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Sample records for prominent spasmodic dysphonia

  1. Spasmodic dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, S D; Freeman, F J

    1987-02-01

    Few speech disorders have been more controversial as to etiology and treatment as spasmodic dysphonia. This article reviews the historical background and origins of spasmodic dysphonia theories and the legacy of their implications on the current treatment of afflicted patients. The evolution and impact of "organic theories" is discussed and a personal perspective on the central nervous system investigations performed by the authors is briefly elucidated and their practical experience in managing spasmodic dysphonia patients is offered for the reader's consideration.

  2. Neurologic aspects of spasmodic dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, D B; Donovan, D T; Sulek, M; Viswanath, N S; Inbody, G P; Nudelman, H B

    1990-08-01

    We discuss the etiology of 100 spasmodic dysphonia patients. Seventy-one patients had underlying essential tremor, 25 had Meige's syndrome, 12 were hypothyroid, and 27 had either a functional disturbance or focal dystonia. Six patients had intermittent breathy dysphonia. A large corpus of spasmodic dysphonia patients have organic neurolaryngeal disease.

  3. Disfluency in Spasmodic Dysphonia: A Multivariate Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannito, Michael P.; Burch, Annette Renee; Watts, Christopher; Rappold, Patrick W.; Hood, Stephen B.; Sherrard, Kyla

    1997-01-01

    This study examined visual analog scaling judgments of disfluency by normal listeners in response to oral reading by 20 adults with spasmodic dysphonia (SD) and nondysphonic controls. Findings suggest that although dysfluency is not a defining feature of SD, it does contribute significantly to the overall clinical impression of severity of the…

  4. Speech Intelligibility in Severe Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Brenda K.; Cannito, Michael P.; Murry, Thomas; Woodson, Gayle E.

    2004-01-01

    This study compared speech intelligibility in nondisabled speakers and speakers with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) before and after botulinum toxin (Botox) injection. Standard speech samples were obtained from 10 speakers diagnosed with severe ADSD prior to and 1 month following Botox injection, as well as from 10 age- and gender-matched…

  5. Recurrent laryngeal nerve pathology in spasmodic dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Bocchino, J V; Tucker, H M

    1978-08-01

    Since it was first described in 1871, spasmodic (spastic) dysphonia has been considered a disease of psychogenic origin. Unsupported theories of possible organic etiology have appeared sporadically in the literature. In 1976 sectioning of the recurrent laryngeal nerve for patients with this disease was reported with resultant improvement in voice production. This was attempted because the spasmodic dysphonic has, in effect, already compensated vocal cords bilaterally. It was reasoned, therefore, that if one of these was paralyzed the patient would immediately be converted to a state approximating that of well-compensated unilateral vocal cord paralysis which situation, as is well known, usually carries with it a fairly good voice. A controlled study to evaluate the efficacy of this surgical approach has been undertaken at the Cleveland Clinic during the past year. In an attempt to elucidate the possible organic etiology of spasmodic dysphonia, a section of nerve was removed in every case and examined by both light and electron microscopy. Special stains for myelin were also used on the light microscopy specimens. Demyelinization has been found in most of the cases examined by electron microscopy. Possible correlation between this disease entity and other cranial nerve syndromes of unknown etiology is noted. Such conditions as trigeminal neuralgia, glossopharyngeal neuralgia, belpharospasm, hemifacial spasm, and even possibly Bell's palsy may exhibit a similar etiology.

  6. Comparing health locus of control in patients with Spasmodic Dysphonia, Functional Dysphonia and Nonlaryngeal Dystonia.

    PubMed

    Haselden, Karen; Powell, Theresa; Drinnan, Mike; Carding, Paul

    2009-11-01

    Locus of Control (LoC) refers to an individuals' perception of whether they are in control of life events. Health Locus of Control refers to whether someone feels they have influence over their health. Health Locus of Control has not been studied in any depth in voice-disordered patients. The objective of this study was to examine Health Locus of Control in three patient groups: (1) Spasmodic Dysphonia, (2) Functional Dysphonia and (3) a nondysphonic group with Nonlaryngeal Dystonia. LoC was measured and compared in a total of 57 patients using the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scales (diagnostic specific) Form C. Internal, Chance, and Powerful others LoC were measured and comparisons were made using one-way analysis of variance. Contrary to expectations Internal LoC was found to be significantly higher in the Functional Dysphonia group when compared to the other two groups. There was no significant difference between the groups in Chance or Powerful others LoC. The two organic groups, Spasmodic Dysphonia and Nonlaryngeal Dystonia, were more alike in Internal Health Locus of Control than the Functional Dysphonia group. The diagnostic nature of the groups was reflected in their LoC scores rather than their voice loss. These results contribute to the debate about the etiology of Spasmodic Dysphonia and will be of interest to those involved in the psychology of voice and those managing voice-disordered patients.

  7. Emotional Considerations in Spasmodic Dysphonia: Psychometric Quantification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannito, Michael P.

    1991-01-01

    This study examined emotional characteristics of 18 female spasmodic dysphonic subjects in comparison to matched normal controls across psychometric measures of depression, anxiety, and somatic complaints. Statistically significant differences were noted between groups for all measures and over half of the dysphonic subjects exhibited clinically…

  8. Adductor spasmodic dysphonia: Relationships between acoustic indices and perceptual judgments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannito, Michael P.; Sapienza, Christine M.; Woodson, Gayle; Murry, Thomas

    2003-04-01

    This study investigated relationships between acoustical indices of spasmodic dysphonia and perceptual scaling judgments of voice attributes made by expert listeners. Audio-recordings of The Rainbow Passage were obtained from thirty one speakers with spasmodic dysphonia before and after a BOTOX injection of the vocal folds. Six temporal acoustic measures were obtained across 15 words excerpted from each reading sample, including both frequency of occurrence and percent time for (1) aperiodic phonation, (2) phonation breaks, and (3) fundamental frequency shifts. Visual analog scaling judgments were also obtained from six voice experts using an interactive computer interface to quantify four voice attributes (i.e., overall quality, roughness, brokenness, breathiness) in a carefully psychoacoustically controlled environment, using the same reading passages as stimuli. Number and percent aperiodicity and phonation breaks correlated significanly with perceived overall voice quality, roughness, and brokenness before and after the BOTOX injection. Breathiness was correlated with aperidocity only prior to injection, while roughness also correlated with frequency shifts following injection. Factor analysis reduced perceived attributes to two principal components: glottal squeezing and breathiness. The acoustic measures demonstrated a strong regression relationship with perceived glottal squeezing, but no regression relationship with breathiness was observed. Implications for an analysis of pathologic voices will be discussed.

  9. Treatment for spasmodic dysphonia: limitations of current approaches

    PubMed Central

    Ludlow, Christy L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review Although botulinum toxin injection is the gold standard for treatment of spasmodic dysphonia, surgical approaches aimed at providing long-term symptom control have been advancing over recent years. Recent findings When surgical approaches provide greater long-term benefits to symptom control, they also increase the initial period of side effects of breathiness and swallowing difficulties. However, recent analyses of quality-of-life questionnaires in patients undergoing regular injections of botulinum toxin demonstrate that a large proportion of patients have limited relief for relatively short periods due to early breathiness and loss-of-benefit before reinjection. Summary Most medical and surgical approaches to the treatment of spasmodic dysphonia have been aimed at denervation of the laryngeal muscles to block symptom expression in the voice, and have both adverse effects as well as treatment benefits. Research is needed to identify the central neuropathophysiology responsible for the laryngeal muscle spasms in order target treatment towards the central neurological abnormality responsible for producing symptoms. PMID:19337127

  10. Psychogenic spasmodic dysphonia: a case study with expert opinions.

    PubMed

    Sapir, S

    1995-09-01

    Spasmodic (spastic) dysphonia (SD) is considered by some to be a neurologic syndrome and by others a symptom complex of multiple etiologies, neurologic and psychogenic. A case of a 26-year-old female psychiatric nurse with psychogenic SD (PSD) is presented. The dysphonia was alleviated within one session of voice therapy. Psychogenic etiology was established by the author, based on three diagnostic criteria--symptom incongruity, symptom reversibility, and symptom psychogenicity. Seven nationally recognized voice experts listened to audio-recorded samples of the patient's pre- and posttherapy voice during conversational speech. The experts agreed that the dysphonia was psychogenic and characterized it as staccato-like speech, effortful phonation, and interrupted flow of speech; six characterized it with intermittent voice arrests (voice stoppages); five with hoarse-harsh voice; and four with waxing and waning, strained-strangled phonation. These are often described as salient features of SD. Nevertheless, the experts disagreed among themselves as to whether the dysphonia was characteristic of SD and should be labeled as such. The author argues that as long as the voice characteristics and pathophysiologic findings that constitute SD are not well delineated, and as long as the diagnosis of SD is based on symptoms alone, patients with psychogenic or poorly understood voice disorders are likely to be misdiagnosed with organic (neurologic) SD and thus subjected to undue medical treatment. The author also argues that the debate over the etiology of SD can be resolved if SD is considered a neurologic syndrome, PSD a nonorganic phonatory disorder that mimics the syndrome, and if the voice symptoms and pathophysiologic characteristics of SD are well defined and agreed on.

  11. Botulinum Toxin in Secondarily Nonresponsive Patients with Spasmodic Dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Mor, Niv; Tang, Christopher; Blitzer, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Chemodenervation with botulinum toxin (BoNT) has been effective and well tolerated for all types of dystonia for >30 years. We reviewed outcomes of our patients treated with BoNT serotype A (BoNT-A) for spasmodic dysphonia (SD) who became secondarily nonresponsive. We found that 8 of 1400 patients became nonresponsive to BoNT-A (0.57%), which is lower than the secondary nonresponse rate in other dystonias. After a cessation period, 4 of our patients resumed BoNT-A injections, and recurrence of immunoresistance was not seen in any of them. When compared with patients with other dystonias, patients with SD receive extremely low doses of BoNT. Small antigen challenge may explain the lower rate of immunoresistance and long-lasting efficacy after BoNT-A is restarted among secondary nonresponsive patients with SD. PMID:27143711

  12. Spasmodic Dysphonia: a Laryngeal Control Disorder Specific to Speech

    PubMed Central

    Ludlow, Christy L.

    2016-01-01

    Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is a rare neurological disorder that emerges in middle age, is usually sporadic, and affects intrinsic laryngeal muscle control only during speech. Spasmodic bursts in particular laryngeal muscles disrupt voluntary control during vowel sounds in adductor SD and interfere with voice onset after voiceless consonants in abductor SD. Little is known about its origins; it is classified as a focal dystonia secondary to an unknown neurobiological mechanism that produces a chronic abnormality of laryngeal motor neuron regulation during speech. It develops primarily in females and does not interfere with breathing, crying, laughter, and shouting. Recent postmortem studies have implicated the accumulation of clusters in the parenchyma and perivascular regions with inflammatory changes in the brainstem in one to two cases. A few cases with single mutations in THAP1, a gene involved in transcription regulation, suggest that a weak genetic predisposition may contribute to mechanisms causing a nonprogressive abnormality in laryngeal motor neuron control for speech but not for vocal emotional expression. Research is needed to address the basic cellular and proteomic mechanisms that produce this disorder to provide intervention that could target the pathogenesis of the disorder rather than only providing temporary symptom relief. PMID:21248101

  13. [Abnormal adductor movement of the vocal cords in spasmodic dysphonia].

    PubMed

    Shibusawa, M

    1993-04-01

    Adductor movement of the vocal cords in initial/ke/phonation was recorded using a laryngeal fiberscope, CCD camera, and videocassette recorder. Three patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (SD), a 53 year old male and 48 and 52 year old females, and 7 normal volunteers participated in this study. During the examination, the subject sat on a chair holding a microphone about 20 cm away from his or her lips. A laryngeal fiberscope was inserted through either side of the nostril. The tip of the fiberscope was positioned just caudal to the tip of the epiglottis to get a complete view of both sides of the vocal cords. The examiner told the subject to make the speech sound/ke/repeatedly, and to insert a sufficient inspiratory period between each phonation. The vocal cord images were recorded at 30 frames per second and printed successively from several frames ahead of the beginning of adductor movement to the frame of initial adjustment of the membranous part of the vocal cords following a time code indicator. The tips of both sides of the vocal processes and anterior commissure were marked, then, scanned and transported to a personal computer. An imaginary line connecting the vocal process and anterior commissure was drawn on the screen of the computer, which was done on both sides of the vocal cords. Then, an angle made by the two lines was measured in degrees and stored. The time and speed of adductor movement varied among subjects. Normal subjects, however, never failed to finish making the explosive sound in /ke/ before initial vocal cord adjustment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Acoustic Variations in Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia as a Function of Speech Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapienza, Christine M.; Walton, Suzanne; Murry, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Acoustic phonatory events were identified in 14 women diagnosed with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD), a focal laryngeal dystonia that disturbs phonatory function, and compared with those of 14 age-matched women with no vocal dysfunction. Findings indicated ADSD subjects produced more aberrant acoustic events than controls during tasks of…

  15. Vocal aging and adductor spasmodic dysphonia: Response to botulinum toxin injection

    PubMed Central

    Cannito, Michael P; Kahane, Joel C; Chorna, Lesya

    2008-01-01

    Aging of the larynx is characterized by involutional changes which alter its biomechanical and neural properties and create a biological environment that is different from younger counterparts. Illustrative anatomical examples are presented. This natural, non-disease process appears to set conditions which may influence the effectiveness of botulinum toxin injection and our expectations for its success. Adductor spasmodic dysphonia, a type of laryngeal dystonia, is typically treated using botulinum toxin injections of the vocal folds in order to suppress adductory muscle spasms which are disruptive to production of speech and voice. A few studies have suggested diminished response to treatment in older patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia. This retrospective study provides a reanalysis of existing pre-to-post treatment data as function of age. Perceptual judgments of speech produced by 42 patients with ADSD were made by two panels of professional listeners with expertise in voice or fluency of speech. Results demonstrate a markedly reduced positive response to botulinum toxin treatment in the older patients. Perceptual findings are further elucidated by means of acoustic spectrography. Literature on vocal aging is reviewed to provide a specific set of biological mechanisms that best account for the observed interaction of botulinum toxin treatment with advancing age. PMID:18488884

  16. The Consequences of Spasmodic Dysphonia on Communication-Related Quality of Life: A Qualitative Study of the Insider's Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylor, C.R.; Yorkston, K.M.; Eadie, T.L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the biopsychosocial consequences of spasmodic dysphonia (SD) as experienced by people with SD. Qualitative research methods were used to investigate the insider's perspective of living with SD. Six adults with SD participated in face-to-face phenomenological interviews. The results are summarized in a model…

  17. Cortical dysfunction of the supplementary motor area in a spasmodic dysphonia patient.

    PubMed

    Hirano, S; Kojima, H; Naito, Y; Tateya, I; Shoji, K; Kaneko, K; Inoue, M; Nishizawa, S; Konishi, J

    2001-01-01

    The etiology of spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is still unknown. In the present study, cortical function of a 59-year-old male patient with adductor type SD was examined during phonation with positron emission tomography (PET). Magnetic resonance imaging showed no organic abnormality in the brain. However, PET showed remarkable activities during phonation in the left motor cortex, Broca's area, the cerebellum, and the auditory cortices, whereas the supplementary motor area (SMA) was not activated. The SMA is known to function for motor planning and programming and is usually activated in normal phonation. Several previous reports have shown that the damage of the SMA caused a severe disturbance of voluntary vocalization. In the present case, it was suggested that the functional deficit of the SMA might be related to SD.

  18. Historical approaches to the treatment of Adductor-Type Spasmodic Dysphonia (ADSD): review and tutorial.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Erin J; Sapienza, Christine M

    2003-01-01

    Adductor-type spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) is a voice disorder of uncertain, though likely neurogenic origin. Symptoms of the disorder include mild to profound "strain and strangle" sensations during voiced speech tasks that, in the most severe form, are physically and psychologically debilitating. Over the years, treatment approaches have evolved from behavioral attempts at voice modification, to surgical and, most recently, pharmacological treatments involving partial and temporary paralysis of muscle fibers within the larynx following injection of botulinum toxin or Botox. The most current research hints at the potential benefits of a multi-faceted approach to symptom management, combining behavioral with pharmacological treatments. The following is intended as a review and tutorial of treatment approaches for ADSD. The tutorial is intended for practicing clinical professionals with an interest in the treatment of neurogenic disorders of voice and speech.

  19. Vocal outcome after endoscopic thyroarytenoid myoneurectomy in patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Sachin; Remacle, Marc; Mishra, Prasun; Desai, Vrushali

    2014-12-01

    Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) remains one of the most difficult of laryngeal pathologies to treat. With limited role for speech therapy, various surgical modalities have been tried with various success rates. The objective of the study is to report the results of vocal outcome after thyroarytenoid myoneurectomy in patients of adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ASD). 15 patients of ASD were selected. GRBAS, and voice handicap index (VHI) were used for perceptual evaluation of voice. Thyroarytenoid myoneurectomy was performed by vaporizing the muscular layer of the vocal fold with CO2 laser, at an intensity of 6 W with 1.2 mm diameter in scanner mode. Voice analysis was repeated at 12, 24 and 48 months follow-up. Preoperative GRBAS scores and VHI score of all the patients were poor. At 12 months 12/15 (80 %) patients having strain score of 0. There was marked improvement in VHI scores at 6 months. 10/15 (67 %) patients have been followed up for 24 months. 5/10 (50 %) patients have strain (S) value of 0. VHI scoring of 5/10 (50 %) patients was <30. Two of the four patients completed 48 months follow-up had a strain (S) value of 0, one patient has strain value of 1 and one patient had strain value of 2. 2/4 patients had VHI score of <30; one patient had that of 40. Trans-oral CO2 laser thyroarytenoid myoneurectomy shows significant long-term improvement in voice quality in terms of reduced speech brakes, effort and strain in voice.

  20. Spasmodic Dysphonia

    MedlinePlus

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  1. Everyday listeners' impressions of speech produced by individuals with adductor spasmodic dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Nagle, Kathleen F; Eadie, Tanya L; Yorkston, Kathryn M

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) have reported that unfamiliar communication partners appear to judge them as sneaky, nervous or not intelligent, apparently based on the quality of their speech; however, there is minimal research into the actual everyday perspective of listening to ADSD speech. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impressions of listeners hearing ADSD speech for the first time using a mixed-methods design. Everyday listeners were interviewed following sessions in which they made ratings of ADSD speech. A semi-structured interview approach was used and data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Three major themes emerged: (1) everyday listeners make judgments about speakers with ADSD; (2) ADSD speech does not sound normal to everyday listeners; and (3) rating overall severity is difficult for everyday listeners. Participants described ADSD speech similarly to existing literature; however, some listeners inaccurately extrapolated speaker attributes based solely on speech samples. Listeners may draw erroneous conclusions about individuals with ADSD and these biases may affect the communicative success of these individuals. Results have implications for counseling individuals with ADSD, as well as the need for education and awareness about ADSD.

  2. Abnormal motor cortex excitability during linguistic tasks in adductor-type spasmodic dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Suppa, A; Marsili, L; Giovannelli, F; Di Stasio, F; Rocchi, L; Upadhyay, N; Ruoppolo, G; Cincotta, M; Berardelli, A

    2015-08-01

    In healthy subjects (HS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) applied during 'linguistic' tasks discloses excitability changes in the dominant hemisphere primary motor cortex (M1). We investigated 'linguistic' task-related cortical excitability modulation in patients with adductor-type spasmodic dysphonia (ASD), a speech-related focal dystonia. We studied 10 ASD patients and 10 HS. Speech examination included voice cepstral analysis. We investigated the dominant/non-dominant M1 excitability at baseline, during 'linguistic' (reading aloud/silent reading/producing simple phonation) and 'non-linguistic' tasks (looking at non-letter strings/producing oral movements). Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the contralateral hand muscles. We measured the cortical silent period (CSP) length and tested MEPs in HS and patients performing the 'linguistic' tasks with different voice intensities. We also examined MEPs in HS and ASD during hand-related 'action-verb' observation. Patients were studied under and not-under botulinum neurotoxin-type A (BoNT-A). In HS, TMS over the dominant M1 elicited larger MEPs during 'reading aloud' than during the other 'linguistic'/'non-linguistic' tasks. Conversely, in ASD, TMS over the dominant M1 elicited increased-amplitude MEPs during 'reading aloud' and 'syllabic phonation' tasks. CSP length was shorter in ASD than in HS and remained unchanged in both groups performing 'linguistic'/'non-linguistic' tasks. In HS and ASD, 'linguistic' task-related excitability changes were present regardless of the different voice intensities. During hand-related 'action-verb' observation, MEPs decreased in HS, whereas in ASD they increased. In ASD, BoNT-A improved speech, as demonstrated by cepstral analysis and restored the TMS abnormalities. ASD reflects dominant hemisphere excitability changes related to 'linguistic' tasks; BoNT-A returns these excitability changes to normal.

  3. Treatment Efficacy of Electromyography versus Fiberscopy-Guided Botulinum Toxin Injection in Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia Patients: A Prospective Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Wook; Park, Jae Hong; Park, Ki Nam; Lee, Seung Won

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. This study prospectively evaluates and compares the treatment efficacy of botulinum toxin injection under electromyography guidance (EMG group) and percutaneous botulinum toxin injection under flexible fiberscopic guidance (fiberscopy group). Methods. Thirty patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD), who had never received treatment, were randomly allocated into EMG- or fiberscopy-guided botulinum toxin injections between March 2008 and February 2010. We assessed acoustic and aerodynamic voice parameters, and the voice handicap index (VHI) before injection and at 1, 3, and 6 months after injection. Results. The mean total dosage of botulinum toxin was similar for both groups: 1.7 ± 0.5 U for the EMG group and 1.8 ± 0.4 U for the fiberscopy group (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences in outcomes between the two groups in either the duration of effectiveness or complications such as breathy voice and aspiration. Conclusion. Botulinum toxin injection under fiberscopic guidance is a viable alternative to EMG-guided botulinum toxin injection for the treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia when EMG equipment is unavailable. PMID:25383369

  4. Alterations in CNS Activity Induced by Botulinum Toxin Treatment in Spasmodic Dysphonia: An H[subscript 2][superscript 15]O PET Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, S. Omar; Thomassen, Michael; Schulz, Geralyn M.; Hosey, Lara A.; Varga, Mary; Ludlow, Christy L.; Braun, Allen R.

    2006-01-01

    Speech-related changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were measured using H[subscript 2][superscript 15]O positron-emission tomography in 9 adults with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) before and after botulinum toxin (BTX) injection and 10 age- and gender-matched volunteers without neurological disorders. Scans were acquired at rest…

  5. The relationship between cepstral peak prominence and selected parameters of dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Heman-Ackah, Yolanda D; Michael, Deirdre D; Goding, George S

    2002-03-01

    Traditional measures of dysphonia vary in their reliability and in their correlations with perceptions of grade. Measurements of cepstral peak prominence (CPP) have been shown to correlate well with perceptions of breathiness. Because it is a measure of periodicity, CPP should also predict roughness. The ability of CPP and other acoustic measures to predict overall dysphonia and the subcategories of breathiness and roughness in pathological voice samples is explored. Preoperative and postoperative speech samples from 19 patients with unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis who underwent operative intervention were analyzed by trained listeners and by measures of smoothed CPP (CPPS), noise-to-harmonic ratio (NHR), amplitude perturbation quotient (APQ), relative average perturbation (RAP), and smoothed pitch perturbation quotient (sPPQ). The data were analyzed with bivariate Pearson correlation statistics. Grade of dysphonia and breathiness ratings correlated better with measurements of CPPS than with the other measures. CPPS from samples of connected speech (CPPS-s) best predicted overall dysphonia. None of the measures were useful in predicting roughness.

  6. National Spasmodic Torticollis Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... alone anymore. Welcome to National Spasmodic Torticollis Association web site The mission of the National Spasmodic Torticollis ... Signs and Symptoms Treatment Options Medications Botulinum Toxin Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Selective Denervation Surgery Physical Therapy ...

  7. Spasmodic Torticollis: Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... Join NSTA Today! NSTA Support Groups NSTA Message Forum Spasmodic Torticollis What is Spasmodic Torticollis Signs and ... Patient Support Photo Galleries Contact NSTA NSTA Message Forum Search Internet and Help NSTA Support the NSTA ...

  8. [Dysphonia in children].

    PubMed

    Nicollas, R; Giovanni, A; Triglia, J-M

    2008-06-01

    Dysphonia is a frequent reason for consultation in children. Most of the time, this presentation is the consequence of a vocal abuse, however, the physician has to be aware that an organic lesion, such as laryngeal papillomatosis can exist and so perform a flexible laryngoscopy. In case of laryngeal papillomatosis, surgery and several medical treatments will be proposed for a long time. In other cases, speech therapy, sometimes associated with surgery, will be performed.

  9. Dysphonia risk screening protocol

    PubMed Central

    Nemr, Katia; Simões-Zenari, Marcia; da Trindade Duarte, João Marcos; Lobrigate, Karen Elena; Bagatini, Flavia Alves

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To propose and test the applicability of a dysphonia risk screening protocol with score calculation in individuals with and without dysphonia. METHOD: This descriptive cross-sectional study included 365 individuals (41 children, 142 adult women, 91 adult men and 91 seniors) divided into a dysphonic group and a non-dysphonic group. The protocol consisted of 18 questions and a score was calculated using a 10-cm visual analog scale. The measured value on the visual analog scale was added to the overall score, along with other partial scores. Speech samples allowed for analysis/assessment of the overall degree of vocal deviation and initial definition of the respective groups and after six months, the separation of the groups was confirmed using an acoustic analysis. RESULTS: The mean total scores were different between the groups in all samples. Values ranged between 37.0 and 57.85 in the dysphonic group and between 12.95 and 19.28 in the non-dysphonic group, with overall means of 46.09 and 15.55, respectively. High sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated when discriminating between the groups with the following cut-off points: 22.50 (children), 29.25 (adult women), 22.75 (adult men), and 27.10 (seniors). CONCLUSION: The protocol demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating groups of individuals with and without dysphonia in different sample groups and is thus an effective instrument for use in voice clinics. PMID:27074171

  10. [Classification of dysphonia. Vocal dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Crevier-Buchman, L; Monfrais-Pfauwadel, M C; Laccourreye, O; Menard, M; Brasnu, D

    1993-01-01

    A review of functional dysphonia is presented, pointing out the frequent association with organic dysphonia as a releasing or an aggravating factor. Each pathology is described with its psychopathological and histological features, its clinical and psychophysiological symptoms and its treatment, most of the time based on voice therapy.

  11. Spasmodic torticollis: a behavioral perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, P.R.

    1982-06-01

    The literature on spasmodic torticollis is critically reviewed. The currently most popular etiological hypothesis characterizes torticollis as an extrapyramidal disorder, the symptoms of which are aggravated by stress, but there is no unequivocal evidence available to support this view. Psychological mechanisms have been suggested but not elaborated or tested in any detail. A wide range of treatments has been advocated but controlled studies have not been reported, and the problems of assessing outcome have never been tackled adequately. Behavioral treatments have been evaluated more rigorously than other approaches (particularly EMG feedback training), and the literature suggests that they benefit some patients. It is argued that psychologists have the potential for making a very significant contribution to the understanding and management of torticollis. In discussing outcome measures, the more promising techniques that have been used are summarized and a list is presented of the factors which must be considered when assessing torticollis symptoms. Directions for future research are outlined and priorities suggested.

  12. Clinical evaluation of functional dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Monday, L A

    1983-10-01

    Functional dysphonia is a voice impairment without any organic lesion of the phonating system. It may be classified into two categories: functional dysphonia itself where no lesions are found and functional laryngopathies where vocal cord lesions may be attributed to vocal abuse or misuse. The clinical evaluation of a dysphonic patient is performed in three steps: history taking, vocal evaluation, and examination. History taking helps the diagnosis and may be considered also as a therapeutic procedure. Vocal evaluation is oriented toward the voice itself and how it is produced. Then an ENT examination is performed with special attention to the larynx. In functional dysphonia, usually, everything looks normal but there may be signs of inflammation, hyperkinetism, hypokinetism, excessive laryngeal movements, etc. Functional laryngopathies include vocal nodules, laryngitis, polyps, and contact ulcer.

  13. Developing the Communicative Participation Item Bank: Rasch Analysis Results from a Spasmodic Dysphonia Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylor, Carolyn R.; Yorkston, Kathryn M.; Eadie, Tanya L.; Miller, Robert M.; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to conduct the initial psychometric analyses of the Communicative Participation Item Bank--a new self-report instrument designed to measure the extent to which communication disorders interfere with communicative participation. This item bank is intended for community-dwelling adults across a range of…

  14. [Dysphonia in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Fuchs, M; Meuret, S; Stuhrmann, N C; Schade, G

    2009-06-01

    Hoarseness is the leading symptom of dysphonia among children and adolescents. The incidence is evaluated internationally to be 6-25%. In an overview the hereditary and acquired organic and functional causes including secondary organic lesions of the vocal folds, the pathomechanisms and the symptoms typical for this age group are presented. In clinical routine, symptoms of dysphonia in children and adolescents should be consciously looked for and any long-term hoarseness should be examined by specialized physicians, even in this age group, using methods suitable to the age group and the developmental stage. When the appropriate indications are present all therapeutic options currently available should be taken into consideration. Furthermore, this paper provides information for the parents concerning the imminent phoniatric examination.

  15. [Clinical features of spastic dysphonia].

    PubMed

    Vasilenko, Iu S; Golubev, V L; Debrianskaia, M B

    1995-01-01

    Clinical, neurological, endoscopic, psychological findings, questionnaire data on vegetative sphere, diaphragm x-ray, articulation test and Viene test system evidence obtained on 25 patients with phonic spasm confirm organic neurological nature of spastic dysphonia as focal muscular dystonia. This condition can be accompanied with tremor, rotatory, winking and writers' spasms, oromandibular dystonia. As indicated by positive treatment outcomes, combined treatment of phonic spasm with GABA-ergic drugs of clonazepam (antelepsin) and baclofen, orthophonic voice correction, physiotherapy is pathogenetically justified.

  16. Prominence Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Holly; Kucera, Terry; Kawashima, Rei; DeVore, C.; Karpen, Judy; Antiochos, Spiro

    2011-01-01

    Fine structure prominence dynamics are visible in the majority of high-spatial resolution data from Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT). We present the results of a study investigating the nature of these horizontal and vertical flows and discuss them in the context of ion-neutral coupling in a partially ionized prominence plasma. We also discuss how models can help in the interpretation of these observations.

  17. Vocal dose in teachers: correlation with dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Gama, Ana Cristina Côrtes; Santos, Juliana Nunes; Pedra, Elisângela de Fátima Pereira; Rabelo, Alessandra Terra Vasconcelos; Magalhães, Max de Castro; Casas, Estevam Barbosa de Las

    2016-04-01

    Teachers are professionals with high prevalence of dysphonia, whose main risk factors are the large work hours in classrooms with the presence of background noise. The purpose of the study was to calculate the phonation time and the cycle dose of teachers with dysphonia and teachers without voice disorders during the class. There were two groups analyzed: five teachers with functional dysphonia were the first group and five teachers without voice disorders were the second group. For the data was used the VoxLog® dosimeter and the parameters were: intensity; fundamental frequency; phonation time and cycle dose. The statistical analysis used ANOVA, Student's T-test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. Dysphonic teachers showed major values of phonation time and cycle dose compared with teachers without voice disorders. The dysphonia is related to extended period of speech time and greater exposure of the tissue of the vocal fold to phonotrauma. PMID:27191884

  18. Section four: laryngitis and dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Hueston, William J; Kaur, Dipinpreet

    2013-12-01

    Acute laryngitis is most often caused by viral illnesses through direct inflammation of the vocal cords or from irritation due to postnasal drainage. Bacterial infections, such as acute epiglottitis, also can cause dysphonia but typically have other systemic symptoms as well as respiratory distress. Chronic laryngitis is characterized by symptoms lasting more than 3 weeks. Chronic vocal cord issues can be related to overuse or stress on the vocal cords resulting in nodules or polyps. Individuals in certain occupations, such as singers, school teachers, and chemical workers, are at greater risk of chronic laryngitis. The diagnostic approach to chronic laryngitis should include visualization of the vocal cords to rule out potential malignant lesions. For acute and chronic overuse symptoms, the best treatment is vocal rest. The use of antibiotics or decongestants should be discouraged.

  19. [How to render an expert opinion on dysphonia].

    PubMed

    Nawka, T; Rosanowski, F; Gross, M

    2014-09-01

    In Germany, parameters for medicolegal evaluation of dysphonia have to be revised against the background of communication disorders getting more important in a modern communication society. In this work, up-to-date diagnostic tools are reviewed and evaluated for medicolegal purposes. Parametrization is -performed according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health ICF. Following this schema, -dysphonia is graded as follows: 1) No dysphonia (no problem, percentile 0-4) impairment of the whole person 0%, 2) Slight, strain-induced dysphonia (slight problem, percentile 5-24) -impairment of the whole person 0-10%, 3) Moderate dysphonia (moderate problem, percentile 25-49) impairment of the whole person 20-30%, 4) Severe dysphonia (severe problem, percentile 50-95) impairment of the whole person 40-50%, 5) Complete loss of voice (extreme problem, percentile 96-100%) impairment of the whole person 50%.

  20. Recurrent laryngeal nerve histopathology in spastic dysphonia: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Dedo, H H; Izdebski, K; Townsend, J J

    1977-01-01

    Spastic dysphonia is a severe voice disorder ordinarily described as psychogenic. Organic-neurologic changes secondary to central or peripheral nervous system involvement have also been postulated and led recently to the surgical treatment of spastic dysphonia by unilateral section of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN). This study reports the histologic findings from these resections of the RLN from patients with an average 9.5 years duration of spastic dysphonia. Thirty percent of the RLNs examined demonstrated significant abnormalities as compared to age-matched controls. Although no reactive changes were noted by light microscopy, groups of fibers which did not stain for myelin or axons were found in RLNs from patients with spastic dysphonia. A preliminary ultrastructural study of these areas in one RLN revealed sheets of unmyelinated axons. These findings suggest an organic basis for spastic dysphonia at least in some patients.

  1. Coronal and Prominence Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poland, Arthur I. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Various aspects of solar prominences and the solar corona are discussed. The formation of prominences, prominence diagnostics and structure, prominence dissappearance, large scale coronal structure, coronal diagnostics, small scale coronal structure, and non-equilibrium/coronal heating are among the topics covered.

  2. Current evidence for the organic etiology of spastic dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Dedo, H H; Townsend, J J; Izdebski, K

    1978-01-01

    For over 100 years it has been universally assumed in the literature that spastic dysphonia is a functional or psychoneurotic voice disorder. In the last few years, new data have accumulated that support the concept that spastic dysphonia is caused by an organic, rather than a functional, abnormality. Histologic examination of segments of the recurrent laryngeal nerve removed from patients with spastic dysphonia has revealed myelin abnormalities in 30% of the nerves examined. Neurologic examination indicated brain stem or basal ganglia disturbances in some patients who had no apparent nerve disease.

  3. Factors Associated with Dysphonia in High School Cheerleaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Shari L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Questionnaire responses from 146 high school cheerleaders indicated that acute, cheering-related dysphonia may be preceded or accompanied by a set of clinical signs that could be incorporated easily into a screening protocol for prospective cheerleaders. (Author/DB)

  4. Defining the psychiatric role in spastic dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Ginsberg, B I; Wallack, J J; Srain, J J; Biller, H F

    1988-03-01

    The authors evaluated 11 surgically-treated patients with spastic dysphonia, a phonation disorder of unclear etiology. The results indicate that the illness does not appear to be a somatoform disorder, but that stress may play a role in its expression, and that there may be secondary depression and anxiety. The experience of spastic dysphonics suggests that psychiatric treatments may be inappropriately applied to an illness without clear organic etiology, whereas, conversely, a proper psychiatric role may be rejected when effective medical or surgical treatment is available. The authors recommend that psychiatrists evaluating patients with illnesses of unclear etiology should be cautious in making a primary psychiatric diagnosis unless DSM-III criteria are met.

  5. Prominence formation and oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, P. F.

    Prominences, or filaments, are a striking phenomenon in the solar atmosphere. Besides their own rich features and dynamics, they are related to many other activities, such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). In the past several years we have been investigating the prominence formation, oscillations, and eruptions through both data analysis and radiative hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. This paper reviews our progress on these topics, which includes: (1) With updated radiative cooling function, the coronal condensation becomes a little faster than previous work; (2) Once a seed condensation is formed, it can grow via siphon flow spontaneously even if the evaporation stops; (3) A scaling law was obtained to relate the length of the prominence thread to various parameters, indicating that higher prominences tend to have shorter threads, which is consistent with the fact that threads are long in active region prominences and short in quiescent prominences; (4) It was proposed that long-time prominence oscillations out of phase might serve as a precursor for prominence eruptions and CMEs; (5) An ensemble of oscillating prominence threads may explain the counter-streaming motion.

  6. Arching Solar Prominence

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA’s STEREO (Ahead) spacecraft watched as an eruptive prominence rose up and arched out in a horseshoe shape far above the Sun’s surface (Aug. 25, 2010). The image and movie show the action in a...

  7. First Light Prominence

    NASA Video Gallery

    Soon after the instruments opened their doors, the Sun began performing for SDO with this beautiful prominence eruption. This AIA data is from March 30, 2010, showing a wavelength band that is cent...

  8. [Diagnosis of non-organic dysphonia in adult].

    PubMed

    Crevier-Buchman, L; Tessier, Ch; Sauvignet, A; Brihaye-Arpin, S; Monfrais-Pfauwadel, M-Cl

    2005-01-01

    Non organic dysphonia or functional voice disorders are the consequence of a vocal misuse or overuse with inefficient oral communication. Any stage of voice production can be altered. A review of physiopathological, aerodynamic and biomechanical mechanisms will help to understand the onset of dysphonia. Organic lesions as a consequence of functional voice disorders are frequent but the link is not easy to establish. It is important to look for various physiologic, anatomic, environmental, behavioural and infectious factors that could induce or aggravate non organic dysphonia, as they can benefit from specific treatment. A thorough functional and organic assessment is the first step of the rehabilitation process, taking into account the patient's expectations about his voice handicap.

  9. [Functional dysphonia: relation with personality and ICD-10 criteria].

    PubMed

    Carvajal, C; Sanfuentes, M T; Eva, P; Jara, C; Lolas Stepke, F

    1992-03-01

    The International Classification of Diseases, 10th. revision (ICD-10) in the category F45 defines the somatoform disorder as a mental disease characterized by the reiterative presentation of somatic symptoms in absence of an organic disease, or the somatic pathology being insufficient to explain the intensity of the symptoms as well as the discomfort and preoccupation of the patient. Fifteen female teachers with functional dysphonia were studied by means of a semistructured interview and psychometric evaluations. Considering dysphonia as the principal symptom, the most frequent diagnosis, in accordance with ICD-10 was "Other somatoform disorder" (F-45.8)(9/15). Five patients were diagnosed as motor dissociative disorder (F-44.4). All the patients had some abnormality of personality (5 with personality disorder and 10 with exacerbation of personality traits). The criteria of ICD-10 to classify the functional dysphonia as Somatoform disorder are discussed. It is suggested that certain personality traits are facilitators for somatization.

  10. Functional dysphonia: strategies to improve patient outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Behlau, Mara; Madazio, Glaucya; Oliveira, Gisele

    2015-01-01

    Functional dysphonia (FD) refers to a voice problem in the absence of a physical condition. It is a multifaceted voice disorder. There is no consensus with regard to its definition and inclusion criteria for diagnosis. FD has many predisposing and precipitating factors, which may include genetic susceptibility, psychological traits, and the vocal behavior itself. The assessment of voice disorders should be multidimensional. In addition to the clinical examination, auditory-perceptual, acoustic, and self-assessment analyses are very important. Self-assessment was introduced in the field of voice 25 years ago and has produced a major impact in the clinical and scientific scenario. The choice of treatment for FD is vocal rehabilitation by means of direct therapy; however, compliance has been an issue, except for cases of functional aphonia or when an intensive training is administered. Nevertheless, there are currently no controlled studies that have explored the different options of treatment regimens for these patients. Strategies to improve patient outcome involve proper multidisciplinary diagnosis in order to exclude neurological and psychiatric disorders, careful voice documentation with quantitative measurement and qualitative description of the vocal deviation for comparison after treatment, acoustic evaluation to gather data on the mechanism involved in voice production, self-assessment questionnaires to map the impact of the voice problem on the basis of the patient’s perspective, referral to psychological evaluation in cases of suspected clinical anxiety and/or depression, identification of dysfunctional coping strategies, self-regulation data to assist patients with their vocal load, and direct and intensive vocal rehabilitation to reduce psychological resistance and to reassure patient’s recovery. An international multicentric effort, involving a large population of voice-disordered patients with no physical pathology, could produce enough data for

  11. Comprehensive Management of Psychogenic Dysphonia: A Case Illustration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sudhir, Paulomi M.; Chandra, Prabha S.; Shivashankar, N.; Yamini, B. K.

    2009-01-01

    Psychogenic dysphonia refers to the loss of voice, in the absence of apparent structural or neurological pathology. It is a disorder seen more often in women and is usually associated with significant life events and emotional difficulties that may lead to conflict over speaking. Therapeutic interventions in voice disorders recommend the adoption…

  12. Psychosocial Aspects of Adolescent Dysphonia: An Approach to Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beery, Quinter C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to voice therapy with adolescents, emphasizing the importance of psychosocial and family influences as they relate to vocal behavior. The goals of therapy for the adolescent with dysphonia usually follow an orderly sequence, first dealing with individual behavior and later with family and peer group influences. (JDD)

  13. Dysphonia Detected by Pattern Recognition of Spectral Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leinonen, Lea; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study analyzed production of a long vowel sound within Finnish words by normal or dysphonic voices, using the Self-Organizing Map, the artificial neural network algorithm of T. Kohonen which produces two-dimensional representations of speech. The method was found to be both sensitive and specific in the detection of dysphonia. (Author/JDD)

  14. Exploring Genetic and Environmental Effects in Dysphonia: A Twin Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simberg, Susanna; Santtila, Pekka; Soveri, Anna; Varjonen, Markus; Sala, Eeva; Sandnabba, N. Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the existence of genetic effects as well as the interaction between potential genetic effects and a voice-demanding occupation on dysphonia. Method: One thousand seven hundred and twenty-eight Finnish twins (555 male; 1,173 female) born between 1961 and 1989 completed a questionnaire concerning vocal symptoms and occupation.…

  15. Aerodynamic Profiles of Women with Muscle Tension Dysphonia/Aphonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Amanda I.; Gartner-Schmidt, Jackie; Rubinstein, Elaine N.; Abbott, Katherine Verdolini

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to (a) determine whether phonatory airflows and estimated subglottal pressures (est-P[subscript sub]) for women with primary muscle tension dysphonia/aphonia (MTD/A) differ from those for healthy speakers; (b) identify different aerodynamic profile patterns within the MTD/A subject group; and (c) determine…

  16. Prominence Formation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsch, B. T.; DeVore, C. R.; Antiochos, S. K.

    2005-01-01

    Martens and Zwaan (ApJ v. 558 872) have proposed a prominence/ filament formation model in which differential rotation drives reconnection between two initially unconnected active regions to form helical field lines that support mass and are held down by overlying field. Using an MHD solver with adaptive refinement we simulated this process by imposing a shear flow meant to mimic differential rotation on two bipolar flux distributions meant to mimic distinct active regions. In some runs the flux systems are initially potential while in others they have been twisted by footpoint rotation to inject helicity prior to imposing the shear flow. The resulting structures are studied to understand the role of helicity in the formation of prominence-like structures.

  17. Solar Prominence Eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.

    1998-01-01

    The prominence that erupts in a prominence eruption is a magnetic structure in the chromosphere and corona. It is visible in chromospheric images by virtue of chromospheric-temperature plasma suspended in the magnetic field, and belongs to that large class of magnetic structures appropriately called filaments because of their characteristic sinewy sigmoidal form. Hence, the term "filament eruption" is used interchangeably with the term "prominence eruption". The magnetic field holding a filament is prone to undergo explosive changes in configuration. In these upheavals, because the filament material is compelled by its high conductivity to ride with the magnetic field that threads it, this material is a visible tracer of the field motion. The part of the magnetic explosion displayed by the entrained filament material is the phenomenon known as a filament eruption, the topic of this article. This article begins with a description of basic observed characteristics of filament eruptions, with attention to the magnetic fields, flares, and coronal mass ejections in which erupting filaments are embedded. The present understanding of these characteristics in terms of the form and action of the magnetic field is then laid out by means of a rudimentary three-dimensional model of the field. The article ends with basic questions that this picture leaves unresolved and with remarks on the observations needed to probe these questions.

  18. [Dysphonia in children due to congenital laryngeal web. Case series].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Hugo; Cuestas, Giselle; Zanetta, Adrián

    2013-01-01

    Dysphonia is common in children. Its main cause is the abuse or misuse of the voice. Congenital, neoplastic, infectious, neurological or iatrogenic causes are less frequent. The laryngeal web is a rare congenital anomaly resulting from an incomplete recanalization of the primitive larynx. This condition should be suspected in any newborn with dysphonic cry with or without stridor and respiratory distress. The diagnosis is confirmed by endoscopic examination. Therapy depends on the extent and thickness of the membrane and the severity of the symptoms. We describe our experience with 8 patients suffering this condition, and we emphasize the need to recognize voice disorders and to evaluate the airway for accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment in every newborn, infant or child with persistent dysphonia.

  19. [Dysphonia and cacosmia in a worker in sterilized rooms].

    PubMed

    Magnavita, N; Bordignon, P; Ciaffi, G; Ferraro, P; Vincenti, F

    2007-01-01

    A 39 year male pharmaceutical worker employed in a clean-room developed in 2003 acute dysphonia after environmental disinfection with glutaric aldehyde and isopropyl alcohol. Laryngoscopic examination showed glottis edema; the syndrome healed after a cycle of cortisone. In subsequent years, withdrawal from exposure to irritating chemicals was observed. The worker, however, complained for recurrent episodes of dysphonia, in the absence of abnormalities of the larynx, and gradually developed intolerance for perfume, solvents, and other smelling substances. He came to our observation in 2007, showing strong conviction that occupational exposure had a causative effect in his complaints. He was working in an office open to public, and fragrance exposure appeared to be the main cause of dysphonic episodes. We rejected the hypothesis of association between complaint and job exposure, and advised him to work in a well defined working situation, such as in a clean room, where chemical contamination may be effectively controlled over time.

  20. [Dysphonia in children due to congenital laryngeal web. Case series].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Hugo; Cuestas, Giselle; Zanetta, Adrián

    2013-01-01

    Dysphonia is common in children. Its main cause is the abuse or misuse of the voice. Congenital, neoplastic, infectious, neurological or iatrogenic causes are less frequent. The laryngeal web is a rare congenital anomaly resulting from an incomplete recanalization of the primitive larynx. This condition should be suspected in any newborn with dysphonic cry with or without stridor and respiratory distress. The diagnosis is confirmed by endoscopic examination. Therapy depends on the extent and thickness of the membrane and the severity of the symptoms. We describe our experience with 8 patients suffering this condition, and we emphasize the need to recognize voice disorders and to evaluate the airway for accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment in every newborn, infant or child with persistent dysphonia. PMID:23912298

  1. [Epidemiological survey of dysphonia in children at primary school entry].

    PubMed

    Lecoq, M; Drape, F

    1996-01-01

    The study of 259 children in primary school revealed a prevalence of dysphonia of 10%, often undiagnosed, untreated or considered as benign. It would seem desirable to draw attention to this symptom, which may be an indication of organic pathology or of psychological problems, the early treatment of which may avoid later sequelae. It is sometimes necessary to allow a period for reflection in order to gain the cooperation of the child and his parents.

  2. Treatment of spastic dysphonia by recurrent laryngeal nerve section.

    PubMed

    Barton, R T

    1979-02-01

    The problem of management of patients with spastic dysphonia has been complicated by a general resistance to speech therapy, psychotherapy, hypnotherapy, and drug therapy. Dedo introduced the concept of recurrent laryngeal nerve section in an attempt to eliminate the hyperfunction and excessive adduction of the vocal folds. Eleven patients were treated by RLN section with satisfactory results in 8 and some improvement in the other 3. The operation was found to be generally uncomplicated and required on average 4 days of hospitalization. Dedo's theory that spastic dysphonia is caused by a neurotropic viral-induced proprioceptive nerve deficit represents a new search for organic cause. His most recent report of finding unmyelinated fibres in one-third of the resected recurrent laryngeal nerves is of questionable significance. The evidence of deep emotional conflict and/or compulsive life-style is found in the majority of the patients, but the syndrome is not typical of an hysterical or conversion neurosis. Regardless of etiologic theory, RLN section is an effective treatment in selected, long-standing, and resistant instances of spastic dysphonia.

  3. Prominent rocks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  4. Solar Prominence - Sept 24, 2013

    NASA Video Gallery

    These movies show the highly dynamic motions in solar prominences. The movie on the right side shows the prominence motions of material at 65,000K. The vertical stripe in the center of the image is...

  5. The Effect of Listener Experience and Anchors on Judgments of Dysphonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eadie, Tanya L.; Kapsner-Smith, Mara

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of auditory anchors on judgments of overall severity (OS) and vocal effort (VE) in dysphonic speech when judgments are made by experienced and inexperienced listeners, and when self-rated by individuals with dysphonia (speaker-listeners). Method: Twenty individuals with dysphonia and 4 normal controls provided…

  6. Dysphonia in nursing home and assisted living residents: prevalence and association with frailty

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Brent; Varadarajan, Varun; Bock, Jonathan M.; Blumin, Joel H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Previous studies of geriatric dysphonia prevalence have been limited to ambulatory outpatient and senior communities. Our goal was to identify prevalence of dysphonia in nursing home residents and assisted living residents and search for correlations between indices of dysphonia and indices of frailty. Study Design Prospective epidemiological survey. Methods Residents of a vertically integrated senior care organization who were 65 or older and able to understand and complete the questionnaire were recruited to complete the Voice Handicap Index 10 (VHI-10) to assess for dysphonia (VHI-10 > 10 = dysphonia) and Vulnerable Elders Survey 13 (VES-13), a validated instrument to assess for frailty (VES >3 = frailty). Results A total of 119 residents were surveyed. Thirty-three percent of nursing home residents, and 25% of assisted living residents reported dysphonia with 29% of all respondents reporting dysphonia. The mean VHI-10 was 7.4, the median was 5, and the interquartile range was 2 – 12.5. There was a significant relationship between VHI-10 and VES-13 score (p = 0.029). There were no statistically significant relationships between frailty, age, or type of living and dysphonia or VHI-10. Conclusion There is a high prevalence of voice dysfunction in assisted living and nursing home residents. The correlation between VHI-10 and VES-13 suggests that voice declines as frailty increases. PMID:25499517

  7. Toward the Development of an Objective Index of Dysphonia Severity: A Four-Factor Acoustic Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awan, Shaheen N.; Roy, Nelson

    2006-01-01

    During assessment and management of individuals with voice disorders, clinicians routinely attempt to describe or quantify the severity of a patient's dysphonia. This investigation used acoustic measures derived from sustained vowel samples to predict dysphonia severity (as determined by auditory-perceptual ratings), for a diverse set of voice…

  8. Idiopathic spasmodic torticollis: a survey of the clinical syndromes and patients' experiences.

    PubMed

    van Herwaarden, G M; Anten, H W; Hoogduin, C A; Niewold, J U; Roos, R A; Speelman, J D; van Weerden, T W; Horstink, M W

    1994-08-01

    We evaluated the medical and psychosocial experiences of 59 patients with idiopathic spasmodic torticollis (ST) by means of a structured questionnaire. The results generally corresponded with those of other studies in the literature. Diagnosis is delayed in many patients, and ST negatively influences the patients' social lives. Because drug treatment and physiotherapy are only of sufficient value in a minority, most patients seek benefit from numerous other therapies, none of which has been shown to improve ST.

  9. [Neuronal mechanisms of motor signal transmission in thalamic Voi nucleus in spasmodic torticollis patients].

    PubMed

    Sedov, A S; Raeva, S N; Pavlenko, V B

    2014-01-01

    Neural mechanisms of motor signal transmission in ventrooral (Voi) nucleus of motor thalamus during the realization-of voluntary and involuntary abnormal (dystonic) movements in patients with spasmodic torticollis were investigated by means of microelectrode technique. The high reactivity of the cellular Voi elements to various functional (mainly motor) tests was proved. Analysis of neuronal activity showed: (1) the difference of neural mechanisms of motor signal transmission in the realization of voluntary movement with and without the involvement of the pathological axial neck muscles, as well as passive and abnormal involuntary dystonic movements; (2) significance of sensory component in the mechanisms of sensorimotor interactions during realization of voluntary and involuntary dystonic head and neck movements, causing the activation of the axial neck muscles; (3) important role of the rhythmic and synchronized neuronal activity in motor signal transmission during the realization of active and passive movements. Participation of Voi nucleus in pathological mechanisms of spasmodic torticollis was shown. The data obtained can be used for identificatiori of Voi thalamic nucleus during stereotactic neurosurgical operations in patients with spasmodic torticollis for selection the optimum destruction (stimulation) target and reduction of postoperative effects.

  10. [Personality and coping with stress in patients with functional dysphonia].

    PubMed

    Freidl, W; Egger, J; Friedrich, G

    1989-08-01

    The study was done to prove the etiopathogenetical power of some personality traits, proceeding life events, and strain effects when exposed to an experimental work-stress. 20 functional dysphonics, 14 individuals suffering from organic voice disorders and a group of 20 control persons were examined. The results show that the group of functional dysphonics produced a significant more positive self-evaluation regarding their personality with a clear tendency to restraint. Compared to the control group they showed a higher level of state anxiety in situations causing stress. Furthermore the influence of proceeding life events for the etiopathogenesis of functional dysphonia has become clear.

  11. Tapeworm infection is a significant risk factor for spasmodic colic and ileal impaction colic in the horse.

    PubMed

    Proudman, C J; French, N P; Trees, A J

    1998-05-01

    The association between the equine intestinal tapeworm Anoplocephala perfoliata and specific types of intestinal disease was investigated by matched case-control study using coprological and serological diagnosis. We have previously shown that the host IgG(T) response to 12/13 kDa antigens of A. perfoliata correlates well with infection intensity, therefore this antibody response was used to investigate the risk of colic at different levels of parasite infection intensity. One hundred and three spasmodic colic cases with an equal number of controls matched for age, breed and gender, and 20 ileal impaction cases each with 2 similarly matched controls were obtained. Cases of spasmodic colic were much more likely (odds ratio = 8.0) to be associated with A. perfoliata infection detected coprologically than controls. Serological diagnosis revealed an increasing risk of spasmodic colic with increasing infection intensity. Calculation of an aetiological fraction suggests that 22% of spasmodic colic cases in this study were tapeworm associated. No significant association was found between colic and strongyle egg count. Conditional logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the relationship between colic and A. perfoliata infection intensity was not confounded by strongyle egg count and there was a linear relationship between infection intensity and the log-odds of spasmodic colic. For cases of ileal impaction, a strong association was found between colic and A. perfoliata as diagnosed by coprological means (odds ratio of 34.0). Serological diagnosis also revealed a strong association that increased with higher levels of infection intensity (odds ratio = 26.0). The aetiological fraction for the ileal impaction data suggests that 81% of the ileal impaction cases in this study were tapeworm associated. This study concludes that A. perfoliata is a significant risk factor for spasmodic colic and ileal impaction colic in the horse; and that the risk of spasmodic colic

  12. Description and Classification of Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engvold, Oddbjørn

    Solar prominences are bright cloud-like structures when observed beyond the solar limb and they appear as dark filamentary objects which are termed filaments when seen against the solar disk. The aims of prominence classifications were from the start to establish references and frameworks for understanding the physical conditions for their formation and development through interplay with the solar magnetic environment. The multi-thermal nature of solar prominences became fully apparent once observations from space in UV, VUV, EUV and X-rays could be made. The cool prominence plasma is thermally shielded from the much hotter corona and supported in the field of gravity by small- and large-scale magnetic fields of the filament channels. High cadence, subarcsecond observing facilities on ground and in space have firmly proven the highly dynamic nature of solar prominences down to the smallest observed structural sizes of 100 km. The origin of the ubiquitous oscillations and flowing of the plasma over a variety of spatial and temporal scales, whether the cool dense plasma originates from below via levitation, injections by reconnection or results from condensation processes, are central issues in prominence research today. The unveiling of instabilities leading to prominences eruptions and Coronal Mass Ejections is another important challenge. The objective of this chapter is to review the main characteristics of various types of prominences and their associated magnetic environments, which will all be addressed in details in the following chapters of this book.

  13. Recent progress in prominence seismology.

    PubMed

    Ballester, José Luis

    2006-02-15

    Prominence seismology is a rapidly developing topic which seeks to infer the internal structure and properties of solar prominences from the study of their oscillations. An extense observational background about oscillations in quiescent solar prominences has been gathered during the last 70 years. These observations point out the existence of two different types of oscillations: flare-induced oscillations (winking filaments) which affect the whole prominence and are of large amplitude and small amplitude oscillations which seem to be of local nature. From the theoretical point of view, few models have been set up to explain the phenomenon of winking filaments while, on the contrary, for small amplitude oscillations a large number of models trying to explain the observed features have been proposed. Here, recent theoretical and observational developments on both types of oscillations are reviewed, and suggestions about future research topics which should provide us with a more in-depth knowledge of solar prominences are made.

  14. Suitability of dysphonia measurements for telemonitoring of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Little, Max A.; McSharry, Patrick E.; Hunter, Eric J.; Spielman, Jennifer; Ramig, Lorraine O.

    2009-01-01

    We present an assessment of the practical value of existing traditional and non-standard measures for discriminating healthy people from people with Parkinson's disease (PD) by detecting dysphonia. We introduce a new measure of dysphonia, Pitch Period Entropy (PPE), which is robust to many uncontrollable confounding effects including noisy acoustic environments and normal, healthy variations in voice frequency. We collected sustained phonations from 31 people, 23 with PD. We then selected 10 highly uncorrelated measures, and an exhaustive search of all possible combinations of these measures finds four that in combination lead to overall correct classification performance of 91.4%, using a kernel support vector machine. In conclusion, we find that non-standard methods in combination with traditional harmonics-to-noise ratios are best able to separate healthy from PD subjects. The selected non-standard methods are robust to many uncontrollable variations in acoustic environment and individual subjects, and are thus well-suited to telemonitoring applications. PMID:21399744

  15. Magnetic fields in quiescent prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Ballegooijen, A. A.; Martens, P. C. H.

    1990-01-01

    The origin of the axial fields in high-latitude quiescent prominences is considered. The fact that almost all quiescent prominences obey the same hemisphere-dependent rule strongly suggests that the solar differential rotation plays an important role in producing the axial fields. However, the observations are inconsistent with the hypothesis that the axial fields are produced by differential rotation acting on an existing coronal magnetic field. Several possible explanations for this discrepancy are considered. The possibility that the sign of the axial field depends on the topology of the magnetic field in which the prominence is embedded is examined, as is the possibility that the neutral line is tilted with respect to the east-west direction, so that differential rotation causes the neutral line also to rotate with time. The possibility that the axial fields of quiescent prominences have their origin below the solar surface is also considered.

  16. The dynamics of funnel prominences

    SciTech Connect

    Keppens, R.; Xia, C.

    2014-07-01

    We present numerical simulations in 2.5D settings where large-scale prominences form in situ out of coronal condensation in magnetic dips, in close agreement with early as well as recent reporting of funnel prominences. Our simulation uses full thermodynamic magnetohydrodynamics with anisotropic thermal conduction, optically thin radiative losses, and parameterized heating as main ingredients to establish a realistic arcade configuration from chromosphere to corona. The chromospheric evaporation, especially from transition region heights, ultimately causes thermal instability, and we witness the growth of a prominence suspended well above the transition region, continuously gaining mass and cross-sectional area. Several hours later, the condensation has grown into a structure connecting the prominence-corona transition region with the underlying transition region, and a continuous downward motion from the accumulated mass represents a drainage that matches observational findings. A more dynamic phase is found as well, with coronal rain, induced wave trains, and even a reconnection event when the core prominence plasma weighs down the field lines until a flux rope is formed. The upper part of the prominence is then trapped in a flux-rope structure, and we argue for its violent kink-unstable eruption as soon as the (ignored) length dimension would allow for ideal kink deformations.

  17. Intensified voice therapy: a new model for the rehabilitation of patients suffering from functional dysphonias.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Michael J; Gutenbrunner, Christoph; Ptok, Martin

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a new intervention for chronic dysphonias, consisting of a 2-week outpatient treatment period using intensified voice therapy combined with elements of physical medicine, including physiotherapy (orthotherapy, detonisation and training of the trunk muscles, respiratory therapy and others), manual therapy (mobilization of the cervical spine), inhalations, vibration massages, thermotherapy, classical massages and active relaxation (e.g. autogenic training, progressive muscle relaxation). In addition, the autonomous regulation was influenced by hydrotherapy according to Kneipp. A handicap questionnaire was given to 37 patients with diverse aetiologies of dysphonia before and after intervention. The change score was compared between baseline handicap levels (none, mild, moderate, severe), and between patients with organic and functional dysphonias. The questionnaire was also given to 40 healthy volunteers for comparison with patients' baseline values. Overall handicap was significantly reduced in patients with moderate baseline handicap values, whereas no significant changes could be detected in patients with severe handicap; patients with mild handicap values did receive some benefit. A significant difference in the intervention outcome was found between patients with organic and functional dysphonias. In conclusion, the results suggest that ambulatory rehabilitative measures are most effective in patients with moderate functional dysphonias, and that severe dysphonias with organic backgrounds may require longer rehabilitation phases.

  18. Selective peripheral denervation for spasmodic torticollis: surgical technique, results, and observations in 260 cases.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, C M

    1993-08-01

    A total of 260 cases of spasmodic torticollis or of the cervical component of diffuse dystonias have been surgically treated with selective peripheral denervation of the involved muscles sparing their antagonists, after verification with electromyography and, if necessary, nerve blocks. Total or marked relief of symptoms with preservation of normal or nearly normal movements has been obtained in 88% of the patients with surgery followed by early physiotherapy. There are minimal sequelae with this approach. Selective denervation may be recommended if, after 2 years, conservative treatment, including botulinum injections, does not offer satisfactory relief of symptoms.

  19. Large Amplitude Oscillations in Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna, Manuel

    2016-07-01

    Large-amplitude Oscillations in prominences are spectacular manifestations of the solar activity. In such events nearby energetic disturbances induce periodic motions on filaments with displacements comparable to the size of the filaments themselves and with velocities larger than 20 km/s. Recent studies have shown that such oscillations open a new window on coronal connectivity, as well as novel diagnostics for hard-to-measure prominence properties such as magnetic field strength and geometry. In addition, this oscillation could be related with activation of filaments prior to eruptions. In this talk I will show past and current research on this subject in order to understand the nature of the solar prominences. Additionally, a large catalogue of such events will be presented.

  20. Increase of glucose consumption in basal ganglia, thalamus and frontal cortex of patients with spasmodic torticollis

    SciTech Connect

    Grassi, F.; Bressi, S.; Antoni, M.

