Science.gov

Sample records for promote meiotic interhomologue

  1. Roles for mismatch repair family proteins in promoting meiotic crossing over

    PubMed Central

    Manhart, Carol M.; Alani, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The mismatch repair (MMR) family complexes Msh4-Msh5 and Mlh1-Mlh3 act with Exo1 and Sgs1-Top3-Rmi1 in a meiotic double strand break repair pathway that results in the asymmetric cleavage of double Holliday junctions (dHJ) to form crossovers. This review discusses how meiotic roles for Msh4-Msh5 and Mlh1-Mlh3 do not fit paradigms established for post-replicative MMR. We also outline models used to explain how these factors promote the formation of meiotic crossovers required for the accurate segregation of chromosome homologs during the Meiosis I division. PMID:26686657

  2. A Quality Control Mechanism Coordinates Meiotic Prophase Events to Promote Crossover Assurance

    PubMed Central

    Deshong, Alison J.; Ye, Alice L.; Lamelza, Piero; Bhalla, Needhi

    2014-01-01

    Meiotic chromosome segregation relies on homologous chromosomes being linked by at least one crossover, the obligate crossover. Homolog pairing, synapsis and meiosis specific DNA repair mechanisms are required for crossovers but how they are coordinated to promote the obligate crossover is not well understood. PCH-2 is a highly conserved meiotic AAA+-ATPase that has been assigned a variety of functions; whether these functions reflect its conserved role has been difficult to determine. We show that PCH-2 restrains pairing, synapsis and recombination in C. elegans. Loss of pch-2 results in the acceleration of synapsis and homolog-dependent meiotic DNA repair, producing a subtle increase in meiotic defects, and suppresses pairing, synapsis and recombination defects in some mutant backgrounds. Some defects in pch-2 mutants can be suppressed by incubation at lower temperature and these defects increase in frequency in wildtype worms grown at higher temperature, suggesting that PCH-2 introduces a kinetic barrier to the formation of intermediates that support pairing, synapsis or crossover recombination. We hypothesize that this kinetic barrier contributes to quality control during meiotic prophase. Consistent with this possibility, defects in pch-2 mutants become more severe when another quality control mechanism, germline apoptosis, is abrogated or meiotic DNA repair is mildly disrupted. PCH-2 is expressed in germline nuclei immediately preceding the onset of stable homolog pairing and synapsis. Once chromosomes are synapsed, PCH-2 localizes to the SC and is removed in late pachytene, prior to SC disassembly, correlating with when homolog-dependent DNA repair mechanisms predominate in the germline. Indeed, loss of pch-2 results in premature loss of homolog access. Altogether, our data indicate that PCH-2 coordinates pairing, synapsis and recombination to promote crossover assurance. Specifically, we propose that the conserved function of PCH-2 is to destabilize pairing

  3. Shu1 Promotes Homolog Bias of Meiotic Recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Soogil; Kim, Keun Pil

    2013-01-01

    Homologous recombination occurs closely between homologous chromatids with highly ordered recombinosomes through RecA homologs and mediators. The present study demonstrates this relationship during the period of “partner choice” in yeast meiotic recombination. We have examined the formation of recombination intermediates in the absence or presence of Shu1, a member of the PCSS complex, which also includes Psy3, Csm2, and Shu2. DNA physical analysis indicates that Shu1 is essential for promoting the establishment of homolog bias during meiotic homologous recombination, and the partner choice is switched by Mek1 kinase activity. Furthermore, Shu1 promotes both crossover (CO) and non-crossover (NCO) pathways of meiotic recombination. The inactivation of Mek1 kinase allows for meiotic recombination to progress efficiently, but is lost in homolog bias where most double-strand breaks (DSBs) are repaired via stable intersister joint molecules. Moreover, the Srs2 helicase deletion cells in the budding yeast show slightly reduced COs and NCOs, and Shu1 promotes homolog bias independent of Srs2. Our findings reveal that Shu1 and Mek1 kinase activity have biochemically distinct roles in partner choice, which in turn enhances the understanding of the mechanism associated with the precondition for homolog bias. PMID:24213600

  4. Overlapping mechanisms promote postsynaptic RAD-51 filament disassembly during meiotic double-strand break repair.

    PubMed

    Ward, Jordan D; Muzzini, Diego M; Petalcorin, Mark I R; Martinez-Perez, Enrique; Martin, Julie S; Plevani, Paolo; Cassata, Giuseppe; Marini, Federica; Boulton, Simon J

    2010-01-29

    Homologous recombination (HR) is essential for repair of meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Although the mechanisms of RAD-51-DNA filament assembly and strand exchange are well characterized, the subsequent steps of HR are less well defined. Here, we describe a synthetic lethal interaction between the C. elegans helicase helq-1 and RAD-51 paralog rfs-1, which results in a block to meiotic DSB repair after strand invasion. Whereas RAD-51-ssDNA filaments assemble at meiotic DSBs with normal kinetics in helq-1, rfs-1 double mutants, persistence of RAD-51 foci and genetic interactions with rtel-1 suggest a failure to disassemble RAD-51 from strand invasion intermediates. Indeed, purified HELQ-1 and RFS-1 independently bind to and promote the disassembly of RAD-51 from double-stranded, but not single-stranded, DNA filaments via distinct mechanisms in vitro. These results indicate that two compensating activities are required to promote postsynaptic RAD-51 filament disassembly, which are collectively essential for completion of meiotic DSB repair.

  5. Epsin2 promotes polarity establishment and meiotic division through activating Cdc42 in mouse oocyte

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiaqi; Liu, Xiaohui; Ma, Rujun; Hou, Xiaojing; Ge, Juan; Wang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Epsins are a conserved family of endocytic adaptors essential for diverse biological events. However, its role in oocytes remains completely unknown. Here, we report that specific depletion of Epsin2 in mouse oocytes significantly disrupts meiotic progression. Confocal microscopy reveals that Epsin2 knockdown results in the failure of actin cap formation and polar body extrusion during meiosis, indicative of the importance of Epsin2 in polarity establishment and cytokinesis. In addition, spindle defects and chromosome misalignment are readily observed in oocytes depleted of Epsin2. Moreover, we find that Epsin2 knockdown markedly decreases the activity of Cdc42 in oocytes and importantly, that the dominant-positive mutant of Cdc42 (Cdc42Q61L) is capable of partially rescuing the deficient phenotypes of Epsin2-knockdown oocytes. Together, our data identify Epsin2 as a novel player in regulating oocyte maturation, and demonstrate that Epsin2 promotes polarity establishment and meiotic division via activating Cdc42. PMID:27463009

  6. G beta gamma signaling reduces intracellular cAMP to promote meiotic progression in mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Gill, Arvind; Hammes, Stephen R

    2007-02-01

    In nearly every vertebrate species, elevated intracellular cAMP maintains oocytes in prophase I of meiosis. Prior to ovulation, gonadotropins trigger various intra-ovarian processes, including the breakdown of gap junctions, the activation of EGF receptors, and the secretion of steroids. These events in turn decrease intracellular cAMP levels in select oocytes to allow meiotic progression, or maturation, to resume. Studies suggest that cAMP levels are kept elevated in resting oocytes by constitutive G protein signaling, and that the drop in intracellular cAMP that accompanies maturation may be due in part to attenuation of this inhibitory G protein-mediated signaling. Interestingly, one of these G protein regulators of meiotic arrest is the Galpha(s) protein, which stimulates adenylyl cyclase to raise intracellular cAMP in two important animal models of oocyte development: Xenopus leavis frogs and mice. In addition to G(alpha)(s), constitutive Gbetagamma activity similarly stimulates adenylyl cyclase to raise cAMP and prevent maturation in Xenopus oocytes; however, the role of Gbetagamma in regulating meiosis in mouse oocytes has not been examined. Here we show that Gbetagamma does not contribute to the maintenance of murine oocyte meiotic arrest. In fact, contrary to observations in frog oocytes, Gbetagamma signaling in mouse oocytes reduces cAMP and promotes oocyte maturation, suggesting that Gbetagamma might in fact play a positive role in promoting oocyte maturation. These observations emphasize that, while many general concepts and components of meiotic regulation are conserved from frogs to mice, specific differences exist that may lead to important insights regarding ovarian development in vertebrates.

  7. H2B ubiquitination regulates meiotic recombination by promoting chromatin relaxation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhiliang; Song, Zhenhua; Li, Guoping; Tu, Huayu; Liu, Weixiao; Liu, Yujiao; Wang, Pan; Wang, Yuanting; Cui, Xiuhong; Liu, Chao; Shang, Yongliang; de Rooij, Dirk G.; Gao, Fei; Li, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic recombination is essential for fertility in most sexually reproducing species, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this process remain poorly understood in mammals. Here, we show that RNF20-mediated H2B ubiquitination is required for meiotic recombination. A germ cell-specific knockout of the H2B ubiquitination E3 ligase RNF20 results in complete male infertility. The Stra8-Rnf20−/− spermatocytes arrest at the pachytene stage because of impaired programmed double-strand break (DSB) repair. Further investigations reveal that the depletion of RNF20 in the germ cells affects chromatin relaxation, thus preventing programmed DSB repair factors from being recruited to proper positions on the chromatin. The gametogenetic defects of the H2B ubiquitination deficient cells could be partially rescued by forced chromatin relaxation. Taken together, our results demonstrate that RNF20/Bre1p-mediated H2B ubiquitination regulates meiotic recombination by promoting chromatin relaxation, and suggest an old drug may provide a new way to treat some oligo- or azoospermia patients with chromatin relaxation disorders. PMID:27431324

  8. Arabidopsis meiotic crossover hot spots overlap with H2A.Z nucleosomes at gene promoters.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyuha; Zhao, Xiaohui; Kelly, Krystyna A; Venn, Oliver; Higgins, James D; Yelina, Nataliya E; Hardcastle, Thomas J; Ziolkowski, Piotr A; Copenhaver, Gregory P; Franklin, F Chris H; McVean, Gil; Henderson, Ian R

    2013-11-01

    PRDM9 directs human meiotic crossover hot spots to intergenic sequence motifs, whereas budding yeast hot spots overlap regions of low nucleosome density (LND) in gene promoters. To investigate hot spots in plants, which lack PRDM9, we used coalescent analysis of genetic variation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Crossovers increased toward gene promoters and terminators, and hot spots were associated with active chromatin modifications, including H2A.Z, histone H3 Lys4 trimethylation (H3K4me3), LND and low DNA methylation. Hot spot-enriched A-rich and CTT-repeat DNA motifs occurred upstream and downstream, respectively, of transcriptional start sites. Crossovers were asymmetric around promoters and were most frequent over CTT-repeat motifs and H2A.Z nucleosomes. Pollen typing, segregation and cytogenetic analysis showed decreased numbers of crossovers in the arp6 H2A.Z deposition mutant at multiple scales. During meiosis, H2A.Z forms overlapping chromosomal foci with the DMC1 and RAD51 recombinases. As arp6 reduced the number of DMC1 or RAD51 foci, H2A.Z may promote the formation or processing of meiotic DNA double-strand breaks. We propose that gene chromatin ancestrally designates hot spots within eukaryotes and PRDM9 is a derived state within vertebrates.

  9. Phosphorylation of cohesin Rec11/SA3 by casein kinase 1 promotes homologous recombination by assembling the meiotic chromosome axis.

    PubMed

    Sakuno, Takeshi; Watanabe, Yoshinori

    2015-01-26

    In meiosis, cohesin is required for sister chromatid cohesion, as well as meiotic chromosome axis assembly and recombination. However, mechanisms underlying the multifunctional nature of cohesin remain elusive. Here, we show that fission yeast casein kinase 1 (CK1) plays a crucial role in assembling the meiotic chromosome axis (so-called linear element: LinE) and promoting recombination. An in vitro phosphorylation screening assay identified meiotic cohesin subunit Rec11/SA3 as an excellent substrate of CK1. The phosphorylation of Rec11 by CK1 mediates the interaction with the Rec10/Red1/SCP2 axis component, a key step in meiotic chromosome axis assembly, and is dispensable for sister chromatid cohesion. Crucially, the expression of Rec11-Rec10 fusion protein nearly completely bypasses the requirement for CK1 or cohesin phosphorylation for LinE assembly and recombination. This study uncovers a central mechanism of the cohesin-dependent assembly of the meiotic chromosome axis and recombination apparatus that acts independently of sister chromatid cohesion.

  10. The Pch2 AAA+ ATPase promotes phosphorylation of the Hop1 meiotic checkpoint adaptor in response to synaptonemal complex defects

    PubMed Central

    Herruzo, Esther; Ontoso, David; González-Arranz, Sara; Cavero, Santiago; Lechuga, Ana; San-Segundo, Pedro A.

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic cells possess surveillance mechanisms that monitor critical events such as recombination and chromosome synapsis. Meiotic defects resulting from the absence of the synaptonemal complex component Zip1 activate a meiosis-specific checkpoint network resulting in delayed or arrested meiotic progression. Pch2 is an evolutionarily conserved AAA+ ATPase required for the checkpoint-induced meiotic block in the zip1 mutant, where Pch2 is only detectable at the ribosomal DNA array (nucleolus). We describe here that high levels of the Hop1 protein, a checkpoint adaptor that localizes to chromosome axes, suppress the checkpoint defect of a zip1 pch2 mutant restoring Mek1 activity and meiotic cell cycle delay. We demonstrate that the critical role of Pch2 in this synapsis checkpoint is to sustain Mec1-dependent phosphorylation of Hop1 at threonine 318. We also show that the ATPase activity of Pch2 is essential for its checkpoint function and that ATP binding to Pch2 is required for its localization. Previous work has shown that Pch2 negatively regulates Hop1 chromosome abundance during unchallenged meiosis. Based on our results, we propose that, under checkpoint-inducing conditions, Pch2 also possesses a positive action on Hop1 promoting its phosphorylation and its proper distribution on unsynapsed chromosome axes. PMID:27257060

  11. Translocations of Chromosome End-Segments and Facultative Heterochromatin Promote Meiotic Ring Formation in Evening Primroses[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Golczyk, Hieronim; Massouh, Amid; Greiner, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Due to reciprocal chromosomal translocations, many species of Oenothera (evening primrose) form permanent multichromosomal meiotic rings. However, regular bivalent pairing is also observed. Chiasmata are restricted to chromosomal ends, which makes homologous recombination virtually undetectable. Genetic diversity is achieved by changing linkage relations of chromosomes in rings and bivalents via hybridization and reciprocal translocations. Although the structural prerequisite for this system is enigmatic, whole-arm translocations are widely assumed to be the mechanistic driving force. We demonstrate that this prerequisite is genome compartmentation into two epigenetically defined chromatin fractions. The first one facultatively condenses in cycling cells into chromocenters negative both for histone H3 dimethylated at lysine 4 and for C-banding, and forms huge condensed middle chromosome regions on prophase chromosomes. Remarkably, it decondenses in differentiating cells. The second fraction is euchromatin confined to distal chromosome segments, positive for histone H3 lysine 4 dimethylation and for histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation. The end-segments are deprived of canonical telomeres but capped with constitutive heterochromatin. This genomic organization promotes translocation breakpoints between the two chromatin fractions, thus facilitating exchanges of end-segments. We challenge the whole-arm translocation hypothesis by demonstrating why reciprocal translocations of chromosomal end-segments should strongly promote meiotic rings and evolution toward permanent translocation heterozygosity. Reshuffled end-segments, each possessing a major crossover hot spot, can furthermore explain meiotic compatibility between genomes with different translocation histories. PMID:24681616

  12. Augmin promotes meiotic spindle formation and bipolarity in Xenopus egg extracts.

    PubMed

    Petry, Sabine; Pugieux, Céline; Nédélec, François J; Vale, Ronald D

    2011-08-30

    Female meiotic spindles in many organisms form in the absence of centrosomes, the organelle typically associated with microtubule (MT) nucleation. Previous studies have proposed that these meiotic spindles arise from RanGTP-mediated MT nucleation in the vicinity of chromatin; however, whether this process is sufficient for spindle formation is unknown. Here, we investigated whether a recently proposed spindle-based MT nucleation pathway that involves augmin, an 8-subunit protein complex, also contributes to spindle morphogenesis. We used an assay system in which hundreds of meiotic spindles can be observed forming around chromatin-coated beads after introduction of Xenopus egg extracts. Spindles forming in augmin-depleted extracts showed reduced rates of MT formation and were predominantly multipolar, revealing a function of augmin in stabilizing the bipolar shape of the acentrosomal meiotic spindle. Our studies also have uncovered an apparent augmin-independent MT nucleation process from acentrosomal poles, which becomes increasingly active over time and appears to partially rescue the spindle defects that arise from augmin depletion. Our studies reveal that spatially and temporally distinct MT generation pathways from chromatin, spindle MTs, and acentrosomal poles all contribute to robust bipolar spindle formation in meiotic extracts.

  13. Spp1, a member of the Set1 Complex, promotes meiotic DSB formation in promoters by tethering histone H3K4 methylation sites to chromosome axes.

    PubMed

    Sommermeyer, Vérane; Béneut, Claire; Chaplais, Emmanuel; Serrentino, Maria Elisabetta; Borde, Valérie

    2013-01-10

    Meiotic chromosomes are organized into arrays of loops that are anchored to the chromosome axis structure. Programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that initiate meiotic recombination, catalyzed by Spo11 and accessory DSB proteins, form in loop sequences in promoters, whereas the DSB proteins are located on chromosome axes. Mechanisms bridging these two chromosomal regions for DSB formation have remained elusive. Here we show that Spp1, a conserved member of the histone H3K4 methyltransferase Set1 complex, is required for normal levels of DSB formation and is associated with chromosome axes during meiosis, where it physically interacts with the Mer2 DSB protein. The PHD finger module of Spp1, which reads H3K4 methylation close to promoters, promotes DSB formation by tethering these regions to chromosome axes and activating cleavage by the DSB proteins. This paper provides the molecular mechanism linking DSB sequences to chromosome axes and explains why H3K4 methylation is important for meiotic recombination.

  14. Genetically enhanced asynapsis of autosomal chromatin promotes transcriptional dysregulation and meiotic failure.

    PubMed

    Homolka, David; Jansa, Petr; Forejt, Jiri

    2012-02-01

    During meiosis, pairing of homologous chromosomes and their synapsis are essential prerequisites for normal male gametogenesis. Even limited autosomal asynapsis often leads to spermatogenic impairment, the mechanism of which is not fully understood. The present study was aimed at deliberately increasing the size of partial autosomal asynapsis and analysis of its impact on male meiosis. For this purpose, we studied the effect of t(12) haplotype encompassing four inversions on chromosome 17 on mouse autosomal translocation T(16;17)43H (abbreviated T43H). The T43H/T43H homozygotes were fully fertile in both sexes, while +/T43H heterozygous males, but not females, were sterile with meiotic arrest at late pachynema. Inclusion of the t(12) haplotype in trans to the T43H translocation resulted in enhanced asynapsis of the translocated autosome, ectopic phosphorylation of histone H2AX, persistence of RAD51 foci, and increased gene silencing around the translocation break. Increase was also on colocalization of unsynapsed chromatin with sex body. Remarkably, we found that transcriptional silencing of the unsynapsed autosomal chromatin precedes silencing of sex chromosomes. Based on the present knowledge, we conclude that interference of meiotic silencing of unsynapsed autosomes with meiotic sex chromosome inactivation is the most likely cause of asynapsis-related male sterility.

  15. OSD1 promotes meiotic progression via APC/C inhibition and forms a regulatory network with TDM and CYCA1;2/TAM.

    PubMed

    Cromer, Laurence; Heyman, Jefri; Touati, Sandra; Harashima, Hirofumi; Araou, Emilie; Girard, Chloe; Horlow, Christine; Wassmann, Katja; Schnittger, Arp; De Veylder, Lieven; Mercier, Raphael

    2012-01-01

    Cell cycle control is modified at meiosis compared to mitosis, because two divisions follow a single DNA replication event. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) promote progression through both meiosis and mitosis, and a central regulator of their activity is the APC/C (Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome) that is especially required for exit from mitosis. We have shown previously that OSD1 is involved in entry into both meiosis I and meiosis II in Arabidopsis thaliana; however, the molecular mechanism by which OSD1 controls these transitions has remained unclear. Here we show that OSD1 promotes meiotic progression through APC/C inhibition. Next, we explored the functional relationships between OSD1 and the genes known to control meiotic cell cycle transitions in Arabidopsis. Like osd1, cyca1;2/tam mutation leads to a premature exit from meiosis after the first division, while tdm mutants perform an aberrant third meiotic division after normal meiosis I and II. Remarkably, while tdm is epistatic to tam, osd1 is epistatic to tdm. We further show that the expression of a non-destructible CYCA1;2/TAM provokes, like tdm, the entry into a third meiotic division. Finally, we show that CYCA1;2/TAM forms an active complex with CDKA;1 that can phosphorylate OSD1 in vitro. We thus propose that a functional network composed of OSD1, CYCA1;2/TAM, and TDM controls three key steps of meiotic progression, in which OSD1 is a meiotic APC/C inhibitor.

  16. The POU gene ceh-18 promotes gonadal sheath cell differentiation and function required for meiotic maturation and ovulation in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Rose, K L; Winfrey, V P; Hoffman, L H; Hall, D H; Furuta, T; Greenstein, D

    1997-12-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans, specialized contractile myoepithelial cells of the somatic gonad, the gonadal sheath cells, are closely apposed to oocytes and are required for normal meiotic maturation and ovulation. Previously we found that mutations in the ceh-18 gene, which encodes a POU-class homeoprotein expressed in sheath cells, result in oocyte defects. To determine the basis for these oocyte defects, we have used time-lapse video Nomarski microscopy to observe meiotic maturation, ovulation, and early embryogenesis in ceh-18 mutants. In ceh-18 mutants sheath cell contractions are weaker, less frequent, and uncoordinated throughout the sequence of ovulation events, and ovulation is defective. Defective ovulation can result in the formation of endomitotic oocytes in the gonad, the formation of haploid embryos, and reversals in embryonic polarity. ceh-18 mutant oocytes exhibit defects prior to nuclear envelope breakdown, suggesting that they are physiologically different from the wild type. We observed delays in meiotic maturation, as well as maturation out of the normal spatial and temporal sequence, suggesting that proximal sheath cells directly or indirectly promote and spatially restrict meiotic maturation. Analysis of sheath cell differentiation in ceh-18 mutants using antibodies to proteins of the contractile apparatus reveals that although contractile proteins are expressed, the sheath cells appear disorganized. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that ceh-18 mutant sheath cells are morphologically irregular and only loosely cover oocytes. Taken together, these observations indicate that ceh-18 is a crucial determinant of sheath cell differentiation, a function required for normal meiotic maturation and ovulation.

  17. Telomeres and centromeres have interchangeable roles in promoting meiotic spindle formation

    PubMed Central

    Fennell, Alex; Fernández-Álvarez, Alfonso; Tomita, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres and centromeres have traditionally been considered to perform distinct roles. During meiotic prophase, in a conserved chromosomal configuration called the bouquet, telomeres gather to the nuclear membrane (NM), often near centrosomes. We found previously that upon disruption of the fission yeast bouquet, centrosomes failed to insert into the NM at meiosis I and nucleate bipolar spindles. Hence, the trans-NM association of telomeres with centrosomes during prophase is crucial for efficient spindle formation. Nonetheless, in approximately half of bouquet-deficient meiocytes, spindles form properly. Here, we show that bouquet-deficient cells can successfully undergo meiosis using centromere–centrosome contact instead of telomere–centrosome contact to generate spindle formation. Accordingly, forced association between centromeres and centrosomes fully rescued the spindle defects incurred by bouquet disruption. Telomeres and centromeres both stimulate focal accumulation of the SUN domain protein Sad1 beneath the centrosome, suggesting a molecular underpinning for their shared spindle-generating ability. Our observations demonstrate an unanticipated level of interchangeability between the two most prominent chromosomal landmarks. PMID:25688135

  18. Separable Roles for a Caenorhabditis elegans RMI1 Homolog in Promoting and Antagonizing Meiotic Crossovers Ensure Faithful Chromosome Inheritance

    PubMed Central

    Jagut, Marlène; Hamminger, Patricia; Woglar, Alexander; Millonigg, Sophia; Paulin, Luis; Mikl, Martin; Dello Stritto, Maria Rosaria; Tang, Lois; Habacher, Cornelia; Tam, Angela; Gallach, Miguel; von Haeseler, Arndt; Villeneuve, Anne M.; Jantsch, Verena

    2016-01-01

    During the first meiotic division, crossovers (COs) between homologous chromosomes ensure their correct segregation. COs are produced by homologous recombination (HR)-mediated repair of programmed DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). As more DSBs are induced than COs, mechanisms are required to establish a regulated number of COs and to repair remaining intermediates as non-crossovers (NCOs). We show that the Caenorhabditis elegans RMI1 homolog-1 (RMH-1) functions during meiosis to promote both CO and NCO HR at appropriate chromosomal sites. RMH-1 accumulates at CO sites, dependent on known pro-CO factors, and acts to promote CO designation and enforce the CO outcome of HR-intermediate resolution. RMH-1 also localizes at NCO sites and functions in parallel with SMC-5 to antagonize excess HR-based connections between chromosomes. Moreover, RMH-1 also has a major role in channeling DSBs into an NCO HR outcome near the centers of chromosomes, thereby ensuring that COs form predominantly at off-center positions. PMID:27011106

  19. The Exonuclease Homolog OsRAD1 Promotes Accurate Meiotic Double-Strand Break Repair by Suppressing Nonhomologous End Joining1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ding; Shen, Yi; Chen, Xiaojun; Ji, Jianhui; Du, Guijie; Li, Yafei; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2016-01-01

    During meiosis, programmed double-strand breaks (DSBs) are generated to initiate homologous recombination, which is crucial for faithful chromosome segregation. In yeast, Radiation sensitive1 (RAD1) acts together with Radiation sensitive9 (RAD9) and Hydroxyurea sensitive1 (HUS1) to facilitate meiotic recombination via cell-cycle checkpoint control. However, little is known about the meiotic functions of these proteins in higher eukaryotes. Here, we characterized a RAD1 homolog in rice (Oryza sativa) and obtained evidence that O. sativa RAD1 (OsRAD1) is important for meiotic DSB repair. Loss of OsRAD1 led to abnormal chromosome association and fragmentation upon completion of homologous pairing and synapsis. These aberrant chromosome associations were independent of OsDMC1. We found that classical nonhomologous end-joining mediated by Ku70 accounted for most of the ectopic associations in Osrad1. In addition, OsRAD1 interacts directly with OsHUS1 and OsRAD9, suggesting that these proteins act as a complex to promote DSB repair during rice meiosis. Together, these findings suggest that the 9-1-1 complex facilitates accurate meiotic recombination by suppressing nonhomologous end-joining during meiosis in rice. PMID:27512017

  20. PUF-8 Functions Redundantly with GLD-1 to Promote the Meiotic Progression of Spermatocytes in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Priti, Agarwal; Subramaniam, Kuppuswamy

    2015-01-01

    Successful meiotic progression of germ cells is crucial for gametogenesis. Defects in this process affect proper genetic transmission and sometimes lead to tumor formation in the germline. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the RNA-binding protein GLD-1 is essential for the meiotic development of oocytes. However, its role during spermatogenesis has not been understood. Here, we show that GLD-1 functions redundantly with the PUF family protein PUF-8 to ensure proper meiotic development of spermatocytes. When grown at 20°—the standard laboratory temperature for C. elegans growth—primary spermatocytes in both gld-1 and puf-8 single-mutant males and hermaphrodites complete the meiotic divisions normally. By contrast, some of the gld-1; puf-8 double-mutant spermatocytes exit meiosis and form germ cell tumors in both sexes. During larval development, gld-1; puf-8 double-mutant germ cells begin to express the meiotic marker HIM-3, lose P granules, and form the sperm-specific membranous organelle, which are characteristics of developing spermatocytes. However, some of these cells quickly lose HIM-3 and form germ cell tumors that lack membranous organelle but contain P granules. Mutations that block meiotic progression at late pachytene or diakinetic stage fail to arrest the tumorigenesis, suggesting that the gld-1; puf-8 double-mutant spermatocytes exit meiosis prior to the completion of pachytene. Together, results presented here uncover a novel function for gld-1 in the meiotic development of spermatocytes in both hermaphrodites and males. PMID:26068572

  1. PUF-8 Functions Redundantly with GLD-1 to Promote the Meiotic Progression of Spermatocytes in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Priti, Agarwal; Subramaniam, Kuppuswamy

    2015-06-10

    Successful meiotic progression of germ cells is crucial for gametogenesis. Defects in this process affect proper genetic transmission and sometimes lead to tumor formation in the germline. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the RNA-binding protein GLD-1 is essential for the meiotic development of oocytes. However, its role during spermatogenesis has not been understood. Here, we show that GLD-1 functions redundantly with the PUF family protein PUF-8 to ensure proper meiotic development of spermatocytes. When grown at 20°-the standard laboratory temperature for C. elegans growth-primary spermatocytes in both gld-1 and puf-8 single-mutant males and hermaphrodites complete the meiotic divisions normally. By contrast, some of the gld-1; puf-8 double-mutant spermatocytes exit meiosis and form germ cell tumors in both sexes. During larval development, gld-1; puf-8 double-mutant germ cells begin to express the meiotic marker HIM-3, lose P granules, and form the sperm-specific membranous organelle, which are characteristics of developing spermatocytes. However, some of these cells quickly lose HIM-3 and form germ cell tumors that lack membranous organelle but contain P granules. Mutations that block meiotic progression at late pachytene or diakinetic stage fail to arrest the tumorigenesis, suggesting that the gld-1; puf-8 double-mutant spermatocytes exit meiosis prior to the completion of pachytene. Together, results presented here uncover a novel function for gld-1 in the meiotic development of spermatocytes in both hermaphrodites and males.

  2. The C. elegans DSB-2 protein reveals a regulatory network that controls competence for meiotic DSB formation and promotes crossover assurance.

    PubMed

    Rosu, Simona; Zawadzki, Karl A; Stamper, Ericca L; Libuda, Diana E; Reese, Angela L; Dernburg, Abby F; Villeneuve, Anne M

    2013-01-01

    For most organisms, chromosome segregation during meiosis relies on deliberate induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and repair of a subset of these DSBs as inter-homolog crossovers (COs). However, timing and levels of DSB formation must be tightly controlled to avoid jeopardizing genome integrity. Here we identify the DSB-2 protein, which is required for efficient DSB formation during C. elegans meiosis but is dispensable for later steps of meiotic recombination. DSB-2 localizes to chromatin during the time of DSB formation, and its disappearance coincides with a decline in RAD-51 foci marking early recombination intermediates and precedes appearance of COSA-1 foci marking CO-designated sites. These and other data suggest that DSB-2 and its paralog DSB-1 promote competence for DSB formation. Further, immunofluorescence analyses of wild-type gonads and various meiotic mutants reveal that association of DSB-2 with chromatin is coordinated with multiple distinct aspects of the meiotic program, including the phosphorylation state of nuclear envelope protein SUN-1 and dependence on RAD-50 to load the RAD-51 recombinase at DSB sites. Moreover, association of DSB-2 with chromatin is prolonged in mutants impaired for either DSB formation or formation of downstream CO intermediates. These and other data suggest that association of DSB-2 with chromatin is an indicator of competence for DSB formation, and that cells respond to a deficit of CO-competent recombination intermediates by prolonging the DSB-competent state. In the context of this model, we propose that formation of sufficient CO-competent intermediates engages a negative feedback response that leads to cessation of DSB formation as part of a major coordinated transition in meiotic prophase progression. The proposed negative feedback regulation of DSB formation simultaneously (1) ensures that sufficient DSBs are made to guarantee CO formation and (2) prevents excessive DSB levels that could have deleterious

  3. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. CEP63 deficiency promotes p53-dependent microcephaly and reveals a role for the centrosome in meiotic recombination.

    PubMed

    Marjanović, Marko; Sánchez-Huertas, Carlos; Terré, Berta; Gómez, Rocío; Scheel, Jan Frederik; Pacheco, Sarai; Knobel, Philip A; Martínez-Marchal, Ana; Aivio, Suvi; Palenzuela, Lluís; Wolfrum, Uwe; McKinnon, Peter J; Suja, José A; Roig, Ignasi; Costanzo, Vincenzo; Lüders, Jens; Stracker, Travis H

    2015-07-09

    CEP63 is a centrosomal protein that facilitates centriole duplication and is regulated by the DNA damage response. Mutations in CEP63 cause Seckel syndrome, a human disease characterized by microcephaly and dwarfism. Here we demonstrate that Cep63-deficient mice recapitulate Seckel syndrome pathology. The attrition of neural progenitor cells involves p53-dependent cell death, and brain size is rescued by the deletion of p53. Cell death is not the result of an aberrant DNA damage response but is triggered by centrosome-based mitotic errors. In addition, Cep63 loss severely impairs meiotic recombination, leading to profound male infertility. Cep63-deficient spermatocytes display numerical and structural centrosome aberrations, chromosome entanglements and defective telomere clustering, suggesting that a reduction in centrosome-mediated chromosome movements underlies recombination failure. Our results provide novel insight into the molecular pathology of microcephaly and establish a role for the centrosome in meiotic recombination.

  5. Histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation marks meiotic recombination initiation sites.

    PubMed

    Borde, Valérie; Robine, Nicolas; Lin, Waka; Bonfils, Sandrine; Géli, Vincent; Nicolas, Alain

    2009-01-21

    The function of histone modifications in initiating and regulating the chromosomal events of the meiotic prophase remains poorly understood. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we examined the genome-wide localization of histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) along meiosis and its relationship to gene expression and position of the programmed double-strand breaks (DSBs) that initiate interhomologue recombination, essential to yield viable haploid gametes. We find that the level of H3K4me3 is constitutively higher close to DSB sites, independently of local gene expression levels. Without Set1, the H3K4 methylase, 84% of the DSB sites exhibit a severely reduced DSB frequency, the reduction being quantitatively correlated with the local level of H3K4me3 in wild-type cells. Further, we show that this differential histone mark is already established in vegetative cells, being higher in DSB-prone regions than in regions with no or little DSB. Taken together, our results demonstrate that H3K4me3 is a prominent and preexisting mark of active meiotic recombination initiation sites. Novel perspectives to dissect the various layers of the controls of meiotic DSB formation are discussed.

  6. Xp38γ/SAPK3 promotes meiotic G2/M transition in Xenopus oocytes and activates Cdc25C

    PubMed Central

    Perdiguero, Eusebio; Pillaire, Marie-Jeanne; Bodart, Jean-Francois; Hennersdorf, Florian; Frödin, Morten; Duesbery, Nicholas S.; Alonso, Gema; Nebreda, Angel R.

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in the meiotic maturation of Xenopus oocytes. Overexpression of a constitutively active mutant of the p38 activator MKK6 accelerates progesterone-induced maturation. Immunoprecipit ation experiments indicate that p38γ/SAPK3 is the major p38 activated by MKK6 in the oocytes. We have cloned Xenopus p38γ (Xp38γ) and show that co-expression of active MKK6 with Xp38γ induces oocyte maturation in the absence of progesterone. The maturation induced by Xp38γ requires neither protein synthesis nor activation of the p42 MAPK–p90Rsk pathway, but it is blocked by cAMP-dependent protein kinase. A role for the endogenous Xp38γ in progesterone-induced maturation is supported by the inhibitory effect of kinase-dead mutants of MKK6 and Xp38γ. Furthermore, MKK6 can rescue the inhibition of oocyte maturation by anthrax lethal factor, a protease that inactivates MAPK kinases. We also show that Xp38γ can activate the phosphatase XCdc25C, and we identified Ser205 of XCdc25C as a major phosphorylation site for Xp38γ. Our results indicate that phosphorylation of XCdc25C by Xp38γ/SAPK3 is important for the meiotic G2/M progression of Xenopus oocytes. PMID:14592973

  7. Mouse Y-linked Zfy1 and Zfy2 are expressed during the male-specific interphase between meiosis I and meiosis II and promote the 2nd meiotic division.

    PubMed

    Vernet, Nadège; Mahadevaiah, Shantha K; Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Decarpentrie, Fanny; Mitchell, Michael J; Ward, Monika A; Burgoyne, Paul S

    2014-06-01

    Mouse Zfy1 and Zfy2 encode zinc finger transcription factors that map to the short arm of the Y chromosome (Yp). They have previously been shown to promote meiotic quality control during pachytene (Zfy1 and Zfy2) and at the first meiotic metaphase (Zfy2). However, from these previous studies additional roles for genes encoded on Yp during meiotic progression were inferred. In order to identify these genes and investigate their function in later stages of meiosis, we created three models with diminishing Yp and Zfy gene complements (but lacking the Y-long-arm). Since the Y-long-arm mediates pairing and exchange with the X via their pseudoautosomal regions (PARs) we added a minute PAR-bearing X chromosome derivative to enable formation of a sex bivalent, thus avoiding Zfy2-mediated meiotic metaphase I (MI) checkpoint responses to the unpaired (univalent) X chromosome. Using these models we obtained definitive evidence that genetic information on Yp promotes meiosis II, and by transgene addition identified Zfy1 and Zfy2 as the genes responsible. Zfy2 was substantially more effective and proved to have a much more potent transactivation domain than Zfy1. We previously established that only Zfy2 is required for the robust apoptotic elimination of MI spermatocytes in response to a univalent X; the finding that both genes potentiate meiosis II led us to ask whether there was de novo Zfy1 and Zfy2 transcription in the interphase between meiosis I and meiosis II, and this proved to be the case. X-encoded Zfx was also expressed at this stage and Zfx over-expression also potentiated meiosis II. An interphase between the meiotic divisions is male-specific and we previously hypothesised that this allows meiosis II critical X and Y gene reactivation following sex chromosome silencing in meiotic prophase. The interphase transcription and meiosis II function of Zfx, Zfy1 and Zfy2 validate this hypothesis.

  8. Meiotic Development in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Lui, Doris Y.

    2013-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans has become a powerful experimental organism with which to study meiotic processes that promote the accurate segregation of chromosomes during the generation of haploid gametes. Haploid reproductive cells are produced through one round of chromosome replication followed by two successive cell divisions. Characteristic meiotic chromosome structure and dynamics are largely conserved in C. elegans. Chromosomes adopt a meiosis-specific structure by loading cohesin proteins, assembling axial elements, and acquiring chromatin marks. Homologous chromosomes pair and form physical connections though synapsis and recombination. Synaptonemal complex and crossover formation allow for the homologs to stably associate prior to remodeling that facilitates their segregation. This chapter will cover conserved meiotic processes as well as highlight aspects of meiosis that are unique to C. elegans. PMID:22872477

  9. The SMC-5/6 Complex and the HIM-6 (BLM) Helicase Synergistically Promote Meiotic Recombination Intermediate Processing and Chromosome Maturation during Caenorhabditis elegans Meiosis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ye; Sonneville, Remi; Agostinho, Ana; Meier, Bettina; Wang, Bin; Blow, J Julian; Gartner, Anton

    2016-03-01

    Meiotic recombination is essential for the repair of programmed double strand breaks (DSBs) to generate crossovers (COs) during meiosis. The efficient processing of meiotic recombination intermediates not only needs various resolvases but also requires proper meiotic chromosome structure. The Smc5/6 complex belongs to the structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) family and is closely related to cohesin and condensin. Although the Smc5/6 complex has been implicated in the processing of recombination intermediates during meiosis, it is not known how Smc5/6 controls meiotic DSB repair. Here, using Caenorhabditis elegans we show that the SMC-5/6 complex acts synergistically with HIM-6, an ortholog of the human Bloom syndrome helicase (BLM) during meiotic recombination. The concerted action of the SMC-5/6 complex and HIM-6 is important for processing recombination intermediates, CO regulation and bivalent maturation. Careful examination of meiotic chromosomal morphology reveals an accumulation of inter-chromosomal bridges in smc-5; him-6 double mutants, leading to compromised chromosome segregation during meiotic cell divisions. Interestingly, we found that the lethality of smc-5; him-6 can be rescued by loss of the conserved BRCA1 ortholog BRC-1. Furthermore, the combined deletion of smc-5 and him-6 leads to an irregular distribution of condensin and to chromosome decondensation defects reminiscent of condensin depletion. Lethality conferred by condensin depletion can also be rescued by BRC-1 depletion. Our results suggest that SMC-5/6 and HIM-6 can synergistically regulate recombination intermediate metabolism and suppress ectopic recombination by controlling chromosome architecture during meiosis.

  10. Meiotic recombination involving heterozygous large insertions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: formation and repair of large, unpaired DNA loops.

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, H M; Kirkpatrick, D T; Gerton, J L; Petes, T D

    2001-01-01

    Meiotic recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae involves the formation of heteroduplexes, duplexes containing DNA strands derived from two different homologues. If the two strands of DNA differ by an insertion or deletion, the heteroduplex will contain an unpaired DNA loop. We found that unpaired loops as large as 5.6 kb can be accommodated within a heteroduplex. Repair of these loops involved the nucleotide excision repair (NER) enzymes Rad1p and Rad10p and the mismatch repair (MMR) proteins Msh2p and Msh3p, but not several other NER (Rad2p and Rad14p) and MMR (Msh4p, Msh6p, Mlh1p, Pms1p, Mlh2p, Mlh3p) proteins. Heteroduplexes were also formed with DNA strands derived from alleles containing two different large insertions, creating a large "bubble"; repair of this substrate was dependent on Rad1p. Although meiotic recombination events in yeast are initiated by double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs), we showed that DSBs occurring within heterozygous insertions do not stimulate interhomologue recombination. PMID:11514439

  11. Meiotic process and aneuploidy

    SciTech Connect

    Grell, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    The process of meiosis is analyzed by dissecting it into its component parts using the early oocyte of Drosophila as a model. Entrance of the oocytes into premeiotic interphase signals initiation of DNA replication which continues for 30 h. Coincidentally, extensive synaptonemal complexes appear, averaging 50 ..mu..m (132 h), peaking at 75 ..mu..m (144 h) and continuing into early vitellarial stages. Recombinational response to heat, evidenced by enhancement or induction of exchange, is limited to the S-phase with a peak at 144 h coinciding with maximal extension of the SC. Coincidence of synapsis and recombination response with S at premeiotic interphase is contrary to their conventional localization at meiotic prophase. The interrelationship between exchange and nondisjunction has been clarified by the Distributive Pairing Model of meiosis. Originally revealed through high frequencies of nonrandom assortment of nonhomologous chromosomes, distributive pairing has been shown to follow and to be noncompetitive with exchange, to be based on size-recognition, not homology, and as a raison d'etre, to provide a segregational mechanism for noncrossover homologues. Rearrangements, recombination mutants and aneuploids may contribute noncrossover chromosomes to the distributive pool and so promote the nonhomologous associations responsible for nondisjunction of homologues and regular segregation of nonhomologues. 38 references, 15 figures. (ACR)

  12. Initiation of Meiotic Recombination in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rajeev; de Massy, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Meiotic recombination is initiated by the induction of programmed DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). DSB repair promotes homologous interactions and pairing and leads to the formation of crossovers (COs), which are required for the proper reductional segregation at the first meiotic division. In mammals, several hundred DSBs are generated at the beginning of meiotic prophase by the catalytic activity of SPO11. Currently it is not well understood how the frequency and timing of DSB formation and their localization are regulated. Several approaches in humans and mice have provided an extensive description of the localization of initiation events based on CO mapping, leading to the identification and characterization of preferred sites (hotspots) of initiation. This review presents the current knowledge about the proteins known to be involved in this process, the sites where initiation takes place, and the factors that control hotspot localization. PMID:24710101

  13. Epigenetic control of meiotic recombination in plants.

    PubMed

    Yelina, Natasha; Diaz, Patrick; Lambing, Christophe; Henderson, Ian R

    2015-03-01

    Meiotic recombination is a deeply conserved process within eukaryotes that has a profound effect on patterns of natural genetic variation. During meiosis homologous chromosomes pair and undergo DNA double strand breaks generated by the Spo11 endonuclease. These breaks can be repaired as crossovers that result in reciprocal exchange between chromosomes. The frequency of recombination along chromosomes is highly variable, for example, crossovers are rarely observed in heterochromatin and the centromeric regions. Recent work in plants has shown that crossover hotspots occur in gene promoters and are associated with specific chromatin modifications, including H2A.Z. Meiotic chromosomes are also organized in loop-base arrays connected to an underlying chromosome axis, which likely interacts with chromatin to organize patterns of recombination. Therefore, epigenetic information exerts a major influence on patterns of meiotic recombination along chromosomes, genetic variation within populations and evolution of plant genomes.

  14. Meiotic sex chromosome inactivation.

    PubMed

    Turner, James M A

    2007-05-01

    X chromosome inactivation is most commonly studied in the context of female mammalian development, where it performs an essential role in dosage compensation. However, another form of X-inactivation takes place in the male, during spermatogenesis, as germ cells enter meiosis. This second form of X-inactivation, called meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) has emerged as a novel paradigm for studying the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. New studies have revealed that MSCI is a special example of a more general mechanism called meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin (MSUC), which silences chromosomes that fail to pair with their homologous partners and, in doing so, may protect against aneuploidy in subsequent generations. Furthermore, failure in MSCI is emerging as an important etiological factor in meiotic sterility.

  15. Coevolutionary dynamics of polyandry and sex-linked meiotic drive.

    PubMed

    Holman, Luke; Price, Thomas A R; Wedell, Nina; Kokko, Hanna

    2015-03-01

    Segregation distorters located on sex chromosomes are predicted to sweep to fixation and cause extinction via a shortage of one sex, but in nature they are often found at low, stable frequencies. One potential resolution to this longstanding puzzle involves female multiple mating (polyandry). Because many meiotic drivers severely reduce the sperm competitive ability of their male carriers, females are predicted to evolve more frequent polyandry and thereby promote sperm competition when a meiotic driver invades. Consequently, the driving chromosome's relative fitness should decline, halting or reversing its spread. We used formal modeling to show that this initially appealing hypothesis cannot resolve the puzzle alone: other selective pressures (e.g., low fitness of drive homozygotes) are required to establish a stable meiotic drive polymorphism. However, polyandry and meiotic drive can strongly affect one another's frequency, and polyandrous populations may be resistant to the invasion of rare drive mutants.

  16. Regulation of Meiotic Recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory p. Copenhaver

    2011-11-09

    Meiotic recombination results in the heritable rearrangement of DNA, primarily through reciprocal exchange between homologous chromosome or gene conversion. In plants these events are critical for ensuring proper chromosome segregation, facilitating DNA repair and providing a basis for genetic diversity. Understanding this fundamental biological mechanism will directly facilitate trait mapping, conventional plant breeding, and development of genetic engineering techniques that will help support the responsible production and conversion of renewable resources for fuels, chemicals, and the conservation of energy (1-3). Substantial progress has been made in understanding the basal recombination machinery, much of which is conserved in organisms as diverse as yeast, plants and mammals (4, 5). Significantly less is known about the factors that regulate how often and where that basal machinery acts on higher eukaryotic chromosomes. One important mechanism for regulating the frequency and distribution of meiotic recombination is crossover interference - or the ability of one recombination event to influence nearby events. The MUS81 gene is thought to play an important role in regulating the influence of interference on crossing over. The immediate goals of this project are to use reverse genetics to identify mutants in two putative MUS81 homologs in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, characterize those mutants and initiate a novel forward genetic screen for additional regulators of meiotic recombination. The long-term goal of the project is to understand how meiotic recombination is regulated in higher eukaryotes with an emphasis on the molecular basis of crossover interference. The ability to monitor recombination in all four meiotic products (tetrad analysis) has been a powerful tool in the arsenal of yeast geneticists. Previously, the qrt mutant of Arabidopsis, which causes the four pollen products of male meiosis to remain attached, was developed as a facile system

  17. A Link between Meiotic Prophase Progression and CrossoverControl

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, Peter M.; Farruggio, Alfonso P.; Dernburg, Abby F.

    2005-07-06

    During meiosis, most organisms ensure that homologous chromosomes undergo at least one exchange of DNA, or crossover, to link chromosomes together and accomplish proper segregation. How each chromosome receives a minimum of one crossover is unknown. During early meiosis in Caenorhabditis elegans and many other species, chromosomes adopt a polarized organization within the nucleus, which normally disappears upon completion of homolog synapsis. Mutations that impair synapsis even between a single pair of chromosomes in C. elegans delay this nuclear reorganization. We quantified this delay by developing a classification scheme for discrete stages of meiosis. Immunofluorescence localization of RAD-51 protein revealed that delayed meiotic cells also contained persistent recombination intermediates. Through genetic analysis, we found that this cytological delay in meiotic progression requires double-strand breaks and the function of the crossover-promoting heteroduplex HIM-14 (Msh4) and MSH-5. Failure of X chromosome synapsis also resulted in impaired crossover control on autosomes, which may result from greater numbers and persistence of recombination intermediates in the delayed nuclei. We conclude that maturation of recombination events on chromosomes promotes meiotic progression, and is coupled to the regulation of crossover number and placement. Our results have broad implications for the interpretation of meiotic mutants, as we have shown that asynapsis of a single chromosome pair can exert global effects on meiotic progression and recombination frequency.

  18. The mouse Spo11 gene is required for meiotic chromosome synapsis.

    PubMed

    Romanienko, P J; Camerini-Otero, R D

    2000-11-01

    The Spo11 protein initiates meiotic recombination by generating DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and is required for meiotic synapsis in S. cerevisiae. Surprisingly, Spo11 homologs are dispensable for synapsis in C. elegans and Drosophila yet required for meiotic recombination. Disruption of mouse Spo11 results in infertility. Spermatocytes arrest prior to pachytene with little or no synapsis and undergo apoptosis. We did not detect Rad51/Dmc1 foci in meiotic chromosome spreads, indicating DSBs are not formed. Cisplatin-induced DSBs restored Rad51/Dmc1 foci and promoted synapsis. Spo11 localizes to discrete foci during leptotene and to homologously synapsed chromosomes. Other mouse mutants that arrest during meiotic prophase (Atm -/-, Dmc1 -/-, mei1, and Morc(-/-)) showed altered Spo11 protein localization and expression. We speculate that there is an additional role for Spo11, after it generates DSBs, in synapsis.

  19. Meiotic recombination initiated by a double-strand break in rad50{Delta} yeast cells otherwise unable to initiate meiotic recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Malkova, A.; Haber, J.E.; Dawson, D.

    1996-06-01

    Meiotic recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is initiated by double-strand breaks (DSBs). We have developed a system to compare the properties of meiotic DSBs with those created by the site-specific HO endonuclease. HO endonuclease was expressed under the control of the meiotic-specific SPO13 promoter, creating a DSB at a single site on one of yeast`s 16 chromosomes. In Rad{sup +} strains the times of appearance of the HO-induced DSBs and of subsequent recombinants are coincident with those induced by normal meiotic DSBs. Physical monitoring of DNA showed that SPO13::HO induced gene conversions both in Rad{sup +} and in rad50{Delta} cells that cannot initiate normal meiotic DSBs. We find that the RAD50 gene is important, but not essential, for recombination even after a DSB has been created in a meiotic cell. In rad50{Delta} cells, some DSBs are not repaired until a broken chromosome has been packaged into a spore and is subsequently germinated. This suggests that a broken chromosome does not signal an arrest of progression through meiosis. The recombination defect in rad50{Delta} diploids is not, however, meiotic specific, as mitotic rad50 diploids, experiencing an HO-induced DSB, exhibit similar departures from wild-type recombination. 57 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. [Diagnosticum of abnormalities of plant meiotic division].

    PubMed

    Shamina, N V

    2006-01-01

    Abnormalities of plant meiotic division leading to abnormal meiotic products are summarized schematically in the paper. Causes of formation of monads, abnormal diads, triads, pentads, polyads, etc. have been observed in meiosis with both successive and simultaneous cytokinesis.

  1. Rad51/Dmc1 paralogs and mediators oppose DNA helicases to limit hybrid DNA formation and promote crossovers during meiotic recombination

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Alexander; Mehats, Alizée; Osman, Fekret; Whitby, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    During meiosis programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are repaired by homologous recombination using the sister chromatid or the homologous chromosome (homolog) as a template. This repair results in crossover (CO) and non-crossover (NCO) recombinants. Only CO formation between homologs provides the physical linkages guiding correct chromosome segregation, which are essential to produce healthy gametes. The factors that determine the CO/NCO decision are still poorly understood. Using Schizosaccharomyces pombe as a model we show that the Rad51/Dmc1-paralog complexes Rad55-Rad57 and Rdl1-Rlp1-Sws1 together with Swi5-Sfr1 play a major role in antagonizing both the FANCM-family DNA helicase/translocase Fml1 and the RecQ-type DNA helicase Rqh1 to limit hybrid DNA formation and promote Mus81-Eme1-dependent COs. A common attribute of these protein complexes is an ability to stabilize the Rad51/Dmc1 nucleoprotein filament, and we propose that it is this property that imposes constraints on which enzymes gain access to the recombination intermediate, thereby controlling the manner in which it is processed and resolved. PMID:25414342

  2. Rad51/Dmc1 paralogs and mediators oppose DNA helicases to limit hybrid DNA formation and promote crossovers during meiotic recombination.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Alexander; Mehats, Alizée; Osman, Fekret; Whitby, Matthew C

    2014-12-16

    During meiosis programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are repaired by homologous recombination using the sister chromatid or the homologous chromosome (homolog) as a template. This repair results in crossover (CO) and non-crossover (NCO) recombinants. Only CO formation between homologs provides the physical linkages guiding correct chromosome segregation, which are essential to produce healthy gametes. The factors that determine the CO/NCO decision are still poorly understood. Using Schizosaccharomyces pombe as a model we show that the Rad51/Dmc1-paralog complexes Rad55-Rad57 and Rdl1-Rlp1-Sws1 together with Swi5-Sfr1 play a major role in antagonizing both the FANCM-family DNA helicase/translocase Fml1 and the RecQ-type DNA helicase Rqh1 to limit hybrid DNA formation and promote Mus81-Eme1-dependent COs. A common attribute of these protein complexes is an ability to stabilize the Rad51/Dmc1 nucleoprotein filament, and we propose that it is this property that imposes constraints on which enzymes gain access to the recombination intermediate, thereby controlling the manner in which it is processed and resolved.

  3. ATM controls meiotic double-strand-break formation.

    PubMed

    Lange, Julian; Pan, Jing; Cole, Francesca; Thelen, Michael P; Jasin, Maria; Keeney, Scott

    2011-10-16

    In many organisms, developmentally programmed double-strand breaks (DSBs) formed by the SPO11 transesterase initiate meiotic recombination, which promotes pairing and segregation of homologous chromosomes. Because every chromosome must receive a minimum number of DSBs, attention has focused on factors that support DSB formation. However, improperly repaired DSBs can cause meiotic arrest or mutation; thus, having too many DSBs is probably as deleterious as having too few. Only a small fraction of SPO11 protein ever makes a DSB in yeast or mouse and SPO11 and its accessory factors remain abundant long after most DSB formation ceases, implying the existence of mechanisms that restrain SPO11 activity to limit DSB numbers. Here we report that the number of meiotic DSBs in mouse is controlled by ATM, a kinase activated by DNA damage to trigger checkpoint signalling and promote DSB repair. Levels of SPO11-oligonucleotide complexes, by-products of meiotic DSB formation, are elevated at least tenfold in spermatocytes lacking ATM. Moreover, Atm mutation renders SPO11-oligonucleotide levels sensitive to genetic manipulations that modulate SPO11 protein levels. We propose that ATM restrains SPO11 via a negative feedback loop in which kinase activation by DSBs suppresses further DSB formation. Our findings explain previously puzzling phenotypes of Atm-null mice and provide a molecular basis for the gonadal dysgenesis observed in ataxia telangiectasia, the human syndrome caused by ATM deficiency.

  4. Chromosome choreography: the meiotic ballet.

    PubMed

    Page, Scott L; Hawley, R Scott

    2003-08-08

    The separation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis in eukaryotes is the physical basis of Mendelian inheritance. The core of the meiotic process is a specialized nuclear division (meiosis I) in which homologs pair with each other, recombine, and then segregate from each other. The processes of chromosome alignment and pairing allow for homolog recognition. Reciprocal meiotic recombination ensures meiotic chromosome segregation by converting sister chromatid cohesion into mechanisms that hold homologous chromosomes together. Finally, the ability of sister kinetochores to orient to a single pole at metaphase I allows the separation of homologs to two different daughter cells. Failures to properly accomplish this elegant chromosome dance result in aneuploidy, a major cause of miscarriage and birth defects in human beings.

  5. Meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Vibranovski, Maria D

    2014-01-01

    In several different taxa, there is indubitable evidence of transcriptional silencing of the X and Y chromosomes in male meiotic cells of spermatogenesis. However, the so called meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) has been recently a hot bed for debate in Drosophila melanogaster. This review covers cytological and genetic observations, data from transgenic constructs with testis-specific promoters, global expression profiles obtained from mutant, wild-type, larvae and adult testes as well as from cells of different stages of spermatogenesis. There is no dispute on that D. melanogaster spermatogenesis presents a down-regulation of X chromosome that does not result from the lack of dosage compensation. However, the issue is currently focused on the level of reduction of X-linked expression, the precise time it occurs and how many genes are affected. The deep examination of data and experiments in this review exposes the limitations intrinsic to the methods of studying MSCI in D. melanogaster. The current methods do not allow us to affirm anything else than the X chromosome down-regulation in meiosis (MSCI). Therefore, conclusion about level, degree or precise timing is inadequate until new approaches are implemented to know the details of MSCI or other processes involved for D. melanogaster model.

  6. Meiotic Sex Chromosome Inactivation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Vibranovski, Maria D.

    2014-01-01

    In several different taxa, there is indubitable evidence of transcriptional silencing of the X and Y chromosomes in male meiotic cells of spermatogenesis. However, the so called meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) has been recently a hot bed for debate in Drosophila melanogaster. This review covers cytological and genetic observations, data from transgenic constructs with testis-specific promoters, global expression profiles obtained from mutant, wild-type, larvae and adult testes as well as from cells of different stages of spermatogenesis. There is no dispute on that D. melanogaster spermatogenesis presents a down-regulation of X chromosome that does not result from the lack of dosage compensation. However, the issue is currently focused on the level of reduction of X-linked expression, the precise time it occurs and how many genes are affected. The deep examination of data and experiments in this review exposes the limitations intrinsic to the methods of studying MSCI in D. melanogaster. The current methods do not allow us to affirm anything else than the X chromosome down-regulation in meiosis (MSCI). Therefore, conclusion about level, degree or precise timing is inadequate until new approaches are implemented to know the details of MSCI or other processes involved for D. melanogaster model. PMID:25057326

  7. Meiotic functions of RAD18.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Akiko; Sleddens-Linkels, Esther; Wassenaar, Evelyne; Ooms, Marja; van Cappellen, Wiggert A; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Seibler, Jost; Vogt, Thomas F; Shin, Myung K; Grootegoed, J Anton; Baarends, Willy M

    2011-08-15

    RAD18 is an ubiquitin ligase that is involved in replication damage bypass and DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair processes in mitotic cells. Here, we investigated the testicular phenotype of Rad18-knockdown mice to determine the function of RAD18 in meiosis, and in particular, in the repair of meiotic DSBs induced by the meiosis-specific topoisomerase-like enzyme SPO11. We found that RAD18 is recruited to a specific subfraction of persistent meiotic DSBs. In addition, RAD18 is recruited to the chromatin of the XY chromosome pair, which forms the transcriptionally silent XY body. At the XY body, RAD18 mediates the chromatin association of its interaction partners, the ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes HR6A and HR6B. Moreover, RAD18 was found to regulate the level of dimethylation of histone H3 at Lys4 and maintain meiotic sex chromosome inactivation, in a manner similar to that previously observed for HR6B. Finally, we show that RAD18 and HR6B have a role in the efficient repair of a small subset of meiotic DSBs.

  8. Functional interactions between SPO11 and REC102 during initiation of meiotic recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kee, Kehkooi; Keeney, Scott

    2002-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, formation of the DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that initiate meiotic recombination requires the products of at least 10 genes. Spo11p is thought to be the catalytic subunit of the DNA cleaving activity, but the roles of the other proteins, and the interactions among them, are not well understood. This study demonstrates genetic and physical interactions between the products of SPO11 and another early meiotic gene required for DSB formation, REC102. We found that epitope-tagged versions of SPO11 and REC102 that by themselves were capable of supporting normal or nearly normal levels of meiotic recombination conferred a severe synthetic cold-sensitive phenotype when combined in the same cells. DSB formation, meiotic gene conversion, and spore viability were drastically reduced in the doubly tagged strain at a nonpermissive temperature. This conditional defect could be partially rescued by expression of untagged SPO11, but not by expression of untagged REC102, indicating that tagged REC102 is fully dominant for this synthetic phenotype. Both tagged and wild-type Spo11p co-immunoprecipitated with tagged Rec102p from meiotic cell extracts, indicating that these proteins are present in a common complex in vivo. Tagged Rec102p localized to the nucleus in whole cells and to chromatin on spread meiotic chromosomes. Our results are consistent with the idea that a multiprotein complex that includes Spo11p and Rec102p promotes meiotic DSB formation.

  9. Initiation of meiotic recombination in chromatin structure.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Takatomi; Ohta, Kunihiro

    2013-08-01

    Meiotic homologous recombination is markedly activated during meiotic prophase to play central roles in faithful chromosome segregation and conferring genetic diversity to gametes. It is initiated by programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by the conserved protein Spo11, and preferentially occurs at discrete sites called hotspots. Since the functions of Spo11 are influenced by both of local chromatin at hotspots and higher-order chromosome structures, formation of meiotic DSBs is under regulation of chromatin structure. Therefore, investigating features and roles of meiotic chromatin is crucial to elucidate the in vivo mechanism of meiotic recombination initiation. Recent progress in genome-wide chromatin analyses tremendously improved our understanding on this point, but many critical questions are left unaddressed. In this review, we summarize current knowledge in the field, and also discuss the future problems that must be solved to understand the role of chromatin structure in meiotic recombination.

  10. Meiotic abnormalities in infertile males.

    PubMed

    Egozcue, J; Sarrate, Z; Codina-Pascual, M; Egozcue, S; Oliver-Bonet, M; Blanco, J; Navarro, J; Benet, J; Vidal, F

    2005-01-01

    Meiotic anomalies, as reviewed here, are synaptic chromosome abnormalities, limited to germ cells that cannot be detected through the study of the karyotype. Although the importance of synaptic errors has been underestimated for many years, their presence is related to many cases of human male infertility. Synaptic anomalies can be studied by immunostaining of synaptonemal complexes (SCs), but in this case their frequency is probably underestimated due to the phenomenon of synaptic adjustment. They can also be studied in classic meiotic preparations, which, from a clinical point of view, is still the best approach, especially if multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization is at hand to solve difficult cases. Sperm chromosome FISH studies also provide indirect evidence of their presence. Synaptic anomalies can affect the rate of recombination of all bivalents, produce achiasmate small univalents, partially achiasmate medium-sized or large bivalents, or affect all bivalents in the cell. The frequency is variable, interindividually and intraindividually. The baseline incidence of synaptic anomalies is 6-8%, which may be increased to 17.6% in males with a severe oligozoospermia, and to 27% in normozoospermic males with one or more previous IVF failures. The clinical consequences are the production of abnormal spermatozoa that will produce a higher number of chromosomally abnormal embryos. The indications for a meiotic study in testicular biopsy are provided.

  11. Aym1, a mouse meiotic gene identified by virtue of its ability to activate early meiotic genes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Malcov, Mira; Cesarkas, Karen; Stelzer, Gil; Shalom, Sarah; Dicken, Yosef; Naor, Yaniv; Goldstein, Ronald S; Sagee, Shira; Kassir, Yona; Don, Jeremy

    2004-12-01

    Our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that operate during differentiation of mitotically dividing spermatogonia cells into spermatocytes lags way behind what is known about other differentiating systems. Given the evolutionary conservation of the meiotic process, we screened for mouse proteins that could specifically activate early meiotic promoters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells, when fused to the Gal4 activation domain (Gal4AD). Our screen yielded the Aym1 gene that encodes a short peptide of 45 amino acids. We show that a Gal4AD-AYM1 fusion protein activates expression of reporter genes through the promoters of the early meiosis-specific genes IME2 and HOP1, and that this activation is dependent on the DNA-binding protein Ume6. Aym1 is transcribed predominantly in mouse primary spermatocytes and in gonads of female embryos undergoing the corresponding meiotic divisions. Aym1 immunolocalized to nuclei of primary spermatocytes and oocytes and to specific type A spermatogonia cells, suggesting it might play a role in the processes leading to meiotic competence. The potential functional relationship between AYM1 and yeast proteins that regulate expression of early meiotic genes is discussed.

  12. Homologue engagement controls meiotic DNA break number and distribution.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Drew; Mohibullah, Neeman; Zhu, Xuan; Keeney, Scott

    2014-06-12

    Meiotic recombination promotes genetic diversification as well as pairing and segregation of homologous chromosomes, but the double-strand breaks (DSBs) that initiate recombination are dangerous lesions that can cause mutation or meiotic failure. How cells control DSBs to balance between beneficial and deleterious outcomes is not well understood. Here we test the hypothesis that DSB control involves a network of intersecting negative regulatory circuits. Using multiple complementary methods, we show that DSBs form in greater numbers in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking ZMM proteins, a suite of recombination-promoting factors traditionally regarded as acting strictly downstream of DSB formation. ZMM-dependent DSB control is genetically distinct from a pathway tying break formation to meiotic progression through the Ndt80 transcription factor. These counterintuitive findings suggest that homologous chromosomes that have successfully engaged one another stop making breaks. Genome-wide DSB maps uncover distinct responses by different subchromosomal domains to the ZMM mutation zip3 (also known as cst9), and show that Zip3 is required for the previously unexplained tendency of DSB density to vary with chromosome size. Thus, feedback tied to ZMM function contributes in unexpected ways to spatial patterning of recombination.

  13. Backcrossing to increase meiotic stability in triticale.

    PubMed

    Giacomin, R M; Assis, R; Brammer, S P; Nascimento Junior, A; Da-Silva, P R

    2015-09-22

    Triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) is an intergeneric hybrid derived from a cross between wheat and rye. As a newly created allopolyploid, the plant shows instabilities during the meiotic process, which may result in the loss of fertility. This genomic instability has hindered the success of triticale-breeding programs. Therefore, strategies should be developed to obtain stable triticale lines for use in breeding. In some species, backcrossing has been effective in increasing the meiotic stability of lineages. To assess whether backcrossing has the same effect in triticale, indices of meiotic abnormalities, meiotic index, and pollen viability were determined in genotypes from multiple generations of triticale (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1a, and BC1b). All analyzed genotypes exhibited instability during meiosis, and their meiotic index values were all lower than normal. However, the backcrosses BC1a and BC1b showed the lowest mean meiotic abnormalities and the highest meiotic indices, demonstrating higher stability. All genotypes showed a high rate of pollen viability, with the backcrosses BC1a and BC1b again exhibiting the best values. Statistical analyses confirmed that backcrossing positively affects the meiotic stability of triticale. Our results show that backcrossing should be considered by breeders aiming to obtain triticale lines with improved genomic stability.

