensitive bandpass of COR I by both STEREO Ahead and Behind. These features could then be traced out in three-dimensional space, and reprojected into a view in which the eruption is directed toward the observer. The reconstructed view shows that the alignment of the prominence to the vertical axis rotates as it rises up to a leading-edge height of approximately equal to 2.5 solar radii, and then remains approximately constant. The alignment at 2.5 solar radii differs by about 115 deg from the original filament orientation inferred from H-alpha and EUV data, and the height profile of the rotation, obtained here for the first time, shows that two thirds of the total rotation are reached within approximately equal to 0.5 solar radii above the photosphere. These features are well reproduced by numerical simulations of an unstable moderately twisted flux rope embedded in external flux with a relatively strong shear field component.

  1. A siphon mechanism for supplying prominence mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poland, A. I.; Mariska, J. T.

    1986-01-01

    A siphonlike mechanism for moving mass from the chromosphere to a gravitational well at the top of a magnetic loop to form a prominence is examined. The calculations assume no a priori flow velocity at the loop base. Instead, heating in the loop legs drives the flow. The prominence formation process requires two steps. First, the background heating rate must be reduced to on the order of 1 percent of the initial heating rate required to maintain the coronal loop. This forms an initial condensation at the top of the loop. Second, the heating must take place only in the loop legs in order to produce a pressure differential which drives mass up into the well at the top of the loop. The heating rate in the loop must be increased once the prominence has begun to form, or full prominence densities cannot be achieved in a reasonable time. It is concluded that this heating driven siphonlike mechanism is feasible for producing and maintaining prominences.

  2. The Hot Skin of Prominence Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiehr, E.; Stellmacher, G.; Ramelli, R.; Bianda, M.

    We observe various emission lines in solar prominences and compare the widths of He II 4686 Å, He I 4472 Å (triplet) and He I 5015 Å (singlet) with those of the optically thin Hγ and Mg b_2 lines. The latter two yield a thermal line broadening of 9000prominence regions. He II 4686 Å is 1.65 times broader and thus emitted in 2.73 times hotter regions of the prominence-corona transition layer, PCTR. The linear radiance relations He tripl/He II=50 and Hγ/He tripl=11.8 suggest a PCTR between each fine-structure thread and the surrounding hot coronal gas.

  3. Magnetic Reconnection Models of Prominence Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsch, B. T.; DeVore, C. R.; Antiochos, S. K.

    2005-12-01

    To investigate the hypothesis that prominences form by magnetic reconnection between initially distinct flux systems in the solar corona, we simulate coronal magnetic field evolution when two flux systems are driven together by boundary motions. In particular, we focus on configurations similar to those in the quiescent prominence formation model of Martens & Zwaan. We find that reconnection proceeds very weakly, if at all, in configurations driven with global shear flows (i.e., differential rotation); reconnection proceeds much more efficiently in similar configurations that are driven to collide directly, with converging motions along the neutral line that lead to flux cancellation; reconnected fields from this process can exhibit sheared, dipped field lines along the neutral line, consistent with prominence observations. Our field configurations do not possess the ``breakout'' topology, and eruptions are not observed, even though a substantial amount of flux is canceled in some runs.

  4. THE THERMAL INSTABILITY OF SOLAR PROMINENCE THREADS

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, R.; Goossens, M.; Ballester, J. L.

    2011-04-10

    The fine structure of solar prominences and filaments appears as thin and long threads in high-resolution images. In H{alpha} observations of filaments, some threads can be observed for only 5-20 minutes before they seem to fade and eventually disappear, suggesting that these threads may have very short lifetimes. The presence of an instability might be the cause of this quick disappearance. Here, we study the thermal instability of prominence threads as an explanation of their sudden disappearance from H{alpha} observations. We model a prominence thread as a magnetic tube with prominence conditions embedded in a coronal environment. We assume a variation of the physical properties in the transverse direction so that the temperature and density continuously change from internal to external values in an inhomogeneous transitional layer representing the particular prominence-corona transition region (PCTR) of the thread. We use the nonadiabatic and resistive magnetohydrodynamic equations, which include terms due to thermal conduction parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field, radiative losses, heating, and magnetic diffusion. We combine both analytical and numerical methods to study linear perturbations from the equilibrium state, focusing on unstable thermal solutions. We find that thermal modes are unstable in the PCTR for temperatures higher than 80,000 K, approximately. These modes are related to temperature disturbances that can lead to changes in the equilibrium due to rapid plasma heating or cooling. For typical prominence parameters, the instability timescale is of the order of a few minutes and is independent of the form of the temperature profile within the PCTR of the thread. This result indicates that thermal instability may play an important role for the short lifetimes of threads in the observations.

  5. Measurements of magnetic fields in solar prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deglinnocenti, Egidio Landi

    1986-01-01

    Magnetic fields can be measured, in solar prominences, by means of two different basic mechanisms that are responsible for the introduction (or the reduction) of a given amount of polarization in spectral lines: these are the Zeeman effect and the Hanle effect. Through the splitting of the magnetic components of a spectral line, the Zeeman effect is capable of introducing a certain amount of circular polarization across the line profile. The Hanle effect consist of a modification of the linear polarization that is induced in spectral lines by the anisotropic illumination of the prominence plasma by the photospheric radiation field. These two effects are briefly discussed.

  6. The Effects of Partial Ionization on Prominence Mass Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpen, J. T.; Olson, K.; DeVore, C. R.; Martinez Gomez, D.; Sokolov, I.

    2015-12-01

    The origin of the prominence mass has been an open question since this cool plasma suspended in the hot corona was first discovered. We have known for a long time that the mass must come from the chromosphere, but it is unclear whether this mass is lifted bodily through magnetic levitation, injected by reconnection-driven upflows, or driven from the chromosphere by evaporation and then condensed. One evaporation-condensation scenario, the thermal nonequilibrium (TNE) model, is the most fully developed, quantitative model for the prominence plasma to date. In the TNE scenario, localized heating concentrated at the coronal loop footpoints produces chromospheric evaporation, filling the flux tube with hot, dense plasma that subsequently collapses radiatively to form cool condensations. Thus far this model has been successful in explaining the key properties of the long, persistent threads and small, highly dynamic, transient blobs in prominences, the damping of large-amplitude field-aligned prominence oscillations, the appearance of horn-shaped features above the cool prominence in EUV images of coronal cavities, and coronal rain in the ambient corona. To date, all studies of TNE have assumed that the plasma is fully ionized, which is appropriate for the hot coronal gas but unrealistic for the cool plasma below ~30,000 K. The energetics, dynamics, and evolutionary time scales of the TNE process are expected to be altered when the effects of ionization and recombination are considered. We have modified ARGOS, our 1D hydrodynamic code with adaptive mesh refinement, to include an equation of state that accounts for the effects of partial ionization of the plasma over a wide range of temperatures and densities. We will discuss the results of these simulations and their comparison with our previous studies of TNE in typical filament-supporting flux tubes. This work was partially supported by NASA's LWS Strategic Capability program.

  7. Neural markers of errors as endophenotypes in neuropsychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Manoach, Dara S.; Agam, Yigal

    2013-01-01

    Learning from errors is fundamental to adaptive human behavior. It requires detecting errors, evaluating what went wrong, and adjusting behavior accordingly. These dynamic adjustments are at the heart of behavioral flexibility and accumulating evidence suggests that deficient error processing contributes to maladaptively rigid and repetitive behavior in a range of neuropsychiatric disorders. Neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies reveal highly reliable neural markers of error processing. In this review, we evaluate the evidence that abnormalities in these neural markers can serve as sensitive endophenotypes of neuropsychiatric disorders. We describe the behavioral and neural hallmarks of error processing, their mediation by common genetic polymorphisms, and impairments in schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and autism spectrum disorders. We conclude that neural markers of errors meet several important criteria as endophenotypes including heritability, established neuroanatomical and neurochemical substrates, association with neuropsychiatric disorders, presence in syndromally-unaffected family members, and evidence of genetic mediation. Understanding the mechanisms of error processing deficits in neuropsychiatric disorders may provide novel neural and behavioral targets for treatment and sensitive surrogate markers of treatment response. Treating error processing deficits may improve functional outcome since error signals provide crucial information for flexible adaptation to changing environments. Given the dearth of effective interventions for cognitive deficits in neuropsychiatric disorders, this represents a potentially promising approach. PMID:23882201

  8. Calibrating the Prominence Magnetometer (ProMag)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Lewis; Casini, R.

    2013-07-01

    The Prominence Magnetometer (ProMag) is a dual-channel, dual-beam, slit-scanning, full Stokes spectro-polarimeter designed by the High Altitude Observatory at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (HAO/NCAR) for the study of the magnetism of solar prominences and filaments. It was deployed in August 2009 at the 40 cm coronagraph of the Evans Solar Facility (ESF) of the National Solar Observatory on Sacramento Peak (NSO/SP). In its standard mode of operation it acquires spectro-polarimetric maps of solar targets simultaneously in the two chromospheric lines of He I at 587.6 nm and 1083.0 nm. Since August 2011 ProMag has operated in “patrol mode” with a dedicated observer. We aim to routinely measure the vector magnetic field in prominences. The electro-optic modulator and polarization analyzer are integrated into a single mechanical unit located at the coude feed of the telescope. This location was necessary for proper co-alignment of the dual beams, but complicates the precise polarimeter calibration necessary to achieve the sensitivity required for prominence measurements (< 10^-3). At this sensitivity, small variations in optical alignment can become significant. We present a calibration method for ProMag, using a polarizer and retarder at coronagraph prime focus. Calibrations are recorded before and after observations. We discuss the success of this method and its limitations.

  9. PROMINENCE ACTIVATION BY CORONAL FAST MODE SHOCK

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Takuya; Asai, Ayumi; Shibata, Kazunari

    2015-03-01

    An X5.4 class flare occurred in active region NOAA11429 on 2012 March 7. The flare was associated with a very fast coronal mass ejection (CME) with a velocity of over 2500 km s{sup −1}. In the images taken with the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory-B/COR1, a dome-like disturbance was seen to detach from an expanding CME bubble and propagated further. A Type-II radio burst was also observed at the same time. On the other hand, in extreme ultraviolet images obtained by the Solar Dynamic Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), the expanding dome-like structure and its footprint propagating to the north were observed. The footprint propagated with an average speed of about 670 km s{sup −1} and hit a prominence located at the north pole and activated it. During the activation, the prominence was strongly brightened. On the basis of some observational evidence, we concluded that the footprint in AIA images and the ones in COR1 images are the same, that is, the MHD fast mode shock front. With the help of a linear theory, the fast mode Mach number of the coronal shock is estimated to be between 1.11 and 1.29 using the initial velocity of the activated prominence. Also, the plasma compression ratio of the shock is enhanced to be between 1.18 and 2.11 in the prominence material, which we consider to be the reason for the strong brightening of the activated prominence. The applicability of linear theory to the shock problem is tested with a nonlinear MHD simulation.

  10. Prominence and Cool Loop Energetics Measured in the UV, EUV, and H-alpha

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucera, Therese A.; Landi, E.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the thermal and dynamic properties of moving features in a prominence jet, a approx. 10(exp 5)K loop near a prominence channel, and an erupting prominence. In order to make measurements of the quickly moving features seen in prominences in the UV we use the SOHO/SUMER spectrograph to take a time series of exposures from a single pointing position, providing a measurement of spectral line properties as a function of time and position along the slit. The lines observed cover a broad range of temperatures from 80,000 - 1.6 million K. These measurements are combined with TRACE movies in transition region and coronal temperature bands and with ground based H-alpha data to obtain more complete information concerning prominence structure and motions. The resulting observations allow us perform DEM analysis and to calculate limits on densities, pressures, and the thermal and kinetic energies of the moving sources.

  11. Physical activity and neuropsychiatric symptoms of Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Abrantes, Ana M; Friedman, Joseph H; Brown, Richard A; Strong, David R; Desaulniers, Julie; Ing, Eileen; Saritelli, Jennifer; Riebe, Deborah

    2012-09-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms of Parkinson disease (PD) such as fatigue, depression, and apathy are common and detract from quality of life. There is little published on the impact of physical activity on the neuropsychiatric symptoms of PD. A convenience sample of 45 patients with PD (mean age = 66.1 years; 33% female) completed questionnaires on physical activity, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and specific exercise preferences. Covarying for age and gender, higher levels of physical activity were associated with significantly less fatigue, as well as a trend for less apathy and depression and greater positive affect. Exercise preferences included moderate intensity (73%), at home (56%), in the morning (73%), scheduled (69%), options for varied activities (73%), and preference for both structured/supervised (50%), and unsupervised/self-paced (50%) programs. Preferred activities included the use of aerobic exercise equipment, resistance training, and yoga. Developing and tailoring exercise programs that incorporate specific preferences may result in more effective interventions for patients with PD.

  12. Contemplating stem cell therapy for epilepsy-induced neuropsychiatric symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Gautam; Mashkouri, Sherwin; Aum, David; Marcet, Paul; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2017-01-01

    Epilepsy is a debilitating disease that impacts millions of people worldwide. While unprovoked seizures characterize its cardinal symptom, an important aspect of epilepsy that remains to be addressed is the neuropsychiatric component. It has been documented for millennia in paintings and literature that those with epilepsy can suffer from bouts of aggression, depression, and other psychiatric ailments. Current treatments for epilepsy include the use of antiepileptic drugs and surgical resection. Antiepileptic drugs reduce the overall firing of the brain to mitigate the rate of seizure occurrence. Surgery aims to remove a portion of the brain that is suspected to be the source of aberrant firing that leads to seizures. Both options treat the seizure-generating neurological aspect of epilepsy, but fail to directly address the neuropsychiatric components. A promising new treatment for epilepsy is the use of stem cells to treat both the biological and psychiatric components. Stem cell therapy has been shown efficacious in treating experimental models of neurological disorders, including Parkinson’s disease, and neuropsychiatric diseases, such as depression. Additional research is necessary to see if stem cells can treat both neurological and neuropsychiatric aspects of epilepsy. Currently, there is no animal model that recapitulates all the clinical hallmarks of epilepsy. This could be due to difficulty in characterizing the neuropsychiatric component of the disease. In advancing stem cell therapy for treating epilepsy, experimental testing of the safety and efficacy of allogeneic and autologous transplantation will require the optimization of cell dosage, delivery, and timing of transplantation in a clinically relevant model of epilepsy with both neurological and neuropsychiatric symptoms of the disease as the primary outcome measures. PMID:28260906

  13. Investigating prominence turbulence with Hinode SOT Dopplergrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillier, A.; Matsumoto, T.; Ichimoto, K.

    2017-01-01

    Quiescent prominences host a diverse range of flows, including Rayleigh-Taylor instability driven upflows and impulsive downflows, and so it is no surprise that turbulent motions also exist. As prominences are believed to have a mean horizontal guide field, investigating any turbulence they host could shed light on the nature of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in a wide range of astrophysical systems. In this paper we have investigated the nature of the turbulent prominence motions using structure function analysis on the velocity increments estimated from Hα Dopplergrams constructed with observational data from Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT). The probability density function of the velocity increments shows that as we look at increasingly small spatial separations the distribution displays greater departure from a reference Gaussian distribution, hinting at intermittency in the velocity field. Analysis of the even order structure functions for both the horizontal and vertical separations showed the existence of two distinct regions displaying different exponents of the power law with the break in the power law at approximately 2000 km. We hypothesise this to be a result of internal turbulence excited in the prominence by the dynamic flows of the system found at this spatial scale. We found that the scaling exponents of the pth order structure functions for these two regions generally followed the p/ 2 (smaller scales) and p/ 4 (larger scales) laws that are the same as those predicted for weak MHD turbulence and Kraichnan-Iroshnikov turbulence respectively. However, the existence of the p/ 4 scaling at larger scales than the p/ 2 scaling is inconsistent with the increasing nonlinearity expected in MHD turbulence. We also found that as we went to higher order structure functions, the dependence of the scaling exponent on the order p is nonlinear implying that intermittency may be playing an important role in the turbulent cascade. Estimating the heating

  14. Neuropsychiatric genomics in precision medicine: diagnostics, gene discovery, and translation

    PubMed Central

    Need, Anna C.; Goldstein, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Only a few years after its development, next-generation sequencing is rapidly becoming an essential part of clinical care for patients with serious neurological conditions, especially in the diagnosis of early-onset and severe presentations. Beyond this diagnostic role, there has been an explosion in definitive gene discovery in a range of neuropsychiatric diseases. This is providing new pointers to underlying disease biology and is beginning to outline a new framework for genetic stratification of neuropsychiatric disease, with clear relevance to both individual treatment optimization and clinical trial design. Here, we outline these developments and chart the expected impact on the treatment of neurological, neurodevelopmental, and psychiatric disease. PMID:27757059

  15. Neuropsychiatric genomics in precision medicine: diagnostics, gene discovery, and translation.

    PubMed

    Need, Anna C; Goldstein, David B

    2016-09-01

    Only a few years after its development, next-generation sequencing is rapidly becoming an essential part of clinical care for patients with serious neurological conditions, especially in the diagnosis of early-onset and severe presentations. Beyond this diagnostic role, there has been an explosion in definitive gene discovery in a range of neuropsychiatric diseases. This is providing new pointers to underlying disease biology and is beginning to outline a new framework for genetic stratification of neuropsychiatric disease, with clear relevance to both individual treatment optimization and clinical trial design. Here, we outline these developments and chart the expected impact on the treatment of neurological, neurodevelopmental, and psychiatric disease.

  16. A neuropsychiatric developmental model of serial homicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Silva, J Arturo; Leong, Gregory B; Ferrari, Michelle M

    2004-01-01

    Serial sexual homicide has been the object of intensive study from forensic psychiatric, criminological, developmental, and sociological perspectives. In contradistinction to these approaches, neuropsychiatric concepts and methods have received relatively little attention in this area. In this article we adopt a neuropsychiatric developmental perspective and undertake a review of the psychiatric literature on violence and autism spectrum disorders. Our analysis of this literature suggests the presence of an association between autism spectrum psychopathology and serial homicidal behavior. Recommendations for further research to help clarify the nature of this association are briefly discussed.

  17. Neuropsychiatric findings in Cushing syndrome and exogenous glucocorticoid administration.

    PubMed

    Starkman, Monica N

    2013-09-01

    This article reviews the neuropsychiatric presentations elicited by spontaneous hypercortisolism and exogenous supraphysiologic glucocorticoids. Patients with Cushing disease and syndrome develop a depressive syndrome: irritable and depressed mood, decreased libido, disrupted sleep and cognitive decrements. Exogenous short-term glucocorticoid administration may elicit a hypomanic syndrome with mood, sleep and cognitive disruptions. Treatment options are discussed. Brain imaging and neuropsychological studies indicate elevated cortisol and other glucocorticoids are especially deleterious to hippocampus and frontal lobe. The research findings also shed light on neuropsychiatric abnormalities in conditions that have substantial subgroups exhibiting elevated and dysregulated cortisol: aging, major depressive disorder and Alzheimer's disease.

  18. Inference of magnetic fields in inhomogeneous prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milić, I.; Faurobert, M.; Atanacković, O.

    2017-01-01

    Context. Most of the quantitative information about the magnetic field vector in solar prominences comes from the analysis of the Hanle effect acting on lines formed by scattering. As these lines can be of non-negligible optical thickness, it is of interest to study the line formation process further. Aims: We investigate the multidimensional effects on the interpretation of spectropolarimetric observations, particularly on the inference of the magnetic field vector. We do this by analyzing the differences between multidimensional models, which involve fully self-consistent radiative transfer computations in the presence of spatial inhomogeneities and velocity fields, and those which rely on simple one-dimensional geometry. Methods: We study the formation of a prototype line in ad hoc inhomogeneous, isothermal 2D prominence models. We solve the NLTE polarized line formation problem in the presence of a large-scale oriented magnetic field. The resulting polarized line profiles are then interpreted (i.e. inverted) assuming a simple 1D slab model. Results: We find that differences between input and the inferred magnetic field vector are non-negligible. Namely, we almost universally find that the inferred field is weaker and more horizontal than the input field. Conclusions: Spatial inhomogeneities and radiative transfer have a strong effect on scattering line polarization in the optically thick lines. In real-life situations, ignoring these effects could lead to a serious misinterpretation of spectropolarimetric observations of chromospheric objects such as prominences.

  19. The role of sex and gender in neuropsychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Thibaut, Florence

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence, age of onset, and clinical symptoms of many neuropsychiatric diseases substantially differ between males and females. Factors influencing the relationships between brain development and function and sex or gender may help us understand the differences between males and females in terms of risk or resilience factors in brain diseases. PMID:28179806

  20. Neuropsychiatric Sequelae of Acute Epidemic Encephalitis in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebaugh, Franklin G.

    2007-01-01

    In reviewing the enormous number of articles on all phases of acute epidemic encephalitis one cannot help being impressed by the lack of attention paid to children who have suffered from this disease. This is especially true of the important neuropsychiatric sequelae. During the past few months, seventeen patients have been referred to the…

  1. Neuropsychiatric phenotype in a child with pseudohypoparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Visconti, Paola; Posar, Annio; Scaduto, Maria Cristina; Russo, Angelo; Tamburrino, Federica; Mazzanti, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) is a rare heterogeneous genetic disease characterized by end-organ resistance to parathyroid hormone. In adulthood, heterogeneous neurological and psychiatric disorders have been reported which are associated with hypoparathyroidism in general and with PHP in particular, while for childhood, data are scanty. We report a case of a boy with PHP type 1b, in whom neurological signs at the onset prevailed, characterized by tic-like dyskinesias associated with a series of heterogeneous not well-defined neurological and behavioral features, describing the diagnostic work-up performed and the follow-up. We suggest that the diagnostic hypothesis of PHP might be considered when dealing with a child with tic-like dyskinesias, especially if associated with a series of heterogeneous not well-defined neurological and behavioral features. In these cases, treatment with calcitriol and calcium has to be started as soon as possible to achieve a prompt and persistent clinical improvement. PMID:27857805

  2. Prominent Bilateral Hand Tremor in Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy: A Video Demonstration

    PubMed Central

    Ramcharan, Kanterpersad; Hosein, Nadeem; Teelucksingh, Joel David; Rampersad, Fidel; Teelucksingh, Surujpal

    2016-01-01

    Background Hashimoto’s encephalopathy often presents with neuropsychiatric manifestations including seizures and movement disorders. Case Report We describe a patient who presented with bilateral hand tremor and mild cognitive defects that fulfilled the criteria for a diagnosis of Hashimoto’s encephalopathy. There was a rapid response to glucocorticoid therapy with relapse following treatment withdrawal. Discussion Recently published clinical criteria for the diagnosis of Hashimoto’s encephalopathy include seizures, myoclonus, hallucinations, or stroke‐like episodes but do not include tremor. Our case had mild cognitive dysfunction and a coarse tremor as the predominant clinical features, which probably represent mild disease. PMID:27790384

  3. Sigma-1 receptor agonists as therapeutic drugs for cognitive impairment in neuropsychiatric diseases.

    PubMed

    Niitsu, Tomihisa; Iyo, Masaomi; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is a core feature of patients with neuropsychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia and psychotic depression. The drugs currently used to treat cognitive impairment have significant limitations, ensuring that the search for more effective therapies remains active. Endoplasmic reticulum protein sigma-1 receptors are unique binding sites in the brain that exert a potent effect on multiple neurotransmitter systems. Accumulating evidence suggests that sigma-1 receptors play a role in both the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric diseases, and the mechanistic action of some therapeutic drugs, such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), donepezil and neurosteroids. Among SSRIs, fluvoxamine, a potent sigma-1 receptor agonist, has the highest affinity at sigma-1 receptors. Sigma-1 receptor agonists greatly potentiate nerve-growth factor (NGF)-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells, an effect that is antagonized by treatment with the selective sigma-1 receptor antagonist NE-100. Furthermore, phencyclidine (PCP)-induced cognitive impairment, associated with animal models of schizophrenia is significantly improved by sub-chronic administration of sigma-1 receptor agonists such as fluvoxamine, SA4503 (cutamesine) and donepezil. This effect is antagonized by co-administration of NE-100. A positron emission tomography (PET) study using the specific sigma-1 receptor ligand [11C]SA4503 demonstrates that fluvoxamine and donepezil bind to sigma-1 receptors in the healthy human brain. In clinical studies, some sigma-1 receptor agonists, including fluvoxamine, donepezil and neurosteroids, improve cognitive impairment and clinical symptoms in neuropsychiatric diseases. In this article, we review the recent findings on sigma-1 receptor agonists as potential therapeutic drugs for the treatment of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia and psychotic depression.

  4. Damping of Magnetohydrodynamic Waves in Solar Prominence Fine Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soler, Roberto

    2010-05-01

    High-resolution observations of solar filaments and prominences reveal that these large-scale coronal structures are formed by a myriad of long and thin ribbons, here called threads, which are piled up to form the prominence body. Evidences suggest that these fine structures are magnetic flux tubes anchored in the solar photosphere, which are partially filled with the cool and dense prominence material. Individual and collective oscillations of prominence and filament fine structures are frequently reported by means of oscillatory variations in Doppler signals and spectral line intensity. Common features of these observations are that the reported oscillatory periods are usually in a narrow range between 2 and 10 minutes, that the velocity amplitudes are smaller than ˜3 km/s, and that the oscillations seem to be strongly damped after a few periods. Typically, the ratio of the damping time, tD, to the period, P, is tD/P < 10. While the oscillations have been interpreted in the context of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory, i.e., in terms of the MHD normal modes supported by the filament thread body and/or propagating MHD waves, the mechanism or mechanisms responsible for the damping are not well-known and a comparative study between different damping mechanisms is needed. In this Thesis, we study the efficiency of several physical mechanisms for the damping of MHD oscillations in prominence fine structures. Both individual and collective oscillations of threads are analyzed. We model a filament thread as a straight cylindrical magnetic flux tube with prominence conditions, embedded in a magnetized environment representing the solar coronal medium. The basic MHD equations are applied to the model and contain non-ideal terms accounting for effects as, e.g., non-adiabatic mechanisms, magnetic diffusion, ion-neutral collisions, etc., that may be of relevance in prominence plasmas and whose role on the damping of the oscillations is assessed. Our method combines

  5. The role of prominence in Spanish sentence comprehension: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Gattei, Carolina A; Tabullo, Ángel; París, Luis; Wainselboim, Alejandro J

    2015-11-01

    Prominence is the hierarchical relation among arguments that allows us to understand 'Who did what to whom' in a sentence. The present study aimed to provide evidence about the role of prominence information for the incremental interpretation of arguments in Spanish. We investigated the time course of neural correlates associated to the comprehension of sentences that require a reversal of argument prominence hierarchization. We also studied how the amount of available prominence information may affect the incremental build-up of verbal expectations. Results of the ERP data revealed that at the disambiguating verb region, object-initial sentences (only one argument available) elicited a centro-parietal negativity with a peak at 400 ms post-onset. Subject-initial sentences (two arguments available) yielded a broadly distributed positivity at around 650 ms. This dissociation suggests that argument interpretation may depend on their morphosyntactic features, and also on the amount of prominence information available before the verb is encountered.

  6. Filament-Prominence-Cme Magnetic Evolution Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagala', L. G.; Mandrini, C. H.; Fernandez Borda, R.; de Pontieu, B.; Rovira, M. G.; Rank, G.

    1999-10-01

    The first results of the SOHO Joint Observation Program JOP 99 are outlined. JOP 99 involve several SOHO instruments (CDS, LASCO, MDI), together with TRACE, and two new ground-based instruments: HASTA (Hα Solar Telescope for Argentina) and MICA (Mirror Coronagraph for Argentina). The proposed program have a new motivation in taking advantage of the capabilities of the TRACE instrument, together with our experience in magnetic reconnection. The objective here is focused on the investigation of the conditions of the eruption of a prominence, often associated with the CME. JOP 99 is running at the moment that this abstract is submitted. It is a 5-days study of the filament/prominence, with 3-4 days observing the disk and 1-2 days observing the limb. While on disk, we will look for the eruption signatures in two ways: by studying the physical conditions in the filament and its surroundings (densities, temperature, abundances), and by looking at the magnetic topology changes. While at the limb, we will wait with luck for an eruption. If it does happen, LASCO and MICA observations will study if there exists an associated CME.

  7. Morphology Of A Hot Prominence Cavity Observed with Hinode/XRT and SDO/AIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Mark A.; Reeves, K. K.; Gibson, S. E.; Kucera, T. A.

    2012-01-01

    Prominence cavities appear as circularly shaped voids in coronal emission over polarity inversion lines where a prominence channel is straddling the solar limb. The presence of chromospheric material suspended at coronal altitudes is a common but not necessary feature within these cavities. These voids are observed to change shape as a prominence feature rotates around the limb. We use a morphological model projected in cross-sections to fit the cavity emission in Hinode/XRT passbands, and then apply temperature diagnostics to XRT and SDO/AIA data to investigate the thermal structure. We find significant evidence that the prominence cavity is hotter than the corona immediately outside the cavity boundary. This investigation follows upon "Thermal Properties of A Solar Coronal Cavity Observed with the X-ray Telescope on Hinode" by Reeves et al., 2012, ApJ, in press.

  8. Neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with vascular dementia in mainland China

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yan-ling; Zhang, Hong; Gao, Yong-zhe; Shu, Min; Xu, Yan; Liu, Xi; Zhang, Sheng-ming; Zou, Chao-yu; Cao, Jing; Xiong, Rong-hong

    2015-01-01

    Background Neuropsychiatric deficits can induce marked disability in patients with dementia and increase caregiver distress. Several studies have found that neuropsychiatric symptoms are common both in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and patients with vascular dementia (VaD). However, there are few studies of the neuropsychiatric disturbances in large clinical samples of patients with mixed (cortical - subcortical) VaD from mainland China. This study aimed to investigate the neuropsychiatric symptoms in VaD patients in mainland China. Methods Eighty patients with mixed VaD for over 6 months duration, and their caregivers (VaD group), were recruited for interview in Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, from June 2010 to June 2012. Eighty age- and sex-matched normal volunteers (control group) were interviewed at the same time. The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) were administered to the VaD patients, their caregivers, and normal volunteers. Group differences were analyzed using the unpaired t-test. Results The total mean scores of the NPI in the VaD group were higher than in the control group (P < 0.01). The subscale scores of NPI, including delusions, hallucinations, depression, apathy, irritability, agitation, aberrant motor behavior, and change in appetite were significantly higher in the VaD group than in the control group (P < 0.05–0.01). Compared with the mild VaD subgroup, the NPI subscale scores of apathy, irritability and total scores were significantly higher in the moderate VaD subgroup (P < 0.05–0.01); the NPI subscale scores of anxiety, apathy, irritability, and total scores were significantly higher in the severe VaD subgroup (P < 0.01). Compared with the moderate VaD subgroup, the NPI subscale scores of anxiety and apathy were significantly higher in the severe VaD subgroup (P < 0.05–0.01). Conclusions Neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as hallucination, anxiety, apathy, irritability and

  9. Explosive Instability of Prominence Flux Ropes

    SciTech Connect

    Hurricane, O; Fong, R H L; Cowley, S C

    2002-09-04

    The rapid, Alfvenic, time scale of erupting solar-prominences has been an enigma ever since they where first identified. Investigators have proposed a variety of different mechanisms in an effort to account for the abrupt reconfiguration observed. No one mechanism clearly stands out as the single cause of these explosive events. Recent analysis has demonstrated that field lines in the solar atmosphere are metastable to ballooning type instabilities. It has been found previously that in ideal MHD plasmas marginally unstable ballooning modes inevitably become ''explosive'' evolving towards a finite time singularity via a nonlinear 3D instability called ''Nonlinear Magnetohydrodynamic Detonation.'' Thus, this mechanism is a good candidate to explain explosive events observed in the solar atmosphere of our star or in others.

  10. Turner syndrome: review of clinical, neuropsychiatric, and EEG status: an experience of tertiary center.

    PubMed

    Saad, Khaled; Abdelrahman, Ahmed A; Abdel-Raheem, Yasser F; Othman, Essam R; Badry, Reda; Othman, Hisham A K; Sobhy, Karema M

    2014-03-01

    We reviewed the clinical, neuropsychiatric, and EEG status of 53 turner syndrome (TS) females, aged 3-16 years, in Assiut university hospitals, Upper Egypt. The diagnosis and care of patients with TS in Egypt is still in the developing stage. Hence this study was undertaken to review the details of patients with TS with respect to the pattern of cognitive, psychiatric, and motor dysfunction. We aimed to provide a comprehensive data about the experience of our center comparable to previous studies, which have been published in this field. This will contribute to a better definition of the neuropsychiatric features that may be specific to TS that allows early and better detection and management of these cases. We found FSIQ and verbal IQ that seem to be at a nearly normal level and a decreased performance IQ. ADHD and autistic symptoms were found in 20.70 and 3.77 % of our cohort, respectively. The motor performance in TS was disturbed, with some neurological deficits present in 17 % (reduced muscle tone and reduced muscle power). In addition, females with TS in our study exhibit social and emotional problems, including anxiety (5.66 %) and depression (11.30 %). The EEG results revealed abnormalities in seven patients (13.20 %). One patient presenting with generalized tonic-clonic seizures showed generalized epileptiform activity, and six patients presenting with intellectual disabilities showed abnormal EEG background activity.

  11. The neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza/swine flu: A selective review.

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, Narayana; Math, Suresh Bada; Kulkarni, Girish Baburao; Chaturvedi, Santosh Kumar

    2011-07-01

    The world witnessed the influenza virus during the seasonal epidemics and pandemics. The current strain of H1N1 (swine flu) pandemic is believed to be the legacy of the influenza pandemic (1918-19). The influenza virus has been implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders. In view of the recent pandemic, it would be interesting to review the neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza, specifically swine flu. Author used popular search engine 'PUBMED' to search for published articles with different MeSH terms using Boolean operator (AND). Among these, a selective review of the published literature was done. Acute manifestations of swine flu varied from behavioral changes, fear of misdiagnosis during outbreak, neurological features like seizures, encephalopathy, encephalitis, transverse myelitis, aseptic meningitis, multiple sclerosis, and Guillian-Barre Syndrome. Among the chronic manifestations, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, mood disorder, dementia, and mental retardation have been hypothesized. Further research is required to understand the etiological hypothesis of the chronic manifestations of influenza. The author urges neuroscientists around the world to make use of the current swine flu pandemic as an opportunity for further research.

  12. The neuropsychiatric ailment of Vincent Van Gogh

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Kalyan B.; Rai, Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    Vincent Van Gogh is one of the most celebrated creative artists of all time. All his life, he was afflicted by some kind of neurological or psychiatric disorder, which remains a mystery even today. Many historians and his personal physicians believe that he suffered from epilepsy while others felt that he was affected by Ménière's disease. Features such as hypergraphia, atypical sexuality, and viscosity of thinking suggest the possibility of Gastaut-Geschwind phenomenon, a known complication of complex partial seizure. On the contrary, some historians feel that he was forced to sever his right ear in order to get relief from troublesome tinnitus, a complication of Ménière's disease. He was addicted to the liquor absinthe, which is known to lead to xanthopsia, and many authorities argue that this was the reason for his penchant for the deep and bright yellow color in many of his paintings. Others have suggested the possibility of bipolar disorder, sunstroke, acute intermittent porphyria, and digitalis toxicity as well. PMID:25745302

  13. ARE GIANT TORNADOES THE LEGS OF SOLAR PROMINENCES?

    SciTech Connect

    Wedemeyer, Sven; Scullion, Eamon; Rouppe van der Voort, Luc; Bosnjak, Antonija; Antolin, Patrick

    2013-09-10

    Observations in the 171 A channel of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly of the space-borne Solar Dynamics Observatory show tornado-like features in the atmosphere of the Sun. These giant tornadoes appear as dark, elongated, and apparently rotating structures in front of a brighter background. This phenomenon is thought to be produced by rotating magnetic field structures that extend throughout the atmosphere. We characterize giant tornadoes through a statistical analysis of properties such as spatial distribution, lifetimes, and sizes. A total number of 201 giant tornadoes are detected in a period of 25 days, suggesting that, on average, about 30 events are present across the whole Sun at a time close to solar maximum. Most tornadoes appear in groups and seem to form the legs of prominences, thus serving as plasma sources/sinks. Additional H{alpha} observations with the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope imply that giant tornadoes rotate as a structure, although they clearly exhibit a thread-like structure. We observe tornado groups that grow prior to the eruption of the connected prominence. The rotation of the tornadoes may progressively twist the magnetic structure of the prominence until it becomes unstable and erupts. Finally, we investigate the potential relation of giant tornadoes to other phenomena, which may also be produced by rotating magnetic field structures. A comparison to cyclones, magnetic tornadoes, and spicules implies that such events are more abundant and short-lived the smaller they are. This comparison might help to construct a power law for the effective atmospheric heating contribution as a function of spatial scale.

  14. Neuropsychiatric changes following penetrating head injury in children

    PubMed Central

    Badhiwala, Jetan H.; Blackham, Janet R.; Bhardwaj, Ratan D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Penetrating head injuries demand the prompt attention of a neurosurgeon. While most neurosurgical centers are experienced in the acute management of these injuries, less is known about the long-term neuropsychiatric sequelae of penetrating head trauma. In adults, direct injury to the frontal lobe classically has been associated with mental status changes. However, there is less published data in children. Case Description: We report the case of a 12-year-old boy who suffered a penetrating head injury to the frontal lobes secondary to a self-inflicted gunshot wound, and experienced subsequent resolution of pre-existing bipolar disorder and new onset of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Conclusion: Children with penetrating head injury require close multidisciplinary follow-up in order to monitor, and accordingly implement management strategies, for associated sequelae, including behavioral and neuropsychiatric changes. PMID:25422782

  15. Electroconvulsive therapy for catatonia in juvenile neuropsychiatric lupus.

    PubMed

    Leon, T; Aguirre, A; Pesce, C; Sanhueza, P; Toro, P

    2014-09-01

    Neuropsychiatric manifestations are serious and frequent complications of systemic lupus erythematous (SLE). Catatonia is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by motor disturbance (including waxy flexibility and catalepsy), stupor, excitement, negativism, mutism, echopraxia and echolalia. Catatonia associated with SLE has been only rarely reported, especially in children. Here we present a case of a 14-year-old patient encountered in consultation-liaison psychiatry who presented catatonia associated with SLE. Her catatonia was refractory to treatment with pulse methylprednisolone, intravenous cyclophosphamide and rituximab. The patient responded to a combined therapy of electroconvulsive therapy and benzodiazepines. The present case suggests that although rarely reported, catatonia seen in the background of SLE should be promptly identified and treated to reduce the morbidity.

  16. Echolalia as a novel manifestation of neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Zapor, M; Murphy, F T; Enzenauer, R

    2001-01-01

    "That tongue of yours, by which I have been tricked, shall have its power curtailed and enjoy the briefest use of speech." With these words, Hera, of Greek mythology, deprived the nymph Echo of spontaneous speech, constraining her instead to merely repeating the words of others. Echolalia, which derives from the word "echo," is disordered speech in which an individual persistently repeats what is heard. Echolalia has been described in patients with a number of neuropsychiatric illnesses including autism and Tourette's syndrome. Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) is a heterogeneous disease with protean manifestations that may occur in approximately 25% to 50% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Although the most common manifestations include cognitive dysfunction (50%) and seizures (20%), NPSLE may also present as peripheral neuropathy (15%), psychosis (10%), or other central nervous system abnormalities. We report the case of a 57-year-old woman with SLE and echolalia.

  17. Advanced and Conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Neuropsychiatric Lupus

    PubMed Central

    Sarbu, Nicolae; Bargalló, Núria; Cervera, Ricard

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric lupus is a major diagnostic challenge, and a main cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is, by far, the main tool for assessing the brain in this disease. Conventional and advanced MRI techniques are used to help establishing the diagnosis, to rule out alternative diagnoses, and recently, to monitor the evolution of the disease. This review explores the neuroimaging findings in SLE, including the recent advances in new MRI methods. PMID:26236469

  18. Neuropsychiatric Symptoms of Dementia: Consent, Quality of Life, and Dignity

    PubMed Central

    Passmore, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Degenerative forms of dementia are progressive, incurable, fatal, and likely to cause suffering in conjunction with personal incapacity. Timely diagnostic disclosure and counseling can facilitate important advance care planning. The risk of harm associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) of dementia often has to be balanced against the risk of harm associated with medication management of NPS. A palliative care framework can help preserve autonomy, quality of life, comfort, and dignity for patients with NPS. PMID:23853768

  19. Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Posterior Cortical Atrophy and Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Crutch, Sebastian J.; Franco-Macías, Emilio; Gil-Néciga, Eulogio

    2016-01-01

    Background: Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a rare neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by early progressive visual dysfunction in the context of relative preservation of memory and a pattern of atrophy mainly involving the posterior cortex. The aim of the present study is to characterize the neuropsychiatric profile of PCA. Methods: The Neuropsychiatric Inventory was used to assess 12 neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in 28 patients with PCA and 34 patients with typical Alzheimer disease (AD) matched by age, disease duration, and illness severity. Results: The most commonly reported NPS in both groups were depression, anxiety, apathy, and irritability. However, aside from a trend toward lower rates of apathy in patients with PCA, there were no differences in the percentage of NPS presented in each group. All those patients presenting visual hallucinations in the PCA group also met diagnostic criteria for dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Auditory hallucinations were only present in patients meeting diagnosis criteria for DLB. Conclusion: Prevalence of the 12 NPS examined was similar between patients with PCA and AD. Hallucinations in PCA may be helpful in the differential diagnosis between PCA-AD and PCA-DLB. PMID:26404166

  20. Pigmented dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans with prominent meningothelial-like whorls.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Yang, Wentao

    2008-10-01

    Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a locally aggressive skin tumor. In addition to the conventional type, several morphologic variants have been described. Recognition of these uncommon variants will facilitate the diagnosis. We report herein a peculiar case of pigmented DFSP (Bednar tumor) with prominent meningothelial-like whorls, a distinctive pattern that has not been described previously in DFSP. The tumor occurred in a 40-year-old man who presented with a slowly growing mass on his left shoulder. The overall histological features were consistent with Bednar tumor. However, unexpected numerous meningothelial-like whorls were found in some areas of the tumor. Like the tumor cells in typical areas of Bednar tumor these meningothelial-like whorls were also positive for CD34 but negative for epithelial membrane antigen and S100 protein. The meningothelial-like whorls in Bednar tumor represent an eccentric arrangement of the tumor cells. We propose the term 'pigmented DFSP with prominent meningothelial-like whorls' to highlight the distinctive pattern of this novel DFSP variant.

  1. The coronal structure of Speedy Mic - II. Prominence masses and off-disc emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunstone, N. J.; Collier Cameron, A.; Barnes, J. R.; Jardine, M.

    2006-12-01

    Observations of stellar prominences on young rapidly rotating stars provide unique probes of their magnetic fields out to many stellar radii. We compare two independently obtained data sets of the K3 dwarf Speedy Mic (BO Mic, HD 197890) using the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Very Large Telescope (VLT). Taken more than a fortnight apart, they provide the first insight into the evolution of the prominence system on such a young rapidly rotating star. The largest prominences observed transiting the stellar disc are found at very similar rotational phases between the epochs. This suggests that the magnetic structures supporting the prominences retain their identity on a two to three week time-scale. By taking advantage of the high signal-to-noise ratio and large wavelength range of the VLT observations, we identify prominences as transient absorption features in all lines of the hydrogen Balmer series down to H10. We use the ratios of the prominence equivalent widths (EWs) in these lines to determine their column densities in the first excited state of hydrogen. We determine the optical depths, finding prominences to be rather optically thick (τ ~ 20) in the Hα line. The total hydrogen column density and thus the prominence masses are determined via observations of the CaII H&K lines. We find typical masses for four of the largest prominences to be in the range 0.5-2.3 × 1014 kg, slightly larger than giant solar prominence masses. Rotationally modulated emission is seen outside of the Hα line. These loops of emission are shown to be caused by prominences seen off the stellar disc. We find that all of the large emission loops can be associated with prominences we see transiting the stellar disc. This, combined with the fact that many prominences appear to eclipse the off-disc emission of others, strongly suggests that the prominence system is highly flattened and likely confined to low stellar latitudes. Based on

  2. Clinical Mass Spectrometry: Achieving Prominence in Laboratory Medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Annesley, Thomas M.; Cooks, Robert G.; Herold, David A.; Hoofnagle, Andrew N.

    2016-01-04

    Each year the journal Clinical Chemistry publishes a January special issue on a topic that is relevant to the laboratory medicine community. In January 2016 the topic is mass spectrometry, and the issue is entitled “Clinical Mass Spectrometry: Achieving Prominence in Laboratory Medicine”. One popular feature in our issues is a Q&A on a topic, clearly in this case mass spectrometry. The journal is assembling a panel of 5-6 experts from various areas of mass spectrometry ranging from instrument manufacturing to practicing clinical chemists. Dick Smith is one of the scientist requested to participate in this special issue Q&A on Mass Spectrometry. The Q&A Transcript is attached

  3. Are neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with evidence of right brain injury in referrals to a neuropsychiatric brain injury unit?

    PubMed

    Borek, L L; Butler, R; Fleminger, S

    2001-01-01

    Studies suggest that neuropsychiatric symptoms are more common in patients with injury to the right side of the brain. However, most studies have examined patients with penetrating injuries because these allow more accurate localization of brain damage. This study investigates whether a similar association would be found in patients with non-penetrating brain injuries presenting to a neuropsychiatric unit. Over a 2 year period, 98 referrals were examined. Damage was localized using routine operation notes, EEG and neuroimaging. In total, 34 patients (35%) had a predominately right-sided injury, 33 (34%) had a left-sided injury and 31 (32%) had a diffuse or bilateral injury. Right-sided injuries were associated with hallucinations (p = 0.05), and left-sided injuries were associated with confabulation (p = 0.05) and lack of insight (p = 0.07). These results are consistent with findings from patients with penetrating head injuries. They suggest that evidence of the laterality of injury may be useful for planning the rehabilitation of patients seen in neuropsychiatric brain injury units.

  4. Properties of the prominence magnetic field and plasma distributions as obtained from 3D whole-prominence fine structure modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunár, S.; Mackay, D. H.

    2016-07-01

    Aims: We analyze distributions of the magnetic field strength and prominence plasma (temperature, pressure, plasma β, and mass) using the 3D whole-prominence fine structure model. Methods: The model combines a 3D magnetic field configuration of an entire prominence, obtained from non-linear force-free field simulations, with a detailed semi-empirically derived description of the prominence plasma. The plasma is located in magnetic dips in hydrostatic equilibrium and is distributed along multiple fine structures within the 3D magnetic model. Results: We show that in the modeled prominence, the variations of the magnetic field strength and its orientation are insignificant on scales comparable to the smallest dimensions of the observed prominence fine structures. We also show the ability of the 3D whole-prominence fine structure model to reveal the distribution of the prominence plasma with respect to its temperature within the prominence volume. This provides new insights into the composition of the prominence-corona transition region. We further demonstrate that the values of the plasma β are small throughout the majority of the modeled prominences when realistic photospheric magnetic flux distributions and prominence plasma parameters are assumed. While this is generally true, we also find that in the region with the deepest magnetic dips, the plasma β may increase towards unity. Finally, we show that the mass of the modeled prominence plasma is in good agreement with the mass of observed non-eruptive prominences.

  5. Psychopharmacology of aggression in children and adolescents with primary neuropsychiatric disorders: a review of current and potentially promising treatment options.

    PubMed

    Nevels, Robert M; Dehon, Erin E; Alexander, Katrina; Gontkovsky, Samuel T

    2010-04-01

    Research examining the role of pharmacological therapy in the treatment of children and adolescents with clinical disorders is growing. Clinical disorders that present with comorbid aggression can add a challenge to treatment. Child and adolescent neuropsychiatric disorders associated with aggression include attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, various mood disorders and in particular bipolar disorders/pediatric mania, schizophrenia, mental retardation, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and autism spectrum disorders. This review describes the psychopharmacy to treat these disorders and the aggression that often appears comorbidly. Existing literature regarding the efficacy and safety of psychotropics for youth with neuropsychiatric disorders also is discussed. In addition, general guidelines for psychopharmacy of aggression in children and adolescents are presented. Studies reviewed in this article provide evidence for the use of psychostimulants, alpha-2 agonists, beta blockers, lithium, anticonvulsant mood-stabilizers, atypical antipsychotics, traditional antipsychotics, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in treating pediatric aggression with the choice of medication dependent on symptomology. Despite increased support for pediatric psychotropic use, there is a need for more long-term safety and efficacy studies of existing medications and newer, safer, and more effective agents with fewer side effects for the pharmacological treatment of all childhood disorders in which aggression is prominent.

  6. The global structure of magnetic fields which support quiescent prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anzer, U.

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic fields in quiescent prominences were observed, but only recently has it become possible to measure the full magnetic field vector. The component of the field along the line of sight, B (parallel) can be uniquely determined, whereas for the component perpendicular to the line of sight B (perpendicular) and -B (perpendicular) are indistinguishable. An ambiguity remains in the actual magnetic field vector, in particular with respect to its orientation relative to the prominence axis. A sample of more than 100 prominences were studied. A more detailed analysis of 10 prominences are presented, and then set these prominence fields into relation to the underlying photospheric fields. It is found from statistical analysis of several hundred prominences that in 25% of the cases the field penetrates the prominence directly, whereas in 75% the field orientation in the prominence is reversed.

  7. Pathological Changes of von Economo Neuron and Fork Neuron in Neuropsychiatric Diseases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Lu-ning; Arzberger, Thomas; Zhu, Ming-wei

    2016-02-01

    von Economo neuron (VEN) is a bipolar neuron characterized by a large spindle-shaped soma. VEN is generally distributed in the layer V of anterior insular lobe and anterior cingulate cortex. Fork neuron is another featured bipolar neuron. In recent years,many studies have illustrated that VEN and fork neurons are correlated with complicated cognition such as self-consciousness and social emotion. Studies in the development and morpholigies of these two neurons as well as their pathological changes in various neurological and psychiatric disorders have found that the abnormal number and functions of VEN can cause corresponding dysfunctions in social recognition and emotions both during the neuro-developmental stages of childhood and during the nerve degeneration in old age stage. Therefore, more attentions should be paid on the research of VEN and fork neurons in neuropsychiatric diseases.

  8. OBSERVATIONS AND MAGNETIC FIELD MODELING OF A SOLAR POLAR CROWN PROMINENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Su Yingna; Van Ballegooijen, Adriaan

    2012-10-01

    We present observations and magnetic field modeling of the large polar crown prominence that erupted on 2010 December 6. Combination of Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and STEREO{sub B}ehind/EUVI allows us to see the fine structures of this prominence both at the limb and on the disk. We focus on the structures and dynamics of this prominence before the eruption. This prominence contains two parts: an active region part containing mainly horizontal threads and a quiet-Sun part containing mainly vertical threads. On the northern side of the prominence channel, both AIA and EUVI observe bright features which appear to be the lower legs of loops that go above then join in the filament. Filament materials are observed to frequently eject horizontally from the active region part to the quiet-Sun part. This ejection results in the formation of a dense-column structure (concentration of dark vertical threads) near the border between the active region and the quiet Sun. Using the flux rope insertion method, we create nonlinear force-free field models based on SDO/Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager line-of-sight magnetograms. A key feature of these models is that the flux rope has connections with the surroundings photosphere, so its axial flux varies along the filament path. The height and location of the dips of field lines in our models roughly replicate those of the observed prominence. Comparison between model and observations suggests that the bright features on the northern side of the channel are the lower legs of the field lines that turn into the flux rope. We suggest that plasma may be injected into the prominence along these field lines. Although the models fit the observations quiet well, there are also some interesting differences. For example, the models do not reproduce the observed vertical threads and cannot explain the formation of the dense-column structure.