    1994-05-01

    The pathophysiology of spasmodic torticollis, a focal dystonia involving neck muscles, is still unclear. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies showed either an increase as well as a decrease of regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRglu) in basal ganglia. In the present study, [18F]FDG and PET was used to measure rCMRglu in 10 patients with spasmodic torticollis (mean age 50.37 {plus_minus} 11.47) and 10 age matched controls. All cases with a short disease duration, were untreated. A factorial analysis of variance revealed a significant bilateral increase of glucose consumption in caudate nucleus and pallidum/putamen complex (p>0.004) and in the cerebellum (p>0.001). The rCMRglu increase in the motor/premotor cortex and in the thalamus reached a trend towards significance (p<0.05). These preliminary data show enhanced metabolism in basal ganglia and cerebellum as the functional correlate of focal dystonia. A recently proposed model suggests that dystonia would be the consequence of a putaminal hyperactivity, leading to the breakdown of the pallidal inhibitory control on thalamus and thalamo-cortical projections.

  1. Topic-Prominence in Interlanguage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Judith W.; Gundel, Jeannette K.

    1987-01-01

    Investigates the role of topic-comment structure and the frequency of topic-prominence in the oral interlanguage of Chinese- Japanese-, Korean-, Arabic-, Farsi-, and Spanish-speaking adult students of English as a second language. Results indicate that second language learning is generally characterized by an early topic-comment stage, independent…

  2. [Comparison of different phonetic materials for perceptive analysis of dysphonia].

    PubMed

    Révis, J; Giovanni, A; Wuyts, F; Triglia, J M

    1997-01-01

    The authors describe a prospective study whose aim was to analyse the influence of the choice of phonetic material on the judgment of the panel. De Krom has already reported an experiment in which perceptive analysis showed that a sustained vowel was a useful material provided that the attack transitory was included (so called complete sustained vowel). He also showed that the panel gave more consistent results with speech or the complete sustained vowel than with the stable part of the sustained vowel. Our first objective was to find out whether we agreed with Krom's results, because for the study in the Dutch language to be applied to the French language, it was necessary to carry out an experimental validation given the cultural differences which might prejudice the results. In additional, we thought it likely that some acoustic information which was present in the attack transitories and was lacking in the stable part of the sustained vowel would run the risk of under-valuing the dysphonia in a study carried out on the stable part of sustained vowels. Our second objective was therefore to demonstrate that in cases of dysphonia, assessment based on the stable part of sustained vowels would be more lenient than those based on speech. The study was carried out using 80 voice samples from 60 dysphonic patients and 20 control subjects. The panel was made up of 7 experienced listeners. Agreement in the jury was judged by the percentage of identical responses given on 3 different presentations of each speech sample. This study showed no differences in the agreement of panel members over the three types of material by changing the severity of classification by the panel was analysed as follows: 1--Pearson r correlation coefficient, comparing on the one hand speech (the reference variable), and on the other samples of the complete vowel and the isolated stable part of the valve (tested variables). 2--A linear regression analysis. Our results confirm that assessments

  3. The perception of prominence patterns.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Klaus J

    2008-01-01

    The term 'stress' is used to refer to the perceptual salience at certain places in strings of syllables, but it has several different referents: (a) relative syllable salience in an utterance; this is syllable-, not word-oriented; (b) stress in a word; this is part of the lexical phonology; (c) stressing of words in utterances for various aspects of propositional and expressive meaning, often called 'accent(uation)'. Referents b and c are word- and meaning-oriented. In this article, the terms are more stringently defined. 'Stress' is only used to refer to a lexical stress position (referent b), i.e. a syllable in a word that becomes the docking place for various types of 'accent' to weight words in utterances (referent c). 'Stress' has no physical attributes by itself. 'Prominence' refers to the patterns of salience in syllable strings (referent a). The article reports results of an experiment in prominence perception of the logatome baba, in which the physical parameters F0, syllabic duration, and overall acoustic energy were systematically varied across the bisyllable. Sixteen German subjects had to indicate, by pressing buttons of a computerized reaction time device, whether the first or the second syllable was more prominent. F(0) was a more powerful cue than the other two. Equal syllable duration on a monotone resulted in more first-syllable judgements, which could be counteracted by a slightly falling F(0) contour on the second syllable to reach equal response frequencies for the two syllables. This ties in with Lehiste's earlier findings that F(0) movement increases the perception of duration. Extrapolating from the results, a research programme for prominence perception is developed that will eventually shed new light on the investigation into the nature and manifestation of speech rhythm. PMID:19221454

  4. Featured Image: Solar Prominence Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-02-01

    In these images from the Solar Dynamics Observatorys AIA instrument (click for the full resolution!), two solar prominence eruptions (one from June 2011 and one from August 2012) are shown in pre- and post-eruption states. The images at the top are taken in the Fe XII 193 bandpass and the images at the bottom are taken in the He II 304 bandpass. When a team of scientists searched through seven years of solar images taken by the STEREO (Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory) spacecraft, these two eruptions were found to extend all the way out to a distance of 1 AU. They were the only two examples of clear, bright, and compact prominence eruptions found to do so. The scientists, led by Brian Wood (Naval Research Laboratory), used these observations to reconstruct the motion of the eruption and model how prominences expand as they travel away from the Sun. Theimage to the rightshowsa STEREO observation compared to the teams 3D model of theprominences shape and expansion. To learn more about theresults from this study, check out the paper below.CitationBrian E. Wood et al 2016 ApJ 816 67. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/816/2/67

  5. [Application of acoustic analysis of the voice to diagnosis and treatment of functional dysphonia].

    PubMed

    Chernobel'skiĭ, S I

    2009-01-01

    Acoustic analysis of the voice was used to facilitate diagnosis and to objectively evaluate results of the treatment of psychogenic dysphonia (PD) in 20 women. The control group comprised 20 women showing no signs of laryngeal pathology. The following parameters were measure: jitter, shimmer, signal to noise ratio, and response in the voicing test. Other methods applied included laryngoscopy, videolaryngoscopy, and laryngostroboscopy. It was shown that hoarseness in patients with PD results from the disturbances of mechanisms controlling stability of phonation. This observation is confirmed by the results of the acoustic test. It is concluded that dysphonia confirmed in the acoustic test in the absence of organic changes in the larynx is caused by psychogenic factors. Acoustic analysis of the voice is indicated to objectively evaluate results of the treatment of psychogenic dysphonia.

  6. Usefulness of acoustic studies on the differential diagnostics of organic and functional dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Pruszewicz, A; Obrebowski, A; Swidziński, P; Demeńko, G; Wika, T; Wojciechowska, A

    1991-01-01

    Phoniatric and acoustic examinations were carried out in a group of 30 patients with dysphonia, including 15 with organic type and 15 with functional type. A complex phoniatric assessment offered the possibility to differentiate between these two groups of pathological voices. This was achieved also on the basis of acoustic analysis of the voice by extracting characteristics such as: formant frequency, Fo and its range, percentage of noise in the analysed verbal text, mean and maximum values of jitter. The possibility of differential diagnosis of these two different types of dysphonia in acoustic studies was confirmed by clinical examinations. The acoustic studies presented can be regarded as a new approach to a fast and sufficiently precise method in the screening diagnostics of dysphonia conditioned by growth of the vocal fold mass.

  7. A Model for Prominence Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsch, B. T.; DeVore, C. R.; Antiochos, S. K.; Linton, M. G.

    2003-05-01

    The essential features of a model prominence configuration include: dipped or helical field lines that are capable of supporting mass against gravity; sheared field lines that run nearly parallel to the photospheric polarity inversion line (PIL); and overlying field lines that restrain the sheared field lines. To determine how reconnection might generate such field configurations, we have used the ARMS code, an MHD solver with adaptive refinement, to model the interaction of two active regions subjected to a shear flow, meant to approximate differential rotation. We present preliminary results from two cases, one in which the model active region fields were potential prior to shearing, and one in which the active region fields were ``spun up'' prior to shearing, to approximate active region fields possessing twist at their emergence. This work was supported in part by NASA, DoD's HPCMP, and AFOSR's Solar-MURI program.

  8. The Temperature of Quiescent Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiehr, E.; Stellmacher, G.

    We simultaneously observed in solar prominences faint metallic emission lines together with Hγand two He I lines from the singlet and triplet systems, respectively. We find that the reduced widths ΔλD/λ0 are not linearly related to the square-root of the inverse atomic mass, as is expected from the Doppler formula. Instead, each emission line is individually broadened. The gradients in the VD2(1/μ) diagrams correspond to unrealistically high Tkin≥104 K, which contradict values deduced from line radiance observations yielding temperatures down to at most 5000 K. A scenario of down-falling gas clumps by Low et al. (2012) offers a plausible explanation for these discrepancies.

  9. [Neuronal mechanisms of voluntary and involuntary movements in parafascicular (CM-PF) thalamic complex in spasmodic torticollis patients].

    PubMed

    Sedov, A S; Medvednik, R S; Raeva, S N

    2010-05-01

    Activity of 144 parafascicular CM-Pf thalamic neurons was studied and recorded by means of microelectrodes during 18 stereotactical neurosurgical operations in spasmodic torticollis patients. High reactivity of two previously classified neurons with single sporadic activity (A-type) and bursts of Ca2(+)-dependent activity (B-type) were found during verbally ordered voluntary movements. There are coordinated reciprocal activation-inhibition A-type and B-type neuronal responses at the stage of verbal command presentation and synergic activation responses on the high of movement and in the aftereffect. Voluntary movement realization was accompanied by short-term local synchronization and stabilization of oscillatory (3-5 Hz) neuronal activity. The neuronal response differences between voluntary movements with and without neck muscle exertion and involuntary pathological movements prove the CM-Pf involvement in the pathology of spasmodic torticollis desease. PMID:20583573

  10. Observations of loops and prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strong, Keith T.

    1994-01-01

    We review recent observations by the Yohkoh-SXT (Soft X-ray Telescope) in collaboration with other spacecraft and ground-based observatories of coronal loops and prominences. These new results point to problems that SoHO will be able to address. With a unique combination of rapid-cadence digital imaging (greater than or equal to 32 s full-disk and greater than or equal to 2 s partial-frame images), high spatial resolution (greater than or equal to 2.5 arcsec pixels), high sensitivity (EM less than or equal to 10(exp 42) cm(exp -3)), a low-scatter mirror, and large dynamic range, SXT can observe a vast range of targets on the Sun. Over the first 21 months of Yohkoh operations SXT has taken over one million images of the corona and so is building up an invaluable long-term database on the large-scale corona and loop geometry. The most striking thing about the SXT images is the range of loop sizes and shapes. The active regions are a bright tangle of magnetic field lines, surrounded by a network of large-scale quiet-Sun loops stretching over distances in excess of 105 km. The cross-section of most loops seems to be constant. Loops displaying significant Gamma's are the exception, not the rule, implying the presence of widespread currents in the corona. All magnetic structures show changes. Time scales range from seconds to months. The question of how these structures are formed, become filled with hot plasma, and are maintained is still open. While we see the propagation of brightenings along the length of active-region loops and in X-ray jets with velocities of several hundred km/s, much higher velocities are seen in the quiet Sun. In XBP flares, for example, velocities of over 1000 km/s are common. Active-region loops seem to be in constant motion, moving slowly outward, carrying plasma with them. During flares, loops often produce localized brightenings at the base and later at the apex of the loop. Quiescent filaments and prominences have been observed regularly

  11. Articulatory Changes Following Treatment of Muscle Tension Dysphonia: Preliminary Acoustic Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dromey, Christopher; Nissen, Shawn L.; Roy, Nelson; Merrill, Ray M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Primary muscle tension dysphonia (MTD), a voice disturbance that occurs in the absence of structural or neurological pathology, may respond to manual circumlaryngeal techniques, which ostensibly alter the posture of the larynx and/or the configuration of the vocal folds without directly targeting supralaryngeal articulatory structures.…

  12. Articulatory Changes in Muscle Tension Dysphonia: Evidence of Vowel Space Expansion Following Manual Circumlaryngeal Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Nelson; Nissen, Shawn L.; Dromey, Christopher; Sapir, Shimon

    2009-01-01

    In a preliminary study, we documented significant changes in formant transitions associated with successful manual circumlaryngeal treatment (MCT) of muscle tension dysphonia (MTD), suggesting improvement in speech articulation. The present study explores further the effects of MTD on vowel articulation by means of additional vowel acoustic…

  13. Intensified Voice Therapy: A New Model for the Rehabilitation of Patients Suffering from Functional Dysphonias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Michael J.; Gutenbrunner, Christoph; Ptok, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a new intervention for chronic dysphonias, consisting of a 2-week outpatient treatment period using intensified voice therapy combined with elements of physical medicine, including physiotherapy (orthotherapy, detonisation and training of the trunk muscles, respiratory therapy and others), manual therapy…

  14. Functional Dysphonia during Mental Imagery: Testing the Trait Theory of Voice Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Mersbergen, Miriam; Patrick, Christopher; Glaze, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Previous research has proposed that persons with functional dysphonia (FD) present with temperamental traits that predispose them to their voice disorder. We investigated this theory in a controlled experiment and compared them with social anxiety (SA) and healthy control (HC) groups. Method: Twelve participants with FD, 19 participants…

  15. Early Motor Unit Disease Masquerading as Psychogenic Breathy Dysphonia: A Clinical Case Presentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Arnold E.

    1971-01-01

    Presented is a study of a 20-year-old girl with mild, breathy dysphonia, previously diagnosed as psychogenic. In actuality, her voice change was a sign of early myasthenia gravis. It is pointed out that voice changes can be a first and only sign of early neurologic disease. (Author/KW)

  16. Solar Prominence Fine Structure and Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We review recent observational and theoretical results on the fine structure and dynamics of solar prominences, beginning with an overview of prominence classifications, the proposal of possible new ``funnel prominence'' classification, and a discussion of the recent ``solar tornado'' findings. We then focus on quiescent prominences to review formation, down-flow dynamics, and the ``prominence bubble'' phenomena. We show new observations of the prominence bubble Rayleigh-Taylor instability triggered by a Kelvin-Helmholtz shear flow instability occurring along the bubble boundary. Finally we review recent studies on plasma composition of bubbles, emphasizing that differential emission measure (DEM) analysis offers a more quantitative analysis than photometric comparisons. In conclusion, we discuss the relation of prominences to coronal magnetic flux ropes, proposing that prominences can be understood as partially ionized condensations of plasma forming the return flow of a general magneto-thermal convection in the corona.

  17. Re-interpreting Prominences Classified as Tornadoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Sara F.; Venkataramanasastry, Aparna

    2015-04-01

    Some papers in the recent literature identify tornado prominences with barbs of quiescent prominences while papers in the much older historic literature include a second category of tornado prominence that does not correspond to a barb of a quiescent prominence. The latter are described as prominence mass rotating around a nearly vertical axis prior to its eruption and the rotation was verified by spectral measurements. From H alpha Doppler-shifted mass motions recorded at Helio Research or the Dutch Open Telescope, we illustrate how the apparent tornado-like motions, identified with barbs, are illusions in our mind’s eye resulting from poorly resolved counterstreaming threads of mass in the barbs of quiescent prominences. In contrast, we confirm the second category of rotational motion in prominences shortly before and during eruption. In addition, we identify this second category as part of the late phase of a phenomenon called the roll effect in erupting prominences. In these cases, the eruption begins with the sideways rolling of the top of a prominence. As the eruption proceeds the rolling motion propagates down one leg or both legs of the prominence depending on whether the eruption is asymmetric or symmetric respectively. As an asymmetric eruption continues, the longer lasting leg becomes nearly vertical and its rotational motion also continues. If only this phase of the eruption was observed, as in some historic cases, it was called a tornado prominence. However, when we now observe entire eruptions in time-lapse sequences, the similarity to terrestrial tornadoes is lost. We conclude that neither prominence barbs, that give the illusion of rotation, nor the cases of true rotational motion, in the legs of erupting prominences, are usefully described as tornado prominences when the complete prominence structure or complete erupting event is observed.

  18. [Typical Patterns of Neuronal Activity in Relay and Nonspecific Thalamic Nuclei in Patients with Spasmodic Torticollis].

    PubMed

    Devetiarov, D A; Semenova, U N; Butiaeva, L I; Sedov, A S

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal activity of 50 neurons in nonspecific (Rt, MD) and relay (Voi, Voa) thalamic nuclei was analyzed. Data were obtained by microelectrode technique during 14 stereotactic operations in patients with spasmodic torticollis. Application of Poincare maps and Gap-statistics allowed to reveal 3 main patterns of neuronal activity: irregular single spikes, low-threshold Ca(2+)-dependent rhythmic (3-5 Hz) bursts and combination of bursts and single spikes. In some cases, grouping (in Voi and Rt nuclei) and long burst (in Voa nucleus) patterns were observed. Grouping pattern consist of low-density groups of spikes with tendency to periodicity in range 1-1.5 Hz. Long burst pattern consist of long dense groups of spikes with random length and invariant interburst intervals. Main numerical estimations of 3 most spread patterns of neuronal activity were obtained by parametric analysis. In results, investigated thalamic nuclei significantly distinguished from each other by characteristics of burst activity but average firing rate of these nuclei hadn't significant differences. These data may be useful for functional identification of thalamic nuclei during stereotactic neurosurgery operation in patients with movement disorders.

  19. Apparent Solar Tornado-Like Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panasenco, Olga; Martin, Sara F.; Velli, Marco

    2014-02-01

    Recent high-resolution observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) have reawakened interest in the old and fascinating phenomenon of solar tornado-like prominences. This class of prominences was first introduced by Pettit ( Astrophys. J. 76, 9, 1932), who studied them over many years. Observations of tornado prominences similar to the ones seen by SDO had already been documented by Secchi ( Le Soleil, 1877). High-resolution and high-cadence multiwavelength data obtained by SDO reveal that the tornado-like appearance of these prominences is mainly an illusion due to projection effects. We discuss two different cases where prominences on the limb might appear to have a tornado-like behavior. One case of apparent vortical motions in prominence spines and barbs arises from the (mostly) 2D counterstreaming plasma motion along the prominence spine and barbs together with oscillations along individual threads. The other case of apparent rotational motion is observed in a prominence cavity and results from the 3D plasma motion along the writhed magnetic fields inside and along the prominence cavity as seen projected on the limb. Thus, the "tornado" impression results either from counterstreaming and oscillations or from the projection on the plane of the sky of plasma motion along magnetic-field lines, rather than from a true vortical motion around an (apparent) vertical or horizontal axis. We discuss the link between tornado-like prominences, filament barbs, and photospheric vortices at their base.

  20. Loudness predicts prominence: Fundamental frequency lends little

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochanski, G.; Grabe, E.; Coleman, J.; Rosner, B.

    2005-08-01

    We explored a database covering seven dialects of British and Irish English and three different styles of speech to find acoustic correlates of prominence. We built classifiers, trained the classifiers on human prominence/nonprominence judgments, and then evaluated how well they behaved. The classifiers operate on 452 ms windows centered on syllables, using different acoustic measures. By comparing the performance of classifiers based on different measures, we can learn how prominence is expressed in speech. Contrary to textbooks and common assumption, fundamental frequency (f0) played a minor role in distinguishing prominent syllables from the rest of the utterance. Instead, speakers primarily marked prominence with patterns of loudness and duration. Two other acoustic measures that we examined also played a minor role, comparable to f0. All dialects and speaking styles studied here share a common definition of prominence. The result is robust to differences in labeling practice and the dialect of the labeler.

  1. Mass and energy flow in prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poland, Arthur I.

    1990-01-01

    Mass and energy flow in quiescent prominences is considered based on the hypothesis that active region prominences have a different structure and thus different mass and energy flow characteristics. Several important physical parameters have been plotted using the computational model, representing the evolutionary process after the prominence formation. The temperature, velocity, conductive flux, and enthalpy flux are plotted against distance from the highest point in the loop to the coolest part of the prominence. It is shown that the maximum velocity is only about 5 km/s. The model calculations indicate that the transition region of prominences is dominated by complex processes. It is necessary to take into account mass flow at temperatures below 200,000 K, and both mass flow and optical depth effects in hydrogen at temperatures below 30,000 K. Both of these effects lead to a less steep temperature gradient through the prominence corona interface than can be obtained from the conduction alone.

  2. Prominence mass supply and the cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Schmit, Donald J.; Innes, D.; Gibson, S.; Luna, M.; Karpen, J.

    2013-12-20

    A prevalent but untested paradigm is often used to describe the prominence-cavity system: the cavity is under-dense because it is evacuated by supplying mass to the condensed prominence. The thermal non-equilibrium (TNE) model of prominence formation offers a theoretical framework to predict the thermodynamic evolution of the prominence and the surrounding corona. We examine the evidence for a prominence-cavity connection by comparing the TNE model with diagnostics of dynamic extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission surrounding the prominence, specifically prominence horns. Horns are correlated extensions of prominence plasma and coronal plasma which appear to connect the prominence and cavity. The TNE model predicts that large-scale brightenings will occur in the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly 171 Å bandpass near the prominence that are associated with the cooling phase of condensation formation. In our simulations, variations in the magnitude of footpoint heating lead to variations in the duration, spatial scale, and temporal offset between emission enhancements in the other EUV bandpasses. While these predictions match well a subset of the horn observations, the range of variations in the observed structures is not captured by the model. We discuss the implications of our one-dimensional loop simulations for the three-dimensional time-averaged equilibrium in the prominence and the cavity. Evidence suggests that horns are likely caused by condensing prominence plasma, but the larger question of whether this process produces a density-depleted cavity requires a more tightly constrained model of heating and better knowledge of the associated magnetic structure.

  3. Prominence Mass Supply and the Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmit, Donald J.; Gibson, S.; Luna, M.; Karpen, J.; Innes, D.

    2013-12-01

    A prevalent but untested paradigm is often used to describe the prominence-cavity system: the cavity is under-dense because it is evacuated by supplying mass to the condensed prominence. The thermal non-equilibrium (TNE) model of prominence formation offers a theoretical framework to predict the thermodynamic evolution of the prominence and the surrounding corona. We examine the evidence for a prominence-cavity connection by comparing the TNE model with diagnostics of dynamic extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission surrounding the prominence, specifically prominence horns. Horns are correlated extensions of prominence plasma and coronal plasma which appear to connect the prominence and cavity. The TNE model predicts that large-scale brightenings will occur in the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly 171 Å bandpass near the prominence that are associated with the cooling phase of condensation formation. In our simulations, variations in the magnitude of footpoint heating lead to variations in the duration, spatial scale, and temporal offset between emission enhancements in the other EUV bandpasses. While these predictions match well a subset of the horn observations, the range of variations in the observed structures is not captured by the model. We discuss the implications of our one-dimensional loop simulations for the three-dimensional time-averaged equilibrium in the prominence and the cavity. Evidence suggests that horns are likely caused by condensing prominence plasma, but the larger question of whether this process produces a density-depleted cavity requires a more tightly constrained model of heating and better knowledge of the associated magnetic structure.

  4. An evaluation study of voice therapy in non-organic dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Carding, P N; Horsley, I A

    1992-01-01

    Thirty patients diagnosed as suffering from non-organic dysphonia were assigned to one of three treatment groups: direct therapy, indirect and no treatment for a period of 8 weeks. Therapeutic outcome was evaluated by independent judges, patient self-evaluation, electrolaryngograph ratings and measures of fundamental frequency. The direct treatment group showed the most significant improvement in the return to normal voice functioning followed by the indirect treatment group. One patient in the control group showed improvement without any intervention. This study provides evidence in support of the effectiveness of both direct and indirect therapy in the treatment of non-organic dysphonia and raises questions concerning individual patient responses to these approaches.

  5. Is an organic/functional distinction psychologically meaningful in patients with dysphonia?

    PubMed

    Millar, A; Deary, I J; Wilson, J A; MacKenzie, K

    1999-06-01

    Dysphonia (hoarseness) is a common clinical condition and, if persistent, patients are referred to otolaryngology clinics for clinical examination. During the examination, a clinical distinction is often made among three types of patients: (1) those with a clear organic basis for dysphonia (cancer, vocal cord palsy): (2) those with some degree of organic pathology; and (3) those with an apparently functional etiology. Functional patients are often characterized as having a psychogenic disorder. This study assessed the psychological validity of the functional category in 204 out-patients (aged 17 to 87 years) with persistent hoarseness of types (2) and (3). Following clinical examination, a consultant otolaryngologist categorized patients as having functional or organic etiology. Subjects were then compared on measures of personality and psychological distress. Dysphonic subjects showed marked psychological distress compared with norms, and reported significantly more previous psychosomatic symptoms than norms, but there were no differences in personality or psychological distress between organic and functional subgroups of dysphonics.

  6. Formation and Plasma Circulation of Solar Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, C.; Keppens, R.

    2016-05-01

    Solar prominences are long-lived cool and dense plasma curtains in the hot and rarefied outer solar atmosphere or corona. The physical mechanism responsible for their formation and especially for their internal plasma circulation has been uncertain for decades. The observed ubiquitous downflows in quiescent prominences are difficult to interpret because plasma with high conductivity seems to move across horizontal magnetic field lines. Here we present three-dimensional numerical simulations of prominence formation and evolution in an elongated magnetic flux rope as a result of in situ plasma condensations fueled by continuous plasma evaporation from the solar chromosphere. The prominence is born and maintained in a fragmented, highly dynamic state with continuous reappearance of multiple blobs and thread structures that move mainly downward, dragging along mass-loaded field lines. The circulation of prominence plasma is characterized by the dynamic balance between the drainage of prominence plasma back to the chromosphere and the formation of prominence plasma via continuous condensation. Plasma evaporates from the chromosphere, condenses into the prominence in the corona, and drains back to the chromosphere, establishing a stable chromosphere-corona plasma cycle. Synthetic images of the modeled prominence with the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly closely resemble actual observations, with many dynamical threads underlying an elliptical coronal cavity.

  7. Tornados and Transverse Oscillations during Prominence Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Dipankar; Chandrashekhar, K.; Morton, Richard; Pant, Vaibhav; Datta, Ajanta

    2016-07-01

    We report and analyse different phases of a prominence eruption. The winding-unwinding of two footpoints and a tornado like swirling motion is studied. The prominence eruption is observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). This prominence eruption is associated with a CME at a central principal angle of 340 degree, according to the SOHO/LASCO CME catalogue. We can observe the prominence threads and the time distance maps reveal that the loop threads are entangled. We also study the transverse oscillations in the threads. Swirling motions after the eruptions are also quantified and its possible link with the CME kinematics is also studied

  8. Laryngeal involvement causing dysphonia in a 29 year old nursing mother with lepromatous leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Fwoloshi, Sombo; Machona, Sharon Musonda; Mudenda, Victor; Ngalamika, Owen

    2015-01-01

    Leprosy is a granulomatous disease that mainly affects the skin and peripheral nerves. It is caused by infection with mycobacterium leprae or mycobacterium lepromatosus. In most instances, diagnosis of leprosy can easily be made based on the clinical signs and symptoms. However, when patients present with atypical features, clinical diagnosis can be a challenge. We report a case of a nursing mother with lepromatous leprosy who presented with dysphonia and skin lesions initially thought to be a deep cutaneous mycosis. PMID:26327983

  9. Etiologies of Dysphonia in Patients Referred to ENT Clinics Based on Videolaryngoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kiakojoury, Keyvan; Dehghan, Mehdi; Hajizade, Fateme; Khafri, Soraya

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Laryngeal dysfunction may be divided into three categories; organic, neurologic and functional disorders. Dysphonia and hoarseness are the most common symptoms and, in some cases, the only signs of laryngeal dysfunction. In differential diagnosis of any type of chronic hoarseness, a neoplastic process must be considered and, thus continuous light video laryngoscopy can provide important information on the presence of neoplastic lesions in order to prevent disease progression via early detection and action. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study was carried out on 197 patients with voice disorders admitted to Ayatollah Rouhani Hospital for video laryngoscopy. Available sampling was used and the results achieved were analyzed using SPSS17 statistical software. Results: A total of 197 patients (mean age, 40.72 ±15.17 years) participated in this study, 56.9% of whom were male. From analysis of video laryngoscopy, organic dysphonia was found to be the most common cause of voice disorders, while functional and neurologic dysphonia were observed in 8.6% and 5.6% of patients, respectively. Vocal nodules and Reinke's edema were among the most common causes of organic dysphonia, with a frequency of 24.4% and 23.4%, respectively; while laryngeal carcinoma accounted for 2.5% of all diagnosed cases with organic causes. Conclusion: Since the presence of voice disorders for more than 3 weeks can be a sign of laryngeal dysfunction, early diagnosis using noninvasive methods such as video laryngoscopy and appropriate medical measures can help prevent the disease progression and eliminate the need for actions such as laryngectomy. PMID:25009807

  10. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials in a case of 'Manto syndrome', or spasmodic torticollis with thoracic outlet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Disertori, B; Ducati, A; Piazza, M; Pavani, M

    1982-12-01

    A case of spasmodic torticollis with thoracic outlet syndrome observed for over 18 months is presented and discussed. Maximal head rotation (determining backward gaze) was associated with compression of the brachial plexus between the scaleni muscles and motor, sensory and trophic troubles in the hand. This new syndrome is called after the diviner Manto, quoted by Dante Alighieri in his 'Divina Commedia' (Inferno, XX, 52-56). The etiology was ascribed to subacute toxic effects of methylparathion. Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials (BAEPs) demonstrated severe brainstem involvement, maximal in the mesencephalic structures. Clinical and neurophysiological data improved on treatment with L-5-hydroxytryptophan. Finally, BAEPs returned to normal.

  11. MAGNETIC TOPOLOGY OF BUBBLES IN QUIESCENT PROMINENCES

    SciTech Connect

    Dudik, J.; Aulanier, G.; Schmieder, B.; Zapior, M.; Heinzel, P.

    2012-12-10

    We study a polar-crown prominence with a bubble and its plume observed in several coronal filters by the SDO/AIA and in H{alpha} by the MSDP spectrograph in Bialkow (Poland) to address the following questions: what is the brightness of prominence bubbles in EUV with respect to the corona outside of the prominence and the prominence coronal cavity? What is the geometry and topology of the magnetic field in the bubble? What is the nature of the vertical threads seen within prominences? We find that the brightness of the bubble and plume is lower than the brightness of the corona outside of the prominence, and is similar to that of the coronal cavity. We constructed linear force-free models of prominences with bubbles, where the flux rope is perturbed by inclusion of parasitic bipoles. The arcade field lines of the bipole create the bubble, which is thus devoid of magnetic dips. Shearing the bipole or adding a second one can lead to cusp-shaped prominences with bubbles similar to the observed ones. The bubbles have complex magnetic topology, with a pair of coronal magnetic null points linked by a separator outlining the boundary between the bubble and the prominence body. We conjecture that plume formation involves magnetic reconnection at the separator. Depending on the viewing angle, the prominence can appear either anvil-shaped with predominantly horizontal structures, or cusp-shaped with predominantly vertical structuring. The latter is an artifact of the alignment of magnetic dips with respect to the prominence axis and the line of sight.

  12. Trunk bradykinesia and foveation delays during whole-body turns in spasmodic torticollis.

    PubMed

    Anastasopoulos, Dimitri; Ziavra, Nafsica; Pearce, Ronald; Bronstein, Adolfo M

    2013-08-01

    We have investigated how the abnormal head posture and motility in spasmodic torticollis interferes with ecological movements such as combined eye-to-foot whole-body reorientations to visual targets. Eight mildly affected patients and 10 controls voluntarily rotated eyes and body in response to illuminated targets of eccentricities up to ± 180°. The experimental protocol allowed separate evaluation of the effects of target location, visibility and predictability on movement parameters. Patients' latencies of eye, head, trunk and foot motion were prolonged but showed a normal modification pattern when target location was predictable. Peak head-on-trunk displacement and velocity were reduced both ipsi- and contralaterally with respect to the direction of torticollis. Surprisingly, peak trunk velocity was also reduced, even more than in previously studied patients with Parkinson's disease. As a consequence, patients made short, hypometric gaze saccades and only exceptionally foveated initially nonvisible targets with a single large gaze shift (4 % of predictable trials as opposed to 30 % in controls). Foveation of distant targets was massively delayed by more than half a second on average. Spontaneous dystonic head movements did not interfere with the execution of voluntary gaze shifts. The results show that neck dystonia does not arise from gaze (head-eye) motor centres but the eye-to-foot turning synergy is seriously compromised. For the first time we identify significant 'secondary' complications of torticollis such as trunk bradykinesia and foveation delays, likely to cause additional disability in patients. Eye movements per se are intact and compensate for the reduced head/trunk performance in an adaptive manner.

  13. Sexual Well-Being in Patients with Blepharospasm, Spasmodic Torticollis, and Hemifacial Spasm: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Perozzo, Paola; Salatino, Adriana; Cerrato, Paolo; Ricci, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    Mood, anxiety, and other psychological symptoms are common in dystonic patients suffering from blepharospasm (BSP) and spasmodic torticollis (ST). Since sexual well-being is an important aspect of mental health, here, we investigated whether these patients may also experience a worsening of their sexual life. In particular, quality of sexual life was evaluated in patients suffering from BSP (N = 30), ST (N = 30), and in a control group of patient with Hemifacial spasm (HFS; N = 30), undergoing botulinum toxin type A therapy. A group of 30 age-matched healthy volunteers constituted an additional control group. Patients were evaluated just before the periodic injection of botulinum toxin. Sexual functioning was assessed using the Sexual Functioning Inventory, a reduced form of the Golombok Rust Inventory, previously employed in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Depression (Beck Depression Inventory) and anxiety (STAI-X1/X2) were also assessed. Results revealed that sexual functioning was significantly affected in patients with BSP, ST, and HFS with respect to healthy controls. Dystonic patients manifested more sexual dysfunction than patients with HFS. Overall, females had a poorer quality of sexual life than males and, among females, women with BSP were the most dysfunctional. Psychological symptoms were present in patients with dystonia, but not in patients with HFS. As discussed in the paper, several factors might be taken into account to explain worse quality of sexual life in patients with dystonia compared to patients with hemifacial spasm. Among them an important role might be played by the central origin of dystonia pathophysiology (i.e., altered activity of cortico-striato-thalamic-cortical circuits). Future investigations are necessary to further explore these preliminary findings, considering that this is the first time that sexual well-being is evaluated in patients with BSP, ST, and HFS, and comparable data are not available. PMID:27761118

  14. Formation of Prominences and Dynamics Before Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna, Manuel

    2016-07-01

    Solar prominences have fascinated to astronomers since the first scientific observations of eclipses. Prominences are spectacular manifestations of both quiescent and eruptive solar activity. These are cool and dense structures suspended in the very hot solar corona. The continuous improvements in spatial and temporal resolution from both ground- and space-based instruments have revealed a rich structure and dynamics of prominences. Despite over one century of observations, the magnetic structure of a solar prominence, the origin of its mass, and their dynamics remain vigorously debated issues with profound implications for space weather. In this talk I will address the question of the origin of the cool mass of prominences by reviewing past and recent advances in theoretical modelling.

  15. Ion-Neutral Coupling in Solar Prominence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, H.; DeVore, C. R.; Karpen, J.; Kucera, T.; Antiochos, S.; Kawashima, R.

    2011-01-01

    Coupling between ions and neutrals in magnetized plasmas is fundamentally important to many aspects of heliophysics, including our ionosphere, the solar chromosphere, the solar wind interaction with planetary atmospheres, and the interface between the heliosphere and the interstellar medium. Ion-neutral coupling also plays a major role in the physics of solar prominences. By combining theory, modeling, and observations we are working toward a better understanding of the structure and dynamics of partially ionized prominence plasma. Two key questions are addressed in the present work: 1) what physical mechanism(s) sets the cross-field scale of prominence threads? 2) Are ion-neutral interactions responsible for the vertical flows and structure in prominences? We present initial results from a study investigating what role ion-neutral interactions play in prominence dynamics and structure. This research was supported by NASA.

  16. Prominences: The Key to Understanding Solar Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpen, Judy T.

    2011-01-01

    Prominences are spectacular manifestations of both quiescent and eruptive solar activity. The largest examples can be seen with the naked eye during eclipses, making prominences among the first solar features to be described and catalogued. Steady improvements in temporal and spatial resolution from both ground- and space-based instruments have led us to recognize how complex and dynamic these majestic structures really are. Their distinguishing characteristics - cool knots and threads suspended in the hot corona, alignment along inversion lines in the photospheric magnetic field within highly sheared filament channels, and a tendency to disappear through eruption - offer vital clues as to their origin and dynamic evolution. Interpreting these clues has proven to be contentious, however, leading to fundamentally different models that address the basic questions: What is the magnetic structure supporting prominences, and how does so much cool, dense plasma appear in the corona? Despite centuries of increasingly detailed observations, the magnetic and plasma structures in prominences are poorly known. Routine measurements of the vector magnetic field in and around prominences have become possible only recently, while long-term monitoring of the underlying filament-channel formation process also remains scarce. The process responsible for prominence mass is equally difficult to establish, although we have long known that the chromosphere is the only plausible source. As I will discuss, however, the motions and locations of prominence material can be used to trace the coronal field, thus defining the magnetic origins of solar eruptions. A combination of observations, theory, and numerical modeling must be used to determine whether any of the competing theories accurately represents the physics of prominences. I will discuss the criteria for a successful prominence model, compare the leading models, and present in detail one promising, comprehensive scenario for

  17. Botulinum toxin injection - larynx

    MedlinePlus

    Injection laryngoplasty; Botox-larynx: spasmodic dysphonia-BTX; Essential voice tremor (EVT)-btx; Glottic insufficiency; Percutaneous electromyography-guided botulinum toxin treatment; Percutaneous indirect laryngoscopy- ...

  18. Prominence Motions in the EUV and UV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucera, Therese A.; Tovar, M.; dePontieu, B.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We address the origin of prominence material by comparing high cadence (30-60 s) He I and O V EUV observations from SOHO/CDS wide slit movies, and also, for another prominence observation, observations from TRACE at 1216 A and 1600 A and SVST in H(alpha). The EUV and UV observations regularly show small scale structures with plane-of-the sky velocities of 20-80 km/s, and many, although not all, of these motions are seen in multiple wavelength bands, representing temperatures ranging from 10,000-100,000 K or 20,000 - 250,000 K, depending on the data set. The H(alpha) observations contain line shift information showing clearly that the UV prominence intensity motions do actually represent real mass motions, as opposed to temperature or density waves. The results also indicate that the "prominence-corona transition region" is not an outside layer to the prominence as a whole, but is rather associated with smaller scale structures all through the prominence. More work is needed to determine what mechanism can explain these fast, multi-temperature prominence motions.

  19. Ion-Neutral Coupling in Solar Prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Holly

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between ions and neutrals in a partially ionized plasma are important throughout heliophysics, including near the solar surface in prominences. Understanding how ion-neutral coupling affects formation, support, structure, and dynamics of prominences will advance our physical understanding of magnetized systems involving a transition from a weakly ionized dense gas to a fully ionized tenuous plasma. We address the fundamental physics of prominence support, which is normally described in terms of a magnetic force on the prominence plasma that balances the solar gravitational force, and the implications for observations. Because the prominence plasma is only partially ionized, it is necessary to consider the support of the both the ionized and neutral components. Support of the neutrals is accomplished through a frictional interaction between the neutral and ionized components of the plasma, and its efficacy depends strongly on the degree of ionization of the plasma. More specifically, the frictional force is proportional to the relative flow of neutral and ion species, and for a sufficiently weakly ionized plasma, this flow must be relatively large to produce a frictional force that balances gravity. A large relative flow, of course, implies significant draining of neutral particles from the prominence. We evaluate the importance of this draining effect for a hydrogen-helium plasma, and consider the observational evidence for cross-field diffusion of neutral prominence material.

  20. Nonlinear MHD Waves in a Prominence Foot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofman, L.; Knizhnik, K.; Kucera, T.; Schmieder, B.

    2015-11-01

    We study nonlinear waves in a prominence foot using a 2.5D MHD model motivated by recent high-resolution observations with Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope in Ca ii emission of a prominence on 2012 October 10 showing highly dynamic small-scale motions in the prominence material. Observations of Hα intensities and of Doppler shifts show similar propagating fluctuations. However, the optically thick nature of the emission lines inhibits a unique quantitative interpretation in terms of density. Nevertheless, we find evidence of nonlinear wave activity in the prominence foot by examining the relative magnitude of the fluctuation intensity (δI/I ˜ δn/n). The waves are evident as significant density fluctuations that vary with height and apparently travel upward from the chromosphere into the prominence material with quasi-periodic fluctuations with a typical period in the range of 5-11 minutes and wavelengths <2000 km. Recent Doppler shift observations show the transverse displacement of the propagating waves. The magnetic field was measured with the THEMIS instrument and was found to be 5-14 G. For the typical prominence density the corresponding fast magnetosonic speed is ˜20 km s-1, in qualitative agreement with the propagation speed of the detected waves. The 2.5D MHD numerical model is constrained with the typical parameters of the prominence waves seen in observations. Our numerical results reproduce the nonlinear fast magnetosonic waves and provide strong support for the presence of these waves in the prominence foot. We also explore gravitational MHD oscillations of the heavy prominence foot material supported by dipped magnetic field structure.

  1. Helical flux ropes in solar prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martens, P. C. H.; Van Ballegooijen, A. A.

    1990-01-01

    The present numerical method for the computation of force-free, cancelling magnetic structures shows that flux cancellation at the neutral line in a sheared magnetic arcade generates helical field lines that can support a prominence's plasma. With increasing flux cancellation, the axis of the helical fields moves to greater heights; this is suggestive of a prominence eruption. Two alternative scenarios are proposed for the formation of polar crown prominences which yield the correct axial magnetic field sign. Both models are noted to retain the formation of helical flux tubes through flux cancellation as their key feature.

  2. Hefty Prominence Eruption Observed by SDO

    NASA Video Gallery

    A mass of solar material gathered itself into a twisting mass, spun around for a bit, then rose up and broke apart over a 10-hour period on Oct. 13, 2015. Prominences are unstable clouds of gas tet...

  3. Ring-shaped Prominence Erupts from Sun

    NASA Video Gallery

    A coronal mass ejection (CME) on Jan. 31, 2013 was accompanied by a large prominence eruption best visible in light with a wavelength of 304 angstroms. NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory captured ...

  4. NASA's SDO Sees Unraveling Solar Prominence

    NASA Video Gallery

    An elongated solar prominence rose up above the sun’s surface and slowly unraveled on Feb. 3, 2016, as seen in this video by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory, or SDO. The sun appears to move in th...

  5. Formation and eruption of solar prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Ballegooijen, A. A.; Martens, P. C. H.

    1989-01-01

    A model for the magnetic field associated with solar prominences is considered. It is shown that flux cancellation at the neutral line of a sheared magnetic arcade leads to the formation of helical field lines which are capable, in principle, of supporting prominence plasma. A numerical method for the computation of force-free, canceling magnetic structures is presented. Starting from an initial potential field we prescribe the motions of magnetic footpoints at the photosphere, with reconnection occurring only at the neutral line. As more and more flux cancels, magnetic flux is transferred from the arcade field to the helical field. Results for a particular model of the photospheric motions are presented. The magnetic structure is found to be stable: the arcade field keeps the helical field tied down at the photosphere. The axis of the helical field moves to larger and larger height, suggestive of prominence eruption. These results suggest that prominence eruptions may be trigered by flux cancellation.

  6. EUV observations of quiescent prominences from Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, O. K.; Cook, J. W.; Mango, S. A.

    1979-01-01

    Measurements of line intensities and line widths for three quiescent prominences observed with Naval Research Laboratory slit spectrograph on ATM/Skylab are reported. The wavelengths of the observed lines cover the range 1175 A to 1960 A. The measured intensities have been calibrated to within approximately a factor 2 and are average intensities over a 2 arcsec by 60 arcsec slit. Nonthermal velocities from the measured line widths are derived. The nonthermal velocity is found to increase with temperature in the prominence transition zone. Electron densities and pressures are derived from density sensitive line ratios. Electron pressures for two of the prominences are found to lie in the range 0.04-0.08 dyn/sq cm, while values for the third and most intense and active of the three prominences are in the range 0.07-0.22 dyn/sq cm.

  7. A distinctive type of ascending prominence - 'Fountain'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Hansen, R. T.; Riddle, A. C.

    1975-01-01

    Cinematographic observations of solar prominences made at Mauna Loa, Hawaii, during the past few years suggest that there is a well-defined subclass of ascending prominences characterized by closed-system transference of chromospheric material along an arch or loop (up one leg and down the other). While this occurs, the entire prominence envelope steadily rises upward and expands through the corona. These prominences are denoted as 'fountains'. Several examples are described. Fountains appear to be well contained by coronal magnetic fields. Their total kinetic energy is of the order of 10 to the 30th power erg, but dissipation is typically quite slow (over time periods of 100 min or so), so that the correlative disturbances (radio bursts, coronal transients, chromospheric brightenings) are generally not spectacular or nonexistent.

  8. A DROPLET MODEL OF QUIESCENT PROMINENCE DOWNFLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Haerendel, G.; Berger, T.

    2011-04-20

    Observations of quiescent prominences with the Solar Optical Telescope on the Hinode satellite have revealed the ubiquitous existence of downflows forming coherent thin and highly structured vertically oriented threads with velocities between 10 and 20 km s{sup -1}. Their widths range between 300 and 500 km. They are often initiated at the top of the visible prominence, but sometimes also at intermediate level. We propose that the downflows are made of plasma packets that squeeze themselves through the dominantly horizontal field under the action of gravity. Their origin is assumed to be hot plasma supplied from either inside or the immediate vicinity of the prominence and condensing at its top. Under compression and further cooling, the matter overflows to the flanks of the prominence dragging its magnetic field with it. Under the increasing action of gravity, vertical structures are forming which eventually disconnect from the field of the inflow channel thus forming finite plasma packets. This process is reminiscent of water flowing over a mountain ridge and breaking up into a multitude of droplets. Like water droplets being subject to air drag, the falling plasma droplets experience a drag force by the horizontal prominence field and assume a steady vertical velocity. This happens via the excitation of Alfven waves. Lateral confinement by the prominence field determines their spatial extent. The small scales of the droplets and the directional balance of their internal tangled magnetic fields can explain the absence of appreciable vertical components in magnetic field measurements. On the basis of the observed width and vertical speed of the downflows and by adopting a prominence field of about 8 G, we derive central density and temperature of the droplets, which turn out to be quite consistent with known prominence characteristics. In the formulation of the drag force a dimensionless 'magnetic drag coefficient' has been introduced with a value well below unity.

  9. An arcade-like eruptive prominence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Shu-Hua; Zhan, La-Sheng

    2004-12-01

    An eruptive prominence happened on the east-northern limb of the Sun on March 7, 1991. It appeared in a relatively quiet region where any activity phenomena such as flare, filament and sunspot etc. was not found. The maximum height reachable of the prominence was 6.97×104km and its maximum length reached as 11.6×104km. The eruptive prominence might belong to the one of the middle-smaller scale according to its size in morphology. The course of the eruption exhibited some properties: ascending rapidly and descending slowly just like the process of the flare eruption. After the eruption, the most material in the prominence basically moved along a parabola under the action of magnetic force lines forming the arcade-like shape and keeping it till to the disappearance of the prominence. Before and after descending, a little matter came from the top part was ejected and divorced from the main body of the prominence and diffused into the interplanetary space.

  10. Solar Prominences: "Double, Double... Boil and Bubble"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keppens, R.; Xia, C.; Porth, O.

    2015-06-01

    Observations revealed rich dynamics within prominences, the cool (104 K), macroscopic (sizes of order 100 Mm) “clouds” in the million degree solar corona. Even quiescent prominences are continuously perturbed by hot, rising bubbles. Since prominence matter is hundredfold denser than coronal plasma, this bubbling is related to Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. Here we report on true macroscopic simulations well into this bubbling phase, adopting an MHD description from chromospheric layers up to 30 Mm height. Our virtual prominences rapidly establish fully nonlinear (magneto)convective motions where hot bubbles interplay with falling pillars, with dynamical details including upwelling pillars forming within bubbles. Our simulations show impacting Rayleigh-Taylor fingers reflecting on transition region plasma, ensuring that cool, dense chromospheric material gets mixed with prominence matter up to very large heights. This offers an explanation for the return mass cycle mystery for prominence material. Synthetic views at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths show remarkable agreement with observations, with clear indications of shear-flow induced fragmentations.

  11. DIAGNOSING THE PROMINENCE-CAVITY CONNECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Schmit, Donald J.; Gibson, Sarah

    2013-06-10

    Prominences and cavities are ubiquitously observed together, but the physical link between these disparate structures has not been established. We address this issue by using dynamic emission in the extreme ultraviolet to probe the connections of these structures. The SDO/AIA observations show that the cavity exhibits excessive emission variability compared to the surrounding quiet-Sun streamer, particularly in the 171 A bandpass. We find that this dynamic emission takes the form of coherent loop-like brightening structures which emanate from the prominence into the central cavity. The geometry of these structures, dubbed prominence horns, generally mimics the curvature of the cavity boundary. We use a space-time statistical analysis of two cavities in multiple AIA bandpasses to constrain the energetic properties of 45 horns. In general, we find there is a positive correlation between the light curves of the horns in the 171 A and 193 A bandpasses; however, the 193 A emission is a factor of five weaker. There is also a strong correlation between structural changes to the prominence as viewed in the He II 304 A bandpass and the enhanced 171 A emission. In that bandpass, the prominence appears to extend several megameters along the 171 A horn where we observe co-spatial, co-temporal 304 A and 171 A emission dynamics. We present these observations as evidence of the magnetic and energetic connection between the prominence and the cavity. Further modeling work is necessary to explain the physical source and consequences of these events, particularly in the context of the traditional paradigm: the cavity is underdense because it supplies mass to the overdense prominence.

  12. A siphon mechanism for supplying prominence mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poland, A. I.; Mariska, J. T.

    1986-01-01

    A siphonlike mechanism for moving mass from the chromosphere to a gravitational well at the top of a magnetic loop to form a prominence is examined. The calculations assume no a priori flow velocity at the loop base. Instead, heating in the loop legs drives the flow. The prominence formation process requires two steps. First, the background heating rate must be reduced to on the order of 1 percent of the initial heating rate required to maintain the coronal loop. This forms an initial condensation at the top of the loop. Second, the heating must take place only in the loop legs in order to produce a pressure differential which drives mass up into the well at the top of the loop. The heating rate in the loop must be increased once the prominence has begun to form, or full prominence densities cannot be achieved in a reasonable time. It is concluded that this heating driven siphonlike mechanism is feasible for producing and maintaining prominences.

  13. Emergence of Twisted Flux in Prominence Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, T. J.; Tsuneta, S.; Berger, T. E.; Lites, B. W.

    2012-05-01

    The emergence of twisted flux is a key process for supply of magnetic flux into the corona as well as solar dynamic activities such as sunspot formation and trigger of coronal mass ejections. In particular, there are numerous discussions about the role and necessity of twisted flux emergence for origin of prominences. However, the difficulty to measure vector magnetic fields has not allowed us to investigate the detailed relationship between emerging twisted flux and prominence. Hinode has changed the situation. The Spectro-Polarimeter aboard Hinode has high sensitivity to weaker magnetic fields of fine structures, and provides opportunities to detect weak horizontal magnetic fields. As a result, we have obtained signatures of twisted flux emergence associated with prominences: The observational features are "broadening and narrowing of a region dominated by horizontal magnetic field" and "rotating direction of horizontal field" on the photosphere. Moreover, the data show the interaction between the emerging twisted flux and granules, and that the flux rope has high intrinsic strength 650 G, while the flux density is as low as 100 G. Theoretical research with numerical simulation on the basis of these results is active. In addition, we investigate activities of a coronal cavity overlying a prominence on the limb, and suggest the existence of twisted flux rope to explain the activities of prominence and the coronal cavity comprehensively. Here we introduce both these observational and theoretical results, and discuss the details about emerging twisted flux.

  14. [Personality and coping with stress in patients suffering from functional dysphonia].

    PubMed

    Freidl, W; Friedrich, G; Egger, J

    1990-01-01

    The examination covers the personality of 20 functional dysphonics, 14 individuals suffering from organic voice disorders and a group of 20 control persons when exposed to stress and its working up. In examining the group of functional dysphonics a significant positive self-assessment regarding their personality with a clear tendency to restraint has become clear. In comparison with the control persons an intensified anxiety state in situations causing stress is the result. Thus the influence of life events has been shown to have an important effect on the etiopathogenesis of functional dysphonia.

  15. The Hot Skin of Prominence Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiehr, E.; Stellmacher, G.; Ramelli, R.; Bianda, M.

    We observe various emission lines in solar prominences and compare the widths of He II 4686 Å, He I 4472 Å (triplet) and He I 5015 Å (singlet) with those of the optically thin Hγ and Mg b_2 lines. The latter two yield a thermal line broadening of 9000prominence regions. He II 4686 Å is 1.65 times broader and thus emitted in 2.73 times hotter regions of the prominence-corona transition layer, PCTR. The linear radiance relations He tripl/He II=50 and Hγ/He tripl=11.8 suggest a PCTR between each fine-structure thread and the surrounding hot coronal gas.

  16. Magnetic Reconnection Models of Prominence Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsch, B. T.; DeVore, C. R.; Antiochos, S. K.

    2005-12-01

    To investigate the hypothesis that prominences form by magnetic reconnection between initially distinct flux systems in the solar corona, we simulate coronal magnetic field evolution when two flux systems are driven together by boundary motions. In particular, we focus on configurations similar to those in the quiescent prominence formation model of Martens & Zwaan. We find that reconnection proceeds very weakly, if at all, in configurations driven with global shear flows (i.e., differential rotation); reconnection proceeds much more efficiently in similar configurations that are driven to collide directly, with converging motions along the neutral line that lead to flux cancellation; reconnected fields from this process can exhibit sheared, dipped field lines along the neutral line, consistent with prominence observations. Our field configurations do not possess the ``breakout'' topology, and eruptions are not observed, even though a substantial amount of flux is canceled in some runs.

  17. Measurements of magnetic fields in solar prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deglinnocenti, Egidio Landi

    1986-01-01

    Magnetic fields can be measured, in solar prominences, by means of two different basic mechanisms that are responsible for the introduction (or the reduction) of a given amount of polarization in spectral lines: these are the Zeeman effect and the Hanle effect. Through the splitting of the magnetic components of a spectral line, the Zeeman effect is capable of introducing a certain amount of circular polarization across the line profile. The Hanle effect consist of a modification of the linear polarization that is induced in spectral lines by the anisotropic illumination of the prominence plasma by the photospheric radiation field. These two effects are briefly discussed.

  18. Exploring the properties of Solar Prominence Tornados

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, E.; Panesar, N. K.; Sterling, A. C.; Moore, R. L.

    2015-12-01

    Solar prominences consist of relatively cool and dense plasma embedded in the hotter solar corona above the solar limb. They form along magnetic polarity inversion lines, and are magnetically supported against gravity at heights of up to ~100 Mm above the chromosphere. Often, parts of prominences visually resemble Earth-based tornados, with inverted-cone-shaped structures and internal motions suggestive of rotation. These "prominence tornados" clearly possess complex magnetic structure, but it is still not certain whether they actually rotate around a ''rotation'' axis, or instead just appear to do so because of composite internal material motions such as counter-streaming flows or lateral (i.e. transverse to the field) oscillations. Here we study the structure and dynamics of five randomly selected prominences, using extreme ultraviolet (EUV) 171 Å images obtained with high spatial and temporal resolution by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) spacecraft. All of the prominences resided in non-active-region locations, and displayed what appeared to be tornado-like rotational motions. Our set includes examples oriented both broadside and end-on to our line-of-sight. We created time-distance plots of horizontal slices at several different heights of each prominence, to study the horizontal plasma motions. We observed patterns of oscillations at various heights in each prominence, and we measured parameters of these oscillations. We find the oscillation time periods to range over ~50 - 90 min, with average amplitudes of ~6,000 km, and with average velocities of ~7 kms-1. We found similar values for prominences viewed either broadside or end-on; this observed isotropy of the lateral oscillatory motion suggests that the apparent oscillations result from actual rotational plasma motions and/or lateral oscillations of the magnetic field, rather than to counter-streaming flows. This research was supported by the National

  19. PROMINENCE VISIBILITY IN HINODE/XRT IMAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, P.; Jejčič, S.; Heinzel, P.; Anzer, U.; Jibben, P. R.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we study the soft X-ray (SXR) signatures of one particular prominence. The X-ray observations used here were made by the Hinode/X-Ray Telescope instrument using two different filters. Both of them have a pronounced peak of the response function around 10 Å. One of them has a secondary smaller peak around 170 Å, which leads to a contamination of SXR images. The observed darkening in both of these filters has a very large vertical extension. The position and shape of the darkening correspond nicely with the prominence structure seen in SDO/AIA images. First, we have investigated the possibility that the darkening is caused by X-ray absorption. However, detailed calculations of the optical thickness in this spectral range show clearly that this effect is completely negligible. Therefore, the alternative is the presence of an extended region with a large emissivity deficit, which can be caused by the presence of cool prominence plasmas within an otherwise hot corona. To reproduce the observed darkening, one needs a very large extension along the line of sight of the region amounting to around 10{sup 5} km. We interpret this region as the prominence spine, which is also consistent with SDO/AIA observations in EUV.

  20. Calibrating the Prominence Magnetometer (ProMag)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Lewis; Casini, R.

    2013-07-01

    The Prominence Magnetometer (ProMag) is a dual-channel, dual-beam, slit-scanning, full Stokes spectro-polarimeter designed by the High Altitude Observatory at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (HAO/NCAR) for the study of the magnetism of solar prominences and filaments. It was deployed in August 2009 at the 40 cm coronagraph of the Evans Solar Facility (ESF) of the National Solar Observatory on Sacramento Peak (NSO/SP). In its standard mode of operation it acquires spectro-polarimetric maps of solar targets simultaneously in the two chromospheric lines of He I at 587.6 nm and 1083.0 nm. Since August 2011 ProMag has operated in “patrol mode” with a dedicated observer. We aim to routinely measure the vector magnetic field in prominences. The electro-optic modulator and polarization analyzer are integrated into a single mechanical unit located at the coude feed of the telescope. This location was necessary for proper co-alignment of the dual beams, but complicates the precise polarimeter calibration necessary to achieve the sensitivity required for prominence measurements (< 10^-3). At this sensitivity, small variations in optical alignment can become significant. We present a calibration method for ProMag, using a polarizer and retarder at coronagraph prime focus. Calibrations are recorded before and after observations. We discuss the success of this method and its limitations.

  1. The density and thickness of quiescent prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirayama, Tadashi

    1986-01-01

    The electron density was determined for a number of quiescent prominences at various positions from the Stark effect. It was found that the intensity ratio of Mg I emission lines to SrII lines is independent of the observed electron density in the range of ten to the 10.2 power to 10 to the 11.4 power cm-3. This contrasts with Landman's (1984) theoretical expectation that the ratio is proportional to the electron density. From the intensity of Balmer lines and the electron density, it is inferred that the true diameter of a thread in prominence of high electron density may be smaller than 0.2". The averaged total number density of hydrogen N sub H sub of was found to be 3-6 times 10 to the 11th power cm-3, leading to a total gas pressure P =0.6 dyn cm-2 and a total density of approx. 10 to the minus twelth power g cm-3. Landman's large value of N sub H approx. 6 times 10 to the 12th power and P sub g approx. 6 may have resulted either from the fact that he has treated very bright prominences and/or from the derivation of the high electron density for all prominences he studied.

  2. Prominent Charter School Networks Seeking Fresh Territory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2012-01-01

    A handful of prominent charter school networks that have won praise for their academic performance and unorthodox models are expanding to new parts of the country, in some cases after receiving recruiting pitches from state and local officials determined to bring proven operators into their communities. Until now, organizations such as Aspire…

  3. Intonational Prominence on Negatives in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaeger-Dror, Malcah L.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a study done to determine which intonational parameters are most important to the meaning being conveyed within different social settings. Defines the factors that appear to influence the use of pitch and/or intensity prominence on negative words. Found that, in many situations, interactional rules take precedence over linguistic rules.…

  4. Vertical Localization of the Malar Prominence

    PubMed Central

    Kaptein, John S.; Markarian, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Background: During reconstruction or augmentation, it is important to localize the malar complex in a symmetrical and aesthetically pleasing position. Few studies have determined the location of this feature and none related the location to gender, age, or ethnicity. Some of these have attempted to relate the position to the aesthetically pleasing Golden Ratio φ. Methods: We assessed the vertical location of the malar prominence relative to other facial landmarks, determined consistency among individuals, and compared this with values used in artistry. Study population consisted of a convenience sample of 67 patients taken from an otolaryngology practice at a large urban medical center. Coordinates of the malar prominence were referenced to distinct facial landmarks from which the ratio of chin-to-malar prominence to chin-to-eye canthus was determined. Results: Average chin-to-malar prominence distance was 0.793 ± 0.023 (SD) of the chin-to-eye canthus distance. Variability due to the specific image chosen [coefficient of variation (CV) = 1.19%] and combined inter/intrareader variability (CV = 1.71%) validate the methodology. Variability among individuals (CV = 2.84%) indicates population consistency. No difference was found between gender and age groups or between whites and Hispanics. Individuals of other/unknown ethnicities were within the range common to whites and Hispanics. Our population’s value is not different from the value of 0.809 used in artistry, which is based on the Golden Ratio φ. Conclusions: The vertical position of the malar prominence is consistent among individuals, is clinically well-approximated by the value based on the Golden Ratio, and may be useful as a reference for surgical reconstruction or augmentation. PMID:26180712

  5. Dysphonia: medical treatment and a medical voice hygiene advice approach. A prospective randomised pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, M; Beranova, A; Møller, S

    2004-07-01

    For many years all patients with dysphonia referred to in the literature as resulting from non-organic (functional) voice disorders were sent to speech therapy. Medical diagnoses were not taken into account. In our earlier Cochrane review on vocal cord nodules we discovered that evidence-based research in the area of benign voice disorders with dysphonia, and with or without slight benign swellings including nodules on the vocal cords, was lacking at that time. Therefore, a prospective randomised pilot study based on our Cochrane review has been made on dysphonic patients with non-organic (function provoked?) voice disorders as the basis for further evidence-based studies. Medical treatment was based on the scientific approach that once a micro-organic disorder caused by reflux, infection, allergy or environmental irritatants (e.g., dust or noise in the workplace) was discovered by very careful anamnesis and systematic objective routine analyses and was treated effectively, with documentation, the non-organic voice disorder disappeared, as, e.g., in the case of a diagnosis and treatment of helicobakter pylori. The reason is that the mucosal swelling/dysfunction of the vocal cords is secondary. In order to try to understand why the recommendation to all these patients for many years was only voice therapy, which the speech therapists "felt to be effective", updated voice-hygiene advice (for posture, accents of the diaphragm, intonation pattern and resonance) was given by experienced laryngologists, randomised with the updated medical diagnosis/therapy in order to elucidate what effect the training might have. No evidence-based studies in the literature document any effect. The crucial point seemed to be that doctors mostly did not examine any other diagnoses other than the "dysphonia" and did not dig down to any of the medical reasons when the vocal fold diagnosis of "non- organic disorders" was made. This should be changed in the future. This pilot study was based

  6. Tracking prominent points in image sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Michael

    1994-03-01

    Measuring image motion and inferring scene geometry and camera motion are main aspects of image sequence analysis. The determination of image motion and the structure-from-motion problem are tasks that can be addressed independently or in cooperative processes. In this paper we focus on tracking prominent points. High stability, reliability, and accuracy are criteria for the extraction of prominent points. This implies that tracking should work quite well with those features; unfortunately, the reality looks quite different. In the experimental investigations we processed a long sequence of 128 images. This mono sequence is taken in an outdoor environment at the experimental field of Mercedes Benz in Rastatt. Different tracking schemes are explored and the results with respect to stability and quality are reported.

  7. 3D WHOLE-PROMINENCE FINE STRUCTURE MODELING. II. PROMINENCE EVOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Gunár, Stanislav; Mackay, Duncan H.