  14. Negative regulation of meiotic gene expression by the nuclear poly(a)-binding protein in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    St-André, Olivier; Lemieux, Caroline; Perreault, Audrey; Lackner, Daniel H; Bähler, Jürg; Bachand, François

    2010-09-03

    Meiosis is a cellular differentiation process in which hundreds of genes are temporally induced. Because the expression of meiotic genes during mitosis is detrimental to proliferation, meiotic genes must be negatively regulated in the mitotic cell cycle. Yet, little is known about mechanisms used by mitotic cells to repress meiosis-specific genes. Here we show that the poly(A)-binding protein Pab2, the fission yeast homolog of mammalian PABPN1, controls the expression of several meiotic transcripts during mitotic division. Our results from chromatin immunoprecipitation and promoter-swapping experiments indicate that Pab2 controls meiotic genes post-transcriptionally. Consistently, we show that the nuclear exosome complex cooperates with Pab2 in the negative regulation of meiotic genes. We also found that Pab2 plays a role in the RNA decay pathway orchestrated by Mmi1, a previously described factor that functions in the post-transcriptional elimination of meiotic transcripts. Our results support a model in which Mmi1 selectively targets meiotic transcripts for degradation via Pab2 and the exosome. Our findings have therefore uncovered a mode of gene regulation whereby a poly(A)-binding protein promotes RNA degradation in the nucleus to prevent untimely expression.

  15. Meiotic Recombination: The Essence of Heredity.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Neil

    2015-10-28

    The study of homologous recombination has its historical roots in meiosis. In this context, recombination occurs as a programmed event that culminates in the formation of crossovers, which are essential for accurate chromosome segregation and create new combinations of parental alleles. Thus, meiotic recombination underlies both the independent assortment of parental chromosomes and genetic linkage. This review highlights the features of meiotic recombination that distinguish it from recombinational repair in somatic cells, and how the molecular processes of meiotic recombination are embedded and interdependent with the chromosome structures that characterize meiotic prophase. A more in-depth review presents our understanding of how crossover and noncrossover pathways of meiotic recombination are differentiated and regulated. The final section of this review summarizes the studies that have defined defective recombination as a leading cause of pregnancy loss and congenital disease in humans.

  16. TDM1 Regulation Determines the Number of Meiotic Divisions

    PubMed Central

    Cifuentes, Marta; Jolivet, Sylvie; Cromer, Laurence; Harashima, Hirofumi; Bulankova, Petra; Renne, Charlotte; Crismani, Wayne; Nomura, Yuko; Nakagami, Hirofumi; Sugimoto, Keiko; Schnittger, Arp; Riha, Karel; Mercier, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    Cell cycle control must be modified at meiosis to allow two divisions to follow a single round of DNA replication, resulting in ploidy reduction. The mechanisms that ensure meiosis termination at the end of the second and not at the end of first division are poorly understood. We show here that Arabidopsis thaliana TDM1, which has been previously shown to be essential for meiotic termination, interacts directly with the Anaphase-Promoting Complex. Further, mutations in TDM1 in a conserved putative Cyclin-Dependant Kinase (CDK) phosphorylation site (T16-P17) dominantly provoked premature meiosis termination after the first division, and the production of diploid spores and gametes. The CDKA;1-CYCA1.2/TAM complex, which is required to prevent premature meiotic exit, phosphorylated TDM1 at T16 in vitro. Finally, while CYCA1;2/TAM was previously shown to be expressed only at meiosis I, TDM1 is present throughout meiosis. These data, together with epistasis analysis, lead us to propose that TDM1 is an APC/C component whose function is to ensure meiosis termination at the end of meiosis II, and whose activity is inhibited at meiosis I by CDKA;1-TAM-mediated phosphorylation to prevent premature meiotic exit. This provides a molecular mechanism for the differential decision of performing an additional round of division, or not, at the end of meiosis I and II, respectively. PMID:26871453

  17. Theory of meiotic spindle assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furthauer, Sebastian; Foster, Peter; Needleman, Daniel; Shelley, Michael

    2016-11-01

    The meiotic spindle is a biological structure that self assembles from the intracellular medium to separate chromosomes during meiosis. It consists of filamentous microtubule (MT) proteins that interact through the fluid in which they are suspended and via the associated molecules that orchestrate their behavior. We aim to understand how the interplay between fluid medium, MTs, and regulatory proteins allows this material to self-organize into the spindle's highly stereotyped shape. To this end we develop a continuum model that treats the spindle as an active liquid crystal with MT turnover. In this active material, molecular motors, such as dyneins which collect MT minus ends and kinesins which slide MTs past each other, generate active fluid and material stresses. Moreover nucleator proteins that are advected with and transported along MTs control the nucleation and depolymerization of MTs. This theory captures the growth process of meiotic spindles, their shapes, and the essential features of many perturbation experiments. It thus provides a framework to think about the physics of this complex biological suspension.

  18. A bipartite operator interacts with a heat shock element to mediate early meiotic induction of Saccharomyces cerevisiae HSP82

    SciTech Connect

    Szent-Gyorgyi, C.

    1995-12-01

    This report seeks to characterize the activation of meiotic gene in terms of cis-acting DNA elements and their associated factors in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It was found that vegetative repression and meiotic induction depend on interactions of the promoter-proximal heat shock element with a nearby bipartite repression element. The experiments described explore how two different regulatory pathways induce transcription by stimulating a single classical activation element, a nonspecific heat shock element. 81 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Meiotic and mitotic recombination in meiosis.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Kathryn P; Sekelsky, Jeff

    2013-06-01

    Meiotic crossovers facilitate the segregation of homologous chromosomes and increase genetic diversity. The formation of meiotic crossovers was previously posited to occur via two pathways, with the relative use of each pathway varying between organisms; however, this paradigm could not explain all crossovers, and many of the key proteins involved were unidentified. Recent studies that identify some of these proteins reinforce and expand the model of two meiotic crossover pathways. The results provide novel insights into the evolutionary origins of the pathways, suggesting that one is similar to a mitotic DNA repair pathway and the other evolved to incorporate special features unique to meiosis.

  20. Mechanism and Regulation of Meiotic Recombination Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Isabel; Keeney, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Meiotic recombination involves the formation and repair of programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) catalyzed by the conserved Spo11 protein. This review summarizes recent studies pertaining to the formation of meiotic DSBs, including the mechanism of DNA cleavage by Spo11, proteins required for break formation, and mechanisms that control the location, timing, and number of DSBs. Where appropriate, findings in different organisms are discussed to highlight evolutionary conservation or divergence. PMID:25324213

  1. Meiotic chromosome mobility in fission yeast is resistant to environmental stress

    PubMed Central

    Illner, Doris; Lorenz, Alexander; Scherthan, Harry

    2016-01-01

    The formation of healthy gametes requires pairing of homologous chromosomes (homologs) as a prerequisite for their correct segregation during meiosis. Initially, homolog alignment is promoted by meiotic chromosome movements feeding into intimate homolog pairing by homologous recombination and/or synaptonemal complex formation. Meiotic chromosome movements in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, depend on astral microtubule dynamics that drag the nucleus through the zygote; known as horsetail movement. The response of microtubule-led meiotic chromosome movements to environmental stresses such as ionizing irradiation (IR) and associated reactive oxygen species (ROS) is not known. Here, we show that, in contrast to budding yeast, the horsetail movement is largely radiation-resistant, which is likely mediated by a potent antioxidant defense. IR exposure of sporulating S. pombe cells induced misrepair and irreparable DNA double strand breaks causing chromosome fragmentation, missegregation and gamete death. Comparing radiation outcome in fission and budding yeast, and studying meiosis with poisoned microtubules indicates that the increased gamete death after IR is innate to fission yeast. Inhibition of meiotic chromosome mobility in the face of IR failed to influence the course of DSB repair, indicating that paralysis of meiotic chromosome mobility in a genotoxic environment is not a universal response among species. PMID:27074839

  2. Estrogen receptors in granulosa cells govern meiotic resumption of pre-ovulatory oocytes in mammals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Xin, Qiliang; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Sheng; Wang, Huarong; Zhang, Wenqiang; Yang, Ye; Zhang, Yanhao; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Wang, Chao; Xu, Yang; Duan, Enkui; Xia, Guoliang

    2017-03-09

    In mammals, oocytes are arrested at the diplotene stage of meiosis I until the pre-ovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge triggers meiotic resumption through the signals in follicular granulosa cells. In this study, we show that the estradiol (E2)-estrogen receptors (ERs) system in follicular granulosa cells has a dominant role in controlling oocyte meiotic resumption in mammals. We found that the expression of ERs was controlled by gonadotropins under physiological conditions. E2-ERs system was functional in maintaining oocyte meiotic arrest by regulating the expression of natriuretic peptide C and natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (NPPC/NPR2), which was achieved through binding to the promoter regions of Nppc and Npr2 genes directly. In ER knockout mice, meiotic arrest was not sustained by E2 in most cumulus-oocyte complexes in vitro and meiosis resumed precociously in pre-ovulatory follicles in vivo. In human granulosa cells, similar conclusions are reached that ER levels were controlled by gonadotropins and E2-ERs regulated the expression of NPPC/NPR2 levels. In addition, our results revealed that the different regulating patterns of follicle-stimulating hormone and LH on ER levels in vivo versus in vitro determined their distinct actions on oocyte maturation. Taken together, these findings suggest a critical role of E2-ERs system during oocyte meiotic progression and may propose a novel approach for oocyte in vitro maturation treatment in clinical practice.

  3. The Role of RING Box Protein 1 in Mouse Oocyte Meiotic Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lin; Yang, Ye; Zhang, Juanjuan; Guo, Xuejiang; Bi, Ye; Li, Xin; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Junqiang; Lin, Min; Zhou, Zuomin; Shen, Rong; Guo, Xirong; Huo, Ran; Ling, Xiufeng; Sha, Jiahao

    2013-01-01

    RING box protein-1 (RBX1) is an essential component of Skp1-cullin-F-box protein (SCF) E3 ubiquitin ligase and participates in diverse cellular processes by targeting various substrates for degradation. However, the physiological function of RBX1 in mouse oocyte maturation remains unknown. Here, we examined the expression, localization and function of RBX1 during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that RBX1 displayed dynamic distribution during the maturation process: it localized around and migrated along with the spindle and condensed chromosomes. Rbx1 knockdown with the appropriate siRNAs led to a decreased rate of first polar body extrusion and most oocytes were arrested at metaphase I. Moreover, downregulation of Rbx1 caused accumulation of Emi1, an inhibitor of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), which is required for mouse meiotic maturation. In addition, we found apparently increased expression of the homologue disjunction-associated protein securin and cyclin B1, which are substrates of APC/C E3 ligase and need to be degraded for meiotic progression. These results indicate the essential role of the SCFβTrCP-EMI1-APC/C axis in mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. In conclusion, we provide evidence for the indispensable role of RBX1 in mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. PMID:23874827

  4. Extensive meiotic asynapsis in mice antagonises meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin and consequently disrupts meiotic sex chromosome inactivation.

    PubMed

    Mahadevaiah, Shantha K; Bourc'his, Déborah; de Rooij, Dirk G; Bestor, Timothy H; Turner, James M A; Burgoyne, Paul S

    2008-07-28

    Chromosome synapsis during zygotene is a prerequisite for the timely homologous recombinational repair of meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Unrepaired DSBs are thought to trigger apoptosis during midpachytene of male meiosis if synapsis fails. An early pachytene response to asynapsis is meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin (MSUC), which, in normal males, silences the X and Y chromosomes (meiotic sex chromosome inactivation [MSCI]). In this study, we show that MSUC occurs in Spo11-null mouse spermatocytes with extensive asynapsis but lacking meiotic DSBs. In contrast, three mutants (Dnmt3l, Msh5, and Dmc1) with high levels of asynapsis and numerous persistent unrepaired DSBs have a severely impaired MSUC response. We suggest that MSUC-related proteins, including the MSUC initiator BRCA1, are sequestered at unrepaired DSBs. All four mutants fail to silence the X and Y chromosomes (MSCI failure), which is sufficient to explain the midpachytene apoptosis. Apoptosis does not occur in mice with a single additional asynapsed chromosome with unrepaired meiotic DSBs and no disturbance of MSCI.

  5. Female meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in chicken.

    PubMed

    Schoenmakers, Sam; Wassenaar, Evelyne; Hoogerbrugge, Jos W; Laven, Joop S E; Grootegoed, J Anton; Baarends, Willy M

    2009-05-01

    During meiotic prophase in male mammals, the heterologous X and Y chromosomes remain largely unsynapsed, and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) leads to formation of the transcriptionally silenced XY body. In birds, the heterogametic sex is female, carrying Z and W chromosomes (ZW), whereas males have the homogametic ZZ constitution. During chicken oogenesis, the heterologous ZW pair reaches a state of complete heterologous synapsis, and this might enable maintenance of transcription of Z- and W chromosomal genes during meiotic prophase. Herein, we show that the ZW pair is transiently silenced, from early pachytene to early diplotene using immunocytochemistry and gene expression analyses. We propose that ZW inactivation is most likely achieved via spreading of heterochromatin from the W on the Z chromosome. Also, persistent meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) may contribute to silencing of Z. Surprisingly, gammaH2AX, a marker of DSBs, and also the earliest histone modification that is associated with XY body formation in mammalian and marsupial spermatocytes, does not cover the ZW during the synapsed stage. However, when the ZW pair starts to desynapse, a second wave of gammaH2AX accumulates on the unsynapsed regions of Z, which also show a reappearance of the DSB repair protein RAD51. This indicates that repair of meiotic DSBs on the heterologous part of Z is postponed until late pachytene/diplotene, possibly to avoid recombination with regions on the heterologously synapsed W chromosome. Two days after entering diplotene, the Z looses gammaH2AX and shows reactivation. This is the first report of meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in a species with female heterogamety, providing evidence that this mechanism is not specific to spermatogenesis. It also indicates the presence of an evolutionary force that drives meiotic sex chromosome inactivation independent of the final achievement of synapsis.

  6. Differential timing of S phases, X chromosome replication, and meiotic prophase in the C. elegans germ line.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo-Lambert, Aimee; Ellefson, Marina; Villeneuve, Anne M; Engebrecht, JoAnne

    2007-08-01

    The replication of chromosomes in meiosis is an important first step for subsequent chromosomal interactions that promote accurate disjunction in the first of two segregation events to generate haploid gametes. We have developed an assay to monitor DNA replication in vivo in mitotic and meiotic germline nuclei of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Using mutants that affect the mitosis/meiosis switch, we show that meiotic S phase is at least twice as long as mitotic S phase in C. elegans germ cell nuclei. Furthermore, our assay reveals that different regions of the genome replicate at different times, with the heterochromatic-like X chromosomes replicating at a distinct time from the autosomes. Finally, we have exploited S-phase labeling to monitor the timing of progression through meiotic prophase. Meiotic prophase for oocyte production in hermaphrodites lasts 54-60 h. Further, we find that the duration of the pachytene sub-stage is modulated by the presence of sperm. On the other hand, meiotic prophase for sperm production in males is completed by 20-24 h. Possible sources for the sex-specific differences in meiotic prophase kinetics are discussed.

  7. Understanding and Manipulating Meiotic Recombination in Plants[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Meiosis is a specialized cell division, essential in most reproducing organisms to halve the number of chromosomes, thereby enabling the restoration of ploidy levels during fertilization. A key step of meiosis is homologous recombination, which promotes homologous pairing and generates crossovers (COs) to connect homologous chromosomes until their separation at anaphase I. These CO sites, seen cytologically as chiasmata, represent a reciprocal exchange of genetic information between two homologous nonsister chromatids. This gene reshuffling during meiosis has a significant influence on evolution and also plays an essential role in plant breeding, because a successful breeding program depends on the ability to bring the desired combinations of alleles on chromosomes. However, the number and distribution of COs during meiosis is highly constrained. There is at least one CO per chromosome pair to ensure accurate segregation of homologs, but in most organisms, the CO number rarely exceeds three regardless of chromosome size. Moreover, their positions are not random on chromosomes but exhibit regional preference. Thus, genes in recombination-poor regions tend to be inherited together, hindering the generation of novel allelic combinations that could be exploited by breeding programs. Recently, much progress has been made in understanding meiotic recombination. In particular, many genes involved in the process in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) have been identified and analyzed. With the coming challenges of food security and climate change, and our enhanced knowledge of how COs are formed, the interest and needs in manipulating CO formation are greater than ever before. In this review, we focus on advances in understanding meiotic recombination and then summarize the attempts to manipulate CO formation. Last, we pay special attention to the meiotic recombination in polyploidy, which is a common genomic feature for many crop plants. PMID:28108697

  8. Acetyl CoA carboxylase inactivation and meiotic maturation in mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Valsangkar, Deepa S; Downs, Stephen M

    2015-09-01

    In mouse oocytes, meiotic induction by pharmacological activation of PRKA (adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase; formerly known as AMPK) or by hormones depends on stimulation of fatty acid oxidation (FAO). PRKA stimulates FAO by phosphorylating and inactivating acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACAC; formerly ACC), leading to decreased malonyl CoA levels and augmenting fatty-acid transport into mitochondria. We investigated a role for ACAC inactivation in meiotic resumption by testing the effect of two ACAC inhibitors, CP-640186 and Soraphen A, on mouse oocytes maintained in meiotic arrest in vitro. These inhibitors significantly stimulated the resumption of meiosis in arrested cumulus cell-enclosed oocytes, denuded oocytes, and follicle-enclosed oocytes. This stimulation was accompanied by an increase in FAO. Etomoxir, a malonyl CoA analogue, prevented meiotic resumption as well as the increase in FAO induced by ACAC inhibition. Citrate, an ACAC activator, and CBM-301106, an inhibitor of malonyl CoA decarboxylase, which converts malonyl CoA to acetyl CoA, suppressed both meiotic induction and FAO induced by follicle-stimulating hormone, presumably by maintaining elevated malonyl CoA levels. Mouse oocyte-cumulus cell complexes contain both isoforms of ACAC (ACACA and ACACB); when wild-type and Acacb(-/-) oocytes characteristics were compared, we found that these single-knockout oocytes showed a significantly higher FAO level and a reduced ability to maintain meiotic arrest, resulting in higher rates of germinal vesicle breakdown. Collectively, these data support the model that ACAC inactivation contributes to the maturation-promoting activity of PRKA through stimulation of FAO.

  9. Meiotic recombination in mammals: localization and regulation.

    PubMed

    Baudat, Frédéric; Imai, Yukiko; de Massy, Bernard

    2013-11-01

    During meiosis, a programmed induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) leads to the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes. These exchanges increase genome diversity and are essential for proper chromosome segregation at the first meiotic division. Recent findings have highlighted an unexpected molecular control of the distribution of meiotic DSBs in mammals by a rapidly evolving gene, PR domain-containing 9 (PRDM9), and genome-wide analyses have facilitated the characterization of meiotic DSB sites at unprecedented resolution. In addition, the identification of new players in DSB repair processes has allowed the delineation of recombination pathways that have two major outcomes, crossovers and non-crossovers, which have distinct mechanistic roles and consequences for genome evolution.

  10. Caenorhabditis elegans oocyte meiotic spindle pole assembly requires microtubule severing and the calponin homology domain protein ASPM-1

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Amy A.; Osterberg, Valerie; Christensen, Sara; Price, Meredith; Lu, Chenggang; Chicas-Cruz, Kathy; Lockery, Shawn; Mains, Paul E.; Bowerman, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    In many animals, including vertebrates, oocyte meiotic spindles are bipolar but assemble in the absence of centrosomes. Although meiotic spindle positioning in oocytes has been investigated extensively, much less is known about their assembly. In Caenorhabditis elegans, three genes previously shown to contribute to oocyte meiotic spindle assembly are the calponin homology domain protein encoded by aspm-1, the katanin family member mei-1, and the kinesin-12 family member klp-18. We isolated temperature-sensitive alleles of all three and investigated their requirements using live-cell imaging to reveal previously undocumented requirements for aspm-1 and mei-1. Our results indicate that bipolar but abnormal oocyte meiotic spindles assemble in aspm-1(-) embryos, whereas klp-18(-) and mei-1(-) mutants assemble monopolar and apolar spindles, respectively. Furthermore, two MEI-1 functions—ASPM-1 recruitment to the spindle and microtubule severing—both contribute to monopolar spindle assembly in klp-18(-) mutants. We conclude that microtubule severing and ASPM-1 both promote meiotic spindle pole assembly in C. elegans oocytes, whereas the kinesin 12 family member KLP-18 promotes spindle bipolarity. PMID:24554763

  11. Polyploidization increases meiotic recombination frequency in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Polyploidization is the multiplication of the whole chromosome complement and has occurred frequently in vascular plants. Maintenance of stable polyploid state over generations requires special mechanisms to control pairing and distribution of more than two homologous chromosomes during meiosis. Since a minimal number of crossover events is essential for correct chromosome segregation, we investigated whether polyploidy has an influence on the frequency of meiotic recombination. Results Using two genetically linked transgenes providing seed-specific fluorescence, we compared a high number of progeny from diploid and tetraploid Arabidopsis plants. We show that rates of meiotic recombination in reciprocal crosses of genetically identical diploid and autotetraploid Arabidopsis plants were significantly higher in tetraploids compared to diploids. Although male and female gametogenesis differ substantially in meiotic recombination frequency, both rates were equally increased in tetraploids. To investigate whether multivalent formation in autotetraploids was responsible for the increased recombination rates, we also performed corresponding experiments with allotetraploid plants showing strict bivalent pairing. We found similarly increased rates in auto- and allotetraploids, suggesting that the ploidy effect is independent of chromosome pairing configurations. Conclusions The evolutionary success of polyploid plants in nature and under domestication has been attributed to buffering of mutations and sub- and neo-functionalization of duplicated genes. Should the data described here be representative for polyploid plants, enhanced meiotic recombination, and the resulting rapid creation of genetic diversity, could have also contributed to their prevalence. PMID:21510849

  12. Calcium Signaling During Meiotic Cell Cycle Regulation and Apoptosis in Mammalian Oocytes.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Meenakshi; Prasad, Shilpa; Shrivastav, Tulsidas G; Chaube, Shail K

    2017-05-01

    Calcium (Ca(++) ) is one of the major signal molecules that regulate various aspects of cell functions including cell cycle progression, arrest, and apoptosis in wide variety of cells. This review summarizes current knowledge on the differential roles of Ca(++) in meiotic cell cycle resumption, arrest, and apoptosis in mammalian oocytes. Release of Ca(++) from internal stores and/or Ca(++) influx from extracellular medium causes moderate increase of intracellular Ca(++) ([Ca(++) ]i) level and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Increase of Ca(++) as well as ROS levels under physiological range trigger maturation promoting factor (MPF) destabilization, thereby meiotic resumption from diplotene as well as metaphase-II (M-II) arrest in oocytes. A sustained increase of [Ca(++) ]i level beyond physiological range induces generation of ROS sufficient enough to cause oxidative stress (OS) in aging oocytes. The increased [Ca(++) ]i triggers Fas ligand-mediated oocyte apoptosis. Further, OS triggers mitochondria-mediated oocyte apoptosis in several mammalian species. Thus, Ca(++) exerts differential roles on oocyte physiology depending upon its intracellular concentration. A moderate increase of [Ca(++) ]i as well as ROS mediate spontaneous resumption of meiosis from diplotene as well as M-II arrest, while their high levels cause meiotic cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by operating both mitochondria- as well as Fas ligand-mediated apoptotic pathways. Indeed, Ca(++) regulates cellular physiology by modulating meiotic cell cycle and apoptosis in mammalian oocytes. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 976-981, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Bdf1 Bromodomains Are Essential for Meiosis and the Expression of Meiotic-Specific Genes

    PubMed Central

    Perot, Jonathan; Arlotto, Marie; Mietton, Flore; Boland, Anne; Deleuze, Jean-François; Ferro, Myriam; Govin, Jérôme

    2017-01-01

    Bromodomain and Extra-terminal motif (BET) proteins play a central role in transcription regulation and chromatin signalling pathways. They are present in unicellular eukaryotes and in this study, the role of the BET protein Bdf1 has been explored in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mutation of Bdf1 bromodomains revealed defects on both the formation of spores and the meiotic progression, blocking cells at the exit from prophase, before the first meiotic division. This phenotype is associated with a massive deregulation of the transcription of meiotic genes and Bdf1 bromodomains are required for appropriate expression of the key meiotic transcription factor NDT80 and almost all the Ndt80-inducible genes, including APC complex components. Bdf1 notably accumulates on the promoter of Ndt80 and its recruitment is dependent on Bdf1 bromodomains. In addition, the ectopic expression of NDT80 during meiosis partially bypasses this dependency. Finally, purification of Bdf1 partners identified two independent complexes with Bdf2 or the SWR complex, neither of which was required to complete sporulation. Taken together, our results unveil a new role for Bdf1 –working independently from its predominant protein partners Bdf2 and the SWR1 complex–as a regulator of meiosis-specific genes. PMID:28068333

  14. The fission yeast meiotic checkpoint kinase Mek1 regulates nuclear localization of Cdc25 by phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Hidalgo, Livia; Moreno, Sergio; San-Segundo, Pedro A

    2008-12-01

    In eukaryotic cells, fidelity in transmission of genetic information during cell division is ensured by the action of cell cycle checkpoints. Checkpoints are surveillance mechanisms that arrest or delay cell cycle progression when critical cellular processes are defective or when the genome is damaged. During meiosis, the so-called meiotic recombination checkpoint blocks entry into meiosis I until recombination has been completed, thus avoiding aberrant chromosome segregation and the formation of aneuploid gametes. One of the key components of the meiotic recombination checkpoint is the meiosis-specific Mek1 kinase, which belongs to the family of Rad53/Cds1/Chk2 checkpoint kinases containing forkhead-associated domains. In fission yeast, several lines of evidence suggest that Mek1 targets the critical cell cycle regulator Cdc25 to delay meiotic cell cycle progression. Here, we investigate in more detail the molecular mechanism of action of the fission yeast Mek1 protein. We demonstrate that Mek1 acts independently of Cds1 to phosphorylate Cdc25, and this phosphorylation is required to trigger cell cycle arrest. Using ectopic overexpression of mek1(+) as a tool to induce in vivo activation of Mek1, we find that Mek1 promotes cytoplasmic accumulation of Cdc25 and results in prolonged phosphorylation of Cdc2 at tyrosine 15. We propose that at least one of the mechanisms contributing to the cell cycle delay when the meiotic recombination checkpoint is activated in fission yeast is the nuclear exclusion of the Cdc25 phosphatase by Mek1-dependent phosphorylation.

  15. The epigenetic modifications and the anterior to posterior characterization of meiotic entry during mouse oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xia-Fei; Yang, Fan; Cheng, Shun-Feng; Feng, Yan-Ni; Li, Lan; Dyce, Paul W; Shen, Wei; Sun, Xiao-Feng

    2017-02-24

    The meiotic initiation of mammalian oogonia is a critical step during the development of primordial germ cells (PGCs) to mature oocytes. In this study, a systematic investigation of epigenetic modifications and DAZL gene expression during oogonia meiotic entry were performed. We found that the expression of DAZL was epigenetically regulated by DNA methylation of CpG islands within its promoter region. During meiotic entry, a continuously increasing level of 5hmC, a stable epigenetic marker usually associated with the activation of gene expression, was observed from 11.5 to 16.5 dpc (days post coitum). Meanwhile trimethylation of lysine 27 on histone3 (H3K27me3), usually associated with repression of gene expression, had a sustainable increase from 12.5 to 16.5 dpc. Finally, by equally dividing the ovaries into three regions representing the anterior, the middle, and the posterior of the ovary and performing immunofluorescence and qRT-PCR on the individual regions, we provided further evidences that the meiotic entry and progression of female germ cells is in an anterior to posterior pattern.

  16. The Cdk1 and Ime2 protein kinases trigger exit from meiotic prophase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by inhibiting the Sum1 transcriptional repressor.

    PubMed

    Shin, Marcus E; Skokotas, Aikaterini; Winter, Edward

    2010-06-01

    The induction of middle meiotic promoters is a key regulatory event in the life cycle of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that controls exit from prophase, meiosis, and spore formation. The Sum1 repressor and Ndt80 activator proteins control middle promoters by binding to overlapping DNA elements. NDT80 is controlled by a tightly regulated middle meiotic promoter through a positive autoregulatory loop and is repressed in vegetative cells by Sum1. It has previously been shown that the meiosis-specific kinase Ime2 promotes the removal of Sum1 from DNA. Here, we show that Sum1 is also regulated by the cyclin-dependent kinase, Cdk1. While sum1 phosphosite mutants that are insensitive to Cdk1 or Ime2 complete meiosis and form spores, a mutant that is insensitive to both Ime2 and Cdk1 (sum1-ci) blocks meiotic development in prophase with an ndt80Delta-like phenotype. Ectopic expression of NDT80 or mutation of a Sum1-binding element in the NDT80 promoter bypasses the sum1-ci block. Hst1 is a NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase that is linked to Sum1 by the Rfm1 tethering factor. Deletion of HST1 or RFM1 also bypasses the sum1-ci block. These results demonstrate that Sum1 functions as a key meiotic brake through the NDT80 promoter and that Cdk1 and Ime2 trigger exit from meiotic prophase by inhibiting the Sum1 transcriptional repression complex.

  17. Mature cystic teratomas arise from meiotic oocytes, but not from pre-meiotic oogonia.

    PubMed

    Kaku, Hiroshi; Usui, Hirokazu; Qu, Jia; Shozu, Makio

    2016-04-01

    Mature cystic teratomas (MCTs) in the ovaries have been thought to originate from germ cells from all developmental stages, i.e., from pre-meiotic oogonia through meiotic oocytes to mature post-meiotic ova. This view was based on research on MCTs by classical methods, including those involving centromeric heteromorphisms in karyotypes, enzyme polymorphisms, and DNA polymorphisms. However, insufficient genomic information was obtained in those studies. The current study aimed to confirm the cytogenetic origin of ovarian MCTs by using short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphism analysis to obtain sufficient genomic information, especially in connection with centromeric loci. Tissue samples of MCTs (57 ovaries from 51 patients, 91 MCTs, 156 specimens in total) obtained from cystectomies or oophorectomies were used. We categorized the specimens into two groups: i) solid components of MCTs and ii) cyst walls. The numbers of solid components of MCTs from pre-meiotic oogonia, primary oocytes, secondary oocytes, and ova were 0, 33, 16, and 15, respectively. There were no pre-meiotic oogonia in this series of solid-component specimens. We propose a hypothesis for the tumorigenesis of ovarian MCTs: the precursors of ovarian MCTs are not functional oocytes or ova, but are primary oocytes that have escaped from meiotic arrest. This hypothesis could satisfactorily explain the lack of pre-meiotic teratomas observed in this study and the nearly equal distribution of teratomas originating from primary oocytes, secondary oocytes, and ova in previous studies. Furthermore, this hypothesis could provide a starting point for determining the mechanism underlying tumorigenesis of ovarian MCTs.

  18. Php4 Is a Key Player for Iron Economy in Meiotic and Sporulating Cells

    PubMed Central

    Brault, Ariane; Rallis, Charalampos; Normant, Vincent; Garant, Jean-Michel; Bähler, Jürg; Labbé, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Meiosis is essential for sexually reproducing organisms, including the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In meiosis, chromosomes replicate once in a diploid precursor cell (zygote), and then segregate twice to generate four haploid meiotic products, named spores in yeast. In S. pombe, Php4 is responsible for the transcriptional repression capability of the heteromeric CCAAT-binding factor to negatively regulate genes encoding iron-using proteins under low-iron conditions. Here, we show that the CCAAT-regulatory subunit Php4 is required for normal progression of meiosis under iron-limiting conditions. Cells lacking Php4 exhibit a meiotic arrest at metaphase I. Microscopic analyses of cells expressing functional GFP-Php4 show that it colocalizes with chromosomal material at every stage of meiosis under low concentrations of iron. In contrast, GFP-Php4 fluorescence signal is lost when cells undergo meiosis under iron-replete conditions. Global gene expression analysis of meiotic cells using DNA microarrays identified 137 genes that are regulated in an iron- and Php4-dependent manner. Among them, 18 genes are expressed exclusively during meiosis and constitute new putative Php4 target genes, which include hry1+ and mug14+. Further analysis validates that Php4 is required for maximal and timely repression of hry1+ and mug14+ genes. Using a chromatin immunoprecipitation approach, we show that Php4 specifically associates with hry1+ and mug14+ promoters in vivo. Taken together, the results reveal that in iron-starved meiotic cells, Php4 is essential for completion of the meiotic program since it participates in global gene expression reprogramming to optimize the use of limited available iron. PMID:27466270

  19. A DNA topoisomerase VI-like complex initiates meiotic recombination.

    PubMed

    Vrielynck, Nathalie; Chambon, Aurélie; Vezon, Daniel; Pereira, Lucie; Chelysheva, Liudmila; De Muyt, Arnaud; Mézard, Christine; Mayer, Claudine; Grelon, Mathilde

    2016-02-26

    The SPO11 protein catalyzes the formation of meiotic DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) and is homologous to the A subunit of an archaeal topoisomerase (topo VI). Topo VI are heterotetrameric enzymes comprising two A and two B subunits; however, no topo VIB involved in meiotic recombination had been identified. We characterized a structural homolog of the archaeal topo VIB subunit [meiotic topoisomerase VIB-like (MTOPVIB)], which is essential for meiotic DSB formation. It forms a complex with the two Arabidopsis thaliana SPO11 orthologs required for meiotic DSB formation (SPO11-1 and SPO11-2) and is absolutely required for the formation of the SPO11-1/SPO11-2 heterodimer. These findings suggest that the catalytic core complex responsible for meiotic DSB formation in eukaryotes adopts a topo VI-like structure.

  20. Human male meiotic sex chromosome inactivation.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Marieke; Vosters, Sanne; Merkx, Gerard; D'Hauwers, Kathleen; Wansink, Derick G; Ramos, Liliana; de Boer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In mammalian male gametogenesis the sex chromosomes are distinctive in both gene activity and epigenetic strategy. At first meiotic prophase the heteromorphic X and Y chromosomes are placed in a separate chromatin domain called the XY body. In this process, X,Y chromatin becomes highly phosphorylated at S139 of H2AX leading to the repression of gonosomal genes, a process known as meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI), which has been studied best in mice. Post-meiotically this repression is largely maintained. Disturbance of MSCI in mice leads to harmful X,Y gene expression, eventuating in spermatocyte death and sperm heterogeneity. Sperm heterogeneity is a characteristic of the human male. For this reason we were interested in the efficiency of MSCI in human primary spermatocytes. We investigated MSCI in pachytene spermatocytes of seven probands: four infertile men and three fertile controls, using direct and indirect in situ methods. A considerable degree of variation in the degree of MSCI was detected, both between and within probands. Moreover, in post-meiotic stages this variation was observed as well, indicating survival of spermatocytes with incompletely inactivated sex chromosomes. Furthermore, we investigated the presence of H3K9me3 posttranslational modifications on the X and Y chromatin. Contrary to constitutive centromeric heterochromatin, this heterochromatin marker did not specifically accumulate on the XY body, with the exception of the heterochromatic part of the Y chromosome. This may reflect the lower degree of MSCI in man compared to mouse. These results point at relaxation of MSCI, which can be explained by genetic changes in sex chromosome composition during evolution and candidates as a mechanism behind human sperm heterogeneity.

  1. Human Male Meiotic Sex Chromosome Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Marieke; Vosters, Sanne; Merkx, Gerard; D'Hauwers, Kathleen; Wansink, Derick G.; Ramos, Liliana; de Boer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In mammalian male gametogenesis the sex chromosomes are distinctive in both gene activity and epigenetic strategy. At first meiotic prophase the heteromorphic X and Y chromosomes are placed in a separate chromatin domain called the XY body. In this process, X,Y chromatin becomes highly phosphorylated at S139 of H2AX leading to the repression of gonosomal genes, a process known as meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI), which has been studied best in mice. Post-meiotically this repression is largely maintained. Disturbance of MSCI in mice leads to harmful X,Y gene expression, eventuating in spermatocyte death and sperm heterogeneity. Sperm heterogeneity is a characteristic of the human male. For this reason we were interested in the efficiency of MSCI in human primary spermatocytes. We investigated MSCI in pachytene spermatocytes of seven probands: four infertile men and three fertile controls, using direct and indirect in situ methods. A considerable degree of variation in the degree of MSCI was detected, both between and within probands. Moreover, in post-meiotic stages this variation was observed as well, indicating survival of spermatocytes with incompletely inactivated sex chromosomes. Furthermore, we investigated the presence of H3K9me3 posttranslational modifications on the X and Y chromatin. Contrary to constitutive centromeric heterochromatin, this heterochromatin marker did not specifically accumulate on the XY body, with the exception of the heterochromatic part of the Y chromosome. This may reflect the lower degree of MSCI in man compared to mouse. These results point at relaxation of MSCI, which can be explained by genetic changes in sex chromosome composition during evolution and candidates as a mechanism behind human sperm heterogeneity. PMID:22355370

  2. Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Hasan B.

    2013-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the promotion process in an academic medical center. A description of different promotional tracks, tenure and endowed chairs, and the process of submitting an application is provided. Finally, some practical advice about developing skills and attributes that can help with academic growth and promotion is dispensed. PMID:24436683

  3. Vacuole Partitioning during Meiotic Division in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Roeder, A. D.; Shaw, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    We have examined the partitioning of the yeast vacuole during meiotic division. In pulse-chase experiments, vacuoles labeled with the lumenal ade2 fluorophore or the membrane-specific dye FM 4-64 were not inherited by haploid spores. Instead, these fluorescent markers were excluded from spores and trapped between the spore cell walls and the ascus. Serial optical sections using a confocal microscope confirmed that spores did not inherit detectable amounts of fluorescently labeled vacuoles. Moreover, indirect immunofluorescence studies established that an endogenous vacuolar membrane protein, alkaline phosphatase, and a soluable vacuolar protease, carboxypeptidase Y, were also detected outside spores after meiotic division. Spores that did not inherit ade2- or FM 4-64-labeled vacuoles did generate an organelle that could be visualized by subsequent staining with vacuole-specific fluorophores. These data contrast with genetic evidence that a soluble vacuolar protease is inherited by spores. When the partitioning of both types of markers was examined in sporulating cultures, the vacuolar protease activity was inherited by spores while fluorescently labeled vacuoles were largely excluded from spores. Our results indicate that the majority of the diploid vacuole, both soluble contents and membrane-bound components, are excluded from spores formed during meiotic division. PMID:8889511

  4. Meiotic chromosome abnormalities in human spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Martin, Renée H

    2006-08-01

    The last few years have witnessed an explosion in the information about chromosome abnormalities in human sperm and the meiotic events that predispose to these abnormalities. We have determined that all chromosomes are susceptible to nondisjunction, but chromosomes 21 and 22 and, especially, the sex chromosomes have an increased frequency of aneuploidy. Studies are just beginning on the effects of potential mutagens on the chromosomal constitution of human sperm. The effects of pesticides and cancer therapeutic agents have been reviewed. In the last decade, there has been a great impetus to study chromosome abnormalities in sperm from infertile men because the advent of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) made it possible for these men to father pregnancies. A large number of studies have demonstrated that infertile men have an increased frequency of chromosomally abnormal sperm and children, even when they have a normal somatic karyotype. Meiotic studies on the pachytene stage of spermatogenesis have demonstrated that infertile men have impaired chromosome synapsis, a significantly decreased frequency of recombination, and an increased frequency of chromosomes completely lacking a recombination site. Such errors make these cells susceptible to meiotic arrest and the production of aneuploid gametes.

  5. Meiotic drive of chromosomal knobs reshaped the maize genome.

    PubMed Central

    Buckler, E S; Phelps-Durr, T L; Buckler, C S; Dawe, R K; Doebley, J F; Holtsford, T P

    1999-01-01

    Meiotic drive is the subversion of meiosis so that particular genes are preferentially transmitted to the progeny. Meiotic drive generally causes the preferential segregation of small regions of the genome; however, in maize we propose that meiotic drive is responsible for the evolution of large repetitive DNA arrays on all chromosomes. A maize meiotic drive locus found on an uncommon form of chromosome 10 [abnormal 10 (Ab10)] may be largely responsible for the evolution of heterochromatic chromosomal knobs, which can confer meiotic drive potential to every maize chromosome. Simulations were used to illustrate the dynamics of this meiotic drive model and suggest knobs might be deleterious in the absence of Ab10. Chromosomal knob data from maize's wild relatives (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis and mexicana) and phylogenetic comparisons demonstrated that the evolution of knob size, frequency, and chromosomal position agreed with the meiotic drive hypothesis. Knob chromosomal position was incompatible with the hypothesis that knob repetitive DNA is neutral or slightly deleterious to the genome. We also show that environmental factors and transposition may play a role in the evolution of knobs. Because knobs occur at multiple locations on all maize chromosomes, the combined effects of meiotic drive and genetic linkage may have reshaped genetic diversity throughout the maize genome in response to the presence of Ab10. Meiotic drive may be a major force of genome evolution, allowing revolutionary changes in genome structure and diversity over short evolutionary periods. PMID:10471723

  6. Meiotic abnormalities and spermatogenic parameters in severe oligoasthenozoospermia.

    PubMed

    Vendrell, J M; García, F; Veiga, A; Calderón, G; Egozcue, S; Egozcue, J; Barri, P N

    1999-02-01

    The incidence of meiotic abnormalities and their relationship with different spermatogenic parameters was assessed in 103 male patients with presumably idiopathic severe oligoasthenozoospermia (motile sperm concentration < or = 1.5 x 10(6)/ml). Meiosis on testicular biopsies was independently evaluated by two observers. Meiotic patterns included normal meiosis and two meiotic abnormalities, i.e. severe arrest and synaptic anomalies. A normal pattern was found in 64 (62.1%), severe arrest in 21 (20.4%) and synaptic anomalies in 18 (17.5%). The overall rate of meiotic abnormalities was 37.9%. Most (66.7%) meiotic abnormalities occurred in patients with a sperm concentration < or = 1 x 10(6)/ml. In this group, total meiotic abnormalities were found in 57.8% of the patients; of these, 26.7% had synaptic anomalies. When the sperm concentration was < or = 0.5 x 10(6)/ml, synaptic anomalies were detected in 40% of the patients. In patients with increased follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations, total meiotic abnormalities occurred in 54.8% (synaptic anomalies in 22.6%). There were statistically significant differences among the three meiotic patterns in relation to sperm concentration (P < 0.001) and serum FSH concentration (P < 0.05). In the multivariate analysis, sperm concentration < or = 1 x 10(6)/ml and/or FSH concentration > 10 IU/l were the only predictors of meiotic abnormalities.

  7. Alignment of Homologous Chromosomes and Effective Repair of Programmed DNA Double-Strand Breaks during Mouse Meiosis Require the Minichromosome Maintenance Domain Containing 2 (MCMDC2) Protein

    PubMed Central

    Ravindranathan, Ramya; Dereli, Ihsan; Stanzione, Marcello; Tóth, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Orderly chromosome segregation during the first meiotic division requires meiotic recombination to form crossovers between homologous chromosomes (homologues). Members of the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) helicase family have been implicated in meiotic recombination. In addition, they have roles in initiation of DNA replication, DNA mismatch repair and mitotic DNA double-strand break repair. Here, we addressed the function of MCMDC2, an atypical yet conserved MCM protein, whose function in vertebrates has not been reported. While we did not find an important role for MCMDC2 in mitotically dividing cells, our work revealed that MCMDC2 is essential for fertility in both sexes due to a crucial function in meiotic recombination. Meiotic recombination begins with the introduction of DNA double-strand breaks into the genome. DNA ends at break sites are resected. The resultant 3-prime single-stranded DNA overhangs recruit RAD51 and DMC1 recombinases that promote the invasion of homologous duplex DNAs by the resected DNA ends. Multiple strand invasions on each chromosome promote the alignment of homologous chromosomes, which is a prerequisite for inter-homologue crossover formation during meiosis. We found that although DNA ends at break sites were evidently resected, and they recruited RAD51 and DMC1 recombinases, these recombinases were ineffective in promoting alignment of homologous chromosomes in the absence of MCMDC2. Consequently, RAD51 and DMC1 foci, which are thought to mark early recombination intermediates, were abnormally persistent in Mcmdc2-/- meiocytes. Importantly, the strand invasion stabilizing MSH4 protein, which marks more advanced recombination intermediates, did not efficiently form foci in Mcmdc2-/- meiocytes. Thus, our work suggests that MCMDC2 plays an important role in either the formation, or the stabilization, of DNA strand invasion events that promote homologue alignment and provide the basis for inter-homologue crossover formation during

  8. HIM-8 binds to the X chromosome pairing center and mediateschromosome-specific meiotic synapsis

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Carolyn M.; Wong, Chihunt; Bhalla, Needhi; Carlton,Peter M.; Weiser, Pinky; Meneely, Philip M.; Dernburg, Abby F.

    2005-06-05

    The him-8 gene is essential for proper meiotic segregationof the X chromosomes in C. elegans. Herewe show that loss of him-8function causes profound X-chromosome-specific defects in homolog pairingand synapsis.him-8 encodes a C2H2 zinc finger protein that is expressedduring meiosis andconcentrates at a site on the X chromosome known as themeiotic Pairing Center (PC). A role for HIM-8 in PC function is supportedby genetic interactions between PC lesions and him-8 mutations.HIM-8-bound chromosome sites associate with the nuclear envelope (NE)throughout meiotic prophase. Surprisingly, a point mutation in him-8 thatretains both chromosome binding and NE localization fails to stabilizepairing or promote synapsis. These observations indicate thatstabilization of homolog pairing is an active process in which thetethering of chromosome sites to the NE may be necessary but is notsufficient.

  9. Roles of CDK and DDK in Genome Duplication and Maintenance: Meiotic Singularities

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Escoda, Blanca; Wu, Pei-Yun Jenny

    2017-01-01

    Cells reproduce using two types of divisions: mitosis, which generates two daughter cells each with the same genomic content as the mother cell, and meiosis, which reduces the number of chromosomes of the parent cell by half and gives rise to four gametes. The mechanisms that promote the proper progression of the mitotic and meiotic cycles are highly conserved and controlled. They require the activities of two types of serine-threonine kinases, the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and the Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK). CDK and DDK are essential for genome duplication and maintenance in both mitotic and meiotic divisions. In this review, we aim to highlight how these kinases cooperate to orchestrate diverse processes during cellular reproduction, focusing on meiosis-specific adaptions of their regulation and functions in DNA metabolism. PMID:28335524

  10. Exo1 and Mre11 execute meiotic DSB end resection in the protist Tetrahymena.

    PubMed

    Lukaszewicz, Agnieszka; Shodhan, Anura; Loidl, Josef

    2015-11-01

    The resection of 5'-DNA ends at a double-strand break (DSB) is an essential step in recombinational repair, as it exposes 3' single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) tails for interaction with a repair template. In mitosis, Exo1 and Sgs1 have a conserved function in the formation of long ssDNA tails, whereas this step in the processing of programmed meiotic DSBs is less well-characterized across model organisms. In budding yeast, which has been most intensely studied in this respect, Exo1 is a major meiotic nuclease. In addition, it exerts a nuclease-independent function later in meiosis in the conversion of DNA joint molecules into ZMM-dependent crossovers. In order to gain insight into the diverse meiotic roles of Exo1, we investigated the effect of Exo1 deletion in the ciliated protist Tetrahymena. We found that Exo1 together with Mre11, but without the help of Sgs1, promotes meiotic DSB end resection. Resection is completely eliminated only if both Mre11 and Exo1 are missing. This is consistent with the yeast model where Mre11 promotes resection in the 3'-5' direction and Exo1 in the opposite 5'-3' direction. However, while the endonuclease activity of Mre11 is essential to create an entry site for exonucleases and hence to start resection in budding yeast, Tetrahymena Exo1 is able to create single-stranded DNA in the absence of Mre11. Excluding a possible contribution of the Mre11 cofactor Sae2 (Com1) as an autonomous endonuclease, we conclude that there exists another unknown nuclease that initiates DSB processing in Tetrahymena. Consistent with the absence of the ZMM crossover pathway in Tetrahymena, crossover formation is independent of Exo1.

  11. Analysis of meiotic sister chromatid cohesion in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Severson, Aaron F.

    2016-01-01

    In sexually reproducing organisms, the formation of healthy gametes (sperm and eggs) requires the proper establishment and release of meiotic sister chromatid cohesion (SCC). SCC tethers replicated sisters from their formation in premeiotic S phase until the stepwise removal of cohesion in anaphase of meiosis I and II allows the separation of homologs and then sisters. Defects in the establishment or release of meiotic cohesion cause chromosome segregation errors that lead to the formation of aneuploid gametes and inviable embryos. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is an excellent model for studies of meiotic sister chromatid cohesion due to its genetic tractability and the excellent cytological properties of the hermaphrodite gonad. Moreover, mutants defective in the establishment or maintenance of meiotic SCC nevertheless produce abundant gametes, allowing analysis of the pattern of chromosome segregation. Here I will describe two approaches for analysis of meiotic cohesion in C. elegans. The first approach relies on cytology to detect and quantify defects in SCC. The second approach relies on PCR and restriction digests to identify embryos that inherited an incorrect complement of chromosomes due to aberrant meiotic chromosome segregation. Both approaches are sensitive enough to identify rare errors and precise enough to reveal distinctive phenotypes resulting from mutations that perturb meiotic SCC in different ways. The robust, quantitative nature of these assays should strengthen phenotypic comparisons of different meiotic mutants and enhance the reproducibility of data generated by different investigators. PMID:27797074

  12. Spatiotemporal regulation of meiotic recombination by Liaisonin

    PubMed Central

    Miyoshi, Tomoichiro; Ito, Masaru; Ohta, Kunihiro

    2013-01-01

    Sexual reproduction involves diversification of genetic information in successive generations. Meiotic recombination, which substantially contributes to the increase in genetic diversity, is initiated by programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) catalyzed by the evolutionarily conserved Spo11 protein. Spo11 requires additional partner proteins for its DNA cleavage reaction. DSBs are preferentially introduced at defined chromosomal sites called “recombination hotspots.” Recent studies have revealed that meiotically established higher-order chromosome structures, such as chromosome axes and loops, are also crucial in the control of DSB formation. Most of the DSB sites are located within chromatin loop regions, while many of the proteins involved in DSB formation reside on chromosomal axes. Hence, DSB proteins and DSB sites seem to be distantly located. To resolve this paradox, we conducted comprehensive proteomics and ChIP-chip analyses on Spo11 partners in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, in combination with mutant studies. We identified two distinct DSB complexes, the “DSBC (DSB Catalytic core)“ and “SFT (Seven-Fifteen-Twenty four; Rec7-Rec15-Rec24)” subcomplexes. The DSBC subcomplex contains Spo11 and functions as the catalytic core for the DNA cleavage reaction. The SFT subcomplex is assumed to execute regulatory functions. To activate the DSBC subcomplex, the SFT subcomplex tethers hotspots to axes via its interaction with Mde2, which can interact with proteins in both DSBC and SFT subcomplexes. Thus, Mde2 is likely to bridge these two subcomplexes, forming a “tethered loop-axis complex.” It should be noted that Mde2 expression is strictly regulated by S phase checkpoint monitoring of the completion of DNA replication. From these observations, we proposed that Mde2 is a central coupler for meiotic recombination initiation to establish a tethered loop-axis complex in liaison with the S phase checkpoint. PMID:23572041

  13. Spatiotemporal regulation of meiotic recombination by Liaisonin.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Tomoichiro; Ito, Masaru; Ohta, Kunihiro

    2013-01-01

    Sexual reproduction involves diversification of genetic information in successive generations. Meiotic recombination, which substantially contributes to the increase in genetic diversity, is initiated by programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) catalyzed by the evolutionarily conserved Spo11 protein. Spo11 requires additional partner proteins for its DNA cleavage reaction. DSBs are preferentially introduced at defined chromosomal sites called "recombination hotspots." Recent studies have revealed that meiotically established higher-order chromosome structures, such as chromosome axes and loops, are also crucial in the control of DSB formation. Most of the DSB sites are located within chromatin loop regions, while many of the proteins involved in DSB formation reside on chromosomal axes. Hence, DSB proteins and DSB sites seem to be distantly located. To resolve this paradox, we conducted comprehensive proteomics and ChIP-chip analyses on Spo11 partners in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, in combination with mutant studies. We identified two distinct DSB complexes, the "DSBC (DSB Catalytic core)" and "SFT (Seven-Fifteen-Twenty four; Rec7-Rec15-Rec24)" subcomplexes. The DSBC subcomplex contains Spo11 and functions as the catalytic core for the DNA cleavage reaction. The SFT subcomplex is assumed to execute regulatory functions. To activate the DSBC subcomplex, the SFT subcomplex tethers hotspots to axes via its interaction with Mde2, which can interact with proteins in both DSBC and SFT subcomplexes. Thus, Mde2 is likely to bridge these two subcomplexes, forming a "tethered loop-axis complex." It should be noted that Mde2 expression is strictly regulated by S phase checkpoint monitoring of the completion of DNA replication. From these observations, we proposed that Mde2 is a central coupler for meiotic recombination initiation to establish a tethered loop-axis complex in liaison with the S phase checkpoint.

  14. The genomic landscape of meiotic crossovers and gene conversions in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Wijnker, Erik; Velikkakam James, Geo; Ding, Jia; Becker, Frank; Klasen, Jonas R; Rawat, Vimal; Rowan, Beth A; de Jong, Daniël F; de Snoo, C Bastiaan; Zapata, Luis; Huettel, Bruno; de Jong, Hans; Ossowski, Stephan; Weigel, Detlef; Koornneef, Maarten; Keurentjes, Joost JB; Schneeberger, Korbinian

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the exact distribution of meiotic crossovers (COs) and gene conversions (GCs) is essential for understanding many aspects of population genetics and evolution, from haplotype structure and long-distance genetic linkage to the generation of new allelic variants of genes. To this end, we resequenced the four products of 13 meiotic tetrads along with 10 doubled haploids derived from Arabidopsis thaliana hybrids. GC detection through short reads has previously been confounded by genomic rearrangements. Rigid filtering for misaligned reads allowed GC identification at high accuracy and revealed an ∼80-kb transposition, which undergoes copy-number changes mediated by meiotic recombination. Non-crossover associated GCs were extremely rare most likely due to their short average length of ∼25–50 bp, which is significantly shorter than the length of CO-associated GCs. Overall, recombination preferentially targeted non-methylated nucleosome-free regions at gene promoters, which showed significant enrichment of two sequence motifs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01426.001 PMID:24347547

  15. Sister cohesion and structural axis components mediate homolog bias of meiotic recombination

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Keun P.; Weiner, Beth M.; Zhang, Liangran; Jordan, Amy; Dekker, Job; Kleckner, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Meiotic recombination occurs between one chromatid of each maternal and paternal homolog (homolog bias) versus between sister chromatids (sister bias). Physical DNA analysis reveals that meiotic cohesin/axis component Rec8 promotes sister bias, likely via its cohesion activity. Two meiosis-specific axis components, Red1/Mek1kinase, counteract this effect. With this precondition satisfied, other molecules directly specify homolog bias per se. Rec8 also acts positively to maintain homolog bias during crossover recombination. These observations point to sequential release of double-strand break ends from association with their sister. Red1 and Rec8 are found to play distinct roles for sister cohesion, DSB formation and recombination progression kinetics. Also, the two components are enriched in spatially distinct domains of axial structure that develop prior to DSB formation. We propose that Red1 and Rec8 domains provide functionally complementary environments whereby inputs evolved from DSB repair and late-stage chromosome morphogenesis are integrated to give the complete meiotic chromosomal program. PMID:21145459

  16. A new light on the meiotic DSB catalytic complex.

    PubMed

    Robert, Thomas; Vrielynck, Nathalie; Mézard, Christine; de Massy, Bernard; Grelon, Mathilde

    2016-06-01

    Meiotic recombination is initiated by the formation of programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). More than 15 years ago, Spo11 was identified as the protein responsible for meiotic DSB formation, notably because of its striking similarities with the A subunit of topoisomerase VI (TopoVI). TopoVI are enzymes that modify DNA topology by generating transient DSBs and are active as heterotetramers, composed of two A and two B subunits. A2 dimers catalyse the DNA cleavage reaction, whereas the B subunits regulate A2 conformation, DNA capture, cleavage and re-ligation. The recent identification in plants and mammals of a B-like TopoVI subunit that interacts with SPO11 and is required for meiotic DSB formation makes us to reconsider our understanding of the meiotic DSB catalytic complex. We provide here an overview of the knowledge on TopoVI structure and mode of action and we compare them with their meiotic counterparts. This allows us to discuss the nature, structure and functions of the meiotic TopoVI-like complex during meiotic DSB formation.

  17. The PHD Finger Protein MMD1/DUET Ensures the Progression of Male Meiotic Chromosome Condensation and Directly Regulates the Expression of the Condensin Gene CAP-D3.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Niu, Baixiao; Huang, Jiyue; Wang, Hongkuan; Yang, Xiaohui; Dong, Aiwu; Makaroff, Christopher; Ma, Hong; Wang, Yingxiang

    2016-08-01

    Chromosome condensation, a process mediated by the condensin complex, is essential for proper chromosome segregation during cell division. Unlike rapid mitotic chromosome condensation, meiotic chromosome condensation occurs over a relatively long prophase I and is unusually complex due to the coordination with chromosome axis formation and homolog interaction. The molecular mechanisms that regulate meiotic chromosome condensation progression from prophase I to metaphase I are unclear. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis thaliana meiotic PHD-finger protein MMD1/DUET is required for progressive compaction of prophase I chromosomes to metaphase I bivalents. The MMD1 PHD domain is required for its function in chromosome condensation and binds to methylated histone tails. Transcriptome analysis and qRT-PCR showed that several condensin genes exhibit significantly reduced expression in mmd1 meiocytes. Furthermore, MMD1 specifically binds to the promoter region of the condensin subunit gene CAP-D3 to enhance its expression. Moreover, cap-d3 mutants exhibit similar chromosome condensation defects, revealing an MMD1-dependent mechanism for regulating meiotic chromosome condensation, which functions in part by promoting condensin gene expression. Together, these discoveries provide strong evidence that the histone reader MMD1/DUET defines an important step for regulating the progression of meiotic prophase I chromosome condensation.

  18. TRAPPII is required for cleavage furrow ingression and localization of Rab11 in dividing male meiotic cells of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Robinett, Carmen C; Giansanti, Maria Grazia; Gatti, Maurizio; Fuller, Margaret T

    2009-12-15

    Although membrane addition is crucial for cytokinesis in many animal cell types, the specific mechanisms supporting cleavage furrow ingression are not yet understood. Mutations in the gene brunelleschi (bru), which encodes the Drosophila ortholog of the yeast Trs120p subunit of TRAPPII, cause failure of furrow ingression in male meiotic cells. In non-dividing cells, Brunelleschi protein fused to GFP is dispersed throughout the cytoplasm and enriched at Golgi organelles, similarly to another Drosophila TRAPPII subunit, dBet3. Localization of the membrane-trafficking GTPase Rab11 to the cleavage furrow requires wild-type function of bru, and genetic interactions between bru and Rab11 increase the failure of meiotic cytokinesis and cause synthetic lethality. bru also genetically interacts with four wheel drive (fwd), which encodes a PI4Kbeta, such that double mutants exhibit enhanced failure of male meiotic cytokinesis. These results suggest that Bru cooperates with Rab11 and PI4Kbeta to regulate the efficiency of membrane addition to the cleavage furrow, thus promoting cytokinesis in Drosophila male meiotic cells.

  19. Identification of DSB-1, a protein required for initiation of meiotic recombination in Caenorhabditis elegans, illuminates a crossover assurance checkpoint.

    PubMed

    Stamper, Ericca L; Rodenbusch, Stacia E; Rosu, Simona; Ahringer, Julie; Villeneuve, Anne M; Dernburg, Abby F

    2013-01-01

    Meiotic recombination, an essential aspect of sexual reproduction, is initiated by programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). DSBs are catalyzed by the widely-conserved Spo11 enzyme; however, the activity of Spo11 is regulated by additional factors that are poorly conserved through evolution. To expand our understanding of meiotic regulation, we have characterized a novel gene, dsb-1, that is specifically required for meiotic DSB formation in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. DSB-1 localizes to chromosomes during early meiotic prophase, coincident with the timing of DSB formation. DSB-1 also promotes normal protein levels and chromosome localization of DSB-2, a paralogous protein that plays a related role in initiating recombination. Mutations that disrupt crossover formation result in prolonged DSB-1 association with chromosomes, suggesting that nuclei may remain in a DSB-permissive state. Extended DSB-1 localization is seen even in mutants with defects in early recombination steps, including spo-11, suggesting that the absence of crossover precursors triggers the extension. Strikingly, failure to form a crossover precursor on a single chromosome pair is sufficient to extend the localization of DSB-1 on all chromosomes in the same nucleus. Based on these observations we propose a model for crossover assurance that acts through DSB-1 to maintain a DSB-permissive state until all chromosome pairs acquire crossover precursors. This work identifies a novel component of the DSB machinery in C. elegans, and sheds light on an important pathway that regulates DSB formation for crossover assurance.

  20. Cumulus Cells Block Oocyte Meiotic Resumption via Gap Junctions in Cumulus Oocyte Complexes Subjected to DNA Double-Strand Breaks.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ming-Hong; Zheng, Jie; Xie, Feng-Yun; Shen, Wei; Yin, Shen; Ma, Jun-Yu

    2015-01-01

    During mammalian oocyte growth, genomic DNA may accumulate DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by factors such as reactive oxygen species. Recent evidence demonstrated that slight DSBs do not activate DNA damage checkpoint proteins in denuded oocytes. These oocytes, even with DNA DSBs, can resume meiosis and progress to metaphase of meiosis II. Meiotic resumption in oocytes is also controlled by the surrounding cumulus cells; accordingly, we analyzed whether cumulus-cell enclosed oocytes (CEOs) with DNA damage are able to resume meiosis. Compared with DNA-damaged denuded oocytes, we found that meiotic resumption rates of CEOs significantly decreased. To assess the mechanism by which cumulus cells block meiotic resumption in CEOs with DNA DSBs, we treated the cumulus oocyte complex with the gap junction inhibitor carbenoxolone and found that carbenoxolone can rescue the block in CEO meiosis induced by DNA DSBs. Since cumulus cell-synthesized cAMPs can pass through the gap junctions between oocyte and cumulus cell to block oocyte meiosis, we measured the expression levels of adenylate cyclase 1 (Adcy1) in cumulus cells, and G-protein coupled receptor 3 (Gpr3) and phosphodiesterase 3A (Pde3a) in oocytes, and found that the mRNA expression level of Adcy1 increased significantly in DNA-damaged cumulus cells. In conclusion, our results indicate that DNA DSBs promote cAMP synthesis in cumulus cells, and cumulus cAMPs can inhibit meiotic resumption of CEOs through gap junctions.

  1. Meiotic recombination, synapsis, meiotic inactivation and sperm aneuploidy in a chromosome 1 inversion carrier.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Gordon; Chow, Victor; Ma, Sai

    2012-01-01

    Disrupted meiotic behaviour of inversion carriers may be responsible for suboptimal sperm parameters in these carriers. This study investigated meiotic recombination, synapsis, transcriptional silencing and chromosome segregation effects in a pericentric inv(1) carrier. Recombination (MLH1), synapsis (SYCP1, SYCP3) and transcriptional inactivation (γH2AX, BRCA1) were examined by fluorescence immunostaining. Chromosome specific rates of recombination were determined by fluorescence in-situ hybridization. Furthermore, testicular sperm was examined for aneuploidy and segregation of the inv(1). Our findings showed that global recombination rates were similar to controls. Recombination on the inv(1) and the sex chromosomes were reduced. The inv(1) associated with the XY body in 43.4% of cells, in which XY recombination was disproportionately absent, and 94.3% of cells displayed asynapsed regions which displayed meiotic silencing regardless of their association with the XY body. Furthermore, a low frequency of chromosomal imbalance was observed in spermatozoa (3.4%). Our results suggest that certain inversion carriers may display unimpaired global recombination and impaired recombination on the involved and the sex chromosomes during meiosis. Asynapsis or inversion-loop formation in the inverted region may be responsible for impaired spermatogenesis and may prevent sperm-chromosome imbalance.

  2. Meiotic DSB patterning: A multifaceted process.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Tim J; Garcia, Valerie; Neale, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    Meiosis is a specialized two-step cell division responsible for genome haploidization and the generation of genetic diversity during gametogenesis. An integral and distinctive feature of the meiotic program is the evolutionarily conserved initiation of homologous recombination (HR) by the developmentally programmed induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The inherently dangerous but essential act of DSB formation is subject to multiple forms of stringent and self-corrective regulation that collectively ensure fruitful and appropriate levels of genetic exchange without risk to cellular survival. Within this article we focus upon an emerging element of this control--spatial regulation--detailing recent advances made in understanding how DSBs are evenly distributed across the genome, and present a unified view of the underlying patterning mechanisms employed.

  3. Scaling and fractal behaviour underlying meiotic recombination.

    PubMed

    Waxman, D; Stoletzki, N

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we investigate some of the mathematical properties of meiotic recombination. Working within the framework of a genetic model with n loci, where alpha alleles are possible at each locus, we find that the proportion of all possible diploid parental genotypes that can produce a particular haploid gamete is exp[-n log(alpha(2)/[2alpha-1])]. We show that this proportion connects recombination with a fractal geometry of dimension log(2alpha-1)/log(alpha). The fractal dimension of a geometric object manifests itself when it is measured at increasingly smaller length scales. Decreasing the length scale of a geometric object is found to be directly analogous, in a genetics problem, to specifying a multilocus haplotype at a larger number of loci, and it is here that the fractal dimension reveals itself.

  4. Meiotic DSB patterning: A multifaceted process

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Tim J.; Garcia, Valerie; Neale, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Meiosis is a specialized two-step cell division responsible for genome haploidization and the generation of genetic diversity during gametogenesis. An integral and distinctive feature of the meiotic program is the evolutionarily conserved initiation of homologous recombination (HR) by the developmentally programmed induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The inherently dangerous but essential act of DSB formation is subject to multiple forms of stringent and self-corrective regulation that collectively ensure fruitful and appropriate levels of genetic exchange without risk to cellular survival. Within this article we focus upon an emerging element of this control—spatial regulation—detailing recent advances made in understanding how DSBs are evenly distributed across the genome, and present a unified view of the underlying patterning mechanisms employed. PMID:26730703

  5. Meiotic behavior of Brachiaria decumbens hybrids.

    PubMed

    Souza, V F; Pagliarini, M S; Valle, C B; Bione, N C P; Menon, M U; Mendes-Bonato, A B

    2015-10-21

    Brachiaria decumbens is a forage grass of inestimable value for livestock in Brazil due to its production of good quality forage even when planted on acid and poor soils, although it is susceptible to pasture spittlebugs. Only one cultivar, cv. Basilisk, has been used as the pollen donor in crosses with Brachiaria ruziziensis since 1988 at Embrapa Gado de Corte Research Center. Breeding within the species only became possible from 2009 when sexual accessions were successfully tetraploidized using colchicine. Three sexual genotypes were obtained and hybridization within B. decumbens was finally achieved. Here, we evaluated microspore tetrads using conventional cytology and found meiotic indexes above 78% for all three female genitors (cD24-2, cD24-27, cD24-45), but a low meiotic index (<22%) in the natural apomictic genitor D62 (cv. Basilisk) and in 49 hybrids. Analysis of the relationship between abnormal tetrad frequency and non-viable pollen grains yielded a highly significant Pearson correlation coefficient. The t-test proved significant for the progeny of cD24-45 x D62, with lower abnormalities and pollen sterility when compared to the other two progenies resulting from cD24-2 and cD24-27 crossed to D62, but these two did not differ. Apomictic hybrids such as S036 and X030 with low pollen sterility have the potential for use in cultivar development, whereas the sexual hybrids T012, X072, and X078 might be of use as female genitors in polycross blocks if they display good agronomic traits.