  9. Cognitive training for impaired neural systems in neuropsychiatric illness.

    PubMed

    Vinogradov, Sophia; Fisher, Melissa; de Villers-Sidani, Etienne

    2012-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric illnesses are associated with dysfunction in distributed prefrontal neural systems that underlie perception, cognition, social interactions, emotion regulation, and motivation. The high degree of learning-dependent plasticity in these networks-combined with the availability of advanced computerized technology-suggests that we should be able to engineer very specific training programs that drive meaningful and enduring improvements in impaired neural systems relevant to neuropsychiatric illness. However, cognitive training approaches for mental and addictive disorders must take into account possible inherent limitations in the underlying brain 'learning machinery' due to pathophysiology, must grapple with the presence of complex overlearned maladaptive patterns of neural functioning, and must find a way to ally with developmental and psychosocial factors that influence response to illness and to treatment. In this review, we briefly examine the current state of knowledge from studies of cognitive remediation in psychiatry and we highlight open questions. We then present a systems neuroscience rationale for successful cognitive training for neuropsychiatric illnesses, one that emphasizes the distributed nature of neural assemblies that support cognitive and affective processing, as well as their plasticity. It is based on the notion that, during successful learning, the brain represents the relevant perceptual and cognitive/affective inputs and action outputs with disproportionately larger and more coordinated populations of neurons that are distributed (and that are interacting) across multiple levels of processing and throughout multiple brain regions. This approach allows us to address limitations found in earlier research and to introduce important principles for the design and evaluation of the next generation of cognitive training for impaired neural systems. We summarize work to date using such neuroscience-informed methods and indicate some

  10. Characterization of the Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Priyal D.; McGuire, Joseph F.; Kennel, Allison; Mutch, P. Jane; Parker-Athill, E. Carla; Hanks, Camille E.; Lewin, Adam B.; Storch, Eric A.; Toufexis, Megan D.; Dadlani, Gul H.; Rodriguez, Carina A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS) is a subtype of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) marked by an abrupt onset or exacerbation of neuropsychiatric symptoms. We aim to characterize the phenotypic presentation of youth with PANS. Methods: Forty-three youth (ages 4–14 years) meeting criteria for PANS were assessed using self-report and clinician-administered measures, medical record reviews, comprehensive clinical evaluation, and laboratory measures. Results: Youth with PANS presented with an early age of OCD onset (mean=7.84 years) and exhibited moderate to severe obsessive compulsive symptoms upon evaluation. All had comorbid anxiety and emotional lability, and scored well below normative means on all quality of life subscales. Youth with elevated streptococcal antibody titers trended toward having higher OCD severity, and presented more frequently with dilated pupils relative to youth without elevated titers. A cluster analysis of core PANS symptoms revealed three distinct symptom clusters that included core characteristic PANS symptoms, streptococcal-related symptoms, and cytokine-driven/physiological symptoms. Youth with PANS who had comorbid tics were more likely to exhibit a decline in school performance, visuomotor impairment, food restriction symptoms, and handwriting deterioration, and they reported lower quality of life relative to youth without tics. Conclusions: The sudden, acute onset of neuropsychiatric symptoms, high frequency of comorbidities (i.e., anxiety, behavioral regression, depression, and suicidality), and poor quality of life capture the PANS subgroup as suddenly and severely impaired youth. Identifying clinical characteristics of youth with PANS will allow clinicians to diagnose and treat this subtype of OCD with a more strategized and effective approach. PMID:25314221

  11. Tuberous Sclerosis Associated Neuropsychiatric Disorders (TAND) and the TAND Checklist

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Petrus J.; Whittemore, Vicky H.; Leclezio, Loren; Byars, Anna W.; Dunn, David; Ess, Kevin C.; Hook, Dena; King, Bryan H.; Sahin, Mustafa; Jansen, Anna

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Tuberous sclerosis complex is a multisystem genetic disorder with a range of physical manifestations that require evaluation, surveillance, and management. Individuals with tuberous sclerosis complex also have a range of behavioral, psychiatric, intellectual, academic, neuropsychologic, and psychosocial difficulties. These may represent the greatest burden of the disease. Around 90% of individuals with tuberous sclerosis complex will have some of these difficulties during their lifetime, yet only about 20% ever receive evaluation and treatment. The Neuropsychiatry Panel at the 2012 Tuberous Sclerosis Complex International Consensus Conference expressed concern about the significant “treatment gap” and about confusion regarding terminology relating to the biopsychosocial difficulties associated with tuberous sclerosis complex. METHODS The Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Neuropsychiatry Panel coined the term TAND—tuberous sclerosis complex-associated neuropsychiatric disorders—to bring together these multidimensional manifestations of the disorder, and recommended annual screening for TAND. In addition, the Panel agreed to develop a TAND Checklist as a guide for screening. RESULTS Here, we present an outline of the conceptualization of TAND, rationale for the structure of the TAND Checklist, and include the full US English version of the TAND Checklist. CONCLUSION We hope that the unified term TAND and the TAND Checklist will raise awareness of the importance of tuberous sclerosis complex-associated neuropsychiatric disorders and of the major burden of disease associated with it, provide a shared language and a simple tool to describe and evaluate the different levels of TAND, alert clinical teams and families or individuals of the importance of screening, assessment, and treatment of TAND, and provide a shared framework for future studies of tuberous sclerosis complex-associated neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:25532776

  12. Cognitive Training for Impaired Neural Systems in Neuropsychiatric Illness

    PubMed Central

    Vinogradov, Sophia; Fisher, Melissa; de Villers-Sidani, Etienne

    2012-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric illnesses are associated with dysfunction in distributed prefrontal neural systems that underlie perception, cognition, social interactions, emotion regulation, and motivation. The high degree of learning-dependent plasticity in these networks—combined with the availability of advanced computerized technology—suggests that we should be able to engineer very specific training programs that drive meaningful and enduring improvements in impaired neural systems relevant to neuropsychiatric illness. However, cognitive training approaches for mental and addictive disorders must take into account possible inherent limitations in the underlying brain ‘learning machinery' due to pathophysiology, must grapple with the presence of complex overlearned maladaptive patterns of neural functioning, and must find a way to ally with developmental and psychosocial factors that influence response to illness and to treatment. In this review, we briefly examine the current state of knowledge from studies of cognitive remediation in psychiatry and we highlight open questions. We then present a systems neuroscience rationale for successful cognitive training for neuropsychiatric illnesses, one that emphasizes the distributed nature of neural assemblies that support cognitive and affective processing, as well as their plasticity. It is based on the notion that, during successful learning, the brain represents the relevant perceptual and cognitive/affective inputs and action outputs with disproportionately larger and more coordinated populations of neurons that are distributed (and that are interacting) across multiple levels of processing and throughout multiple brain regions. This approach allows us to address limitations found in earlier research and to introduce important principles for the design and evaluation of the next generation of cognitive training for impaired neural systems. We summarize work to date using such neuroscience-informed methods and indicate

  13. Next-generation sequencing in schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Matthew; Dorschner, Michael; Tsuang, Debby

    2013-10-01

    Schizophrenia is a debilitating lifelong illness that lacks a cure and poses a worldwide public health burden. The disease is characterized by a heterogeneous clinical and genetic presentation that complicates research efforts to identify causative genetic variations. This review examines the potential of current findings in schizophrenia and in other related neuropsychiatric disorders for application in next-generation technologies, particularly whole-exome sequencing (WES) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS). These approaches may lead to the discovery of underlying genetic factors for schizophrenia and may thereby identify and target novel therapeutic targets for this devastating disorder.

  14. Indications of stellar prominence oscillations on fast rotating stars: the cases of HK Aqr and PZ Tel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitzinger, M.; Odert, P.; Zaqarashvili, T. V.; Greimel, R.; Hanslmeier, A.; Lammer, H.

    2016-11-01

    We present the analysis of six nights of spectroscopic monitoring of two young and fast rotating late-type stars, namely the dMe star HK Aqr and the dG/dK star PZ Tel. On both stars, we detect absorption features reminiscent of signatures of corotating cool clouds or prominences visible in Hα. Several prominences on HK Aqr show periodic variability in the prominence tracks which follow a sinusoidal motion (indication of prominence oscillations). On PZ Tel, we could not find any periodic variability in the prominence tracks. By fitting sinusoidal functions to the prominence tracks, we derive amplitudes and periods which are similar to those of large-amplitude oscillations seen in solar prominences. In one specific event, we also derive a periodic variation of the prominence track in the Hβ spectral line which shows an anti-phase variation with the one derived for the Hα spectral line. Using these parameters and estimated mass density of a prominence on HK Aqr, we derive a minimum magnetic field strength of ˜2 G. The relatively low strength of the magnetic field is explained by the large height of this stellar prominence (≥ 0.67 stellar radii above the surface).

  15. Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Parkinson’s Disease Dementia Are Associated with Increased Caregiver Burden

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Yoon-Sang; Lee, Ji E.; Lee, Phil Hyu; Kim, Joong-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Objective Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in Parkinson’s disease dementia (PDD). Frequent and severe neuropsychiatric symptoms create high levels of distress for patients and caregivers, decreasing their quality of life. The aim of this study was to investigate neuropsychiatric symptoms that may contribute to increased caregiver burden in PDD patients. Methods Forty-eight PDD patients were assessed using the 12-item Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) to determine the frequency and severity of mental and behavioral problems. The Burden Interview and Caregiver Burden Inventory were used to evaluate caregiver burden. Results All but one patient showed one or more neuropsychiatric symptoms. The three most frequent neuropsychiatric symptoms were apathy (70.8%) and anxiety (70.8%), followed by depression (68.7%). More severe neuropsychiatric symptoms were significantly correlated with increased caregiver burden. The domains of delusion, hallucination, agitation and aggression, anxiety, irritability and lability, and aberrant motor behavior were associated with caregiver stress. After controlling for age and other potential confounding variables, total NPI score was significantly associated with caregiver burden. Conclusions The results of this study confirm that neuropsychiatric symptoms are frequent and severe in patients with PDD and are associated with increased caregiver distress. A detailed evaluation and management of neuropsychiatric symptoms in PDD patients appears necessary to improve patient quality of life and reduce caregiver burden. PMID:25614783

  16. Niemann–Pick type C disease – the tip of the iceberg? A review of neuropsychiatric presentation, diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Evans, William R. H.; Hendriksz, Chris J.

    2017-01-01

    Niemann–Pick type C (NP-C) disease is a rare neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder. It is highly heterogeneous, and there is limited awareness of a substantial subgroup that has an attenuated adolescent/adult-onset disease. In these patients psychiatric features, often a psychosis, may dominate the initial impression, although often there is an associated ataxia and cognitive impairment. Typically, patients experience a substantial diagnostic delay. In this review we highlight the importance of early recognition and discuss the pathophysiology, neuropsychiatric presentation and recent changes in the investigation and work-up of these patients, and treatment options.

  17. Sigma-1 receptor ligands: potential in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Teruo; Su, Tsung-Ping

    2004-01-01

    The sigma receptor was originally proposed to be a subtype of the opioid receptor. However, it is now clear that sigma receptors are unique non-opioid, non-phencyclidine brain proteins. Two types of sigma receptor exist, the sigma-1 receptor and the sigma-2 receptor. sigma-1 receptors have been cloned and their distribution, physiological functions and roles in signal transduction were recently characterised. Certain sex hormones in the brain (neurosteroids) are known to interact with sigma-1 receptors. sigma-1 receptors regulate glutamate NMDA receptor function and the release of neurotransmitters such as dopamine. They are thus proposed to be involved in learning and memory as well as in certain neuropsychiatric disorders. Selective sigma-1 receptor ligands have been suggested to represent a new class of therapeutic agents for neuropsychiatric disorders, although none have yet been introduced into therapeutic use. Early studies showed that psychotomimetic benzomorphans, as well as several antipsychotics, can bind to sigma-1 receptors. As a result of these findings, sigma-1 receptor ligands have been proposed as being of potential use in the treatment of schizophrenia. Nevertheless, the relationship of sigma-1 receptors to the underlying pathogenesis of schizophrenia is still unclear. sigma-1 receptor ligands have failed to improve acute psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia in clinical trials, but, interestingly, a few studies have shown an improvement in negative symptoms in schizophrenic patients. A number of preclinical studies have shown that selective agonists of sigma-1 receptors affect higher-ordered brain functions such as learning and memory, cognition and mood. These studies indicate that sigma-1 receptor agonists may exert therapeutic effects in depression and senile dementia. Indeed, the sigma-1 receptor agonist igmesine, has been shown to improve depression in a clinical trial. The most distinctive feature of the action of sigma-1 receptor ligands is

  18. Magnetic Flux Cancellation and Formation of Prominence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miley, George; Kim, Mun Song; Chon Nam, Sok; Kim, Kyong Chol

    2015-08-01

    Magnetic flux cancellation appears to be closely related to various kinds of solar activities such as flares, microflares/surges/jets, X-ray bright points, erupting mini-filaments, transition region explosive events, filament formation, filament activation and eruption, and coronal mass ejections. It is commonly believed that magnetic reconnections in the low atmosphere are responsible for canceling magnetic features, and magnetic fragments are observed to originate as bipoles. According to the Sweet-Parker type reconnection model, the inflow speed closely corresponds to the converging speed of each pole in a canceling magnetic feature and the rate of flux cancellation must be explained by the observed converging speed. As distinct from the corona, the efficiency of photospheric magnetic reconnection may be due to the small Cowling conductivity, instead of the Spitzer, of weakly ionized and magnetized plasma in the low atmosphere of the sun. Using the VAL-C atmospheric model and Cowling conductivity, we have computed the parameters describing Sweet-Parker type reconnecting current sheets in the plasma of the solar photosphere and chromosphere, and particularly for the phenomena of magnetic flux cancellation and dark filament formation which occurred on July 2, 1994 we have estimated the rate of flux cancellation, the inflow speed(the converging speed) and the upward mass flux to compare with the observation. The results show that when taking account of the Cowling conductivity in the low atmosphere, large flux cancellation rates(>1019Mxhr-1) in solar active regions are better explained than by the Spitzer conductivity-considered reconnection model. Particularly for the flux cancellation event on July 2, 1994, the inflow speed(0.26kms-1)is almost similar to the converging speed(0.22kms-1)and the upward mass flux(3.3X1012gs-1) in the model is sufficient for the large dark filament formation in a time of several hours through magnetic flux cancellation process.

  19. Atypical antipsychotics to treat the neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Philip E; Gill, Sudeep S; Rochon, Paula

    2006-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in older adults with dementia and can be associated with a rapid decline in cognitive and functional status. This article reviews the current literature supporting the use of atypical antipsychotic medications in this population. Among the currently available atypical antipsychotics, risperidone and olanzapine have been the most widely studied in double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Despite the common use of other atypical antipsychotic medications, their efficacy and safety in older adults with dementia has not been as extensively studied. Some controversy surrounds the use of atypical antipsychotic agents in older adults with the suggestion that they may increase the incidence of stroke or even death. Despite the potential for increased risk of harm from the use of these medications, atypical antipsychotics are often effective in treating troublesome neuropsychiatric symptoms refractory to other treatments. Whenever possible, these atypical antipsychotic drug treatments should be combined with non-pharmacological treatments to limit the need and dose of antipsychotic drugs and constant monitoring for potential harms should be maintained. The choice of which atypical antipsychotic agent can be guided by the nature and severity of the target symptom and the medication least likely to cause harm to the patient. PMID:19412500

  20. Antibody induction of lupus-like neuropsychiatric manifestations.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, David A; Bolivar, Valerie J; Hudson, Chad A; Mondal, Tapan K; Pabello, Nina G

    2007-01-01

    Although systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is usually evaluated with regard to autoimmune reactivity toward the kidney, there are multiple psychiatric abnormalities associated with this autoimmune disease. Lupus-prone male NZM88 mice, derived from NZB/NZW F1 mice, develop early neuropsychiatric manifestations without any signs of nephritis. In addition to the usual repertoire of antibody specificities, including autoantibodies to dsDNA and renal antigens, mice of this inbred strain express autoantibodies to numerous brain antigens. Here, we show that autoantibodies to brain antigens, assessed by Western analysis, are as individually varied as are the diverse neuropsychiatric manifestations observed in SLE patients. Additionally, a monoclonal antibody derived from the spleen of an untreated NZM88 male when injected into healthy BALB/cByJ, but not C57BL/6J, mice induced behaviors similar to those of lupus-prone NZM88 mice. This monoclonal antibody, which is specific to dynamin-1, binds preferentially in BALB/cByJ cortex and induces substantial expression of cytokines mainly in the hypothalamus. Thus, an antibody to just one brain antigen can induce multiple behavioral changes, and multiple autoantibodies to different brain antigens exist in lupus-prone mice; however, susceptibility to the induction of neurobehavioral deficits is dependent on host genetics.

  1. Immature Dentate Gyrus: An Endophenotype of Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Noah M.; Matsumoto, Mitsuyuki; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Adequate maturation of neurons and their integration into the hippocampal circuit is crucial for normal cognitive function and emotional behavior, and disruption of this process could cause disturbances in mental health. Previous reports have shown that mice heterozygous for a null mutation in α-CaMKII, which encodes a key synaptic plasticity molecule, display abnormal behaviors related to schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. In these mutants, almost all neurons in the dentate gyrus are arrested at a pseudoimmature state at the molecular and electrophysiological levels, a phenomenon defined as “immature dentate gyrus (iDG).” To date, the iDG phenotype and shared behavioral abnormalities (including working memory deficit and hyperlocomotor activity) have been discovered in Schnurri-2 knockout, mutant SNAP-25 knock-in, and forebrain-specific calcineurin knockout mice. In addition, both chronic fluoxetine treatment and pilocarpine-induced seizures reverse the neuronal maturation, resulting in the iDG phenotype in wild-type mice. Importantly, an iDG-like phenomenon was observed in post-mortem analysis of brains from patients with schizophrenia/bipolar disorder. Based on these observations, we proposed that the iDG is a potential endophenotype shared by certain types of neuropsychiatric disorders. This review summarizes recent data describing this phenotype and discusses the data's potential implication in elucidating the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:23840971

  2. Neuropsychiatric characteristics of GBA-associated Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Swan, Matthew; Doan, Nancy; Ortega, Robert A; Barrett, Matthew; Nichols, William; Ozelius, Laurie; Soto-Valencia, Jeannie; Boschung, Sarah; Deik, Andres; Sarva, Harini; Cabassa, Jose; Johannes, Brooke; Raymond, Deborah; Marder, Karen; Giladi, Nir; Miravite, Joan; Severt, William; Sachdev, Rivka; Shanker, Vicki; Bressman, Susan; Saunders-Pullman, Rachel

    2016-11-15

    Mutations in GBA1 are a well-established risk factor for Parkinson disease (PD). GBA-associated PD (GBA-PD) may have a higher burden of nonmotor symptoms than idiopathic PD (IPD). We sought to characterize the relationship between GBA-PD and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Subjects were screened for common GBA1 mutations. GBA-PD (n=31) and non-carrier (IPD; n=55) scores were compared on the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the State-Trait Anxiety Index (STAI). In univariate comparisons, GBA-PD had a greater prevalence of depression (33.3%) versus IPD (13.2%) (p<0.05). In regression models controlling for age, sex, disease duration, motor disability, and MoCA score, GBA-PD had an increased odds of depression (OR 3.66, 95% CI 1.13-11.8) (p=0.03). Post-hoc analysis stratified by sex showed that, among men, GBA-PD had a higher burden of trait anxiety and depression than IPD; this finding was sustained in multivariate models. Among women, GBA-PD did not confer greater psychiatric morbidity than IPD. These results suggest that GBA1 mutations confer greater risk of neuropsychiatric morbidity in PD, and that sex may affect this association.

  3. Traumatic Brain Injury – Modeling Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Malkesman, Oz; Tucker, Laura B.; Ozl, Jessica; McCabe, Joseph T.

    2013-01-01

    Each year in the US, ∼1.5 million people sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Victims of TBI can suffer from chronic post-TBI symptoms, such as sensory and motor deficits, cognitive impairments including problems with memory, learning, and attention, and neuropsychiatric symptoms such as depression, anxiety, irritability, aggression, and suicidal rumination. Although partially associated with the site and severity of injury, the biological mechanisms associated with many of these symptoms – and why some patients experience differing assortments of persistent maladies – are largely unknown. The use of animal models is a promising strategy for elucidation of the mechanisms of impairment and treatment, and learning, memory, sensory, and motor tests have widespread utility in rodent models of TBI and psychopharmacology. Comparatively, behavioral tests for the evaluation of neuropsychiatric symptomatology are rarely employed in animal models of TBI and, as determined in this review, the results have been inconsistent. Animal behavioral studies contribute to the understanding of the biological mechanisms by which TBI is associated with neurobehavioral symptoms and offer a powerful means for pre-clinical treatment validation. Therefore, further exploration of the utility of animal behavioral tests for the study of injury mechanisms and therapeutic strategies for the alleviation of emotional symptoms are relevant and essential. PMID:24109476

  4. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation and Its Usage in Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Evrensel, Alper; Ceylan, Mehmet Emin

    2016-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation has a 1700-year history. This forgotten treatment method has been put into use again during the last 50 years. The interest in microbiota-gut-brain axis and fecal microbiota transplantation is rapidly increasing. New evidence is obtained in the etiopathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders. There is a large number of experimental and clinical researches in the field of gut-brain axis. There is limited information on fecal microbiota transplantation. Despite this, initial results are promising. It is commonly used in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases such as Clostridium difficile infection, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis. It is also experimentally used in the treatment of metabolic and autoimmune diseases. There are case reports that it is effective in the treatment of autism, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, chronic fatigue syndrome and irritable bowel syndrome. Its implementation is easy, and it is a cheap and reliable treatment method. However, the long-term risks are unknown. Additionally, standard application protocols have not yet been established. There are a lot of questions to be answered. A university in Turkey has got official permission this year, and started to apply fecal microbiota transplantation. In this review, neuropsychiatric areas of use of fecal microbiota transplantation have been discussed in the light of the current information. PMID:27489376

  5. Hyperphosphorylated tau is implicated in acquired epilepsy and neuropsychiatric comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ping; Shultz, Sandy R; Hovens, Chris M; Velakoulis, Dennis; Jones, Nigel C; O'Brien, Terence J

    2014-06-01

    Epilepsy is a common group of neurological diseases. Acquired epilepsy can be caused by brain insults, such as trauma, infection or tumour, and followed by a latent period from several months to years before the emergence of recurrent spontaneous seizures. More than 50% of epilepsy cases will develop chronic neurodegenerative, neurocognitive and neuropsychiatric comorbidities. It is important to understand the mechanisms by which a brain insult results in acquired epilepsy and comorbidities in order to identify targets for novel therapeutic interventions that may mitigate these outcomes. Recent studies have implicated the hyperphosphorylated tubulin-associated protein (tau) in rodent models of epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease, and in experimental and clinical studies of traumatic brain injury. This potentially represents a novel target to mitigate epilepsy and associated neurocognitive and psychiatric disorders post-brain injury. This article reviews the potential role of tau-based mechanisms in the pathophysiology of acquired epilepsy and its neurocognitive and neuropsychiatric comorbidities, and the potential to target these for novel disease-modifying treatments.

  6. Ethics and Neuropsychiatric Genetics: A Review of Major Issues

    PubMed Central

    Hoge, Steven K.; Appelbaum, Paul S.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in neuropsychiatric genetics hold great hopes for improved prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. However, the power of genetic testing to identify individuals at increased risk for disorders and to convey information about relatives creates a set of complex ethical issues. Public attitudes are inevitably affected by the shadow of eugenics, with its history of distorting scientific findings to serve socio-political ends. Nonetheless, the growing availability of genetic tests means that more patients will seek genetic information, and physicians must manage the process of informed consent to allow meaningful decisions. Patients should be helped to understand the often-limited predictive power of current knowledge, potential psychological impact, risks of stigma and discrimination, and possible implications for family members. Decisions for predictive testing of children raise additional concerns, including distortions of family dynamics and negative effects on children’s self-image; testing is best deferred until adulthood unless preventive interventions exist. Pharmacogenomic testing, part of personalized medicine, may bring collateral susceptibility information for which patients should be prepared. The implications of genetic findings for families raise the question of whether physicians have duties to inform family members of implications for their health. Finally, participation in research in neuropsychiatric genetics evokes a broad range of ethical concerns, including the contentious issue of the extent to which results should be returned to individual subjects. As genetic science becomes more widely applied, the public will become more sophisticated and will be likely to demand a greater role in determining social policy on these issues. PMID:22272758

  7. Quiescent and Eruptive Prominences at Solar Minimum: A Statistical Study via an Automated Tracking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loboda, I. P.; Bogachev, S. A.

    2015-07-01

    We employ an automated detection algorithm to perform a global study of solar prominence characteristics. We process four months of TESIS observations in the He II 304Å line taken close to the solar minimum of 2008-2009 and mainly focus on quiescent and quiescent-eruptive prominences. We detect a total of 389 individual features ranging from 25×25 to 150×500 Mm2 in size and obtain distributions of many of their spatial characteristics, such as latitudinal position, height, size, and shape. To study their dynamics, we classify prominences as either stable or eruptive and calculate their average centroid velocities, which are found to rarely exceed 3 km/s. In addition, we give rough estimates of mass and gravitational energy for every detected prominence and use these values to estimate the total mass and gravitational energy of all simultaneously existing prominences (1012 - 1014 kg and 1029 - 1031 erg). Finally, we investigate the form of the gravitational energy spectrum of prominences and derive it to be a power-law of index -1.1 ± 0.2.

  8. PROMINENCE FORMATION ASSOCIATED WITH AN EMERGING HELICAL FLUX ROPE

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, Takenori J.; Tsuneta, Saku; Katsukawa, Yukio; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Lites, Bruce W.; Kubo, Masahito; Yokoyama, Takaaki; Berger, Thomas E.; Shine, Richard A.; Tarbell, Theodore D.; Title, Alan M.; Shimizu, Toshifumi

    2009-05-20

    The formation and evolution process and magnetic configuration of solar prominences remain unclear. In order to study the formation process of prominences, we examine continuous observations of a prominence in NOAA AR 10953 with the Solar Optical Telescope on the Hinode satellite. As reported in our previous Letter, we find a signature suggesting that a helical flux rope emerges from below the photosphere under a pre-existing prominence. Here we investigate more detailed properties and photospheric indications of the emerging helical flux rope, and discuss their relationship to the formation of the prominence. Our main conclusions are: (1) a dark region with absence of strong vertical magnetic fields broadens and then narrows in Ca II H-line filtergrams. This phenomenon is consistent with the emergence of the helical flux rope as photospheric counterparts. The size of the flux rope is roughly 30,000 km long and 10,000 km wide. The width is larger than that of the prominence. (2) No shear motion or converging flows are detected, but we find diverging flows such as mesogranules along the polarity inversion line. The presence of mesogranules may be related to the emergence of the helical flux rope. (3) The emerging helical flux rope reconnects with magnetic fields of the pre-existing prominence to stabilize the prominence for the next several days. We thus conjecture that prominence coronal magnetic fields emerge in the form of helical flux ropes that contribute to the formation and maintenance of the prominence.

  9. SIMULATING THE IN SITU CONDENSATION PROCESS OF SOLAR PROMINENCES

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, C.; Keppens, R.; Antolin, P.; Porth, O.

    2014-09-10

    Prominences in the solar corona are a hundredfold cooler and denser than their surroundings, with a total mass of 10{sup 13} up to 10{sup 15} g. Here, we report on the first comprehensive simulations of three-dimensional, thermally and gravitationally stratified magnetic flux ropes where in situ condensation to a prominence occurs due to radiative losses. After a gradual thermodynamic adjustment, we witness a phase where runaway cooling occurs while counter-streaming shearing flows drain off mass along helical field lines. After this drainage, a prominence-like condensation resides in concave upward field regions, and this prominence retains its overall characteristics for more than two hours. While condensing, the prominence establishes a prominence-corona transition region where magnetic field-aligned thermal conduction is operative during the runaway cooling. The prominence structure represents a force-balanced state in a helical flux rope. The simulated condensation demonstrates a right-bearing barb, as a remnant of the drainage. Synthetic images at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths follow the onset of the condensation, and confirm the appearance of horns and a three-part structure for the stable prominence state, as often seen in erupting prominences. This naturally explains recent Solar Dynamics Observatory views with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on prominences in coronal cavities demonstrating horns.

  10. The executive prominent/memory prominent spectrum in Alzheimer’s disease is highly heritable

    PubMed Central

    Mez, Jesse; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Thornton, Timothy; Fardo, David W.; Trittschuh, Emily; Sutti, Sheila; Sherva, Richard; Kauwe, John S.; Naj, Adam C.; Beecham, Gary W.; Gross, Alden; Saykin, Andrew J.; Green, Robert C.; Crane, Paul K.

    2016-01-01

    Late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD) can present heterogeneously, with several subtypes recognized, including dysexecutive AD. One way to identify people with dysexecutive AD is to consider the difference between memory and executive functioning, which we refer to as the executive prominent/memory prominent spectrum. We aimed to determine if this spectrum was heritable. We used neuropsychological and genetic data from people with mild LOAD (Clinical Dementia Rating 0.5 or 1.0) from the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center and the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. We cocalibrated the neuropsychological data to obtain executive functioning and memory scores and used their difference as a continuous phenotype to calculate its heritability overall and by chromosome. Narrow-sense heritability of the difference between memory and executive functioning scores was 0.68 (standard error 0.12). Single nucleotide polymorphisms on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 11, 12, and 18 explained the largest fraction of phenotypic variance, with signals from each chromosome accounting for 5%–7%. The chromosomal pattern of heritability differed substantially from that of LOAD itself. PMID:27103524

  11. The executive prominent/memory prominent spectrum in Alzheimer's disease is highly heritable.

    PubMed

    Mez, Jesse; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Thornton, Timothy; Fardo, David W; Trittschuh, Emily; Sutti, Sheila; Sherva, Richard; Kauwe, John S; Naj, Adam C; Beecham, Gary W; Gross, Alden; Saykin, Andrew J; Green, Robert C; Crane, Paul K

    2016-05-01

    Late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) can present heterogeneously, with several subtypes recognized, including dysexecutive AD. One way to identify people with dysexecutive AD is to consider the difference between memory and executive functioning, which we refer to as the executive prominent/memory prominent spectrum. We aimed to determine if this spectrum was heritable. We used neuropsychological and genetic data from people with mild LOAD (Clinical Dementia Rating 0.5 or 1.0) from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center and the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. We cocalibrated the neuropsychological data to obtain executive functioning and memory scores and used their difference as a continuous phenotype to calculate its heritability overall and by chromosome. Narrow-sense heritability of the difference between memory and executive functioning scores was 0.68 (standard error 0.12). Single nucleotide polymorphisms on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 11, 12, and 18 explained the largest fraction of phenotypic variance, with signals from each chromosome accounting for 5%-7%. The chromosomal pattern of heritability differed substantially from that of LOAD itself.

  12. Clinical NOE 13C MRS for neuropsychiatric disorders of the frontal lobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sailasuta, Napapon; Robertson, Larry W.; Harris, Kent C.; Gropman, Andrea L.; Allen, Peter S.; Ross, Brian D.

    2008-12-01

    In this communication, a scheme is described whereby in vivo 13C MRS can safely be performed in the frontal lobe, a human brain region hitherto precluded on grounds of SAR, but important in being the seat of impaired cognitive function in many neuropsychiatric and developmental disorders. By combining two well known features of 13C NMR—the use of low power NOE and the focus on 13C carbon atoms which are only minimally coupled to protons, we are able to overcome the obstacle of SAR and develop means of monitoring the 13C fluxes of critically important metabolic pathways in frontal brain structures of normal volunteers and patients. Using a combination of low-power WALTZ decoupling, variants of random noise for nuclear overhauser effect enhancement it was possible to reduce power deposition to 20% of the advised maximum specific absorption rate (SAR). In model solutions 13C signal enhancement achieved with this scheme were comparable to that obtained with WALTZ-4. In human brain, the low power procedure effectively determined glutamine, glutamate and bicarbonate in the posterior parietal brain after [1- 13C] glucose infusion. The same 13C enriched metabolites were defined in frontal brain of human volunteers after administration of [1- 13C] acetate, a recognized probe of glial metabolism. Time courses of incorporation of 13C into cerebral glutamate, glutamine and bicarbonate were constructed. The results suggest efficacy for measurement of in vivo cerebral metabolic rates of the glutamate-glutamine and tricarboxylic acid cycles in 20 min MR scans in previously inaccessible brain regions in humans at 1.5T. We predict these will be clinically useful biomarkers in many human neuropsychiatric and genetic conditions.

  13. Neutral Atom Diffusion in a Partially Ionized Prominence Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Holly

    2010-01-01

    The support of solar prominences is normally described in terms of a magnetic force on the prominence plasma that balances the solar gravitational force. Because the prominence plasma is only partially ionized. it is necessary to consider in addition the support of the neutral component of the prominence plasma. This support is accomplished through a frictional interaction between the neutral and ionized components of the plasma, and its efficacy depends strongly on the degree of ionization of the plasma. More specifically, the frictional force is proportional to the relative flow of neutral and ion species, and for a sufficiently weakly ionized plasma, this flow must be relatively large to produce a frictional force that balances gravity. A large relative flow, of course, implies significant draining of neutral particles from the prominence. We evaluate the importance of this draining effect for a hydrogen-helium plasma, and consider the observational evidence for cross-field diffusion of neutral prominence material,

  14. Quiescent Prominences in the Era of ALMA: Simulated Observations Using the 3D Whole-prominence Fine Structure Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunár, Stanislav; Heinzel, Petr; Mackay, Duncan H.; Anzer, Ulrich

    2016-12-01

    We use the detailed 3D whole-prominence fine structure model to produce the first simulated high-resolution ALMA observations of a modeled quiescent solar prominence. The maps of synthetic brightness temperature and optical thickness shown in the present paper are produced using a visualization method for synthesis of the submillimeter/millimeter radio continua. We have obtained the simulated observations of both the prominence at the limb and the filament on the disk at wavelengths covering a broad range that encompasses the full potential of ALMA. We demonstrate here extent to which the small-scale and large-scale prominence and filament structures will be visible in the ALMA observations spanning both the optically thin and thick regimes. We analyze the relationship between the brightness and kinetic temperature of the prominence plasma. We also illustrate the opportunities ALMA will provide for studying the thermal structure of the prominence plasma from the cores of the cool prominence fine structure to the prominence-corona transition region. In addition, we show that detailed 3D modeling of entire prominences with their numerous fine structures will be important for the correct interpretation of future ALMA observations of prominences.

  15. Internal Dynamics of a Twin-layer Solar Prominence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, C.; Keppens, R.

    2016-07-01

    Modern observations revealed rich dynamics within solar prominences. The globally stable quiescent prominences, characterized by the presence of thin vertical threads and falling knobs, are frequently invaded by small rising dark plumes. These dynamic phenomena are related to magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability, since prominence matter, 100 times denser than surrounding coronal plasma, is lifted against gravity by weak magnetic field. To get a deeper understanding of the physics behind these phenomena, we use three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations to investigate the nonlinear magnetoconvective motions in a twin-layer prominence in a macroscopic model from chromospheric layers up to 30 Mm height. The properties of simulated falling “fingers” and uprising bubbles are consistent with those in observed vertical threads and rising plumes in quiescent prominences. Both sheets of the twin-layer prominence show a strongly coherent evolution due to their magnetic connectivity, and demonstrate collective kink deformation. Our model suggests that the vertical threads of the prominence as seen in an edge-on view, and the apparent horizontal threads of the filament when seen top-down are different appearances of the same structures. Synthetic images of the modeled twin-layer prominence reflect the strong degree of mixing established over the entire prominence structure, in agreement with the observations.

  16. Energy considerations for solar prominences with mass inflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anzer, U.; Heinzel, P.

    2000-06-01

    In this Letter we study the inflow of enthalpy and ionisation energy into solar prominences. We use 1D stationary slab models for the prominence to calculate this inflow. We compare the resulting energy gain with the integrated radiative losses obtained for such slab models. We find that for reasonable inflow velocities many of our models can be in energy equilibrium; only the very massive prominences will either require some additional heating or they have to cool down to low central temperatures. We also discuss the possibility or heating the prominence by vertical downflows.

  17. Pleomorphic Adenoma With Prominent Clear Cell Myoepithelioma Component of the Lacrimal Gland.

    PubMed

    Adekunle, Adewumi N; Mendoza, Pia R; Wojno, Ted H; Grossniklaus, Hans E

    2016-01-01

    A case of a pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland with a prominent clear cell myoepitheliomatous component was reported. An 81-year-old Caucasian woman experienced a 2-month history of right supraorbital swelling and proptosis. Excisional biopsy revealed a multicomponent lesion including a stromal component featuring glandular structures made of small epithelioid and spindle cells and a trabecular component with small islands of vacuolated cells, displaced nuclei, and clear cytoplasm. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed strong cytokeratin AE1/3 reactivity and focal smooth muscle actin positivity. The pathologic findings including immunohistochemistry results were consistent with a pleomorphic adenoma with prominent clear cell myoepithelioma component.

  18. A closer view of prominent rocks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Shark, Half-Dome, Pumpkin, Flat Top and Frog are at center. Little Flat Top is at right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  19. The little imitator--porphyria: a neuropsychiatric disorder.

    PubMed Central

    Crimlisk, H L

    1997-01-01

    Three common subtypes of porphyria give rise to neuropsychiatric disorders; acute intermittent porphyria, variegate porphyria, and coproporphyria. The second two also give rise to cutaneous symptoms. Neurological or psychiatric symptoms occur in most acute attacks, and may mimic many other disorders. The diagnosis may be missed because it is not even considered or because of technical problems, such as sample collection and storage, and interpretation of results. A negative screening test does not exclude the diagnosis. Porphyria may be overrepresented in psychiatric populations, but the lack of control groups makes this uncertain. The management of patients with porphyria and psychiatric symptoms causes considerable problems. Three cases are described to illustrate some of these issues. Advances in molecular biology permit identification of patients and latent carriers in the family. Care to avoid relapses and improved treatments have reduced the mortality. PMID:9120442

  20. D-Cycloserine in Neuropsychiatric Diseases: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Paulus, Walter

    2016-01-01

    D-Cycloserine, known from tuberculosis therapy, has been widely introduced to neuropsychiatric studies, since its central active mechanism as a partial NMDA-agonist has been found. In this review, we evaluate its therapeutic potential in neuropsychological disorders and discuss its pitfalls in terms of dosing and application frequency as well as its safety in low-dose therapy. Therefore, we identified 91 clinical trials by performing a Medline search. We demonstrate in part preliminary but increasing evidence that D-cycloserine may be effective in various psychiatric diseases, including schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, addiction, eating disorders, major depression, and autism as well as in neurological diseases, including dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, and spinocerebellar degeneration. D-Cycloserine in low-dose therapy is safe, but there is still a need for new drugs with higher specificity to the different N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor subunits. PMID:26364274

  1. Multi-target therapeutics for neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Bawa, Priya; Pradeep, Priyamvada; Kumar, Pradeep; Choonara, Yahya E; Modi, Girish; Pillay, Viness

    2016-12-01

    Historically, neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disease treatments focused on the 'magic bullet' concept; however multi-targeted strategies are increasingly attractive gauging from the escalating research in this area. Because these diseases are typically co-morbid, multi-targeted drugs capable of interacting with multiple targets will expand treatment to the co-morbid disease condition. Despite their theoretical efficacy, there are significant impediments to clinical success (e.g., difficulty titrating individual aspects of the drug and inconclusive pathophysiological mechanisms). The new and revised diagnostic frameworks along with studies detailing the endophenotypic characteristics of the diseases promise to provide the foundation for the circumvention of these impediments. This review serves to evaluate the various marketed and nonmarketed multi-targeted drugs with particular emphasis on their design strategy.

  2. Radiotracer imaging of dopaminergic transmission in neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Verhoeff, N P

    1999-12-01

    This article will review the capabilities and accomplishments of radiotracer imaging with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) to measure pre-, post-, and "intra-synaptic" aspects of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurotransmission. The presynaptic site can be labeled with probes for the dopamine transporter (DAT) or the synthetic enzyme aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase ("dopa decarboxylase"). The postsynaptic sites can be labeled with probes for either the dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) or the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R). The "synaptic" measurements are made indirectly by measurements of the interaction/displacement of receptor tracers by endogenous dopamine (DA). Agents are used which either release (e.g., amphetamine) or deplete (e.g., alpha-methyl-paratyrosine (AMPT), an inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylase) tissue stores of DA. The application of these paradigms will be reviewed with special emphasis to neuropsychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia and idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD).

  3. Patterns of Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in MCI and Risk of Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Forrester, Sarah N.; Gallo, Joseph J.; Smith, Gwenn S.; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify clusters of patients with incident mild cognitive impairment based on their neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) and to examine the risk of progression to dementia, based on these clusters. Design Cohort study with 2 years median length follow-up. Setting: Alzheimer’s disease Centers from the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center (NACC). Participants Patients with MCI who were at least 60 years old with complete data and follow-up (n = 540). Measurements Latent class analysis was used to identify clusters of patients based on their NPS, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine risk of progression to dementia based on clusters. Incident MCI was defined as a participant having MCI at a current visit, but having been cognitively normal at his or her previous (yearly) visit. NPI-Q assessed presence of twelve neuropsychiatric behavioral domains. Results Three clusters were identified: a severe cluster (agitation, anxiety, apathy, nighttime behaviors, inhibition), an affective cluster (depression, anxiety, irritability, nighttime behaviors), and an asymptomatic cluster. The prevalence of each class was 56% for the asymptomatic class followed by the affective class (37%) and finally the severe class (7%). Compared to the asymptomatic class, the severe class had more than twice the hazard of progression to dementia (2.69, CI: 1.12–2.70) and the affective class had over one and a half times the hazard of progression to dementia (1.79, CI: 1.12–2.70). Conclusions Among persons with incident MCI, patterns of NPS may increase the likelihood of progression to dementia. Implications for early detection and treatment are discussed. PMID:26209222

  4. Neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders represent an interconnected molecular system.

    PubMed

    Cristino, A S; Williams, S M; Hawi, Z; An, J-Y; Bellgrove, M A; Schwartz, C E; Costa, L da F; Claudianos, C

    2014-03-01

    Many putative genetic factors that confer risk to neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and X-linked intellectual disability (XLID), and to neuropsychiatric disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and schizophrenia (SZ) have been identified in individuals from diverse human populations. Although there is significant aetiological heterogeneity within and between these conditions, recent data show that genetic factors contribute to their comorbidity. Many studies have identified candidate gene associations for these mental health disorders, albeit this is often done in a piecemeal fashion with little regard to the inherent molecular complexity. Here, we sought to abstract relationships from our knowledge of systems level biology to help understand the unique and common genetic drivers of these conditions. We undertook a global and systematic approach to build and integrate available data in gene networks associated with ASDs, XLID, ADHD and SZ. Complex network concepts and computational methods were used to investigate whether candidate genes associated with these conditions were related through mechanisms of gene regulation, functional protein-protein interactions, transcription factor (TF) and microRNA (miRNA) binding sites. Although our analyses show that genetic variations associated with the four disorders can occur in the same molecular pathways and functional domains, including synaptic transmission, there are patterns of variation that define significant differences between disorders. Of particular interest is DNA variations located in intergenic regions that comprise regulatory sites for TFs or miRNA. Our approach provides a hypothetical framework, which will help discovery and analysis of candidate genes associated with neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders.

  5. A prominence eruption driven by flux feeding from chromospheric fibrils

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Quanhao; Liu, Rui; Wang, Yuming; Shen, Chenglong; Liu, Kai; Liu, Jiajia; Wang, S.

    2014-07-10

    We present multi-wavelength observations of a prominence eruption originating from a quadrupolar field configuration, in which the prominence was embedded in a side arcade. Within the two-day period prior to its eruption on 2012 October 22, the prominence was perturbed three times by chromospheric fibrils underneath, which rose upward, became brightened, and merged into the prominence, resulting in horizontal flows along the prominence axis, suggesting that the fluxes carried by the fibrils were incorporated into the magnetic field of the prominence. These perturbations caused the prominence to oscillate and to rise faster than before. The absence of intense heating within the first two hours after the onset of the prominence eruption, which followed an exponential increase in height, indicates that ideal instability played a crucial role. The eruption involved interactions with the other side arcade, leading up to a twin coronal mass ejection, which was accompanied by transient surface brightenings in the central arcade, followed by transient dimmings and brightenings in the two side arcades. We suggest that flux feeding from chromospheric fibrils might be an important mechanism to trigger coronal eruptions.

  6. On Common Ground: Prominent Women Talk about Work & Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuckerman, Diana, Ed.

    This publication presents interviews with 11 prominent women, representing different backgrounds, philosophies, and life experiences, in which they speak about their own experiences with work and family issues. The introduction, "On Common Ground: Prominent Women Talk about Work & Family" (Diana Zuckerman), provides an overview. The 11 interviews…

  7. 21 CFR 101.15 - Food; prominence of required statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Food; prominence of required statements. 101.15 Section 101.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 101.15 Food; prominence of...

  8. 21 CFR 101.15 - Food; prominence of required statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Food; prominence of required statements. 101.15 Section 101.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 101.15 Food; prominence of...

  9. 3D WHOLE-PROMINENCE FINE STRUCTURE MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    Gunár, Stanislav; Mackay, Duncan H.

    2015-04-20

    We present the first 3D whole-prominence fine structure model. The model combines a 3D magnetic field configuration of an entire prominence obtained from nonlinear force-free field simulations, with a detailed description of the prominence plasma. The plasma is located in magnetic dips in hydrostatic equilibrium and is distributed along multiple fine structures within the 3D magnetic model. Through the use of a novel radiative transfer visualization technique for the Hα line such plasma-loaded magnetic field model produces synthetic images of the modeled prominence comparable with high-resolution observations. This allows us for the first time to use a single technique to consistently study, in both emission on the limb and absorption against the solar disk, the fine structures of prominences/filaments produced by a magnetic field model.

  10. Magnetic Field in Atypical Prominence Structures: Bubble, Tornado, and Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levens, P. J.; Schmieder, B.; López Ariste, A.; Labrosse, N.; Dalmasse, K.; Gelly, B.

    2016-08-01

    Spectropolarimetric observations of prominences have been obtained with the THEMIS telescope during four years of coordinated campaigns. Our aim is now to understand the conditions of the cool plasma and magnetism in “atypical” prominences, namely when the measured inclination of the magnetic field departs, to some extent, from the predominantly horizontal field found in “typical” prominences. What is the role of the magnetic field in these prominence types? Are plasma dynamics more important in these cases than the magnetic support? We focus our study on three types of “atypical” prominences (tornadoes, bubbles, and jet-like prominence eruptions) that have all been observed by THEMIS in the He i D3 line, from which the Stokes parameters can be derived. The magnetic field strength, inclination, and azimuth in each pixel are obtained by using the inversion method of principal component analysis on a model of single scattering in the presence of the Hanle effect. The magnetic field in tornadoes is found to be more or less horizontal, whereas for the eruptive prominence it is mostly vertical. We estimate a tendency toward higher values of magnetic field strength inside the bubbles than outside in the surrounding prominence. In all of the models in our database, only one magnetic field orientation is considered for each pixel. While sufficient for most of the main prominence body, this assumption appears to be oversimplified in atypical prominence structures. We should consider these observations as the result of superposition of multiple magnetic fields, possibly even with a turbulent field component.

  11. Thermal and Kinetic Properties of Motions in a Prominence Activation and Nearby Loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucera, Therese; Landi, E.

    2005-01-01

    We perform a quantitative analysis of the thermal properties of a prominence activation and motions in a nearby loop. In order to make measurements of the quickly moving features seen in prominences in the UV we use the SOHO/SUMER spectrograph to take a time series of exposures from a single pointing position, providing a measurement of spectral line properties as a function of time and position along the slit. The lines observed cover a broad range of temperatures from 80,000 - 1.6 million K. These measurements are combined with TRACE movies in transition region and coronal temperature bands to obtain more complete information concerning prominence structure and motions. The resulting observations allow us to analyze the thermal and kinetic energy of the moving sources as functions of time. The loop and prominence are most apparent in lines formed at temperatures below 250,000 K. We find that in most cases the temperature distribution of plasma in a moving feature changes relatively little over time periods of about 20 minutes.

  12. Fine-needle aspiration of breast carcinomas with prominent lymphocytic infiltrate.

    PubMed

    Kleer, C G; Michael, C W

    2000-07-01

    Carcinomas of the breast with prominent lymphoplasmacytic background are commonly encountered in cytology. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of different types of carcinomas that share this common feature, identify possible distinguishing cytologic features, and evaluate the diagnostic pitfalls in this group of tumors. Eighteen fine-needle aspirations (FNAs) of breast carcinomas with heavy lymphoplasmacytic background were reviewed. Histologic follow-up was reviewed in all cases. Of 18 cases, there were 9 invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC), and 9 medullary carcinomas (6 typical and 3 atypical). FNAs from typical medullary carcinomas (TMC) showed more severe nuclear atypia and macronucleoli than the cases of IDC and atypical medullary carcinomas (AMC). Gland formation was absent in the TMC but was common in IDC and AMC. No cytologic differences were noted between IDC and AMC. Nucleoli were larger in TMC (mean 4, microm) than in AMC (mean, 2 microm) and IDC (mean, 1.5 microm). We conclude that lymphocytes and plasma cells may be seen in different types of breast carcinomas and should not be considered a diagnostic feature of TMC. Features potentially helpful in the cytologic differential diagnosis of a carcinoma with prominent lymphoplasmacytic background are nucleolar size (4 microm in MC, vs. 1.5 and 2 microm in IDC and AMC, respectively) and the degree of nuclear atypia. Lymphocytosis may be part of the carcinoma or may originate from a lymph node involved by metastases. In rare cases, a prominent neutrophilic infiltrate may also be present.

  13. Strong Rotation of an Erupting Quiescent Polar Crown Prominence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    On 5-6 June 2007, a large quiescent polar crown prominence was observed to erupt by the two Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) spacecraft. This eruption was particularly visible in the 304 A channel of the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUVI) telescopes. A detailed analysis of the fine structures in the images allows the three-dimensional structure of the erupting prominence to be derived. The prominence is seen to undergo substantial rotation of at least 90 along the radial axis as it rises, with indications that additional rotation occurred before the prominence rose into the STEREO fields of view. Two temporary structures ("spurs") are seen to form at an angle to the main spine of the prominence, and are interpreted as signs of reconnection. These reconnection events contribute to the overall rotation of the prominence. A significant fraction of the prominence material is drained through new field lines caused by one of the reconnection events, resulting in only a weak coronal mass ejection event observed by the STEREO and SOHO coronagraphs. The eruption is interpreted as being initiated by the helical kink instability, with subsequent modification by the reconnection events.

  14. The Involvement of Secondary Neuronal Damage in the Development of Neuropsychiatric Disorders Following Brain Insults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yun; Garcia, Gregory E.; Huang, Wei; Constantini, Shlomi

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders are one of the leading causes of disability worldwide and affect the health of billions of people. Previous publications have demonstrated that neuropsychiatric disorders can cause histomorphological damage in particular regions of the brain. By using a clinical symptom-comparing approach, 55 neuropsychiatric signs or symptoms related usually to 14 types of acute and chronic brain insults were identified and categorized in the present study. Forty percent of the 55 neuropsychiatric signs and symptoms have been found to be commonly shared by the 14 brain insults. A meta-analysis supports existence of the same neuropsychiatric signs or symptoms in all brain insults. The results suggest that neuronal damage might be occurring in the same or similar regions or structures of the brain. Neuronal cell death, neural loss, and axonal degeneration in some parts of the brain (the limbic system, basal ganglia system, brainstem, cerebellum, and cerebral cortex) might be the histomorphological basis that is responsible for the neuropsychiatric symptom clusters. These morphological alterations may be the result of secondary neuronal damage (a cascade of progressive neural injury and neuronal cell death that is triggered by the initial insult). Secondary neuronal damage causes neuronal cell death and neural injury in not only the initial injured site but also remote brain regions. It may be a major contributor to subsequent neuropsychiatric disorders following brain insults. PMID:24653712

  15. Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Leroi, Iracema; Pantula, Hiranmayi; McDonald, Kathryn; Harbishettar, Vijay

    2012-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms commonly complicate Parkinson's disease (PD), however the presence of such symptoms in mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) specifically has not yet been well described. The objective of this study was to examine and compare the prevalence and profile of neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with PD-MCI (n = 48) to those with PD and no cognitive impairment (PD-NC, n = 54) and to those with dementia in PD (PDD, n = 25). PD-MCI and PDD were defined using specific consensus criteria, and neuropsychiatric symptoms were assessed with the 12-item Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). Self-rated apathy, depression, and anxiety rating scales were also administered. Over 79% of all participants reported at least one neuropsychiatric symptom in the past month. The proportion in each group who had total NPI scores of ≥4 (“clinically significant”) was as follows: PD-NC, 64.8%; PD-MCI, 62%; PDD 76%. Apathy was reported in almost 50% of those with PD-MCI and PDD, and it was an important neuropsychiatric symptom differentiating PD-MCI from PD-NC. Psychosis (hallucinations and delusions) increased from 12.9% in PD-NC group; 16.7% in PD-MCI group; and 48% in PDD group. Identifying neuropsychiatric symptoms in PD-MCI may have implications for ascertaining conversion to dementia in PD. PMID:22970412

  16. Neuropsychiatric symptoms of the elderly with Alzheimer's disease and the family caregivers' distress 1

    PubMed Central

    Storti, Luana Baldin; Quintino, Débora Teles; Silva, Natália Michelato; Kusumota, Luciana; Marques, Sueli

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the relationship between the distress of the family caregiver and the presence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in elderly patients with Alzheimer's disease or mixed dementia. Method: a descriptive, cross-sectional study conducted in the Geriatric and Dementias Clinic of a general tertiary hospital, with 96 elderly people with Alzheimer's disease or mixed dementia and their family caregivers. Questionnaires to characterize the elderly and caregivers, and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory were used. Descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation test were performed. Results: 68.7% of the elderly were women, average age 80.8 years, 56.2% had Alzheimer's disease and 43.7%, mixed dementia. Among caregivers, 90.6% were women, average age 56, 70.8% took care of parents and 64.6% lived with the elderly. There was a strong (r = 0.82) and significant (p <0.01) correlation between the total score on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory and the total score on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Distress and strong (r = 0.80) and significant (p <0 01) correlation between the total score on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Distress and the number of neuropsychiatric symptoms, i.e., the higher the number, frequency and severity of these symptoms in the elderly, the more intense is the caregiver distress. Conclusion: the presence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in the elderly was related to increased distress in caregivers. PMID:27533264

  17. Multimodal Neuroimaging-Informed Clinical Applications in Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    O’Halloran, Rafael; Kopell, Brian H.; Sprooten, Emma; Goodman, Wayne K.; Frangou, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging data acquisition and analysis hold the promise to enhance the ability to make diagnostic and prognostic predictions and perform treatment planning in neuropsychiatric disorders. Prior research using a variety of types of neuroimaging techniques has confirmed that neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with dysfunction in anatomical and functional brain circuits. We first discuss current challenges associated with the identification of reliable neuroimaging markers for diagnosis and prognosis in mood disorders and for neurosurgical treatment planning for deep brain stimulation (DBS). We then present data on the use of neuroimaging for the diagnosis and prognosis of mood disorders and for DBS treatment planning. We demonstrate how multivariate analyses of functional activation and connectivity parameters can be used to differentiate patients with bipolar disorder from those with major depressive disorder and non-affective psychosis. We also present data on connectivity parameters that mediate acute treatment response in affective and non-affective psychosis. We then focus on precision mapping of functional connectivity in native space. We describe the benefits of integrating anatomical fiber reconstruction with brain functional parameters and cortical surface measures to derive anatomically informed connectivity metrics within the morphological context of each individual brain. We discuss how this approach may be particularly promising in psychiatry, given the clinical and etiological heterogeneity of the disorders, and particularly in treatment response prediction and planning. Precision mapping of connectivity is essential for DBS. In DBS, treatment electrodes are inserted into positions near key gray matter nodes within the circuits considered relevant to disease expression. However, targeting white matter tracts that underpin connectivity within these circuits may increase treatment efficacy and tolerability therefore relevant

  18. Multimodal Neuroimaging-Informed Clinical Applications in Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, Rafael; Kopell, Brian H; Sprooten, Emma; Goodman, Wayne K; Frangou, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging data acquisition and analysis hold the promise to enhance the ability to make diagnostic and prognostic predictions and perform treatment planning in neuropsychiatric disorders. Prior research using a variety of types of neuroimaging techniques has confirmed that neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with dysfunction in anatomical and functional brain circuits. We first discuss current challenges associated with the identification of reliable neuroimaging markers for diagnosis and prognosis in mood disorders and for neurosurgical treatment planning for deep brain stimulation (DBS). We then present data on the use of neuroimaging for the diagnosis and prognosis of mood disorders and for DBS treatment planning. We demonstrate how multivariate analyses of functional activation and connectivity parameters can be used to differentiate patients with bipolar disorder from those with major depressive disorder and non-affective psychosis. We also present data on connectivity parameters that mediate acute treatment response in affective and non-affective psychosis. We then focus on precision mapping of functional connectivity in native space. We describe the benefits of integrating anatomical fiber reconstruction with brain functional parameters and cortical surface measures to derive anatomically informed connectivity metrics within the morphological context of each individual brain. We discuss how this approach may be particularly promising in psychiatry, given the clinical and etiological heterogeneity of the disorders, and particularly in treatment response prediction and planning. Precision mapping of connectivity is essential for DBS. In DBS, treatment electrodes are inserted into positions near key gray matter nodes within the circuits considered relevant to disease expression. However, targeting white matter tracts that underpin connectivity within these circuits may increase treatment efficacy and tolerability therefore relevant

  19. Formation of Intense Plasma Outflows from Laboratory Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, S. K. P.

    2005-10-01

    Solar prominences have been simulated in a laboratory experiment using a four-electrode magnetized plasma source [1]. An ultra-high speed intensified CCD camera records visual images of the laboratory prominence evolution and a magnetic probe array measures internal magnetic fields. Laboratory prominences produced using low pressure argon and krypton form localized outflow from the main structure. These outflows appear immediately after Ar and Kr prominences become unstable and contact surrounding metal structures. Within a few microseconds after this event, the main structure disappears and the outflow becomes extremely intense and elongated. An analytic model based on Hamiltonian formalism predicts the existence of a critical parameter below which ions lose confinement in a force-free magnetic field and subsequently form intense outflows. This escape of ions from force-free magnetic fields has been verified in numerical computations of ion trajectories.[1] J. F. Hansen, S. K. P. Tripathi, and P. M. Bellan, Phys. Plasmas 11(6), 3177 (2004)

  20. Solar Prominence Eruption Marks 1 Million on Helioviewer

    NASA Video Gallery

    This movie of a prominence eruption on April 20, 2013, was the millionth movie made on Helioviewer.org. The wispy eruption seen here eventually blossomed into a much larger cloud of solar material,...