    2015-10-20

    We use the new three-dimensional (3D) whole-prominence fine structure model to study the evolution of prominences and their fine structures in response to changes in the underlying photospheric magnetic flux distribution. The applied model combines a detailed 3D prominence magnetic field configuration with a realistic description of the prominence plasma distributed along multiple fine structures. In addition, we utilize an approximate Hα visualization technique to study the evolution of the visible cool prominence plasma both in emission (prominence) and absorption (filament). We show that the initial magnetic field configuration of the modeled prominence is significantly disturbed by the changing position of a single polarity of a magnetic bipole as the bipole is advected toward the main body of the filament. This leads to the creation of a barb, which becomes the dominant feature visible in the synthetic Hα images of both the prominence and filament views. The evolution of the bipole also creates conditions that lead to the disappearance and reappearance of large portions of the main body. We also show that an arch-like region containing a dark void (a bubble) can be naturally produced in the synthetic prominence Hα images. While not visible in terms of the magnetic field lines, it is due to a lack of Hα emission from low-pressure, low-density plasma located in shallow magnetic dips lying along the lines of sight intersecting the dark void. In addition, a quasi-vertical small-scale feature consisting of short and deep dips, piled one above the other, is produced.

  8. 3D Whole-prominence Fine Structure Modeling. II. Prominence Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunár, Stanislav; Mackay, Duncan H.

    2015-10-01

    We use the new three-dimensional (3D) whole-prominence fine structure model to study the evolution of prominences and their fine structures in response to changes in the underlying photospheric magnetic flux distribution. The applied model combines a detailed 3D prominence magnetic field configuration with a realistic description of the prominence plasma distributed along multiple fine structures. In addition, we utilize an approximate Hα visualization technique to study the evolution of the visible cool prominence plasma both in emission (prominence) and absorption (filament). We show that the initial magnetic field configuration of the modeled prominence is significantly disturbed by the changing position of a single polarity of a magnetic bipole as the bipole is advected toward the main body of the filament. This leads to the creation of a barb, which becomes the dominant feature visible in the synthetic Hα images of both the prominence and filament views. The evolution of the bipole also creates conditions that lead to the disappearance and reappearance of large portions of the main body. We also show that an arch-like region containing a dark void (a bubble) can be naturally produced in the synthetic prominence Hα images. While not visible in terms of the magnetic field lines, it is due to a lack of Hα emission from low-pressure, low-density plasma located in shallow magnetic dips lying along the lines of sight intersecting the dark void. In addition, a quasi-vertical small-scale feature consisting of short and deep dips, piled one above the other, is produced.

  9. De novo FUS P525L mutation in Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with dysphonia and diplopia.

    PubMed

    Leblond, Claire S; Webber, Alina; Gan-Or, Ziv; Moore, Fraser; Dagher, Alain; Dion, Patrick A; Rouleau, Guy A

    2016-04-01

    Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (jALS) is characterized by progressive upper and lower motor neuron degeneration leading to facial muscle spasticity, spastic dysarthria, and spastic gait with an early onset (before 25 years old). Unlike adult-onset amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), patients with jALS tend to have slower progression of motor neuron disease and prolonged survival to a normal life expectancy. Mutations in FUS gene have been reported in jALS,(1) including p.P525L mutation that has been consistently associated with early onset and aggressive presentation.(2) Here, we report a patient carrying p.P525L FUS mutation and experiencing an aggressive course of ALS presenting with dysphonia and diplopia. PMID:27123482

  10. Inharmonicity Analysis: A Novel Physical Method for Acoustic Screening of Dysphonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matteson, Sam; Lu, Fang-Ling

    2008-10-01

    In the United States 6.8% of men, women, and children report current voice problems and approximately 29% will report some problems during their lifetime. Often this dysphonia is due to pathologies of the vocal folds. The authors (a physicist and a speech pathologist) describe an interdisciplinary approach that shows promise of detecting physiological abnormalities of the vocal folds from an analysis of the Fourier spectrum of spoken ``tokens.'' The underlying principle maintains that the normal human vocal fold is a linear oscillator that emits overtones that are very nearly precise integral values of the fundamental. Physiological problems of the vocal folds, however, introduce mechanical non-linearities that manifest themselves as frequency deviations from the ideal harmonic (that is, integral) values. The authors quantify this inharmonicity, describing and illustrating how one can obtain and analyze such data. They outline, as well, a proposed program to assess the clinical sensitivity and significance of the analysis discussed in this work.

  11. Non-organic dysphonia. II. A comparison of subglottal pressures in normal and pathological voices.

    PubMed

    Gramming, P

    1989-01-01

    In previous investigations, typical phonetogram differences have been revealed between healthy and pathological voices: the average maximum and minimum sound pressure levels that a patient suffering from non-organic dysphonia can produce at different fundamental frequencies deviate significantly from the corresponding values for a healthy voice. The subglottal pressure, being the primary tool for regulating the sound pressure level of voice, was estimated from the oral pressure during the voiceless stop/p/in 10 female and 10 male subjects with normal voices and in 10 female and 10 male non-organic dysphonic patients. In loud phonation, the female patients had significantly lower values than the female healthy subjects, while no corresponding significant difference was seen between the male subjects. In soft phonation, the male patients had significantly higher values than the normal healthy subjects, while the females showed no significant difference.

  12. Dysphagia, dysphonia and sore throat following cerebral infarction: an unexpected cause.

    PubMed

    Slade, Peter Michael Edward; Larsen, Matthew Peter

    2015-07-06

    A 75-year-old woman presented with left-sided weakness. There was no speech disturbance or reported swallowing difficulties. CT of the head revealed infarction in the territory of the right middle cerebral artery. The patient was transferred to the acute stroke unit and a nasogastric tube was placed following a failed swallow screening test. The following day, on assessment, there was considerable pain on swallowing. The tone and quality of the patient's voice had deteriorated and there was significant dysphagia. Seven days later a plastic item, later identified as the patient's denture, was expectorated. Following this, the dysphagia, dysphonia and sore throat rapidly resolved. The case highlights the importance of considering foreign body in the differential, and oral cavity examination in the assessment of a patient with dysphagia and sore throat is essential.

  13. Objective Dysphonia Quantification in Vocal Fold Paralysis: Comparing Nonlinear with Classical Measures

    PubMed Central

    Little, Max A.; Costello, Declan A. E.; Harries, Meredydd L.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Clinical acoustic voice-recording analysis is usually performed using classical perturbation measures, including jitter, shimmer, and noise-to-harmonic ratios (NHRs). However, restrictive mathematical limitations of these measures prevent analysis for severely dysphonic voices. Previous studies of alternative nonlinear random measures addressed wide varieties of vocal pathologies. Here, we analyze a single vocal pathology cohort, testing the performance of these alternative measures alongside classical measures. We present voice analysis pre- and postoperatively in 17 patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP). The patients underwent standard medialization thyroplasty surgery, and the voices were analyzed using jitter, shimmer, NHR, nonlinear recurrence period density entropy (RPDE), detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), and correlation dimension. In addition, we similarly analyzed 11 healthy controls. Systematizing the preanalysis editing of the recordings, we found that the novel measures were more stable and, hence, reliable than the classical measures on healthy controls. RPDE and jitter are sensitive to improvements pre- to postoperation. Shimmer, NHR, and DFA showed no significant change (P > 0.05). All measures detect statistically significant and clinically important differences between controls and patients, both treated and untreated (P < 0.001, area under curve [AUC] > 0.7). Pre- to postoperation grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, and strain (GRBAS) ratings show statistically significant and clinically important improvement in overall dysphonia grade (G) (AUC = 0.946, P < 0.001). Recalculating AUCs from other study data, we compare these results in terms of clinical importance. We conclude that, when preanalysis editing is systematized, nonlinear random measures may be useful for monitoring UVFP-treatment effectiveness, and there may be applications to other forms of dysphonia. PMID:19900790

  14. Data-Driven Detection of Prominent Objects.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Serrano, Jose A; Larlus, Diane; Dai, Zhenwen

    2016-10-01

    This article deals with the detection of prominent objects in images. As opposed to the standard approaches based on sliding windows, we study a fundamentally different solution by formulating the supervised prediction of a bounding box as an image retrieval task. Indeed, given a global image descriptor, we find the most similar images in an annotated dataset, and transfer the object bounding boxes. We refer to this approach as data-driven detection (DDD). Our key novelty is to design or learn image similarities that explicitly optimize some aspect of the transfer unlike previous work which uses generic representations and unsupervised similarities. In a first variant, we explicitly learn to transfer, by adapting a metric learning approach to work with image and bounding box pairs. Second, we use a representation of images as object probability maps computed from low-level patch classifiers. Experiments show that these two contributions yield in some cases comparable or better results than standard sliding window detectors - despite its conceptual simplicity and run-time efficiency. Our third contribution is an application of prominent object detection, where we improve fine-grained categorization by pre-cropping images with the proposed approach. Finally, we also extend the proposed approach to detect multiple parts of rigid objects. PMID:26700971

  15. Filament-Prominence-Cme Magnetic Evolution Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagala', L. G.; Mandrini, C. H.; Fernandez Borda, R.; de Pontieu, B.; Rovira, M. G.; Rank, G.

    1999-10-01

    The first results of the SOHO Joint Observation Program JOP 99 are outlined. JOP 99 involve several SOHO instruments (CDS, LASCO, MDI), together with TRACE, and two new ground-based instruments: HASTA (Hα Solar Telescope for Argentina) and MICA (Mirror Coronagraph for Argentina). The proposed program have a new motivation in taking advantage of the capabilities of the TRACE instrument, together with our experience in magnetic reconnection. The objective here is focused on the investigation of the conditions of the eruption of a prominence, often associated with the CME. JOP 99 is running at the moment that this abstract is submitted. It is a 5-days study of the filament/prominence, with 3-4 days observing the disk and 1-2 days observing the limb. While on disk, we will look for the eruption signatures in two ways: by studying the physical conditions in the filament and its surroundings (densities, temperature, abundances), and by looking at the magnetic topology changes. While at the limb, we will wait with luck for an eruption. If it does happen, LASCO and MICA observations will study if there exists an associated CME.

  16. Integrated EMG feedback in the management of spasmodic torticollis and focal dystonia: a prospective study of 80 patients.

    PubMed

    Korein, J; Brudny, J

    1976-01-01

    In summary, then, without consideration of specific circuits or transmitter agents, one can conceive of a hypothetical model that involves both learning and the functional nature of the defect in torticollis and focal dystonia to describe the results obtained. The model must be further elaborated upon and tested, preferably in a quantitative manner. Naturally, the specific finding of a defective transmitter agent (e.g., GABA) such as described in parkinsonian syndrome (dopamine) or the interruption of a specific pathway that causes and improves a dyskinesia is desirable. In this chapter we have described the use of integrated EMG feedback for the treatment of focal dystonia or spasmodic torticollis. Although we have achieved significant results, it remains clear that further research in the treatment of these disorders is required. However, since this treatment does not require medication or surgery and the possibility for significant improvement is greater than 40%, it should be attempted in patients with focal dystonia or torticollis prior to other forms of therapy. SFT should be considered as a standard mode in the medical armamentarium used for the treatment of these disorders, either primarily or in conjunction with other forms of medical, surgical, and physical therapy.

  17. Explosive Instability of Prominence Flux Ropes

    SciTech Connect

    Hurricane, O; Fong, R H L; Cowley, S C

    2002-09-04

    The rapid, Alfvenic, time scale of erupting solar-prominences has been an enigma ever since they where first identified. Investigators have proposed a variety of different mechanisms in an effort to account for the abrupt reconfiguration observed. No one mechanism clearly stands out as the single cause of these explosive events. Recent analysis has demonstrated that field lines in the solar atmosphere are metastable to ballooning type instabilities. It has been found previously that in ideal MHD plasmas marginally unstable ballooning modes inevitably become ''explosive'' evolving towards a finite time singularity via a nonlinear 3D instability called ''Nonlinear Magnetohydrodynamic Detonation.'' Thus, this mechanism is a good candidate to explain explosive events observed in the solar atmosphere of our star or in others.

  18. Observational Constraints on Stellar Flares and Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aarnio, Alicia

    2016-07-01

    Multi-wavelength surveys have catalogued a wealth of stellar flare data for stars representing a broad range of masses and ages. Young solar analogs inform our understanding of the Sun's evolution and the influence of its activity on early solar system formation, while field star observations allow us to place its current activity into context within a statistical ensemble of main-sequence G-type stars. At the same time, stellar observations probe a variety of interior and coronal conditions, providing constraints on models of equilibrium (and loss thereof!) for magnetic structures. In this review, I will focus on our current understanding of stellar flares, prominences, and coronal mass ejections as a function of stellar parameters. As our interpretation of stellar data relies heavily on solar-stellar analogy, I will explore how far into extreme stellar parameter spaces this comparison can be invoked.

  19. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor presenting with prominent calcification

    PubMed Central

    Izawa, Naoki; Sawada, Takeshi; Abiko, Ryuichi; Kumon, Daisuke; Hirakawa, Mami; Kobayashi, Mika; Obinata, Nobuyuki; Nomoto, Masahito; Maehata, Tadateru; Yamauchi, Shun-ichi; Kouro, Takefumi; Tsuda, Takashi; Kitajima, Satoshi; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Keiichi; Tanaka, Ichiro; Hoshikawa, Masahiro; Takagi, Masayuki; Itoh, Fumio

    2012-01-01

    We present a rare case of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) in the stomach with prominent calcification at presentation. A 61-year-old woman visited our hospital because of epigastric discomfort. A spherical calcified lesion with a diameter of about 30 mm was incidentally shown in the left upper quadrant on an abdominal X-ray. Computed tomography demonstrated that the tumor was growing from the upper gastric body, with calcification in the peripheral ring area. A laparoscopic partial gastrectomy was performed, and the resected specimen revealed a well-circumscribed tumor with exophytic growth from the gastric muscularis propria. Microscopic examination revealed spindle-shaped tumor cells with calcification and hemorrhage. Additionally, positive immunoreactivity of the tumor to KIT and CD34 and a low mitotic index resulted in the diagnosis of very low risk GIST. There are a few case reports of heavily calcified GIST, although solitary or punctate calcification of primary GIST has been reported in several case series. Dystrophic calcification of necrotic or degenerative tissue is the supposed cause of primary calcified GISTs. In contrast, appearance of calcification after administration of imatinib mesylate, which may be one indicator of disease response, is possibly caused by a different mechanism. PMID:23112561

  20. Properties of the prominence magnetic field and plasma distributions as obtained from 3D whole-prominence fine structure modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunár, S.; Mackay, D. H.

    2016-07-01

    Aims: We analyze distributions of the magnetic field strength and prominence plasma (temperature, pressure, plasma β, and mass) using the 3D whole-prominence fine structure model. Methods: The model combines a 3D magnetic field configuration of an entire prominence, obtained from non-linear force-free field simulations, with a detailed semi-empirically derived description of the prominence plasma. The plasma is located in magnetic dips in hydrostatic equilibrium and is distributed along multiple fine structures within the 3D magnetic model. Results: We show that in the modeled prominence, the variations of the magnetic field strength and its orientation are insignificant on scales comparable to the smallest dimensions of the observed prominence fine structures. We also show the ability of the 3D whole-prominence fine structure model to reveal the distribution of the prominence plasma with respect to its temperature within the prominence volume. This provides new insights into the composition of the prominence-corona transition region. We further demonstrate that the values of the plasma β are small throughout the majority of the modeled prominences when realistic photospheric magnetic flux distributions and prominence plasma parameters are assumed. While this is generally true, we also find that in the region with the deepest magnetic dips, the plasma β may increase towards unity. Finally, we show that the mass of the modeled prominence plasma is in good agreement with the mass of observed non-eruptive prominences.

  1. A Study of quiescent prominences using SDO and STEREO data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panesar, Navdeep Kaur

    2014-05-01

    In this dissertation, we have studied the structure, dynamics and evolution of two quiescent prominences. Quiescent prominences are large structures and mainly associated with the quiet Sun region. For the analysis, we have used the high spatial and temporal cadence data from the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO), and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO). We combined the observations from two different directions and studied the prominence in 3D. In the study of polar crown prominence, we mainly investigated the prominence flows on limb and found its association with on-disk brightenings. The merging of diffused active region flux in the already formed chain of prominence caused the several brightenings in the filament channel and also injected the plasma upward with an average velocity of 15 km/s. In another study, we investigated the triggering mechanism of a quiescent tornado-like prominence. Flares from the neighboring active region triggered the tornado-like motions of the top of the prominence. Active region field contracts after the flare which results in the expansion of prominence cavity. The prominence helical magnetic field expands and plasma moves along the field lines which appear as a tornado-like activity. In addition, the thermal structure of the tornado-like prominence and neighbouring active region was investigated by analysing emission in six of the seven EUV channels from the SDO. These observational investigations led to our understanding of structure and dynamics of quiescent prominences, which could be useful for theoretical prominence models.

  2. Preliminary considerations on the application of the voice handicap index to paediatric dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Schindler, A; Capaccio, P; Maruzzi, P; Ginocchio, D; Bottero, A; Otraviani, F

    2007-02-01

    Dysphonia is a common paediatric condition. Adult voices are usually evaluated using a set of minimal basic measurements including: endoscopic examination, aerodynamics, perception, acoustics, and self-assessment by the patient. The Voice Handicap Index is the most widely used self-assessment tool, but its use in the paediatric setting has never been reported. Aim of this study was to report Voice Handicap Index ratings in a group of dysphonic children, multi-modally assessed before and after voice therapy. The study involved 28 children (16 female, 12 male, mean age 10.9 years (range 6-12)) presenting chronic hoarseness due to vocal fold nodules (18 cases), unilateral localised oedema (6 cases) or recurrent laryngeal paralysis (4 cases). All received voice therapy for 5-6 months, and underwent voice assessments based on video-endoscopy ratings (size of nodule/ oedema or glottic closure in the case of recurrent laryngeal paralysis), maximum phonation time, GIRBAS scale, spectrograms and a perturbation analysis. All patients also completed the Voice Handicap Index. Aerodynamic, acoustic, perceptual and self-assessment data, before and after voice therapy, were compared using Wilcoxon's test and Student's t test. Correlations between the Voice Handicap Index domains were measured by means of Pearson's correlation coefficient. Post-treatment measurements showed that the nodules/oedema had decreased in size in 18 children following therapy, and two subjects with recurrent laryngeal paralysis showed improved glottic closure. Mean maximum phonation time increased slightly, but the difference was not significant. There was a general reduction in perceptual severity, but this was only significant for parameters G, B and A. Spectrographic analysis showed no significant improvement and, although the mean perturbation analysis values improved, only the difference in jitter values was significant (p = 0.016). Voice Handicap Index was applicable in all cases, and showed a clear

  3. Correlation between female sex and allergy was significant in patients presenting with dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Lauriello, M; Angelone, A M; Businco, L Di Rienzo; Passali, D; Bellussi, L M; Passali, F M

    2011-06-01

    Aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of allergy in patients affected by both organic and/or functional vocal fold disorders. The secondary aim was to assess the correlation between sex and allergy in dysphonic patients. A retrospective chart review was performed on dysphonic patients. A total of 76 patients underwent fiberoptic endoscopy to assess the objective picture. Logistic regression analyses have been conducted to assess the association between sex and the outcome variables. The laryngoscopic examination revealed the presence of poor glottic closure in 32.9%, hyperkinesias in 11.8%, redness in 11.84%, polyps in 5.3%, oedema in 3.95%, vocal fold hypertrophy in 5.3%, nodules in 42.1%, cordectomy in 2.6%. Allergic rhinitis was present in 56.6%, milk intolerance in 13.2%, asthma in 9.2%, atopic dermatitis in 3.9%, drugs intolerance in 11.8%. A total of 76.32% patients presenting with dysphonia were allergic. A statistically significant association was found between female sex and presence of allergy. In conclusion, allergy testing should be performed routinely on female professional voice users. Mild respiratory disorders must be taken into serious consideration in female professional voice users, who may primarily complain of vocal dysfunction rather than upper and lower respiratory diseases.

  4. The effectiveness of voice therapy for patients with non-organic dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Carding, P N; Horsley, I A; Docherty, G J

    1998-08-01

    Forty-five patients diagnosed as having non-organic dysphonia were assigned in rotation to one of three groups. Patients in one group received no treatment and acted as a control group. Patients in the other two groups received a programme of either 'indirect' therapy or 'direct with indirect' therapy, respectively. A self-report questionnaire of vocal performance, observed ratings of voice quality, and computer-derived acoustic measurements (signal-to-noise ratio, pitch perturbation and amplitude perturbation) were carried out on all patients before and after treatment to evaluate the changes in voice quality over time. There was a significant difference between the three groups on the self-report questionnaire, voice quality ratings and pitch perturbation measurements (P = < 0.05). Thirteen out of 15 control patients showed no significant change on any of the measures. Seven patients who received indirect treatment showed significant improvement in voice quality following treatment. Fourteen out of 15 patients who received direct treatment showed significant improvement in voice quality.

  5. Magnetic field and radiative transfer modelling of a quiescent prominence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunár, S.; Schwartz, P.; Dudík, J.; Schmieder, B.; Heinzel, P.; Jurčák, J.

    2014-07-01

    Aims: The aim of this work is to analyse the multi-instrument observations of the June 22, 2010 prominence to study its structure in detail, including the prominence-corona transition region and the dark bubble located below the prominence body. Methods: We combined results of the 3D magnetic field modelling with 2D prominence fine structure radiative transfer models to fully exploit the available observations. Results: The 3D linear force-free field model with the unsheared bipole reproduces the morphology of the analysed prominence reasonably well, thus providing useful information about its magnetic field configuration and the location of the magnetic dips. The 2D models of the prominence fine structures provide a good representation of the local plasma configuration in the region dominated by the quasi-vertical threads. However, the low observed Lyman-α central intensities and the morphology of the analysed prominence suggest that its upper central part is not directly illuminated from the solar surface. Conclusions: This multi-disciplinary prominence study allows us to argue that a large part of the prominence-corona transition region plasma can be located inside the magnetic dips in small-scale features that surround the cool prominence material located in the dip centre. We also argue that the dark prominence bubbles can be formed because of perturbations of the prominence magnetic field by parasitic bipoles, causing them to be devoid of the magnetic dips. Magnetic dips, however, form thin layers that surround these bubbles, which might explain the occurrence of the cool prominence material in the lines of sight intersecting the prominence bubbles. Movie and Appendix A are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  6. The association between lifetime cigarette smoking and dysphonia in the Korean general population: findings from a national survey

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between current smoking and lifetime amount smoked and the incidence of dysphonia using data from a national cross-sectional survey that represents the Korean population. Subjects were 3,600 non-institutionalised civilian adults over the age of 19 (1,501 males and 2,099 females) who completed the laryngeal examination of the 2008 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). For lifetime amount smoked, subjects were classified as light smokers (≤26.7 pack years), medium smokers (26.7–40.5 pack years), heavy smokers (40.5–55.5 pack years), and very heavy smokers (55.5–156 pack years) based on pack years (packs smoked per day × years as a smoker). The odds ratio (OR) for the statistical test was presented using hierarchical logistic regression. When adjusted for covariates (age, gender, level of education, income, occupation, alcohol consumption and pain/discomfort during the last two weeks), current smokers had a 1.8 times (OR = 1.77, 95% CI [1.17–2.68]) higher risk for self-reported voice problems than non-smokers. Moreover, current smokers had a 1.6 times (OR = 1.56, 95% CI [1.02–2.38]) higher risk of laryngeal disorder (p < 0.05). In terms of pack years, very heavy smokers were significantly more likely to have laryngeal disorder, while self-reported voice problems were significantly more likely for heavy smokers but not very heavy smokers. The results of this study imply that chronic smoking has a significant relationship with dysphonia. Longitudinal studies are required in future work to verify the causality between lifetime smoking amount and dysphonia. PMID:25945309

  7. SIMULATING THE IN SITU CONDENSATION PROCESS OF SOLAR PROMINENCES

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, C.; Keppens, R.; Antolin, P.; Porth, O.

    2014-09-10

    Prominences in the solar corona are a hundredfold cooler and denser than their surroundings, with a total mass of 10{sup 13} up to 10{sup 15} g. Here, we report on the first comprehensive simulations of three-dimensional, thermally and gravitationally stratified magnetic flux ropes where in situ condensation to a prominence occurs due to radiative losses. After a gradual thermodynamic adjustment, we witness a phase where runaway cooling occurs while counter-streaming shearing flows drain off mass along helical field lines. After this drainage, a prominence-like condensation resides in concave upward field regions, and this prominence retains its overall characteristics for more than two hours. While condensing, the prominence establishes a prominence-corona transition region where magnetic field-aligned thermal conduction is operative during the runaway cooling. The prominence structure represents a force-balanced state in a helical flux rope. The simulated condensation demonstrates a right-bearing barb, as a remnant of the drainage. Synthetic images at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths follow the onset of the condensation, and confirm the appearance of horns and a three-part structure for the stable prominence state, as often seen in erupting prominences. This naturally explains recent Solar Dynamics Observatory views with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on prominences in coronal cavities demonstrating horns.

  8. PROMINENCE FORMATION ASSOCIATED WITH AN EMERGING HELICAL FLUX ROPE

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, Takenori J.; Tsuneta, Saku; Katsukawa, Yukio; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Lites, Bruce W.; Kubo, Masahito; Yokoyama, Takaaki; Berger, Thomas E.; Shine, Richard A.; Tarbell, Theodore D.; Title, Alan M.; Shimizu, Toshifumi

    2009-05-20

    The formation and evolution process and magnetic configuration of solar prominences remain unclear. In order to study the formation process of prominences, we examine continuous observations of a prominence in NOAA AR 10953 with the Solar Optical Telescope on the Hinode satellite. As reported in our previous Letter, we find a signature suggesting that a helical flux rope emerges from below the photosphere under a pre-existing prominence. Here we investigate more detailed properties and photospheric indications of the emerging helical flux rope, and discuss their relationship to the formation of the prominence. Our main conclusions are: (1) a dark region with absence of strong vertical magnetic fields broadens and then narrows in Ca II H-line filtergrams. This phenomenon is consistent with the emergence of the helical flux rope as photospheric counterparts. The size of the flux rope is roughly 30,000 km long and 10,000 km wide. The width is larger than that of the prominence. (2) No shear motion or converging flows are detected, but we find diverging flows such as mesogranules along the polarity inversion line. The presence of mesogranules may be related to the emergence of the helical flux rope. (3) The emerging helical flux rope reconnects with magnetic fields of the pre-existing prominence to stabilize the prominence for the next several days. We thus conjecture that prominence coronal magnetic fields emerge in the form of helical flux ropes that contribute to the formation and maintenance of the prominence.

  9. Simulating the in Situ Condensation Process of Solar Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, C.; Keppens, R.; Antolin, P.; Porth, O.

    2014-09-01

    Prominences in the solar corona are a hundredfold cooler and denser than their surroundings, with a total mass of 1013 up to 1015 g. Here, we report on the first comprehensive simulations of three-dimensional, thermally and gravitationally stratified magnetic flux ropes where in situ condensation to a prominence occurs due to radiative losses. After a gradual thermodynamic adjustment, we witness a phase where runaway cooling occurs while counter-streaming shearing flows drain off mass along helical field lines. After this drainage, a prominence-like condensation resides in concave upward field regions, and this prominence retains its overall characteristics for more than two hours. While condensing, the prominence establishes a prominence-corona transition region where magnetic field-aligned thermal conduction is operative during the runaway cooling. The prominence structure represents a force-balanced state in a helical flux rope. The simulated condensation demonstrates a right-bearing barb, as a remnant of the drainage. Synthetic images at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths follow the onset of the condensation, and confirm the appearance of horns and a three-part structure for the stable prominence state, as often seen in erupting prominences. This naturally explains recent Solar Dynamics Observatory views with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on prominences in coronal cavities demonstrating horns.

  10. The executive prominent/memory prominent spectrum in Alzheimer’s disease is highly heritable

    PubMed Central

    Mez, Jesse; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Thornton, Timothy; Fardo, David W.; Trittschuh, Emily; Sutti, Sheila; Sherva, Richard; Kauwe, John S.; Naj, Adam C.; Beecham, Gary W.; Gross, Alden; Saykin, Andrew J.; Green, Robert C.; Crane, Paul K.

    2016-01-01

    Late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD) can present heterogeneously, with several subtypes recognized, including dysexecutive AD. One way to identify people with dysexecutive AD is to consider the difference between memory and executive functioning, which we refer to as the executive prominent/memory prominent spectrum. We aimed to determine if this spectrum was heritable. We used neuropsychological and genetic data from people with mild LOAD (Clinical Dementia Rating 0.5 or 1.0) from the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center and the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. We cocalibrated the neuropsychological data to obtain executive functioning and memory scores and used their difference as a continuous phenotype to calculate its heritability overall and by chromosome. Narrow-sense heritability of the difference between memory and executive functioning scores was 0.68 (standard error 0.12). Single nucleotide polymorphisms on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 11, 12, and 18 explained the largest fraction of phenotypic variance, with signals from each chromosome accounting for 5%–7%. The chromosomal pattern of heritability differed substantially from that of LOAD itself. PMID:27103524

  11. The executive prominent/memory prominent spectrum in Alzheimer's disease is highly heritable.

    PubMed

    Mez, Jesse; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Thornton, Timothy; Fardo, David W; Trittschuh, Emily; Sutti, Sheila; Sherva, Richard; Kauwe, John S; Naj, Adam C; Beecham, Gary W; Gross, Alden; Saykin, Andrew J; Green, Robert C; Crane, Paul K

    2016-05-01

    Late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) can present heterogeneously, with several subtypes recognized, including dysexecutive AD. One way to identify people with dysexecutive AD is to consider the difference between memory and executive functioning, which we refer to as the executive prominent/memory prominent spectrum. We aimed to determine if this spectrum was heritable. We used neuropsychological and genetic data from people with mild LOAD (Clinical Dementia Rating 0.5 or 1.0) from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center and the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. We cocalibrated the neuropsychological data to obtain executive functioning and memory scores and used their difference as a continuous phenotype to calculate its heritability overall and by chromosome. Narrow-sense heritability of the difference between memory and executive functioning scores was 0.68 (standard error 0.12). Single nucleotide polymorphisms on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 11, 12, and 18 explained the largest fraction of phenotypic variance, with signals from each chromosome accounting for 5%-7%. The chromosomal pattern of heritability differed substantially from that of LOAD itself.

  12. Increased sensitization of acoustic startle response in spasmodic mice with a mutation of the glycine receptor alpha1-subunit gene.

    PubMed

    Plappert, C F; Pilz, P K; Becker, K; Becker, C M; Schnitzler, H U

    2001-06-01

    The spontaneous mutant mouse spasmodic (spd) carries a missense mutation affecting the glycine receptor alpha1-subunit gene. This results in a decreased binding affinity to glycine. Spd mutants show exaggerated acoustic startle responses (ASR). The present study sought to elucidate whether this increased ASR is due to a changed auditory processing or to stronger motor output resulting from a disinhibited motor system or, alternatively, to changes in modulatory influences on the startle pathway, namely in the mechanisms underlying habituation and sensitization. We found that in homozygous spd/spd mutants the startle threshold was lower, and the recorded slope of input/output (i/o) function, which reflects the relation between sensory input and motor output, was steeper. During repetitive presentation of high sound pressure level (SPL) startle stimuli (25 dB above startle threshold), ASR amplitudes did not decrease in spd/spd mutants as they do in the wildtype. In contrast, ASR amplitudes decreased when low SPL startle stimuli were presented. Footshocks presented after high SPL startle stimuli did not cause a further increase in ASR amplitudes of spd/spd mutants as in the wildtype. In heterozygous spd/+ mutants all these parameters were between those of spd/spd mutants and wildtype mice but closer to those of the wildtype. The steeper slope of i/o function in spd/spd mutants may be caused by both an increased sensory input and an increased motor output. The altered course of ASR amplitudes during repetitive stimulation and the deficit in additional footshock sensitization, however, can only be explained by an increased sensitization level in the spd/spd mutants. In accordance with the "dual process theory" strong sensitization evoked by high SPL startle stimuli supposedly counteracts habituation, leading to a constant high ASR amplitude. Furthermore, additional footshock sensitization is prevented. The increased sensitization level may be due to a change in auditory

  13. Neutral Atom Diffusion in a Partially Ionized Prominence Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Holly

    2010-01-01

    The support of solar prominences is normally described in terms of a magnetic force on the prominence plasma that balances the solar gravitational force. Because the prominence plasma is only partially ionized. it is necessary to consider in addition the support of the neutral component of the prominence plasma. This support is accomplished through a frictional interaction between the neutral and ionized components of the plasma, and its efficacy depends strongly on the degree of ionization of the plasma. More specifically, the frictional force is proportional to the relative flow of neutral and ion species, and for a sufficiently weakly ionized plasma, this flow must be relatively large to produce a frictional force that balances gravity. A large relative flow, of course, implies significant draining of neutral particles from the prominence. We evaluate the importance of this draining effect for a hydrogen-helium plasma, and consider the observational evidence for cross-field diffusion of neutral prominence material,

  14. Manual Therapy and Exercise to Improve Outcomes in Patients With Muscle Tension Dysphonia: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Kristin R.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Muscle tension dysphonia (MTD), a common voice disorder that is not commonly referred for physical therapy intervention, is characterized by excessive muscle recruitment, resulting in incorrect vibratory patterns of vocal folds and an alteration in voice production. This case series was conducted to determine whether physical therapy including manual therapy, exercise, and stress management education would be beneficial to this population by reducing excess muscle tension. Case Description Nine patients with MTD completed a minimum of 9 sessions of the intervention. Patient-reported outcomes of pain, function, and quality of life were assessed at baseline and the conclusion of treatment. The outcome measures were the numeric rating scale (NRS), Patient-Specific Functional Scale (PSFS), and Voice Handicap Index (VHI). Cervical and jaw range of motion also were assessed at baseline and postintervention using standard goniometric measurements. Outcomes Eight of the patients had no pain after treatment. All 9 of the patients demonstrated an improvement in PSFS score, with 7 patients exceeding a clinically meaningful improvement at the conclusion of the intervention. Three of the patients also had a clinically meaningful change in VHI scores. All 9 of the patients demonstrated improvement in cervical flexion and lateral flexion and jaw opening, whereas 8 patients improved in cervical extension and rotation postintervention. Discussion The findings suggest that physical therapists can feasibly implement an intervention to improve outcomes in patients with MTD. However, a randomized clinical trial is needed to confirm the results of this case series and the efficacy of the intervention. A clinical implication is the expansion of physical therapy to include referrals from voice centers for the treatment of MTD. PMID:25256740

  15. The variations of prominence activities during solar cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimojo, Masumi

    The prominence activities (prominence eruption/disappearance) in the solar atmosphere closely relate with the CMEs that cause great influences on heliosphere and magnetosphere. Gopal-swarmy et al. (2003) reported that 72 The Nobeyama Radioheliograph (NoRH) is observing Sun in microwave (17 GHz) since 1992. At a flare, the main component of the microwave from Sun is emitted from non-thermal electrons that are accelerated by flare. On the other hand, the main component of the microwave is thermal emission when Sun is quiet, and a prominence is clearly observed in microwave because there is the prominence on the limb. We developed the automatic prominence activity detection program based on 17 GHz images observed by NoRH, and investigated the variation of the properties of the prominence activities that oc-curred from 1992 to the end of 2009. We found the following results. 1. The variation in the number of prominence activities is similar to that of sunspots during one solar cycle but there are differences between the peak times of prominence activities and sunspots. 2. The frequency distribution as a function of the magnitude of the prominence activities the size of activated prominences at each phase shows a power-law distribution. The power-law index of the distribution does not change except around the solar minimum. 3. The number of promi-nence activities has a dependence on the latitude On the other hand the average magnitude is independent of the latitude. In the paper, we will also discuss the relationship the other properties of prominence eruptions, solar cycle and the photospheric magnetic field.

  16. Internal Dynamics of a Twin-layer Solar Prominence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, C.; Keppens, R.

    2016-07-01

    Modern observations revealed rich dynamics within solar prominences. The globally stable quiescent prominences, characterized by the presence of thin vertical threads and falling knobs, are frequently invaded by small rising dark plumes. These dynamic phenomena are related to magnetic Rayleigh–Taylor instability, since prominence matter, 100 times denser than surrounding coronal plasma, is lifted against gravity by weak magnetic field. To get a deeper understanding of the physics behind these phenomena, we use three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations to investigate the nonlinear magnetoconvective motions in a twin-layer prominence in a macroscopic model from chromospheric layers up to 30 Mm height. The properties of simulated falling “fingers” and uprising bubbles are consistent with those in observed vertical threads and rising plumes in quiescent prominences. Both sheets of the twin-layer prominence show a strongly coherent evolution due to their magnetic connectivity, and demonstrate collective kink deformation. Our model suggests that the vertical threads of the prominence as seen in an edge-on view, and the apparent horizontal threads of the filament when seen top-down are different appearances of the same structures. Synthetic images of the modeled twin-layer prominence reflect the strong degree of mixing established over the entire prominence structure, in agreement with the observations.

  17. KINEMATICS OF TWO ERUPTIVE PROMINENCES OBSERVED BY EUVI/STEREO

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Anand D.; Srivastava, Nandita

    2011-04-01

    Two large northern polar crown prominences that erupted on 2010 April 13 and 2010 August 1 were analyzed using images obtained from the Extreme UltraViolet Imager on the twin Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory spacecraft. Several features along the prominence legs were reconstructed using a stereoscopic reconstruction technique developed by us. The three-dimensional changes exhibited by the prominences can be explained as an interplay between two different motions, namely helical twist in the prominence spine, and overall non-radial equatorward motion of the entire prominence structure. The sense of twist in both the prominences is determined from the changes in latitudes and longitudes of the reconstructed features. The prominences are observed starting from a few hours before the eruption. Increase in height before and during the eruption allowed us to study the kinematics of the prominences in the two phases of eruption, the slow-rise and the fast-eruptive phase. A constant value of acceleration was found for each reconstructed feature in each phase, but it showed a significant change from one leg to the other in both the prominences. The magnitude of acceleration during the eruptive phase is found to be commensurate with the net effect of the two motions stated above.

  18. Internal Dynamics of a Twin-layer Solar Prominence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, C.; Keppens, R.

    2016-07-01

    Modern observations revealed rich dynamics within solar prominences. The globally stable quiescent prominences, characterized by the presence of thin vertical threads and falling knobs, are frequently invaded by small rising dark plumes. These dynamic phenomena are related to magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability, since prominence matter, 100 times denser than surrounding coronal plasma, is lifted against gravity by weak magnetic field. To get a deeper understanding of the physics behind these phenomena, we use three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations to investigate the nonlinear magnetoconvective motions in a twin-layer prominence in a macroscopic model from chromospheric layers up to 30 Mm height. The properties of simulated falling “fingers” and uprising bubbles are consistent with those in observed vertical threads and rising plumes in quiescent prominences. Both sheets of the twin-layer prominence show a strongly coherent evolution due to their magnetic connectivity, and demonstrate collective kink deformation. Our model suggests that the vertical threads of the prominence as seen in an edge-on view, and the apparent horizontal threads of the filament when seen top-down are different appearances of the same structures. Synthetic images of the modeled twin-layer prominence reflect the strong degree of mixing established over the entire prominence structure, in agreement with the observations.

  19. [Diagnostics and therapy of dysphonia suitable for the ages and developmental stages of children and adolescents (part 2)].

    PubMed

    Fuchs, M

    2008-02-01

    The incidence of dysphonia among children and adolescents is evaluated internationally at 6 % to 25 %. Nonetheless, hoarseness as a leading symptom among children is often insufficiently recognized by their parents/attachment figures, by the young patients themselves, and even by physicians. In an overview, the hereditary and acquired organic and functional causes - including secondary organic lesions of the vocal folds - their pathomechanisms and the symptoms typical for this age group are presented. For diagnostics suitable for these age groups and developmental stages, modern methods of laryngoscopy (including stoboscopy and real-time laryngoscopy), of functional diagnostics of vocal capacity and quality as well as anamnestic and psychometric procedures for the investigation of possible psychosomatic genesis are available. Frequent therapeutic measures are vocal hygienic counseling and psycho- and family dynamic therapies. Vocal exercise treatments are particularly employed for the consequences of laryngeal surgery and with voice techniques unfavorable as a precondition for increased vocal activity. Operative measures in the sound-producing areas of the vocal apparatus and in the framework of plastic reconstruction concentrate on the optimizing of vocal capacity and quality. In clinical routine, symptoms of dysphonia in children and adolescents should be consciously registered, and any long-term hoarseness, in this age group as well, should be examined by specialized physicians using the methods suitable to the age group and the developmental stage. When the appropriate indications are present, all of the therapeutic options currently available should be discussed.

  20. The treatment of muscle tension dysphonia: a comparison of two treatment techniques by means of an objective multiparameter approach.

    PubMed

    Van Lierde, Kristiane M; De Bodt, Marc; Dhaeseleer, Evelien; Wuyts, Floris; Claeys, Sofie

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of the present study is to measure the effectiveness of two treatment techniques--vocalization with abdominal breath support and manual circumlaryngeal therapy (MCT)--in patients with muscle tension dysphonia (MTD). The vocal quality before and after the two treatment techniques was measured by means of the dysphonia severity index (DSI), which is designed to establish an objective and quantitative correlate of the perceived vocal quality. The DSI is based on the weighted combination of the following set of voice measurements: maximum phonation time (MPT), highest frequency, lowest intensity, and jitter. The repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed a significant difference between the objective overall vocal quality before and after MCT. No significant differences were measured between the objective overall vocal quality before and after vocalization with abdominal breath support. This study showed evidence that MCT is an effective treatment technique for patients with elevated laryngeal position, increased laryngeal muscle tension, and MTD. The precise way in which MCT has an effect on vocal quality has not been addressed in this experiment, but merits study. Further research into this topic could focus on electromyography (EMG) recordings in relation to vocal improvements with larger sample of subjects. PMID:19497709

  1. Effect of Laryngopharyngeal Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on Dysphonia Accompanied by Dysphagia in Post-stroke and Traumatic Brain Injury Patients: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of laryngopharyngeal neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on dysphonia in patients with dysphagia caused by stroke or traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods Eighteen patients participated in this study. The subjects were divided into NMES (n=12) and conventional swallowing training only (CST, n=6) groups. The NMES group received NMES combined with CST for 2 weeks, followed by CST without NMES for the next 2 weeks. The CST group received only CST for 4 weeks. All of the patients were evaluated before and at 2 and 4 weeks into the study. The outcome measurements included perceptual, acoustic and aerodynamic analyses. The correlation between dysphonia and swallowing function was also investigated. Results There were significant differences in the GRBAS (grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia and strain scale) total score and sound pressure level (SPL) between the two groups over time. The NMES relative to the CST group showed significant improvements in total GRBAS score and SPL at 2 weeks, though no inter-group differences were evident at 4 weeks. The improvement of the total GRBAS scores at 2 weeks was positively correlated with the improved pharyngeal phase scores on the functional dysphagia scale at 2 weeks. Conclusion The results demonstrate that laryngopharyngeal NMES in post-stroke or TBI patients with dysphonia can have promising effects on phonation. Therefore, laryngopharyngeal NMES may be considered as an additional treatment option for dysphonia accompanied by dysphagia after stroke or TBI.

  2. Effect of Laryngopharyngeal Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on Dysphonia Accompanied by Dysphagia in Post-stroke and Traumatic Brain Injury Patients: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of laryngopharyngeal neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on dysphonia in patients with dysphagia caused by stroke or traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods Eighteen patients participated in this study. The subjects were divided into NMES (n=12) and conventional swallowing training only (CST, n=6) groups. The NMES group received NMES combined with CST for 2 weeks, followed by CST without NMES for the next 2 weeks. The CST group received only CST for 4 weeks. All of the patients were evaluated before and at 2 and 4 weeks into the study. The outcome measurements included perceptual, acoustic and aerodynamic analyses. The correlation between dysphonia and swallowing function was also investigated. Results There were significant differences in the GRBAS (grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia and strain scale) total score and sound pressure level (SPL) between the two groups over time. The NMES relative to the CST group showed significant improvements in total GRBAS score and SPL at 2 weeks, though no inter-group differences were evident at 4 weeks. The improvement of the total GRBAS scores at 2 weeks was positively correlated with the improved pharyngeal phase scores on the functional dysphagia scale at 2 weeks. Conclusion The results demonstrate that laryngopharyngeal NMES in post-stroke or TBI patients with dysphonia can have promising effects on phonation. Therefore, laryngopharyngeal NMES may be considered as an additional treatment option for dysphonia accompanied by dysphagia after stroke or TBI. PMID:27606266

  3. Quantifying Dysphonia Severity Using a Spectralcepstral-Based Acoustic Index: Comparisons with Auditory-Perceptual Judgements from the CAPE-V

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awan, Shaheen N.; Roy, Nelson; JettE, Marie E.; Meltzner, Geoffrey S.; Hillman, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between acoustic spectral/cepstral measures and listener severity ratings in normal and disordered voice samples. CAPE-V sentence samples and the vowel /[script]/were elicited from eight normal speakers and 24 patients with varying degrees of dysphonia severity. Samples were analysed for measures of the…

  4. A prominence eruption driven by flux feeding from chromospheric fibrils

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Quanhao; Liu, Rui; Wang, Yuming; Shen, Chenglong; Liu, Kai; Liu, Jiajia; Wang, S.

    2014-07-10

    We present multi-wavelength observations of a prominence eruption originating from a quadrupolar field configuration, in which the prominence was embedded in a side arcade. Within the two-day period prior to its eruption on 2012 October 22, the prominence was perturbed three times by chromospheric fibrils underneath, which rose upward, became brightened, and merged into the prominence, resulting in horizontal flows along the prominence axis, suggesting that the fluxes carried by the fibrils were incorporated into the magnetic field of the prominence. These perturbations caused the prominence to oscillate and to rise faster than before. The absence of intense heating within the first two hours after the onset of the prominence eruption, which followed an exponential increase in height, indicates that ideal instability played a crucial role. The eruption involved interactions with the other side arcade, leading up to a twin coronal mass ejection, which was accompanied by transient surface brightenings in the central arcade, followed by transient dimmings and brightenings in the two side arcades. We suggest that flux feeding from chromospheric fibrils might be an important mechanism to trigger coronal eruptions.

  5. 21 CFR 101.15 - Food; prominence of required statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Food; prominence of required statements. 101.15 Section 101.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 101.15 Food; prominence of...

  6. 21 CFR 101.15 - Food; prominence of required statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Food; prominence of required statements. 101.15 Section 101.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 101.15 Food; prominence of...

  7. Prominent Feature Analysis: What It Means for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Sherry Seale; Graves, Richard L.; Morse, David T.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of a prominent feature analysis is to describe the stylistic flexibility that a young writer, or a group of young writers, exhibits on a given day, with a given prompt. In prominent feature analysis, there are no guidebooks, no rubrics--just student papers and the expertise of teachers. Teachers come to the papers individually and yet…

  8. 21 CFR 101.15 - Food; prominence of required statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 101.15 Food; prominence of required...(s) is the name of the food. (3) If any article of labeling (other than a label) contains any... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Food; prominence of required statements....

  9. 21 CFR 101.15 - Food; prominence of required statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Food; prominence of required statements. 101.15 Section 101.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 101.15 Food; prominence of...

  10. 21 CFR 101.15 - Food; prominence of required statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Food; prominence of required statements. 101.15 Section 101.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 101.15 Food; prominence of...

  11. On Common Ground: Prominent Women Talk about Work & Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuckerman, Diana, Ed.

    This publication presents interviews with 11 prominent women, representing different backgrounds, philosophies, and life experiences, in which they speak about their own experiences with work and family issues. The introduction, "On Common Ground: Prominent Women Talk about Work & Family" (Diana Zuckerman), provides an overview. The 11 interviews…

  12. Magnetic Field in Atypical Prominence Structures: Bubble, Tornado, and Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levens, P. J.; Schmieder, B.; López Ariste, A.; Labrosse, N.; Dalmasse, K.; Gelly, B.

    2016-08-01

    Spectropolarimetric observations of prominences have been obtained with the THEMIS telescope during four years of coordinated campaigns. Our aim is now to understand the conditions of the cool plasma and magnetism in “atypical” prominences, namely when the measured inclination of the magnetic field departs, to some extent, from the predominantly horizontal field found in “typical” prominences. What is the role of the magnetic field in these prominence types? Are plasma dynamics more important in these cases than the magnetic support? We focus our study on three types of “atypical” prominences (tornadoes, bubbles, and jet-like prominence eruptions) that have all been observed by THEMIS in the He i D3 line, from which the Stokes parameters can be derived. The magnetic field strength, inclination, and azimuth in each pixel are obtained by using the inversion method of principal component analysis on a model of single scattering in the presence of the Hanle effect. The magnetic field in tornadoes is found to be more or less horizontal, whereas for the eruptive prominence it is mostly vertical. We estimate a tendency toward higher values of magnetic field strength inside the bubbles than outside in the surrounding prominence. In all of the models in our database, only one magnetic field orientation is considered for each pixel. While sufficient for most of the main prominence body, this assumption appears to be oversimplified in atypical prominence structures. We should consider these observations as the result of superposition of multiple magnetic fields, possibly even with a turbulent field component.

  13. Strong Rotation of an Erupting Quiescent Polar Crown Prominence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    On 5-6 June 2007, a large quiescent polar crown prominence was observed to erupt by the two Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) spacecraft. This eruption was particularly visible in the 304 A channel of the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUVI) telescopes. A detailed analysis of the fine structures in the images allows the three-dimensional structure of the erupting prominence to be derived. The prominence is seen to undergo substantial rotation of at least 90 along the radial axis as it rises, with indications that additional rotation occurred before the prominence rose into the STEREO fields of view. Two temporary structures ("spurs") are seen to form at an angle to the main spine of the prominence, and are interpreted as signs of reconnection. These reconnection events contribute to the overall rotation of the prominence. A significant fraction of the prominence material is drained through new field lines caused by one of the reconnection events, resulting in only a weak coronal mass ejection event observed by the STEREO and SOHO coronagraphs. The eruption is interpreted as being initiated by the helical kink instability, with subsequent modification by the reconnection events.

  14. Dynamic formation and magnetic support of loop or arcade prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanhoven, Gerard; Mok, Y.; Drake, J. F.

    1992-01-01

    The results of model dynamic simulations of the formation and support of a narrow prominence at the apex of a coronal magnetic loop or arcade are described. The condensation process proceeds via an initial radiative cooling and pressure drop, and a secondary siphon flow from the dense chromospheric ends. The antibuoyancy effect as the prominence forms causes a bending of a confining magnetic field, which propagates toward the semirigid ends of the magnetic loop. Thus, a wide magnetic 'hammock' or well (of a normal polarity Kippenhahn-Schlueter type) is formed, which supports the prominence at or near the field apex.

  15. Prominence and control: the weighted rich-club effect.

    PubMed

    Opsahl, Tore; Colizza, Vittoria; Panzarasa, Pietro; Ramasco, José J

    2008-10-17

    Complex systems are often characterized by large-scale hierarchical organizations. Whether the prominent elements, at the top of the hierarchy, share and control resources or avoid one another lies at the heart of a system's global organization and functioning. Inspired by network perspectives, we propose a new general framework for studying the tendency of prominent elements to form clubs with exclusive control over the majority of a system's resources. We explore associations between prominence and control in the fields of transportation, scientific collaboration, and online communication.

  16. Formation of prominences by condensation modes in magnetized cylindrical plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    An, C.-H.

    1985-01-01

    Condensation modes in a magnetized cylindrical plasma are studied to shed light on the formation and stability of solar prominences. A rigorous mathematical derivation of the perturbation equation is developed, and the effect of field twist on the stability is studied for an equilibrium with uniform field twist, in which temperature increases, but density does not, as pressure increases. The results imply that prominences may form in globally magnetohydrodynamic-stable magnetic loops with very low field twist. Also, prominences are more likely to form in a region of weaker area-averaged magnetic field.

  17. Solar Prominence Eruption Marks 1 Million on Helioviewer

    NASA Video Gallery

    This movie of a prominence eruption on April 20, 2013, was the millionth movie made on Helioviewer.org. The wispy eruption seen here eventually blossomed into a much larger cloud of solar material,...

  18. Prominence condensation and magnetic levitation in a coronal loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Hoven, G.; Mok, Y.; Drake, J. F.

    1992-01-01

    The results of a model dynamic simulation of the formation and support of a narrow prominence at the apex of a coronal magnetic loop or arcade are described. The condensation process proceeds via an initial radiative cooling and pressure drop, and a secondary siphon flow from the dense chromospheric ends. The antibuoyancy effect as the prominence forms causes a bending of the confining magnetic field, which propagates toward the semirigid ends of the magnetic loop. Thus, a wide magnetic 'hammock' or well (of the normal-polarity Kippenhahn-Schlueter-type) is formed, which supports the prominence at or near the field apex. The simplicity of this 1.5-dimensional model, with its accompanying diagnostics, elucidates the various contributions to the nonlinear dynamics of prominence condensation and levitation.

  19. Repetition is easy: Why repeated referents have reduced prominence

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Tuan Q.; Watson, Duane G.

    2011-01-01

    The repetition and predictability of a word in a conversation are two factors that are believed to affect whether or not it is emphasized: predictable, repeated words are less acoustically prominent than unpredictable, new words. However, because predictability and repetition are correlated, it is unclear whether speakers lengthen unpredictable words to facilitate comprehension or whether this lengthening is the result of difficulties in accessing a new (non-repeated) lexical item. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between acoustic prominence, repetition, and predictability in a description task. In Experiment 1, we find that repeated referents are produced with reduced prominence, even when these referents are unexpected. In Experiment 2, we find that predictability and repetition both have independent effects on duration and intensity. However, word duration was primarily determined by repetition, and intensity was primarily determined by predictability. The data are most consistent with an account in which multiple cognitive factors influence the acoustic prominence of a word. PMID:21156876

  20. Mass flows in a prominence spine as observed in EUV

    SciTech Connect

    Kucera, T. A.; Gilbert, H. R.

    2014-07-20

    We analyze a quiescent prominence observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) with a focus on mass and energy flux in the spine, measured using Lyman continuum absorption. This is the first time this type of analysis has been applied with an emphasis on individual features and fluxes in a quiescent prominence. The prominence, observed on 2010 September 28, is detectable in most AIA wavebands in absorption and/or emission. Flows along the spine exhibit horizontal bands 5''-10'' wide and kinetic energy fluxes on the order of a few times 10{sup 5} erg s{sup –1}cm{sup –2}, consistent with quiet sun coronal heating estimates. For a discrete moving feature we estimate a mass of a few times 10{sup 11} g. We discuss the implications of our derived properties for a model of prominence dynamics, the thermal non-equilibrium model.

  1. Common ground and cultural prominence: how conversation reinforces culture.

    PubMed

    Fast, Nathanael J; Heath, Chip; Wu, George

    2009-07-01

    Why do well-known ideas, practices, and people maintain their cultural prominence in the presence of equally good or better alternatives? This article suggests that a social-psychological process whereby people seek to establish common ground with their conversation partners causes familiar elements of culture to increase in prominence, independently of performance or quality. Two studies tested this hypothesis in the context of professional baseball, showing that common ground predicted the cultural prominence of baseball players better than their performance, even though clear performance metrics are available in this domain. Regardless of performance, familiar players, who represented common ground, were discussed more often than lesser-known players, both in a dyadic experiment (Study 1) and in natural discussions on the Internet (Study 2). Moreover, these conversations mediated the positive link between familiarity and a more institutionalized measure of prominence: All-Star votes (Study 2). Implications for research on the psychological foundations of culture are discussed.

  2. [Spasmodic torticollis, substantiating Manto syndrome, of possible toxic aethiology, with alterations of brainstem acoustic evoked potentials (BAEPs). Treatment with L-5-hydroxytryptophan. Follow up of 18 months, during which high degree resolution of symptoms and normalization of BAEPs took place].

    PubMed

    Disertori, B; Ducati, A; Piazza, M

    1982-01-01

    A case of very severe spasmodic torticollis observed for 18 months is presented and discussed. Head was so rotated that permitted only backward seeing and compressed brachial plexus between scaleni muscles with sensory, motor and trophic troubles in the hand. A toxic aethiology from parathion is likely. Brainstem Acoustic Evoked Potentials (BAEPs) showed in the beginning abnormal responses, especially as refers to waves originating in the mesencephalon. Therapy with L-5-hydroxytryptophan subdued neurological symptoms; a parallel normalization of BAEPs recording was observed. The Authors propose to call this syndrome (spasmodic torticollis with thoracic outlet syndrome) after the mythical diviner Manto, which Dante Alighieri refers to in his "Divina Commedia" (Inferno, XX, 55 e segg.).

  3. Hinode and IRIS Observations of a Prominence-Cavity System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jibben, Patricia R.; Reeves, Kathy; Su, Yingna

    2016-05-01

    Long-lived solar prominences often have a coronal cavity enclosing the prominence. Within the cavity, hot X-ray emission can persist above the prominence and in the central regions of the cavity. We present the results of an Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) and Hinode coordinated Observation Program (IHOP 264) study of a prominence-cavity system. The X-ray Telescope (XRT) observes an inflow of bright X-ray emission that strikes and envelops the prominence-cavity system causing an eruption of chromospheric plasma near the base of the prominence. During and after the eruption, an increase in X-ray emission forms within the cavity and above the prominence. IRIS and the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) observe strong blue shifts in both chromosphere and coronal lines during the eruption. The Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) Ca II H-line data show bright emission along the eruption path with complex turbulent plasma motions. The IRIS Si IV 1394 Angstrom spectra along the on-disk portion of the prominence show a region of decreased emission near the base of the prominence, suggesting a magnetic field bald-patch topology along the Polarity Inversion Line (PIL). Combined, these observations imply a cylindrical flux rope best represents the prominence-cavity system. A model of the magnetic structure of the prominence-cavity system comprised of a weakly twisted flux rope can explain the observed loops in the X-ray and EUV data. Observations from the Coronal Multichannel Polarimeter (CoMP) are compared to predicted models and are inconclusive. We find that more sensitive measurements of the magnetic field strength along the line-of-sight are needed to verify this configuration.Patricia Jibben and Kathy Reeves are supported by under contract 80111112705 from Lockheed-Martin to SAO, contract NNM07AB07C from NASA to SAO, grant number NNX12AI30G from NASA to SAO, and contract Z15-12504 from HAO to SAO under a grant from AFOSR. Yingna Su is supported by the Youth Fund of

  4. SOHO/SUMER observations of prominence oscillation before eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, P. F.; Innes, D. E.; Solanki, S. K.

    2008-06-01

    Context: Coronal mass ejections (CMEs), as a large-scale eruptive phenomenon, often reveal some precursors in the initiation phase, e.g., X-ray brightening, filament darkening, etc., which are useful for CME modelling and space weather forecasting. Aims: With the Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) spectroscopic observations of the 2000 September 26 CME, we propose another precursor for CMEs, namely, long-time prominence oscillations. Methods: We observed the prominence oscillation-and-eruption event by ground-based Hα telescopes and space-borne white-light, EUV imaging, and spectroscopic instruments. In particular, the SUMER slit was observing the prominence in a sit-and-stare mode. Results: The observations indicate that a siphon flow was moving from the proximity of the prominence to a site at a projected distance of 270'', which was followed by repetitive Hα surges and continual prominence oscillations. The oscillation lasted 4 hours before the prominence erupted as a blob-like CME. The analysis of the multiwavelength data indicates that the whole series of processes fits well into the emerging flux trigger mechanism for CMEs. In this mechanism, emerging magnetic flux drives a siphon flow due to increased gas pressure where the background polarity emerges. It also drives Hα surges through magnetic reconnection where the opposite polarity emerges. The magnetic reconnection triggers the prominence oscillations, as well as its loss of equilibrium, which finally leads to the eruption of the prominence. It is also found that the reconnection between the emerging flux and the pre-existing magnetic loop proceeds in an intermittent, probably quasi-periodic, way.

  5. Cross-linguistic evidence for gender as a prominence feature

    PubMed Central

    Esaulova, Yulia; von Stockhausen, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses recent findings in the online sentence processing research that suggest to consider gender information a prominence feature. Prominence features are hierarchically ordered information types that interact with formal features of arguments (e.g., grammatical functions, thematic roles) and thus determine the readers’ ability to efficiently interpret linguistic ambiguities. While previous research addressed a number of prominence features (e.g., animacy, definiteness, person), there is now first empirical evidence indicating that gender information also influences the assignment of thematic roles across languages. Grammatically masculine role nouns are processed faster as agents than patients compared to feminine ones. Stereotypically male role nouns (e.g., electrician) are integrated with an agent role easier than neutral ones (e.g., musician), which in turn are integrated easier than female ones (e.g., beautician). Conceptualizing gender as a prominence feature will not only expand our knowledge about information types relevant for online comprehension but also uncover subtle gender biases present in language. The present work explores the possibility for a theoretical integration of social psychological and psycholinguistic research focusing on gender with research on prominence. Potential advantages an interdisciplinary approach to the study of gender as a prominence feature, open questions and future directions are discussed. PMID:26441732

  6. SOHO/SUMER observations of prominence oscillation before eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, P. F.; Innes, D. E.; Solanki, Sami

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) often reveal some precursors in the initiation phase, such as X- ray brightening and filament darkening, which are useful for CME modeling and space weather forecast. With the SOHO/SUMER spectroscopic observations of the 2000 September 26 event, we propose another precursor for CME eruptions, namely, long-time prominence oscillations. The observations indicate that a siphon flow was moving from the proximity of the prominence to a far site, which was followed by repetitive Hα surges and continual prominence oscillations. The oscillation lasted 4 hours before the prominence erupted as a blob-like CME. The analysis of the multiwavelength data indicates that the whole series of processes fits well into the emerging flux trigger mechanism for CMEs. In this mechanism, emerging magnetic flux drives a siphon flow due to increased gas pressure where the background polarity emerges. It also drives Hα surges through magnetic reconnection where the opposite polarity emerges. The magnetic reconnection triggers the prominence oscillations, as well as its loss of equilibrium, which finally leads to the eruption of the prominence. It is also found that the reconnection between the emerging flux and the pre-existing magnetic loop proceeds in an intermittent, probably quasiperiodic, way.

  7. Numerical simulations of a siphon mechanism for quiescent prominence formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poland, A. I.; Mariska, J. T.; Klimchuk, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    Quiescent prominences represent a significant challenge to our understanding of the flow of mass and energy in the outer layers of the solar atmosphere. A small number of quiescent prominences contain as much mass as the entire corona (Athay, 1976). The problem then is how to get that much material into the relatively small volume of a prominence and maintain it at a temperature of 10,000 K in close proximity to material at one million K. The thermal insulation to conduction provided by the magnetic field explains the disparate temperatures. The mass source problem is less well understood. One method for supplying mass to the prominence is to siphon it from the chromosphere. The siphon mechanism begins with a magnetic loop that evolves into a configuration with a gravitational well, such as that described by Kippenhahn and Schluter (1957). This could be formed, for example, by a twist in the magnetic field. A gravitational well could also be formed by a condensation induced sag in the field. This could further enhance the condensation process. Once this well has formed, or as it is forming, the material in the well area of the loop must cool and condense to the point where radiative losses exceed any heat input. Additional material must also flow into the well from the underlying chromosphere to supply the mass required to form the prominence. One example from a series of numerical simulations that were performed to study the formation of quiescent prominences is presented.

  8. SOLAR PROMINENCES: “DOUBLE, DOUBLE… BOIL AND BUBBLE”

    SciTech Connect

    Keppens, R.; Xia, C.; Porth, O.