  6. Proteins involved in meiotic recombination: a role in male infertility?

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Matthew L; Hassold, Terry J; Carrell, Douglas T

    2008-01-01

    Meiotic recombination results in the formation of crossovers, by which genetic information is exchanged between homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis. Recombination is a complex process involving many proteins. Alterations in the genes involved in recombination may result in infertility. Molecular studies have improved our understanding of the roles and mechanisms of the proteins and protein complexes involved in recombination, some of which have function in mitotic cells as well as meiotic cells. Human gene sequencing studies have been performed for some of these genes and have provided further information on the phenotypes observed in some infertile individuals. However, further studies are needed to help elucidate the particular role(s) of a given protein and to increase our understanding of these protein systems. This review will focus on our current understanding of proteins involved in meiotic recombination from a genomic perspective, summarizing our current understanding of known mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms that may affect male fertility by altering meiotic recombination.

  7. Control of Oocyte Growth and Meiotic Maturation in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seongseop; Spike, Caroline; Greenstein, David

    2013-01-01

    In sexually reproducing animals, oocytes arrest at diplotene or diakinesis and resume meiosis (meiotic maturation) in response to hormones. Chromosome segregation errors in female meiosis I are the leading cause of human birth defects, and age-related changes in the hormonal environment of the ovary are a suggested cause. C. elegans is emerging as a genetic paradigm for studying hormonal control of meiotic maturation. The meiotic maturation processes in C. elegans and mammals share a number of biological and molecular similarities. Major sperm protein (MSP) and luteinizing hormone (LH), though unrelated in sequence, both trigger meiotic resumption using somatic Gαs-adenylate cyclase pathways and soma-germline gap-junctional communication. At a molecular level, the oocyte responses apparently involve the control of conserved protein kinase pathways and post-transcriptional gene regulation in the oocyte. At a cellular level, the responses include cortical cytoskeletal rearrangement, nuclear envelope breakdown, assembly of the acentriolar meiotic spindle, chromosome segregation, and likely changes important for fertilization and the oocyte-to-embryo transition. This chapter focuses on signaling mechanisms required for oocyte growth and meiotic maturation in C. elegans and discusses how these mechanisms coordinate the completion of meiosis and the oocyte-to-embryo transition. PMID:22872481

  8. Meiotic behavior as a selection tool in silage corn breeding.

    PubMed

    Souza, V F; Pagliarini, M S; Scapim, C A; Rodovalho, M; Faria, M V

    2010-10-19

    In breeding programs, commercial hybrids are frequently used as a source of inbred lines to obtain new hybrids. Considering that maize production is dependent on viable gametes, the selection of populations to obtain inbred lines with high meiotic stability could contribute to the formation of new silage corn hybrids adapted to specific region. We evaluated the meiotic stability of five commercial hybrids of silage corn used in southern Brazil with conventional squashing methods. All of them showed meiotic abnormalities. Some abnormalities, such as abnormal chromosome segregation and absence of cytokinesis, occurred in all the genotypes, while others, including cytomixis and abnormal spindle orientation, were found only in some genotypes. The hybrid SG6010 had the lowest mean frequency of abnormal cells (21.27%); the highest frequency was found in the hybrid P30K64 (44.43%). However, the frequency of abnormal meiotic products was much lower in most genotypes, ranging from 7.63% in the hybrid CD304 to 43.86% in Garra. Taking into account the percentage of abnormal meiotic products and, hence, meiotic stability, only the hybrids CD304, P30K64, SG6010, and P30F53 are recommended to be retained in the breeding program to obtain inbred lines to create new hybrids.

  9. Positive regulation of meiotic DNA double-strand break formation by activation of the DNA damage checkpoint kinase Mec1(ATR).

    PubMed

    Gray, Stephen; Allison, Rachal M; Garcia, Valerie; Goldman, Alastair S H; Neale, Matthew J

    2013-07-31

    During meiosis, formation and repair of programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) create genetic exchange between homologous chromosomes-a process that is critical for reductional meiotic chromosome segregation and the production of genetically diverse sexually reproducing populations. Meiotic DSB formation is a complex process, requiring numerous proteins, of which Spo11 is the evolutionarily conserved catalytic subunit. Precisely how Spo11 and its accessory proteins function or are regulated is unclear. Here, we use Saccharomyces cerevisiae to reveal that meiotic DSB formation is modulated by the Mec1(ATR) branch of the DNA damage signalling cascade, promoting DSB formation when Spo11-mediated catalysis is compromised. Activation of the positive feedback pathway correlates with the formation of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) recombination intermediates and activation of the downstream kinase, Mek1. We show that the requirement for checkpoint activation can be rescued by prolonging meiotic prophase by deleting the NDT80 transcription factor, and that even transient prophase arrest caused by Ndt80 depletion is sufficient to restore meiotic spore viability in checkpoint mutants. Our observations are unexpected given recent reports that the complementary kinase pathway Tel1(ATM) acts to inhibit DSB formation. We propose that such antagonistic regulation of DSB formation by Mec1 and Tel1 creates a regulatory mechanism, where the absolute frequency of DSBs is maintained at a level optimal for genetic exchange and efficient chromosome segregation.

  10. HURP permits MTOC sorting for robust meiotic spindle bipolarity, similar to extra centrosome clustering in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Breuer, Manuel; Kolano, Agnieszka; Kwon, Mijung; Li, Chao-Chin; Tsai, Ting-Fen; Pellman, David; Brunet, Stéphane; Verlhac, Marie-Hélène

    2010-12-27

    In contrast to somatic cells, formation of acentriolar meiotic spindles relies on the organization of microtubules (MTs) and MT-organizing centers (MTOCs) into a stable bipolar structure. The underlying mechanisms are still unknown. We show that this process is impaired in hepatoma up-regulated protein (Hurp) knockout mice, which are viable but female sterile, showing defective oocyte divisions. HURP accumulates on interpolar MTs in the vicinity of chromosomes via Kinesin-5 activity. By promoting MT stability in the spindle central domain, HURP allows efficient MTOC sorting into distinct poles, providing bipolarity establishment and maintenance. Our results support a new model for meiotic spindle assembly in which HURP ensures assembly of a central MT array, which serves as a scaffold for the genesis of a robust bipolar structure supporting efficient chromosome congression. Furthermore, HURP is also required for the clustering of extra centrosomes before division, arguing for a shared molecular requirement of MTOC sorting in mammalian meiosis and cancer cell division.

  11. Functional heterologous gap junctions in Fundulus ovarian follicles maintain meiotic arrest and permit hydration during oocyte maturation.

    PubMed

    Cerdá, J L; Petrino, T R; Wallace, R A

    1993-11-01

    The physiological significance of heterologous gap junctions between granulosa cells and the oocyte was investigated in late vitellogenic ovarian follicles of the teleost Fundulus heteroclitus. Lucifer Yellow injected into the oocyte readily passed to the overlying granulosa cells, demonstrating effective dye-coupling. Passage of the fluorescent dye, and hence intercellular communication, was inhibited both by the tumor-promoting phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and by 1-octanol, known uncouplers of gap junctions in a variety of invertebrate and vertebrate cell types. Octanol alone also initiated resumption of meiosis in follicle-enclosed oocytes, indicating that granulosa cells normally maintain meiotic arrest, as apparently occurs in mammalian and amphibian follicles. Both PMA and octanol also consistently inhibited the hydration process that normally accompanies meiotic maturation. These results support a previously suggested hypothesis that K+, which is the primary osmotic effector for oocyte hydration, is translocated via gap junction from granulosa cells to the maturing oocyte.

  12. Analysis of meiotic segregation, using single-sperm typing: Meiotic drive at the myotonic dystrophy locus

    SciTech Connect

    Leeflang, E.P.; Arnheim, N.; McPeek, M.S.

    1996-10-01

    Meiotic drive at the myotonic dystrophy (DM) locus has recently been suggested as being responsible for maintaining the frequency, in the human population, of DM chromosomes capable of expansion to the disease state. In order to test this hypothesis, we have studied samples of single sperm from three individuals heterozygous at the DM locus, each with one allele larger and one allele smaller than 19 CTG repeats. To guard against the possible problem of differential PCR amplification rates based on the lengths of the alleles, the sperm were also typed at another closely linked marker whose allele size was unrelated to the allele size at the DM locus. Using statistical models specifically designed to study single-sperm segregation data, we find no evidence of meiotic segregation distortion. The upper limit of the two-sided 95% confidence interval for the estimate of the common segregation probability for the three donors is at or below .515 for all models considered, and no statistically significant difference from .5 is detected in any of the models. This suggests that any greater amount of segregation distortion at the myotonic dystrophy locus must result from events following sperm ejaculation. The mathematical models developed make it possible to study segregation distortion with high resolution by using sperm-typing data from any locus. 26 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  13. Meiotic recombination breakpoints are associated with open chromatin and enriched with repetitive DNA elements in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meiotic recombination provides the framework for the genetic variation in natural and artificial populations of eukaryotes through the creation of novel haplotypes. Thus, determining the molecular characteristics of meiotic recombination remains essential for future plant breeding efforts, which hea...

  14. piRNA-directed cleavage of meiotic transcripts regulates spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Goh, Wee Siong Sho; Falciatori, Ilaria; Tam, Oliver H; Burgess, Ralph; Meikar, Oliver; Kotaja, Noora; Hammell, Molly; Hannon, Gregory J

    2015-05-15

    MIWI catalytic activity is required for spermatogenesis, indicating that piRNA-guided cleavage is critical for germ cell development. To identify meiotic piRNA targets, we augmented the mouse piRNA repertoire by introducing a human meiotic piRNA cluster. This triggered a spermatogenesis defect by inappropriately targeting the piRNA machinery to mouse mRNAs essential for germ cell development. Analysis of such de novo targets revealed a signature for pachytene piRNA target recognition. This enabled identification of both transposable elements and meiotically expressed protein-coding genes as targets of native piRNAs. Cleavage of genic targets began at the pachytene stage and resulted in progressive repression through meiosis, driven at least in part via the ping-pong cycle. Our data support the idea that meiotic piRNA populations must be strongly selected to enable successful spermatogenesis, both driving the response away from essential genes and directing the pathway toward mRNA targets that are regulated by small RNAs in meiotic cells.

  15. Chromosomal abnormalities, meiotic behavior and fertility in domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Villagómez, D A F; Pinton, A

    2008-01-01

    Since the advent of the surface microspreading technique for synaptonemal complex analysis, increasing interest in describing the synapsis patterns of chromosome abnormalities associated with fertility of domestic animals has been noticed during the past three decades. In spite of the number of scientific reports describing the occurrence of structural chromosome abnormalities, their meiotic behavior and gametic products, little is known in domestic animal species about the functional effects of such chromosome aberrations in the germ cell line of carriers. However, some interesting facts gained from recent and previous studies on the meiotic behavior of chromosome abnormalities of domestic animals permit us to discuss, in the frame of recent knowledge emerging from mouse and human investigations, the possible mechanism implicated in the well known association between meiotic disruption and chromosome pairing failure. New cytogenetic techniques, based on molecular and immunofluorescent analyses, are allowing a better description of meiotic processes, including gamete production. The present communication reviews the knowledge of the meiotic consequences of chromosome abnormalities in domestic animals.

  16. Meiotic Consequences of Genetic Divergence Across the Murine Pseudoautosomal Region

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Beth L.

    2017-01-01

    The production of haploid gametes during meiosis is dependent on the homology-driven processes of pairing, synapsis, and recombination. On the mammalian heterogametic sex chromosomes, these key meiotic activities are confined to the pseudoautosomal region (PAR), a short region of near-perfect sequence homology between the X and Y chromosomes. Despite its established importance for meiosis, the PAR is rapidly evolving, raising the question of how proper X/Y segregation is buffered against the accumulation of homology-disrupting mutations. Here, I investigate the interplay of PAR evolution and function in two interfertile house mouse subspecies characterized by structurally divergent PARs, Mus musculus domesticus and M. m. castaneus. Using cytogenetic methods to visualize the sex chromosomes at meiosis, I show that intersubspecific F1 hybrids harbor an increased frequency of pachytene spermatocytes with unsynapsed sex chromosomes. This high rate of asynapsis is due, in part, to the premature release of synaptic associations prior to completion of prophase I. Further, I show that when sex chromosomes do synapse in intersubspecific hybrids, recombination is reduced across the paired region. Together, these meiotic defects afflict ∼50% of spermatocytes from F1 hybrids and lead to increased apoptosis in meiotically dividing cells. Despite flagrant disruption of the meiotic program, a subset of spermatocytes complete meiosis and intersubspecific F1 males remain fertile. These findings cast light on the meiotic constraints that shape sex chromosome evolution and offer initial clues to resolve the paradox raised by the rapid evolution of this functionally significant locus. PMID:28100589

  17. Automated construction of highly accurate meiotic mapping panels for human chromosome 7 using BINS

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, L.; Helms, C.; Dutchik, J.

    1994-09-01

    Development of a set of highly accurate meiotic breakpoint panels for the human genome based on CEPH reference pedigree genotypes and highly informative microsatellite markers will provide a valuable resource for the efficient mapping of new markers and will promote the rapid integration of physical and genetic map information. Key to the development of such a panel is the availability of a reliable set of genotypic data and automated methods for panel construction and verification. We have recently completed construction of comprehensive, microsatellite, and index linkage maps for human chromosome 7 using CEPH pedigree genotypes and CRI-MAP (with odds for marker order of 1000:1). A subset of markers used to build these maps that were typed on 40 CEPH families and rigorously checked for errors (e.g. using the Chrompics option of CRI-MAP) were selected for use to develop a set of meiotic breakpoint panels. The BINS programs has been developed to determine the locations of reliable crossovers using primary genotype data for every individual of each pedigree with the aim of creating crossover mapping panels. BINS utilizes a set of algorithms that parses out reliable and consistent data and uses these data to construct a crossover-based map. BINS has been utilized to construct a primary meiotic mapping panel for human chromosome 7. A graphical display of the breakpoint data provides an easily interpretable image and specifically highlights possible data inconsistencies (e.g. questionable double crossovers). We have used BINS and the CEPH genotypes to construct a preliminary set of panels for chromosome 7. Refinement of the panels is in progress.

  18. Meiotic Recombination Initiation in and around Retrotransposable Elements in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Mariko; Keeney, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Meiotic recombination is initiated by large numbers of developmentally programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), ranging from dozens to hundreds per cell depending on the organism. DSBs formed in single-copy sequences provoke recombination between allelic positions on homologous chromosomes, but DSBs can also form in and near repetitive elements such as retrotransposons. When they do, they create a risk for deleterious genome rearrangements in the germ line via recombination between non-allelic repeats. A prior study in budding yeast demonstrated that insertion of a Ty retrotransposon into a DSB hotspot can suppress meiotic break formation, but properties of Ty elements in their most common physiological contexts have not been addressed. Here we compile a comprehensive, high resolution map of all Ty elements in the rapidly and efficiently sporulating S. cerevisiae strain SK1 and examine DSB formation in and near these endogenous retrotransposable elements. SK1 has 30 Tys, all but one distinct from the 50 Tys in S288C, the source strain for the yeast reference genome. From whole-genome DSB maps and direct molecular assays, we find that DSB levels and chromatin structure within and near Tys vary widely between different elements and that local DSB suppression is not a universal feature of Ty presence. Surprisingly, deletion of two Ty elements weakened adjacent DSB hotspots, revealing that at least some Ty insertions promote rather than suppress nearby DSB formation. Given high strain-to-strain variability in Ty location and the high aggregate burden of Ty-proximal DSBs, we propose that meiotic recombination is an important component of host-Ty interactions and that Tys play critical roles in genome instability and evolution in both inbred and outcrossed sexual cycles. PMID:24009525

  19. Epidermal growth factor receptor signaling-dependent calcium elevation in cumulus cells is required for NPR2 inhibition and meiotic resumption in mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yakun; Kong, Nana; Li, Na; Hao, Xiaoqiong; Wei, Kaiwen; Xiang, Xi; Xia, Guoliang; Zhang, Meijia

    2013-09-01

    In preovulatory ovarian follicles, the oocyte is maintained in meiotic prophase arrest by natriuretic peptide precursor C (NPPC) and its receptor natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (NPR2). LH treatment results in the decrease of NPR2 guanylyl cyclase activity that promotes resumption of meiosis. We investigated the regulatory mechanism of LH-activated epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor signaling on NPR2 function. Cumulus cell-oocyte complex is cultured in the medium with 30 nM NPPC to prevent oocyte spontaneous maturation. In this system, EGF could stimulate oocyte meiotic resumption after 4 hours of incubation. Further study showed that EGF elevated intracellular calcium concentrations of cumulus cells and decreased cGMP levels in cumulus cells and oocytes, and calcium-elevating reagents ionomycin and sphingosine-1-phosphate mimicked the effects of EGF on oocyte maturation and cGMP levels. EGF-mediated cGMP levels and meiotic resumption could be reversed by EGF receptor inhibitor AG1478 and the calcium chelator bis-(o-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, tetra(acetoxymethyl)-ester. EGF also decreased the expression of Npr2 mRNA in cumulus cells, which may not be involved in meiotic resumption, because the block of NPR2 protein de novo synthesis by cycloheximide had no effect on NPPC and EGF-mediated oocyte maturation. However, EGF had no effect on oocyte maturation when meiotic arrest was maintained in the present of cGMP analog 8-bromoadenosine-cGMP. These results suggest that EGF receptor signaling induces meiotic resumption by elevating calcium concentrations of cumulus cells to decrease NPR2 guanylyl cyclase activity.

  20. The role of meiotic drive in hybrid male sterility

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Shannon R.; Noor, Mohamed A. F.

    2010-01-01

    Meiotic drive causes the distortion of allelic segregation away from Mendelian expected ratios, often also reducing fecundity and favouring the evolution of drive suppressors. If different species evolve distinct drive-suppressor systems, then hybrid progeny may be sterile as a result of negative interactions of these systems' components. Although the hypothesis that meiotic drive may contribute to hybrid sterility, and thus species formation, fell out of favour early in the 1990s, recent results showing an association between drive and sterility have resurrected this previously controversial idea. Here, we review the different forms of meiotic drive and their possible roles in speciation. We discuss the recent empirical evidence for a link between drive and hybrid male sterility, also suggesting a possible mechanistic explanation for this link in the context of chromatin remodelling. Finally, we revisit the population genetics of drive that allow it to contribute to speciation. PMID:20308102

  1. Cytogenetic analysis of meiotic cells obtained from stallion testes.

    PubMed

    Bugno-Poniewierska, Monika; Dardzińska, Aneta; Pawlina, Klaudia; Słota, Ewa

    2010-01-01

    A normal course of meiosis and the associated course of spermatogenesis in males are very significant from the viewpoint of animal breeding, in particular animal reproduction. This takes on special significance when studying late-maturing animals such as horses. The aim of the study was to analyse meiotic cells, with particular consideration of synaptonemal complexes obtained from the testes of young stallions and cryptorchids, based on observations of the X-Y bivalent. The analysis was performed in successive stages of meiotic division using the FISH technique. The greatest diversity and most advanced meiotic stages were observed in the normal testis of a unilateral cryptorchid. No abnormalities were observed that could have caused cryptorchidism in the analysed horses.

  2. A Discrete Class of Intergenic DNA Dictates Meiotic DNA Break Hotspots in Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Cam, Hugh P; Farah, Joseph A; Grewal, Shiv I. S; Smith, Gerald R

    2007-01-01

    Meiotic recombination is initiated by DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) made by Spo11 (Rec12 in fission yeast), which becomes covalently linked to the DSB ends. Like recombination events, DSBs occur at hotspots in the genome, but the genetic factors responsible for most hotspots have remained elusive. Here we describe in fission yeast the genome-wide distribution of meiosis-specific Rec12-DNA linkages, which closely parallel DSBs measured by conventional Southern blot hybridization. Prominent DSB hotspots are located ∼65 kb apart, separated by intervals with little or no detectable breakage. Most hotspots lie within exceptionally large intergenic regions. Thus, the chromosomal architecture responsible for hotspots in fission yeast is markedly different from that of budding yeast, in which DSB hotspots are much more closely spaced and, in many regions of the genome, occur at each promoter. Our analysis in fission yeast reveals a clearly identifiable chromosomal feature that can predict the majority of recombination hotspots across a whole genome and provides a basis for searching for the chromosomal features that dictate hotspots of meiotic recombination in other organisms, including humans. PMID:17722984

  3. The synaptonemal complex has liquid crystalline properties and spatially regulates meiotic recombination factors

    PubMed Central

    Rog, Ofer; Köhler, Simone; Dernburg, Abby F

    2017-01-01

    The synaptonemal complex (SC) is a polymer that spans ~100 nm between paired homologous chromosomes during meiosis. Its striated, periodic appearance in electron micrographs led to the idea that transverse filaments within this structure ‘crosslink’ the axes of homologous chromosomes, stabilizing their pairing. SC proteins can also form polycomplexes, three-dimensional lattices that recapitulate the periodic structure of SCs but do not associate with chromosomes. Here we provide evidence that SCs and polycomplexes contain mobile subunits and that their assembly is promoted by weak hydrophobic interactions, indicative of a liquid crystalline phase. We further show that in the absence of recombination intermediates, polycomplexes recapitulate the dynamic localization of pro-crossover factors during meiotic progression, revealing how the SC might act as a conduit to regulate chromosome-wide crossover distribution. Properties unique to liquid crystals likely enable long-range signal transduction along meiotic chromosomes and underlie the rapid evolution of SC proteins. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21455.001 PMID:28045371

  4. Induction of meiotic maturation in Xenopus oocytes by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Stith, B.J.; Maller, J.L.

    1987-04-01

    Fully grown Xenopus oocytes are physiologically arrested at the G2/prophase border of the first meiotic division. Addition in vitro of progesterone or insulin causes release of the G2/prophase block and stimulates meiotic cell division of the oocyte, leading to maturation of the oocyte into an unfertilized egg. The possibility that the products of polyphosphoinositide breakdown, diacylglycerol and inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate are involved in occyte maturation was investigated. Microinjection of IP/sub 3/ into oocytes just prior to addition of progesterone or insulin accelerated the rate of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) by up to 25%. Half-maximal acceleration occurred at an intracellular IP/sub 3/ concentration of 1 ..mu..M. Treatment of oocytes with the diacylglycerol analog and tumor promoter, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) induced GVBD in the absence of hormone. Half-maximal induction of GVBD occurred with 150 nM TPA and was blocked by pretreatment of oocytes with 10 nM cholera toxin. Microinjection of highly purified protein kinase C from rat brain oocytes did not induce maturation but markedly accelerated the rate of insulin-induced oocyte maturation. However, injection of the enzyme had no effect on progesterone action. These results indicate that protein kinase C is capable of regulating oocyte maturation of Xenopus.

  5. Duplication and Adaptive Evolution of a Key Centromeric Protein in Mimulus, a Genus with Female Meiotic Drive.

    PubMed

    Finseth, Findley R; Dong, Yuzhu; Saunders, Arpiar; Fishman, Lila

    2015-10-01

    The fundamental asymmetry of female meiosis creates an arena for genetic elements to compete for inclusion in the egg, promoting the selfish evolution of centromere variants that maximize their transmission to the future egg. Such "female meiotic drive" has been hypothesized to explain the paradoxically complex and rapidly evolving nature of centromeric DNA and proteins. Although theoretically widespread, few cases of active drive have been observed, thereby limiting the opportunities to directly assess the impact of centromeric drive on molecular variation at centromeres and binding proteins. Here, we characterize the molecular evolutionary patterns of CENH3, the centromere-defining histone variant, in Mimulus monkeyflowers, a genus with one of the few known cases of active centromere-associated female meiotic drive. First, we identify a novel duplication of CENH3 in diploid Mimulus, including in lineages with actively driving centromeres. Second, we demonstrate long-term adaptive evolution at several sites in the N-terminus of CENH3, a region with some meiosis-specific functions that putatively interacts with centromeric DNA. Finally, we infer that the paralogs evolve under different selective regimes; some sites in the N-terminus evolve under positive selection in the pro-orthologs or only one paralog (CENH3_B) and the paralogs exhibit significantly different patterns of polymorphism within populations. Our finding of long-term, adaptive evolution at CENH3 in the context of centromere-associated meiotic drive supports an antagonistic, coevolutionary battle for evolutionary dominance between centromeric DNA and binding proteins.

  6. Smc5/6 Coordinates Formation and Resolution of Joint Molecules with Chromosome Morphology to Ensure Meiotic Divisions

    PubMed Central

    Blitzblau, Hannah G.; Newcombe, Sonya; Chan, Andrew Chi-ho; Newnham, Louise; Li, Zhaobo; Gray, Stephen; Herbert, Alex D.; Arumugam, Prakash; Hochwagen, Andreas; Hunter, Neil; Hoffmann, Eva

    2013-01-01

    During meiosis, Structural Maintenance of Chromosome (SMC) complexes underpin two fundamental features of meiosis: homologous recombination and chromosome segregation. While meiotic functions of the cohesin and condensin complexes have been delineated, the role of the third SMC complex, Smc5/6, remains enigmatic. Here we identify specific, essential meiotic functions for the Smc5/6 complex in homologous recombination and the regulation of cohesin. We show that Smc5/6 is enriched at centromeres and cohesin-association sites where it regulates sister-chromatid cohesion and the timely removal of cohesin from chromosomal arms, respectively. Smc5/6 also localizes to recombination hotspots, where it promotes normal formation and resolution of a subset of joint-molecule intermediates. In this regard, Smc5/6 functions independently of the major crossover pathway defined by the MutLγ complex. Furthermore, we show that Smc5/6 is required for stable chromosomal localization of the XPF-family endonuclease, Mus81-Mms4Eme1. Our data suggest that the Smc5/6 complex is required for specific recombination and chromosomal processes throughout meiosis and that in its absence, attempts at cell division with unresolved joint molecules and residual cohesin lead to severe recombination-induced meiotic catastrophe. PMID:24385939

  7. KLP-7 acts through the Ndc80 complex to limit pole number in C. elegans oocyte meiotic spindle assembly.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Amy A; Sugioka, Kenji; Chuang, Chien-Hui; Lowry, Joshua B; Bowerman, Bruce

    2015-09-14

    During oocyte meiotic cell division in many animals, bipolar spindles assemble in the absence of centrosomes, but the mechanisms that restrict pole assembly to a bipolar state are unknown. We show that KLP-7, the single mitotic centromere-associated kinesin (MCAK)/kinesin-13 in Caenorhabditis elegans, is required for bipolar oocyte meiotic spindle assembly. In klp-7(-) mutants, extra microtubules accumulated, extra functional spindle poles assembled, and chromosomes frequently segregated as three distinct masses during meiosis I anaphase. Moreover, reducing KLP-7 function in monopolar klp-18(-) mutants often restored spindle bipolarity and chromosome segregation. MCAKs act at kinetochores to correct improper kinetochore-microtubule (k-MT) attachments, and depletion of the Ndc-80 kinetochore complex, which binds microtubules to mediate kinetochore attachment, restored bipolarity in klp-7(-) mutant oocytes. We propose a model in which KLP-7/MCAK regulates k-MT attachment and spindle tension to promote the coalescence of early spindle pole foci that produces a bipolar structure during the acentrosomal process of oocyte meiotic spindle assembly.

  8. CRL4-DCAF1 ubiquitin E3 ligase directs protein phosphatase 2A degradation to control oocyte meiotic maturation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chao; Ji, Shu-Yan; Sha, Qian-Qian; Sun, Qing-Yuan; Fan, Heng-Yu

    2015-08-18

    Oocyte meiosis is a specialized cell cycle that gives rise to fertilizable haploid gametes and is precisely controlled in various dimensions. We recently found that E3 ubiquitin ligase CRL4 is required for female fertility by regulating DNA hydroxymethylation to maintain oocyte survival and to promote zygotic genome reprogramming. However, not all phenotypes of CRL4-deleted oocytes could be explained by this mechanism. Here we show that CRL4 controls oocyte meiotic maturation by proteasomal degradation of protein phosphatase 2A scaffold subunit, PP2A-A. Oocyte-specific deletion of DDB1 or DCAF1 (also called VPRBP) results in delayed meiotic resumption and failure to complete meiosis I along with PP2A-A accumulation. DCAF1 directly binds to and results in the poly-ubiquitination of PP2A-A. Moreover, combined deletion of Ppp2r1a rescues the meiotic defects caused by DDB1/DCAF1 deficiency. These results provide in vivo evidence that CRL4-directed PP2A-A degradation is physiologically essential for regulating oocyte meiosis and female fertility.

  9. [Cortical cytoskeletal ring in prophase II leads to correction of abnormalities of the first meiotic division and to meiotic restitution of pollen mother cell nucleus].

    PubMed

    Shamina, N V; Zaporozhchenko, I A; Maksiutova, Iu R; Shatskaia, O A

    2007-01-01

    The deviation of prophase cytoskeletal ring formation was determined during meiotic division in 50% of pollen mother cells (PMCs) in maize haploid No 1498 (Zea mays). At prophase in both meiotic divisions the cytoskeletal ring is formed in cortical region of cytoplasm instead of perinuclear. Sometimes formation of both perinuclear and cortical rings is observed in the same cell. It has been shown that in multinucleate PMCs the cortical ring leads to the consolidation of chromosomes into common spindle and to meiotic restitution.

  10. The PHD Finger Protein MMD1/DUET Ensures the Progression of Male Meiotic Chromosome Condensation and Directly Regulates the Expression of the Condensin Gene CAP-D3[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Niu, Baixiao; Huang, Jiyue; Wang, Hongkuan; Yang, Xiaohui; Dong, Aiwu

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome condensation, a process mediated by the condensin complex, is essential for proper chromosome segregation during cell division. Unlike rapid mitotic chromosome condensation, meiotic chromosome condensation occurs over a relatively long prophase I and is unusually complex due to the coordination with chromosome axis formation and homolog interaction. The molecular mechanisms that regulate meiotic chromosome condensation progression from prophase I to metaphase I are unclear. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis thaliana meiotic PHD-finger protein MMD1/DUET is required for progressive compaction of prophase I chromosomes to metaphase I bivalents. The MMD1 PHD domain is required for its function in chromosome condensation and binds to methylated histone tails. Transcriptome analysis and qRT-PCR showed that several condensin genes exhibit significantly reduced expression in mmd1 meiocytes. Furthermore, MMD1 specifically binds to the promoter region of the condensin subunit gene CAP-D3 to enhance its expression. Moreover, cap-d3 mutants exhibit similar chromosome condensation defects, revealing an MMD1-dependent mechanism for regulating meiotic chromosome condensation, which functions in part by promoting condensin gene expression. Together, these discoveries provide strong evidence that the histone reader MMD1/DUET defines an important step for regulating the progression of meiotic prophase I chromosome condensation. PMID:27385818

  11. [Meiotic chromosomes of the tree frog Smilisca baudinii (Anura: Hylidae)].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Guzmán, Javier; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Indy, Jeane Rimber

    2011-03-01

    The Mexican tree frog Smilisca baudinii, is a very common frog in Central America. In spite their importance to keep the ecological equilibrium of the rainforest, its biology and genetics are poorly known. In order to contribute with its biological knowledge, we described the typical meiotic karyotype based in standard cytogenetic protocols to specimens collected in Tabasco, Mexico. The study was centered in the analysis of 131 chromosome spreads at meiotic stage from two adults of the species (one female and one male). The metaphase analysis allowed the establishment of the modal haploid number of 1n = 12 bivalent chromosomes. The chromosomic formulae from the haploid bivalent karyotype was integrated by 12 biarmed chromosomes characterized by twelve pairs of metacentric-submetacentric (msm) chromosomes. The meiotic counting gives the idea that diploid chromosome number is integrated by a complement of 2n = 24 biarmed chromosomes. The presence of sex chromosomes from female and male meiotic spreads was not observed. Current results suggest that S. baudinii chromosome structure is well shared among Hylidae family and "B" chromosomes are particular structures that have very important evolutionary consequences in species diversification.

  12. RPA homologs and ssDNA processing during meiotic recombination.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Jonathan; Abby, Emilie; Livera, Gabriel; Martini, Emmanuelle

    2016-06-01

    Meiotic homologous recombination is a specialized process that involves homologous chromosome pairing and strand exchange to guarantee proper chromosome segregation and genetic diversity. The formation and repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) during meiotic recombination differs from those during mitotic recombination in that the homologous chromosome rather than the sister chromatid is the preferred repair template. The processing of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) formed on intermediate recombination structures is central to driving the specific outcomes of DSB repair during meiosis. Replication protein A (RPA) is the main ssDNA-binding protein complex involved in DNA metabolism. However, the existence of RPA orthologs in plants and the recent discovery of meiosis specific with OB domains (MEIOB), a widely conserved meiosis-specific RPA1 paralog, strongly suggest that multiple RPA complexes evolved and specialized to subdivide their roles during DNA metabolism. Here we review ssDNA formation and maturation during mitotic and meiotic recombination underlying the meiotic specific features. We describe and discuss the existence and properties of MEIOB and multiple RPA subunits in plants and highlight how they can provide meiosis-specific fates to ssDNA processing during homologous recombination. Understanding the functions of these RPA homologs and how they interact with the canonical RPA subunits is of major interest in the fields of meiosis and DNA repair.

  13. Chromosomal rearrangement interferes with meiotic X chromosome inactivation.

    PubMed

    Homolka, David; Ivanek, Robert; Capkova, Jana; Jansa, Petr; Forejt, Jiri

    2007-10-01

    Heterozygosity for certain mouse and human chromosomal rearrangements is characterized by the incomplete meiotic synapsis of rearranged chromosomes, by their colocalization with the XY body in primary spermatocytes, and by male-limited sterility. Previously, we argued that such X-autosomal associations could interfere with meiotic sex chromosome inactivation. Recently, supporting evidence has reported modifications of histones in rearranged chromosomes by a process called the meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin (MSUC). Here, we report on the transcriptional down-regulation of genes within the unsynapsed region of the rearranged mouse chromosome 17, and on the subsequent disturbance of X chromosome inactivation. The partial transcriptional suppression of genes in the unsynapsed chromatin was most prominent prior to the mid-pachytene stage of primary spermatocytes. Later, during the mid-late pachytene, the rearranged autosomes colocalized with the XY body, and the X chromosome failed to undergo proper transcriptional silencing. Our findings provide direct evidence on the MSUC acting at the mRNA level, and implicate that autosomal asynapsis in meiosis may cause male sterility by interfering with meiotic sex chromosome inactivation.

  14. Does Stellate cause meiotic drive in Drosophila melanogaster?

    PubMed Central

    Belloni, Massimo; Tritto, Patrizia; Bozzetti, Maria Pia; Palumbo, Gioacchino; Robbins, Leonard G

    2002-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster males deficient for the crystal (cry) locus of the Y chromosome that carry between 15 and 60 copies of the X-linked Stellate (Ste) gene are semisterile, have elevated levels of nondisjunction, produce distorted sperm genotype ratios (meiotic drive), and evince hyperactive transcription of Ste in the testes. Ste seems to be the active element in this system, and it has been proposed that the ancestral Ste gene was "selfish" and increased in frequency because it caused meiotic drive. This hypothetical evolutionary history is based on the idea that Ste overexpression, and not the lack of cry, causes the meiotic drive of cry(-) males. To test whether this is true, we have constructed a Ste-deleted X chromosome and examined the phenotype of Ste(-)/cry(-) males. If hyperactivity of Ste were necessary for the transmission defects seen in cry(-) males, cry(-) males completely deficient for Ste would be normal. Although it is impossible to construct a completely Ste(-) genotype, we find that Ste(-)/cry(-) males have exactly the same phenotype as Ste(+)/cry(-) males. The deletion of all X chromosome Ste copies not only does not eliminate meiotic drive and nondisjunction, but it also does not even reduce them below the levels produced when the X carries 15 copies of Ste. PMID:12196400

  15. Multiple roles of Spo11 in meiotic chromosome behavior.

    PubMed

    Celerin, M; Merino, S T; Stone, J E; Menzie, A M; Zolan, M E

    2000-06-01

    Spo11, a type II topoisomerase, is likely to be required universally for initiation of meiotic recombination. However, a dichotomy exists between budding yeast and the animals Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster with respect to additional roles of Spo11 in meiosis. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Spo11 is required for homolog pairing, as well as axial element (AE) and synaptonemal complex (SC) formation. All of these functions are Spo11 independent in C.elegans and D.melanogaster. We examined Spo11 function in a multicellular fungus, Coprinus cinereus. The C.cinereus spo11-1 mutant shows high levels of homolog pairing and occasionally forms full-length AEs, but no SC. In C.cinereus, Spo11 is also required for maintenance of meiotic chromosome condensation and proper spindle formation. Meiotic progression in spo11-1 is aberrant; late in meiosis basidia undergo programmed cell death (PCD). To our knowledge, this is the first example of meiotic PCD outside the animal kingdom. Ionizing radiation can partially rescue spo11-1 for both AE and SC formation and viable spore production, suggesting that the double-strand break function of Spo11 is conserved and is required for these functions.

  16. Meiotic recombination cold spots in chromosomal cohesion sites.

    PubMed

    Ito, Masaru; Kugou, Kazuto; Fawcett, Jeffrey A; Mura, Sachiko; Ikeda, Sho; Innan, Hideki; Ohta, Kunihiro

    2014-05-01

    Meiotic chromosome architecture called 'axis-loop structures' and histone modifications have been shown to regulate the Spo11-dependent formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that trigger meiotic recombination. Using genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analyses followed by deep sequencing, we compared the genome-wide distribution of the axis protein Rec8 (the kleisin subunit of meiotic cohesin) with that of oligomeric DNA covalently bound to Spo11, indicative of DSB sites. The frequency of DSB sites is overall constant between Rec8 binding sites. However, DSB cold spots are observed in regions spanning ±0.8 kb around Rec8 binding sites. The axis-associated cold spots are not due to the exclusion of Spo11 localization from the axis, because ChIP experiments showed that substantial Spo11 persists at Rec8 binding sites during DSB formation. Spo11 fused with Gal4 DNA binding domain (Gal4BD-Spo11) tethered in close proximity (≤0.8 kb) to Rec8 binding sites hardly forms meiotic DSBs, in contrast with other regions. In addition, H3K4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) remarkably decreases at Rec8 binding sites. These results suggest that reduced histone H3K4me3 in combination with inactivation of Spo11 activity on the axis discourages DSB hot spot formation.

  17. Sex Chromosome Meiotic Drive in Stalk-Eyed Flies

    PubMed Central

    Presgraves, D. C.; Severance, E.; Wilkinson, G. S.

    1997-01-01

    Meiotically driven sex chromosomes can quickly spread to fixation and cause population extinction unless balanced by selection or suppressed by genetic modifiers. We report results of genetic analyses that demonstrate that extreme female-biased sex ratios in two sister species of stalk-eyed flies, Cyrtodiopsis dalmanni and C. whitei, are due to a meiotic drive element on the X chromosome (X(d)). Relatively high frequencies of X(d) in C. dalmanni and C. whitei (13-17% and 29%, respectively) cause female-biased sex ratios in natural populations of both species. Sex ratio distortion is associated with spermatid degeneration in male carriers of X(d). Variation in sex ratios is caused by Y-linked and autosomal factors that decrease the intensity of meiotic drive. Y-linked polymorphism for resistance to drive exists in C. dalmanni in which a resistant Y chromosome reduces the intensity and reverses the direction of meiotic drive. When paired with X(d), modifying Y chromosomes (Y(m)) cause the transmission of predominantly Y-bearing sperm, and on average, production of 63% male progeny. The absence of sex ratio distortion in closely related monomorphic outgroup species suggests that this meiotic drive system may predate the origin of C. whitei and C. dalmanni. We discuss factors likely to be involved in the persistence of these sex-linked polymorphisms and consider the impact of X(d) on the operational sex ratio and the intensity of sexual selection in these extremely sexually dimorphic flies. PMID:9383060

  18. Spatiotemporal Asymmetry of the Meiotic Program Underlies the Predominantly Distal Distribution of Meiotic Crossovers in Barley[W

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, James D.; Perry, Ruth M.; Barakate, Abdellah; Ramsay, Luke; Waugh, Robbie; Halpin, Claire; Armstrong, Susan J.; Franklin, F. Chris H.

    2012-01-01

    Meiosis involves reciprocal exchange of genetic information between homologous chromosomes to generate new allelic combinations. In cereals, the distribution of genetic crossovers, cytologically visible as chiasmata, is skewed toward the distal regions of the chromosomes. However, many genes are known to lie within interstitial/proximal regions of low recombination, creating a limitation for breeders. We investigated the factors underlying the pattern of chiasma formation in barley (Hordeum vulgare) and show that chiasma distribution reflects polarization in the spatiotemporal initiation of recombination, chromosome pairing, and synapsis. Consequently, meiotic progression in distal chromosomal regions occurs in coordination with the chromatin cycles that are a conserved feature of the meiotic program. Recombination initiation in interstitial and proximal regions occurs later than distal events, is not coordinated with the cycles, and rarely progresses to form chiasmata. Early recombination initiation is spatially associated with early replicating, euchromatic DNA, which is predominately found in distal regions. We demonstrate that a modest temperature shift is sufficient to alter meiotic progression in relation to the chromosome cycles. The polarization of the meiotic processes is reduced and is accompanied by a shift in chiasma distribution with an increase in interstitial and proximal chiasmata, suggesting a potential route to modify recombination in cereals. PMID:23104831

  19. The GTPase SPAG-1 orchestrates meiotic program by dictating meiotic resumption and cytoskeleton architecture in mouse oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chunjie; Wu, Di; Khan, Faheem Ahmed; Jiao, Xiaofei; Guan, Kaifeng; Huo, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, a finite population of oocytes is generated during embryogenesis, and proper oocyte meiotic divisions are crucial for fertility. Sperm-associated antigen 1 (SPAG-1) has been implicated in infertility and tumorigenesis; however, its relevance in cell cycle programs remains rudimentary. Here we explore a novel role of SPAG-1 during oocyte meiotic progression. SPAG-1 associated with meiotic spindles and its depletion severely compromised M-phase entry (germinal vesicle breakdown [GVBD]) and polar body extrusion. The GVBD defect observed was due to an increase in intraoocyte cAMP abundance and decrease in ATP production, as confirmed by the activation of AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK). SPAG-1 RNA interference (RNAi)–elicited defective spindle morphogenesis was evidenced by the dysfunction of γ-tubulin, which resulted from substantially reduced phosphorylation of MAPK and irregularly dispersed distribution of phospho-MAPK around spindles instead of concentration at spindle poles. Significantly, actin expression abruptly decreased and formation of cortical granule–free domains, actin caps, and contractile ring disrupted by SPAG-1 RNAi. In addition, the spindle assembly checkpoint remained functional upon SPAG-1 depletion. The findings broaden our knowledge of SPAG-1, showing that it exerts a role in oocyte meiotic execution via its involvement in AMPK and MAPK signaling pathways. PMID:27053660

  20. MEIOTIC F-BOX Is Essential for Male Meiotic DNA Double-Strand Break Repair in Rice[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chong; Yu, Junping; Zong, Jie; Lu, Pingli

    2016-01-01

    F-box proteins constitute a large superfamily in plants and play important roles in controlling many biological processes, but the roles of F-box proteins in male meiosis in plants remain unclear. Here, we identify the rice (Oryza sativa) F-box gene MEIOTIC F-BOX (MOF), which is essential for male meiotic progression. MOF belongs to the FBX subfamily and is predominantly active during leptotene to pachytene of prophase I. mof meiocytes display disrupted telomere bouquet formation, impaired pairing and synapsis of homologous chromosomes, and arrested meiocytes at late prophase I, followed by apoptosis. Although normal, programmed double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) form in mof mutants, foci of the phosphorylated histone variant γH2AX, a marker for DSBs, persist in the mutant, indicating that many of the DSBs remained unrepaired. The recruitment of Completion of meiosis I (COM1) and Radiation sensitive51C (RAD51C) to DSBs is severely compromised in mutant meiocytes, indicating that MOF is crucial for DSB end-processing and repair. Further analyses showed that MOF could physically interact with the rice SKP1-like Protein1 (OSK1), indicating that MOF functions as a component of the SCF E3 ligase to regulate meiotic progression in rice. Thus, this study reveals the essential role of an F-box protein in plant meiosis and provides helpful information for elucidating the roles of the ubiquitin proteasome system in plant meiotic progression. PMID:27436711

  1. Genetic analysis of sex chromosomal meiotic mutants in Drosophilia melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Baker, B S; Carpenter, A T

    1972-06-01

    A total of 209 ethyl methanesulfonate-treated X chromosomes were screened for meiotic mutants that either (1) increased sex or fourth chromosome nondisjunction at either meiotic division in males; (2) allowed recombination in such males; (3) increased nondisjunction of the X chromosome at either meiotic division in females; or (4) caused such females, when mated to males heterozygous for Segregation-Distorter (SD) and a sensitive homolog to alter the strength of meiotic drive in males.-Twenty male-specific meiotic mutants were found. Though the rates of nondisjunction differed, all twenty mutants were qualitatively similar in that (1) they alter the disjunction of the X chromosome from the Y chromosome; (2) among the recovered sex-chromosome exceptional progeny, there is a large excess of those derived from nullo-XY as compared to XY gametes; (3) there is a negative correlation between the frequency of sex-chromosome exceptional progeny and the frequency of males among the regular progeny. In their effects on meiosis these mutants are similar to In(1)sc(4L)sc(8R), which is deleted for the basal heterochromatin. These mutants, however, have normal phenotypes and viabilities when examined as X/0 males, and furthermore, a mapping of two of the mutants places them in the euchromatin of the X chromosome. It is suggested that these mutants are in genes whose products are involved in insuring the proper functioning of the basal pairing sites which are deleted in In(1)sc(4L)sc(8R), and in addition that there is a close connection, perhaps causal, between the disruption of normal X-Y pairing (and, therefore, disjunction) and the occurrence of meiotic drive in the male.-Eleven mutants were found which increased nondisjunction in females. These mutants were characterized as to (1) the division at which they acted; (2) their effect on recombination; (3) their dominance; (4) their effects on disjunction of all four chromosome pairs. Five female mutants caused a nonuniform

  2. Pollen tetrad-based visual assay for meiotic recombination in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Kirk E.; Lam, Sandy Y.; Harrison, Benjamin D.; Bey, Alexandra L.; Berchowitz, Luke E.; Copenhaver, Gregory P.

    2007-01-01

    Recombination, in the form of cross-overs (COs) and gene conversion (GC), is a highly conserved feature of meiosis from fungi to mammals. Recombination helps ensure chromosome segregation and promotes allelic diversity. Lesions in the recombination machinery are often catastrophic for meiosis, resulting in sterility. We have developed a visual assay capable of detecting Cos and GCs and measuring CO interference in Arabidopsis thaliana. This flexible assay utilizes transgene constructs encoding pollen-expressed fluorescent proteins of three different colors in the qrt1 mutant background. By observing the segregation of the fluorescent alleles in 92,489 pollen tetrads, we demonstrate (i) a correlation between developmental position and CO frequency, (ii) a temperature dependence for CO frequency, (iii) the ability to detect meiotic GC events, and (iv) the ability to rapidly assess CO interference. PMID:17360452

  3. Fine-scale variation in meiotic recombination in Mimulus inferred from population shotgun sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Hellsten, Uffe; Wright, Kevin M.; Jenkins, Jerry; Shu, Shengqiang; Yuan, Yao-Wu; Wessler, Susan R.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Willis, John H.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2013-11-13

    Meiotic recombination rates can vary widely across genomes, with hotspots of intense activity interspersed among cold regions. In yeast, hotspots tend to occur in promoter regions of genes, whereas in humans and mice hotspots are largely defined by binding sites of the PRDM9 protein. To investigate the detailed recombination pattern in a flowering plant we use shotgun resequencing of a wild population of the monkeyflower Mimulus guttatus to precisely locate over 400,000 boundaries of historic crossovers or gene conversion tracts. Their distribution defines some 13,000 hotspots of varying strengths, interspersed with cold regions of undetectably low recombination. Average recombination rates peak near starts of genes and fall off sharply, exhibiting polarity. Within genes, recombination tracts are more likely to terminate in exons than in introns. The general pattern is similar to that observed in yeast, as well as in PRDM9-knockout mice, suggesting that recombination initiation described here in Mimulus may reflect ancient and conserved eukaryotic mechanisms

  4. Zfy genes are required for efficient meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) in spermatocytes.

    PubMed

    Vernet, Nadège; Mahadevaiah, Shantha K; de Rooij, Dirk G; Burgoyne, Paul S; Ellis, Peter J I

    2016-10-13

    During spermatogenesis, germ cells that fail to synapse their chromosomes or fail to undergo meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) are eliminated via apoptosis during mid-pachytene. Previous work showed that Y-linked genes Zfy1 and Zfy2 act as 'executioners' for this checkpoint, and that wrongful expression of either gene during pachytene triggers germ cell death. Here, we show that in mice, Zfy genes are also necessary for efficient MSCI and the sex chromosomes are not correctly silenced in Zfy-deficient spermatocytes. This unexpectedly reveals a triple role for Zfy at the mid-pachytene checkpoint in which Zfy genes first promote MSCI, then monitor its progress (since if MSCI is achieved, Zfy genes will be silenced), and finally execute cells with MSCI failure. This potentially constitutes a negative feedback loop governing this critical checkpoint mechanism.

  5. Conditional inactivation of the DNA damage response gene Hus1 in mouse testis reveals separable roles for components of the RAD9-RAD1-HUS1 complex in meiotic chromosome maintenance.

    PubMed

    Lyndaker, Amy M; Lim, Pei Xin; Mleczko, Joanna M; Diggins, Catherine E; Holloway, J Kim; Holmes, Rebecca J; Kan, Rui; Schlafer, Donald H; Freire, Raimundo; Cohen, Paula E; Weiss, Robert S

    2013-01-01

    The RAD9-RAD1-HUS1 (9-1-1) complex is a heterotrimeric PCNA-like clamp that responds to DNA damage in somatic cells by promoting DNA repair as well as ATR-dependent DNA damage checkpoint signaling. In yeast, worms, and flies, the 9-1-1 complex is also required for meiotic checkpoint function and efficient completion of meiotic recombination; however, since Rad9, Rad1, and Hus1 are essential genes in mammals, little is known about their functions in mammalian germ cells. In this study, we assessed the meiotic functions of 9-1-1 by analyzing mice with germ cell-specific deletion of Hus1 as well as by examining the localization of RAD9 and RAD1 on meiotic chromosomes during prophase I. Hus1 loss in testicular germ cells resulted in meiotic defects, germ cell depletion, and severely compromised fertility. Hus1-deficient primary spermatocytes exhibited persistent autosomal γH2AX and RAD51 staining indicative of unrepaired meiotic DSBs, synapsis defects, an extended XY body domain often encompassing partial or whole autosomes, and an increase in structural chromosome abnormalities such as end-to-end X chromosome-autosome fusions and ruptures in the synaptonemal complex. Most of these aberrations persisted in diplotene-stage spermatocytes. Consistent with a role for the 9-1-1 complex in meiotic DSB repair, RAD9 localized to punctate, RAD51-containing foci on meiotic chromosomes in a Hus1-dependent manner. Interestingly, RAD1 had a broader distribution that only partially overlapped with RAD9, and localization of both RAD1 and the ATR activator TOPBP1 to the XY body and to unsynapsed autosomes was intact in Hus1 conditional knockouts. We conclude that mammalian HUS1 acts as a component of the canonical 9-1-1 complex during meiotic prophase I to promote DSB repair and further propose that RAD1 and TOPBP1 respond to unsynapsed chromatin through an alternative mechanism that does not require RAD9 or HUS1.

  6. Implementation of meiosis prophase I programme requires a conserved retinoid-independent stabilizer of meiotic transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Abby, Emilie; Tourpin, Sophie; Ribeiro, Jonathan; Daniel, Katrin; Messiaen, Sébastien; Moison, Delphine; Guerquin, Justine; Gaillard, Jean-Charles; Armengaud, Jean; Langa, Francina; Toth, Attila; Martini, Emmanuelle; Livera, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Sexual reproduction is crucially dependent on meiosis, a conserved, specialized cell division programme that is essential for the production of haploid gametes. Here we demonstrate that fertility and the implementation of the meiotic programme require a previously uncharacterized meiosis-specific protein, MEIOC. Meioc invalidation in mice induces early and pleiotropic meiotic defects in males and females. MEIOC prevents meiotic transcript degradation and interacts with an RNA helicase that binds numerous meiotic mRNAs. Our results indicate that proper engagement into meiosis necessitates the specific stabilization of meiotic transcripts, a previously little-appreciated feature in mammals. Remarkably, the upregulation of MEIOC at the onset of meiosis does not require retinoic acid and STRA8 signalling. Thus, we propose that the complete induction of the meiotic programme requires both retinoic acid-dependent and -independent mechanisms. The latter process involving post-transcriptional regulation likely represents an ancestral mechanism, given that MEIOC homologues are conserved throughout multicellular animals. PMID:26742488

  7. Modulation of meiotic homologous recombination by DNA helicases.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Alexander

    2016-12-08

    DNA helicases are ATP-driven motor proteins which translocate along DNA capable of dismantling DNA-DNA interactions and/or removing proteins bound to DNA. These biochemical capabilities make DNA helicases main regulators of crucial DNA metabolic processes, including DNA replication, DNA repair, and genetic recombination. This budding topic will focus on reviewing the function of DNA helicases important for homologous recombination during meiosis, and discuss recent advances in how these modulators of meiotic recombination are themselves regulated. The emphasis is placed on work in the two model yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which has vastly expanded our understanding of meiotic homologous recombination, a process whose correct execution is instrumental for healthy gamete formation, and thus functioning sexual reproduction. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Interplay between modifications of chromatin and meiotic recombination hotspots.

    PubMed

    Brachet, Elsa; Sommermeyer, Vérane; Borde, Valérie

    2012-02-01

    Meiotic recombination lies at the heart of sexual reproduction. It is essential for producing viable gametes with a normal haploid genomic content and its dysfunctions can be at the source of aneuploidies, such as the Down syndrome, or many genetic disorders. Meiotic recombination also generates genetic diversity that is transmitted to progeny by shuffling maternal and paternal alleles along chromosomes. Recombination takes place at non-random chromosomal sites called 'hotspots'. Recent evidence has shown that their location is influenced by properties of chromatin. In addition, many studies in somatic cells have highlighted the need for changes in chromatin dynamics to allow the process of recombination. In this review, we discuss how changes in the chromatin landscape may influence the recombination map, and reciprocally, how recombination events may lead to epigenetic modifications at sites of recombination, which could be transmitted to progeny.

  9. Control of meiotic recombination frequency in plant genomes.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Ian R

    2012-11-01

    Sexual eukaryotes reproduce via the meiotic cell division, where ploidy is halved and homologous chromosomes undergo reciprocal genetic exchange, termed crossover (CO). CO frequency has a profound effect on patterns of genetic variation and species evolution. Relative CO rates vary extensively both within and between plant genomes. Plant genome size varies by over 1000-fold, largely due to differential expansion of repetitive sequences, and increased genome size is associated with reduced CO frequency. Gene versus repeat sequences associate with distinct chromatin modifications, and evidence from plant genomes indicates that this epigenetic information influences CO patterns. This is consistent with data from diverse eukaryotes that demonstrate the importance of chromatin structure for control of meiotic recombination. In this review I will discuss CO frequency patterns in plant genomes and recent advances in understanding recombination distributions.

  10. Analysis of plant meiotic chromosomes by chromosome painting.

    PubMed

    Lysak, Martin A; Mandáková, Terezie

    2013-01-01

    Chromosome painting (CP) refers to visualization of large chromosome regions, entire chromosome arms, or entire chromosomes via fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). For CP in plants, contigs of chromosome-specific bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) from the target species or from a closely related species (comparative chromosome painting, CCP) are typically applied as painting probes. Extended pachytene chromosomes provide the highest resolution of CP in plants. CP enables identification and tracing of particular chromosome regions and/or entire chromosomes throughout all meiotic stages as well as corresponding chromosome territories in premeiotic interphase nuclei. Meiotic pairing and structural chromosome rearrangements (typically inversions and translocations) can be identified by CP. Here, we describe step-by-step protocols of CP and CCP in plant species including chromosome preparation, BAC DNA labeling, and multicolor FISH.

  11. Effects of clinostat rotation on mouse meiotic maturation in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolgemuth, D. J.; Grills, G. S.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of microgravity on meiosis, fertilization, and early embryonic development in mammals are being examined by using a clinostat to reorient the cells with respect to the gravity vector. A clinostat capable of supporting mammalian cells in tissue culture has been developed. Initial studies have focused on examining the effects of clinostat rotation on meiotic maturation in mouse oocytes. Oocytes recovered from ovarian follicles were subjected to clinostat rotation on a horizontal or vertical axis or to static conditions for a 16 hr period. No gross morphological changes and no effects on germinal vesicle breakdown were observed under any rotation conditions (1/4, 1, 10, 30, 100 RPM). Success of meiotic progression to Metaphase II was comparable among experimental and control groups except at 100 RPM, where a slight inhibition was observed.

  12. SEX-RATIO MEIOTIC DRIVE AND INTERSPECIFIC COMPETITION

    PubMed Central

    Unckless, Robert L.; Clark, Andrew G.

    2014-01-01

    It has long been known that processes occurring within a species may impact the interactions between species. For example, since competitive ability is sensitive to parameters including reproductive rate, carrying capacity and competition efficiency, the outcome of interspecific competition may be influenced by any process that alters these attributes. While several such scenarios have been discussed, the influence of selfish genetic elements within one species on competition between species has not received theoretical treatment. We show that, with strong competition, sex-ratio meiotic drive systems can result in a significant shift in community composition because the effective birth rate in the population may be increased by a female-biased sex-ratio. Using empirical data we attempt to estimate the magnitude of this effect in several Drosophila species. We infer that meiotic drive elements, selfish genetic elements within species, can provide a substantial competitive advantage to that species within a community. PMID:24835887

  13. A computational model predicts Xenopus meiotic spindle organization.

    PubMed

    Loughlin, Rose; Heald, Rebecca; Nédélec, François

    2010-12-27

    The metaphase spindle is a dynamic bipolar structure crucial for proper chromosome segregation, but how microtubules (MTs) are organized within the bipolar architecture remains controversial. To explore MT organization along the pole-to-pole axis, we simulated meiotic spindle assembly in two dimensions using dynamic MTs, a MT cross-linking force, and a kinesin-5-like motor. The bipolar structures that form consist of antiparallel fluxing MTs, but spindle pole formation requires the addition of a NuMA-like minus-end cross-linker and directed transport of MT depolymerization activity toward minus ends. Dynamic instability and minus-end depolymerization generate realistic MT lifetimes and a truncated exponential MT length distribution. Keeping the number of MTs in the simulation constant, we explored the influence of two different MT nucleation pathways on spindle organization. When nucleation occurs throughout the spindle, the simulation quantitatively reproduces features of meiotic spindles assembled in Xenopus egg extracts.

  14. Regulation of meiotic chromatin loop size by chromosomal position.

    PubMed Central

    Heng, H H; Chamberlain, J W; Shi, X M; Spyropoulos, B; Tsui, L C; Moens, P B

    1996-01-01

    At meiotic prophase, chromatin loops around a proteinaceous core, with the sizes of these loops varying between species. Comparison of the morphology of sequence-related inserts at different sites in transgenic mice demonstrates that loop size also varies with chromosomal geography. Similarly, chromatin loop lengths differ dramatically for interstitially and terminally located hamster telomeric sequences. Sequences, telomeric or otherwise, located at chromosome termini, closely associate with the meiotic proteinaceous core, forming shorter loops than identical interstitial sequences. Thus, we present evidence that different chromatin packaging mechanisms exist for interstitial versus terminal chromosomal regions, which act separately from those operating at the level of the DNA sequence. Chromosomal position plays the dominant role in chromatin packaging. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8610120

  15. Alternative meiotic chromatid segregation in the holocentric plant Luzula elegans

    PubMed Central

    Heckmann, Stefan; Jankowska, Maja; Schubert, Veit; Kumke, Katrin; Ma, Wei; Houben, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Holocentric chromosomes occur in a number of independent eukaryotic lineages. They form holokinetic kinetochores along the entire poleward chromatid surfaces, and owing to this alternative chromosome structure, species with holocentric chromosomes cannot use the two-step loss of cohesion during meiosis typical for monocentric chromosomes. Here we show that the plant Luzula elegans maintains a holocentric chromosome architecture and behaviour throughout meiosis, and in contrast to monopolar sister centromere orientation, the unfused holokinetic sister centromeres behave as two distinct functional units during meiosis I, resulting in sister chromatid separation. Homologous non-sister chromatids remain terminally linked after metaphase I, by satellite DNA-enriched chromatin threads, until metaphase II. They then separate at anaphase II. Thus, an inverted sequence of meiotic sister chromatid segregation occurs. This alternative meiotic process is most likely one possible adaptation to handle a holocentric chromosome architecture and behaviour during meiosis. PMID:25296379

  16. Evidence for meiotic drive at the myotonic dystrophy locus

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, A.M.; Barnetson, R.A.; Phillips, M.F.

    1994-09-01

    Myotonic dystrophy (DM), an autosomal dominant disorder, is the most common form of adult muscular dystrophy, affecting at least 1 in 8000 of the population. It is a multisystemic disorder, primarily characterized by myotonia, muscle wasting and cataract. The molecular basis of DM is an expanded CTG repeat located within the 3{prime} untranslated region of a putative serine-threonine protein kinase on chromosome 19q13.3. DM exhibits anticipation, that is, with successive generations there is increasing disease severity and earlier age of onset. This mechanism and the fact that the origin of the disease has been attributed to one or a small number of founder chromosomes suggests that, in time, DM should die out. Meiotic drive has been described as a way in which certain alleles are transmitted to succeeding generations in preference to others: preferential transmission of large CTG alleles may account for their continued existence in the gene pool. There is evidence that a CTG allele with > 19 repeats may gradually increase in repeat number over many generations until it is sufficiently large to give a DM phenotype. We report a study of 495 transmissions from individuals heterozygous for the CTG repeat and with repeat numbers within the normal range (5-30). Alleles were simply classified as large or small relative to the other allele in an individual. Of 242 male meioses, 126 transmissions from parent to child were of the larger allele to their offspring (57.7%, p=0.014). This shows that there is strong evidence for meiotic drive favoring the transmission of the larger DM allele in unaffected individuals. Contrary to a previous report of meiotic drive in the male, we have shown that females preferentially transmit the larger DM allele. Taken together, the data suggest the occurrence of meiotic drive in both males and females in this locus.

  17. Molecular dissection of Neurospora Spore killer meiotic drive elements.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Thomas M; Rehard, David G; Xiao, Hua; Shiu, Patrick K T

    2012-07-24

    Meiotic drive is a non-Mendelian inheritance phenomenon in which certain selfish genetic elements skew sexual transmission in their own favor. In some cases, progeny or gametes carrying a meiotic drive element can survive preferentially because it causes the death or malfunctioning of those that do not carry it. In Neurospora, meiotic drive can be observed in fungal spore killing. In a cross of Spore killer (Sk) × WT (Sk-sensitive), the ascospores containing the Spore killer allele survive, whereas the ones with the sensitive allele degenerate. Sk-2 and Sk-3 are the most studied meiotic drive elements in Neurospora, and they each theoretically contain two essential components: a killer element and a resistance gene. Here we report the identification and characterization of the Sk resistance gene, rsk (resistant to Spore killer). rsk seems to be a fungal-specific gene, and its deletion in a killer strain leads to self-killing. Sk-2, Sk-3, and naturally resistant isolates all use rsk for resistance. In each killer system, rsk sequences from an Sk strain and a resistant isolate are highly similar, suggesting that they share the same origin. Sk-2, Sk-3, and sensitive rsk alleles differ from each other by their unique indel patterns. Contrary to long-held belief, the killer targets not only late but also early ascospore development. The WT RSK protein is dispensable for ascospore production and is not a target of the spore-killing mechanism. Rather, a resistant version of RSK likely neutralizes the killer element and prevents it from interfering with ascospore development.

  18. DNA polymerase beta is critical for mouse meiotic synapsis.

    PubMed

    Kidane, Dawit; Jonason, Alan S; Gorton, Timothy S; Mihaylov, Ivailo; Pan, Jing; Keeney, Scott; de Rooij, Dirk G; Ashley, Terry; Keh, Agnes; Liu, Yanfeng; Banerjee, Urmi; Zelterman, Daniel; Sweasy, Joann B

    2010-01-20

    We have shown earlier that DNA polymerase beta (Pol beta) localizes to the synaptonemal complex (SC) during Prophase I of meiosis in mice. Pol beta localizes to synapsed axes during zygonema and pachynema, and it associates with the ends of bivalents during late pachynema and diplonema. To test whether these localization patterns reflect a function for Pol beta in recombination and/or synapsis, we used conditional gene targeting to delete the PolB gene from germ cells. We find that Pol beta-deficient spermatocytes are defective in meiotic chromosome synapsis and undergo apoptosis during Prophase I. We also find that SPO11-dependent gammaH2AX persists on meiotic chromatin, indicating that Pol beta is critical for the repair of SPO11-induced double-strand breaks (DSBs). Pol beta-deficient spermatocytes yielded reduced steady-state levels of the SPO11-oligonucleotide complexes that are formed when SPO11 is removed from the ends of DSBs, and cytological experiments revealed that chromosome-associated foci of replication protein A (RPA), RAD51 and DMC1 are less abundant in Pol beta-deficient spermatocyte nuclei. Localization of Pol beta to meiotic chromosomes requires the formation of SPO11-dependent DSBs. Taken together, these findings strongly indicate that Pol beta is required at a very early step in the processing of meiotic DSBs, at or before the removal of SPO11 from DSB ends and the generation of the 3' single-stranded tails necessary for subsequent strand exchange. The chromosome synapsis defects and Prophase I apoptosis of Pol beta-deficient spermatocytes are likely a direct consequence of these recombination defects.