  1. An Investigation of the Physical Properties of Erupting Solar Prominences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-30

    Solar physics Chromosphere Solar corona Solar magnetic fields Coronal mass ejections...polarimeter deployed at the ESF. It is mainly conceived to do spectro-polarimetry of the chromosphere (in particular prominences and filaments

  2. Prominence condensation and magnetic levitation in a coronal loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Hoven, G.; Mok, Y.; Drake, J. F.

    1992-01-01

    The results of a model dynamic simulation of the formation and support of a narrow prominence at the apex of a coronal magnetic loop or arcade are described. The condensation process proceeds via an initial radiative cooling and pressure drop, and a secondary siphon flow from the dense chromospheric ends. The antibuoyancy effect as the prominence forms causes a bending of the confining magnetic field, which propagates toward the semirigid ends of the magnetic loop. Thus, a wide magnetic 'hammock' or well (of the normal-polarity Kippenhahn-Schlueter-type) is formed, which supports the prominence at or near the field apex. The simplicity of this 1.5-dimensional model, with its accompanying diagnostics, elucidates the various contributions to the nonlinear dynamics of prominence condensation and levitation.

  3. Hinode and IRIS Observations of a Prominence-Cavity System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jibben, Patricia R.; Reeves, Kathy; Su, Yingna

    2016-05-01

    Long-lived solar prominences often have a coronal cavity enclosing the prominence. Within the cavity, hot X-ray emission can persist above the prominence and in the central regions of the cavity. We present the results of an Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) and Hinode coordinated Observation Program (IHOP 264) study of a prominence-cavity system. The X-ray Telescope (XRT) observes an inflow of bright X-ray emission that strikes and envelops the prominence-cavity system causing an eruption of chromospheric plasma near the base of the prominence. During and after the eruption, an increase in X-ray emission forms within the cavity and above the prominence. IRIS and the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) observe strong blue shifts in both chromosphere and coronal lines during the eruption. The Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) Ca II H-line data show bright emission along the eruption path with complex turbulent plasma motions. The IRIS Si IV 1394 Angstrom spectra along the on-disk portion of the prominence show a region of decreased emission near the base of the prominence, suggesting a magnetic field bald-patch topology along the Polarity Inversion Line (PIL). Combined, these observations imply a cylindrical flux rope best represents the prominence-cavity system. A model of the magnetic structure of the prominence-cavity system comprised of a weakly twisted flux rope can explain the observed loops in the X-ray and EUV data. Observations from the Coronal Multichannel Polarimeter (CoMP) are compared to predicted models and are inconclusive. We find that more sensitive measurements of the magnetic field strength along the line-of-sight are needed to verify this configuration.Patricia Jibben and Kathy Reeves are supported by under contract 80111112705 from Lockheed-Martin to SAO, contract NNM07AB07C from NASA to SAO, grant number NNX12AI30G from NASA to SAO, and contract Z15-12504 from HAO to SAO under a grant from AFOSR. Yingna Su is supported by the Youth Fund of

  4. Increased lymphocyte death by neglect-apoptosis is associated with lymphopenia and autoantibodies in lupus patients presenting with neuropsychiatric manifestations.

    PubMed

    Silva, Lucienir M; Garcia, Aglair B; Donadi, Eduardo A

    2002-08-01

    To evaluate lymphocyte death by neglect-apoptosis features in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients presenting with neuropsychiatric (NPSLE) involvement we studied 40 SLE patients with active disease, 20 with and 20 without neuropsychiatric manifestations, and 20 control individuals. Lymphocyte apoptosis was evaluated by means of DNA staining using flow cytometry, immediately after cell isolation and after incubation with culture medium or autologous serum. Compared with controls, NPSLE and non-NPSLE patients exhibited increased rates of neglect-apoptosis immediately after cell isolation. Only NPSLE patients exhibited an increased neglect-apoptosis rate after incubation with culture medium; however, the neglect-apoptosis rate was associated with lymphopenia in both series of patients. After lymphocyte incubation with autologous serum, only NPSLE patients exhibited a significant negative correlation between the neglect-apoptosis rate and the number of peripheral lymphocytes. The incubation of lymphocytes with autologous serum containing antiphospholipid or anti-SSA/Ro antibodies significantly increased the neglect-apoptosis in NPSLE when compared with non-NPSLE patients with a similar autoantibody profile. In conclusion, NPSLE and non-NPSLE patients shared several abnormalities in terms of lymphocyte neglect-apoptosis. Peculiar findings were observed in NPSLE patients particularly after incubation with autologous serum, such as the fact that the increased lymphocyte death by neglect-apoptosis was associated with lymphopenia and with the presence of antiphospholipid and anti-SSA/Ro antibodies.

  5. Physical Properties of Erupting Solar Prominences (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-27

    interaction with the magnetic fields responsible for their support in the solar corona , until such time as they may erupt. The anticipated future result...AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2013-0097 TR-2013-0097 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ERUPTING SOLAR PROMINENCES J. Lewis Fox and Roberto Casini...Physical Properties of Erupting Solar Prominences 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S

  6. Numerical simulations of a siphon mechanism for quiescent prominence formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poland, A. I.; Mariska, J. T.; Klimchuk, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    Quiescent prominences represent a significant challenge to our understanding of the flow of mass and energy in the outer layers of the solar atmosphere. A small number of quiescent prominences contain as much mass as the entire corona (Athay, 1976). The problem then is how to get that much material into the relatively small volume of a prominence and maintain it at a temperature of 10,000 K in close proximity to material at one million K. The thermal insulation to conduction provided by the magnetic field explains the disparate temperatures. The mass source problem is less well understood. One method for supplying mass to the prominence is to siphon it from the chromosphere. The siphon mechanism begins with a magnetic loop that evolves into a configuration with a gravitational well, such as that described by Kippenhahn and Schluter (1957). This could be formed, for example, by a twist in the magnetic field. A gravitational well could also be formed by a condensation induced sag in the field. This could further enhance the condensation process. Once this well has formed, or as it is forming, the material in the well area of the loop must cool and condense to the point where radiative losses exceed any heat input. Additional material must also flow into the well from the underlying chromosphere to supply the mass required to form the prominence. One example from a series of numerical simulations that were performed to study the formation of quiescent prominences is presented.

  7. A STATISTICAL STUDY OF TRANSVERSE OSCILLATIONS IN A QUIESCENT PROMINENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Hillier, A.; Morton, R. J.; Erdélyi, R.

    2013-12-20

    The launch of the Hinode satellite has allowed for seeing-free observations at high-resolution and high-cadence making it well suited to study the dynamics of quiescent prominences. In recent years it has become clear that quiescent prominences support small-amplitude transverse oscillations, however, sample sizes are usually too small for general conclusions to be drawn. We remedy this by providing a statistical study of transverse oscillations in vertical prominence threads. Over a 4 hr period of observations it was possible to measure the properties of 3436 waves, finding periods from 50 to 6000 s with typical velocity amplitudes ranging between 0.2 and 23 km s{sup –1}. The large number of observed waves allows the determination of the frequency dependence of the wave properties and derivation of the velocity power spectrum for the transverse waves. For frequencies less than 7 mHz, the frequency dependence of the velocity power is consistent with the velocity power spectra generated from observations of the horizontal motions of magnetic elements in the photosphere, suggesting that the prominence transverse waves are driven by photospheric motions. However, at higher frequencies the two distributions significantly diverge, with relatively more power found at higher frequencies in the prominence oscillations. These results highlight that waves over a large frequency range are ubiquitous in prominences, and that a significant amount of the wave energy is found at higher frequency.

  8. SOLAR PROMINENCES: “DOUBLE, DOUBLE… BOIL AND BUBBLE”

    SciTech Connect

    Keppens, R.; Xia, C.; Porth, O.

    2015-06-10

    Observations revealed rich dynamics within prominences, the cool (10{sup 4} K), macroscopic (sizes of order 100 Mm) “clouds” in the million degree solar corona. Even quiescent prominences are continuously perturbed by hot, rising bubbles. Since prominence matter is hundredfold denser than coronal plasma, this bubbling is related to Rayleigh–Taylor instabilities. Here we report on true macroscopic simulations well into this bubbling phase, adopting an MHD description from chromospheric layers up to 30 Mm height. Our virtual prominences rapidly establish fully nonlinear (magneto)convective motions where hot bubbles interplay with falling pillars, with dynamical details including upwelling pillars forming within bubbles. Our simulations show impacting Rayleigh–Taylor fingers reflecting on transition region plasma, ensuring that cool, dense chromospheric material gets mixed with prominence matter up to very large heights. This offers an explanation for the return mass cycle mystery for prominence material. Synthetic views at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths show remarkable agreement with observations, with clear indications of shear-flow induced fragmentations.

  9. Neuropsychiatric Manifestation of Hashimoto's Encephalopathy in an Adolescent and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ransing, Ramdas Sarjerao; Mishra, Kshirod Kumar; Sarkar, Dipayan

    2016-01-01

    Hashimoto's encephalopathy is usually underdiagnosed and untreated because of complex neuropsychiatric manifestation. We report a case of an adolescent female with Hashimoto's encephalopathy who responded well to a combination of aspirin and levothyroxine. A 16-year-old girl presented at psychiatric emergency services with a depressive episode, menstrual irregularities, and a 5-month past history of thyroid swelling. On clinical examination, she was in a euthyroid state with insignificant neurological history. However, her previous investigation revealed a hypothyroid state. Her magnetic resonance imaging findings demonstrated infarcts in the bilateral gangliocapsular region and left frontal periventricular deep white matter lesion. Ultrasonography of the thyroid and fine needle aspiration cytology confirmed lymphocytic thyroiditis. Anti-thyroid peroxidase (289 IU/ml) antibody titer was elevated (289 IU/mL). Her depressive symptoms responded well to antidepressants, mood stabilizers, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and levothyroxine. She remained in the euthyroid state and then in the euthymic state for 3 years. Hashimoto's encephalopathy is steroid-responsive encephalopathy. Most researchers have observed a dramatic response to steroids with or without levothyroxine. A clinician may consider aspirin as an alternative to a steroid in long-term management to avoid steroid-related side effects and contraindications. PMID:27570351

  10. Changes in neural network homeostasis trigger neuropsychiatric symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Winkelmann, Aline; Maggio, Nicola; Eller, Joanna; Caliskan, Gürsel; Semtner, Marcus; Häussler, Ute; Jüttner, René; Dugladze, Tamar; Smolinsky, Birthe; Kowalczyk, Sarah; Chronowska, Ewa; Schwarz, Günter; Rathjen, Fritz G.; Rechavi, Gideon; Haas, Carola A.; Kulik, Akos; Gloveli, Tengis; Heinemann, Uwe; Meier, Jochen C.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms that regulate the strength of synaptic transmission and intrinsic neuronal excitability are well characterized; however, the mechanisms that promote disease-causing neural network dysfunction are poorly defined. We generated mice with targeted neuron type–specific expression of a gain-of-function variant of the neurotransmitter receptor for glycine (GlyR) that is found in hippocampectomies from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. In this mouse model, targeted expression of gain-of-function GlyR in terminals of glutamatergic cells or in parvalbumin-positive interneurons persistently altered neural network excitability. The increased network excitability associated with gain-of-function GlyR expression in glutamatergic neurons resulted in recurrent epileptiform discharge, which provoked cognitive dysfunction and memory deficits without affecting bidirectional synaptic plasticity. In contrast, decreased network excitability due to gain-of-function GlyR expression in parvalbumin-positive interneurons resulted in an anxiety phenotype, but did not affect cognitive performance or discriminative associative memory. Our animal model unveils neuron type–specific effects on cognition, formation of discriminative associative memory, and emotional behavior in vivo. Furthermore, our data identify a presynaptic disease–causing molecular mechanism that impairs homeostatic regulation of neural network excitability and triggers neuropsychiatric symptoms. PMID:24430185

  11. Molecular imaging of neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Hirao, Kentaro; Pontone, Gregory M; Smith, Gwenn S

    2015-02-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are very common in neurodegenerative diseases and are a major contributor to disability and caregiver burden. There is accumulating evidence that NPS may be a prodrome and/or a "risk factor" of neurodegenerative diseases. The medications used to treat these symptoms in younger patients are not very effective in patients with neurodegenerative disease and may have serious side effects. An understanding of the neurobiology of NPS is critical for the development of more effective intervention strategies. Targeting these symptoms may also have implications for prevention of cognitive or motor decline. Molecular brain imaging represents a bridge between basic and clinical observations and provides many opportunities for translation from animal models and human post-mortem studies to in vivo human studies. Molecular brain imaging studies in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are reviewed with a primary focus on positron emission tomography studies of NPS. Future directions for the field of molecular imaging in AD and PD to understand the neurobiology of NPS will be discussed.

  12. [Acute encephalitis. Neuropsychiatric manifestations as expression of influenza virus infection].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Flagge, Noris; Bayard, Vicente; Quirós, Evelia; Alonso, Tomás

    2009-01-01

    The aim is to review the encephalitis in infants and adolescents as well as its etiology, clinical manifestation, epidemiology, physiopathology, diagnostic methods and treatment, and the neuropsyquiatric signs appearing an influenza epidemy. Encephalitis is an inflammation of the central nervous system (CNS) which involves the brain. The clinical manifestations usually are: headache, fever and confusional stage. It could also be manifested as seizures, personality changes, or psiqyiatric symptoms. The clinical manifestations are related to the virus and the cell type affected in the brain. A meningitis or encephalopathy need to be ruled out. It could be present as an epidemic or isolated form, beeing this the most frequent form. It could be produced by a great variety of infections agents including virus, bacterias, fungal and parasitic. Viral causes are herpesvirus, arbovirus, rabies and enterovirus. Bacterias such as Borrelia burgdorferi, Rickettsia and Mycoplasma neumoniae. Some fungal causes are: Coccidioides immitis and Histoplasma capsulatum. More than 100 agents are related to encephalitis. The diagnosis of encephalitis is a challenge for the clinician and its infectious etiology is clear in only 40 to 70% of all cases. The diagnosis of encephalitis can be established with absolute certainty only by the microscopic examination of brain tissue. Epidemiology is related to age of the patients, geographic area, season, weather or the host immune system. Early intervention can reduce the mortality rate and sequels. We describe four patients with encephalitis and neuropsychiatric symptoms during an influenza epidemic.

  13. Ethical perspectives on relations between industry and neuropsychiatric medicine.

    PubMed

    Orfei, Maria Donata; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2010-01-01

    Conflicts of interest may influence medical research. In particular, the study on psychotropic treatment of ageing subjects suffering from neurological disorders and comorbid neuropsychiatric phenomena may be hypothetically considered economically non-advantageous, or even of negative impact on drug reputation, because of the high probability of non-response or side effects. Thus, studies on this issue may be disregarded from industry. We aimed to verify whether the global commitment of medical research reflects the actual relevance of depression in the world ageing population, associated or not with neurological conditions. Here, we: 1) have reviewed the literature on this issue, 2) have examined world published data concerning population by age, burden of disease and frequency of depressive disorders and antidepressant therapies, and 3) have reviewed the frequency of published papers on depression and its treatment associated with three neurological conditions. The overall rate of papers about depressive disorders in ageing people reflects adequately the world population and the prevalence of depression in the elderly. However, the rate of papers concerning medical experimentation for antidepressant treatment in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and stroke is quite inadequate with respect to the rate of depressive disorders associated to these conditions. Thus, innovative medical experimentation must be encouraged, also in areas apparently of dubious economical advantage but of undoubted clinical relevance and the adoption of strategies to limit the detrimental effect of conflicts of interest in research must be enhanced.

  14. Neuropsychiatric Manifestation of Hashimoto's Encephalopathy in an Adolescent and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Ransing, Ramdas Sarjerao; Mishra, Kshirod Kumar; Sarkar, Dipayan

    2016-01-01

    Hashimoto's encephalopathy is usually underdiagnosed and untreated because of complex neuropsychiatric manifestation. We report a case of an adolescent female with Hashimoto's encephalopathy who responded well to a combination of aspirin and levothyroxine. A 16-year-old girl presented at psychiatric emergency services with a depressive episode, menstrual irregularities, and a 5-month past history of thyroid swelling. On clinical examination, she was in a euthyroid state with insignificant neurological history. However, her previous investigation revealed a hypothyroid state. Her magnetic resonance imaging findings demonstrated infarcts in the bilateral gangliocapsular region and left frontal periventricular deep white matter lesion. Ultrasonography of the thyroid and fine needle aspiration cytology confirmed lymphocytic thyroiditis. Anti-thyroid peroxidase (289 IU/ml) antibody titer was elevated (289 IU/mL). Her depressive symptoms responded well to antidepressants, mood stabilizers, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and levothyroxine. She remained in the euthyroid state and then in the euthymic state for 3 years. Hashimoto's encephalopathy is steroid-responsive encephalopathy. Most researchers have observed a dramatic response to steroids with or without levothyroxine. A clinician may consider aspirin as an alternative to a steroid in long-term management to avoid steroid-related side effects and contraindications.

  15. Principles and management of neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's dementia.

    PubMed

    Nowrangi, Milap A; Lyketsos, Constantine G; Rosenberg, Paul B

    2015-01-29

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (NPS-AD) are highly prevalent and lead to poor medical and functional outcomes. In spite of the burdensome nature of NPS-AD, we are continuing to refine the nosology and only beginning to understand the underlying pathophysiology. Cluster analyses have frequently identified three to five subsyndromes of NPS-AD: behavioral dysfunction (for example, agitation/aggressiveness), psychosis (for example, delusions and hallucinations), and mood disturbance (for example, depression or apathy). Recent neurobiological studies have used new neuroimaging techniques to elucidate behaviorally relevant circuits and networks associated with these subsyndromes. Several fronto-subcortical circuits, cortico-cortical networks, and neurotransmitter systems have been proposed as regions and mechanisms underlying NPS-AD. Common to most of these subsyndromes is the broad overlap of regions associated with the salience network (anterior cingulate and insula), mood regulation (amygdala), and motivated behavior (frontal cortex). Treatment strategies for dysregulated mood syndromes (depression and apathy) have primarily targeted serotonergic mechanisms with antidepressants or dopaminergic mechanisms with psychostimulants. Psychotic symptoms have largely been targeted with anti-psychotic medications despite controversial risk/benefit tradeoffs. Management of behavioral dyscontrol, including agitation and aggression in AD, has encompassed a wide range of psychoactive medications as well as non-pharmacological approaches. Developing rational therapeutic approaches for NPS-AD will require a firmer understanding of the underlying etiology in order to improve nosology as well as provide the empirical evidence necessary to overcome regulatory and funding challenges to further study these debilitating symptoms.

  16. Genomic resources for the study of neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Senthil, G; Dutka, T; Bingaman, L; Lehner, T

    2017-03-21

    The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) has made sustained investments in the development of genomic resources over the last two decades. These investments have led to the development of the largest biorepository for psychiatric genetics as a centralized national resource. In the realm of genomic resources, NIMH has been supporting large team science (TS) consortia focused on gene discovery, fine mapping of loci, and functional genomics using state-of-the-art technologies. The scientific output from these efforts has not only begun to transform our understanding of the genetic architecture of neuropsychiatric disorders, but it has also led to a broader cultural change among the investigator community towards deeper collaborations and broad pre-publication sharing of data and resources. The NIMH supported efforts have led to a vast increase in the amount of genetic and genomic resources available to the mental health research community. Here we provide an account of the existing resources and estimates of the scale and scope of what will be available in the near future. All biosamples and data described are intended for broad sharing with researchers worldwide, as allowed by the subject consent and applicable laws.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 21 March 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2017.29.

  17. Two Categories of Apparent Tornado-like Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Sara F.; Venkataramanasastry, Aparna

    2014-06-01

    Two categories of solar prominences have been described in the literature as having a pattern of mass motions and/or a shape similar to terrestrial tornados. We first identify the two categories associated with prominences in the historic literature and then show that counterparts do exist for both in recent literature but one has not been called a tornado prominence. One category described as being similar to tornados is associated with the barbs of quiescent filaments but barbs appear to have rotational motion only under special conditions. H alpha Doppler observations from Helio Research confirm that this category is an illusion in our mind’s eye resulting from counterstreaming in the large barbs of quiescent filaments. The second category is a special case of rotational motion occurring during the early stages of some erupting prominences, in recent years called the roll effect in erupting prominences. In these cases, the eruption begins with the sideways rolling of the top of a prominence. As the eruption proceeds the rolling motion propagates down one leg or both legs of an erupting prominence depending on whether the eruption is asymmetric or symmetric respectively. As an asymmetric eruption proceeds, the longer lasting leg becomes nearly vertical and has true rotational motion. If only this phase of the eruption was observed, as in the historic cases, it was called a tornado prominence and spectra recorded in these cases provide proof of the rotational motion. When one observes an entire eruption which exhibits the rolling motion, as accomplished at Helio Research, the similarity to a tornado is lost because the event as a whole has quite a different nature and the analogy to a terrestrial tornado not longer appears suitable or helpful in understanding the observed and deduced physical processes. Our conclusion is that there are no solar prominences with motions that are usefully described as tornado or tornado-like events aside from the fun of observing

  18. Neuropsychiatric symptoms in past users of sheep dip and other pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Christine; Poole, Jason; Palmer, Keith T; Peveler, Robert; Coggon, David

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To explore the prevalence and pattern of neuropsychiatric symptoms in past users of sheep dip and other pesticides. Methods From a postal survey of men born between 1933 and 1977 and resident in three rural areas of England and Wales (response rate 31%), data were obtained on lifetime history of work with pesticides, neurological symptoms in the past month, current mental health and tendency to be troubled by non‐neurological somatic symptoms (summarised as a somatising tendency score). Risk factors for current neuropsychiatric symptoms were assessed by modified Cox regression. Results Data were available for 9844 men, including 1913 who had worked with sheep dip, 832 with other insecticides but not sheep dip and 990 with other pesticides but never with sheep dip or insecticides. Neurological symptoms were consistently 20–60% more common in past users of sheep dip than in men who had never worked with pesticides, but their prevalence was also higher in men who had worked only with pesticides other than sheep dip or insecticides. They clustered strongly within individuals, but this clustering was not specific to men who had worked with sheep dip. Reporting of three or more neurological symptoms was associated with somatising tendency (prevalence ratio (PR) 15.0, 95% CI 11.4 to 19.5, for the highest vs the lowest category of somatisation) and was more common in users of sheep dip (PR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.6), other insecticides (PR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.8) and other pesticides (PR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.7) than in non‐users. Among users of sheep dip, prevalence was higher in men who had dipped most often, but not in those who had worked with sheep dip concentrate. Past use of pesticides was not associated with current anxiety or depression. Conclusion Neurological symptoms are more common in men who have worked with sheep dip, but the association is not specific to sheep dip or insecticides. A toxic cause for the excess cannot be ruled out, but several

  19. The best-laid plans go oft awry: synaptogenic growth factor signaling in neuropsychiatric disease

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Aislinn J.; Umemori, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Growth factors play important roles in synapse formation. Mouse models of neuropsychiatric diseases suggest that defects in synaptogenic growth factors, their receptors, and signaling pathways can lead to disordered neural development and various behavioral phenotypes, including anxiety, memory problems, and social deficits. Genetic association studies in humans have found evidence for similar relationships between growth factor signaling pathways and neuropsychiatric phenotypes. Accumulating data suggest that dysfunction in neuronal circuitry, caused by defects in growth factor-mediated synapse formation, contributes to the susceptibility to multiple neuropsychiatric diseases, including epilepsy, autism, and disorders of thought and mood (e.g., schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, respectively). In this review, we will focus on how specific synaptogenic growth factors and their downstream signaling pathways might be involved in the development of neuropsychiatric diseases. PMID:24672476

  20. Drug Repurposing Is a New Opportunity for Developing Drugs against Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyeong-Min; Kim, Yuna

    2016-01-01

    Better the drugs you know than the drugs you do not know. Drug repurposing is a promising, fast, and cost effective method that can overcome traditional de novo drug discovery and development challenges of targeting neuropsychiatric and other disorders. Drug discovery and development targeting neuropsychiatric disorders are complicated because of the limitations in understanding pathophysiological phenomena. In addition, traditional de novo drug discovery and development are risky, expensive, and time-consuming processes. One alternative approach, drug repurposing, has emerged taking advantage of off-target effects of the existing drugs. In order to identify new opportunities for the existing drugs, it is essential for us to understand the mechanisms of action of drugs, both biologically and pharmacologically. By doing this, drug repurposing would be a more effective method to develop drugs against neuropsychiatric and other disorders. Here, we review the difficulties in drug discovery and development in neuropsychiatric disorders and the extent and perspectives of drug repurposing. PMID:27073698

  1. Outcomes of neuropsychiatric events in systemic lupus erythematosus based on clinical phenotypes; prospective data from the Leiden NP SLE cohort.

    PubMed

    Magro-Checa, C; Beaart-van de Voorde, L J J; Middelkoop, H A M; Dane, M L; van der Wee, N J; van Buchem, M A; Huizinga, T W J; Steup-Beekman, G M

    2017-04-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to assess whether clinical and patient's reported outcomes are associated with a different pathophysiological origin of neuropsychiatric events presenting in systemic lupus erythematosus. Methods A total of 232 neuropsychiatric events presenting in 131 systemic lupus erythematosus patients were included. Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus diagnosis was established per event by multidisciplinary evaluation. All neuropsychiatric events were divided according to a suspected underlying pathophysiological process into one of the following: non-neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus related, inflammatory and ischaemic neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus. The clinical outcome of all neuropsychiatric events was determined by a physician-completed four-point Likert scale. Health-related quality of life was measured with the subscales of the patient-generated Short Form 36 (SF-36) health survey questionnaire. The change between scores at paired visits of all domain scores, mental component summary (SF-36 MCS) and physical component summary (SF-36 PCS) scores were retrospectively calculated and used as patient-reported outcome. The association among these outcomes and the different origin of neuropsychiatric events was obtained using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results The clinical status of 26.8% non-neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus events, 15.8% ischaemic neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus and 51.6% inflammatory neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus improved after re-assessment. Almost all SF-36 domains had a positive change at re-assessment in all groups independently of the origin of neuropsychiatric events. Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus ( B = 0.502; p < 0.001) and especially inflammatory neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus ( B = 0.827; p < 0.001) had better clinical outcome, with change in disease activity being the

  2. Pathways of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Utilization: Implications for Brain Function in Neuropsychiatric Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Joanne J.; Green, Pnina; Mann, J. John; Rapoport, Stanley I.; Sublette, M. Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have profound effects on brain development and function. Abnormalities of PUFA status have been implicated in neuropsychiatric diseases such as major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Pathophysiologic mechanisms could involve not only suboptimal PUFA intake, but also metabolic and genetic abnormalities, defective hepatic metabolism, and problems with diffusion and transport. This article provides an overview of physiologic factors regulating PUFA utilization, highlighting their relevance to neuropsychiatric disease. PMID:25498862

  3. SEISMOLOGY OF STANDING KINK OSCILLATIONS OF SOLAR PROMINENCE FINE STRUCTURES

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, R.; Arregui, I.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L.

    2010-10-20

    We investigate standing kink magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) oscillations in a prominence fine structure modeled as a straight and cylindrical magnetic tube only partially filled with the prominence material and with its ends fixed at two rigid walls representing the solar photosphere. The prominence plasma is partially ionized and a transverse inhomogeneous transitional layer is included between the prominence thread and the coronal medium. Thus, ion-neutral collisions and resonant absorption are the damping mechanisms considered. Approximate analytical expressions of the period, the damping time, and their ratio are derived for the fundamental mode in the thin tube and thin boundary approximations. We find that the dominant damping mechanism is resonant absorption, which provides damping ratios in agreement with the observations, whereas ion-neutral collisions are irrelevant for damping. The values of the damping ratio are independent of both the prominence thread length and its position within the magnetic tube, and coincide with the values for a tube fully filled with the prominence plasma. The implications of our results in the context of the MHD seismology technique are discussed, pointing out that the reported short-period (2-10 minutes) and short-wavelength (700-8000 km) thread oscillations may not be consistent with a standing mode interpretation and could be related to propagating waves. Finally, we show that the inversion of some prominence physical parameters, e.g., Alfven speed, magnetic field strength, transverse inhomogeneity length scale, etc., is possible using observationally determined values of the period and damping time of the oscillations along with the analytical approximations of these quantities.

  4. The prominent role of serotonergic degeneration in apathy, anxiety and depression in de novo Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Maillet, Audrey; Krack, Paul; Lhommée, Eugénie; Météreau, Elise; Klinger, Hélène; Favre, Emilie; Le Bars, Didier; Schmitt, Emmanuelle; Bichon, Amélie; Pelissier, Pierre; Fraix, Valérie; Castrioto, Anna; Sgambato-Faure, Véronique; Broussolle, Emmanuel; Tremblay, Léon; Thobois, Stéphane

    2016-09-01

    , putamen, ventral striatum, pallidum and thalamus, but also a specific bilateral dopaminergic disruption within the substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area complex, as well as a specific serotonergic alteration within the insula, the orbitofrontal and the subgenual anterior cingulate cortices. When comparing the two parkinsonian groups, the apathetic patients mainly displayed greater serotonergic alteration in the ventral striatum, the dorsal and the subgenual parts of the anterior cingulate cortices, bilaterally, as well as in the right-sided caudate nucleus and the right-sided orbitofrontal cortex. Regression analyses also revealed that the severity of apathy was moreover mainly related to specific serotonergic lesions within the right-sided anterior caudate nucleus and the orbitofrontal cortex, while the degree of both depression and anxiety was primarily linked to serotonergic disruption within the bilateral subgenual parts and/or the right dorsal part of the anterior cingulate cortex, without prominent role of the dopaminergic degeneration in the pathogenesis of these three non-motor signs. Altogether, these findings highlight a prominent role of the serotonergic degeneration in the expression of the neuropsychiatric symptoms occurring at the onset of Parkinson's disease.

  5. Prominences in SDO/EVE spectra: contributions from large solar structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labrosse, Nicolas; Hudson, Hugh; Kazachenko, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The EVE instrument on SDO is making accurate measurements of the solar spectral irradiance in the EUV between 30 and 1069 Å, with 1 Å spectral resolution and 10 s sampling rate. These data define solar variability in the ``Sun-as-a-star'' mode and reveal many interesting kinds of variation. Its high sensitivity also makes it suitable for spectroscopic diagnostics of solar features such as flares. Here we present EVE's potential contribution to the diagnostics of large-scale, slowly evolving features such as prominences and active regions, and what we can learn from this.

  6. Missing and Possible Link between Neuroendocrine Factors, Neuropsychiatric Disorders, and Microglia

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Takahiro A.; Hayakawa, Kohei; Monji, Akira; Kanba, Shigenobu

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine systems have long been suggested to be one of the important factors in neuropsychiatric disorders, while the underlying mechanisms have not been well understood. Traditionally, neuropsychiatric disorders have been mainly considered the consequence of abnormal conditions in neural circuitry. Beyond the neuronal doctrine, microglia, one of the glial cells with inflammatory/immunological functions in the central nervous system (CNS), have recently been suggested to play important roles in neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the crosstalk between neuroendocrine factors, neuropsychiatric disorders, and microglia has been unsolved. Therefore, we herein introduce and discuss a missing and possible link between these three factors; especially highlighting the following hormones; (1) Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis-related hormones such as corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and glucocorticoids, (2) sex-related hormones such as estrogen and progesterone, and (3) oxytocin. A growing body of evidence has suggested that these hormones have a direct effect on microglia. We hypothesize that hormone-induced microglial activation and the following microglia-derived mediators may lead to maladaptive neuronal networks including synaptic dysfunctions, causing neuropsychiatric disorders. Future investigations to clarify the correlation between neuroendocrine factors and microglia may contribute to a novel understanding of the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:23874274

  7. Lujan–Fryns Syndrome (LFS): A Unique Combination of Hypernasality, Marfanoid Body Habitus, and Neuropsychiatric Issues, Presenting as Acute-Onset Dysphagia

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Abidullah; Humayun, Mohammad; Haider, Iqbal; Ayub, Maimoona

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lujan–Fryns syndrome (LFS) is an extremely rare, X-linked disorder, for which the full clinical spectrum is still unknown. Usually, it presents with neuropsychiatric problems such as learning disabilities and behavioral issues in a typical combination with marfanoid features. Often, there is a positive family history for the disorder. However, sporadic cases have also been reported in males. More interestingly, there is no case of LFS presenting with acute-onset dysphagia in the English language medical literature. CASE PRESENTATION A 17-year-old Pakistani mentally normal school boy was admitted for the workup of acute-onset dysphagia, hypernasal speech, and nasal regurgitation of liquids. He had no neuropsychiatric issues, and his family history was unremarkable. An obvious nasal twang, facial dysmorphism, and marfanoid body habitus were found on examination. The genetic tests revealed a pathogenic missense mutation in the MED12 gene on his X-chromosome. CONCLUSION LFS can present as acute-onset dysphagia and in the absence of any neuropsychiatric issues or positive family history of the syndrome. PMID:27980443

  8. Can bubbles in quiescent prominences be purely magnetic phenomena?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudik, Jaroslav; Schmieder, Brigitte; Aulanier, Guillaume; Zapior, Maciej; Heinzel, Petr

    2012-07-01

    We present a model of the magnetic field constituting quiescent prominences. The model assumes a linear force-free field with a weakly twisted flux-tube in an OX/OF topology perturbed by presence of parasitic polarities within the filament channel. The parasitic polarities locally create the cusp-shaped prominences with bubbles exactly as those observed by the SDO/AIA and Bialkow Observatory. We find that the observations are best reproduced if the parasitic bipoles are sheared with respect to the main inversion line. We show that the bubbles are in fact constituted by the arcade-like field lines, as opposed to that of the prominence, which is created by magnetic dips. A pair of null points is always associated with the parasitic bipole. These null points are connected by a separator passing through the prominence bubble. We show how the presence of an additional parasitic bipole moves the separator to the boundary between the bubble and the rest of the prominence, producing a topology favorable for reconnection and possibly for the formation of plumes.

  9. ON THE SUPPORT OF NEUTRALS AGAINST GRAVITY IN SOLAR PROMINENCES

    SciTech Connect

    Terradas, J.; Soler, R.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L.

    2015-04-01

    Cool and dense prominences found in the solar atmosphere are known to be partially ionized because of their relatively low temperature. In this Letter, we address the long-standing problem of how the neutral component of the plasma in prominences is supported against gravity. Using the multiple-fluid approach, we solve the time-dependent equations in two dimensions considering the frictional coupling between the neutral and ionized components of the magnetized plasma representative of a solar prominence embedded in a hot coronal environment. We demonstrate that given an initial density enhancement in the two fluids, representing the body of the prominence, the system is able to relax in the vicinity of magnetic dips to a stationary state in which both neutrals and ionized species are dynamically suspended above the photosphere. Two different coupling processes are considered in this study: collisions between ions and neutrals and charge exchange interactions. We find that for realistic conditions, ions are essentially static, while neutrals have a very small downflow velocity. The coupling between ions and neutrals is so strong at the prominence body that the behavior is similar to that of a single fluid with an effective density equal to the sum of the ion and neutral species. We also find that the charge exchange mechanism is about three times more efficient at sustaining neutrals than elastic scattering of ions with neutrals.

  10. On the Magnetism and Dynamics of Prominence Legs Hosting Tornadoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez González, M. J.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Arregui, I.; Collados, M.; Beck, C.; de la Cruz Rodríguez, J.

    2016-07-01

    Solar tornadoes are dark vertical filamentary structures observed in the extreme ultraviolet associated with prominence legs and filament barbs. Their true nature and relationship to prominences requires an understanding of their magnetic structure and dynamic properties. Recently, a controversy has arisen: is the magnetic field organized forming vertical, helical structures or is it dominantly horizontal? And concerning their dynamics, are tornadoes really rotating or is it just a visual illusion? Here we analyze four consecutive spectro-polarimetric scans of a prominence hosting tornadoes on its legs, which helps us shed some light on their magnetic and dynamical properties. We show that the magnetic field is very smooth in all the prominence, which is probably an intrinsic property of the coronal field. The prominence legs have vertical helical fields that show slow temporal variation that is probably related to the motion of the fibrils. Concerning the dynamics, we argue that (1) if rotation exists, it is intermittent, lasting no more than one hour, and (2) the observed velocity pattern is also consistent with an oscillatory velocity pattern (waves).

  11. Magnetic Field and Plasma Diagnostics from Coordinated Prominence Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, B.; Levens, P.; Dalmasse, K.; Mein, N.; Mein, P.; Lopez-Ariste, A.; Labrosse, N.; Heinzel, P.

    2016-04-01

    We study the magnetic field in prominences from a statistical point of view, by using THEMIS in the MTR mode, performing spectropolarimetry of the He I D3 line. Combining these measurements with spectroscopic data from IRIS, Hinode/EIS as well as ground-based telescopes, such as the Meudon Solar Tower, we infer the temperature, density, and flow velocities of the plasma. There are a number of open questions that we aim to answer: - What is the general direction of the magnetic field in prominences? Is the model using a single orientation of magnetic field always valid for atypical prominences? %- Does this depend on the location of the filament on the disk (visible in Hα, in He II 304 Å) over an inversion line between weak or strong network ? - Are prominences in a weak environment field dominated by gas pressure? - Measuring the Doppler shifts in Mg II lines (with IRIS) and in Hα can tell us if there are substantial velocities to maintain vertical rotating structures, as has been suggested for tornado-like prominences. We present here some results obtained with different ground-based and space-based instruments in this framework.

  12. Activin Signaling in the Pathogenesis and Therapy of Neuropsychiatric Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Link, Andrea S.; Zheng, Fang; Alzheimer, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Activins are members of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) family and serve as multifunctional regulatory proteins in many tissues and organs. In the brain, activin A, which is formed by two disulfide-linked βA subunits, is recognized as the predominant player in activin signaling. Over the last years, considerable progress has been made in elucidating novel and unexpected functions of activin in the normal and diseased brain and in deciphering the underlying molecular mechanisms. Initially identified as a neurotrophic and protective factor during development and in several forms of acute injury, the scope of effects of activin A in the adult central nervous system (CNS) has been considerably broadened by now. Here, we will highlight recent findings that bear significance for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of various neuropsychiatric diseases and might hold promise for novel therapeutic strategies. While the basal level of activin A in the adult brain is low, significant short-term up-regulation occurs in response to increased neuronal activity. In fact, brief exposure to an enriched environment (EE) is already sufficient to considerably strengthen activin signaling. Enhancement of this pathway tunes the performance of glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses in a fashion that impacts on cognitive functions and affective behavior, counteracts death-inducing signals through extrasynaptic NMDA receptors (NMDARs), and stimulates adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. We will discuss how impaired activin signaling is involved in anxiety disorders, depression, drug dependence, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, and how reinforcement of activin signaling might be exploited for therapeutic interventions. PMID:27242425

  13. Autoantibodies and Neuropsychiatric events at diagnosis of SLE

    PubMed Central

    Hanly, J. G.; Urowitz, M. B.; Siannis, F.; Farewell, V.; Gordon, C.; Bae, S.C.; Isenberg, D.; Dooley, M.A.; Clarke, A.; Bernatsky, S.; Gladman, D.; Fortin, P.R.; Manzi, S.; Steinsson, K.; Bruce, I.; Ginzler, E.; Aranow, C.; Wallace, D.J.; Ramsey-Goldman, R.; Van Vollenhoven, R.; Sturfelt, G.; Nived, O.; Sanchez-Guerrero, J.; Alarcón, G.S.; Petri, M.; Khamashta, M.; Zoma, A.; Kalunian, K.; Douglas, J.; Qi, Qiufen; Merrill, J. T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between neuropsychiatric (NP) events with antiphospholipid antibodies (lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin), anti-β2 glycoprotein-I, anti-ribosomal P and anti-NR2 glutamate receptor antibodies in an international inception cohort. Methods NP events were identified using the ACR case definitions and clustered into central/peripheral and diffuse/focal events. Attribution of NP events was determined using decision rules of different stringency (model A and model B). Autoantibodies were measured without knowledge of NP events or their attribution. Results 412 patients (87.3% female; mean (± SD) age of 34.9 ± 13.5 years; mean disease duration 5.0 ± 4.2 months) were studied. There were 214 NP events in 133 (32.3%) patients. NP events attributed to SLE varied from 15% (model A) to 36% (model B). There was no association between autoantibodies and NP events from all causes. However the frequency of anti-ribosomal P antibodies in patients with NP events due to SLE (model A) was 4/24 (16.6%) compared to 3/109 (2.8%) for all other NP events and 24/279 (8.6%) with no NP events (P=0.07). Furthermore anti-ribosomal P antibodies in patients with central NP events attributed to SLE (model A) was 4/20 (20%) vs. 3/107 (2.8%) for other NP events and 24/279 (8.6%) with no NP events (P = 0.04). For diffuse NP events the antibody frequencies were 3/11 (27%) compared to 4/111 (3.6%) and 24/279 (8.6%) respectively (P=0.02). Conclusion NP events at onset of SLE were associated with anti-ribosomal P antibodies, suggesting a pathogenetic role for this autoantibody. There was no association with other autoantibodies. PMID:18311802

  14. Multiscale modeling for clinical translation in neuropsychiatric disease

    PubMed Central

    Lytton, William W.; Neymotin, Samuel A.; Kerr, Cliff C.

    2015-01-01

    Multiscale modeling of neuropsychiatric illness bridges scales of clinical importance: from the highest scales (presentation of behavioral signs and symptoms), through intermediate scales (clinical testing and surgical intervention), down to the molecular scale of pharmacotherapy. Modeling of brain disease is difficult compared to modeling of other organs, because dysfunction manifests at scales where measurements are rudimentary due both to inadequate access (memory and cognition) and to complexity (behavior). Nonetheless, we can begin to explore these aspects through the use of information-theoretic measures as stand-ins for meaning at the top scales. We here describe efforts across five disorders: Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, stroke, schizophrenia, and epilepsy. We look at the use of therapeutic brain stimulation to replace lost neural signals, a loss that produces diaschisis, defined as activity changes in other brain areas due to missing inputs. These changes may in some cases be compensatory, hence beneficial, but in many cases a primary pathology, whether itself static or dynamic, sets in motion a series of dynamic consequences that produce further pathology. The simulations presented here suggest how diaschisis can be reversed by using a neuroprosthetic signal. Despite having none of the information content of the lost physiological signal, the simplified neuroprosthetic signal can restore a diaschitic area to near-normal patterns of activity. Computer simulation thus begins to explain the remarkable success of stimulation technologies - deep brain stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, ultrasound stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation - across an extremely broad range of pathologies. Multiscale modeling can help us to optimize and integrate these neuroprosthetic therapies by taking into consideration effects of different stimulation protocols, combinations of stimulation with neuropharmacological therapy, and interplay of these

  15. Investigating the Thermal Evolution of Solar Prominence Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucera, Therese A.; Viall, Nicholeen M.; Karpen, Judith T.

    2015-04-01

    We present a study of prominence formation using time series analysis of Solar Dynamics Observatory’s Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA) data. In evaporation-condensation models of prominence formation, heating at the foot-points of sheared coronal flux-tubes results in evaporation of hot (a few MK) material into the corona and subsequent catastrophic cooling of the hot material to form the cool (~10,000 K) prominence material. We present the results of a time-lag analysis that tracks the thermal evolution using emission formed at different temperatures. This analysis is made possible by AIA's many wavebands and high time resolution, and it allows us to look for signs of the evaporation-condensation process and to study the heating time scales involved. Supported by NASA’s Living with a Star program.

  16. THE FORMATION AND ERUPTION OF SOLAR QUIESCENT PROMINENCES

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y. Z.

    2013-11-01

    Following the two-stage catastrophic flux rope model presented by Zhang et al., we investigate how magnetic flux emergence affects the formation and evolution of solar quiescent prominences. The magnetic properties of the flux rope are described with its toroidal magnetic flux per radian Φ{sub p} and poloidal flux Φ{sub ψ}, and Φ{sub p} is defined as the emerging strength (ES) of the magnetic flux. After the first catastrophe, the quiescent prominences are supported by the vertical current sheet and located in cavities below the curved transverse current sheet in the inner corona, for which both ES and Φ{sub ψ} are in the certain ranges. We calculate the strength range as 0.25 < ES < 0.50 for the quadrupolar field, and obtain the equation Φ{sub p}Φ{sub ψ} = const., that is, the relationship between Φ{sub p} and Φ{sub ψ} of the emerging flux for which the quiescent prominences are formed in the inner corona. After the second catastrophe, the quiescent prominences would either fall down onto the solar surface or erupt as an important part of coronal mass ejections. During the eruption of the quiescent prominences, most of the magnetic energy in the flux rope is lost, and less than half of the energy loss of the rope is released in the form of Alfvèn waves. We argue that there would be two important conditions required for the formation and eruption of solar quiescent prominences, a complicated source region and emerging toroidal magnetic flux that exceeds a critical strength.

  17. Comparison of cognitive and neuropsychiatric profiles in hospitalised elderly medical patients with delirium, dementia and comorbid delirium–dementia

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Maeve; McInerney, Shane; McFarland, John; Condon, Candice; Awan, Fahad; O'Connor, Margaret; Reynolds, Paul; Meaney, Anna Maria; Adamis, Dimitrios; Dunne, Colum; Cullen, Walter; Trzepacz, Paula T; Meagher, David J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Differentiation of delirium and dementia is a key diagnostic challenge but there has been limited study of features that distinguish these conditions. We examined neuropsychiatric and neuropsychological symptoms in elderly medical inpatients to identify features that distinguish major neurocognitive disorders. Setting University teaching hospital in Ireland. Participants and measures 176 consecutive elderly medical inpatients (mean age 80.6±7.0 years (range 60–96); 85 males (48%)) referred to a psychiatry for later life consultation-liaison service with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) IV delirium, dementia, comorbid delirium–dementia and cognitively intact controls. Participants were assessed cross-sectionally with comparison of scores (including individual items) for the Revised Delirium Rating Scale (DRS-R98), Cognitive Test for Delirium (CTD) and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI-Q). Results The frequency of neurocognitive diagnoses was delirium (n=50), dementia (n=32), comorbid delirium–dementia (n=62) and cognitively intact patients (n=32). Both delirium and comorbid delirium–dementia groups scored higher than the dementia group for DRS-R98 and CTD total scores, but all three neurocognitively impaired groups scored similarly in respect of total NPI-Q scores. For individual DRS-R98 items, delirium groups were distinguished from dementia groups by a range of non-cognitive symptoms, but only for impaired attention of the cognitive items. For the CTD, attention (p=0.002) and vigilance (p=0.01) distinguished between delirium and dementia. No individual CTD item distinguished between comorbid delirium–dementia and delirium. For the NPI-Q, there were no differences between the three neurocognitively impaired groups for any individual item severity. Conclusions The neurocognitive profile of delirium is similar with or without comorbid dementia and differs from dementia without delirium. Simple tests of attention and

  18. A case of non-paraneoplastic anti-N-methyl d-aspartate receptor encephalitis presenting as a neuropsychiatric disorder.

    PubMed

    Yoga, Bindu; Kunc, Marek; Ahmed, Fayyaz

    2014-01-01

    N-methyl d-aspartate receptor antibody encephalitis can often be a paraneoplastic manifestation of occult malignancy such as ovarian teratoma and rarely teratoma of mediastinum or testis and small cell lung carcinoma. We report a case of non-paraneoplastic anti-N-methyl d-aspartate receptor antibody-positive autoimmune encephalitis in a young patient who presented with neuropsychiatric features and made a very good recovery following treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin and steroids. The case highlights the need for increased vigilance for the condition in young females with or without a previous psychiatric history and emphasises the need for a multidisciplinary approach in the management of this challenging disorder with a good prognosis.

  19. A case of non-paraneoplastic anti-N-methyl d-aspartate receptor encephalitis presenting as a neuropsychiatric disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kunc, Marek; Ahmed, Fayyaz

    2014-01-01

    N-methyl d-aspartate receptor antibody encephalitis can often be a paraneoplastic manifestation of occult malignancy such as ovarian teratoma and rarely teratoma of mediastinum or testis and small cell lung carcinoma. We report a case of non-paraneoplastic anti-N-methyl d-aspartate receptor antibody–positive autoimmune encephalitis in a young patient who presented with neuropsychiatric features and made a very good recovery following treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin and steroids. The case highlights the need for increased vigilance for the condition in young females with or without a previous psychiatric history and emphasises the need for a multidisciplinary approach in the management of this challenging disorder with a good prognosis. PMID:27489663

  20. STEREOSCOPIC RECONSTRUCTION FROM STEREO/EUV IMAGERS DATA OF THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL SHAPE AND EXPANSION OF AN ERUPTING PROMINENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Bemporad, A.

    2009-08-10

    On 2007 May 9, a prominence eruption was observed in the He II {lambda}304 filter by the two EUV Imagers (EUVI) telescopes aboard the STEREO A and B spacecrafts. The high spatial resolution ({approx}1.''5 pixel{sup -1}) EUVI images have been used to infer via triangulation the three-dimensional (3D) shape and orientation of the prominence {approx_equal}12 minutes after the beginning (13:40 UT) of the eruption. At this time, the prominence has the shape of a 'hook' with the base anchored at the Sun. The 'hook' prominence is highly inclined southward with respect to the radial direction, has an average thickness of 0.061 R {sub sun}, a length of 0.43 R {sub sun}, and lies in first approximation on a plane inclined by {approx}54.{sup 0}5 with respect to the line of sight. Thanks to the very high temporal cadence ({approx}37 s) of EUVI observations it has been possible also to infer the 3D early eruption trajectory. In the following {approx}20 minutes the prominence rotates westward, undergoing a strong latitudinal acceleration, {approx}3 times larger than the radial acceleration. In this time interval, the prominence expands in a direction mainly parallel to the plane of the sky; the total volume occupied by the plasma increases by a factor of {approx}8, while the prominence thickness increases only by {approx}12%. This is related to the fact that the early prominence expansion is anisotropic and occurs mainly on a plane parallel to the plane of the sky. Even if the small-scale spatial distribution of the erupting material observed in the He II EUVI images is quite complex, both the approximately planar shape and the successive planar expansion suggest that on larger spatial scales the prominence can be globally approximated as a two-dimensional 'ribbon-like' feature, instead of a 3D twisted flux tube.

  1. ERRATUM: Propagating Waves Transverse to the Magnetic Field in a Solar Prominence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmieder, B.; Kucera, T. A.; Knizhnik, K.; Luna, M.; Lopez-Ariste, A.; Toot, D.

    2014-01-01

    We report an unusual set of observations of waves in a large prominence pillar that consist of pulses propagating perpendicular to the prominence magnetic field. We observe a huge quiescent prominence with the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly in EUV on 2012 October 10 and only a part of it, the pillar, which is a foot or barb of the prominence, with the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT; in Ca II and Halpha lines), Sac Peak (in Ha, Hß, and Na-D lines), and THEMIS ("Télescope Héliographique pour l' Etude du Magnétisme et des Instabilités Solaires") with the MTR (MulTi-Raies) spectropolarimeter (in He D3 line). The THEMIS/MTR data indicates that the magnetic field in the pillar is essentially horizontal and the observations in the optical domain show a large number of horizontally aligned features on a much smaller scale than the pillar as a whole. The data are consistent with a model of cool prominence plasma trapped in the dips of horizontal field lines. The SOT and Sac Peak data over the four hour observing period show vertical oscillations appearing as wave pulses. These pulses, which include a Doppler signature, move vertically, perpendicular to the field direction, along thin quasi-vertical columns in the much broader pillar. The pulses have a velocity of propagation of about 10 km/s, a period of about 300 s, and a wavelength around 2000 km. We interpret these waves in terms of fast magnetosonic waves and discuss possible wave drivers.