    2015-06-10

    Observations revealed rich dynamics within prominences, the cool (10{sup 4} K), macroscopic (sizes of order 100 Mm) “clouds” in the million degree solar corona. Even quiescent prominences are continuously perturbed by hot, rising bubbles. Since prominence matter is hundredfold denser than coronal plasma, this bubbling is related to Rayleigh–Taylor instabilities. Here we report on true macroscopic simulations well into this bubbling phase, adopting an MHD description from chromospheric layers up to 30 Mm height. Our virtual prominences rapidly establish fully nonlinear (magneto)convective motions where hot bubbles interplay with falling pillars, with dynamical details including upwelling pillars forming within bubbles. Our simulations show impacting Rayleigh–Taylor fingers reflecting on transition region plasma, ensuring that cool, dense chromospheric material gets mixed with prominence matter up to very large heights. This offers an explanation for the return mass cycle mystery for prominence material. Synthetic views at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths show remarkable agreement with observations, with clear indications of shear-flow induced fragmentations.

  9. A STATISTICAL STUDY OF TRANSVERSE OSCILLATIONS IN A QUIESCENT PROMINENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Hillier, A.; Morton, R. J.; Erdélyi, R.

    2013-12-20

    The launch of the Hinode satellite has allowed for seeing-free observations at high-resolution and high-cadence making it well suited to study the dynamics of quiescent prominences. In recent years it has become clear that quiescent prominences support small-amplitude transverse oscillations, however, sample sizes are usually too small for general conclusions to be drawn. We remedy this by providing a statistical study of transverse oscillations in vertical prominence threads. Over a 4 hr period of observations it was possible to measure the properties of 3436 waves, finding periods from 50 to 6000 s with typical velocity amplitudes ranging between 0.2 and 23 km s{sup –1}. The large number of observed waves allows the determination of the frequency dependence of the wave properties and derivation of the velocity power spectrum for the transverse waves. For frequencies less than 7 mHz, the frequency dependence of the velocity power is consistent with the velocity power spectra generated from observations of the horizontal motions of magnetic elements in the photosphere, suggesting that the prominence transverse waves are driven by photospheric motions. However, at higher frequencies the two distributions significantly diverge, with relatively more power found at higher frequencies in the prominence oscillations. These results highlight that waves over a large frequency range are ubiquitous in prominences, and that a significant amount of the wave energy is found at higher frequency.

  10. Assessment of dysphonia due to benign vocal fold lesions by acoustic and aerodynamic indices: a multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Cantarella, Giovanna; Baracca, Giovanna; Pignataro, Lorenzo; Forti, Stella

    2011-04-01

    The goal was to identify acoustic and aerodynamic indices that allow the discrimination of a benign organic dysphonic voice from a normal voice. Fifty-three patients affected by dysphonia caused by vocal folds benign lesions, and a control group were subjected to maximum phonation time (MPT) measurements, GRB perceptual evaluations and acoustic/aerodynamic tests. All analyzed variables except the airflow variation coefficient were significantly different between the two groups. The unique significant factors in the discrimination between healthy and dysphonic subjects were the aerodynamic indices of MPT and Glottal efficiency index, and the acoustic index Shimmer. These results show that a combination of three parameters can discriminate a voice deviance and highlight the importance of a multidimensional assessment for objective voice evaluation.

  11. Nonlinear dynamic-based analysis of severe dysphonia in patients with vocal fold scar and sulcus vocalis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seong Hee; Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Jack J.; Bless, Diane M.; Welham, Nathan V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The primary goal of this study was to evaluate a nonlinear dynamic approach to the acoustic analysis of dysphonia associated with vocal fold scar and sulcus vocalis. Study Design Case-control study. Methods Acoustic voice samples from scar/sulcus patients and age/sex-matched controls were analyzed using correlation dimension (D2) and phase plots, time-domain based perturbation indices (jitter, shimmer, signal-to-noise ratio [SNR]), and an auditory-perceptual rating scheme. Signal typing was performed to identify samples with bifurcations and aperiodicity. Results Type 2 and 3 acoustic signals were highly represented in the scar/sulcus patient group. When data were analyzed irrespective of signal type, all perceptual and acoustic indices successfully distinguished scar/sulcus patients from controls. Removal of type 2 and 3 signals eliminated the previously identified differences between experimental groups for all acoustic indices except D2. The strongest perceptual-acoustic correlation in our dataset was observed for SNR; the weakest correlation was observed for D2. Conclusions These findings suggest that D2 is inferior to time-domain based perturbation measures for the analysis of dysphonia associated with scar/sulcus; however, time-domain based algorithms are inherently susceptible to inflation under highly aperiodic (i.e., type 2 and 3) signal conditions. Auditory-perceptual analysis, unhindered by signal aperiodicity, is therefore a robust strategy for distinguishing scar/sulcus patient voices from normal voices. Future acoustic analysis research in this area should consider alternative (e.g., frequency- and quefrency-domain based) measures alongside additional nonlinear approaches. PMID:22516315

  12. Two Categories of Apparent Tornado-like Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Sara F.; Venkataramanasastry, Aparna

    2014-06-01

    Two categories of solar prominences have been described in the literature as having a pattern of mass motions and/or a shape similar to terrestrial tornados. We first identify the two categories associated with prominences in the historic literature and then show that counterparts do exist for both in recent literature but one has not been called a tornado prominence. One category described as being similar to tornados is associated with the barbs of quiescent filaments but barbs appear to have rotational motion only under special conditions. H alpha Doppler observations from Helio Research confirm that this category is an illusion in our mind’s eye resulting from counterstreaming in the large barbs of quiescent filaments. The second category is a special case of rotational motion occurring during the early stages of some erupting prominences, in recent years called the roll effect in erupting prominences. In these cases, the eruption begins with the sideways rolling of the top of a prominence. As the eruption proceeds the rolling motion propagates down one leg or both legs of an erupting prominence depending on whether the eruption is asymmetric or symmetric respectively. As an asymmetric eruption proceeds, the longer lasting leg becomes nearly vertical and has true rotational motion. If only this phase of the eruption was observed, as in the historic cases, it was called a tornado prominence and spectra recorded in these cases provide proof of the rotational motion. When one observes an entire eruption which exhibits the rolling motion, as accomplished at Helio Research, the similarity to a tornado is lost because the event as a whole has quite a different nature and the analogy to a terrestrial tornado not longer appears suitable or helpful in understanding the observed and deduced physical processes. Our conclusion is that there are no solar prominences with motions that are usefully described as tornado or tornado-like events aside from the fun of observing

  13. SEISMOLOGY OF STANDING KINK OSCILLATIONS OF SOLAR PROMINENCE FINE STRUCTURES

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, R.; Arregui, I.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L.

    2010-10-20

    We investigate standing kink magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) oscillations in a prominence fine structure modeled as a straight and cylindrical magnetic tube only partially filled with the prominence material and with its ends fixed at two rigid walls representing the solar photosphere. The prominence plasma is partially ionized and a transverse inhomogeneous transitional layer is included between the prominence thread and the coronal medium. Thus, ion-neutral collisions and resonant absorption are the damping mechanisms considered. Approximate analytical expressions of the period, the damping time, and their ratio are derived for the fundamental mode in the thin tube and thin boundary approximations. We find that the dominant damping mechanism is resonant absorption, which provides damping ratios in agreement with the observations, whereas ion-neutral collisions are irrelevant for damping. The values of the damping ratio are independent of both the prominence thread length and its position within the magnetic tube, and coincide with the values for a tube fully filled with the prominence plasma. The implications of our results in the context of the MHD seismology technique are discussed, pointing out that the reported short-period (2-10 minutes) and short-wavelength (700-8000 km) thread oscillations may not be consistent with a standing mode interpretation and could be related to propagating waves. Finally, we show that the inversion of some prominence physical parameters, e.g., Alfven speed, magnetic field strength, transverse inhomogeneity length scale, etc., is possible using observationally determined values of the period and damping time of the oscillations along with the analytical approximations of these quantities.

  14. Use of Botulinum Neurotoxin for the Treatment of Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... spasmodic dysphonia, or ABSD). Does BoNT control motor tics? Tics associated with Tourette syndrome are relatively brief, intermittent movements (also known as motor tics) or sounds (also known as vocal or phonic ...

  15. Magnetic Field and Plasma Diagnostics from Coordinated Prominence Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, B.; Levens, P.; Dalmasse, K.; Mein, N.; Mein, P.; Lopez-Ariste, A.; Labrosse, N.; Heinzel, P.

    2016-04-01

    We study the magnetic field in prominences from a statistical point of view, by using THEMIS in the MTR mode, performing spectropolarimetry of the He I D3 line. Combining these measurements with spectroscopic data from IRIS, Hinode/EIS as well as ground-based telescopes, such as the Meudon Solar Tower, we infer the temperature, density, and flow velocities of the plasma. There are a number of open questions that we aim to answer: - What is the general direction of the magnetic field in prominences? Is the model using a single orientation of magnetic field always valid for atypical prominences? %- Does this depend on the location of the filament on the disk (visible in Hα, in He II 304 Å) over an inversion line between weak or strong network ? - Are prominences in a weak environment field dominated by gas pressure? - Measuring the Doppler shifts in Mg II lines (with IRIS) and in Hα can tell us if there are substantial velocities to maintain vertical rotating structures, as has been suggested for tornado-like prominences. We present here some results obtained with different ground-based and space-based instruments in this framework.

  16. On the Magnetism and Dynamics of Prominence Legs Hosting Tornadoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez González, M. J.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Arregui, I.; Collados, M.; Beck, C.; de la Cruz Rodríguez, J.

    2016-07-01

    Solar tornadoes are dark vertical filamentary structures observed in the extreme ultraviolet associated with prominence legs and filament barbs. Their true nature and relationship to prominences requires an understanding of their magnetic structure and dynamic properties. Recently, a controversy has arisen: is the magnetic field organized forming vertical, helical structures or is it dominantly horizontal? And concerning their dynamics, are tornadoes really rotating or is it just a visual illusion? Here we analyze four consecutive spectro-polarimetric scans of a prominence hosting tornadoes on its legs, which helps us shed some light on their magnetic and dynamical properties. We show that the magnetic field is very smooth in all the prominence, which is probably an intrinsic property of the coronal field. The prominence legs have vertical helical fields that show slow temporal variation that is probably related to the motion of the fibrils. Concerning the dynamics, we argue that (1) if rotation exists, it is intermittent, lasting no more than one hour, and (2) the observed velocity pattern is also consistent with an oscillatory velocity pattern (waves).

  17. SDO/AIA observations of a partially erupting prominence

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, Durgesh; Reeves, Katharine K.; Gibson, Sarah E.; Srivastava, Abhishek; Joshi, Navin C.

    2013-12-01

    We report an observation of a partially erupting prominence and its associated dynamical plasma processes based on observations recorded by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The prominence first went through a slow rise (SR) phase followed by a fast rise (FR) phase. The SR phase began after a couple of small brightenings were seen toward the footpoints. When the prominence had transitioned from SR to FR, it had already become kinked. The prominence shows strong brightening at the central kink location during the start of FR. We interpret this as an internal magnetic reconnection occurring at a vertical current sheet forming between the two legs of the erupting prominence (flux rope). The brightening at the central kink location is seen in all EUV channels of AIA. The contributions of differential emission at higher temperatures are larger compared to that for typical coronal temperatures supporting a reconnection scenario at the central kink location. The plasma above the brightening location is ejected as a hot plasmoid-like structure embedded in a coronal mass ejection, and those below the brightening move down in the form of blobs moving toward the Sun's surface. The unique time resolution of the AIA has allowed these eruptive aspects, including SR-to-FR, kinking, central current sheet formation, plasmoid-like eruption, and filament 'splitting', to be observed in a single event, providing strong and comprehensive evidence in favor of the model of partially erupting flux ropes.

  18. Can bubbles in quiescent prominences be purely magnetic phenomena?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudik, Jaroslav; Schmieder, Brigitte; Aulanier, Guillaume; Zapior, Maciej; Heinzel, Petr

    2012-07-01

    We present a model of the magnetic field constituting quiescent prominences. The model assumes a linear force-free field with a weakly twisted flux-tube in an OX/OF topology perturbed by presence of parasitic polarities within the filament channel. The parasitic polarities locally create the cusp-shaped prominences with bubbles exactly as those observed by the SDO/AIA and Bialkow Observatory. We find that the observations are best reproduced if the parasitic bipoles are sheared with respect to the main inversion line. We show that the bubbles are in fact constituted by the arcade-like field lines, as opposed to that of the prominence, which is created by magnetic dips. A pair of null points is always associated with the parasitic bipole. These null points are connected by a separator passing through the prominence bubble. We show how the presence of an additional parasitic bipole moves the separator to the boundary between the bubble and the rest of the prominence, producing a topology favorable for reconnection and possibly for the formation of plumes.

  19. Back-and-Forth Methodology for Objective Voice Quality Assessment: From/to Expert Knowledge to/from Automatic Classification of Dysphonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredouille, Corinne; Pouchoulin, Gilles; Ghio, Alain; Revis, Joana; Bonastre, Jean-François; Giovanni, Antoine

    2009-12-01

    This paper addresses voice disorder assessment. It proposes an original back-and-forth methodology involving an automatic classification system as well as knowledge of the human experts (machine learning experts, phoneticians, and pathologists). The goal of this methodology is to bring a better understanding of acoustic phenomena related to dysphonia. The automatic system was validated on a dysphonic corpus (80 female voices), rated according to the GRBAS perceptual scale by an expert jury. Firstly, focused on the frequency domain, the classification system showed the interest of 0-3000 Hz frequency band for the classification task based on the GRBAS scale. Later, an automatic phonemic analysis underlined the significance of consonants and more surprisingly of unvoiced consonants for the same classification task. Submitted to the human experts, these observations led to a manual analysis of unvoiced plosives, which highlighted a lengthening of VOT according to the dysphonia severity validated by a preliminary statistical analysis.

  20. [Professional dysphonia and its risk factors in the material of the outpatient clinic of the Department of Otolaryngology, Medical Academy of Białystok].

    PubMed

    Kosztyła-Hojna, Bozena; Rogowski, Marek; Ruczaj, Jan; Pepiński, Witold

    2004-01-01

    Occurrence of professional dysphonia was analysed in a group of 309 patients treated in the Phoniatric Outpatient Clinic, Department of Otolaryngology, Medical Academy in Białystok through the period of 1999-2001. In a group of professional voice users female teachers of primary schools and lower secondary schools predominated. Obtained results were compared with those from a group of 65 persons of other occupations. In the both groups other harmful factors affecting the voice organ were excluded. The clinical assessment included subjective and objective laryngological examination using videolaryngostroboscopy. The clinical material was evaluated in a view of functional and organic disorders of the voice organ. Early occurrence and aggravation of functional changes in the larynx was recorded in non professional voice users in the course of their seniority. In professional patients organic changes were more common and occurred earlier than functional disorders. Severity of dysphonia was related to the larynx pathology, especially of a functional character.

  1. Investigating the Thermal Evolution of Solar Prominence Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucera, Therese A.; Viall, Nicholeen M.; Karpen, Judith T.

    2015-04-01

    We present a study of prominence formation using time series analysis of Solar Dynamics Observatory’s Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA) data. In evaporation-condensation models of prominence formation, heating at the foot-points of sheared coronal flux-tubes results in evaporation of hot (a few MK) material into the corona and subsequent catastrophic cooling of the hot material to form the cool (~10,000 K) prominence material. We present the results of a time-lag analysis that tracks the thermal evolution using emission formed at different temperatures. This analysis is made possible by AIA's many wavebands and high time resolution, and it allows us to look for signs of the evaporation-condensation process and to study the heating time scales involved. Supported by NASA’s Living with a Star program.

  2. Interpretation of the prominence differential emissions measure for 3 geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmahl, E. J.; Orrall, F. Q.

    1986-01-01

    Researchers have used prominence extreme ultraviolet line intensities observed from Skylab to derive the differential emission measure Q(T) in the prominence-corona (PC) interface from 3 x 10,000 to 3 times 1 million K, including the effects of Lyman Continuum absorption. Using lines both shortward and longward of the Lyman limit, researchers have estimated the importance of absorption as function of temperature. The magnitude of the absorption, as well as its rate of increase as a function of temperature, place limits on the thread scales and the character of the interfilar medium. Researchers have calculated models based on three assumed geometries: (1) threads with hot sheaths and cool cores; (2) isothermal threads; and (3) threads with longitudinal temperature gradients along the magnetic field. Comparison of the absorption computed from these models with the observed absorption in prominences shows that none of the geometries is totally satisfactory.

  3. THE FORMATION AND ERUPTION OF SOLAR QUIESCENT PROMINENCES

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y. Z.

    2013-11-01

    Following the two-stage catastrophic flux rope model presented by Zhang et al., we investigate how magnetic flux emergence affects the formation and evolution of solar quiescent prominences. The magnetic properties of the flux rope are described with its toroidal magnetic flux per radian Φ{sub p} and poloidal flux Φ{sub ψ}, and Φ{sub p} is defined as the emerging strength (ES) of the magnetic flux. After the first catastrophe, the quiescent prominences are supported by the vertical current sheet and located in cavities below the curved transverse current sheet in the inner corona, for which both ES and Φ{sub ψ} are in the certain ranges. We calculate the strength range as 0.25 < ES < 0.50 for the quadrupolar field, and obtain the equation Φ{sub p}Φ{sub ψ} = const., that is, the relationship between Φ{sub p} and Φ{sub ψ} of the emerging flux for which the quiescent prominences are formed in the inner corona. After the second catastrophe, the quiescent prominences would either fall down onto the solar surface or erupt as an important part of coronal mass ejections. During the eruption of the quiescent prominences, most of the magnetic energy in the flux rope is lost, and less than half of the energy loss of the rope is released in the form of Alfvèn waves. We argue that there would be two important conditions required for the formation and eruption of solar quiescent prominences, a complicated source region and emerging toroidal magnetic flux that exceeds a critical strength.

  4. Spectroscopy of Solar Prominences Simultaneously From Space and Ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stellmacher, G.; Wiehr, E.; Dammasch, I. E.

    2003-10-01

    We present a comprehensive set of spectral data from two quiescent solar prominences observed in parallel from space and ground: with the VTT, simultaneous two-dimensional imaging of Hβ4862 Å and Caii 8542 Å yields a constant ratio, indicating small spatial pressure variations over the prominence. With the Gregory, simultaneous spectra of Caii 8542 Å and Hei 10830 Å were taken, their widths yielding 8000 K prominence (`branching'). The intensity ratio of the helium triplet components is used for a simple estimate of the optical thickness, which is τ<1.0 for the fainter prominence but reaches up to τ=2.0 for the brighter one. The τ0 values allow us to deduce the source function from the central line intensities and thus a mean excitation temperature Texmean=3750 K, which determines the relative populations of the helium 3S and 3P levels. With SUMER, we sequentially observed six spectral windows containing higher Lyman lines, `cool' emission lines from neutrals and singly charged atoms, as well as `hot' emission lines from ions like Oiv, Sv, Nv, Ov, and Svi. The spatial variation of the EUV lines along the SUMER slit shows a pronounced maximum at the main prominence body and `side-regions' where the `hot' lines are significantly enhanced with respect to the `cool' lines from neutral and singly-ionized atoms. These selected locations were averaged over 7'' and the resulting mean EUV lines were fitted by Gaussians yielding realistic widths and integrated line intensities. The intensities of `hot' lines blue-wards of the Lyman series limit appear reduced in the main prominence body but enhanced in the `side-regions'. This absorption is also visible in TRACE images of Feix/x171 Å as fine dark structure which covers only parts of the main (`cool') prominence body. The Lyman lines show a smooth decrease of both line widths and integrated

  5. Diagnosing the Prominence-Cavity Connection in the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmit, D. J.

    The energetic equilibrium of the corona is described by a balance of heating, thermal conduction, and radiative cooling. Prominences can be described by the thermal instability of coronal energy balance which leads to the formation of cool condensations. Observationally, the prominence is surrounded by a density depleted elliptical structure known as a cavity. In this dissertation, we use extreme ultraviolet remote sensing observations of the prominence-cavity system to diagnose the static and dynamic properties of these structures. The observations are compared with numerical models for the time-dependent coronal condensation process and the time-independent corona-prominence magnetic field. To diagnose the density of the cavity, we construct a three-dimensional structural model of the corona. This structural model allows us to synthesize extreme ultraviolet emission in the corona in a way that incorporates the projection effects which arise from the optically thin plasma. This forward model technique is used to constrain a radial density profile simultaneously in the cavity and the streamer. We use a χ2 minimization to find the density model which best matches a density sensitive line ratio (observed with Hinode/Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer) and the white light scattered intensity (observed with Mauna Loa Solar Observatory MK4 coronagraph). We use extreme ultraviolet spectra and spectral images to diagnose the dynamics of the prominence and the surrounding corona. Based on the doppler shift of extreme ultraviolet coronal emission lines, we find that there are large regions of flowing plasma which appear to occur within cavities. These line of sight flows have speeds of 10 km/s-1 and projected spatial scales of 100 Mm. Using the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA) dataset, we observe dynamic emission from the prominence-cavity system. The SDO/AIA dataset observes multiple spectral bandpasses with different temperature

  6. 10. CANAL CUT THROUGH SHALE BEDROCK ON PROMINENT POINT, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. CANAL CUT THROUGH SHALE BEDROCK ON PROMINENT POINT, LOOKING NORTH-NORTHEAST. NOTE CONCRETE ABUTMENTS PROBABLY INSTALLED IN 1935 TO PREVENT WATER FROM ESCAPING THROUGH A CANAL BANK BREACH. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  7. Intracerebral metaplastic meningioma with prominent ossification and extensive calcification

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jingxiang; Petersson, Fredrik

    2011-01-01

    We present a patient (male 26 years) with a short history of recurrent seizures induced by a largely intracerebrally located frontal lobe meningioma. The tumor displayed a heretofore unpublished combination of extensive metaplastic bone formation and prominent non-psammomatous calcifications with focal chicken-wire pattern. PMID:21769319

  8. A Prominence/filament eruption triggered by eight homologous flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panesar, Navdeep K.; Sterling, Alphonse; Innes, Davina; Moore, Ronald

    2015-04-01

    Eight homologous flares occurred in active region NOAA 11237 over 16 - 17 June 2011. A prominence system with a surrounding coronal cavity was adjacent to, but still magnetically connected to the active region. The eight eruptions expelled hot material from the active region into the prominence/filament cavity system (PFCS) where the ejecta became confined. We mainly aim to diagnose the 3D dynamics of the PFCS during the series of eight homologous eruptions by using data from two instruments: SDO/AIA and STEREO/EUVI-B, covering the Sun from two directions. The field containing the ejected hot material interacts with the PFCS and causes it to inflate, resulting in a discontinuous rise of the prominence/filament approximately in steps with the homologous eruptions. The eighth eruption triggers the PFCS to move outward slowly, accompanied by a weak coronal dimming. Subsequently the prominence/filament material drains to the solar surface. This PFCS eruption evidently slowly opens field overlying the active region, which results in a final ‘ejective’ eruption from the core of the active region. A strong dimming appears adjacent to the final eruption’s flare loops in the EUVI-B images, followed by a CME. We propose that the eight homologous flares gradually disrupted the PFCS and removed the overlying field above the active region, leading to the CME via the ‘lid removal’ mechanism.

  9. PATTERNS OF FLOWS IN AN INTERMEDIATE PROMINENCE OBSERVED BY HINODE

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Kwangsu; Chae, Jongchul; Cao Wenda; Goode, Philip R.

    2010-09-20

    The investigation of plasma flows in filaments/prominences gives us clues to understanding their magnetic structures. We studied the patterns of flows in an intermediate prominence observed by Hinode/SOT. By examining a time series of H{alpha} images and Ca II H images, we have found horizontal flows in the spine and vertical flows in the barb. Both of these flows have a characteristic speed of 10-20 km s{sup -1}. The horizontal flows displayed counterstreaming. Our detailed investigation revealed that most of the moving fragments in fact reversed direction at the end point of the spine near a footpoint close to the associated active region. These returning flows may be one possible explanation of the well-known counterstreaming flows in prominences. In contrast, we have found vertical flows-downward and upward-in the barb. Most of the horizontal flows in the spine seem to switch into vertical flows when they approach the barb, and vice versa. We propose that the net force resulting from a small deviation from magnetohydrostatic equilibrium, where magnetic fields are predominantly horizontal, may drive these patterns of flow. In the prominence studied here, the supposed magnetohydrostatic configuration is characterized by magnetic field lines sagging with angles of 13{sup 0} and 39{sup 0} in the spine and the barb, respectively.

  10. Patterns of Flows in an Intermediate Prominence Observed by Hinode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Kwangsu; Chae, Jongchul; Cao, Wenda; Goode, Philip R.

    2010-09-01

    The investigation of plasma flows in filaments/prominences gives us clues to understanding their magnetic structures. We studied the patterns of flows in an intermediate prominence observed by Hinode/SOT. By examining a time series of Hα images and Ca II H images, we have found horizontal flows in the spine and vertical flows in the barb. Both of these flows have a characteristic speed of 10-20 km s-1. The horizontal flows displayed counterstreaming. Our detailed investigation revealed that most of the moving fragments in fact reversed direction at the end point of the spine near a footpoint close to the associated active region. These returning flows may be one possible explanation of the well-known counterstreaming flows in prominences. In contrast, we have found vertical flows—downward and upward—in the barb. Most of the horizontal flows in the spine seem to switch into vertical flows when they approach the barb, and vice versa. We propose that the net force resulting from a small deviation from magnetohydrostatic equilibrium, where magnetic fields are predominantly horizontal, may drive these patterns of flow. In the prominence studied here, the supposed magnetohydrostatic configuration is characterized by magnetic field lines sagging with angles of 13° and 39° in the spine and the barb, respectively.

  11. A-B Distinction in a Sample of Prominent Psychotherapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Jesse D.; Berzins, Juris I.

    1976-01-01

    A sample of prominent psychotherapists were asked to fill out the A-B therapist "type" scale and comment on their possible differential effectiveness in treating schizoid/schizophrenic versus neurotic patients. The data suggest that B therapists desire and seek more complex and exciting sensory-cognitive inputs during therapy hours than A…

  12. Non-thermal line-broadening in solar prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stellmacher, G.; Wiehr, E.

    2015-09-01

    Aims: We show that the line broadening in quiescent solar prominences is mainly due to non-thermal velocities. Methods: We have simultaneously observed a wide range of optically thin lines in quiescent prominences, selected for bright and narrow Mg b emission without line satellites from macro-shifts. Results: We find a ratio of reduced widths, ΔλD/λ0, of Hγ and Hδ of 1.05 ± 0.03, which can hardly be attributed to saturation, since both are optically thin for the prominences observed: τγ ≤ 0.3, τδ ≤ 0.15. We confirm the ratio of reduced widths of He 4772 (triplet) and He 5015 (singlet) of 1.1 ± 0.05 at higher significance and detect a width ratio of Mg b2 and Mg 4571 (both from the triplet system) of 1.3 ± 0.1. Conclusions: The discrepant widths of lines from different atoms, and even from the same atom, cannot be represented by a unique pair [Tkin; Vnth]. Values of Tkin deduced from observed line radiances using models indicate low temperatures down to Tkin ≈ 5000 K. Non-thermal velocities, related to different physical states of the respective emitting prominence region, seem to be the most important line broadening mechanism.

  13. PLASMA DYNAMICS AT THE PROMINENCE-CORONA INTERFACE

    SciTech Connect

    Miloch, W. J.; Esser, R.; Habbal, S. R.

    2012-06-20

    The interface between the cool and dense plasma typical of a prominence and its tenuous and hot surrounding coronal plasma is poorly understood. We study the plasma dynamics at this interface using a three-dimensional particle-in-cell code, which enables us to carry out simulations on spatial and temporal scales of the order of the Debye length and plasma period, respectively. The results show that anomalous Bohm diffusion across magnetic field lines occurs at the interface, leading to mixing of the two plasmas. It is also shown that collisions with neutral hydrogen within the prominence plasma are of little importance for the plasma dynamics in the prominence-corona transition region. In particular, the temperature of the prominence plasma crossing the interface into the corona can become anisotropic due to preferential heating by instabilities originating from unstable velocity distributions. Our results pertain to spatial scales significantly smaller than scales commonly used in magnetohydrodynamic simulations, and they shed light on processes that are very likely to be present at the interface.

  14. The Most Prominent Roles of an ESP Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghafournia, Narjes; Sabet, Shokoofeh Ahmadian

    2014-01-01

    One prominent feature of many ESP (English for Specific Purposes) courses, which make them rather different from EGP (English for General Purposes) courses, is the presence of adult learners, who are primary workers and secondary learners. As ESP is a highly learner-cantered approach, paying close attention to the multidimensional needs of…

  15. The Prominence of Referring Expressions: Message and Lexical Level Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Tuan Q.

    2012-01-01

    In conversation, speakers produce some words with greater intensity, longer duration, and higher fundamental frequency (F0) than other words. By making different words in a sentence more prominent than other words, a speaker can change the meaning implied by a sentence. This thesis explores the relationship between processing in the language…

  16. Further Validation of the Coach Identity Prominence Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, J. Paige; Hall, Craig R.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to examine select psychometric properties of the Coach Identity Prominence Scale (CIPS), including the reliability, factorial validity, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and predictive validity. Coaches (N = 338) who averaged 37 (SD = 12.27) years of age, had a mean of 13 (SD = 9.90) years of coaching experience,…

  17. Spectrophotometric determination of some anti-tussive and anti-spasmodic drugs through ion-pair complex formation with thiocyanate and cobalt(II) or molybdenum(V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Shiekh, Ragaa; Zahran, Faten; El-Fetouh Gouda, Ayman Abou

    2007-04-01

    Two rapid, simple and sensitive extractive specrophotometric methods has been developed for the determination of anti-tussive drugs, e.g., dextromethorphan hydrobromide (DEX) and pipazethate hydrochloride (PiCl) and anti-spasmodic drugs, e.g., drotaverine hydrochloride (DvCl) and trimebutine maleate (TM) in bulk and in their pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed methods depend upon the reaction of cobalt(II)-thiocyanate (method A) and molybdenum(V)-thiocyanate ions (method B) with the cited drugs to form stable ion-pair complexes which extractable with an n-butnol-dichloromethane solvent mixture (3.5:6.5) and methylene chloride for methods A and B, respectively. The blue and orange red color complexes are determined either colorimetrically at λmax 625 nm (using method A) and 467 or 470 nm for (DEX and PiCl) or (DvCl and TM), respectively (using method B). The concentration range is 20-400 and 2.5-50 μg mL -1 for methods A and B, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of the studied drugs in pure and in pharmaceutical formulations applying the standard additions technique and the results obtained in good agreement well with those obtained by the official method.

  18. Spectrophotometric determination of some anti-tussive and anti-spasmodic drugs through ion-pair complex formation with thiocyanate and cobalt(II) or molybdenum(V).

    PubMed

    El-Shiekh, Ragaa; Zahran, Faten; El-Fetouh Gouda, Ayman Abou

    2007-04-01

    Two rapid, simple and sensitive extractive specrophotometric methods has been developed for the determination of anti-tussive drugs, e.g., dextromethorphan hydrobromide (DEX) and pipazethate hydrochloride (PiCl) and anti-spasmodic drugs, e.g., drotaverine hydrochloride (DvCl) and trimebutine maleate (TM) in bulk and in their pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed methods depend upon the reaction of cobalt(II)-thiocyanate (method A) and molybdenum(V)-thiocyanate ions (method B) with the cited drugs to form stable ion-pair complexes which extractable with an n-butnol-dichloromethane solvent mixture (3.5:6.5) and methylene chloride for methods A and B, respectively. The blue and orange red color complexes are determined either colorimetrically at lambdamax 625 nm (using method A) and 467 or 470 nm for (DEX and PiCl) or (DvCl and TM), respectively (using method B). The concentration range is 20-400 and 2.5-50 microg mL-1 for methods A and B, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of the studied drugs in pure and in pharmaceutical formulations applying the standard additions technique and the results obtained in good agreement well with those obtained by the official method. PMID:17142094

  19. The Effects of Partial Ionization on Prominence Mass Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpen, J. T.; Olson, K.; DeVore, C. R.; Martinez Gomez, D.; Sokolov, I.

    2015-12-01

    The origin of the prominence mass has been an open question since this cool plasma suspended in the hot corona was first discovered. We have known for a long time that the mass must come from the chromosphere, but it is unclear whether this mass is lifted bodily through magnetic levitation, injected by reconnection-driven upflows, or driven from the chromosphere by evaporation and then condensed. One evaporation-condensation scenario, the thermal nonequilibrium (TNE) model, is the most fully developed, quantitative model for the prominence plasma to date. In the TNE scenario, localized heating concentrated at the coronal loop footpoints produces chromospheric evaporation, filling the flux tube with hot, dense plasma that subsequently collapses radiatively to form cool condensations. Thus far this model has been successful in explaining the key properties of the long, persistent threads and small, highly dynamic, transient blobs in prominences, the damping of large-amplitude field-aligned prominence oscillations, the appearance of horn-shaped features above the cool prominence in EUV images of coronal cavities, and coronal rain in the ambient corona. To date, all studies of TNE have assumed that the plasma is fully ionized, which is appropriate for the hot coronal gas but unrealistic for the cool plasma below ~30,000 K. The energetics, dynamics, and evolutionary time scales of the TNE process are expected to be altered when the effects of ionization and recombination are considered. We have modified ARGOS, our 1D hydrodynamic code with adaptive mesh refinement, to include an equation of state that accounts for the effects of partial ionization of the plasma over a wide range of temperatures and densities. We will discuss the results of these simulations and their comparison with our previous studies of TNE in typical filament-supporting flux tubes. This work was partially supported by NASA's LWS Strategic Capability program.

  20. Homologous prominence non-radial eruptions: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchlev, P.; Koleva, K.; Madjarska, M. S.; Dechev, M.

    2016-10-01

    The present study provides important details on homologous eruptions of a solar prominence that occurred in active region NOAA 10904 on 2006 August 22. We report on the pre-eruptive phase of the homologous feature as well as the kinematics and the morphology of a forth from a series of prominence eruptions that is critical in defining the nature of the previous consecutive eruptions. The evolution of the overlying coronal field during homologous eruptions is discussed and a new observational criterion for homologous eruptions is provided. We find a distinctive sequence of three activation periods each of them containing pre-eruptive precursors such as a brightening and enlarging of the prominence body followed by small surge-like ejections from its southern end observed in the radio 17 GHz. We analyse a fourth eruption that clearly indicates a full reformation of the prominence after the third eruption. The fourth eruption although occurring 11 h later has an identical morphology, the same angle of propagation with respect to the radial direction, as well as similar kinematic evolution as the previous three eruptions. We find an important feature of the homologous eruptive prominence sequence that is the maximum height increase of each consecutive eruption. The present analysis establishes that all four eruptions observed in Hα are of confined type with the third eruption undergoing a thermal disappearance during its eruptive phase. We suggest that the observation of the same direction of the magnetic flux rope (MFR) ejections can be consider as an additional observational criterion for MFR homology. This observational indication for homologous eruptions is important, especially in the case of events of typical or poorly distinguishable morphology of eruptive solar phenomena.

  1. A Harmonic Linear Dynamical System for Prominent ECG Feature Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen Thi, Ngoc Anh; Yang, Hyung-Jeong; Kim, SunHee; Do, Luu Ngoc

    2014-01-01

    Unsupervised mining of electrocardiography (ECG) time series is a crucial task in biomedical applications. To have efficiency of the clustering results, the prominent features extracted from preprocessing analysis on multiple ECG time series need to be investigated. In this paper, a Harmonic Linear Dynamical System is applied to discover vital prominent features via mining the evolving hidden dynamics and correlations in ECG time series. The discovery of the comprehensible and interpretable features of the proposed feature extraction methodology effectively represents the accuracy and the reliability of clustering results. Particularly, the empirical evaluation results of the proposed method demonstrate the improved performance of clustering compared to the previous main stream feature extraction approaches for ECG time series clustering tasks. Furthermore, the experimental results on real-world datasets show scalability with linear computation time to the duration of the time series. PMID:24719648

  2. A harmonic linear dynamical system for prominent ECG feature extraction.

    PubMed

    Thi, Ngoc Anh Nguyen; Yang, Hyung-Jeong; Kim, SunHee; Do, Luu Ngoc

    2014-01-01

    Unsupervised mining of electrocardiography (ECG) time series is a crucial task in biomedical applications. To have efficiency of the clustering results, the prominent features extracted from preprocessing analysis on multiple ECG time series need to be investigated. In this paper, a Harmonic Linear Dynamical System is applied to discover vital prominent features via mining the evolving hidden dynamics and correlations in ECG time series. The discovery of the comprehensible and interpretable features of the proposed feature extraction methodology effectively represents the accuracy and the reliability of clustering results. Particularly, the empirical evaluation results of the proposed method demonstrate the improved performance of clustering compared to the previous main stream feature extraction approaches for ECG time series clustering tasks. Furthermore, the experimental results on real-world datasets show scalability with linear computation time to the duration of the time series.

  3. 3D Reconstruction of a Rotating Erupting Prominence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, W. T.; Kliem, B.; Toeroek, T.

    2011-01-01

    A bright prominence associated with a coronal mass ejection (CME) was seen erupting from the Sun on 9 April 2008. This prominence was tracked by both the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) EUVI and COR1 telescopes, and was seen to rotate about the line of sight a it erupted; therefore, the event has been nicknamed the "Cartwheel CME." The threads of the prominence in the core of the CME quite clearly indicate the structure of a weakly to moderately twisted flux rope throughout the field of view, up to heliocentric heights of 4 solar radii. Although the STEREO separation was 48 deg, it was possible to match some sharp features in the later part of the eruption as seen in the 304 A line in EUVI and in the H-alpha-sensitive bandpass of COR I by both STEREO Ahead and Behind. These features could then be traced out in three-dimensional space, and reprojected into a view in which the eruption is directed toward the observer. The reconstructed view shows that the alignment of the prominence to the vertical axis rotates as it rises up to a leading-edge height of approximately equal to 2.5 solar radii, and then remains approximately constant. The alignment at 2.5 solar radii differs by about 115 deg from the original filament orientation inferred from H-alpha and EUV data, and the height profile of the rotation, obtained here for the first time, shows that two thirds of the total rotation are reached within approximately equal to 0.5 solar radii above the photosphere. These features are well reproduced by numerical simulations of an unstable moderately twisted flux rope embedded in external flux with a relatively strong shear field component.

  4. FORMATION AND EVOLUTION OF A MULTI-THREADED SOLAR PROMINENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Luna, M.

    2012-02-10

    We investigate the process of formation and subsequent evolution of prominence plasma in a filament channel and its overlying arcade. We construct a three-dimensional time-dependent model of an intermediate quiescent prominence suitable to be compared with observations. We combine the magnetic field structure of a three-dimensional sheared double arcade with one-dimensional independent simulations of many selected flux tubes, in which the thermal nonequilibrium process governs the plasma evolution. We have found that the condensations in the corona can be divided into two populations: threads and blobs. Threads are massive condensations that linger in the flux tube dips. Blobs are ubiquitous small condensations that are produced throughout the filament and overlying arcade magnetic structure, and rapidly fall to the chromosphere. The threads are the principal contributors to the total mass, whereas the blob contribution is small. The total prominence mass is in agreement with observations, assuming reasonable filling factors of order 0.001 and a fixed number of threads. The motion of the threads is basically horizontal, while blobs move in all directions along the field. We have generated synthetic images of the whole structure in an H{alpha} proxy and in two EUV channels of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument on board Solar Dynamics Observatory, thus showing the plasma at cool, warm, and hot temperatures. The predicted differential emission measure of our system agrees very well with observations in the temperature range log T = 4.6-5.7. We conclude that the sheared-arcade magnetic structure and plasma behavior driven by thermal nonequilibrium fit the abundant observational evidence well for typical intermediate prominences.

  5. 3D Reconstruction of a Rotating Erupting Prominence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, W. T.; Kliem, B.; Török, T.

    2012-02-01

    A bright prominence associated with a coronal mass ejection (CME) was seen erupting from the Sun on 9 April 2008. This prominence was tracked by both the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) EUVI and COR1 telescopes, and was seen to rotate about the line of sight as it erupted; therefore, the event has been nicknamed the “Cartwheel CME.” The threads of the prominence in the core of the CME quite clearly indicate the structure of a weakly to moderately twisted flux rope throughout the field of view, up to heliocentric heights of 4 solar radii. Although the STEREO separation was 48°, it was possible to match some sharp features in the later part of the eruption as seen in the 304 Å line in EUVI and in the Hα-sensitive bandpass of COR1 by both STEREO Ahead and Behind. These features could then be traced out in three-dimensional space, and reprojected into a view in which the eruption is directed toward the observer. The reconstructed view shows that the alignment of the prominence to the vertical axis rotates as it rises up to a leading-edge height of ≈ 2.5 solar radii, and then remains approximately constant. The alignment at 2.5 solar radii differs by about 115° from the original filament orientation inferred from Hα and EUV data, and the height profile of the rotation, obtained here for the first time, shows that two thirds of the total rotation are reached within ≈ 0.5 solar radii above the photosphere. These features are well reproduced by numerical simulations of an unstable moderately twisted flux rope embedded in external flux with a relatively strong shear field component.

  6. 3D Reconstruction of a Rotating Erupting Prominence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, W. T.; Kliem, B.; Torok, T.

    2011-01-01

    A bright prominence associated with a coronal mass ejection (CME) was seen erupting from the Sun on 9 April 2008. This prominence was tracked by both the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) EUVI and COR1 telescopes, and was seen to rotate about the line of sight as it erupted; therefore, the event has been nicknamed the "Cartwheel CME." The threads of the prominence in the core of the CME quite clearly indicate the structure of a weakly to moderately twisted flux rope throughout the field of view, up to heliocentric heights of 4 solar radii. Although the STEREO separation was 48 deg, it was possible to match some sharp features in the later part of the eruption as seen in the 304 Angstrom line in EUVI and in the H alpha-sensitive bandpass of COR1 by both STEREO Ahead and Behind. These features could then be traced out in three dimensional space, and reprojected into a view in which the eruption is directed towards the observer. The reconstructed view shows that the alignment of the prominence to the vertical axis rotates as it rises up to a leading-edge height of approximately equals 2.5 solar radii, and then remains approximately constant. The alignment at 2.5 solar radii differs by about 115 deg. from the original filament orientation inferred from H alpha and EUV data, and the height profile of the rotation, obtained here for the first time, shows that two thirds of the total rotation is reached within approximately equals 0.5 solar radii above the photosphere. These features are well reproduced by numerical simulations of an unstable moderately twisted flux rope embedded in external flux with a relatively strong shear field component.

  7. Prominence oscillations: Effect of a time-dependent background temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballester, J. L.; Carbonell, M.; Soler, R.; Terradas, J.

    2016-06-01

    Context. Small amplitude oscillations in prominences have been known about for a long time, and from a theoretical point of view, these oscillations have been interpreted in terms of standing or propagating linear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves. In general, these oscillations were studied by producing small perturbations in a background equilibrium with stationary physical properties. Aims: Taking into account that prominences are dynamic plasma structures, the assumption of a stationary equilibrium is not realistic. Therefore, our main aim is to study the effects produced by a non-stationary background on slow MHD waves, which could be responsible for prominence oscillations. Methods: Assuming that the radiation term is proportional to temperature and constant external heating, we have derived an expression for the temporal variation of the background temperature, which depends on the imbalance between heating and cooling processes. Furthermore, radiative losses, together with parallel thermal conduction, have also been included as damping mechanisms for the waves. Results: As temperature increases with time, the period of slow waves decreases and the amplitude of the velocity perturbations is damped. The inclusion of radiative losses enhances the damping. As temperature decreases with time, the period of slow waves increases and the amplitude of velocity perturbations grows while, as expected, the inclusion of radiative losses contributes to the damping of oscillations. Conclusions: There is observational evidence that, in different locations of the same prominence, oscillations are damped or amplified with time. This temporal damping or amplification can be obtained by a proper combination of a variable background temperature, together with radiative damping. Furthermore, decayless oscillations can also be obtained with an appropriate choice of the characteristic radiation time.

  8. Structure of Prominence Legs: Plasma and Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levens, P. J.; Schmieder, B.; Labrosse, N.; López Ariste, A.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the properties of a “solar tornado” observed on 2014 July 15, and aim to link the behavior of the plasma to the internal magnetic field structure of the associated prominence. We made multi-wavelength observations with high spatial resolution and high cadence using SDO/AIA, the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) spectrograph, and the Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) instrument. Along with spectropolarimetry provided by the Télescope Héliographique pour l’Etude du Magnétisme et des Instabilités Solaires telescope we have coverage of both optically thick emission lines and magnetic field information. AIA reveals that the two legs of the prominence are strongly absorbing structures which look like they are rotating, or oscillating in the plane of the sky. The two prominence legs, which are both very bright in Ca ii (SOT), are not visible in the IRIS Mg ii slit-jaw images. This is explained by the large optical thickness of the structures in Mg ii, which leads to reversed profiles, and hence to lower integrated intensities at these locations than in the surroundings. Using lines formed at temperatures lower than 1 MK, we measure relatively low Doppler shifts on the order of ±10 km s-1 in the tornado-like structure. Between the two legs we see loops in Mg ii, with material flowing from one leg to the other, as well as counterstreaming. It is difficult to interpret our data as showing two rotating, vertical structures that are unrelated to the loops. This kind of “tornado” scenario does not fit with our observations. The magnetic field in the two legs of the prominence is found to be preferentially horizontal.

  9. 22. GENERAL VIEW OF MILL FROM SOUTHEAST. PROMINENT ARE THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. GENERAL VIEW OF MILL FROM SOUTHEAST. PROMINENT ARE THE 100-TON STEEL CRUSHED UNOXIDIZED ORE BIN, CENTER LEFT; STEPHENS-ADAMSON 15 TON/HR INCLINED BUCKET ELEVATOR IN FRONT OF THE STEEL ORE BIN; AND THE BAKER COOLER, LOWER RIGHT. THESE MACHINES AND OTHERS IN THE AREA WERE PART OF THE UNOXIDIZED ORE CIRCUIT. THE ROASTER IS OUT OF THE PICTURE TO THE RIGHT (EAST). - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  10. Prominent gastroduodenal artery: Endosonographic sign of celiac artery stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Gonen, Can; Sürmelioğlu, Ali; Tilki, Metin; Kiliçoğlu, Gamze

    2016-01-01

    Celiac artery (CA) stenosis is a relatively common finding in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). In the presence of CA stenosis, arterial blood supply to the celiac territory is usually sustained from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) through well-developed collaterals. In this paper, the authors report endosonographically identified prominent gastroduodenal artery as the sign of CA stenosis for the first time. Uncovering previously unidentified vascular abnormality, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has improved patient management. The patient had uneventful collateral preserving PD. PMID:27803908

  11. Structure of Prominence Legs: Plasma and Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levens, P. J.; Schmieder, B.; Labrosse, N.; López Ariste, A.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the properties of a “solar tornado” observed on 2014 July 15, and aim to link the behavior of the plasma to the internal magnetic field structure of the associated prominence. We made multi-wavelength observations with high spatial resolution and high cadence using SDO/AIA, the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) spectrograph, and the Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) instrument. Along with spectropolarimetry provided by the Télescope Héliographique pour l’Etude du Magnétisme et des Instabilités Solaires telescope we have coverage of both optically thick emission lines and magnetic field information. AIA reveals that the two legs of the prominence are strongly absorbing structures which look like they are rotating, or oscillating in the plane of the sky. The two prominence legs, which are both very bright in Ca ii (SOT), are not visible in the IRIS Mg ii slit-jaw images. This is explained by the large optical thickness of the structures in Mg ii, which leads to reversed profiles, and hence to lower integrated intensities at these locations than in the surroundings. Using lines formed at temperatures lower than 1 MK, we measure relatively low Doppler shifts on the order of ±10 km s‑1 in the tornado-like structure. Between the two legs we see loops in Mg ii, with material flowing from one leg to the other, as well as counterstreaming. It is difficult to interpret our data as showing two rotating, vertical structures that are unrelated to the loops. This kind of “tornado” scenario does not fit with our observations. The magnetic field in the two legs of the prominence is found to be preferentially horizontal.

  12. Coronal transverse magnetohydrodynamic waves in a solar prominence.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, T J; Tsuneta, S; Berger, T E; Ichimoto, K; Katsukawa, Y; Lites, B W; Nagata, S; Shibata, K; Shimizu, T; Shine, R A; Suematsu, Y; Tarbell, T D; Title, A M

    2007-12-01

    Solar prominences are cool 10(4) kelvin plasma clouds supported in the surrounding 10(6) kelvin coronal plasma by as-yet-undetermined mechanisms. Observations from Hinode show fine-scale threadlike structures oscillating in the plane of the sky with periods of several minutes. We suggest that these represent Alfvén waves propagating on coronal magnetic field lines and that these may play a role in heating the corona.

  13. Twisting, Rolling Motions, and Helicity in Prominence Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKillop, Sean; Miralles, Mari Paz; Murphy, Nicholas A.; McCauley, Patrick; Su, Yingna

    2015-04-01

    Panasenco et al. [1] report observations of several CMEs that display a rolling motion about the axis of the erupting prominence. Murphy et al. [2] present simulations of line-tied asymmetric magnetic reconnection that make a falsifiable prediction regarding the handedness of rolling motions of flux ropes during solar eruptions. Mass motions in prominence eruptions tend to be complicated and characterizing these motions is a challenge. We use the AIA filament eruption catalog [3] as a source for finding events. If rolling motions are detected then we will investigate the handedness prediction. We use magnetograms from HMI to determine the strength and asymmetric properties of the photospheric magnetic field in the regions of interest and will use AIA observations to determine the handedness of the rolling motions. We then compare the photospheric magnetic information with the handedness to determine if there is a relationship between the two. We also determine the chirality of the prominences to see if there is any interesting relationship to the twist, rolling motion and/or handedness of the roll.[1] O. Panasenco, S. Martin, A. D. Joshi, & N. Srivastava, J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys., 73, 1129 (2011)[2] N. A. Murphy, M. P. Miralles, C. L. Pope, J. C. Raymond, H. D. Winter, K. K. Reeves, D. B. Seaton, A. A. van Ballegooijen, & J. Lin, ApJ, 751, 56 (2012)[3] http://aia.cfa.harvard.edu/filament/

  14. ARE GIANT TORNADOES THE LEGS OF SOLAR PROMINENCES?

    SciTech Connect

    Wedemeyer, Sven; Scullion, Eamon; Rouppe van der Voort, Luc; Bosnjak, Antonija; Antolin, Patrick

    2013-09-10

    Observations in the 171 A channel of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly of the space-borne Solar Dynamics Observatory show tornado-like features in the atmosphere of the Sun. These giant tornadoes appear as dark, elongated, and apparently rotating structures in front of a brighter background. This phenomenon is thought to be produced by rotating magnetic field structures that extend throughout the atmosphere. We characterize giant tornadoes through a statistical analysis of properties such as spatial distribution, lifetimes, and sizes. A total number of 201 giant tornadoes are detected in a period of 25 days, suggesting that, on average, about 30 events are present across the whole Sun at a time close to solar maximum. Most tornadoes appear in groups and seem to form the legs of prominences, thus serving as plasma sources/sinks. Additional H{alpha} observations with the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope imply that giant tornadoes rotate as a structure, although they clearly exhibit a thread-like structure. We observe tornado groups that grow prior to the eruption of the connected prominence. The rotation of the tornadoes may progressively twist the magnetic structure of the prominence until it becomes unstable and erupts. Finally, we investigate the potential relation of giant tornadoes to other phenomena, which may also be produced by rotating magnetic field structures. A comparison to cyclones, magnetic tornadoes, and spicules implies that such events are more abundant and short-lived the smaller they are. This comparison might help to construct a power law for the effective atmospheric heating contribution as a function of spatial scale.

  15. Formation and Evolution of a Multi-Threaded Prominence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luna, M.; Karpen, J. T.; DeVore, C. R.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the process of formation and subsequent evolution of prominence plasma in a filament channel and its overlying arcade. We construct a three-dimensional time-dependent model of a filament-channel prominence suitable to be compared with observations. We combine this magnetic field structure with one-dimensional independent simulations of many flux tubes. The magnetic structure is a three-dimensional sheared double arcade, and the thermal non-equilibrium process governs the plasma evolution. We have found that the condensations in the corona can be divided into two populations: threads and blobs. Threads are massive condensations that linger in the field line dips. Blobs are ubiquitous small condensations that are produced throughout the filament and overlying arcade magnetic structure, and rapidly fall to the chromosphere. The total prominence mass is in agreement with observations. The threads are the principal contributors to the total mass, whereas the blob contribution is small. The motion of the threads is basically horizontal, while blobs move in all directions along the field. The peak velocities for both populations are comparable, but there is a weak tendency for the velocity to increase with the inclination, and the blobs with motion near vertical have the largest values of the velocity. We have generated synthetic images of the whole structure in an H proxy and in two EUV channels of the AIA instrument aboard SDO. These images show the plasma at cool, warm and hot temperatures. The theoretical differential emission measure of our system agrees very well with observations in the temperature range log T = 4.6-5.7. We conclude that the sheared-arcade magnetic structure and plasma dynamics fit well the abundant observational evidence.

  16. Are Giant Tornadoes the Legs of Solar Prominences?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wedemeyer, Sven; Scullion, Eamon; Rouppe van der Voort, Luc; Bosnjak, Antonija; Antolin, Patrick

    2013-09-01

    Observations in the 171 Å channel of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly of the space-borne Solar Dynamics Observatory show tornado-like features in the atmosphere of the Sun. These giant tornadoes appear as dark, elongated, and apparently rotating structures in front of a brighter background. This phenomenon is thought to be produced by rotating magnetic field structures that extend throughout the atmosphere. We characterize giant tornadoes through a statistical analysis of properties such as spatial distribution, lifetimes, and sizes. A total number of 201 giant tornadoes are detected in a period of 25 days, suggesting that, on average, about 30 events are present across the whole Sun at a time close to solar maximum. Most tornadoes appear in groups and seem to form the legs of prominences, thus serving as plasma sources/sinks. Additional Hα observations with the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope imply that giant tornadoes rotate as a structure, although they clearly exhibit a thread-like structure. We observe tornado groups that grow prior to the eruption of the connected prominence. The rotation of the tornadoes may progressively twist the magnetic structure of the prominence until it becomes unstable and erupts. Finally, we investigate the potential relation of giant tornadoes to other phenomena, which may also be produced by rotating magnetic field structures. A comparison to cyclones, magnetic tornadoes, and spicules implies that such events are more abundant and short-lived the smaller they are. This comparison might help to construct a power law for the effective atmospheric heating contribution as a function of spatial scale.

  17. Prominent β-relaxations in yttrium based metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, P.; Lu, Z.; Zhu, Z. G.; Li, Y. Z.; Bai, H. Y.; Wang, W. H.

    2015-01-19

    Most metallic glasses (MGs) exhibit weak slow β-relaxation. We report the prominent β-relaxation in YNiAl metallic glass with a wide composition range. Compared with other MGs, the MGs show a pronounced β-relaxation peak and high β-relaxation peak temperature, and the β-relaxation behavior varies significantly with the changes of the constituent elements, which is attributed to the fluctuations of chemical interactions between the components. We demonstrate the correlation between the β-relaxation and the activation of flow units for mechanical behaviors of the MG and show that the MG is model system for studying some controversial issues in glasses.

  18. Prominent Eustachian Valve in Newborns: A Report of Four Cases

    PubMed Central

    Gad, Ashraf; Mannan, Javed; Chhabra, Manoj; Zhang, Xi Xiao Yang; Narula, Pramod; Hoang, Danthanh

    2015-01-01

    The Eustachian valve (EV) is an embryological remnant of the inferior vena cava that during fetal life helps divert oxygenated blood from the IVC toward the foramen ovale to escape the pulmonary circulation. This remnant usually regresses after birth and is considered a benign finding in the majority of cases. However, EV can lead to complications in the neonatal period or later in life. In this short case series, we present four newborn infants with prominent EV who were symptomatic after birth and required admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. PMID:26929867

  19. Rolling Motions During Solar Prominence Eruptions in Asymmetric Magnetic Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKillop, Sean; Miralles, Mari Paz; Murphy, Nicholas Arnold; McCauley, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    Panasenco et al. [1] report observations of several CMEs that display a rolling motion about the axis of the erupting prominence. Murphy et al. [2] present simulations of line-tied asymmetric magnetic reconnection that make a falsifiable prediction regarding the handedness of rolling motions of flux ropes during solar eruptions. We will present initial results of our work to investigate this prediction. To determine the strength and any asymmetric properties of the magnetic field in the regions of interest in the photosphere, we use magnetograms from HMI. We use AIA observations to determine if there is any rolling motion and, if so, what handedness the rolling motions have. We then compare the photospheric magnetic information with the handedness information to determine if there is any relationship between the two. Finally, we will discuss prospects for diagnosing rolling motions of erupting prominence using off-limb IRIS observations.[1] O. Panasenco, S. Martin, A. D. Joshi, & N. Srivastava, J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys., 73, 1129 (2011)[2] N. A. Murphy, M. P. Miralles, C. L. Pope, J. C. Raymond, H. D. Winter, K. K. Reeves, D. B. Seaton, A. A. van Ballegooijen, & J. Lin, ApJ, 751, 56 (2012)

  20. TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE OBSERVATIONS OF HOT PROMINENCE SHROUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Habbal, S. Rifai; Morgan, H.; Scholl, I.; Druckmueller, M.; Rusin, V.; Daw, A.; Johnson, J.; Arndt, M.

    2010-08-20

    Using observations of the corona taken during the total solar eclipses of 2006 March 29 and 2008 August 1 in broadband white light and in narrow bandpass filters centered at Fe X 637.4 nm, Fe XI 789.2 nm, Fe XIII 1074.7 nm, and Fe XIV 530.3 nm, we show that prominences observed off the solar limb are enshrouded in hot plasmas within twisted magnetic structures. These shrouds, which are commonly referred to as cavities in the literature, are clearly distinct from the overlying arch-like structures that form the base of streamers. The existence of these hot shrouds had been predicted by model studies dating back to the early 1970s, with more recent studies implying their association with twisted magnetic flux ropes. The eclipse observations presented here, which cover a temperature range of 0.9 to 2 x10{sup 6} K, are the first to resolve the long-standing ambiguity associated with the temperature and magnetic structure of prominence cavities.

  1. Bony tubercle at external occipital protuberance and prominent ridges.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajani

    2012-11-01

    During the examination of skulls in the osteology laboratory of the Department of Anatomy, CSM Medical University, Lucknow, UP, India, a skull was detected having exostosis projecting from the external occipital protuberance along with prominent superior nuchal lines appearing as ridges. Measurements of the tubercle were taken by vernier calipers, and possible causes and clinical implications were analyzed.The length of this tubercle was 8 mm; width was 6 mm and thickness 1.5 mm. The superior nuchal lines appeared as prominent ridges. The height of the ridges was 5 mm on both sides; the thickness was 10 mm and 8 mm, respectively, on both the right and left sides. The length of the ridges was 4.8 cm on the right side and 4.4 cm on the left side.The tubercle may cause occipital headache in general but especially in tree climbers and basketball/volleyball players during vertical biomechanical movements of the neck. The knowledge of this tubercle is of paramount importance to anatomists, neurosurgeons, sports physicians, radiologists, forensic experts, and anthropologists. PMID:23172430

  2. Bony tubercle at external occipital protuberance and prominent ridges.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajani

    2012-11-01

    During the examination of skulls in the osteology laboratory of the Department of Anatomy, CSM Medical University, Lucknow, UP, India, a skull was detected having exostosis projecting from the external occipital protuberance along with prominent superior nuchal lines appearing as ridges. Measurements of the tubercle were taken by vernier calipers, and possible causes and clinical implications were analyzed.The length of this tubercle was 8 mm; width was 6 mm and thickness 1.5 mm. The superior nuchal lines appeared as prominent ridges. The height of the ridges was 5 mm on both sides; the thickness was 10 mm and 8 mm, respectively, on both the right and left sides. The length of the ridges was 4.8 cm on the right side and 4.4 cm on the left side.The tubercle may cause occipital headache in general but especially in tree climbers and basketball/volleyball players during vertical biomechanical movements of the neck. The knowledge of this tubercle is of paramount importance to anatomists, neurosurgeons, sports physicians, radiologists, forensic experts, and anthropologists.

  3. The applicability of the dysphonia severity index and the voice handicap index in evaluating effects of voice therapy and phonosurgery.

    PubMed

    Hakkesteegt, Marieke M; Brocaar, Michael P; Wieringa, Marjan H

    2010-03-01

    The objective was to investigate the applicability of the Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI) and the Voice Handicap Index (VHI) in evaluating effects of intervention between groups of patients and for intrasubject differences and whether DSI and VHI are complementing measurements. Analyses of measurement data before and after intervention of 171 patients with voice disorders. The voice quality was measured objectively with the DSI. The perceived voice handicap was measured with the VHI. Three groups of patients were used: patients who had voice therapy, phonosurgery, or no intervention. DSI and VHI improved significantly after intervention in the voice therapy and the surgery group (median difference DSI 1.19 and 3.03, VHI -8 and -26, respectively). The intrasubject results were analyzed based on the test-retest variability of DSI and VHI. Significant better DSI and VHI scores after intervention were found in, respectively, 22% and 38% of the patients with voice therapy, and 56% and 78% of the patients with surgery. In the no intervention group, this was 11% and 12%. In 37% of the patients, the differences before and after intervention in DSI and VHI were in discordance. The DSI and VHI are able to show significant differences after intervention for voice disorders between groups of patients. The DSI and VHI can be used to determine a significant intrasubject result of intervention. The DSI and VHI measure each different aspects of the voice and are complementing measurements. The DSI is therefore applicable in clinical practice for objective evaluation of voice quality and the VHI for subjective evaluation of the perceived handicap by the patient self.

  4. Source of a Prominent Poleward Surge During Solar Cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeates, A. R.; Baker, D.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.

    2015-11-01

    As an observational case study, we consider the origin of a prominent poleward surge of leading polarity, visible in the magnetic butterfly diagram during Solar Cycle 24. A new technique is developed for assimilating individual regions of strong magnetic flux into a surface-flux transport model. By isolating the contribution of each of these regions, the model shows the surge to originate primarily in a single high-latitude activity group consisting of a bipolar active region present in Carrington Rotations 2104 - 05 (November 2010 - January 2011) and a multipolar active region in Rotations 2107 - 08 (February - April 2011). This group had a strong axial dipole moment opposed to Joy's law. On the other hand, the modelling suggests that the transient influence of this group on the butterfly diagram will not be matched by a large long-term contribution to the polar field because it is located at high latitude. This is in accordance with previous flux-transport models.

  5. Epidemiology of Injection Drug Use: New Trends and Prominent Issues.

    PubMed

    Roy, Élise; Arruda, Nelson; Bruneau, Julie; Jutras-Aswad, Didier

    2016-03-01

    After more than 30 years of research, numerous studies have shown that injection drug use is associated with a wide range of adverse health outcomes such as drug overdoses, drug-related suicidal behaviours, comorbid psychiatric disorders, bloodborne pathogens and other infectious diseases, and traumas. This review explores new trends and prominent issues associated with injection drug use. The dynamic nature of injection drug use is underlined by examining its recent trends and changing patterns in Canada and other "high-income countries." Three research topics that could further contribute to the development of comprehensive prevention and intervention strategies aimed at people who inject drugs are also discussed: risk behaviours associated with the injection of prescription opioids, binge injection drug use, and mental health problems as determinants of injection risk behaviours. PMID:27254088

  6. Old World frog and bird vocalizations contain prominent ultrasonic harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narins, Peter M.; Feng, Albert S.; Lin, Wenyu; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich; Denzinger, Annette; Suthers, Roderick A.; Xu, Chunhe

    2004-02-01

    Several groups of mammals such as bats, dolphins and whales are known to produce ultrasonic signals which are used for navigation and hunting by means of echolocation, as well as for communication. In contrast, frogs and birds produce sounds during night- and day-time hours that are audible to humans; their sounds are so pervasive that together with those of insects, they are considered the primary sounds of nature. Here we show that an Old World frog (Amolops tormotus) and an oscine songbird (Abroscopus albogularis) living near noisy streams reliably produce acoustic signals that contain prominent ultrasonic harmonics. Our findings provide the first evidence that anurans and passerines are capable of generating tonal ultrasonic call components and should stimulate the quest for additional ultrasonic species.