  19. Genetic controls of meiotic recombination and somatic DNA metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, B S; Boyd, J B; Carpenter, A T; Green, M M; Nguyen, T D; Ripoll, P; Smith, P D

    1976-01-01

    Recombination-defective meiotic mutants and mutagen-sensitive mutants of D. melanogaster have been examined for their effects on meiotic chromosome behavior, sensitivity to killing by mutagens, somatic chromosome integrity, and DNA repair processes. Several loci have been identified that specify functions that are necessary for both meiotic recombination and DNA repair processes, whereas mutants at combination and DNA repair processes, whereas mutants at other loci appear to be defective in only one pathway of DNA processing. PMID:825857

  20. Microfilament Distribution in Maize Meiotic Mutants Correlates with Microtubule Organization.

    PubMed Central

    Staiger, CJ; Cande, WZ

    1991-01-01

    Microtubules and microfilaments often codistribute in plants; their presumed interaction can be tested with drugs although it is not always clear that these are without side effects. In this study, we exploited mutants defective in meiotic cell division to investigate in a noninvasive way the relationship between the two cytoskeletal elements. By staining unfixed, permeabilized cells with rhodamine-phalloidin, spatial and temporal changes in microfilament distribution during maize meiosis were examined. In wild-type microsporocytes, a microtubule array that radiates from the nucleus disappeared during spindle formation and returned at late telophase. This result differed from the complex cytoplasmic microfilament array that is present at all stages, including karyokinesis and cytokinesis. During division, a second class of microfilaments also was observed in the spindle and phragmoplast. To analyze this apparent association of microtubules and microfilaments, we examined several meiotic mutants known to have stage-specific disruptions in their microtubule arrays. Two mutations that altered the number or form of meiotic spindles also led to a dramatic reorganization of F-actin. In contrast, rearrangement of nonspindle, cytoplasmic microtubules did not lead to concomitant changes in F-actin distribution. These results suggested that microtubules and microfilaments interact in a cell cycle-specific and site-specific fashion during higher plant meiosis. PMID:12324607

  1. OsHUS1 facilitates accurate meiotic recombination in rice.

    PubMed

    Che, Lixiao; Wang, Kejian; Tang, Ding; Liu, Qiaoquan; Chen, Xiaojun; Li, Yafei; Hu, Qing; Shen, Yi; Yu, Hengxiu; Gu, Minghong; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2014-06-01

    Meiotic recombination normally takes place between allelic sequences on homologs. This process can also occur between non-allelic homologous sequences. Such ectopic interaction events can lead to chromosome rearrangements and are normally avoided. However, much remains unknown about how these ectopic interaction events are sensed and eliminated. In this study, using a screen in rice, we characterized a homolog of HUS1 and explored its function in meiotic recombination. In Oshus1 mutants, in conjunction with nearly normal homologous pairing and synapsis, vigorous, aberrant ectopic interactions occurred between nonhomologous chromosomes, leading to multivalent formation and subsequent chromosome fragmentation. These ectopic interactions relied on programmed meiotic double strand breaks and were formed in a manner independent of the OsMER3-mediated interference-sensitive crossover pathway. Although early homologous recombination events occurred normally, the number of interference-sensitive crossovers was reduced in the absence of OsHUS1. Together, our results indicate that OsHUS1 might be involved in regulating ectopic interactions during meiosis, probably by forming the canonical RAD9-RAD1-HUS1 (9-1-1) complex.

  2. Meiotic recombination proteins localize to linear elements in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Alexander; Estreicher, Anna; Kohli, Jürg; Loidl, Josef

    2006-08-01

    In fission yeast, meiotic prophase nuclei develop structures known as linear elements (LinEs), instead of a canonical synaptonemal complex. LinEs contain Rec10 protein. While Rec10 is essential for meiotic recombination, the precise role of LinEs in this process is unknown. Using in situ immunostaining, we show that Rec7 (which is required for meiosis-specific DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation) aggregates in foci on LinEs. The strand exchange protein Rad51, which is known to mark the sites of DSBs, also localizes to LinEs, although to a lesser degree. The number of Rec7 foci corresponds well with the average number of genetic recombination events per meiosis suggesting that Rec7 marks the sites of recombination. Rec7 and Rad51 foci do not co-localize, presumably because they act sequentially on recombination sites. The localization of Rec7 is dependent on Rec10 but independent of the DSB-inducing protein Rec12/Spo11. Neither Rec7 nor Rad51 localization depends on the LinE-associated proteins Hop1 and Mek1, but the formation of Rad51 foci depends on Rec10, Rec7, and, as expected, Rec12/Spo11. We propose that LinEs form around designated recombination sites before the induction of DSBs and that most, if not all, meiotic recombination initiates within the setting provided by LinEs.

  3. Tet1 controls meiosis by regulating meiotic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Shinpei; Hong, Kwonho; Liu, Rui; Shen, Li; Inoue, Azusa; Diep, Dinh; Zhang, Kun; Zhang, Yi

    2012-12-20

    Meiosis is a germ-cell-specific cell division process through which haploid gametes are produced for sexual reproduction. Before the initiation of meiosis, mouse primordial germ cells undergo a series of epigenetic reprogramming steps, including the global erasure of DNA methylation at the 5-position of cytosine (5mC) in CpG-rich DNA. Although several epigenetic regulators, such as Dnmt3l and the histone methyltransferases G9a and Prdm9, have been reported to be crucial for meiosis, little is known about how the expression of meiotic genes is regulated and how their expression contributes to normal meiosis. Using a loss-of-function approach in mice, here we show that the 5mC-specific dioxygenase Tet1 has an important role in regulating meiosis in mouse oocytes. Tet1 deficiency significantly reduces female germ-cell numbers and fertility. Univalent chromosomes and unresolved DNA double-strand breaks are also observed in Tet1-deficient oocytes. Tet1 deficiency does not greatly affect the genome-wide demethylation that takes place in primordial germ cells, but leads to defective DNA demethylation and decreased expression of a subset of meiotic genes. Our study thus establishes a function for Tet1 in meiosis and meiotic gene activation in female germ cells.

  4. Tet1 controls meiosis by regulating meiotic gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Shinpei; Hong, Kwonho; Liu, Rui; Shen, Li; Inoue, Azusa; Diep, Dinh; Zhang, Kun; Zhang, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Meiosis is a germ cell-specific cell division process through which haploid gametes are produced for sexual reproduction1. Prior to initiation of meiosis, mouse primordial germ cells (PGCs) undergo a series of epigenetic reprogramming steps2,3, including global erasure of DNA methylation on the 5-position of cytosine (5mC) at CpG4,5. Although several epigenetic regulators, such as Dnmt3l, histone methyltransferases G9a and Prdm9, have been reported to be critical for meiosis6, little is known about how the expression of meiotic genes is regulated and how their expression contributes to normal meiosis. Using a loss of function approach, here we demonstrate that the 5mC-specific dioxygenase Tet1 plays an important role in regulating meiosis in mouse oocytes. Tet1 deficiency significantly reduces female germ cell numbers and fertility. Univalent chromosomes and unresolved DNA double strand breaks are also observed in Tet1-deficient oocytes. Tet1 deficiency does not greatly affect the genome-wide demethylation that takes place in PGCs but leads to defective DNA demethylation and decreased expression of a subset of meiotic genes. Our study thus establishes a function for Tet1 in meiosis and meiotic gene activation in female germ cells. PMID:23151479

  5. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis in patients with male meiotic abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Aran, B; Veiga, A; Vidal, F; Parriego, M; Vendrell, J M; Santaló, J; Egozcue, J; Barri, P N

    2004-04-01

    Indications and candidates for preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) have increased in recent years. This study evaluates whether IVF-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) results could be improved by selecting embryos through PGD-AS (aneuploidy screening) in couples in whom the male partner presents meiotic abnormalities. Two hundred and fifty-six embryos were biopsied and 183 were suitable for analysis (73.2%). Ninety-two embryos showed normal chromosomal analysis (50.3% of the analysed embryos and 57.5% of the diagnosed embryos). Pregnancy, abortion and implantation rates were compared with 66 IVF-ICSI cycles performed in 44 patients with meiotic abnormalities without PGD (control group). No statistically significant differences in the pregnancy rate (52 versus 43.9%), implantation rate (32.1 versus 23.5%) and miscarriage rate (15.4 versus 10.3%) were observed between the groups. Although the embryos obtained from men with meiotic abnormalities showed a high frequency of chromosome abnormalities, no improvements in pregnancy and implantation rates were obtained after PGD-AS in the series analysed.

  6. Pre-meiotic bands and novel meiotic spindle ontogeny in quadrilobed sporocytes of leafy liverworts (Jungermannidae, Bryophyta).

    PubMed

    Brown, Roy C; Lemmon, Betty E

    2009-10-01

    Indirect immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy were used to study the nucleation and organization of microtubules during meiosis in two species of leafy liverworts, Cephalozia macrostachya and Telaranea longifolia. This is the first such study of sporogenesis in the largest group of liverworts important as living representatives of some of the first land plant lineages. These studies show that cytoplasmic quadrilobing of pre-meiotic sporocytes into future spore domains is initiated by girdling bands of gamma-tubulin and microtubules similar to those recently described in lobed sporocytes of simple thalloid liverworts. However, spindle ontogeny is not like other liverworts studied and is, in fact, probably unique among bryophytes. Following the establishment of quadrilobing, numerous microtubules diverge from the bands and extend into the enlarging lobes. The bands disappear and are replaced by microtubules that arise from gamma-tubulin associated with the nuclear envelope. This microtubule system extends into the four lobes and is gradually reorganized into a quadripolar spindle, each half spindle consisting of a pair of poles straddling opposite cleavage furrows. Chromosomes move on this spindle to the polar cleavage furrows. The reniform daughter nuclei, each curved over a cleavage furrow, immediately enter second meiotic division with spindles now terminating in the lobes. Phragmoplasts that develop in the interzones among the haploid tetrad nuclei guide deposition of cell plates that join with the pre-meiotic furrows resulting in cleavage of the tetrad of spores. These observations document a significant variation in the innovative process of sporogenesis evolved in early land plants.

  7. Functional role of the bovine oocyte-specific protein JY-1 in meiotic maturation, cumulus expansion, and subsequent embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Bon; Wee, Gabbine; Zhang, Kun; Folger, Joseph K; Knott, Jason G; Smith, George W

    2014-03-01

    Oocyte-expressed genes regulate key aspects of ovarian follicular development and early embryogenesis. We previously demonstrated a requirement of the oocyte-specific protein JY-1 for bovine early embryogenesis. Given that JY-1 is present in oocytes throughout folliculogenesis, and oocyte-derived JY-1 mRNA is temporally regulated postfertilization, we hypothesized that JY-1 levels in oocytes impact nuclear maturation and subsequent early embryogenesis. A novel model system, whereby JY-1 small interfering RNA was microinjected into cumulus-enclosed germinal vesicle-stage oocytes and meiotic arrest maintained for 48 h prior to in vitro maturation (IVM), was validated and used to determine the effect of reduced oocyte JY-1 expression on nuclear maturation, cumulus expansion, and embryonic development after in vitro fertilization. Depletion of JY-1 protein during IVM effectively reduced cumulus expansion, percentage of oocytes progressing to metaphase II, proportion of embryos that cleaved early, total cleavage rates and development to 8- to 16-cell stage, and totally blocked development to the blastocyst stage relative to controls. Supplementation with JY-1 protein during oocyte culture rescued effects of JY-1 depletion on meiotic maturation, cumulus expansion, and early cleavage, but did not rescue development to 8- to 16-cell and blastocyst stages. However, effects of JY-1 depletion postfertilization on development to 8- to 16-cell and blastocyst stages were rescued by JY-1 supplementation during embryo culture. In conclusion, these results support an important functional role for oocyte-derived JY-1 protein during meiotic maturation in promoting progression to metaphase II, cumulus expansion, and subsequent embryonic development.

  8. Maternal Setdb1 Is Required for Meiotic Progression and Preimplantation Development in Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Dan, Jiameng; Kim, Soojin; Hardikar, Swanand; Hollowell, Debra; Lin, Kevin; Lu, Yue; Takata, Yoko; Shen, Jianjun; Chen, Taiping

    2016-01-01

    Oocyte meiotic progression and maternal-to-zygote transition are accompanied by dynamic epigenetic changes. The functional significance of these changes and the key epigenetic regulators involved are largely unknown. Here we show that Setdb1, a lysine methyltransferase, controls the global level of histone H3 lysine 9 di-methyl (H3K9me2) mark in growing oocytes. Conditional deletion of Setdb1 in developing oocytes leads to meiotic arrest at the germinal vesicle and meiosis I stages, resulting in substantially fewer mature eggs. Embryos derived from these eggs exhibit severe defects in cell cycle progression, progressive delays in preimplantation development, and degeneration before reaching the blastocyst stage. Rescue experiments by expressing wild-type or inactive Setdb1 in Setdb1-deficient oocytes suggest that the catalytic activity of Setdb1 is essential for meiotic progression and early embryogenesis. Mechanistically, up-regulation of Cdc14b, a dual-specificity phosphatase that inhibits meiotic progression, greatly contributes to the meiotic arrest phenotype. Setdb1 deficiency also leads to derepression of transposons and increased DNA damage in oocytes, which likely also contribute to meiotic defects. Thus, Setdb1 is a maternal-effect gene that controls meiotic progression and is essential for early embryogenesis. Our results uncover an important link between the epigenetic machinery and the major signaling pathway governing meiotic progression. PMID:27070551

  9. Fgf9 inhibition of meiotic differentiation in spermatogonia is mediated by Erk-dependent activation of Nodal-Smad2/3 signaling and is antagonized by Kit Ligand.

    PubMed

    Tassinari, V; Campolo, F; Cesarini, V; Todaro, F; Dolci, S; Rossi, P

    2015-03-12

    Both fibroblast growth factor 9 (Fgf9) and Kit Ligand (Kl) signal through tyrosine kinase receptors, yet they exert opposite effects on meiotic differentiation in postnatal spermatogonia, Fgf9 acting as a meiosis-inhibiting substance and Kl acting as a promoter of the differentiation process. To understand the molecular mechanisms that might underlie this difference, we tried to dissect the intracellular signaling elicited by these two growth factors. We found that both Fgf9 and Kl stimulate Erk1/2 activation in Kit+ (differentiating) spermatogonia, even though with different time courses, whereas Kl, but not Fgf9, elicits activation of the Pi3k-Akt pathway. Sustained Erk1/2 activity promoted by Fgf9 is required for induction of the autocrine Cripto-Nodal-Smad2/3 signaling loop in these cells. Nodal signaling, in turn, is essential to mediate Fgf9 suppression of the meiotic program, including inhibition of Stra8 and Scp3 expression and induction of the meiotic gatekeeper Nanos2. On the contrary, sustained activation of the Pi3k-Akt pathway is required for the induction of Stra8 expression elicited by Kl and retinoic acid. Moreover, we found that Kl treatment impairs Nodal mRNA expression and Fgf9-mediated Nanos2 induction, reinforcing the antagonistic effect of these two growth factors on the meiotic fate of male germ cells.

  10. Genome-Wide Association Study of Meiotic Recombination Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Begum, Ferdouse; Chowdhury, Reshmi; Cheung, Vivian G.; Sherman, Stephanie L.; Feingold, Eleanor

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic recombination is an essential step in gametogenesis, and is one that also generates genetic diversity. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and molecular studies have identified genes that influence of human meiotic recombination. RNF212 is associated with total or average number of recombination events, and PRDM9 is associated with the locations of hotspots, or sequences where crossing over appears to cluster. In addition, a common inversion on chromosome 17 is strongly associated with recombination. Other genes have been identified by GWAS, but those results have not been replicated. In this study, using new datasets, we characterized additional recombination phenotypes to uncover novel candidates and further dissect the role of already known loci. We used three datasets totaling 1562 two-generation families, including 3108 parents with 4304 children. We estimated five different recombination phenotypes including two novel phenotypes (average recombination counts within recombination hotspots and outside of hotspots) using dense SNP array genotype data. We then performed gender-specific and combined-sex genome-wide association studies (GWAS) meta-analyses. We replicated associations for several previously reported recombination genes, including RNF212 and PRDM9. By looking specifically at recombination events outside of hotspots, we showed for the first time that PRDM9 has different effects in males and females. We identified several new candidate loci, particularly for recombination events outside of hotspots. These include regions near the genes SPINK6, EVC2, ARHGAP25, and DLGAP2. This study expands our understanding of human meiotic recombination by characterizing additional features that vary across individuals, and identifying regulatory variants influencing the numbers and locations of recombination events. PMID:27733454

  11. Genome-Wide Association Study of Meiotic Recombination Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Begum, Ferdouse; Chowdhury, Reshmi; Cheung, Vivian G; Sherman, Stephanie L; Feingold, Eleanor

    2016-12-07

    Meiotic recombination is an essential step in gametogenesis, and is one that also generates genetic diversity. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and molecular studies have identified genes that influence of human meiotic recombination. RNF212 is associated with total or average number of recombination events, and PRDM9 is associated with the locations of hotspots, or sequences where crossing over appears to cluster. In addition, a common inversion on chromosome 17 is strongly associated with recombination. Other genes have been identified by GWAS, but those results have not been replicated. In this study, using new datasets, we characterized additional recombination phenotypes to uncover novel candidates and further dissect the role of already known loci. We used three datasets totaling 1562 two-generation families, including 3108 parents with 4304 children. We estimated five different recombination phenotypes including two novel phenotypes (average recombination counts within recombination hotspots and outside of hotspots) using dense SNP array genotype data. We then performed gender-specific and combined-sex genome-wide association studies (GWAS) meta-analyses. We replicated associations for several previously reported recombination genes, including RNF212 and PRDM9 By looking specifically at recombination events outside of hotspots, we showed for the first time that PRDM9 has different effects in males and females. We identified several new candidate loci, particularly for recombination events outside of hotspots. These include regions near the genes SPINK6, EVC2, ARHGAP25, and DLGAP2 This study expands our understanding of human meiotic recombination by characterizing additional features that vary across individuals, and identifying regulatory variants influencing the numbers and locations of recombination events.

  12. Prevention of DNA Rereplication Through a Meiotic Recombination Checkpoint Response

    PubMed Central

    Najor, Nicole A.; Weatherford, Layne; Brush, George S.

    2016-01-01

    In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, unnatural stabilization of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Sic1 during meiosis can trigger extra rounds of DNA replication. When programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are generated but not repaired due to absence of DMC1, a pathway involving the checkpoint gene RAD17 prevents this DNA rereplication. Further genetic analysis has now revealed that prevention of DNA rereplication also requires MEC1, which encodes a protein kinase that serves as a central checkpoint regulator in several pathways including the meiotic recombination checkpoint response. Downstream of MEC1, MEK1 is required through its function to inhibit repair between sister chromatids. By contrast, meiotic recombination checkpoint effectors that regulate gene expression and cyclin-dependent kinase activity are not necessary. Phosphorylation of histone H2A, which is catalyzed by Mec1 and the related Tel1 protein kinase in response to DSBs, and can help coordinate activation of the Rad53 checkpoint protein kinase in the mitotic cell cycle, is required for the full checkpoint response. Phosphorylation sites that are targeted by Rad53 in a mitotic S phase checkpoint response are also involved, based on the behavior of cells containing mutations in the DBF4 and SLD3 DNA replication genes. However, RAD53 does not appear to be required, nor does RAD9, which encodes a mediator of Rad53, consistent with their lack of function in the recombination checkpoint pathway that prevents meiotic progression. While this response is similar to a checkpoint mechanism that inhibits initiation of DNA replication in the mitotic cell cycle, the evidence points to a new variation on DNA replication control. PMID:27678521

  13. Chromosome numbers and meiotic analysis in the pre-breeding of Brachiaria decumbens (Poaceae).

    PubMed

    Ricci, Gléia Cristina Laverde; De Souza-Kaneshima, Alice Maria; Felismino, Mariana Ferrari; Mendes-Bonato, Andrea Beatriz; Pagliarini, Maria Suely; Do Valle, Cacilda Borges

    2011-08-01

    A total of 44 accessions of Brachiaria decumbens were analysed for chromosome count and meiotic behaviour in order to identify potential progenitors for crosses. Among them, 15 accessions presented 2n = 18; 27 accessions, 2n = 36; and 2 accessions, 2n = 45 chromosomes. Among the diploid accessions, the rate of meiotic abnormalities was low, ranging from 0.82% to 7.93%. In the 27 tetraploid accessions, the rate of meiotic abnormalities ranged from 18.41% to 65.83%. The most common meiotic abnormalities were related to irregular chromosome segregation, but chromosome stickiness and abnormal cytokinesis were observed in low frequency. All abnormalities can compromise pollen viability by generating unbalanced gametes. Based on the chromosome number and meiotic stability, the present study indicates the apomictic tetraploid accessions that can act as male genitor to produce interspecific hybrids with B. ruziziensis or intraspecific hybrids with recently artificially tetraploidized accessions.

  14. Reversible meiotic abnormalities in azoospermic men with bilateral varicocele after microsurgical correction.

    PubMed

    North, M O; Lellei, I; Rives, N; Erdei, E; Dittmar, A; Barbet, J P; Tritto, G

    2004-05-01

    Because of a possible relationship between microenvironmental disturbances and meiotic abnormalities and of a straight relationship between lower-quality semen in patient carrying a varicocele and first meiotic non-disjunction, bilateral bipolar testicular biopsies are realized according the thermic differential gradient described in varicocele. Systematic meiotic studies of multiple testicular biopsies from 65 azoospermic men with bilateral varicocele were done in a multi-centric study on microsurgical correction of bilateral varicocele with microthermic intra-operative evaluation using minimally invasive thermal microsensors (Betatherm 10K3MCD2). In the present study abnormal temperature raising, histomorphometric abnormalities (spermatocyte arrest) and meiotic abnormalities (class IIC) are strongly correlated. In the ten patients submitted to another testicular biopsy procedure six months after surgery for TESE, normal thermal differential is registered and no meiotic abnormalities recurrences are found.

  15. PUF-8 negatively regulates RAS/MAPK signalling to promote differentiation of C. elegans germ cells

    PubMed Central

    Vaid, Samir; Ariz, Mohd; Chaturbedi, Amaresh; Kumar, Ganga Anil; Subramaniam, Kuppuswamy

    2013-01-01

    Signals that promote germ cell self-renewal by preventing premature meiotic entry are well understood. However, signals that control mitotic proliferation to promote meiotic differentiation have not been well characterized. In Caenorhabditis elegans, GLP-1 Notch signalling promotes the proliferative fate by preventing premature meiotic entry. The germline niche cell, which is the source of the ligand for GLP-1, spatially restricts GLP-1 signalling and thus enables the germ cells that have moved away from the niche to enter meiosis. Here, we show that the suppression of RAS/MAP kinase signalling in the mitotic and meiotic-entry regions is essential for the regulation of the mitosis-meiosis switch by niche signalling. We provide evidence that the conserved PUF family RNA-binding protein PUF-8 and the RAS GAP protein GAP-3 function redundantly to suppress the LET-60 RAS in the mitotic and meiotic entry regions. Germ cells missing both PUF-8 and GAP-3 proliferate in an uncontrolled fashion and fail to undergo meiotic development. MPK-1, the MAP kinase downstream of the LET-60 RAS, is prematurely activated in these cells; downregulation of MPK-1 activation eliminates tumours and restores differentiation. Our results further reveal that PUF-8 negatively regulates LET-60 expression at a post-transcriptional step. LET-60 is misexpressed in the puf-8(-) mutant germlines and PUF-8 physically interacts with the let-60 3′ UTR. Furthermore, PUF-8 suppresses let-60 3′ UTR-mediated expression in the germ cells that are transitioning from the mitotic to meiotic fate. These results reveal that PUF-8-mediated inhibition of the RAS/MAPK pathway is essential for mitotic-to-meiotic fate transition. PMID:23487310

  16. Sex chromosome-specific regulation in the Drosophila male germline but little evidence for chromosomal dosage compensation or meiotic inactivation.

    PubMed

    Meiklejohn, Colin D; Landeen, Emily L; Cook, Jodi M; Kingan, Sarah B; Presgraves, Daven C

    2011-08-01

    The evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes (e.g., XY in males or ZW in females) has repeatedly elicited the evolution of two kinds of chromosome-specific regulation: dosage compensation--the equalization of X chromosome gene expression in males and females--and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI)--the transcriptional silencing and heterochromatinization of the X during meiosis in the male (or Z in the female) germline. How the X chromosome is regulated in the Drosophila melanogaster male germline is unclear. Here we report three new findings concerning gene expression from the X in Drosophila testes. First, X chromosome-wide dosage compensation appears to be absent from most of the Drosophila male germline. Second, microarray analysis provides no evidence for X chromosome-specific inactivation during meiosis. Third, we confirm the previous discovery that the expression of transgene reporters driven by autosomal spermatogenesis-specific promoters is strongly reduced when inserted on the X chromosome versus the autosomes; but we show that this chromosomal difference in expression is established in premeiotic cells and persists in meiotic cells. The magnitude of the X-autosome difference in transgene expression cannot be explained by the absence of dosage compensation, suggesting that a previously unrecognized mechanism limits expression from the X during spermatogenesis in Drosophila. These findings help to resolve several previously conflicting reports and have implications for patterns of genome evolution and speciation in Drosophila.

  17. Functional interactions of Rec24, the fission yeast ortholog of mouse Mei4, with the meiotic recombination–initiation complex

    PubMed Central

    Bonfils, Sandrine; Rozalén, Ana E.; Smith, Gerald R.; Moreno, Sergio; Martín-Castellanos, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    A physical connection between each pair of homologous chromosomes is crucial for reductional chromosome segregation during the first meiotic division and therefore for successful meiosis. Connection is provided by recombination (crossing over) initiated by programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Although the topoisomerase-like protein Spo11 makes DSBs and is evolutionarily conserved, how Spo11 (Rec12 in fission yeast) is regulated to form DSBs at the proper time and place is poorly understood. Several additional (accessory) proteins for DSB formation have been inferred in different species from yeast to mice. Here, we show that Rec24 is a bona fide accessory protein in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Rec24 is required genome-wide for crossing-over and is recruited to meiotic chromosomes during prophase in a Rec12-independent manner forming foci on linear elements (LinEs), structurally related to the synaptonemal complex of other eukaryotes. Stabilization of Rec24 on LinEs depends on another accessory protein, Rec7, with which Rec24 forms complexes in vivo. We propose that Rec24 marks LinE-associated recombination sites, that stabilization of its binding by Rec7 facilitates the loading or activation of Rec12, and that only stabilized complexes containing Rec24 and Rec7 promote DSB formation. Based on the recent report of Rec24 and Rec7 conservation, interaction between Rec24 and Rec7 might be widely conserved in DSB formation. PMID:21429938

  18. mei-W68 in Drosophila melanogaster encodes a Spo11 homolog: evidence that the mechanism for initiating meiotic recombination is conserved.

    PubMed

    McKim, K S; Hayashi-Hagihara, A

    1998-09-15

    Meiotic recombination requires the action of several gene products in both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Drosophila melanogaster. Genetic studies in D. melanogaster have shown that the mei-W68 gene is required for all meiotic gene conversion and crossing-over. We cloned mei-W68 using a new genetic mapping method in which P elements are used to promote crossing-over at their insertion sites. This resulted in the high-resolution mapping of mei-W68 to a <18-kb region that contains a homolog of the S. cerevisiae spo11 gene. Molecular analysis of several mutants confirmed that mei-W68 encodes an spo11 homolog. Spo11 and MEI-W68 are members of a family of proteins similar to a novel type II topoisomerase. On the basis of this and other lines of evidence, Spo11 has been proposed to be the enzymatic activity that creates the double-strand breaks needed to initiate meiotic recombination. This raises the possibility that recombination in Drosophila is also initiated by double-strand breaks. Although these homologous genes are required absolutely for recombination in both species, their roles differ in other respects. In contrast to spo11, mei-W68 is not required for synaptonemal complex formation and does have a mitotic role.

  19. Meiotic recombination analysis in female ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Pigozzi, M I; Del Priore, L

    2016-06-01

    Meiotic recombination in female ducks was directly studied by immunolocalization of MLH1 protein, a mismatch repair protein of mature recombination nodules. In total, 6820 crossovers were scored along the autosomal synaptonemal complexes in 122 meiotic nuclei. From this analysis we predict that the female map length of the duck is 2845 cM, with a genome wide recombination rate of 2 cM/Mb. MLH1-focus mapping along the six largest bivalents shows regional variations of recombination frequencies that can be linked to differences in chromosome morphology. From this MLH1 mapping it can be inferred that distally located markers will appear more separated in genetic maps than physically equidistant markers located near the centromeres on bivalents 1 and 2. Instead, markers at interstitial positions on the acrocentric bivalents 3-6 will appear more tightly linked than expected on the basis of their physical distance because recombination is comparatively lower at the mid region of these chromosomes. The present results provide useful information to complement linkage mapping in ducks and extend previous knowledge about the variation of recombination rates among domestic Galloanserae.

  20. Meiotic chromosome pairing in triploid and tetraploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Loidl, J.

    1995-04-01

    Meiotic chromosome pairing in isogenic triploid and tetraploid strains of yeast and the consequences of polyploidy on meiotic chromosome segregation are studied. Synaptonemal complex formation at pachytene was found to be different in the triploid and in the tetraploid. In the triploid, triple-synapsis, that is, the connection of three homologues at a given site, is common. It can even extend all the way along the chromosomes. In the tetraploid, homologous chromosomes mostly come in pairs of synapsed bivalents. Multiple synapsis, that is, synapsis of more than two homologues in one and the same region, was virtually absent in the tetraploid. About five quadrivalents per cell occurred due to the switching of pairing partners. From the frequency of pairing partner switches it can be deduced that in most chromosomes synapsis is initiated primarily at one end, occasionally at both ends and rarely at an additional intercalary position. In contrast to a considerably reduced spore viability ({approximately}40%) in the triploid, spore viability is only mildly affected in the tetraploid. The good spore viability is presumably due to the low frequency of quadrivalents and to the highly regular 2:2 segregation of the few quadrivalents that do occur. Occasionally, however, quadrivalents appear to be subject to 3:1 nondisjunction that leads to spore death in the second generation. 29 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Senataxin controls meiotic silencing through ATR activation and chromatin remodeling.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Abrey J; Becherel, Olivier J; Luff, John E; Graham, Mark E; Richard, Derek; Lavin, Martin F

    2015-01-01

    Senataxin, defective in ataxia oculomotor apraxia type 2, protects the genome by facilitating the resolution of RNA-DNA hybrids (R-loops) and other aspects of RNA processing. Disruption of this gene in mice causes failure of meiotic recombination and defective meiotic sex chromosome inactivation, leading to male infertility. Here we provide evidence that the disruption of Setx leads to reduced SUMOylation and disruption of protein localization across the XY body during meiosis. We demonstrate that senataxin and other DNA damage repair proteins, including ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein-interacting partner, are SUMOylated, and a marked downregulation of both ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein-interacting partner and TopBP1 leading to defective activation and signaling through ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein occurs in the absence of senataxin. Furthermore, chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 4, a component of the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase chromatin remodeler that interacts with both ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein and senataxin was not recruited efficiently to the XY body, triggering altered histone acetylation and chromatin conformation in Setx (-/-) pachytene-staged spermatocytes. These results demonstrate that senataxin has a critical role in ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein- and chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 4-mediated transcriptional silencing and chromatin remodeling during meiosis providing greater insight into its critical role in gene regulation to protect against neurodegeneration.

  2. Senataxin controls meiotic silencing through ATR activation and chromatin remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Abrey J; Becherel, Olivier J; Luff, John E; Graham, Mark E; Richard, Derek; Lavin, Martin F

    2015-01-01

    Senataxin, defective in ataxia oculomotor apraxia type 2, protects the genome by facilitating the resolution of RNA–DNA hybrids (R-loops) and other aspects of RNA processing. Disruption of this gene in mice causes failure of meiotic recombination and defective meiotic sex chromosome inactivation, leading to male infertility. Here we provide evidence that the disruption of Setx leads to reduced SUMOylation and disruption of protein localization across the XY body during meiosis. We demonstrate that senataxin and other DNA damage repair proteins, including ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein-interacting partner, are SUMOylated, and a marked downregulation of both ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein-interacting partner and TopBP1 leading to defective activation and signaling through ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein occurs in the absence of senataxin. Furthermore, chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 4, a component of the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase chromatin remodeler that interacts with both ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein and senataxin was not recruited efficiently to the XY body, triggering altered histone acetylation and chromatin conformation in Setx−/− pachytene-staged spermatocytes. These results demonstrate that senataxin has a critical role in ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein- and chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 4-mediated transcriptional silencing and chromatin remodeling during meiosis providing greater insight into its critical role in gene regulation to protect against neurodegeneration. PMID:27462424

  3. Meiotic Chromosome Pairing in Triploid and Tetraploid Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Loidl, J.

    1995-01-01

    Meiotic chromosome pairing in isogenic triploid and tetraploid strains of yeast and the consequences of polyploidy on meiotic chromosome segregation are studied. Synaptonemal complex formation at pachytene was found to be different in the triploid and in the tetraploid. In the triploid, triple-synapsis, that is, the connection of three homologues at a given site, is common. It can even extend all the way along the chromosomes. In the tetraploid, homologous chromosomes mostly come in pairs of synapsed bivalents. Multiple synapsis, that is, synapsis of more than two homologues in one and the same region, was virtually absent in the tetraploid. About five quadrivalents per cell occurred due to the switching of pairing partners. From the frequency of pairing partner switches it can be deduced that in most chromosomes synapsis is initiated primarily at one end, occasionally at both ends and rarely at an additional intercalary position. In contrast to a considerably reduced spore viability (~40%) in the triploid, spore viability is only mildly affected in the tetraploid. The good spore viability is presumably due to the low frequency of quadrivalents and to the highly regular 2:2 segregation of the few quadrivalents that do occur. Occasionally, however, quadrivalents appear to be subject to 3:1 nondisjunction that leads to spore death in the second generation. PMID:7789756

  4. Extensive Recombination of a Yeast Diploid Hybrid through Meiotic Reversion

    PubMed Central

    Laureau, Raphaëlle; Loeillet, Sophie; Salinas, Francisco; Bergström, Anders; Legoix-Né, Patricia; Liti, Gianni; Nicolas, Alain

    2016-01-01

    In somatic cells, recombination between the homologous chromosomes followed by equational segregation leads to loss of heterozygosity events (LOH), allowing the expression of recessive alleles and the production of novel allele combinations that are potentially beneficial upon Darwinian selection. However, inter-homolog recombination in somatic cells is rare, thus reducing potential genetic variation. Here, we explored the property of S. cerevisiae to enter the meiotic developmental program, induce meiotic Spo11-dependent double-strand breaks genome-wide and return to mitotic growth, a process known as Return To Growth (RTG). Whole genome sequencing of 36 RTG strains derived from the hybrid S288c/SK1 diploid strain demonstrates that the RTGs are bona fide diploids with mosaic recombined genome, derived from either parental origin. Individual RTG genome-wide genotypes are comprised of 5 to 87 homozygous regions due to the loss of heterozygous (LOH) events of various lengths, varying between a few nucleotides up to several hundred kilobases. Furthermore, we show that reiteration of the RTG process shows incremental increases of homozygosity. Phenotype/genotype analysis of the RTG strains for the auxotrophic and arsenate resistance traits validates the potential of this procedure of genome diversification to rapidly map complex traits loci (QTLs) in diploid strains without undergoing sexual reproduction. PMID:26828862

  5. Inventory and Phylogenetic Analysis of Meiotic Genes in Monogonont Rotifers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A long-standing question in evolutionary biology is how sexual reproduction has persisted in eukaryotic lineages. As cyclical parthenogens, monogonont rotifers are a powerful model for examining this question, yet the molecular nature of sexual reproduction in this lineage is currently understudied. To examine genes involved in meiosis, we generated partial genome assemblies for 2 distantly related monogonont species, Brachionus calyciflorus and B. manjavacas. Here we present an inventory of 89 meiotic genes, of which 80 homologs were identified and annotated from these assemblies. Using phylogenetic analysis, we show that several meiotic genes have undergone relatively recent duplication events that appear to be specific to the monogonont lineage. Further, we compare the expression of “meiosis-specific” genes involved in recombination and all annotated copies of the cell cycle regulatory gene CDC20 between obligate parthenogenetic (OP) and cyclical parthenogenetic (CP) strains of B. calyciflorus. We show that “meiosis-specific” genes are expressed in both CP and OP strains, whereas the expression of one of the CDC20 genes is specific to cyclical parthenogenesis. The data presented here provide insights into mechanisms of cyclical parthenogenesis and establish expectations for studies of obligate asexual relatives of monogononts, the bdelloid rotifer lineage. PMID:23487324

  6. A High Incidence of Meiotic Silencing of Unsynapsed Chromatin Is Not Associated with Substantial Pachytene Loss in Heterozygous Male Mice Carrying Multiple Simple Robertsonian Translocations

    PubMed Central

    Vasco, Chiara; Berríos, Soledad; Parra, María Teresa; Viera, Alberto; Rufas, Julio S.; Zuccotti, Maurizio; Garagna, Silvia; Fernández-Donoso, Raúl

    2009-01-01

    Meiosis is a complex type of cell division that involves homologous chromosome pairing, synapsis, recombination, and segregation. When any of these processes is altered, cellular checkpoints arrest meiosis progression and induce cell elimination. Meiotic impairment is particularly frequent in organisms bearing chromosomal translocations. When chromosomal translocations appear in heterozygosis, the chromosomes involved may not correctly complete synapsis, recombination, and/or segregation, thus promoting the activation of checkpoints that lead to the death of the meiocytes. In mammals and other organisms, the unsynapsed chromosomal regions are subject to a process called meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin (MSUC). Different degrees of asynapsis could contribute to disturb the normal loading of MSUC proteins, interfering with autosome and sex chromosome gene expression and triggering a massive pachytene cell death. We report that in mice that are heterozygous for eight multiple simple Robertsonian translocations, most pachytene spermatocytes bear trivalents with unsynapsed regions that incorporate, in a stage-dependent manner, proteins involved in MSUC (e.g., γH2AX, ATR, ubiquitinated-H2A, SUMO-1, and XMR). These spermatocytes have a correct MSUC response and are not eliminated during pachytene and most of them proceed into diplotene. However, we found a high incidence of apoptotic spermatocytes at the metaphase stage. These results suggest that in Robertsonian heterozygous mice synapsis defects on most pachytene cells do not trigger a prophase-I checkpoint. Instead, meiotic impairment seems to mainly rely on the action of a checkpoint acting at the metaphase stage. We propose that a low stringency of the pachytene checkpoint could help to increase the chances that spermatocytes with synaptic defects will complete meiotic divisions and differentiate into viable gametes. This scenario, despite a reduction of fertility, allows the spreading of Robertsonian

  7. Sisters Unbound Is Required for Meiotic Centromeric Cohesion in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Badri; Thomas, Sharon E.; Yan, Rihui; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Zhulin, Igor B.; McKee, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    Regular meiotic chromosome segregation requires sister centromeres to mono-orient (orient to the same pole) during the first meiotic division (meiosis I) when homologous chromosomes segregate, and to bi-orient (orient to opposite poles) during the second meiotic division (meiosis II) when sister chromatids segregate. Both orientation patterns require cohesion between sister centromeres, which is established during meiotic DNA replication and persists until anaphase of meiosis II. Meiotic cohesion is mediated by a conserved four-protein complex called cohesin that includes two structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) subunits (SMC1 and SMC3) and two non-SMC subunits. In Drosophila melanogaster, however, the meiotic cohesion apparatus has not been fully characterized and the non-SMC subunits have not been identified. We have identified a novel Drosophila gene called sisters unbound (sunn), which is required for stable sister chromatid cohesion throughout meiosis. sunn mutations disrupt centromere cohesion during prophase I and cause high frequencies of non-disjunction (NDJ) at both meiotic divisions in both sexes. SUNN co-localizes at centromeres with the cohesion proteins SMC1 and SOLO in both sexes and is necessary for the recruitment of both proteins to centromeres. Although SUNN lacks sequence homology to cohesins, bioinformatic analysis indicates that SUNN may be a structural homolog of the non-SMC cohesin subunit stromalin (SA), suggesting that SUNN may serve as a meiosis-specific cohesin subunit. In conclusion, our data show that SUNN is an essential meiosis-specific Drosophila cohesion protein. PMID:25194162

  8. Sisters unbound is required for meiotic centromeric cohesion in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Badri; Thomas, Sharon E; Yan, Rihui; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Zhulin, Igor B; McKee, Bruce D

    2014-11-01

    Regular meiotic chromosome segregation requires sister centromeres to mono-orient (orient to the same pole) during the first meiotic division (meiosis I) when homologous chromosomes segregate, and to bi-orient (orient to opposite poles) during the second meiotic division (meiosis II) when sister chromatids segregate. Both orientation patterns require cohesion between sister centromeres, which is established during meiotic DNA replication and persists until anaphase of meiosis II. Meiotic cohesion is mediated by a conserved four-protein complex called cohesin that includes two structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) subunits (SMC1 and SMC3) and two non-SMC subunits. In Drosophila melanogaster, however, the meiotic cohesion apparatus has not been fully characterized and the non-SMC subunits have not been identified. We have identified a novel Drosophila gene called sisters unbound (sunn), which is required for stable sister chromatid cohesion throughout meiosis. sunn mutations disrupt centromere cohesion during prophase I and cause high frequencies of non-disjunction (NDJ) at both meiotic divisions in both sexes. SUNN co-localizes at centromeres with the cohesion proteins SMC1 and SOLO in both sexes and is necessary for the recruitment of both proteins to centromeres. Although SUNN lacks sequence homology to cohesins, bioinformatic analysis indicates that SUNN may be a structural homolog of the non-SMC cohesin subunit stromalin (SA), suggesting that SUNN may serve as a meiosis-specific cohesin subunit. In conclusion, our data show that SUNN is an essential meiosis-specific Drosophila cohesion protein.

  9. Multisite phosphorylation of the Sum1 transcriptional repressor by S-phase kinases controls exit from meiotic prophase in yeast.

    PubMed

    Corbi, Daniel; Sunder, Sham; Weinreich, Michael; Skokotas, Aikaterini; Johnson, Erica S; Winter, Edward

    2014-06-01

    Activation of the meiotic transcription factor Ndt80 is a key regulatory transition in the life cycle of Saccharomyces cerevisiae because it triggers exit from pachytene and entry into meiosis. The NDT80 promoter is held inactive by a complex containing the DNA-binding protein Sum1 and the histone deacetylase Hst1. Meiosis-specific phosphorylation of Sum1 by the protein kinases Cdk1, Ime2, and Cdc7 is required for NDT80 expression. Here, we show that the S-phase-promoting cyclin Clb5 activates Cdk1 to phosphorylate most, and perhaps all, of the 11 minimal cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) phospho-consensus sites (S/T-P) in Sum1. Nine of these sites can individually promote modest levels of meiosis, yet these sites function in a quasiadditive manner to promote substantial levels of meiosis. Two Cdk1 sites and an Ime2 site individually promote high levels of meiosis, likely by preparing Sum1 for phosphorylation by Cdc7. Chromatin immunoprecipitation reveals that the phosphorylation sites are required for removal of Sum1 from the NDT80 promoter. We also find that Sum1, but not its partner protein Hst1, is required to repress NDT80 transcription. Thus, while the phosphorylation of Sum1 may lead to dissociation from DNA by influencing Hst1, it is the presence of Sum1 on DNA that determines whether NDT80 will be expressed.

  10. Meiotic silencing and fragmentation of the male germline restricted chromosome in zebra finch.

    PubMed

    Schoenmakers, Sam; Wassenaar, Evelyne; Laven, Joop S E; Grootegoed, J Anton; Baarends, Willy M

    2010-06-01

    During male meiotic prophase in mammals, X and Y are in a largely unsynapsed configuration, which is thought to trigger meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI). In avian species, females are ZW, and males ZZ. Although Z and W in chicken oocytes show complete, largely heterologous synapsis, they too undergo MSCI, albeit only transiently. The W chromosome is already inactive in early meiotic prophase, and inactive chromatin marks may spread on to the Z upon synapsis. Mammalian MSCI is considered as a specialised form of the general meiotic silencing mechanism, named meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin (MSUC). Herein, we studied the avian form of MSUC, by analysing the behaviour of the peculiar germline restricted chromosome (GRC) that is present as a single copy in zebra finch spermatocytes. In the female germline, this chromosome is present in two copies, which normally synapse and recombine. In contrast, during male meiosis, the single GRC is always eliminated. We found that the GRC in the male germline is silenced from early leptotene onwards, similar to the W chromosome in avian oocytes. The GRC remains largely unsynapsed throughout meiotic prophase I, although patches of SYCP1 staining indicate that part of the GRC may self-synapse. In addition, the GRC is largely devoid of meiotic double strand breaks. We observed a lack of the inner centromere protein INCENP on the GRC and elimination of the GRC following metaphase I. Subsequently, the GRC forms a micronucleus in which the DNA is fragmented. We conclude that in contrast to MSUC in mammals, meiotic silencing of this single chromosome in the avian germline occurs prior to, and independent of DNA double strand breaks and chromosome pairing, hence we have named this phenomenon meiotic silencing prior to synapsis (MSPS).

  11. X chromosome effect on maternal recombination and meiotic drive in the mouse.

    PubMed Central

    de La Casa-Esperón, Elena; Loredo-Osti, J Concepción; Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Fernando; Briscoe, Tammi L; Malette, Jan Michel; Vaughan, Joe E; Morgan, Kenneth; Sapienza, Carmen

    2002-01-01

    We observed that maternal meiotic drive favoring the inheritance of DDK alleles at the Om locus on mouse chromosome 11 was correlated with the X chromosome inactivation phenotype of (C57BL/6-Pgk1(a) x DDK)F(1) mothers. The basis for this unexpected observation appears to lie in the well-documented effect of recombination on meiotic drive that results from nonrandom segregation of chromosomes. Our analysis of genome-wide levels of meiotic recombination in females that vary in their X-inactivation phenotype indicates that an allelic difference at an X-linked locus is responsible for modulating levels of recombination in oocytes. PMID:12196408

  12. Homeostatic regulation of meiotic DSB formation by ATM/ATR

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Tim J.; Wardell, Kayleigh; Garcia, Valerie; Neale, Matthew J.

    2014-11-15

    Ataxia–telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and RAD3-related (ATR) are widely known as being central players in the mitotic DNA damage response (DDR), mounting responses to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) respectively. The DDR signalling cascade couples cell cycle control to damage-sensing and repair processes in order to prevent untimely cell cycle progression while damage still persists [1]. Both ATM/ATR are, however, also emerging as essential factors in the process of meiosis; a specialised cell cycle programme responsible for the formation of haploid gametes via two sequential nuclear divisions. Central to achieving accurate meiotic chromosome segregation is the introduction of numerous DSBs spread across the genome by the evolutionarily conserved enzyme, Spo11. This review seeks to explore and address how cells utilise ATM/ATR pathways to regulate Spo11-DSB formation, establish DSB homeostasis and ensure meiosis is completed unperturbed.

  13. Homeostatic regulation of meiotic DSB formation by ATM/ATR.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Tim J; Wardell, Kayleigh; Garcia, Valerie; Neale, Matthew J

    2014-11-15

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and RAD3-related (ATR) are widely known as being central players in the mitotic DNA damage response (DDR), mounting responses to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) respectively. The DDR signalling cascade couples cell cycle control to damage-sensing and repair processes in order to prevent untimely cell cycle progression while damage still persists [1]. Both ATM/ATR are, however, also emerging as essential factors in the process of meiosis; a specialised cell cycle programme responsible for the formation of haploid gametes via two sequential nuclear divisions. Central to achieving accurate meiotic chromosome segregation is the introduction of numerous DSBs spread across the genome by the evolutionarily conserved enzyme, Spo11. This review seeks to explore and address how cells utilise ATM/ATR pathways to regulate Spo11-DSB formation, establish DSB homeostasis and ensure meiosis is completed unperturbed.

  14. Does MAX open up a new avenue for meiotic research?

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Ayumu; Hirasaki, Masataka; Okuda, Akihiko

    2017-02-01

    Meiosis is a central event of sexual reproduction. Like somatic cells, germ cells conduct mitosis to increase their cell number, but unlike somatic cells, germ cells switch their cell division mode from mitosis to meiosis at a certain point in gametogenesis. However, the molecular basis of this switch remains elusive. In this review article, we give an overview of the onset of mammalian meiosis, including our recent finding that MYC Associated Factor X (MAX) prevents ectopic and precocious meiosis in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and germ cells, respectively. We present a hypothetical model of a MAX-centered molecular network that regulates meiotic entry in mammals and propose that inducible Max knockout ESCs provide an excellent platform for exploring the molecular mechanisms of meiosis initiation, while excluding other aspects of gametogenesis.

  15. Meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in the marsupial Monodelphis domestica.

    PubMed

    Hornecker, Jacey L; Samollow, Paul B; Robinson, Edward S; Vandeberg, John L; McCarrey, John R

    2007-11-01

    In eutherian mammals, the X and Y chromosomes undergo meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) during spermatogenesis in males. However, following fertilization, both the paternally (Xp) and maternally (Xm) inherited X chromosomes are active in the inner cell mass of the female blastocyst, and then random inactivation of one X chromosome occurs in each cell, leading to a mosaic pattern of X-chromosome activity in adult female tissues. In contrast, marsupial females show a nonrandom pattern of X chromosome activity, with repression of the Xp in all somatic tissues. Here, we show that MSCI also occurs during spermatogenesis in marsupials in a manner similar to, but more stable than that in eutherians. These findings support the suggestion that MSCI may have provided the basis for an early dosage compensation mechanism in mammals based solely on gametogenic events, and that random X-chromosome inactivation during embryogenesis may have evolved subsequently in eutherian mammals.

  16. Confinement induces actin flow in a meiotic cytoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Pinot, Mathieu; Steiner, Villier; Dehapiot, Benoit; Yoo, Byung-Kuk; Chesnel, Franck; Blanchoin, Laurent; Kervrann, Charles; Gueroui, Zoher

    2012-01-01

    In vivo, F-actin flows are observed at different cell life stages and participate in various developmental processes during asymmetric divisions in vertebrate oocytes, cell migration, or wound healing. Here, we show that confinement has a dramatic effect on F-actin spatiotemporal organization. We reconstitute in vitro the spontaneous generation of F-actin flow using Xenopus meiotic extracts artificially confined within a geometry mimicking the cell boundary. Perturbations of actin polymerization kinetics or F-actin nucleation sites strongly modify the network flow dynamics. A combination of quantitative image analysis and biochemical perturbations shows that both spatial localization of F-actin nucleators and actin turnover play a decisive role in generating flow. Interestingly, our in vitro assay recapitulates several symmetry-breaking processes observed in oocytes and early embryonic cells. PMID:22753521

  17. Direct visualization reveals kinetics of meiotic chromosome synapsis

    SciTech Connect

    Rog, Ofer; Dernburg, Abby  F.

    2015-03-17

    The synaptonemal complex (SC) is a conserved protein complex that stabilizes interactions along homologous chromosomes (homologs) during meiosis. The SC regulates genetic exchanges between homologs, thereby enabling reductional division and the production of haploid gametes. Here, we directly observe SC assembly (synapsis) by optimizing methods for long-term fluorescence recording in C. elegans. We report that synapsis initiates independently on each chromosome pair at or near pairing centers—specialized regions required for homolog associations. Once initiated, the SC extends rapidly and mostly irreversibly to chromosome ends. Quantitation of SC initiation frequencies and extension rates reveals that initiation is a rate-limiting step in homolog interactions. Eliminating the dynein-driven chromosome movements that accompany synapsis severely retards SC extension, revealing a new role for these conserved motions. This work provides the first opportunity to directly observe and quantify key aspects of meiotic chromosome interactions and will enable future in vivo analysis of germline processes.

  18. Cortical granule translocation is microfilament mediated and linked to meiotic maturation in the sea urchin oocyte.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Gary M; Conner, Sean D; Berg, Linnea

    2002-09-01

    Cortical granules exocytose after the fusion of egg and sperm in most animals, and their contents function in the block to polyspermy by creating an impenetrable extracellular matrix. Cortical granules are synthesized throughout oogenesis and translocate en masse to the cell surface during meiosis where they remain until fertilization. As the mature oocyte is approximately 125 micro m in diameter (Lytechinus variegatus), many of the cortical granules translocate upwards of 60 micro m to reach the cortex within a 4 hour time window. We have investigated the mechanism of this coordinated vesicular translocation event. Although the stimulus to reinitiate meiosis in sea urchin oocytes is not known, we found many different ways to reversibly inhibit germinal vesicle breakdown, and used these findings to discover that meiotic maturation and cortical granule translocation are inseparable. We also learned that cortical granule translocation requires association with microfilaments but not microtubules. It is clear from endocytosis assays that microfilament motors are functional prior to meiosis, even though cortical granules do not use them. However, just after GVBD, cortical granules attach to microfilaments and translocate to the cell surface. This latter conclusion is based on organelle stratification within the oocyte followed by positional quantitation of the cortical granules. We conclude from these studies that maturation promoting factor (MPF) activation stimulates vesicle association with microfilaments, and is a key regulatory step in the coordinated translocation of cortical granules to the egg cortex.

  19. DNA replication and damage checkpoints and meiotic cell cycle controls in the fission and budding yeasts.

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, H; Nurse, P

    2000-01-01

    The cell cycle checkpoint mechanisms ensure the order of cell cycle events to preserve genomic integrity. Among these, the DNA-replication and DNA-damage checkpoints prevent chromosome segregation when DNA replication is inhibited or DNA is damaged. Recent studies have identified an outline of the regulatory networks for both of these controls, which apparently operate in all eukaryotes. In addition, it appears that these checkpoints have two arrest points, one is just before entry into mitosis and the other is prior to chromosome separation. The former point requires the central cell-cycle regulator Cdc2 kinase, whereas the latter involves several key regulators and substrates of the ubiquitin ligase called the anaphase promoting complex. Linkages between these cell-cycle regulators and several key checkpoint proteins are beginning to emerge. Recent findings on post-translational modifications and protein-protein interactions of the checkpoint proteins provide new insights into the checkpoint responses, although the functional significance of these biochemical properties often remains unclear. We have reviewed the molecular mechanisms acting at the DNA-replication and DNA-damage checkpoints in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and the modifications of these controls during the meiotic cell cycle. We have made comparisons with the controls in fission yeast and other organisms, mainly the distantly related budding yeast. PMID:10861204

  20. Arabidopsis Fused kinase TWO-IN-ONE dominantly inhibits male meiotic cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sung Aeong; Bourdon, Valérie; Dickinson, Hugh G; Twell, David; Park, Soon Ki

    2014-03-01

    Arabidopsis Fused kinase TWO-IN-ONE (TIO) controls phragmoplast expansion through its interaction with the Kinesin-12 subfamily proteins that anchor the plus ends of interdigitating microtubules in the phragmoplast midzone. Previous analyses of loss-of-function mutants and RNA interference lines revealed that TIO positively controls both somatic and gametophytic cell cytokinesis; however, knowledge of the full spectrum of TIO functions during plant development remains incomplete. To characterize TIO functions further, we expressed TIO and a range of TIO variants under control of the TIO promoter in wild-type Arabidopsis plants. We discovered that TIO-overexpressing transgenic lines produce enlarged pollen grains, arising from incomplete cytokinesis during male meiosis, and show sporophytic abnormalities indicative of polyploidy. These phenotypes arose independently in TIO variants in which either gametophytic function or the ability of TIO to interact with Kinesin-12 subfamily proteins was abolished. Interaction assays in yeast showed TIO to bind to the AtNACK2/TETRASPORE, and plants doubly homozygous for kinesin-12a and kinesin-12b knockout mutations to produce enlarged pollen grains. Our results show TIO to dominantly inhibit male meiotic cytokinesis in a dosage-dependent manner that may involve direct binding to a component of the canonical NACK-PQR cytokinesis signaling pathway.

  1. Aberrant meiotic behavior in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul

    PubMed Central

    Ruvalcaba-Ruiz, Domingo; Rodríguez-Garay, Benjamin

    2002-01-01

    Background Agave tequilana Weber var. azul, is the only one variety permitted by federal law in México to be used for tequila production which is the most popular contemporary alcoholic beverage made from agave and recognized worldwide. Despite the economic, genetic, and ornamental value of the plant, it has not been subjected to detailed cytogenetic research, which could lead to a better understanding of its reproduction for future genetic improvement. The objective of this work was to study the meiotic behavior in pollen mother cells and its implications on the pollen viability in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Results The analysis of Pollen Mother Cells in anaphase I (A-I) showed 82.56% of cells with a normal anaphase and, 17.44% with an irregular anaphase. In which 5.28% corresponded to cells with side arm bridges (SAB); 3.68% cells with one bridge and one fragment; 2.58% of irregular anaphase showed cells with one or two lagging chromosomes and 2.95% showed one acentric fragment; cells with two bridges and cells with two bridges and one acentric fragment were observed in frequencies of 1.60% and 1.35% respectively. In anaphase II some cells showed bridges and fragments too. Aberrant A-I cells had many shrunken or empty pollen grains (42.00%) and 58.00 % viable pollen. Conclusion The observed meiotic irregularities suggest that structural chromosome aberrations have occurred, such as heterozygous inversions, sister chromatid exchanges, deletions and duplications which in turn are reflected in a low pollen viability. PMID:12396234

  2. Natriuretic peptides stimulate oocyte meiotic resumption in bovine.

    PubMed

    De Cesaro, Matheus P; Macedo, Mariana P; Santos, Joabel T; Rosa, Paulo R A; Ludke, Charles A; Rissi, Vitor B; Gasperin, Bernardo G; Gonçalves, Paulo B D

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of mRNA encoding natriuretic peptides (NPs) and their receptors in the cumulus-oocyte complex in cattle, a monovular mammalian species, and also to investigate the role of NPs in oocyte meiotic resumption in vitro. mRNA was observed for the NP precursor type-A (NPPA), type-C (NPPC), NP receptor-1 (NPR-1), receptor-2 (NPR-2) and receptor-3 (NPR-3) in bovine cumulus cells, and NPR-2 mRNA was observed in oocytes. These results are different from those obtained in mouse and pig models. The effects of NPPA, NP precursor type-B (NPPB) and NPPC on the resumption of arrested meiosis maintained by forskolin were studied at three different doses (10, 100 and 1000nM) with a 12h culture system. The germinal vesicle breakdown rates were greater (P≤0.05) in oocytes that were cultured in the presence of one or a combination of NPs (from 44% to 73%) than the negative control (from 24% to 27%). Additionally, it was demonstrated that the concentration of cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) is increased by NPPA and NPPC in oocytes and cumulus cells after 3h of in vitro maturation. However, in both groups, the concentration of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) in the oocyte did not increase between 3 and 6h of culture, even when forskolin was used. In summary, we observed the presence of mRNA for NPs and their receptors in the bovine cumulus-oocyte complex and demonstrated that, in vitro, NPPA, NPPB and NPPC stimulate oocyte meiotic resumption in a monovular species.

  3. Mitotic and meiotic chromosome studies in silky anteater Cyclopes didactylus (Myrmecophagidae: Xenarthra).

    PubMed

    Jorge, W

    2000-01-01

    The karyotype of a male pigmy anteater, Cyclopes didactylus, an endangered species from the Amazon region, is described. The size and morphology of the X and Y chromosomes in mitotic and meiotic analyses is recorded and discussed.

  4. The fission yeast MTREC and EJC orthologs ensure the maturation of meiotic transcripts during meiosis.

    PubMed

    Marayati, Bahjat Fadi; Hoskins, Victoria; Boger, Robert W; Tucker, James F; Fishman, Emily S; Bray, Andrew S; Zhang, Ke

    2016-09-01

    Meiosis is a highly regulated process by which genetic information is transmitted through sexual reproduction. It encompasses unique mechanisms that do not occur in vegetative cells, producing a distinct, well-regulated meiotic transcriptome. During vegetative growth, many meiotic genes are constitutively transcribed, but most of the resulting mRNAs are rapidly eliminated by the Mmi1-MTREC (Mtl1-Red1 core) complex. While Mmi1-MTREC targets premature meiotic RNAs for degradation by the nuclear 3'-5' exoribonuclease exosome during mitotic growth, its role in meiotic gene expression during meiosis is not known. Here, we report that Red5, an essential MTREC component, interacts with pFal1, an ortholog of eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4aIII in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe In mammals, together with MAGO (Mnh1), Rnps1, and Y14, elF4AIII (pFal1) forms the core of the exon junction complex (EJC), which is essential for transcriptional surveillance and localization of mature mRNAs. In fission yeast, two EJC orthologs, pFal1 and Mnh1, are functionally connected with MTREC, specifically in the process of meiotic gene expression during meiosis. Although pFal1 interacts with Mnh1, Y14, and Rnps1, its association with Mnh1 is not disrupted upon loss of Y14 or Rnps1. Mutations of Red1, Red5, pFal1, or Mnh1 produce severe meiotic defects; the abundance of meiotic transcripts during meiosis decreases; and mRNA maturation processes such as splicing are impaired. Since studying meiosis in mammalian germline cells is difficult, our findings in fission yeast may help to define the general mechanisms involved in accurate meiotic gene expression in higher eukaryotes.

  5. Multiple modes of chromatin configuration at natural meiotic recombination hot spots in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Kouji; Steiner, Walter W; Shibata, Takehiko; Ohta, Kunihiro

    2007-11-01

    The ade6-M26 meiotic recombination hot spot of fission yeast is defined by a cyclic AMP-responsive element (CRE)-like heptanucleotide sequence, 5'-ATGACGT-3', which acts as a binding site for the Atf1/Pcr1 heterodimeric transcription factor required for hot spot activation. We previously demonstrated that the local chromatin around the M26 sequence motif alters to exhibit higher sensitivity to micrococcal nuclease before the initiation of meiotic recombination. In this study, we have examined whether or not such alterations in chromatin occur at natural meiotic DNA double-strand break (DSB) sites in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. At one of the most prominent DSB sites, mbs1 (meiotic break site 1), the chromatin structure has a constitutively accessible configuration at or near the DSB sites. The establishment of the open chromatin state and DSB formation are independent of the CRE-binding transcription factor, Atf1. Analysis of the chromatin configuration at CRE-dependent DSB sites revealed both differences from and similarities to mbs1. For example, the tdh1+ locus, which harbors a CRE consensus sequence near the DSB site, shows a meiotically induced open chromatin configuration, similar to ade6-M26. In contrast, the cds1+ locus is similar to mbs1 in that it exhibits a constitutive open configuration. Importantly, Atf1 is required for the open chromatin formation in both tdh1+ and cds1+. These results suggest that CRE-dependent meiotic chromatin changes are intrinsic processes related to DSB formation in fission yeast meiosis. In addition, the results suggest that the chromatin configuration in natural meiotic recombination hot spots can be classified into at least three distinct categories: (i) an Atf1-CRE-independent constitutively open chromatin configuration, (ii) an Atf1-CRE-dependent meiotically induced open chromatin configuration, and (iii) an Atf1-CRE-dependent constitutively open chromatin configuration.

  6. The fission yeast MTREC and EJC orthologs ensure the maturation of meiotic transcripts during meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Marayati, Bahjat Fadi; Hoskins, Victoria; Boger, Robert W.; Tucker, James F.; Fishman, Emily S.; Bray, Andrew S.; Zhang, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Meiosis is a highly regulated process by which genetic information is transmitted through sexual reproduction. It encompasses unique mechanisms that do not occur in vegetative cells, producing a distinct, well-regulated meiotic transcriptome. During vegetative growth, many meiotic genes are constitutively transcribed, but most of the resulting mRNAs are rapidly eliminated by the Mmi1-MTREC (Mtl1-Red1 core) complex. While Mmi1-MTREC targets premature meiotic RNAs for degradation by the nuclear 3′–5′ exoribonuclease exosome during mitotic growth, its role in meiotic gene expression during meiosis is not known. Here, we report that Red5, an essential MTREC component, interacts with pFal1, an ortholog of eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4aIII in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In mammals, together with MAGO (Mnh1), Rnps1, and Y14, elF4AIII (pFal1) forms the core of the exon junction complex (EJC), which is essential for transcriptional surveillance and localization of mature mRNAs. In fission yeast, two EJC orthologs, pFal1 and Mnh1, are functionally connected with MTREC, specifically in the process of meiotic gene expression during meiosis. Although pFal1 interacts with Mnh1, Y14, and Rnps1, its association with Mnh1 is not disrupted upon loss of Y14 or Rnps1. Mutations of Red1, Red5, pFal1, or Mnh1 produce severe meiotic defects; the abundance of meiotic transcripts during meiosis decreases; and mRNA maturation processes such as splicing are impaired. Since studying meiosis in mammalian germline cells is difficult, our findings in fission yeast may help to define the general mechanisms involved in accurate meiotic gene expression in higher eukaryotes. PMID:27365210

  7. Aurora B inhibitor barasertib prevents meiotic maturation and subsequent embryo development in pig oocytes.

    PubMed

    Ju, Shiqiang; Peng, Xu; Yang, Xiaoliu; Sozar, Sparksi; Muneri, Caroline W; Xu, Yaping; Chen, Changchao; Cui, Panpan; Xu, Weichao; Rui, Rong

    2016-07-15

    Barasertib, a highly selective Aurora B inhibitor, has been widely used in a variety of cells to investigate the role of Aurora B kinase, which has been implicated in various functions in the mitotic process. However, effects of barasertib on the meiotic maturation process are not fully understood, particularly in porcine oocyte meiotic maturation. In the present study, the effects of barasertib on the meiotic maturation and developmental competence of pig oocytes were investigated, and the possible roles of Aurora B were also evaluated in porcine oocytes undergoing meiosis. Initially, we examined the expression and subcellular localization of Aurora B using Western blot analysis and immunofluorescent staining. Aurora B was found to express and exhibit specific dynamic intracellular localization during porcine oocyte meiotic maturation. Aurora B was observed around the chromosomes after germinal vesicle breakdown. Then it was transferred to the spindle region after metaphase I stage, and was particularly concentrated at the central spindles at telophase I stage. barasertib treatment resulted in the failure of polar body extrusion in pig oocytes, with a larger percentage of barasertib-treated oocytes remaining at the pro-metaphase I stage. Additional results reported that barasertib treatment had no effect on chromosome condensation but resulted in a significantly higher percentage of the treated oocytes with aberrant spindles and misaligned chromosomes during the first meiotic division. In addition, inhibition of Aurora B with lower concentrations of barasertib during pig oocyte meiotic maturation decreased the subsequent embryo developmental competence. Thus, these results illustrate that barasertib has significant effects on porcine oocyte meiotic maturation and subsequent development through Aurora B inhibition, and this regulation is related to its effects on spindle formation and chromosome alignment during the first meiotic division in porcine oocytes.

  8. Hybrid Sterility Locus on Chromosome X Controls Meiotic Recombination Rate in Mouse.

    PubMed

    Balcova, Maria; Faltusova, Barbora; Gergelits, Vaclav; Bhattacharyya, Tanmoy; Mihola, Ondrej; Trachtulec, Zdenek; Knopf, Corinna; Fotopulosova, Vladana; Chvatalova, Irena; Gregorova, Sona; Forejt, Jiri

    2016-04-01

    Meiotic recombination safeguards proper segregation of homologous chromosomes into gametes, affects genetic variation within species, and contributes to meiotic chromosome recognition, pairing and synapsis. The Prdm9 gene has a dual role, it controls meiotic recombination by determining the genomic position of crossover hotspots and, in infertile hybrids of house mouse subspecies Mus m. musculus (Mmm) and Mus m. domesticus (Mmd), it further functions as the major hybrid sterility gene. In the latter role Prdm9 interacts with the hybrid sterility X 2 (Hstx2) genomic locus on Chromosome X (Chr X) by a still unknown mechanism. Here we investigated the meiotic recombination rate at the genome-wide level and its possible relation to hybrid sterility. Using immunofluorescence microscopy we quantified the foci of MLH1 DNA mismatch repair protein, the cytological counterparts of reciprocal crossovers, in a panel of inter-subspecific chromosome substitution strains. Two autosomes, Chr 7 and Chr 11, significantly modified the meiotic recombination rate, yet the strongest modifier, designated meiotic recombination 1, Meir1, emerged in the 4.7 Mb Hstx2 genomic locus on Chr X. The male-limited transgressive effect of Meir1 on recombination rate parallels the male-limited transgressive role of Hstx2 in hybrid male sterility. Thus, both genetic factors, the Prdm9 gene and the Hstx2/Meir1 genomic locus, indicate a link between meiotic recombination and hybrid sterility. A strong female-specific modifier of meiotic recombination rate with the effect opposite to Meir1 was localized on Chr X, distally to Meir1. Mapping Meir1 to a narrow candidate interval on Chr X is an important first step towards positional cloning of the respective gene(s) responsible for variation in the global recombination rate between closely related mouse subspecies.