  2. Propagating Waves Transverse to the Magnetic Field in a Solar Prominence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, B.; Kucera, T. A.; Knizhnik, K.; Luna, M.; Lopez-Ariste, A.; Toot, D.

    2013-11-01

    We report an unusual set of observations of waves in a large prominence pillar that consist of pulses propagating perpendicular to the prominence magnetic field. We observe a huge quiescent prominence with the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly in EUV on 2012 October 10 and only a part of it, the pillar, which is a foot or barb of the prominence, with the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT; in Ca II and Hα lines), Sac Peak (in Hα, Hβ, and Na-D lines), and THEMIS ("Télescope Héliographique pour l' Etude du Magnétisme et des Instabilités Solaires") with the MTR (MulTi-Raies) spectropolarimeter (in He D3 line). The THEMIS/MTR data indicates that the magnetic field in the pillar is essentially horizontal and the observations in the optical domain show a large number of horizontally aligned features on a much smaller scale than the pillar as a whole. The data are consistent with a model of cool prominence plasma trapped in the dips of horizontal field lines. The SOT and Sac Peak data over the four hour observing period show vertical oscillations appearing as wave pulses. These pulses, which include a Doppler signature, move vertically, perpendicular to the field direction, along thin quasi-vertical columns in the much broader pillar. The pulses have a velocity of propagation of about 10 km s-1, a period of about 300 s, and a wavelength around 2000 km. We interpret these waves in terms of fast magnetosonic waves and discuss possible wave drivers.

  3. MCT8 deficiency: extrapyramidal symptoms and delayed myelination as prominent features.

    PubMed

    Tonduti, Davide; Vanderver, Adeline; Berardinelli, Angela; Schmidt, Johanna L; Collins, Christin D; Novara, Francesca; Genni, Antonia Di; Mita, Alda; Triulzi, Fabio; Brunstrom-Hernandez, Janice E; Zuffardi, Orsetta; Balottin, Umberto; Orcesi, Simona

    2013-06-01

    Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) deficiency is an X-linked disorder resulting from an impairment of the transcellular transportation of thyroid hormones. Within the central nervous system thyroid hormone transport is normally mediated by MCT8. Patients are described as affected by a static or slowly progressive clinical picture which consists of variable degrees of mental retardation, hypotonia, spasticity, ataxia and involuntary movements, occasionally paroxysmal. The authors describe the clinical and neuroradiological picture of 3 males patients with marked delayed brain myelination and in which the clinical picture was dominated by early onset nonparoxysmal extrapyramidal symptoms. In one subject a novel mutation is described.

  4. Prominence Detection Using Auditory Attention Cues and Task-Dependent High Level Information

    PubMed Central

    Kalinli, Ozlem; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2009-01-01

    Auditory attention is a complex mechanism that involves the processing of low-level acoustic cues together with higher level cognitive cues. In this paper, a novel method is proposed that combines biologically inspired auditory attention cues with higher level lexical and syntactic information to model task-dependent influences on a given spoken language processing task. A set of low-level multiscale features (intensity, frequency contrast, temporal contrast, orientation, and pitch) is extracted in parallel from the auditory spectrum of the sound based on the processing stages in the central auditory system to create feature maps that are converted to auditory gist features that capture the essence of a sound scene. The auditory attention model biases the gist features in a task-dependent way to maximize target detection in a given scene. Furthermore, the top-down task-dependent influence of lexical and syntactic information is incorporated into the model using a probabilistic approach. The lexical information is incorporated by using a probabilistic language model, and the syntactic knowledge is modeled using part-of-speech (POS) tags. The combined model is tested on automatically detecting prominent syllables in speech using the BU Radio News Corpus. The model achieves 88.33% prominence detection accuracy at the syllable level and 85.71% accuracy at the word level. These results compare well with reported human performance on this task. PMID:20084186

  5. The Prominence of Referring Expressions: Message and Lexical Level Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Tuan Q.

    2012-01-01

    In conversation, speakers produce some words with greater intensity, longer duration, and higher fundamental frequency (F0) than other words. By making different words in a sentence more prominent than other words, a speaker can change the meaning implied by a sentence. This thesis explores the relationship between processing in the language…

  6. Aggressive Cue Prominence and Gender Participation in MTV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalis, Pamela; Neuendorf, Kimberly A.

    1989-01-01

    Explores the content and structure of music videos, focusing on the pervasiveness of aggressive cues (objects or events representing physical harm or the threat of harm), gender portrayals within a context of aggression, and the pacing of music videos. Finds that aggressive cues in music videos are less prominent than critics indicate. (MM)

  7. Further Validation of the Coach Identity Prominence Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, J. Paige; Hall, Craig R.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to examine select psychometric properties of the Coach Identity Prominence Scale (CIPS), including the reliability, factorial validity, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and predictive validity. Coaches (N = 338) who averaged 37 (SD = 12.27) years of age, had a mean of 13 (SD = 9.90) years of coaching experience,…

  8. SPATIAL DAMPING OF PROPAGATING KINK WAVES IN PROMINENCE THREADS

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, R.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L.

    2011-01-10

    Transverse oscillations and propagating waves are frequently observed in threads of solar prominences/filaments and have been interpreted as kink magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes. We investigate the spatial damping of propagating kink MHD waves in transversely nonuniform and partially ionized prominence threads. Resonant absorption and ion-neutral collisions (Cowling's diffusion) are the damping mechanisms taken into account. The dispersion relation of resonant kink waves in a partially ionized magnetic flux tube is numerically solved by considering prominence conditions. Analytical expressions of the wavelength and damping length as functions of the kink mode frequency are obtained in the thin tube and thin boundary approximations. For typically reported periods of thread oscillations, resonant absorption is an efficient mechanism for the kink mode spatial damping, while ion-neutral collisions have a minor role. Cowling's diffusion dominates both the propagation and damping for periods much shorter than those observed. Resonant absorption may explain the observed spatial damping of kink waves in prominence threads. The transverse inhomogeneity length scale of the threads can be estimated by comparing the observed wavelengths and damping lengths with the theoretically predicted values. However, the ignorance of the form of the density profile in the transversely nonuniform layer introduces inaccuracies in the determination of the inhomogeneity length scale.

  9. A-B Distinction in a Sample of Prominent Psychotherapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Jesse D.; Berzins, Juris I.

    1976-01-01

    A sample of prominent psychotherapists were asked to fill out the A-B therapist "type" scale and comment on their possible differential effectiveness in treating schizoid/schizophrenic versus neurotic patients. The data suggest that B therapists desire and seek more complex and exciting sensory-cognitive inputs during therapy hours than A…

  10. 10. CANAL CUT THROUGH SHALE BEDROCK ON PROMINENT POINT, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. CANAL CUT THROUGH SHALE BEDROCK ON PROMINENT POINT, LOOKING NORTH-NORTHEAST. NOTE CONCRETE ABUTMENTS PROBABLY INSTALLED IN 1935 TO PREVENT WATER FROM ESCAPING THROUGH A CANAL BANK BREACH. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  11. A Prominence/filament eruption triggered by eight homologous flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panesar, Navdeep K.; Sterling, Alphonse; Innes, Davina; Moore, Ronald

    2015-04-01

    Eight homologous flares occurred in active region NOAA 11237 over 16 - 17 June 2011. A prominence system with a surrounding coronal cavity was adjacent to, but still magnetically connected to the active region. The eight eruptions expelled hot material from the active region into the prominence/filament cavity system (PFCS) where the ejecta became confined. We mainly aim to diagnose the 3D dynamics of the PFCS during the series of eight homologous eruptions by using data from two instruments: SDO/AIA and STEREO/EUVI-B, covering the Sun from two directions. The field containing the ejected hot material interacts with the PFCS and causes it to inflate, resulting in a discontinuous rise of the prominence/filament approximately in steps with the homologous eruptions. The eighth eruption triggers the PFCS to move outward slowly, accompanied by a weak coronal dimming. Subsequently the prominence/filament material drains to the solar surface. This PFCS eruption evidently slowly opens field overlying the active region, which results in a final ‘ejective’ eruption from the core of the active region. A strong dimming appears adjacent to the final eruption’s flare loops in the EUVI-B images, followed by a CME. We propose that the eight homologous flares gradually disrupted the PFCS and removed the overlying field above the active region, leading to the CME via the ‘lid removal’ mechanism.

  12. Non-thermal line-broadening in solar prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stellmacher, G.; Wiehr, E.

    2015-09-01

    Aims: We show that the line broadening in quiescent solar prominences is mainly due to non-thermal velocities. Methods: We have simultaneously observed a wide range of optically thin lines in quiescent prominences, selected for bright and narrow Mg b emission without line satellites from macro-shifts. Results: We find a ratio of reduced widths, ΔλD/λ0, of Hγ and Hδ of 1.05 ± 0.03, which can hardly be attributed to saturation, since both are optically thin for the prominences observed: τγ ≤ 0.3, τδ ≤ 0.15. We confirm the ratio of reduced widths of He 4772 (triplet) and He 5015 (singlet) of 1.1 ± 0.05 at higher significance and detect a width ratio of Mg b2 and Mg 4571 (both from the triplet system) of 1.3 ± 0.1. Conclusions: The discrepant widths of lines from different atoms, and even from the same atom, cannot be represented by a unique pair [Tkin; Vnth]. Values of Tkin deduced from observed line radiances using models indicate low temperatures down to Tkin ≈ 5000 K. Non-thermal velocities, related to different physical states of the respective emitting prominence region, seem to be the most important line broadening mechanism.

  13. 21 CFR 101.15 - Food; prominence of required statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...(s) is the name of the food. (3) If any article of labeling (other than a label) contains any... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Food; prominence of required statements. 101.15 Section 101.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  14. 21 CFR 101.15 - Food; prominence of required statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...(s) is the name of the food. (3) If any article of labeling (other than a label) contains any... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Food; prominence of required statements. 101.15 Section 101.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  15. C1q Deficiency and Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    van Schaarenburg, Rosanne A.; Magro-Checa, César; Bakker, Jaap A.; Teng, Y. K. Onno; Bajema, Ingeborg M.; Huizinga, Tom W.; Steup-Beekman, Gerda M.; Trouw, Leendert A.

    2016-01-01

    C1q deficiency is a rare immunodeficiency, which is strongly associated with the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A mutation in one of the C1q genes can either lead to complete deficiency or to low C1q levels with C1q polypeptide in the form of low-molecular weight (LMW) C1q. Patients with C1q deficiency mainly present with cutaneous and renal involvement. Although less frequent, neuropsychiatric (NP) involvement has also been reported in 20% of the C1q-deficient patients. This involvement appears to be absent in other deficiencies of early components of the complement classical pathway (CP) (C1r/C1s, C2, or C4 deficiencies). We describe a new case with C1q deficiency with a homozygous G34R mutation in C1qC-producing LMW-C1q presenting with a severe SLE flare with NP involvement. The serum of this patient contained very low levels of a LMW variant of C1q polypeptides. Cell lysates contained the three chains of C1q, but no intact C1q was detected, consistent with the hypothesis of the existence of a LMW-C1q. Furthermore, we provide a literature overview of NP-SLE in C1q deficiency and hypothesize about the potential role of C1q in the pathogenesis of NP involvement in these patients. The onset of NP-SLE in C1q-deficient individuals is more severe when compared with complement competent NP-SLE patients. An important number of cases present with seizures and the most frequent findings in neuroimaging are changes in basal ganglia and cerebral vasculitis. A defective CP, because of non-functional C1q, does not protect against NP involvement in SLE. The absence of C1q and, subsequently, some of its biological functions may be associated with more severe NP-SLE. PMID:28082982

  16. Neuropsychiatric symptom profile differs based on pathology in patients with clinically diagnosed behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia

    PubMed Central

    Léger, Gabriel C; Banks, Sarah J

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is pathologically heterogeneous. With emerging therapeutics, determining underlying pathology during life is increasingly important. Neuropsychiatric symptoms are prevalent and diagnostic in bvFTD. Methods We assessed the neuropsychiatric profile in patients with clinically diagnosed bvFTD as a function of pathology at autopsy. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of bvFTD at initial visit were selected from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center database. Neuropsychiatric symptoms endorsed on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire were analyzed. Results Of 149 patients with clinically diagnosed bvFTD, pathology was primarily Alzheimer's disease in 20.5%. These patients differed from those with underlying frontotemporal lobar degeneration: patients with AD pathology (plaques and tangles) were more likely to have hallucinations, delusions, or agitation. Patients were further differentiated into tau positive (30 % of cases, including Pick's disease, frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism with tau-positive, and other tauopathies) or tau-negative (70% of cases including bvFTD tau-negative ubiquitin-positive inclusions). These patients also differed in some of the neuropsychiatric symptoms seen. Tau-negative cases were more likely to demonstrate depression, delusions, and changes in appetite and eating. Conclusions These preliminary findings contribute to our increasing ability to predict, using simple clinical tools the neuropathological underpinnings of bvFTD during life. PMID:24135712

  17. Eight-Year Follow-Up of Neuropsychiatric Symptoms and Brain Structural Changes in Fabry Disease.

    PubMed

    Lelieveld, Irene M; Böttcher, Anna; Hennermann, Julia B; Beck, Michael; Fellgiebel, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Brain structural alterations and neuropsychiatric symptoms have been described repeatedly in Fabry disease, yet cognitive deficits have been shown to be only mild. Here, we aimed to investigate neuropsychiatric symptoms and brain structure longitudinally. We expected no clinically relevant increase of neuropsychiatric symptoms in parallel to increased brain structural alterations. We assessed 14 Fabry patients (46.1 ± 10.8 years) who had participated in our investigation eight years ago. Patients engaged in neuropsychiatric testing, as well as structural magnetic resonance imaging and angiography to determine white matter lesions, hippocampal volume, and the diameter of the larger intracranial arteries. While Fabry patients did not differ on cognitive performance, they showed progressive and significant hippocampal volume loss over the 8-year observation period. White matter lesions were associated with older age and higher white matter lesion load at baseline, but did not reach statistical significance when comparing baseline to follow-up. Likewise, intracranial artery diameters did not increase significantly. None of the imaging parameters were associated with the neuropsychiatric parameters. Depression frequency reduced from 50% at baseline to 21% at follow-up, but it did not reach significance. This investigation demonstrates clinical stability in cognitive function, while pronounced hippocampal atrophy is apparent throughout the 8 years. Our middle-aged Fabry patients appeared to compensate successfully for progressive hippocampal volume loss. The hippocampal volume decline indicates brain regional neuronal involvement in Fabry disease.

  18. Evidence for synergistic effects of PRNP and ATP7B mutations in severe neuropsychiatric deterioration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Wilson’s disease (WD), a rare cause of neuropsychiatric deterioration, is associated with mutations in the ATP7B gene. Prion diseases are also rare causes of neuropsychiatric deterioration that can occur sporadically without an identifiable cause, or can be attributed to mutations in the PRNP gene. Case presentation Here we describe a biological “experiment of nature” in which a patient presented with severe neuropsychiatric decline and strong biochemical evidence of WD. Genetic analysis revealed that he was a compound heterozygote for two ATP7B sequence variants (c.2165dupT, p.Arg723Glufs*32; and c.4039G > A, p.Gly1347Ser), the first having been reported once previously, and the second being novel. In addition, the patient was heterozygous for a PRNP variant, c.160G > A, p.Gly54Ser, that has been reported in a neuropsychiatric patient only once previously in association with a similarly severe clinical course of neuropsychiatric disease and early age of onset, but no accompanying information on ATP7B genotype. Of particular interest was the observation that the patient’s older sister, who carried the same ATP7B genotype and laboratory evidence for biochemical WD but was clinically asymptomatic, lacked the PRNP variant allele. Conclusions We propose that synergism may occur between at least some allelic variants of ATP7B and PRNP, possibly exerted through effects on cellular copper metabolism. PMID:24555712

  19. Non-LTE hydrogen-line formation in moving prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinzel, P.; Rompolt, B.

    1986-01-01

    The behavior of hydrogen-line brightness variations, depending on the prominence-velocity changes were investigated. By solving the NON-Local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) problem for hydrogen researchers determine quantitatively the effect of Doppler brightening and/or Doppler dimming (DBE, DDE) in the lines of Lyman and Balmer series. It is demonstrated that in low-density prominence plasmas, DBE in H alpha and H beta lines can reach a factor of three for velocities around 160 km/sec, while the L alpha line exhibits typical DDE. L beta brightness variations follow from a combined DBE in the H alpha and DDE in L alpha and L beta itself, providing that all relevant multilevel interlocking processes are taken into account.

  20. Neuropsychiatric symptoms in primary progressive aphasia: phenomenology, pathophysiology, and approach to assessment and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Modirrousta, Mandana; Price, Bruce H; Dickerson, Bradford C

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by insidious and progressive loss of language. Current diagnostic criteria require symptoms to be largely restricted to language dysfunction for at least the first 2 years of the syndrome. However, as the disorder progresses – and sometimes even in the early stages – patients with PPA may exhibit neuropsychiatric symptoms. In this article, we review the phenomenology and frequency of neuropsychiatric symptoms in PPA. Among the few studies of this topic that have been performed, there is consistent agreement that neuropsychiatric symptoms are not uncommon among PPA patients. In some cases, particularly the semantic variant of PPA, symptoms are similar to those found in the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia. We further review the approach to assessment of behavioral symptoms in PPA and their possible management strategies, and speculate regarding their potential neurobiological substrates. PMID:23997827

  1. Course of Neuropsychiatric Symptoms during Flares of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)

    PubMed Central

    Ambrose, Nicola; Davids, Zaib; Bindman, Dorothea

    2017-01-01

    We present the case of a seventeen-year-old girl who presents with an interesting course of neuropsychiatric symptoms during several flares of SLE. The patient was diagnosed at the age of thirteen and has had four flares in total. The latter two flares included cutaneous and neuropsychiatric symptoms. The most recent flare occurred when she was aged seventeen. She had cutaneous symptoms which coincided with an episode of hypomania. Her mental state further deteriorated following steroid treatment. She exhibited affective and psychotic symptoms. Treatment with cyclophosphamide and olanzapine was associated with an improvement in both cutaneous and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Previously aged sixteen the patient had presented with cutaneous symptoms and a moderate depressive episode which was also exacerbated by steroid treatment. The patient's mood improved when the dose of oral steroids was reduced to a daily dose of 15–20 mg prednisolone. PMID:28326218

  2. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Neuropsychiatric Symptoms and Executive Functioning in Adults With Phenylketonuria

    PubMed Central

    Bilder, Deborah A.; Noel, J. Kay; Baker, Erin R.; Irish, William; Chen, Yinpu; Merilainen, Markus J.; Prasad, Suyash; Winslow, Barbara J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This systematic review and meta-analysis (MA) investigates the impact of elevated blood phenylalanine (Phe) on neuropsychiatric symptoms in adults with phenylketonuria (PKU). The meta-analysis of PKU is challenging because high-quality evidence is lacking due to the limited number of affected individuals and few placebo-controlled, double-blind studies of adults with high and low blood Phe. Neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with PKU exceed general population estimates for inattention, hyperactivity, depression, and anxiety. High Phe is associated with an increased prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms and executive functioning deficits whereas low Phe is associated with improved neurological performance. Findings support lifelong maintenance of low blood Phe. PMID:27805419

  3. From “Directed Differentiation” to “Neuronal Induction”: Modeling Neuropsychiatric Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Seok-Man; Topol, Aaron; Brennand, Kristen J

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant behavior and function of neurons are believed to be the primary causes of most neurological diseases and psychiatric disorders. Human postmortem samples have limited availability and, while they provide clues to the state of the brain after a prolonged illness, they offer limited insight into the factors contributing to disease onset. Conversely, animal models cannot recapitulate the polygenic origins of neuropsychiatric disease. Novel methods, such as somatic cell reprogramming, deliver nearly limitless numbers of pathogenic human neurons for the study of the mechanism of neuropsychiatric disease initiation and progression. First, this article reviews the advent of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technology and introduces two major methods, “directed differentiation” and “neuronal induction,” by which it is now possible to generate neurons for modeling neuropsychiatric disease. Second, it discusses the recent applications, and the limitations, of these technologies to in vitro studies of psychiatric disorders. PMID:26045654

  4. The application of the Screening Cerebral Assessment of Neppe (BROCAS SCAN) to a neuropsychiatric population.

    PubMed

    Neppe, V; Chen, A; Davis, J T; Sawchuk, K; Geist, M

    1992-01-01

    Assessments of higher cortical functioning are often neglected in patients with possible coarse neurobehavioral psychiatric disease, such as dementia, stroke, or focal cerebral lesions. When performed, the short Folstein Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) is typically used. The authors' research on 45 neuropsychiatric patients compared the MMSE with a new 20-30-minute bedside examination, the Screening Cerebral Assessment of Neppe (BROCAS SCAN). This screens 10 areas: recall, recognition, orientation, organization of thought, concentration, calculation, agnosia, apraxia, speech, and sensory-motor-reflex phenomena. The BROCAS SCAN (total) correlated extremely well with neuropsychiatric prediction, MRI changes, and neuropsychological testing, and distinguished diagnoses, demonstrating construct and face validity. It also accounted for a larger proportion of variance than the MMSE in correlating with these parameters and was more sensitive in mildly cognitive impaired patients. The briefer first section of the BROCAS SCAN, the core SCAN, also showed statistically relevant relationships to age, diagnosis, MRI, and neuropsychiatric prediction.

  5. Quantitation of the prominent medullary pyramid: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Paling, M R; Black, W C

    1986-06-01

    We propose a revised objective measurement of the size of the renal medullary pyramid in the assessment of the prominent renal pyramid: the medullary-renal ratio (MRR). (Formula: see text). This is a more accurate assessment of the size of the renal pyramid relative to the size of the kidney than the previously proposed medullary pyramid index, which fails to take into account the varying morphology of otherwise normal kidneys.

  6. STRUCTURE OF PROMINENCE LEGS: PLASMA AND MAGNETIC FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Levens, P. J.; Labrosse, N.; Schmieder, B.; Ariste, A. López

    2016-02-10

    We investigate the properties of a “solar tornado” observed on 2014 July 15, and aim to link the behavior of the plasma to the internal magnetic field structure of the associated prominence. We made multi-wavelength observations with high spatial resolution and high cadence using SDO/AIA, the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) spectrograph, and the Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) instrument. Along with spectropolarimetry provided by the Télescope Héliographique pour l’Etude du Magnétisme et des Instabilités Solaires telescope we have coverage of both optically thick emission lines and magnetic field information. AIA reveals that the two legs of the prominence are strongly absorbing structures which look like they are rotating, or oscillating in the plane of the sky. The two prominence legs, which are both very bright in Ca ii (SOT), are not visible in the IRIS Mg ii slit-jaw images. This is explained by the large optical thickness of the structures in Mg ii, which leads to reversed profiles, and hence to lower integrated intensities at these locations than in the surroundings. Using lines formed at temperatures lower than 1 MK, we measure relatively low Doppler shifts on the order of ±10 km s{sup −1} in the tornado-like structure. Between the two legs we see loops in Mg ii, with material flowing from one leg to the other, as well as counterstreaming. It is difficult to interpret our data as showing two rotating, vertical structures that are unrelated to the loops. This kind of “tornado” scenario does not fit with our observations. The magnetic field in the two legs of the prominence is found to be preferentially horizontal.

  7. Structure of Prominence Legs: Plasma and Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levens, P. J.; Schmieder, B.; Labrosse, N.; López Ariste, A.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the properties of a “solar tornado” observed on 2014 July 15, and aim to link the behavior of the plasma to the internal magnetic field structure of the associated prominence. We made multi-wavelength observations with high spatial resolution and high cadence using SDO/AIA, the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) spectrograph, and the Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) instrument. Along with spectropolarimetry provided by the Télescope Héliographique pour l’Etude du Magnétisme et des Instabilités Solaires telescope we have coverage of both optically thick emission lines and magnetic field information. AIA reveals that the two legs of the prominence are strongly absorbing structures which look like they are rotating, or oscillating in the plane of the sky. The two prominence legs, which are both very bright in Ca ii (SOT), are not visible in the IRIS Mg ii slit-jaw images. This is explained by the large optical thickness of the structures in Mg ii, which leads to reversed profiles, and hence to lower integrated intensities at these locations than in the surroundings. Using lines formed at temperatures lower than 1 MK, we measure relatively low Doppler shifts on the order of ±10 km s-1 in the tornado-like structure. Between the two legs we see loops in Mg ii, with material flowing from one leg to the other, as well as counterstreaming. It is difficult to interpret our data as showing two rotating, vertical structures that are unrelated to the loops. This kind of “tornado” scenario does not fit with our observations. The magnetic field in the two legs of the prominence is found to be preferentially horizontal.

  8. 22. GENERAL VIEW OF MILL FROM SOUTHEAST. PROMINENT ARE THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. GENERAL VIEW OF MILL FROM SOUTHEAST. PROMINENT ARE THE 100-TON STEEL CRUSHED UNOXIDIZED ORE BIN, CENTER LEFT; STEPHENS-ADAMSON 15 TON/HR INCLINED BUCKET ELEVATOR IN FRONT OF THE STEEL ORE BIN; AND THE BAKER COOLER, LOWER RIGHT. THESE MACHINES AND OTHERS IN THE AREA WERE PART OF THE UNOXIDIZED ORE CIRCUIT. THE ROASTER IS OUT OF THE PICTURE TO THE RIGHT (EAST). - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  9. Coronal transverse magnetohydrodynamic waves in a solar prominence.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, T J; Tsuneta, S; Berger, T E; Ichimoto, K; Katsukawa, Y; Lites, B W; Nagata, S; Shibata, K; Shimizu, T; Shine, R A; Suematsu, Y; Tarbell, T D; Title, A M

    2007-12-07

    Solar prominences are cool 10(4) kelvin plasma clouds supported in the surrounding 10(6) kelvin coronal plasma by as-yet-undetermined mechanisms. Observations from Hinode show fine-scale threadlike structures oscillating in the plane of the sky with periods of several minutes. We suggest that these represent Alfvén waves propagating on coronal magnetic field lines and that these may play a role in heating the corona.

  10. Can patients without early, prominent visual deficits still be diagnosed of posterior cortical atrophy?

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-González, A.; Crutch, S.J.; Roldán Lora, F.; Franco-Macías, E.; Gil-Néciga, E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Early and progressive disabling visual impairment is a core feature for the diagnosis of posterior cortical atrophy (PCA). However, some individuals that fulfil criteria over time might initially present with an onset of prominent posterior dysfunction other than visuoperceptual. Methods The clinical profile of five patients with a predominantly ‘non-visual’ posterior presentation (PCA2) was investigated and compared with sixteen individuals with visually predominant PCA (PCA1) and eighteen with typical amnestic Alzheimer disease (tAD). Results PCA2 patients showed significantly better performance than PCA1 in one visuospatial task and were free of Balint's syndrome and visual agnosia. Compared to tAD, PCA2 showed trends towards significantly lower performance in visuoperceptual tasks, more severe apraxia and more symptoms of Gerstmann's syndrome. Conclusions Our sample of PCA2 patients did not present with clinically prominent visual symptoms but did show visual dysfunction on formal neuropsychological assessment (less pronounced than in PCA1 but more than in tAD) in addition to other posterior deficits. Broadening the definition of PCA to encompass individuals presenting with prominent ‘non-visual’ posterior dysfunction should be potentially considered in clinical and research contexts. PMID:27423559

  11. Predicting Node Degree Centrality with the Node Prominence Profile

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Dong, Yuxiao; Chawla, Nitesh V.

    2014-01-01

    Centrality of a node measures its relative importance within a network. There are a number of applications of centrality, including inferring the influence or success of an individual in a social network, and the resulting social network dynamics. While we can compute the centrality of any node in a given network snapshot, a number of applications are also interested in knowing the potential importance of an individual in the future. However, current centrality is not necessarily an effective predictor of future centrality. While there are different measures of centrality, we focus on degree centrality in this paper. We develop a method that reconciles preferential attachment and triadic closure to capture a node's prominence profile. We show that the proposed node prominence profile method is an effective predictor of degree centrality. Notably, our analysis reveals that individuals in the early stage of evolution display a distinctive and robust signature in degree centrality trend, adequately predicted by their prominence profile. We evaluate our work across four real-world social networks. Our findings have important implications for the applications that require prediction of a node's future degree centrality, as well as the study of social network dynamics. PMID:25429797

  12. Twisting, Rolling Motions, and Helicity in Prominence Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKillop, Sean; Miralles, Mari Paz; Murphy, Nicholas A.; McCauley, Patrick; Su, Yingna

    2015-04-01

    Panasenco et al. [1] report observations of several CMEs that display a rolling motion about the axis of the erupting prominence. Murphy et al. [2] present simulations of line-tied asymmetric magnetic reconnection that make a falsifiable prediction regarding the handedness of rolling motions of flux ropes during solar eruptions. Mass motions in prominence eruptions tend to be complicated and characterizing these motions is a challenge. We use the AIA filament eruption catalog [3] as a source for finding events. If rolling motions are detected then we will investigate the handedness prediction. We use magnetograms from HMI to determine the strength and asymmetric properties of the photospheric magnetic field in the regions of interest and will use AIA observations to determine the handedness of the rolling motions. We then compare the photospheric magnetic information with the handedness to determine if there is a relationship between the two. We also determine the chirality of the prominences to see if there is any interesting relationship to the twist, rolling motion and/or handedness of the roll.[1] O. Panasenco, S. Martin, A. D. Joshi, & N. Srivastava, J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys., 73, 1129 (2011)[2] N. A. Murphy, M. P. Miralles, C. L. Pope, J. C. Raymond, H. D. Winter, K. K. Reeves, D. B. Seaton, A. A. van Ballegooijen, & J. Lin, ApJ, 751, 56 (2012)[3] http://aia.cfa.harvard.edu/filament/

  13. 77 FR 3779 - Guidance for Industry on Product Name Placement, Size, and Prominence in Advertising and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... Prominence in Advertising and Promotional Labeling; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... guidance document entitled ``Product Name Placement, Size, and Prominence in Advertising and Promotional..., size, prominence, and frequency in promotional labeling and advertising for prescription human...

  14. Propagating waves transverse to the magnetic field in a solar prominence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucera, Therese; Schmieder, Brigitte; Knizhnik, Kalman; Lopez-Ariste, Arturo; Luna, Manuel; Toot, David

    2014-01-01

    We have observed a quiescent prominence with the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) (Ca II and Hα lines), Sacramento Peak Dunn Solar Telescope using the Universal Birefringent Filter (DST/UBF, in Hα, Hβ and Sodium-D lines), THEMIS (Télescope Héliographique pour l Etude du Magnétisme et des Instabilités Solaires/MTR (Multi Raies) spectromagnetograph (He D3), and the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA) in EUV over a 4 hour period on 2012 October 10. The small fields of view of the SOT, DST, and MTR are centered on a large prominence footpoint extending towards the surface. This feature appears in the larger field of view of the AIA/304 Å filtergram as a large, quasi-vertical pillar with loops on each side. The THEMIS/MTR data indicate that the magnetic field in the pillar is essentially horizontal and the observations in the optical domain show a large number of horizontally aligned features in the pillar. The data are consistent with a model of cool prominence plasma trapped in the dips of horizontal field lines. The SOT and DST data show what appear to be moving wave pulses. These pulses, which include a Doppler signature, move vertically, perpendicular to the field direction, along quasi-vertical columns of horizontal threads in the pillar. The pulses have a velocity of propagation of about 10 km/s, a wavelength about 2000 km in the plane of the sky, and a period about 280 sec. We interpret these waves in terms of fast magnetosonic waves.

  15. Formation and Evolution of a Multi-Threaded Prominence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luna, M.; Karpen, J. T.; DeVore, C. R.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the process of formation and subsequent evolution of prominence plasma in a filament channel and its overlying arcade. We construct a three-dimensional time-dependent model of a filament-channel prominence suitable to be compared with observations. We combine this magnetic field structure with one-dimensional independent simulations of many flux tubes. The magnetic structure is a three-dimensional sheared double arcade, and the thermal non-equilibrium process governs the plasma evolution. We have found that the condensations in the corona can be divided into two populations: threads and blobs. Threads are massive condensations that linger in the field line dips. Blobs are ubiquitous small condensations that are produced throughout the filament and overlying arcade magnetic structure, and rapidly fall to the chromosphere. The total prominence mass is in agreement with observations. The threads are the principal contributors to the total mass, whereas the blob contribution is small. The motion of the threads is basically horizontal, while blobs move in all directions along the field. The peak velocities for both populations are comparable, but there is a weak tendency for the velocity to increase with the inclination, and the blobs with motion near vertical have the largest values of the velocity. We have generated synthetic images of the whole structure in an H proxy and in two EUV channels of the AIA instrument aboard SDO. These images show the plasma at cool, warm and hot temperatures. The theoretical differential emission measure of our system agrees very well with observations in the temperature range log T = 4.6-5.7. We conclude that the sheared-arcade magnetic structure and plasma dynamics fit well the abundant observational evidence.

  16. Exaltation in temporal lobe epilepsy: neuropsychiatric symptom or portal to the divine?

    PubMed

    McCrae, Niall; Whitley, Rob

    2014-09-01

    Religiosity is a prominent feature of the Geschwind syndrome, a behavioural pattern found in some cases of temporal lobe epilepsy. Since the 1950s, when Wilder Penfield induced spiritual feelings by experimental manipulation of the temporal lobes, development of brain imaging technology has revealed neural correlates of intense emotional states, spurring the growth of neurotheology. In their secular empiricism, psychiatry, neurology and psychology are inclined to pathologise deviant religious expression, thereby reinforcing the dualism of objective and phenomenal worlds. Considering theological perspectives and the idea of cosmic consciousness, the authors urge a holistic approach to the spiritual events of epileptic aura, potentially leading to a deeper understanding of the mind and its transcendent potential.

  17. Prominent Eustachian Valve in Newborns: A Report of Four Cases

    PubMed Central

    Gad, Ashraf; Mannan, Javed; Chhabra, Manoj; Zhang, Xi Xiao Yang; Narula, Pramod; Hoang, Danthanh

    2015-01-01

    The Eustachian valve (EV) is an embryological remnant of the inferior vena cava that during fetal life helps divert oxygenated blood from the IVC toward the foramen ovale to escape the pulmonary circulation. This remnant usually regresses after birth and is considered a benign finding in the majority of cases. However, EV can lead to complications in the neonatal period or later in life. In this short case series, we present four newborn infants with prominent EV who were symptomatic after birth and required admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. PMID:26929867

  18. Model of quiescent prominence with the helical magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solov'ev, A. A.; Korolkova, O. A.; Kirichek, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    A new exact analytical solution of the magnetohydrostatic problem describes the equilibrium of a solitary, dense-cool solar filament maintained against the gravity by magnetic force in hot solar corona at heights up to 20-40 Mm. The filament is assumed to be uniform along the axis (the translation symmetry). The magnetic field of the filament has the helical structure (magnetic flux rope) with a typical strength of a few Gauss in the region of minimal temperature (about 4000 K). The model can be applied to the quiescent prominence of both normal and inverse magnetic polarity.

  19. Prominent β-relaxations in yttrium based metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, P.; Lu, Z.; Zhu, Z. G.; Li, Y. Z.; Bai, H. Y.; Wang, W. H.

    2015-01-19

    Most metallic glasses (MGs) exhibit weak slow β-relaxation. We report the prominent β-relaxation in YNiAl metallic glass with a wide composition range. Compared with other MGs, the MGs show a pronounced β-relaxation peak and high β-relaxation peak temperature, and the β-relaxation behavior varies significantly with the changes of the constituent elements, which is attributed to the fluctuations of chemical interactions between the components. We demonstrate the correlation between the β-relaxation and the activation of flow units for mechanical behaviors of the MG and show that the MG is model system for studying some controversial issues in glasses.

  20. Neuropsychiatric symptoms, behavioural disorders, and quality of life in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Balestrino, Roberta; Martinez-Martin, Pablo

    2017-02-15

    Parkinson's disease is a complex neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor and non-motor symptoms, with neuropsychiatric manifestations among the most frequent non-motor symptoms. Health-related quality of life is a patient-reported outcome that reflects the impact of the disease on physical, mental, and social wellbeing, and on other aspects of patient' life. Although older studies on health-related quality of life in Parkinson's disease mainly investigated the role of the motor impairment, recent research focused on non-motor symptoms has highlighted the critical role that behavioural disturbances due to neuropsychiatric symptoms play in determining health related quality of life. A considerable number of studies have demonstrated the importance of depression as a determinant of health-related quality of life in this population, but less evidence is available regarding the role of other neuropsychiatric symptoms such as anxiety, apathy, psychosis, and impulse control disorders. This narrative review analyses recent literature on this topic, focusing on studies in which neuropsychiatric symptoms were investigated as potential determinants of quality of life using regression techniques, including discussion of the assessment tools used.

  1. Reprint of "Neuropsychiatric symptoms, behavioural disorders, and quality of life in Parkinson's disease".

    PubMed

    Balestrino, Roberta; Martinez-Martin, Pablo

    2017-03-15

    Parkinson's disease is a complex neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor and non-motor symptoms, with neuropsychiatric manifestations among the most frequent non-motor symptoms. Health-related quality of life is a patient-reported outcome that reflects the impact of the disease on physical, mental, and social wellbeing, and on other aspects of patient' life. Although older studies on health-related quality of life in Parkinson's disease mainly investigated the role of the motor impairment, recent research focused on non-motor symptoms has highlighted the critical role that behavioural disturbances due to neuropsychiatric symptoms play in determining health related quality of life. A considerable number of studies have demonstrated the importance of depression as a determinant of health-related quality of life in this population, but less evidence is available regarding the role of other neuropsychiatric symptoms such as anxiety, apathy, psychosis, and impulse control disorders. This narrative review analyses recent literature on this topic, focusing on studies in which neuropsychiatric symptoms were investigated as potential determinants of quality of life using regression techniques, including discussion of the assessment tools used.

  2. Beyond Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) and Delirium: A Systematic Review of UTIs and Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Chae, Jung Hee Jennifer; Miller, Brian J

    2015-11-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections. Although comorbid UTI in geriatric patients with delirium or dementia is well known, the prevalence and scope of the association with other neuropsychiatric disorders is unclear. We performed a systematic review of the association between UTIs and delirium, dementia, psychotic disorders, and mood disorders in hospitalized patients. We identified studies by searching PubMed, PsycInfo, and Web of Knowledge, and the reference lists of identified studies and review papers. Seventeen publications met the inclusion criteria. The primary findings were: (1) 88% of publications reported a positive association between UTIs and neuropsychiatric disorders; (2) 47% reported that the clinical course of a neuropsychiatric disorder may be precipitated or exacerbated by a UTI; (3) the mean weighted prevalence of UTIs in subjects was 19.4% for delirium, 11.2% for dementia, 21.7% for nonaffective psychotic disorders, and 17.8% for mood disorders. Our findings, which must be interpreted carefully given the heterogeneity among the studies, suggest that UTIs are highly comorbid in hospitalized patients and may precipitate or exacerbate some neuropsychiatric disorders. The association extends beyond geriatric patients with delirium, affects males and females, and includes adults with psychotic and mood disorders. These findings underscore the important interface between physical and mental health. Potential underlying mechanisms are also reviewed, including complex interactions between the immune system and the brain.

  3. The Double Helix Takes the Witness Stand: Behavioral and Neuropsychiatric Genetics in Court

    PubMed Central

    Appelbaum, Paul S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Data on neuropsychiatric and behavioral genetics have attracted legal interest, as attorneys explore their use in criminal and civil cases. These developments may assist judges and juries in making difficult judgments—but they bring substantial risk of misinterpretation and misuse. PMID:24908480

  4. Homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12 in neuropsychiatric diseases: review and treatment recommendations.

    PubMed

    Stanger, Olaf; Fowler, Brian; Piertzik, Klaus; Huemer, Martina; Haschke-Becher, Elisabeth; Semmler, Alexander; Lorenzl, Stefan; Linnebank, Michael

    2009-09-01

    In Europe, neuropsychiatric diseases currently make up approximately a third of the total burden of disease. In 2004, 27% of the overall population was affected by at least one of the most frequent neuropsychiatric diseases such as Alzheimer's dementia, Parkinson's disease, stroke or depression. The annual costs of care exceed those of cancer, cardiovascular conditions and diabetes. In order to delay the onset or course of neurodegenerative diseases, the available potential should be utilized. As well as improving quality of life of patients and relatives, this may reduce the great financial burden caused by neurodegenerative disorders. However, the availability of established drugs or therapeutic agents is very limited. This paper reviews the state of current knowledge as to how homocysteine metabolism is relevant for neurodegenerative and other neuropsychiatric diseases, with particular emphasis on the evidence for prophylactic and therapeutic strategies. In the European countries, many people do not take the recommended daily minimum amount of folate and vitamin B12. Deficiency of these vitamins and secondary changes in the concentrations of associated metabolites, such as methylmalonic acid and homocysteine, may contribute to the onset and progression of neuropsychiatric diseases. This paper reviews the evidence regarding whether substitution of folate and vitamin B12 is beneficial, for example, in cerebrovascular disease, dementia and depression.

  5. Paedatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcal Infection in an Indian Adolescent--A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Sachin; Vaish, Supriya; Chopra, Saurabh; Singh, Vindyaprakash; Sharma, Priyanka

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders associated with Streptococcal infection (PANDAS) is a unique constellation of signs and symptoms that exist in a subset of children with rapid onset or exacerbation of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and/or tic disorders due to an initial autoimmune reaction to a Group A Beta Hemolytic…

  6. Genetics and Epigenetics of Circadian Rhythms and Their Potential Roles in Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chunyu; Chung, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms alterations have been implicated in multiple neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly sleep-wake disorders, addiction, and anxiety and mood disorders. Circadian rhythms are known to be maintained by a set of classic clock genes that form complex mutual and self regulatory loops. While many other genes showing rhythmic expression have been identified through genome-wide studies, their roles in the circadian regulation remain largely unknown. In attempts to directly connect circadian rhythms and neuropsychiatric disorders, genetic studies have identified genes with mutations associated with several rare forms of sleep disorders or sleep-related traits. Other than that, genetic studies of circadian genes in psychiatric disorders have yielded limited success. As important mediator of environmental factors and regulators of circadian rhythms, the epigenetic system may hold the key to the etiology or pathology of psychiatric disorders, their subtypes or endophenotypes. Epigenomic regulations of the circadian system and its related changes have not been thoroughly explored in the context of neuropsychiatric disorders. We argue for systematic investigation of the circadian system, particularly epigenetic regulation, and its involvement in neuropsychiatric disorders, to improve our understanding of human behavior and disease etiology. PMID:25652815

  7. Physical activity attenuates neuropsychiatric disturbances and caregiver burden in patients with dementia

    PubMed Central

    Christofoletti, Gustavo; Oliani, Merlyn Mércia; Bucken-Gobbi, Lílian Teresa; Gobbi, Sebastião; Beinotti, Fernanda; Stella, Florindo

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A significant benefit from physical activity has recently been described in some patients who suffer from neurodegenerative diseases. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of physical activity on neuropsychiatric disturbances in demented patients and on the mental burden of their caregivers. METHODS: Assisted by a public geriatric psychiatry clinical unit, we studied 59 patients with dementia. Patients were divided into three groups according to their diagnosis and level of physical activity. Data were assessed through a semi-structured interview. Patients were evaluated with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, the Mini-Sleep Questionnaire and the Baecke Questionnaire. The data were statistically analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test and linear regression, with the level of significance set at 5%. RESULTS: Patients with Alzheimer's or vascular dementia who engaged in physical activity had fewer neuropsychiatric symptoms than those who did not. When compared to the control group, the caregivers of patients with vascular dementia who engaged in physical activity had a reduced burden. CONCLUSION: The regular practice of physical activity seems to contribute to a reduction in neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia patients and to attenuate the burden of the caregivers of those patients. PMID:21655755

  8. Effects of Neonatal Dexamethasone Exposure on Adult Neuropsychiatric Traits in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Donald; Rodger, Jennifer; Martin-Iverson, Mathew T.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of early life stress in utero or in neonates has long-term consequences on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis function and neurodevelopment. These effects extend into adulthood and may underpin a variety of mental illnesses and be related to various developmental and cognitive changes. We examined the potential role of neonatal HPA axis activation on adult psychopathology and dopamine sensitivity in the mature rat using neonatal exposure to the synthetic glucocorticoid receptor agonist and stress hormone, dexamethasone. We utilized a comprehensive battery of assessments for behaviour, brain function and gene expression to determine if elevated early life HPA activation is associated with adult-onset neuropsychiatric traits. Dexamethasone exposure increased startle reactivity under all conditions tested, but decreased sensitivity of sensorimotor gating to dopaminergic disruption–contrasting with what is observed in several neuropsychiatric diseases. Under certain conditions there also appeared to be mild long-term changes in stress and anxiety-related behaviours with neonatal dexamethasone exposure. Electrophysiology revealed that there were no consistent neuropsychiatric abnormalities in auditory processing or resting state brain function with dexamethasone exposure. However, neonatal dexamethasone altered auditory cortex glucocorticoid activation, and auditory cortex synchronization. Our results indicate that neonatal HPA axis activation by dexamethasone alters several aspects of adult brain function and behaviour and may induce long-term changes in emotional stress-reactivity. However, neonatal dexamethasone exposure is not specifically related to any particular neuropsychiatric disease. PMID:27936175

  9. Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infection: A Case-Control Study among Privately Insured Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Douglas L.; Kozma, Laura; Martin, Andres; Landeros, Angeli; Katsovich, Liliya; King, Robert A.; Leckman, James F.

    2008-01-01

    The link between streptococcal infections and the onset of a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders is studied using a national sample of privately insured children. Findings suggest that patients with new-onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder, Tourette syndrome or tic orders were more likely to have been diagnosed with streptococcal infections in…

  10. Annual Research Review: The Promise of Stem Cell Research for Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaccarino, Flora M.; Urban, Alexander Eckehart; Stevens, Hanna E.; Szekely, Anna; Abyzov, Alexej; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Gerstein, Mark; Weissman, Sherman

    2011-01-01

    The study of the developing brain has begun to shed light on the underpinnings of both early and adult onset neuropsychiatric disorders. Neuroimaging of the human brain across developmental time points and the use of model animal systems have combined to reveal brain systems and gene products that may play a role in autism spectrum disorders,…

  11. Addressing neuropsychiatric disturbances during rehabilitation after traumatic brain injury: current and future methods

    PubMed Central

    Arciniegas, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive, emotional, behavioral, and sensorimotor disturbances are the principal clinical manifestations of traumatic brain injury (TBI) throughout the early postinjury period. These post-traumatic neuropsychiatric disturbances present substantial challenges to patients, their families, and clinicians providing their rehabilitative care, the optimal approaches to which remain incompletely developed. In this article, a neuropsychiairically informed, neurobiologically anchored approach to understanding and meeting challenges is described. The foundation for thai approach is laid, with a review of clinical case definitions of TBI and clarification of their intended referents. The differential diagnosis of event-related neuropsychiatric disturbances is considered next, after which the clinical and neurobiological heterogeneity within the diagnostic category of TBI are discussed. The clinical manifestations of biomechanical force-induced brain dysfunction are described as a state of post-traumatic encephalopathy (PTE) comprising several phenomenologically distinct stages, PTE is then used as a framework for understanding and clinically evaluating the neuropsychiatric sequelae of TBI encountered commonly during the early post-injury rehabilitation period, and for considering the types and timings of neurorehabilitative interventions. Finally, directions for future research that may address productively the challenges to TBI rehabilitation presented by neuropsychiatric disturbances are considered. PMID:22034400

  12. Leisure-time physical activity and neuropsychiatric symptoms of community-dwelling persons with cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Yi-Chen; Kolanowski, Ann M; Huang, Chien-Ying; Lin, Li-Jung; Chang, Ting-Huan; Hsu, Kuang-Hung; Hu, Chaur-Jong; Chen, Ying-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Physical activities are recommended to reduce neuropsychiatric symptoms of nursing home residents with mild dementia. However, relevant information is not available for community-dwelling persons with cognitive impairment. Therefore, this cross-sectional study examined the effects of leisure-time physical activities on cognitively impaired persons' neuropsychiatric symptoms and their family caregivers' distress. Activities were described in terms of their frequency, duration, number of different types, and energy expenditure. Participants were 58 dyads of persons with cognitive impairment and their family caregivers. Data on leisure-time physical activities and neuropsychiatric symptoms were collected using a 7-Day Physical Activity Recall and Chinese Neuropsychiatric Inventory, respectively. The most frequently reported activity was strolling (70.7%). The mean weekly activity frequency, duration, and energy expenditure were 4.52 (SD=4.27) times, 3.7 (SD=4.38) h, and 771.47 (SD=886.38) kcal, respectively. The number of different activity types negatively and significantly predicted cognitively impaired persons' mood and psychosis as well as family caregivers' distress.

  13. TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE OBSERVATIONS OF HOT PROMINENCE SHROUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Habbal, S. Rifai; Morgan, H.; Scholl, I.; Druckmueller, M.; Rusin, V.; Daw, A.; Johnson, J.; Arndt, M.

    2010-08-20

    Using observations of the corona taken during the total solar eclipses of 2006 March 29 and 2008 August 1 in broadband white light and in narrow bandpass filters centered at Fe X 637.4 nm, Fe XI 789.2 nm, Fe XIII 1074.7 nm, and Fe XIV 530.3 nm, we show that prominences observed off the solar limb are enshrouded in hot plasmas within twisted magnetic structures. These shrouds, which are commonly referred to as cavities in the literature, are clearly distinct from the overlying arch-like structures that form the base of streamers. The existence of these hot shrouds had been predicted by model studies dating back to the early 1970s, with more recent studies implying their association with twisted magnetic flux ropes. The eclipse observations presented here, which cover a temperature range of 0.9 to 2 x10{sup 6} K, are the first to resolve the long-standing ambiguity associated with the temperature and magnetic structure of prominence cavities.

  14. A confined prominence eruption on May 7, 1979

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchlev, P.; Koleva, K.; Dechev, M.; Petrov, N.; Rompolt, B.; Rudawy, P.

    A confined prominence eruption at the solar limb on 7 May 1979 associated with slow coronal mass ejection was observed and reported. The aim was to probe the kinking of the eruptive prominence (EP) loop and its relation to the processes coronal field confinement on erupting flux rope. The EP represents helically writhed (kinked) loop with fixed feet that presents a disturbed segment of a long-lived filament, located within a multipolar magnetic configuration. The rising of the EP apex and its velocity range suggest that the observation span late stage of the eruption. In terms of magnetic flux rope hypothesis, the kinking evolution of the EP flux rope was estimated by the normalized difference between heights of the flux rope apex and projected cross-point of its kinked legs, and the angle α between the kinked legs below the cross-point. The results suggest that the kink instability was in progress at the onset of observations and to the end of the eruption, the EP flux rope presented a large amount of kinking. Oscillations of the angle α with a period of 14 minutes, accompanying its increasing, suggest oscillations of the EP flux rope during the eruption. A possible scenario for confined eruption at the limb on 7 May 1979 was suggested, in which a breakout-type reconnection could occur above the EP but within a flux rope itself.

  15. Rolling Motions During Solar Prominence Eruptions in Asymmetric Magnetic Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKillop, Sean; Miralles, Mari Paz; Murphy, Nicholas Arnold; McCauley, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    Panasenco et al. [1] report observations of several CMEs that display a rolling motion about the axis of the erupting prominence. Murphy et al. [2] present simulations of line-tied asymmetric magnetic reconnection that make a falsifiable prediction regarding the handedness of rolling motions of flux ropes during solar eruptions. We will present initial results of our work to investigate this prediction. To determine the strength and any asymmetric properties of the magnetic field in the regions of interest in the photosphere, we use magnetograms from HMI. We use AIA observations to determine if there is any rolling motion and, if so, what handedness the rolling motions have. We then compare the photospheric magnetic information with the handedness information to determine if there is any relationship between the two. Finally, we will discuss prospects for diagnosing rolling motions of erupting prominence using off-limb IRIS observations.[1] O. Panasenco, S. Martin, A. D. Joshi, & N. Srivastava, J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys., 73, 1129 (2011)[2] N. A. Murphy, M. P. Miralles, C. L. Pope, J. C. Raymond, H. D. Winter, K. K. Reeves, D. B. Seaton, A. A. van Ballegooijen, & J. Lin, ApJ, 751, 56 (2012)

  16. Formation of Galactic Prominence in the Galactic Central Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chih-Han; Matsumoto, Ryoji

    2017-02-01

    We carried out 2.5-dimensional resistive MHD simulations to study the formation mechanism of molecular loops observed by Fukui et al. in the Galactic central region. Since it is hard to form molecular loops by lifting up dense molecular gas, we study the formation mechanism of molecular gas in rising magnetic arcades. This model is based on the in situ formation model of solar prominences, in which prominences are formed by cooling instability in helical magnetic flux ropes formed by imposing converging and shearing motion at footpoints of the magnetic arch anchored to the solar surface. We extended this model to Galactic center scale (a few hundreds of parsecs). Numerical results indicate that magnetic reconnection taking place in the current sheet that formed inside the rising magnetic arcade creates dense blobs confined by the rising helical magnetic flux ropes. Thermal instability taking place in the flux ropes forms dense molecular filaments floating at high Galactic latitude. The mass of the filament increases with time and can exceed {10}5 {M}ȯ .