  7. Modelling of solar magnetic field and prominence structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Shi Tsan

    1988-01-01

    Using plasma theory, the interaction is studied between high frequency and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves from which a set of coupling equations resulted. On the basis of this formalism, the modulation instabilities of an electromagnetic soliton in a current sheet are examined, and it is shown that there is a resistive instability at the onset of the magnetic field reconnection. This mechanism could be used to explain the onset of solar flares and prominences. To improve the resolution of vector magnetic fields at the sun's surface, state-of-the-art optics is examined to improve the design and fabrication of a new spaceborne solar vector magnetograph as part of the SAMEX (Solar Active Measurements Experiment) program.

  8. Thermal stability analysis of the fine structure of solar prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demoulin, Pascal; Malherbe, Jean-Marie; Schmieder, Brigitte; Raadu, Mickael A.

    1986-01-01

    The linear thermal stability of a 2D periodic structure (alternatively hot and cold) in a uniform magnetic field is analyzed. The energy equation includes wave heating (assumed proportional to density), radiative cooling and both conduction parallel and orthogonal to magnetic lines. The equilibrium is perturbed at constant gas pressure. With parallel conduction only, it is found to be unstable when the length scale 1// is greater than 45 Mn. In that case, orthogonal conduction becomes important and stabilizes the structure when the length scale is smaller than 5 km. On the other hand, when the length scale is greater than 5 km, the thermal equilibrium is unstable, and the corresponding time scale is about 10,000 s: this result may be compared to observations showing that the lifetime of the fine structure of solar prominences is about one hour; consequently, our computations suggest that the size of the unresolved threads could be of the order of 10 km only.

  9. Infantile epidermolytic ichthyosis with prominent maternal palmoplantar keratoderma.

    PubMed

    Austin Smith, Wallace; Cope, Austin; Fernandez, Martin; Parekh, Palak

    2016-01-01

    Epidermolytic Ichthyosis (EI) is a rare autosomal dominant genodermatosis. Although an inherited disorder, 50% of cases represent novel mutations. This disorder presents as a bullous disease in newborns progressing to a lifelong ichthyotic skin disorder.  Other manifestations include palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK).  EI results from mutations in the keratin 1 and keratin 10 genes. Phenotypic variability is seen in affected individuals based on the genotypic mutation.  We present a mother and her newborn son with EI and prominent PPK in the mother, which also developed in the child at a few months of age.  Genotype analysis was performed on the newborn child who was found to harbor a mutation in the keratin 1 gene. This family demonstrates the phenotypic expression of PPK associated with keratin 1 gene mutations and illustrates the importance of genotype-phenotypecorrelation in this disorder. PMID:27617465

  10. The production effect in memory: a prominent mnemonic in children.

    PubMed

    Icht, Michal; Mama, Yaniv

    2015-09-01

    The 'Production Effect' (PE) refers to a memory advantage for items studied aloud over items studied silently. Thus, vocalizing may serve as a mnemonic that can be used to assist learners in improving their memory for new concepts. Although many other types of mnemonic have been suggested in the literature, the PE seems especially appropriate for young children, as it does not involve literacy skills. The present study is a first investigation of the PE in children. In two experiments we tested five-year-olds in a PE paradigm using pictures of objects as stimuli. In Experiment 1, pictures of familiar objects were presented to be remembered, and in Experiment 2 we used pictures of unfamiliar objects (evaluating new vocabulary acquisition). In both experiments we showed a memory advantage for vocally produced words ('look and say') over other types of learning ('look', 'look and listen'), suggesting the PE as a prominent memory and learning tool.

  11. Three-Dimensional Morphology of a Coronal Prominence Cavity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, S. E.; Kucera, T. A.; Rastawicki, D.; Dove, J.; deToma, G.; Hao, J.; Hill, S.; Hudson, H. S.; Marque, C.; McIntosh, P. S.; Rachmeler, L.; Reeves, K. K.; Schmieder, B.; Schmit, D. J.; Seaton, D. B.; Sterling, A. C.; Tripathi, D.; Williams, D. R.; Zhang, M.

    2010-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional density model of coronal prominence cavities, and a morphological fit that has been tightly constrained by a uniquely well-observed cavity. Observations were obtained as part of an International Heliophysical Year campaign by instruments from a variety of space- and ground-based observatories, spanning wavelengths from radio to soft-X-ray to integrated white light. From these data it is clear that the prominence cavity is the limb manifestation of a longitudinally-extended polar-crown filament channel, and that the cavity is a region of low density relative to the surrounding corona. As a first step towards quantifying density and temperature from campaign spectroscopic data, we establish the three-dimensional morphology of the cavity. This is critical for taking line-of-sight projection effects into account, since cavities are not localized in the plane of the sky and the corona is optically thin. We have augmented a global coronal streamer model to include a tunnel-like cavity with elliptical cross-section and a Gaussian variation of height along the tunnel length. We have developed a semi-automated routine that fits ellipses to cross-sections of the cavity as it rotates past the solar limb, and have applied it to Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUVI) observations from the two Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) spacecraft. This defines the morphological parameters of our model, from which we reproduce forward-modeled cavity observables. We find that cavity morphology and orientation, in combination with the viewpoints of the observing spacecraft, explains the observed variation in cavity visibility for the east vs. west limbs

  12. Anti-spasmodic assessment of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of aerial part of Pycnocycla caespitosa Boiss. & Hausskn on rat ileum contractions.

    PubMed

    Sadraei, Hassan; Asghari, Gholamreza; Alipour, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Pycnocycla caespitosa is an essential oil-containing plant naturally growing in southwest of Iran. The extract of this plant has been used as remedy in traditional medicine. Another species of Pycnocyla (P. spinosa) possessed antispasmodic activity. The pharmacological objective of this study was to look for relaxant effect of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of P. caespitosa on rat isolated ileum contractions for comparison with loperamide. The essential oil and the hydroalcoholic extract were prepared by hydrodistillation and percolation techniques, respectively. For antispasmodic studies a section of rat ileum was suspended in an organ bath containing Tyrode's solution. The tissue was stimulated with electrical field stimulation (EFS), KCl (80 mM) and acetylcholine (ACh 0.5 μM). The tissue was kept under 1 g tension at 37°C and continuously gassed with O2. The essential oil content in the aerial parts of P. caespitosa was found to be 0.16 % ml/g. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Seventy constituents, representing 97 % of the oil were identified. The major components of the oil were carvacrol (7.1%), β-eudesmol (6.4 %), ρ-cymene (5.7%), caryophyllene oxide (3.6%), α-pinine (1.4%) and α-phelandrene (1.1%). The hydroalcoholic extract of P. caespitosa inhibited the response to KCl (IC50 = 48 ± 3 μg/ml), ACh (IC50 = 61 ± 14.7 μg/ml) and EFS (IC50 = 77 ± 17 μg/ml) in a concentration-dependent manner. The essential oil of P. caespitosa also inhibited rat ileum contractions. The IC50 values for KCl, ACh and EFS were 9.2 ± 1.2 μg/ml, 7.6 ± 0.8 μg/ml and 6.4 ± 0.8 μg/ml, respectively. The inhibitory effect of both the essential oil and the extract were reversible. This research confirms the anti-spasmodic activity of both the essential oil and the extract of P. caespitosa on smooth muscle contraction of ileum.

  13. Anti-spasmodic assessment of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of aerial part of Pycnocycla caespitosa Boiss. & Hausskn on rat ileum contractions

    PubMed Central

    Sadraei, Hassan; Asghari, Gholamreza; Alipour, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Pycnocycla caespitosa is an essential oil-containing plant naturally growing in southwest of Iran. The extract of this plant has been used as remedy in traditional medicine. Another species of Pycnocyla (P. spinosa) possessed antispasmodic activity. The pharmacological objective of this study was to look for relaxant effect of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of P. caespitosa on rat isolated ileum contractions for comparison with loperamide. The essential oil and the hydroalcoholic extract were prepared by hydrodistillation and percolation techniques, respectively. For antispasmodic studies a section of rat ileum was suspended in an organ bath containing Tyrode's solution. The tissue was stimulated with electrical field stimulation (EFS), KCl (80 mM) and acetylcholine (ACh 0.5 μM). The tissue was kept under 1 g tension at 37°C and continuously gassed with O2. The essential oil content in the aerial parts of P. caespitosa was found to be 0.16 % ml/g. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Seventy constituents, representing 97 % of the oil were identified. The major components of the oil were carvacrol (7.1%), β-eudesmol (6.4 %), ρ-cymene (5.7%), caryophyllene oxide (3.6%), α-pinine (1.4%) and α-phelandrene (1.1%). The hydroalcoholic extract of P. caespitosa inhibited the response to KCl (IC50 = 48 ± 3 μg/ml), ACh (IC50 = 61 ± 14.7 μg/ml) and EFS (IC50 = 77 ± 17 μg/ml) in a concentration-dependent manner. The essential oil of P. caespitosa also inhibited rat ileum contractions. The IC50 values for KCl, ACh and EFS were 9.2 ± 1.2 μg/ml, 7.6 ± 0.8 μg/ml and 6.4 ± 0.8 μg/ml, respectively. The inhibitory effect of both the essential oil and the extract were reversible. This research confirms the anti-spasmodic activity of both the essential oil and the extract of P. caespitosa on smooth muscle contraction of ileum. PMID:27051430

  14. Magnetic structure and origin of counter-streaming mass flows in solar prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yuandeng

    2015-08-01

    The magnetic structure and origin of counter-streaming mass flows in solar prominences are hitherto unknown, however, these issues are vitally important for understanding the instability and eruption of solar and stellar prominences, as well as the associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Here we report high-resolution observations of a quiescent solar prominence that clearly manifests the magnetic structure and origin of counter-streaming mass flows in solar prominences. Based on the observational results, we propose a new prominence model in the present paper, which can reconcile many discrepancies in previous studies, for example, the distribution of magnetic fields in solar prominences, the relationship between the photospheric magnetic fields and the ends of prominence feet, as well as the origin of counterstreaming mass flows in solar prominences. In addition, we also find that the photospheric pressure-driven three and five minutes oscillations can effectively modulate the kinematics of solar prominences.

  15. Howard Russell Butler's Oil Paintings of Solar Eclipses and Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Olson, Roberta J. M.

    2014-06-01

    Howard Russell Butler (1856-1934) was invited to join the US Naval Observatory expedition to the total solar eclipse of 1918 because of his ability to paint astronomical phenomena based on quickly-made notes about spatial and color details. His giant triptych of the total eclipses of 1918, 1923, and 1925 was proposed for a never-built astronomical center at the American Museum of Natural History and wound up at their Hayden Planetarium when it was constructed in the mid-1930s. Half-size versions are installed at the Fels Planetarium at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia and at the Firestone Library of Princeton University, whose newly conserved canvases were recently hung; the Buffalo Museum of Science has another half-size version in storage. We discuss not only the eclipse triptychs but also the series of large oil paintings he made of solar prominences (in storage at the American Museum of Natural History) and of his 1932-eclipse and other relevant works.JMP was supported for this work in part by Division III Discretionary Funds and the Brandi Fund of Williams College. His current eclipse research is supported by grants AGS-1047726 from the Solar Research Program of the Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences Division of NSF and 9327-13 from the Committee for Research and Exploration of the National Geographic Society.

  16. Radiologic comparison of erosive polyarthritis with prominent interphalangeal involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, R.H.; Bassett, L.W.; Theros, E.G.

    1982-05-01

    Psoriatic arthritis, Reiter's disease, and multicentric reticulohistiocytosis may manifest prominent interphalangeal joint and cutaneous involvement. All three disorders may also affect the sacroiliac joints and spine. Despite these similarities, there are basic radiologic differences enabling distinction between the three disorders. Erosive osteoarthritis must also be considered in the differential diagnosis of interphalangeal erosive arthritis. Psoriatic erosions are characteristically ill defined, often bilaterally asymmetrical, usually unaccompanied by significant osteoporosis, and frequently associated with florid proliferation of subperiosteal new bone. An unilateral polyarticular pattern, which often occurs in a single ray, is the most prevalent of several patterns of involvement. Reiter's disease exhibits many clinical and radiologic similarities to psoriatic arthritis, but in the former there tends to be selective involvement of the joints of the lower limbs and particularly the feet, with relative sparing of the hands and wrists, while in the latter the joints of the upper and lower limbs tend to be involved to an equal extent. Multicentric reticulohistiocytosis (MR). Lesions predominate in skin and synovium and result in sharply circumscribed, rapidly progressive, strikingly bilaterally symmetrical erosions spreading from joint margins to articular surfaces. Most or all of the diarthrodial joints may be affected, but interphalangeal joint predominance and early and severe atlanto-axial involvement are characteristic. Erosive osteoarthritis is characterized by interphalangeal subchondral erosions, accompanying periosteal new bone that is more subtle than that of psoriatic arthritis, and interphalangeal bony ankylosis that occurs with the same frequency as that of psoriatic arthritis.

  17. Varicella-zoster virus encephalomyelitis with a prominent demyelinating component.

    PubMed

    Berth, Sarah; Carbunar, Olimpia; Yang, Ning Sarah; Fredericks, Brian; Lipton, Howard L; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor

    2015-12-01

    The histopathologic presentation of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection of the central nervous system is varied and is not well understood. Here we report a case of VZV encephalomyelitis with prominent demyelinating pathology in a patient with a history of follicular lymphoma treated with allogeneic stem cell transplantation. The patient presented with waxing and waning bilateral limb weakness and mental status changes. MRI showed leptomeningeal, peripheral spinal cord and periventricular cerebral white matter lesions in the brain, and polymerase chain reaction on cerebrospinal fluid detected VZV DNA. The patient expired from developing atrial fibrillation that rapidly progressed to ventricular fibrillation 10 days after admission to our hospital. Autopsy revealed macrophage-rich areas of demyelination in the spinal cord and cerebrum with relative preservation of axons associated with inclusion bodies and positive immunostaining for VZV. This case represents a rare example of VZV encephalomyelitis presenting with a predominantly demyelinating, "multiple sclerosis-like" pathology. The clinical and histopathologic findings and relevant literature are presented and discussed.

  18. A closer view of prominent rocks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Shark, Half-Dome, Pumpkin, Flat Top and Frog are at center. Little Flat Top is at right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  19. PROMINENCE PLASMA DIAGNOSTICS THROUGH EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET ABSORPTION

    SciTech Connect

    Landi, E.; Reale, F.

    2013-07-20

    In this paper, we introduce a new diagnostic technique that uses EUV and UV absorption to determine the electron temperature and column emission measure, as well as the He/H relative abundance of the absorbing plasma. If a realistic assumption on the geometry of the latter can be made and a spectral code such as CHIANTI is used, then this technique can also yield the absorbing plasma hydrogen and electron density. This technique capitalizes on the absorption properties of hydrogen and helium at different wavelength ranges and temperature regimes. Several cases where this technique can be successfully applied are described. This technique works best when the absorbing plasma is hotter than 15,000 K. We demonstrate this technique on AIA observations of plasma absorption during a coronal mass ejection eruption. This technique can be easily applied to existing observations of prominences and cold plasmas in the Sun from almost all space missions devoted to the study of the solar atmosphere, which we list.

  20. Prominence Plasma Diagnostics through Extreme-ultraviolet Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landi, E.; Reale, F.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new diagnostic technique that uses EUV and UV absorption to determine the electron temperature and column emission measure, as well as the He/H relative abundance of the absorbing plasma. If a realistic assumption on the geometry of the latter can be made and a spectral code such as CHIANTI is used, then this technique can also yield the absorbing plasma hydrogen and electron density. This technique capitalizes on the absorption properties of hydrogen and helium at different wavelength ranges and temperature regimes. Several cases where this technique can be successfully applied are described. This technique works best when the absorbing plasma is hotter than 15,000 K. We demonstrate this technique on AIA observations of plasma absorption during a coronal mass ejection eruption. This technique can be easily applied to existing observations of prominences and cold plasmas in the Sun from almost all space missions devoted to the study of the solar atmosphere, which we list.

  1. Damping of prominence longitudinal oscillations due to mass accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruderman, Michael S.; Luna, Manuel

    2016-06-01

    We study the damping of longitudinal oscillations of a prominence thread caused by the mass accretion. We suggested a simple model describing this phenomenon. In this model we considered a thin curved magnetic tube filled with the plasma. The prominence thread is in the central part of the tube and it consists of dense cold plasma. The parts of the tube at the two sides of the thread are filled with hot rarefied plasma. We assume that there are flows of rarefied plasma toward the thread caused by the plasma evaporation at the magnetic tube footpoints. Our main assumption is that the hot plasma is instantaneously accommodated by the thread when it arrives at the thread, and its temperature and density become equal to those of the thread. Then we derive the system of ordinary differential equations describing the thread dynamics. We solve this system of ordinary differential equations in two particular cases. In the first case we assume that the magnetic tube is composed of an arc of a circle with two straight lines attached to its ends such that the whole curve is smooth. A very important property of this model is that the equations describing the thread oscillations are linear for any oscillation amplitude. We obtain the analytical solution of the governing equations. Then we obtain the analytical expressions for the oscillation damping time and periods. We find that the damping time is inversely proportional to the accretion rate. The oscillation periods increase with time. We conclude that the oscillations can damp in a few periods if the inclination angle is sufficiently small, not larger that 10°, and the flow speed is sufficiently large, not less that 30 km s-1. In the second model we consider the tube with the shape of an arc of a circle. The thread oscillates with the pendulum frequency dependent exclusively on the radius of curvature of the arc. The damping depends on the mass accretion rate and the initial mass of the threads, that is the mass of the

  2. Demonstration of prominent actin filaments in the root columella.

    PubMed

    Collings, D A; Zsuppan, G; Allen, N S; Blancaflor, E B

    2001-02-01

    The distribution of actin filaments within the gravity-sensing columella cells of plant roots remains poorly understood, with studies over numerous years providing inconsistent descriptions of actin organization in these cells. This uncertainty in actin organization, and thus in actin's role in graviperception and gravisignaling, has led us to investigate actin arrangements in the columella cells of Zea mays L., Medicago truncatula Gaertn., Linum usitatissiilium L. and Nicotianla benthamiana Domin. Actin organization was examined using a combination of optimized immunofluorescence techniques, and an improved fluorochrome-conjugated phalloidin labeling method reliant on 3-maleimidobenzoyl-N-hydroxy-succinimide ester (MBS) cross-linking combined with glycerol permeabilization. Confocal microscopy of root sections labeled with anti-actin antibodies revealed patterns suggestive of actin throughout the columella region. These patterns included short and fragmented actin bundles, fluorescent rings around amyloplasts and intense fluorescence originating from the nucleus. Additionally, confocal microscopy of MBS-stabilized and Alexa Fluor-phalloidin-labeled root sections revealed a previously undetected state of actin organization in the columella. Discrete actin structures surrounded the amyloplasts and prominent actin cables radiated from the nuclear surface toward the cell periphery. Furthermore, the cortex of the columella cells contained fine actin bundles (or single filaments) that had a predominant transverse orientation. We also used confocal microscopy of plant roots expressing endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-targeted green fluorescent protein to demonstrate rapid ER movements within the columella cells, suggesting that the imaged actin network is functional. The successful identification of discrete actin structures in the root columella cells forms the perception and signaling. PMID:11289604

  3. Demonstration of prominent actin filaments in the root columella

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collings, D. A.; Zsuppan, G.; Allen, N. S.; Blancaflor, E. B.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    The distribution of actin filaments within the gravity-sensing columella cells of plant roots remains poorly understood, with studies over numerous years providing inconsistent descriptions of actin organization in these cells. This uncertainty in actin organization, and thus in actin's role in graviperception and gravisignaling, has led us to investigate actin arrangements in the columella cells of Zea mays L., Medicago truncatula Gaertn., Linum usitatissiilium L. and Nicotianla benthamiana Domin. Actin organization was examined using a combination of optimized immunofluorescence techniques, and an improved fluorochrome-conjugated phalloidin labeling method reliant on 3-maleimidobenzoyl-N-hydroxy-succinimide ester (MBS) cross-linking combined with glycerol permeabilization. Confocal microscopy of root sections labeled with anti-actin antibodies revealed patterns suggestive of actin throughout the columella region. These patterns included short and fragmented actin bundles, fluorescent rings around amyloplasts and intense fluorescence originating from the nucleus. Additionally, confocal microscopy of MBS-stabilized and Alexa Fluor-phalloidin-labeled root sections revealed a previously undetected state of actin organization in the columella. Discrete actin structures surrounded the amyloplasts and prominent actin cables radiated from the nuclear surface toward the cell periphery. Furthermore, the cortex of the columella cells contained fine actin bundles (or single filaments) that had a predominant transverse orientation. We also used confocal microscopy of plant roots expressing endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-targeted green fluorescent protein to demonstrate rapid ER movements within the columella cells, suggesting that the imaged actin network is functional. The successful identification of discrete actin structures in the root columella cells forms the perception and signaling.

  4. Weighted current sheets supported in normal and inverse configurations - A model for prominence observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demoulin, P.; Forbes, T. G.

    1992-01-01

    A technique which incorporates both photospheric and prominence magnetic field observations is used to analyze the magnetic support of solar prominences in two dimensions. The prominence is modeled by a mass-loaded current sheet which is supported against gravity by magnetic fields from a bipolar source in the photosphere and a massless line current in the corona. It is found that prominence support can be achieved in three different kinds of configurations: an arcade topology with a normal polarity; a helical topology with a normal polarity; and a helical topology with an inverse polarity. In all cases the important parameter is the variation of the horizontal component of the prominence field with height. Adding a line current external to the prominence eliminates the nonsupport problem which plagues virtually all previous prominence models with inverse polarity.

  5. Morphology and Dynamics of Solar Prominences from 3D MHD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terradas, J.; Soler, R.; Luna, M.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a numerical study of the time evolution of solar prominences embedded in sheared magnetic arcades. The prominence is represented by a density enhancement in a background-stratified atmosphere and is connected to the photosphere through the magnetic field. By solving the ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations in three dimensions, we study the dynamics for a range of parameters representative of real prominences. Depending on the parameters considered, we find prominences that are suspended above the photosphere, i.e., detached prominences, but also configurations resembling curtain or hedgerow prominences whose material continuously connects to the photosphere. The plasma-β is an important parameter that determines the shape of the structure. In many cases magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and oscillatory phenomena develop. Fingers and plumes are generated, affecting the whole prominence body and producing vertical structures in an essentially horizontal magnetic field. However, magnetic shear is able to reduce or even to suppress this instability.

  6. Spasmodic Torticollis: Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... pulling” from among these four categories. Latest News & Events NSTA Hosts Two Successful Fundraisers! NSTA Summerfest Fundraiser – ... Selective Denervation Surgery Physical Therapy Latest News and Events NSTA Hosts Two Successful Fundraisers! NSTA Summerfest Fundraiser – ...

  7. Measurement of Residual Flexibility for Substructures Having Prominent Flexible Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinker, Michael L.; Bookout, Paul S.

    1994-01-01

    structure in both test and analysis. Measured and predicted residual functions are compared, and regions of poor data in the measured curves are described. It is found that for accurate residual measurements, frequency response functions having prominent stiffness lines in the acceleration/force format are needed. The lack of such stiffness lines increases measurement errors. Interface drive point frequency respose functions for shuttle orbiter payloads exhibit dominant stiffness lines, making the residual test approach a good candidate for payload modal tests when constrained tests are inappropriate. Difficulties in extracting a residual flexibility value from noisy test data are discussed. It is shown that use of a weighted second order least-squares curve fit of the measured residual function allows identification of residual flexibility that compares very well with predictions for the simple structure. This approach also provides an estimate of second order residual mass effects.

  8. Kinematics and helicity evolution of a loop-like eruptive prominence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koleva, K.; Madjarska, M. S.; Duchlev, P.; Schrijver, C. J.; Vial, J.-C.; Buchlin, E.; Dechev, M.

    2012-04-01

    Aims: We aim at investigating the morphology as well as kinematic and helicity evolution of a loop-like prominence during its eruption. Methods: We used multi-instrument observations from AIA/SDO, EUVI/STEREO and LASCO/SoHO. The kinematic, morphological, geometrical, and helicity evolution of a loop-like eruptive prominence were studied in the context of the magnetic flux rope model of solar prominences. Results: The prominence eruption evolved as a height-expanding twisted loop with both legs anchored in the chromosphere of a plage area. The eruption process consisted of a prominence activation, acceleration, and a phase of constant velocity. The prominence body was composed of counter-clockwise twisted threads around the main prominence axis. The twist during the eruption was estimated at 6π (3 turns). The prominence reached a maximum height of 526 Mm before contracting to its primary location and was partially reformed in the same place two days after the eruption. This ejection, however, triggered a coronal mass ejection (CME) observed in LASCO C2. The prominence was located in the northern periphery of the CME magnetic field configuration and, therefore, the background magnetic field was asymmetric with respect to the filament position. The physical conditions of the falling plasma blobs were analysed with respect to the prominence kinematics. Conclusions: The same sign of the prominence body twist and writhe, as well as the amount of twisting above the critical value of 2π after the activation phase indicate that possibly conditions for kink instability were present. No signature of magnetic reconnection was observed anywhere in the prominence body and its surroundings. The filament/prominence descent following the eruption and its partial reformation at the same place two days later suggest a confined type of eruption. The asymmetric background magnetic field possibly played an important role in the failed eruption. Movies showing the temporal evolution

  9. Using Prominence Mass Inferences in Different Coronal Lines to Obtain the He/H Abundance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Holly; Kilper, Gary; Alexander, David; Kucera, Therese

    2009-01-01

    In a previous study we developed a new technique for deriving prominence mass by observing how much coronal radiation in the Fe XII (lambda195) spectral Line is absorbed by prominence material. In the present work we apply this method. which allows us to consider the effects of both foreground and background radiation in our calculations, to a sample of prominences absorbing in a coronal line that ionizes both H and He (lambda < 504 Angstroms), and a line that ionizes only H (504 Angstroms < lambda < 911 Angstroms). This approach, first suggested by Mucera et al. (1998). permits the determination of the abundance ratio [He I]/[H I] of neutral helium and hydrogen in the prominence. This ratio should depend on how the prominence is formed, on its current thermodynamic state, and on its dynamical evolution. Thus, it may provide useful insights into the formation and evolution of prominences.

  10. Using Prominence Mass Inferences in Different Coronal Lines to Obtain the He/H Abundance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Holly; Kilper, Gary; Alexander, David; Kucera, Therese

    2008-01-01

    In a previous study we developed a new technique for deriving prominence mass by observing how much coronal radiation in the Fe XI1 (lambda 195) spectral line is absorbed by prominence material. In the present work we apply this method, which allows us to consider the effects of both foreground and background radiation in our calculations, to a sample of prominences absorbing in a coronal line that ionizes both H and He (h < 504 Angstroms), and a line that ionizes only H (504 Angstroms < lambda < 911 Angstroms). This approach, first suggested by Kucera et al. (1998), permits the determination of the abundance ratio [He I]/[H I] of neutral helium and hydrogen in the prominence. This ratio should depend on how the prominence is formed, on its current thermodynamic state, and on its dynamical evolution. Thus, it may provide useful insights into the formation and evolution of prominences.

  11. The role of Alfvén wave heating in solar prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soler, Roberto; Terradas, Jaume; Oliver, Ramon; Ballester, Jose Luis

    2016-07-01

    Observations have shown that magnetohydrodynamic waves over a large frequency range are ubiquitous in solar prominences. The waves are probably driven by photospheric motions and may transport energy up to prominences suspended in the corona. Dissipation of wave energy can lead to heating of the cool prominence plasma, thereby contributing to the local energy balance within the prominence. Here we discuss the role of Alfvén wave dissipation as a heating mechanism for the prominence plasma. We consider a slab-like quiescent prominence model with a transverse magnetic field embedded in the solar corona. The prominence medium is modeled as a partially ionized plasma composed of a charged ion-electron single fluid and two separate neutral fluids corresponding to neutral hydrogen and neutral helium. Friction between the three fluids acts as a dissipative mechanism for the waves. The heating caused by Alfvén waves incident on the prominence slab is analytically explored. We find that the dense prominence slab acts as a resonant cavity for the waves. The fraction of incident wave energy that is channeled into the slab strongly depends upon the wave period, P. Using typical prominence conditions, we obtain that wave energy trapping and associated heating are negligible when P ≳ 100 s, so that it is unlikely that those waves have a relevant influence on prominence energetics. When 1 s ≲ P ≲ 100 s the energy absorption into the slab shows several sharp and narrow peaks that can reach up to ~100% when the incident wave frequency matches a cavity resonance of the slab. Wave heating is enhanced at those resonant frequencies. Conversely, when P ≲ 1 s cavity resonances are absent, but the waves are heavily damped by the strong dissipation. We estimate that wave heating may compensate for about 10% of radiative losses of the prominence plasma.

  12. ON THE SUPPORT OF SOLAR PROMINENCE MATERIAL BY THE DIPS OF A CORONAL FLUX TUBE

    SciTech Connect

    Hillier, Andrew; Van Ballegooijen, Adriaan

    2013-04-01

    The dense prominence material is believed to be supported against gravity through the magnetic tension of dipped coronal magnetic field. For quiescent prominences, which exhibit many gravity-driven flows, hydrodynamic forces are likely to play an important role in the determination of both the large- and small-scale magnetic field distributions. In this study, we present the first steps toward creating a three-dimensional magneto-hydrostatic prominence model where the prominence is formed in the dips of a coronal flux tube. Here 2.5D equilibria are created by adding mass to an initially force-free magnetic field, then performing a secondary magnetohydrodynamic relaxation. Two inverse polarity magnetic field configurations are studied in detail, a simple o-point configuration with a ratio of the horizontal field (B{sub x} ) to the axial field (B{sub y} ) of 1:2 and a more complex model that also has an x-point with a ratio of 1:11. The models show that support against gravity is either by total pressure or tension, with only tension support resembling observed quiescent prominences. The o-point of the coronal flux tube was pulled down by the prominence material, leading to compression of the magnetic field at the base of the prominence. Therefore, tension support comes from the small curvature of the compressed magnetic field at the bottom and the larger curvature of the stretched magnetic field at the top of the prominence. It was found that this method does not guarantee convergence to a prominence-like equilibrium in the case where an x-point exists below the prominence flux tube. The results imply that a plasma {beta} of {approx}0.1 is necessary to support prominences through magnetic tension.

  13. Phonetic Realization and Perception of Prominence among Lexical Tones in Mandarin Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bao, Mingzhen

    2008-01-01

    Linguistic prominence is defined as words or syllables perceived auditorily as standing out from their environment. It is explored through changes in pitch, duration and loudness. In this study, phonetic realization and perception of prominence among lexical tones in Mandarin Chinese was investigated in two experiments. Experiment 1 explored…

  14. Social Prominence and the Heterogeneity of Rejected Status in Late Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Hall, Cristin M.; Leung, Man-Chi; Estell, David B.; Brooks, Debra

    2011-01-01

    The heterogeneity of peer rejection was examined as a function of social prominence in fifth grade classrooms. From an overall sample of 3,891 (1,931 girls) students, 721 youth (424 boys) were identified with rejected status. Social prominence was determined from the aggregation of peer nominations for "leader", "athletic", "cool", and "popular".…

  15. Tic Tac TOE: Effects of Predictability and Importance on Acoustic Prominence in Language Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Duane G.; Arnold, Jennifer E.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2008-01-01

    Importance and predictability each have been argued to contribute to acoustic prominence. To investigate whether these factors are independent or two aspects of the same phenomenon, naive participants played a verbal variant of Tic Tac Toe. Both importance and predictability contributed independently to the acoustic prominence of a word, but in…

  16. On the Structure and Evolution of a Polar Crown Prominence/Filament System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panesar, N. K.; Innes, D. E.; Schmit, D. J.; Tiwari, S. K.

    2014-08-01

    Polar crown prominences, that partially circle the Sun's poles between 60° and 70° latitude, are made of chromospheric plasma. We aim to diagnose the 3D dynamics of a polar crown prominence using high-cadence EUV images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/AIA at 304, 171, and 193 Å and the Ahead spacecraft of the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO-A)/EUVI at 195 Å. Using time series across specific structures, we compare flows across the disk in 195 Å with the prominence dynamics seen on the limb. The densest prominence material forms vertical columns that are separated by many tens of Mm and connected by dynamic bridges of plasma that are clearly visible in 304/171 Å two-colour images. We also observe intermittent but repetitious flows with velocity 15 km s-1 in the prominence that appear to be associated with EUV bright points on the solar disk. The boundary between the prominence and the overlying cavity appears as a sharp edge. We discuss the structure of the coronal cavity seen both above and around the prominence. SDO/HMI and GONG magnetograms are used to infer the underlying magnetic topology. The evolution and structure of the prominence with respect to the magnetic field seems to agree with the filament-linkage model.

  17. An Analysis of A Tornado-Like Prominence Observed by SDO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W.

    2015-12-01

    We studied a tornado-like prominence near the Northwest limb, observed on 2014 November 1 by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO). Starting at 02:00 UT, the prominence began to rise slowly. About two hours later, we observed tornado-like horizontal motions as high as 150 Mm above the limb, which were associated with the heating of the dark prominence into brightening material in AIA 17.1 nm. Interactions between the prominence and the overlying coronal loops resulted in the downflows of the prominence material along the loops back to the solar surface, with the landing sites of the downflowing material moving sequentially away from the prominence channel. This could result from magnetic reconnections between the prominence field and the overlying field, which proceeded to higher and higher altitudes when the reconnections encroached into the overlying field. Helical motions at low altitudes are interpreted as flows along the twisted field that supported the prominence against the gravity in its quiescent state. A localized flux emergence within a nearby active region is considered as the trigger the tornado.

  18. 21 CFR 201.15 - Drugs; prominence of required label statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs; prominence of required label statements. 201.15 Section 201.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.15 Drugs; prominence...

  19. Nine-month-old infants are sensitive to the temporal alignment of prosodic and gesture prominences.

    PubMed

    Esteve-Gibert, Núria; Prieto, Pilar; Pons, Ferran

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the sensitivity of 9-month-old infants to the alignment between prosodic and gesture prominences in pointing-speech combinations. Results revealed that the perception of prominence is multimodal and that infants are aware of the timing of gesture-speech combinations well before they can produce them. PMID:25656953

  20. Changes in the Facial Prominence of Women and Men over the Last Decade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigro, Georgia N.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Measured facial prominence of women and men in popular images since the 1970s. Examined 1,200 photographs from "Time" and "Newsweek" (Study 1) and 640 photographs from "Good Housekeeping" and "Ms." (Study 2). Found men had received greater facial prominence than women. Results confirm asymmetry in representation of men's and women's faces and…

  1. Prominence and Cool Loop Energetics Measured in the UV, EUV, and H-alpha

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucera, Therese A.; Landi, E.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the thermal and dynamic properties of moving features in a prominence jet, a approx. 10(exp 5)K loop near a prominence channel, and an erupting prominence. In order to make measurements of the quickly moving features seen in prominences in the UV we use the SOHO/SUMER spectrograph to take a time series of exposures from a single pointing position, providing a measurement of spectral line properties as a function of time and position along the slit. The lines observed cover a broad range of temperatures from 80,000 - 1.6 million K. These measurements are combined with TRACE movies in transition region and coronal temperature bands and with ground based H-alpha data to obtain more complete information concerning prominence structure and motions. The resulting observations allow us perform DEM analysis and to calculate limits on densities, pressures, and the thermal and kinetic energies of the moving sources.

  2. Spectro-Polarimetric Imaging Reveals Helical Magnetic Fields in Solar Prominence Feet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez González, M. J.; Manso Sainz, R.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Beck, C.; de la Cruz Rodríguez, J.; Díaz, A. J.

    2015-03-01

    Solar prominences are clouds of cool plasma levitating above the solar surface and insulated from the million-degree corona by magnetic fields. They form in regions of complex magnetic topology, characterized by non-potential fields, which can evolve abruptly, disintegrating the prominence and ejecting magnetized material into the heliosphere. However, their physics is not yet fully understood because mapping such complex magnetic configurations and their evolution is extremely challenging, and must often be guessed by proxy from photometric observations. Using state-of-the-art spectro-polarimetric data, we reconstruct the structure of the magnetic field in a prominence. We find that prominence feet harbor helical magnetic fields connecting the prominence to the solar surface below.

  3. The role of prominence in Spanish sentence comprehension: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Gattei, Carolina A; Tabullo, Ángel; París, Luis; Wainselboim, Alejandro J

    2015-11-01

    Prominence is the hierarchical relation among arguments that allows us to understand 'Who did what to whom' in a sentence. The present study aimed to provide evidence about the role of prominence information for the incremental interpretation of arguments in Spanish. We investigated the time course of neural correlates associated to the comprehension of sentences that require a reversal of argument prominence hierarchization. We also studied how the amount of available prominence information may affect the incremental build-up of verbal expectations. Results of the ERP data revealed that at the disambiguating verb region, object-initial sentences (only one argument available) elicited a centro-parietal negativity with a peak at 400 ms post-onset. Subject-initial sentences (two arguments available) yielded a broadly distributed positivity at around 650 ms. This dissociation suggests that argument interpretation may depend on their morphosyntactic features, and also on the amount of prominence information available before the verb is encountered.

  4. The role of prominence in Spanish sentence comprehension: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Gattei, Carolina A; Tabullo, Ángel; París, Luis; Wainselboim, Alejandro J

    2015-11-01

    Prominence is the hierarchical relation among arguments that allows us to understand 'Who did what to whom' in a sentence. The present study aimed to provide evidence about the role of prominence information for the incremental interpretation of arguments in Spanish. We investigated the time course of neural correlates associated to the comprehension of sentences that require a reversal of argument prominence hierarchization. We also studied how the amount of available prominence information may affect the incremental build-up of verbal expectations. Results of the ERP data revealed that at the disambiguating verb region, object-initial sentences (only one argument available) elicited a centro-parietal negativity with a peak at 400 ms post-onset. Subject-initial sentences (two arguments available) yielded a broadly distributed positivity at around 650 ms. This dissociation suggests that argument interpretation may depend on their morphosyntactic features, and also on the amount of prominence information available before the verb is encountered. PMID:26291770

  5. Analysis of Flows inside Quiescent Prominences as Captured by Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freed, M. S.; McKenzie, D. E.; Longcope, D. W.; Wilburn, M.

    2016-02-01

    Developing an understanding of how magnetic fields can become entangled in a prominence is important for predicting a possible eruption. This work investigates the kinetic energy and vorticity associated with plasma motion residing inside quiescent prominences (QPs). These plasma flow characteristics can be utilized to improve our understanding of how the prominence maintains a stable magnetic field configuration. Three different contrast-enhanced solar prominence observations from Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope were used to construct velocity maps—in the plane of the sky—via a Fourier local correlation tracking program. The resulting velocities were then used to perform the first-ever analysis of the two-dimensional kinetic energy and enstrophy spectra of a prominence. Enstrophy is introduced here as a means of quantifying the vorticity that has been observed in many QPs. The kinetic energy power spectral density (PSD) produced indices ranging from -1.00 to -1.60. There was a consistent anisotropy in the kinetic energy spectrum of all three prominences examined. Examination of the intensity PSD reveals that a different scaling relationship exists between the observed prominence structure and velocity maps. All of the prominences exhibited an inertial range of at least 0.8≤slant k≤slant 2.0 {rads} {{Mm}}-1. Quasi-periodic oscillations were also detected in the centroid of the velocity distributions for one prominence. Additionally, a lower limit was placed on the kinetic energy density (ɛ ˜ 0.22-7.04 {{km}}2 {{{s}}}-2) and enstrophy density (ω ˜ 1.43-13.69 × \\quad {10}-16 {{{s}}}-2) associated with each prominence.

  6. Analysis of EUV, UV, and H-alpha Emission from Two Very Different Prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucera, T.; Landi, E.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the properties of a pair of prominences observed the UV and EUV in April 2004. One was a generally quiet prominence which exhibited a period of activation. Another was a large "coronal cloud" type prominence. Both were observed by SOHO/SUMER, TRACE, and in H$\\alpha$ by BBSO and MLSO. The quiet prominence was also observed by the SOHO/CDS instrument. TRACE and H$\\alpha$ data provide 2D images on with time cadences on the order of 1 minute. The SUMER data was taken from a single slit location with a 90 second cadence and included a number of lines spanning the temperature range 80,000 to 1.6 million K. This observing program was designed to allow us to study prominence dynamics . CDS raster data was taken with a slower cadence, in lines formed at temperatures from 20,000 - 1 million K. We combine these different data sets to analyze the thermal properties, including differential emission measures (DEMs), of these very different prominences, and compare the results to those of prominences previously analyzed by ourselves and others.

  7. Prominence plasma and magnetic field structure - A coordinated observation with IRIS, Hinode and THEMIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, Brigitte; Labrosse, Nicolas; Levens, Peter; Lopez Ariste, Arturo

    2016-07-01

    During an international campaign in 2014, utilising both space-based (IRIS and Hinode) and ground-based (THEMIS) instruments, we focused on observing prominences. We compare IRIS observations with those of Hinode (EIS and SOT) in order to build a more complete picture of the prominence structure for a quiescent prominence observed on 15 July 2014, identified to have tornado-like structure. THEMIS provides valuable information on the orientation and strength of the internal magnetic field. Here we find there is almost ubiquitously horizontal field with respect to the local limb, with possibly a turbulent component. The Mg II lines form the majority of our IRIS analysis, with a mixture of reversed and non-reversed profiles present in the prominence spectra. Comparing the differences between the Mg II data from IRIS and the Ca II images from Hinode/SOT provides an intriguing insight into the prominence legs in these channels. We present plasma diagnostics from IRIS, with line of sight velocities of around 10 km/s in either direction along the magnetic loops of material in the front of the prominence, and line widths comparable to those found for prominences by previous authors (e.g. Schmieder et al. 2014). We also take a look into the lines formed at higher, coronal plasma temperatures, as seen by Hinode/EIS, to compare plasma structures at a full range of temperatures.

  8. Monster Prominence

    NASA Video Gallery

    When a rather large-sized (M 3.6 class) flare occurred near the edge of the Sun, it blew out a gorgeous, waving mass of erupting plasma that swirled and twisted over a 90-minute period (Feb. 24, 20...

  9. High resolution reconstruction of solar prominence images observed by the New Vacuum Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Yong-yuan; Liu, Zhong; Jin, Zhen-yu

    2016-11-01

    A high resolution image showing fine structures is crucial for understanding the nature of solar prominence. In this paper, high resolution imaging of solar prominence on the New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST) is introduced, using speckle masking. Each step of the data reduction especially the image alignment is discussed. Accurate alignment of all frames and the non-isoplanatic calibration of each image are the keys for a successful reconstruction. Reconstructed high resolution images from NVST also indicate that under normal seeing condition, it is feasible to carry out high resolution observations of solar prominence by a ground-based solar telescope, even in the absence of adaptive optics.

  10. Motions in Prominence Barbs as observed by Hinode/SOT and IRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucera, Therese A.; Ofman, Leon; Tarbell, Theodore D.

    2016-05-01

    We discuss observations of prominence barb dynamics as observed by Hinode/SOT and IRIS. Prominence barbs extend outwards to the side of the main prominence spine and downwards towards the chromosphere. Their properties, including the structure of their magnetic field and the nature of the motions observed in them are a subject of current debate. We use a combination of high cadence, high resolution imaging, H-alpha Doppler, and Mg II line profile data to analyze and understand waves and flows in barbs and discuss their ramifications in terms of a model of the barb magnetic field as collection of dipped field lines.

  11. The Causal Ordering of Prominence and Salience in Identity Theory: An Empirical Examination

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Philip S.; Serpe, Richard T.; Stryker, Sheldon

    2016-01-01

    Identity theory invokes two distinct but related concepts, identity salience and prominence, to explain how the organization of identities that make up the self impacts the probability that a given identity is situationally enacted. However, much extant research has failed to clearly distinguish between salience and prominence, and their empirical relationship has not been adequately investigated, impeding a solid understanding of the significance and role of each in a general theory of the self. This study examines their causal ordering using three waves of panel data from 48 universities focusing on respondents’ identities as science students. Analyses strongly support a causal ordering from prominence to salience. We provide theoretical and empirical grounds to justify this ordering while acknowledging potential variation in its strength across identities. Finally, we offer recommendations about the use of prominence and salience when measures of one or both are available or when analyses use cross-sectional data. PMID:27284212

  12. Morphology Of A Hot Prominence Cavity Observed with Hinode/XRT and SDO/AIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Mark A.; Reeves, K. K.; Gibson, S. E.; Kucera, T. A.

    2012-01-01

    Prominence cavities appear as circularly shaped voids in coronal emission over polarity inversion lines where a prominence channel is straddling the solar limb. The presence of chromospheric material suspended at coronal altitudes is a common but not necessary feature within these cavities. These voids are observed to change shape as a prominence feature rotates around the limb. We use a morphological model projected in cross-sections to fit the cavity emission in Hinode/XRT passbands, and then apply temperature diagnostics to XRT and SDO/AIA data to investigate the thermal structure. We find significant evidence that the prominence cavity is hotter than the corona immediately outside the cavity boundary. This investigation follows upon "Thermal Properties of A Solar Coronal Cavity Observed with the X-ray Telescope on Hinode" by Reeves et al., 2012, ApJ, in press.

  13. The ecology of prominences. [classification, morphology and significance to solar physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zirin, H.

    1979-01-01

    The paper discusses the roles of prominences in the solar scheme. Attention is given to classifications and the ways in which prominences exist: hydrostatic support, ballistic support, and magnetic support. In the case of ballistic support, surges are differentiated from sprays which involve the ejection of material that is already above the solar surface. Discussion also covers filimets and fibrils and the conditions for their appearance. It is proposed that most flares originate in prominence instabilities. In addition supergranulation is covered, noting the network is not seen on the boundary of unipolar regions. It is concluded that prominences play a critical role in flares and field reconnection, and the evolution of solar magnetic fields.

  14. QUIESCENT PROMINENCE DYNAMICS OBSERVED WITH THE HINODE SOLAR OPTICAL TELESCOPE. I. TURBULENT UPFLOW PLUMES

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Thomas E.; Slater, Gregory; Hurlburt, Neal; Shine, Richard; Tarbell, Theodore; Title, Alan; Okamoto, Takenori J.; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Katsukawa, Yukio; Magara, Tetsuya; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Shimizu, Toshifumi

    2010-06-20

    Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) observations reveal two new dynamic modes in quiescent solar prominences: large-scale (20-50 Mm) 'arches' or 'bubbles' that 'inflate' from below into prominences, and smaller-scale (2-6 Mm) dark turbulent upflows. These novel dynamics are related in that they are always dark in visible-light spectral bands, they rise through the bright prominence emission with approximately constant speeds, and the small-scale upflows are sometimes observed to emanate from the top of the larger bubbles. Here we present detailed kinematic measurements of the small-scale turbulent upflows seen in several prominences in the SOT database. The dark upflows typically initiate vertically from 5 to 10 Mm wide dark cavities between the bottom of the prominence and the top of the chromospheric spicule layer. Small perturbations on the order of 1 Mm or less in size grow on the upper boundaries of cavities to generate plumes up to 4-6 Mm across at their largest widths. All plumes develop highly turbulent profiles, including occasional Kelvin-Helmholtz vortex 'roll-up' of the leading edge. The flows typically rise 10-15 Mm before decelerating to equilibrium. We measure the flowfield characteristics with a manual tracing method and with the Nonlinear Affine Velocity Estimator (NAVE) 'optical flow' code to derive velocity, acceleration, lifetime, and height data for several representative plumes. Maximum initial speeds are in the range of 20-30 km s{sup -1}, which is supersonic for a {approx}10,000 K plasma. The plumes decelerate in the final few Mm of their trajectories resulting in mean ascent speeds of 13-17 km s{sup -1}. Typical lifetimes range from 300 to 1000 s ({approx}5-15 minutes). The area growth rate of the plumes (observed as two-dimensional objects in the plane of the sky) is initially linear and ranges from 20,000 to 30,000 km{sup 2} s{sup -1} reaching maximum projected areas from 2 to 15 Mm{sup 2}. Maximum contrast of the dark flows relative to

  15. Onset of solar flares as predicted by two-dimensional MHD-models of quiescent prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galindotrejo, J.

    1985-01-01

    The close connection between the sudden disapperance (disparition brusque) of the quiescent prominences and the two-ribbon flares are well known. During this dynamic phase the prominence ascends rapidly (typically with a velocity about 100 Km/sec) and disappears. In another later stage is observed material falling back into the chromosphere. The impact of this downfalling matter on the chromosphere produces the H brightening, which shows the symmetric double pattern. The occurence of the disparition brusque is thought to be a consequence of a plasma instability of magnetohydrostatic (MHD) structures. By means of the MHD-energy principle, the stability properties of four prominence models are analyzed. It is shown that all considered models undergo instabilities for parameters outside of the observed range at quiescent prominences. The possibility that such instabilities in the flare parameter range may indicate just the onset of a flare is considered.

  16. Transverse femoral implant prominence: four cases demonstrating a preventable complication for ACL reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Argintar, Evan; Scherer, Benjamin; Jordan, Tom; Klimkiewicz, John

    2010-12-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear is a commonly occurring injury that often demands surgical reconstruction. Although the utility of this operation is widely accepted, many specific components, including graft fixation technique, remain controversial. Many clinicians favor transverse femoral implant fixation for soft tissue ACL grafts. This technique can be accomplished successfully; however, in a minority of the cases, the femoral implant can be excessively prominent, leading to iatrogenic postoperative iliotibial band syndrome. This article presents 4 patients that developed postoperative iliotibial band syndrome resulting from transverse femoral implant prominence. Despite achievement of knee ligamentous stability, implant prominence compromised final clinical results following ACL reconstruction. Through change in Lysholm value, we reviewed the clinical outcomes of these patients following femoral implant hardware removal for treatment of iliotibial band syndrome. On hardware removal, all patients demonstrated complete symptomatic improvement, mirroring an average Lysholm value increase of 38. We believe transverse femoral implant prominence is avoidable, and subsequent iliotibial band syndrome is a preventable postoperative complication.

  17. Prominence activity related to CME observed by SOHO, Yohkoh and ground-based observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmieder, B.; vanDriel-Gesztelyi, L.; Wiik, J. E.; Kucera, T.; Thompson, B.; DeForest, C.; SaintCyr, C.; Simnett, G. M.

    1997-01-01

    Examples of destabilization of prominences and their associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are presented. During the 1996 campaigns of multi-wavelength observations with the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), the Yohkoh satellite's soft X-ray telescope (SXT) and the Meudon (France) H alpha spectroheliograph eruptive solar filaments and prominences associated with the CMEs were observed. Two of the observed events showed that CMEs and 'brusques disparitions' (BDs) seem to be consequences of global magnetic field instability.

  18. Dynamics of a Prominence-horn Structure during Its Evaporation in the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bing; Chen, Yao; Fu, Jie; Li, Bo; Li, Xing; Liu, Wei

    2016-08-01

    The physical connections among and formation mechanisms of various components of the prominence-horn cavity system remain elusive. Here we present observations of such a system, focusing on a section of the prominence that rises and separates gradually from the main body. This forms a configuration sufficiently simple to yield clues regarding the above issues. It is characterized by embedding horns, oscillations, and a gradual disappearance of the separated material. The prominence-horn structure exhibits a large-amplitude longitudinal oscillation with a period of ˜150 minutes and an amplitude of ˜30 Mm along the trajectory defined by the concave horn structure. The horns also experience a simultaneous transverse oscillation with a much smaller amplitude (˜3 Mm) and a shorter period (˜10-15 minutes), likely representative of a global mode of the large-scale magnetic structure. The gradual disappearance of the structure indicates that the horn, an observational manifestation of the field-aligned transition region separating the cool and dense prominence from the hot and tenuous corona, is formed due to the heating and diluting process of the central prominence mass; most previous studies suggested that it is the opposite process, i.e., the cooling and condensation of coronal plasmas, that formed the horn. This study also demonstrates how the prominence transports magnetic flux to the upper corona, a process essential for the gradual build-up of pre-eruption magnetic energy.

  19. Locality interactions with prominence in determining the scope of phrasal lengthening

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, Dani; Riggs, Daylen

    2009-01-01

    Temporal lengthening of gestures and segments located in a boundary-adjacent syllable has been found in both pre- and postboundary contexts. However, the temporal extent or scope of this lengthening, particularly in the articulatory domain, is not well described. We address the question of scope of prosodic lengthening by considering specifically whether prominence interacts with boundary-related articulatory lengthening in such a way that prominent elements not immediately at a phrase edge are lengthened relative to the same prominent elements phrase-medially (i.e. at a considerable distance from a boundary). Articulatory kinematic data were collected for three subjects to analyze consonant constrictions of prominent syllables located (1) either immediately before or after a boundary and (2) two and three syllables away from that boundary. The results indicate that, as expected, gestures undergo prosodic lengthening when immediately local to the phase boundary. However, some subjects did display prosodic lengthening at a small remove from the boundary for a prominent syllable. This effect was strongest in the postboundary condition. These results suggest that a consideration of prominence may be relevant in understanding the temporal patterning of boundary-related articulatory lengthening. PMID:19888443

  20. EVIDENCE FOR ROTATIONAL MOTIONS IN THE FEET OF A QUIESCENT SOLAR PROMINENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Orozco Suarez, D.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Trujillo Bueno, J.

    2012-12-20

    We present observational evidence of apparent plasma rotational motions in the feet of a solar prominence. Our study is based on spectroscopic observations taken in the He I 1083.0 nm multiplet with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter attached to the German Vacuum Tower Telescope. We recorded a time sequence of spectra with 34 s cadence placing the slit of the spectrograph almost parallel to the solar limb and crossing two feet of an intermediate size, quiescent hedgerow prominence. The data show opposite Doppler shifts, {+-}6 km s{sup -1}, at the edges of the prominence feet. We argue that these shifts may be interpreted as prominence plasma rotating counterclockwise around the vertical axis to the solar surface as viewed from above. The evolution of the prominence seen in EUV images taken with the Solar Dynamics Observatory provided us with clues to interpret the results as swirling motions. Moreover, time-distance images taken far from the central wavelength show plasma structures moving parallel to the solar limb with velocities of about 10-15 km s{sup -1}. Finally, the shapes of the observed intensity profiles suggest the presence of, at least, two components at some locations at the edges of the prominence feet. One of them is typically Doppler shifted (up to {approx}20 km s{sup -1}) with respect to the other, thus suggesting the existence of supersonic counter-streaming flows along the line of sight.

  1. SOLAR MAGNETIZED TORNADOES: ROTATIONAL MOTION IN A TORNADO-LIKE PROMINENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Yang; Veronig, Astrid; Temmer, Manuela; Vanninathan, Kamalam; Gömöry, Peter; Wang, Tongjiang; Gan, Weiqun; Li, YouPing

    2014-04-10

    Su et al. proposed a new explanation for filament formation and eruption, where filament barbs are rotating magnetic structures driven by underlying vortices on the surface. Such structures have been noticed as tornado-like prominences when they appear above the limb. They may play a key role as the source of plasma and twist in filaments. However, no observations have successfully distinguished rotational motion of the magnetic structures in tornado-like prominences from other motions such as oscillation and counter-streaming plasma flows. Here we report evidence of rotational motions in a tornado-like prominence. The spectroscopic observations in two coronal lines were obtained from a specifically designed Hinode/EIS observing program. The data revealed the existence of both cold and million-degree-hot plasma in the prominence leg, supporting the so-called prominence-corona transition region. The opposite velocities at the two sides of the prominence and their persistent time evolution, together with the periodic motions evident in SDO/AIA dark structures, indicate a rotational motion of both cold and hot plasma with a speed of ∼5 km s{sup –1}.

  2. SIMULATIONS OF PROMINENCE FORMATION IN THE MAGNETIZED SOLAR CORONA BY CHROMOSPHERIC HEATING

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, C.; Chen, P. F.; Keppens, R.

    2012-04-01

    Starting from a realistically sheared magnetic arcade connecting the chromospheric, transition region to coronal plasma, we simulate the in situ formation and sustained growth of a quiescent prominence in the solar corona. Contrary to previous works, our model captures all phases of the prominence formation, including the loss of thermal equilibrium, its successive growth in height and width to macroscopic dimensions, and the gradual bending of the arched loops into dipped loops, as a result of the mass accumulation. Our 2.5 dimensional, fully thermodynamically and magnetohydrodynamically consistent model mimics the magnetic topology of normal-polarity prominences above a photospheric neutral line, and results in a curtain-like prominence above the neutral line through which the ultimately dipped magnetic field lines protrude at a finite angle. The formation results from concentrated heating in the chromosphere, followed by plasma evaporation and later rapid condensation in the corona due to thermal instability, as verified by linear instability criteria. Concentrated heating in the lower atmosphere evaporates plasma from below to accumulate at the top of coronal loops and supply mass to the later prominence constantly. This is the first evaporation-condensation model study where we can demonstrate how the formed prominence stays in a force balanced state, which can be compared to the Kippenhahn-Schlueter type magnetohydrostatic model, all in a finite low-beta corona.

  3. MEASURING AN ERUPTIVE PROMINENCE AT LARGE DISTANCES FROM THE SUN. II. APPROACHING 1 AU

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, T. A.

    2015-06-20

    The physical properties of eruptive prominences are unknown at large distances from the Sun. They are rarely, if ever, measured by in situ spacecraft and until recently our ability to measure them beyond the fields of view of solar imagers has been severely limited. The data quality of heliospheric imaging has reached a point where some quantitative measurements of prominences are now possible. I present the first such measurements of a bright prominence continually out to distances of around 1 AU from the Sun. This work follows on from the preparatory work presented in an accompanying paper, which showed that that the brightness of a prominence can be safely assumed to arise entirely from Thomson scattering in the STEREO/HI fields of view. Measurements of distance, speed, and mass are provided along with those from its accompanying coronal mass ejection (CME) to demonstrate their geometric, kinematic, and mass relationships. I find that the prominence travels with a slower speed than that of the CME, but its location relative to the CME structure does not conform to the expected location for basic geometric expansion. Further, the mass of the prominence was found to decrease by around an order of magnitude while that of the CME increased by an order of magnitude across the same distance.

  4. Dynamics of a Prominence-horn Structure during Its Evaporation in the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bing; Chen, Yao; Fu, Jie; Li, Bo; Li, Xing; Liu, Wei

    2016-08-01

    The physical connections among and formation mechanisms of various components of the prominence-horn cavity system remain elusive. Here we present observations of such a system, focusing on a section of the prominence that rises and separates gradually from the main body. This forms a configuration sufficiently simple to yield clues regarding the above issues. It is characterized by embedding horns, oscillations, and a gradual disappearance of the separated material. The prominence-horn structure exhibits a large-amplitude longitudinal oscillation with a period of ˜150 minutes and an amplitude of ˜30 Mm along the trajectory defined by the concave horn structure. The horns also experience a simultaneous transverse oscillation with a much smaller amplitude (˜3 Mm) and a shorter period (˜10–15 minutes), likely representative of a global mode of the large-scale magnetic structure. The gradual disappearance of the structure indicates that the horn, an observational manifestation of the field-aligned transition region separating the cool and dense prominence from the hot and tenuous corona, is formed due to the heating and diluting process of the central prominence mass; most previous studies suggested that it is the opposite process, i.e., the cooling and condensation of coronal plasmas, that formed the horn. This study also demonstrates how the prominence transports magnetic flux to the upper corona, a process essential for the gradual build-up of pre-eruption magnetic energy.

  5. Eruptive Prominences and Their Impact on the Earth and Our Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugaz, Noé

    Following prominence eruptions (see Chap. 16 : Webb, Solar prominences. New York: Springer, 2014), the associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs) propagate into the solar wind and interplanetary medium. While the complex interactions with the magnetic field and plasma in the corona (see Chaps. 15 and 16 : Gopalswamy, Solar prominences. New York: Springer, 2014; Webb, Solar prominences. New York: Springer, 2014) have been observed for decades, it has only been in the last decade that the interaction of CMEs with the interplanetary medium can be directly imaged. As CMEs and prominences impact Earth, Earth's magnetosphere may be disrupted through reconnection and/or compression, resulting in geomagnetic storms. In the most extreme cases, CMEs and prominences may have a global effect on man-made technologies and human beings, especially if they are in space. The conditions in the near-Earth environment directly affected by the Sun and the solar activity are known as space weather and will be discussed here.

  6. Quiescent and Eruptive Prominences at Solar Minimum: A Statistical Study via an Automated Tracking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loboda, I. P.; Bogachev, S. A.

    2015-07-01

    We employ an automated detection algorithm to perform a global study of solar prominence characteristics. We process four months of TESIS observations in the He II 304Å line taken close to the solar minimum of 2008-2009 and mainly focus on quiescent and quiescent-eruptive prominences. We detect a total of 389 individual features ranging from 25×25 to 150×500 Mm2 in size and obtain distributions of many of their spatial characteristics, such as latitudinal position, height, size, and shape. To study their dynamics, we classify prominences as either stable or eruptive and calculate their average centroid velocities, which are found to rarely exceed 3 km/s. In addition, we give rough estimates of mass and gravitational energy for every detected prominence and use these values to estimate the total mass and gravitational energy of all simultaneously existing prominences (1012 - 1014 kg and 1029 - 1031 erg). Finally, we investigate the form of the gravitational energy spectrum of prominences and derive it to be a power-law of index -1.1 ± 0.2.

  7. Solar Magnetized Tornadoes: Rotational Motion in a Tornado-like Prominence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yang; Gömöry, Peter; Veronig, Astrid; Temmer, Manuela; Wang, Tongjiang; Vanninathan, Kamalam; Gan, Weiqun; Li, YouPing

    2014-04-01

    Su et al. proposed a new explanation for filament formation and eruption, where filament barbs are rotating magnetic structures driven by underlying vortices on the surface. Such structures have been noticed as tornado-like prominences when they appear above the limb. They may play a key role as the source of plasma and twist in filaments. However, no observations have successfully distinguished rotational motion of the magnetic structures in tornado-like prominences from other motions such as oscillation and counter-streaming plasma flows. Here we report evidence of rotational motions in a tornado-like prominence. The spectroscopic observations in two coronal lines were obtained from a specifically designed Hinode/EIS observing program. The data revealed the existence of both cold and million-degree-hot plasma in the prominence leg, supporting the so-called prominence-corona transition region. The opposite velocities at the two sides of the prominence and their persistent time evolution, together with the periodic motions evident in SDO/AIA dark structures, indicate a rotational motion of both cold and hot plasma with a speed of ~5 km s-1.