  9. Hybrid Sterility Locus on Chromosome X Controls Meiotic Recombination Rate in Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Balcova, Maria; Faltusova, Barbora; Gergelits, Vaclav; Bhattacharyya, Tanmoy; Mihola, Ondrej; Trachtulec, Zdenek; Knopf, Corinna; Fotopulosova, Vladana; Chvatalova, Irena; Gregorova, Sona; Forejt, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic recombination safeguards proper segregation of homologous chromosomes into gametes, affects genetic variation within species, and contributes to meiotic chromosome recognition, pairing and synapsis. The Prdm9 gene has a dual role, it controls meiotic recombination by determining the genomic position of crossover hotspots and, in infertile hybrids of house mouse subspecies Mus m. musculus (Mmm) and Mus m. domesticus (Mmd), it further functions as the major hybrid sterility gene. In the latter role Prdm9 interacts with the hybrid sterility X 2 (Hstx2) genomic locus on Chromosome X (Chr X) by a still unknown mechanism. Here we investigated the meiotic recombination rate at the genome-wide level and its possible relation to hybrid sterility. Using immunofluorescence microscopy we quantified the foci of MLH1 DNA mismatch repair protein, the cytological counterparts of reciprocal crossovers, in a panel of inter-subspecific chromosome substitution strains. Two autosomes, Chr 7 and Chr 11, significantly modified the meiotic recombination rate, yet the strongest modifier, designated meiotic recombination 1, Meir1, emerged in the 4.7 Mb Hstx2 genomic locus on Chr X. The male-limited transgressive effect of Meir1 on recombination rate parallels the male-limited transgressive role of Hstx2 in hybrid male sterility. Thus, both genetic factors, the Prdm9 gene and the Hstx2/Meir1 genomic locus, indicate a link between meiotic recombination and hybrid sterility. A strong female-specific modifier of meiotic recombination rate with the effect opposite to Meir1 was localized on Chr X, distally to Meir1. Mapping Meir1 to a narrow candidate interval on Chr X is an important first step towards positional cloning of the respective gene(s) responsible for variation in the global recombination rate between closely related mouse subspecies. PMID:27104744

  10. Impact of histone H4K16 acetylation on the meiotic recombination checkpoint in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Cavero, Santiago; Herruzo, Esther; Ontoso, David; San-Segundo, Pedro A.

    2016-01-01

    In meiotic cells, the pachytene checkpoint or meiotic recombination checkpoint is a surveillance mechanism that monitors critical processes, such as recombination and chromosome synapsis, which are essential for proper distribution of chromosomes to the meiotic progeny. Failures in these processes lead to the formation of aneuploid gametes. Meiotic recombination occurs in the context of chromatin; in fact, the histone methyltransferase Dot1 and the histone deacetylase Sir2 are known regulators of the pachytene checkpoint in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We report here that Sas2-mediated acetylation of histone H4 at lysine 16 (H4K16ac), one of the Sir2 targets, modulates meiotic checkpoint activity in response to synaptonemal complex defects. We show that, like sir2, the H4-K16Q mutation, mimicking constitutive acetylation of H4K16, eliminates the delay in meiotic cell cycle progression imposed by the checkpoint in the synapsis-defective zip1 mutant. We also demonstrate that, like in dot1, zip1-induced phosphorylation of the Hop1 checkpoint adaptor at threonine 318 and the ensuing Mek1 activation are impaired in H4-K16 mutants. However, in contrast to sir2 and dot1, the H4-K16R and H4-K16Q mutations have only a minor effect in checkpoint activation and localization of the nucleolar Pch2 checkpoint factor in ndt80-prophase-arrested cells. We also provide evidence for a cross-talk between Dot1-dependent H3K79 methylation and H4K16ac and show that Sir2 excludes H4K16ac from the rDNA region on meiotic chromosomes. Our results reveal that proper levels of H4K16ac orchestrate this meiotic quality control mechanism and that Sir2 impinges on additional targets to fully activate the checkpoint. PMID:28357333

  11. Sperm ultrastructure and meiotic segregation in an infertile 47, XYY man.

    PubMed

    Moretti, E; Anichini, C; Sartini, B; Collodel, G

    2007-12-01

    The majority of 47, XYY males are fertile and contribute to produce chromosomally normal children. In 47, XYY carriers, most meiotic studies indicated that the extra Y chromosomes were lost in the pre-meiotic stages, but in some cases the presence of one X and the two Y chromosomes has been detected during prophase I as an X univalent plus a YY bivalent. The aim of this study was to describe sperm parameters and meiotic segregation in a case of an infertile man with a 47, XYY karyotype. Sperm morphology was evaluated for the first time by transmission electron microscopy highlighting apoptosis and necrosis as the most frequent pathologies. Meiotic segregation was explored by fluorescence in situ hybridisation technique, which makes us capable of detecting aneuploidies of sex chromosomes. The fact that the frequency of 1818XY diploidy was very high reveals an error occurring during first meiotic division. Polymerase chain reaction analysis did not show any Y microdeletion. The combination of these two techniques led us to clarify the status of the spermatogenic process, showing an altered meiotic segregation concomitant with the presence of sperm apoptosis and necrosis in a patient 47, XYY.

  12. The Mek1 phosphorylation cascade plays a role in meiotic recombination of Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    PubMed Central

    Ohtaka, Ayami; Okuzaki, Daisuke; Saito, Takamune T; Russell, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Mek1 is a Chk2/Rad53/Cds1-related protein kinase that is required for proper meiotic progression of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. However, the molecular mechanisms of Mek1 regulation and Mek1 phosphorylation targets are unclear. Here, we report that Mek1 is phosphorylated at serine-12 (S12), S14 and threonine-15 (T15) by Rad3 (ATR) and/or Tel1 (ATM) kinases that are activated by meiotic programmed double-strand breaks (DSBs). Mutations of these sites by alanine replacement caused abnormal meiotic progression and recombination rates. Phosphorylation of these sites triggers autophosphorylation of Mek1; indeed, alanine replacement mutations of Mek1-T318 and -T322 residues in the activation loop of Mek1 reduced Mek1 kinase activity and meiotic recombination rates. Substrates of Mek1 include Mus81-T275, Rdh54-T6 and Rdh54-T673. Mus81-T275 is known to regulate the Mus81 function in DNA cleavage, whereas Rdh54-T6A/T673A mutant cells showed abnormal meiotic recombination. Taken together, we conclude that the phosphorylation of Mek1 by Rad3 or Tel1, Mek1 autophosphorylation and Mus81 or Rdh54 phosphorylation by Mek1 regulate meiotic progression in S. pombe. PMID:21084840

  13. Meiotic behavior and chromosome number of Urochloa adspersa (Trin.) R. D. Webster from the Brazilian Chaco.

    PubMed

    Felismino, M F; Maior, R L S; Damasceno, G A; Pott, A; Pagliarini, M S

    2015-07-06

    This is the first report of meiotic division in Uro-chloa adspersa (Trin.) collected from the Brazilian Chaco. Meiotic analyses were performed on three specimens of U. adspersa named G10, G15, and G16. Inflorescences were collected and fixed in a mixture of ethanol and acetic acid (3:1, v/v) for 24 h and then stored in 70% alcohol. Diakinesis revealed different chromosome numbers and ploidy levels. All three plants were polyploids: G10 and G15 exhibited 2n = 6x = 54 chromosomes (arranged in 27 bivalents), while G16 exhibited 2n = 4x = 36 chromosomes (18 bivalents). Meiotic behavior was mainly normal in the hexaploid G15 and the tetraploid G16 (5.3 and 6.2% of the cells were abnormal, respective-ly), revealing only a few meiotic abnormalities that are common to polyploids, i.e., those related to irregular chromosome segregation. G10 exhibited other meiotic abnormalities during meiosis II, such as chromosome stickiness, irregular spindle orientation, and irregular cytokinesis, which led to the formation of a few triads, resulting in 16.9% of the cells being abnormal. The origin of these abnormalities is discussed, and we suggest that the genes that control meiotic steps may be present in the Urochloa gene pool.

  14. Nuclear Localization of PRDM9 and Its Role in Meiotic Chromatin Modifications and Homologous Synapsis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Fengyun; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Reinholdt, Laura G.; Hu, Jianjun; Saxl, Ruth L.; Baker, Christopher L.; Petkov, Petko M.; Paigen, Kenneth; Handel, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    Developmental progress of germ cells through meiotic phases is closely tied to ongoing meiotic recombination. In mammals, recombination preferentially occurs in genomic regions known as hotspots; the protein that activates these hotspots is PRDM9, containing a genetically variable zinc-finger domain and a PR-SET domain with histone H3K4 trimethyltransferase activity. PRDM9 is required for fertility in mice, but little is known about its localization and developmental dynamics. Application of spermatogenic stage-specific markers demonstrates that PRDM9 accumulates in male germ-cell nuclei at pre-leptonema to early leptonema, but is no longer detectable in nuclei by late zygonema. By the pachytene stage, PRDM9-dependent histone H3K4 trimethyl marks on hotspots also disappear. PRDM9 localizes to nuclei concurrently with the deposition of meiotic cohesin complexes, but is not required for incorporation of cohesin complex proteins into chromosomal axial elements, or accumulation of normal numbers of RAD51 foci on meiotic chromatin by late zygonema. Germ cells lacking PRDM9 exhibit inefficient homology recognition and synapsis, with aberrant repair of meiotic DNA double-strand breaks and transcriptional abnormalities characteristic of meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin. Together, these results on the developmental time course for nuclear localization of PRDM9 establish its direct window of function, and demonstrate the independence of chromosome axial element formation from the concurrent PRDM9-mediated activation of recombination hotspots. PMID:25894966

  15. Bisphenol A exposure at an environmentally relevant dose induces meiotic abnormalities in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuan; Duan, Weixia; Zhang, Lei; Xu, Shangcheng; Li, Renyan; Chen, Chunhai; He, Mindi; Lu, Yonghui; Wu, Hongjuan; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Whether environmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) may induce reproductive disorders is still controversial but certain studies have reported that BPA may cause meiotic abnormalities in C. elegans and female mice. However, little is known about the effect of BPA on meiosis in adult males. To determine whether BPA exposure at an environmentally relevant dose could induce meiotic abnormalities in adult male rats, we exposed 9-week-old male Wistar rats to BPA by gavage at 20 μg/kg body weight (bw)/day for 60 consecutive days. We found that BPA significantly increased the proportion of stage VII seminiferous epithelium and decreased the proportion of stage VIII. Consequently, spermiation was inhibited and spermatogenesis was disrupted. Further investigation revealed that BPA exposure delayed meiosis initiation in the early meiotic stage and induced the accumulation of chromosomal abnormalities and meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the late meiotic stage. The latter event subsequently activated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related protein kinase (ATM). Our results suggest that long-term exposure to BPA may lead to continuous meiotic abnormalities and ultimately put mammalian reproductive health at risk.

  16. Nuclear localization of PRDM9 and its role in meiotic chromatin modifications and homologous synapsis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fengyun; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Reinholdt, Laura G; Hu, Jianjun; Saxl, Ruth L; Baker, Christopher L; Petkov, Petko M; Paigen, Kenneth; Handel, Mary Ann

    2015-09-01

    Developmental progress of germ cells through meiotic phases is closely tied to ongoing meiotic recombination. In mammals, recombination preferentially occurs in genomic regions known as hotspots; the protein that activates these hotspots is PRDM9, containing a genetically variable zinc finger (ZNF) domain and a PR-SET domain with histone H3K4 trimethyltransferase activity. PRDM9 is required for fertility in mice, but little is known about its localization and developmental dynamics. Application of spermatogenic stage-specific markers demonstrates that PRDM9 accumulates in male germ cell nuclei at pre-leptonema to early leptonema but is no longer detectable in nuclei by late zygonema. By the pachytene stage, PRDM9-dependent histone H3K4 trimethyl marks on hotspots also disappear. PRDM9 localizes to nuclei concurrently with the deposition of meiotic cohesin complexes, but is not required for incorporation of cohesin complex proteins into chromosomal axial elements, or accumulation of normal numbers of RAD51 foci on meiotic chromatin by late zygonema. Germ cells lacking PRDM9 exhibit inefficient homology recognition and synapsis, with aberrant repair of meiotic DNA double-strand breaks and transcriptional abnormalities characteristic of meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin. Together, these results on the developmental time course for nuclear localization of PRDM9 establish its direct window of function and demonstrate the independence of chromosome axial element formation from the concurrent PRDM9-mediated activation of recombination hotspots.

  17. Most meiotic CAG repeat tract-length alterations in yeast are SPO11 dependent.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, C; Nag, Dilip K

    2002-03-01

    The expansion of trinucleotide repeat sequences associated with hereditary neurological diseases is believed from earlier studies to be due to errors in DNA replication. However, more recent studies have indicated that recombination may play a significant role in triplet repeat expansion. CAG repeat tracts have been shown to induce double-strand breaks (DSBs) during meiosis in yeast, and DSB formation is dependent on the meiotic recombination machinery. The rate of meiotic instability is several fold higher than mitotic instability. To determine whether DSB repair is responsible for the high rate of repeat tract-length alterations, the frequencies of meiotic repeat-tract instability were compared in wild-type and spo11 mutant strains. In the spo11 background, the rate of meiotic repeat-tract instability remained at the mitotic level, suggesting that meiotic alterations of CAG repeat tracts in yeast occur by the recombination mechanism. Several of these meiotic tract-length alterations are due to DSB repair involving use of the sister chromatid as a template.

  18. Transcriptional Regulation of the SMK1 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Gene during Meiotic Development in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Michael; Wagner, Marisa; Xie, Jianxin; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Six, John; Vershon, Andrew K.; Winter, Edward

    1998-01-01

    Meiotic development (sporulation) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is characterized by an ordered pattern of gene expression, with sporulation-specific genes classified as early, middle, mid-late, or late depending on when they are expressed. SMK1 encodes a mitogen-activated protein kinase required for spore morphogenesis that is expressed as a middle sporulation-specific gene. Here, we identify the cis-acting DNA elements that regulate SMK1 transcription and characterize the phenotypes of mutants with altered expression patterns. The SMK1 promoter contains an upstream activating sequence (UASS) that specifically interacts with the transcriptional activator Abf1p. The Abf1p-binding sites from the early HOP1 and the middle SMK1 promoters are functionally interchangeable, demonstrating that these elements do not play a direct role in their differential transcriptional timing. Timing of SMK1 expression is determined by another cis-acting DNA sequence termed MSE (for middle sporulation element). The MSE is required not only for activation of SMK1 transcription during middle sporulation but also for its repression during vegetative growth and early meiosis. In addition, the SMK1 MSE can repress vegetative expression in the context of the HOP1 promoter and convert HOP1 from an early to a middle gene. SMK1 function is not contingent on its tight transcriptional regulation as a middle sporulation-specific gene. However, promoter mutants with different quantitative defects in SMK1 transcript levels during middle sporulation show distinct sporulation phenotypes. PMID:9742114

  19. The Meiotic Recombination Checkpoint Suppresses NHK-1 Kinase to Prevent Reorganisation of the Oocyte Nucleus in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Lancaster, Oscar M.; Breuer, Manuel; Cullen, C. Fiona; Ito, Takashi; Ohkura, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    The meiotic recombination checkpoint is a signalling pathway that blocks meiotic progression when the repair of DNA breaks formed during recombination is delayed. In comparison to the signalling pathway itself, however, the molecular targets of the checkpoint that control meiotic progression are not well understood in metazoans. In Drosophila, activation of the meiotic checkpoint is known to prevent formation of the karyosome, a meiosis-specific organisation of chromosomes, but the molecular pathway by which this occurs remains to be identified. Here we show that the conserved kinase NHK-1 (Drosophila Vrk-1) is a crucial meiotic regulator controlled by the meiotic checkpoint. An nhk-1 mutation, whilst resulting in karyosome defects, does so independent of meiotic checkpoint activation. Rather, we find unrepaired DNA breaks formed during recombination suppress NHK-1 activity (inferred from the phosphorylation level of one of its substrates) through the meiotic checkpoint. Additionally DNA breaks induced by X-rays in cultured cells also suppress NHK-1 kinase activity. Unrepaired DNA breaks in oocytes also delay other NHK-1 dependent nuclear events, such as synaptonemal complex disassembly and condensin loading onto chromosomes. Therefore we propose that NHK-1 is a crucial regulator of meiosis and that the meiotic checkpoint suppresses NHK-1 activity to prevent oocyte nuclear reorganisation until DNA breaks are repaired. PMID:21060809

  20. High efficiency of meiotic gynogenesis in sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rinchard, J.; Dabrowski, K.; Garcia-Abiado, M. -A.

    2006-01-01

    Induction of androgenesis and gynogenesis by applying a pressure (PS) or heat shock (HS) to double the haploid chromosomal set results in progenies possessing only chromosomes from a single parent. This has never been accomplished in representatives of Agnatha. The objective of this study was to induce gynogenesis and androgenesis in sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus. For gynogenesis experiments, ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated sperm was used to activate sea lamprey eggs and HS or PS were applied to inhibit the second meiotic division and consequently induce diploidy in the embryos. The UV irradiation of immobilized sperm was performed for 1 min at 1,719 J m-2. HS of 35 ?? 1??C for 2 min and PS of 9,000 psi for 4 min were applied at different times after egg activation (8, 12, 20, and 24 min or 8, 16, and 24 min for HS or PS, respectively). Regardless of the induction time of the HS, survivals at pre-hatching stage were similar. In contrast, PS applied 8 min after activation appears to increase survival rate of pre-hatched embryos in comparison to 16 and 24 min after activation. In control groups, without shock treatment (no diploidization), there were no survivors. All deformed, gynogenetic embryos were confirmed to be haploids and died prior to burying themselves in the sand. We confirmed by flow cytometry that progenies produced using both shock methods surviving to the next stage, burying in the substrate, were diploid gynogenetic. For the androgenesis experiments, UV-irradiated eggs (1,719 J m-2 for 1 min) were fertilized with non-treated sperm and HS was applied to restore diploidy of the eggs. Several attempts have been made to optimize the parameters used. HS of 35 ?? 1??C was applied 110, 140, 170, 200, and 230 min after activation for 2 min. Low yields of androgens were obtained and all animals died within a week after hatching. These techniques will allow to establish meiotic gynogenetic lines of sea lamprey for determining sex differentiation in this species

  1. Post-transcriptional regulation of meiotic genes by a nuclear RNA silencing complex

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Emily D.; Braun, Craig R.; Gygi, Steven P.; Moazed, Danesh

    2014-01-01

    RNA is a central component of gene-silencing pathways that regulate diverse cellular processes. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, an RNA-based mechanism represses meiotic gene expression during vegetative growth. This pathway depends on the zinc finger protein Red1, which is required to degrade meiotic mRNAs as well as to target histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methylation, a repressive chromatin mark, to a subset of meiotic genes. However, the mechanism of Red1 function is unknown. Here we use affinity purification and mass spectrometry to identify a Red1-containing nuclear RNA silencing (NURS) complex. In addition to Red1, this complex includes the Mtl1, Red5, Ars2, Rmn1, and Iss10 proteins and associates with several other complexes that are involved in either signaling or mediating RNA silencing. By analyzing the effects of gene knockouts and inducible knockdown alleles, we show that NURS subunits regulate RNA degradation and H3K9 methylation at meiotic genes. We also identify roles for individual NURS subunits in interactions with Mmi1, an RNA-binding protein that marks meiotic RNAs for destruction, and the nuclear exosome RNA degradation complex. Finally, we show that the levels of H3K9 methylation at meiotic genes are not sufficient to restrict RNA polymerase II access or repress gene expression during vegetative growth. Our results demonstrate that Red1 partners with other proteins to silence meiotic gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Conservation of a NURS-like complex in human cells suggests that this pathway plays an ancient and fundamental role in RNA silencing. PMID:24713849

  2. Peritoneal Fluid From Infertile Women With Minimal/Mild Endometriosis Compromises the Meiotic Spindle of Metaphase II Bovine Oocytes.

    PubMed

    Gazeto Melo Jianini, Bruna Talita; Giorgi, Vanessa Silvestre Innocenti; Da Broi, Michele Gomes; de Paz, Cláudia Cristina Paro; Rosa E Silva, Júlio César; Ferriani, Rui Alberto; Navarro, Paula Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Some studies have demonstrated alterations in the composition of peritoneal fluid (PF) from women with endometriosis. Controversial studies have suggested that impaired oocyte quality may be involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis-related infertility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spindle and chromosome distribution of in vitro-matured oocytes in the presence of 2 concentrations of PF from infertile women with minimal/mild endometriosis (EI/II) compared to fertile controls. We performed an experimental study using a bovine model. Samples of PF were obtained from 12 women who underwent videolaparoscopy-6 infertile women with EI/II and 6 fertile women without endometriosis (control group). Immature bovine oocytes underwent in vitro maturation (IVM) in the absence of PF and in the presence of 2 concentrations (1% and 10%) of PF from fertile women and from infertile women with EI/II. After 22 to 24 hours of IVM, oocytes were fixed for subsequent immunofluorescence staining for the visualization of microtubules and chromosomes by confocal microscopy. The percentage of meiotically normal oocytes was significantly lower for oocytes that underwent IVM in the presence of 1% (62.50%) and 10% (56.25%) of PF from infertile women with EI/II than in the absence of PF (88.46%) and in the presence of 1% (78.57%) and 10% (84.61%) of PF from fertile women ( P < .01). We demonstrated that PF from infertile women with EI/II promotes meiotic abnormalities in in vitro-matured bovine oocytes. Therefore, our results contribute to the understanding of the etiopathogenic mechanisms of infertility related to EI/II.

  3. The evolution of meiotic sex and its alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaghaderi, Ghader

    2016-01-01

    Meiosis is an ancestral, highly conserved process in eukaryotic life cycles, and for all eukaryotes the shared component of sexual reproduction. The benefits and functions of meiosis, however, are still under discussion, especially considering the costs of meiotic sex. To get a novel view on this old problem, we filter out the most conserved elements of meiosis itself by reviewing the various modifications and alterations of modes of reproduction. Our rationale is that the indispensable steps of meiosis for viability of offspring would be maintained by strong selection, while dispensable steps would be variable. We review evolutionary origin and processes in normal meiosis, restitutional meiosis, polyploidization and the alterations of meiosis in forms of uniparental reproduction (apomixis, apomictic parthenogenesis, automixis, selfing) with a focus on plants and animals. This overview suggests that homologue pairing, double-strand break formation and homologous recombinational repair at prophase I are the least dispensable elements, and they are more likely optimized for repair of oxidative DNA damage rather than for recombination. Segregation, ploidy reduction and also a biparental genome contribution can be skipped for many generations. The evidence supports the theory that the primary function of meiosis is DNA restoration rather than recombination. PMID:27605505

  4. Meiotic Chromosome Analysis of the Giant Water Bug, Lethocerus indicus

    PubMed Central

    Wisoram, Wijit; Saengthong, Pradit; Ngernsiri, Lertluk

    2013-01-01

    The giant water bug, Lethocerus indicus (Lepeletier and Serville) (Heteroptera: Belostomatidae), a native species of Southeast Asia, is one of the largest insects belonging to suborder Heteroptera. In this study, the meiotic chromosome of L. indicus was studied in insect samples collected from Thailand, Myanmar, Loas, and Cambodia. Testicular cells stained with lacto-acetic orcein, Giemsa, DAPI, and silver nitrate were analyzed. The results revealed that the chromosome complement of L. indicus was 2n = 22A + neo-XY + 2m, which differed from that of previous reports. Each individual male contained testicular cells with three univalent patterns. The frequency of cells containing neo-XY chromosome univalent (∼5%) was a bit higher than that of cells with autosomal univalents (∼3%). Some cells (∼0.5%) had both sex chromosome univalents and a pair of autosomal univalents. None of the m-chromosome univalents were observed during prophase I. In addition, this report presents clear evidence about the existence of m-chromosomes in Belostomatidae. PMID:23895100

  5. Meiotic behaviour of individual chromosomes in allotriploid Alstroemeria hybrids.

    PubMed

    Kamstra, S A; de Jong, J H; Jacobsen, E; Ramanna, M S; Kuipers, A G J

    2004-07-01

    Chromosome association and chiasma formation were studied in pollen mother cells at metaphase I of four allotriplod BC1 plants (2n=3x=24) obtained from the backcross of the hybrid Alstroemeria aurea x A. inodora with its parent A. inodora. We distinguished the chromosomes of both parental species by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), whereas the individual chromosomes were identified on the basis of their multicolour FISH banding patterns obtained after a second hybridization with two species-specific satellite repeats as probes. All the four BC1 plants possessed two genomes of A. inodora and one of A. aurea. Variable numbers of recombinant chromosomes, resulting from meiotic recombination in the interspecific hybrid, were present in these plants. The homologous A. inodora chromosomes generally formed bivalents, leaving the homoeologous A. aurea chromosomes unassociated. High frequencies of trivalents were observed for the chromosome sets that contained recombinant chromosomes, even when the recombinant segments were small. Chromosome associations in the trivalents were restricted to homologous segments. The implications of the absence of homoeologous chromosome pairing on gamete constitution and prospects for introgression in Alstroemeria are discussed.

  6. Analysis of chromatin structure at meiotic DSB sites in yeasts.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Kouji; Fukuda, Tomoyuki; Yamada, Takatomi; Ohta, Kunihiro

    2009-01-01

    One of the major features of meiosis is a high frequency of homologous recombination that not only confers genetic diversity to a successive generation but also ensures proper segregation of chromosomes. Meiotic recombination is initiated by DNA double-strand breaks that require many proteins including the catalytic core, Spo11. In this regard, like transcription and repair, etc., recombination is hindered by a compacted chromatin structure because trans-acting factors cannot easily access the DNA. Such inhibitory effects must be alleviated prior to recombination initiation. Indeed, a number of groups showed that chromatin around recombination hotspots is less condensed, by using nucleases as a probe to assess local DNA accessibility. Here we describe a method to analyze chromatin structure of a recombination hotspot in the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. This method, combining micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digestion ofchromatin DNA and subsequent Southern blotting, is expected to provide information as to chromatin context around a hotspot. Moreover, by virtue of MNase preferentially targeting linker DNA, positions of several nucleosomes surrounding a hotspot can also be determined. Our protocol is a very powerful way to analyze several-kb regions of interest and can be applied to other purposes.

  7. Non-meiotic chromosome instability in human immature oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Daina, Gemma; Ramos, Laia; Rius, Mariona; Obradors, Albert; del Rey, Javier; Giralt, Magda; Campillo, Mercedes; Velilla, Esther; Pujol, Aïda; Martinez-Pasarell, Olga; Benet, Jordi; Navarro, Joaquima

    2014-01-01

    Aneuploidy has been a major issue in human gametes and is closely related to fertility problems, as it is known to be present in cleavage stage embryos and gestational losses. Pre-meiotic chromosome abnormalities in women have been previously described. The aim of this study is to assess the whole-chromosome complement in immature oocytes to find those abnormalities caused by mitotic instability. For this purpose, a total of 157 oocytes at the germinal vesicle or metaphase I stage, and discarded from IVF cycles, were analysed by CGH. Fifty-six women, between 18 and 45 years old (mean 32.5 years), including 32 IVF patients (25–45 years of age) and 24 IVF oocyte donors (18–33 years of age), were included in the study. A total of 25/157 (15.9%) of the oocytes analysed, obtained from three IVF clinics, contained chromosome abnormalities, including both aneuploidy (24/157) and structural aberrations (9/157). Independently of the maternal age, the incidence of abnormal oocytes which originated before meiosis is 15.9%, and these imbalances were found in 33.9% of the females studied. This work sheds light on the relevance of mitotic instability responsible for the generation of the abnormalities present in human oocytes. PMID:23695274

  8. On the origin of sex chromosomes from meiotic drive.

    PubMed

    Úbeda, Francisco; Patten, Manus M; Wild, Geoff

    2015-01-07

    Most animals and many plants make use of specialized chromosomes (sex chromosomes) to determine an individual's sex. Best known are the XY and ZW sex-determination systems. Despite having evolved numerous times, sex chromosomes present something of an evolutionary puzzle. At their origin, alleles that dictate development as one sex or the other (primitive sex chromosomes) face a selective penalty, as they will be found more often in the more abundant sex. How is it possible that primitive sex chromosomes overcome this disadvantage? Any theory for the origin of sex chromosomes must identify the benefit that outweighs this cost and enables a sex-determining mutation to establish in the population. Here we show that a new sex-determining allele succeeds when linked to a sex-specific meiotic driver. The new sex-determining allele benefits from confining the driving allele to the sex in which it gains the benefit of drive. Our model requires few special assumptions and is sufficiently general to apply to the evolution of sex chromosomes in outbreeding cosexual or dioecious species. We highlight predictions of the model that can discriminate between this and previous theories of sex-chromosome origins.

  9. Non-meiotic chromosome instability in human immature oocytes.

    PubMed

    Daina, Gemma; Ramos, Laia; Rius, Mariona; Obradors, Albert; Del Rey, Javier; Giralt, Magda; Campillo, Mercedes; Velilla, Esther; Pujol, Aïda; Martinez-Pasarell, Olga; Benet, Jordi; Navarro, Joaquima

    2014-02-01

    Aneuploidy has been a major issue in human gametes and is closely related to fertility problems, as it is known to be present in cleavage stage embryos and gestational losses. Pre-meiotic chromosome abnormalities in women have been previously described. The aim of this study is to assess the whole-chromosome complement in immature oocytes to find those abnormalities caused by mitotic instability. For this purpose, a total of 157 oocytes at the germinal vesicle or metaphase I stage, and discarded from IVF cycles, were analysed by CGH. Fifty-six women, between 18 and 45 years old (mean 32.5 years), including 32 IVF patients (25-45 years of age) and 24 IVF oocyte donors (18-33 years of age), were included in the study. A total of 25/157 (15.9%) of the oocytes analysed, obtained from three IVF clinics, contained chromosome abnormalities, including both aneuploidy (24/157) and structural aberrations (9/157). Independently of the maternal age, the incidence of abnormal oocytes which originated before meiosis is 15.9%, and these imbalances were found in 33.9% of the females studied. This work sheds light on the relevance of mitotic instability responsible for the generation of the abnormalities present in human oocytes.

  10. Holocentric chromosomes: convergent evolution, meiotic adaptations, and genomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Melters, Daniël P; Paliulis, Leocadia V; Korf, Ian F; Chan, Simon W L

    2012-07-01

    In most eukaryotes, the kinetochore protein complex assembles at a single locus termed the centromere to attach chromosomes to spindle microtubules. Holocentric chromosomes have the unusual property of attaching to spindle microtubules along their entire length. Our mechanistic understanding of holocentric chromosome function is derived largely from studies in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, but holocentric chromosomes are found over a broad range of animal and plant species. In this review, we describe how holocentricity may be identified through cytological and molecular methods. By surveying the diversity of organisms with holocentric chromosomes, we estimate that the trait has arisen at least 13 independent times (four times in plants and at least nine times in animals). Holocentric chromosomes have inherent problems in meiosis because bivalents can attach to spindles in a random fashion. Interestingly, there are several solutions that have evolved to allow accurate meiotic segregation of holocentric chromosomes. Lastly, we describe how extensive genome sequencing and experiments in nonmodel organisms may allow holocentric chromosomes to shed light on general principles of chromosome segregation.

  11. Direct visualization reveals kinetics of meiotic chromosome synapsis

    DOE PAGES

    Rog, Ofer; Dernburg, Abby  F.

    2015-03-17

    The synaptonemal complex (SC) is a conserved protein complex that stabilizes interactions along homologous chromosomes (homologs) during meiosis. The SC regulates genetic exchanges between homologs, thereby enabling reductional division and the production of haploid gametes. Here, we directly observe SC assembly (synapsis) by optimizing methods for long-term fluorescence recording in C. elegans. We report that synapsis initiates independently on each chromosome pair at or near pairing centers—specialized regions required for homolog associations. Once initiated, the SC extends rapidly and mostly irreversibly to chromosome ends. Quantitation of SC initiation frequencies and extension rates reveals that initiation is a rate-limiting step inmore » homolog interactions. Eliminating the dynein-driven chromosome movements that accompany synapsis severely retards SC extension, revealing a new role for these conserved motions. This work provides the first opportunity to directly observe and quantify key aspects of meiotic chromosome interactions and will enable future in vivo analysis of germline processes.« less

  12. Rad3-Cds1 mediates coupling of initiation of meiotic recombination with DNA replication. Mei4-dependent transcription as a potential target of meiotic checkpoint.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Keiko; Masai, Hisao

    2006-01-20

    Premeiotic S-phase and meiotic recombination are known to be strictly coupled in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the checkpoint pathway regulating this coupling has been largely unknown. In fission yeast, Rad3 is known to play an essential role in coordination of DNA replication and cell division during both mitotic growth and meiosis. Here we have examined whether the Rad3 pathway also regulates the coupling of DNA synthesis and recombination. Inhibition of premeiotic S-phase with hydroxyurea completely abrogates the progression of meiosis, including the formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). DSB formation is restored in rad3 mutant even in the presence of hydroxyurea, although repair of DSBs does not take place or is significantly delayed, indicating that the subsequent recombination steps may be still inhibited. Examination of the roles of downstream checkpoint kinases reveals that Cds1, but not Chk1 or Mek1, is required for suppression of DSB in the presence of hydroxyurea. Transcriptional induction of some rec+ genes essential for DSB occurs at a normal timing and to a normal level in the absence of DNA synthesis in both the wild-type and cds1delta cells. On the other hand, the transcriptional induction of the mei4+ transcription factor and cdc25+ phosphatase, which is significantly suppressed by hydroxyurea in the wild-type cells, occurs almost to a normal level in cds1delta cells even in the presence of hydroxyurea. These results show that the Rad3-Cds1 checkpoint pathway coordinates initiation of meiotic recombination and meiotic cell divisions with premeiotic DNA synthesis. Because mei4+ is known to be required for DSB formation and cdc25+ is required for activation of meiotic cell divisions, we propose an intriguing possibility that the Rad3-Cds1 meiotic checkpoint pathway may target transcription of these factors.

  13. Meiotic recombination in Arabidopsis is catalysed by DMC1, with RAD51 playing a supporting role.

    PubMed

    Da Ines, Olivier; Degroote, Fabienne; Goubely, Chantal; Amiard, Simon; Gallego, Maria E; White, Charles I

    2013-01-01

    Recombination establishes the chiasmata that physically link pairs of homologous chromosomes in meiosis, ensuring their balanced segregation at the first meiotic division and generating genetic variation. The visible manifestation of genetic crossing-overs, chiasmata are the result of an intricate and tightly regulated process involving induction of DNA double-strand breaks and their repair through invasion of a homologous template DNA duplex, catalysed by RAD51 and DMC1 in most eukaryotes. We describe here a RAD51-GFP fusion protein that retains the ability to assemble at DNA breaks but has lost its DNA break repair capacity. This protein fully complements the meiotic chromosomal fragmentation and sterility of Arabidopsis rad51, but not rad51 dmc1 mutants. Even though DMC1 is the only active meiotic strand transfer protein in the absence of RAD51 catalytic activity, no effect on genetic map distance was observed in complemented rad51 plants. The presence of inactive RAD51 nucleofilaments is thus able to fully support meiotic DSB repair and normal levels of crossing-over by DMC1. Our data demonstrate that RAD51 plays a supporting role for DMC1 in meiotic recombination in the flowering plant, Arabidopsis.

  14. Dynamics of male meiotic recombination frequency during plant development using Fluorescent Tagged Lines in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Li, Fan; De Storme, Nico; Geelen, Danny

    2017-02-13

    Meiotic homologous recombination plays a central role in creating genetic variability, making it an essential biological process relevant to evolution and crop breeding. In this study, we used pollen-specific fluorescent tagged lines (FTLs) to measure male meiotic recombination frequency during the development of Arabidopsis thaliana. Interestingly, a subset of pollen grains consistently shows loss of fluorescence expression in tested lines. Using nine independent FTL intervals, the spatio-temporal dynamics of male recombination frequency was assessed during plant development, considering both shoot type and plant age as independent parameters. In most genomic intervals assayed, male meiotic recombination frequency is highly consistent during plant development, showing no significant change between different shoot types and during plant aging. However, in some genomic regions, such as I1a and I5a, a small but significant effect of either developmental position or plant age were observed, indicating that the meiotic CO frequency in those intervals varies during plant development. Furthermore, from an overall view of all nine genomic intervals assayed, both primary and tertiary shoots show a similar dynamics of increasing recombination frequency during development, while secondary and lateral shoots remain highly stable. Our results provide new insights in the dynamics of male meiotic recombination frequency during plant development.

  15. Energy Status Characteristics of Porcine Oocytes During In Vitro Maturation is Influenced by Their Meiotic Competence.

    PubMed

    Milakovic, I; Jeseta, M; Hanulakova, S; Knitlova, D; Hanzalova, K; Hulinska, P; Machal, L; Kempisty, B; Antosik, P; Machatkova, M

    2015-10-01

    The characteristics of energy status in porcine oocytes as related to their meiotic competence and in vitro maturation were studied. Cycling pubertal gilts in the early luteal to early follicular phases of the ovarian cycle were used as oocyte donors. The oocytes recovered from medium (MF) or small follicles (SF) were considered meiotically more or less competent, respectively. A half of oocytes from each category was matured by the standard protocol. The oocytes were examined before or after maturation by confocal microscopy, a bioluminescent cell assay and Western blotting. Four experiments, each in triplicate, were performed to assess both SF and MF oocytes in terms of metabolic units formed by mitochondria and lipids, ATP and lipid consumption and lipid droplets with adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP) expression. The proportion of oocytes with metabolic units, the mean ATP content and the number of lipid droplets per oocyte, and the relative number of lipid droplets with ADRP expression were significantly higher in the MF compared to SF oocytes before maturation. On the other hand, after maturation, there was an increase in the proportion of oocytes with metabolic units and the relative number of lipid droplets with ADRP expression in the SF compared to MF oocytes. In conclusion, specific differences in energy characteristics between porcine oocytes with different meiotic competence were found. Meiotically more competent oocytes are more advanced in terms of energy reserves before maturation, while meiotically less competent oocytes are more active in replenishing energy stores during maturation.

  16. DNA methylation restrains transposons from adopting a chromatin signature permissive for meiotic recombination

    PubMed Central

    Zamudio, Natasha; Barau, Joan; Teissandier, Aurélie; Walter, Marius; Borsos, Maté; Servant, Nicolas; Bourc'his, Déborah

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is essential for protecting the mammalian germline against transposons. When DNA methylation-based transposon control is defective, meiotic chromosome pairing is consistently impaired during spermatogenesis: How and why meiosis is vulnerable to transposon activity is unknown. Using two DNA methylation-deficient backgrounds, the Dnmt3L and Miwi2 mutant mice, we reveal that DNA methylation is largely dispensable for silencing transposons before meiosis onset. After this, it becomes crucial to back up to a developmentally programmed H3K9me2 loss. Massive retrotransposition does not occur following transposon derepression, but the meiotic chromatin landscape is profoundly affected. Indeed, H3K4me3 marks gained over transcriptionally active transposons correlate with formation of SPO11-dependent double-strand breaks and recruitment of the DMC1 repair enzyme in Dnmt3L−/− meiotic cells, whereas these features are normally exclusive to meiotic recombination hot spots. Here, we demonstrate that DNA methylation restrains transposons from adopting chromatin characteristics amenable to meiotic recombination, which we propose prevents the occurrence of erratic chromosomal events. PMID:26109049

  17. Four-dimensional visualization and quantitative analysis of meiotic spindle movements in live mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Tian, N; Zhang, L; Liu, B; Wang, P; Li, Y; Ma, W

    2012-09-01

    This paper made a different attempt of real-time observation of the meiotic spindle movements in living mouse oocyte using a convenient method. This method was based on an experimental phenomenon discovered in our work. In living mouse oocytes, a high concentration of calcium ions (Ca(2+)) was observed throughout the region occupied by the initial meiotic spindle. After Ca(2+) labelling with Fura-2, a weakly fluorescent area (WFA) appeared on each side of the chromosomes. The activities of the WFAs changed during spindle development. By real-time tracking of WFAs, we were able to indirectly observe the meiotic spindle movements. Occasionally, it was observed that the first meiotic spindle rotated from an orientation parallel to the cortex to become perpendicular, instead of migrating from the oocyte centre to the cortex along its axis. Moreover, we analysed this uncommon rotation of the first meiotic spindle and found that the whole rotation process can be divided into two phases: the early slow-speed rotation and the subsequent rapid-speed rotation. We further characterized this rotation with respect to rotational speed and acceleration at all the stages of development. By using a two-photon laser-scanning microscope in combination with Fura-2 dye that is nondamaging to oocytes, we provide a convenient method for indirect visualization and quantitative analysis of spindle movements by real-time tracking of WFAs. This method is easy to operate and master, and economical with time and effort.

  18. DNA methylation restrains transposons from adopting a chromatin signature permissive for meiotic recombination.

    PubMed

    Zamudio, Natasha; Barau, Joan; Teissandier, Aurélie; Walter, Marius; Borsos, Maté; Servant, Nicolas; Bourc'his, Déborah

    2015-06-15

    DNA methylation is essential for protecting the mammalian germline against transposons. When DNA methylation-based transposon control is defective, meiotic chromosome pairing is consistently impaired during spermatogenesis: How and why meiosis is vulnerable to transposon activity is unknown. Using two DNA methylation-deficient backgrounds, the Dnmt3L and Miwi2 mutant mice, we reveal that DNA methylation is largely dispensable for silencing transposons before meiosis onset. After this, it becomes crucial to back up to a developmentally programmed H3K9me2 loss. Massive retrotransposition does not occur following transposon derepression, but the meiotic chromatin landscape is profoundly affected. Indeed, H3K4me3 marks gained over transcriptionally active transposons correlate with formation of SPO11-dependent double-strand breaks and recruitment of the DMC1 repair enzyme in Dnmt3L(-/-) meiotic cells, whereas these features are normally exclusive to meiotic recombination hot spots. Here, we demonstrate that DNA methylation restrains transposons from adopting chromatin characteristics amenable to meiotic recombination, which we propose prevents the occurrence of erratic chromosomal events.

  19. Dynamics of male meiotic recombination frequency during plant development using Fluorescent Tagged Lines in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fan; De Storme, Nico; Geelen, Danny

    2017-01-01

    Meiotic homologous recombination plays a central role in creating genetic variability, making it an essential biological process relevant to evolution and crop breeding. In this study, we used pollen-specific fluorescent tagged lines (FTLs) to measure male meiotic recombination frequency during the development of Arabidopsis thaliana. Interestingly, a subset of pollen grains consistently shows loss of fluorescence expression in tested lines. Using nine independent FTL intervals, the spatio-temporal dynamics of male recombination frequency was assessed during plant development, considering both shoot type and plant age as independent parameters. In most genomic intervals assayed, male meiotic recombination frequency is highly consistent during plant development, showing no significant change between different shoot types and during plant aging. However, in some genomic regions, such as I1a and I5a, a small but significant effect of either developmental position or plant age were observed, indicating that the meiotic CO frequency in those intervals varies during plant development. Furthermore, from an overall view of all nine genomic intervals assayed, both primary and tertiary shoots show a similar dynamics of increasing recombination frequency during development, while secondary and lateral shoots remain highly stable. Our results provide new insights in the dynamics of male meiotic recombination frequency during plant development. PMID:28211906

  20. Cdc7-dependent phosphorylation of Mer2 facilitates initiation of yeast meiotic recombination.

    PubMed

    Sasanuma, Hiroyuki; Hirota, Kouji; Fukuda, Tomoyuki; Kakusho, Naoko; Kugou, Kazuto; Kawasaki, Yasuo; Shibata, Takehiko; Masai, Hisao; Ohta, Kunihiro

    2008-02-01

    Meiosis ensures genetic diversification of gametes and sexual reproduction. For successful meiosis, multiple events such as DNA replication, recombination, and chromosome segregation must occur coordinately in a strict regulated order. We investigated the meiotic roles of Cdc7 kinase in the initiation of meiotic recombination, namely, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) mediated by Spo11 and other coactivating proteins. Genetic analysis using bob1-1 cdc7Delta reveals that Cdc7 is essential for meiotic DSBs and meiosis I progression. We also demonstrate that the N-terminal region of Mer2, a Spo11 ancillary protein required for DSB formation and phosphorylated by cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK), contains two types of Cdc7-dependent phosphorylation sites near the CDK site (Ser30): One (Ser29) is essential for meiotic DSB formation, and the others exhibit a cumulative effect to facilitate DSB formation. Importantly, mutations on these sites confer severe defects in DSB formation even when the CDK phosphorylation is present at Ser30. Diploids of cdc7Delta display defects in the chromatin binding of not only Spo11 but also Rec114 and Mei4, other meiotic coactivators that may assist Spo11 binding to DSB hot spots. We thus propose that Cdc7, in concert with CDK, regulates Spo11 loading to DSB sites via Mer2 phosphorylation.

  1. Purification, folding, and characterization of Rec12 (Spo11) meiotic recombinase of fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Wu, Heng; Gao, Jun; Sharif, Wallace D; Davidson, Mari K; Wahls, Wayne P

    2004-11-01

    Meiotic recombination is initiated by controlled dsDNA breaks (DSBs). Rec12 (Spo11) protein of fission yeast is essential for the formation of meiotic DSBs in vivo, for meiotic recombination, and for segregation of chromosomes during meiosis I. Rec12 is orthologous to Top6A topoisomerase of Archaea and is likely the catalytic subunit of a meiotic recombinase that introduces recombinogenic DSBs. However, despite intensive effort, it has not been possible to produce Rec12 protein in a soluble form required to permit biochemical analyses of function. To obtain purified Rec12 protein for in vitro studies, a rec12(+) cDNA was generated, cloned into vector pET15b(+), and expressed in Escherichia coli. Rec12 protein was produced at moderate levels and it partitioned into insoluble fractions of whole-cell extracts. The protein was enriched based upon its differential solubility in two different denaturants and was further purified by column chromatography. A combinatorial, fractional, factorial approach was used to identify conditions under which Rec12 protein could be refolded. Four parameters were most important and, following optimization, soluble Rec12 protein was obtained. Gel filtration demonstrated that refolded Rec12 protein exists as a monomer in solution, suggesting that additional proteins may be required to assemble biologically-active Rec12 dimers, as inferred previously from genetic data [Cell Chromosome 1 (2002) 1]. The production of refolded Rec12 in a soluble form will allow for characterization in vitro of this key meiotic recombination enzyme.

  2. Interpopulation hybridization generates meiotically stable rDNA epigenetic variants in allotetraploid Tragopogon mirus.

    PubMed

    Matyášek, Roman; Dobešová, Eva; Húska, Dalibor; Ježková, Ivana; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E; Kovařík, Aleš

    2016-02-01

    Uniparental silencing of 35S rRNA genes (rDNA), known as nucleolar dominance (ND), is common in interspecific hybrids. Allotetraploid Tragopogon mirus composed of Tragopogon dubius (d) and Tragopogon porrifolius (p) genomes shows highly variable ND. To examine the molecular basis of such variation, we studied the genetic and epigenetic features of rDNA homeologs in several lines derived from recently and independently formed natural populations. Inbred lines derived from T. mirus with a dominant d-rDNA homeolog transmitted this expression pattern over generations, which may explain why it is prevalent among natural populations. In contrast, lines derived from the p-rDNA dominant progenitor were meiotically unstable, frequently switching to co-dominance. Interpopulation crosses between progenitors displaying reciprocal ND resulted in d-rDNA dominance, indicating immediate suppression of p-homeologs in F1 hybrids. Original p-rDNA dominance was not restored in later generations, even in those segregants that inherited the corresponding parental rDNA genotype, thus indicating the generation of additional p-rDNA and d-rDNA epigenetic variants. Despite preserved intergenic spacer (IGS) structure, they showed altered cytosine methylation and chromatin condensation patterns, and a correlation between expression, hypomethylation of RNA Pol I promoters and chromatin decondensation was apparent. Reversion of such epigenetic variants occurred rarely, resulting in co-dominance maintained in individuals with distinct genotypes. Generally, interpopulation crosses may generate epialleles that are not present in natural populations, underlying epigenetic dynamics in young allopolyploids. We hypothesize that highly expressed variants with distinct IGS features may induce heritable epigenetic reprogramming of the partner rDNA arrays, harmonizing the expression of thousands of genes in allopolyploids.

  3. Dynamic secretion during meiotic reentry integrates the function of the oocyte and cumulus cells

    PubMed Central

    Cakmak, Hakan; Franciosi, Federica; Zamah, A. Musa; Cedars, Marcelle I.; Conti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The differentiation of the female gamete into a developmentally competent oocyte relies on the protected environment of the ovarian follicle. The oocyte plays a key role in establishing this microenvironment by releasing paracrine factors that control the functions of surrounding somatic cells. Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) are secreted during follicle growth and play pivotal roles in this local regulation. The current view is that the function of these secreted factors declines in the periovulatory period when the oocyte reenters the meiotic cell cycle. Here, we provide evidence that oocyte reentry into meiosis is instead associated with a shift in the pattern of secretion with a new set of bioactive molecules synthesized before ovulation. Using interleukin 7 (IL7) as a prototypic secreted factor, we show that its secretion is dependent on activation of mRNA translation in synchrony with the cell cycle and that its translation is under the control of somatic cells. IL7 is part of a local feedback loop with the soma because it regulates cumulus cell replication. Similar conclusions are reached when IL7 secretion is measured in human follicular fluid during in vitro fertilization cycles. IL7 concentration in the follicular fluid correlates with the oocyte ability to reach the MII stage of maturation. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that a new set of local factors is secreted by the oocyte during ovulation. These dynamic secretions are likely critical for promoting the final stages of maturation and oocyte developmental competence. PMID:26864200

  4. MEI4 – a central player in the regulation of meiotic DNA double-strand break formation in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajeev; Ghyselinck, Norbert; Ishiguro, Kei-ichiro; Watanabe, Yoshinori; Kouznetsova, Anna; Höög, Christer; Strong, Edward; Schimenti, John; Daniel, Katrin; Toth, Attila; de Massy, Bernard

    2015-05-01

    The formation of programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) at the beginning of meiotic prophase marks the initiation of meiotic recombination. Meiotic DSB formation is catalyzed by SPO11 and their repair takes place on meiotic chromosome axes. The evolutionarily conserved MEI4 protein is required for meiotic DSB formation and is localized on chromosome axes. Here, we show that HORMAD1, one of the meiotic chromosome axis components, is required for MEI4 localization. Importantly, the quantitative correlation between the level of axis-associated MEI4 and DSB formation suggests that axis-associated MEI4 could be a limiting factor for DSB formation. We also show that MEI1, REC8 and RAD21L are important for proper MEI4 localization. These findings on MEI4 dynamics during meiotic prophase suggest that the association of MEI4 to chromosome axes is required for DSB formation, and that the loss of this association upon DSB repair could contribute to turning off meiotic DSB formation.

  5. A meiotic drive element in the maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides is located within a 102-kb region of chromosome V

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides is an agriculturally important fungus because of its association with maize and its propensity to contaminate grain with toxic compounds. Some isolates of the fungus harbor a meiotic drive element known as Spore killer (SkK) that causes nearly all surviving meiotic progeny f...

  6. Double-strand break repair on sex chromosomes: challenges during male meiotic prophase

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lin-Yu; Yu, Xiaochun

    2015-01-01

    During meiotic prophase, DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair-mediated homologous recombination (HR) occurs for exchange of genetic information between homologous chromosomes. Unlike autosomes or female sex chromosomes, human male sex chromosomes X and Y share little homology. Although DSBs are generated throughout male sex chromosomes, homologous recombination does not occur for most regions and DSB repair process is significantly prolonged. As a result, male sex chromosomes are coated with many DNA damage response proteins and form a unique chromatin structure known as the XY body. Interestingly, associated with the prolonged DSB repair, transcription is repressed in the XY body but not in autosomes, a phenomenon known as meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI), which is critical for male meiosis. Here using mice as model organisms, we briefly summarize recent progress on DSB repair in meiotic prophase and focus on the mechanism and function of DNA damage response in the XY body. PMID:25565522

  7. The Rec102 Mutant of Yeast Is Defective in Meiotic Recombination and Chromosome Synapsis

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, J.; Engebrecht, J. A.; Roeder, G. S.

    1992-01-01

    A mutation at the REC102 locus was identified in a screen for yeast mutants that produce inviable spores. rec102 spore lethality is rescued by a spo13 mutation, which causes cells to bypass the meiosis I division. The rec102 mutation completely eliminates meiotically induced gene conversion and crossing over but has no effect on mitotic recombination frequencies. Cytological studies indicate that the rec102 mutant makes axial elements (precursors to the synaptonemal complex), but homologous chromosomes fail to synapse. In addition, meiotic chromosome segregation is significantly delayed in rec102 strains. Studies of double and triple mutants indicate that the REC102 protein acts before the RAD52 gene product in the meiotic recombination pathway. The REC102 gene was cloned based on complementation of the mutant defect and the gene was mapped to chromosome XII between CDC25 and STE11. PMID:1732169

  8. Connecting by breaking and repairing: mechanisms of DNA strand exchange in meiotic recombination.

    PubMed

    Sansam, Christopher L; Pezza, Roberto J

    2015-07-01

    During prophase of meiosis I, homologous chromosomes interact and undergo recombination. Successful completion of these processes is required in order for the homologous chromosomes to mount the meiotic spindle as a pair. The organization of the chromosomes into pairs ensures orderly segregation to opposite poles of the dividing cell, such that each gamete receives one copy of each chromosome. Chiasmata, the cytological manifestation of crossover products of recombination, physically connect the homologs in pairs, providing a linkage that facilitates their segregation. Consequently, mutations that reduce the level of recombination are invariably associated with increased errors in meiotic chromosome segregation. In this review, we focus on recent biochemical and genetic advances in elucidating the mechanisms of meiotic DNA strand exchange catalyzed by the Dmc1 protein. We also discuss the mode by which two recombination mediators, Hop2 and Mnd1, facilitate rate-limiting steps of DNA strand exchange catalyzed by Dmc1.

  9. Have a break: determinants of meiotic DNA double strand break (DSB) formation and processing in plants.

    PubMed

    Edlinger, Bernd; Schlögelhofer, Peter

    2011-03-01

    Meiosis is an essential process for sexually reproducing organisms, leading to the formation of specialized generative cells. This review intends to highlight current knowledge of early events during meiosis derived from various model organisms, including plants. It will particularly focus on cis- and trans-requirements of meiotic DNA double strand break (DSB) formation, a hallmark event during meiosis and a prerequisite for recombination of genetic traits. Proteins involved in DSB formation in different organisms, emphasizing the known factors from plants, will be introduced and their functions outlined. Recent technical advances in DSB detection and meiotic recombination analysis will be reviewed, as these new tools now allow analysis of early meiotic recombination in plants with incredible accuracy. To anticipate future directions in plant meiosis research, unpublished results will be included wherever possible.

  10. Double-strand break repair on sex chromosomes: challenges during male meiotic prophase.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lin-Yu; Yu, Xiaochun

    2015-01-01

    During meiotic prophase, DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair-mediated homologous recombination (HR) occurs for exchange of genetic information between homologous chromosomes. Unlike autosomes or female sex chromosomes, human male sex chromosomes X and Y share little homology. Although DSBs are generated throughout male sex chromosomes, homologous recombination does not occur for most regions and DSB repair process is significantly prolonged. As a result, male sex chromosomes are coated with many DNA damage response proteins and form a unique chromatin structure known as the XY body. Interestingly, associated with the prolonged DSB repair, transcription is repressed in the XY body but not in autosomes, a phenomenon known as meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI), which is critical for male meiosis. Here using mice as model organisms, we briefly summarize recent progress on DSB repair in meiotic prophase and focus on the mechanism and function of DNA damage response in the XY body.

  11. Connecting by breaking and repairing: mechanisms of DNA strand exchange in meiotic recombination

    PubMed Central

    Sansam, Christopher L; Pezza, Roberto J

    2015-01-01

    During prophase of meiosis I, homologous chromosomes interact and undergo recombination. Successful completion of these processes is required in order for the homologous chromosomes to mount the meiotic spindle as a pair. The organization of the chromosomes into pairs ensures orderly segregation to opposite poles of the dividing cell, such that each gamete receives one copy of each chromosome. Chiasmata, the cytological manifestation of crossover products of recombination, physically connect the homologs in pairs, providing a linkage that facilitates their segregation. Consequently, mutations that reduce the level of recombination are invariably associated with increased errors in meiotic chromosome segregation. In this review, we focus on recent biochemical and genetic advances in elucidating the mechanisms of meiotic DNA strand exchange catalyzed by the Dmc1 protein. We also discuss the mode by which two recombination mediators, Hop2 and Mnd1, facilitate rate-limiting steps of DNA strand exchange catalyzed by Dmc1. PMID:25953379

  12. Altered cohesin gene dosage affects Mammalian meiotic chromosome structure and behavior.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, Brenda; Owen, Nichole; Stevense, Michelle; Smith, Helen; Nagaoka, So; Hassold, Terry; McKay, Michael; Xu, Huiling; Fu, Jun; Revenkova, Ekaterina; Jessberger, Rolf; Hunt, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Based on studies in mice and humans, cohesin loss from chromosomes during the period of protracted meiotic arrest appears to play a major role in chromosome segregation errors during female meiosis. In mice, mutations in meiosis-specific cohesin genes cause meiotic disturbances and infertility. However, the more clinically relevant situation, heterozygosity for mutations in these genes, has not been evaluated. We report here evidence from the mouse that partial loss of gene function for either Smc1b or Rec8 causes perturbations in the formation of the synaptonemal complex (SC) and affects both synapsis and recombination between homologs during meiotic prophase. Importantly, these defects increase the frequency of chromosomally abnormal eggs in the adult female. These findings have important implications for humans: they suggest that women who carry mutations or variants that affect cohesin function have an elevated risk of aneuploid pregnancies and may even be at increased risk of transmitting structural chromosome abnormalities.

  13. Processing of meiotic DNA double strand breaks requires cyclin-dependent kinase and multiple nucleases.

    PubMed

    Manfrini, Nicola; Guerini, Ilaria; Citterio, Andrea; Lucchini, Giovanna; Longhese, Maria Pia

    2010-04-09

    Meiotic recombination requires the formation of programmed Spo11-dependent DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Sae2 protein and the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 complex are necessary to remove the covalently attached Spo11 protein from the DNA ends, which are then resected by so far unknown nucleases. Here, we demonstrate that phosphorylation of Sae2 Ser-267 by cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) is required to initiate meiotic DSB resection by allowing Spo11 removal from DSB ends. This finding suggests that Cdk1 activity is required for the processing of Spo11-induced DSBs, thus providing a mechanism for coordinating DSB resection with progression through meiotic prophase. Furthermore, the helicase Sgs1 and the nucleases Exo1 and Dna2 participate in lengthening the 5'-3' resection tracts during meiosis by controlling a step subsequent to Spo11 removal.

  14. Chromosome synapsis defects and sexually dimorphic meiotic progression in mice lacking Spo11.

    PubMed

    Baudat, F; Manova, K; Yuen, J P; Jasin, M; Keeney, S

    2000-11-01

    Spo11, a protein first identified in yeast, is thought to generate the chromosome breaks that initiate meiotic recombination. We now report that disruption of mouse Spo11 leads to severe gonadal abnormalities from defective meiosis. Spermatocytes suffer apoptotic death during early prophase; oocytes reach the diplotene/dictyate stage in nearly normal numbers, but most die soon after birth. Consistent with a conserved function in initiating meiotic recombination, Dmc1/Rad51 focus formation is abolished. Spo11(-/-) meiocytes also display homologous chromosome synapsis defects, similar to fungi but distinct from flies and nematodes. We propose that recombination initiation precedes and is required for normal synapsis in mammals. Our results also support the view that mammalian checkpoint responses to meiotic recombination and/or synapsis defects are sexually dimorphic.

  15. Meiotic chromosome pairing in Actinidia chinensis var. deliciosa.

    PubMed

    Mertten, D; Tsang, G K; Manako, K I; McNeilage, M A; Datson, P M

    2012-12-01

    Polyploids are defined as either autopolyploids or allopolyploids, depending on their mode of origin and/or chromosome pairing behaviour. Autopolyploids have chromosome sets that are the result of the duplication or combination of related genomes (e.g., AAAA), while allopolyploids result from the combination of sets of chromosomes from two or more different taxa (e.g., AABB, AABBCC). Allopolyploids are expected to show preferential pairing of homologous chromosomes from within each parental sub-genome, leading to disomic inheritance. In contrast, autopolyploids are expected to show random pairing of chromosomes (non-preferential pairing), potentially leading to polysomic inheritance. The two main cultivated taxa of Actinidia (kiwifruit) are A. chinensis (2x and 4x) and A. chinensis var. deliciosa (6x). There is debate whether A. chinensis var. deliciosa is an autopolyploid derived solely from A. chinensis or whether it is an allopolyploid derived from A. chinensis and one or two other Actinidia taxa. To investigate whether preferential or non-preferential chromosome pairing occurs in A. chinensis var. deliciosa, the inheritance of microsatellite alleles was analysed in the tetraploid progeny of a cross between A. chinensis var. deliciosa and the distantly related Actinidia eriantha Benth. (2x). The frequencies of inherited microsatellite allelic combinations in the hybrids suggested that non-preferential chromosome pairing had occurred in the A. chinensis var. deliciosa parent. Meiotic chromosome analysis showed predominantly bivalent formation in A. chinensis var. deliciosa, but a low frequency of quadrivalent chromosome formations was observed (1 observed in 20 pollen mother cells).

  16. Extensive Interallelic Polymorphisms Drive Meiotic Recombination into a Crossover Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Dooner, Hugo K.

    2002-01-01

    Recombinants isolated from most meiotic intragenic recombination experiments in maize, but not in yeast, are borne principally on crossover chromosomes. This excess of crossovers is not explained readily by the canonical double-strand break repair model of recombination, proposed to account for a large body of yeast data, which predicts that crossovers (COs) and noncrossovers (NCOs) should be recovered equally. An attempt has been made here to identify general rules governing the recovery of the CO and NCO classes of intragenic recombinants in maize. Recombination was analyzed in bz heterozygotes between a variety of mutations derived from the same or different progenitor alleles. The mutations include point mutations, transposon insertions, and transposon excision footprints. Consequently, the differences between the bz heteroalleles ranged from just two nucleotides to many nucleotides, indels, and insertions. In this article, allelic pairs differing at only two positions are referred to as dimorphic to distinguish them from polymorphic pairs, which differ at multiple positions. The present study has revealed the following effects at these bz heteroalleles: (1) recombination between polymorphic heteroalleles produces mostly CO chromosomes; (2) recombination between dimorphic heteroalleles produces both CO and NCO chromosomes, in ratios apparently dependent on the nature of the heteroalleles; and (3) in dimorphic heterozygotes, the two NCO classes are recovered in approximately equal numbers when the two mutations are point mutations but not when one or both mutations are insertions. These observations are discussed in light of a recent version of the double-strand break repair model of recombination that postulates separate pathways for the formation of CO and NCO products. PMID:12034905

  17. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae RDN1 locus is sequestered from interchromosomal meiotic ectopic recombination in a SIR2-dependent manner.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, E S; Shafer, B K; Strathern, J N

    2000-01-01

    Meiotic ectopic recombination occurs at similar frequencies among many sites in the yeast genome, suggesting that all loci are similarly accessible to homology searching. In contrast, we found that his3 sequences integrated in the RDN1 (rDNA) locus were unusually poor participants in meiotic recombination with his3 sequences at other sites. We show that the low rate of meiotic ectopic recombination resulted from the poor ability of RDN1::his3 to act as a donor sequence. SIR2 partially repressed interchromosomal meiotic ectopic recombination at RDN1, consistent with its role in regulating recombination, gene expression, and retrotransposition within RDN1. We propose that RDN1 is physically sequestered from meiotic homology searching mechanisms. PMID:10880466

  18. A meiotic linkage map of the silver fox, aligned and compared to the canine genome.

    PubMed

    Kukekova, Anna V; Trut, Lyudmila N; Oskina, Irina N; Johnson, Jennifer L; Temnykh, Svetlana V; Kharlamova, Anastasiya V; Shepeleva, Darya V; Gulievich, Rimma G; Shikhevich, Svetlana G; Graphodatsky, Alexander S; Aguirre, Gustavo D; Acland, Gregory M

    2007-03-01

    A meiotic linkage map is essential for mapping traits of interest and is often the first step toward understanding a cryptic genome. Specific strains of silver fox (a variant of the red fox, Vulpes vulpes), which segregate behavioral and morphological phenotypes, create a need for such a map. One such strain, selected for docility, exhibits friendly dog-like responses to humans, in contrast to another strain selected for aggression. Development of a fox map is facilitated by the known cytogenetic homologies between the dog and fox, and by the availability of high resolution canine genome maps and sequence data. Furthermore, the high genomic sequence identity between dog and fox allows adaptation of canine microsatellites for genotyping and meiotic mapping in foxes. Using 320 such markers, we have constructed the first meiotic linkage map of the fox genome. The resulting sex-averaged map covers 16 fox autosomes and the X chromosome with an average inter-marker distance of 7.5 cM. The total map length corresponds to 1480.2 cM. From comparison of sex-averaged meiotic linkage maps of the fox and dog genomes, suppression of recombination in pericentromeric regions of the metacentric fox chromosomes was apparent, relative to the corresponding segments of acrocentric dog chromosomes. Alignment of the fox meiotic map against the 7.6x canine genome sequence revealed high conservation of marker order between homologous regions of the two species. The fox meiotic map provides a critical tool for genetic studies in foxes and identification of genetic loci and genes implicated in fox domestication.