  17. Latent classes of neuropsychiatric symptoms in NACC controls and conversion to MCI or dementia

    PubMed Central

    Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S.; Forrester, Sarah N.; Lyketsos, Constantine G.; Smith, Gwenn S.

    2015-01-01

    Background A number of studies have linked neuropsychiatric symptoms to increase risk of dementia. Objective To determine if risk of conversion to mild cognitive impairment or dementia among healthy controls varied as a function of their pattern of neuropsychiatric symptoms. Method We studied individuals in the National Alzheimer Coordinating Center dataset collected from 34 Alzheimer Disease Centers between 2005 and 2013. The analysis included 4,517 volunteers who were ≥ 60 years old, cognitively normal, and had complete Neuropsychiatric Inventory data at their baseline visit, and had at least one follow-up. We used latent class analysis to identify 4 classes based on patterns of NPI symptoms. We used a cox proportional hazards model to determine if time to MCI or dementia varied by baseline latent class membership. Results We identified 4 latent classes of neuropsychiatric symptoms: irritable, depressed, complex (depression, apathy, irritability and nighttime behaviors) and asymptomatic. 873 participants converted to MCI or dementia. Hazard ratios for conversion by class were 1.76 (95% CI: 1.34, 2.33) for the irritable class, 3.20 (95% CI: 2.24, 4.58) for the complex class, and 1.90 (95% CI: 1.49, 2.43) for the depressed class, with the asymptomatic class as the reference. Conclusions Membership in all 3 symptomatic classes was associated with greater risk of conversion to MCI or dementia; the complex class had the greatest risk. Different patterns of neuropsychiatric symptoms may represent different underlying neuropathological pathways to dementia. Further work imaging and pathology research is necessary to determine if this is the case. PMID:26402012

  18. Autoantibodies involved in neuropsychiatric manifestations associated with systemic lupus erythematosus: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sciascia, Savino; Bertolaccini, Maria Laura; Roccatello, Dario; Khamashta, Munther A; Sanna, Giovanni

    2014-09-01

    Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) is one of the most important manifestations of SLE, and includes a variety of clinical manifestations, classified by the American College of Rheumatology in 19 different neuropsychiatric syndromes. To date, more than 116 antibodies have been reported in SLE and at least 20 of them, including 11 brain-specific and 9 systemic antibodies, have been controversially associated with NPSLE. To systematically review the available evidence, to define the association between the above antibodies and NPSLE as a whole and with the 19 neuropsychiatric syndromes associated with SLE, by strictly applying the American College Rheumatology case definitions. Medline reports published between 1999 and 2013 investigating the association between antibodies and NPSLE were included. Whenever possible, associations between antibodies and both NPSLE as a whole and with the 19 syndromes were analysed. This systematic review is based on available data from more than 8,000 patients and controls from 42 studies analysing antibodies and NPSLE. Nineteen studies analysed the role of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), 11 focused on anti-ribosomal-P protein antibodies and 5 on anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor antibodies. Two studies analysed, respectively, antibodies to aquaporin-4 and VH4-34 encoded antibodies. Given the multitude of clinical manifestations related to NPSLE, a single biomarker failed to be reliably associated with all neuropsychiatric events. Our findings provide evidence that aPL, mainly the lupus anticoagulant, and anti-ribosomal P antibodies are significantly associated with specific manifestations of neuropsychiatric disease attributed to SLE, namely, cerebrovascular events and psychosis, respectively.

  19. Alcohol coverage in California newspapers: frequency, prominence, and framing.

    PubMed

    Myhre, Sonja L; Saphir, Melissa Nichols; Flora, June A; Howard, Kim Ammann; Gonzalez, Emily McChesney

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the nature and extent of alcohol coverage in California newspapers by examining the frequency, positioning, and framing of alcohol-related articles. A content analysis assessed the frequency and nature of alcohol references in news content drawn from a random sample of nine California newspaper issues from September 1997 to June 1998. The study findings indicate that alcohol is mentioned at least once a day in daily newspapers with more frequent mention in smaller newspapers. Alcohol is most often discussed in relation to trauma or in the context of promoting alcohol consumption. Articles on trauma and driving while intoxicated receive more prominence than other stories mentioning alcohol. Despite the relative frequency of alcohol content in trauma news, these stories are rarely framed with any sort of health context. Public health advocates should work toward increasing the frequency and improving the framing of alcohol in newspaper coverage.

  20. Measurement of prominent eta-decay branching fractions.

    PubMed

    Lopez, A; Mehrabyan, S; Mendez, H; Ramirez, J; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Sanghi, B; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Anderson, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Hu, D; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Khalil, S; Li, J; Menaa, N; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Sia, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Naik, P; Briere, R A; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Adam, N E; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Galik, R S; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Mohapatra, D; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Athar, S B; Patel, R; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Lowrey, N; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Zweber, P; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Ernst, J; Ecklund, K M; Severini, H; Love, W; Savinov, V

    2007-09-21

    The decay psi(2S) --> etaJ/psi is used to measure, for the first time, all prominent eta-meson branching fractions with the same experiment in the same dataset, thereby providing a consistent treatment of systematics across branching fractions. We present results for eta decays to gamma gamma, pi(+)pi(-)pi(0), 3pi(0), pi(+)pi(-)gamma and e(+)e(-)gamma, accounting for 99.9% of all eta decays. The precision of several of the branching fractions and their ratios is improved. Two channels, pi(+)pi(-)gamma and e(+)e(-)gamma, show results that differ at the level of three standard deviations from those previously determined.

  1. Thermal stability analysis of the fine structure of solar prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demoulin, Pascal; Malherbe, Jean-Marie; Schmieder, Brigitte; Raadu, Mickael A.

    1986-01-01

    The linear thermal stability of a 2D periodic structure (alternatively hot and cold) in a uniform magnetic field is analyzed. The energy equation includes wave heating (assumed proportional to density), radiative cooling and both conduction parallel and orthogonal to magnetic lines. The equilibrium is perturbed at constant gas pressure. With parallel conduction only, it is found to be unstable when the length scale 1// is greater than 45 Mn. In that case, orthogonal conduction becomes important and stabilizes the structure when the length scale is smaller than 5 km. On the other hand, when the length scale is greater than 5 km, the thermal equilibrium is unstable, and the corresponding time scale is about 10,000 s: this result may be compared to observations showing that the lifetime of the fine structure of solar prominences is about one hour; consequently, our computations suggest that the size of the unresolved threads could be of the order of 10 km only.

  2. Stellar Dynamo Models with Prominent Surface Toroidal Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanno, Alfio

    2016-12-01

    Recent spectro-polarimetric observations of solar-type stars have shown the presence of photospheric magnetic fields with a predominant toroidal component. If the external field is assumed to be current-free it is impossible to explain these observations within the framework of standard mean-field dynamo theory. In this work, it will be shown that if the coronal field of these stars is assumed to be harmonic, the underlying stellar dynamo mechanism can support photospheric magnetic fields with a prominent toroidal component even in the presence of axisymmetric magnetic topologies. In particular, it is argued that the observed increase in the toroidal energy in low-mass fast-rotating stars can be naturally explained with an underlying αΩ mechanism.

  3. Modelling of solar magnetic field and prominence structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Shi Tsan

    1988-01-01

    Using plasma theory, the interaction is studied between high frequency and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves from which a set of coupling equations resulted. On the basis of this formalism, the modulation instabilities of an electromagnetic soliton in a current sheet are examined, and it is shown that there is a resistive instability at the onset of the magnetic field reconnection. This mechanism could be used to explain the onset of solar flares and prominences. To improve the resolution of vector magnetic fields at the sun's surface, state-of-the-art optics is examined to improve the design and fabrication of a new spaceborne solar vector magnetograph as part of the SAMEX (Solar Active Measurements Experiment) program.

  4. Old World frog and bird vocalizations contain prominent ultrasonic harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narins, Peter M.; Feng, Albert S.; Lin, Wenyu; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich; Denzinger, Annette; Suthers, Roderick A.; Xu, Chunhe

    2004-02-01

    Several groups of mammals such as bats, dolphins and whales are known to produce ultrasonic signals which are used for navigation and hunting by means of echolocation, as well as for communication. In contrast, frogs and birds produce sounds during night- and day-time hours that are audible to humans; their sounds are so pervasive that together with those of insects, they are considered the primary sounds of nature. Here we show that an Old World frog (Amolops tormotus) and an oscine songbird (Abroscopus albogularis) living near noisy streams reliably produce acoustic signals that contain prominent ultrasonic harmonics. Our findings provide the first evidence that anurans and passerines are capable of generating tonal ultrasonic call components and should stimulate the quest for additional ultrasonic species.

  5. Epidemiology of Injection Drug Use: New Trends and Prominent Issues.

    PubMed

    Roy, Élise; Arruda, Nelson; Bruneau, Julie; Jutras-Aswad, Didier

    2016-03-01

    After more than 30 years of research, numerous studies have shown that injection drug use is associated with a wide range of adverse health outcomes such as drug overdoses, drug-related suicidal behaviours, comorbid psychiatric disorders, bloodborne pathogens and other infectious diseases, and traumas. This review explores new trends and prominent issues associated with injection drug use. The dynamic nature of injection drug use is underlined by examining its recent trends and changing patterns in Canada and other "high-income countries." Three research topics that could further contribute to the development of comprehensive prevention and intervention strategies aimed at people who inject drugs are also discussed: risk behaviours associated with the injection of prescription opioids, binge injection drug use, and mental health problems as determinants of injection risk behaviours.

  6. Sex Differences in Neuropsychiatric Symptoms of Alzheimer's Disease: The Modifying Effect of Apolipoprotein E ε4 Status.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yi; Tang, Yi; Jia, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in neuropsychiatric symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been demonstrated in previous studies, and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4 status influences psychiatric manifestations of AD. However, whether ApoE ε4 status modifies the sex differences in neuropsychiatric symptoms of AD is still unclear. In this study, sex differences in neuropsychiatric abnormalities were stratified and analyzed by ApoE ε4 status in mild AD and moderate to severe AD separately. The Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) were used to assess dementia severity and neuropsychiatric symptoms. No sex differences were found in mild AD. In moderate to severe AD, among ε4 positive individuals, disinhibition was significantly more prevalent (8.0% in men versus 43.2% in women, p = 0.003) and severer (p = 0.003) in female patients. The frequency (16.0% in men versus 51.4% in women, p = 0.005) and score (p = 0.004) of irritability were of borderline significance after strict Bonferroni correction. In conclusion, this study supported the modifying effect of ApoE ε4 status on sex differences in neuropsychiatric symptoms of AD, and this modifying effect was pronounced in moderate to severe stage of AD. The interaction between gender and ApoE ε4 status should be considered in studies on neuropsychiatric symptoms of AD.

  7. Three-Dimensional Morphology of a Coronal Prominence Cavity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, S. E.; Kucera, T. A.; Rastawicki, D.; Dove, J.; deToma, G.; Hao, J.; Hill, S.; Hudson, H. S.; Marque, C.; McIntosh, P. S.; Rachmeler, L.; Reeves, K. K.; Schmieder, B.; Schmit, D. J.; Seaton, D. B.; Sterling, A. C.; Tripathi, D.; Williams, D. R.; Zhang, M.

    2010-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional density model of coronal prominence cavities, and a morphological fit that has been tightly constrained by a uniquely well-observed cavity. Observations were obtained as part of an International Heliophysical Year campaign by instruments from a variety of space- and ground-based observatories, spanning wavelengths from radio to soft-X-ray to integrated white light. From these data it is clear that the prominence cavity is the limb manifestation of a longitudinally-extended polar-crown filament channel, and that the cavity is a region of low density relative to the surrounding corona. As a first step towards quantifying density and temperature from campaign spectroscopic data, we establish the three-dimensional morphology of the cavity. This is critical for taking line-of-sight projection effects into account, since cavities are not localized in the plane of the sky and the corona is optically thin. We have augmented a global coronal streamer model to include a tunnel-like cavity with elliptical cross-section and a Gaussian variation of height along the tunnel length. We have developed a semi-automated routine that fits ellipses to cross-sections of the cavity as it rotates past the solar limb, and have applied it to Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUVI) observations from the two Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) spacecraft. This defines the morphological parameters of our model, from which we reproduce forward-modeled cavity observables. We find that cavity morphology and orientation, in combination with the viewpoints of the observing spacecraft, explains the observed variation in cavity visibility for the east vs. west limbs

  8. A Flux-Rope Scaling of CME and Prominence Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marque, C.; Chen, J.; Vourlidas, A.; Krall, J.; Schuck, P.

    2005-12-01

    It has been known that coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and eruptive prominences (EPs) are closely associated with each other. A major question concerning CMEs and EPS is the magnetic geometry that underlies the eruptive plasma structures. It is now well established that many CMEs can be explained as erupting magnetic flux ropes. However, the coronal magnetic field cannot be directly measured at this time, and therefore the flux rope hypothesis has not been confirmed by magnetic field data. A second unresolved question is the structural relationship between the closely associated CMEs and EPs. Recently, it was theoretically found [1] that the height at which a CME or an EP attains maximum acceleration scales with the footpoint separation distance (S_f) of the underlying magnetic flux rope. This scaling law is characteristic of an erupting flux rope and is universal in that it depends only the flux rope geometry and the Lorentz force acting on the structure. It was shown to be well satisfied based on comparison with a small number of CMEs and EPs, indicating that the erupting structures in these events were initially flux ropes or evolved into flux ropes early enough. In the present paper, we present results of a study using a larger sample of events. In this study, we have analyzed CME events detected by LASCO, for which footpoints are determined by observational proxies such as magnetic neutral line length, and EPs seen in Hα and radio data, for which footpoint locations are observable. We find that CMEs and EPs in this large sample also satisfy the flux-rope scaling law. The results are consistent with the model structure with the bright CME rim at Z+2a and the prominence at Z-a, where Z is the height of the centroid and a is the minor radius of the flux rope, both defined at the apex of the flux rope. 1. Chen, J. and J. Krall, JGR, 108 (A11), 2003

  9. Breast cancer detection using neutron stimulated emission computed tomography: Prominent elements and dose requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, Janelle E.; Kapadia, Anuj J.; Sharma, Amy C.; Tourassi, Georgia D.; Harrawood, Brian P.; Floyd, Carey E. Jr.

    2007-10-15

    Neutron stimulated emission computed tomography (NSECT) is being developed to noninvasively determine concentrations of trace elements in biological tissue. Studies have shown prominent differences in the trace element concentration of normal and malignant breast tissue. NSECT has the potential to detect these differences and diagnose malignancy with high accuracy with dose comparable to that of a single mammogram. In this study, NSECT imaging was simulated for normal and malignant human breast tissue samples to determine the significance of individual elements in determining malignancy. The normal and malignant models were designed with different elemental compositions, and each was scanned spectroscopically using a simulated 2.5 MeV neutron beam. The number of incident neutrons was varied from 0.5 million to 10 million neutrons. The resulting gamma spectra were evaluated through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to determine which trace elements were prominent enough to be considered markers for breast cancer detection. Four elemental isotopes ({sup 133}Cs, {sup 81}Br, {sup 79}Br, and {sup 87}Rb) at five energy levels were shown to be promising features for breast cancer detection with an area under the ROC curve (A{sub Z}) above 0.85. One of these elements - {sup 87}Rb at 1338 keV - achieved perfect classification at 10 million incident neutrons and could be detected with as low as 3 million incident neutrons. Patient dose was calculated for each gamma spectrum obtained and was found to range from between 0.05 and 0.112 mSv depending on the number of neutrons. This simulation demonstrates that NSECT has the potential to noninvasively detect breast cancer through five prominent trace element energy levels, at dose levels comparable to other breast cancer screening techniques.

  10. Microwave frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) produce widespread neuropsychiatric effects including depression.

    PubMed

    Pall, Martin L

    2016-09-01

    Non-thermal microwave/lower frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) act via voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) activation. Calcium channel blockers block EMF effects and several types of additional evidence confirm this mechanism. Low intensity microwave EMFs have been proposed to produce neuropsychiatric effects, sometimes called microwave syndrome, and the focus of this review is whether these are indeed well documented and consistent with the known mechanism(s) of action of such EMFs. VGCCs occur in very high densities throughout the nervous system and have near universal roles in release of neurotransmitters and neuroendocrine hormones. Soviet and Western literature shows that much of the impact of non-thermal microwave exposures in experimental animals occurs in the brain and peripheral nervous system, such that nervous system histology and function show diverse and substantial changes. These may be generated through roles of VGCC activation, producing excessive neurotransmitter/neuroendocrine release as well as oxidative/nitrosative stress and other responses. Excessive VGCC activity has been shown from genetic polymorphism studies to have roles in producing neuropsychiatric changes in humans. Two U.S. government reports from the 1970s to 1980s provide evidence for many neuropsychiatric effects of non-thermal microwave EMFs, based on occupational exposure studies. 18 more recent epidemiological studies, provide substantial evidence that microwave EMFs from cell/mobile phone base stations, excessive cell/mobile phone usage and from wireless smart meters can each produce similar patterns of neuropsychiatric effects, with several of these studies showing clear dose-response relationships. Lesser evidence from 6 additional studies suggests that short wave, radio station, occupational and digital TV antenna exposures may produce similar neuropsychiatric effects. Among the more commonly reported changes are sleep disturbance/insomnia, headache, depression

  11. FINE MAGNETIC STRUCTURE AND ORIGIN OF COUNTER-STREAMING MASS FLOWS IN A QUIESCENT SOLAR PROMINENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Yuandeng; Liu, Yu; Xu, Zhi; Liu, Zhong; Liu, Ying D.; Chen, P. F.; Su, Jiangtao

    2015-11-20

    We present high-resolution observations of a quiescent solar prominence that consists of a vertical and a horizontal foot encircled by an overlying spine and has ubiquitous counter-streaming mass flows. While the horizontal foot and the spine were connected to the solar surface, the vertical foot was suspended above the solar surface and was supported by a semicircular bubble structure. The bubble first collapsed, then reformed at a similar height, and finally started to oscillate for a long time. We find that the collapse and oscillation of the bubble boundary were tightly associated with a flare-like feature located at the bottom of the bubble. Based on the observational results, we propose that the prominence should be composed of an overlying horizontal spine encircling a low-lying horizontal and vertical foot, in which the horizontal foot consists of shorter field lines running partially along the spine and has ends connected to the solar surface, while the vertical foot consists of piling-up dips due to the sagging of the spine fields and is supported by a bipolar magnetic system formed by parasitic polarities (i.e., the bubble). The upflows in the vertical foot were possibly caused by the magnetic reconnection at the separator between the bubble and the overlying dips, which intruded into the persistent downflow field and formed the picture of counter-streaming mass flows. In addition, the counter-streaming flows in the horizontal foot were possibly caused by the imbalanced pressure at the both ends.

  12. 3D structure and dynamics of prominences in IRIS-Hinode collaborative observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, J.; De Pontieu, B.; Tarbell, T. D.; Title, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    A new solar physics satellite, Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS), was launched on June 27, 2013. IRIS obtains UV spectra and images with high spatial resolution (0.33 arcsec) and high time cadence (1 sec / slit) of the chromosphere and transition region of the Sun. The chromosphere is located between the photosphere and the corona. Recently, the Hinode satellite has revealed that the chromosphere is highly active and suggested that it is a very important region in terms of energy deposit and transfer for coronal heating and solar wind acceleration. However, we cannot have further chromospheric information by Hinode because the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope has only a filtergraph for chromospheric observations. Now we have IRIS. IRIS performs spectroscopic observations to get the missing physical quantities of the dynamic chromosphere. Moreover, IRIS and Hinode is the most powerful collaboration to understand chromospheric activities. Hinode observes extremely high-cadence (1.6 sec) and high-spatial (0.2 arcsec) 2-D images, while IRIS measures line-of-sight velocity and Doppler width of fine structures with temperature dependence. This combination provides information about 3-D structures and dynamic phenomena of chromospheric features. Here we focus on prominence observations performed by IRIS and Hinode, and introduce the initial results of prominence dynamics and magnetic structures such as helical configurations, propagating waves and their damping mechanisms, and formation processes.

  13. RESONANT ABSORPTION OF TRANSVERSE OSCILLATIONS AND ASSOCIATED HEATING IN A SOLAR PROMINENCE. II. NUMERICAL ASPECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Antolin, P.; Okamoto, T. J.; Doorsselaere, T. Van; Yokoyama, T.

    2015-08-10

    Transverse magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves are ubiquitous in the solar atmosphere and may be responsible for generating the Sun’s million-degree outer atmosphere. However, direct evidence of the dissipation process and heating from these waves remains elusive. Through advanced numerical simulations combined with appropriate forward modeling of a prominence flux tube, we provide the observational signatures of transverse MHD waves in prominence plasmas. We show that these signatures are characterized by a thread-like substructure, strong transverse dynamical coherence, an out-of-phase difference between plane-of-the-sky motions and line-of-sight velocities, and enhanced line broadening and heating around most of the flux tube. A complex combination between resonant absorption and Kelvin–Helmholtz instabilities (KHIs) takes place in which the KHI extracts the energy from the resonant layer and dissipates it through vortices and current sheets, which rapidly degenerate into turbulence. An inward enlargement of the boundary is produced in which the turbulent flows conserve the characteristic dynamics from the resonance, therefore guaranteeing detectability of the resonance imprints. We show that the features described in the accompanying paper through coordinated Hinode and Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph observations match the numerical results well.

  14. Novel large-range mitochondrial DNA deletions and fatal multisystemic disorder with prominent hepatopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, Marzia; Rizza, Teresa; Verrigni, Daniela; Martinelli, Diego; Tozzi, Giulia; Torraco, Alessandra; Piemonte, Fiorella; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo; Nobili, Valerio; Francalanci, Paola; Boldrini, Renata; Callea, Francesco; Santorelli, Filippo Maria; Bertini, Enrico; and others

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expanded array of mtDNA deletions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pearson syndrome with prominent hepatopathy associated with single mtDNA deletions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detection of deletions in fibroblasts and blood avoids muscle and liver biopsy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Look for mtDNA deletions before to study nuclear genes related to mtDNA depletion. -- Abstract: Hepatic involvement in mitochondrial cytopathies rarely manifests in adulthood, but is a common feature in children. Multiple OXPHOS enzyme defects in children with liver involvement are often associated with dramatically reduced amounts of mtDNA. We investigated two novel large scale deletions in two infants with a multisystem disorder and prominent hepatopathy. Amount of mtDNA deletions and protein content were measured in different post-mortem tissues. The highest levels of deleted mtDNA were in liver, kidney, pancreas of both patients. Moreover, mtDNA deletions were detected in cultured skin fibroblasts in both patients and in blood of one during life. Biochemical analysis showed impairment of mainly complex I enzyme activity. Patients manifesting multisystem disorders in childhood may harbour rare mtDNA deletions in multiple tissues. For these patients, less invasive blood specimens or cultured fibroblasts can be used for molecular diagnosis. Our data further expand the array of deletions in the mitochondrial genomes in association with liver failure. Thus analysis of mtDNA should be considered in the diagnosis of childhood-onset hepatopathies.

  15. Observational Detection of Drift Velocity between Ionized and Neutral Species in Solar Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomenko, Elena; Collados, Manuel; Díaz, Antonio J.

    2016-06-01

    We report the detection of differences in the ion and neutral velocities in prominences using high-resolution spectral data obtained in 2012 September at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife). A time series of scans of a small portion of a solar prominence was obtained simultaneously with high cadence using the lines of two elements with different ionization states, namely, Ca ii 8542 Å and He i 10830 Å. The displacements, widths, and amplitudes of both lines were carefully compared to extract dynamical information about the plasma. Many dynamical features are detected, such as counterstreaming flows, jets, and propagating waves. In all of the cases, we find a very strong correlation between the parameters extracted from the lines of both elements, confirming that both lines trace the same plasma. Nevertheless, we also find short-lived transients where this correlation is lost. These transients are associated with ion-neutral drift velocities of the order of several hundred m s-1. The patches of non-zero drift velocity show coherence in time-distance diagrams.

  16. Impaired Functional Connectivity in the Prefrontal Cortex: A Mechanism for Chronic Stress-Induced Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Negrón-Oyarzo, Ignacio; Aboitiz, Francisco; Fuentealba, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Chronic stress-related psychiatric diseases, such as major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and schizophrenia, are characterized by a maladaptive organization of behavioral responses that strongly affect the well-being of patients. Current evidence suggests that a functional impairment of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is implicated in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Therefore, chronic stress may impair PFC functions required for the adaptive orchestration of behavioral responses. In the present review, we integrate evidence obtained from cognitive neuroscience with neurophysiological research with animal models, to put forward a hypothesis that addresses stress-induced behavioral dysfunctions observed in stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders. We propose that chronic stress impairs mechanisms involved in neuronal functional connectivity in the PFC that are required for the formation of adaptive representations for the execution of adaptive behavioral responses. These considerations could be particularly relevant for understanding the pathophysiology of chronic stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26904302

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging in neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus: current state of the art and novel approaches.

    PubMed

    Postal, M; Lapa, A Tamires; Reis, F; Rittner, L; Appenzeller, S

    2017-04-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus is a chronic, inflammatory, immune-mediated disease affecting 0.1% of the general population. Neuropsychiatric manifestations in systemic lupus erythematosus have been more frequently recognized and reported in recent years, occurring in up to 75% of patients during the disease course. Magnetic resonance imaging is known to be a useful tool for the detection of structural brain abnormalities in neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus patients because of the excellent soft-tissue contrast observed with MRI and the ability to acquire multiplanar images. In addition to conventional magnetic resonance imaging techniques to evaluate the presence of atrophy and white matter lesions, several different magnetic resonance imaging techniques have been used to identify microstructural or functional abnormalities. This review will highlight different magnetic resonance imaging techniques, including the advanced magnetic resonance imaging methods used to determine central nervous system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus.

  18. Human iPSC-derived neurons and lymphoblastoid cells for personalized medicine research in neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Gurwitz, David

    2016-09-01

    The development and clinical implementation of personalized medicine crucially depends on the availability of high-quality human biosamples; animal models, although capable of modeling complex human diseases, cannot reflect the large variation in the human genome, epigenome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome. Although the biosamples available from public biobanks that store human tissues and cells may represent the large human diversity for most diseases, these samples are not always sufficient for developing biomarkers for patient-tailored therapies for neuropsychiatric disorders. Postmortem human tissues are available from many biobanks; nevertheless, collections of neuronal human cells from large patient cohorts representing the human diversity remain scarce. Two tools are gaining popularity for personalized medicine research on neuropsychiatric disorders: human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons and human lymphoblastoid cell lines. This review examines and contrasts the advantages and limitations of each tool for personalized medicine research.

  19. GLO1 inhibitors for neuropsychiatric and anti-epileptic drug development

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, Katherine M. J.; Distler, Margaret G.; Sidhu, Preetpal S.; Arnold, Leggy A.; Palmer, Abraham A.; Plant, Leigh D.

    2014-01-01

    Many current pharmacological treatments for neuropsychiatric disorders, such as anxiety and depression, are limited by a delayed onset of therapeutic effect, adverse side effects, abuse potential or lack of effect in many patients. These off-target effects highlight the need to identify novel mechanisms and targets for treatment. Recently, modulation of glyoxalase 1 (GLO1) activity was shown to regulate anxiety-like behavior and seizure susceptibility in mice. These effects are likely mediated through the regulation of methylglyoxal (MG) by GLO1, as MG acts as a competitive partial agonist at GABAA receptors (GABAARs). Thus, modulation of MG by GLO1 represents a novel target for treatment. Here, we evaluate the therapeutic potential of indirectly modulating MG concentrations through GLO1 inhibitors for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:24646261

  20. The Significance of the Default Mode Network (DMN) in Neurological and Neuropsychiatric Disorders: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Akansha; Roberto, Aaron J.; Mohan, Abhishek; Lorenzo, Aileen; Jones, Kathryn; Carney, Martin J.; Liogier-Weyback, Luis; Hwang, Soonjo; Lapidus, Kyle A.B.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship of cortical structure and specific neuronal circuitry to global brain function, particularly its perturbations related to the development and progression of neuropathology, is an area of great interest in neurobehavioral science. Disruption of these neural networks can be associated with a wide range of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Herein we review activity of the Default Mode Network (DMN) in neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Epilepsy (Temporal Lobe Epilepsy - TLE), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and mood disorders. We discuss the implications of DMN disruptions and their relationship to the neurocognitive model of each disease entity, the utility of DMN assessment in clinical evaluation, and the changes of the DMN following treatment. PMID:27505016

  1. Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Abnormalities in Children with Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS)

    PubMed Central

    Gaughan, Thomas; Buckley, Ashura; Hommer, Rebecca; Grant, Paul; Williams, Kyle; Leckman, James F.; Swedo, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Polysomnographic investigation of sleep architecture in children presenting with pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS). Methods: Fifteen consecutive subjects meeting criteria for PANS (mean age = 7.2 y; range 3–10 y) underwent single-night full polysomnography (PSG) read by a pediatric neurologist. Results: Thirteen of 15 subjects (87%) had abnormalities detected with PSG. Twelve of 15 had evidence of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep motor disinhibition, as characterized by excessive movement, laughing, hand stereotypies, moaning, or the continuation of periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS) into REM sleep. Conclusions: This study shows various forms of REM sleep motor disinhibition present in a population of children with PANS. Citation: Gaughan T, Buckley A, Hommer R, Grant P; Williams K, Leckman JF, Swedo SE. Rapid eye movement sleep abnormalities in children with pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS). J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(7):1027–1032. PMID:27166296

  2. Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell neuropsychiatric toxicity in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Prudent, Vasthie; Breitbart, William S

    2017-01-04

    Chimeric antigen receptor T cells are used in the treatment of B-cell leukemias. Common chimeric antigen receptor T-cell toxicities can range from mild flu-like symptoms, such as fever and myalgia, to a more striking neuropsychiatric toxicity that can present as discrete neurological symptoms and delirium. We report here two cases of chimeric antigen receptor T-cell neuropsychiatric toxicity, one who presented as a mild delirium and aphasia that resolved without intervention, and one who presented with delirium, seizures, and respiratory insufficiency requiring intensive treatment. The current literature on the treatment and proposed mechanisms of this clinically challenging chimeric antigen receptor T-cell complication is also presented.

  3. Human iPSC-derived neurons and lymphoblastoid cells for personalized medicine research in neuropsychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gurwitz, David

    2016-01-01

    The development and clinical implementation of personalized medicine crucially depends on the availability of high-quality human biosamples; animal models, although capable of modeling complex human diseases, cannot reflect the large variation in the human genome, epigenome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome. Although the biosamples available from public biobanks that store human tissues and cells may represent the large human diversity for most diseases, these samples are not always sufficient for developing biomarkers for patient-tailored therapies for neuropsychiatric disorders. Postmortem human tissues are available from many biobanks; nevertheless, collections of neuronal human cells from large patient cohorts representing the human diversity remain scarce. Two tools are gaining popularity for personalized medicine research on neuropsychiatric disorders: human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons and human lymphoblastoid cell lines. This review examines and contrasts the advantages and limitations of each tool for personalized medicine research. PMID:27757061

  4. Neuropsychiatric symptoms of fragile X syndrome: pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Tsiouris, John A; Brown, W Ted

    2004-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome is the leading inherited form of mental retardation, and second only to Down's syndrome as a cause of mental retardation attributable to an identifiable genetic abnormality. Fragile X syndrome is caused by a defect in the fragile X mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1), located near the end of the long arm of the X chromosome. FMR1 normally synthesises the fragile X protein (FMRP), but mutations in FMR1 lead to a lack of FMRP synthesis, resulting in fragile X syndrome. While the specific function of FMRP is not yet fully understood, the protein is known to be important for normal brain development. The physical, cognitive and behavioural features of individuals with fragile X syndrome depend on gender (females have two X chromosomes, one active and one inactive) and the molecular status of the mutation (premutation, full mutation or mosaic). Features of the behavioural profile of individuals with fragile X syndrome include hypersensitivity to stimuli, overarousability, inattention, hyperactivity and (mostly in men) explosive and aggressive behaviour to others or self. Social anxiety, other anxiety disorders, depression, impulse control disorder and mood disorders are the most common psychiatric disorders diagnosed in individuals with fragile X syndrome, although no formal studies have been undertaken. There have been very few psychopharmacological studies of the treatment of behaviours associated with fragile X syndrome. These limited studies and surveys of psychotropic drugs used in individuals with fragile X syndrome suggest that stimulants are helpful for hyperactivity, that alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists and beta-adrenoceptor antagonists help to control overarousability, impulsivity and aggressiveness, and that SSRIs can control anxiety, impulsivity and irritability, alleviate depressive symptoms and decrease aggressive and self-injurious behaviour. Typical and atypical antipsychotics in combination with other psychotropics have been used for

  5. A Case of “Refractory” Neuropsychiatric Lupus Responsive to Anticoagulation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Sun

    2017-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorder is a severe complication in 14% to 75% of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, which can result in significant morbidity. A 15-year-old female SLE patient with coexistence of dural sinus thrombosis and intracerebral hemorrhage resistant to two pulses of high dose of glucocorticoid was treated with anticoagulation of the low-molecular-weight [LMW] heparin subcutaneously followed by warfarin. The patient demonstrated a remarkable clinical response. PMID:28251001

  6. Associations between neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognition in Chinese idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoyan; Song, Wei; Chen, Ke; Chen, XuePing; Zheng, Zhenzhen; Cao, Bei; Huang, Rui; Zhao, Bi; Wu, Ying; Shang, Hui-Fang

    2015-03-01

    The associations between neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognition, frontal lobe function and frontal behavioral changes in the Chinese idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) population are largely unknown. This study included 348 idiopathic PD patients from southwest China. Neuropsychiatric symptoms were investigated using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (NPI), and cognition was assessed using Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R). The Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) was used to evaluate frontal function and the Frontal Behavior Inventory (FBI) was used to assess frontal behavioral changes. The mean (± standard deviation) age of the PD patients was 60.24 ± 12.07 years, and the mean disease duration was 3.88 ± 3.34 years. The mean NPI score was 3.49 ± 4.00. The mean score of ACE-R was 76.82 ± 16.73. The mean score of FAB was 15.27 ± 2.90, and the mean score of FBI was 3.18 ± 5.17. Weak negative correlations between the NPI and ACE-R scores as well as FAB score were found in the total sample, the male patient subgroup, the early onset PD subgroup and the late onset PD subgroup. Strong positive correlations were found between the NPI and FBI scores in the total sample (r=0.661, p<0.001), the male patient subgroup (r=0.789, p<0.001) and the late onset PD subgroup (r=0.749, p<0.001). Moderate positive correlations were found between the NPI and FBI scores in the female patient subgroup (r=0.536, p<0.001) and the early onset PD subgroup (r=0.462, p<0.001). Neuropsychiatric symptoms were closely associated with frontal behavioral changes but were not closely related with worse cognition and frontal lobe function in the Chinese idiopathic PD population.

  7. Trial design innovations: Clinical trials for treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, K

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative disorders. Recent progress has been made with clinical trials, advancing new therapies for psychosis in Parkinson's disease (PD), agitation in AD, and apathy in AD. Definitions have emerged for agitation and apathy in patients with cognitive impairment, facilitating recruitment of clinical trial populations. Progress in clinical trial design and the agents being assessed promise to advance therapies for disabling symptoms and improve quality of life for patients and caregivers. PMID:26206713

  8. What can rodent models tell us about apathy and associated neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease?

    PubMed Central

    Magnard, R; Vachez, Y; Carcenac, C; Krack, P; David, O; Savasta, M; Boulet, S; Carnicella, S

    2016-01-01

    In addition to classical motor symptoms, Parkinson's disease (PD) patients display incapacitating neuropsychiatric manifestations, such as apathy, anhedonia, depression and anxiety. These hitherto generally neglected non-motor symptoms, have gained increasing interest in medical and scientific communities over the last decade because of the extent of their negative impact on PD patients' quality of life. Although recent clinical and functional imaging studies have provided useful information, the pathophysiology of apathy and associated affective impairments remains elusive. Our aim in this review is to summarize and discuss recent advances in the development of rodent models of PD-related neuropsychiatric symptoms using neurotoxin lesion-based approaches. The data collected suggest that bilateral and partial lesions of the nigrostriatal system aimed at inducing reliable neuropsychiatric-like deficits while avoiding severe motor impairments that may interfere with behavioral evaluation, is a more selective and efficient strategy than medial forebrain bundle lesions. Moreover, of all the different classes of pharmacological agents, D2/D3 receptor agonists such as pramipexole appear to be the most efficient treatment for the wide range of behavioral deficits induced by dopaminergic lesions. Lesion-based rodent models, therefore, appear to be relevant tools for studying the pathophysiology of the non-motor symptoms of PD. Data accumulated so far confirm the causative role of dopaminergic depletion, especially in the nigrostriatal system, in the development of behavioral impairments related to apathy, depression and anxiety. They also put forward D2/D3 receptors as potential targets for the treatment of such neuropsychiatric symptoms in PD. PMID:26954980

  9. Butyrylcholinesterase K and apolipoprotein ε4 affect cortical thickness and neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hye B; Lee, Hae W; Shin, Sue; Park, Sun-Won; Choi, Jung S; Jung, Hee Y; Cha, Jungho; Lee, Jong-Min; Lee, Jun-Young

    2014-02-01

    Two major genotypes are known to affect the development and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its response to cholinesterase inhibitors: the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) and butyrylcholinesterase genes (BChE). This study analyzed the effects of the BChE and ApoE genotypes on the cortical thickness of patients with AD and examined how these genotypes affect the neuropsychiatric symptoms of AD. AD-drug-naïve patients who met the probable AD criteria proposed by the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke-Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association were recruited. Of 96 patients with AD, 65 were eligible for cortical thickness analysis. 3D T1-weighted images were acquired, and the cortical regions were segmented using the constrained Laplacian-based automated segmentation with proximities (CLASP) algorithm. Neuropsychiatric symptoms were measured by Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) scores. BChE wild-type carriers (BChE-W) showed more thinning in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, including the lateral premotor regions and anterior cingulate cortex, than did BChE-K variant carriers (BChE-K). ApoE-ε4 carriers had a thinner left medial prefrontal cortex, left superior frontal cortex, and left posterior cingulate cortex than did ApoE-ε4 non-carriers. Statistical analyses revealed that BChE-K carriers showed significantly less severe aberrant motor behavioral symptoms and that ε4 non-carriers showed less severe anxiety and indifference symptoms. The current findings show that, similar to ApoE-ε4 non-carriers, BChE-K carriers are protected from the pathological detriments of AD that affect frontal cortical thickness and neuropsychiatric symptoms. This study visually demonstrated the effects of the BChE-K and ApoE genotypes on the structural degeneration and complex aspects of the symptoms of AD.

  10. Trial design innovations: Clinical trials for treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Cummings, J; Zhong, K

    2015-11-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative disorders. Recent progress has been made with clinical trials, advancing new therapies for psychosis in Parkinson's disease (PD), agitation in AD, and apathy in AD. Definitions have emerged for agitation and apathy in patients with cognitive impairment, facilitating recruitment of clinical trial populations. Progress in clinical trial design and the agents being assessed promise to advance therapies for disabling symptoms and improve quality of life for patients and caregivers.

  11. A neuropsychiatric review of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: etiology and efficacious treatments

    PubMed Central

    Lewin, Adam B; Storch, Eric A; Geffken, Gary R; Goodman, Wayne K; Murphy, Tanya K

    2006-01-01

    Pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic neuropsychiatric condition associated with broad impairments in functioning. This paper outlines current etiological theories of OCD, providing a review of neuroanatomical, neurochemical, neuroimmunological, and cognitive–behavioral explanations. Subsequently, first-line treatment modalities are discussed (serotonin reuptake inhibitors [SRIs] and cognitive–behavioral therapy [CBT] with exposure and response prevention [E/RP]) in the context of recent pharmacological, CBT, and combined trials. PMID:19412443

  12. A System Approach to Navy Medical Education and Training. Appendix 5. Neuropsychiatric Technician.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-08-31

    APPENDIX 5. NEUROPSYCHIATRIC TECHNICIAN DTIC ELECTE JUN 19 APPLICATION OF A SYSTEM APPROACHDU. S. NAVY MEDICAL DEPARTMENT EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAMS ...C FINAL REPORT Prepared under Contract to OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY iQuida C. Upchurch, Capt., NC, USN Program Manager...ADDRESS 16. PROGRAM ELEMENT, PROJE9CT. TASK if office of Naval Research AREA a WOR UNTNMER * Department of the Navy Arlington, Virginia 22217 43-03X.02 I I

  13. Improved characterization of intranight optical variability of prominent AGN classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Arti; Gopal-Krishna, Wiita, Paul J.; Stalin, C. S.; Sagar, Ram

    2013-10-01

    The incidence of intranight optical variability (INOV) is known to differ significantly among different classes of powerful active galactic nuclei (AGN). A number of statistical methods have been employed in the literature for testing the presence of INOV in the light curves, sometimes leading to discordant results. In this paper, we compare the INOV characteristics of six prominent classes of AGN, as evaluated using three commonly used statistical tests, namely the χ2-test, the modified C-test and the F-test, which has recently begun to gain popularity. The AGN classes considered are: radio-quiet quasars, radio-intermediate quasars, lobe-dominated quasars, low optical polarization core-dominated quasars, high optical polarization core-dominated quasars and TeV blazars. Our analysis is based on a large body of AGN monitoring data, involving 262 sessions of intranight monitoring of a total 77 AGN, using 1-2 m class optical telescopes located in India. In order to compare the usefulness of the statistical tests, we have also subjected them to a `sanity check' by comparing the number of false positives yielded by each test with the corresponding statistical prediction. The present analysis is intended to serve as a benchmark for future INOV studies of AGN of different classes.

  14. Howard Russell Butler's Oil Paintings of Solar Eclipses and Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Olson, Roberta J. M.

    2014-06-01

    Howard Russell Butler (1856-1934) was invited to join the US Naval Observatory expedition to the total solar eclipse of 1918 because of his ability to paint astronomical phenomena based on quickly-made notes about spatial and color details. His giant triptych of the total eclipses of 1918, 1923, and 1925 was proposed for a never-built astronomical center at the American Museum of Natural History and wound up at their Hayden Planetarium when it was constructed in the mid-1930s. Half-size versions are installed at the Fels Planetarium at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia and at the Firestone Library of Princeton University, whose newly conserved canvases were recently hung; the Buffalo Museum of Science has another half-size version in storage. We discuss not only the eclipse triptychs but also the series of large oil paintings he made of solar prominences (in storage at the American Museum of Natural History) and of his 1932-eclipse and other relevant works.JMP was supported for this work in part by Division III Discretionary Funds and the Brandi Fund of Williams College. His current eclipse research is supported by grants AGS-1047726 from the Solar Research Program of the Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences Division of NSF and 9327-13 from the Committee for Research and Exploration of the National Geographic Society.

  15. Radiologic comparison of erosive polyarthritis with prominent interphalangeal involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, R.H.; Bassett, L.W.; Theros, E.G.

    1982-05-01

    Psoriatic arthritis, Reiter's disease, and multicentric reticulohistiocytosis may manifest prominent interphalangeal joint and cutaneous involvement. All three disorders may also affect the sacroiliac joints and spine. Despite these similarities, there are basic radiologic differences enabling distinction between the three disorders. Erosive osteoarthritis must also be considered in the differential diagnosis of interphalangeal erosive arthritis. Psoriatic erosions are characteristically ill defined, often bilaterally asymmetrical, usually unaccompanied by significant osteoporosis, and frequently associated with florid proliferation of subperiosteal new bone. An unilateral polyarticular pattern, which often occurs in a single ray, is the most prevalent of several patterns of involvement. Reiter's disease exhibits many clinical and radiologic similarities to psoriatic arthritis, but in the former there tends to be selective involvement of the joints of the lower limbs and particularly the feet, with relative sparing of the hands and wrists, while in the latter the joints of the upper and lower limbs tend to be involved to an equal extent. Multicentric reticulohistiocytosis (MR). Lesions predominate in skin and synovium and result in sharply circumscribed, rapidly progressive, strikingly bilaterally symmetrical erosions spreading from joint margins to articular surfaces. Most or all of the diarthrodial joints may be affected, but interphalangeal joint predominance and early and severe atlanto-axial involvement are characteristic. Erosive osteoarthritis is characterized by interphalangeal subchondral erosions, accompanying periosteal new bone that is more subtle than that of psoriatic arthritis, and interphalangeal bony ankylosis that occurs with the same frequency as that of psoriatic arthritis.

  16. Porcine CD38 exhibits prominent secondary NAD(+) cyclase activity.

    PubMed

    Ting, Kai Yiu; Leung, Christina F P; Graeff, Richard M; Lee, Hon Cheung; Hao, Quan; Kotaka, Masayo

    2016-03-01

    Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) mobilizes intracellular Ca(2+) stores and activates Ca(2+) influx to regulate a wide range of physiological processes. It is one of the products produced from the catalysis of NAD(+) by the multifunctional CD38/ADP-ribosyl cyclase superfamily. After elimination of the nicotinamide ring by the enzyme, the reaction intermediate of NAD(+) can either be hydrolyzed to form linear ADPR or cyclized to form cADPR. We have previously shown that human CD38 exhibits a higher preference towards the hydrolysis of NAD(+) to form linear ADPR while Aplysia ADP-ribosyl cyclase prefers cyclizing NAD(+) to form cADPR. In this study, we characterized the enzymatic properties of porcine CD38 and revealed that it has a prominent secondary NAD(+) cyclase activity producing cADPR. We also determined the X-ray crystallographic structures of porcine CD38 and were able to observe conformational flexibility at the base of the active site of the enzyme which allow the NAD(+) reaction intermediate to adopt conformations resulting in both hydrolysis and cyclization forming linear ADPR and cADPR respectively.

  17. Is it relevant to screen young women hospitalized in psychiatric department for neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE)?

    PubMed Central

    Audemard-Verger, Alexandra; Comby, Elizabeth; Nathou, Clément; Sultan, Audrey; Frémont, Mathieu; Baldolli, Aurélie; Trumier, Louis Simon; Marzloff, Vincent; Le Mauff, Brigitte; Manuzak, Jennifer; Dollfus, Sonia; Bienvenu, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Abstract On the basis that diagnosis of neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) is sometimes difficult and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) can present with isolated psychiatric symptoms, we initiated a survey in a psychiatric department to screen for NPSLE in young female inpatients. We prospectively studied consecutive young female patients referred to the department of psychiatry. Antinuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and antiextractable soluble nuclear antigens (ENA) in the serum of patients were screened. In case of positive anti-DNA or anti-ENA, the patient was referred to the department of internal medicine. One hundred patients were enrolled, mean age 33.1 ± 8.4 years. Most patients presented underlying psychiatric disorders: depression (46%), schizophrenia (13%), anxiety disorder (6%), and personality disorder (10%). A quarter of the cohort did not display underlying psychiatric disorders before hospitalization. Positive ANA ≥1:160 were found in 32 of the 100 patients tested (32%). No patients presented anti-DNA antibodies. One patient had positive anti-sjogrën's syndrome related antigen A (SSA), but did not present any features of SLE or Sjögren syndrome. Thus, systematic screening of SLE is not relevant in young women hospitalized in psychiatric department. However, clinicians should keep in mind that SLE can present with pure psychiatric symptoms. PMID:27893665

  18. Brain “fog,” inflammation and obesity: key aspects of neuropsychiatric disorders improved by luteolin

    PubMed Central

    Theoharides, Theoharis C.; Stewart, Julia M.; Hatziagelaki, Erifili; Kolaitis, Gerasimos

    2015-01-01

    Brain “fog” is a constellation of symptoms that include reduced cognition, inability to concentrate and multitask, as well as loss of short and long term memory. Brain “fog” characterizes patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), celiac disease, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, mastocytosis, and postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS), as well as “minimal cognitive impairment,” an early clinical presentation of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Brain “fog” may be due to inflammatory molecules, including adipocytokines and histamine released from mast cells (MCs) further stimulating microglia activation, and causing focal brain inflammation. Recent reviews have described the potential use of natural flavonoids for the treatment of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. The flavone luteolin has numerous useful actions that include: anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, microglia inhibition, neuroprotection, and memory increase. A liposomal luteolin formulation in olive fruit extract improved attention in children with ASDs and brain “fog” in mastocytosis patients. Methylated luteolin analogs with increased activity and better bioavailability could be developed into effective treatments for neuropsychiatric disorders and brain “fog.” PMID:26190965

  19. Neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease are related to functional connectivity alterations in the salience network.

    PubMed

    Balthazar, Marcio L F; Pereira, Fabrício R S; Lopes, Tátila M; da Silva, Elvis L; Coan, Ana Carolina; Campos, Brunno M; Duncan, Niall W; Stella, Florindo; Northoff, Georg; Damasceno, Benito P; Cendes, Fernando

    2014-04-01

    Neuropsychiatric syndromes are highly prevalent in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but their neurobiology is not completely understood. New methods in functional magnetic resonance imaging, such as intrinsic functional connectivity or "resting-state" analysis, may help to clarify this issue. Using such approaches, alterations in the default-mode and salience networks (SNs) have been described in Alzheimer's, although their relationship with specific symptoms remains unclear. We therefore carried out resting-state functional connectivity analysis with 20 patients with mild to moderate AD, and correlated their scores on neuropsychiatric inventory syndromes (apathy, hyperactivity, affective syndrome, and psychosis) with maps of connectivity in the default mode network and SN. In addition, we compared network connectivity in these patients with that in 17 healthy elderly control subjects. All analyses were controlled for gray matter density and other potential confounds. Alzheimer's patients showed increased functional connectivity within the SN compared with controls (right anterior cingulate cortex and left medial frontal gyrus), along with reduced functional connectivity in the default-mode network (bilateral precuneus). A correlation between increased connectivity in anterior cingulate cortex and right insula areas of the SN and hyperactivity syndrome (agitation, irritability, aberrant motor behavior, euphoria, and disinhibition) was found. These findings demonstrate an association between specific network changes in AD and particular neuropsychiatric symptom types. This underlines the potential clinical significance of resting state alterations in future diagnosis and therapy.

  20. Brain "fog," inflammation and obesity: key aspects of neuropsychiatric disorders improved by luteolin.

    PubMed

    Theoharides, Theoharis C; Stewart, Julia M; Hatziagelaki, Erifili; Kolaitis, Gerasimos

    2015-01-01

    Brain "fog" is a constellation of symptoms that include reduced cognition, inability to concentrate and multitask, as well as loss of short and long term memory. Brain "fog" characterizes patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), celiac disease, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, mastocytosis, and postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS), as well as "minimal cognitive impairment," an early clinical presentation of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Brain "fog" may be due to inflammatory molecules, including adipocytokines and histamine released from mast cells (MCs) further stimulating microglia activation, and causing focal brain inflammation. Recent reviews have described the potential use of natural flavonoids for the treatment of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. The flavone luteolin has numerous useful actions that include: anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, microglia inhibition, neuroprotection, and memory increase. A liposomal luteolin formulation in olive fruit extract improved attention in children with ASDs and brain "fog" in mastocytosis patients. Methylated luteolin analogs with increased activity and better bioavailability could be developed into effective treatments for neuropsychiatric disorders and brain "fog."

  1. Neurobiological and Neuropsychiatric Effects of Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA Sulfate (DHEAS)

    PubMed Central

    Maninger, Nicole; Wolkowitz, Owen M.; Reus, Victor I.; Epel, Elissa S.; Mellon, Synthia H.

    2009-01-01

    DHEA and DHEAS are steroids synthesized in human adrenals, but their function is unclear. In addition to adrenal synthesis, evidence also indicates that DHEA and DHEAS are synthesized in the brain, further suggesting a role of these hormones in brain function and development. Despite intensifying research into the biology of DHEA and DHEAS, many questions concerning their mechanisms of action and their potential involvement in neuropsychiatric illnesses remain unanswered. We review and distill the preclinical and clinical data on DHEA and DHEAS, focusing on (i) biological actions and putative mechanisms of action, (ii) differences in endogenous circulating concentrations in normal subjects and patients with neuropsychiatric diseases, and (iii) the therapeutic potential of DHEA in treating these conditions. Biological actions of DHEA and DHEAS include neuroprotection, neurite growth, and antagonistic effects on oxidants and glucocorticoids. Accumulating data suggest abnormal DHEA and/or DHEAS concentrations in several neuropsychiatric conditions. The evidence that DHEA and DHEAS may be fruitful targets for pharmacotherapy in some conditions is reviewed. PMID:19063914

  2. Neurobiological and neuropsychiatric effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulfate (DHEAS).

    PubMed

    Maninger, Nicole; Wolkowitz, Owen M; Reus, Victor I; Epel, Elissa S; Mellon, Synthia H

    2009-01-01

    DHEA and DHEAS are steroids synthesized in human adrenals, but their function is unclear. In addition to adrenal synthesis, evidence also indicates that DHEA and DHEAS are synthesized in the brain, further suggesting a role of these hormones in brain function and development. Despite intensifying research into the biology of DHEA and DHEAS, many questions concerning their mechanisms of action and their potential involvement in neuropsychiatric illnesses remain unanswered. We review and distill the preclinical and clinical data on DHEA and DHEAS, focusing on (i) biological actions and putative mechanisms of action, (ii) differences in endogenous circulating concentrations in normal subjects and patients with neuropsychiatric diseases, and (iii) the therapeutic potential of DHEA in treating these conditions. Biological actions of DHEA and DHEAS include neuroprotection, neurite growth, and antagonistic effects on oxidants and glucocorticoids. Accumulating data suggest abnormal DHEA and/or DHEAS concentrations in several neuropsychiatric conditions. The evidence that DHEA and DHEAS may be fruitful targets for pharmacotherapy in some conditions is reviewed.

  3. [Evaluation of a Neuropsychiatric Disorder: From PANDAS to PANS and CANS].