  8. Presence of Fleischer ring and prominent corneal nerves in keratoconus relatives and normal controls

    PubMed Central

    Kriszt, Ágnes; Losonczy, Gergely; Berta, András; Takács, Lili

    2015-01-01

    AIM To examine the occurrence of commonly known clinical signs of keratoconus (KC), i.e. Fleischer ring, prominent corneal nerves and thinning, among unaffected family members of KC patients and healthy control individuals. METHODS Data of both eyes of 117 relatives of KC patients having no manifest disease based on videokeratography indices (KC relatives), and 142 controls were used for Pearson correlation and t-test statistics. Correlation of Fleischer ring, prominent corneal nerves and central pachymetry data were tested with each other and with videokeratography indices (KSI, KISA, 3 and 6 mm Fourier asymmetry, and I-S). RESULTS A moderate correlation was found between Fleischer ring and all examined topographical indices. Most important correlation was present with 6 mm Fourier asymmetry, and corneal pachymetry (r=0.272, P<0.001; r=-0.234, P=0.027, respectively). Similar correlations were found with prominent corneal nerves (r=0.234, P<0.001 for 6 mm Fourier asymmetry and r=-0.235, P=0.0265 for pachymetry). KC family members who exhibited Fleischer ring or prominent nerves had thinner and more asymmetric corneas than those without Fleischer ring or prominent corneal nerves (P<0.05 for pachymetry and topographic indices with t-test and Mann-Whitney rank sum test). Though rarely, Fleischer ring and prominent corneal nerves occurred among normal controls, indicating the existence of forme fruste cases in the normal population. Control subjects, who had corneal Fleischer ring or prominent nerves had corneas more similar to KC than other controls (t-test: increased KSI and KISA, P=0.048 and 0.012, respectively). CONCLUSION In KC family members and healthy individuals, Fleischer ring and prominent corneal nerves are associated with features of KC and may suggest a possibility of forme fruste KC. Searching for the possible presence of Fleischer ring or prominent nerves on the cornea may help in the decision whether or not to diagnose subclinical KC in a borderline

  9. SDO/AIA DETECTION OF SOLAR PROMINENCE FORMATION WITHIN A CORONAL CAVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Thomas E.; Liu Wei

    2012-10-20

    We report the first analyses of SDO/AIA observations of the formation of a quiescent polar crown prominence in a coronal cavity. The He II 304 A (log T{sub max} {approx} 4.8 K) data show both the gradual disappearance of the prominence due to vertical drainage and lateral transport of plasma followed by the formation of a new prominence 12 hr later. The formation is preceded by the appearance of a bright emission 'cloud' in the central region of the coronal cavity. The peak brightness of the cloud progressively shifts in time from the Fe XIV 211 A channel, through the Fe XII 193 A channel, to the Fe IX 171 A channel (log T{sub max} {approx} 6.2, 6.1, 5.8 K, respectively) while simultaneously decreasing in altitude. Filter ratio analysis estimates the initial temperature of the cloud to be approximately log T {approx} 6.25 K with evidence of cooling over time. The subsequent growth of the prominence is accompanied by darkening of the cavity in the 211 A channel. The observations imply prominence formation via in situ condensation of hot plasma from the coronal cavity, in support of our previously proposed process of magnetothermal convection in coronal magnetic flux ropes.

  10. Identification of rat lung – prominent genes by a parallel DNA microarray hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhongming; Chen, Jiwang; Weng, Tingting; Jin, Nili; Liu, Lin

    2006-01-01

    Background The comparison of organ transcriptomes is an important strategy for understanding gene functions. In the present study, we attempted to identify lung-prominent genes by comparing the normal transcriptomes of rat lung, heart, kidney, liver, spleen, and brain. To increase the efficiency and reproducibility, we first developed a novel parallel hybridization system, in which 6 samples could be hybridized onto a single slide at the same time. Results We identified the genes prominently expressed in the lung (147) or co-expressed in lung-heart (23), lung-liver (37), lung-spleen (203), and lung-kidney (98). The known functions of the lung-prominent genes mainly fell into 5 categories: ligand binding, signal transducer, cell communication, development, and metabolism. Real-time PCR confirmed 13 lung-prominent genes, including 5 genes that have not been investigated in the lung, vitamin D-dependent calcium binding protein (Calb3), mitogen activated protein kinase 13 (Mapk13), solute carrier family 29 transporters, member 1 (Slc29a1), corticotropin releasing hormone receptor (Crhr1), and lipocalin 2 (Lcn2). Conclusion The lung-prominent genes identified in this study may provide an important clue for further investigation of pulmonary functions. PMID:16533406

  11. Solar Prominences Embedded in Flux Ropes: Morphological Features and Dynamics from 3D MHD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terradas, J.; Soler, R.; Luna, M.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L.; Wright, A. N.

    2016-04-01

    The temporal evolution of a solar prominence inserted in a three-dimensional magnetic flux rope is investigated numerically. Using the model of Titov & Démoulin under the regime of weak twist, the cold and dense prominence counteracts gravity by modifying the initially force-free magnetic configuration. In some cases a quasi-stationary situation is achieved after the relaxation phase, characterized by the excitation of standing vertical oscillations. These oscillations show a strong attenuation with time produced by the mechanism of continuum damping due to the inhomogeneous transition between the prominence and solar corona. The characteristic period of the vertical oscillations does not depend strongly on the twist of the flux rope. Nonlinearity is responsible for triggering the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability associated with the vertical oscillations and that eventually produces horizontal structures. Contrary to other configurations in which the longitudinal axis of the prominence is permeated by a perpendicular magnetic field, like in unsheared arcades, the orientation of the prominence along the flux rope axis prevents the development of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and therefore the appearance of vertical structuring along this axis.

  12. Are Tornado-like Magnetic Structures Able to Support Solar Prominence Plasma?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna, M.; Moreno-Insertis, F.; Priest, E.

    2015-07-01

    Recent high-resolution and high-cadence observations have surprisingly suggested that prominence barbs exhibit apparent rotating motions suggestive of a tornado-like structure. Additional evidence has been provided by Doppler measurements. The observations reveal opposite velocities for both hot and cool plasma on the two sides of a prominence barb. This motion is persistent for several hours and has been interpreted in terms of rotational motion of prominence feet. Several authors suggest that such barb motions are rotating helical structures around a vertical axis similar to tornadoes on Earth. One of the difficulties of such a proposal is how to support cool prominence plasma in almost-vertical structures against gravity. In this work we model analytically a tornado-like structure and try to determine possible mechanisms to support the prominence plasma. We have found that the Lorentz force can indeed support the barb plasma provided the magnetic structure is sufficiently twisted and/or significant poloidal flows are present.

  13. Tether-Cutting Energetics of a Solar Quiet Region Prominence Eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.

    2003-01-01

    We study the morphology and energetics of a slowly-evolving quiet region solar prominence eruption occurring on 1999 February 8-9 in the solar north polar crown region, using soft X-ray data from the soft X-ray telescope (SXT) on Yohkoh and Fe xv EUV 284 A data from the EUV Imaging Telescope (EIT) on SOHO. After rising at approx. 1 km/s for about six hours, the prominence accelerates to a velocity of approx. 10 km/s, leaving behind EUV and soft X-ray loop arcades of a weak flare in its source region. Intensity dimmings occur in the eruption region cospatially in EUV and soft X-rays, indicating that the dimmings result from a depletion of material. Over the first two hours of the prominence s rapid rise, flare-like brightenings occur beneath the rising prominence which may correspond to "tether cutting" magnetic reconnection. These brightenings have heating requirements of up to approx. 10(exp 28)-10(exp 29) ergs, and this is comparable to the mechanical energy required for the rising prominence over the same time period. If the ratio of mechanical energy to heating energy remains constant through the early phase of the eruption, then we infer that coronal signatures for the tether cutting may not be apparent at or shortly after the start of the fast phase in this or similar low-energy eruptions, since the plasma-heating energy levels would not exceed that of the background corona.

  14. Are Tornado-Like Magnetic Structures Able to Support Solar Prominence Plasma?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogunjo, S. T.; Luna Bennasar, M.; Moreno-Insertis, F.; Priest, E. R.

    2015-12-01

    Recent high-resolution and high-cadence observations have surprisingly suggested that prominence barbs exhibit apparent rotating motions suggestive of a tornado-like structure. Additional evidence has been provided by Doppler measurements. The observations reveal opposite velocities for both hot and cool plasma on the two sides of a prominence barb. This motion is persistent for several hours and has been interpreted in terms of rotational motion of prominence feet. Several authors suggest that such barb motions are rotating helical structures around a vertical axis similar to tornadoes on Earth. One of the difficulties of such a proposal is how to support cool prominence plasma in almost-vertical structures against gravity. In this work we model analytically a tornado-like structure and try to determine possible mechanisms to support the prominence plasma. We have found that the Lorentz force can indeed support the barb plasma provided the magnetic structure is sufficiently twisted and/or significant poloidal flows are present.

  15. ARE TORNADO-LIKE MAGNETIC STRUCTURES ABLE TO SUPPORT SOLAR PROMINENCE PLASMA?

    SciTech Connect

    Luna, M.; Moreno-Insertis, F.; Priest, E.

    2015-07-20

    Recent high-resolution and high-cadence observations have surprisingly suggested that prominence barbs exhibit apparent rotating motions suggestive of a tornado-like structure. Additional evidence has been provided by Doppler measurements. The observations reveal opposite velocities for both hot and cool plasma on the two sides of a prominence barb. This motion is persistent for several hours and has been interpreted in terms of rotational motion of prominence feet. Several authors suggest that such barb motions are rotating helical structures around a vertical axis similar to tornadoes on Earth. One of the difficulties of such a proposal is how to support cool prominence plasma in almost-vertical structures against gravity. In this work we model analytically a tornado-like structure and try to determine possible mechanisms to support the prominence plasma. We have found that the Lorentz force can indeed support the barb plasma provided the magnetic structure is sufficiently twisted and/or significant poloidal flows are present.

  16. MEASURING AN ERUPTIVE PROMINENCE AT LARGE DISTANCES FROM THE SUN. I. IONIZATION AND EARLY EVOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, T. A.

    2015-06-20

    Measurements of Hα emission within an eruptive solar prominence are presented, using white light polarization properties as a proxy for the presence of Hα in the STEREO COR1 and COR2 coronagraphs. The transition from Hα emission to Thomson scattering radiance serves as an indicator of the ionization of the prominence, and I discuss the physical implications regarding the behavior of the neutrals and ions, and also for the measurement of coronal mass ejection properties using the Thomson scattering assumption. I find that the prominence has a high concentration of neutrals at around two solar radii that gradually exhibit ionization characteristics at it moves away from the Sun. The prominence reaches complete ionization, or at least a state where the Thomson-scattered brightness dominates, by the time it reaches around seven solar radii. This is consistent with predictions inferred from direct Hα measurements made from earlier studies in the 1980s and with the predicted ionization rate of neutral hydrogen near solar maximum. These results pave the way for an accompanying paper that reports on measurements of the prominence at large distances from the Sun using the assumptions verified here.

  17. Stereoscopic Analysis of the 31 August 2007 Prominence Eruption and Coronal Mass Ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liewer, P. C.; Panasenco, O.; Hall, J. R.

    2013-01-01

    The spectacular prominence eruption and CME of 31 August 2007 are analyzed stereoscopically using data from NASA's twin Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) spacecraft. The technique of tie pointing and triangulation (T&T) is used to reconstruct the prominence (or filament when seen on the disk) before and during the eruption. For the first time, a filament barb is reconstructed in three-dimensions, confirming that the barb connects the filament spine to the solar surface. The chirality of the filament system is determined from the barb and magnetogram and confirmed by the skew of the loops of the post-eruptive arcade relative to the polarity reversal boundary below. The T&T analysis shows that the filament rotates as it erupts in the direction expected for a filament system of the given chirality. While the prominence begins to rotate in the slow-rise phase, most of the rotation occurs during the fast-rise phase, after formation of the CME begins. The stereoscopic analysis also allows us to analyze the spatial relationships among various features of the eruption including the pre-eruptive filament, the flare ribbons, the erupting prominence, and the cavity of the coronal mass ejection (CME). We find that erupting prominence strands and the CME have different (non-radial) trajectories; we relate the trajectories to the structure of the coronal magnetic fields. The possible cause of the eruption is also discussed.

  18. Helical Motions of Fine-structure Prominence Threads Observed by Hinode and IRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Takenori J.; Liu, Wei; Tsuneta, Saku

    2016-11-01

    Fine-structure dynamics in solar prominences holds critical clues to understanding their physical nature of significant space-weather implications. We report evidence of rotational motions of horizontal helical threads in two active-region prominences observed by the Hinode and/or Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph satellites at high resolution. In the first event, we found transverse motions of brightening threads at speeds up to 55 km s‑1 seen in the plane of the sky. Such motions appeared as sinusoidal space–time trajectories with a typical period of ∼390 s, which is consistent with plane-of-sky projections of rotational motions. Phase delays at different locations suggest the propagation of twists along the threads at phase speeds of 90–270 km s‑1. At least 15 episodes of such motions occurred in two days, none associated with an eruption. For these episodes, the plane-of-sky speed is linearly correlated with the vertical travel distance, suggestive of a constant angular speed. In the second event, we found Doppler velocities of 30–40 km s‑1 in opposite directions in the top and bottom portions of the prominence, comparable to the plane-of-sky speed. The moving threads have about twice broader line widths than stationary threads. These observations, when taken together, provide strong evidence for rotations of helical prominence threads, which were likely driven by unwinding twists triggered by magnetic reconnection between twisted prominence magnetic fields and ambient coronal fields.

  19. The prominence-corona interface and its relationship to the chromosphere-corona transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, Douglas

    1986-01-01

    The classical model of the chromosphere-corona transition does not account for the observed behavior of the differential emission measure for T approx. less than 100,000 K. Several models have been proposed to resolve this discrepancy in physically different ways. Because the observed differential emission measure at the prominence-corona interface is on average nearly the same as in the chromosphere-corona transition, prominences offer a fresh testing ground for models tailored to the chromosphere-corona transition. The researcher considered three such models and concluded that none extends in a natural way to the environment of prominences. The researcher advanced a simple idea involving thermal conduction both along and across the magnetic field from the corona into cool threads.

  20. 3D conductive coupling for efficient generation of prominent Fano resonances in metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiguang; Liu, Zhe; Li, Jiafang; Li, Wuxia; Li, Junjie; Gu, Changzhi; Li, Zhi-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a 3D conductive coupling mechanism for the efficient generation of prominent and robust Fano resonances in 3D metamaterials (MMs) formed by integrating vertical U-shape split-ring resonators (SRRs) or vertical rectangular plates along a planar metallic hole array with extraordinary optical transmission (EOT). In such a configuration, intensified vertical E-field is induced along the metallic holes and naturally excites the electric resonances of the vertical structures, which form non-radiative "dark" modes. These 3D conductive "dark" modes strongly interfere with the "bright" resonance mode of the EOT structure, generating significant Fano resonances with both prominent destructive and constructive interferences. The demonstrated 3D conductive coupling mechanism is highly universal in that both 3D MMs with vertical SRRs and vertical plates exhibit the same prominent Fano resonances despite their dramatic structural difference, which is conceptually different from conventional capacitive and inductive coupling mechanisms that degraded drastically upon small structural deviations. PMID:27296109

  1. Synthetic Hydrogen Spectra of Oscillating Prominence Slabs Immersed in the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapiór, M.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L.; Heinzel, P.

    2016-08-01

    We study the behavior of Hα and Hβ spectral lines and their spectral indicators in an oscillating solar prominence slab surrounded by the solar corona, using an MHD model combined with a 1D radiative transfer code taken in the line of sight perpendicular to the slab. We calculate the time variation of the Doppler shift, half-width, and maximum intensity of the Hα and Hβ spectral lines for different modes of oscillation. We find a non-sinusoidal time dependence of some spectral parameters with time. Because Hα and Hβ spectral indicators have different behavior for different modes, caused by differing optical depths of formation and different plasma parameter variations in time and along the slab, they may be used for prominence seismology, especially to derive the internal velocity field in prominences.

  2. A Prominence Account of Syllable Reduction in Early Speech Development: The Child's Prosodic Phonology of "Tiger" and "Giraffe."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, David

    1998-01-01

    This paper tested a theory of syllable prominence with 11 children (ages 11 to 26 months). The theory proposes that syllable prominence is a product of two orthogonal suprasegmental systems: stress/accent peaks and phrase boundaries. Use of the developed prominence scale found it parsimoniously accounted for observed biases in syllable omissions…

  3. TIME EVOLUTION OF PLASMA PARAMETERS DURING THE RISE OF A SOLAR PROMINENCE INSTABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Orozco Suárez, D.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Trujillo Bueno, J.; Díaz, A. J.

    2014-04-10

    We present high-spatial resolution spectropolarimetric observations of a quiescent hedgerow prominence taken in the He I 1083.0 nm triplet. The observation consisted of a time series in sit-and-stare mode of ∼36 minutes duration. The spectrograph's slit crossed the prominence body and we recorded the time evolution of individual vertical threads. Eventually, we observed the development of a dark Rayleigh-Taylor plume that propagated upward with a velocity, projected onto the plane of the sky, of 17 km s{sup –1}. Interestingly, the plume apex collided with the prominence threads pushing them aside. We inferred Doppler shifts, Doppler widths, and magnetic field strength variations by interpreting the He I Stokes profiles with the HAZEL code. The Doppler shifts show that clusters of threads move coherently while individual threads have oscillatory patterns. Regarding the plume we found strong redshifts (∼9-12 km s{sup –1}) and large Doppler widths (∼10 km s{sup –1}) at the plume apex when it passed through the prominence body and before it disintegrated. We associate the redshifts with perspective effects while the Doppler widths are more likely due to an increase in the local temperature. No local variations of the magnetic field strength associated with the passage of the plume were found; this leads us to conclude that the plumes are no more magnetized than the surroundings. Finally, we found that some of the threads' oscillations are locally damped, what allowed us to apply prominence seismology techniques to infer additional prominence physical parameters.

  4. DIRECT OBSERVATIONS OF MAGNETIC RECONNECTION OUTFLOW AND CME TRIGGERING IN A SMALL ERUPTING SOLAR PROMINENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, Katharine K.; McCauley, Patrick I.; Tian, Hui

    2015-07-01

    We examine a small prominence eruption that occurred on 2014 May 1 at 01:35 UT and was observed by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrometer (IRIS) and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. Pre- and post-eruption images were taken by the X-ray Telescope (XRT) on Hinode. Pre-eruption, a dome-like structure exists above the prominence, as demarcated by coronal rain. As the eruption progresses, we find evidence for reconnection between the prominence magnetic field and the overlying field. Fast flows are seen in AIA and IRIS, indicating reconnection outflows. Plane-of-sky flows of 300 km s{sup −1} are observed in the AIA 171 A channel along a potentially reconnected field line. IRIS detects intermittent fast line of sight flows of 200 km s{sup −1} coincident with the AIA flows. Differential emission measure calculations show heating at the origin of the fast flows. Post-eruption XRT images show hot loops probably due to reconfiguration of magnetic fields during the eruption and subsequent heating of plasma in these loops. Although there is evidence for reconnection above the prominence during the eruption, high spatial resolution images from IRIS reveal potential reconnection sites below the prominence. A height–time analysis of the erupting prominence shows a slow initial rise with a velocity of 0.4 km s{sup −1} followed by a rapid acceleration with a final velocity of 250 km s{sup −1}. Brightenings in IRIS during the transition between these two phases indicate the eruption trigger for the fast part of the eruption is likely a tether-cutting mechanism rather than a break-out mechanism.

  5. IRIS Observations of a Novel, Hybrid Prominence-Coronal Rain Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Antolin, Patrick; Sun, Xudong

    2016-05-01

    Solar prominences and coronal rain are intimately related phenomena, both involving cool material at chromospheric temperatures within the hot corona and both playing important roles as part of the return flow of the chromosphere-corona mass cycle. At the same time, they exhibit distinct morphologies and dynamics not yet well understood. Quiescent prominences consist of numerous long-lasting, filamentary downflow threads, while coronal rain is more transient and falls comparably faster along well-defined curved paths. We report here a novel, hybrid prominence-coronal rain complex in an arcade-fan geometry observed by IRIS and SDO/AIA, which provides new insights to the underlying physics of such contrasting behaviors. We found that the supra-arcade fan region hosts a prominence sheet consisting of meandering threads with broad Mg II k/h line widths. As the prominence material descends to the arcade, it turns into coronal rain sliding down coronal loops with line widths 2-3 times narrower. This contrast suggests that distinct local plasma and magnetic conditions determine the fate of the cool material, a scenario supported by our magnetic field extrapolations from SDO/HMI. Specifically, the supra-arcade fan (similar to those in solar flares; e.g., McKenzie 2013) is likely situated in a current sheet, where the magnetic field is weak and the plasma-beta could be close to unity, thus favoring turbulent flows like those prominence threads. In contrast, the underlying arcade has a stronger magnetic field and most likely a low-beta environment, such that the material is guided along magnetic field lines to appear as coronal rain. We will discuss the implications of these novel results for future observations e.g., with DKIST.

  6. Spatial and temporal analysis of gene expression during growth and fusion of the mouse facial prominences.

    PubMed

    Feng, Weiguo; Leach, Sonia M; Tipney, Hannah; Phang, Tzulip; Geraci, Mark; Spritz, Richard A; Hunter, Lawrence E; Williams, Trevor

    2009-12-16

    Orofacial malformations resulting from genetic and/or environmental causes are frequent human birth defects yet their etiology is often unclear because of insufficient information concerning the molecular, cellular and morphogenetic processes responsible for normal facial development. We have, therefore, derived a comprehensive expression dataset for mouse orofacial development, interrogating three distinct regions - the mandibular, maxillary and frontonasal prominences. To capture the dynamic changes in the transcriptome during face formation, we sampled five time points between E10.5-E12.5, spanning the developmental period from establishment of the prominences to their fusion to form the mature facial platform. Seven independent biological replicates were used for each sample ensuring robustness and quality of the dataset. Here, we provide a general overview of the dataset, characterizing aspects of gene expression changes at both the spatial and temporal level. Considerable coordinate regulation occurs across the three prominences during this period of facial growth and morphogenesis, with a switch from expression of genes involved in cell proliferation to those associated with differentiation. An accompanying shift in the expression of polycomb and trithorax genes presumably maintains appropriate patterns of gene expression in precursor or differentiated cells, respectively. Superimposed on the many coordinated changes are prominence-specific differences in the expression of genes encoding transcription factors, extracellular matrix components, and signaling molecules. Thus, the elaboration of each prominence will be driven by particular combinations of transcription factors coupled with specific cell:cell and cell:matrix interactions. The dataset also reveals several prominence-specific genes not previously associated with orofacial development, a subset of which we externally validate. Several of these latter genes are components of bidirectional

  7. Evidence for a Magnetic Flux Rope in Observations of a Solar Prominence-Cavity System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jibben, Patricia; Reeves, Katharine; Su, Yingna

    2016-03-01

    Coronal cavities are regions of low coronal emission that usually sit above solar prominences. These systems can exist for days or months before erupting. The magnetic structure of the prominence-cavity system during the quiescent period is important to understanding the pre-eruption phase. We describe observations of a coronal cavity situated above a solar prominence observed on the western limb as part of an Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) and Hinode coordinated Observation Program (IHOP 264). During the observation run, an inflow of hot plasma observed by the Hinode X-Ray Telescope (XRT) envelopes the coronal cavity and triggers an eruption of chromospheric plasma near the base of the prominence. During and after the eruption, bright X-ray emission forms within the cavity and above the prominence. IRIS and the Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) show strong blue shifts in both chromospheric and coronal lines during the eruption. The Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) Ca II H-line data show bright emission during the ejection with complex, turbulent, flows near the prominence and along the cavity wall. These observations suggest a cylindrical flux rope best represents the cavity structure with the ejected material flowing along magnetic field lines supporting the cavity. We also find evidence for heating of the plasma inside the cavity after the flows. A model of the magnetic structure of the cavity comprised of a weakly twisted flux rope can explain the observed loops in the X-ray and EUV data. Observations from the Coronal Multichannel Polarimeter (CoMP) are compared to predicted models and are inconclusive. We find that more sensitive measurements of the magnetic field strength along the line-of-sight are needed to verify this configuration.

  8. Comparing Spatial Distributions of Solar Prominence Mass Derived from Coronal Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Holly; Kilper, Gary; Alexander, David; Kucera, Therese

    2010-01-01

    In the present work we extend the use of this mass-inference technique to a sample of prominences observed in at least two coronal lines. This approach, in theory, allows a direct calculation of prominence mass and helium abundance and how these properties vary spatially and temporally. Our motivation is two-fold: to obtain a He(exp 0)/H(exp 0) abundance ratio, and to determine how the relative spatial distribution of the two species varies in prominences. The first of these relies on the theoretical expectation that the amount of absorption at each EUV wavelength is well-characterized. However, in this work we show that due to a saturation of the continuum absorption in the 625 A and 368 A lines (which have much higher opacity compared to 195 A-) the uncertainties in obtaining the relative abundances are too high to give meaningful estimates. This is an important finding because of its impact on future studies in this area. The comparison of the spatial distribution of helium and hydrogen presented here augments previous observational work indicating that cross-field diffusion of neutrals is an important mechanism for mass loss. Significantly different loss timescales for neutral He and H (helium drains much more rapidly than hydrogen) can impact prominence structure, and both the present and past studies suggest this mechanism is playing a role in structure and possibly dynamics. Section 2 of this paper contains a description of the observations and Section 3 summarizes the method used to infer mass along with the criteria imposed in choosing prominences appropriate for this study. Section 3 also contains a discussion of the problems due to limitations of the available data and the implications for determining relative abundances. We present our results in Section 4, including plots of radial-like scans of prominence mass in different lines to show the spatial distribution of the different species. The last section contains a discussion summarizing the importance

  9. Formation, levitation, and stability of prominences in the magnetized solar atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, J. F.; Mok, Y.; Van Hoven, G.

    1993-01-01

    The dynamic formation of prominences in the initial magnetothermal equilibrium and their stability to sideward displacements are investigated focusing on the structure of the 2D solar atmosphere in the presence of coronal arcades or loops. A model based on 2D magnetohydrodynamic equations takes into account gravity, compressible flows, heating, radiation, anisotropic thermal conduction, and coupling to a deep chromosphere. It is found that prominences in simple arcades characterized by magnetic field with significant curvature at the apex are unstable to a lateral displacement.

  10. An Automatic Detection Technique for Prominence Eruptions and Surges using SDO/AIA Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashiro, Seiji; Gopalswamy, N.; Makela, P.; Akiyama, S.; Sterling, A. C.

    2013-07-01

    We present an automatic technique to detect and characterize eruptive events (EEs), e.g. prominence eruptions and surges, using SDO/AIA 304 Å images. The technique works as follows. 1) The SDO 304 Å images are polar-transformed for easy handling of the outward motion of EEs and for saving computer resources. 2) The transformed images are divided by a background map, which is determined as the minimum intensity of each pixel during 24 hours. 3) The EEs are defined as a region in the ratio maps with pixels having a ratio >2. Because a stationary prominence has relatively high background, the prominence is detected only when it moves. 4) Pattern recognition is performed to separate different EEs at different locations. 5) In successive images, two EEs with more than 50% of pixels overlapping are considered to be the same EE. 6) If the height of an EE increases monotonically in 5 successive images, we consider it as a reliable eruption. The technique detects 1428 prominence eruptions and 1921 surges from 2010 May to 2012 December. The locations of PEs identified by this technique clearly indicated decayed onset of the maximum phase in the south with respect to the north. This work was supported by NASA Living with a Star TR&T programAbstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): We present an automatic technique to detect and characterize eruptive events (EEs), e.g. prominence eruptions and surges, using SDO/AIA 304 Å images. The technique works as follows. 1) The SDO 304 Å images are polar-transformed for easy handling of the outward motion of EEs and for saving computer resources. 2) The transformed images are divided by a background map, which is determined as the minimum intensity of each pixel during 24 hours. 3) The EEs are defined as a region in the ratio maps with pixels having a ratio >2. Because a stationary prominence has relatively high background, the prominence is detected only when it moves. 4) Pattern recognition is performed to separate different EEs at

  11. 21 CFR 501.15 - Animal food; prominence of required statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Animal food; prominence of required statements. 501.15 Section 501.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING General...

  12. Thermal and Kinetic Properties of Motions in a Prominence Activation and Nearby Loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucera, Therese; Landi, E.

    2005-01-01

    We perform a quantitative analysis of the thermal properties of a prominence activation and motions in a nearby loop. In order to make measurements of the quickly moving features seen in prominences in the UV we use the SOHO/SUMER spectrograph to take a time series of exposures from a single pointing position, providing a measurement of spectral line properties as a function of time and position along the slit. The lines observed cover a broad range of temperatures from 80,000 - 1.6 million K. These measurements are combined with TRACE movies in transition region and coronal temperature bands to obtain more complete information concerning prominence structure and motions. The resulting observations allow us to analyze the thermal and kinetic energy of the moving sources as functions of time. The loop and prominence are most apparent in lines formed at temperatures below 250,000 K. We find that in most cases the temperature distribution of plasma in a moving feature changes relatively little over time periods of about 20 minutes.

  13. On the Robustness of the Pendulum Model for Large-amplitude Longitudinal Oscillations in Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna, M.; Terradas, J.; Khomenko, E.; Collados, M.; de Vicente, A.

    2016-02-01

    Large-amplitude longitudinal oscillations (LALOs) in prominences are spectacular manifestations of solar activity. In such events nearby energetic disturbances induce periodic motions on filaments with displacements comparable to the size of the filaments themselves and with velocities larger than 20 {km} {{{s}}}-1. The pendulum model, in which the gravity projected along a rigid magnetic field is the restoring force, was proposed to explain these events. However, it can be objected that in a realistic situation where the magnetic field reacts to the mass motion of the heavy prominence, the simplified pendulum model could be no longer valid. We have performed nonlinear time-dependent numerical simulations of LALOs considering a dipped magnetic field line structure. In this work we demonstrate that for even relatively weak magnetic fields the pendulum model works very well. We therefore validate the pendulum model and show its robustness, with important implications for prominence seismology purposes. With this model it is possible to infer the geometry of the dipped field lines that support the prominence.

  14. Prominence lent by rising and falling pitch movements: Testing two models.

    PubMed

    Rump, H H; Hermes, D J

    1996-08-01

    Two experiments are reported in which a pitch-level difference (PLD) model for prominence perception [Hermes and Rump, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 96, 83-92 (1994)] is subjected to further tests. The model holds that the contribution of pitch to the perceived degree of prominence is proportional to the difference in pitch level between the vocalic nuclei of the accented and the previous syllable. In experiment I, the influence of stretching and compressing the utterance in time was assessed. It was found that the predictions made by the model were not fully supported by the data. An alternative model was developed according to which pitch movements resynthesized in the same register lend equal prominence when pitch levels on the upper declination lines in the stimuli are equal. These two models gave different predictions when the lower declination lines are different. This was tested in experiment II. The results which are more or less between the predictions by the two models suggest that low pitch levels play a smaller role in prominence perception than high pitch levels do. PMID:8759965

  15. Numerous Academics Have Been Duped by a Scam Using Names of Prominent Scholars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leatherman, Courtney

    1997-01-01

    A convicted criminal, eluding police, has conned dozens of college faculty out of over $200,000 over two years by pretending to be a prominent scholar, calling on colleagues to provide financial assistance to a friend, and offering academic services or personal favors in return. Targeted professors have been in the fields of history, sociology,…

  16. Lexical and Phrasal Prominence Patterns in School-Aged Children's Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shport, Irina A.; Redford, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the integration of word- and phrase-level prominences in speech produced by twenty-five school-aged children (6;2 to 7;3) and twenty-five adults. Participants produced disyllabic number words in a straight count condition and in two phrasal conditions, namely, a stress clash and non-clash phrasal context. Duration and…

  17. 21 CFR 801.15 - Medical devices; prominence of required label statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical devices; prominence of required label... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.15 Medical devices... information, resulting from the use of label space for any word, statement, design, or device which is...

  18. Anxiety and Antisocial Behavior: The Moderating Role of Perceptions of Social Prominence among Incarcerated Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Kathryn C.; Goldweber, Aska; Meyer, Kristen; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines how perceptions of social prominence and attitudes toward antisocial behavior among peers moderate the association between anxiety and antisocial behavior among incarcerated females. Latent profile analysis identified two classes of females distinguished by their perceptions and attitudes. Individuals in both classes…

  19. Global and National Prominent Universities: Internationalization, Competitiveness and the Role of the State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horta, Hugo

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a characterization of the internationalization of "global" European universities and discusses the role of the State in promoting greater internationalization and competitiveness levels of prominent national universities. The analysis supports previous arguments stating that global ranking of universities is strongly based on…

  20. Three-dimensional prominence-hosting magnetic configurations: Creating a helical magnetic flux rope

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, C.; Keppens, R.; Guo, Y.

    2014-01-10

    The magnetic configuration hosting prominences and their surrounding coronal structure is a key research topic in solar physics. Recent theoretical and observational studies strongly suggest that a helical magnetic flux rope is an essential ingredient to fulfill most of the theoretical and observational requirements for hosting prominences. To understand flux rope formation details and obtain magnetic configurations suitable for future prominence formation studies, we here report on three-dimensional isothermal magnetohydrodynamic simulations including finite gas pressure and gravity. Starting from a magnetohydrostatic corona with a linear force-free bipolar magnetic field, we follow its evolution when introducing vortex flows around the main polarities and converging flows toward the polarity inversion line near the bottom of the corona. The converging flows bring the feet of different loops together at the polarity inversion line, where magnetic reconnection and flux cancellation happen. Inflow and outflow signatures of the magnetic reconnection process are identified, and thereby the newly formed helical loops wind around preexisting ones so that a complete flux rope grows and ascends. When a macroscopic flux rope is formed, we switch off the driving flows and find that the system relaxes to a stable state containing a helical magnetic flux rope embedded in an overlying arcade structure. A major part of the formed flux rope is threaded by dipped field lines that can stably support prominence matter, while the total mass of the flux rope is in the order of 4-5× 10{sup 14} g.

  1. 16 CFR 1500.121 - Labeling requirements; prominence, placement, and conspicuousness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling requirements; prominence, placement, and conspicuousness. 1500.121 Section 1500.121 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION..., layout, or color with other printed matter on the label. This regulation contains the...

  2. PROMINENCE THREAD SEISMOLOGY USING THE P{sub 1}/2P{sub 2} RATIO

    SciTech Connect

    DIaz, A. J.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L. E-mail: ramon.oliver@uib.e

    2010-12-20

    Prominence threads are expected to be cold plasma condensations in a long magnetic tube. Because of this density inhomogeneity along the magnetic field, the ratio of the fundamental transverse mode period to twice that of its first overtone, P{sub 1}/2P{sub 2}, must differ from 1. We investigate the dependence of this ratio on the equilibrium parameters of prominence threads and its possible use as a diagnostic tool for prominence seismology. Using the low-beta plasma approximation, we follow the procedure of previous works to obtain the frequencies and spatial distribution of the modes. We also check the thin tube approximation and find it reasonably accurate. The period ratio P{sub 1}/2P{sub 2} is found to be greater than unity, in contrast with coronal loops, for which the effect of inhomogeneities is to make this ratio smaller than 1. The ratio is very sensitive to the thread length, while the dependence on other parameters is less important for threads than for coronal loops. Hence, the period ratio can be used to obtain an estimation of the length of the supporting magnetic tube, since the thread length is known from observations. The obtained value of the tube length does not depend on other parameters, so their potential for prominence seismology may be great.

  3. Numerical Study on In-Situ Prominence Formation by Radiative Condensation in the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, T.; Yokoyama, T.

    2015-06-01

    We propose an in situ formation model for inverse-polarity solar prominences and demonstrate it using self-consistent 2.5 dimensional MHD simulations, including thermal conduction along magnetic fields and optically thin radiative cooling. The model enables us to form cool dense plasma clouds inside a flux rope by radiative condensation, which is regarded as an inverse-polarity prominence. Radiative condensation is triggered by changes in the magnetic topology, i.e., formation of the flux rope from the sheared arcade field, and by thermal imbalance due to the dense plasma trapped inside the flux rope. The flux rope is created by imposing converging and shearing motion on the arcade field. Either when the footpoint motion is in the anti-shearing direction or when heating is proportional to local density, the thermal state inside the flux rope becomes cooling-dominant, leading to radiative condensation. By controlling the temperature of condensation, we investigate the relationship between the temperature and density of prominences and derive a scaling formula for this relationship. This formula suggests that the proposed model reproduces the observed density of prominences, which is 10-100 times larger than the coronal density. Moreover, the time evolution of the extreme ultraviolet emission synthesized by combining our simulation results with the response function of the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly filters agrees with the observed temporal and spatial intensity shift among multi-wavelength extreme ultraviolet emission during in situ condensation.

  4. 21 CFR 501.15 - Animal food; prominence of required statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Animal food; prominence of required statements. 501.15 Section 501.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING General...

  5. 21 CFR 801.15 - Medical devices; prominence of required label statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical devices; prominence of required label statements. 801.15 Section 801.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.15 Medical...

  6. 21 CFR 801.15 - Medical devices; prominence of required label statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical devices; prominence of required label statements. 801.15 Section 801.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.15 Medical...

  7. 21 CFR 501.15 - Animal food; prominence of required statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Animal food; prominence of required statements. 501.15 Section 501.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING General...

  8. 21 CFR 501.15 - Animal food; prominence of required statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Animal food; prominence of required statements. 501.15 Section 501.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING General...

  9. 21 CFR 501.15 - Animal food; prominence of required statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Animal food; prominence of required statements. 501.15 Section 501.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING General...

  10. 21 CFR 801.15 - Medical devices; prominence of required label statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical devices; prominence of required label statements. 801.15 Section 801.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.15 Medical...

  11. 21 CFR 801.15 - Medical devices; prominence of required label statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical devices; prominence of required label... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.15 Medical devices... information, resulting from the use of label space for any word, statement, design, or device which is...

  12. Multiple, short-lived ``stellar prominences'' on O stars: the supergiant λ Cephei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrichs, H. F.; Sudnik, N.

    2015-01-01

    Many OB stars show unexplained cyclical variability in their winds and in many optical lines, which are formed at the base of the wind. For these stars no dipolar magnetic fields have been detected. We propose that these cyclical variations are caused by the presence of multiple, transient, short-lived, corotating magnetic loops, which we call ``stellar prominences''. We present a simplified model representing these prominences as corotating spherical blobs and fit the rapid variability in the Heii λ4686 line of the O supergiant λ Cep for time-resolved spectra obtained in 1989. Our conclusions are: (1) From model fits we find that the life time of the prominences varies, and is between 2-7 h. (2) The adopted inclination angle is 68° with a rotation period of ~ 4.1 d (but not well constrained). (3) The contribution of non-radial pulsations is negligible (4) Similar behavior is observed in at least 4 other O stars. We propose that prominences are a common phenomenon among O stars.

  13. Neighborhood-Level Factors and Youth Violence: Giving Voice to the Perceptions of Prominent Neighborhood Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonas, Michael A.; O'Campo, Patricia; Burke, Jessica G.; Gielen, Andrea C.

    2007-01-01

    Youth violence is a significant public health problem. Although the relationship between neighborhood-level factors and urban youth violence is recognized, the specific mechanisms of this relationship are often unclear. Prominent neighborhood individuals were identified within four select low-income urban neighborhoods in Baltimore City. In-depth…

  14. From Wilhelm von Humboldt to Hitler-are prominent people more prone to have Parkinson's disease?

    PubMed

    Horowski; Horowski; Calne; Calne

    2000-10-01

    We describe Parkinsonism in prominent people, where Wilhelm von Humboldt and Adolf Hitler provide just two spectacular, opposing examples. In both of them, there is little if any evidence that the disease did influence their life ambitions, methods of achieving them or cognitive function in general. Thus, Hitler's Parkinsonism should remain a 'footnote' to history, and historians should acknowledge that in his last years, his trembling, his curbed posture, his slow walking, mask-like face and low voice did not indicate remorse, fear or depression as a consequence of his crimes, but were mere expressions of his disease which, until the end, had no impact on his intellectual skills and methods. The apparently higher incidence of Parkinsonism in prominent people may be just due to their higher visibility, or a consequence of disease-related personality traits (e.g. ambition, perfectionism, rigidity) which may contribute to becoming, e.g., a prominent authoritarian person. Perhaps even some early behaviour pattern (such as repressed emotions or acting in public-which could even increase the risk of some infection) contributes to a greater vulnerability for developing Parkinsonism. Further studying other prominent cases might lead us to better understanding of risk factors and the expression of early Parkinsonism. PMID:10900395

  15. NUMERICAL STUDY ON IN SITU PROMINENCE FORMATION BY RADIATIVE CONDENSATION IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, T.; Yokoyama, T.

    2015-06-10

    We propose an in situ formation model for inverse-polarity solar prominences and demonstrate it using self-consistent 2.5 dimensional MHD simulations, including thermal conduction along magnetic fields and optically thin radiative cooling. The model enables us to form cool dense plasma clouds inside a flux rope by radiative condensation, which is regarded as an inverse-polarity prominence. Radiative condensation is triggered by changes in the magnetic topology, i.e., formation of the flux rope from the sheared arcade field, and by thermal imbalance due to the dense plasma trapped inside the flux rope. The flux rope is created by imposing converging and shearing motion on the arcade field. Either when the footpoint motion is in the anti-shearing direction or when heating is proportional to local density, the thermal state inside the flux rope becomes cooling-dominant, leading to radiative condensation. By controlling the temperature of condensation, we investigate the relationship between the temperature and density of prominences and derive a scaling formula for this relationship. This formula suggests that the proposed model reproduces the observed density of prominences, which is 10–100 times larger than the coronal density. Moreover, the time evolution of the extreme ultraviolet emission synthesized by combining our simulation results with the response function of the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly filters agrees with the observed temporal and spatial intensity shift among multi-wavelength extreme ultraviolet emission during in situ condensation.

  16. From Wilhelm von Humboldt to Hitler-are prominent people more prone to have Parkinson's disease?

    PubMed

    Horowski; Horowski; Calne; Calne

    2000-10-01

    We describe Parkinsonism in prominent people, where Wilhelm von Humboldt and Adolf Hitler provide just two spectacular, opposing examples. In both of them, there is little if any evidence that the disease did influence their life ambitions, methods of achieving them or cognitive function in general. Thus, Hitler's Parkinsonism should remain a 'footnote' to history, and historians should acknowledge that in his last years, his trembling, his curbed posture, his slow walking, mask-like face and low voice did not indicate remorse, fear or depression as a consequence of his crimes, but were mere expressions of his disease which, until the end, had no impact on his intellectual skills and methods. The apparently higher incidence of Parkinsonism in prominent people may be just due to their higher visibility, or a consequence of disease-related personality traits (e.g. ambition, perfectionism, rigidity) which may contribute to becoming, e.g., a prominent authoritarian person. Perhaps even some early behaviour pattern (such as repressed emotions or acting in public-which could even increase the risk of some infection) contributes to a greater vulnerability for developing Parkinsonism. Further studying other prominent cases might lead us to better understanding of risk factors and the expression of early Parkinsonism.

  17. Examining the conspicuousness and prominence of two required warnings on OTC pain relievers.

    PubMed

    Bix, Laura; Bello, Nora M; Auras, Rafael; Ranger, Jon; Lapinski, Maria K

    2009-04-21

    The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs is critical to their safe and effective use, and certain warnings are meant to be read at the point of purchase (POP). Examples include (i) warnings that alert consumers to the fact that the package is not child-resistant and (ii) warnings that alert consumers to potential product tampering. U.S. law mandates these warnings be "conspicuous" and "prominent" so that it is likely that consumers will read them before leaving the store. Our objective was to quantify the relative prominence and conspicuousness of these warnings. Sixty-one participants reviewed the packages of 5 commercially available analgesics to evaluate the prominence and conspicuousness of these warnings. Evaluated data included (i) the time spent examining the warnings compared with other areas of the label (using a bright pupil eye tracker), (ii) the ability to recall information from the OTCs viewed, and (iii) the legibility of the warnings relative to other elements of the labels (as measured by ASTM D7298-06). Eye-tracking data indicated that warnings were viewed by fewer participants and for less time than other elements of the packages. Recall and legibility data also indicated that the warning statements compared unfavorably with other elements of the labels tested. Evidence presented in this study suggests that 2 required warnings on 5 different OTCs are not prominent or conspicuous when compared with other elements of tested labels.

  18. An Empirical Study on Information Prominence Reflected in Sentence Structures of Chinese College EFL Argumentative Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ningling, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Prominence, as an important dimension of cognitive construal, refers to the capacity to evoke a certain substructure as the focus of attention, which can be materialized in a variety of semantic and grammatical expressions (Langacker, 1987). Subject of a sentence (Zhang, 2011) and specific sentence structures (Lin, 2013) can bring a substructure…

  19. Tether-Cutting Energetics of a Solar Quiet Region Prominence Eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.

    2003-01-01

    We study the morphology and energetics of a slowly evolving quiet-region solar prominence eruption occurring on 1999 February 8-9 in the solar north polar crown region, using soft X-ray data from the soft X-ray telescope (SXT) on Yohkoh and Fexv EUV 284 Angstrom data from the EUV Imaging Telescope (EIT) on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). After rising at approximately equal to l kilometer per second for about six hours, the prominence accelerates to a velocity of approximately equal to 10 kilometers per second, leaving behind EUV and soft X-ray loop arcades of a weak flare in its source region. Intensity dimmings occur in the eruption region cospatially in EUV and soft X-rays, indicating that the dimmings result from a depletion of material. Over the first two hours of the prominences rapid rise, flare-like brightenings occur beneath the rising prominence that might correspond to tether-cutting magnetic reconnection. These brightenings have heating requirements of up to approximately 10(exp 28)-10(exp 29) ergs, and this is comparable to the mechanical energy required for the rising prominence over the same time period. If the ratio of mechanical energy to heating energy remains constant through the early phase of the eruption, then we infer that coronal signatures for the tether cutting may not be apparent at or shortly after the start of the fast phase in this or similar low-energy eruptions, since the plasma-heating energy levels would not exceed that of the background corona.

  20. Simulating the Formation and Evolution of Solar Prominences in Coronal Cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, C.; Keppens, R.

    2015-12-01

    The physical mechanism responsible for the formation and the mass cycling of solar prominences has been uncertain for decades, because of the difficulty of knowing the three-dimensional (3D) magnetic field hosting prominences and the mass supply from chromosphere to prominences. Here we report comprehensive 3D simulations which demonstrate that the chromospheric evaporation and the coronal condensation in a magnetic flux rope lead to the formation of a quiescent prominence with complex internal fluid dynamics. First, we simulate the formation of a stable magnetic flux rope in the corona starting from a sheared magnetic bipolar arcade driven by shearing and converging flows at the bottom, using isothermal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) modeling including gravity. Second, we fill the magnetic flux rope with hydrostatic plasma from chromosphere to corona and simulate a quiet sun in an equilibrium using full thermodynamic MHD with anisotropic thermal conduction, optically thin radiative losses, and parameterized heating. Then, we add extra strong heating localized in two circular regions covering chromospheric foot points of the flux rope. As the plasma is evaporated into corona, the lower part of the flux rope evolve into thermally unstable situation due to dominative radiative losses, where multiple blobs and threads of condensations form and move continuously mainly along local magnetic field. Some of the condensations fall down to chromosphere without support of magnetic dips near the foot region of the flux rope. Others linger in magnetic dips and descend slowly. Synthetic images of Solar Dynamics Observatory views with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly shows many properties of quiescent prominences from real observations, such as, dynamics dark threads under elliptical coronal cavity.

  1. ERRATUM: Propagating Waves Transverse to the Magnetic Field in a Solar Prominence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmieder, B.; Kucera, T. A.; Knizhnik, K.; Luna, M.; Lopez-Ariste, A.; Toot, D.

    2014-01-01

    We report an unusual set of observations of waves in a large prominence pillar that consist of pulses propagating perpendicular to the prominence magnetic field. We observe a huge quiescent prominence with the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly in EUV on 2012 October 10 and only a part of it, the pillar, which is a foot or barb of the prominence, with the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT; in Ca II and Halpha lines), Sac Peak (in Ha, Hß, and Na-D lines), and THEMIS ("Télescope Héliographique pour l' Etude du Magnétisme et des Instabilités Solaires") with the MTR (MulTi-Raies) spectropolarimeter (in He D3 line). The THEMIS/MTR data indicates that the magnetic field in the pillar is essentially horizontal and the observations in the optical domain show a large number of horizontally aligned features on a much smaller scale than the pillar as a whole. The data are consistent with a model of cool prominence plasma trapped in the dips of horizontal field lines. The SOT and Sac Peak data over the four hour observing period show vertical oscillations appearing as wave pulses. These pulses, which include a Doppler signature, move vertically, perpendicular to the field direction, along thin quasi-vertical columns in the much broader pillar. The pulses have a velocity of propagation of about 10 km/s, a period of about 300 s, and a wavelength around 2000 km. We interpret these waves in terms of fast magnetosonic waves and discuss possible wave drivers.

  2. Propagating Waves Transverse to the Magnetic Field in a Solar Prominence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, B.; Kucera, T. A.; Knizhnik, K.; Luna, M.; Lopez-Ariste, A.; Toot, D.

    2013-11-01

    We report an unusual set of observations of waves in a large prominence pillar that consist of pulses propagating perpendicular to the prominence magnetic field. We observe a huge quiescent prominence with the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly in EUV on 2012 October 10 and only a part of it, the pillar, which is a foot or barb of the prominence, with the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT; in Ca II and Hα lines), Sac Peak (in Hα, Hβ, and Na-D lines), and THEMIS ("Télescope Héliographique pour l' Etude du Magnétisme et des Instabilités Solaires") with the MTR (MulTi-Raies) spectropolarimeter (in He D3 line). The THEMIS/MTR data indicates that the magnetic field in the pillar is essentially horizontal and the observations in the optical domain show a large number of horizontally aligned features on a much smaller scale than the pillar as a whole. The data are consistent with a model of cool prominence plasma trapped in the dips of horizontal field lines. The SOT and Sac Peak data over the four hour observing period show vertical oscillations appearing as wave pulses. These pulses, which include a Doppler signature, move vertically, perpendicular to the field direction, along thin quasi-vertical columns in the much broader pillar. The pulses have a velocity of propagation of about 10 km s-1, a period of about 300 s, and a wavelength around 2000 km. We interpret these waves in terms of fast magnetosonic waves and discuss possible wave drivers.

  3. UNDERSTANDING THE MG II AND Hα SPECTRA IN A HIGHLY DYNAMICAL SOLAR PROMINENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Heinzel, P.; Schmieder, B.; Mein, N.; Gunár, S.

    2015-02-10

    Mg ii h and k and Hα spectra in a dynamical prominence have been obtained along the slit of the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) and with the Meudon Multi-channel Subtractive Double Pass spectrograph on 2013 September 24, respectively. Single Mg ii line profiles are not much reversed, while at some positions along the IRIS slit the profiles show several discrete peaks that are Doppler-shifted. The intensity of these peaks is generally decreasing with their increasing Doppler shift. We interpret this unusual behavior as being due to the Doppler dimming effect. We discuss the possibility to interpret the unreversed single profiles by using a two-dimensional (2D) model of the entire prominence body with specific radiative boundary conditions. We have performed new 2D isothermal–isobaric modeling of both Hα and Mg ii lines and show the ability of such models to account for the line profile variations as observed. However, the Mg ii line-center intensities require the model with a temperature increase toward the prominence boundary. We show that even simple one-dimensional (1D) models with a prominence-to-corona transition region (PCTR) fit the observed Mg ii and Hα lines quite well, while the isothermal–isobaric models (1D or 2D) are inconsistent with simultaneous observations in the Mg ii h and k and Hα lines, meaning that the Hα line provides a strong additional constraint on the modeling. IRIS far-UV detection of the C ii lines in this prominence seems to provide a direct constraint on the PCTR part of the model.

  4. PROPAGATING WAVES TRANSVERSE TO THE MAGNETIC FIELD IN A SOLAR PROMINENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Schmieder, B.; Kucera, T. A.; Knizhnik, K.; Luna, M.; Lopez-Ariste, A.; Toot, D.

    2013-11-10

    We report an unusual set of observations of waves in a large prominence pillar that consist of pulses propagating perpendicular to the prominence magnetic field. We observe a huge quiescent prominence with the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly in EUV on 2012 October 10 and only a part of it, the pillar, which is a foot or barb of the prominence, with the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT; in Ca II and Hα lines), Sac Peak (in Hα, Hβ, and Na-D lines), and THEMIS ({sup T}élescope Héliographique pour l' Etude du Magnétisme et des Instabilités Solaires{sup )} with the MTR (MulTi-Raies) spectropolarimeter (in He D{sub 3} line). The THEMIS/MTR data indicates that the magnetic field in the pillar is essentially horizontal and the observations in the optical domain show a large number of horizontally aligned features on a much smaller scale than the pillar as a whole. The data are consistent with a model of cool prominence plasma trapped in the dips of horizontal field lines. The SOT and Sac Peak data over the four hour observing period show vertical oscillations appearing as wave pulses. These pulses, which include a Doppler signature, move vertically, perpendicular to the field direction, along thin quasi-vertical columns in the much broader pillar. The pulses have a velocity of propagation of about 10 km s{sup –1}, a period of about 300 s, and a wavelength around 2000 km. We interpret these waves in terms of fast magnetosonic waves and discuss possible wave drivers.

  5. Indications of stellar prominence oscillations on fast rotating stars: the cases of HK Aqr and PZ Tel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitzinger, M.; Odert, P.; Zaqarashvili, T. V.; Greimel, R.; Hanslmeier, A.; Lammer, H.

    2016-08-01

    We present the analysis of six nights of spectroscopic monitoring of two young and fast rotating late-type stars, namely the dMe star HK Aqr and the dG/dK star PZ Tel. On both stars we detect absorption features reminiscent of signatures of co-rotating cool clouds or prominences visible in Hα. Several prominences on HK Aqr show periodic variability in the prominence tracks which follow a sinusoidal motion (indication of prominence oscillations). On PZ Tel we could not find any periodic variability in the prominence tracks. By fitting sinusoidal functions to the prominence tracks we derive amplitudes and periods which are similar to those of large amplitude oscillations seen in solar prominences. In one specific event we also derive a periodic variation of the prominence track in the Hβ spectral line which shows an anti-phase variation with the one derived for the Hα spectral line. Using these parameters and estimated mass density of a prominence on HK Aqr we derive a minimum magnetic field strength of ˜2 G. The relatively low strength of the magnetic field is explained by the large height of this stellar prominence (≥ 0.67 stellar radii above the surface).

  6. Indications of stellar prominence oscillations on fast rotating stars: the cases of HK Aqr and PZ Tel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitzinger, M.; Odert, P.; Zaqarashvili, T. V.; Greimel, R.; Hanslmeier, A.; Lammer, H.

    2016-11-01

    We present the analysis of six nights of spectroscopic monitoring of two young and fast rotating late-type stars, namely the dMe star HK Aqr and the dG/dK star PZ Tel. On both stars, we detect absorption features reminiscent of signatures of corotating cool clouds or prominences visible in Hα. Several prominences on HK Aqr show periodic variability in the prominence tracks which follow a sinusoidal motion (indication of prominence oscillations). On PZ Tel, we could not find any periodic variability in the prominence tracks. By fitting sinusoidal functions to the prominence tracks, we derive amplitudes and periods which are similar to those of large-amplitude oscillations seen in solar prominences. In one specific event, we also derive a periodic variation of the prominence track in the Hβ spectral line which shows an anti-phase variation with the one derived for the Hα spectral line. Using these parameters and estimated mass density of a prominence on HK Aqr, we derive a minimum magnetic field strength of ˜2 G. The relatively low strength of the magnetic field is explained by the large height of this stellar prominence (≥ 0.67 stellar radii above the surface).

  7. Prominent ears: Anthropometric study of the external ear of primary school children of Harare, Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Muteweye, Wilfred; Muguti, Godfrey I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prominent ear is the most common congenital ear deformity affecting 5% of children in the Western world and has profound psychosocial effects on the bearer. It is important to know the prevalence in the local population to have a better appreciation of the local burden of the abnormality as well as to know the parameters of ear morphology locally. These parameters can be useful in the diagnosis and evaluation of ear anomalies and may help reconstructive surgeons in reproducing an anatomically correct ear of an African/Zimbabwean child. Objectives To evaluate the frequency of prominent ears in black school going children in Zimbabwe and to establish morphometric properties of the ear. Design Prospective observational, cross sectional study. Setting Three Primary schools in Harare. Two in a high density area and one in a low density area. Materials and methods Three Primary schools in Harare were selected at random. The following measurements were taken: ear lengths, ear projection and face height using a sliding caliper. Three hundred and five healthy pupils of the age range 9–13 years of both sexes were included in the study, whilst children with congenital anomalies, ear tumours and history of ear trauma were excluded. Results The mean ear height across the cohort was 56.95 ± 5.00 (right ear) and 56.86 ± 4.92 (left ear). Ear projection was 19.52 ± 2.14 (right ear) and 19.59 ± 2.09 (left ear). Gender related differences were noted. Mean ear height was significantly higher in males (p-value = 0.000). Ear projection was higher in males compared to females. A total of 6.89% had prominent ears. Among males, 7.69% had prominent ears whilst 6.17% of females had prominent ears. Conclusion The prevalence of prominent ear among black African children in the studied population is comparable to that of Caucasians. The study provides a set of biometric data of auricular dimensions for normal black African children aged 9–13 years. PMID:26468372

  8. A Qualitative Study of Interference with Communicative Participation across Communication Disorders in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylor, Carolyn; Burns, Michael; Eadie, Tanya; Britton, Deanna; Yorkston, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the similarities and differences in self-reported restrictions in communicative participation across different communication disorders in community-dwelling adults. Method: Interviews were conducted with 44 adults representing 7 different medical conditions: spasmodic dysphonia, multiple sclerosis, stroke, stuttering,…

  9. Longitudinal Phonatory Characteristics after Botulinum Toxin Type A Injection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Kimberly V.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A study investigated the long-term effects of a Botulinum Toxin Type A injection on the glottal competency of a man with adductor spasmodic dysphonia. Results suggest that change in degree of glottal adduction over time can be observed even when vocal instability is present within each recording session. (CR)

  10. Treatment of focal dystonias with botulinum neurotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Benecke, Reiner; Blitzer, Andrew; Comella, Cynthia L.

    2016-01-01

    This is a review on the use of injections of botulinum toxin for the treatment of focal dystonias. Disorders covered include cranial dystonia, cervical dystonia, spasmodic dysphonia, and focal hand dystonia. Considered are clinical aspects, alternative treatment strategies and principles of use of botulinum toxin injections. PMID:19103214

  11. Comparative Analysis of Global Digital Elevation Models and Ultra-Prominent Mountain Peaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grohmann, Carlos H.

    2016-06-01

    Global Digital Elevation Models (GDEMs) are datasets of vital importance for regional-scale analysis in areas such as geomorphology, [paleo]climatology, oceanography and biodiversity. In this work I present a comparative assessment of the datasets ETOPO1 (1' resolution), GTOPO30, GLOBE, SRTM30 PLUS, GMTED2010 and ACE2 (30") against the altitude of the world's ultra prominent peaks. GDEMs' elevations show an expected tendency of underestimating the peak's altitude, but differences reach 3,500 m. None of the GDEMs captures the full range of elevation on Earth and they do not represent well the altitude of the most prominent peaks. Some of these problems could be addressed with the release of NASADEM, but the smoothing effect caused by moving-window resampling can only be tackled by using new techniques, such as scale-adaptative kernels and curvature-based terrain generalisation.

  12. The role of condensation and heat conduction in the formation of prominences - An MHD simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.; Bao, J. J.; An, C. H.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of condensation and thermal conduction on the formation of Kippenhahn-Schlueter (K-S) type prominences in quiet regions (QP) due to symmetric mass injection are investigated. To implement this investigation a self-consistent, two-dimensional, nonplanar, time-dependent MHD simulation model is developed. In the model, various values of the injection velocity, density, and magnetic field strength are used to determine the most favorable conditions for the QP formation. Based on these simulation results, it is found that the formation of a K-S type field configuration should be considered as a dynamic process which needs both condensation amd mass injection to supply enough mass to maintain such a configuration to complete the quiescent prominence formation process.

  13. Two-Dimensional Mapping of the He D3/Hβ Emission Ratio in Solar Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiehr, Eberhard; Stellmacher, Goetz; Hirzberger, Johann

    2007-01-01

    Solar prominences have been simultaneously observed in the integrated light of the He D3 and the Hβ emissions on two successive days, using the SST on La Palma with its tip-tilt mirror locked on a nearby white-light limb facular grain. The spatial and the temporal variation of the integrated line intensities and their ratio shows mainly two characteristics: (A) Constant emission ratio (even) in regions with substantial intensity variations and (B) varying emission ratio (often) tightly related to intensity structures of the prominence. (A) May be explained by a different number of superposing threads along the line of sight having very similar physical state. (B) Indicates threads with different intrinsic physical states; these may depend on the gas pressure or the inner structure of each thread, i.e., the “packing density,” affecting the penetration of ionizing EUV radiation, which affects the He I level populations and thus the rate of the triplet excitation.

  14. Corrective otoplasty for symptomatic prominent ears in U.S. soldiers.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Christopher J; Mardini, Samir

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate U.S. Army soldiers who presented to the plastic surgery service with the inability to properly wear a government-issued Kevlar field helmet because of their prominent ear deformity. Between September 2000 and April 2002, four patients with prominent ears and helical rim skin abrasions with breakdown attributable to abutment from their helmets underwent open otoplasty with conchal bowl resection via a posterior approach. Symptomatic relief and cosmetic improvement were obtained, with no incidence of complications or recurrence during the follow-up period, which ranged from 9 to 22 months. All patients were able to wear their Army-issued Kevlar helmets without difficulty after surgery. Otoplasty is an effective, reliable procedure that has now been performed to alleviate symptoms in an otherwise asymptomatic patient population.

  15. A case of brugada syndrome presenting with ventricular fibrillation storm and prominent early repolarization.

    PubMed

    Iizuka, Chifumi; Sato, Masahito; Kitazawa, Hitoshi; Ikeda, Yoshio; Okabe, Masaaki; Kugiyama, Kiyotaka; Aizawa, Yoshifusa

    2016-01-01

    A 21-year-old man developed ventricular fibrillation (VF) while drinking alcohol and was admitted to our hospital. An electrocardiogram (ECG) on admission revealed remarkably prominent slurs on the terminal part of QRS complexes in the left precordial leads and a coved type ST elevation at higher intercostal spaces. After hypothermia therapy, he underwent implantation of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). Standard twelve-lead follow-up ECGs revealed early repolarization pattern and an intermittent coved type ST elevation. When the coved type ST elevation appeared, the early repolarization pattern in the inferior and left precordial leads was attenuated. Prominent early repolarization pattern was the most likely trigger of the VF storm in this Brugada patient.

  16. Spectrophotometry of prominences in the phase preceding decay. [line spectra and spectral emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakhubovskiy, A. S.

    1974-01-01

    The results are presented of spectrophotometric processing of prominence spectra in both the quiet and the decay phases. A catalog was compiled of equivalent widths, central intensities, Doppler half-widths, and half-widths of emission lines. The reduced Doppler half-widths of D3 and of the H, K Ca(+) lines obtained in a prominence active phase are much larger than those obtained during a quiet phase. Comparison of the equivalent widths and central intensities of H sub alpha, H sub beta hydrogen and D3 helium lines shows that the values increase in the active phase for the D3 lines and decrease for the H sub alpha, H sub beta lines.