  19. Gibberellin Induces Diploid Pollen Formation by Interfering with Meiotic Cytokinesis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    De Storme, Nico

    2017-01-01

    The plant hormone gibberellic acid (GA) controls many physiological processes, including cell differentiation, cell elongation, seed germination, and response to abiotic stress. In this study, we report that exogenous treatment of flowering Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants with GA specifically affects the process of male meiotic cytokinesis leading to meiotic restitution and the production of diploid (2n) pollen grains. Similar defects in meiotic cell division and reproductive ploidy stability occur in Arabidopsis plants depleted of RGA and GAI, two members of the DELLA family that function as suppressor of GA signaling. Cytological analysis of the double rga-24 gai-t6 mutant revealed that defects in male meiotic cytokinesis are not caused by alterations in meiosis I (MI or meiosis II (MII) chromosome dynamics, but instead result from aberrations in the spatial organization of the phragmoplast-like radial microtubule arrays (RMAs) at the end of meiosis II. In line with a role for GA in the genetic regulation of the male reproductive system, we additionally show that DELLA downstream targets MYB33 and MYB65 are redundantly required for functional RMA biosynthesis and male meiotic cytokinesis. By analyzing the expression of pRGA::GFP-RGA in the wild-type Landsberg erecta background, we demonstrate that the GFP-RGA protein is specifically expressed in the anther cell layers surrounding the meiocytes and microspores, suggesting that appropriate GA signaling in the somatic anther tissue is critical for male meiotic cell wall formation and thus plays an important role in consolidating the male gametophytic ploidy consistency. PMID:27621423

  20. A high throughput genetic screen identifies new early meiotic recombination functions in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    De Muyt, Arnaud; Pereira, Lucie; Vezon, Daniel; Chelysheva, Liudmila; Gendrot, Ghislaine; Chambon, Aurélie; Lainé-Choinard, Sandrine; Pelletier, Georges; Mercier, Raphaël; Nogué, Fabien; Grelon, Mathilde

    2009-09-01

    Meiotic recombination is initiated by the formation of numerous DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) catalysed by the widely conserved Spo11 protein. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Spo11 requires nine other proteins for meiotic DSB formation; however, unlike Spo11, few of these are conserved across kingdoms. In order to investigate this recombination step in higher eukaryotes, we took advantage of a high-throughput meiotic mutant screen carried out in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. A collection of 55,000 mutant lines was screened, and spo11-like mutations, characterised by a drastic decrease in chiasma formation at metaphase I associated with an absence of synapsis at prophase, were selected. This screen led to the identification of two populations of mutants classified according to their recombination defects: mutants that repair meiotic DSBs using the sister chromatid such as Atdmc1 or mutants that are unable to make DSBs like Atspo11-1. We found that in Arabidopsis thaliana at least four proteins are necessary for driving meiotic DSB repair via the homologous chromosomes. These include the previously characterised DMC1 and the Hop1-related ASY1 proteins, but also the meiotic specific cyclin SDS as well as the Hop2 Arabidopsis homologue AHP2. Analysing the mutants defective in DSB formation, we identified the previously characterised AtSPO11-1, AtSPO11-2, and AtPRD1 as well as two new genes, AtPRD2 and AtPRD3. Our data thus increase the number of proteins necessary for DSB formation in Arabidopsis thaliana to five. Unlike SPO11 and (to a minor extent) PRD1, these two new proteins are poorly conserved among species, suggesting that the DSB formation mechanism, but not its regulation, is conserved among eukaryotes.

  1. Reversible phosphorylation and regulation of mammalian oocyte meiotic chromatin remodeling and segregation.

    PubMed

    Swain, J E; Smith, G D

    2007-01-01

    The mammalian oocyte is notorious for high rates of chromosomal abnormalities. This results in subsequent embryonic aneuploidy, resulting in infertility and congenital defects. Therefore, understanding regulatory mechanisms involved in chromatin remodeling and chromosome segregation during oocyte meiotic maturation is imperative to fully understand the complex process and establish potential therapies. This review will focus on major events occurring during oocyte meiosis, critical to ensure proper cellular ploidy. Mechanistic and cellular events such as chromosome condensation, meiotic spindle formation, as well as cohesion of homologues and sister chromatids will be discussed, focusing on the role of reversible phosphorylation in control of these processes.

  2. Competition between Adjacent Meiotic Recombination Hotspots in the Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Q. Q.; Xu, F.; White, M. A.; Petes, T. D.

    1997-01-01

    In a wild-type strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a hotspot for meiotic recombination is located upstream of the HIS4 gene. An insertion of a 49-bp telomeric sequence into the coding region of HIS4 strongly stimulates meiotic recombination and the local formation of meiosis-specific double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs). When strains are constructed in which both hotspots are heterozygous, hotspot activity is substantially less when the hotspots are on the same chromosome than when they are on opposite chromosomes. PMID:9055076

  3. Evolutionary conservation of meiotic DSB proteins: more than just Spo11.

    PubMed

    Cole, Francesca; Keeney, Scott; Jasin, Maria

    2010-06-15

    Meiotic recombination is initiated by programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) generated by the Spo11 protein. In budding yeast, five other meiotic-specific proteins are also required for DSB formation, but, with rare exception, orthologs had not been identified in other species. In this issue of Genes & Development, Kumar and colleagues (pp. 1266-1280) used a phylogenomic approach to identify two of these proteins across multiple clades, and confirmed that one of these, MEI4, is a functional ortholog in mouse.

  4. Coordination of Double Strand Break Repair and Meiotic Progression in Yeast by a Mek1- Ndt80 Negative Feedback Loop.

    PubMed

    Prugar, Evelyn; Burnett, Cameron; Chen, Xiangyu; Hollingsworth, Nancy M

    2017-03-01

    During meiosis, homologous chromosomes are physically connected by crossovers and sister chromatid cohesion. Interhomolog crossovers are generated by the highly regulated repair of programmed double strand breaks (DSBs). The meiosis-specific kinase, Mek1, is critical for this regulation. Mek1 down-regulates the mitotic recombinase Rad51, indirectly promoting interhomolog strand invasion by the meiosis-specific recombinase, Dmc1. Mek1 also promotes the formation of crossovers that are distributed throughout the genome by interference and is the effector kinase for a meiosis-specific checkpoint that delays entry into Meiosis I until DSBs have been repaired. The target of this checkpoint is a meiosis-specific transcription factor, Ndt80, which is necessary to express the polo-like kinase, CDC5, and the cyclin, CLB1, thereby allowing completion of recombination and meiotic progression. This work shows that Mek1 and Ndt80 negatively feedback on each other such that when DSB levels are high, Ndt80 is inactive due to high levels of Mek1 activity. As DSBs are repaired, chromosomes synapse and Mek1 activity is reduced below a threshold that allows activation of Ndt80. Ndt80 transcription of CDC5 results in degradation of Red1, a meiosis-specific protein required for Mek1 activation, thereby abolishing Mek1 activity completely. Elimination of Mek1 kinase activity allows Rad51-mediated repair of any remaining DSBs. In this way, cells do not enter Meiosis I until recombination is complete and all DSBs are repaired.

  5. A Gs-linked receptor maintains meiotic arrest in mouse oocytes, but luteinizing hormone does not cause meiotic resumption by terminating receptor-Gs signaling

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Rachael P.; Freudzon, Leon; Freudzon, Marina; Hand, Arthur R.; Mehlmann, Lisa M.; Jaffe, Laurinda A.

    2008-01-01

    The maintenance of meiotic prophase arrest in fully grown vertebrate oocytes depends on the activity of a Gs G-protein that activates adenylyl cyclase and elevates cAMP, and in the mouse oocyte, Gs is activated by a constitutively active orphan receptor, GPR3. To determine whether the action of luteinizing hormone (LH) on the mouse ovarian follicle causes meiotic resumption by inhibiting GPR3-Gs signaling, we examined the effect of LH on the localization of Gαs. Gs activation in response to stimulation of an exogenously expressed β2-adrenergic receptor causes Gαs to move from the oocyte plasma membrane into the cytoplasm, whereas Gs inactivation in response to inhibition of the β2-adrenergic receptor causes Gαs to move back to the plasma membrane. However, LH does not cause a change in Gαs localization, indicating that LH does not act by terminating receptor-Gs signaling. PMID:17850783

  6. Production of aneuhaploid and euhaploid sporocytes by meiotic restitution in fertile hybrids between durum wheat Langdon chromosome substitution lines and Aegilops tauschii.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lianquan; Chen, Qijiao; Yuan, Zhongwei; Xiang, Zhiguo; Zheng, Youliang; Liu, Dengcai

    2008-10-01

    Fertile F(1) hybrids were obtained between durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) Langdon (LDN) and its 10 disomic substitution (LDN DS) lines with Aegilops tauschii accession AS60 without embryo rescue. Selfed seedset rates for hybrids of LDN with AS60 were 36.87% and 49.45% in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Similar or higher selfed seedset rates were observed in the hybrids of 1D (1A), 1D (1B), 3D (3A), 4D (4B), 7D (7A), and 2D (2B) with AS60, while lower in hybrids of 3D (3B) + 3BL, 5D (5A) + 5AL, 5D (5B) + 5B and 6D (6B) + 6BS with AS60 compared with the hybrids of LDN with AS60. Observation of male gametogenesis showed that meiotic restitution, both first-division restitution (FDR) and single-division meiosis (SDM) resulted in the formation of functional unreduced gametes, which in turn produced seeds. Both euhaploid and aneuhaploid gametes were produced in F(1) hybrids. This suggested a strategy to simultaneously transfer and locate major genes from the ancestral species T. turgidum or Ae. tauschii. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the aneuhaploid rates between the F(1) hybrids of LDN and LDN DS lines with AS60, suggesting that meiotic pairing between the two D chromosomes in the hybrids of LDN DS lines with AS60 did not promote the formation of aneuhaploid gametes.

  7. Slk1 is a meiosis-specific Sid2-related kinase that coordinates meiotic nuclear division with growth of the forespore membrane.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Hidalgo, Livia; Rozalén, Ana Elisa; Martín-Castellanos, Cristina; Moreno, Sergio

    2008-05-01

    Septation and spore formation in fission yeast are compartmentalization processes that occur during the mitotic and meiotic cycles, and that are regulated by the septation initiation network (SIN). In mitosis, activation of Sid2 protein kinase transduces the signal from the spindle pole body (SPB) to the middle of the cell in order to promote the constriction of the actomyosin ring. Concomitant with ring contraction, membrane vesicles are added at the cleavage site to enable the necessary expansion of the cell membrane. In meiosis, the forespore membrane is synthesized from the outer layers of the SPB by vesicle fusion. This membrane grows and eventually engulfs each of the four haploid nuclei. The molecular mechanism that connects the SIN pathway with synthesis of the forespore membrane is poorly understood. Here, we describe a meiosis-specific Sid2-like kinase (Slk1), which is important for the coordination of the growth of the forespore membrane with the meiotic nuclear divisions. Slk1 and Sid2 are required for forespore membrane biosynthesis and seem to be the final output of the SIN pathway in meiosis.

  8. The Double-Strand Break Landscape of Meiotic Chromosomes Is Shaped by the Paf1 Transcription Elongation Complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Gothwal, Santosh K; Patel, Neem J; Colletti, Meaghan M; Sasanuma, Hiroyuki; Shinohara, Miki; Hochwagen, Andreas; Shinohara, Akira

    2016-02-01

    Histone modification is a critical determinant of the frequency and location of meiotic double-strand breaks (DSBs), and thus recombination. Set1-dependent histone H3K4 methylation and Dot1-dependent H3K79 methylation play important roles in this process in budding yeast. Given that the RNA polymerase II associated factor 1 complex, Paf1C, promotes both types of methylation, we addressed the role of the Paf1C component, Rtf1, in the regulation of meiotic DSB formation. Similar to a set1 mutation, disruption of RTF1 decreased the occurrence of DSBs in the genome. However, the rtf1 set1 double mutant exhibited a larger reduction in the levels of DSBs than either of the single mutants, indicating independent contributions of Rtf1 and Set1 to DSB formation. Importantly, the distribution of DSBs along chromosomes in the rtf1 mutant changed in a manner that was different from the distributions observed in both set1 and set1 dot1 mutants, including enhanced DSB formation at some DSB-cold regions that are occupied by nucleosomes in wild-type cells. These observations suggest that Rtf1, and by extension the Paf1C, modulate the genomic DSB landscape independently of H3K4 methylation.

  9. The fission yeast RNA binding protein Mmi1 regulates meiotic genes by controlling intron specific splicing and polyadenylation coupled RNA turnover.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huei-Mei; Futcher, Bruce; Leatherwood, Janet

    2011-01-01

    The polyA tails of mRNAs are monitored by the exosome as a quality control mechanism. We find that fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, adopts this RNA quality control mechanism to regulate a group of 30 or more meiotic genes at the level of both splicing and RNA turnover. In vegetative cells the RNA binding protein Mmi1 binds to the primary transcripts of these genes. We find the novel motif U(U/C/G)AAAC highly over-represented in targets of Mmi1. Mmi1 can specifically regulate the splicing of particular introns in a transcript: it inhibits the splicing of introns that are in the vicinity of putative Mmi1 binding sites, while allowing the splicing of other introns that are far from such sites. In addition, binding of Mmi1, particularly near the 3' end, alters 3' processing to promote extremely long polyA tails of up to a kilobase. The hyperadenylated transcripts are then targeted for degradation by the nuclear exonuclease Rrp6. The nuclear polyA binding protein Pab2 assists this hyperadenylation-mediated RNA decay. Rrp6 also targets other hyperadenylated transcripts, which become hyperadenylated in an unknown, but Mmi1-independent way. Thus, hyperadenylation may be a general signal for RNA degradation. In addition, binding of Mmi1 can affect the efficiency of 3' cleavage. Inactivation of Mmi1 in meiosis allows meiotic expression, through splicing and RNA stabilization, of at least 29 target genes, which are apparently constitutively transcribed.

  10. Acetylated Histone H3K9 is associated with meiotic recombination hotspots, and plays a role in recombination redundantly with other factors including the H3K4 methylase Set1 in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shintaro; Ohta, Kunihiro; Yamada, Takatomi

    2013-04-01

    Histone modifications are associated with meiotic recombination hotspots, discrete sites with augmented recombination frequency. For example, trimethylation of histone H3 lysine4 (H3K4me3) marks most hotspots in budding yeast and mouse. Modified histones are known to regulate meiotic recombination partly by promoting DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation at hotspots, but the role and precise landscape of involved modifications remain unclear. Here, we studied hotspot-associated modifications in fission yeast and found general features: acetylation of H3 lysine9 (H3K9ac) is elevated, and H3K4me3 is not significantly enriched. Mutating H3K9 to non-acetylatable alanine mildly reduced levels of the DSB-inducing protein Rec12 (the fission yeast homologue of Spo11) and DSB at hotspots, indicating that H3K9ac may be involved in DSB formation by enhancing the interaction between Rec12 and hotspots. In addition, we found that the lack of the H3K4 methyltransferase Set1 generally increased Rec12 binding to chromatin but partially reduced DSB formation at some loci, suggesting that Set1 is also involved in DSB formation. These results suggest that meiotic DSB formation is redundantly regulated by multiple chromatin-related factors including H3K9ac and Set1 in fission yeast.

  11. Acetylated Histone H3K9 is associated with meiotic recombination hotspots, and plays a role in recombination redundantly with other factors including the H3K4 methylase Set1 in fission yeast

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Shintaro; Ohta, Kunihiro; Yamada, Takatomi

    2013-01-01

    Histone modifications are associated with meiotic recombination hotspots, discrete sites with augmented recombination frequency. For example, trimethylation of histone H3 lysine4 (H3K4me3) marks most hotspots in budding yeast and mouse. Modified histones are known to regulate meiotic recombination partly by promoting DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation at hotspots, but the role and precise landscape of involved modifications remain unclear. Here, we studied hotspot-associated modifications in fission yeast and found general features: acetylation of H3 lysine9 (H3K9ac) is elevated, and H3K4me3 is not significantly enriched. Mutating H3K9 to non-acetylatable alanine mildly reduced levels of the DSB-inducing protein Rec12 (the fission yeast homologue of Spo11) and DSB at hotspots, indicating that H3K9ac may be involved in DSB formation by enhancing the interaction between Rec12 and hotspots. In addition, we found that the lack of the H3K4 methyltransferase Set1 generally increased Rec12 binding to chromatin but partially reduced DSB formation at some loci, suggesting that Set1 is also involved in DSB formation. These results suggest that meiotic DSB formation is redundantly regulated by multiple chromatin-related factors including H3K9ac and Set1 in fission yeast. PMID:23382177

  12. Both conserved and non-conserved regions of Spo11 are essential for meiotic recombination initiation in yeast.

    PubMed

    Nag, Dilip K; Pata, Janice D; Sironi, Manuela; Flood, David R; Hart, Ashley M

    2006-10-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the initiators of most meiotic recombination events. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, at least ten genes are necessary for meiotic DSB formation. However, the molecular roles of these proteins are not clearly understood. The meiosis-specific Spo11 protein, which shows sequence similarity with a subunit of an archaeal topoisomerase, is believed to catalyze the meiotic DSB formation. Spo11 is also required for induction of meiotic DSBs at long inverted repeats and at large trinucleotide repeat tracts. Here we report the isolation and characterization of temperature-sensitive spo11-mutant alleles to better understand how Spo11 functions, and how meiotic DSBs are generated at various recombination hotspots. Analysis of mutation sites of isolated spo11-mutant alleles indicated that both N-terminal and C-terminal non-conserved residues of Spo11 are essential for the protein's function, possibly for interaction with other meiotic DSB enzymes. Several of the mutation sites within the conserved region are predicted to lie on the surface of the protein, suggesting that this region is required for activation of the meiotic initiation complex via protein-protein interaction. In addition to the conditional mutants, we isolated partially recombination-defective mutants; analysis of one of these mutants indicated that Ski8, as observed previously, interacts with Spo11 via the latter's C-terminal residues.

  13. Polyploidization increases meiotic recombination frequency in Arabidopsis: a close look at statistical modeling and data analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Luo, Zewei

    2012-04-18

    This paper is a response to Pecinka A, Fang W, Rehmsmeier M, Levy AA, Mittelsten Scheid, O: Polyploidization increases meiotic recombination frequency in Arabidopsis. BMC Biology 2011, 9:24.See research article at http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/9/24.

  14. Nup132 modulates meiotic spindle attachment in fission yeast by regulating kinetochore assembly

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hui-Ju; Asakawa, Haruhiko; Haraguchi, Tokuko

    2015-01-01

    During meiosis, the kinetochore undergoes substantial reorganization to establish monopolar spindle attachment. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the KNL1–Spc7-Mis12-Nuf2 (KMN) complex, which constitutes the outer kinetochore, is disassembled during meiotic prophase and is reassembled before meiosis I. Here, we show that the nucleoporin Nup132 is required for timely assembly of the KMN proteins: In the absence of Nup132, Mis12 and Spc7 are precociously assembled at the centromeres during meiotic prophase. In contrast, Nuf2 shows timely dissociation and reappearance at the meiotic centromeres. We further demonstrate that depletion of Nup132 activates the spindle assembly checkpoint in meiosis I, possibly because of the increased incidence of erroneous spindle attachment at sister chromatids. These results suggest that precocious assembly of the kinetochores leads to the meiosis I defects observed in the nup132-disrupted mutant. Thus, we propose that Nup132 plays an important role in establishing monopolar spindle attachment at meiosis I through outer kinetochore reorganization at meiotic prophase. PMID:26483559

  15. LSD1 is essential for oocyte meiotic progression by regulating CDC25B expression in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeesun; Singh, Anup Kumar; Takata, Yoko; Lin, Kevin; Shen, Jianjun; Lu, Yue; Kerenyi, Marc A.; Orkin, Stuart H.; Chen, Taiping

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian oocytes are arrested at prophase I until puberty when hormonal signals induce the resumption of meiosis I and progression to meiosis II. Meiotic progression is controlled by CDK1 activity and is accompanied by dynamic epigenetic changes. Although the signalling pathways regulating CDK1 activity are well defined, the functional significance of epigenetic changes remains largely unknown. Here we show that LSD1, a lysine demethylase, regulates histone H3 lysine 4 di-methylation (H3K4me2) in mouse oocytes and is essential for meiotic progression. Conditional deletion of Lsd1 in growing oocytes results in precocious resumption of meiosis and spindle and chromosomal abnormalities. Consequently, most Lsd1-null oocytes fail to complete meiosis I and undergo apoptosis. Mechanistically, upregulation of CDC25B, a phosphatase that activates CDK1, is responsible for precocious meiotic resumption and also contributes to subsequent spindle and chromosomal defects. Our findings uncover a functional link between LSD1 and the major signalling pathway governing meiotic progression. PMID:26626423

  16. Sumoylation precedes accumulation of phosphorylated H2AX on sex chromosomes during their meiotic inactivation.

    PubMed

    Vigodner, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    During meiosis in male mammals, X and Y chromosomes undergo the process of meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI). A crucial role in MSCI has recently been reported for BRCA1, ATR kinase, and phosphorylated histone H2AX, but the exact mechanism remains to be determined. Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteins have recently been shown to localize to the sex body in mouse meiotic spermatocytes, but the role they play during MSCI is unknown. In this study, in order to better understand the molecular events of MSCI, we followed dynamic changes in gammaH2AX and SUMO localization patterns during MSCI. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) as an analytical tool for visualizing numerous spermatocytes from the same development stage and for consecutively following the meiotic progression, we were able to demonstrate a very early appearance of SUMO-1, which preceded gammaH2AX accumulation on the sex chromosomes during their meiotic inactivation. In contrast to SUMO-1, SUMO-2/3 was undetectable in zygotene spermatocytes, suggesting a possible specific role for SUMO-1 in the initiation of MSCI.

  17. ATR acts stage specifically to regulate multiple aspects of mammalian meiotic silencing.

    PubMed

    Royo, Hélène; Prosser, Haydn; Ruzankina, Yaroslava; Mahadevaiah, Shantha K; Cloutier, Jeffrey M; Baumann, Marek; Fukuda, Tomoyuki; Höög, Christer; Tóth, Attila; de Rooij, Dirk G; Bradley, Allan; Brown, Eric J; Turner, James M A

    2013-07-01

    In mammals, homologs that fail to synapse during meiosis are transcriptionally inactivated. This process, meiotic silencing, drives inactivation of the heterologous XY bivalent in male germ cells (meiotic sex chromosome inactivation [MSCI]) and is thought to act as a meiotic surveillance mechanism. The checkpoint protein ATM and Rad3-related (ATR) localizes to unsynapsed chromosomes, but its role in the initiation and maintenance of meiotic silencing is unknown. Here we show that ATR has multiple roles in silencing. ATR first regulates HORMA (Hop1, Rev7, and Mad2) domain protein HORMAD1/2 phosphorylation and localization of breast cancer I (BRCA1) and ATR cofactors ATR-interacting peptide (ATRIP)/topoisomerase 2-binding protein 1 (TOPBP1) at unsynapsed axes. Later, it acts as an adaptor, transducing signaling at unsynapsed axes into surrounding chromatin in a manner that requires interdependence with mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1 (MDC1) and H2AFX. Finally, ATR catalyzes histone H2AFX phosphorylation, the epigenetic event leading to gene inactivation. Using a novel genetic strategy in which MSCI is used to silence a chosen gene in pachytene, we show that ATR depletion does not disrupt the maintenance of silencing and that silencing comprises two phases: The first is dynamic and reversible, and the second is stable and irreversible. Our work identifies a role for ATR in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and presents a new technique for ablating gene function in the germline.

  18. Many X-linked microRNAs escape meiotic sex chromosome inactivation.

    PubMed

    Song, Rui; Ro, Seungil; Michaels, Jason D; Park, Chanjae; McCarrey, John R; Yan, Wei

    2009-04-01

    Meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) during spermatogenesis is characterized by transcriptional silencing of genes on both the X and Y chromosomes in mid-to-late pachytene spermatocytes. MSCI is believed to result from meiotic silencing of unpaired DNA because the X and Y chromosomes remain largely unpaired throughout first meiotic prophase. However, unlike X-chromosome inactivation in female embryonic cells, where 25-30% of X-linked structural genes have been reported to escape inactivation, previous microarray- and RT-PCR-based studies of expression of >364 X-linked mRNA-encoding genes during spermatogenesis have failed to reveal any X-linked gene that escapes the silencing effects of MSCI in primary spermatocytes. Here we show that many X-linked miRNAs are transcribed and processed in pachytene spermatocytes. This unprecedented escape from MSCI by these X-linked miRNAs suggests that they may participate in a critical function at this stage of spermatogenesis, including the possibility that they contribute to the process of MSCI itself, or that they may be essential for post-transcriptional regulation of autosomal mRNAs during the late meiotic and early postmeiotic stages of spermatogenesis.

  19. The contribution of female meiotic drive to the evolution of neo-sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kohta; Kitano, Jun

    2012-10-01

    Sex chromosomes undergo rapid turnover in certain taxonomic groups. One of the mechanisms of sex chromosome turnover involves fusions between sex chromosomes and autosomes. Sexual antagonism, heterozygote advantage, and genetic drift have been proposed as the drivers for the fixation of this evolutionary event. However, all empirical patterns of the prevalence of multiple sex chromosome systems across different taxa cannot be simply explained by these three mechanisms. In this study, we propose that female meiotic drive may contribute to the evolution of neo-sex chromosomes. The results of this study showed that in mammals, the XY(1) Y(2) sex chromosome system is more prevalent in species with karyotypes of more biarmed chromosomes, whereas the X(1) X(2) Y sex chromosome system is more prevalent in species with predominantly acrocentric chromosomes. In species where biarmed chromosomes are favored by female meiotic drive, X-autosome fusions (XY(1) Y(2) sex chromosome system) will be also favored by female meiotic drive. In contrast, in species with more acrocentric chromosomes, Y-autosome fusions (X(1) X(2) Y sex chromosome system) will be favored just because of the biased mutation rate toward chromosomal fusions. Further consideration should be given to female meiotic drive as a mechanism in the fixation of neo-sex chromosomes.

  20. THE CONTRIBUTION OF FEMALE MEIOTIC DRIVE TO THE EVOLUTION OF NEO-SEX CHROMOSOMES

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Kohta; Kitano, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Sex chromosomes undergo rapid turnover in certain taxonomic groups. One of the mechanisms of sex chromosome turnover involves fusions between sex chromosomes and autosomes. Sexual antagonism, heterozygote advantage, and genetic drift have been proposed as the drivers for the fixation of this evolutionary event. However, all empirical patterns of the prevalence of multiple sex chromosome systems across different taxa cannot be simply explained by these three mechanisms. In this study, we propose that female meiotic drive may contribute to the evolution of neo-sex chromosomes. The results of this study showed that in mammals, the XY1Y2 sex chromosome system is more prevalent in species with karyotypes of more biarmed chromosomes, whereas the X1X2Y sex chromosome system is more prevalent in species with predominantly acrocentric chromosomes. In species where biarmed chromosomes are favored by female meiotic drive, X-autosome fusions (XY1Y2 sex chromosome system) will be also favored by female meiotic drive. In contrast, in species with more acrocentric chromosomes, Y-autosome fusions (X1X2Y sex chromosome system) will be favored just because of the biased mutation rate toward chromosomal fusions. Further consideration should be given to female meiotic drive as a mechanism in the fixation of neo-sex chromosomes. PMID:23025609

  1. Meiotic recombination errors, the origin of sperm aneuploidy and clinical recommendations.

    PubMed

    Tempest, Helen G

    2011-02-01

    Since the early 1990s male infertility has successfully been treated by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), nevertheless concerns have been raised regarding the genetic risk of ICSI. Chromosome aneuploidy (the presence of extra or missing chromosomes) is the leading cause of pregnancy loss and mental retardation in humans. While the majority of chromosome aneuploidies are maternal in origin, the paternal contribution to aneuploidy is clinically relevant particularly for the sex chromosomes. Given that it is difficult to study female gametes investigations are predominantly conducted in male meiotic recombination and sperm aneuploidy. Research suggests that infertile men have increased levels of sperm aneuploidy and that this is likely due to increased errors in meiotic recombination and chromosome synapsis within these individuals. It is perhaps counterintuitive but there appears to be no selection against chromosomally aneuploid sperm at fertilization. In fact the frequency of aneuploidy in sperm appears to be mirrored in conceptions. Given this information this review will cover our current understanding of errors in meiotic recombination and chromosome synapsis and how these may contribute to increased sperm aneuploidy. Frequencies of sperm aneuploidy in infertile men and individuals with constitutional karyotypic abnormalities are reviewed, and based on these findings, indications for clinical testing of sperm aneuploidy are discussed. In addition, the application of single nucleotide arrays for the analysis of meiotic recombination and identification of parental origin of aneuploidy are considered.

  2. Abnormal meiotic recombination in infertile men and its association with sperm aneuploidy.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Kyle A; Wong, Edgar Chan; Chow, Victor; Nigro, Mark; Ma, Sai

    2007-12-01

    Defects in early meiotic events are thought to play a critical role in male infertility; however, little is known regarding the relationship between early meiotic events and the chromosomal constitution of human sperm. Thus, we analyzed testicular tissue from 26 men (9 fertile and 17 infertile men), using immunofluorescent techniques to examine meiotic chromosomes, and fluorescent in situ hybridization to assess sperm aneuploidy. Based on a relatively small sample size, we observed that 42% (5/12) of men with impaired spermatogenesis displayed reduced genome-wide recombination when compared to the fertile men. Analysis of individual chromosomes showed chromosome-specific defects in recombination: chromosome 13 and 18 bivalents with only a single crossover and chromosome 21 bivalents lacking a crossover were more frequent among the infertile men. We identified two infertile men who displayed a novel meiotic defect in which the sex chromosomes failed to recombine: one man had an absence of sperm in the testes, while the other displayed increased sex chromosome aneuploidy in the sperm, resulting in a 45,X abortus after intracytoplasmic sperm injection. When all men were pooled, we observed an inverse correlation between the frequency of sex chromosome recombination and XY disomy in the sperm. Recombination between the sex chromosomes may be a useful indicator for identifying men at risk of producing chromosomally abnormal sperm. An understanding of the molecular mechanisms that contribute to sperm aneuploidy in infertile men could aid in risk assessment for couples undergoing assisted reproduction.

  3. LSD1 is essential for oocyte meiotic progression by regulating CDC25B expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeesun; Singh, Anup Kumar; Takata, Yoko; Lin, Kevin; Shen, Jianjun; Lu, Yue; Kerenyi, Marc A; Orkin, Stuart H; Chen, Taiping

    2015-12-02

    Mammalian oocytes are arrested at prophase I until puberty when hormonal signals induce the resumption of meiosis I and progression to meiosis II. Meiotic progression is controlled by CDK1 activity and is accompanied by dynamic epigenetic changes. Although the signalling pathways regulating CDK1 activity are well defined, the functional significance of epigenetic changes remains largely unknown. Here we show that LSD1, a lysine demethylase, regulates histone H3 lysine 4 di-methylation (H3K4me2) in mouse oocytes and is essential for meiotic progression. Conditional deletion of Lsd1 in growing oocytes results in precocious resumption of meiosis and spindle and chromosomal abnormalities. Consequently, most Lsd1-null oocytes fail to complete meiosis I and undergo apoptosis. Mechanistically, upregulation of CDC25B, a phosphatase that activates CDK1, is responsible for precocious meiotic resumption and also contributes to subsequent spindle and chromosomal defects. Our findings uncover a functional link between LSD1 and the major signalling pathway governing meiotic progression.

  4. The kinase VRK1 is required for normal meiotic progression in mammalian oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Schober, Carolyn S; Aydiner, Fulya; Booth, Carmen J; Seli, Emre; Reinke, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    The kinase VRK1 has been implicated in mitotic and meiotic progression in invertebrate species, but whether it mediates these events during mammalian gametogenesis is not completely understood. Previous work has demonstrated a role for mammalian VRK1 in proliferation of male spermatogonia, yet whether VRK1 plays a role in meiotic progression, as seen in Drosophila, has not been determined. Here, we have established a mouse strain bearing a gene trap insertion in the VRK1 locus that disrupts Vrk1 expression. In addition to the male proliferation defects, we find that reduction of VRK1 activity causes a delay in meiotic progression during oogenesis, results in the presence of lagging chromosomes during formation of the metaphase plate, and ultimately leads to the failure of oocytes to be fertilized. The activity of at least one phosphorylation substrate of VRK1, p53, is not required for these defects. These results are consistent with previously defined functions of VRK1 in meiotic progression in Drosophila oogenesis, and indicate a conserved role for VRK1 in coordinating proper chromosomal configuration in female meiosis.

  5. Meiotic exchange within and between chromosomes requires a common Rec function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Wagstaff, J E; Klapholz, S; Waddell, C S; Jensen, L; Esposito, R E

    1985-01-01

    We used haploid yeast cells that express both the MATa and MAT alpha mating-type alleles and contain the spo13-1 mutation to characterize meiotic recombination within single, unpaired chromosomes in Rec+ and Rec- Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In Rec+ haploids, as in diploids, intrachromosomal recombination in the ribosomal DNA was detected in 2 to 6% of meiotic divisions, and most events were unequal reciprocal sister chromatid exchange (SCE). By contrast, intrachromosomal recombination between duplicated copies of the his4 locus occurred in approximately 30% of haploid meiotic divisions, a frequency much higher than that reported in diploids; only about one-half of the events were unequal reciprocal SCE. The spo11-1 mutation, which virtually eliminates meiotic exchange between homologs in diploid meiosis, reduced the frequency of intrachromosomal recombination in both the ribosomal DNA and the his4 duplication during meiosis by 10- to greater than 50-fold. This Rec- mutation affected all forms of recombination within chromosomes: unequal reciprocal SCE, reciprocal intrachromatid exchange, and gene conversion. Intrachromosomal recombination in spo11-1 haploids was restored by transformation with a plasmid containing the wild-type SPO11 gene. Mitotic intrachromosomal recombination frequencies were unaffected by spo11-1. This is the first demonstration of a gene product required for recombination between homologs as well as recombination within chromosomes during meiosis. Images PMID:3915779

  6. Functional Roles of Acetylated Histone Marks at Mouse Meiotic Recombination Hot Spots.

    PubMed

    Getun, Irina V; Wu, Zhen; Fallahi, Mohammad; Ouizem, Souad; Liu, Qin; Li, Weimin; Costi, Roberta; Roush, William R; Cleveland, John L; Bois, Philippe R J

    2017-02-01

    Meiotic recombination initiates following the formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by the Spo11 endonuclease early in prophase I, at discrete regions in the genome coined "hot spots." In mammals, meiotic DSB site selection is directed in part by sequence-specific binding of PRDM9, a polymorphic histone H3 (H3K4Me3) methyltransferase. However, other chromatin features needed for meiotic hot spot specification are largely unknown. Here we show that the recombinogenic cores of active hot spots in mice harbor several histone H3 and H4 acetylation and methylation marks that are typical of open, active chromatin. Further, deposition of these open chromatin-associated histone marks is dynamic and is manifest at spermatogonia and/or pre-leptotene-stage cells, which facilitates PRDM9 binding and access for Spo11 to direct the formation of DSBs, which are initiated at the leptotene stage. Importantly, manipulating histone acetylase and deacetylase activities established that histone acetylation marks are necessary for both hot spot activity and crossover resolution. We conclude that there are functional roles for histone acetylation marks at mammalian meiotic recombination hot spots.

  7. Identification of novel Drosophila meiotic genes recovered in a P-element screen.

    PubMed

    Sekelsky, J J; McKim, K S; Messina, L; French, R L; Hurley, W D; Arbel, T; Chin, G M; Deneen, B; Force, S J; Hari, K L; Jang, J K; Laurençon, A C; Madden, L D; Matthies, H J; Milliken, D B; Page, S L; Ring, A D; Wayson, S M; Zimmerman, C C; Hawley, R S

    1999-06-01

    The segregation of homologous chromosomes from one another is the essence of meiosis. In many organisms, accurate segregation is ensured by the formation of chiasmata resulting from crossing over. Drosophila melanogaster females use this type of recombination-based system, but they also have mechanisms for segregating achiasmate chromosomes with high fidelity. We describe a P-element mutagenesis and screen in a sensitized genetic background to detect mutations that impair meiotic chromosome pairing, recombination, or segregation. Our screen identified two new recombination-deficient mutations: mei-P22, which fully eliminates meiotic recombination, and mei-P26, which decreases meiotic exchange by 70% in a polar fashion. We also recovered an unusual allele of the ncd gene, whose wild-type product is required for proper structure and function of the meiotic spindle. However, the screen yielded primarily mutants specifically defective in the segregation of achiasmate chromosomes. Although most of these are alleles of previously undescribed genes, five were in the known genes alphaTubulin67C, CycE, push, and Trl. The five mutations in known genes produce novel phenotypes for those genes.

  8. Searching for a Spore killer: A meiotic drive element in Neurospora fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mendelian inheritance predicts that different alleles of the same gene will have an equal chance of being transmitted to the next generation. However, meiotic drive is a phenomenon where certain alleles evolve the ability to bias transmission in their own favor. In this study we are investigating a ...

  9. Gene expression profiles of Spo11-/- mouse testes with spermatocytes arrested in meiotic prophase I.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Natalya A; Romanienko, Peter J; Khil, Pavel P; Camerini-Otero, R Daniel

    2006-07-01

    Spo11, a meiosis-specific protein, introduces double-strand breaks on chromosomal DNA and initiates meiotic recombination in a wide variety of organisms. Mouse null Spo11 spermatocytes fail to synapse chromosomes and progress beyond the zygotene stage of meiosis. We analyzed gene expression profiles in Spo11(-/ -)adult and juvenile wild-type testis to describe genes expressed before and after the meiotic arrest resulting from the knocking out of Spo11. These genes were characterized using the Gene Ontology data base. To focus on genes involved in meiosis, we performed comparative gene expression analysis of Spo11(-/ -)and wild-type testes from 15-day mice, when spermatocytes have just entered pachytene. We found that the knockout of Spo11 causes dramatic changes in the level of expression of genes that participate in meiotic recombination (Hop2, Brca2, Mnd1, FancG) and in the meiotic checkpoint (cyclin B2, Cks2), but does not affect genes encoding protein components of the synaptonemal complex. Finally, we discovered unknown genes that are affected by the disruption of the Spo11 gene and therefore may be specifically involved in meiosis and spermatogenesis.

  10. Dbl2 Regulates Rad51 and DNA Joint Molecule Metabolism to Ensure Proper Meiotic Chromosome Segregation

    PubMed Central

    Hyppa, Randy W.; Benko, Zsigmond; Misova, Ivana; Schleiffer, Alexander; Smith, Gerald R.; Gregan, Juraj

    2016-01-01

    To identify new proteins required for faithful meiotic chromosome segregation, we screened a Schizosaccharomyces pombe deletion mutant library and found that deletion of the dbl2 gene led to missegregation of chromosomes during meiosis. Analyses of both live and fixed cells showed that dbl2Δ mutant cells frequently failed to segregate homologous chromosomes to opposite poles during meiosis I. Removing Rec12 (Spo11 homolog) to eliminate meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) suppressed the segregation defect in dbl2Δ cells, indicating that Dbl2 acts after the initiation of meiotic recombination. Analyses of DSBs and Holliday junctions revealed no significant defect in their formation or processing in dbl2Δ mutant cells, although some Rec12-dependent DNA joint molecules persisted late in meiosis. Failure to segregate chromosomes in the absence of Dbl2 correlated with persistent Rad51 foci, and deletion of rad51 or genes encoding Rad51 mediators also suppressed the segregation defect of dbl2Δ. Formation of foci of Fbh1, an F-box helicase that efficiently dismantles Rad51-DNA filaments, was impaired in dbl2Δ cells. Our results suggest that Dbl2 is a novel regulator of Fbh1 and thereby Rad51-dependent DSB repair required for proper meiotic chromosome segregation and viable sex cell formation. The wide conservation of these proteins suggests that our results apply to many species. PMID:27304859

  11. Meiotic recombination counteracts male-biased mutation (male-driven evolution)

    PubMed Central

    Mawaribuchi, Shuuji; Ito, Michihiko; Ogata, Mitsuaki; Oota, Hiroki; Katsumura, Takafumi; Takamatsu, Nobuhiko; Miura, Ikuo

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic recombination is believed to produce greater genetic variation despite the fact that deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-replication errors are a major source of mutations. In some vertebrates, mutation rates are higher in males than in females, which developed the theory of male-driven evolution (male-biased mutation). However, there is little molecular evidence regarding the relationships between meiotic recombination and male-biased mutation. Here we tested the theory using the frog Rana rugosa, which has both XX/XY- and ZZ/ZW-type sex-determining systems within the species. The male-to-female mutation-rate ratio (α) was calculated from homologous sequences on the X/Y or Z/W sex chromosomes, which supported male-driven evolution. Surprisingly, each α value was notably higher in the XX/XY-type group than in the ZZ/ZW-type group, although α should have similar values within a species. Interestingly, meiotic recombination between homologous chromosomes did not occur except at terminal regions in males of this species. Then, by subdividing α into two new factors, a replication-based male-to-female mutation-rate ratio (β) and a meiotic recombination-based XX-to-XY/ZZ-to-ZW mutation-rate ratio (γ), we constructed a formula describing the relationship among a nucleotide-substitution rate and the two factors, β and γ. Intriguingly, the β- and γ-values were larger and smaller than 1, respectively, indicating that meiotic recombination might reduce male-biased mutations. PMID:26791621

  12. Meiotic recombination counteracts male-biased mutation (male-driven evolution).

    PubMed

    Mawaribuchi, Shuuji; Ito, Michihiko; Ogata, Mitsuaki; Oota, Hiroki; Katsumura, Takafumi; Takamatsu, Nobuhiko; Miura, Ikuo

    2016-01-27

    Meiotic recombination is believed to produce greater genetic variation despite the fact that deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-replication errors are a major source of mutations. In some vertebrates, mutation rates are higher in males than in females, which developed the theory of male-driven evolution (male-biased mutation). However, there is little molecular evidence regarding the relationships between meiotic recombination and male-biased mutation. Here we tested the theory using the frog Rana rugosa, which has both XX/XY- and ZZ/ZW-type sex-determining systems within the species. The male-to-female mutation-rate ratio (α) was calculated from homologous sequences on the X/Y or Z/W sex chromosomes, which supported male-driven evolution. Surprisingly, each α value was notably higher in the XX/XY-type group than in the ZZ/ZW-type group, although α should have similar values within a species. Interestingly, meiotic recombination between homologous chromosomes did not occur except at terminal regions in males of this species. Then, by subdividing α into two new factors, a replication-based male-to-female mutation-rate ratio (β) and a meiotic recombination-based XX-to-XY/ZZ-to-ZW mutation-rate ratio (γ), we constructed a formula describing the relationship among a nucleotide-substitution rate and the two factors, β and γ. Intriguingly, the β- and γ-values were larger and smaller than 1, respectively, indicating that meiotic recombination might reduce male-biased mutations.

  13. Meiotic behavior of aneuploid chromatin in mouse models of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Reinholdt, Laura G; Czechanski, Anne; Kamdar, Sonya; King, Benjamin L; Sun, Fengyun; Handel, Mary Ann

    2009-12-01

    Aneuploidy, which leads to unpaired chromosomal axes during meiosis, is frequently accompanied by infertility. We previously showed, using three mouse models of Down syndrome, that it is an extra chromosome, but not extra gene dose, that is associated with male infertility and virtual absence of post-meiotic gem cells. Here, we test the hypothesis that aneuploid segments are differentially modified and expressed during meiosis, depending on whether they are present as an extra chromosome or not. In all three models examined, the trisomic region lacks a pairing partner, but in one case, spermatocytes have an extra (and unpaired) chromosome, while the two other models involve translocation of the trisomic region rather than an extra chromosome. An extra unpaired chromosome was always modified by phosphorylation of histone H2AX and lacked RNA PolII. But in the case of trisomic regions attached to a paired chromosome, assembly of these protein modifications was affected by the position of a trisomic region relative to a centromere and the physical extent of the unpaired chromatin. Analysis of gene expression in testes revealed that extra copy number alone was not sufficient for meiotic upregulation of genes in the trisomic interval. Additionally and unexpectedly, presence of meiotic gene silencing chromatin modifications was not sufficient for downregulation of genes in unpaired trisomic chromatin. Thus, the meiotic chromatin modifications that are cytologically visible are unlikely to be directly involved in sterility versus fertility of DS models. Finally, the presence of an extra unpaired chromosome, but not the presence of extra (trisomic) genes, caused global deregulation of transcription in spermatocytes. These results reveal mechanisms by which an extra chromosome, but not trisomic gene dose, impact on meiotic progress and infertility.

  14. The synaptonemal complex and meiotic recombination in humans: new approaches to old questions.

    PubMed

    Vallente, Rhea U; Cheng, Edith Y; Hassold, Terry J

    2006-06-01

    Meiotic prophase serves as an arena for the interplay of two important cellular activities, meiotic recombination and synapsis of homologous chromosomes. Synapsis is mediated by the synaptonemal complex (SC), originally characterized as a structure linked to pairing of meiotic chromosomes (Moses (1958) J Biophys Biochem Cytol 4:633-638). In 1975, the first electron micrographs of human pachytene stage SCs were presented (Moses et al. (1975) Science 187:363-365) and over the next 15 years the importance of the SC to normal meiotic progression in human males and females was established (Jhanwar and Chaganti (1980) Hum Genet 54:405-408; Pathak and Elder (1980) Hum Genet 54:171-175; Solari (1980) Chromosoma 81:315-337; Speed (1984) Hum Genet 66:176-180; Wallace and Hulten (1985) Ann Hum Genet 49(Pt 3):215-226). Further, these studies made it clear that abnormalities in the assembly or maintenance of the SC were an important contributor to human infertility (Chaganti et al. (1980) Am J Hum Genet 32:833-848; Vidal et al. (1982) Hum Genet 60:301-304; Bojko (1983) Carlsberg Res Commun 48:285-305; Bojko (1985) Carlsberg Res Commun 50:43-72; Templado et al. (1984) Hum Genet 67:162-165; Navarro et al. (1986) Hum Reprod 1:523-527; Garcia et al. (1989) Hum Genet 2:147-53). However, the utility of these early studies was limited by lack of information on the structural composition of the SC and the identity of other SC-associated proteins. Fortunately, studies of the past 15 years have gone a long way toward remedying this problem. In this minireview, we highlight the most important of these advances as they pertain to human meiosis, focusing on temporal aspects of SC assembly, the relationship between the SC and meiotic recombination, and the contribution of SC abnormalities to human infertility.

  15. Ionizing irradiation-induced radical stress stalls live meiotic chromosome movements by altering the actin cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Illner, Doris; Scherthan, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Meiosis generates haploid cells or spores for sexual reproduction. As a prelude to haploidization, homologous chromosomes pair and recombine to undergo segregation during the first meiotic division. During the entire meiotic prophase of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, chromosomes perform rapid movements that are suspected to contribute to the regulation of recombination. Here, we investigated the impact of ionizing radiation (IR) on movements of GFP–tagged bivalents in live pachytene cells. We find that exposure of sporulating cultures with >40 Gy (4-krad) X-rays stalls pachytene chromosome movements. This identifies a previously undescribed acute radiation response in yeast meiosis, which contrasts with its reported radioresistance of up to 1,000 Gy in survival assays. A modified 3′-end labeling assay disclosed IR-induced dsDNA breaks (DSBs) in pachytene cells at a linear dose relationship of one IR-induced DSB per cell per 5 Gy. Dihydroethidium staining revealed formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in irradiated cells. Immobility of fuzzy-appearing irradiated bivalents was rescued by addition of radical scavengers. Hydrogen peroxide-induced ROS did reduce bivalent mobility similar to 40 Gy X IR, while they failed to induce DSBs. IR- and H2O2-induced ROS were found to decompose actin cables that are driving meiotic chromosome mobility, an effect that could be rescued by antioxidant treatment. Hence, it appears that the meiotic actin cytoskeleton is a radical-sensitive system that inhibits bivalent movements in response to IR- and oxidant-induced ROS. This may be important to prevent motility-driven unfavorable chromosome interactions when meiotic recombination has to proceed in genotoxic environments. PMID:24046368

  16. Association of poly-purine/poly-pyrimidine sequences with meiotic recombination hot spots

    PubMed Central

    Bagshaw, Andrew TM; Pitt, Joel PW; Gemmell, Neil J

    2006-01-01

    Background Meiotic recombination events have been found to concentrate in 1–2.5 kilo base regions, but these recombination hot spots do not share a consensus sequence and why they occur at specific sites is not fully understood. Some previous evidence suggests that poly-purine/poly-pyrimidine (poly-pu/py) tracts (PPTs), a class of sequence with distinctive biochemical properties, could be involved in recombination, but no general association of PPTs with meiotic recombination hot spots has previously been reported. Results We used computational methods to investigate in detail the relationship between PPTs and hot spots. We show statistical associations of PPT frequency with hot spots of meiotic recombination initiating lesions, double-strand breaks, in the genome of the yeast S. cerevisiae and with experimentally well characterized human meiotic recombination hot spots. Supporting a possible role of poly-pu/py-rich sequences in hot spot recombination, we also found that all three single nucleotide polymorphisms previously shown to be associated with human hot spot activity changes occur within sequence contexts of 14 bp or longer that are 85% or more poly-pu/py and at least 70% G/C. These polymorphisms are all close to the hot spot mid points. Comparing the sequences of experimentally characterized human hot spots with the orthologous regions of the chimpanzee genome previously shown not to contain hot spots, we found that in all five cases in which comparisons for the hot spot central regions are possible with publicly available sequence data, there are differences near the human hot spot mid points within sequences 14 bp or longer consisting of more than 80% poly-pu/py and at least 50% G/C. Conclusion Our results, along with previous evidence for the unique biochemical properties and recombination-stimulating potential of poly-pu/py-rich sequences, suggest that the possible functional involvement of this type of sequence in meiotic recombination hot spots

  17. SPO11-independent DNA repair foci and their role in meiotic silencing.

    PubMed

    Carofiglio, Fabrizia; Inagaki, Akiko; de Vries, Sandra; Wassenaar, Evelyne; Schoenmakers, Sam; Vermeulen, Christie; van Cappellen, Wiggert A; Sleddens-Linkels, Esther; Grootegoed, J Anton; Te Riele, Hein P J; de Massy, Bernard; Baarends, Willy M

    2013-06-01

    In mammalian meiotic prophase, the initial steps in repair of SPO11-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are required to obtain stable homologous chromosome pairing and synapsis. The X and Y chromosomes pair and synapse only in the short pseudo-autosomal regions. The rest of the chromatin of the sex chromosomes remain unsynapsed, contains persistent meiotic DSBs, and the whole so-called XY body undergoes meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI). A more general mechanism, named meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin (MSUC), is activated when autosomes fail to synapse. In the absence of SPO11, many chromosomal regions remain unsynapsed, but MSUC takes place only on part of the unsynapsed chromatin. We asked if spontaneous DSBs occur in meiocytes that lack a functional SPO11 protein, and if these might be involved in targeting the MSUC response to part of the unsynapsed chromatin. We generated mice carrying a point mutation that disrupts the predicted catalytic site of SPO11 (Spo11(YF/YF)), and blocks its DSB-inducing activity. Interestingly, we observed foci of proteins involved in the processing of DNA damage, such as RAD51, DMC1, and RPA, both in Spo11(YF/YF) and Spo11 knockout meiocytes. These foci preferentially localized to the areas that undergo MSUC and form the so-called pseudo XY body. In SPO11-deficient oocytes, the number of repair foci increased during oocyte development, indicating the induction of S phase-independent, de novo DNA damage. In wild type pachytene oocytes we observed meiotic silencing in two types of pseudo XY bodies, one type containing DMC1 and RAD51 foci on unsynapsed axes, and another type containing only RAD51 foci, mainly on synapsed axes. Taken together, our results indicate that in addition to asynapsis, persistent SPO11-induced DSBs are important for the initiation of MSCI and MSUC, and that SPO11-independent DNA repair foci contribute to the MSUC response in oocytes.

  18. Top3-Rmi1 DNA single-strand decatenase is integral to the formation and resolution of meiotic recombination intermediates.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Hardeep; De Muyt, Arnaud; Lichten, Michael

    2015-02-19

    The topoisomerase III (Top3)-Rmi1 heterodimer, which catalyzes DNA single-strand passage, forms a conserved complex with the Bloom's helicase (BLM, Sgs1 in budding yeast). This complex has been proposed to regulate recombination by disassembling double Holliday junctions in a process called dissolution. Top3-Rmi1 has been suggested to act at the end of this process, resolving hemicatenanes produced by earlier BLM/Sgs1 activity. We show here that, to the contrary, Top3-Rmi1 acts in all meiotic recombination functions previously associated with Sgs1, most notably as an early recombination intermediate chaperone, promoting regulated crossover and noncrossover recombination and preventing aberrant recombination intermediate accumulation. In addition, we show that Top3-Rmi1 has important Sgs1-independent functions that ensure complete recombination intermediate resolution and chromosome segregation. These findings indicate that Top3-Rmi1 activity is important throughout recombination to resolve strand crossings that would otherwise impede progression through both early steps of pathway choice and late steps of intermediate resolution.

  19. Divergent RNA-Binding Proteins, DAZL and VASA, Induce Meiotic Progression in Human Germ Cells Derived In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Medrano, Jose v.; Ramathal, Cyril; Nguyen, Ha N.; Simon, Carlos; Pera, Renee A. Reijo

    2013-01-01

    Our understanding of human germ cell development is limited in large part due to inaccessibility of early human development to molecular genetic analysis. Pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been shown to differentiate to cells of all three embryonic germ layers, as well as germ cells in vitro, and thus may provide a model for the study of the genetics and epigenetics of human germline. Here, we examined whether intrinsic germ cell translational, rather than transcriptional, factors might drive germline formation and/or differentiation from human pluripotent stem cells in vitro. We observed that, with overexpression of VASA (DDX4) and/or DAZL (Deleted in Azoospermia Like), both hESCs and iPSCs differentiated to primordial germ cells, and maturation and progression through meiosis was enhanced. These results demonstrate that evolutionarily unrelated and divergent RNA-binding proteins can promote meiotic progression of human-derived germ cells in vitro. These studies describe an in vitro model for exploring specifics of human meiosis, a process that is remarkably susceptible to errors that lead to different infertility-related diseases. PMID:22162380

  20. Solution structure and DNA-binding properties of the winged helix domain of the meiotic recombination HOP2 protein.

    PubMed

    Moktan, Hem; Guiraldelli, Michel F; Eyster, Craig A; Zhao, Weixing; Lee, Chih-Ying; Mather, Timothy; Camerini-Otero, R Daniel; Sung, Patrick; Zhou, Donghua H; Pezza, Roberto J

    2014-05-23

    The HOP2 protein is required for efficient double-strand break repair which ensures the proper synapsis of homologous chromosomes and normal meiotic progression. We previously showed that in vitro HOP2 shows two distinctive activities: when it is incorporated into a HOP2-MND1 heterodimer, it stimulates DMC1 and RAD51 recombination activities, and the purified HOP2 alone is proficient in promoting strand invasion. The structural and biochemical basis of HOP2 action in recombination are poorly understood; therefore, they are the focus of this work. Herein, we present the solution structure of the amino-terminal portion of mouse HOP2, which contains a typical winged helix DNA-binding domain. Together with NMR spectral changes in the presence of double-stranded DNA, protein docking on DNA, and mutation analysis to identify the amino acids involved in DNA coordination, our results on the three-dimensional structure of HOP2 provide key information on the fundamental structural and biochemical requirements directing the interaction of HOP2 with DNA. These results, in combination with mutational experiments showing the role of a coiled-coil structural feature involved in HOP2 self-association, allow us to explain important aspects of the function of HOP2 in recombination.

  1. The role of Rad51 in safeguarding mitochondrial activity during the meiotic cell cycle in mammalian oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyeoung-Hwa; Park, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Eun-Young; Ko, Jung-Jae; Park, Kyung-Soon; Lee, Kyung-Ah

    2016-01-01

    Rad51 is a conserved eukaryotic protein that mediates the homologous recombination repair of DNA double-strand breaks that occur during mitosis and meiosis. In addition, Rad51 promotes mitochondrial DNA synthesis when replication stress is increased. Rad51 also regulates cell cycle progression by preserving the G2/M transition in embryonic stem cells. In this study, we report a novel function of Rad51 in regulating mitochondrial activity during in vitro maturation of mouse oocytes. Suppression of Rad51 by injection of Rad51 dsRNA into germinal vesicle-stage oocytes resulted in arrest of meiosis in metaphase I. Rad51-depleted oocytes showed chromosome misalignment and failures in spindle aggregation, affecting the completion of cytokinesis. We found that Rad51 depletion was accompanied by decreased ATP production and mitochondrial membrane potential and increased DNA degradation. We further demonstrated that the mitochondrial defect activated autophagy in Rad51-depleted oocytes. Taken together, we concluded that Rad51 functions to safeguard mitochondrial integrity during the meiotic maturation of oocytes. PMID:27677401

  2. Dynactin-dependent cortical dynein and spherical spindle shape correlate temporally with meiotic spindle rotation in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Crowder, Marina E.; Flynn, Jonathan R.; McNally, Karen P.; Cortes, Daniel B.; Price, Kari L.; Kuehnert, Paul A.; Panzica, Michelle T.; Andaya, Armann; Leary, Julie A.; McNally, Francis J.

    2015-01-01

    Oocyte meiotic spindles orient with one pole juxtaposed to the cortex to facilitate extrusion of chromosomes into polar bodies. In Caenorhabditis elegans, these acentriolar spindles initially orient parallel to the cortex and then rotate to the perpendicular orientation. To understand the mechanism of spindle rotation, we characterized events that correlated temporally with rotation, including shortening of the spindle in the pole-to pole axis, which resulted in a nearly spherical spindle at rotation. By analyzing large spindles of polyploid C. elegans and a related nematode species, we found that spindle rotation initiated at a defined spherical shape rather than at a defined spindle length. In addition, dynein accumulated on the cortex just before rotation, and microtubules grew from the spindle with plus ends outward during rotation. Dynactin depletion prevented accumulation of dynein on the cortex and prevented spindle rotation independently of effects on spindle shape. These results support a cortical pulling model in which spindle shape might facilitate rotation because a sphere can rotate without deforming the adjacent elastic cytoplasm. We also present evidence that activation of spindle rotation is promoted by dephosphorylation of the basic domain of p150 dynactin. PMID:26133383

  3. A mutual inhibition between APC/C and its substrate Mes1 required for meiotic progression in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Kimata, Yuu; Trickey, Michelle; Izawa, Daisuke; Gannon, Julian; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Yamano, Hiroyuki

    2008-03-01

    The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a cell-cycle-regulated essential E3 ubiquitin ligase; however, very little is known about its meiotic regulation. Here we show that fission yeast Mes1 is a substrate of the APC/C as well as an inhibitor, allowing autoregulation of the APC/C in meiosis. Both traits require a functional destruction box (D box) and KEN box. We show that Mes1 directly binds the WD40 domain of the Fizzy family of APC/C activators. Intriguingly, expression of nonubiquitylatable Mes1 blocks cells in metaphase I with high levels of APC/C substrates, suggesting that ubiquitylation of Mes1 is required for partial degradation of cyclin B in meiosis I by alleviating Mes1 inhibitory function. Consistently, a ternary complex, APC/C-Fizzy/Cdc20-Mes1, is stabilized by inhibiting Mes1 ubiquitylation. These results demonstrate that the fine-tuning of the APC/C activity, by a substrate that is also an inhibitor, is required for the precise coordination and transition through meiosis.

  4. Three Additional Linkage Groups That Repress Transcription and Meiotic Recombination in the Mating-Type Region of Schizosaccharomyces Pombe

    PubMed Central

    Thon, G.; Cohen, A.; Klar, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    The mating-type genes of Schizosaccharomyces pombe are found at three locations in the same chromosomal region. These genes are in an active configuration at the mat1 locus and in an inactive configuration at the mat2 and mat3 loci. The mechanism that represses transcription of mat2 and mat3 also inactivates other promoters introduced nearby and is accompanied by a block to meiotic recombination in the mat2-mat3 interval, suggesting that this mechanism involves a particular chromatin structure. We present evidence that the transcription and recombination blocks require three newly defined trans-acting loci, clr2, clr3 and clr4, in addition to the previously identified clr1, rik1 and swi6 loci. We also investigated the role of mat2 cis-acting sequences in silencing. Four cis-acting elements that repress mat2 in a plasmid context were previously identified. Deletion of two of these elements proved to have little effect in a chromosomal context. However, when combined with mutations in trans-acting genes, deletion of the same two elements greatly enhanced mat2 expression. The observed cumulative effects suggest a redundancy in the silencing mechanism. PMID:8001791

  5. The Utilization during Mitotic Cell Division of Loci Controlling Meiotic Recombination and Disjunction in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Bruce S.; Carpenter, Adelaide T. C.; Ripoll, P.

    1978-01-01

    To inquire whether the loci identified by recombination-defective and disjunction-defective meiotic mutants in Drosophila are also utilized during mitotic cell division, the effects of 18 meiotic mutants (representing 13 loci) on mitotic chromosome stability have been examined genetically. To do this, meiotic-mutant-bearing flies heterozygous for recessive somatic cell markers were examined for the frequencies and types of spontaneous clones expressing the cell markers. In such flies, marked clones can arise via mitotic recombination, mutation, chromosome breakage, nondisjunction or chromosome loss, and clones from these different origins can be distinguished. In addition, meiotic mutants at nine loci have been examined for their effects on sensitivity to killing by UV and X rays.—Mutants at six of the seven recombination-defective loci examined (mei-9, mei-41, c(3)G, mei-W68, mei-S282, mei-352, mei-218) cause mitotic chromosome instability in both sexes, whereas mutants at one locus (mei-218) do not affect mitotic chromosome stability. Thus many of the loci utilized during meiotic recombination also function in the chromosomal economy of mitotic cells.—The chromosome instability produced by mei-41 alleles is the consequence of chromosome breakage, that of mei-9 alleles is primarily due to chromosome breakage and, to a lesser extent, to an elevated frequency of mitotic recombination, whereas no predominant mechanism responsible for the instability caused by c(3)G alleles is discernible. Since these three loci are defective in their responses to mutagen damage, their effects on chromosome stability in nonmutagenized cells are interpreted as resulting from an inability to repair spontaneous lesions. Both mei-W68 and mei-S282 increase mitotic recombination (and in mei-W68, to a lesser extent, chromosome loss) in the abdomen but not the wing. In the abdomen, the primary effect on chromosome stability occurs during the larval period when the abdominal histoblasts

  6. Meiotic crossing-over in nondisjoined chromosomes of children with trisomy 21 and a congenital heart defect

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, C.M.; Davis, G.E.; Farrer, M.J.; Cullen, L.M.; Coleman, M.M.; Williamson, R.; Wyse, R.K.H.; Palmer, R.; Kessling, A.M. )

    1993-08-01

    The authors have used DNA polymorphisms to study meiotic crossovers of chromosome 21q in 27 nuclear families. Each family had a child with Down syndrome and a congenital heart defect. Twenty DNA polymorphisms on chromosome 21 were used to determine parental and meiotic origin of nondisjunction and to identify crossovers. Twenty-four cases were of maternal origin, and three were of paternal origin. Twenty-two unequivocal crossover events were identified. Sixteen crossovers were observed in 22 chromosome pairs nondisjoining at the first meiotic division (MI), and six crossovers were observed in five chromosome pairs disjoining at the second meiotic division. Fifty percent of crossover events in MI nondisjunction are detectable by molecular genetic means. Thus, the results suggest that, in this sample, each nondisjoined chromosome 21 pair has been involved in at least one crossover event. 28 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  7. Y-autosome translocation interferes with meiotic sex inactivation and expression of autosomal genes: a case study in the pig.

    PubMed

    Barasc, H; Mary, N; Letron, R; Calgaro, A; Dudez, A M; Bonnet, N; Lahbib-Mansais, Y; Yerle, M; Ducos, A; Pinton, A

    2012-01-01

    Y-autosome translocations are rare in humans and pigs. In both species, these rearrangements can be responsible for meiotic arrest and subsequent infertility. Chromosome pairing abnormalities on the SSCX, SSCY and SSC1 chromatin domains were identified by analyzing pachytene spermatocytes from a boar carrying a (Y;1) translocation by immunolocalization of specific meiotic protein combined with FISH. Disturbance of the meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) was observed by Cot-RNA-FISH and analysis of ZFY gene expression by sequential RNA- and DNA-FISH on spermatocytes. We hypothesized that the meiotic arrest observed in this boar might be due to the silencing of critical autosomal genes and/or the reactivation of some sex chromosome genes.

  8. The TopoVIB-Like protein family is required for meiotic DNA double-strand break formation.

    PubMed

    Robert, T; Nore, A; Brun, C; Maffre, C; Crimi, B; Bourbon, H-M; de Massy, B

    2016-02-26

    Meiotic recombination is induced by the formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) catalyzed by SPO11, the ortholog of subunit A of TopoVI DNA topoisomerase (TopoVIA). TopoVI activity requires the interaction between A and B subunits. We identified a conserved family of plant and animal proteins [the TOPOVIB-Like (TOPOVIBL) family] that share strong structural similarity to the TopoVIB subunit of TopoVI DNA topoisomerase. We further characterize the meiotic recombination proteins Rec102 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), Rec6 (Schizosaccharomyces pombe), and MEI-P22 (Drosophila melanogaster) as homologs to the transducer domain of TopoVIB. We demonstrate that the mouse TOPOVIBL protein interacts and forms a complex with SPO11 and is required for meiotic DSB formation. We conclude that meiotic DSBs are catalyzed by a complex involving SPO11 and TOPOVIBL.

  9. Proof that univalent chromosomes undergoing equational division at anaphase I are not lost during the second meiotic division

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, D. F.

    1980-01-01

    Monosomics in a diploid organism are ideal for characterizing the behavior of univalent chromosomes because each meiotic cell contains a univalent chromosome. We have isolated microsporocyte samples from all monosomic types except monosomics 3 and 5 and have carried out extensive analyses of the meiotic behavior in each of the different available monosomic types. It is demonstrated that univalent chromosomes can undergo equational division at the first anaphase and the resultant monads are not lost during the remainder of meiosis.

  10. SSP1, a gene necessary for proper completion of meiotic divisions and spore formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Nag, D K; Koonce, M P; Axelrod, J

    1997-01-01

    During meiosis, a diploid cell undergoes two rounds of nuclear division following one round of DNA replication to produce four haploid gametes. In yeast, haploid meiotic products are packaged into spores. To gain new insights into meiotic development and spore formation, we followed differential expression of genes in meiotic versus vegetatively growing cells in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our results indicate that there are at least five different classes of transcripts representing genes expressed at different stages of the sporulation program. Here we describe one of these differentially expressed genes, SSP1, which plays an essential role in meiosis and spore formation. SSP1 is expressed midway through meiosis, and homozygous ssp1 diploid cells fail to sporulate. In the ssp1 mutant, meiotic recombination is normal but viability declines rapidly. Both meiotic divisions occur at the normal time; however, the fraction of cells completing meiosis is significantly reduced, and nuclei become fragmented soon after meiosis II. The ssp1 defect does not appear to be related to a microtubule-cytoskeletal-dependent event and is independent of two rounds of chromosome segregation. The data suggest that Ssp1 is likely to function in a pathway that controls meiotic nuclear divisions and coordinates meiosis and spore formation. PMID:9372934

  11. Measuring Meiotic Crossovers via Multi-Locus Genotyping of Single Pollen Grains in Barley.

    PubMed

    Dreissig, Steven; Fuchs, Jörg; Cápal, Petr; Kettles, Nicola; Byrne, Ed; Houben, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The detection of meiotic crossovers in crop plants currently relies on scoring DNA markers in a segregating population or cytological visualization. We investigated the feasibility of using flow-sorted haploid nuclei, Phi29 DNA polymerase-based whole-genome-amplification (WGA) and multi-locus KASP-genotyping to measure meiotic crossovers in individual barley pollen grains. To demonstrate the proof of concept, we used 24 gene-based physically mapped single nucleotide polymorphisms to genotype the WGA products of 50 single pollen nuclei. The number of crossovers per chromosome, recombination frequencies along chromosome 3H and segregation distortion were analysed and compared to a doubled haploid (DH) population of the same genotype. The number of crossovers and chromosome wide recombination frequencies show that this approach is able to produce results that resemble those obtained from other methods in a biologically meaningful way. Only the segregation distortion was found to be lower in the pollen population than in DH plants.