    PubMed

    Baytunca, Muharrem Burak; Donuk, Tuğba; Erermiş, Serpil

    2016-01-01

    PANDAS (Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infections) syndrome is a disorder seen before adolescence that possesses an abrupt onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms and/or tics. Swedo and colleagues defined this disorder in 1998 as a syndrome related to Group A streptoccoccus (GAS) infection with neurological issues, such as motor hyperactivation and choreiform movements. The progress of the disorder may be described as wax-and-waning, apart from abrupt onset, and this relapse and remission course is associated with exacerbating infections, according to the creators of PANDAS syndrome. Ruling out of Rheumatoid Fever and Sydenham's Chorea was a necessity for making a proper diagnosis. Since the recognition of this syndrome, clinicians encountered many children who could not fulfill all 5 criteria, which must be met for PANDAS diagnosis. In addition, due to literature showing failure and lack of strong evidence of a major role of GAS, the newly-defined categories PANS (Pediatric Acute-onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome) and CANS (Childhood Acute Neuropsychiatric Syndrome) were created to encompass those of "almost met" non-PANDAS cases. PANS and CANS include concurrent significant psychiatric symptoms with abrupt onset of OCD symptoms and/or tics but do not require identification of any infection agent, immune dysfunction, or enviromental precipitants. In this paper, we aimed to discuss PANS/ CANS, alterations of PANDAS, and diagnoses in which "almost met" PANDAS patients should be classified on the basis of a case who developed an abrupt onset of anxiety, obsessions, and vocal tics.

  4. Five Youth with Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome of Differing Etiologies

    PubMed Central

    Frankovich, Jennifer; Thienemann, Margo; Rana, Sonal

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS) is diagnosed by the abrupt onset of new obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) or food-restricting symptoms, and at least two of a variety of other neuropsychiatric symptoms. Detailed clinical presentation of youth with this condition has not yet been provided in the literature. Methods: We review the clinical charts of five youth meeting criteria for PANS in our PANS Clinic. These five patients were selected for differing underlying causes thought to be driving an inflammatory response that appeared to impact psychiatric symptoms. Results: Five youth with varying potential etiologies impacting neuropsychiatric symptoms were identified. These youth were from 8 to 18 years old at the onset of their PANS illness, and had bacterial, autoimmune, and unknown etiologies. Treatment directed at presumed etiologies ranged from antibiotics to intravenous gamma globulin (IVIG) to other immunomodulatory regimens, and appeared to improve the psychiatric illness. Conclusions: Youth with PANS may present in differing ways, with psychiatric and physical symptoms overlapping with inflammatory or infectious diseases, pain syndromes, and other psychiatric diagnoses. Patients' psychiatric symptoms may respond to treatments targeting the underlying cause of physical illness. Faced with a pediatric patient demonstrating the abrupt onset or exacerbation of psychiatric and physical symptoms, clinicians should consider PANS in their differential diagnosis. PMID:25695942

  5. A systems approach identifies networks and genes linking sleep and stress: implications for neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Peng; Scarpa, Joseph R; Fitzpatrick, Karrie; Losic, Bojan; Gao, Vance D; Hao, Ke; Summa, Keith C; Yang, He S; Zhang, Bin; Allada, Ravi; Vitaterna, Martha H; Turek, Fred W; Kasarskis, Andrew

    2015-05-05

    Sleep dysfunction and stress susceptibility are comorbid complex traits that often precede and predispose patients to a variety of neuropsychiatric diseases. Here, we demonstrate multilevel organizations of genetic landscape, candidate genes, and molecular networks associated with 328 stress and sleep traits in a chronically stressed population of 338 (C57BL/6J × A/J) F2 mice. We constructed striatal gene co-expression networks, revealing functionally and cell-type-specific gene co-regulations important for stress and sleep. Using a composite ranking system, we identified network modules most relevant for 15 independent phenotypic categories, highlighting a mitochondria/synaptic module that links sleep and stress. The key network regulators of this module are overrepresented with genes implicated in neuropsychiatric diseases. Our work suggests that the interplay among sleep, stress, and neuropathology emerges from genetic influences on gene expression and their collective organization through complex molecular networks, providing a framework for interrogating the mechanisms underlying sleep, stress susceptibility, and related neuropsychiatric disorders.

  6. Electroconvulsive therapy as a treatment for refractory neuropsychiatric lupus with catatonia: three case studies and literature review.

    PubMed

    Bica, B E R G; Moro, A L D; Hax, V; Nicol, N A; Campos, G S; Rivera, L M S; da Costa, A F C; Xavier, R M; Monticielo, O A

    2015-10-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders associated with systemic lupus erythematosus are very common. Treatment generally consists of glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive therapy; however, some cases are unresponsive. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a recognized treatment modality in psychiatry and is an option for refractory cases of neuropsychiatric lupus. This report describes three cases of neuropsychiatric lupus that improved with ECT after failure of antipsychotics and immunosuppressive therapy. All cases met DSM-5 criteria for catatonia (case 1: agitation, stereotypies, and grimacing; case 2: stupor, mutism, and grimacing; case 3: agitation, mutism, and stereotypies); therefore, ECT was indicated. This case series shows that ECT can be a therapeutic option in patients with neuropsychiatric lupus, especially when associated with catatonia and unresponsive to conventional treatment.

  7. ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN A HOT-CHANNEL-LIKE SOLAR MAGNETIC FLUX ROPE AND ITS EMBEDDED PROMINENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, X.; Ding, M. D.; Zhang, J.; Guo, Y.; Chen, P. F.; Sun, J. Q.; Srivastava, A. K.

    2014-07-10

    A magnetic flux rope (MFR) is a coherent and helical magnetic field structure that has recently been found likely to appear as an elongated hot channel prior to a solar eruption. In this Letter, we investigate the relationship between the hot channel and the associated prominence through analysis of a limb event on 2011 September 12. In the early rise phase, the hot channel was initially cospatial with the prominence. It then quickly expanded, resulting in a separation of the top of the hot channel from that of the prominence. Meanwhile, they both experienced an instantaneous morphology transformation from a Λ shape to a reversed-Y shape and the top of these two structures showed an exponential increase in height. These features are a good indication of the occurrence of kink instability. Moreover, the onset of kink instability is found to coincide in time with the impulsive enhancement of flare emission underneath the hot channel, suggesting that ideal kink instability likely also plays an important role in triggering fast flare reconnection besides initiating the impulsive acceleration of the hot channel and distorting its morphology. We conclude that the hot channel is most likely the MFR system and the prominence only corresponds to the cool materials that are collected in the bottom of the helical field lines of the MFR against gravity.

  8. Substance use is a risk factor for neurocognitive deficits and neuropsychiatric distress in acute and early HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Weber, Erica; Morgan, Erin E; Iudicello, Jennifer E; Blackstone, Kaitlin; Grant, Igor; Ellis, Ronald J; Letendre, Scott L; Little, Susan; Morris, Sheldon; Smith, Davey M; Moore, David J; Woods, Steven Paul

    2013-02-01

    The acute and early stages of HIV infection (AEH) are characterized by substantial viral replication, immune activation, and alterations in brain metabolism. However, little is known about the prevalence and predictors of neurocognitive deficits and neuropsychiatric disturbances during this period. The present study examined the impact of demographic, HIV disease, and substance use factors on HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment and self-reported neuropsychiatric distress among 46 antiretroviral-naive adults with median duration of infection of 75 days relative to a sample of 21 HIV seronegative (HIV-) adults with comparable demographics and risk factors. Participants were administered a brief neurocognitive battery that was adjusted for demographics and assessed executive functions, memory, psychomotor speed, and verbal fluency, as well as the Profile of Mood States, a self-report measure of neuropsychiatric distress. Odds ratios revealed that AEH participants were nearly four times more likely than their seronegative counterparts to experience neurocognitive impairment, particularly in the areas of learning and information processing speed. Similarly, AEH was associated with a nearly fivefold increase in the odds of neuropsychiatric distress, most notably in anxiety and depression. Within the AEH sample, HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment was associated with problematic methamphetamine use and higher plasma HIV RNA levels, whereas neuropsychiatric distress was solely associated with high-risk alcohol use. Extending prior neuroimaging findings, the results from this study indicate that HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric distress are highly prevalent during AEH and are associated with high-risk substance use.

  9. Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated With Streptococcus: Comparison of Diagnosis and Treatment in the Community and at a Specialty Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Gabbay, Vilma; Coffey, Barbara J.; Babb, James S.; Meyer, Laura; Wachtel, Carly; Anam, Seeba; Rabinovitz, Beth

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This study aimed to examine whether pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus were appropriately diagnosed in the community and to determine subsequent rates of unwarranted use of antibiotic treatment for tics and obsessive-compulsive symptoms without the identification of an infection. METHODS The design was a retrospective, cross-sectional, observational study of 176 children and adolescents who were evaluated in a specialty program for tics, Tourette's disorder, and related problems. Previously published diagnostic criteria were used to establish the diagnosis of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus in our clinic. RESULTS Subjects were significantly less likely to receive a diagnosis of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus at the specialty clinic than in the community. In the community, subjects were significantly more likely to be treated with antibiotics or immunosuppressant medication if they received a diagnosis of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus. Of the 27 subjects with a community diagnosis of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus who were treated with antibiotics, 22 (82%) were treated without laboratory evidence of an infection; 2 were treated with immunomodulatory medications. CONCLUSIONS Our results support our hypothesis that pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus are frequently diagnosed in the community without the application of all working diagnostic criteria. This phenomenon has resulted in unwarranted use of antibiotic treatment for tics/obsessive-compulsive disorder without evidence of laboratory infection. PMID:18676543

  10. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and neuropsychiatric manifestations in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Shulman, S; Shorer, R; Wollman, J; Dotan, G; Paran, D

    2017-01-01

    Background Cognitive impairment is frequent in systemic lupus erythematosus. Atrophy of the corpus callosum and hippocampus have been reported in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, and diffusion tensor imaging studies have shown impaired white matter integrity, suggesting that white matter damage in systemic lupus erythematosus may underlie the cognitive impairment as well as other neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus manifestations. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, as assessed by optical coherence tomography, has been suggested as a biomarker for white matter damage in neurologic disorders such as multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Retinal nerve fiber layer thinning may occur early, even in patients with mild clinical symptoms. Aim The objective of this study was to assess the association of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, as a biomarker of white matter damage in systemic lupus erythematosus patients, with neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus manifestations, including cognitive impairment. Methods Twenty-one consecutive patients with systemic lupus erythematosus underwent neuropsychological testing using a validated computerized battery of tests as well as the Rey-Auditory verbal learning test. All 21 patients, as well as 11 healthy, age matched controls, underwent optical coherence tomography testing to assess retinal nerve fiber layer thickness. Correlations between retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and results in eight cognitive domains assessed by the computerized battery of tests as well as the Rey-Auditory verbal learning test were assessed in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, with and without neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus, and compared to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in healthy controls. Results No statistically significant correlation was found between retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus as compared to healthy

  11. Graphene electrochemistry: fundamental concepts through to prominent applications.

    PubMed

    Brownson, Dale A C; Kampouris, Dimitrios K; Banks, Craig E

    2012-11-07

    The use of graphene, a one atom thick individual planar carbon layer, has exploded in a plethora of scientific disciplines since it was reported to possess a range of unique and exclusive properties. Despite graphene being explored theoretically since the 1940s and known to exist since the 1960s, the recent burst of interest from a large proportion of scientists globally can be correlated with work by Geim and Novoselov in 2004/5, who reported the so-called "scotch tape method" for the production of graphene in addition to identifying its unique electronic properties which has escalated into graphene being reported to be superior in a superfluity of areas. Consequently, many are involved in the pursuit of producing new methodologies to fabricate pristine graphene on an industrial scale in order to meet the current world-wide appetite for graphene. One area which receives considerable interest is the field of electrochemistry, where graphene has been reported to be beneficial in various applications ranging from sensing through to energy storage and generation and carbon based molecular electronics. Electrochemistry is an interfacial technique which is dominated by processes that occur at the solid-liquid interface and thus with the correct understanding can be beneficially utilised to characterise the surface under investigation. In this tutorial review we overview fundamental concepts of Graphene Electrochemistry, making electrochemical characterisation accessible to those who are working on new methodologies to fabricate graphene, bridging the gap between materials scientists and electrochemists and also assisting those exploring graphene in electrochemical areas, or that wish to start to. An overview of the recent understanding of graphene modified electrodes is also provided, highlighting prominent applications reported in the current literature.

  12. Demonstration of prominent actin filaments in the root columella

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collings, D. A.; Zsuppan, G.; Allen, N. S.; Blancaflor, E. B.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    The distribution of actin filaments within the gravity-sensing columella cells of plant roots remains poorly understood, with studies over numerous years providing inconsistent descriptions of actin organization in these cells. This uncertainty in actin organization, and thus in actin's role in graviperception and gravisignaling, has led us to investigate actin arrangements in the columella cells of Zea mays L., Medicago truncatula Gaertn., Linum usitatissiilium L. and Nicotianla benthamiana Domin. Actin organization was examined using a combination of optimized immunofluorescence techniques, and an improved fluorochrome-conjugated phalloidin labeling method reliant on 3-maleimidobenzoyl-N-hydroxy-succinimide ester (MBS) cross-linking combined with glycerol permeabilization. Confocal microscopy of root sections labeled with anti-actin antibodies revealed patterns suggestive of actin throughout the columella region. These patterns included short and fragmented actin bundles, fluorescent rings around amyloplasts and intense fluorescence originating from the nucleus. Additionally, confocal microscopy of MBS-stabilized and Alexa Fluor-phalloidin-labeled root sections revealed a previously undetected state of actin organization in the columella. Discrete actin structures surrounded the amyloplasts and prominent actin cables radiated from the nuclear surface toward the cell periphery. Furthermore, the cortex of the columella cells contained fine actin bundles (or single filaments) that had a predominant transverse orientation. We also used confocal microscopy of plant roots expressing endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-targeted green fluorescent protein to demonstrate rapid ER movements within the columella cells, suggesting that the imaged actin network is functional. The successful identification of discrete actin structures in the root columella cells forms the perception and signaling.

  13. Temperatures of quiescent prominences measured from hydrogen Paschen and CaII IR lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engvold, Oddbjorn; Brynildsen, Nils

    1986-01-01

    During 12 to 17 September 1983 a number of prominences were observed with the McMatch solar telescope of National Solar Observatories, using the Fourier transform spectrometer with a InSb detector (Brault 1979). The present study refers to three prominences observed 13 and 14 September. Prominence A: Large quiescent prominence at S28 E90 Prominence B. Stable prominence in weakly enhanced magnetic region at about NO8 E90 Prominence C: Quiescent prominence at N30 E90. Spectra were obtained at a total of 15 different locations in the three prominences in the wavelength range lambda, lambda 7740 to 14,000 Angstroms. The observed differences between T sub exc and T sub kin are hardly significant. Researchers conclude that the two methods for temperature determination when applied to optically thin lines give reasonably consistent results, i.e., the population of the excited levels of hydrogen is collisionally controlled. The well known increase in T and V towards the edge of equiescent prominences (Hirayama 1964) is not corroborated by the present data. One explanation for this could be that prominence A is atypical. The optical thickness of prominence emission lines tends to increase from center to edges as demonstrated by the case of He I lambda 10830 angstroms. If line opacity plays a significant role in earlier center to edge determinations of T and V, a smaller variation would be expected from measurements in optically thin lines, such as in the present case.

  14. Semantic Feature Distinctiveness and Frequency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Katherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Lexical access is the process in which basic components of meaning in language, the lexical entries (words) are activated. This activation is based on the organization and representational structure of the lexical entries. Semantic features of words, which are the prominent semantic characteristics of a word concept, provide important information…

  15. Aging and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Naturalistic, Longitudinal Study of the Comorbidities and Behavioral and Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Adults with ASD.

    PubMed

    Wise, Elizabeth A; Smith, Marcia D; Rabins, Peter V

    2017-03-16

    Little is known about Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in persons over age 50. In a retrospective, naturalistic review of 74 individuals aged 30 and older meeting DSM-5 criteria for ASD, the point prevalence of behavioral and neuropsychiatric symptoms (BNPS) declined significantly for 12 of 13 BNPS over a mean of 25 years while many other features of ASD remained stable. GI disorders (68.9%) and seizure disorders (23%) were common, and 25.7% of the sample had a BMI >30. Females were more likely to engage in screaming (p < 0.05) and oppositional behavior (p < 0.05). Current age did not have a significant effect on BNPS prevalence.

  16. Investigations of Solar Prominence Dynamics Using Laboratory Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Paul M Bellan

    2008-05-28

    Laboratory experiments simulating many of the dynamical features of solar coronal loops have been carried out. These experiments manifest collimation, kinking, jet flows, and S-shapes. Diagnostics include high-speed photography and x-ray detectors. Two loops having opposite or the same magnetic helicity polarities have been merged and it is found that counter-helicity merging provides much greater x-ray emission. A non-MHD particle orbit instability has been discovered whereby ions going in the opposite direction of the current flow direction can be ejected from a magnetic flux tube.

  17. MORPHOLOGY AND DYNAMICS OF SOLAR PROMINENCES FROM 3D MHD SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Terradas, J.; Soler, R.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L.; Luna, M.

    2015-01-20

    In this paper we present a numerical study of the time evolution of solar prominences embedded in sheared magnetic arcades. The prominence is represented by a density enhancement in a background-stratified atmosphere and is connected to the photosphere through the magnetic field. By solving the ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations in three dimensions, we study the dynamics for a range of parameters representative of real prominences. Depending on the parameters considered, we find prominences that are suspended above the photosphere, i.e., detached prominences, but also configurations resembling curtain or hedgerow prominences whose material continuously connects to the photosphere. The plasma-β is an important parameter that determines the shape of the structure. In many cases magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and oscillatory phenomena develop. Fingers and plumes are generated, affecting the whole prominence body and producing vertical structures in an essentially horizontal magnetic field. However, magnetic shear is able to reduce or even to suppress this instability.

  18. Weighted current sheets supported in normal and inverse configurations - A model for prominence observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demoulin, P.; Forbes, T. G.

    1992-01-01

    A technique which incorporates both photospheric and prominence magnetic field observations is used to analyze the magnetic support of solar prominences in two dimensions. The prominence is modeled by a mass-loaded current sheet which is supported against gravity by magnetic fields from a bipolar source in the photosphere and a massless line current in the corona. It is found that prominence support can be achieved in three different kinds of configurations: an arcade topology with a normal polarity; a helical topology with a normal polarity; and a helical topology with an inverse polarity. In all cases the important parameter is the variation of the horizontal component of the prominence field with height. Adding a line current external to the prominence eliminates the nonsupport problem which plagues virtually all previous prominence models with inverse polarity.

  19. Measurement of Residual Flexibility for Substructures Having Prominent Flexible Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinker, Michael L.; Bookout, Paul S.

    1994-01-01

    structure in both test and analysis. Measured and predicted residual functions are compared, and regions of poor data in the measured curves are described. It is found that for accurate residual measurements, frequency response functions having prominent stiffness lines in the acceleration/force format are needed. The lack of such stiffness lines increases measurement errors. Interface drive point frequency respose functions for shuttle orbiter payloads exhibit dominant stiffness lines, making the residual test approach a good candidate for payload modal tests when constrained tests are inappropriate. Difficulties in extracting a residual flexibility value from noisy test data are discussed. It is shown that use of a weighted second order least-squares curve fit of the measured residual function allows identification of residual flexibility that compares very well with predictions for the simple structure. This approach also provides an estimate of second order residual mass effects.

  20. Parkinsonian features in a case of pellagra: a historical report.

    PubMed

    Cavanna, Andrea E; Nani, Andrea; Williams, Adrian C

    2013-01-01

    Pellagra is a complex systemic disease resulting from inadequate dietary intake of coenzyme precursors nicotinamide and tryptophan. Improved nutritional habits in most developed economies have led to a decrease in clinicians' and researchers' attention to this condition and its pathophysiological bases, although new cases of pellagra have recently been identified in association with alcohol abuse and HIV infection in Western countries. Pellagra is characterized by a complex clinical picture, which can include neuropsychiatric symptoms and Parkinsonian features. Interestingly, pellagra and Parkinson's disease could share some basic pathophysiological mechanisms at the level of nicotinamide metabolism, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction and alterations in dopaminergic pathways. Both neuropsychiatric and motor symptoms were mentioned in historical reports of pellagra cohorts. Here we present the English translation of the first detailed description of an original case of pellagra with Parkinsonian features, documented in a clinical note by Dr Giuseppe Paravicini one century ago.

  1. Case report: Is verbal cognitive performance in bilingual neuropsychiatric patients test-language dependent?

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Mabel; Kratochvilova, Zuzana; Kuniss, Renata; Vorackova, Veronika; Dorazilova, Aneta; Fajnerova, Iveta

    2015-12-01

    Bilingualism (BL) is increasing around the world. Although BL has been shown to have a broad impact-both positive and negative-on language and cognitive functioning, cognitive models and standards are mainly based on monolinguals. If we take cognitive performance of monolinguals as a standard, then the performance of bilinguals might not be accurately estimated. The assessment of cognitive functions is an important part of both the diagnostic process and further treatment in neurological and neuropsychiatric patients. In order to identify the presence or absence of cognitive deficit in bilingual patients, it will be important to determine the positive and/or negative impact of BL properties on measured cognitive performance. However, research of the impact of BL on cognitive performance in neuropsychiatric patients is limited. This article aims to compare the influence of the language (dominant-L1, second-L2) used for assessment of verbal cognitive performance in two cases of bilingual neuropsychiatric patients (English/Czech). Despite the fact that the two cases have different diagnoses, similarities in working memory and verbal learning profiles for L1 and L2 were present in both patients. We expected L1 to have higher performance in all measures when compared with L2. This assumption was partially confirmed. As expected, verbal working memory performance was better when assessed in L1. In contrast, verbal learning showed the same or better performance in L2 when compared with L1. Verbal fluency and immediate recall results were comparable in both languages. In conclusion, the language of administration partially influenced verbal performance of bilingual patients. Whether the language itself influenced low performance in a given language or it was a result of a deficit requires further research. According to our results, we suggest that an assessment in both languages needs to be a component of reasonable cognitive assessment of bilingual patients.

  2. Executive Dysfunctions: The Role in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity and Post-traumatic Stress Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Lía; Prada, Edward; Satler, Corina; Tavares, Maria C. H.; Tomaz, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Executive functions (EFs) is an umbrella term for various cognitive processes controlled by a complex neural activity, which allow the production of different types of behaviors seeking to achieve specific objectives, one of them being inhibitory control. There is a wide consensus that clinical and behavioral alterations associated with EF, such as inhibitory control, are present in various neuropsychiatric disorders. This paper reviews the research literature on the relationship between executive dysfunction, frontal-subcortical neural circuit changes, and the psychopathological processes associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A revision on the role of frontal-subcortical neural circuits and their presumable abnormal functioning and the high frequency of neuropsychiatric symptoms could explain the difficulties with putting effector mechanisms into action, giving individuals the necessary tools to act efficiently in their environment. Although, neuronal substrate data about ADHD and PTSD has been reported in the literature, it is isolated. Therefore, this review highlights the overlapping of neural substrates in the symptomatology of ADHD and PTSD disorders concerning EFs, especially in the inhibitory component. Thus, the changes related to impaired EF that accompany disorders like ADHD and PTSD could be explained by disturbances that have a direct or indirect impact on the functioning of these loops. Initially, the theoretical model of EF according to current neuropsychology will be presented, focusing on the inhibitory component. In a second stage, this component will be analyzed for each of the disorders of interest, considering the clinical aspects, the etiology and the neurobiological basis. Additionally, commonalities between the two neuropsychiatric conditions will be taken into consideration from the perspectives of cognitive and emotional inhibition. Finally, the implications and future

  3. [Early life stressful experiences and neuropsychiatric vulnerability: evidences from human and animal models].

    PubMed

    Rincel, Marion; Lépinay, Amandine; Gabory, Anne; Théodorou, Vassilia; Koehl, Muriel; Daugé, Valérie; Maccari, Stefania; Darnaudéry, Muriel

    2016-01-01

    The human newborn is highly dependent on parental care for its survival but also for the healthy development of its brain. A large body of literature demonstrates the impact of early life adversity, even during the prenatal period, on the adult's health. The susceptibility to neuropsychiatric diseases is often potentiated by early stress. If there is an agreement that a critical developmental period exists, the mechanisms underlying the long term effects of early life adversity are still poorly understood. Recent studies in animals highlight the involvement of epigenetic processes in the transmission of such vulnerabilities, notably via modifications in germ cells, which can be transmitted in the next generations.

  4. Repression of telomere-associated genes by microglia activation in neuropsychiatric disease.

    PubMed

    Kronenberg, Golo; Uhlemann, Ria; Schöner, Johanna; Wegner, Stephanie; Boujon, Valérie; Deigendesch, Nikolas; Endres, Matthias; Gertz, Karen

    2016-11-28

    Microglia senescence may promote neuropsychiatric disease. This prompted us to examine the relationship between microglia activation states and telomere biology. A panel of candidate genes associated with telomere maintenance, mitochondrial biogenesis, and cell-cycle regulation were investigated in M1- and M2-polarized microglia in vitro as well as in MACS-purified CD11b+ microglia/brain macrophages from models of stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and chronic stress. M1 polarization, ischemia, and Alzheimer pathology elicited a strikingly similar transcriptomic profile with, in particular, reduced expression of murine Tert. Our results link classical microglia activation with repression of telomere-associated genes, suggesting a new mechanism underlying microglia dysfunction.

  5. [Neuropsychiatric problems among children are signigicantly underdiagnosed. Intervention programs result in better and less expensive care].

    PubMed

    Nydén, A; Paananen, M; Gillberg, C

    2000-11-29

    Neuropsychiatric problems (Asperger syndrome, ADHD, reading and writing disorders) affect 6-10 per cent of all children in Sweden. Many of these disorders are never diagnosed. As a consequence, secondary behaviour problems and impaired family relations often follow. A study of 60 families with at least one child affected by one of the above mentioned disorders shows that quality of life can be increased and problems reduced if parents and children are informed of the child's disabilities and the child receives a special education programme. Families who do not receive this special treatment more often apply for medical care from other (more expensive) sources. Quite often do they find this treatment unsatisfactory.

  6. Neuregulin-ERBB signaling in nervous system development and neuropsychiatric diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Lin; Nave, Klaus-Armin

    2014-01-01

    Summary Neuregulins (NRGs) comprise a large family of growth factors that stimulate ERBB receptor tyrosine kinases. NRGs and their receptors ERBBs have been identified as susceptibility genes for diseases such as schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder. Recent studies have revealed complex Nrg/Erbb signaling networks that regulate the assembly of neural circuitry, myelination, neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. Evidence indicates there is an optimal level of NRG/ERBB signaling in the brain and deviation from it impairs brain functions. NRGs/ERBBs and downstream signaling pathways may provide therapeutic targets for specific neuropsychiatric symptoms. PMID:24991953

  7. [EPIGENETIC FACTORS OF NEUROBIOLOGIC CHANGES IN FETUSES OF PREGNANT WOMEN WITH NEUROPSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS].

    PubMed

    Varadinova, M; Metodieva, R; Boyadzhieva, N

    2015-01-01

    During prenatal development, the fetus is particularly vulnerable to the environmental harmful effects. It has been proved that the placenta is a significant modulator of the intrauterine environment that links maternal and fetal nervous systems. Emerging evidence indicates that epigenetic modifications prior to the birth may have substantial influence on brain development and may exert various neurobehavioral deficits. This review demonstrates association between maternal prenatal distress and depression and fetal long-term neurobiological and behavioral outcomes. Further investigation of the epigenetic dysregulation of fetal neurodevelopment may suggest new mechanisms in the interplay between genes and environment, and provide novel insights in the pathophysiology and prevention of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  8. Depression and seizures as the main neuropsychiatric manifestation of mixed connective tissue disorder.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Ismaa Ghazanfar; Qureshi, Safina Hameed; Shah, Faridullah

    2014-05-01

    A 38 years female presented with arthralgia, dyspnoea, progressive proximal muscle weakness, seizures, weight loss, dysphagia, alopecia, and dryness of the eyes and mouth with tightening of the skin. Psychiatric evaluation revealed major depression. She had oral ulcers, tightening of the skin of the hands with restricted mouth opening, and proximal muscle weakness. Mixed connective tissue disorder (MCTD) with predominant polymyositis and neuropsychiatric manifestations was diagnosed as the patient had anti-RNP positive with significantly raised muscle enzymes. This case is unique because major depression in MCTD is rarely documented, severe polymyositis is a rarity and ANA was negative but characteristic anti-RNP antibody was positive.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Stimmler, M M; Coletti, P M; Quismorio, F P

    1993-04-01

    To determine the utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain in diagnosing active neuropsychiatric disease in systemic lupus erythematosus (NP-SLE), a prospective study of 51 hospitalized systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients during 64 separate episodes of suspected NP-SLE was initiated. In addition to standard hematology, chemistry, and serological tests, the workup included MRI in all patients. A computed tomographic scan of the brain was obtained in patients enrolled in the first year of the study. Of the 64 neuropsychiatric episodes, 42 were attributable to NP-SLE and 22 were attributed to causes other than SLE. Neuropsychiatric complaints unrelated to lupus included depression (n = 6), seizures (n = 5), headache (n = 3), altered mental status (n = 2), aseptic meningitis (n = 2), cardiovascular accident (n = 2), transient ischemic attack (n = 1), and vertigo (n = 1). The MRI was abnormal in 34 of 64 (53%) episodes. MRI abnormalities were more common in patients with focal neurological deficits (19/26) than in those without focal findings (15/38; P = .008) and in patients with nephritis (19/24) than in those without renal disease (15/40; P = .002). MRI abnormalities were as frequent in NP-SLE (25/42) as in cases with non-NP-SLE-related causes (9/22). Periventricular increased signal (PIS) was a frequent MRI finding (10/64). Enlargement of the prepontine cistern, an MRI finding not previously described in NP-SLE, was seen (14/64). Both findings were associated with the presence of hypertension and lupus nephritis. PIS similar to that seen in our patients has been described in otherwise healthy elderly individuals with risk factors for stroke, suggesting that vascular abnormalities may be important in the etiology of these lesions. In conclusion, abnormalities in brain MRI occur frequently in NP-SLE, especially in patients with focal neurological deficits. However, the presence of similar MRI abnormalities in SLE patients with neuropsychiatric

  10. A comparison of solar prominence data between H alpha and EUV (He II-304 Angstrom)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiralli, Jonathan Luke

    Two spectral lines are often used to observe solar prominences: Halpha and He II 304 A. Both emission lines capture the same prominence structure but at vastly different temperatures: Halpha is visible at ˜10,000K while He II 304 A. at ˜80,000K. The He II 304 A images provide the ability to identify the relatively hotter outer region of a prominence, although they lack the details seen in the cooler lower regions. Halpha conversely shows great detail in the cooler lower regions of a prominence but lack any detail in the hotter outer region of a prominence. Two prominences will be the subject of this paper, a low lying prominence on the northeast limb of the Sun and a larger prominence near an active region on the northwest limb of the Sun. Analysis of simultaneous images of prominences using the SDO's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) at the He II 304 A wavelength and the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) Halpha wavelength reveal both similar and different morphology. The challenge when comparing observations from both systems is to obtain sufficient congruence to determine the prominence properties and structure. Halpha images tend to show the cooler core of a prominence and detail in the finer structure. 304 A images show much more detail in the terms of higher hotter material which gives a greater sense to the structure and life of a prominence. By studying both wavelengths a more complete picture of the properties, structure and the evolution of a prominence can be learned.

  11. Using Prominence Mass Inferences in Different Coronal Lines to Obtain the He/H Abundance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Holly; Kilper, Gary; Alexander, David; Kucera, Therese

    2009-01-01

    In a previous study we developed a new technique for deriving prominence mass by observing how much coronal radiation in the Fe XII (lambda195) spectral Line is absorbed by prominence material. In the present work we apply this method. which allows us to consider the effects of both foreground and background radiation in our calculations, to a sample of prominences absorbing in a coronal line that ionizes both H and He (lambda < 504 Angstroms), and a line that ionizes only H (504 Angstroms < lambda < 911 Angstroms). This approach, first suggested by Mucera et al. (1998). permits the determination of the abundance ratio [He I]/[H I] of neutral helium and hydrogen in the prominence. This ratio should depend on how the prominence is formed, on its current thermodynamic state, and on its dynamical evolution. Thus, it may provide useful insights into the formation and evolution of prominences.

  12. Using Prominence Mass Inferences in Different Coronal Lines to Obtain the He/H Abundance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Holly; Kilper, Gary; Alexander, David; Kucera, Therese

    2008-01-01

    In a previous study we developed a new technique for deriving prominence mass by observing how much coronal radiation in the Fe XI1 (lambda 195) spectral line is absorbed by prominence material. In the present work we apply this method, which allows us to consider the effects of both foreground and background radiation in our calculations, to a sample of prominences absorbing in a coronal line that ionizes both H and He (h < 504 Angstroms), and a line that ionizes only H (504 Angstroms < lambda < 911 Angstroms). This approach, first suggested by Kucera et al. (1998), permits the determination of the abundance ratio [He I]/[H I] of neutral helium and hydrogen in the prominence. This ratio should depend on how the prominence is formed, on its current thermodynamic state, and on its dynamical evolution. Thus, it may provide useful insights into the formation and evolution of prominences.

  13. Malaria Prevention, Mefloquine Neurotoxicity, Neuropsychiatric Illness, and Risk-Benefit Analysis in the Australian Defence Force

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    The Australian Defence Force (ADF) has used mefloquine for malaria chemoprophylaxis since 1990. Mefloquine has been found to be a plausible cause of a chronic central nervous system toxicity syndrome and a confounding factor in the diagnosis of existing neuropsychiatric illnesses prevalent in the ADF such as posttraumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury. Overall health risks appear to have been mitigated by restricting the drug's use; however serious risks were realised when significant numbers of ADF personnel were subjected to clinical trials involving the drug. The full extent of the exposure, health impacts for affected individuals, and consequences for ADF health management including mental health are not yet known, but mefloquine may have caused or aggravated neuropsychiatric illness in large numbers of patients who were subsequently misdiagnosed and mistreated or otherwise failed to receive proper care. Findings in relation to chronic mefloquine neurotoxicity were foreseeable, but this eventuality appears not to have been considered during risk-benefit analyses. Thorough analysis by the ADF would have identified this long-term risk as well as other qualitative risk factors. Historical exposure of ADF personnel to mefloquine neurotoxicity now also necessitates ongoing risk monitoring and management in the overall context of broader health policies. PMID:26793391

  14. Wnt signaling in neuropsychiatric disorders: ties with adult hippocampal neurogenesis and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hussaini, Syed Mohammed Qasim; Choi, Chan-Il; Cho, Chang Hoon; Kim, Hyo Jin; Jun, Heechul; Jang, Mi-Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to better understand and treat mental disorders, the Wnt pathway and adult hippocampal neurogenesis have received increased attention in recent years. One is a signaling pathway regulating key aspects of embryonic patterning, cell specification, and adult tissue homeostasis. The other is the generation of newborn neurons in adulthood that integrate into the neural circuit and function in learning and memory, and mood behavior. In this review, we discuss the growing relationship between Wnt signaling-mediated regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis as it applies to neuropsychiatric disorders. Evidence suggests dysfunctional Wnt signaling may aberrantly regulate new neuron development and cognitive function. Indeed, altered expression of key Wnt pathway components are observed in the hippocampus of patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders. Clinically-utilized mood stabilizers also proceed through modulation of Wnt signaling in the hippocampus, while Wnt pathway antagonists can regulate the antidepressant response. Here, we review the role of Wnt signaling in disease etiology and pathogenesis, regulation of adult neurogenesis and behavior, and the therapeutic targeting of disease symptoms. PMID:25263701

  15. Activation of sigma-1 receptor chaperone in the treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases and its clinical implication.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein sigma-1 receptor represents unique chaperone activity in the central nervous system, and it exerts a potent influence on a number of neurotransmitter systems. Several lines of evidence suggest that activation of sigma-1 receptor plays a role in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric diseases, as well as in the mechanisms of some therapeutic drugs and neurosteroids. Preclinical studies showed that some selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs; fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, excitalopram), donepezil, and ifenprodil act as sigma-1 receptor agonists. Furthermore, sigma-1 receptor agonists could improve the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist phencyclidine (PCP)-induced cognitive deficits in mice. A study using positron emission tomography have demonstrated that an oral administration of fluvoxamine or donepezil could bind to sigma-1 receptor in the healthy human brain, suggesting that sigma-1 receptor might be involved in the therapeutic mechanisms of these drugs. Moreover, case reports suggest that sigma-1 receptor agonists, including fluvoxamine, and ifenprodil, may be effective in the treatment of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia, delirium in elderly people, and flashbacks in post-traumatic stress disorder. In this review article, the author would like to discuss the clinical implication of sigma-1 receptor agonists, including endogenous neurosteroids, in the neuropsychiatric diseases.

  16. Neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric behaviour defects arise from 14-3-3ζ deficiency.

    PubMed

    Cheah, P S; Ramshaw, H S; Thomas, P Q; Toyo-Oka, K; Xu, X; Martin, S; Coyle, P; Guthridge, M A; Stomski, F; van den Buuse, M; Wynshaw-Boris, A; Lopez, A F; Schwarz, Q P

    2012-04-01

    Complex neuropsychiatric disorders are believed to arise from multiple synergistic deficiencies within connected biological networks controlling neuronal migration, axonal pathfinding and synapse formation. Here, we show that deletion of 14-3-3ζ causes neurodevelopmental anomalies similar to those seen in neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder and bipolar disorder. 14-3-3ζ-deficient mice displayed striking behavioural and cognitive deficiencies including a reduced capacity to learn and remember, hyperactivity and disrupted sensorimotor gating. These deficits are accompanied by subtle developmental abnormalities of the hippocampus that are underpinned by aberrant neuronal migration. Significantly, 14-3-3ζ-deficient mice exhibited abnormal mossy fibre navigation and glutamatergic synapse formation. The molecular basis of these defects involves the schizophrenia risk factor, DISC1, which interacts isoform specifically with 14-3-3ζ. Our data provide the first evidence of a direct role for 14-3-3ζ deficiency in the aetiology of neurodevelopmental disorders and identifies 14-3-3ζ as a central risk factor in the schizophrenia protein interaction network.

  17. Effects of omega 3 fatty acids supplementation in behavior and non-neurodegenerative neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Ortega, R M; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, E; López-Sobaler, A M

    2012-06-01

    This work provides a systematic review of all published randomised, controlled clinical trials (RCT) investigating the effects of n-3 PUFA intake on the prevention and treatment of non-neurodegenerative neuropsychiatric disorders. Five databases (PubMed, EMBASE, LILACS, CINAHL and The Cochrane Database) were searched for RCT in this area published up to April 2011. The selected studies all involved human participants and included a comparison group. Thirty eight studies were identified, which examined the influence of n-3 PUFA supplementation on the prevention/treatment of depression (non-perinatal) (n 23), perinatal depression (n 6) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n 9). Great heterogeneity was noticed in terms of study design, the doses of n-3 PUFA administered, and study duration. Some benefit was noted with respect to the treatment of hyperactivity and depression in over half the examined studies, although the evidence was not conclusive. For any firm conclusions to be drawn, further studies will be needed that take into account the initial n-3 PUFA status of the subjects. Excessive n-3 PUFA intakes might be associated with a greater risk of peroxidation events and therefore neuropsychiatric deterioration. Indeed, some studies only recorded benefits when lower doses were administered. It is therefore important that the dose required to achieve any potential benefit be determined.

  18. The Neuropsychiatric Disease-Associated Gene cacna1c Mediates Survival of Young Hippocampal Neurons123

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Anni S.; Kabir, Zeeba D.; Knobbe, Whitney; Orr, Madeline; Burgdorf, Caitlin; Huntington, Paula; McDaniel, Latisha; Britt, Jeremiah K.; Hoffmann, Franz; Brat, Daniel J.; Rajadhyaksha, Anjali M.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic variations in CACNA1C, which encodes the Cav1.2 subunit of L-type calcium channels (LTCCs), are associated with multiple forms of neuropsychiatric disease that manifest high anxiety in patients. In parallel, mice harboring forebrain-specific conditional knockout of cacna1c (forebrain-Cav1.2 cKO) display unusually high anxiety-like behavior. LTCCs in general, including the Cav1.3 subunit, have been shown to mediate differentiation of neural precursor cells (NPCs). However, it has not previously been determined whether Cav1.2 affects postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis in vivo. Here, we show that forebrain-Cav1.2 cKO mice exhibit enhanced cell death of young hippocampal neurons, with no change in NPC proliferation, hippocampal size, dentate gyrus thickness, or corticosterone levels compared with wild-type littermates. These mice also exhibit deficits in brain levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and Cre recombinase-mediated knockdown of adult hippocampal Cav1.2 recapitulates the deficit in young hippocampal neurons survival. Treatment of forebrain-Cav1.2 cKO mice with the neuroprotective agent P7C3-A20 restored the net magnitude of postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis to wild-type levels without ameliorating their deficit in BDNF expression. The role of Cav1.2 in young hippocampal neurons survival may provide new approaches for understanding and treating neuropsychiatric disease associated with aberrations in CACNA1C. Visual Abstract PMID:27066530

  19. The Neuropsychiatric Disease-Associated Gene cacna1c Mediates Survival of Young Hippocampal Neurons.

    PubMed

    Lee, Anni S; De Jesús-Cortés, Héctor; Kabir, Zeeba D; Knobbe, Whitney; Orr, Madeline; Burgdorf, Caitlin; Huntington, Paula; McDaniel, Latisha; Britt, Jeremiah K; Hoffmann, Franz; Brat, Daniel J; Rajadhyaksha, Anjali M; Pieper, Andrew A

    2016-01-01

    Genetic variations in CACNA1C, which encodes the Cav1.2 subunit of L-type calcium channels (LTCCs), are associated with multiple forms of neuropsychiatric disease that manifest high anxiety in patients. In parallel, mice harboring forebrain-specific conditional knockout of cacna1c (forebrain-Cav1.2 cKO) display unusually high anxiety-like behavior. LTCCs in general, including the Cav1.3 subunit, have been shown to mediate differentiation of neural precursor cells (NPCs). However, it has not previously been determined whether Cav1.2 affects postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis in vivo. Here, we show that forebrain-Cav1.2 cKO mice exhibit enhanced cell death of young hippocampal neurons, with no change in NPC proliferation, hippocampal size, dentate gyrus thickness, or corticosterone levels compared with wild-type littermates. These mice also exhibit deficits in brain levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and Cre recombinase-mediated knockdown of adult hippocampal Cav1.2 recapitulates the deficit in young hippocampal neurons survival. Treatment of forebrain-Cav1.2 cKO mice with the neuroprotective agent P7C3-A20 restored the net magnitude of postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis to wild-type levels without ameliorating their deficit in BDNF expression. The role of Cav1.2 in young hippocampal neurons survival may provide new approaches for understanding and treating neuropsychiatric disease associated with aberrations in CACNA1C. Visual Abstract.

  20. Neurobiological consequences of maternal cannabis on human fetal development and its neuropsychiatric outcome.

    PubMed

    Jutras-Aswad, Didier; DiNieri, Jennifer A; Harkany, Tibor; Hurd, Yasmin L

    2009-10-01

    Despite the high prevalence of marijuana use among pregnant women and adolescents, the impact of cannabis on the developing brain is still not well understood. However, growing evidence supports that the endocannabinoid system plays a major role in CNS patterning in structures relevant for mood, cognition, and reward, such as the mesocorticolimbic system. It is thus clear that exposure to cannabis during early ontogeny is not benign and potential compensatory mechanisms that might be expected to occur during neurodevelopment appear insufficient to eliminate vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders in certain individuals. Both human longitudinal cohort studies and animal models strongly emphasize the long-term influence of prenatal cannabinoid exposure on behavior and mental health. This review provides an overview of the endocannabinoid system and examines the neurobiological consequences of cannabis exposure in pregnancy and early life by addressing its impact on the development of neurotransmitters systems relevant to neuropsychiatric disorders and its association with these disorders later in life. It posits that studying in utero cannabis exposure in association with genetic mutations of neural systems that have strong relationships to endocannabinoid function, such as the dopamine, opioid, glutamate, and GABA, might help to identify individuals at risk. Such data could add to existing knowledge to guide public health platform in regard to the use of cannabis and its derivatives during pregnancy.

  1. Glucocorticoid Mechanisms of Functional Connectivity Changes in Stress-Related Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Hall, Baila S; Moda, Rachel N; Liston, Conor

    2015-01-01

    Stress-especially chronic, uncontrollable stress-is an important risk factor for many neuropsychiatric disorders. The underlying mechanisms are complex and multifactorial, but they involve correlated changes in structural and functional measures of neuronal connectivity within cortical microcircuits and across neuroanatomically distributed brain networks. Here, we review evidence from animal models and human neuroimaging studies implicating stress-associated changes in functional connectivity in the pathogenesis of PTSD, depression, and other neuropsychiatric conditions. Changes in fMRI measures of corticocortical connectivity across distributed networks may be caused by specific structural alterations that have been observed in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and other vulnerable brain regions. These effects are mediated in part by glucocorticoids, which are released from the adrenal gland in response to a stressor and also oscillate in synchrony with diurnal rhythms. Recent work indicates that circadian glucocorticoid oscillations act to balance synapse formation and pruning after learning and during development, and chronic stress disrupts this balance. We conclude by considering how disrupted glucocorticoid oscillations may contribute to the pathophysiology of depression and PTSD in vulnerable individuals, and how circadian rhythm disturbances may affect non-psychiatric populations, including frequent travelers, shift workers, and patients undergoing treatment for autoimmune disorders.

  2. Cyproheptadine for prevention of neuropsychiatric adverse effects of efavirenz: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Dabaghzadeh, Fatemeh; Ghaeli, Padideh; Khalili, Hossein; Alimadadi, Abbas; Jafari, Sirous; Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Khazaeipour, Zahra

    2013-03-01

    Cyproheptadine prevention of the neuropsychiatric adverse effects of an antiretroviral regimen including efavirenz has been evaluated in a randomized clinical trial. Twenty-five patients (16 males and 9 females with mean±SD ages of 36±9 years) in a cyproheptadine group, and 26 patients (17 males and 9 females with mean±SD ages of 34±7 years) in a control group completed the trial. Sexual contact and injection drug use were the main routs of HIV infection in both groups. The patients' neuropsychiatric adverse effects were evaluated based on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Beck Depression Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory, Positive and Negative Suicide Ideation, and Somatization Subscale of Symptom Checklist 90 at baseline and 4 weeks after treatment. Cyproheptadine significantly decreased the scores of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Beck Depression Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory, Positive and Negative Suicide Ideation of the patients after 4 weeks in comparison with control group. All of the scores increased in control group following antiretroviral therapy. Although short duration of the patients' follow-up was a major limitation of the study, the results of the study showed that cyprohepradine is effective in prevention of depression, anxiety, hallucination, aggressive behaviors, emotional withdrawal, poor rapport, poor impulse control, active social avoidance, suicidal ideation, and improved sleep quality of HIV-positive patients after initiation of antiretroviral therapy including efavirenz.

  3. Neuropsychiatric and Behavioral Profiles of 2 Adults With Williams Syndrome: Response to Antidepressant Intake

    PubMed Central

    Urgeles, Diego; Alonso, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Background: Individuals with Williams syndrome, a rare genetic disorder, are characterized by specific medical, cognitive, and behavioral phenotypes and often have high anxiety levels as well as phobia. Studies of the psychiatric phenotype in adults affected by Williams syndrome or literature on the management of their mental pathologies are lacking. Method: In this article, we report the neuropsychiatric profile of 2 adult patients with Williams syndrome who also have generalized anxiety disorder and depressive symptoms (DSM-IV-TR criteria), along with their anxiety profiles and the strategies that were adopted for pharmacologic intervention. Results: Neuropsychiatric profiles revealed a prefrontal cortex affliction that includes an alteration in executive functions. The patients had high scores for trait-anxiety and responded to treatment with a low-potency antipsychotic. A selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) was coadministered with the antipsychotic to alleviate the depressive symptoms. The treatment led to an improvement in self-control, mental concentration, and social skills, as well as decreased irritability and aggressiveness and stabilization of mood. Conclusions: The combination of SSRIs and low doses of low-potency antipsychotics seems to be the most suitable medication to treat generalized anxiety disorder and related disorders in individuals with Williams syndrome. Manic reactions and increase in anxiety must be closely monitored during treatment. Control of anxiety and sleep should be a priority in these patients, even as a preventative measure. PMID:24392262

  4. Neuropsychiatric Lupus and Association with Cerebrospinal Fluid immunoglobulins: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Stojanovich, Ljudmila; Smiljanich-Miljkovich, Dusica; Omdal, Roald; Sakic, Boris

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent experimental evidence points to brain-reactive antibodies as a key factor in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric SLE (central nervous system-SLE1). However, clinical studies in which circulating (serum) autoantibodies were correlated with neuropsychiatric manifestations did not produce consistent findings. Objectives To test the hypothesis that autoantibodies in the CSF are more reflective of functional brain damage. Methods We compared the behavioral profiles of 12 NP-SLE2 patients, some of whom had immunoglobulin G in their CSF3. Results Western blotting revealed heavy and light-chain IgG bands in six patients similar in age to the subgroup of CSF IgG-free patients. A series of serological measures did not differ between the subgroups, but SLEDAI scores and daily steroid doses were higher in patients with IgG in their CSF. All three patients with severe deficits in verbal and executive functions were positive for the CSF IgG, while three other patients with psychosis were CSF IgG-negative. Conclusions Although the present sample size is relatively small, the results support the relationship between disease severity and central manifestations of autoimmunity. They also emphasize the importance of clinical studies that compare subpopulations of NP-SLE patients and justify development of animal models in which controlled immune mechanisms induce specific deficits in behavior. PMID:19697587

  5. Prominence measurement of total solar eclipse: March 9th 2016, Ternate, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naufal, Luthfi; Abdan Malikul Mulki, Fargiza; Fatima, Siti; Widyanita; Zahirah, Saffanah; Dimas Satrya, Christoforus; Herdiwijaya, Dhani

    2016-11-01

    Prominence is a hot gas that consists of electrically charged particles, which is propelled outward Solar surface. It can happen when the activity of sunspot rising up. Ground- based observation of prominence is rather difficult due to the brightness of the Sun, which it needs appropriate method. During total solar eclipse (TSE), prominence is easier to observe. In Ternate, Maluku islands (0°4632.0"N 127°2305.7"E), we observed solar prominence in visual and infrared spectra performed by using regular-DSLR camera for visual wavelength and modified-DSLR (IR-cut filter removal) for infrared wavelength, respectively. Next, we calculated the length of prominence from TSE images, and found that the real minimum length of prominence in red is 1.05 times longer than green and blue ones. And, the real maximum length of prominence is 1.08 times longer than blue and 1.04 times longer than green. The intensity of red is brighter 1.37 times to green and 1.23 times to blue. The causes of the results due to the different temperatures of the prominences and the radiation from H-alpha emission. We succeeded to observe directly the prominence with simple cameras and measured its length and brightness.

  6. Substance Use is a Risk Factor for Neurocognitive Deficits and Neuropsychiatric Distress in Acute and Early HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Erica; Morgan, Erin E.; Iudicello, Jennifer E.; Blackstone, Kaitlin; Grant, Igor; Ellis, Ronald J.; Letendre, Scott L.; Little, Susan; Morris, Sheldon; Smith, Davey M.; Moore, David J.; Woods, Steven Paul

    2012-01-01

    The acute and early stages of HIV infection (AEH) are characterized by substantial viral replication, immune activation, and alterations in brain metabolism. However, little is known about the prevalence and predictors of neurocognitive deficits and neuropsychiatric disturbances during this period. The present study examined the impact of demographic, HIV disease, and substance use factors on HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment and self-reported neuropsychiatric distress among 46 antiretroviral-naïve adults with median duration of infection of 75 days, relative to sample a of 21 HIV seronegative (HIV-) adults with comparable demographics and risk factors. Participants were administered a brief neurocognitive battery that was adjusted for demographics and assessed executive functions, memory, psychomotor speed, and verbal fluency, as well as the Profile of Mood States (POMS), a self-report measure of neuropsychiatric distress. Odds ratios revealed that AEH participants were nearly four times more likely than their seronegative counterparts to experience neurocognitive impairment, particularly in the areas of learning and information processing speed. Similarly, AEH was associated with a nearly five-fold increase in the odds of neuropsychiatric distress, most notably in anxiety and depression. Within the AEH sample, HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment was associated with problematic methamphetamine use and higher plasma HIV RNA levels, whereas neuropsychiatric distress was solely associated with high-risk alcohol use. Extending prior neuroimaging findings, results from this study indicate that HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric distress are highly prevalent during AEH and are associated with high-risk substance use. PMID:23250704

  7. Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Inborn Errors of Metabolism: Incorporation of Genomic and Metabolomic Analysis into Therapeutics and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Inborn errors of metabolism may present as a spectrum ranging from neonatal lethality to non-specific symptoms. Neuropsychiatric manifestations have been identified in three groups: those presenting as emergencies, those with chronic fluctuating symptoms, and those associated with mental retardation. Milder central nervous system specific inborn errors of metabolism may also present later in life with isolated psychiatric symptoms. Inborn errors of metabolism presenting with neuropsychiatric symptoms are described with illustrative case examples. Metabolomic and genomic approaches to identification and treatment are described. PMID:23525354

  8. Wavelet Features Based Fingerprint Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagadi, Shweta U.; Thalange, Asha V.; Jain, Giridhar P.

    2010-11-01

    In this work; we present a automatic fingerprint identification system based on Level 3 features. Systems based only on minutiae features do not perform well for poor quality images. In practice, we often encounter extremely dry, wet fingerprint images with cuts, warts, etc. Due to such fingerprints, minutiae based systems show poor performance for real time authentication applications. To alleviate the problem of poor quality fingerprints, and to improve overall performance of the system, this paper proposes fingerprint verification based on wavelet statistical features & co-occurrence matrix features. The features include mean, standard deviation, energy, entropy, contrast, local homogeneity, cluster shade, cluster prominence, Information measure of correlation. In this method, matching can be done between the input image and the stored template without exhaustive search using the extracted feature. The wavelet transform based approach is better than the existing minutiae based method and it takes less response time and hence suitable for on-line verification, with high accuracy.