  17. Lexical and Phrasal Prominence Patterns in School-Aged Children's Speech

    PubMed Central

    Shport, Irina A.; Redford, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the integration of word- and phrase-level prominences in speech produced by 25 school-aged children (6;2 to 7;3) and 25 adults. Participants produced disyllabic number words in a straight count condition and in two phrasal conditions, namely, a stress clash and non-clash phrasal context. Duration and amplitude measures of syllable rhymes were used to assess the realization of lexical stress, and fundamental frequency (F0) measures were used to assess the realization of phrasal pitch accents across conditions. Results showed that the duration and F0 correlates varied independently of each other as a function of condition in child speech, but much less so in adult speech. The group differences were taken to indicate that 6-year-old children have yet to develop prosodic structures with integrated prominence. Structural and pragmatic interpretations of the results are discussed. PMID:24020889

  18. Secretin in a patient with treatment-resistant schizophrenia and prominent autistic features.

    PubMed

    Alamy, Sayed S; Jarskog, L Fredrik; Sheitman, Brian B; Lieberman, Jeffrey A

    2004-02-01

    Secretin, a gastrointestinal (GI) peptide, may offer therapeutic benefit in autism. Autistic features can also be present in schizophrenia and a recent study suggested a role for adjunctive secretin in treatment-resistant schizophrenia. The current report describes one patient with undifferentiated schizophrenia and prominent autistic features who received a single dose of secretin and demonstrated substantial yet transient improvement. The case illustrates the potential role of secretin as a novel adjunctive treatment strategy in schizophrenic patients with autistic features.

  19. Density evolution of in-falling prominence material from the 7th June 2011 CME

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlyle, Jack; Williams, David; van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia; Innes, Davina

    2014-01-01

    This work investigates the density of in-falling prominence material following the 7 th June 2011 eruption. Both the evolution and the distribution of the density is analysed in five discreet ``blobs'' of material. The density appears to be remarkably uniform, both spatially within the blobs, and temporally over the course of the descent of each, although a slight concentration of material towards the leading edge is noted in some cases. Online material is available at bit.ly/jackblob

  20. When is a mass not a mass? An unusual presentation of prominent crista terminalis.

    PubMed

    Salim, Handi; Palit, Amitabh; Maher, Abdul

    2016-02-15

    This case report describes a patient in whom echocardiography showed borderline left ventricular hypertrophy and a mass adjacent to the right atrial wall. This naturally caused some concern as the differential diagnoses included that of a right atrial myxoma and further investigations were organised. A subsequent cardiac MRI revealed this thickening to be a prominent crista terminalis. The crista terminalis is a variant of normal anatomical structures within the right atrium, which mimics an atrial mass.

  1. ROTATING MOTIONS AND MODELING OF THE ERUPTING SOLAR POLAR-CROWN PROMINENCE ON 2010 DECEMBER 6

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Yingna; Van Ballegooijen, Adriaan

    2013-02-10

    A large polar-crown prominence composed of different segments spanning nearly the entire solar disk erupted on 2010 December 6. Prior to the eruption, the filament in the active region part split into two layers: a lower layer and an elevated layer. The eruption occurs in several episodes. Around 14:12 UT, the lower layer of the active region filament breaks apart: One part ejects toward the west, while the other part ejects toward the east, which leads to the explosive eruption of the eastern quiescent filament. During the early rise phase, part of the quiescent filament sheet displays strong rolling motion (observed by STEREO-B) in the clockwise direction (viewed from east to west) around the filament axis. This rolling motion appears to start from the border of the active region, then propagates toward the east. The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) observes another type of rotating motion: In some other parts of the erupting quiescent prominence, the vertical threads turn horizontal, then turn upside down. The elevated active region filament does not erupt until 18:00 UT, when the erupting quiescent filament has already reached a very large height. We develop two simplified three-dimensional models that qualitatively reproduce the observed rolling and rotating motions. The prominence in the models is assumed to consist of a collection of discrete blobs that are tied to particular field lines of a helical flux rope. The observed rolling motion is reproduced by continuous twist injection into the flux rope in Model 1 from the active region side. Asymmetric reconnection induced by the asymmetric distribution of the magnetic fields on the two sides of the filament may cause the observed rolling motion. The rotating motion of the prominence threads observed by AIA is consistent with the removal of the field line dips in Model 2 from the top down during the eruption.

  2. Rayleigh-Taylor instability in prominences from numerical simulations including partial ionization effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomenko, E.; Díaz, A.; de Vicente, A.; Collados, M.; Luna, M.

    2014-05-01

    We study the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) at a prominence-corona transition region in a non-linear regime. Our aim is to understand how the presence of neutral atoms in the prominence plasma influences the instability growth rate, as well as the evolution of velocity, magnetic field vector, and thermodynamic parameters of turbulent drops. We perform 2.5D numerical simulations of the instability initiated by a multi-mode perturbation at the corona-prominence interface using a single-fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) approach including a generalized Ohm's law. The initial equilibrium configuration is purely hydrostatic and contains a homogeneous horizontal magnetic field forming an angle with the direction in which the plasma is perturbed. We analyze simulations with two different orientations of the magnetic field. For each field orientation we compare two simulations, one for the pure MHD case, and one including the ambipolar diffusion in Ohm's law (AD case). Other than that, both simulations for each field orientation are identical. The numerical results in the initial stage of the instability are compared with the analytical linear calculations. We find that the configuration is always unstable in the AD case. The growth rate of the small-scale modes in the non-linear regime is up to 50% larger in the AD case than in the purely MHD case and the average velocities of flows are a few percentage points higher. Significant drift momenta are found at the interface between the coronal and the prominence material at all stages of the instability, produced by the faster downward motion of the neutral component with respect to the ionized component. The differences in temperature of the bubbles between the ideal and non-ideal case are also significant, reaching 30%. There is an asymmetry between large rising bubbles and small-scale down flowing fingers, favoring the detection of upward velocities in observations.

  3. Examining the conspicuousness and prominence of two required warnings on OTC pain relievers

    PubMed Central

    Bix, Laura; Bello, Nora M.; Auras, Rafael; Ranger, Jon; Lapinski, Maria K.

    2009-01-01

    The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs is critical to their safe and effective use, and certain warnings are meant to be read at the point of purchase (POP). Examples include (i) warnings that alert consumers to the fact that the package is not child-resistant and (ii) warnings that alert consumers to potential product tampering. U.S. law mandates these warnings be “conspicuous” and “prominent” so that it is likely that consumers will read them before leaving the store. Our objective was to quantify the relative prominence and conspicuousness of these warnings. Sixty-one participants reviewed the packages of 5 commercially available analgesics to evaluate the prominence and conspicuousness of these warnings. Evaluated data included (i) the time spent examining the warnings compared with other areas of the label (using a bright pupil eye tracker), (ii) the ability to recall information from the OTCs viewed, and (iii) the legibility of the warnings relative to other elements of the labels (as measured by ASTM D7298-06). Eye-tracking data indicated that warnings were viewed by fewer participants and for less time than other elements of the packages. Recall and legibility data also indicated that the warning statements compared unfavorably with other elements of the labels tested. Evidence presented in this study suggests that 2 required warnings on 5 different OTCs are not prominent or conspicuous when compared with other elements of tested labels. PMID:19332798

  4. 3D conductive coupling for efficient generation of prominent Fano resonances in metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhiguang; Liu, Zhe; Li, Jiafang; Li, Wuxia; Li, Junjie; Gu, Changzhi; Li, Zhi-Yuan

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate a 3D conductive coupling mechanism for the efficient generation of prominent and robust Fano resonances in 3D metamaterials (MMs) formed by integrating vertical U-shape split-ring resonators (SRRs) or vertical rectangular plates along a planar metallic hole array with extraordinary optical transmission (EOT). In such a configuration, intensified vertical E-field is induced along the metallic holes and naturally excites the electric resonances of the vertical structures, which form non-radiative “dark” modes. These 3D conductive “dark” modes strongly interfere with the “bright” resonance mode of the EOT structure, generating significant Fano resonances with both prominent destructive and constructive interferences. The demonstrated 3D conductive coupling mechanism is highly universal in that both 3D MMs with vertical SRRs and vertical plates exhibit the same prominent Fano resonances despite their dramatic structural difference, which is conceptually different from conventional capacitive and inductive coupling mechanisms that degraded drastically upon small structural deviations.

  5. Evaluation of Subcision for the Correction of the Prominent Nasolabial Folds

    PubMed Central

    Robati, R. M.; Abdollahimajd, F.; Robati, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. A prominent nasolabial fold (NLF) is a cosmetic problem. Currently, numerous therapeutic modalities are available for pronounced NLFs with variable efficacy. Objective. To determine the efficacy and safety of subcision using a hypodermic needle for the correction of the prominent NLFs and its effect on skin elasticity. Methods. Sixteen patients with prominent NLFs underwent subcision. The investigators' assessment of improvement and the patients' satisfaction were both recorded 1 and 6 months after the procedure. Also, we evaluate the skin elasticity of NLFs before and after the treatment using a sensitive biometrologic device with the measurement of cutaneous resonance running time (CRRT). Results. Thirteen (81.25%) patients showed a moderate improvement at 1st month and 13 (81.25%) patients had at least a mild improvement at 6th month. There was no persistent side effect lasting more than a few days. Mean CRRT at 1 and 6 months after the treatment was significantly higher compared to the baseline. Conclusion. Subcision may be considered effective for the correction of pronounced NLFs. However, further controlled studies with larger sample size are necessary to assess the efficacy of this technique in particular with use of more objective assessment of skin biometric characteristics. This trial is registered with IRCT201108097270N1 (registered on January 27, 2012). PMID:26788052

  6. Physical aggression, spreading of rumors, and social prominence in early adolescence: reciprocal effects supporting gender similarities?

    PubMed

    Juvonen, Jaana; Wang, Yueyan; Espinoza, Guadalupe

    2013-12-01

    There is a robust association between aggression and social prominence by early adolescence, yet findings regarding the direction of influence remain inconclusive in light of gender differences across various forms of aggressive behaviors. The current study examined whether physical aggression and spreading of rumors, as two gender-typed aggressive behaviors that differ in overt displays of power, promote and/or maintain socially prominent status for girls and boys during non-transitional grades in middle school. Peer nominations were used to assess physical aggression, spreading of rumors, and "cool" reputation (social prominence) during three time points between the spring of seventh grade and spring of eighth grade. Participants included 1,895 (54 % female) ethnically diverse youth: 47 % Latino, 22 % African-American, 11 % Asian, 10 % White and 10 % Other/Mixed ethnic background. Cross-lagged path analyses were conducted to test the directionality of the effects, and gender moderation was assessed by relying on multi-group analyses. The analyses revealed mainly reciprocal associations for each form of aggression, suggesting that boys, as well as girls, can both gain and maintain their status by spreading rumors about their peers, just as they do by physically fighting and pushing others in urban middle schools. The implications of the findings for interventions are discussed.

  7. 3D conductive coupling for efficient generation of prominent Fano resonances in metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhiguang; Liu, Zhe; Li, Jiafang; Li, Wuxia; Li, Junjie; Gu, Changzhi; Li, Zhi-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a 3D conductive coupling mechanism for the efficient generation of prominent and robust Fano resonances in 3D metamaterials (MMs) formed by integrating vertical U-shape split-ring resonators (SRRs) or vertical rectangular plates along a planar metallic hole array with extraordinary optical transmission (EOT). In such a configuration, intensified vertical E-field is induced along the metallic holes and naturally excites the electric resonances of the vertical structures, which form non-radiative “dark” modes. These 3D conductive “dark” modes strongly interfere with the “bright” resonance mode of the EOT structure, generating significant Fano resonances with both prominent destructive and constructive interferences. The demonstrated 3D conductive coupling mechanism is highly universal in that both 3D MMs with vertical SRRs and vertical plates exhibit the same prominent Fano resonances despite their dramatic structural difference, which is conceptually different from conventional capacitive and inductive coupling mechanisms that degraded drastically upon small structural deviations. PMID:27296109

  8. Flux Collision Models of Prominence Formation, or Breaking Up is Hard to Do

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsch, B. T.; DeVore, C. R.; Antiochos, S. K.

    2004-05-01

    To investigate the hypothesis that the prominences form by magnetic reconnection between initially distinct flux systems above the solar photosphere, we employ the ARMS code, a 3D, flux-corrected transport MHD code with adaptive mesh refinement, to simulate magnetic field evolution when two flux systems are driven to collide by photospheric boundary motions. In particular, we focus on driving configurations similar to the prominence model of Martens and Zwaan (2001). We find that: 1) reconnection proceeds only weakly, if at all, in typical active region configurations driven with differential-rotation-like shear, which leads to glancing collisions; 2) reconnection proceeds efficiently in configurations that are driven to collide directly, with converging motions along the neutral line; and 3) reconnected fields from this process can exhibit sheared, dipped field lines along the neutral line, consistent with prominence observations. As our field configurations do not posses the ``breakout'' topology, eruptions are not observed. This work was supported by ONR, NASA's SEC Theory program, and by a grant of computer time from the DOD High Performance Computing Modernization Program at the ERDC MSRC.

  9. Can patients without early, prominent visual deficits still be diagnosed of posterior cortical atrophy?

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-González, A.; Crutch, S.J.; Roldán Lora, F.; Franco-Macías, E.; Gil-Néciga, E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Early and progressive disabling visual impairment is a core feature for the diagnosis of posterior cortical atrophy (PCA). However, some individuals that fulfil criteria over time might initially present with an onset of prominent posterior dysfunction other than visuoperceptual. Methods The clinical profile of five patients with a predominantly ‘non-visual’ posterior presentation (PCA2) was investigated and compared with sixteen individuals with visually predominant PCA (PCA1) and eighteen with typical amnestic Alzheimer disease (tAD). Results PCA2 patients showed significantly better performance than PCA1 in one visuospatial task and were free of Balint's syndrome and visual agnosia. Compared to tAD, PCA2 showed trends towards significantly lower performance in visuoperceptual tasks, more severe apraxia and more symptoms of Gerstmann's syndrome. Conclusions Our sample of PCA2 patients did not present with clinically prominent visual symptoms but did show visual dysfunction on formal neuropsychological assessment (less pronounced than in PCA1 but more than in tAD) in addition to other posterior deficits. Broadening the definition of PCA to encompass individuals presenting with prominent ‘non-visual’ posterior dysfunction should be potentially considered in clinical and research contexts. PMID:27423559

  10. The Apparent Critical Decay Index at the Onset of Solar Prominence Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuccarello, F. P.; Aulanier, G.; Gilchrist, S. A.

    2016-04-01

    A magnetic flux rope (MFR) embedded in a line-tied external magnetic field that decreases with height as {z}-n is unstable to perturbations if the decay index of the field n is larger than a critical value. The onset of this instability, called torus instability, is one of the main mechanisms that can initiate coronal mass ejections. Since flux ropes often possess magnetic dips that can support prominence plasma, this is also a valuable mechanism to trigger prominence eruptions. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the formation and/or emergence of MFRs suggest a critical value for the onset of the instability in the range [1.4-2]. However, detailed observations of prominences suggest a value in the range [0.9-1.1]. In this Letter, by using a set of MHD simulations, we show why the large discrepancy between models and observations is only apparent. Our simulations indeed show that the critical decay index at the onset of the eruption is n=1.4+/- 0.1 when computed at the apex of the flux rope axis, while it is n=1.1+/- 0.1 when it is computed at the altitude of the topmost part of the distribution of magnetic dips. The discrepancy only arises because weakly twisted curved flux ropes do not have dips up to the altitude of their axis.

  11. Funnel Prominences as Return Flows of the Chromosphere-Corona Mass Cycle: SDO/AIA Observations of Coronal Condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Berger, T.; Low, B. C.

    2013-07-01

    It has recently been proposed that prominences play an important role as return flows of the chromosphere-corona mass cycle, in which hot plasma is transported upward in forms of spicules and prominence bubbles (likely due to flux emergence), while cool plasma drains downward in forms of vertical prominence threads (Berger et al. 2011 Nature). A critical step in this cycle is the condensation of the million-degree coronal plasma into T<10,000 K prominence material by a radiative cooling instability (i.e., thermal non-equilibrium), as numerically simulated (Karpen & Antiochos 2008; Xia et al. 2012) and first evidenced in recent SDO/AIA observations (Liu et al. 2012; Berger et al. 2012 ApJL). Such a runaway cooling process occurs in coronal loops of various sizes and generally leads to condensation at magnetic dips and formation of funnel-shaped prominences. A moderate-sized prominence can drain a significant mass of typically 10^15 gram/day, which is comparable to the mass of a CME or a fraction of the entire corona. Here we present a survey of funnel prominences that appear to be common in AIA observations at various locations and times. We find longer cooling times in longer/taller coronal loops whose densities are lower, consistent with the expected quadratic dependence on density of the optically-thin radiative loss. We propose that such funnel prominences, usually small in size, can constitute a new type of prominences, and similar processes can produce elementary building blocks of large-scale quiescent prominences in filament channels. This picture is supported by the recent theoretical development on spontaneous formation of current sheets and condensations manifested as prominence threads (Low et al. 2012a, b, ApJ).Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): It has recently been proposed that prominences play an important role as return flows of the chromosphere-corona mass cycle, in which hot plasma is transported upward in forms of spicules and prominence

  12. PROM4: 1D isothermal and isobaric modeler for solar prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouttebroze, P.; Labrosse, N.

    2013-06-01

    PROM4 computes simple models of solar prominences which consist of plane-parallel slabs standing vertically above the solar surface. Each model is defined by 5 parameters: temperature, density, geometrical thickness, microturbulent velocity and height above the solar surface. PROM4 solves the equations of radiative transfer, statistical equilibrium, ionization and pressure equilibria, and computes electron and hydrogen level populations and hydrogen line profiles. Written in Fortran 90 and with two versions available (one with text in English, one with text in French), the code needs 64-bit arithmetic for real numbers.

  13. Behavioral management of pediatric dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Hersan, R; Behlau, M

    2000-10-01

    Children's voice disorders may be functional or organic in cause and a thorough evaluation by the otolaryngologist and speech-language pathologist is necessary to obtain the proper diagnosis, to understand the underlying etiologic factors, and to prepare a plan of treatment that is appropriate for the child. Because voice disorders may be present with developmental communication problems, treatment must include all factors that affect growth and development of the child.

  14. Magnetohydrodynamic waves in two-dimensional prominences embedded in coronal arcades

    SciTech Connect

    Terradas, J.; Soler, R.; Díaz, A. J.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L.

    2013-11-20

    Solar prominence models used so far in the analysis of MHD waves in two-dimensional structures are quite elementary. In this work, we calculate numerically magnetohydrostatic models in two-dimensional configurations under the presence of gravity. Our interest is in models that connect the magnetic field to the photosphere and include an overlying arcade. The method used here is based on a relaxation process and requires solving the time-dependent nonlinear ideal MHD equations. Once a prominence model is obtained, we investigate the properties of MHD waves superimposed on the structure. We concentrate on motions purely two-dimensional, neglecting propagation in the ignorable direction. We demonstrate how, by using different numerical tools, we can determine the period of oscillation of stable waves. We find that vertical oscillations, linked to fast MHD waves, are always stable and have periods in the 4-10 minute range. Longitudinal oscillations, related to slow magnetoacoustic-gravity waves, have longer periods in the range of 28-40 minutes. These longitudinal oscillations are strongly influenced by the gravity force and become unstable for short magnetic arcades.

  15. RESONANT ABSORPTION OF TRANSVERSE OSCILLATIONS AND ASSOCIATED HEATING IN A SOLAR PROMINENCE. II. NUMERICAL ASPECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Antolin, P.; Okamoto, T. J.; Doorsselaere, T. Van; Yokoyama, T.

    2015-08-10

    Transverse magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves are ubiquitous in the solar atmosphere and may be responsible for generating the Sun’s million-degree outer atmosphere. However, direct evidence of the dissipation process and heating from these waves remains elusive. Through advanced numerical simulations combined with appropriate forward modeling of a prominence flux tube, we provide the observational signatures of transverse MHD waves in prominence plasmas. We show that these signatures are characterized by a thread-like substructure, strong transverse dynamical coherence, an out-of-phase difference between plane-of-the-sky motions and line-of-sight velocities, and enhanced line broadening and heating around most of the flux tube. A complex combination between resonant absorption and Kelvin–Helmholtz instabilities (KHIs) takes place in which the KHI extracts the energy from the resonant layer and dissipates it through vortices and current sheets, which rapidly degenerate into turbulence. An inward enlargement of the boundary is produced in which the turbulent flows conserve the characteristic dynamics from the resonance, therefore guaranteeing detectability of the resonance imprints. We show that the features described in the accompanying paper through coordinated Hinode and Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph observations match the numerical results well.

  16. Possible measurements of the magnetic field in eruptive prominences using the PROBA-3 coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serge, Koutchmy; Zhukov, Andrei; Dolla, Laurent; Heinzel, Petr; Lamy, Philippe; Bazin, Cyrille; Bommier, Veronique; Faurobert, Marianne

    The PROBA-3 mission will fly a spacecraft put in the shadow of a precisely occulting sister satellite orbiting “in formation” at a distance of 150 m in front of it to make artificial total eclipses. The region right above the solar limb will be studied for the first time over a coronal background not polluted by any spurious light. Although the priority will be the high-resolution fast imaging of the dynamic white-light corona, the use of a narrow filter centered on a low excitation D3 line of He I, is planned for imaging prominences. Adding the linear polarization analysis would permit the measurements of the magnetic field using the Hanle effect. We evaluate the possibility offered during the eruptive phase of a CME with prominence material inserted inside, for studying the associated magnetic field changes related to both the heating process and the ejection of material. The background highly polarized K-corona is taken into account. Sequences of quasi- simultaneous white-light processed images at high resolution are an additional feature of great interest for interpreting the overall magnetic structure.

  17. Fine Magnetic Structure and Origin of Counter-streaming Mass Flows in a Quiescent Solar Prominence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yuandeng; Liu, Yu; Liu, Ying D.; Chen, P. F.; Su, Jiangtao; Xu, Zhi; Liu, Zhong

    2015-11-01

    We present high-resolution observations of a quiescent solar prominence that consists of a vertical and a horizontal foot encircled by an overlying spine and has ubiquitous counter-streaming mass flows. While the horizontal foot and the spine were connected to the solar surface, the vertical foot was suspended above the solar surface and was supported by a semicircular bubble structure. The bubble first collapsed, then reformed at a similar height, and finally started to oscillate for a long time. We find that the collapse and oscillation of the bubble boundary were tightly associated with a flare-like feature located at the bottom of the bubble. Based on the observational results, we propose that the prominence should be composed of an overlying horizontal spine encircling a low-lying horizontal and vertical foot, in which the horizontal foot consists of shorter field lines running partially along the spine and has ends connected to the solar surface, while the vertical foot consists of piling-up dips due to the sagging of the spine fields and is supported by a bipolar magnetic system formed by parasitic polarities (i.e., the bubble). The upflows in the vertical foot were possibly caused by the magnetic reconnection at the separator between the bubble and the overlying dips, which intruded into the persistent downflow field and formed the picture of counter-streaming mass flows. In addition, the counter-streaming flows in the horizontal foot were possibly caused by the imbalanced pressure at the both ends.

  18. BEHAVIOR OF THE SPINES IN A QUIESCENT PROMINENCE OBSERVED BY HINODE/SOT

    SciTech Connect

    Ning, Z.; Cao, W.; Goode, P. R.

    2009-12-20

    We report the behaviors of the spines in a quiescent prominence from the observations on 2008 January 15 made with Hinode/SOT in Halpha +0.076 A, Halpha-0.34 A, and Ca II H line filters. Two spines (1 and 2) are visible in this event. In the spacetime plots of the Halpha and Ca II intensities, the two spines seem to gradually move closer together, and finally merge, then separate again. Their behaviors are separated into two kinds of typical motions. On the Doppler diagrams, the spine 1 has a dominant redshift, and spine 2 favors a blueshift, which reveals that the spines 1 and 2 firstly display the drifting motions in opposite directions. The former is drifting northward, while the latter drifts southward. Second, both spines display large-scale oscillating motions. Their oscillating velocities, amplitudes, and periods have average values of 3 km s{sup -1}, +-5 Mm, and 98 minutes, respectively, indicating a small-amplitude oscillation with a long period. After the sinusoidal fitting, both spines almost exhibit an antiphase oscillating motions. The spine 2 oscillates 135 deg. ahead of the spine 1. Such antiphase oscillations would reflect the coupling of the transverse oscillations of the spines in this prominence.

  19. Prominence Detection Using Auditory Attention Cues and Task-Dependent High Level Information

    PubMed Central

    Kalinli, Ozlem; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2009-01-01

    Auditory attention is a complex mechanism that involves the processing of low-level acoustic cues together with higher level cognitive cues. In this paper, a novel method is proposed that combines biologically inspired auditory attention cues with higher level lexical and syntactic information to model task-dependent influences on a given spoken language processing task. A set of low-level multiscale features (intensity, frequency contrast, temporal contrast, orientation, and pitch) is extracted in parallel from the auditory spectrum of the sound based on the processing stages in the central auditory system to create feature maps that are converted to auditory gist features that capture the essence of a sound scene. The auditory attention model biases the gist features in a task-dependent way to maximize target detection in a given scene. Furthermore, the top-down task-dependent influence of lexical and syntactic information is incorporated into the model using a probabilistic approach. The lexical information is incorporated by using a probabilistic language model, and the syntactic knowledge is modeled using part-of-speech (POS) tags. The combined model is tested on automatically detecting prominent syllables in speech using the BU Radio News Corpus. The model achieves 88.33% prominence detection accuracy at the syllable level and 85.71% accuracy at the word level. These results compare well with reported human performance on this task. PMID:20084186

  20. Novel large-range mitochondrial DNA deletions and fatal multisystemic disorder with prominent hepatopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, Marzia; Rizza, Teresa; Verrigni, Daniela; Martinelli, Diego; Tozzi, Giulia; Torraco, Alessandra; Piemonte, Fiorella; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo; Nobili, Valerio; Francalanci, Paola; Boldrini, Renata; Callea, Francesco; Santorelli, Filippo Maria; Bertini, Enrico; and others

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expanded array of mtDNA deletions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pearson syndrome with prominent hepatopathy associated with single mtDNA deletions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detection of deletions in fibroblasts and blood avoids muscle and liver biopsy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Look for mtDNA deletions before to study nuclear genes related to mtDNA depletion. -- Abstract: Hepatic involvement in mitochondrial cytopathies rarely manifests in adulthood, but is a common feature in children. Multiple OXPHOS enzyme defects in children with liver involvement are often associated with dramatically reduced amounts of mtDNA. We investigated two novel large scale deletions in two infants with a multisystem disorder and prominent hepatopathy. Amount of mtDNA deletions and protein content were measured in different post-mortem tissues. The highest levels of deleted mtDNA were in liver, kidney, pancreas of both patients. Moreover, mtDNA deletions were detected in cultured skin fibroblasts in both patients and in blood of one during life. Biochemical analysis showed impairment of mainly complex I enzyme activity. Patients manifesting multisystem disorders in childhood may harbour rare mtDNA deletions in multiple tissues. For these patients, less invasive blood specimens or cultured fibroblasts can be used for molecular diagnosis. Our data further expand the array of deletions in the mitochondrial genomes in association with liver failure. Thus analysis of mtDNA should be considered in the diagnosis of childhood-onset hepatopathies.

  1. FINE MAGNETIC STRUCTURE AND ORIGIN OF COUNTER-STREAMING MASS FLOWS IN A QUIESCENT SOLAR PROMINENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Yuandeng; Liu, Yu; Xu, Zhi; Liu, Zhong; Liu, Ying D.; Chen, P. F.; Su, Jiangtao

    2015-11-20

    We present high-resolution observations of a quiescent solar prominence that consists of a vertical and a horizontal foot encircled by an overlying spine and has ubiquitous counter-streaming mass flows. While the horizontal foot and the spine were connected to the solar surface, the vertical foot was suspended above the solar surface and was supported by a semicircular bubble structure. The bubble first collapsed, then reformed at a similar height, and finally started to oscillate for a long time. We find that the collapse and oscillation of the bubble boundary were tightly associated with a flare-like feature located at the bottom of the bubble. Based on the observational results, we propose that the prominence should be composed of an overlying horizontal spine encircling a low-lying horizontal and vertical foot, in which the horizontal foot consists of shorter field lines running partially along the spine and has ends connected to the solar surface, while the vertical foot consists of piling-up dips due to the sagging of the spine fields and is supported by a bipolar magnetic system formed by parasitic polarities (i.e., the bubble). The upflows in the vertical foot were possibly caused by the magnetic reconnection at the separator between the bubble and the overlying dips, which intruded into the persistent downflow field and formed the picture of counter-streaming mass flows. In addition, the counter-streaming flows in the horizontal foot were possibly caused by the imbalanced pressure at the both ends.

  2. Reduction in Prosodic Prominence Predicts Speakers’ Recall: Implications for Theories of Prosody

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Duane G.; Benjamin, Aaron S.

    2014-01-01

    Repeated words are often reduced in prosodic prominence, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The present study contrasted two theories: does prosodic reduction reflect the choice of a particular linguistic form, or does ease of retrieval within the language production system lead to facilitated, less prominent productions? One test of facilitation-based theories is suggested by findings on human memory: Whether a second presentation of an item benefits later memory is predicted by the item’s availability at the time of the second presentation. If prosodic reduction partially reflects facilitated retrieval, it should predict later memory. One naïve participant described to another participant routes on a map. Critical items were mentioned twice. Following the map task, the speaker attempted written recall of the mentioned items. As expected, acoustic intensity of the second mentions predicted later recall in the same way that difficulty of retrieval has in other tasks. This pattern suggests that one source of prosodic reduction is facilitation within the language production system. PMID:26594647

  3. Dynamics of a prominence observed in Mg II lines by IRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, Brigitte; Mein, Pierre; Dalmasse, Kévin; Tian, Hui; Kucera, Therese; Lopez-Ariste, Arturo

    In September 2013 several prominences were observed with the IRIS spectrograph during a 60 day-long international program. We will present one set of observations obtained using multiple instruments on September 24. SDO/AIA and IRIS slit jaws provided images of the prominence corresponding to different physical conditions of the transition region between the cool plasma and the corona. The vector magnetic field was derived from THEMIS (Tenerife) observations using the He D3 depolarisation due to the magnetic field. The inversion code (CPA) takes into account the Hanle and the Zeeman effects. Movies from SDO/AIA in 304 A and Hinode/SOT in Ca II show the dynamics of the fine structures in the plane of the sky. From Mg II and Si IV line spectra observed by IRIS and H-alpha observed by the Multi-channel subtractive spectrograph (MSDP) in the Meudon solar tower we derived the Dopplershifts of the fine structures. The profiles of the Mg II lines are narrow (FHWM =0.15 A) and not reversed, contrary to the predictions of the theoretical models (Paletou et al 1993). We could resolve the velocity of several structures along the LOS with Dopplershifts as high as 60 km/s.

  4. Exploring the prominence-corona connection and its expansion into the outer corona using total solar eclipse observations

    SciTech Connect

    Habbal, Shadia Rifai; Morgan, Huw; Druckmüller, Miloslav

    2014-10-01

    Prominences constitute the most complex magnetic structures in the solar corona. The ubiquitous presence of their seemingly confined dense and cool plasma in an otherwise million-degree environment remains a puzzle. Using a decade of white light total solar eclipse observations, we show how these images reveal an intricate relationship between prominences and coronal structures both in their immediate vicinity, known as coronal cavities, and in the extended corona out to several solar radii. Observations of suspended prominences and twisted helical structures spanning several solar radii are central to these findings. The different manifestations of the prominence-corona interface that emerge from this study underscore the fundamental role played by prominences in defining and controlling the complex expansion and dynamic behavior of the solar magnetic field in the neighborhood of magnetic polarity reversal regions. This study suggests that the unraveling of prominences and the outward expansion of the helical twisted field lines linked to them could be the solar origin of twisted magnetic flux ropes detected in interplanetary space, and of the mechanism by which the Sun sheds its magnetic helicity. This work also underscores the likely role of the prominence-corona interface as a source of the slow solar wind.

  5. STEREOSCOPIC RECONSTRUCTION FROM STEREO/EUV IMAGERS DATA OF THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL SHAPE AND EXPANSION OF AN ERUPTING PROMINENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Bemporad, A.

    2009-08-10

    On 2007 May 9, a prominence eruption was observed in the He II {lambda}304 filter by the two EUV Imagers (EUVI) telescopes aboard the STEREO A and B spacecrafts. The high spatial resolution ({approx}1.''5 pixel{sup -1}) EUVI images have been used to infer via triangulation the three-dimensional (3D) shape and orientation of the prominence {approx_equal}12 minutes after the beginning (13:40 UT) of the eruption. At this time, the prominence has the shape of a 'hook' with the base anchored at the Sun. The 'hook' prominence is highly inclined southward with respect to the radial direction, has an average thickness of 0.061 R {sub sun}, a length of 0.43 R {sub sun}, and lies in first approximation on a plane inclined by {approx}54.{sup 0}5 with respect to the line of sight. Thanks to the very high temporal cadence ({approx}37 s) of EUVI observations it has been possible also to infer the 3D early eruption trajectory. In the following {approx}20 minutes the prominence rotates westward, undergoing a strong latitudinal acceleration, {approx}3 times larger than the radial acceleration. In this time interval, the prominence expands in a direction mainly parallel to the plane of the sky; the total volume occupied by the plasma increases by a factor of {approx}8, while the prominence thickness increases only by {approx}12%. This is related to the fact that the early prominence expansion is anisotropic and occurs mainly on a plane parallel to the plane of the sky. Even if the small-scale spatial distribution of the erupting material observed in the He II EUVI images is quite complex, both the approximately planar shape and the successive planar expansion suggest that on larger spatial scales the prominence can be globally approximated as a two-dimensional 'ribbon-like' feature, instead of a 3D twisted flux tube.

  6. Public illness: how the community recommended complementary and alternative medicine for a prominent politician with cancer.

    PubMed

    Lowenthal, Ray M

    When a prominent Australian politician, the then Premier of Tasmania, The Honourable Jim Bacon, publicly announced in February 2004 that he had lung cancer, he was inundated with well-wishing communications sent by post, email and other means. They included 157 items of correspondence recommending a wide variety of complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs). The most common CAMs recommended were meditation, Chinese medicine, "glyconutrients", juices, Laetrile and various diets and dietary supplements. Although proof of benefit exists or promising preliminary laboratory studies have been carried out for a small number of the recommendations, no scientific evaluation has been performed for most of these treatments. Their potential benefits and harms are not known. Several recommendations were for treatments known to be useless, harmful or fraudulent. Bacon's experience suggests that cancer patients may receive unsolicited advice to adopt one or more forms of CAM. Both patients and practitioners need access to authoritative evidence-based information about the benefits and dangers of CAMs.

  7. An analysis of concert saxophone vibrato through the examination of recordings by eight prominent soloists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinninger, Thomas

    This study examines concert saxophone vibrato through the analysis of several recordings of standard repertoire by prominent soloists. The vibrato of Vincent Abato, Arno Bornkamp, Claude Delangle, Jean-Marie Londeix, Marcel Mule, Otis Murphy, Sigurd Rascher, and Eugene Rousseau is analyzed with regards to rate, extent, shape, and discretionary use. Examination of these parameters was conducted through both general observation and precise measurements with the aid of a spectrogram. Statistical analyses of the results provide tendencies for overall vibrato use, as well as the effects of certain musical attributes (note length, tempo, dynamic, range) on vibrato. The results of this analysis are also compared among each soloist and against pre-existing theories or findings in vibrato research.

  8. Action in Perception: Prominent Visuo-Motor Functional Symmetry in Musicians during Music Listening

    PubMed Central

    Burunat, Iballa; Brattico, Elvira; Puoliväli, Tuomas; Ristaniemi, Tapani; Sams, Mikko; Toiviainen, Petri

    2015-01-01

    Musical training leads to sensory and motor neuroplastic changes in the human brain. Motivated by findings on enlarged corpus callosum in musicians and asymmetric somatomotor representation in string players, we investigated the relationship between musical training, callosal anatomy, and interhemispheric functional symmetry during music listening. Functional symmetry was increased in musicians compared to nonmusicians, and in keyboardists compared to string players. This increased functional symmetry was prominent in visual and motor brain networks. Callosal size did not significantly differ between groups except for the posterior callosum in musicians compared to nonmusicians. We conclude that the distinctive postural and kinematic symmetry in instrument playing cross-modally shapes information processing in sensory-motor cortical areas during music listening. This cross-modal plasticity suggests that motor training affects music perception. PMID:26422790

  9. Starch Catabolism by a Prominent Human Gut Symbiont Is Directed by the Recognition of Amylose Helices

    SciTech Connect

    Koropatkin, Nicole M.; Martens, Eric C.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2009-01-12

    The human gut microbiota performs functions that are not encoded in our Homo sapiens genome, including the processing of otherwise undigestible dietary polysaccharides. Defining the structures of proteins involved in the import and degradation of specific glycans by saccharolytic bacteria complements genomic analysis of the nutrient-processing capabilities of gut communities. Here, we describe the atomic structure of one such protein, SusD, required for starch binding and utilization by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, a prominent adaptive forager of glycans in the distal human gut microbiota. The binding pocket of this unique {alpha}-helical protein contains an arc of aromatic residues that complements the natural helical structure of starch and imposes this conformation on bound maltoheptaose. Furthermore, SusD binds cyclic oligosaccharides with higher affinity than linear forms. The structures of several SusD/oligosaccharide complexes reveal an inherent ligand recognition plasticity dominated by the three-dimensional conformation of the oligosaccharides rather than specific interactions with the composite sugars.

  10. Scientific Programmes with India's National Large Solar Telescope and their contribution to Prominence Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of the 2-m National Large Solar Telescope (NLST) is to study the solar atmosphere with high spatial and spectral resolution. With an innovative optical design, NLST is an on-axis Gregorian telescope with a low number of optical elements and a high throughput. In addition, it is equipped with a high order adaptive optics system to produce close to diffraction limited performance. NLST will address a large number of scientific questions with a focus on high resolution observations. With NLST, high spatial resolution observations of prominences will be possible in multiple spectral lines. Studies of magnetic fields, filament eruptions as a whole, and the dynamics of filaments on fine scales using high resolution observations will be some of the major areas of focus.

  11. Neighborhood-level factors and youth violence: giving voice to the perceptions of prominent neighborhood individuals.

    PubMed

    Yonas, Michael A; O'Campo, Patricia; Burke, Jessica G; Gielen, Andrea C

    2007-08-01

    Youth violence is a significant public health problem. Although the relationship between neighborhood-level factors and urban youth violence is recognized, the specific mechanisms of this relationship are often unclear. Prominent neighborhood individuals were identified within four select low-income urban neighborhoods in Baltimore City. In-depth interviews were conducted to explore these individuals' perceptions of the relationship between social and structural neighborhood-level factors and urban youth violence. Employment opportunities, local businesses, trash management, vacant housing, and street lighting were perceived as important neighborhood factors influencing young people's experiences. The relationship between these neighborhood characteristics and the local illicit drug market and youth violence is highlighted. Results provide an enhanced understanding of the importance of using a participatory-based research approach and the mechanisms of the relationship between neighborhood-level factors and youth violence. Both are critical components in designing and implementing multilevel youth violence prevention efforts.

  12. Prominent plasmacytic differentiation in the recurrence of a parotid immunocytoma. A morphologic and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Palestro, G; Micca, F B; Novero, D; Valente, G; Godio, L; Stramignoni, A

    1983-08-31

    We report and discuss a case consisting of 2 lesions that developed at different times in the same parotid gland. Although the first lesion showed morphologic features similar to those of the benign lymphoepithelial lesion, a monotypic IgM/K pattern was also revealed by the immunoperoxidase method in its lymphoid infiltrates. Thus, on cytologic grounds, the first lesion was classified as lymphoplasmacytic immunocytoma (according to Kiel criteria). In the second lesion, which recurred 3 years later, the prominent feature was a marked predominance of plasma cells with the same monoclonal IgM/K as the preceding lymphoma. These findings suggests that a B-lymphomatous cell monoclone may undergo morphologic maturation along the lineage of its competence. Secondly, they indicate that every case of benign lymphoepithelial lesion of the salivary glands should undergo thorough immunologic evaluation to exclude the possibility of signs of precocious lymphomatous transformation.

  13. IRIS Observations of Coronal Rain and Prominences: Return Flows of the Chromosphere-Corona Mass Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Berger, Thomas; Antolin, Patrick; Schrijver, Karel

    2014-06-01

    It has recently been recognized that a mass cycle (e.g., Berger et al. 2011; McIntosh et al. 2012) between the hot, tenuous solar corona and the cool, dense chromosphere underneath it plays an important role in the mass budget and dynamic evolution of the solar atmosphere. Although the corona ultimately loses mass through the solar wind and coronal mass ejections, a fraction of its mass returns to the chromosphere in coronal rain, downflows of prominences, and other as-yet unidentified processes. We present here analysis of joint observations of IRIS, SDO/AIA, and Hinode/SOT of such phenomena. By utilizing the wide temperature coverage (logT: 4 - 7) provided by these instruments combined, we track the coronal cooling sequence (e.g., Schrijver 2001; Liu et al. 2012; Berger et al. 2012) leading to the formation of such material at transition region or chromospheric temperatures (logT: 4 - 5) in the million-degree corona. We compare the cooling times with those expected from the radiative cooling instability. We also measure the kinematics and densities of such downflows and infer their mass fluxes, which are compared to the upward mass fluxes into the corona, e.g., those associated with spicules and flux emergence. Special attention is paid to coronal rain formed near cusp-shaped portions of coronal loops, funnel-shaped prominences at dips of coronal loops, and their respective magnetic environments. With the information about where and when such catastrophic cooling events take place, we discuss the implications for the enigmatic coronal heating mechanisms (e.g., Antolin et al. 2010).

  14. The foxconn suicides and their media prominence: is the werther effect applicable in china?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Media reporting of suicide and its relationship with actual suicide has rarely been investigated in Mainland China. The "Foxconn suicides" is a description referring to a string of suicides/attempts during 2010, all of which were related to a giant electrical manufacturing company, Foxconn. This study aimed to examine the clustering and copycat effects of the Foxconn suicides, and to investigate temporal patterns in how they were reported by the media in Mainland China, Hong Kong (HK), and Taiwan (TW). Methods Relevant articles were collected from representative newspapers published in three big cities in Mainland China (Beijing (BJ), Shenzhen (SZ), and Guangzhou (GZ)), HK, and TW, together with searching intensity data on the topic conducted using the Baidu search engine in Mainland China. The temporal clustering effects of the Foxconn suicides and their media prominence were assessed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The media reports of the Foxconn suicides' temporal patterns were explored using a nonparametric curve estimation method (that is, the local linear method). The potential mutual interactions between the Foxconn suicides and their media prominence were also examined, using logistic and Poisson regression methods. Results The results support a temporal clustering effect for the Foxconn suicides. The BJ-based newspapers' reporting and the occurrence of a Foxconn suicide/attempt are each found to be associated with an elevated chance of a further Foxconn suicide 3 days later. The occurrence of a Foxconn suicide also immediately influenced the intensity of both Baidu searching and newspaper reporting. Regional diversity in suicide reporting tempo-patterns within Mainland China, and similarities between HK and TW, are also demonstrated. Conclusions The Foxconn suicides were temporally clustered. Their occurrences were influenced by the reporting of BJ-based newspapers, and contagion within the company itself. Further suicide research and

  15. Relating a Prominence Observed from the Solar Optical Telescope on the Hinode Satellite to Known 3-D Structures of Filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, S. F.; Panasenco, O.; Agah, Y.; Engvold, O.; Lin, Y.

    2009-12-01

    We address only a first step in relating limb and disk observations by illustrating and comparing the spines and barbs of three different quiescent prominences and filaments observed in Hα by three different telescopes. Although the appearance of the three quiescent prominences is quite different, we show that each consists of a spine, barbs extending from the spine, and arcs at the base of some of the curtains of barb threads.

  16. Prominent reflector beneath around the segmentation boundary between Tonankai-Nankai earthquake area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, A.; Shimomura, N.; Fujie, G.; Kodaira, S.; Obana, K.; Takahashi, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yamashita, M.; Takahashi, N.; Kaneda, Y.; Mochizuki, K.; Kato, A.; Iidaka, T.; Kurashimo, E.; Shinohara, M.; Takeda, T.; Shiomi, K.

    2013-12-01

    In the Nankai Trough subduction seismogenic zone, the Nankai and Tonankai earthquakes had often occurred simultaneously, and caused a great event. In most cases, first break of such large events of Nankai Trough usually begins from southwest off the Kii Peninsula so far. The idea of split Philippine Sea plate between the Kii Peninsula and the Shikoku Island, which explains seismicity, tectonic background, receiver function image and historical plate motion, was previously suggested. Moreover, between the Kii Peninsula and the Shikoku Island, there is a gap of deep low-frequency events observed in the belt-like zone along the strike of the subducting Philippine Sea plate. In 2010 and 2011, we conducted the large-scale high-resolution wide-angle and reflection (MCS) seismic study, and long-term observation from off Shikoku and Kii Peninsula. Marine active source seismic data have been acquired along grid two-dimensional profiles having the total length of ~800km/year. A three-dimensional seismic tomography using active and passive seismic data observed both land and ocean bottom stations have been also performed. From those data, we found a possible prominent reflector imaged in the offshore side in the Kii channel at the depth of ~18km. The velocity just beneath the reflector cannot be determined due to the lack of ray paths. Based of the amplitude information, we interpret the reflector as the forearc Moho based on the velocity gap (from ~6.4km/s to ~7.4km/s). However, the reflector is shallower than the forearc Moho of other area along the Nankai Trough. Similar reflectors are recognized along other seismic profiles around the Kii channel. In this presentation, we will show the result of structure analysis to understand the peculiar structure including the prominent reflector around the Kii channel. Relation between the structure and the existence of the segmentation of the Nankai megathrust earthquake or seismic gap of the deep low-frequency events will be also

  17. Coordinate regulation of glycan degradation and polysaccharide capsule biosynthesis by a prominent human gut symbiont.

    PubMed

    Martens, Eric C; Roth, Robyn; Heuser, John E; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2009-07-01

    Bacteria in the distal human gut have evolved diverse abilities to metabolize complex glycans, including the capacity to degrade these compounds as nutrients and to assemble their component sugars into new polymers such as extracellular capsules. The human gut bacterium Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron is well endowed with the ability to metabolize both host- and diet-derived glycans. Its genome contains 88 different polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs) for complex glycan catabolism and eight different gene clusters for capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis. Here, we investigate one of the prominent mechanisms by which this gut symbiont regulates many PULs involved in host mucin O-glycan degradation; namely, transcriptional regulation via the concerted interactions of cell-envelope-localized TonB-dependent transporters, extra-cytoplasmic function sigma factors and anti-sigma factors, which participate together in a regulatory pathway termed trans-envelope signaling. Unexpectedly, we found that several different trans-envelope signaling switches involved in PUL-mediated O-glycan degradation also modulate capsular polysaccharide synthesis. A novel regulatory pathway, which is dependent on expression of O-glycan-targeting outer membrane proteins, governs this coordinated regulation of glycan catabolism and capsule synthesis. This latter finding provides a new link in the dynamic interplay between complex glycan metabolism, microbial physiology, and host responses that occurs during colonization of the gut.

  18. Lactobacilli are prominent in the initial stages of polymicrobial infection of dental pulp.

    PubMed

    Nadkarni, Mangala A; Simonian, Mary R; Harty, Derek W S; Zoellner, Hans; Jacques, Nicholas A; Hunter, Neil

    2010-05-01

    In earlier studies we used molecular methods to identify the major bacterial consortia associated with advanced dentin caries. These consortia are dominated by bacteria from the families Lactobacillaceae, Streptococcaceae, Veillonellaceae (formerly Acidaminococcaceae), Eubacteriaceae, and Lachnospiraceae from the phylum Firmicutes; Coriobacteriaceae, Bifidobacteriaceae, and Propionibacteriaceae from the phylum Actinobacteria; and Prevotellaceae from the phylum Bacteroidetes, as well as fusobacteria. The phases of infection of vital pulp tissue by dentin microorganisms remain obscure. In the present study, fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed on sections of tissue embedded in resin. Probes for 16S rRNA corresponding to the major taxa of bacteria in carious dentin were used to provide information on the characteristics of pulp infection. Lactobacilli were prominent in 7 of 8 pulps determined to be at a limited stage of infection. Established infection (6 pulps) showed a more complex profile, with lactobacilli persisting in all of the lesions and with invasion of the necrotic regions of tissue by Bacteroidetes, fusobacteria, Lachnospiraceae, and Coriobacteriaceae in particular. Advanced infections (7 pulps) were characterized by mixed anaerobic species, with a strong representation by Coriobacteriaceae and Lachnospiraceae. Lactobacilli were not represented at this stage. Typically, groups of organisms were spatially isolated within the pulp tissue. Analysis indicated that lactobacilli could invade vital pulp tissue to achieve a very high biomass that was not associated with a detectable local inflammatory infiltrate. The findings establish that invasion of the dental pulp can be associated with a pronounced selection from the complex microbial populations within carious dentin, suggesting specific pathogenicity. PMID:20200294

  19. TEMPERATURE AND EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET INTENSITY IN A CORONAL PROMINENCE CAVITY AND STREAMER

    SciTech Connect

    Kucera, T. A.; Tripathi, D.

    2012-09-20

    We analyze the temperature and EUV line emission of a coronal cavity and surrounding streamer in terms of a morphological forward model. We use a series of iron line ratios observed with the Hinode Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (EIS) on 2007 August 9 to constrain temperature as a function of altitude in a morphological forward model of the streamer and cavity. We also compare model predictions to the EIS EUV line intensities and polarized brightness (pB) data from the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO) Mark 4 K-coronameter. This work builds on earlier analysis using the same model to determine geometry of and density in the same cavity and streamer. The fit to the data with altitude-dependent temperature profiles indicates that both the streamer and cavity have temperatures in the range 1.4-1.7 MK. However, the cavity exhibits substantial substructure such that the altitude-dependent temperature profile is not sufficient to completely model conditions in the cavity. Coronal prominence cavities are structured by magnetism so clues to this structure are to be found in their plasma properties. These temperature substructures are likely related to structures in the cavity magnetic field. Furthermore, we find that the model overestimates the EUV line intensities by a factor of 4-10, without overestimating pB. We discuss this difference in terms of filling factors and uncertainties in density diagnostics and elemental abundances.

  20. N-acetyl-l-histidine, a Prominent Biomolecule in Brain and Eye of Poikilothermic Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Baslow, Morris H.; Guilfoyle, David N.

    2015-01-01

    N-acetyl-l-histidine (NAH) is a prominent biomolecule in brain, retina and lens of poikilothermic vertebrates. In fish lens, NAH exhibits an unusual compartmentalized metabolism. It is synthesized from l-histidine (His) and acetyl Co-enzyme A. However, NAH cannot be catabolized by lens cells. For its hydrolysis, NAH is exported to ocular fluid where a specific acylase cleaves His which is then actively taken up by lens and re-synthesized into NAH. This energy-dependent cycling suggested a pump mechanism operating at the lens/ocular fluid interface. Additional studies led to the hypothesis that NAH functioned as a molecular water pump (MWP) to maintain a highly dehydrated lens and avoid cataract formation. In this process, each NAH molecule released to ocular fluid down its gradient carries with it 33 molecules of bound water, effectively transporting the water against a water gradient. In ocular fluid the bound water is released for removal from the eye by the action of NAH acylase. In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time the identification of NAH in fish brain using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and describe recent evidence supporting the NAH MWP hypothesis. Using MRS, we also document a phylogenetic transition in brain metabolism between poikilothermic and homeothermic vertebrates. PMID:25919898

  1. The prominence of health in donor policy for water supply and sanitation: a review.

    PubMed

    Clark, Rebecca; Gundry, Stephen W

    2004-09-01

    Improved water supply, sanitation and hygiene used in combination are effective at achieving better health for poor people in developing countries. However, donor policy has been dominated by interventions in water supply, at the expense of achieving the potential health benefits of improved sanitation and hygiene. Commitments recently made by the international community require greater emphasis on improved sanitation and hygiene and their impacts on health. This review assesses whether such a shift in emphasis is apparent in donor policy. It examines the prominence given to achieving better health in water supply and sanitation policies of three donors: the World Bank, the European Union and the Department for International Development of the British Government. It finds that health benefits are explicit and integral in recently updated policy documentation concerning water supply and sanitation. This has taken place in an environment focused on poverty reduction and demand-led, financially sustainable interventions. Mechanisms that have enabled donors to prioritise the health impacts in this environment are discussed, including adoption of an asset-based conceptualisation of poverty and a cross-sectoral approach.

  2. OBSERVATIONS OF LINEAR POLARIZATION IN A SOLAR CORONAL LOOP PROMINENCE SYSTEM OBSERVED NEAR 6173 Å

    SciTech Connect

    Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Martínez Oliveros, Juan-Carlos; Hudson, Hugh S.; Krucker, Säm; Bain, Hazel; Schou, Jesper; Couvidat, Sébastien

    2014-05-10

    White-light observations by the Solar Dynamics Observatory's Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager of a loop-prominence system occurring in the aftermath of an X-class flare on 2013 May 13 near the eastern solar limb show a linearly polarized component, reaching up to ∼20% at an altitude of ∼33 Mm, about the maximum amount expected if the emission were due solely to Thomson scattering of photospheric light by the coronal material. The mass associated with the polarized component was 8.2 × 10{sup 14} g. At 15 Mm altitude, the brightest part of the loop was 3(±0.5)% linearly polarized, only about 20% of that expected from pure Thomson scattering, indicating the presence of an additional unpolarized component at wavelengths near Fe I (617.33 nm). We estimate the free electron density of the white-light loop system to possibly be as high as 1.8 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup –3}.

  3. RESONANT ABSORPTION OF TRANSVERSE OSCILLATIONS AND ASSOCIATED HEATING IN A SOLAR PROMINENCE. I. OBSERVATIONAL ASPECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, Takenori J.; Pontieu, Bart De; Doorsselaere, Tom Van; Yokoyama, Takaaki

    2015-08-10

    Transverse magnetohydrodynamic waves have been shown to be ubiquitous in the solar atmosphere and can, in principle, carry sufficient energy to generate and maintain the Sun’s million-degree outer atmosphere or corona. However, direct evidence of the dissipation process of these waves and subsequent heating has not yet been directly observed. Here we report on high spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution observations of a solar prominence that show a compelling signature of so-called resonant absorption, a long hypothesized mechanism to efficiently convert and dissipate transverse wave energy into heat. Aside from coherence in the transverse direction, our observations show telltale phase differences around 180° between transverse motions in the plane-of-sky and line-of-sight velocities of the oscillating fine structures or threads, and also suggest significant heating from chromospheric to higher temperatures. Comparison with advanced numerical simulations support a scenario in which transverse oscillations trigger a Kelvin–Helmholtz instability (KHI) at the boundaries of oscillating threads via resonant absorption. This instability leads to numerous thin current sheets in which wave energy is dissipated and plasma is heated. Our results provide direct evidence for wave-related heating in action, one of the candidate coronal heating mechanisms.

  4. Charge balancing and identification of prominent spectral features of M-shell W plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, G. C.; Safronova, A. S.; Safronova, U. I.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Williamson, K. M.; Shrestha, I.; Beiersdorfer, P.

    2008-11-01

    Charge balancing and identification of prominent spectral features in M-shell tungsten between 3 and 9 å has been performed for LLNL EBIT data collected at varying electron beam energies between 2.3 and 4.2 keV. Previous research [G.C. Osborne et al, RSI (2008, in press)] focused on the analysis of spectra corresponding to beam energies of 2.9 and 4.1 keV, while this paper mainly focuses on lower beam energy configurations. Diagnostic of these spectra is challenging due to numerous lower than Ni-like ionization stages within a relatively narrow region, so a procedure was developed utilizing a theoretical model for charge state balancing. Atomic data was calculated separately for transitions 3->4 and 3->5 from each ionization stage, including Co-Ge-like W ions using the HULLAC code. The synthetic spectra calculated at higher electron density as well as identified EBIT spectra then are used to identify spectral features and to determine charge balance of M-shell W spectra from Z-pinch plasmas produced on 1 MA Zebra generator at UNR. Work was supported by DOE under grant DE-FG02-08ER54951 and NNSA Coop. Agr. DE-FC52-06NA27588 and DE-FC52-06NA27586. Work at LLNL was performed under auspices of the DOE under contract DE-AC52-07NA2344.

  5. Acoustic markers of prominence influence infants' and adults' segmentation of speech sequences.

    PubMed

    Bion, Ricardo A H; Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Nespor, Marina

    2011-03-01

    Two experiments investigated the way acoustic markers of prominence influence the grouping of speech sequences by adults and 7-month-old infants. In the first experiment, adults were familiarized with and asked to memorize sequences of adjacent syllables that alternated in either pitch or duration. During the test phase, participants heard pairs of syllables with constant pitch and duration and were asked whether the syllables had appeared adjacently during familiarization. Adults were better at remembering pairs of syllables that during familiarization had short syllables preceding long syllables, or high-pitched syllables preceding low-pitched syllables. In the second experiment, infants were familiarized and tested with similar stimuli as in the first experiment, and their preference for pairs of syllables was accessed using the head-turn preference paradigm.When familiarized with syllables alternating in pitch, infants showed a preference to listen to pairs of syllables that had high pitch in the first syllable. However, no preference was found when the familiarization stream alternated in duration. It is proposed that these perceptual biases help infants and adults find linguistic units in the continuous speech stream.While the bias for grouping based on pitch appears early in development, biases for durational grouping might rely on more extensive linguistic experience. PMID:21524015

  6. How Is RAN Related to Reading Fluency? A Comprehensive Examination of the Prominent Theoretical Accounts

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulos, Timothy C.; Spanoudis, George C.; Georgiou, George K.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the prominent theoretical explanations of the RAN-reading relationship in a relatively transparent language (Greek) in a sample of children (n = 286) followed from Grade 1 to Grade 2. Specifically, we tested the fit of eight different models, as defined by the type of reading performance predicted (oral vs. silent word reading fluency), the type of RAN tasks (non-alphanumeric vs. alphanumeric), and the RAN effects (direct vs. indirect). Working memory, attention, processing speed, and motor skills were used as “common cause” variables predicting both RAN and reading fluency and phonological awareness and orthographic processing were used as mediators of RAN's effects on reading fluency. The findings of both concurrent and longitudinal analyses indicated that RAN is a unique predictor of oral reading fluency, but not silent reading fluency. Using alphanumeric or non-alphanumeric RAN did not particularly affect the RAN-reading relationship. Both phonological awareness and orthographic processing partly mediated RAN's effects on reading fluency. Theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  7. The Effects of Magnetic-field Geometry on Longitudinal Oscillations of Solar Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna, M.; Díaz, A. J.; Karpen, J.

    2012-09-01

    We investigate the influence of the geometry of the solar filament magnetic structure on the large-amplitude longitudinal oscillations. A representative filament flux tube is modeled as composed of a cool thread centered in a dipped part with hot coronal regions on either side. We have found the normal modes of the system and establish that the observed longitudinal oscillations are well described with the fundamental mode. For small and intermediate curvature radii and moderate to large density contrast between the prominence and the corona, the main restoring force is the solar gravity. In this full wave description of the oscillation a simple expression for the oscillation frequencies is derived in which the pressure-driven term introduces a small correction. We have also found that the normal modes are almost independent of the geometry of the hot regions of the tube. We conclude that observed large-amplitude longitudinal oscillations are driven by the projected gravity along the flux tubes and are strongly influenced by the curvature of the dips of the magnetic field in which the threads reside.

  8. Dynamics of coronal rain and descending plasma blobs in solar prominences. I. Fully ionized case

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, R.; Soler, R.; Terradas, J.; Zaqarashvili, T. V.; Khodachenko, M. L.

    2014-03-20

    Observations of active regions and limb prominences often show cold, dense blobs descending with an acceleration smaller than that of free fall. The dynamics of these condensations falling in the solar corona is investigated in this paper using a simple fully ionized plasma model. We find that the presence of a heavy condensation gives rise to a dynamical rearrangement of the coronal pressure that results in the formation of a large pressure gradient that opposes gravity. Eventually this pressure gradient becomes so large that the blob acceleration vanishes or even points upward. Then, the blob descent is characterized by an initial acceleration phase followed by an essentially constant velocity phase. These two stages can be identified in published time-distance diagrams of coronal rain events. Both the duration of the first stage and the velocity attained by the blob increase for larger values of the ratio of blob to coronal density, for larger blob mass, and for smaller coronal temperature. Dense blobs are characterized by a detectable density growth (up to 60% in our calculations) and by a steepening of the density in their lower part, that could lead to the formation of a shock. They also emit sound waves that could be detected as small intensity changes with periods of the order of 100 s and lasting between a few and about 10 periods. Finally, the curvature of falling paths with large radii is only relevant when a very dense blob falls along inclined magnetic field lines.

  9. Perceptions of prominent neighborhood individuals regarding neighborhood factors and intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Yonas, Michael; Akers, Aletha Y; Burke, Jessica G; Chang, Judy C; Thomas, Alicia L; Thomas, Aletha L; O'Campo, Patricia

    2011-04-01

    Research addressing the impact of neighborhood factors on intimate partner violence (IPV) often lacks discussion of how and why such factors impact IPV. In order to address this gap, 16 prominent neighborhood individuals (PNI) from 4 low-income urban neighborhoods were asked to share through in-depth interviews their insights and perceptions of IPV as an issue in their neighborhoods, and the relationship between social and structural neighborhood-level factors and IPV. PNIs most often associated IPV with only physical violence. Several did not feel IPV was a significant issue in their neighborhood, confirming a lack of awareness and underreporting of IPV. However, other PNIs were able to speak of the relationship between IPV and neighborhood factors, including lack of opportunities for employment, vacant housing, trash management, lack of community awareness, and social capacity to act to address IPV. Results provide unique insights regarding the mechanisms linking neighborhood factors to IPV outcomes. These results contribute to a deeper understanding of contextual influences upon IPV, the development of tailored quantitative research and to the design of local multi-level public health IPV intervention and prevention efforts.

  10. Developing legally defensible physiological employment standards for prominent physically demanding public safety occupations: a Canadian perspective.