  12. Loss of MAX results in meiotic entry in mouse embryonic and germline stem cells.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Ayumu; Hirasaki, Masataka; Hishida, Tomoaki; Wu, Jun; Okamura, Daiji; Ueda, Atsushi; Nishimoto, Masazumi; Nakachi, Yutaka; Mizuno, Yosuke; Okazaki, Yasushi; Matsui, Yasuhisa; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos; Okuda, Akihiko

    2016-03-30

    Meiosis is a unique process that allows the generation of reproductive cells. It remains largely unknown how meiosis is initiated in germ cells and why non-germline cells do not undergo meiosis. We previously demonstrated that knockdown of Max expression, a gene encoding a partner of MYC family proteins, strongly activates expression of germ cell-related genes in ESCs. Here we find that complete ablation of Max expression in ESCs results in profound cytological changes reminiscent of cells undergoing meiotic cell division. Furthermore, our analyses uncovers that Max expression is transiently attenuated in germ cells undergoing meiosis in vivo and its forced reduction induces meiosis-like cytological changes in cultured germline stem cells. Mechanistically, Max depletion alterations are, in part, due to impairment of the function of an atypical PRC1 complex (PRC1.6), in which MAX is one of the components. Our data highlight MAX as a new regulator of meiotic onset.

  13. Kinesin-1 Prevents Capture of the Oocyte Meiotic Spindle by the Sperm Aster

    PubMed Central

    McNally, Karen L.P.; Fabritius, Amy S.; Ellefson, Marina L.; Flynn, Jonathan R.; Milan, Jennifer A.; McNally, Francis J.

    2012-01-01

    Centrioles are lost during oogenesis and inherited from the sperm at fertilization. In the zygote, the centrioles recruit pericentriolar proteins from the egg to form a mature centrosome that nucleates a sperm aster. The sperm aster then captures the female pronucleus to join the maternal and paternal genomes. Because fertilization occurs before completion of female meiosis, some mechanism must prevent capture of the meiotic spindle by the sperm aster. Here we show that in wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans zygotes, maternal pericentriolar proteins are not recruited to the sperm centrioles until after completion of meiosis. Depletion of kinesin-1 heavy chain or its binding partner resulted in premature centrosome maturation during meiosis and growth of a sperm aster that could capture the oocyte meiotic spindle. Kinesin prevents recruitment of pericentriolar proteins by coating the sperm DNA and centrioles and thus prevents triploidy by a non-motor mechanism. PMID:22465668

  14. Meiotic behavior of a nonaploid accession endorses x = 6 for Brachiaria humidicola (Poaceae).

    PubMed

    Boldrini, K R; Pagliarini, M S; Valle, C B

    2009-12-01

    Brachiaria humidicola (Poaceae), originally from Africa, is an economically important pasture plant in tropical South America. An accession of B. humidicola (H038) collected from the wild African savanna (Mbeya, Tanzania) showed irregular microsporogenesis. This meiotic behavior was consistent with an allopolyploid origin. Multivalent chromosome association at diakinesis gave tri- to octavalents, associated with two nucleoli in some cells. Six non-congregated univalents in metaphase I and anaphase I, along with previous lines of evidence for x = 6 in B. humidicola, confirm H038 as a nonaploid accession, 2n = 9x = 54. Asynchrony in the genome during microsporogenesis also corroborated this assumption. Its putative origin could be a cross between two related species with different rhythms in meiosis. The meiotic behavior of this accession reinforces the hypothesis of the existence of a new basic chromosome number (x = 6) for Brachiaria. The use of this accession in the breeding of this important forage grass for the tropics is discussed.

  15. Mancozeb adversely affects meiotic spindle organization and fertilization in mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Gianna; Palmerini, Maria Grazia; Macchiarelli, Guido; Buccione, Roberto; Cecconi, Sandra

    2006-07-01

    In this study the effects of mancozeb, a widely used ethylenebisdithiocarbamate fungicide, on mouse oocyte meiotic maturation and fertilization were analyzed. Oocyte cumulus cell-complexes were matured in vitro with or without increasing concentrations of the fungicide (from 0.001 to 1 microg/ml) that, due to its different stability in organic solvents and in water, was resuspended either in dimethyl sulfoxide or in culture medium. Although, about 95% of oocytes reached the metaphase II stage; mancozeb-exposed oocytes showed a dose-dependent increase of alterations in spindle morphology, and this negative effect was more evident when the fungicide was resuspended in culture medium. Under the latter culture condition, oocytes matured in the presence of 0.1 and 1 microg/ml mancozeb showed a significant reduction also in the formation of male and female pronuclei. These results indicate that mancozeb can adversely affect mammalian reproductive performance, likely by perturbing microtubular organization during meiotic maturation.

  16. Impairment of pachytene spermatogenesis in Dmrt7 deficient mice, possibly causing meiotic arrest.

    PubMed

    Date, Shiori; Nozawa, Osamu; Inoue, Hiroaki; Hidema, Shizu; Nishimori, Katsuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Although Dmrt7 has been reported to be essential for male spermatogenesis, the molecular mechanism underlying pachytene spermatogenesis by Dmrt7 is not known. In the present study, by detailed analysis of Dmrt7 protein distribution in spermatocytes in the first wave of spermatogenesis, we clarified the profile of Dmrt7 expression and localization in pachytene spermatogenesis. Dmrt7-deficient spermatocytes were arrested in the pachytene stage, followed by apoptosis. We analyzed to determine whether every event in the spermatogenesis at the Dmrt7-deficient mice progressed normally, because in several gene knockout mice with spermatogenic arrest described in the previous reports impairments of these events often appeared. Mutant mice showed normal synapsis and XY body formation, while impairment of meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI), decreased expression of backup genes, and increased expression of retrotransposons indicated incomplete meiotic recombination.

  17. Meiotic exchange and segregation in female mice heterozygous for paracentric inversions.

    PubMed Central

    Koehler, Kara E; Millie, Elise A; Cherry, Jonathan P; Schrump, Stefanie E; Hassold, Terry J

    2004-01-01

    Inversion heterozygosity has long been noted for its ability to suppress the transmission of recombinant chromosomes, as well as for altering the frequency and location of recombination events. In our search for meiotic situations with enrichment for nonexchange and/or single distal-exchange chromosome pairs, exchange configurations that are at higher risk for nondisjunction in humans and other organisms, we examined both exchange and segregation patterns in 2728 oocytes from mice heterozygous for paracentric inversions, as well as controls. We found dramatic alterations in exchange position in the heterozygotes, including an increased frequency of distal exchanges for two of the inversions studied. However, nondisjunction was not significantly increased in oocytes heterozygous for any inversion. When data from all inversion heterozygotes were pooled, meiotic nondisjunction was slightly but significantly higher in inversion heterozygotes (1.2%) than in controls (0%), although the frequency was still too low to justify the use of inversion heterozygotes as a model of human nondisjunction. PMID:15082541

  18. DAF-2 and ERK couple nutrient availability to meiotic progression during Caenorhabditis elegans oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Andrew L; Chen, Jessica; Joo, Hyoe-Jin; Drake, Melanie; Shidate, Miri; Kseib, Cedric; Arur, Swathi

    2013-10-28

    Coupling the production of mature gametes and fertilized zygotes to favorable nutritional conditions improves reproductive success. In invertebrates, the proliferation of female germline stem cells is regulated by nutritional status. However, in mammals, the number of female germline stem cells is set early in development, with oocytes progressing through meiosis later in life. Mechanisms that couple later steps of oogenesis to environmental conditions remain largely undefined. We show that, in the presence of food, the DAF-2 insulin-like receptor signals through the RAS-ERK pathway to drive meiotic prophase I progression and oogenesis; in the absence of food, the resultant inactivation of insulin-like signaling leads to downregulation of the RAS-ERK pathway, and oogenesis is stalled. Thus, the insulin-like signaling pathway couples nutrient sensing to meiotic I progression and oocyte production in C. elegans, ensuring that oocytes are only produced under conditions favorable for the survival of the resulting zygotes.

  19. Meiotic studies in some species of tribe Cichorieae (Asteraceae) from Western Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Raghbir Chand; Goyal, Henna; Singh, Vijay; Goel, Rajesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The present paper deals with meiotic studies in 15 species belonging to 6 genera of the tribe Cichorieae from various localities of Western Himalayas. The chromosome number has been reported for the first time in Hieracium crocatum (2n = 10) and Lactuca lessertiana (2n = 2x = 16). Further, intraspecific variability has been reported for the first time in H. umbellatum (2n = 2x = 10 and 2n = 6x = 54), Tragopogon dubius (2n = 2x = 14 and 2n = 4x = 28), and T. gracilis (2n = 2x = 14). The chromosome report of 2n = 2x = 10 in Youngia tenuifolia is made for the first time in India. Maximum numbers of the populations show laggards, chromosome stickiness, and cytomixis from early prophase to telophase-II, leading to the formation of aneuploid cells or meiocytes with double chromosome number. Such meiotic abnormalities produce unreduced pollen grains and the reduced pollen viability.

  20. [Meiotic abnormalities as expression of nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility in crosses of Pisum sativum subspecies].

    PubMed

    Bogdanova, V S; Galieva, E R

    2009-05-01

    Meiosis in anthers and mitosis in somatic cells were studied in reciprocal F1 hybrids of the accession VIR320, which belonged to wild Pisum sativum ssp. elatius (Bieb.) Schmal., and the laboratory line Sprint-1. When VIR320 was used as a maternal form, the hybrids displayed nuclear-cytoplasmic conflict, which caused chlorophyll defects and meiotic abnormalities. One or two chromosomes lagged in the equatorial region during chromosome segregation to the poles, distorting cytokinesis and yielding abnormal microspores. Chlorophyll defects were not observed, and meiotic abnormalities were far less frequent in reciprocal hybrids and in the case of an abnormal paternal inheritance of plastids from Sprint-1. Mitosis lacked overt abnormalities in all of the hybrids.

  1. PRDM9 is a major determinant of meiotic recombination hotspots in humans and mice.

    PubMed

    Baudat, F; Buard, J; Grey, C; Fledel-Alon, A; Ober, C; Przeworski, M; Coop, G; de Massy, B

    2010-02-12

    Meiotic recombination events cluster into narrow segments of the genome, defined as hotspots. Here, we demonstrate that a major player for hotspot specification is the Prdm9 gene. First, two mouse strains that differ in hotspot usage are polymorphic for the zinc finger DNA binding array of PRDM9. Second, the human consensus PRDM9 allele is predicted to recognize the 13-mer motif enriched at human hotspots; this DNA binding specificity is verified by in vitro studies. Third, allelic variants of PRDM9 zinc fingers are significantly associated with variability in genome-wide hotspot usage among humans. Our results provide a molecular basis for the distribution of meiotic recombination in mammals, in which the binding of PRDM9 to specific DNA sequences targets the initiation of recombination at specific locations in the genome.

  2. The rate of meiotic gene conversion varies by sex and age

    PubMed Central

    Halldorsson, Bjarni V.; Hardarson, Marteinn T.; Kehr, Birte; Styrkarsdottir, Unnur; Gylfason, Arnaldur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Zink, Florian; Jonasdottir, Adalbjorg; Jonasdottir, Aslaug; Sulem, Patrick; Masson, Gisli; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Helgason, Agnar; Kong, Augustine; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Stefansson, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic recombination involves a combination of gene conversion and crossover events that along with mutations produce germline genetic diversity. Here, we report the discovery of 3,176 SNP and 61 indel gene conversions. Our estimate of the non-crossover (NCO) gene conversion rate (G) is 7.0 for SNPs and 5.8 for indels per Mb per generation, and the GC bias is 67.6%. For indels we demonstrate a 65.6% preference for the shorter allele. NCO gene conversions from mothers are longer than those from fathers and G is 2.17 times greater in mothers. Notably, G increases with the age of mothers, but not fathers. A disproportionate number of NCO gene conversions in older mothers occur outside double strand break (DSB) regions and in regions with relatively low GC content. This points to age-related changes in the mechanisms of meiotic gene conversions in oocytes. PMID:27643539

  3. Meiotic Studies in Some Species of Tribe Cichorieae (Asteraceae) from Western Himalayas

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Raghbir Chand; Goyal, Henna; Singh, Vijay; Goel, Rajesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The present paper deals with meiotic studies in 15 species belonging to 6 genera of the tribe Cichorieae from various localities of Western Himalayas. The chromosome number has been reported for the first time in Hieracium crocatum (2n = 10) and Lactuca lessertiana (2n = 2x = 16). Further, intraspecific variability has been reported for the first time in H. umbellatum (2n = 2x = 10 and 2n = 6x = 54), Tragopogon dubius (2n = 2x = 14 and 2n = 4x = 28), and T. gracilis (2n = 2x = 14). The chromosome report of 2n = 2x = 10 in Youngia tenuifolia is made for the first time in India. Maximum numbers of the populations show laggards, chromosome stickiness, and cytomixis from early prophase to telophase-II, leading to the formation of aneuploid cells or meiocytes with double chromosome number. Such meiotic abnormalities produce unreduced pollen grains and the reduced pollen viability. PMID:25489603

  4. Loss of MAX results in meiotic entry in mouse embryonic and germline stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Ayumu; Hirasaki, Masataka; Hishida, Tomoaki; Wu, Jun; Okamura, Daiji; Ueda, Atsushi; Nishimoto, Masazumi; Nakachi, Yutaka; Mizuno, Yosuke; Okazaki, Yasushi; Matsui, Yasuhisa; Belmonte, Juan Carlos Izpisua; Okuda, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    Meiosis is a unique process that allows the generation of reproductive cells. It remains largely unknown how meiosis is initiated in germ cells and why non-germline cells do not undergo meiosis. We previously demonstrated that knockdown of Max expression, a gene encoding a partner of MYC family proteins, strongly activates expression of germ cell-related genes in ESCs. Here we find that complete ablation of Max expression in ESCs results in profound cytological changes reminiscent of cells undergoing meiotic cell division. Furthermore, our analyses uncovers that Max expression is transiently attenuated in germ cells undergoing meiosis in vivo and its forced reduction induces meiosis-like cytological changes in cultured germline stem cells. Mechanistically, Max depletion alterations are, in part, due to impairment of the function of an atypical PRC1 complex (PRC1.6), in which MAX is one of the components. Our data highlight MAX as a new regulator of meiotic onset. PMID:27025988

  5. The meiotic stage of nondisjunction in trisomy 21: Determination by using DNA polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Antonarakis, Stylianos E.; Petersen, Michael B.; McInnis, Melvin G.; Adelsberger, Patricia A.; Schinzel, Albert A.; Binkert, Franz; Pangalos, Constantine; Raoul, Odile; Slaugenhaupt, Susan A.; Hafez, Mohamed; Cohen, Maimon M.; Roulson, Diane; Schwartz, Stuart; Mikkelsen, Margareta; Tranebjaerg, Lisbeth; Greenberg, Frank; Hoar, David I.; Rudd, Noreen L.; Warren, Andrew C.; Metaxotou, Caterina; Bartsocas, Christos; Chakravarti, Aravinda

    1992-01-01

    We have studied DNA polymorphisms at loci in the pericentromeric region on the long arm of chromosome 21 in 200 families with trisomy 21, in order to determine the meiotic origin of nondisjunction. Maintenance of heterozygosity for parental markers in the individual with trisomy 21 was interpreted as resulting from a meiosis I error, while reduction to homozygosity was attributed to a meiosis II error. Nondisjunction was paternal in 9 cases and was maternal in 188 cases, as reported earlier. Among the 188 maternal cases, nondisjunction occurred in meiosis I in 128 cases and in meiosis II in 38 cases; in 22 cases the DNA markers used were uninformative. Therefore meiosis I was responsible for 77.1% and meiosis II for 22.9% of maternal nondisjunction. Among the 9 paternal nondisjunction cases the error occurred in meiosis I in 2 cases (22.2%) and in meiosis II in 7 (77.8%) cases. Since there was no significant difference in the distribution of maternal ages between maternal I error versus maternal II error, it is unlikely that an error at a particular meiotic stage contributes significantly to the increasing incidence of Down syndrome with advancing maternal age. Although the DNA polymorphisms used were at loci which map close to the centromere, it is likely that rare errors in meiotic-origin assignments may have occurred because of a small number of crossovers between the markers and the centromere. Analysis of these polymorphisms may provide a more accurate understanding of the meiotic stage of nondisjunction in trisomy 21 than that previously provided by chromosomal heteromorphisms. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:1347192

  6. Mek1/Mre4 is a master regulator of meiotic recombination in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Hollingsworth, Nancy M.

    2016-01-01

    Sexually reproducing organisms create gametes with half the somatic cell chromosome number so that fusion of gametes at fertilization does not change the ploidy of the cell. This reduction in chromosome number occurs by the specialized cell division of meiosis in which two rounds of chromosome segregation follow a single round of chromosome duplication. Meiotic crossovers formed between the non-sister chromatids of homologous chromosomes, combined with sister chromatid cohesion, physically connect homologs, thereby allowing proper segregation at the first meiotic division. Meiotic recombination is initiated by programmed double strand breaks (DSBs) whose repair is highly regulated such that (1) there is a bias for recombination with homologs rather than sister chromatids, (2) crossovers are distributed throughout the genome by a process called interference, (3) crossover homeostasis regulates the balance between crossover and non-crossover repair to maintain a critical number of crossovers and (4) each pair of homologs receives at least one crossover. It was previously known that the imposition of interhomolog bias in budding yeast requires meiosis-specific modifications to the DNA damage response and the local activation of the meiosis-specific Mek1/Mre4 (hereafter Mek1) kinase at DSBs. However, because inactivation of Mek1 results in intersister, rather than interhomolog DSB repair, whether Mek1 had a role in interhomolog pathway choice was unknown. A recent study by Chen et al. (2015) reveals that Mek1 indirectly regulates the crossover/non-crossover decision between homologs as well as genetic interference. It does this by enabling phosphorylation of Zip1, the meiosis-specific transverse filament protein of the synaptonemal complex (SC), by the conserved cell cycle kinase, Cdc7-Dbf4 (DDK). These results suggest that Mek1 is a “master regulator” of meiotic recombination in budding yeast.

  7. Maize germinal cell initials accommodate hypoxia and precociously express meiotic genes.

    PubMed

    Kelliher, Timothy; Walbot, Virginia

    2014-02-01

    In flowering plants, anthers are the site of de novo germinal cell specification, male meiosis, and pollen development. Atypically, anthers lack a meristem. Instead, both germinal and somatic cell types differentiate from floral stem cells packed into anther lobes. To better understand anther cell fate specification and to provide a resource for the reproductive biology community, we isolated cohorts of germinal and somatic initials from maize anthers within 36 h of fate acquisition, identifying 815 specific and 1714 significantly enriched germinal transcripts, plus 2439 specific and 2112 significantly enriched somatic transcripts. To clarify transcripts involved in cell differentiation, we contrasted these profiles to anther primordia prior to fate specification and to msca1 anthers arrested in the first step of fate specification and hence lacking normal cell types. The refined cell-specific profiles demonstrated that both germinal and somatic cell populations differentiate quickly and express unique transcription factor sets; a subset of transcript localizations was validated by in situ hybridization. Surprisingly, germinal initials starting 5 days of mitotic divisions were enriched significantly in >100 transcripts classified in meiotic processes that included recombination and synapsis, along with gene sets involved in RNA metabolism, redox homeostasis, and cytoplasmic ATP generation. Enrichment of meiotic-specific genes in germinal initials challenges current dogma that the mitotic to meiotic transition occurs later in development during pre-meiotic S phase. Expression of cytoplasmic energy generation genes suggests that male germinal cells accommodate hypoxia by diverting carbon away from mitochondrial respiration into alternative pathways that avoid producing reactive oxygen species (ROS).

  8. New observations on the meiotic process in the marine dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans (Noctilucales, dinophyceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Cheng-Xu; Yan, Xiao-Jun

    2002-03-01

    The meiotic process in Noctiluca scintillans were observed under light microscope. Some abnormal cell divisions, incompletely separated “zoospores” and the changes of the zoospores are described in this paper. Together with the findings of field samplings and the previous results by other researcher, the process of meiosis in N. scintillans was supposed to be a pathway to reduce the extra high density of NH3-N within the cell in order to ensure normal population growth.

  9. Ex-vivo assessment of chronic toxicity of low levels of cadmium on testicular meiotic cells.

    PubMed

    Geoffroy-Siraudin, Cendrine; Perrard, Marie-Hélène; Ghalamoun-Slaimi, Rahma; Ali, Sazan; Chaspoul, Florence; Lanteaume, André; Achard, Vincent; Gallice, Philippe; Durand, Philippe; Guichaoua, Marie-Roberte

    2012-08-01

    Using a validated model of culture of rat seminiferous tubules, we assessed the effects of 0.1, 1 and 10 μg/L cadmium (Cd) on spermatogenic cells over a 2-week culture period. With concentrations of 1 and 10 μg/L in the culture medium, the Cd concentration in the cells, determined by ICP-MS, increased with concentration in the medium and the day of culture. Flow cytometric analysis enabled us to evaluate changes in the number of Sertoli cells and germ cells during the culture period. The number of Sertoli cells did not appear to be affected by Cd. By contrast, spermatogonia and meiotic cells were decreased by 1 and 10 μg/L Cd in a time and dose dependent manner. Stage distribution of the meiotic prophase I and qualitative study of the synaptonemal complexes (SC) at the pachytene stage were performed by immunocytochemistry with an anti SCP3 antibody. Cd caused a time-and-dose-dependent increase of total abnormalities, of fragmented SC and of asynapsis from concentration of 0.1 μg/L. Additionally, we observed a new SC abnormality, the "motheaten" SC. This abnormality is frequently associated with asynapsis and SC widening which increased with both the Cd concentration and the duration of exposure. This abnormality suggests that Cd disrupts the structure and function of proteins involved in pairing and/or meiotic recombination. These results show that Cd induces dose-and-time-dependent alterations of the meiotic process of spermatogenesis ex-vivo, and that the lowest metal concentration, which induces an adverse effect, may vary with the cell parameter studied.

  10. Segregation of yeast polymorphic STA genes in meiotic recombinants and analysis of glucoamylase production.

    PubMed

    Balogh, I; Maráz, A

    1996-12-01

    Hybrid yeast strains were constructed using haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. diastaticus strains to get haploid meiotic recombinants having more than one copy of STA1, STA2, and STA3 genes. STA genes were localized on the chromosomes by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Working gene dosage effects were found among STA genes in liquid starch medium, indicating low levels of glucose repression. Growth of strains, however, was not influenced by their STA copy number.

  11. Chromosome Synapsis Alleviates Mek1-Dependent Suppression of Meiotic DNA Repair

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Vijayalakshmi V.; MacQueen, Amy J.; Vader, Gerben; Shinohara, Miki; Sanchez, Aurore; Borde, Valérie; Shinohara, Akira; Hochwagen, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Faithful meiotic chromosome segregation and fertility require meiotic recombination between homologous chromosomes rather than the equally available sister chromatid, a bias that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae depends on the meiotic kinase, Mek1. Mek1 is thought to mediate repair template bias by specifically suppressing sister-directed repair. Instead, we found that when Mek1 persists on closely paired (synapsed) homologues, DNA repair is severely delayed, suggesting that Mek1 suppresses any proximal repair template. Accordingly, Mek1 is excluded from synapsed homologues in wild-type cells. Exclusion requires the AAA+-ATPase Pch2 and is directly coupled to synaptonemal complex assembly. Stage-specific depletion experiments further demonstrate that DNA repair in the context of synapsed homologues requires Rad54, a repair factor inhibited by Mek1. These data indicate that the sister template is distinguished from the homologue primarily by its closer proximity to inhibitory Mek1 activity. We propose that once pairing or synapsis juxtaposes homologues, exclusion of Mek1 is necessary to avoid suppression of all templates and accelerate repair progression. PMID:26870961

  12. Nonrandom segregation of the mouse univalent X chromosome: evidence of spindle-mediated meiotic drive.

    PubMed Central

    LeMaire-Adkins, R; Hunt, P A

    2000-01-01

    A fundamental principle of Mendelian inheritance is random segregation of alleles to progeny; however, examples of distorted transmission either of specific alleles or of whole chromosomes have been described in a variety of species. In humans and mice, a distortion in chromosome transmission is often associated with a chromosome abnormality. One such example is the fertile XO female mouse. A transmission distortion effect that results in an excess of XX over XO daughters among the progeny of XO females has been recognized for nearly four decades. Utilizing contemporary methodology that combines immunofluorescence, FISH, and three-dimensional confocal microscopy, we have readdressed the meiotic segregation behavior of the single X chromosome in oocytes from XO females produced on two different inbred backgrounds. Our studies demonstrate that segregation of the univalent X chromosome at the first meiotic division is nonrandom, with preferential retention of the X chromosome in the oocyte in approximately 60% of cells. We propose that this deviation from Mendelian expectations is facilitated by a spindle-mediated mechanism. This mechanism, which appears to be a general feature of the female meiotic process, has implications for the frequency of nondisjunction in our species. PMID:11014823

  13. An analysis of meiotic impairment and of sex chromosome associations throughout meiosis in XYY mice.

    PubMed

    Mahadevaiah, S K; Evans, E P; Burgoyne, P S

    2000-01-01

    The existing XYY meiotic data for mice present a very heterogeneous picture with respect to the relative frequencies of different sex chromosome associations, both at pachytene and diakinesis/metaphase I. Furthermore, where both pachytene and diakinesis/MI data are available for the same males, the frequencies of the different configurations at the two stages are very different. In the present paper we utilise "XYY" and "XY/XYY" mosaic mice with cytologically distinguishable Y chromosomes to investigate the factors responsible for this heterogeneity between different males and between the two meiotic stages. It is concluded (1) that the initial pattern of synapsis is driven by the relatedness of the three pseudoautosomal regions (PARs); (2) that the order and extent of PAR synapsis within radial trivalents are also affected by PAR relatedness and that this leads to chiasmata being preferentially formed between closely related PARs; (3) that trivalents with a single chiasma resolve into a bivalent + univalent by the diakinesis stage; (4) that although many spermatocytes with asynapsed sex chromosomes are eliminated between pachytene and diakinesis, those that survive this phase of elimination progress to the first meiotic metaphase (MI) and accumulate in large numbers, leading to an over-representation of those with univalents as compared to radial trivalents; and (5) that the arrested MI cells are eventually eliminated, so that very few "XYY" cells contribute products to MII.

  14. C. elegans HIM-17 links chromatin modification and competence for initiation of meiotic recombination.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Kirthi C; Villeneuve, Anne M

    2004-08-20

    Initiation of meiotic recombination by double-strand breaks (DSBs) must occur in a controlled fashion to avoid jeopardizing genome integrity. Here, we identify chromatin-associated protein HIM-17 as a link between chromatin state and DSB formation during C. elegans meiosis. Dependencies of several meiotic prophase events on HIM-17 parallel those seen for DSB-generating enzyme SPO-11: HIM-17 is essential for DSB formation but dispensable for homolog synapsis. Crossovers and chiasmata are eliminated in him-17 null mutants but are restored by artificially induced DSBs, indicating that all components required to convert DSBs into chiasmata are present. Unlike SPO-11, HIM-17 is also required for proper accumulation of histone H3 methylation at lysine 9 on meiotic prophase chromosomes. HIM-17 shares structural features with three proteins that interact genetically with LIN-35/Rb, a known component of chromatin-modifying complexes. Furthermore, DSB levels and incidence of chiasmata can be modulated by loss of LIN-35/Rb. These and other data suggest that chromatin state governs the timing of DSB competence.

  15. Cyclin B-cdk activity stimulates meiotic rereplication in budding yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Strich, Randy; Mallory, Michael J; Jarnik, Michal; Cooper, Katrina F

    2004-01-01

    Haploidization of gametes during meiosis requires a single round of premeiotic DNA replication (meiS) followed by two successive nuclear divisions. This study demonstrates that ectopic activation of cyclin B/cyclin-dependent kinase in budding yeast recruits up to 30% of meiotic cells to execute one to three additional rounds of meiS. Rereplication occurs prior to the meiotic nuclear divisions, indicating that this process is different from the postmeiotic mitoses observed in other fungi. The cells with overreplicated DNA produced asci containing up to 20 spores that were viable and haploid and demonstrated Mendelian marker segregation. Genetic tests indicated that these cells executed the meiosis I reductional division and possessed a spindle checkpoint. Finally, interfering with normal synaptonemal complex formation or recombination increased the efficiency of rereplication. These studies indicate that the block to rereplication is very different in meiotic and mitotic cells and suggest a negative role for the recombination machinery in allowing rereplication. Moreover, the production of haploids, regardless of the genome content, suggests that the cell counts replication cycles, not chromosomes, in determining the number of nuclear divisions to execute. PMID:15342503

  16. Kif2a regulates spindle organization and cell cycle progression in meiotic oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Zi-Yun; Ma, Xue-Shan; Liang, Qiu-Xia; Zhang, Teng; Xu, Zhao-Yang; Meng, Tie-Gang; Ouyang, Ying-Chun; Hou, Yi; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan; Quan, Song

    2016-01-01

    Kif2a is a member of the Kinesin-13 microtubule depolymerases. Here, we report the expression, subcellular localization and functions of Kif2a during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. Immunoblotting analysis showed that Kif2a was gradually increased form GV to the M I stages, and then decreased slightly at the M II stage. Confocal microscopy identified that Kif2a localized to the meiotic spindle, especially concentrated at the spindle poles and inner centromeres in metaphase and translocated to the midbody at telophase. Kif2a depletion by siRNA microinjection generated severely defective spindles and misaligned chromosomes, reduced microtubule depolymerization, which led to significant pro-M I/M Iarrest and failure of first polar body (PB1) extrusion. Kif2a-depleted oocytes were also defective in spindle pole localization of γ-tubulin and showed spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) protein Bub3 at the kinetochores even after 10 hr extended culture. These results demonstrate that Kif2a may act as a microtubule depolymerase, regulating microtubule dynamics, spindle assembly and chromosome congression, and thus cell cycle progression during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. PMID:27991495

  17. Brca2-Pds5 complexes mobilize persistent meiotic recombination sites to the nuclear envelope.

    PubMed

    Kusch, Thomas

    2015-02-15

    Homologous recombination is required for reciprocal exchange between homologous chromosome arms during meiosis. Only select meiotic recombination events become chromosomal crossovers; the majority of recombination outcomes are noncrossovers. Growing evidence suggests that crossovers are repaired after noncrossovers. Here, I report that persisting recombination sites are mobilized to the nuclear envelope of Drosophila pro-oocytes during mid-pachytene. Their number correlates with the average crossover rate per meiosis. Proteomic and interaction studies reveal that the recombination mediator Brca2 associates with lamin and the cohesion factor Pds5 to secure persistent recombination sites at the nuclear envelope. In Rad51(-/-) females, all persistent DNA breaks are directed to the nuclear envelope. By contrast, a reduction of Pds5 or Brca2 levels abolishes the movement and has a negative impact on crossover rates. The data suggest that persistent meiotic DNA double-strand breaks might correspond to crossovers, which are mobilized to the nuclear envelope for their repair. The identification of Brca2-Pds5 complexes as key mediators of this process provides a first mechanistic explanation for the contribution of lamins and cohesins to meiotic recombination.

  18. akirin is required for diakinesis bivalent structure and synaptonemal complex disassembly at meiotic prophase I.

    PubMed

    Clemons, Amy M; Brockway, Heather M; Yin, Yizhi; Kasinathan, Bhavatharini; Butterfield, Yaron S; Jones, Steven J M; Colaiácovo, Monica P; Smolikove, Sarit

    2013-04-01

    During meiosis, evolutionarily conserved mechanisms regulate chromosome remodeling, leading to the formation of a tight bivalent structure. This bivalent, a linked pair of homologous chromosomes, is essential for proper chromosome segregation in meiosis. The formation of a tight bivalent involves chromosome condensation and restructuring around the crossover. The synaptonemal complex (SC), which mediates homologous chromosome association before crossover formation, disassembles concurrently with increased condensation during bivalent remodeling. Both chromosome condensation and SC disassembly are likely critical steps in acquiring functional bivalent structure. The mechanisms controlling SC disassembly, however, remain unclear. Here we identify akir-1 as a gene involved in key events of meiotic prophase I in Caenorhabditis elegans. AKIR-1 is a protein conserved among metazoans that lacks any previously known function in meiosis. We show that akir-1 mutants exhibit severe meiotic defects in late prophase I, including improper disassembly of the SC and aberrant chromosome condensation, independently of the condensin complexes. These late-prophase defects then lead to aberrant reconfiguring of the bivalent. The meiotic divisions are delayed in akir-1 mutants and are accompanied by lagging chromosomes. Our analysis therefore provides evidence for an important role of proper SC disassembly in configuring a functional bivalent structure.

  19. Stag3 regulates microtubule stability to maintain euploidy during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mianqun; Dai, Xiaoxin; Sun, Yalu; Lu, Yajuan; Zhou, Changyin; Miao, Yilong; Wang, Ying; Xiong, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Stag3, a meiosis-specific subunit of cohesin complex, has been demonstrated to function in both male and female reproductive systems in mammals. However, its roles during oocyte meiotic maturation have not been fully defined. In the present study, we report that Stag3 uniquely accumulates on the spindle apparatus and colocalizes with microtubule fibers during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. Depletion of Stag3 by gene-targeting morpholino disrupts normal spindle assembly and chromosome alignment in oocytes. We also find that depletion of Stag3 reduces the acetylated level of tubulin and microtubule resistance to microtubule depolymerizing drug, suggesting that Stag3 is required for microtubule stability. Consistent with these observations, kinetochore-microtubule attachment, an important mechanism controlling chromosome alignment, is severely impaired in Stag3-depleted oocytes, resultantly causing the significantly increased incidence of aneuploid eggs. Collectively, our data reveal that Stag3 is a novel regulator of microtubule dynamics to ensure euploidy during moue oocyte meiotic maturation. PMID:27906670

  20. Evolutionary Rate Covariation in Meiotic Proteins Results from Fluctuating Evolutionary Pressure in Yeasts and Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Nathan L.; Alani, Eric; Aquadro, Charles F.

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary rates of functionally related proteins tend to change in parallel over evolutionary time. Such evolutionary rate covariation (ERC) is a sequence-based signature of coevolution and a potentially useful signature to infer functional relationships between proteins. One major hypothesis to explain ERC is that fluctuations in evolutionary pressure acting on entire pathways cause parallel rate changes for functionally related proteins. To explore this hypothesis we analyzed ERC within DNA mismatch repair (MMR) and meiosis proteins over phylogenies of 18 yeast species and 22 mammalian species. We identified a strong signature of ERC between eight yeast proteins involved in meiotic crossing over, which seems to have resulted from relaxation of constraint specifically in Candida glabrata. These and other meiotic proteins in C. glabrata showed marked rate acceleration, likely due to its apparently clonal reproductive strategy and the resulting infrequent use of meiotic proteins. This correlation between change of reproductive mode and change in constraint supports an evolutionary pressure origin for ERC. Moreover, we present evidence for similar relaxations of constraint in additional pathogenic yeast species. Mammalian MMR and meiosis proteins also showed statistically significant ERC; however, there was not strong ERC between crossover proteins, as observed in yeasts. Rather, mammals exhibited ERC in different pathways, such as piRNA-mediated defense against transposable elements. Overall, if fluctuation in evolutionary pressure is responsible for ERC, it could reveal functional relationships within entire protein pathways, regardless of whether they physically interact or not, so long as there was variation in constraint on that pathway. PMID:23183665

  1. Meiotic recombination at the Lmp2 hotspot tolerates minor sequence divergence between homologous chromosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshino, Masayasu; Sagai, Tomoko; Shiroishi, Toshihiko

    1996-06-01

    Recombination is widely considered to linearly depend on the length of the homologous sequences. An 11% mismatch decreases the rate of phage-plasmid recombination 240-fold. Two single nucleotide mismatches, which reduce the longest uninterrupted stretch of similarity from 232 base pairs (bp) to 134 bp, reduce gene conversion in mouse L cells 20-fold. The efficiency of gene targeting through homologous recombination in mouse embryonic stem cells can be increased by using an isogenic, rather than a non-isogenic, DNA construct. In this study we asked whether a high degree of sequence identity between homologous mouse chromosomes enhances meiotic recombination at a hotspot. Sites of meiotic recombination in the mouse major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II region are not randomly distributed but are almost all clustered within short segments known as recombinational hotspots. The wm7 MHC haplotype, derived from Japanese wild mice Mus musculus molossinus, enhances meiotic recombination at a hotspot near the Lmp2 gene. Heterozygotes between the wm7 haplotype and the b or k haplotypes have yielded a high frequency of recombination (2.1%) in 1.3 kilobase kb segment of this hotspot. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Population dynamics of a meiotic/mitotic expansion model for the fragile X syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, A.E.; Sherman, S.L.

    1995-12-01

    A model to explain the mutational process and population dynamics of the fragile X syndrome is presented. The mutational mechanism was assumed to be a multi-pathway, multistep process. Expansion of CGG repeats was based on an underlying biological process and was assumed to occur at two time points: meiosis and early embryonic development (mitosis). Meiotic expansion was assumed to occur equally in oogenesis and spermatogenesis, while mitotic expansion was restricted to somatic, or constitutional, alleles of maternal origin. Testable hypotheses were predicted by this meiotic/mitotic model. First, parental origin of mutation is predicted to be associated with the risk of a woman to have a full-mutation child. Second, {open_quotes}contractions{close_quotes} seen in premutation male transmissions are predicted not to be true contractions in repeat size, but a consequence of the lack of mitotic expansion in paternally derived alleles. Third, a portion of full-mutation males should have full-mutation alleles in their sperm, due to the lack of complete selection against the full-mutation female. Fourth, a specific premutation-allele frequency distribution is predicted and differs from that based on models assuming only meiotic expansion. Last, it is predicted that {approximately}65 generations are required to achieve equilibrium, but this depends greatly on the expansion probabilities. 42 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Genome rearrangements and pervasive meiotic drive cause hybrid infertility in fission yeast

    PubMed Central

    Zanders, Sarah E; Eickbush, Michael T; Yu, Jonathan S; Kang, Ji-Won; Fowler, Kyle R; Smith, Gerald R; Malik, Harmit Singh

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid sterility is one of the earliest postzygotic isolating mechanisms to evolve between two recently diverged species. Here we identify causes underlying hybrid infertility of two recently diverged fission yeast species Schizosaccharomyces pombe and S. kambucha, which mate to form viable hybrid diploids that efficiently complete meiosis, but generate few viable gametes. We find that chromosomal rearrangements and related recombination defects are major but not sole causes of hybrid infertility. At least three distinct meiotic drive alleles, one on each S. kambucha chromosome, independently contribute to hybrid infertility by causing nonrandom spore death. Two of these driving loci are linked by a chromosomal translocation and thus constitute a novel type of paired meiotic drive complex. Our study reveals how quickly multiple barriers to fertility can arise. In addition, it provides further support for models in which genetic conflicts, such as those caused by meiotic drive alleles, can drive speciation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02630.001 PMID:24963140

  4. Self-Organization of Meiotic Recombination Initiation: General Principles and Molecular Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Keeney, Scott; Lange, Julian; Mohibullah, Neeman

    2015-01-01

    Recombination in meiosis is a fascinating case study for the coordination of chromosomal duplication, repair, and segregation with each other and with progression through a cell-division cycle. Meiotic recombination initiates with formation of developmentally programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) at many places across the genome. DSBs are important for successful meiosis but are also dangerous lesions that can mutate or kill, so cells ensure that DSBs are made only at the right times, places, and amounts. This review examines the complex web of pathways that accomplish this control. We explore how chromosome breakage is integrated with meiotic progression and how feedback mechanisms spatially pattern DSB formation and make it homeostatic, robust, and error-correcting. Common regulatory themes recur in different organisms or in different contexts in the same organism. We review this evolutionary and mechanistic conservation but also highlight where control modules have diverged. The framework that emerges helps explain how meiotic chromosomes behave as a self-organizing system. PMID:25421598

  5. Transcription reactivation during the first meiotic prophase in bugs is not dependent on synapsis.

    PubMed

    Viera, Alberto; Parra, María Teresa; Rufas, Julio S; Page, Jesús

    2016-02-22

    During meiosis, transcription is precisely regulated in relation to the process of chromosome synapsis. In mammals, transcription is very low until the completion of synapsis in early pachytene, and then reactivates during mid pachytene, up to the end of diplotene. Moreover, chromosomes or chromosomal regions that do not achieve synapsis undergo a specific process of inactivation called meiotic silencing of unpaired chromatin (MSUC). Sex chromosomes, which are mostly unsynapsed, present a special case of inactivation named meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI). Although processes that are similar to MSUC/MSCI have been described in other species like Sordaria and Caenorhabditis elegans, very few studies have been developed in insects. We present a study on the relationships between synapsis and transcription in two hemipteran species (Graphosoma italicum and Carpocoris fuscispinus) that possess holocentric chromosomes but develop different synaptic patterns. We have found that transcription, revealed by the presence of RNA polymerase II, is very low at the beginning of meiosis, but robustly increases during zygotene, long before the completion of synapsis, excepting in the sex chromosomes. In fact, we show that histone H3 methylation at lysine 9 (H3K9me3) may be present in the sex chromosomes at leptotene, thus acting as a likely epigenetic mark for this inactive state. Our results suggest that the meiotic transcription in these two species is differently regulated from that of mammals and, therefore, offer new opportunities to understand the relationship between synapsis and transcription and the mechanisms that govern MSUC/MSCI processes.

  6. The Mouse INO80 Chromatin-Remodeling Complex Is an Essential Meiotic Factor for Spermatogenesis1

    PubMed Central

    Serber, Daniel W.; Runge, John S.; Menon, Debashish U.; Magnuson, Terry

    2015-01-01

    The ability to faithfully transmit genetic information across generations via the germ cells is a critical aspect of mammalian reproduction. The process of germ cell development requires a number of large-scale modulations of chromatin within the nucleus. One such occasion arises during meiotic recombination, when hundreds of DNA double-strand breaks are induced and subsequently repaired, enabling the transfer of genetic information between homologous chromosomes. The inability to properly repair DNA damage is known to lead to an arrest in the developing germ cells and sterility within the animal. Chromatin-remodeling activity, and in particular the BRG1 subunit of the SWI/SNF complex, has been shown to be required for successful completion of meiosis. In contrast, remodeling complexes of the ISWI and CHD families are required for postmeiotic processes. Little is known regarding the contribution of the INO80 family of chromatin-remodeling complexes, which is a particularly interesting candidate due to its well described functions during DNA double-strand break repair. Here we show that INO80 is expressed in developing spermatocytes during the early stages of meiotic prophase I. Based on this information, we used a conditional allele to delete the INO80 core ATPase subunit, thereby eliminating INO80 chromatin-remodeling activity in this lineage. The loss of INO80 resulted in an arrest during meiosis associated with a failure to repair DNA damage during meiotic recombination. PMID:26607718

  7. Meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in male mice with targeted disruptions of Xist.

    PubMed

    Turner, James M A; Mahadevaiah, Shantha K; Elliott, David J; Garchon, Henri-Jean; Pehrson, John R; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Burgoyne, Paul S

    2002-11-01

    X chromosome inactivation occurs twice during the life cycle of placental mammals. In normal females, one X chromosome in each cell is inactivated early in embryogenesis, while in the male, the X chromosome is inactivated together with the Y chromosome in spermatogenic cells shortly before or during early meiotic prophase. Inactivation of one X chromosome in somatic cells of females serves to equalise X-linked gene dosage between males and females, but the role of male meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) is unknown. The inactive X-chromosome of somatic cells and male meiotic cells share similar properties such as late replication and enrichment for histone macroH2A1.2, suggesting a common mechanism of inactivation. This possibility is supported by the fact that Xist RNA that mediates somatic X-inactivation is expressed in the testis of male mice and humans. In the present study we show that both Xist RNA and Tsix RNA, an antisense RNA that controls Xist function in the soma, are expressed in the testis in a germ-cell-dependent manner. However, our finding that MSCI and sex-body formation are unaltered in mice with targeted mutations of Xist that prevent somatic X inactivation suggests that somatic X-inactivation and MSCI occur by fundamentally different mechanisms.

  8. Multiple sex chromosomes in the light of female meiotic drive in amniote vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Pokorná, Martina; Altmanová, Marie; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2014-04-01

    It is notable that the occurrence of multiple sex chromosomes differs significantly between major lineages of amniote vertebrates. In this respect, birds are especially conspicuous, as multiple sex chromosomes have not been observed in this lineage so far. On the other hand, in mammals, multiple sex chromosomes have evolved many times independently. We hypothesize that this contrast can be related to the different involvement of sex-specific sex chromosomes in female meiosis subjected to the female meiotic drive under male versus female heterogamety. Essentially, the male-specific Y chromosome is not involved in female meiosis and is therefore sheltered against the effects of the female meiotic drive affecting the X chromosome and autosomes. Conversely, the Z and W sex chromosomes are both present in female meiosis. Nonrandom segregation of these sex chromosomes as a consequence of their rearrangements connected with the emergence of multiple sex chromosomes would result in a biased sex ratio, which should be penalized by selection. Therefore, the emergence of multiple sex chromosomes should be less constrained in the lineages with male rather than female heterogamety. Our broader phylogenetic comparison across amniotes supports this prediction. We suggest that our results are consistent with the widespread occurrence of female meiotic drive in amniotes.

  9. A developmentally regulated translational control pathway establishes the meiotic chromosome segregation pattern

    PubMed Central

    Berchowitz, Luke E.; Gajadhar, Aaron S.; van Werven, Folkert J.; De Rosa, Alexandra A.; Samoylova, Mariya L.; Brar, Gloria A.; Xu, Yifeng; Xiao, Che; Futcher, Bruce; Weissman, Jonathan S.; White, Forest M.; Amon, Angelika

    2013-01-01

    Production of haploid gametes from diploid progenitor cells is mediated by a specialized cell division, meiosis, where two divisions, meiosis I and II, follow a single S phase. Errors in progression from meiosis I to meiosis II lead to aneuploid and polyploid gametes, but the regulatory mechanisms controlling this transition are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the conserved kinase Ime2 regulates the timing and order of the meiotic divisions by controlling translation. Ime2 coordinates translational activation of a cluster of genes at the meiosis I–meiosis II transition, including the critical determinant of the meiotic chromosome segregation pattern CLB3. We further show that Ime2 mediates translational control through the meiosis-specific RNA-binding protein Rim4. Rim4 inhibits translation of CLB3 during meiosis I by interacting with the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of CLB3. At the onset of meiosis II, Ime2 kinase activity rises and triggers a decrease in Rim4 protein levels, thereby alleviating translational repression. Our results elucidate a novel developmentally regulated translational control pathway that establishes the meiotic chromosome segregation pattern. PMID:24115771

  10. Functional dynamics of H3K9 methylation during meiotic prophase progression.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Makoto; Nozaki, Masami; Takeda, Naoki; Shinkai, Yoichi

    2007-07-25

    Histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methylation is a crucial epigenetic mark of heterochromatin formation and transcriptional silencing. G9a is a major mammalian H3K9 methyltransferase at euchromatin and is essential for mouse embryogenesis. Here we describe the roles of G9a in germ cell development. Mutant mice in which G9a is specifically inactivated in the germ-lineage displayed sterility due to a drastic loss of mature gametes. G9a-deficient germ cells exhibited perturbation of synchronous synapsis in meiotic prophase. Importantly, mono- and di-methylation of H3K9 (H3K9me1 and 2) in G9a-deficient germ cells were significantly reduced and G9a-regulated genes were overexpressed during meiosis, suggesting that G9a-mediated epigenetic gene silencing is crucial for proper meiotic prophase progression. Finally, we show that H3K9me1 and 2 are dynamically and sex-differentially regulated during the meiotic prophase. This genetic and biochemical evidence strongly suggests that a specific set of H3K9 methyltransferase(s) and demethylase(s) coordinately regulate gametogenesis.

  11. Influence of spermatogenic profile and meiotic abnormalities on reproductive outcome of infertile patients.

    PubMed

    Barri, Pedro N; Vendrell, Jose M; Martinez, Francisca; Coroleu, Buenaventura; Arán, Begoña; Veiga, Anna

    2005-06-01

    Genetic aspects of male infertility and the possible risks of new assisted reproduction and their influence on the development of zygotes and children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) need further research. These patients have an increased risk of diploidy, and disomies are frequent in their spermatozoa. Meiotic disorders are more common in testicular biopsies of patients with severe oligoasthenozoospermia. For these reasons, a detailed andrological study is absolutely mandatory before accepting a couple with these characteristics into an IVF-ICSI programme. When an andrological patient has plasma FSH values >10 IU/l and/or very low total motile sperm count <1 x 10(6), despite a normal karyotype, they clearly need a testicular biopsy and a meiotic study in order to rule out meiotic arrest or synaptic anomalies. Another important aspect to be considered is the possible benefit of applying preimplantation genetic diagnosis in these cases because they normally have a high percentage of chromosomally abnormal embryos, although in the present study this was not evident. All studies agree on the necessity of conducting follow-up studies in the population of children born after IVF-ICSI. In this way, it will be possible to find out if these infertile patients and their offspring have a higher risk of suffering epigenetic errors and imprinting disorders.

  12. Divergent kleisin subunits of cohesin specify mechanisms to tether and release meiotic chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Severson, Aaron F; Meyer, Barbara J

    2014-08-29

    We show that multiple, functionally specialized cohesin complexes mediate the establishment and two-step release of sister chromatid cohesion that underlies the production of haploid gametes. In C. elegans, the kleisin subunits REC-8 and COH-3/4 differ between meiotic cohesins and endow them with distinctive properties that specify how cohesins load onto chromosomes and then trigger and release cohesion. Unlike REC-8 cohesin, COH-3/4 cohesin becomes cohesive through a replication-independent mechanism initiated by the DNA double-stranded breaks that induce crossover recombination. Thus, break-induced cohesion also tethers replicated meiotic chromosomes. Later, recombination stimulates separase-independent removal of REC-8 and COH-3/4 cohesins from reciprocal chromosomal territories flanking the crossover site. This region-specific removal likely underlies the two-step separation of homologs and sisters. Unexpectedly, COH-3/4 performs cohesion-independent functions in synaptonemal complex assembly. This new model for cohesin function diverges from that established in yeast but likely applies directly to plants and mammals, which utilize similar meiotic kleisins.

  13. Structure and meiotic behaviour of B chromosomes in Sphaerium corneum/S. nucleus complex (Bivalvia: Sphaeriidae).

    PubMed

    Kořínková, Tereza; Král, Jiří

    2011-02-01

    Karyotypes of eight populations of Sphaerium corneum and two populations of S. nucleus (Bivalvia: Sphaeriidae) from central Europe were compared. The basic set of these hermaphroditic molluscs is formed by 30 biarmed autosomes and exhibits only slight interpopulational variation in morphology. These differences are not species-specific. One pair of nucleolar organiser regions was detected by silver staining. The prophase and metaphase of the first meiotic division is highly modified in both species. Pachytene is followed by a diffuse stage, characterized by decondensation of chromosomes and by enhanced metabolic activity. The diffuse stage has not been reported in bivalves so far. Bivalents of the following stages are achiasmatic both in the testicular and ovarian part of the gonad. The two species are further peculiar for occurrence of B chromosomes, which is a rare phenomenon in organisms with achiasmatic meiotic systems. The small metacentric B chromosomes exhibit intra- and interindividual variability in number, they show irregular meiotic pairing and segregation (formation of bivalents or univalents), and possess larger proportional amount of constitutive heterochromatin than the A chromosomes. Interestingly, the B chromosomes also undergo decondensation during the diffuse stage like A chromosomes which may indicate their transcriptional activity.

  14. Endogenous Small RNA Mediates Meiotic Silencing of a Novel DNA Transposon.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yizhou; Smith, Kristina M; Taylor, John W; Freitag, Michael; Stajich, Jason E

    2015-06-23

    Genome defense likely evolved to curtail the spread of transposable elements and invading viruses. A combination of effective defense mechanisms has been shown to limit colonization of the Neurospora crassa genome by transposable elements. A novel DNA transposon named Sly1-1 was discovered in the genome of the most widely used laboratory "wild-type" strain FGSC 2489 (OR74A). Meiotic silencing by unpaired DNA, also simply called meiotic silencing, prevents the expression of regions of the genome that are unpaired during karyogamy. This mechanism is posttranscriptional and is proposed to involve the production of small RNA, so-called masiRNAs, by proteins homologous to those involved in RNA interference-silencing pathways in animals, fungi, and plants. Here, we demonstrate production of small RNAs when Sly1-1 was unpaired in a cross between two wild-type strains. These small RNAs are dependent on SAD-1, an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase necessary for meiotic silencing. We present the first case of endogenously produced masiRNA from a novel N. crassa DNA transposable element.

  15. A Maternal Screen for Genes Regulating Drosophila Oocyte Polarity Uncovers New Steps in Meiotic Progression

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Vitor; Kimm, Naomi; Lehmann, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    Meiotic checkpoints monitor chromosome status to ensure correct homologous recombination, genomic integrity, and chromosome segregation. In Drosophila, the persistent presence of double-strand DNA breaks (DSB) activates the ATR/Mei-41 checkpoint, delays progression through meiosis, and causes defects in DNA condensation of the oocyte nucleus, the karyosome. Checkpoint activation has also been linked to decreased levels of the TGFα-like molecule Gurken, which controls normal eggshell patterning. We used this easy-to-score eggshell phenotype in a germ-line mosaic screen in Drosophila to identify new genes affecting meiotic progression, DNA condensation, and Gurken signaling. One hundred eighteen new ventralizing mutants on the second chromosome fell into 17 complementation groups. Here we describe the analysis of 8 complementation groups, including Kinesin heavy chain, the SR protein kinase cuaba, the cohesin-related gene dPds5/cohiba, and the Tudor-domain gene montecristo. Our findings challenge the hypothesis that checkpoint activation upon persistent DSBs is exclusively mediated by ATR/Mei-41 kinase and instead reveal a more complex network of interactions that link DSB formation, checkpoint activation, meiotic delay, DNA condensation, and Gurken protein synthesis. PMID:17507684

  16. Transcript profiling of the meiotic drive phenotype in testis of Aedes aegypti using suppressive subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dongyoung; Jin, Lizhong; Lobo, Neil F; Severson, David W

    2011-09-01

    The meiotic drive gene in Aedes aegypti is tightly linked with the sex determination locus on chromosome 1, and causes highly male-biased sex ratios. We prepared cDNA libraries from testes from the Ae. aegypti T37 strain (driving) and RED strain (non-driving), and used suppressive subtraction hybridization techniques to enrich for T37 testes-specific transcripts. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were obtained from a total of 2784 randomly selected clones from the subtracted T37 (subT37) library as well as the primary libraries for each strain (pT37 and pRED). Sequence analysis identified a total of 171 unique genes in the subT37 library and 299 unique genes among the three libraries. The majority of genes enriched in the subT37 library were associated with signal transduction, development, reproduction, metabolic process and cell cycle functions. Further, as observed with meiotic drive systems in Drosophila and mouse, a number of these genes were associated with signaling cascades that involve the Ras superfamily of regulatory small GTPases. Differential expression of several of these genes was verified in Ae. aegypti pupal testes using qRT-PCR. This study increases our understanding of testes gene expression enriched in adult males from the meiotic drive strain as well as insights into the basic testes transcriptome in Ae. aegypti.

  17. Meiotic prophase roles of Rec8 in crossover recombination and chromosome structure

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Sang-Wook; Lee, Min-Su; Xaver, Martin; Zhang, Liangran; Hong, Soo-Gil; Kong, Yoon-Ju; Cho, Hong-Rae; Kleckner, Nancy; Kim, Keun P.

    2016-01-01

    Rec8 is a prominent component of the meiotic prophase chromosome axis that mediates sister chromatid cohesion, homologous recombination and chromosome synapsis. Here, we explore the prophase roles of Rec8. (i) During the meiotic divisions, Rec8 phosphorylation mediates its separase-mediated cleavage. We show here that such cleavage plays no detectable role for chromosomal events of prophase. (ii) We have analyzed in detail three rec8 phospho-mutants, with 6, 24 or 29 alanine substitutions. A distinct ‘separation of function’ phenotype is revealed. In the mutants, axis formation and recombination initiation are normal, as is non-crossover recombination; in contrast, crossover (CO)-related events are defective. Moreover, the severities of these defects increase coordinately with the number of substitution mutations, consistent with the possibility that global phosphorylation of Rec8 is important for these effects. (iii) We have analyzed the roles of three kinases that phosphorylate Rec8 during prophase. Timed inhibition of Dbf4-dependent Cdc7 kinase confers defects concordant with rec8 phospho-mutant phenotypes. Inhibition of Hrr25 or Cdc5/polo-like kinase does not. Our results suggest that Rec8's prophase function, independently of cohesin cleavage, contributes to CO-specific events in conjunction with the maintenance of homolog bias at the leptotene/zygotene transition of meiotic prophase. PMID:27484478

  18. Rec8 guides canonical Spo11 distribution along yeast meiotic chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Kugou, Kazuto; Fukuda, Tomoyuki; Yamada, Shintaro; Ito, Masaru; Sasanuma, Hiroyuki; Mori, Saori; Katou, Yuki; Itoh, Takehiko; Matsumoto, Kouji; Shibata, Takehiko; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Ohta, Kunihiro

    2009-07-01

    Spo11-mediated DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that initiate meiotic recombination are temporally and spatially controlled. The meiotic cohesin Rec8 has been implicated in regulating DSB formation, but little is known about the features of their interplay. To elucidate this point, we investigated the genome-wide localization of Spo11 in budding yeast during early meiosis by chromatin immunoprecipitation using high-density tiling arrays. We found that Spo11 is dynamically localized to meiotic chromosomes. Spo11 initially accumulated around centromeres and thereafter localized to arm regions as premeiotic S phase proceeded. During this stage, a substantial proportion of Spo11 bound to Rec8 binding sites. Eventually, some of Spo11 further bound to both DSB and Rec8 sites. We also showed that such a change in a distribution of Spo11 is affected by hydroxyurea treatment. Interestingly, deletion of REC8 influences the localization of Spo11 to centromeres and in some of the intervals of the chromosomal arms. Thus, we observed a lack of DSB formation in a region-specific manner. These observations suggest that Rec8 would prearrange the distribution of Spo11 along chromosomes and will provide clues to understanding temporal and spatial regulation of DSB formation.

  19. Targeted induction of meiotic double-strand breaks reveals chromosomal domain-dependent regulation of Spo11 and interactions among potential sites of meiotic recombination.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Tomoyuki; Kugou, Kazuto; Sasanuma, Hiroyuki; Shibata, Takehiko; Ohta, Kunihiro

    2008-02-01

    Meiotic recombination is initiated by programmed DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation mediated by Spo11. DSBs occur with frequency in chromosomal regions called hot domains but are seldom seen in cold domains. To obtain insights into the determinants of the distribution of meiotic DSBs, we examined the effects of inducing targeted DSBs during yeast meiosis using a UAS-directed form of Spo11 (Gal4BD-Spo11) and a meiosis-specific endonuclease, VDE (PI-SceI). Gal4BD-Spo11 cleaved its target sequence (UAS) integrated in hot domains but rarely in cold domains. However, Gal4BD-Spo11 did bind to UAS and VDE efficiently cleaved its recognition sequence in either context, suggesting that a cold domain is not a region of inaccessible or uncleavable chromosome structure. Importantly, self-association of Spo11 occurred at UAS in a hot domain but not in a cold domain, raising the possibility that Spo11 remains in an inactive intermediate state in cold domains. Integration of UAS adjacent to known DSB hotspots allowed us to detect competitive interactions among hotspots for activation. Moreover, the presence of VDE-introduced DSB repressed proximal hotspot activity, implicating DSBs themselves in interactions among hotspots. Thus, potential sites for Spo11-mediated DSB are subject to domain-specific and local competitive regulations during and after DSB formation.

  20. Arabidopsis SPO11-2 functions with SPO11-1 in meiotic recombination.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Nicola J; Kuromori, Takashi; Azumi, Yoshitaka; Roberts, Gethin; Breuer, Christian; Wada, Takuji; Maxwell, Anthony; Roberts, Keith; Sugimoto-Shirasu, Keiko

    2006-10-01

    The Spo11 protein is a eukaryotic homologue of the archaeal DNA topoisomerase VIA subunit (topo VIA). In archaea it is involved, together with its B subunit (topo VIB), in DNA replication. However, most eukaryotes, including yeasts, insects and vertebrates, instead have a single gene for Spo11/topo VIA and no homologues for topo VIB. In these organisms, Spo11 mediates DNA double-strand breaks that initiate meiotic recombination. Many plant species, in contrast to other eukaryotes, have three homologues for Spo11/topo VIA and one for topo VIB. The homologues in Arabidopsis, AtSPO11-1, AtSPO11-2 and AtSPO11-3, all share 20-30% sequence similarity with other Spo11/topo VIA proteins, but their functional relationship during meiosis or other processes is not well understood. Previous genetic evidence suggests that AtSPO11-1 is a true orthologue of Spo11 in other eukaryotes and is required for meiotic recombination, whereas AtSPO11-3 is involved in DNA endo-reduplication as a part of the topo VI complex. In this study, we show that plants homozygous for atspo11-2 exhibit a severe sterility phenotype. Both male and female meiosis are severely disrupted in the atspo11-2 mutant, and this is associated with severe defects in synapsis during the first meiotic division and reduced meiotic recombination. Further genetic analysis revealed that AtSPO11-1 and AtSPO11-2 genetically interact, i.e. plants heterozygous for both atspo11-1 and atspo11-2 are also sterile, suggesting that AtSPO11-1 and AtSPO11-2 have largely overlapping functions. Thus, the three Arabidopsis Spo11 homologues appear to function in two discrete processes, i.e. AtSPO11-1 and AtSPO11-2 in meiotic recombination and AtSPO11-3 in DNA replication.

  1. Probing the meiotic mechanism of intergenomic exchanges by genomic in situ hybridization on lampbrush chromosomes of unisexual Ambystoma (Amphibia: Caudata).

    PubMed

    Bi, Ke; Bogart, James P

    2010-04-01

    The meiotic mechanism of unisexual salamanders in the genus Ambystoma was previously explained by observing lampbrush chromosomes (LBCs). In polyploid unisexual females, a pre-meiotic endomitotic event doubles the chromosome number so that, after meiotic reduction, the mature eggs have the same ploidy as the female. It was assumed that synapses during meiotic I prophase, which result in observed bivalents, join duplicated sister chromosomes. Previous studies also found LBC quadrivalents in some oocytes that could be explained by occasional synapses between homologs. The discovery of widespread intergenomic exchanges among unisexual populations has prompted new speculations on this meiotic mechanism. Synapses that involve homeologous chromosomes may be frequent during meiosis and could be responsible for intergenomic exchanges and the high embryonic mortality of unisexuals. Furthermore, LBC quadrivalents may be established by associations between homeologous rather than homologous chromosomes. The present study investigated these two important aspects pertaining to the mechanism of intergenomic exchanges: the frequency of homeologous synapses and the relationship between homeologous associations and meiotic quadrivalents. We applied genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) on LBCs from oocytes of 14 triploid and two tetraploid unisexual females. Homeologous bivalents were not observed, and all 13 LBC quadrivalents that we found were the result of homologous synapses and were not associated with any homeologous or exchanged LBCs. Intergenomic exchanges were used as markers to compare the same chromosomes at meiotic diplotene and mitotic metaphase stages. We conclude that contemporary intergenomic exchanges are very rare, and no direct link exists between intergenomic exchanges and high embryonic mortality. The actual mechanisms and evolutionary implications of intergenomic exchanges appear to be complicated and difficult to assess. The application of GISH-type molecular

  2. Meiotic prophase abnormalities and metaphase cell death in MLH1-deficient mouse spermatocytes: insights into regulation of spermatogenic progress.

    PubMed

    Eaker, Shannon; Cobb, John; Pyle, April; Handel, Mary Ann

    2002-09-01

    The MLH1 protein is required for normal meiosis in mice and its absence leads to failure in maintenance of pairing between bivalent chromosomes, abnormal meiotic division, and ensuing sterility in both sexes. In this study, we investigated whether failure to develop foci of MLH1 protein on chromosomes in prophase would lead to elimination of prophase spermatocytes, and, if not, whether univalent chromosomes could align normally on the meiotic spindle and whether metaphase spermatocytes would be delayed and/or eliminated. In spite of the absence of MLH1 foci, no apoptosis of spermatocytes in prophase was detected. In fact, chromosomes of pachytene spermatocytes from Mlh1(-/-) mice were competent to condense metaphase chromosomes, both in vivo and in vitro. Most condensed chromosomes were univalents with spatially distinct FISH signals. Typical metaphase events, such as synaptonemal complex breakdown and the phosphorylation of Ser10 on histone H3, occurred in Mlh1(-/-) spermatocytes, suggesting that there is no inhibition of onset of meiotic metaphase in the face of massive chromosomal abnormalities. However, the condensed univalent chromosomes did not align correctly onto the spindle apparatus in the majority of Mlh1(-/-) spermatocytes. Most meiotic metaphase spermatocytes were characterized with bipolar spindles, but chromosomes radiated away from the microtubule-organizing centers in a prometaphase-like pattern rather than achieving a bipolar orientation. Apoptosis was not observed until after the onset of meiotic metaphase. Thus, spermatocytes are not eliminated in direct response to the initial meiotic defect, but are eliminated later. Taken together, these observations suggest that a spindle assembly checkpoint, rather than a recombination or chiasmata checkpoint, may be activated in response to meiotic errors, thereby ensuring elimination of chromosomally abnormal gamete precursors.

  3. Rejuvenation of meiotic cohesion in oocytes during prophase I is required for chiasma maintenance and accurate chromosome segregation.