  9. Social Prominence and the Heterogeneity of Rejected Status in Late Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Hall, Cristin M.; Leung, Man-Chi; Estell, David B.; Brooks, Debra

    2011-01-01

    The heterogeneity of peer rejection was examined as a function of social prominence in fifth grade classrooms. From an overall sample of 3,891 (1,931 girls) students, 721 youth (424 boys) were identified with rejected status. Social prominence was determined from the aggregation of peer nominations for "leader", "athletic", "cool", and "popular".…

  10. CRITICAL HEIGHT FOR THE DESTABILIZATION OF SOLAR PROMINENCES: STATISTICAL RESULTS FROM STEREO OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Kai; Wang Yuming; Wang Shui; Shen Chenglong

    2012-01-10

    At which height is a prominence inclined to be unstable, or where is the most probable critical height for the prominence destabilization? This question was statistically studied based on 362 solar limb prominences well recognized by Solar Limb Prominence Catcher and Tracker from 2007 April to the end of 2009. We found that there are about 71% disrupted prominences (DPs), among which about 42% of them did not erupt successfully and about 89% of them experienced a sudden destabilization process. After a comprehensive analysis of the DPs, we discovered the following: (1) Most DPs become unstable at a height of 0.06-0.14 R{sub Sun} from the solar surface, and there are two most probable critical heights at which a prominence is very likely to become unstable, the first one is 0.13 R{sub Sun} and the second one is 0.19 R{sub Sun }. (2) An upper limit for the erupting velocity of eruptive prominences (EPs) exists, which decreases following a power law with increasing height and mass; accordingly, the kinetic energy of EPs has an upper limit too, which decreases as the critical height increases. (3) Stable prominences are generally longer and heavier than DPs, and not higher than 0.4 R{sub Sun }. (4) About 62% of the EPs were associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs); but there is no difference in apparent properties between EPs associated with CMEs and those that are not.

  11. On the Structure and Evolution of a Polar Crown Prominence/Filament System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panesar, N. K.; Innes, D. E.; Schmit, D. J.; Tiwari, S. K.

    2014-08-01

    Polar crown prominences, that partially circle the Sun's poles between 60° and 70° latitude, are made of chromospheric plasma. We aim to diagnose the 3D dynamics of a polar crown prominence using high-cadence EUV images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/AIA at 304, 171, and 193 Å and the Ahead spacecraft of the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO-A)/EUVI at 195 Å. Using time series across specific structures, we compare flows across the disk in 195 Å with the prominence dynamics seen on the limb. The densest prominence material forms vertical columns that are separated by many tens of Mm and connected by dynamic bridges of plasma that are clearly visible in 304/171 Å two-colour images. We also observe intermittent but repetitious flows with velocity 15 km s-1 in the prominence that appear to be associated with EUV bright points on the solar disk. The boundary between the prominence and the overlying cavity appears as a sharp edge. We discuss the structure of the coronal cavity seen both above and around the prominence. SDO/HMI and GONG magnetograms are used to infer the underlying magnetic topology. The evolution and structure of the prominence with respect to the magnetic field seems to agree with the filament-linkage model.

  12. Tic Tac TOE: Effects of Predictability and Importance on Acoustic Prominence in Language Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Duane G.; Arnold, Jennifer E.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2008-01-01

    Importance and predictability each have been argued to contribute to acoustic prominence. To investigate whether these factors are independent or two aspects of the same phenomenon, naive participants played a verbal variant of Tic Tac Toe. Both importance and predictability contributed independently to the acoustic prominence of a word, but in…

  13. 21 CFR 801.15 - Medical devices; prominence of required label statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical devices; prominence of required label statements. 801.15 Section 801.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...; prominence of required label statements. (a) A word, statement, or other information required by or...

  14. Physics of Solar Prominences: I-Spectral Diagnostics and Non-LTE Modelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labrosse, N.; Heinzel, P.; Vial, J.-C,; Kucera, T.; Parenti, S.; Gunar, S.; Schmieder, B.; Kilper, G.

    2010-01-01

    This review paper outlines background information and covers recent advances made via the analysis of spectra and images of prominence plasma and the increased sophistication of non-LTE (i.e. when there is a departure from Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium) radiative transfer models. We first describe the spectral inversion techniques that have been used to infer the plasma parameters important for the general properties of the prominence plasma in both its cool core and the hotter prominence-corona transition region. We also review studies devoted to the observation of bulk motions of the prominence plasma and to the determination of prominence mass. However, a simple inversion of spectroscopic data usually fails when the lines become optically thick at certain wavelengths. Therefore, complex

  15. Transverse oscillations and stability of prominences in a magnetic field dip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolotkov, D. Y.; Nisticò, G.; Nakariakov, V. M.

    2016-05-01

    Aims: We developed an analytical model of the global transverse oscillations and mechanical stability of a quiescent prominence in the magnetised environment with a magnetic field dip that accounts for the mirror current effect. Methods: The model is based on the interaction of line currents through the Lorentz force. Within this concept the prominence is treated as a straight current-carrying wire, and the magnetic dip is provided by two photospheric current sources. Results: Properties of both vertical and horizontal oscillations are determined by the value of the prominence current, its density and height above the photosphere, and the parameters of the magnetic dip. The prominence can be stable in both horizontal and vertical directions simultaneously when the prominence current dominates in the system and its height is less than the half-distance between the photospheric sources.

  16. SPECTRO-POLARIMETRIC IMAGING REVEALS HELICAL MAGNETIC FIELDS IN SOLAR PROMINENCE FEET

    SciTech Connect

    González, M. J. Martínez; Sainz, R. Manso; Ramos, A. Asensio; Beck, C.; Díaz, A. J.

    2015-03-20

    Solar prominences are clouds of cool plasma levitating above the solar surface and insulated from the million-degree corona by magnetic fields. They form in regions of complex magnetic topology, characterized by non-potential fields, which can evolve abruptly, disintegrating the prominence and ejecting magnetized material into the heliosphere. However, their physics is not yet fully understood because mapping such complex magnetic configurations and their evolution is extremely challenging, and must often be guessed by proxy from photometric observations. Using state-of-the-art spectro-polarimetric data, we reconstruct the structure of the magnetic field in a prominence. We find that prominence feet harbor helical magnetic fields connecting the prominence to the solar surface below.

  17. Analysis of Flows inside Quiescent Prominences as Captured by Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freed, M. S.; McKenzie, D. E.; Longcope, D. W.; Wilburn, M.

    2016-02-01

    Developing an understanding of how magnetic fields can become entangled in a prominence is important for predicting a possible eruption. This work investigates the kinetic energy and vorticity associated with plasma motion residing inside quiescent prominences (QPs). These plasma flow characteristics can be utilized to improve our understanding of how the prominence maintains a stable magnetic field configuration. Three different contrast-enhanced solar prominence observations from Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope were used to construct velocity maps—in the plane of the sky—via a Fourier local correlation tracking program. The resulting velocities were then used to perform the first-ever analysis of the two-dimensional kinetic energy and enstrophy spectra of a prominence. Enstrophy is introduced here as a means of quantifying the vorticity that has been observed in many QPs. The kinetic energy power spectral density (PSD) produced indices ranging from -1.00 to -1.60. There was a consistent anisotropy in the kinetic energy spectrum of all three prominences examined. Examination of the intensity PSD reveals that a different scaling relationship exists between the observed prominence structure and velocity maps. All of the prominences exhibited an inertial range of at least 0.8≤slant k≤slant 2.0 {rads} {{Mm}}-1. Quasi-periodic oscillations were also detected in the centroid of the velocity distributions for one prominence. Additionally, a lower limit was placed on the kinetic energy density (ɛ ˜ 0.22-7.04 {{km}}2 {{{s}}}-2) and enstrophy density (ω ˜ 1.43-13.69 × \\quad {10}-16 {{{s}}}-2) associated with each prominence.

  18. Endocrine (sexual) disruption is not a prominent feature in the pike (Esox lucius), a top predator, living in English waters.

    PubMed

    Vine, Emma; Shears, Jan; van Aerle, Ronny; Tyler, Charles R; Sumpter, John P

    2005-06-01

    The high incidence of intersex roach (Rutilus rutilus) in some United Kingdom rivers that has been associated with exposure to sewage treatment works (STWs) effluent led us to hypothesize that top predator fish also may be affected by estrogenic chemicals, because they are likely to bioaccumulate lipophilic compounds through a predator-prey relationship. To investigate this possibility, pike (Esox lucius) were sampled both upstream and downstream of STWs and then examined for total estrogenic activity of their bile, as measured using a yeast-based estrogen assay to determine the degree of recent exposure of the pike to estrogens and vitellogenin induction, and for possible disruption of sexual development, as measured using histological analysis of the gonads. No evidence of severe disruption was found in the sampled fish, which came from 16 sampling sites that were representative of English rivers. However, 14% of pike were intersex, of which 15 of 16 showed patches of male germ cells among predominantly female gonadal tissue. The incidence of masculinization was independent of whether the pike had been sampled upstream or downstream of STWs. Although pike are gonochoristic, it is not known if this masculinization of presumptive female pike is normal or, instead, indicative of endocrine disruption. Vitellogenin concentrations were not elevated in male pike at sites either upstream or downstream of STWs. The results suggest that sexual disruption is not common in pike, a fish at the top of the food chain in the freshwaters of England.

  19. Specific Language Impairment as the Prominent Feature in a Patient with a Low-Level Trisomy 21 Mosaicism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paoloni-Giacobino, A.; Lemieux, N.; Lemyre, E.; Lespinasse, James

    2007-01-01

    Background: The extent and severity of the disabilities is variable among individuals with Down syndrome, although generally characterized by a range of physical and intellectual conditions, including language impairment. Whether the language deficit is due to the intellectual disability (ID) or associated to the supernumerary or portion of…

  20. New phenotype of the cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy mapped to chromosome 19: migraine as the prominent clinical feature.

    PubMed Central

    Vérin, M; Rolland, Y; Landgraf, F; Chabriat, H; Bompais, B; Michel, A; Vahedi, K; Martinet, J P; Tournier-Lasserve, E; Lemaitre, M H

    1995-01-01

    A survey was carried out on a large family presenting the symptoms of familial arteriopathy (CADASIL) recently mapped to chromosome 19. This is characterised clinically by recurrent subcortical infarcts developing into pseudobulbar palsy and subcortical dementia, and radiologically by early MRI abnormalities. To characterise this familial condition, 43 members older than 20 years and spreading over four generations were studied clinically (31 living, 12 deceased), genetically, and radiologically by MRI (n = 31). Twenty out of 43 were found to be clinically symptomatic and of these 13 out of 31 had MRI abnormalities. Genetic studies mapped this condition to the locus of CADASIL (lod score > 3). The natural history suggests a chronological clinicoradiological staging of this phenotype of CADASIL: stage I between 20 and 40 years with frequent migraine-like episodes and well delineated lesions of the white matter; stage II between 40 and 60 years with stroke-like episodes, bipolar or monopolar-like psychotic disorders, coalescent lesions of the white matter, and well delineated lesions of the basal ganglia; and stage III over 60 years with subcortical dementia, pseudobulbar palsy, diffuse leukoencephalopathy, and multiple well delineated lesions of the basal ganglia. This phenotype differs from the other two previously described by high frequency of migraine, frequency of psychotic disorders, and early neurological manifestations. The new acronym "cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts, leukoencephalopathy, and migraine" (CADASILM) is proposed to better describe this particular subvariety of CADASIL. Images PMID:7500094

  1. Great expectations: using whole-brain computational connectomics for understanding neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Deco, Gustavo; Kringelbach, Morten L

    2014-12-03

    The study of human brain networks with in vivo neuroimaging has given rise to the field of connectomics, furthered by advances in network science and graph theory informing our understanding of the topology and function of the healthy brain. Here our focus is on the disruption in neuropsychiatric disorders (pathoconnectomics) and how whole-brain computational models can help generate and predict the dynamical interactions and consequences of brain networks over many timescales. We review methods and emerging results that exhibit remarkable accuracy in mapping and predicting both spontaneous and task-based healthy network dynamics. This raises great expectations that whole-brain modeling and computational connectomics may provide an entry point for understanding brain disorders at a causal mechanistic level, and that computational neuropsychiatry can ultimately be leveraged to provide novel, more effective therapeutic interventions, e.g., through drug discovery and new targets for deep brain stimulation.

  2. Adult neurogenesis and its role in neuropsychiatric disease, brain repair and normal brain function.

    PubMed

    Braun, S M G; Jessberger, S

    2014-02-01

    Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) in the mammalian brain retain the ability to generate new neurones throughout life in discrete brain regions, through a process called adult neurogenesis. Adult neurogenesis, a dramatic form of adult brain circuitry plasticity, has been implicated in physiological brain function and appears to be of pivotal importance for certain forms of learning and memory. In addition, failing or altered neurogenesis has been associated with a variety of brain diseases such as major depression, epilepsy and age-related cognitive decline. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of the basic biology underlying the neurogenic process in the adult brain, focusing on mechanisms that regulate quiescence, proliferation and differentiation of NSPCs. In addition, we discuss how neurogenesis influences normal brain function, and in particular its role in memory formation, as well as its contribution to neuropsychiatric diseases. Finally, we evaluate the potential of targeting endogenous NSPCs for brain repair.

  3. Neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease: past progress and anticipation of the future.

    PubMed

    Geda, Yonas E; Schneider, Lon S; Gitlin, Laura N; Miller, David S; Smith, Gwenn S; Bell, Joanne; Evans, Jovier; Lee, Michael; Porsteinsson, Anton; Lanctôt, Krista L; Rosenberg, Paul B; Sultzer, David L; Francis, Paul T; Brodaty, Henry; Padala, Prasad P; Onyike, Chiadikaobi U; Ortiz, Luis Agüera; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Bliwise, Donald L; Martin, Jennifer L; Vitiello, Michael V; Yaffe, Kristine; Zee, Phyllis C; Herrmann, Nathan; Sweet, Robert A; Ballard, Clive; Khin, Ni A; Alfaro, Cara; Murray, Patrick S; Schultz, Susan; Lyketsos, Constantine G

    2013-09-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are widespread and disabling. This has been known since Dr. Alois Alzheimer's first case, Frau Auguste D., presented with emotional distress and delusions of infidelity/excessive jealousy, followed by cognitive symptoms. Being cognizant of this, in 2010 the Alzheimer's Association convened a research roundtable on the topic of NPS in AD. A major outcome of the roundtable was the founding of a Professional Interest Area (PIA) within the International Society to Advance Alzheimer's Research and Treatment (ISTAART). The NPS-PIA has prepared a series of documents that are intended to summarize the literature and provide more detailed specific recommendations for NPS research. This overview paper is the first of these living documents that will be updated periodically as the science advances. The overview is followed by syndrome-specific synthetic reviews and recommendations prepared by NPS-PIA workgroups on depression, apathy, sleep, agitation, and psychosis.

  4. Sexual differentiation of the human brain: relation to gender identity, sexual orientation and neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Bao, Ai-Min; Swaab, Dick F

    2011-04-01

    During the intrauterine period a testosterone surge masculinizes the fetal brain, whereas the absence of such a surge results in a feminine brain. As sexual differentiation of the brain takes place at a much later stage in development than sexual differentiation of the genitals, these two processes can be influenced independently of each other. Sex differences in cognition, gender identity (an individual's perception of their own sexual identity), sexual orientation (heterosexuality, homosexuality or bisexuality), and the risks of developing neuropsychiatric disorders are programmed into our brain during early development. There is no evidence that one's postnatal social environment plays a crucial role in gender identity or sexual orientation. We discuss the relationships between structural and functional sex differences of various brain areas and the way they change along with any changes in the supply of sex hormones on the one hand and sex differences in behavior in health and disease on the other.

  5. Histamine H3 receptor as a potential target for cognitive symptoms in neuropsychiatric diseases.

    PubMed

    Sadek, Bassem; Saad, Ali; Sadeq, Adel; Jalal, Fakhreya; Stark, Holger

    2016-10-01

    The potential contributions of the brain histaminergic system in neurodegenerative diseases, and the possiblity of histamine-targeting treatments is attracting considerable interests. The histamine H3 receptor (H3R) is expressed mainly in the central nervous system, and is, consequently, an attractive pharmacological target. Although recently described clinical trials have been disappointing in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and schizophrenia (SCH), numerous H3R antagonists, including pitolisant, demonstrate potential in the treatment of narcolepsy, excessive daytime sleepiness associated with cognitive impairment, epilepsy, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). This review focuses on the recent preclinical as well as clinical results that support the relevance of H3R antagonists for the treatment of cognitive symptoms in neuropsychiatric diseases, namely AD, epilepsy and SCH. The review summarizes the role of histaminergic neurotransmission with focus on these brain disorders, as well as the effects of numerous H3R antagonists on animal models and humans.

  6. The case of Jeffrey Dahmer: sexual serial homicide from a neuropsychiatric developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Silva, J Arturo; Ferrari, Michelle M; Leong, Gregory B

    2002-11-01

    Sexual serial homicidal behavior has received considerable attention during the last three decades. Substantial progress has been made in the development of methods aimed at identifying and apprehending individuals who exhibit these behaviors. In spite of these advances, the origins of sexual serial killing behavior remain for the most part unknown. In this article we propose a biopsychosocial psychiatric model for understanding the origins of sexual serial homicidal behavior from both neuropsychiatric and developmental perspectives, using the case of convicted serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer as the focal point. We propose that his homicidal behavior was intrinsically associated with autistic spectrum psychopathology, specifically Asperger's disorder. The relationship of Asperger's disorder to other psychopathology and to his homicidal behavior is explored. We discuss potential implications of the proposed model for the future study of the causes of sexual serial homicidal crime.

  7. Severe Neuropsychiatric Reaction in a Deployed Military Member after Prophylactic Mefloquine

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Alan L.; Seegmiller, Robert A.; Schindler, Libby S.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies of military personnel who have deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan have reported a number of combat-related psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and traumatic brain injury. This case report involves a 27-year-old male active-duty US military service member who developed severe depression, psychotic hallucinations, and neuropsychological sequelae following the prophylactic use of the antimalarial medication mefloquine hydrochloride. The patient had a recent history of depression and was taking antidepressant medications at the time of his deployment to the Middle East. Psychiatrists and other health care providers should be aware of the possible neuropsychiatric side effects of mefloquine in deployed military personnel and should consider the use of other medications for malaria prophylaxis in those individuals who may be at increased risk for side effects. PMID:22937403

  8. Traumatic brain injury and chronic traumatic encephalopathy: a forensic neuropsychiatric perspective.

    PubMed

    Wortzel, Hal S; Brenner, Lisa A; Arciniegas, David B

    2013-01-01

    Recent scientific reports and popular press describing chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) collectively link this condition to a broad array of neuropsychiatric symptoms, including extremely rare and multi-determined behaviors such as murder-suicide. These reports are difficult to reconcile with several decades of research on the science of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its consequences, especially the natural history and prognosis of mild TBI. This article attempts to reconcile these sources by reviewing the state of the science on CTE, with particular attention to case definitions and neuropathological criteria for this diagnosis. The evidence for links between TBI, CTE, and catastrophic clinical events is explored, and the complexity of attributing rare frequency behavioral events to CTE is highlighted. The clinical and medicolegal implications of the best available evidence are discussed, concluding with a cautionary note against prematurely generalizing current findings on CTE to entire populations of persons with, or at risk for, concussion exposures.

  9. The Effects of Video Games on Cognition and Brain Structure: Potential Implications for Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Shams, Tahireh A; Foussias, George; Zawadzki, John A; Marshe, Victoria S; Siddiqui, Ishraq; Müller, Daniel J; Wong, Albert H C

    2015-09-01

    Video games are now a ubiquitous form of entertainment that has occasionally attracted negative attention. Video games have also been used to test cognitive function, as therapeutic interventions for neuropsychiatric disorders, and to explore mechanisms of experience-dependent structural brain changes. Here, we review current research on video games published from January 2011 to April 2014 with a focus on studies relating to mental health, cognition, and brain imaging. Overall, there is evidence that specific types of video games can alter brain structure or improve certain aspects of cognitive functioning. Video games can also be useful as neuropsychological assessment tools. While research in this area is still at a very early stage, there are interesting results that encourage further work in this field, and hold promise for utilizing this technology as a powerful therapeutic and experimental tool.

  10. Neuropsychiatric symptoms as early manifestations of emergent dementia: Provisional diagnostic criteria for mild behavioral impairment.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Zahinoor; Smith, Eric E; Geda, Yonas; Sultzer, David; Brodaty, Henry; Smith, Gwenn; Agüera-Ortiz, Luis; Sweet, Rob; Miller, David; Lyketsos, Constantine G

    2016-02-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are common in dementia and in predementia syndromes such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI). NPS in MCI confer a greater risk for conversion to dementia in comparison to MCI patients without NPS. NPS in older adults with normal cognition also confers a greater risk of cognitive decline in comparison to older adults without NPS. Mild behavioral impairment (MBI) has been proposed as a diagnostic construct aimed to identify patients with an increased risk of developing dementia, but who may or may not have cognitive symptoms. We propose criteria that include MCI in the MBI framework, in contrast to prior definitions of MBI. Although MBI and MCI can co-occur, we suggest that they are different and that both portend a higher risk of dementia. These MBI criteria extend the previous literature in this area and will serve as a template for validation of the MBI construct from epidemiologic, neurobiological, treatment, and prevention perspectives.

  11. Post-steroid neuropsychiatric manifestations are significantly more frequent in SLE compared with other systemic autoimmune diseases and predict better prognosis compared with de novo neuropsychiatric SLE.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Yuka; Yasuda, Shinsuke; Kako, Yuki; Nakagawa, Shin; Kanda, Masatoshi; Hisada, Ryo; Ohmura, Kazumasa; Shimamura, Sanae; Shida, Haruki; Fujieda, Yuichiro; Kato, Masaru; Oku, Kenji; Bohgaki, Toshiyuki; Horita, Tetsuya; Kusumi, Ichiro; Atsumi, Tatsuya

    2016-08-01

    In patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), neuropsychiatric (NP) symptoms sometimes occur after administration of corticosteroids, making differential diagnosis between NPSLE and steroid-induced psychosis challenging for clinicians. The aim of this study was to clarify the characteristics of post-steroid NP disease (PSNP) in patients with SLE. Clinical courses of 146 patients with SLE and 162 with other systemic autoimmune diseases, all in the absence of NP manifestations on admission, were retrospectively analyzed. Forty-three NPSLE patients on admission (de novo NPSLE) were also investigated. All patients were consecutively recruited and treated with 40mg/day or more of prednisolone in Hokkaido University Hospital between April 2002 and March 2015. The prevalence of PSNP was strikingly higher in SLE patients than other systemic autoimmune diseases (24.7% vs. 7.4%, OR 4.09, 95% CI 2.04-8.22). As independent risk factors to develop PSNP in SLE patients, past history of mental disorder and the presence of antiphospholipid syndrome were identified using multiple logistic regression analysis. In patients with PSNP-SLE, mood disorder was significantly more frequent than in de novo NPSLE (47.2% vs. 20.9%, OR 3.38, 95% CI 1.26-9.04). Of PSNP-SLE patients, two-thirds were with one or more abnormal findings in cerebrospinal fluid, electroencephalogram, MRI or SPECT. Majority of our PSNP-SLE patients received intensified immunosuppressive treatments and experienced improvement in most cases. PSNP-SLE had better relapse-free survival than de novo NPSLE (p<0.05, log rank test). In conclusion, PSNP frequently occurred in patients with SLE and treated successfully with immunosuppressive therapy, indicating that NPSLE is likely to harbor patients with PSNP-SLE.

  12. Slitrk Missense Mutations Associated with Neuropsychiatric Disorders Distinctively Impair Slitrk Trafficking and Synapse Formation

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyeyeon; Han, Kyung Ah; Won, Seoung Youn; Kim, Ho Min; Lee, Young-Ho; Ko, Jaewon; Um, Ji Won

    2016-01-01

    Slit- and Trk-like (Slitrks) are a six-member family of synapse organizers that control excitatory and inhibitory synapse formation by forming trans-synaptic adhesions with LAR receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). Intriguingly, genetic mutations of Slitrks have been associated with a multitude of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, nothing is known about the neuronal and synaptic consequences of these mutations. Here, we report the structural and functional effects on synapses of various rare de novo mutations identified in patients with schizophrenia or Tourette syndrome. A number of single amino acid substitutions in Slitrk1 (N400I or T418S) or Slitrk4 (V206I or I578V) reduced their surface expression levels. These substitutions impaired glycosylation of Slitrks expressed in HEK293T cells, caused retention of Slitrks in the endoplasmic reticulum and cis-Golgi compartment in COS-7 cells and neurons, and abolished Slitrk binding to PTPδ. Furthermore, these substitutions eliminated the synapse-inducing activity of Slitrks, abolishing their functional effects on synapse density in cultured neurons. Strikingly, a valine-to-methionine mutation in Slitrk2 (V89M) compromised synapse formation activity in cultured neuron, without affecting surface transport, expression, or synapse-inducing activity in coculture assays. Similar deleterious effects were observed upon introduction of the corresponding valine-to-methionine mutation into Slitrk1 (V85M), suggesting that this conserved valine residue plays a key role in maintaining the synaptic functions of Slitrks. Collectively, these data indicate that inactivation of distinct cellular mechanisms caused by specific Slitrk dysfunctions may underlie Slitrk-associated neuropsychiatric disorders in humans, and provide a robust cellular readout for the development of knowledge-based therapies. PMID:27812321

  13. The psychoimmunology of lyme/tick-borne diseases and its association with neuropsychiatric symptoms.

    PubMed

    Bransfield, Robert C

    2012-01-01

    Disease progression of neuropsychiatric symptoms in Lyme/tick-borne diseases can be better understood by greater attention to psychoimmunology. Although there are multiple contributors that provoke and weaken the immune system, infections and persistent infections are significant causes of pathological immune reactions. Immune mediated ef-fects are a significant contributor to the pathophysiological processes and disease progression. These immune effects in-clude persistent inflammation with cytokine effects and molecular mimicry and both of these mechanisms may be present at the same time in persistent infections. Sickness syndrome associated with interferon treatment and autoimmune limbic encephalopathies are models to understand inflammatory and molecular mimicry effects upon neuropsychiatric symp-toms. Progressive inflammatory reactions have been proposed as a model to explain disease progression in depression, psychosis, dementia, epilepsy, autism and other mental illnesses and pathophysiological changes have been associated with oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, changes in homocysteine metabolism and altered tryptophan catabolism. Lyme dis-ease has been associated with the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, IL-18 and interferon-gamma, the chemokines CXCL12 and CXCL13 and increased levels proinflammatory lipoproteins. Borrelia burgdorferi surface gly-colipids and flagella antibodies appear to elicit anti-neuronal antibodies and anti-neuronal antibodies and Borrelia burgdorferi lipoproteins can disseminate from the periphery to inflame the brain. Autism spectrum disorders associated with Lyme/tick-borne diseases may be mediated by a combination of inflammatory and molecular mimicry mechanisms. Greater interaction is needed between infectious disease specialists, immunologists and psychiatrists to benefit from this awareness and to further understand these mechanisms.

  14. A dimensional approach to modeling symptoms of neuropsychiatric disorders in the marmoset monkey.

    PubMed

    Oikonomidis, Lydia; Santangelo, Andrea M; Shiba, Yoshiro; Clarke, F Hannah; Robbins, Trevor W; Roberts, Angela C

    2017-03-01

    Some patients suffering from the same neuropsychiatric disorder may have no overlapping symptoms whilst others may share symptoms common to other distinct disorders. Therefore, the Research Domain Criteria initiative recognises the need for better characterisation of the individual symptoms on which to focus symptom-based treatment strategies. Many of the disorders involve dysfunction within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and so the marmoset, due to their highly developed PFC and small size, is an ideal species for studying the neurobiological basis of the behavioural dimensions that underlie these symptoms.Here we focus on a battery of tests that address dysfunction spanning the cognitive (cognitive inflexibility and working memory), negative valence (fear generalisation and negative bias) and positive valence (anhedonia) systems pertinent for understanding disorders such as ADHD, Schizophrenia, Anxiety, Depression and OCD. Parsing the separable prefrontal and striatal circuits and identifying the selective neurochemical modulation (serotonin vs dopamine) that underlie cognitive dysfunction have revealed counterparts in the clinical domain. Aspects of the negative valence system have been explored both at individual- (trait anxiety and genetic variation in serotonin transporter) and circuit-based levels enabling the understanding of generalisation processes, negative biases and differential responsiveness to SSRIs. Within the positive valence system, the combination of cardiovascular and behavioural measures provides a framework for understanding motivational, anticipatory and consummatory aspects of anhedonia and their neurobiological mechanisms. Together, the direct comparison of experimental findings in marmosets with clinical studies is proving an excellent translational model to address the behavioural dimensions and neurobiology of neuropsychiatric symptoms. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 328-353, 2017.

  15. From Autism to Eating Disorders and More: The Role of Oxytocin in Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Adele; Tempesta, Bianca; Micioni Di Bonaventura, Maria Vittoria; Gaetani, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    Oxytocin (oxy) is a pituitary neuropeptide hormone synthesized from the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei within the hypothalamus. Like other neuropeptides, oxy can modulate a wide range of neurotransmitter and neuromodulator activities. Additionally, through the neurohypophysis, oxy is secreted into the systemic circulation to act as a hormone, thereby influencing several body functions. Oxy plays a pivotal role in parturition, milk let-down and maternal behavior and has been demonstrated to be important in the formation of pair bonding between mother and infants as well as in mating pairs. Furthermore, oxy has been proven to play a key role in the regulation of several behaviors associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, including social interactions, social memory response to social stimuli, decision-making in the context of social interactions, feeding behavior, emotional reactivity, etc. An increasing body of evidence suggests that deregulations of the oxytocinergic system might be involved in the pathophysiology of certain neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism, eating disorders, schizophrenia, mood, and anxiety disorders. The potential use of oxy in these mental health disorders is attracting growing interest since numerous beneficial properties are ascribed to this neuropeptide. The present manuscript will review the existing findings on the role played by oxy in a variety of distinct physiological and behavioral functions (Figure 1) and on its role and impact in different psychiatric disorders. The aim of this review is to highlight the need of further investigations on this target that might contribute to the development of novel more efficacious therapies. Figure 1Oxytocin regulatory control of different and complex processes. PMID:26793046

  16. The effects of industry sponsorship on comparator selection in trial registrations for neuropsychiatric conditions in children.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Adam G; Mandl, Kenneth D; Coiera, Enrico; Bourgeois, Florence T

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric populations continue to be understudied in clinical drug trials despite the increasing use of pharmacotherapy in children, particularly with psychotropic drugs. Most pertinent to the clinical selection of drug interventions are trials directly comparing drugs against other drugs. The aim was to measure the prevalence of active drug comparators in neuropsychiatric drug trials in children and identify the effects of funding source on comparator selection. We analyzed the selection of drugs and drug comparisons in clinical trials registered between January 2006 and May 2012. Completed and ongoing interventional trials examining treatments for six neuropsychiatric conditions in children were included. Networks of drug comparisons for each condition were constructed using information about the trial study arms. Of 421 eligible trial registrations, 228 (63,699 participants) were drug trials addressing ADHD (106 trials), autism spectrum disorders (47), unipolar depression (16), seizure disorders (38), migraines and other headaches (15), or schizophrenia (11). Active drug comparators were used in only 11.0% of drug trials while 44.7% used a placebo control and 44.3% no drug or placebo comparator. Even among conditions with well-established pharmacotherapeutic options, almost all drug interventions were compared to a placebo. Active comparisons were more common among trials without industry funding (17% vs. 8%, p=0.04). Trials with industry funding differed from non-industry trials in terms of the drugs studied and the comparators selected. For 73% (61/84) of drugs and 90% (19/21) of unique comparisons, trials were funded exclusively by either industry or non-industry. We found that industry and non-industry differed when choosing comparators and active drug comparators were rare for both groups. This gap in pediatric research activity limits the evidence available to clinicians treating children and suggests a need to reassess the design and funding of pediatric

  17. Impact of Combined Subthalamic Nucleus and Substantia Nigra Stimulation on Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Hidding, U; Gulberti, A; Horn, A; Buhmann, C; Hamel, W; Koeppen, J A; Westphal, M; Engel, A K; Gerloff, C; Weiss, D; Moll, C K E; Pötter-Nerger, M

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the study was to compare the tolerability and the effects of conventional subthalamic nucleus (STN) and combined subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra (STN+SNr) high-frequency stimulation in regard to neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease patients. In this single center, randomized, double-blind, cross-over clinical trial, twelve patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (1 female; age: 61.3 ± 7.3 years; disease duration: 12.3 ± 5.4 years; Hoehn and Yahr stage: 2.2 ± 0.39) were included. Apathy, fatigue, depression, and impulse control disorder were assessed using a comprehensive set of standardized rating scales and questionnaires such as the Lille Apathy Rating Scale (LARS), Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS), Becks Depression Inventory (BDI-I), Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (QUIP-RS), and Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39). Three patients that were initially assigned to the STN+SNr stimulation mode withdrew from the study within the first week due to discomfort. Statistical comparison of data retrieved from patients who completed the study revealed no significant differences between both stimulation conditions in terms of mean scores of scales measuring apathy, fatigue, depression, impulse control disorder, and quality of life. Individual cases showed an improvement of apathy under combined STN+SNr stimulation. In general, combined STN+SNr stimulation seems to be safe in terms of neuropsychiatric side effects, although careful patient selection and monitoring in the short-term period after changing stimulation settings are recommended.

  18. Undiagnosed Illness and Neuropsychiatric Behaviors In Community-residing Older Adults with Dementia1

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Nancy; Gitlin, Laura N.; Winter, Laraine; Czekanski, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective analysis was to examine prevalence of undiagnosed acute illness and characteristics including neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with illness in community-residing older adults with Alzheimer’s disease or related disorders. Subjects included 265 community-residing older adults with dementia who participated in one of two interventions being tested in randomized clinical trials. Measures included a brief nursing assessment and lab evaluations including complete blood count (CBC), blood chemistry (Chem 7), and thyroid function tests of serum samples and culture and sensitivity tests of urine samples. Undiagnosed illness was identified according to currently published criteria. Neuropsychiatric behaviors were assessed using 21 behaviors derived from standard measures. Thirty-six percent (N= 96) of patients had clinical findings indicative of undetected illness. Conditions most prevalent were bacteriuria (15%), followed by hyperglycemia (6%) and anemia (5%). The behavior most often demonstrated among those with detected illness was resisting or refusing care (66% versus 47% for those without detected illness). Individuals with detected illness had significantly lower functional status scores (3.8 vs. 4.4, t(275) = 7.01, p = .01), lower cognitive status scores (10.5 vs. 14.4, t(275) =12.1, p<.01) and were more likely to be prescribed psychotropic medications for behavior (41% vs. 26%, Chi2= 3.67, p<.05) than those without illness. Findings suggest that challenges of diagnosing acute illness with atypical presentation must be addressed to promote quality of care and the specialized needs for this vulnerable population. PMID:20921879

  19. The Role of Early Growth Response 1 (EGR1) in Brain Plasticity and Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Duclot, Florian; Kabbaj, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    It is now clearly established that complex interactions between genes and environment are involved in multiple aspects of neuropsychiatric disorders, from determining an individual’s vulnerability to onset, to influencing its response to therapeutic intervention. In this perspective, it appears crucial to better understand how the organism reacts to environmental stimuli and provide a coordinated and adapted response. In the central nervous system, neuronal plasticity and neurotransmission are among the major processes integrating such complex interactions between genes and environmental stimuli. In particular, immediate early genes (IEGs) are critical components of these interactions as they provide the molecular framework for a rapid and dynamic response to neuronal activity while opening the possibility for a lasting and sustained adaptation through regulation of the expression of a wide range of genes. As a result, IEGs have been tightly associated with neuronal activity as well as a variety of higher order processes within the central nervous system such as learning, memory and sensitivity to reward. The immediate early gene and transcription factor early growth response 1 (EGR1) has thus been revealed as a major mediator and regulator of synaptic plasticity and neuronal activity in both physiological and pathological conditions. In this review article, we will focus on the role of EGR1 in the central nervous system. First, we will summarize the different factors influencing its activity. Then, we will analyze the amount of data, including genome-wide, that has emerged in the recent years describing the wide variety of genes, pathways and biological functions regulated directly or indirectly by EGR1. We will thus be able to gain better insights into the mechanisms underlying EGR1’s functions in physiological neuronal activity. Finally, we will discuss and illustrate the role of EGR1 in pathological states with a particular interest in cognitive functions

  20. Impact of Combined Subthalamic Nucleus and Substantia Nigra Stimulation on Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Horn, A.; Hamel, W.; Koeppen, J. A.; Westphal, M.; Engel, A. K.; Gerloff, C.; Moll, C. K. E.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the study was to compare the tolerability and the effects of conventional subthalamic nucleus (STN) and combined subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra (STN+SNr) high-frequency stimulation in regard to neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease patients. In this single center, randomized, double-blind, cross-over clinical trial, twelve patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (1 female; age: 61.3 ± 7.3 years; disease duration: 12.3 ± 5.4 years; Hoehn and Yahr stage: 2.2 ± 0.39) were included. Apathy, fatigue, depression, and impulse control disorder were assessed using a comprehensive set of standardized rating scales and questionnaires such as the Lille Apathy Rating Scale (LARS), Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS), Becks Depression Inventory (BDI-I), Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (QUIP-RS), and Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39). Three patients that were initially assigned to the STN+SNr stimulation mode withdrew from the study within the first week due to discomfort. Statistical comparison of data retrieved from patients who completed the study revealed no significant differences between both stimulation conditions in terms of mean scores of scales measuring apathy, fatigue, depression, impulse control disorder, and quality of life. Individual cases showed an improvement of apathy under combined STN+SNr stimulation. In general, combined STN+SNr stimulation seems to be safe in terms of neuropsychiatric side effects, although careful patient selection and monitoring in the short-term period after changing stimulation settings are recommended. PMID:28246572

  1. Slitrk Missense Mutations Associated with Neuropsychiatric Disorders Distinctively Impair Slitrk Trafficking and Synapse Formation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyeyeon; Han, Kyung Ah; Won, Seoung Youn; Kim, Ho Min; Lee, Young-Ho; Ko, Jaewon; Um, Ji Won

    2016-01-01

    Slit- and Trk-like (Slitrks) are a six-member family of synapse organizers that control excitatory and inhibitory synapse formation by forming trans-synaptic adhesions with LAR receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). Intriguingly, genetic mutations of Slitrks have been associated with a multitude of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, nothing is known about the neuronal and synaptic consequences of these mutations. Here, we report the structural and functional effects on synapses of various rare de novo mutations identified in patients with schizophrenia or Tourette syndrome. A number of single amino acid substitutions in Slitrk1 (N400I or T418S) or Slitrk4 (V206I or I578V) reduced their surface expression levels. These substitutions impaired glycosylation of Slitrks expressed in HEK293T cells, caused retention of Slitrks in the endoplasmic reticulum and cis-Golgi compartment in COS-7 cells and neurons, and abolished Slitrk binding to PTPδ. Furthermore, these substitutions eliminated the synapse-inducing activity of Slitrks, abolishing their functional effects on synapse density in cultured neurons. Strikingly, a valine-to-methionine mutation in Slitrk2 (V89M) compromised synapse formation activity in cultured neuron, without affecting surface transport, expression, or synapse-inducing activity in coculture assays. Similar deleterious effects were observed upon introduction of the corresponding valine-to-methionine mutation into Slitrk1 (V85M), suggesting that this conserved valine residue plays a key role in maintaining the synaptic functions of Slitrks. Collectively, these data indicate that inactivation of distinct cellular mechanisms caused by specific Slitrk dysfunctions may underlie Slitrk-associated neuropsychiatric disorders in humans, and provide a robust cellular readout for the development of knowledge-based therapies.

  2. Cannabidiol: pharmacology and potential therapeutic role in epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Devinsky, Orrin; Cilio, Maria Roberta; Cross, Helen; Fernandez-Ruiz, Javier; French, Jacqueline; Hill, Charlotte; Katz, Russell; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Jutras-Aswad, Didier; Notcutt, William George; Martinez-Orgado, Jose; Robson, Philip J; Rohrback, Brian G; Thiele, Elizabeth; Whalley, Benjamin; Friedman, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    To present a summary of current scientific evidence about the cannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD) with regard to its relevance to epilepsy and other selected neuropsychiatric disorders. We summarize the presentations from a conference in which invited participants reviewed relevant aspects of the physiology, mechanisms of action, pharmacology, and data from studies with animal models and human subjects. Cannabis has been used to treat disease since ancient times. Δ(9) -Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9) -THC) is the major psychoactive ingredient and CBD is the major nonpsychoactive ingredient in cannabis. Cannabis and Δ(9) -THC are anticonvulsant in most animal models but can be proconvulsant in some healthy animals. The psychotropic effects of Δ(9) -THC limit tolerability. CBD is anticonvulsant in many acute animal models, but there are limited data in chronic models. The antiepileptic mechanisms of CBD are not known, but may include effects on the equilibrative nucleoside transporter; the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor GPR55; the transient receptor potential of vanilloid type-1 channel; the 5-HT1a receptor; and the α3 and α1 glycine receptors. CBD has neuroprotective and antiinflammatory effects, and it appears to be well tolerated in humans, but small and methodologically limited studies of CBD in human epilepsy have been inconclusive. More recent anecdotal reports of high-ratio CBD:Δ(9) -THC medical marijuana have claimed efficacy, but studies were not controlled. CBD bears investigation in epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders, including anxiety, schizophrenia, addiction, and neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. However, we lack data from well-powered double-blind randomized, controlled studies on the efficacy of pure CBD for any disorder. Initial dose-tolerability and double-blind randomized, controlled studies focusing on target intractable epilepsy populations such as patients with Dravet and Lennox-Gastaut syndromes are being planned. Trials in

  3. The Psychoimmunology of Lyme/Tick-Borne Diseases and its Association with Neuropsychiatric Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Bransfield, Robert C

    2012-01-01

    Disease progression of neuropsychiatric symptoms in Lyme/tick-borne diseases can be better understood by greater attention to psychoimmunology. Although there are multiple contributors that provoke and weaken the immune system, infections and persistent infections are significant causes of pathological immune reactions. Immune mediated ef-fects are a significant contributor to the pathophysiological processes and disease progression. These immune effects in-clude persistent inflammation with cytokine effects and molecular mimicry and both of these mechanisms may be present at the same time in persistent infections. Sickness syndrome associated with interferon treatment and autoimmune limbic encephalopathies are models to understand inflammatory and molecular mimicry effects upon neuropsychiatric symp-toms. Progressive inflammatory reactions have been proposed as a model to explain disease progression in depression, psychosis, dementia, epilepsy, autism and other mental illnesses and pathophysiological changes have been associated with oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, changes in homocysteine metabolism and altered tryptophan catabolism. Lyme dis-ease has been associated with the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, IL-18 and interferon-gamma, the chemokines CXCL12 and CXCL13 and increased levels proinflammatory lipoproteins. Borrelia burgdorferi surface gly-colipids and flagella antibodies appear to elicit anti-neuronal antibodies and anti-neuronal antibodies and Borrelia burgdorferi lipoproteins can disseminate from the periphery to inflame the brain. Autism spectrum disorders associated with Lyme/tick-borne diseases may be mediated by a combination of inflammatory and molecular mimicry mechanisms. Greater interaction is needed between infectious disease specialists, immunologists and psychiatrists to benefit from this awareness and to further understand these mechanisms. PMID:23091569

  4. Methamphetamine use and neuropsychiatric factors are associated with antiretroviral non-adherence.

    PubMed

    Moore, David J; Blackstone, Kaitlin; Woods, Steven Paul; Ellis, Ronald J; Atkinson, J Hampton; Heaton, Robert K; Grant, Igor

    2012-01-01

    The present study assesses the impact of methamphetamine (METH) on antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among HIV+ persons, as well as examines the contribution of neurocognitive impairment and other neuropsychiatric factors [i.e., major depressive disorder (MDD), antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), and attention deficit disorder (ADHD)] for ART non-adherence. We examined HIV+ persons with DSM-IV-diagnosed lifetime history of METH abuse/dependence (HIV+ /METH+ ; n=67) as compared to HIV+ participants with no history of METH abuse/dependence (HIV+ /METH - ; n=50). Ancillary analyses compared these groups with a small group of HIV+ /METH+ persons with current METH abuse/dependence (HIV+ /CU METH+ ; n=8). Non-adherence was defined as self-report of any skipped ART dose in the last four days. Neurocognitive functioning was assessed with a comprehensive battery, covering seven neuropsychological domains. Lifetime METH diagnosis was associated with higher rates of detectable levels of plasma and CSF HIV RNA. When combing groups (i.e., METH+ and METH- participants), univariate analyses indicated co-occurring ADHD, ASPD, and MDD predicted ART non-adherence (p's < 0.10; not lifetime METH status or neurocognitive impairment). A significant multivariable model including these variables indicated that only MDD uniquely predicted ART non-adherence after controlling for the other variables (p<0.05). Ancillary analyses indicated that current METH users (use within 30 days) were significantly less adherent (50% prevalence of non-adherence) than lifetime METH+ users and HIV+ /METH- participants and that neurocognitive impairment was associated with non-adherence (p's < 0.05). METH use disorders are associated with worse HIV disease outcomes and ART medication non-adherence. Interventions often target substance use behaviors alone to enhance antiretroviral treatment outcomes; however, in addition to targeting substance use behaviors, interventions to improve ART adherence may

  5. Management of Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Current Approaches and Future Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Magro-Checa, César; Zirkzee, Elisabeth J; Huizinga, Tom W; Steup-Beekman, Gerda M

    2016-03-01

    Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) is a generic definition referring to a series of neurological and psychiatric symptoms directly related to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). NPSLE includes heterogeneous and rare neuropsychiatric (NP) manifestations involving both the central and peripheral nervous system. Due to the lack of a gold standard, the attribution of NP symptoms to SLE represents a clinical challenge that obligates the strict exclusion of any other potential cause. In the acute setting, management of these patients does not differ from other non-SLE subjects presenting with the same NP manifestation. Afterwards, an individualized therapeutic strategy, depending on the presenting manifestation and severity of symptoms, must be started. Clinical trials in NPSLE are scarce and most of the data are extracted from case series and case reports. High-dose glucocorticoids and intravenous cyclophosphamide remain the cornerstone for patients with severe symptoms that are thought to reflect inflammation or an underlying autoimmune process. Rituximab, intravenous immunoglobulins, or plasmapheresis may be used if response is not achieved. When patients present with mild to moderate NP manifestations, or when maintenance therapy is warranted, azathioprine and mycophenolate may be considered. When symptoms are thought to reflect a thrombotic underlying process, anticoagulation and antiplatelet agents are the mainstay of therapy, especially if antiphospholipid antibodies or antiphospholipid syndrome are present. Recent trials on SLE using new biologicals, based on newly understood SLE mechanisms, have shown promising results. Based on what we currently know about its pathogenesis, it is tempting to speculate how these new therapies may affect the management of NPSLE patients. This article provides a comprehensive and critical review of the literature on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of NPSLE. We describe the most

  6. Neuropsychiatric Outcomes After Mefloquine Exposure Among U.S. Military Service Members.

    PubMed

    Eick-Cost, Angelia A; Hu, Zheng; Rohrbeck, Patricia; Clark, Leslie L

    2017-01-11

    Mefloquine was widely prescribed to U.S. military service members until 2009 when use was limited to personnel with contraindications to doxycycline and no contraindications to mefloquine. The need to estimate the occurrence of neuropsychiatric outcomes (NPOs) in service members prescribed mefloquine warranted a comprehensive evaluation of this issue. Active component service members filling a prescription for mefloquine, doxycycline, or atovaquone/proguanil (A/P) between January 1, 2008 and June 30, 2013, were included in the analysis. The risk of developing incident NPOs and the risk of subsequent NPOs among subjects with a history of the condition were assessed. A total of 367,840 individuals were evaluated (36,538 received mefloquine, 318,421 received doxycycline, and 12,881 received A/P). Among deployed individuals prescribed mefloquine, an increased risk of incident anxiety was seen when compared with doxycycline recipients (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.12 [1.01-1.24]). Among nondeployed mefloquine recipients, an increased risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was seen when compared with A/P recipients (IRR = 1.83 [1.07-3.14]). An increased risk of tinnitus was seen for both deployed and nondeployed mefloquine recipients compared with A/P recipients (IRR = 1.81 [1.18-2.79]), 1.51 (1.13-2.03), respectively). Six percent of the mefloquine cohort had an NPO in the year before receiving mefloquine. When comparing individuals with a prior neuropsychiatric history to those without, the ratio of relative risks for adjustment disorder, anxiety, insomnia, and PTSD were higher (not statistically significant) for mefloquine compared with doxycycline. These findings emphasize the continued need for physicians prescribing mefloquine to conduct contraindication screening.

  7. Neuroinformatic analyses of common and distinct genetic components associated with major neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Lotan, Amit; Fenckova, Michaela; Bralten, Janita; Alttoa, Aet; Dixson, Luanna; Williams, Robert W; van der Voet, Monique

    2014-01-01

    Major neuropsychiatric disorders are highly heritable, with mounting evidence suggesting that these disorders share overlapping sets of molecular and cellular underpinnings. In the current article we systematically test the degree of genetic commonality across six major neuropsychiatric disorders-attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety disorders (Anx), autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and schizophrenia (SCZ). We curated a well-vetted list of genes based on large-scale human genetic studies based on the NHGRI catalog of published genome-wide association studies (GWAS). A total of 180 genes were accepted into the analysis on the basis of low but liberal GWAS p-values (<10(-5)). 22% of genes overlapped two or more disorders. The most widely shared subset of genes-common to five of six disorders-included ANK3, AS3MT, CACNA1C, CACNB2, CNNM2, CSMD1, DPCR1, ITIH3, NT5C2, PPP1R11, SYNE1, TCF4, TENM4, TRIM26, and ZNRD1. Using a suite of neuroinformatic resources, we showed that many of the shared genes are implicated in the postsynaptic density (PSD), expressed in immune tissues and co-expressed in developing human brain. Using a translational cross-species approach, we detected two distinct genetic components that were both shared by each of the six disorders; the 1st component is involved in CNS development, neural projections and synaptic transmission, while the 2nd is implicated in various cytoplasmic organelles and cellular processes. Combined, these genetic components account for 20-30% of the genetic load. The remaining risk is conferred by distinct, disorder-specific variants. Our systematic comparative analysis of shared and unique genetic factors highlights key gene sets and molecular processes that may ultimately translate into improved diagnosis and treatment of these debilitating disorders.

  8. Neuroinformatic analyses of common and distinct genetic components associated with major neuropsychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lotan, Amit; Fenckova, Michaela; Bralten, Janita; Alttoa, Aet; Dixson, Luanna; Williams, Robert W.; van der Voet, Monique

    2014-01-01

    Major neuropsychiatric disorders are highly heritable, with mounting evidence suggesting that these disorders share overlapping sets of molecular and cellular underpinnings. In the current article we systematically test the degree of genetic commonality across six major neuropsychiatric disorders—attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety disorders (Anx), autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and schizophrenia (SCZ). We curated a well-vetted list of genes based on large-scale human genetic studies based on the NHGRI catalog of published genome-wide association studies (GWAS). A total of 180 genes were accepted into the analysis on the basis of low but liberal GWAS p-values (<10−5). 22% of genes overlapped two or more disorders. The most widely shared subset of genes—common to five of six disorders–included ANK3, AS3MT, CACNA1C, CACNB2, CNNM2, CSMD1, DPCR1, ITIH3, NT5C2, PPP1R11, SYNE1, TCF4, TENM4, TRIM26, and ZNRD1. Using a suite of neuroinformatic resources, we showed that many of the shared genes are implicated in the postsynaptic density (PSD), expressed in immune tissues and co-expressed in developing human brain. Using a translational cross-species approach, we detected two distinct genetic components that were both shared by each of the six disorders; the 1st component is involved in CNS development, neural projections and synaptic transmission, while the 2nd is implicated in various cytoplasmic organelles and cellular processes. Combined, these genetic components account for 20–30% of the genetic load. The remaining risk is conferred by distinct, disorder-specific variants. Our systematic comparative analysis of shared and unique genetic factors highlights key gene sets and molecular processes that may ultimately translate into improved diagnosis and treatment of these debilitating disorders. PMID:25414627

  9. Making sense of behavioral disturbances in persons with dementia: Latino family caregiver attributions of Neuropsychiatric Inventory domains

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, Ladson; Chambers, Darin; Velásquez, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the nature and frequency of Latino family caregiver attributions for dementia-related neuropsychiatric symptoms. This is a cross-sectional study conducted in the Sacramento, California area. Participants were 30 Latino family caregivers of community-dwelling Latino elderly meeting research criteria for dementia who were selected from an ongoing cohort study of older Latinos (Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging). Open-ended probes were used to elicit caregiver attribution for each symptom domain of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). Across the 30 caregivers, 121 explanations for neuropsychiatric domains were present. Content analysis of these explanations revealed seven different attribution categories (i.e. Alzheimer’s disease, interpersonal problems, other medical conditions, personality, mental, aging, and genetics). Overall, Alzheimer’s disease was the most frequent attribution category but accounted for less than 30% of the total attributions. In conclusion, this study found that Latino caregivers were more likely to attribute neuropsychiatric symptoms to causes other than Alzheimer’s disease or a related dementia. PMID:19568150

  10. Micro spies from the brain to the periphery: new clues from studies on microRNAs in neuropsychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Maffioletti, Elisabetta; Tardito, Daniela; Gennarelli, Massimo; Bocchio-Chiavetto, Luisella

    2014-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs (20–22 nucleotides) playing a major role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. miRNAs are predicted to regulate more than 50% of all the protein-coding genes. Increasing evidence indicates that they may play key roles in the biological pathways that regulate neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity, as well as in neurotransmitter homeostasis in the adult brain. In this article we review recent studies suggesting that miRNAs may be involved in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders and in the action of psychotropic drugs, in particular by analyzing the contribution of genomic studies in patients' peripheral tissues. Alterations in miRNA expression have been observed in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and other neuropsychiatric conditions. In particular, intriguing findings concern the identification of disease-associated miRNA signatures in peripheral tissues, or modifications in miRNA profiles induced by drug treatments. Furthermore, genetic variations in miRNA sequences and miRNA-related genes have been described in neuropsychiatric diseases. Overall, though still at a preliminary stage, several lines of evidence indicate an involvement of miRNAs in both the pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy of neuropsychiatric disorders. In this regard, the data obtained in peripheral tissues may provide further insights into the etiopathogenesis of several brain diseases and contribute to identify new biomarkers for diagnostic assessment improvement and treatment personalization. PMID:24653674

  11. Preschool to School in Autism: Neuropsychiatric Problems 8 Years after Diagnosis at 3 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnevik Olsson, M.; Lundström, S.; Westerlund, J.; Giacobini, M. B.; Gillberg, C.; Fernell, E.