    PubMed

    Jamnik, V; Gumienak, R; Gledhill, N

    2013-10-01

    Canadian court decisions and human rights legislation impose strict legal criteria for developing applicant and incumbent physiological employment standards to qualify as a bona fide occupational requirement. These legal criteria compel researchers and employers to ensure that the standards are criterion-based and validly linked to the critical life threatening physically demanding tasks of the occupation, and this has led to the establishment of a systematic research process template to ensure this connection. Validation of job-related physiological employment standards is achieved using both construct and content procedures and reliability is established via test-retest procedures. The 1999 Supreme Court of Canada Meiorin Decision also obliges employers to demonstrate that it is impossible to accommodate an individual applicant or employee who is adversely impacted by lowering the physiological employment standards without imposing undue hardship on the employer. Recent evidence has demonstrated convincingly that familiarization opportunities, motivational feedback/coaching during test performance, and participation in a 6-week job-specific physical fitness training program can overcome the adverse impact of a physiological employment standards on a sub-group of participants, thereby providing "de facto" accommodation. In this article, the authors review the physiological employment standards for prominent Canadian physically demanding public safety occupations; police, correctional officers, nuclear emergency personnel, structural fire fighters, and wildland fire fighters, to illustrate the steps, challenges, and solutions involved in developing and implementing physiological employment standards designed to meet the requirements to qualify as a bona fide occupational requirement. PMID:23494548

  11. Prominent role of exopeptidase DPP III in estrogen-mediated protection against hyperoxia in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sobočanec, Sandra; Filić, Vedrana; Matovina, Mihaela; Majhen, Dragomira; Šafranko, Željka Mačak; Hadžija, Marijana Popović; Krsnik, Željka; Kurilj, Andrea Gudan; Šarić, Ana; Abramić, Marija; Balog, Tihomir

    2016-01-01

    A number of age-related diseases have a low incidence in females, which is attributed to a protective effect of sex hormones. For instance, the female sex hormone estrogen (E2) has a well established cytoprotective effect against oxidative stress, which strongly contributes to ageing. However, the mechanism by which E2 exerts its protective activity remains elusive. In this study we address the question whether the E2-induced protective effect against hyperoxia is mediated by the Nrf-2/Keap-1 signaling pathway. In particular, we investigate the E2-induced expression and cellular distribution of DPP III monozinc exopeptidase, a member of the Nrf-2/Keap-1 pathway, upon hyperoxia treatment. We find that DPP III accumulates in the nucleus in response to hyperoxia. Further, we show that combined induction of hyperoxia and E2 administration have an additive effect on the nuclear accumulation of DPP III. The level of nuclear accumulation of DPP III is comparable to nuclear accumulation of Nrf-2 in healthy female mice exposed to hyperoxia. In ovariectomized females exposed to hyperoxia, supplementation of E2 induced upregulation of DPP III, Ho-1, Sirt-1 and downregulation of Ppar-γ. While other cytoprotective mechanisms cannot be excluded, these findings demonstrate a prominent role of DPP III, along with Sirt-1, in the E2-mediated protection against hyperoxia. PMID:26774752

  12. Autosomal dominant inherited neuropathies with prominent sensory loss and mutilations: a review.

    PubMed

    Auer-Grumbach, Michaela; De Jonghe, Peter; Verhoeven, Kristien; Timmerman, Vincent; Wagner, Klaus; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Nicholson, Garth A

    2003-03-01

    Hereditary sensory neuropathies (HSNs) are rare disorders characterized by progressive distal sensory loss, predominantly affecting the lower limbs. Foot ulcers, severe skin and bone infections, arthropathy, and amputations are frequent and feared complications. Occasionally, patients complain of spontaneous shooting or lancinating pain. Autonomic fibers can be affected to a variable degree. Patients with HSN can also have severe distal weakness, and some HSN variants have therefore been classified among the hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies (HMSNs). Molecular genetic studies of autosomal dominant inherited neuropathies with prominent sensory loss and ulceromutilating features have assigned the genetic loci for HMSN type 2B (Charcot-Marie-Tooth syndrome type 2B) and HSN type 1 to chromosomes 3q13-22 and 9q22.1-22.3, respectively. However, some families with HSN have been excluded for linkage to these loci, suggesting further genetic heterogeneity. Recently, disease-causing mutations in the SPTLC1 gene have been identified in patients with HSN type 1. In this review, we discuss the hallmark features associated with the distinct genetic subtypes of autosomal dominant inherited HSN and provide genotype-phenotype correlations. PMID:12633143

  13. How Is RAN Related to Reading Fluency? A Comprehensive Examination of the Prominent Theoretical Accounts

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulos, Timothy C.; Spanoudis, George C.; Georgiou, George K.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the prominent theoretical explanations of the RAN-reading relationship in a relatively transparent language (Greek) in a sample of children (n = 286) followed from Grade 1 to Grade 2. Specifically, we tested the fit of eight different models, as defined by the type of reading performance predicted (oral vs. silent word reading fluency), the type of RAN tasks (non-alphanumeric vs. alphanumeric), and the RAN effects (direct vs. indirect). Working memory, attention, processing speed, and motor skills were used as “common cause” variables predicting both RAN and reading fluency and phonological awareness and orthographic processing were used as mediators of RAN's effects on reading fluency. The findings of both concurrent and longitudinal analyses indicated that RAN is a unique predictor of oral reading fluency, but not silent reading fluency. Using alphanumeric or non-alphanumeric RAN did not particularly affect the RAN-reading relationship. Both phonological awareness and orthographic processing partly mediated RAN's effects on reading fluency. Theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:27605918

  14. Role of the Resistive and Thermal Instabilities in Dynamics of Quiescent Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Z.; Ryutova, M.; Berger, T. E.; Title, A. M.; Tarbell, T. D.

    2009-12-01

    We present the observations taken with the SOT instrument on Hinode in G-band and Ca H lines. High cadence data compiled in movies show clear evidence for several fundamental plasma instabilities. We combine the observational evidence and theoretical estimates to identify these instabilities. The following can be given as examples. (1) An analogue of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability develops at the prominence/corona interface that manifests itself in growing ripples during a linear growth phase and may be followed by a nonlinear stage taking the form of an explosive instability corresponding to a CME ejection. This instability also includes the regime of "smoke ring" formation. (2) The appearence of "bubbles and spikes" typical to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability are observed. Their evolution and growth rates are found to be modified by both poloidal and toroidal components of magnetic field. (3) A resistive interchange instability, associated with an "unfavorable" magnetic field curvature relative to the density/temperature gradients, may be responsible for a hot barb formation, its evolution and collapse.

  15. Study of Distribution and Asymmetry of Solar Active Prominences during Solar Cycle 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Navin Chandra; Bankoti, Neeraj Singh; Pande, Seema; Pande, Bimal; Pandey, Kavita

    2009-12-01

    In this article we present the results of a study of the spatial distribution and asymmetry of solar active prominences (SAP) for the period 1996 through 2007 (solar cycle 23). For more meaningful statistical analysis we analyzed the distribution and asymmetry of SAP in two subdivisions viz. Group1 (ADF, APR, DSF, CRN, CAP) and Group2 (AFS, ASR, BSD, BSL, DSD, SPY, LPS). The North - South (N - S) latitudinal distribution shows that the SAP events are most prolific in the 21° to 30° slice in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres; the East - West (E - W) longitudinal distribution study shows that the SAP events are most prolific (best observable) in the 81° to 90° slice in the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. It was found that the SAP activity during this cycle is low compared to previous solar cycles. The present study indicates that during the rising phase of the cycle the number of SAP events are roughly equal in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. However, activity in the Southern Hemisphere has been dominant since 1999. Our statistical study shows that the N - S asymmetry is more significant then the E - W asymmetry.

  16. The Effects of Magnetic-field Geometry on Longitudinal Oscillaitons of Solar Prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luna, M.; Diaz, A. J.; Karpen, J.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the influence of the geometry of the solar filament magnetic structure on the large-amplitude longitudinal oscillations. A representative filament flux tube is modeled as composed of a cool thread centered in a dipped part with hot coronal regions on either side.We have found the normal modes of the system and establish that the observed longitudinal oscillations are well described with the fundamental mode. For small and intermediate curvature radii and moderate to large density contrast between the prominence and the corona, the main restoring force is the solar gravity. In this full wave description of the oscillation a simple expression for the oscillation frequencies is derived in which the pressure-driven term introduces a small correction. We have also found that the normal modes are almost independent of the geometry of the hot regions of the tube. We conclude that observed large-amplitude longitudinal oscillations are driven by the projected gravity along the flux tubes and are strongly influenced by the curvature of the dips of the magnetic field in which the threads reside.

  17. THE EFFECTS OF MAGNETIC-FIELD GEOMETRY ON LONGITUDINAL OSCILLATIONS OF SOLAR PROMINENCES

    SciTech Connect

    Luna, M.; Karpen, J.

    2012-09-20

    We investigate the influence of the geometry of the solar filament magnetic structure on the large-amplitude longitudinal oscillations. A representative filament flux tube is modeled as composed of a cool thread centered in a dipped part with hot coronal regions on either side. We have found the normal modes of the system and establish that the observed longitudinal oscillations are well described with the fundamental mode. For small and intermediate curvature radii and moderate to large density contrast between the prominence and the corona, the main restoring force is the solar gravity. In this full wave description of the oscillation a simple expression for the oscillation frequencies is derived in which the pressure-driven term introduces a small correction. We have also found that the normal modes are almost independent of the geometry of the hot regions of the tube. We conclude that observed large-amplitude longitudinal oscillations are driven by the projected gravity along the flux tubes and are strongly influenced by the curvature of the dips of the magnetic field in which the threads reside.

  18. Temperature and Extreme-ultraviolet Intensity in a Coronal Prominence Cavity and Streamer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucera, T. A.; Gibson, S. E.; Schmit, D. J.; Landi, E.; Tripathi, D.

    2012-09-01

    We analyze the temperature and EUV line emission of a coronal cavity and surrounding streamer in terms of a morphological forward model. We use a series of iron line ratios observed with the Hinode Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (EIS) on 2007 August 9 to constrain temperature as a function of altitude in a morphological forward model of the streamer and cavity. We also compare model predictions to the EIS EUV line intensities and polarized brightness (pB) data from the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO) Mark 4 K-coronameter. This work builds on earlier analysis using the same model to determine geometry of and density in the same cavity and streamer. The fit to the data with altitude-dependent temperature profiles indicates that both the streamer and cavity have temperatures in the range 1.4-1.7 MK. However, the cavity exhibits substantial substructure such that the altitude-dependent temperature profile is not sufficient to completely model conditions in the cavity. Coronal prominence cavities are structured by magnetism so clues to this structure are to be found in their plasma properties. These temperature substructures are likely related to structures in the cavity magnetic field. Furthermore, we find that the model overestimates the EUV line intensities by a factor of 4-10, without overestimating pB. We discuss this difference in terms of filling factors and uncertainties in density diagnostics and elemental abundances.

  19. Developing legally defensible physiological employment standards for prominent physically demanding public safety occupations: a Canadian perspective.

    PubMed

    Jamnik, V; Gumienak, R; Gledhill, N

    2013-10-01

    Canadian court decisions and human rights legislation impose strict legal criteria for developing applicant and incumbent physiological employment standards to qualify as a bona fide occupational requirement. These legal criteria compel researchers and employers to ensure that the standards are criterion-based and validly linked to the critical life threatening physically demanding tasks of the occupation, and this has led to the establishment of a systematic research process template to ensure this connection. Validation of job-related physiological employment standards is achieved using both construct and content procedures and reliability is established via test-retest procedures. The 1999 Supreme Court of Canada Meiorin Decision also obliges employers to demonstrate that it is impossible to accommodate an individual applicant or employee who is adversely impacted by lowering the physiological employment standards without imposing undue hardship on the employer. Recent evidence has demonstrated convincingly that familiarization opportunities, motivational feedback/coaching during test performance, and participation in a 6-week job-specific physical fitness training program can overcome the adverse impact of a physiological employment standards on a sub-group of participants, thereby providing "de facto" accommodation. In this article, the authors review the physiological employment standards for prominent Canadian physically demanding public safety occupations; police, correctional officers, nuclear emergency personnel, structural fire fighters, and wildland fire fighters, to illustrate the steps, challenges, and solutions involved in developing and implementing physiological employment standards designed to meet the requirements to qualify as a bona fide occupational requirement.

  20. Carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction prominence in 3D supramolecular self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Fuss, Martina; Luna, Mónica; Alcántara, David; de la Fuente, Jesús M; Enríquez-Navas, Pedro M; Angulo, Jesús; Penadés, Soledad; Briones, Fernando

    2008-09-18

    Self-association in water of biologically significant carbohydrate molecules is a controversial topic due to the strong solvation of these molecules in this solvent and the difficulty to experimentally detect these very weak intermolecular forces by biophysical techniques. Herein we report the tremendous ability of amphiphilic carbohydrate molecules to form complex three-dimensional architectures. We have experimentally observed the 3D self-assembly into multilayers of disaccharide neoglycolipid dimers on graphite by means of noncontact AFM and we have also theoretically modeled the interaction between two dimers in order to learn about the structure and composition of these layers. A simple bilayer structure as observed for many amphiphilic lipids was discarded by the experiments. Instead, based on the good agreement between experiments and calculations, we propose that multilayer formation takes place through the assembly of building blocks consisting of two dimers each. The fundamental key in the formation of this supramolecular structure is the complementarity between the van der Waals surfaces of the amphiphilic carbohydrate molecules, a result which differs from the most common idea that H-bonding interactions are prominent in carbohydrate-mediated interactions.

  1. The coordination of boundary tones and its interaction with prominence1

    PubMed Central

    Katsika, Argyro; Krivokapić, Jelena; Mooshammer, Christine; Tiede, Mark; Goldstein, Louis

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the coordination of boundary tones as a function of stress and pitch accent. Boundary tone coordination has not been experimentally investigated previously, and the effect of prominence on this coordination, and whether it is lexical (stress-driven) or phrasal (pitch accent-driven) in nature is unclear. We assess these issues using a variety of syntactic constructions to elicit different boundary tones in an Electromagnetic Articulography (EMA) study of Greek. The results indicate that the onset of boundary tones co-occurs with the articulatory target of the final vowel. This timing is further modified by stress, but not by pitch accent: boundary tones are initiated earlier in words with non-final stress than in words with final stress regardless of accentual status. Visual data inspection reveals that phrase-final words are followed by acoustic pauses during which specific articulatory postures occur. Additional analyses show that these postures reach their achievement point at a stable temporal distance from boundary tone onsets regardless of stress position. Based on these results and parallel findings on boundary lengthening reported elsewhere, a novel approach to prosody is proposed within the context of Articulatory Phonology: rather than seeing prosodic (lexical and phrasal) events as independent entities, a set of coordination relations between them is suggested. The implications of this account for prosodic architecture are discussed. PMID:25300341

  2. How Is RAN Related to Reading Fluency? A Comprehensive Examination of the Prominent Theoretical Accounts.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Timothy C; Spanoudis, George C; Georgiou, George K

    2016-01-01

    We examined the prominent theoretical explanations of the RAN-reading relationship in a relatively transparent language (Greek) in a sample of children (n = 286) followed from Grade 1 to Grade 2. Specifically, we tested the fit of eight different models, as defined by the type of reading performance predicted (oral vs. silent word reading fluency), the type of RAN tasks (non-alphanumeric vs. alphanumeric), and the RAN effects (direct vs. indirect). Working memory, attention, processing speed, and motor skills were used as "common cause" variables predicting both RAN and reading fluency and phonological awareness and orthographic processing were used as mediators of RAN's effects on reading fluency. The findings of both concurrent and longitudinal analyses indicated that RAN is a unique predictor of oral reading fluency, but not silent reading fluency. Using alphanumeric or non-alphanumeric RAN did not particularly affect the RAN-reading relationship. Both phonological awareness and orthographic processing partly mediated RAN's effects on reading fluency. Theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:27605918

  3. Effects of topography on the interpretation of the deformation field of prominent volcanoes - Application to Etna

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cayol, V.; Cornet, F.H.

    1998-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of topography on the surface-deformation field of volcanoes. Our study provides limits to the use of classical half-space models. Considering axisymmetrical volcanoes, we show that interpreting ground-surface displacements with half-space models can lead to erroneous estimations of the shape of the deformation source. When the average slope of the flanks of a volcano exceeds 20??, tilting in the summit area is reversed to that expected for a flat surface. Thus, neglecting topography may lead to misinterpreting an inflation of the source as a deflation. Comparisons of Mogi's model with a three-dimensional model shows that ignoring topography may lead to an overestimate of the source-volume change by as much as 50% for a slope of 30??. This comparison also shows that the depths calculated by using Mogi's solution for prominent volcanoes should be considered as depths from the summit of the edifices. Finally, we illustrate these topographic effects by analyzing the deformation field measured by radar interferometry at Mount Etna during its 1991-1993 eruption. A three-dimensional modeling calculation shows that the flattening of the deflation field near the volcano's summit is probably a topographic effect.

  4. Dynamics of Coronal Rain and Descending Plasma Blobs in Solar Prominences. II. Partially Ionized Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, R.; Soler, R.; Terradas, J.; Zaqarashvili, T. V.

    2016-02-01

    Coronal rain clumps and prominence knots are dense condensations with chromospheric to transition region temperatures that fall down in the much hotter corona. Their typical speeds are in the range 30-150 km s-1 and of the order of 10-30 km s-1, respectively, i.e., they are considerably smaller than free-fall velocities. These cold blobs contain a mixture of ionized and neutral material that must be dynamically coupled in order to fall together, as observed. We investigate this coupling by means of hydrodynamic simulations in which the coupling arises from the friction between ions and neutrals. The numerical simulations presented here are an extension of those of Oliver et al. to the partially ionized case. We find that, although the relative drift speed between the two species is smaller than 1 m s-1 at the blob center, it is sufficient to produce the forces required to strongly couple charged particles and neutrals. The ionization degree has no discernible effect on the main results of our previous work for a fully ionized plasma: the condensation has an initial acceleration phase followed by a period with roughly constant velocity, and, in addition, the maximum descending speed is clearly correlated with the ratio of initial blob to environment density.

  5. Detection of prominent left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis for patients with stable angina using Doppler tissue echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Veyrat, Colette; Larrazet, Fabrice; Cohen, Laurent; Laborde, François; Pellerin, Denis

    2005-08-01

    The midseptum has an elective left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) supply. Septal peak velocity (PkV) and myocardial velocity gradient (MVG) were studied at rest with M-mode Doppler tissue echocardiography during the cardiac cycle including the septal active relaxation (SAR) outward wall motion preceding isovolumic relaxation. In all, 33 patients had significant multivessel coronary artery disease. Group A (15 patients) had prominent LAD stenosis. Group B (18 patients) had prominent circumflex (15) or right (3) coronary artery stenoses. The goal was to detect a prominent LAD stenosis. During SAR, sensitivity to detect a prominent LAD stenosis was 86% for PkV < 20 mm/s and 80% for MVG < 1.1 s(-1); specificity was 83% for both variables. During systole, sensitivity was 86% with a 55% specificity for MVG < 2.0 s(-1), whereas sensitivity was 73% and specificity 66% for PkV < 30 mm/s. Areas under receiver operating characteristic curves were over 0.90 during SAR and only 0.70 for PkV and 0.80 for MVG during systole. In multivessel coronary artery disease, SAR variables better identified a prominent LAD stenosis than systolic variables. Moreover, SAR PkVs were informative per se, whereas systole required MVG calculation. PMID:16084334

  6. A SOLAR TORNADO OBSERVED BY AIA/SDO: ROTATIONAL FLOW AND EVOLUTION OF MAGNETIC HELICITY IN A PROMINENCE AND CAVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xing; Morgan, Huw; Leonard, Drew; Jeska, Lauren

    2012-06-20

    During 2011 September 24, as observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument of the Solar Dynamic Observatory and ground-based H{alpha} telescopes, a prominence and associated cavity appeared above the southwest limb. On 2011 September 25 8:00 UT, material flows upward from the prominence core along a narrow loop-like structure, accompanied by a rise ({>=}50,000 km) of the prominence core and the loop. As the loop fades by 10:00, small blobs and streaks of varying brightness rotate around the top part of the prominence and cavity, mimicking a cyclone. The most intense and coherent rotation lasts for over three hours, with emission in both hot ({approx}1 MK) and cold (hydrogen and helium) lines. We suggest that the cyclonic appearance and overall evolution of the structure can be interpreted in terms of the expansion of helical structures into the cavity, and the movement of plasma along helical structures which appears as a rotation when viewed along the helix axis. The coordinated movement of material between prominence and cavity suggests that they are structurally linked. Complexity is great due to the combined effect of these actions and the line-of-sight integration through the structure which contains tangled fields.

  7. The Relationship Between the Mid-Point and Most-Prominent Point on the Labial Curve of Upper Anterior Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Smith, R.N; Brook, A.H; Karmo, M

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigates coincidence of the most-prominent point and the mid-point on upper anterior teeth in relation to the use of straight-wire appliances. Materials and Methods: Alginate impressions of the upper jaw were obtained from forty Caucasian patients. Impressions were cast using hard dental stone. The teeth on each upper study model (canine to canine) were marked along the facial axis of the clinical crown (FACC line) then separated using a very thin diamond disc. Each tooth was mounted on a glass slide using sticky wax and cut into two halves down this FACC line. Images were acquired of the sections and a straight line connecting the gingival margin and the incisal edge was drawn on the flat cut surfaces (now the proximal crosssectional view). From this line, perpendicular lines were drawn at the mid-point and most prominent point to the labial curve. Coincidence rate was calculated or whether the most prominent point was gingival or incisal to the mid-point. Results: Approximately 80% of upper central incisors had coincident mid- and most-prominent points. Upper lateral incisors and canine teeth had approximately 50% coincidence. The vast majority of cases without coincidence showed the most-prominent point incisal to the mid-point for all tooth kinds with just 5% or less gingival. Conclusions: The high proportions of non-coincident examples found suggest that clinicians should be aware of individual variation and that this may possibly effect 3rd order alignment. PMID:19672333

  8. THE ROLE OF THE INNER CORONAL NULL POINT IN THE FORMATION AND EVOLUTION OF SOLAR QUIESCENT PROMINENCES

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y. Z.

    2015-02-10

    Using a 2.5-dimensional MHD simulation, we investigate the role played by the inner coronal null point in the formation and evolution of solar quiescent prominences. The flux rope is characterized by its magnetic fluxes, the toroidal magnetic flux Φ {sub p} and the poloidal flux Φ{sub ψ}. It is found that for a given Φ {sub p}, the catastrophe does not occur in the flux rope system until Φ{sub ψ} increases to a critical point. Moreover, the magnetic flux of the null point is the maximum value of the magnetic flux in the quadrupole background magnetic field, and represented by ψ {sub N}. The results show that the bigger ψ {sub N} usually corresponds to the smaller catastrophic point, the lower magnetic energy of the flux rope system, and the lesser magnetic energy inside the flux rope. Our results confirm that catastrophic disruption of the prominence occurs more easily when there is a bigger ψ {sub N}. However, ψ {sub N} has little influence on the maximum speed of the coronal mass ejections (CMEs) with an erupted prominence. Thus we argue that a topological configuration with the inner coronal null point is a necessary structure for the formation and evolution of solar quiescent prominences. In conclusion, it is easier for the prominences to form and to erupt as a core part of the CMEs in the magnetic structure with a greater ψ {sub N}.

  9. Prominence material embedded in coronal mass ejections as observed with the LASCO-C2 coronagraph using polarization diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamy, Philippe; Boclet, Brice; Koutchmy, Serge

    2016-07-01

    Prominences are believed to be caused by the formation of a flux rope low in the magnetic structure that eventually erupts to form the CME. Indeed, many CME onset models (e.g., flux cancellation, mass loading) require the presence or formation of a prominence in order for the CME to erupt. The remnants of the cool prominence material is often seen as recognizable twisted structures inside the CME in the lines of He II at 304 Å, of D3 HeI at 587.5 nm, and of Hα at 656 nm, sometime up to a distance of several solar radii from the surface in the latter lines. The orange filter of the LASCO-C2 coronagraph includes the D3 HeI line and its presence in the core of CMEs can be unambiguously detected on polarized images as polarization allows disentangling the contributions from the hot coronal plasma (the polarized Thomson scattered light by electrons) and from the unpolarised emission of cool prominence material. This has been made possible by an in-depth calibration that removes adverse instrumental effects. We will show several examples of CME with embedded prominence material and we will attempt to estimate the mass of this material to be compared with that of the CME. We will also exploit the polarization measurements to reconstruct the 3D geometry of the observed CMEs.

  10. Measurements of H-beta, He D3, and Ca/+/ 8542-A line emission in quiescent prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landman, D. A.; Edberg, S. J.; Laney, C. D.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of H-beta, He D3, and Ca(+) 8542-A line emission in 18 quiescent prominences are presented which were performed with a 25-cm coronagraph/coude spectrograph system and an optical multichannel analyzer utilizing a Si-vidicon detector assembly mounted at the single-pass spectrograph port. The data obtained show that the line profiles deviate in the wings from those calculated on the basis of an isothermal atmosphere and a Gaussian absorption coefficient. Both a non-Gaussian microturbulence component and a temperature gradient from prominence-core to coronal values can successfully account for this phenomenon. The line widths from a given line of sight of prominence material are reduced on the basis of a common core emitting region with a temperature of 7500 to 11,600 K and a microturbulent velocity of 4.5 to 7.1 km/s for the isothermal model (these values are 5% to 10% less for the two-temperature model). It is noted that long-period low-amplitude oscillations in the D3 line width and intensity were observed when a specific line of sight in a quiescent prominence was followed. These oscillations are found to remain coherent for as many as 3 or 4 cycles and to be associated with prominence structural activation.

  11. The prominent role of serotonergic degeneration in apathy, anxiety and depression in de novo Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Maillet, Audrey; Krack, Paul; Lhommée, Eugénie; Météreau, Elise; Klinger, Hélène; Favre, Emilie; Le Bars, Didier; Schmitt, Emmanuelle; Bichon, Amélie; Pelissier, Pierre; Fraix, Valérie; Castrioto, Anna; Sgambato-Faure, Véronique; Broussolle, Emmanuel; Tremblay, Léon; Thobois, Stéphane

    2016-09-01

    , putamen, ventral striatum, pallidum and thalamus, but also a specific bilateral dopaminergic disruption within the substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area complex, as well as a specific serotonergic alteration within the insula, the orbitofrontal and the subgenual anterior cingulate cortices. When comparing the two parkinsonian groups, the apathetic patients mainly displayed greater serotonergic alteration in the ventral striatum, the dorsal and the subgenual parts of the anterior cingulate cortices, bilaterally, as well as in the right-sided caudate nucleus and the right-sided orbitofrontal cortex. Regression analyses also revealed that the severity of apathy was moreover mainly related to specific serotonergic lesions within the right-sided anterior caudate nucleus and the orbitofrontal cortex, while the degree of both depression and anxiety was primarily linked to serotonergic disruption within the bilateral subgenual parts and/or the right dorsal part of the anterior cingulate cortex, without prominent role of the dopaminergic degeneration in the pathogenesis of these three non-motor signs. Altogether, these findings highlight a prominent role of the serotonergic degeneration in the expression of the neuropsychiatric symptoms occurring at the onset of Parkinson's disease. PMID:27538418

  12. Prominent periventricular fiber system related to ganglionic eminence and striatum in the human fetal cerebrum.

    PubMed

    Vasung, L; Jovanov-Milošević, N; Pletikos, M; Mori, S; Judaš, M; Kostović, Ivica

    2011-01-01

    Periventricular pathway (PVP) system of the developing human cerebrum is situated medial to the intermediate zone in the close proximity to proliferative cell compartments. In order to elucidate chemical properties and developing trajectories of the PVP we used DTI in combination with acetylcholinesterase histochemistry, SNAP-25 immunocytochemistry and axonal cytoskeletal markers (SMI312, MAP1b) immunocytochemistry on postmortem paraformaldehyde-fixed brains of 30 human fetuses ranging in age from 10 to 38 postconceptional weeks (PCW), 2 infants (age 1-3 months) and 1 adult brain. The PVP appears in the early fetal period (10-13 PCW) as two defined fibre bundles: the corpus callosum (CC) and the fetal fronto-occipital fascicle (FOF). In the midfetal period (15-18 PCW), all four components of the PVP can be identified: (1) the CC, which at rostral levels forms a voluminous callosal plate; (2) the FOF, with SNAP-25-positive fibers; (3) the fronto-pontine pathway (FPP) which for a short distance runs within the PVP; and (4) the subcallosal fascicle of Muratoff (SFM) which contains cortico-caudate projections. The PVPs are situated medial to the internal capsule at the level of the cortico-striatal junction; they remain prominent during the late fetal and early preterm period (19-28 PCW) and represent a portion of the wider periventricular crossroad of growing associative, callosal and projection pathways. In the perinatal period, the PVPs change their topographical relationships, decrease in size and the FOF looses its SNAP-25-reactivity. In conclusion, the hitherto undescribed PVP of the human fetal cerebrum contains forerunners of adult associative and projection pathways. Its transient chemical properties and relative exuberance suggest that the PVP may exert influence on the development of cortical connectivity (intermediate targeting) and other neurogenetic events such as neuronal proliferation. The PVP's topographical position also indicates that it is a major

  13. A prominent role for invariant T cells in the amphibian Xenopus laevis tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Robert, Jacques; Edholm, Eva-Stina

    2014-10-01

    Invariant T (iT) cells expressing an invariant or semi-invariant T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire have gained attention in recent years because of their potential as specialized regulators of immune function. These iT cells are typically restricted by nonclassical MHC class I molecules (e.g., CD1d and MR1) and undergo differentiation pathways distinct from conventional T cells. While the benefit of a limited TCR repertoire may appear counterintuitive in regard to the advantage of the diversified repertoire of conventional T cells allowing for exquisite specificity to antigens, the full biological importance and evolutionary conservation of iT cells are just starting to emerge. It is generally considered that iT cells are specialized to recognize conserved antigens equivalent to pathogen-associated molecular pattern. Until recently, little was known about the evolution of iT cells. The identification of class Ib and class I-like genes in nonmammalian vertebrates, despite the heterogeneity and variable numbers of these genes among species, suggests that iT cells are also present in ectothermic vertebrates. Indeed, recent studies in the amphibian Xenopus have revealed a drastic overrepresentation of several invariant TCRs in tadpoles and identified a prominent nonclassical MHC class I-restricted iT cell subset critical for tadpole antiviral immunity. This suggests an important and perhaps even dominant role of multiple nonclassical MHC class I-restricted iT cell populations in tadpoles and, by extension, other aquatic vertebrates with rapid external development that are under pressure to produce a functional lymphocyte repertoire with small numbers of cells.

  14. Prominent pancreatic endocrinopathy and altered control of food intake disrupt energy homeostasis in prion diseases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, J.D.; Berardinelli, J.G.; Rocke, T.E.; Bessen, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative diseases that can induce endocrinopathies. The basis of altered endocrine function in prion diseases is not well understood, and the purpose of this study was to investigate the spatiotemporal relationship between energy homeostasis and prion infection in hamsters inoculated with either the 139H strain of scrapie agent, which induces preclinical weight gain, or the HY strain of transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME), which induces clinical weight loss. Temporal changes in body weight, feed, and water intake were measured as well as both non-fasted and fasted concentrations of serum glucose, insulin, glucagon, ??-ketones, and leptin. In 139H scrapie-infected hamsters, polydipsia, hyperphagia, non-fasted hyperinsulinemia with hyperglycemia, and fasted hyperleptinemia were found at preclinical stages and are consistent with an anabolic syndrome that has similarities to type II diabetes mellitus and/or metabolic syndrome X. In HY TME-infected hamsters, hypodipsia, hypersecretion of glucagon (in both non-fasted and fasted states), increased fasted ??-ketones, fasted hypoglycemia, and suppressed non-fasted leptin concentrations were found while feed intake was normal. These findings suggest a severe catabolic syndrome in HY TME infection mediated by chronic increases in glucagon secretion. In both models, alterations of pancreatic endocrine function were not associated with PrPSc deposition in the pancreas. The results indicate that prominent endocrinopathy underlies alterations in body weight, pancreatic endocrine function, and intake of food. The prion-induced alterations of energy homeostasis in 139H scrapie- or HY TME-infected hamsters could occur within areas of the hypothalamus that control food satiety and/or within autonomic centers that provide neural outflow to the pancreas. ?? 2008 Society for Endocrinology.

  15. The prominent conformational plasticity of lactoperoxidase: a chemical and pH stability analysis.

    PubMed

    Boscolo, Barbara; Leal, Sónia S; Salgueiro, Carlos A; Ghibaudi, Elena M; Gomes, Cláudio M

    2009-07-01

    Lactoperoxidase (LPO) is a structurally complex and stable mammalian redox enzyme. Here we aim at evaluating the influence of ionic interactions and how these intertwine with the structural dynamics, stability and activity of LPO. In this respect, we have compared LPO guanidinium hydrochloride (GdmCl) and urea denaturation pathways and performed a detailed investigation on the effects of pH on the LPO conformational dynamics and stability. Our experimental findings using far-UV CD, Trp fluorescence emission and ESR spectroscopies clearly indicate that LPO charged-denaturation with GdmCl induced a sharp two-step process versus a three-step unfolding mechanism induced by urea. This differential effect between GdmCl and urea suggests that ionic interactions must play a rather prominent role in the stabilization of LPO. With both denaturants, the protein core was shown to retain activity up to near the respective C(m) values. Moreover, a pH titration of LPO evidenced no significant conformational alterations or perturbation of heme activity within the 4 to 11 pH interval. In contrast, alterations of ionic interactions by poising LPO at pH 3, 2 and 12 resulted in a loss of secondary structure, loosening of tertiary contacts and loss of activity, which appear to be associated with the perturbation of the hydrophobic core, as evidenced by ANS binding, as well as disruption of the heme pocket demonstrated by optical and EPR spectroscopies. Overall, LPO is characterised by a high degree of peripheral structural plasticity without perturbation of the core heme moiety. The possible physiological meaning of such features is discussed.

  16. Temperature and EUV Intensity in a Coronal Prominence Cavity and Streamer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucera, T. A.; Gibson, S.E.; Schmit, D. J.; Landi, E.; Tripathi, D.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the temperature and EUV line emission of a coronal cavity and surrounding streamer in terms of a morphological forward model. We use a series of iron line ratios observed with the Hinode Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (EIS) on 2007 Aug. 9 to constrain temperature as a function of altitude in a morphological forward model of the streamer and cavity. We also compare model prediction of the EIS EUV line intensities and polarized brightness (pB) data from the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO) MK4. This work builds on earlier analysis using the same model to determine geometry of and density in the same cavity and streamer. The fit to the data with altitude dependent temperature profiles indicates that both the streamer and cavity have temperatures in the range 1.4-1.7 MK. However, the cavity exhibits substantial substructure such that the altitude dependent temperature profile is not sufficient to completely model conditions in the cavity. Coronal prominence cavities are structured by magnetism so clues to this structure are to be found in their plasma properties. These temperature substructures are likely related to structures in the cavity magnetic field. Furthermore, we find that the model overestimates the line intensities by a factor of 4-10, while overestimating pB data by no more than a factor of 1.4. One possible explanation for this is that there may be a significant amount of material at temperatures outside of the range log T(K) approximately equals 5.8 - 6.7 in both the cavity and the streamer.

  17. When and how does a prominence-like jet gain kinetic energy?

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jiajia; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Quanhao; Liu, Kai; Shen, Chenglong; Wang, S.; Wang, Yuming

    2014-02-20

    A jet is a considerable amount of plasma being ejected from the chromosphere or lower corona into the higher corona and is a common phenomenon. Usually, a jet is triggered by a brightening or a flare, which provides the first driving force to push plasma upward. In this process, magnetic reconnection is thought to be the mechanism to convert magnetic energy into thermal, nonthermal, and kinetic energies. However, most jets could reach an unusual high altitude and end much later than the end of its associated flare. This fact implies that there is another way to continuously transfer magnetic energy into kinetic energy even after the reconnection. The picture described above is well known in the community, but how and how much magnetic energy is released through a way other than reconnection is still unclear. By studying a prominence-like jet observed by SDO/AIA and STEREO-A/EUVI, we find that the continuous relaxation of the post-reconnection magnetic field structure is an important process for a jet to climb up higher than it could through only reconnection. The kinetic energy of the jet gained through the relaxation is 1.6 times that gained from the reconnection. The resultant energy flux is hundreds of times larger than the flux required for the local coronal heating, suggesting that such jets are a possible source to keep the corona hot. Furthermore, rotational motions appear all the time during the jet. Our analysis suggests that torsional Alfvén waves induced during reconnection could not be the only mechanism to release magnetic energy and drive jets.

  18. Investigation of the prominent barriers to lean manufacturing implementation in Malaysian food and beverages industry using Rasch Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khusaini, N. S.; Ismail, A.; Rashid, A. A.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study on the prominent barriers to lean manufacturing implementation in Malaysian Food and Beverages Industry. A survey was carried out to determine the most prominent barriers of lean manufacturing implementation that are currently being faced in this industry. The amount of barriers identified for this study is twenty seven. Out of 1309 available organizations, a total of 300 organizations have been randomly selected as respondents, and 53 organizations responded. From the variable map, the analysis shows that, the negative perception towards lean manufacturing top the list as the most agreeable barrier, while the technical barriers came after it. It can also be seen from the variable map that averagely, lack of vision and direction is the barrier that is being faced. Finally, this is perhaps the first attempt in investigating the prominent barriers to Lean Manufacturing implementation in Malaysian food and beverages industry using Rasch Model.

  19. [Psychological classification of functional voice disorders].

    PubMed

    Kiese-Himmel, C; Kruse, E

    1997-01-01

    In an explorative study the classification of a collective of patients with different voice disorders by discriminant and cluster analysis was tried. 21 variables, obtained from 128 patients with various diagnoses of voice disorders, were used. A first discriminant analysis on the basis of diagnoses-groups permitted no differentiation. A subsequent hierarchical cluster analysis indicated a four-cluster-solution. The clusters showed only little association with the phoniatric diagnoses. Cluster 1 is characterized by patients with non-organic voice disorders. Cluster 2 is marked by emotional unstable patients with organic dysphonia. Cluster 3 consists of patients with psychosomatic dysphonia by laryngeal contact granuloma, and cluster 4 contains emotional stable patients suffering from organic dysphonia and from spasmodic dysphonia. Thirteen psychological variables discriminated the clusters significantly: Anxiety about appearing in public, emotionality (neuroticism), life satisfaction, aggressiveness, anxiety, about physical injuries, extraversion.

  20. Alveolar Macrophages Are a Prominent but Nonessential Target for Murine Cytomegalovirus Infecting the Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Helen E.; Lawler, Clara; Oliveira, Martha T.; Davis-Poynter, Nick

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) infect the lungs and cause pathological damage there in immunocompromised hosts. How lung infection starts is unknown. Inhaled murine CMV (MCMV) directly infected alveolar macrophages (AMs) and type 2 alveolar epithelial cells (AEC2s) but not type 1 alveolar epithelial cells (AEC1s). In contrast, herpes simplex virus 1 infected AEC1s and murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4) infected AEC1s via AMs. MCMV-infected AMs prominently expressed viral reporter genes from a human CMV IE1 promoter; but most IE1-positive cells were AEC2s, and CD11c-cre mice, which express cre in AMs, switched the fluorochrome expression of <5% of floxed MCMV in the lungs. In contrast, CD11C-cre mice exhibited fluorochrome switching in >90% of floxed MuHV-4 in the lungs and 50% of floxed MCMV in the blood. AM depletion increased MCMV titers in the lung during the acute phase of infection. Thus, the influence of AMs was more restrictive than permissive. Circulating monocytes entered infected lungs in large numbers and became infected, but not directly; infection occurred mainly via AEC2s. Mice infected with an MCMV mutant lacking its m131/m129 chemokine homolog, which promotes macrophage infection, showed levels of lung infection equivalent to those of wild-type MCMV-infected mice. The level of lung infiltration by Gr-1-positive cells infected with the MCMV m131/m129-null mutant was modestly different from that for wild-type MCMV-infected lungs. These results are consistent with myeloid cells mainly disseminating MCMV from the lungs, whereas AEC2s provide local amplification. IMPORTANCE Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) chronically and systemically infect most mammals. Human CMV infection is usually asymptomatic but causes lung disease in people with poor immune function. As human infection is hard to analyze, studies with related animal viruses provide important insights. We show that murine CMV has two targets in the lungs: macrophages and surfactant-secreting epithelial cells

  1. What is the most prominent factor limiting photosynthesis in different layers of a greenhouse cucumber canopy?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tsu-Wei; Henke, Michael; de Visser, Pieter H. B.; Buck-Sorlin, Gerhard; Wiechers, Dirk; Kahlen, Katrin; Stützel, Hartmut

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Maximizing photosynthesis at the canopy level is important for enhancing crop yield, and this requires insights into the limiting factors of photosynthesis. Using greenhouse cucumber (Cucumis sativus) as an example, this study provides a novel approach to quantify different components of photosynthetic limitations at the leaf level and to upscale these limitations to different canopy layers and the whole plant. Methods A static virtual three-dimensional canopy structure was constructed using digitized plant data in GroIMP. Light interception of the leaves was simulated by a ray-tracer and used to compute leaf photosynthesis. Different components of photosynthetic limitations, namely stomatal (SL), mesophyll (ML), biochemical (BL) and light (LL) limitations, were calculated by a quantitative limitation analysis of photosynthesis under different light regimes. Key Results In the virtual cucumber canopy, BL and LL were the most prominent factors limiting whole-plant photosynthesis. Diffusional limitations (SL + ML) contributed <15 % to total limitation. Photosynthesis in the lower canopy was more limited by the biochemical capacity, and the upper canopy was more sensitive to light than other canopy parts. Although leaves in the upper canopy received more light, their photosynthesis was more light restricted than in the leaves of the lower canopy, especially when the light condition above the canopy was poor. An increase in whole-plant photosynthesis under diffuse light did not result from an improvement of light use efficiency but from an increase in light interception. Diffuse light increased the photosynthesis of leaves that were directly shaded by other leaves in the canopy by up to 55 %. Conclusions Based on the results, maintaining biochemical capacity of the middle–lower canopy and increasing the leaf area of the upper canopy would be promising strategies to improve canopy photosynthesis in a high-wire cucumber cropping system. Further

  2. When and How Does A Prominence-like Jet Gain Kinetic Energy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Liu, K.; Shen, C.

    2013-12-01

    Usually a jet is triggered by a brightening or flare, which provides the first driving force. In this process, magnetic reconnection is thought to be the mechanism to convert magnetic energy into jet's kinetic energy. However, most jets could reach an unusual height and end far after the end of its associated flare. This fact implies another way continuously transferring magnetic energy into kinetic energy after the reconnection. This picture is well known, but how and how much magnetic energy is released through the way other than the reconnection is still unclear. Here, through studying a prominence-like jet observed by AIA and EUVI, we reveal the continuously relaxation of post-reconnection magnetic field structure is an important process to support a jet. The kinetic energy of the jet gained through this way is 1.6 times of that from the reconnection. The resultant energy flux is hundreds of the required for local coronal heating, suggesting such jets are a possible source to keep corona hot. Rotational motion appearing all the time during the jet implies the torsional Alfven wave induced during reconnection is not the only mechanism to release magnetic energy and drive jets. Left column: Difference images taken by SDO/AIA at 304A passband. The FOV of the images is 430"x430". Right column: Difference images from STEREO-A/EUVI at the same passband. The FOV is 450"x450". Since STEREO-A was 120 degree apart away from SDO on 2012 July 8, the SDO limb event right happened ondisk in the view of STEREO-A. Black and red solid curve: integrated intensity over the cross-section of the jet at different height at 19:11 UT and 19:47 UT, respectively. The two horizontal dashed lines are their average values. Black and red dashed curve with asterisks: axial speed with errors of the eight sub-jets shown in Figure 3 at 19:11 UT and 19:47 UT , respectively. Blue dashed curve with diamonds: angular speed with errors of the jet at different height.

  3. The Rayleigh-taylor Instability In The Solar Corona: Prominence Coronal-cavity Interactions And The Evolution To Eruptive States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Thomas

    2012-05-01

    We review the discovery and analysis of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in quiescent solar prominences by the Hinode/SOT and SDO/AIA instruments. The instability is apparently caused by the emergence of magnetic flux near the polarity inversion line below the prominences. The emerging flux is rapidly heated to coronal temperatures of 1 MK or higher and the resulting large temperature gradient with the cool overlying prominence plasma leads to a "magneto-thermal" convective instability that develops into a classic Rayleigh-Taylor system of plumes and downflows. The significance of the discovery is that it offers a mechanism by which magnetic flux and helicity are periodically injected into the coronal cavity flux ropes overlying solar prominences. The increasing flux and helicity in the cavity develop a quasi-steady evolution eventually terminating in the eruption of a slow coronal mass ejection (Fan & Gibson 2007; Zhang, Flyer, & Low 2006). We suggest further investigations using SDO/AIA, ground-based observatories, and the upcoming IRIS mission to verify and extend the SOT and AIA findings.

  4. ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN A HOT-CHANNEL-LIKE SOLAR MAGNETIC FLUX ROPE AND ITS EMBEDDED PROMINENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, X.; Ding, M. D.; Zhang, J.; Guo, Y.; Chen, P. F.; Sun, J. Q.; Srivastava, A. K.

    2014-07-10

    A magnetic flux rope (MFR) is a coherent and helical magnetic field structure that has recently been found likely to appear as an elongated hot channel prior to a solar eruption. In this Letter, we investigate the relationship between the hot channel and the associated prominence through analysis of a limb event on 2011 September 12. In the early rise phase, the hot channel was initially cospatial with the prominence. It then quickly expanded, resulting in a separation of the top of the hot channel from that of the prominence. Meanwhile, they both experienced an instantaneous morphology transformation from a Λ shape to a reversed-Y shape and the top of these two structures showed an exponential increase in height. These features are a good indication of the occurrence of kink instability. Moreover, the onset of kink instability is found to coincide in time with the impulsive enhancement of flare emission underneath the hot channel, suggesting that ideal kink instability likely also plays an important role in triggering fast flare reconnection besides initiating the impulsive acceleration of the hot channel and distorting its morphology. We conclude that the hot channel is most likely the MFR system and the prominence only corresponds to the cool materials that are collected in the bottom of the helical field lines of the MFR against gravity.

  5. Open questions on prominences from coordinated observations by IRIS, Hinode, SDO/AIA, THEMIS, and the Meudon/MSDP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, B.; Tian, H.; Kucera, T.; López Ariste, A.; Mein, N.; Mein, P.; Dalmasse, K.; Golub, L.

    2014-09-01

    Context. A large prominence was observed by multiple instruments on the ground and in space during an international campaign on September 24, 2013, for three hours (12:12 UT -15:12 UT). Instruments used in the campaign included the newly launched (June 2013) Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS), THEMIS (Tenerife), the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT), the Solar Dynamic Observatory's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA), and the Multichannel Subtractive Double Pass spectrograph (MSDP) in the Meudon Solar Tower. The movies obtained in 304 Å with the EUV imager SDO/AIA, and in Ca II line by SOT show the dynamic nature of the prominence. Aims: The aim of this work is to study the dynamics of the prominence fine structures in multiple wavelengths to understand their formation. Methods: The spectrographs IRIS and MSDP provided line profiles with a high cadence in Mg II h (2803.5 Å) and k (2796.4 Å) lines along four slit positions (IRIS), and in Hα in a 2D field of view (MSDP). The spectropolarimetry of THEMIS (Tenerife) allowed us to derive the magnetic field of the prominence using the He D3 line depolarization (Hanle effect combined with the Zeeman effect). Results: The magnetic field is found to be globally horizontal with a relatively weak field strength (8-15 Gauss). On the other hand, the Ca II movie reveals turbulent-like motion that is not organized in specific parts of the prominence. We tested the addition of a turbulent magnetic component. This model is compatible with the polarimetric observations at those places where the plasma turbulence peaks. On the other hand, the Mg II line profiles show multiple peaks well separated in wavelength. This is interpreted by the existence of small threads along the line of sight with a large dispersion of discrete values of Doppler shifts, from 5 km s-1 (a quasi-steady component) to 60-80 km s-1. Each peak corresponds to a Gaussian profile, and not to a reversed profile as was expected by the present non

  6. FIRST SDO/AIA OBSERVATION OF SOLAR PROMINENCE FORMATION FOLLOWING AN ERUPTION: MAGNETIC DIPS AND SUSTAINED CONDENSATION AND DRAINAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Wei; Berger, Thomas E.; Low, B. C.

    2012-02-15

    Imaging solar coronal condensation forming prominences was difficult in the past, a situation recently changed by Hinode and the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). We present the first example observed with the SDO/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly, in which material gradually cools through multiple EUV channels in a transequatorial loop system that confines an earlier eruption. Nine hours later, this leads to eventual condensation at the dips of these loops, forming a moderate-size prominence of {approx}10{sup 14} g, to be compared to the characteristic 10{sup 15} g mass of a coronal mass ejection (CME). The prominence mass is not static but maintained by condensation at a high estimated rate of 10{sup 10} g s{sup -1} against a comparable, sustained drainage through numerous vertical downflow threads, such that 96% of the total condensation ({approx}10{sup 15} g) is drained in approximately one day. The mass condensation and drainage rates temporally correlate with the total prominence mass. The downflow velocity has a narrow Gaussian distribution with a mean of 30 km s{sup -1}, while the downward acceleration distribution has an exponential drop with a mean of {approx}1/6 g{sub Sun }, indicating a significant canceling of gravity, possibly by the Lorentz force. Our observations show that a macroscopically quiescent prominence is microscopically dynamic, involving the passage of a significant mass through it, maintained by a continual mass supply against a comparable mass drainage, which bears important implications for CME initiation mechanisms in which mass unloading is important.

  7. DYNAMICS OF A SOLAR PROMINENCE TORNADO OBSERVED BY SDO/AIA ON 2012 NOVEMBER 7–8

    SciTech Connect

    Mghebrishvili, Irakli; Zaqarashvili, Teimuraz V.; Kukhianidze, Vasil; Ramishvili, Giorgi; Shergelashvili, Bidzina; Veronig, Astrid; Poedts, Stefaan

    2015-09-10

    We study the detailed dynamics of a solar prominence tornado using time series of 171, 304, 193, and 211 Å spectral lines obtained by the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly during 2012 November 7–8. The tornado first appeared at 08:00 UT, November 07, near the surface, gradually rose upwards with the mean speed of ∼1.5 km s{sup −1} and persisted over 30 hr. Time–distance plots show two patterns of quasi-periodic transverse displacements of the tornado axis with periods of 40 and 50 minutes at different phases of the tornado evolution. The first pattern occurred during the rising phase and can be explained by the upward motion of the twisted tornado. The second pattern occurred during the later stage of evolution when the tornado already stopped rising and could be caused either by MHD kink waves in the tornado or by the rotation of two tornado threads around a common axis. The later hypothesis is supported by the fact that the tornado sometimes showed a double structure during the quasi-periodic phase. 211 and 193 Å spectral lines show a coronal cavity above the prominence/tornado, which started expansion at ∼13:00 UT and continuously rose above the solar limb. The tornado finally became unstable and erupted together with the corresponding prominence as coronal mass ejection (CME) at 15:00 UT, November 08. The final stage of the evolution of the cavity and the tornado-related prominence resembles the magnetic breakout model. On the other hand, the kink instability may destabilize the twisted tornado, and consequently prominence tornadoes can be used as precursors for CMEs.

  8. Lipid arrays identify myelin-derived lipids and lipid complexes as prominent targets for oligoclonal band antibodies in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Kathryn M.; Galban-Horcajo, Francesc; Rinaldi, Simon; O'Leary, Colin P.; Goodyear, Carl S.; Kalna, Gabriela; Arthur, Ariel; Elliot, Christina; Barnett, Sue; Linington, Christopher; Bennett, Jeffrey L.; Owens, Gregory P.; Willison, Hugh J.

    2012-01-01

    The presence of oligoclonal bands of IgG (OCB) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is used to establish a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS), but their specificity has remained an enigma since its first description over forty years ago. We now report that the use of lipid arrays identifies heteromeric complexes of myelin derived lipids as a prominent target for this intrathecal B cell response. PMID:21872346

  9. THE HYDROMAGNETIC INTERIOR OF A SOLAR QUIESCENT PROMINENCE. I. COUPLING BETWEEN FORCE BALANCE AND STEADY ENERGY TRANSPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Low, B. C.; Casini, R.; Berger, T.; Liu, W.

    2012-08-10

    This series of papers investigates the dynamic interiors of quiescent prominences revealed by recent Hinode and SDO/AIA high-resolution observations. This first paper is a study of the static equilibrium of the Kippenhahn-Schlueter diffuse plasma slab, suspended vertically in a bowed magnetic field, under the frozen-in condition and subject to a theoretical thermal balance among an optically thin radiation, heating, and field-aligned thermal conduction. The everywhere-analytical solutions to this nonlinear problem are an extremely restricted subset of the physically admissible states of the system. For most values of the total mass frozen into a given bowed field, force balance and steady energy transport cannot both be met without a finite fraction of the total mass having collapsed into a cold sheet of zero thickness, within which the frozen-in condition must break down. An exact, resistive hydromagnetic extension of the Kippenhahn-Schlueter slab is also presented, resolving the mass-sheet singularity into a finite-thickness layer of steadily falling dense fluid. Our hydromagnetic result suggests that the narrow, vertical prominence H{sub {alpha}} threads may be falling across magnetic fields, with optically thick cores much denser and ionized to much lower degrees than conventionally considered. This implication is discussed in relation to (1) the recent SDO/AIA observations of quiescent prominences that are massive and yet draining mass everywhere in their interiors, (2) the canonical range of 5-60 G determined from spectral polarimetric observations of prominence magnetic fields over the years, and (3) the need for a more realistic multi-fluid treatment.

  10. Could prominent airway-centered fibroblast foci in lung biopsies predict underlying chronic microaspiration in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients?

    PubMed

    Bois, Melanie C; Hu, Xiaowen; Ryu, Jay H; Yi, Eunhee S

    2016-07-01

    Chronic occult aspiration of small droplets (microaspiration) due to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and/or hiatal hernia is postulated to be a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is the histopathologic correlate of IPF. We hypothesized that chronic microaspiration may manifest as prominent airway-centered fibroblastic foci (FFs) in IPF. UIP cases diagnosed by wedge biopsies over a 6-year period (2006-2011) were identified and scored (1-3) for the prominence of airway-centered FFs by 2 authors blinded for clinical history. Relevant clinical information was obtained. Thirty-seven patients (22 men) were diagnosed with IPF by multidisciplinary approach. Thirteen cases (35.1%) demonstrated high airway-centered FF score (score 3). Twenty (54.1%) patients carried a clinical diagnosis of GERD, and 3 patients (8.1%) had hiatal hernia. High airway-centered FF score was significantly associated with hiatal hernia diagnosis (P=.037) but not with a diagnosis of GERD or the use of proton pump inhibitors/histamine-2 receptor antagonists. High airway-centered FF score was associated with airway-centered acute inflammation (P=.028) and peribronchiolar granulomas (P=.042). In summary, IPF cases with hiatal hernia were more likely to have a prominent airway-centered FF. Given the strong association between hiatal hernia and GERD and their risk for developing chronic microaspiration, the prominent airway-centered FF in UIP might predict the presence of chronic microaspiration, acknowledging that GERD and proton pump inhibitor/histamine-2 receptor antagonist use failed to demonstrate a significant association. Larger studies are warranted for further investigation. PMID:26980038

  11. [Movement disorders in David Copperfield].

    PubMed

    Garćia Ruiz, P J; Gulliksen, L L

    1999-01-01

    Charles Dickens' novels are a source of vivid neurological descriptions. Besides Pickwickian syndrome, many other neurological descriptions can be found in Dickens' novels. David Copperfield contains several characters with movement disorders including generalized dystonia (Mr. Uriah Heep), restless legs syndrome (the waiter), cervical dystonia (Mr. Sharp) and spasmodic dysphonia (Mr. Creakle). These neurological descriptions an probably based on the observation of actual patients. PMID:10570623

  12. Is It Where You Go or Who You Know? On the Relationship Between Students, Ph.D Program Quality, Dissertation Advisor Prominence, and Early Career Publishing Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilmer, Michael J.; Hilmer, Christiana E.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research finds that both Ph.D. program quality and relative dissertation advisor prominence are positively related to early-career publishing success. We provide insight into the relative importance of those factors by estimating early-career research productivity functions that: (1) allow relative dissertation advisor prominence to vary…

  13. A prominent 'A' notch in the pulmonary valve M mode-one more cause of the same.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Prabha Nini; Velappan, Praveen; Thampy M S, Lakshmi; Kunju, Subair M

    2015-04-01

    The M mode echocardiogram is not the main priority, during routine echocardiographic evaluation now-a-days. However, there are still a few classical conditions where this remains instructive and educative. One such situation is the presence of an 'a' wave in the pulmonary valve M mode tracing in normals and it's absence in pulmonary hypertension. In valvular pulmonary stenosis we expect a deeper 'a' wave. We describe one more cause of a prominent 'a' wave in the pulmonary valve M mode. We describe this in a common tropical disease, endemic to Kerala.

  14. Acute closed traumatic sciatic nerve injury: a complication of heterotopic ossification and prominence of the femoral nail: a case report.

    PubMed

    Niempoog, Sunyarn; Chumchuen, Sukanis

    2014-08-01

    The report of a 27-years-old man with presence of heterotopic ossification (HO) after femoral nailing 7years ago who developed foot drop afterfalling to the ground on his buttocks. Radiographs revealed a prominence ofthefemoral nail with HO in his right hip. EMG confirmedperoneal nerve injury ofthe hip region. Femoral nail and the HO were removed and external neurolysis was performed. At 9 months after surgery, he had not regain motor power thus posterior tibialis tendon transfer was performed to restore ankle dorsiflexion. Finally, at 2 years follow-up, he could ambulate well but did not regained sensation, extensor digitorum communis and peroneal muscle function. PMID:25518317

  15. Biconditional Prominence Correlation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teeple, David Allan

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation presents one solution to a problem in phonological typology, which is to explain the apparent cross-linguistic absence of a pattern I call "Strong-Position Neutralization" (or SPN): neutralization of a contrast in a strong position while the same contrast is maintained in the corresponding weak position. This is predicted in a…

  16. Prominent Women Biologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoh, Yin Kiong; Boo, Hong Kwen

    2003-01-01

    The perception that scientists are intelligent white men who are socially inept, absent-minded nerds seems to prevail among students at all levels, from elementary school to college. While media may, by chance or choice, promote this image, it is unfortunately a realistic one. This stereotypical image of scientists as white men has, in part,…

  17. [Uriel García Cáceres, prominent leader and teacher of public health in Peru].

    PubMed

    Ugarte Ubilluz, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Dr. Uriel García Cáceres, prominent physician, researcher and Peruvian historian, was born in the city of Cusco in 1922. He studied medicine at Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (1942-1950). He was influenced by Dr. Pedro Weiss and as a result he worked in the field of Pathological Anatomy, where he made substantial discoveries such as the description of kidney nodules associated with the verrucous stage of bartonellosis or Carrion’s disease. His most important contributions are in the paleopathology field, in which he helped create a better understanding of Peruvian ancient pathology. Dr. García Cáceres also participated in the political arena; he was Peru's Minister of Health, a position in which he served selflessly and always working for the good of the health of all Peruvians. At 91 years old, he is always tenacious and cheerful, and above all, he is a teacher with a readiness to learn.

  18. Prominent steatosis with hypermetabolism of the cell line permissive for years of infection with hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Kazuo; Ebinuma, Hirotoshi; Nakamoto, Nobuhiro; Sakasegawa, Noriko; Murakami, Yuko; Chu, Po-Sung; Usui, Shingo; Ishibashi, Yuka; Wakayama, Yuko; Taniki, Nobuhito; Murata, Hiroko; Saito, Yoshimasa; Fukasawa, Masayoshi; Saito, Kyoko; Yamagishi, Yoshiyuki; Wakita, Takaji; Takaku, Hiroshi; Hibi, Toshifumi; Saito, Hidetsugu; Kanai, Takanori

    2014-01-01

    Most of experiments for HCV infection have been done using lytic infection systems, in which HCV-infected cells inevitably die. Here, to elucidate metabolic alteration in HCV-infected cells in a more stable condition, we established an HCV-persistently-infected cell line, designated as HPI cells. This cell line has displayed prominent steatosis and supported HCV infection for more than 2 years, which is the longest ever reported. It enabled us to analyze metabolism in the HCV-infected cells integrally combining metabolomics and expression arrays. It revealed that rate-limiting enzymes for biosynthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids were up-regulated with actual increase in cholesterol, desmosterol (cholesterol precursor) and pool of fatty acids. Notably, the pentose phosphate pathway was facilitated with marked up-regulation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, a rete-limiting enzyme, with actual increase in NADPH. In its downstream, enzymes for purine synthesis were also up-regulated resulting in increase of purine. Contrary to common cancers, the TCA cycle was preferentially facilitated comparing to glycolysis pathway with a marked increase of most of amino acids. Interestingly, some genes controlled by nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), a master regulator of antioxidation and metabolism, were constitutively up-regulated in HPI cells. Knockdown of Nrf2 markedly reduced steatosis and HCV infection, indicating that Nrf2 and its target genes play important roles in metabolic alteration and HCV infection. In conclusion, HPI cell is a bona fide HCV-persistently-infected cell line supporting HCV infection for years. This cell line sustained prominent steatosis in a hypermetabolic status producing various metabolites. Therefore, HPI cell is a potent research tool not only for persistent HCV infection but also for liver metabolism, overcoming drawbacks of the lytic infection systems. PMID:24718268

  19. Simultaneous transverse oscillations of a prominence and a filament and longitudinal oscillation of another filament induced by a single shock wave

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Yuandeng; Liu, Ying D.; Chen, P. F.; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi

    2014-11-10

    We present the first stereoscopic and Doppler observations of simultaneous transverse oscillations of a prominence and a filament and longitudinal oscillation of another filament launched by a single shock wave. Using Hα Doppler observations, we derive the three-dimensional oscillation velocities at different heights along the prominence axis. The results indicate that the prominence has a larger oscillation amplitude and damping time at higher altitude, but the periods at different heights are the same (i.e., 13.5 minutes). This suggests that the prominence oscillates like a linear vertical rigid body with one end anchored on the Sun. One of the filaments shows weak transverse oscillation after the passing of the shock, which is possibly due to the low altitude of the filament and the weakening (due to reflection) of the shock wave before the interaction. Large-amplitude longitudinal oscillation is observed in the other filament after the passing of the shock wave. The velocity amplitude and period are about 26.8 km s{sup –1} and 80.3 minutes, respectively. We propose that the orientation of a filament or prominence relative to the normal vector of the incoming shock should be an important factor for launching transverse or longitudinal filament oscillations. In addition, the restoring forces of the transverse prominence are most likely due to the coupling of gravity and magnetic tension of the supporting magnetic field, while that for the longitudinal filament oscillation is probably the resultant force of gravity and magnetic pressure.

  20. Phase transitions, prominent dielectric anomalies, and negative thermal expansion in three high thermally stable ammonium magnesium-formate frameworks.

    PubMed

    Shang, Ran; Xu, Guan-Cheng; Wang, Zhe-Ming; Gao, Song

    2014-01-20

    We present three Mg-formate frameworks, incorporating three different ammoniums: [NH4][Mg(HCOO)3] (1), [CH3CH2NH3][Mg(HCOO)3] (2) and [NH3(CH2)4NH3][Mg2(HCOO)6] (3). They display structural phase transitions accompanied by prominent dielectric anomalies and anisotropic and negative thermal expansion. The temperature-dependent structures, covering the whole temperature region in which the phase transitions occur, reveal detailed structural changes, and structure-property relationships are established. Compound 1 is a chiral Mg-formate framework with the NH4(+) cations located in the channels. Above 255 K, the NH4(+) cation vibrates quickly between two positions of shallow energy minima. Below 255 K, the cations undergo two steps of freezing of their vibrations, caused by the different inner profiles of the channels, producing non-compensated antipolarization. These lead to significant negative thermal expansion and a relaxor-like dielectric response. In perovskite 2, the orthorhombic phase below 374 K possesses ordered CH3CH2NH3(+) cations in the cubic cavities of the Mg-formate framework. Above 374 K, the structure becomes trigonal, with trigonally disordered cations, and above 426 K, another phase transition occurs and the cation changes to a two-fold disordered state. The two transitions are accompanied by prominent dielectric anomalies and negative and positive thermal expansion, contributing to the large regulation of the framework coupled the order-disorder transition of CH3CH2NH3(+). For niccolite 3, the gradually enhanced flipping movement of the middle ethylene of [NH3(CH2)4NH3](2+) in the elongated framework cavity finally leads to the phase transition with a critical temperature of 412 K, and the trigonally disordered cations and relevant framework change, providing the basis for the very strong dielectric dispersion, high dielectric constant (comparable to inorganic oxides), and large negative thermal expansion. The spontaneous polarizations