    2016-01-01

    The study presents neuropsychiatric profiles of children aged 11 with autism spectrum disorder, assessed before 4.5 years, and after interventions. The original group comprised a community sample of 208 children with ASD. Parents of 128 participated--34 with average intellectual function, 36 with borderline intellectual function and 58 with…

  12. Narrative Skills, Cognitive Profiles and Neuropsychiatric Disorders in 7-8-Year-Old Children with Late Developing Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miniscalco, Carmela; Hagberg, Bibbi; Kadesjo, Bjorn; Westerlund, Monica; Gillberg, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Background: A community-representative sample of screened and clinically examined children with language delay at 2.5 years of age was followed up at school age when their language development was again examined and the occurrence of neuropsychiatric/neurodevelopmental disorder (attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or autism…

  13. An Investigation of the Neurological and Neuropsychiatric Disturbances in Adults with Undiagnosed and/or Untreated Phenylketonuria in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Artur; Jarochowicz, Sabina; Oltarzewski, Mariusz; Sykut-Cegielska, Jolanta; Gradowska, Wanda; Januszek-Trzciakowska, Aleksandra; O'Malley, Grace; Kwolek, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to determine neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations in a group of patients with previously undiagnosed or untreated phenylketonuria (PKU) in the south-eastern part of Poland. Methods: The study was conducted among 400 adults with severe intellectual disability who were born prior to neonatal screening…

  14. Tornado-like Evolution of a Kink-unstable Solar Prominence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wensi; Liu, Rui; Wang, Yuming

    2017-01-01

    We report on the tornado-like evolution of a quiescent prominence on 2014 November 1. The eastern section of the prominence first rose slowly, transforming into an arch-shaped structure as high as ∼150 Mm above the limb; the arch then writhed moderately in a left-handed sense, while the original dark prominence material emitted in the Fe ix 171 Å passband, and a braided structure appeared at the eastern edge of the warped arch. The unraveling of the braided structure was associated with a transient brightening in the EUV and apparently contributed to the formation of a curtain-like structure (CLS). The CLS consisted of myriad thread-like loops rotating counterclockwise about the vertical if viewed from above. Heated prominence material was observed to slide along these loops and land outside the filament channel. The tornado eventually disintegrated and the remaining material flew along a left-handed helical path constituting approximately a full turn, as corroborated through stereoscopic reconstruction, into the cavity of the stable, western section of the prominence. We suggest that the tornado-like evolution of the prominence was governed by the helical kink instability, and that the CLS formed through magnetic reconnections between the prominence field and the overlying coronal field.

  15. Prominence plasma and magnetic field structure - A coordinated observation with IRIS, Hinode and THEMIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, Brigitte; Labrosse, Nicolas; Levens, Peter; Lopez Ariste, Arturo

    2016-07-01

    During an international campaign in 2014, utilising both space-based (IRIS and Hinode) and ground-based (THEMIS) instruments, we focused on observing prominences. We compare IRIS observations with those of Hinode (EIS and SOT) in order to build a more complete picture of the prominence structure for a quiescent prominence observed on 15 July 2014, identified to have tornado-like structure. THEMIS provides valuable information on the orientation and strength of the internal magnetic field. Here we find there is almost ubiquitously horizontal field with respect to the local limb, with possibly a turbulent component. The Mg II lines form the majority of our IRIS analysis, with a mixture of reversed and non-reversed profiles present in the prominence spectra. Comparing the differences between the Mg II data from IRIS and the Ca II images from Hinode/SOT provides an intriguing insight into the prominence legs in these channels. We present plasma diagnostics from IRIS, with line of sight velocities of around 10 km/s in either direction along the magnetic loops of material in the front of the prominence, and line widths comparable to those found for prominences by previous authors (e.g. Schmieder et al. 2014). We also take a look into the lines formed at higher, coronal plasma temperatures, as seen by Hinode/EIS, to compare plasma structures at a full range of temperatures.

  16. Monster Prominence

    NASA Video Gallery

    When a rather large-sized (M 3.6 class) flare occurred near the edge of the Sun, it blew out a gorgeous, waving mass of erupting plasma that swirled and twisted over a 90-minute period (Feb. 24, 20...

  17. High resolution reconstruction of solar prominence images observed by the New Vacuum Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Yong-yuan; Liu, Zhong; Jin, Zhen-yu

    2016-11-01

    A high resolution image showing fine structures is crucial for understanding the nature of solar prominence. In this paper, high resolution imaging of solar prominence on the New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST) is introduced, using speckle masking. Each step of the data reduction especially the image alignment is discussed. Accurate alignment of all frames and the non-isoplanatic calibration of each image are the keys for a successful reconstruction. Reconstructed high resolution images from NVST also indicate that under normal seeing condition, it is feasible to carry out high resolution observations of solar prominence by a ground-based solar telescope, even in the absence of adaptive optics.

  18. The Causal Ordering of Prominence and Salience in Identity Theory: An Empirical Examination.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Philip S; Serpe, Richard T; Stryker, Sheldon

    2014-09-01

    Identity theory invokes two distinct but related concepts, identity salience and prominence, to explain how the organization of identities that make up the self impacts the probability that a given identity is situationally enacted. However, much extant research has failed to clearly distinguish between salience and prominence, and their empirical relationship has not been adequately investigated, impeding a solid understanding of the significance and role of each in a general theory of the self. This study examines their causal ordering using three waves of panel data from 48 universities focusing on respondents' identities as science students. Analyses strongly support a causal ordering from prominence to salience. We provide theoretical and empirical grounds to justify this ordering while acknowledging potential variation in its strength across identities. Finally, we offer recommendations about the use of prominence and salience when measures of one or both are available or when analyses use cross-sectional data.

  19. QUIESCENT PROMINENCE DYNAMICS OBSERVED WITH THE HINODE SOLAR OPTICAL TELESCOPE. I. TURBULENT UPFLOW PLUMES

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Thomas E.; Slater, Gregory; Hurlburt, Neal; Shine, Richard; Tarbell, Theodore; Title, Alan; Okamoto, Takenori J.; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Katsukawa, Yukio; Magara, Tetsuya; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Shimizu, Toshifumi

    2010-06-20

    Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) observations reveal two new dynamic modes in quiescent solar prominences: large-scale (20-50 Mm) 'arches' or 'bubbles' that 'inflate' from below into prominences, and smaller-scale (2-6 Mm) dark turbulent upflows. These novel dynamics are related in that they are always dark in visible-light spectral bands, they rise through the bright prominence emission with approximately constant speeds, and the small-scale upflows are sometimes observed to emanate from the top of the larger bubbles. Here we present detailed kinematic measurements of the small-scale turbulent upflows seen in several prominences in the SOT database. The dark upflows typically initiate vertically from 5 to 10 Mm wide dark cavities between the bottom of the prominence and the top of the chromospheric spicule layer. Small perturbations on the order of 1 Mm or less in size grow on the upper boundaries of cavities to generate plumes up to 4-6 Mm across at their largest widths. All plumes develop highly turbulent profiles, including occasional Kelvin-Helmholtz vortex 'roll-up' of the leading edge. The flows typically rise 10-15 Mm before decelerating to equilibrium. We measure the flowfield characteristics with a manual tracing method and with the Nonlinear Affine Velocity Estimator (NAVE) 'optical flow' code to derive velocity, acceleration, lifetime, and height data for several representative plumes. Maximum initial speeds are in the range of 20-30 km s{sup -1}, which is supersonic for a {approx}10,000 K plasma. The plumes decelerate in the final few Mm of their trajectories resulting in mean ascent speeds of 13-17 km s{sup -1}. Typical lifetimes range from 300 to 1000 s ({approx}5-15 minutes). The area growth rate of the plumes (observed as two-dimensional objects in the plane of the sky) is initially linear and ranges from 20,000 to 30,000 km{sup 2} s{sup -1} reaching maximum projected areas from 2 to 15 Mm{sup 2}. Maximum contrast of the dark flows relative to

  20. The ecology of prominences. [classification, morphology and significance to solar physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zirin, H.

    1979-01-01

    The paper discusses the roles of prominences in the solar scheme. Attention is given to classifications and the ways in which prominences exist: hydrostatic support, ballistic support, and magnetic support. In the case of ballistic support, surges are differentiated from sprays which involve the ejection of material that is already above the solar surface. Discussion also covers filimets and fibrils and the conditions for their appearance. It is proposed that most flares originate in prominence instabilities. In addition supergranulation is covered, noting the network is not seen on the boundary of unipolar regions. It is concluded that prominences play a critical role in flares and field reconnection, and the evolution of solar magnetic fields.

  1. The Causal Ordering of Prominence and Salience in Identity Theory: An Empirical Examination

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Philip S.; Serpe, Richard T.; Stryker, Sheldon

    2016-01-01

    Identity theory invokes two distinct but related concepts, identity salience and prominence, to explain how the organization of identities that make up the self impacts the probability that a given identity is situationally enacted. However, much extant research has failed to clearly distinguish between salience and prominence, and their empirical relationship has not been adequately investigated, impeding a solid understanding of the significance and role of each in a general theory of the self. This study examines their causal ordering using three waves of panel data from 48 universities focusing on respondents’ identities as science students. Analyses strongly support a causal ordering from prominence to salience. We provide theoretical and empirical grounds to justify this ordering while acknowledging potential variation in its strength across identities. Finally, we offer recommendations about the use of prominence and salience when measures of one or both are available or when analyses use cross-sectional data. PMID:27284212

  2. Onset of solar flares as predicted by two-dimensional MHD-models of quiescent prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galindotrejo, J.

    1985-01-01

    The close connection between the sudden disapperance (disparition brusque) of the quiescent prominences and the two-ribbon flares are well known. During this dynamic phase the prominence ascends rapidly (typically with a velocity about 100 Km/sec) and disappears. In another later stage is observed material falling back into the chromosphere. The impact of this downfalling matter on the chromosphere produces the H brightening, which shows the symmetric double pattern. The occurence of the disparition brusque is thought to be a consequence of a plasma instability of magnetohydrostatic (MHD) structures. By means of the MHD-energy principle, the stability properties of four prominence models are analyzed. It is shown that all considered models undergo instabilities for parameters outside of the observed range at quiescent prominences. The possibility that such instabilities in the flare parameter range may indicate just the onset of a flare is considered.

  3. Prominence activity related to CME observed by SOHO, Yohkoh and ground-based observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmieder, B.; vanDriel-Gesztelyi, L.; Wiik, J. E.; Kucera, T.; Thompson, B.; DeForest, C.; SaintCyr, C.; Simnett, G. M.

    1997-01-01

    Examples of destabilization of prominences and their associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are presented. During the 1996 campaigns of multi-wavelength observations with the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), the Yohkoh satellite's soft X-ray telescope (SXT) and the Meudon (France) H alpha spectroheliograph eruptive solar filaments and prominences associated with the CMEs were observed. Two of the observed events showed that CMEs and 'brusques disparitions' (BDs) seem to be consequences of global magnetic field instability.

  4. MEASURING AN ERUPTIVE PROMINENCE AT LARGE DISTANCES FROM THE SUN. II. APPROACHING 1 AU

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, T. A.

    2015-06-20

    The physical properties of eruptive prominences are unknown at large distances from the Sun. They are rarely, if ever, measured by in situ spacecraft and until recently our ability to measure them beyond the fields of view of solar imagers has been severely limited. The data quality of heliospheric imaging has reached a point where some quantitative measurements of prominences are now possible. I present the first such measurements of a bright prominence continually out to distances of around 1 AU from the Sun. This work follows on from the preparatory work presented in an accompanying paper, which showed that that the brightness of a prominence can be safely assumed to arise entirely from Thomson scattering in the STEREO/HI fields of view. Measurements of distance, speed, and mass are provided along with those from its accompanying coronal mass ejection (CME) to demonstrate their geometric, kinematic, and mass relationships. I find that the prominence travels with a slower speed than that of the CME, but its location relative to the CME structure does not conform to the expected location for basic geometric expansion. Further, the mass of the prominence was found to decrease by around an order of magnitude while that of the CME increased by an order of magnitude across the same distance.

  5. EVIDENCE FOR ROTATIONAL MOTIONS IN THE FEET OF A QUIESCENT SOLAR PROMINENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Orozco Suarez, D.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Trujillo Bueno, J.

    2012-12-20

    We present observational evidence of apparent plasma rotational motions in the feet of a solar prominence. Our study is based on spectroscopic observations taken in the He I 1083.0 nm multiplet with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter attached to the German Vacuum Tower Telescope. We recorded a time sequence of spectra with 34 s cadence placing the slit of the spectrograph almost parallel to the solar limb and crossing two feet of an intermediate size, quiescent hedgerow prominence. The data show opposite Doppler shifts, {+-}6 km s{sup -1}, at the edges of the prominence feet. We argue that these shifts may be interpreted as prominence plasma rotating counterclockwise around the vertical axis to the solar surface as viewed from above. The evolution of the prominence seen in EUV images taken with the Solar Dynamics Observatory provided us with clues to interpret the results as swirling motions. Moreover, time-distance images taken far from the central wavelength show plasma structures moving parallel to the solar limb with velocities of about 10-15 km s{sup -1}. Finally, the shapes of the observed intensity profiles suggest the presence of, at least, two components at some locations at the edges of the prominence feet. One of them is typically Doppler shifted (up to {approx}20 km s{sup -1}) with respect to the other, thus suggesting the existence of supersonic counter-streaming flows along the line of sight.

  6. Time Evolution of Plasma Parameters during the Rise of a Solar Prominence Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orozco Suárez, D.; Díaz, A. J.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Trujillo Bueno, J.

    2014-04-01

    We present high-spatial resolution spectropolarimetric observations of a quiescent hedgerow prominence taken in the He I 1083.0 nm triplet. The observation consisted of a time series in sit-and-stare mode of ~36 minutes duration. The spectrograph's slit crossed the prominence body and we recorded the time evolution of individual vertical threads. Eventually, we observed the development of a dark Rayleigh-Taylor plume that propagated upward with a velocity, projected onto the plane of the sky, of 17 km s-1. Interestingly, the plume apex collided with the prominence threads pushing them aside. We inferred Doppler shifts, Doppler widths, and magnetic field strength variations by interpreting the He I Stokes profiles with the HAZEL code. The Doppler shifts show that clusters of threads move coherently while individual threads have oscillatory patterns. Regarding the plume we found strong redshifts (~9-12 km s-1) and large Doppler widths (~10 km s-1) at the plume apex when it passed through the prominence body and before it disintegrated. We associate the redshifts with perspective effects while the Doppler widths are more likely due to an increase in the local temperature. No local variations of the magnetic field strength associated with the passage of the plume were found; this leads us to conclude that the plumes are no more magnetized than the surroundings. Finally, we found that some of the threads' oscillations are locally damped, what allowed us to apply prominence seismology techniques to infer additional prominence physical parameters.

  7. Eruptive Prominences and Their Impact on the Earth and Our Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugaz, Noé

    Following prominence eruptions (see Chap. 16 : Webb, Solar prominences. New York: Springer, 2014), the associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs) propagate into the solar wind and interplanetary medium. While the complex interactions with the magnetic field and plasma in the corona (see Chaps. 15 and 16 : Gopalswamy, Solar prominences. New York: Springer, 2014; Webb, Solar prominences. New York: Springer, 2014) have been observed for decades, it has only been in the last decade that the interaction of CMEs with the interplanetary medium can be directly imaged. As CMEs and prominences impact Earth, Earth's magnetosphere may be disrupted through reconnection and/or compression, resulting in geomagnetic storms. In the most extreme cases, CMEs and prominences may have a global effect on man-made technologies and human beings, especially if they are in space. The conditions in the near-Earth environment directly affected by the Sun and the solar activity are known as space weather and will be discussed here.

  8. SOLAR LIMB PROMINENCE CATCHER AND TRACKER (SLIPCAT): AN AUTOMATED SYSTEM AND ITS PRELIMINARY STATISTICAL RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yuming; Cao Hao; Chen Junhong; Zhang Tengfei; Yu Sijie; Zheng Huinan; Shen Chenglong; Wang, S.; Zhang Jie

    2010-07-10

    In this paper, we present an automated system, which has the capability to catch and track solar limb prominences based on observations from the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) 304 A passband. The characteristic parameters and their evolution, including height, position angle, area, length, and brightness, are obtained without manual interventions. By applying the system to the STEREO-B/SECCHI/EUVI 304 A data during 2007 April-2009 October, we obtain a total of 9477 well-tracked prominences and a catalog of these events available online. A detailed analysis of these prominences suggests that the system has a rather good performance. We have obtained several interesting statistical results based on the catalog. Most prominences appear below the latitude of 60{sup 0} and at the height of about 26 Mm above the solar surface. Most of them are quite stable during the period they are tracked. Nevertheless, some prominences have an upward speed of more than 100 km s{sup -1}, and some others show significant downward and/or azimuthal speeds. There are strong correlations among the brightness, area, and height. The expansion of a prominence is probably one major cause of its fading during the rising or erupting process.

  9. SOLAR MAGNETIZED TORNADOES: ROTATIONAL MOTION IN A TORNADO-LIKE PROMINENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Yang; Veronig, Astrid; Temmer, Manuela; Vanninathan, Kamalam; Gömöry, Peter; Wang, Tongjiang; Gan, Weiqun; Li, YouPing

    2014-04-10

    Su et al. proposed a new explanation for filament formation and eruption, where filament barbs are rotating magnetic structures driven by underlying vortices on the surface. Such structures have been noticed as tornado-like prominences when they appear above the limb. They may play a key role as the source of plasma and twist in filaments. However, no observations have successfully distinguished rotational motion of the magnetic structures in tornado-like prominences from other motions such as oscillation and counter-streaming plasma flows. Here we report evidence of rotational motions in a tornado-like prominence. The spectroscopic observations in two coronal lines were obtained from a specifically designed Hinode/EIS observing program. The data revealed the existence of both cold and million-degree-hot plasma in the prominence leg, supporting the so-called prominence-corona transition region. The opposite velocities at the two sides of the prominence and their persistent time evolution, together with the periodic motions evident in SDO/AIA dark structures, indicate a rotational motion of both cold and hot plasma with a speed of ∼5 km s{sup –1}.

  10. Coordinated Observations of Prominences with SUMER/CDS and Ground Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiik, J. E.; Schmieder, B.; Kucera, T.; Poland, A.

    An international campaign for the observation of prominences and filaments was successfully accomplished between June 3 and 9 1996. Several ground observatories took part in the campaign which included the space observatories SOHO and Yohkoh. The main objective of this campaign was to study the dynamics of prominences and the prominence-corona interface, the formation of filaments and the fine structures at different temperatures. We will reported on two Joint Observing Programmes of SUMER and CDS aboard SOHO (JOP 12 and JOP 17), which have been achieved. Finally we will present as an exemple a prominence observed on May 1, 1996 during the tests of the programme JOP 12. This prominence was associated with a CME (observed with LASCO). Very active parts with Dopplershifs up to +/- 36kms(-1) were measured in the SUMER spectra of the prominence, indicating the presence of twisted ropes during the eruption. Mean electron densities have spatial and temporal dispersion of one order of magnitude (10(9) - 10(10) cm(-3) ).

  11. SIMULATIONS OF PROMINENCE FORMATION IN THE MAGNETIZED SOLAR CORONA BY CHROMOSPHERIC HEATING

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, C.; Chen, P. F.; Keppens, R.

    2012-04-01

    Starting from a realistically sheared magnetic arcade connecting the chromospheric, transition region to coronal plasma, we simulate the in situ formation and sustained growth of a quiescent prominence in the solar corona. Contrary to previous works, our model captures all phases of the prominence formation, including the loss of thermal equilibrium, its successive growth in height and width to macroscopic dimensions, and the gradual bending of the arched loops into dipped loops, as a result of the mass accumulation. Our 2.5 dimensional, fully thermodynamically and magnetohydrodynamically consistent model mimics the magnetic topology of normal-polarity prominences above a photospheric neutral line, and results in a curtain-like prominence above the neutral line through which the ultimately dipped magnetic field lines protrude at a finite angle. The formation results from concentrated heating in the chromosphere, followed by plasma evaporation and later rapid condensation in the corona due to thermal instability, as verified by linear instability criteria. Concentrated heating in the lower atmosphere evaporates plasma from below to accumulate at the top of coronal loops and supply mass to the later prominence constantly. This is the first evaporation-condensation model study where we can demonstrate how the formed prominence stays in a force balanced state, which can be compared to the Kippenhahn-Schlueter type magnetohydrostatic model, all in a finite low-beta corona.

  12. Surface differential rotation and prominences of the Lupus post T Tauri star RX J1508.6-4423

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donati, J.-F.; Mengel, M.; Carter, B. D.; Marsden, S.; Collier Cameron, A.; Wichmann, R.

    2000-08-01

    We present in this paper a spectroscopic monitoring of the Lupus post T Tauri star RX J1508.6-4423 carried out at two closely separated epochs (1998 May 06 and 10) with the UCL Echelle Spectrograph on the 3.9-m Anglo-Australian Telescope. Applying least-squares convolution and maximum entropy image reconstruction techniques to our sets of spectra, we demonstrate that this star features on its surface a large cool polar cap with several appendages extending to lower latitudes, as well as one spot close to the equator. The images reconstructed at both epochs are in good overall agreement, except for a photospheric shear that we interpret in terms of latitudinal differential rotation. Given the spot distribution at the epoch of our observations, differential rotation could only be investigated between latitudes 15° and 60°. We find in particular that the observed differential rotation is compatible with a solar-like law (i.e., with rotation rate decreasing towards high latitudes proportionally to sin2l, where l denotes the latitude) in this particular latitude range. Assuming that such a law can be extrapolated to all latitudes, we find that the equator of RX J1508.6-4423 does one more rotational cycle than the pole every 50+/-10d, implying a photospheric shear 2 to 3 times stronger than that of the Sun. We also discover that the Hα emission profile of RX J1508.6-4423 is most of the time double-peaked and strongly modulated with the rotation period of the star. We interpret this rotationally modulated emission as being caused by a dense and complex prominence system, the circumstellar distribution of which is obtained through maximum entropy Doppler tomography. These maps show in particular that prominences form a complete and inhomogeneous ring around the star, precisely at the corotation radius. We use the total Hα and Hβ emission flux to estimate that the mass of the whole prominence system is about 1020g. From our observation that the whole cloud system

  13. On the Visibility of Prominence Fine Structures at Radio Millimeter Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinzel, P.; Berlicki, A.; Bárta, M.; Karlický, M.; Rudawy, P.

    2015-07-01

    Prominence temperatures have so far mainly been determined by analyzing spectral line shapes, which is difficult when the spectral lines are optically thick. The radio spectra in the millimeter range offer a unique possibility to measure the kinetic temperature. However, studies in the past used data with insufficient spatial resolution to resolve the prominence fine structures. The aim of this article is to predict the visibility of prominence fine structures in the submillimeter/millimeter (SMM) domain, to estimate their brightness temperatures at various wavelengths, and to demonstrate the feasibility and usefulness of future high-resolution radio observations of solar prominences with ALMA ( Atacama Large Millimeter-submillimeter Array). Our novel approach is the conversion of H coronagraphic images into microwave spectral images. We show that the spatial variations of the prominence brightness both in the H line and in the SMM domain predominantly depend on the line-of-sight emission measure of the cool plasma, which we derive from the integrated intensities of the observed H line. This relation also offers a new possibility to determine the SMM optical thickness from simultaneous H observations with high resolution. We also describe how we determine the prominence kinetic temperature from SMM spectral images. Finally, we apply the ALMA image-processing software Common Astronomy Software Applications (CASA) to our simulated images to assess what ALMA would detect at a resolution level that is similar to the coronagraphic H images used in this study. Our results can thus help in preparations of first ALMA prominence observations in the frame of science and technical verification tests.

  14. Proteomic and Microscopic Strategies towards the Analysis of the Cytoskeletal Networks in Major Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Coumans, Joëlle V. F.; Palanisamy, Suresh K. A.; McFarlane, Jim; Moens, Pierre D. J.

    2016-01-01

    Mental health disorders have become worldwide health priorities. It is estimated that in the next 20 years they will account for a 16 trillion United State dollars (US$) loss. Up to now, the underlying pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders remains elusive. Altered cytoskeleton proteins expression that may influence the assembly, organization and maintenance of cytoskeletal integrity has been reported in major depressive disorders, schizophrenia and to some extent bipolar disorders. The use of quantitative proteomics, dynamic microscopy and super-resolution microscopy to investigate disease-specific protein signatures holds great promise to improve our understanding of these disorders. In this review, we present the currently available quantitative proteomic approaches use in neurology, gel-based, stable isotope-labelling and label-free methodologies and evaluate their strengths and limitations. We also reported on enrichment/subfractionation methods that target the cytoskeleton associated proteins and discuss the need of alternative methods for further characterization of the neurocytoskeletal proteome. Finally, we present live cell imaging approaches and emerging dynamic microscopy technology that will provide the tools necessary to investigate protein interactions and their dynamics in the whole cells. While these areas of research are still in their infancy, they offer huge potential towards the understanding of the neuronal network stability and its modification across neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:27104521

  15. A positive Babinski reflex predicts delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae in Chinese patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jian-Fang; Guo, Qiming; Shao, Hua; Li, Bin; Du, Yuxiu; Liu, Maofeng; Liu, Fengling; Dai, Lixin; Chung, Min-Hsien; Lin, Hung-Jung; Guo, How-Ran; Yang, Tzu-Meng; Huang, Chien-Cheng; Hsu, Chien-Chin

    2014-01-01

    As the human population increased in China, the carbon monoxide is a serious environmental toxin in public health. However, predicting the delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae (DNS) of carbon monoxide poisoning (COP) has not been well studied. We investigated the independent predictors of DNS in patients with COP. This study was conducted at four hospitals in China. Data were retrospectively collected from 258 patients with COP between November 1990 and October 2011. DNS was the primary endpoint. A positive Babinski reflex was the independent predictor for DNS: sensitivity = 53.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 26.1-79.6), specificity = 88.6% (95% CI: 83.7-92.1), positive predictive value (PPV) = 20.0% (95% CI: 9.1-37.5), and negative predictive value (NPV) = 97.3% (95% CI: 94.0-98.9). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.712 (95% CI: 0.544-0.880). A positive Babinski reflex was very memorable, immediately available, and applicable in clinical practice. Even when the sensitivity and PPV of a positive Babinski reflex were unsatisfactory, it had a good specificity and NPV for excluding the risk of DNS. In patients without a positive Babinski reflex, the risk for DNS was only 2.7%. This finding may help physicians make decisions about dispositions for patients with COP.

  16. Analysis of Neuropsychiatric Adverse Events in Patients Treated with Oseltamivir in Spontaneous Adverse Event Reports.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Natsumi; Umetsu, Ryogo; Abe, Junko; Kato, Yamato; Nakayama, Yoko; Kato, Zenichiro; Kinosada, Yasutomi; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    There have been concerns that oseltamivir causes neuropsychiatric adverse events (NPAEs). We analyzed the association of age and gender with NPAEs in patients treated with oseltamivir using a logistic regression model. NPAE data were obtained from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (2004 to 2013). The lower limit of the reporting odds ratio (ROR) 95% confidence interval (CI) of "abnormal behavior" in Japan, Singapore, and Taiwan was ≥1. The effects of the interaction terms for oseltamivir in male patients aged 10-19 years were statistically significant. The adjusted ROR of "abnormal behavior" was 96.4 (95% CI, 77.5-119.9) in male patients aged 10-19 years treated with osletamivir. In female patients, the results of the likelihood ratio test for "abnormal behavior" were not statistically significant. The adjusted NPAE RORs were increased in male and female patients under the age of 20 years. Oseltamivir use could be associated with "abnormal behavior" in males aged 10-19 years. After considering the causality restraints of the current analysis, further epidemiological studies are recommended.

  17. Molecular Imaging of Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Hirao, Kentaro; Pontone, Gregory M.; Smith, Gwenn S.

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are very common in neurodegenerative diseases and are a major contributor to disability and caregiver burden. There is accumulating evidence that NPS may be a prodrome of neurodegenerative diseases and are associated with functional decline. The medications used to treat these symptoms in younger patients are not very effective in patients with neurodegenerative disease and may have serious side effects. An understanding of the neurobiology of NPS is critical for the development of more effective intervention strategies. Targeting these symptoms may also have implications for prevention of cognitive or motor decline. Molecular brain imaging represents a bridge between basic and clinical observations and provides many opportunities for translation from animal models and human post-mortem studies to in vivo human studies. Molecular brain imaging studies in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD) are reviewed with a primary focus on positron emission tomography studies of NPS. Future directions for the field of molecular imaging in AD and PD to understand the neurobiology of NPS will be discussed. PMID:25446948

  18. Progress and challenges in using human stem cells for biological and therapeutics discovery: neuropsychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Panchision, David M.

    2016-01-01

    In facing the daunting challenge of using human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (hESCs, hiPSCs) to study complex neural circuit disorders such as schizophrenia (SCZ), mood and anxiety disorders and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), a 2012 National Institute of Mental Health workshop produced a set of recommendations to advance basic research and engage industry in cell-based studies of neuropsychiatric disorders. This review describes progress in meeting these recommendations, including the development of novel tools, strides in recapitulating relevant cell and tissue types, insights into the genetic basis of these disorders that permit integration of risk-associated gene regulatory networks with cell/circuit phenotypes, and promising findings of patient-control differences using cell-based assays. However, numerous challenges are still being addressed, requiring further technological development, approaches to resolve disease heterogeneity and collaborative structures for investigators of different disciplines. Additionally, since data obtained so far is on small sample sizes, replication in larger sample sets is needed. A number of individual success stories point to a path forward in developing assays to translate discovery science to therapeutics development. PMID:26840228

  19. Proteostasis and RNA Binding Proteins in Synaptic Plasticity and in the Pathogenesis of Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Matthew E.; Monday, Hannah; Jordan, Bryen A.

    2016-01-01

    Decades of research have demonstrated that rapid alterations in protein abundance are required for synaptic plasticity, a cellular correlate for learning and memory. Control of protein abundance, known as proteostasis, is achieved across a complex neuronal morphology that includes a tortuous axon as well as an extensive dendritic arbor supporting thousands of individual synaptic compartments. To regulate the spatiotemporal synthesis of proteins, neurons must efficiently coordinate the transport and metabolism of mRNAs. Among multiple levels of regulation, transacting RNA binding proteins (RBPs) control proteostasis by binding to mRNAs and mediating their transport and translation in response to synaptic activity. In addition to synthesis, protein degradation must be carefully balanced for optimal proteostasis, as deviations resulting in excess or insufficient abundance of key synaptic factors produce pathologies. As such, mutations in components of the proteasomal or translational machinery, including RBPs, have been linked to the pathogenesis of neurological disorders such as Fragile X Syndrome (FXS), Fragile X Tremor Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS), and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). In this review, we summarize recent scientific findings, highlight ongoing questions, and link basic molecular mechanisms to the pathogenesis of common neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26904297

  20. Relating Translational Neuroimaging and Amperometric Endpoints: Utility for Neuropsychiatric Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Li, Jennifer; Schwarz, Adam J; Gilmour, Gary

    Measures of neuronal activation are a natural and parsimonious translational biomarker to consider in the context of neuropsychiatric drug discovery studies. In this regard, functional neuroimaging using the BOLD fMRI technique is becoming more frequently employed to not only probe aberrant brain regions and circuits in disease, but also to assess the effects of novel pharmacological agents on these processes. In the ideal situation, these types of studies would first be conducted pre-clinically in rodents to confirm a measurable functional response on relevant brain circuits before seeking to replicate the findings in an analogous fMRI paradigm in humans. However, the need for animal immobilization during the scanning procedure precludes all but the simplest behavioural task-based paradigms in rodent BOLD fMRI. This chapter considers how in vivo oxygen amperometry may represent a viable and valid proxy for BOLD fMRI in freely moving rodents engaged in behavioural tasks. The amperometric technique and several examples of emerging evidence are described to show how the technique can deliver results that translate to pharmacological, event-related and functional connectivity variants of fMRI. In vivo oxygen amperometry holds great promise as a technique that may help to bridge the gap between basic drug discovery research in rodents and applied efficacy testing in humans.

  1. Endocannabinoid signals in the developmental programming of delayed-onset neuropsychiatric and metabolic illnesses.

    PubMed

    Keimpema, Erik; Calvigioni, Daniela; Harkany, Tibor

    2013-12-01

    It is increasingly recognized that maternal exposure to metabolic (nutritional) stimuli, infections, illicit or prescription drugs and environmental stressors during pregnancy can predispose affected offspring to developing devastating postnatal illnesses. If detrimental maternal stimuli coincide with critical periods of tissue production and organogenesis then they can permanently derail key cellular differentiation programs. Maternal programming can thus either provoke developmental failure directly ('direct hit') or introduce latent developmental errors that enable otherwise sub-threshold secondary stressors to manifest as disease ('double hit') postnatally. Accumulating evidence suggests that nervous system development is tightly controlled by maternal metabolic stimuli, and whose synaptic wiring and integrative capacity are adversely affected by dietary and hormonal challenges, infections or episodes of illicit drug use. Endocannabinoids, a family of signal lipids derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids, have been implicated in neuronal fate determination, the control of axonal growth, synaptogenesis and synaptic neurotransmission. Therefore the continuum and interdependence of endocannabinoid actions during the formation and function of synapses together with dynamic changes in focal and circulating endocannabinoid levels upon maternal nutritional imbalance suggest that endocannabinoids can execute the 'reprogramming' of specific neuronal networks. In the present paper, we review molecular evidence suggesting that maternal nutrition and metabolism during pregnancy can affect the formation and function of the hippocampus and hypothalamus by altering endocannabinoid signalling such that neuropsychiatric diseases and obesity respectively ensue in affected offspring. Moreover, we propose that the placenta, fetal adipose and nervous tissues interact via endocannabinoid signals. Thus endocannabinoids are hypothesized to act as a molecular substrate of maternal

  2. The impact of neuroscience on society: cognitive enhancement in neuropsychiatric disorders and in healthy people

    PubMed Central

    Sahakian, Barbara J.; Bruhl, Annette B.; Cook, Jennifer; Killikelly, Clare; Savulich, George; Piercy, Thomas; Hafizi, Sepehr; Perez, Jesus; Fernandez-Egea, Emilio; Suckling, John; Jones, Peter B.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to causing distress and disability to the individual, neuropsychiatric disorders are also extremely expensive to society and governments. These disorders are both common and debilitating and impact on cognition, functionality and wellbeing. Cognitive enhancing drugs, such as cholinesterase inhibitors and methylphenidate, are used to treat cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, respectively. Other cognitive enhancers include specific computerized cognitive training and devices. An example of a novel form of cognitive enhancement using the technological advancement of a game on an iPad that also acts to increase motivation is presented. Cognitive enhancing drugs, such as methylphenidate and modafinil, which were developed as treatments, are increasingly being used by healthy people. Modafinil not only affects ‘cold’ cognition, but also improves ‘hot’ cognition, such as emotion recognition and task-related motivation. The lifestyle use of ‘smart drugs' raises both safety concerns as well as ethical issues, including coercion and increasing disparity in society. As a society, we need to consider which forms of cognitive enhancement (e.g. pharmacological, exercise, lifelong learning) are acceptable and for which groups (e.g. military, doctors) under what conditions (e.g. war, shift work) and by what methods we would wish to improve and flourish. PMID:26240429

  3. Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Involvement: Towards a Tailored Approach to Our Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Raquel; Gonçalves, João; Dias, Rita

    2017-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) is a complex condition that remains poorly understood, and includes heterogeneous manifestations involving both the central and peripheral nervous system, with disabling effects. There are several models to improve NPSLE diagnosis when a neurological syndrome is present. In the last couple of years, the growing knowledge of the role of cytokines and antibodies in NPSLE, as well as the development of new functional imaging techniques, has brought some insights into the physiopathology of the disease, but their validation for clinical use remains undetermined. Furthermore, besides the classic clinical approach, a new tool for screening the 19 NPSLE syndromes has also been developed. Regarding NPSLE therapeutics, there is still no evidence-based treatment approach, but some data support the safety of biological medication when classic treatment fails. Despite the tendency to reclassify SLE patients in clinical and immunological subsets, we hope that these data will inspire medical professionals to approach NPSLE in a manner more tailored to the individual patient. PMID:28178431

  4. nArgBP2 as a hub molecule in the etiology of various neuropsychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Eun; Chang, Sunghoe

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have strongly implicated postsynaptic scaffolding proteins such as SAPAP3 or Shank3 in the pathogenesis of various mood disorders, including autism spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder (BD), and obsessive-compulsive disorders. Neural Abelson-related gene-binding protein 2 (nArgBP2) was originally identified as a protein that interacts with SAPAP3 and Shank3. Recent study shows that the genetic deletion of nArgBP2 in mice leads to manic/bipolar-like behavior resembling symptoms of BD. However, the function of nArgBP2 at synapse, or its connection with the synaptic dysfunctions, is completely unknown. This study provides compelling evidence that nArgBP2 regulates the spine morphogenesis through the activation of Rac1/WAVE/PAK/cofilin pathway, and that its ablation causes a robust and selective inhibition of excitatory synapse formation, by controlling actin dynamics. Our results revealed the underlying mechanism for the synaptic dysfunction caused by nArgBP2 downregulation that associates with analogous human BD. Moreover, since nArgBP2 interacts with key proteins involved in various neuropsychiatric disorders, our finding implies that nArgBP2 could function as a hub linking various etiological factors of different mood disorders. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(9): 457-458] PMID:27530683

  5. Diagnosing and attributing neuropsychiatric events to systemic lupus erythematosus: time to untie the Gordian knot?

    PubMed

    Tay, Sen Hee; Mak, Anselm

    2016-10-15

    Neurological and psychiatric syndromes, collectively referred to as NPSLE, occur frequently in SLE. The frequency of NPSLE varies from 21 to 95%; however, only 13-38% of neuropsychiatric (NP) events could be attributable to SLE in the NPSLE SLICC inception cohort. This variability in the frequency of NPSLE is attributable to the low specificity of the ACR case definitions for SLE-attributed NP syndromes, inclusion of minor NP events in the ACR nomenclature, difficulty in ascertainment of NP events and diverse experience of rheumatologists in the clinical assessment of NP events. Making the correct and early attribution of NP events to SLE is important to institute appropriate immunosuppressive treatment for favourable outcomes. Various attribution models using composite decision rules have been developed and used to ascribe NP events to SLE. This review will focus on the various clinical presentations, diagnostic work-up and attributions of the common NPSLE syndromes, including other NP events not included in the ACR nomenclature but which have come to attention in recent years.

  6. An epigenomics approach to individual differences and its translation to neuropsychiatric conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sweatt, J. David; Tamminga, Carol A.

    2016-01-01

    This review concerns epigenetic mechanisms and their roles in conferring interindividual differences, especially as related to experientially acquired and genetically driven changes in central nervous system (CNS) function. In addition, the review contains commentary regarding the possible ways in which epigenomic changes may contribute to neuropsychiatric conditions and disorders and ways in which epigenotyping might be cross-correlated with clinical phenotyping in the context of precision medicine. The review begins with a basic description of epigenetic marking in the CNS and how these changes are powerful regulators of gene readout. Means for characterizing the individual epigenotype are briefly described, with a focus on DNA cytosine methylation as a readily measurable, stable epigenetic mark. This background enables a discussion of how “epigenotyping” might be integrated along with genotyping and deep phenotyping as a means of implementing advanced precision medicine. Finally, the commentary addresses two exemplars when considering how epigenotype may correlate with and modulate cognitive and behavioral phenotype: schizophrenia and Rett syndrome. These two disorders provide an interesting compare-and-contrast example regarding possible epigenotypic regulation of behavior: whereas Rett syndrome is clearly established as being caused by disruption of the function of an epigenetic “reader” of the DNA cytosine methylome—methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2)—the case for a role for epigenetic mechanisms in schizophrenia is still quite speculative. PMID:27757063

  7. Histamine and histamine receptors in Tourette syndrome and other neuropsychiatric conditions.

    PubMed

    Rapanelli, Maximiliano; Pittenger, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    The potential contributions of dysregulation of the brain's histaminergic modulatory system to neuropsychiatric disease, and the potential of histamine-targeting medications as therapeutic agents, are gradually coming into focus. The H3R receptor, which is expressed primarily in the central nervous system, is a promising pharmacotherapeutic target. Recent evidence for a contribution of histamine dysregulation to Tourette syndrome and tic disorders is particularly strong; although specific mutations in histamine-associated genes are rare, they have led to informative studies in animal models that may pave the way for therapeutic advances. A controlled study of an H3R antagonist in Tourette syndrome is ongoing. Preclinical studies of H3R antagonists in schizophrenia, attention deficit disorder, and narcolepsy have all shown promise. Recently reported controlled studies have been disappointing in schizophrenia and attention deficit disorder, but the H3R antagonist pitolisant shows promise in the treatment of narcolepsy and excessive daytime sleepiness and is currently under regulatory review for these conditions. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Histamine Receptors'.

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging And Brain Histopathology In Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Sibbitt, Wilmer L.; Brooks, William M.; Kornfeld, Mario; Hart, Blaine L.; Bankhurst, Arthur D.; Roldan, Carlos A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) often demonstrates brain lesions in neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSL). The present study compared post-mortem histopathology with pre-mortem MRI in NPSL. Methods 200 subjects with NPSLE were studied prospectively with MRI over a 10-year period during which 22 subjects died. In 14 subjects, a brain autopsy with histopathology that permitted direct comparison with pre mortem MRI was successfully obtained. Surface anatomy was used to determine the approximate location of individual lesions. Results Pre mortem MRI findings in fatal NPSLE were small focal white matter lesions (100%), cortical atrophy (64%), ventricular dilation (57%), cerebral edema (50%), diffuse white matter abnormalities (43%), focal atrophy (36%), cerebral infarction (29%), acute leukoencephalopathy (25%), intracranial hemorrhage (21%), and calcifications (7%). Microscopic findings in fatal NPSLE included global ischemic changes (57%), parenchymal edema (50%), microhemorrhages (43%), glial hyperplasia (43%), diffuse neuronal/axonal loss (36%), resolved cerebral infarction (33%), microthomboemboli (29%), blood vessel remodeling (29%), acute cerebral infarction (14%), acute macrohemorrhages (14%), and resolved intracranial hemorrhages (7%). Cortical atrophy and ventricular dilation seen by MRI predicted brain mass at autopsy (r = -0.72, p = 0.01, and r = -0.77, p =0.01, respectively). Cerebral autopsy findings, including infarction, cerebral edema, intracranial hemorrhage, calcifications, cysts, and focal atrophy were also predicted accurately by pre mortem MRI. Conclusion Brain lesions in NPSLE detected by MRI accurately represent serious underlying cerebrovascular and parenchymal brain injury on pathology. PMID:19880162

  9. Interventions for Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Neurocognitive Impairment Due to Alzheimer's Disease: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    McClam, Tamela D; Marano, Christopher M; Rosenberg, Paul B; Lyketsos, Constantine G

    2015-01-01

    Neurocognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease (previously termed Alzheimer's dementia) (AD) is the most common form of cognitive impairment worldwide. Given the anticipated increase in the population aged 65 and over, the prevalence of persons with AD is expected to increase exponentially during the next 30 years. Noncognitive neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) commonly occur in AD and are associated with adverse outcomes for patients and their caregivers. This review summarizes randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) published between 2004 and 2014 with a primary outcome measure of change in symptom severity for NPS in AD. Of the 388 articles initially identified through a literature search, 33 trials met inclusion criteria. Fifteen of these studies had agitation/aggression as a targeted symptom. Twenty-eight evaluated pharmacologic treatments, including psychotropics, cognitive enhancers, stimulants, and nutraceuticals. Nonpharmacologic interventions included bright light, music, exercise, and cognitive-stimulation therapies. Among the pharmacologic interventions, modest efficacy was reported with aripiprazole, citalopram, trazodone, methylphenidate, and scheduled analgesics. Significant reduction in symptom severity was reported with nearly all the nonpharmacologic interventions. Variations in methodology such as inclusion criteria, study setting, and outcome measures limit the generalizability of these results. Barriers to the implementation of nonpharmacologic interventions in clinical settings include resource and training limitations. Electroconvulsive therapy and dronabinol are promising as emerging treatment strategies. Randomized clinical trials are needed in order to validate the utility of electroconvulsive therapy and dronabinol, including where and with whom these interventions will prove most valuable.

  10. An epigenomics approach to individual differences and its translation to neuropsychiatric conditions.

    PubMed

    Sweatt, J David; Tamminga, Carol A

    2016-09-01

    This review concerns epigenetic mechanisms and their roles in conferring interindividual differences, especially as related to experientially acquired and genetically driven changes in central nervous system (CNS) function. In addition, the review contains commentary regarding the possible ways in which epigenomic changes may contribute to neuropsychiatric conditions and disorders and ways in which epigenotyping might be cross-correlated with clinical phenotyping in the context of precision medicine. The review begins with a basic description of epigenetic marking in the CNS and how these changes are powerful regulators of gene readout. Means for characterizing the individual epigenotype are briefly described, with a focus on DNA cytosine methylation as a readily measurable, stable epigenetic mark. This background enables a discussion of how "epigenotyping" might be integrated along with genotyping and deep phenotyping as a means of implementing advanced precision medicine. Finally, the commentary addresses two exemplars when considering how epigenotype may correlate with and modulate cognitive and behavioral phenotype: schizophrenia and Rett syndrome. These two disorders provide an interesting compare-and-contrast example regarding possible epigenotypic regulation of behavior: whereas Rett syndrome is clearly established as being caused by disruption of the function of an epigenetic "reader" of the DNA cytosine methylome-methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2)-the case for a role for epigenetic mechanisms in schizophrenia is still quite speculative.

  11. New therapeutic strategies targeting D1-type dopamine receptors for neuropsychiatric disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Cho; Alberico, Stephanie L.; Emmons, Eric; Narayanan, Nandakumar S.

    2017-01-01

    The neurotransmitter dopamine acts via two major classes of receptors, D1-type and D2-type. D1 receptors are highly expressed in the striatum and can also be found in the cerebral cortex. Here we review the role of D1 dopamine signaling in two major domains: L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson’s disease and cognition in neuropsychiatric disorders. While there are many drugs targeting D2-type receptors, there are no drugs that specifically target D1 receptors. It has been difficult to use selective D1-receptor agonists for clinical applications due to issues with bioavailability, binding affinity, pharmacological kinetics, and side effects. We propose potential therapies that selectively modulate D1 dopamine signaling by targeting second messengers downstream of D1 receptors, allosteric modulators, or by making targeted modifications to D1-receptor machinery. The development of therapies specific to D1-receptor signaling could be a new frontier in the treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders. PMID:28280503

  12. Pharmacological cognitive enhancement: treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders and lifestyle use by healthy people.

    PubMed

    Sahakian, Barbara J; Morein-Zamir, Sharon

    2015-04-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders typically manifest as problems with attentional biases, aberrant learning, dysfunctional reward systems, and an absence of top-down cognitive control by the prefrontal cortex. In view of the cost of common mental health disorders, in terms of distress to the individual and family in addition to the financial cost to society and governments, new developments for treatments that address cognitive dysfunction should be a priority so that all members of society can flourish. Cognitive enhancing drugs, such as cholinesterase inhibitors and methylphenidate, are used as treatments for the cognitive symptoms of Alzheimer's disease and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, these drugs and others, including modafinil, are being increasingly used by healthy people for enhancement purposes. Importantly for ethical and safety reasons, the drivers for this increasing lifestyle use of so-called smart drugs by healthy people should be considered and discussions must occur about how to ensure present and future pharmacological cognitive enhancers are used for the benefit of society.

  13. Distinguishing the cerebrospinal fluid cytokine profile in neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus from other autoimmune neurological diseases.

    PubMed

    Ichinose, Kunihiro; Arima, Kazuhiko; Ushigusa, Takeshi; Nishino, Ayako; Nakashima, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Takahisa; Horai, Yoshiro; Nakajima, Hideki; Kawashiri, Shin-Ya; Iwamoto, Naoki; Tamai, Mami; Nakamura, Hideki; Origuchi, Tomoki; Motomura, Masakatsu; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2015-04-01

    Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) is a serious complication in SLE. Although the mechanism of NPSLE remains unclear, cytokines and chemokines are considered to be involved in their pathogenesis. Here we used Bio-Plex Pro assays to examine 27 types of cytokines and chemokines in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 32 NPSLE patients. We used the CSF of 20 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 22 patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) as a disease control group. Fourteen of 27 cytokines/chemokines were significantly higher in the NPSLE patients compared to the MS/NMO patients. We could identify six "minimum predictive markers" by using a weighted-voting algorithm that could distinguish NPSLE from MS and NMO: interleukin (IL)-17, IL-2, interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-5, basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-basic and IL-15. The determination of various types of CSF cytokine profiles may contribute to the diagnosis of NPSLE and may help elucidate the mechanisms underlying this disease.

  14. The impact of neuroscience on society: cognitive enhancement in neuropsychiatric disorders and in healthy people.

    PubMed

    Sahakian, Barbara J; Bruhl, Annette B; Cook, Jennifer; Killikelly, Clare; Savulich, George; Piercy, Thomas; Hafizi, Sepehr; Perez, Jesus; Fernandez-Egea, Emilio; Suckling, John; Jones, Peter B

    2015-09-19

    In addition to causing distress and disability to the individual, neuropsychiatric disorders are also extremely expensive to society and governments. These disorders are both common and debilitating and impact on cognition, functionality and wellbeing. Cognitive enhancing drugs, such as cholinesterase inhibitors and methylphenidate, are used to treat cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, respectively. Other cognitive enhancers include specific computerized cognitive training and devices. An example of a novel form of cognitive enhancement using the technological advancement of a game on an iPad that also acts to increase motivation is presented. Cognitive enhancing drugs, such as methylphenidate and modafinil, which were developed as treatments, are increasingly being used by healthy people. Modafinil not only affects 'cold' cognition, but also improves 'hot' cognition, such as emotion recognition and task-related motivation. The lifestyle use of 'smart drugs' raises both safety concerns as well as ethical issues, including coercion and increasing disparity in society. As a society, we need to consider which forms of cognitive enhancement (e.g. pharmacological, exercise, lifelong learning) are acceptable and for which groups (e.g. military, doctors) under what conditions (e.g. war, shift work) and by what methods we would wish to improve and flourish.

  15. Neuropsychiatric Disturbances in Alzheimer’s Disease: What Have We Learned from Neuropathological Studies?

    PubMed Central

    Van Dam, Debby; Vermeiren, Yannick; Dekker, Alain D.; Naudé, Petrus J.W.; De Deyn, Peter P.

    2016-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are an integral part of the dementia syndrome and were therefore recently included in the core diagnostic criteria of dementia. The near universal prevalence of NPS in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), combined with their disabling effects on patients and caregivers, is contrasted by the fact that few effective and safe treatments exist, which is in part to be attributed to our incomplete understanding of the neurobiology of NPS. In this review, we describe the pathological alterations typical for AD, including spreading and evolution of burden, effect on the molecular and cellular integrity, functional consequences and atrophy of NPS-relevant brain regions and circuits in correlation with specific NPS assessments. It is thereby clearly established that NPS are fundamental expressions of the underlying neurodegenerative brain disease and not simply reflect the patients’ secondary response to their illness. Neuropathological studies, moreover, include a majority of end-stage patient samples, which may not correctly represent the pathophysiological environment responsible for particular NPS that may already be present in an early stage, or even prior to AD diagnosis. The burdensome nature and high prevalence of NPS, in combination with the absence of effective and safe pharmacotherapies, provide a strong incentive to continue neuropathological and neurochemical, as well as imaging and other relevant approaches to further improve our apprehension of the neurobiology of NPS. PMID:27137218

  16. Management of neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia in clinical settings: recommendations from a multidisciplinary expert panel.

    PubMed

    Kales, Helen C; Gitlin, Laura N; Lyketsos, Constantine G

    2014-04-01

    Noncognitive neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) of dementia (aggression, agitation, depression, anxiety, delusions, hallucinations, apathy, disinhibition) affect individuals with dementia nearly universally across dementia stages and etiologies. NPS are associated with poor outcomes for individuals with dementia and caregivers, including excess morbidity and mortality, greater healthcare use, and earlier nursing home placement, as well as caregiver stress, depression, and difficulty with employment. Although the Food and Drug Administration has not approved pharmacotherapy for NPS, psychotropic medications are frequently used to manage these symptoms, but in the few cases of proven pharmacological efficacy, significant risk of adverse effects may offset benefits. There is evidence of efficacy and limited potential for adverse effects of nonpharmacological treatments, typically considered first line, but their uptake as preferred treatments remains inadequate in real-world clinical settings.