    PubMed

    Weng, Katherine A; Jeffreys, Charlotte A; Bickel, Sharon E

    2014-09-01

    Chromosome segregation errors in human oocytes are the leading cause of birth defects, and the risk of aneuploid pregnancy increases dramatically as women age. Accurate segregation demands that sister chromatid cohesion remain intact for decades in human oocytes, and gradual loss of the original cohesive linkages established in fetal oocytes is proposed to be a major cause of age-dependent segregation errors. Here we demonstrate that maintenance of meiotic cohesion in Drosophila oocytes during prophase I requires an active rejuvenation program, and provide mechanistic insight into the molecular events that underlie rejuvenation. Gal4/UAS inducible knockdown of the cohesion establishment factor Eco after meiotic S phase, but before oocyte maturation, causes premature loss of meiotic cohesion, resulting in destabilization of chiasmata and subsequent missegregation of recombinant homologs. Reduction of individual cohesin subunits or the cohesin loader Nipped B during prophase I leads to similar defects. These data indicate that loading of newly synthesized replacement cohesin rings by Nipped B and establishment of new cohesive linkages by the acetyltransferase Eco must occur during prophase I to maintain cohesion in oocytes. Moreover, we show that rejuvenation of meiotic cohesion does not depend on the programmed induction of meiotic double strand breaks that occurs during early prophase I, and is therefore mechanistically distinct from the DNA damage cohesion re-establishment pathway identified in G2 vegetative yeast cells. Our work provides the first evidence that new cohesive linkages are established in Drosophila oocytes after meiotic S phase, and that these are required for accurate chromosome segregation. If such a pathway also operates in human oocytes, meiotic cohesion defects may become pronounced in a woman's thirties, not because the original cohesive linkages finally give out, but because the rejuvenation program can no longer supply new cohesive linkages

  4. High-Resolution Global Analysis of the Influences of Bas1 and Ino4 Transcription Factors on Meiotic DNA Break Distributions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuan; Keeney, Scott

    2015-10-01

    Meiotic recombination initiates with DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) made by Spo11. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, many DSBs occur in "hotspots" coinciding with nucleosome-depleted gene promoters. Transcription factors (TFs) stimulate DSB formation in some hotspots, but TF roles are complex and variable between locations. Until now, available data for TF effects on global DSB patterns were of low spatial resolution and confined to a single TF. Here, we examine at high resolution the contributions of two TFs to genome-wide DSB distributions: Bas1, which was known to regulate DSB activity at some loci, and Ino4, for which some binding sites were known to be within strong DSB hotspots. We examined fine-scale DSB distributions in TF mutant strains by deep sequencing oligonucleotides that remain covalently bound to Spo11 as a byproduct of DSB formation, mapped Bas1 and Ino4 binding sites in meiotic cells, evaluated chromatin structure around DSB hotspots, and measured changes in global messenger RNA levels. Our findings show that binding of these TFs has essentially no predictive power for DSB hotspot activity and definitively support the hypothesis that TF control of DSB numbers is context dependent and frequently indirect. TFs often affected the fine-scale distributions of DSBs within hotspots, and when seen, these effects paralleled effects on local chromatin structure. In contrast, changes in DSB frequencies in hotspots did not correlate with quantitative measures of chromatin accessibility, histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation, or transcript levels. We also ruled out hotspot competition as a major source of indirect TF effects on DSB distributions. Thus, counter to prevailing models, roles of these TFs on DSB hotspot strength cannot be simply explained via chromatin "openness," histone modification, or compensatory interactions between adjacent hotspots.

  5. The MRE4 gene encodes a novel protein kinase homologue required for meiotic recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Leem, S H; Ogawa, H

    1992-01-01

    The MRE4 gene was cloned by complementation of the defects of meiotic recombination and haploidization in an mre4-1 mutant. Disruption of MRE4 resulted in reduced meiotic recombination and spore inviability. The mre4 spore lethality can be suppressed by spo13, a mutation that causes cells to bypass the reductional division. Analysis of meiotic DNA extracted from the mre4 mutant cells revealed that double-strand breaks occurred at the two sites of the HIS4-LEU2 recombination hot spot, but at a frequency of about 10-20% of the wild type. Northern blot analysis indicated that the MRE4 gene produces four transcripts of 1.63, 3.2, 4.0 and 6.2 kb. All of these transcripts are absent from mitotic cells and are meiotically induced. The DNA sequence of the MRE4 open reading frame predicts a 497-amino acids protein with a molecular mass of 56.8 kDa. The Mre4 protein contains highly conserved amino acid sequences found specifically in serine-threonine protein kinases. These results suggest that protein phosphorylation is required directly or indirectly for meiotic recombination. Images PMID:1741279

  6. The Drosophila Meiotic Recombination Gene Mei-9 Encodes a Homologue of the Yeast Excision Repair Protein Rad1

    PubMed Central

    Sekelsky, J. J.; McKim, K. S.; Chin, G. M.; Hawley, R. S.

    1995-01-01

    Meiotic recombination and DNA repair are mediated by overlapping sets of genes. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, many genes required to repair DNA double-strand breaks are also required for meiotic recombination. In contrast, mutations in genes required for nucleotide excision repair (NER) have no detectable effects on meiotic recombination in S. cerevisiae. The Drosophila melanogaster mei-9 gene is unique among known recombination genes in that it is required for both meiotic recombination and NER. We have analyzed the mei-9 gene at the molecular level and found that it encodes a homologue of the S. cerevisiae excision repair protein Rad1, the probable homologue of mammalian XPF/ERCC4. Hence, the predominant process of meiotic recombination in Drosophila proceeds through a pathway that is at least partially distinct from that of S. cerevisiae, in that it requires an NER protein. The biochemical properties of the Rad1 protein allow us to explain the observation that mei-9 mutants suppress reciprocal exchange without suppressing the frequency of gene conversion. PMID:8647398

  7. A large-scale screen in S. pombe identifies seven novel genes required for critical meiotic events

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Castellanos, Cristina; Blanco, Miguel; Rozalén, Ana E.; Pérez-Hidalgo, Livia; García, Ana I.; Conde, Francisco; Mata, Juan; Ellermeier, Chad; Davis, Luther; San-Segundo, Pedro; Smith, Gerald R.; Moreno, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    Summary Meiosis is a specialized form of cell division by which sexually reproducing diploid organisms generate haploid gametes. During a long prophase, telomeres cluster into the bouquet configuration to aid chromosome pairing, and DNA replication is followed by high levels of recombination between homologous chromosomes (homologs). This recombination is important for the reductional segregation of homologs at the first meiotic division; without further replication a second meiotic division yields haploid nuclei. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe we have deleted 175 meiotically upregulated genes and found seven genes not previously reported to be critical for meiotic events. Three mutants (rec24, rec25, and rec27) had strongly reduced meiosis-specific DNA double-strand breakage and recombination. One mutant (tht2) was deficient in karyogamy, and two (bqt1 and bqt2) in telomere clustering, explaining their defects in recombination and segregation. The moa1 mutant was delayed in premeiotic S-phase progression and nuclear divisions. Further analysis of these mutants will help elucidate the complex machinery governing the special behavior of meiotic chromosomes. PMID:16303567

  8. A large-scale screen in S. pombe identifies seven novel genes required for critical meiotic events.

    PubMed

    Martín-Castellanos, Cristina; Blanco, Miguel; Rozalén, Ana E; Pérez-Hidalgo, Livia; García, Ana I; Conde, Francisco; Mata, Juan; Ellermeier, Chad; Davis, Luther; San-Segundo, Pedro; Smith, Gerald R; Moreno, Sergio

    2005-11-22

    Meiosis is a specialized form of cell division by which sexually reproducing diploid organisms generate haploid gametes. During a long prophase, telomeres cluster into the bouquet configuration to aid chromosome pairing, and DNA replication is followed by high levels of recombination between homologous chromosomes (homologs). This recombination is important for the reductional segregation of homologs at the first meiotic division; without further replication, a second meiotic division yields haploid nuclei. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we have deleted 175 meiotically upregulated genes and found seven genes not previously reported to be critical for meiotic events. Three mutants (rec24, rec25, and rec27) had strongly reduced meiosis-specific DNA double-strand breakage and recombination. One mutant (tht2) was deficient in karyogamy, and two (bqt1 and bqt2) were deficient in telomere clustering, explaining their defects in recombination and segregation. The moa1 mutant was delayed in premeiotic S phase progression and nuclear divisions. Further analysis of these mutants will help elucidate the complex machinery governing the special behavior of meiotic chromosomes.

  9. RNF8 regulates active epigenetic modifications and escape gene activation from inactive sex chromosomes in post-meiotic spermatids

    PubMed Central

    Sin, Ho-Su; Barski, Artem; Zhang, Fan; Kartashov, Andrey V.; Nussenzweig, Andre; Chen, Junjie; Andreassen, Paul R.; Namekawa, Satoshi H.

    2012-01-01

    Sex chromosomes are uniquely subject to chromosome-wide silencing during male meiosis, and silencing persists into post-meiotic spermatids. Against this background, a select set of sex chromosome-linked genes escapes silencing and is activated in post-meiotic spermatids. Here, we identify a novel mechanism that regulates escape gene activation in an environment of chromosome-wide silencing in murine germ cells. We show that RNF8-dependent ubiquitination of histone H2A during meiosis establishes active epigenetic modifications, including dimethylation of H3K4 on the sex chromosomes. RNF8-dependent active epigenetic memory, defined by dimethylation of H3K4, persists throughout meiotic division. Various active epigenetic modifications are subsequently established on the sex chromosomes in post-meiotic spermatids. These RNF8-dependent modifications include trimethylation of H3K4, histone lysine crotonylation (Kcr), and incorporation of the histone variant H2AFZ. RNF8-dependent epigenetic programming regulates escape gene activation from inactive sex chromosomes in post-meiotic spermatids. Kcr accumulates at transcriptional start sites of sex-linked genes activated in an RNF8-dependent manner, and a chromatin conformational change is associated with RNF8-dependent epigenetic programming. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this RNF8-dependent pathway is distinct from that which recognizes DNA double-strand breaks. Our results establish a novel connection between a DNA damage response factor (RNF8) and epigenetic programming, specifically in establishing active epigenetic modifications and gene activation. PMID:23249736

  10. Retinoic acid homeostasis through aldh1a2 and cyp26a1 mediates meiotic entry in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ruijuan; Fang, Lingling; Cheng, Yunying; He, Xue; Jiang, Wentao; Dong, Ranran; Shi, Hongjuan; Jiang, Dongneng; Sun, Lina; Wang, Deshou

    2015-01-01

    Meiosis is a process unique to the differentiation of germ cells. Retinoic acid (RA) is the key factor controlling the sex-specific timing of meiotic initiation in tetrapods; however, the role of RA in meiotic initiation in teleosts has remained unclear. In this study, the genes encoding RA synthase aldh1a2, and catabolic enzyme cyp26a1 were isolated from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), a species without stra8. The expression of aldh1a2 was up-regulated and expression of cyp26a1 was down-regulated before the meiotic initiation in ovaries and in testes. Treatment with RA synthase inhibitor or disruption of Aldh1a2 by CRISPR/Cas9 resulted in delayed meiotic initiation, with simultaneous down-regulation of cyp26a1 and up-regulation of sycp3. By contrast, treatment with an inhibitor of RA catabolic enzyme and disruption of cyp26a1 resulted in earlier meiotic initiation, with increased expression of aldh1a2 and sycp3. Additionally, treatment of XY fish with estrogen (E2) and XX fish with fadrozole led to sex reversal and reversion of meiotic initiation. These results indicate that RA is indispensable for meiotic initiation in teleosts via a stra8 independent signaling pathway where both aldh1a2 and cyp26a1 are critical. In contrast to mammals, E2 is a major regulator of sex determination and meiotic initiation in teleosts. PMID:25976364

  11. Retinoic acid homeostasis through aldh1a2 and cyp26a1 mediates meiotic entry in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Feng, Ruijuan; Fang, Lingling; Cheng, Yunying; He, Xue; Jiang, Wentao; Dong, Ranran; Shi, Hongjuan; Jiang, Dongneng; Sun, Lina; Wang, Deshou

    2015-05-15

    Meiosis is a process unique to the differentiation of germ cells. Retinoic acid (RA) is the key factor controlling the sex-specific timing of meiotic initiation in tetrapods; however, the role of RA in meiotic initiation in teleosts has remained unclear. In this study, the genes encoding RA synthase aldh1a2, and catabolic enzyme cyp26a1 were isolated from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), a species without stra8. The expression of aldh1a2 was up-regulated and expression of cyp26a1 was down-regulated before the meiotic initiation in ovaries and in testes. Treatment with RA synthase inhibitor or disruption of Aldh1a2 by CRISPR/Cas9 resulted in delayed meiotic initiation, with simultaneous down-regulation of cyp26a1 and up-regulation of sycp3. By contrast, treatment with an inhibitor of RA catabolic enzyme and disruption of cyp26a1 resulted in earlier meiotic initiation, with increased expression of aldh1a2 and sycp3. Additionally, treatment of XY fish with estrogen (E2) and XX fish with fadrozole led to sex reversal and reversion of meiotic initiation. These results indicate that RA is indispensable for meiotic initiation in teleosts via a stra8 independent signaling pathway where both aldh1a2 and cyp26a1 are critical. In contrast to mammals, E2 is a major regulator of sex determination and meiotic initiation in teleosts.

  12. Vilya, a component of the recombination nodule, is required for meiotic double-strand break formation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Lake, Cathleen M; Nielsen, Rachel J; Guo, Fengli; Unruh, Jay R; Slaughter, Brian D; Hawley, R Scott

    2015-10-09

    Meiotic recombination begins with the induction of programmed double-strand breaks (DSBs). In most organisms only a fraction of DSBs become crossovers. Here we report a novel meiotic gene, vilya, which encodes a protein with homology to Zip3-like proteins shown to determine DSB fate in other organisms. Vilya is required for meiotic DSB formation, perhaps as a consequence of its interaction with the DSB accessory protein Mei-P22, and localizes to those DSB sites that will mature into crossovers. In early pachytene Vilya localizes along the central region of the synaptonemal complex and to discrete foci. The accumulation of Vilya at foci is dependent on DSB formation. Immuno-electron microscopy demonstrates that Vilya is a component of recombination nodules, which mark the sites of crossover formation. Thus Vilya links the mechanism of DSB formation to either the selection of those DSBs that will become crossovers or to the actual process of crossing over.

  13. Cytomixis and meiotic abnormalities during microsporogenesis are responsible for male sterility and chromosome variations in Houttuynia cordata.

    PubMed

    Guan, J-Z; Wang, J-J; Cheng, Z-H; Liu, Y; Li, Z-Y

    2012-01-17

    Houttuynia cordata (Saururaceae) is a leaf vegetable and a medicinal herb througout much of Asia. Cytomixis and meiotic abnormalities during microsporogenesis were found in two populations of H. cordata with different ploidy levels (2n = 38, 96). Cytomixis occurred in pollen mother cells during meiosis at high frequencies and with variable degrees of chromatin/chromosome transfer. Meiotic abnormalities, such as chromosome laggards, asymmetric segregation and polyads, also prevailed in pollen mother cells at metaphase of the first division and later stages. They were caused by cytomixis and resulted in very low pollen viability and male sterility. Pollen mother cells from the population with 2n = 38 showed only simultaneous cytokinesis, but most pollen mother cells from the population with 2n = 96 showed successive cytokinesis; a minority underwent simultaneous cytokinesis. Cytomixis and irregular meiotic divisions appear to be the origin of the intraspecific polyploidy in this species, which has large variations in chromosome numbers.

  14. A requirement for fatty acid oxidation in the hormone-induced meiotic maturation of mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Valsangkar, Deepa; Downs, Stephen M

    2013-08-01

    We have previously shown that fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is required for AMP-activated protein kinase (PRKA)-induced maturation in vitro. In the present study, we have further investigated the role of this metabolic pathway in hormone-induced meiotic maturation. Incorporating an assay with (3)H-palmitic acid as the substrate, we first examined the effect of PRKA activators on FAO levels. There was a significant stimulation of FAO in cumulus cell-enclosed oocytes (CEO) treated with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) and RSVA405. In denuded oocytes (DO), AICAR stimulated FAO only in the presence of carnitine, the molecule that facilitates fatty acyl CoA entry into the mitochondria. The carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 activator C75 successfully stimulated FAO in CEO. All three of these activators trigger germinal vesicle breakdown. Meiotic resumption induced by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) or amphiregulin was completely inhibited by the FAO inhibitors etomoxir, mercaptoacetate, and malonyl CoA. Importantly, FAO was increased in CEO stimulated by FSH and epidermal growth factor, and this increase was blocked by FAO inhibitors. Moreover, compound C, a PRKA inhibitor, prevented the FSH-induced increase in FAO. Both carnitine and palmitic acid augmented hormonal induction of maturation. In a more physiological setting, etomoxir eliminated human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-induced maturation in follicle-enclosed oocytes. In addition, CEO and DO from hCG-treated mice displayed an etomoxir-sensitive increase in FAO, indicating that this pathway was stimulated during in vivo meiotic resumption. Taken together, our data indicate that hormone-induced maturation in mice requires a PRKA-dependent increase in FAO.

  15. H3 Thr3 phosphorylation is crucial for meiotic resumption and anaphase onset in oocyte meiosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Wei, Haojie; Du, Juan; Cao, Yan; Zhang, Nana; Liu, Xiaoyun; Liu, Xiaoyu; Chen, Dandan; Ma, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Haspin-catalyzed histone H3 threonine 3 (Thr3) phosphorylation facilitates chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) docking at centromeres, regulating indirectly chromosome behavior during somatic mitosis. It is not fully known about the expression and function of H3 with phosphorylated Thr3 (H3T3-P) during meiosis in oocytes. In this study, we investigated the expression and sub-cellular distribution of H3T3-P, as well as its function in mouse oocytes during meiotic division. Western blot analysis revealed that H3T3-P expression was only detected after germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), and gradually increased to peak level at metaphase I (MI), but sharply decreased at metaphase II (MII). Immunofluorescence showed H3T3-P was only brightly labeled on chromosomes after GVBD, with relatively high concentration across the whole chromosome axis from pro-metaphase I (pro-MI) to MI. Specially, H3T3-P distribution was exclusively limited to the local space between sister centromeres at MII stage. Haspin inhibitor, 5-iodotubercidin (5-ITu), dose- and time-dependently blocked H3T3-P expression in mouse oocytes. H3T3-P inhibition delayed the resumption of meiosis (GVBD) and chromatin condensation. Moreover, the loss of H3T3-P speeded up the meiotic transition to MII of pro-MI oocytes in spite of the presence of non-aligned chromosomes, even reversed MI-arrest induced with Nocodazole. The inhibition of H3T3-P expression distinguishably damaged MAD1 recruitment on centromeres, which indicates the spindle assembly checkpoint was impaired in function, logically explaining the premature onset of anaphase I. Therefore, Haspin-catalyzed histone H3 phosphorylation is essential for chromatin condensation and the following timely transition from meiosis I to meiosis II in mouse oocytes during meiotic division.

  16. Escape of X-linked miRNA genes from meiotic sex chromosome inactivation.

    PubMed

    Sosa, Enrique; Flores, Luis; Yan, Wei; McCarrey, John R

    2015-11-01

    Past studies have indicated that transcription of all X-linked genes is repressed by meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) during the meiotic phase of spermatogenesis in mammals. However, more recent studies have shown an increase in steady-state levels of certain X-linked miRNAs in pachytene spermatocytes, suggesting that either synthesis of these miRNAs increases or that degradation of these miRNAs decreases dramatically in these cells. To distinguish between these possibilities, we performed RNA-FISH to detect nascent transcripts from multiple miRNA genes in various spermatogenic cell types. Our results show definitively that Type I X-linked miRNA genes are subject to MSCI, as are all or most X-linked mRNA genes, whereas Type II and III X-linked miRNA genes escape MSCI by continuing ongoing, active transcription in primary spermatocytes. We corroborated these results by co-localization of RNA-FISH signals with both a corresponding DNA-FISH signal and an immunofluorescence signal for RNA polymerase II. We also found that X-linked miRNA genes that escape MSCI locate non-randomly to the periphery of the XY body, whereas genes that are subject to MSCI remain located within the XY body in pachytene spermatocytes, suggesting that the mechanism of escape of X-linked miRNA genes from MSCI involves their relocation to a position outside of the repressive chromatin domain associated with the XY body. The fact that Type II and III X-linked miRNA genes escape MSCI suggests an immediacy of function of the encoded miRNAs specifically required during the meiotic stages of spermatogenesis.

  17. Escape of X-linked miRNA genes from meiotic sex chromosome inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Sosa, Enrique; Flores, Luis; Yan, Wei; McCarrey, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Past studies have indicated that transcription of all X-linked genes is repressed by meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) during the meiotic phase of spermatogenesis in mammals. However, more recent studies have shown an increase in steady-state levels of certain X-linked miRNAs in pachytene spermatocytes, suggesting that either synthesis of these miRNAs increases or that degradation of these miRNAs decreases dramatically in these cells. To distinguish between these possibilities, we performed RNA-FISH to detect nascent transcripts from multiple miRNA genes in various spermatogenic cell types. Our results show definitively that Type I X-linked miRNA genes are subject to MSCI, as are all or most X-linked mRNA genes, whereas Type II and III X-linked miRNA genes escape MSCI by continuing ongoing, active transcription in primary spermatocytes. We corroborated these results by co-localization of RNA-FISH signals with both a corresponding DNA-FISH signal and an immunofluorescence signal for RNA polymerase II. We also found that X-linked miRNA genes that escape MSCI locate non-randomly to the periphery of the XY body, whereas genes that are subject to MSCI remain located within the XY body in pachytene spermatocytes, suggesting that the mechanism of escape of X-linked miRNA genes from MSCI involves their relocation to a position outside of the repressive chromatin domain associated with the XY body. The fact that Type II and III X-linked miRNA genes escape MSCI suggests an immediacy of function of the encoded miRNAs specifically required during the meiotic stages of spermatogenesis. PMID:26395485

  18. Plasticity in the Meiotic Epigenetic Landscape of Sex Chromosomes in Caenorhabditis Species.

    PubMed

    Larson, Braden J; Van, Mike V; Nakayama, Taylor; Engebrecht, JoAnne

    2016-08-01

    During meiosis in the heterogametic sex in some species, sex chromosomes undergo meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI), which results in acquisition of repressive chromatin and transcriptional silencing. In Caenorhabditis elegans, MSCI is mediated by MET-2 methyltransferase deposition of histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation. Here we examined the meiotic chromatin landscape in germ lines of four Caenorhabditis species; C. remanei and C. brenneri represent ancestral gonochorism, while C. briggsae and C. elegans are two lineages that independently evolved hermaphroditism. While MSCI is conserved across all four species, repressive chromatin modifications are distinct and do not correlate with reproductive mode. In contrast to C. elegans and C. remanei germ cells where X chromosomes are enriched for histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation, X chromosomes in C. briggsae and C. brenneri germ cells are enriched for histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation. Inactivation of C. briggsae MET-2 resulted in germ-line X chromosome transcription and checkpoint activation. Further, both histone H3 lysine 9 di- and trimethylation were reduced in Cbr-met-2 mutant germ lines, suggesting that in contrast to C. elegans, H3 lysine 9 di- and trimethylation are interdependent. C. briggsae H3 lysine 9 trimethylation was redistributed in the presence of asynapsed chromosomes in a sex-specific manner in the related process of meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin. However, these repressive marks did not influence X chromosome replication timing. Examination of additional Caenorhabditis species revealed diverse H3 lysine 9 methylation patterns on the X, suggesting that the sex chromosome epigenome evolves rapidly.

  19. Implications of mitotic and meiotic irregularities in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Lima, D C; Braz, G T; Dos Reis, G B; Techio, V H; Davide, L C; de F B Abreu, A

    2016-05-23

    The common bean has great social and economic importance in Brazil and is the subject of a high number of publications, especially in the fields of genetics and breeding. Breeding programs aim to increase grain yield; however, mitosis and meiosis represent under explored research areas that have a direct impact on grain yield. Therefore, the study of cell division could be another tool available to bean geneticists and breeders. The aim of this study was to investigate irregularities occurring during the cell cycle and meiosis in common bean. The common bean cultivar used was BRSMG Talismã, which owing to its high yield and grain quality is recommended for cultivation in Brazil. We classified the interphase nuclei, estimated the mitotic and meiotic index, grain pollen viability, and percentage of abnormalities in both processes. The mitotic index was 4.1%, the interphase nucleus was non-reticulated, and 19% of dividing somatic cells showed abnormal behavior. Meiosis also presented irregularities resulting in a meiotic index of 44.6%. Viability of pollen grains was 94.3%. These results indicate that the common bean cultivar BRSMG Talismã possesses repair mechanisms that compensate for changes by producing a large number of pollen grains. Another important strategy adopted by bean plants to ensure stability is the elimination of abnormal cells by apoptosis. As the common bean cultivar BRSMG Talismã is recommended for cultivation because of its good agronomic performance, it can be concluded that mitotic and meiotic irregularities have no negative influence on its grain quality and yield.

  20. COPI-mediated membrane trafficking is required for cytokinesis in Drosophila male meiotic divisions.

    PubMed

    Kitazawa, Daishi; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu; Mori, Hajime; Inoue, Yoshihiro H

    2012-08-01

    The coatomer protein complex, COPI, mediates retrograde vesicle transport from the Golgi apparatus to the ER. Here, we investigated the meiotic phenotype of Drosophila melanogaster spermatocytes expressing dsRNA of 52 genes encoding membrane-trafficking-related factors. We identified COPI as an essential factor for male meiosis. In Drosophila male meiotic divisions, COPI is localized in the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment of tER-Golgi units scattered throughout the spermatocyte cytoplasm. Prior to chromosome segregation, the vesicles assemble at the spindle pole periphery through a poleward movement, mediated by minus-end motor dynein along astral microtubules. At the end of each meiotic division, COPI-containing vesicles are equally partitioned between two daughter cells. Our present data strongly suggest that spermatocytes possess a regulatory mechanism for equal inheritance of several types of membrane vesicles. Using testis-specific knockdown of COPI subunits or the small GTPase Arf or mutations of the γCOP gene, we examined the role of COPI in male meiosis. COPI depletion resulted in the failure of cytokinesis, through disrupted accumulation of essential proteins and lipid components at the cleavage furrow region. Furthermore, it caused a reduction in the number of overlapping central spindle microtubules, which are essential for cytokinesis. Drosophila spermatocytes construct ER-based intracellular structures associated with astral and spindle microtubules. COPI depletion resulted in severe disruption of these ER-based structures. Thus, we propose that COPI plays an important role in Drosophila male meiosis, not only through vesicle transport to the cleavage furrow region, but also through the formation of ER-based structures.

  1. Meiotic Recombination Hotspots of Fission Yeast Are Directed to Loci that Express Non-Coding RNA

    PubMed Central

    Wahls, Wayne P.; Siegel, Eric R.; Davidson, Mari K.

    2008-01-01

    Background Polyadenylated, mRNA-like transcripts with no coding potential are abundant in eukaryotes, but the functions of these long non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are enigmatic. In meiosis, Rec12 (Spo11) catalyzes the formation of dsDNA breaks (DSBs) that initiate homologous recombination. Most meiotic recombination is positioned at hotspots, but knowledge of the mechanisms is nebulous. In the fission yeast genome DSBs are located within 194 prominent peaks separated on average by 65-kbp intervals of DNA that are largely free of DSBs. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the genome-wide distribution of DSB peaks to that of polyadenylated ncRNA molecules of the prl class. DSB peaks map to ncRNA loci that may be situated within ORFs, near the boundaries of ORFs and intergenic regions, or most often within intergenic regions. Unconditional statistical tests revealed that this colocalization is non-random and robust (P≤5.5×10−8). Furthermore, we tested and rejected the hypothesis that the ncRNA loci and DSB peaks localize preferentially, but independently, to a third entity on the chromosomes. Conclusions/Significance Meiotic DSB hotspots are directed to loci that express polyadenylated ncRNAs. This reveals an unexpected, possibly unitary mechanism for what directs meiotic recombination to hotspots. It also reveals a likely biological function for enigmatic ncRNAs. We propose specific mechanisms by which ncRNA molecules, or some aspect of RNA metabolism associated with ncRNA loci, help to position recombination protein complexes at DSB hotspots within chromosomes. PMID:18682829

  2. Replication-dependent early meiotic requirement for Spo11 and Rad50.

    PubMed

    Merino, S T; Cummings, W J; Acharya, S N; Zolan, M E

    2000-09-12

    Spo11 and the Rad50-Mre11 complex have been indirectly implicated in processes associated with DNA replication. These proteins also have been shown to have early meiotic roles essential for the formation of a programmed DNA double-strand break known in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to initiate meiotic recombination. In both S. cerevisiae and the basidiomycete Coprinus cinereus, spo11 and rad50 mutants are defective in chromosome synapsis during meiosis. Here we demonstrate that a partial restoration of synapsis occurs in C. cinereus spo11 and rad50 mutants if premeiotic DNA replication is prevented. Double mutants were constructed with spo11-1 or rad50-4 and another mutant, spo22-1, which does not undergo premeiotic DNA replication. In both cases, we observed an increase in the percentage of nuclei containing synaptonemal complex (SC) structures, with concomitant decreases in the percentage of nuclei containing axial elements (AE) only or no structures. Both types of double mutants demonstrated significant increases in the average numbers of AE and SC, although SC-containing nuclei did not on average contain more AE than did nuclei showing no synapsis. Our results show that Spo11-induced recombination is not absolutely required for synapsis in C. cinereus, and that the early meiotic role of both Spo11 and Rad50 in SC formation partially depends on premeiotic S phase. This dependency likely reflects either a requirement for these proteins imposed by the premeiotic replication process itself or a requirement for these proteins in synapsis when a sister chromatid (the outcome of DNA replication) is present.

  3. Rhn1, a nuclear protein, is required for suppression of meiotic mRNAs in mitotically dividing fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Tomoyasu; Sugioka-Sugiyama, Rie; Hada, Kazumasa; Niwa, Ryusuke

    2012-01-01

    In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, many meiotic mRNAs are transcribed during mitosis and meiosis and selectively eliminated in mitotic cells. However, this pathway for mRNA decay, called the determinant of selective removal (DSR)-Mmi1 system, targets only some of the numerous meiotic mRNAs that are transcribed in mitotic cells. Here we describe Rhn1, a nuclear protein involved in meiotic mRNA suppression in vegetative fission yeast. Rhn1 is homologous to budding yeast Rtt103 and localizes to one or a few discrete nuclear dots in growing vegetative cells. Rhn1 colocalizes with a pre-mRNA 3'-end processing factor, Pcf11, and with the 5'-3' exoribonuclease, Dhp1; moreover, Rhn1 coimmunoprecipitates with Pcf11. Loss of rhn1 results in elevated sensitivity to high temperature, to thiabendazole (TBZ), and to UV. Interestingly, meiotic mRNAs--including moa1(+), mcp5(+), and mug96(+)--accumulate in mitotic rhn1Δ cells. Accumulation of meiotic mRNAs also occurs in strains lacking Lsk1, a kinase that phosphorylates serine 2 (Ser-2) in the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II (Pol II), and in strains lacking Sen1, an ATP-dependent 5'-3' RNA/DNA helicase: notably, both Lsk1 and Sen1 have been implicated in termination of Pol II-dependent transcription. Furthermore, RNAi knockdown of cids-2, a Caenorhabditis elegans ortholog of rhn1(+), leads to elevated expression of a germline-specific gene, pgl-1, in somatic cells. These results indicate that Rhn1 contributes to the suppression of meiotic mRNAs in vegetative fission yeast and that the mechanism by which Rhn1 downregulates germline-specific transcripts may be conserved in unicellular and multicellular organisms.

  4. The mouse Eb meiotic recombination hotspot contains a tissue-specific transcriptional enhancer.

    PubMed

    Ling, X; Shenkar, R; Sakai, D; Arnheim, N

    1993-01-01

    A meiotic recombination hotspot exists within the second intron of the mouse major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene, Eb. In the present study, a small fragment from the intron which contains two potential transcriptional regulatory elements was cloned into an expression vector and its effect on transcription was tested. This fragment was found to contain tissue-specific transcriptional enhancer activity. An octamer-like sequence and a B motif may contribute to this enhancer activity. Similar regulatory sequences with the same orientation and distance from one another are found in another mouse MHC recombination hotspot.

  5. Preferential accumulation of sex and Bs chromosomes in biarmed karyotypes by meiotic drive and rates of chromosomal changes in fishes.

    PubMed

    Molina, Wagner F; Martinez, Pablo A; Bertollo, Luiz A C; Bidau, Claudio J

    2014-12-01

    Mechanisms of accumulation based on typical centromeric drive or of chromosomes carrying pericentric inversions are adjusted to the general karyotype differentiation in the principal Actinopterygii orders. Here, we show that meiotic drive in fish is also supported by preferential establishment of sex chromosome systems and B chromosomes in orders with predominantly bi-brachial chromosomes. The mosaic of trends acting at an infra-familiar level in fish could be explained as the interaction of the directional process of meiotic drive as background, modulated on a smaller scale by adaptive factors or specific karyotypic properties of each group, as proposed for the orthoselection model.

  6. Using Photobleaching to Measure Spindle Microtubule Dynamics in Primary Cultures of Dividing Drosophila Meiotic Spermatocytes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In dividing animal cells, a microtubule (MT)-based bipolar spindle governs chromosome movement. Current models propose that the spindle facilitates and/or generates translocating forces by regionally depolymerizing the kinetochore fibers (k-fibers) that bind each chromosome. It is unclear how conserved these sites and the resultant chromosome-moving mechanisms are between different dividing cell types because of the technical challenges of quantitatively studying MTs in many specimens. In particular, our knowledge of MT kinetics during the sperm-producing male meiotic divisions remains in its infancy. In this study, I use an easy-to-implement photobleaching-based assay for measuring spindle MT dynamics in primary cultures of meiotic spermatocytes isolated from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. By use of standard scanning confocal microscopy features, fiducial marks were photobleached on fluorescent protein (FP)-tagged MTs. These were followed by time-lapse imaging during different division stages, and their displacement rates were calculated using public domain software. I find that k-fibers continually shorten at their poles during metaphase and anaphase A through the process of MT flux. Anaphase chromosome movement is complemented by Pac-Man, the shortening of the k-fiber at its chromosomal interface. Thus, Drosophila spermatocytes share the sites of spindle dynamism and mechanisms of chromosome movement with mitotic cells. The data reveal the applicability of the photobleaching assay for measuring MT dynamics in primary cultures. This approach can be readily applied to other systems. PMID:25802491

  7. Evidence for meiotic drive as an explanation for karyotype changes in fishes.

    PubMed

    Molina, Wagner Franco; Martinez, Pablo A; Bertollo, Luiz Antônio C; Bidau, Claudio Juan

    2014-06-01

    The process of preferential chromosome segregation during meiosis has been suggested to be responsible for the predominance of certain chromosome types in the karyotypes of mammals, birds and insects. We developed an extensive analysis of the fixation of mono- or bibrachial chromosomes in the karyotypes of the large Actinopterygii fish group, a key link in the evolution of terrestrial vertebrates, in order to investigate the generality of meiotic drive in determining karyotypic macrotrends. Unlike mammals, fishes have markedly undergone several types of preferential chromosomal rearrangements throughout evolution. Data from the analyzed orders indicate a prevalence of karyotypes with few (<33%) or many (>66%) acrocentric chromosomes and a low number of karyotypes with balanced numbers of mono- and bi-brachial elements. Parallel trends towards a higher number of karyotypes with prevalence of monobrachial chromosomes occurred in phylogenetically close orders (e.g. Perciformes and Tetraodontiformes, and in the order Mugiliformes) and in clades with prevalence of bibrachial elements (e.g. Characiformes, Gymnotiformes, Siluriformes, and Cypriniformes). Some orders where fewer species were available for study, such as Atheriniformes and Anguilliformes, showed karyotype assemblages where both trends were present. Our results strongly suggest a primary role of meiotic drive in karyotypic evolution as indicated by the accumulation of monobrachial chromosomes in Perciformes and Cypriniformes, or bibrachial chromosomes in Siluriformes and Characiformes. Further examinations of the interaction between life history traits, environmental characteristics, and the fixation of chromosomal rearrangements would be exceedingly valuable.

  8. Identification of New Genes Required for Meiotic Recombination in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Ajimura, M.; Leem, S. H.; Ogawa, H.

    1993-01-01

    Mutants defective in meiotic recombination were isolated from a disomic haploid strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by examining recombination within the leu2 and his4 heteroalleles located on chromosome III. The mutants were classified into two new complementation groups (MRE2 and MRE11) and eight previously identified groups, which include SPO11, HOP1, REC114, MRE4/MEK1 and genes in the RAD52 epistasis group. All of the mutants, in which the mutations in the new complementation groups are homozygous and diploid, can undergo premeiotic DNA synthesis and produce spores. The spores are, however, not viable. The mre2 and mre11 mutants produce viable spores in a spo13 background, in which meiosis I is bypassed, suggesting that these mutants are blocked at an early step in meiotic recombination. The mre2 mutant does not exhibit any unusual phenotype during mitosis and it is, thus, considered to have a mutation in a meiosis-specific gene. By contrast, the mre11 mutant is sensitive to damage to DNA by methyl methanesulfonate and exhibits a hyperrecombination phenotype in mitosis. Among six alleles of HOP1 that were isolated, an unusual pattern of intragenic complementation was observed. PMID:8417989

  9. Dimethyl Sulfoxide Perturbs Cell Cycle Progression and Spindle Organization in Porcine Meiotic Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuan; Wang, Yan-Kui; Song, Zhi-Qiang; Du, Zhi-Qiang; Yang, Cai-Xia

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic maturation of mammalian oocytes is a precisely orchestrated and complex process. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), a widely used solvent, drug, and cryoprotectant, is capable of disturbing asymmetric cytokinesis of oocyte meiosis in mice. However, in pigs, DMSO’s effect on oocyte meiosis still remains unknown. We aimed to evaluate if DMSO treatment will affect porcine oocyte meiosis and the underlying molecular changes as well. Interestingly, we did not observe the formation of the large first polar body and symmetric division for porcine oocytes treated with DMSO, contrary to findings reported in mice. 3% DMSO treatment could inhibit cumulus expansion, increase nuclear abnormality, disturb spindle organization, decrease reactive oxygen species level, and elevate mitochondrial membrane potential of porcine oocytes. There was no effect on germinal vesicle breakdown rate regardless of DMSO concentration. 3% DMSO treatment did not affect expression of genes involved in spindle organization (Bub1 and Mad2) and apoptosis (NF-κB, Pten, Bcl2, Caspase3 and Caspase9), however, it significantly decreased expression levels of pluripotency genes (Oct4, Sox2 and Lin28) in mature oocytes. Therefore, we demonstrated that disturbed cumulus expansion, chromosome alignment, spindle organization and pluripotency gene expression could be responsible for DMSO-induced porcine oocyte meiotic arrest and the lower capacity of subsequent embryo development. Our results provide new insights on DMSO’s effect on porcine oocyte meiosis and raise safety concerns over DMSO’s usage on female reproduction in both farm animals and humans. PMID:27348312

  10. Triploid planarian reproduces truly bisexually with euploid gametes produced through a different meiotic system between sex.

    PubMed

    Chinone, Ayako; Nodono, Hanae; Matsumoto, Midori

    2014-06-01

    Although polyploids are common among plants and some animals, polyploidization often causes reproductive failure. Triploids, in particular, are characterized by the problems of chromosomal pairing and segregation during meiosis, which may cause aneuploid gametes and results in sterility. Thus, they are generally considered to reproduce only asexually. In the case of the Platyhelminthes Dugesia ryukyuensis, populations with triploid karyotypes are normally found in nature as both fissiparous and oviparous triploids. Fissiparous triploids can also be experimentally sexualized if they are fed sexual planarians, developing both gonads and other reproductive organs. Fully sexualized worms begin reproducing by copulation rather than fission. In this study, we examined the genotypes of the offspring obtained by breeding sexualized triploids and found that the offspring inherited genes from both parents, i.e., they reproduced truly bisexually. Furthermore, meiotic chromosome behavior in triploid sexualized planarians differed significantly between male and female germ lines, in that female germ line cells remained triploid until prophase I, whereas male germ line cells appeared to become diploid before entry into meiosis. Oocytes at the late diplotene stage contained not only paired bivalents but also unpaired univalents that were suggested to produce diploid eggs if they remained in subsequent processes. Triploid planarians may therefore form euploid gametes by different meiotic systems in female and male germ lines and thus are be able to reproduce sexually in contrast to many other triploid organisms.

  11. The mismatch repair system reduces meiotic homeologous recombination and stimulates recombination-dependent chromosome loss.

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, S R; Hunter, N; Louis, E J; Borts, R H

    1996-01-01

    Efficient genetic recombination requires near-perfect homology between participating molecules. Sequence divergence reduces the frequency of recombination, a process that is dependent on the activity of the mismatch repair system. The effects of chromosomal divergence in diploids of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in which one copy of chromosome III is derived from a closely related species, Saccharomyces paradoxus, have been examined. Meiotic recombination between the diverged chromosomes is decreased by 25-fold. Spore viability is reduced with an observable increase in the number of tetrads with only two or three viable spores. Asci with only two viable spores are disomic for chromosome III, consistent with meiosis I nondisjunction of the homeologs. Asci with three viable spores are highly enriched for recombinants relative to tetrads with four viable spores. In 96% of the class with three viable spores, only one spore possesses a recombinant chromosome III, suggesting that the recombination process itself contributes to meiotic death. This phenomenon is dependent on the activities of the mismatch repair genes PMS1 and MSH2. A model of mismatch-stimulated chromosome loss is proposed to account for this observation. As expected, crossing over is increased in pms1 and msh2 mutants. Furthermore, genetic exchange in pms1 msh2 double mutants is affected to a greater extent than in either mutant alone, suggesting that the two proteins act independently to inhibit homeologous recombination. All mismatch repair-deficient strains exhibited reductions in the rate of chromosome III nondisjunction. PMID:8887641

  12. Histone H2AFX Links Meiotic Chromosome Asynapsis to Prophase I Oocyte Loss in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Cloutier, Jeffrey M.; Mahadevaiah, Shantha K.; ElInati, Elias; Nussenzweig, André; Tóth, Attila; Turner, James M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome abnormalities are common in the human population, causing germ cell loss at meiotic prophase I and infertility. The mechanisms driving this loss are unknown, but persistent meiotic DNA damage and asynapsis may be triggers. Here we investigate the contribution of these lesions to oocyte elimination in mice with chromosome abnormalities, e.g. Turner syndrome (XO) and translocations. We show that asynapsed chromosomes trigger oocyte elimination at diplonema, which is linked to the presence of phosphorylated H2AFX (γH2AFX). We find that DNA double-strand break (DSB) foci disappear on asynapsed chromosomes during pachynema, excluding persistent DNA damage as a likely cause, and demonstrating the existence in mammalian oocytes of a repair pathway for asynapsis-associated DNA DSBs. Importantly, deletion or point mutation of H2afx restores oocyte numbers in XO females to wild type (XX) levels. Unexpectedly, we find that asynapsed supernumerary chromosomes do not elicit prophase I loss, despite being enriched for γH2AFX and other checkpoint proteins. These results suggest that oocyte loss cannot be explained simply by asynapsis checkpoint models, but is related to the gene content of asynapsed chromosomes. A similar mechanistic basis for oocyte loss may operate in humans with chromosome abnormalities. PMID:26509888

  13. Triphenyltin chloride induces spindle microtubule depolymerisation and inhibits meiotic maturation in mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yu-Ting; Song, Yue-Qiang; He, Xiao-Qin; Zhang, Fei; Huang, Xin; Liu, Yu; Ding, Lu; Xu, Lin; Zhu, Mao-Bi; Hu, Wen-Feng; Qi, Zhong-Quan; Wang, Hai-Long; Yang, Xiang-Jun

    2014-10-01

    Meiosis produces haploid gametes for sexual reproduction. Triphenyltin chloride (TPTCL) is a highly bioaccumulated and toxic environmental oestrogen; however, its effect on oocyte meiosis remains unknown. We examined the effect of TPTCL on mouse oocyte meiotic maturation in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, TPTCL inhibited germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and first polar body extrusion (PBE) in a dose-dependent manner. The spindle microtubules completely disassembled and the chromosomes condensed after oocytes were exposed to 5 or 10μgmL(-1) TPTCL. γ-Tubulin protein was abnormally localised near chromosomes rather than on the spindle poles. In vivo, mice received TPTCL by oral gavage for 10 days. The general condition of the mice deteriorated and the ovary coefficient was reduced (P<0.05). The number of secondary and mature ovarian follicles was significantly reduced by 10mgkg(-1) TPTCL (P<0.05). GVBD decreased in a non-significant, dose-dependent manner (P>0.05). PBE was inhibited with 10mgkg(-1) TPTCL (P<0.05). The spindles of in vitro and in vivo metaphase II oocytes were disassembled with 10mgkg(-1) TPTCL. These results suggest that TPTCL seriously affects meiotic maturation by disturbing cell-cycle progression, disturbing the microtubule cytoskeleton and inhibiting follicle development in mouse oocytes.

  14. High Resolution Analysis of Meiotic Chromosome Structure and Behaviour in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Dylan; Nibau, Candida; Wnetrzak, Joanna; Jenkins, Glyn

    2012-01-01

    Reciprocal crossing over and independent assortment of chromosomes during meiosis generate most of the genetic variation in sexually reproducing organisms. In barley, crossovers are confined primarily to distal regions of the chromosomes, which means that a substantial proportion of the genes of this crop rarely, if ever, engage in recombination events. There is potentially much to be gained by redistributing crossovers to more proximal regions, but our ability to achieve this is dependent upon a far better understanding of meiosis in this species. This study explores the meiotic process by describing with unprecedented resolution the early behaviour of chromosomal domains, the progression of synapsis and the structure of the synaptonemal complex (SC). Using a combination of molecular cytogenetics and advanced fluorescence imaging, we show for the first time in this species that non-homologous centromeres are coupled prior to synapsis. We demonstrate that at early meiotic prophase the loading of the SC-associated structural protein ASY1, the cluster of telomeres, and distal synaptic initiation sites occupy the same polarised region of the nucleus. Through the use of advanced 3D image analysis, we show that synapsis is driven predominantly from the telomeres, and that new synaptic initiation sites arise during zygotene. In addition, we identified two different SC configurations through the use of super-resolution 3D structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM). PMID:22761818

  15. Efficient mutagenesis by CRISPR/Cas system during meiotic maturation of porcine oocytes

    PubMed Central

    ONUMA, Asuka; FUJII, Wataru; SUGIURA, Koji; NAITO, Kunihiko

    2016-01-01

    Genome editing using the CRISPR/Cas system can induce mutations with high efficiency, and allows easier production of genome-modified animals than that offered by the conventional method where embryonic stem cells are used. However, studies using CRISPR/Cas systems have been mostly limited to proliferating somatic cells and pronuclear-stage fertilized eggs. In contrast, the efficiency of a CRISPR/Cas system in immature and maturing oocytes progressing through meiosis has not yet been assessed. In the present study, we evaluated the genome-modification efficiency of the CRISPR/Cas system during meiotic maturation of porcine oocytes. Additionally, the localization of the Cas9 protein in immature oocytes was analyzed in relation to nuclear transport and mutation induction. The results showed that CRISPR/Cas induced mutation with high efficiency even in maturing oocytes with condensed chromosomes, whereas mutations were not induced in GV-stage oocytes. The localization analysis of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged Cas9 (Cas9-EGFP) revealed that the nuclei contained lesser Cas9 than the cytoplasm in immature oocytes. Treatment with leptomycin B, a nuclear export inhibitor, increased the amount of nuclear Cas9 and enabled mutation induction in GV oocytes. Our results suggest that CRISPR/Cas systems can be applied to oocytes during meiotic maturation and be implemented in novel applications targeting female genomes. PMID:27773884

  16. Rapid evolution of a Y-chromosome heterochromatin protein underlies sex chromosome meiotic drive

    PubMed Central

    Helleu, Quentin; Gérard, Pierre R.; Dubruille, Raphaëlle; Ogereau, David; Prud’homme, Benjamin; Loppin, Benjamin; Montchamp-Moreau, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Sex chromosome meiotic drive, the non-Mendelian transmission of sex chromosomes, is the expression of an intragenomic conflict that can have extreme evolutionary consequences. However, the molecular bases of such conflicts remain poorly understood. Here, we show that a young and rapidly evolving X-linked heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) gene, HP1D2, plays a key role in the classical Paris sex-ratio (SR) meiotic drive occurring in Drosophila simulans. Driver HP1D2 alleles prevent the segregation of the Y chromatids during meiosis II, causing female-biased sex ratio in progeny. HP1D2 accumulates on the heterochromatic Y chromosome in male germ cells, strongly suggesting that it controls the segregation of sister chromatids through heterochromatin modification. We show that Paris SR drive is a consequence of dysfunctional HP1D2 alleles that fail to prepare the Y chromosome for meiosis, thus providing evidence that the rapid evolution of genes controlling the heterochromatin structure can be a significant source of intragenomic conflicts. PMID:26979956

  17. The Nuclear Cap-Binding Complex Mediates Meiotic Silencing by Unpaired DNA.

    PubMed

    Decker, Logan M; Xiao, Hua; Boone, Erin C; Vierling, Michael M; Shanker, Benjamin S; Kingston, Shanika L; Boone, Shannon F; Haynes, Jackson B; Shiu, Patrick K T

    2017-02-07

    In the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, cross walls between individual cells are normally incomplete, making the entire fungal network vulnerable to attack by viruses and selfish DNAs. Accordingly, several genome surveillance mechanisms are maintained to help the fungus to combat these repetitive elements. One of these defense mechanisms is known as meiotic silencing by unpaired DNA (MSUD), which is an RNA silencing system that identifies and silences unpaired genes during meiosis. Utilizing common RNAi proteins such as Dicer and Argonaute, MSUD targets mRNAs homologous to the unpaired sequence to achieve silencing. In this study, we have identified another silencing component known as the cap-binding complex (CBC). Made up of CBP20 and CBP80 (cap-binding proteins 20 and 80), CBC associates with the 5' cap of nascent mRNA transcripts in eukaryotes. The loss of CBC leads to a deficiency in MSUD activity, suggesting its role in mediating silencing. As confirmed in this study, CBC is predominantly nuclear, although it is known to travel in and out of the nucleus to facilitate RNA transport. Similar to animals but unlike plants, CBP20's robust nuclear re-entry is shown to be dependent on CBP80. CBC interacts with a component (Argonaute) of the perinuclear meiotic silencing complex (MSC), directly linking the two cellular factors.

  18. Meiotic micronuclei induced by X-rays in early spermatids of the rat.

    PubMed

    Lähdetie, J; Parvinen, M

    1981-03-01

    In mutagenicity studies a rapid detection of chromosomal damage in mammalian germ cells would be very valuable. Encouraged by the usefulness of the bone-marrow micronucleus test, we applied analogous method to the assay of micronuclei induced during meiotic reduction divisions in the adult male rat by X-irradiation. The micronuclei were observed in early post-meiotic cells which were enriched using a transillumination phas-contrast microscopic method. The frequency of micronuclei was scored at various dose levels and at various time intervals. The results indicate a linear increase in the frequency of micronuclei 24 h after X-irradiation with doses of 0, 10, 50, 150, 300 and 600 rad. The highest frequency of micronuclei was observed after 900 rad whereas lower frequencies were found after 1200 rad. The lowest dose giving a statistically significant increase above the control level was 50 rad. The stages of meiosis showed different sensitivities to the chromosome-breaking action of X-rays. The maximal incidence of micronuclei was found 18 h after irradiation which was considered to reflect the great radiosensitivity of diakinesis-metaphase I. The anesthetized group of control animals showed a slightly higher frequency of micronuclei than the non-anesthetized controls. Potentials of the new method for mutagen testing are discussed.

  19. Mouse Sycp1 functions in synaptonemal complex assembly, meiotic recombination, and XY body formation

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Femke A.T.; de Boer, Esther; van den Bosch, Mike; Baarends, Willy M.; Ooms, Marja; Yuan, Li; Liu, Jian-Guo; van Zeeland, Albert A.; Heyting, Christa; Pastink, Albert

    2005-01-01

    In meiotic prophase, synaptonemal complexes (SCs) closely appose homologous chromosomes (homologs) along their length. SCs are assembled from two axial elements (AEs), one along each homolog, which are connected by numerous transverse filaments (TFs). We disrupted the mouse gene encoding TF protein Sycp1 to analyze the role of TFs in meiotic chromosome behavior and recombination. Sycp1-/- mice are infertile, but otherwise healthy. Sycp1-/- spermatocytes form normal AEs, which align homologously, but do not synapse. Most Sycp1-/- spermatocytes arrest in pachynema, whereas a small proportion reaches diplonema, or, exceptionally, metaphase I. In leptotene Sycp1-/- spermatocytes, γH2AX (indicative of DNA damage, including double-strand breaks) appears normal. In pachynema, Sycp1-/- spermatocytes display a number of discrete γH2AX domains along each chromosome, whereas γH2AX disappears from autosomes in wild-type spermatocytes. RAD51/DMC1, RPA, and MSH4 foci (which mark early and intermediate steps in pairing/recombination) appear in similar numbers as in wild type, but do not all disappear, and MLH1 and MLH3 foci (which mark late steps in crossing over) are not formed. Crossovers were rare in metaphase I of Sycp1-/- mice. We propose that SYCP1 has a coordinating role, and ensures formation of crossovers. Unexpectedly, Sycp1-/- spermatocytes did not form XY bodies. PMID:15937223

  20. Factors influencing recombination frequency and distribution in a human meiotic crossover hotspot.

    PubMed

    Jeffreys, Alec J; Neumann, Rita

    2005-08-01

    Little is known about the factors that influence the frequency and distribution of meiotic recombination events within human crossover hotspots. We now describe the detailed analysis of sperm recombination in the NID1 hotspot. Like the neighbouring MS32 hotspot, the NID1 hotspot is associated with a minisatellite, suggesting that hotspots predispose DNA to tandem repetition. Unlike MS32, crossover resolution breakpoints in NID1 avoid the minisatellite, producing a cold spot within the hotspot. This avoidance may be related to the palindromic nature of the minisatellite interfering with the generation and/or processing of recombination intermediates. The NID1 hotspot also contains a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) close to the centre, which appears to directly influence the frequency of crossover initiation. Quantitative gene conversion assays show that this SNP affects the frequency of gene conversion and crossover to a very similar extent, providing evidence that conversions and crossovers are triggered by the same recombination initiating events. The recombination-suppressing allele is over-transmitted to recombinant progeny, and provides the most dramatic example to date of recombination-mediated meiotic drive, of a magnitude sufficient to virtually guarantee that the recombination suppressor will eventually replace the more active allele in human populations.

  1. Abnormal meiotic recombination with complex chromosomal rearrangement in an azoospermic man.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liu; Iqbal, Furhan; Li, Guangyuan; Jiang, Xiaohua; Bukhari, Ihtisham; Jiang, Hanwei; Yang, Qingling; Zhong, Liangwen; Zhang, Yuanwei; Hua, Juan; Cooke, Howard J; Shi, Qinghua

    2015-06-01

    Spermatocyte spreading and immunostaining were applied to detect meiotic prophase I progression, homologous chromosome pairing, synapsis and recombination in an azoospermic reciprocal translocation 46, XY, t(5;7;9;13)(5q11;7p11;7p15;9q12;13p12) carrier. Histological examination of the haematoxylin and eosin stained testicular sections revealed reduced germ cells with no spermatids or sperm in the patient. TdT (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase)-mediated dUDP nick-end labelling assay showed apoptotic cells in testicular sections of translocation carrier. Immnunofluorescence analysis indicated the presence of an octavalent in all the pachytene spermatocytes analysed in the patient. Meiotic progression was disturbed, as an increase in zygotene (P < 0.001) and decrease in the pachytene spermatocytes (P < 0.001) were observed in the t(5;7;9;13) carrier compared with controls. It was further observed that 93% of octavalents were found partially asynapsed between homologous chromosomes. A significant decrease in the recombination frequency was observed on 5p, 5q, 7q, 9p and 13q in the translocation carrier compared with the reported controls. A significant reduction in XY recombination frequency was also found in the participants. Our results indicated that complex chromosomal rearrangements can impair synaptic integrity of translocated chromosomes, which may reduce chromosomal recombination on translocated as well as non-translocated chromosomes, a phenomenon commonly known as interchromosomal effect.

  2. Reinvestigation of an endogenous meiotic drive system in the mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Mori, Akio; Chadee, Dave D; Graham, Douglas H; Severson, David W

    2004-11-01

    We have initiated efforts to determine the molecular basis for the M(D) meiotic drive system in the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. The effect of the M(D) gene is a highly male-biased sex ratio, but varies depending on the frequency and sensitivity of a susceptible responder m(s) allele. The M(D) system has potential as a mechanism for driving trangenes for pathogen resistance into natural Ae. aegypti populations. Because all previously existing laboratory strains carrying the M(D) gene have been lost, we have selected for a new strain, T37, that carries a strong driver. Matings between T37 males and drive-susceptible m(s) females result in progeny with highly biased sex ratios, wherein only approximately 14.7% females are produced. We discuss the potential for identifying M(D) candidate genes based on comparisons with the well-described Drosophila melanogaster segregation distorter (SD) meiotic drive system and considerations for release of transgenic Ae. aegypti into natural populations where M(D) and insensitive m3 alleles are likely segregating.

  3. Diversity and abundance of the abnormal chromosome 10 meiotic drive complex in Zea mays

    PubMed Central

    Kanizay, L B; Pyhäjärvi, T; Lowry, E G; Hufford, M B; Peterson, D G; Ross-Ibarra, J; Dawe, R K

    2013-01-01

    Maize Abnormal chromosome 10 (Ab10) contains a classic meiotic drive system that exploits the asymmetry of meiosis to preferentially transmit itself and other chromosomes containing specialized heterochromatic regions called knobs. The structure and diversity of the Ab10 meiotic drive haplotype is poorly understood. We developed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library from an Ab10 line and used the data to develop sequence-based markers, focusing on the proximal portion of the haplotype that shows partial homology to normal chromosome 10. These molecular and additional cytological data demonstrate that two previously identified Ab10 variants (Ab10-I and Ab10-II) share a common origin. Dominant PCR markers were used with fluorescence in situ hybridization to assay 160 diverse teosinte and maize landrace populations from across the Americas, resulting in the identification of a previously unknown but prevalent form of Ab10 (Ab10-III). We find that Ab10 occurs in at least 75% of teosinte populations at a mean frequency of 15%. Ab10 was also found in 13% of the maize landraces, but does not appear to be fixed in any wild or cultivated population. Quantitative analyses suggest that the abundance and distribution of Ab10 is governed by a complex combination of intrinsic fitness effects as well as extrinsic environmental variability. PMID:23443059

  4. Meiotic Recombination in Schizosaccharomyces pombe: A Paradigm for Genetic and Molecular Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cromie, Gareth; Smith, Gerald R.

    2009-01-01

    The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is especially well-suited for both genetic and biochemical analysis of meiotic recombination. Recent studies have revealed ~50 gene products and two DNA intermediates central to recombination, which we place into a pathway from parental to recombinant DNA. We divide recombination into three stages – chromosome alignment accompanying nuclear “horsetail” movement, formation of DNA breaks, and repair of those breaks – and we discuss the roles of the identified gene products and DNA intermediates in these stages. Although some aspects of recombination are similar to those in the distantly related budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, other aspects are distinctly different. In particular, many proteins required for recombination in one species have no clear ortholog in the other, and the roles of identified orthologs in regulating recombination often differ. Furthermore, in S. pombe the dominant joint DNA molecule intermediates contain single Holliday junctions, and intersister joint molecules are more frequent than interhomolog types, whereas in S. cerevisiae interhomolog double Holliday junctions predominate. We speculate that meiotic recombination in other organisms shares features of each of these yeasts. PMID:20157622

  5. The Nuclear Cap-Binding Complex Mediates Meiotic Silencing by Unpaired DNA

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Logan M.; Xiao, Hua; Boone, Erin C.; Vierling, Michael M.; Shanker, Benjamin S.; Kingston, Shanika L.; Boone, Shannon F.; Haynes, Jackson B.; Shiu, Patrick K.T.

    2017-01-01

    In the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, cross walls between individual cells are normally incomplete, making the entire fungal network vulnerable to attack by viruses and selfish DNAs. Accordingly, several genome surveillance mechanisms are maintained to help the fungus combat these repetitive elements. One of these defense mechanisms is called meiotic silencing by unpaired DNA (MSUD), which identifies and silences unpaired genes during meiosis. Utilizing common RNA interference (RNAi) proteins, such as Dicer and Argonaute, MSUD targets mRNAs homologous to the unpaired sequence to achieve silencing. In this study, we have identified an additional silencing component, namely the cap-binding complex (CBC). Made up of cap-binding proteins CBP20 and CBP80, CBC associates with the 5′ cap of mRNA transcripts in eukaryotes. The loss of CBC leads to a deficiency in MSUD activity, suggesting its role in mediating silencing. As confirmed in this study, CBC is predominantly nuclear, although it is known to travel in and out of the nucleus to facilitate RNA transport. As seen in animals but not in plants, CBP20’s robust nuclear import depends on CBP80 in Neurospora. CBC interacts with a component (Argonaute) of the perinuclear meiotic silencing complex (MSC), directly linking the two cellular factors. PMID:28179391

  6. Meiotic chromosomes and stages of sex chromosome evolution in fish: zebrafish, platyfish and guppy.

    PubMed

    Traut, W; Winking, H

    2001-01-01

    We describe SC complements and results from comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) on mitotic and meiotic chromosomes of the zebrafish Danio rerio, the platyfish Xiphophorus maculatus and the guppy Poecilia reticulata. The three fish species represent basic steps of sex chromosome differentiation: (1) the zebrafish with an all-autosome karyotype; (2) the platyfish with genetically defined sex chromosomes but no differentiation between X and Y visible in the SC or with CGH in meiotic and mitotic chromosomes; (3) the guppy with genetically and cytogenetically differentiated sex chromosomes. The acrocentric Y chromosomes of the guppy consists of a proximal homologous and a distal differential segment. The proximal segment pairs in early pachytene with the respective X chromosome segment. The differential segment is unpaired in early pachytene but synapses later in an 'adjustment' or 'equalization' process. The segment includes a postulated sex determining region and a conspicuous variable heterochromatic region whose structure depends on the particular Y chromosome line. CGH differentiates a large block of predominantly male-specific repetitive DNA and a block of common repetitive DNA in that region.

  7. Efficient mutagenesis by CRISPR/Cas system during meiotic maturation of porcine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Onuma, Asuka; Fujii, Wataru; Sugiura, Koji; Naito, Kunihiko

    2017-02-16

    Genome editing using the CRISPR/Cas system can induce mutations with high efficiency, and allows easier production of genome-modified animals than that offered by the conventional method where embryonic stem cells are used. However, studies using CRISPR/Cas systems have been mostly limited to proliferating somatic cells and pronuclear-stage fertilized eggs. In contrast, the efficiency of a CRISPR/Cas system in immature and maturing oocytes progressing through meiosis has not yet been assessed. In the present study, we evaluated the genome-modification efficiency of the CRISPR/Cas system during meiotic maturation of porcine oocytes. Additionally, the localization of the Cas9 protein in immature oocytes was analyzed in relation to nuclear transport and mutation induction. The results showed that CRISPR/Cas induced mutation with high efficiency even in maturing oocytes with condensed chromosomes, whereas mutations were not induced in GV-stage oocytes. The localization analysis of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged Cas9 (Cas9-EGFP) revealed that the nuclei contained lesser Cas9 than the cytoplasm in immature oocytes. Treatment with leptomycin B, a nuclear export inhibitor, increased the amount of nuclear Cas9 and enabled mutation induction in GV oocytes. Our results suggest that CRISPR/Cas systems can be applied to oocytes during meiotic maturation and be implemented in novel applications targeting female genomes.

  8. Quantitative study on guinea pig spermatogenesis shows a relative high percentage of early meiotic prophase stages.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Rosana E; Wettstein, Rodolfo M

    2004-05-01

    Meiosis is the special double cellular division characterized by the reduction of chromosome number of the final products and recombination of genetic information present in maternal and paternal homologous chromosomes. Early stages of meiotic prophase, leptotene and zygotene (L/Z), are functionally important since homologous chromosomes recognize, align, and pair during them. They are poorly represented in the seminiferous tubules of mammalian species, and this fact turns studies focused on these stages difficult to perform. As a consequence, the molecular bases of these important events are so far poorly known and understood in higher eukaryotes. The purpose of this work was to provide an advantageous experimental mammalian model (with a reasonable number of cells) for biochemical and molecular analysis of early meiotic prophase stages. Here, we present the results of our quantitative study on testes material of both immature and adult guinea pig specimens (Cavia porcellus). We show that their seminiferous tubules contain a comparatively high percentage of L/Z spermatocytes, as well as a very conspicuous chromosome bouquet at the L/Z transition, which points out this species as a well-suited one to address studies on such stages in mammals.

  9. Molecular Basis for Enhancement of the Meiotic DMCI Recombinase by RAD51AP1

    SciTech Connect

    Dray, Eloise; Dunlop, Myun Hwa; Kauppi, Liisa; San Filippo, Joseph San; Wiese, Claudia; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Begovic, Sead; Schild, David; Jasin, Maria; Keeney, Scott; Sung, Patrick

    2010-11-05

    Homologous recombination is needed for meiotic chromosome segregation, genome maintenance, and tumor suppression. RAD51AP1 (RAD51 Associated Protein 1) has been shown to interact with and enhance the recombinase activity of RAD51. Accordingly, genetic ablation of RAD51AP1 leads to enhanced sensitivity to and also chromosome aberrations upon DNA damage, demonstrating a role for RAD51AP1 in mitotic homologous recombination. Here we show physical association of RAD51AP1 with the meiosis-specific recombinase DMC1 and a stimulatory effect of RAD51AP1 on the DMC1-mediated D-loop reaction. Mechanistic studies have revealed that RAD51AP1 enhances the ability of the DMC1 presynaptic filament to capture the duplex DNA partner and to assemble the synaptic complex, in which the recombining DNA strands are homologously aligned. We also provide evidence that functional co-operation is dependent on complex formation between DMC1 and RAD51AP1, and that distinct epitopes in RAD51AP1 mediate interactions with RAD51 and DMC1. Finally, we show that RAD51AP1 is expressed in mouse testes, and that RAD51AP1 foci co-localize with a subset of DMC1 foci in spermatocytes. These results suggest that RAD51AP1 also serves an important role in meiotic homologous recombination.

  10. Modeling meiotic chromosome pairing: nuclear envelope attachment, telomere-led active random motion, and anomalous diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Wallace F.; Fung, Jennifer C.

    2016-04-01

    The recognition and pairing of homologous chromosomes during meiosis is a complex physical and molecular process involving a combination of polymer dynamics and molecular recognition events. Two highly conserved features of meiotic chromosome behavior are the attachment of telomeres to the nuclear envelope and the active random motion of telomeres driven by their interaction with cytoskeletal motor proteins. Both of these features have been proposed to facilitate the process of homolog pairing, but exactly what role these features play in meiosis remains poorly understood. Here we investigate the roles of active motion and nuclear envelope tethering using a Brownian dynamics simulation in which meiotic chromosomes are represented by a Rouse polymer model subjected to tethering and active forces at the telomeres. We find that tethering telomeres to the nuclear envelope slows down pairing relative to the rates achieved by unattached chromosomes, but that randomly directed active forces applied to the telomeres speed up pairing dramatically in a manner that depends on the statistical properties of the telomere force fluctuations. The increased rate of initial pairing cannot be explained by stretching out of the chromosome conformation but instead seems to correlate with anomalous diffusion of sub-telomeric regions.

  11. Sperm nuclear expansion and meiotic maturation in normal and gynogenetic eggs of the scallop, Chlamys farreri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Ying; Li, Qi; Yu, Ruihai; Wang, Rucai

    2008-02-01

    Sperm nuclear expansion, meiosis and the association of the male and female pronuclei leading to the four-cell stage in normal Chlamys farreri eggs were observed under a fluorescence microscope. The effects of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on the fertilizing sperm were also examined. Both normal and UV-irradiated sperm nuclei enlarged at three distinct phases (phase A, metaphase I; phase B, polar body formation; and phase C, female pronuclear development and expansion) that were temporally correlated with meiotic process of the maternal chromosomes. Sperm nuclei underwent a rapid, initial enlargement during phase A, but condensed slightly during phase B, then re-enlarged during phase C. The effects of UV irradiation were not apparent during transformation of the sperm nucleus into a male pronucleus, and there was not any apparent effect on meiotic maturation and development of the female pronucleus. However, the rate of expansion of the UV-irradiated sperm nuclei and the size of male pronuclei were reduced apparently. Unlike the female pronucleus, the male pronucleus derived from sperm genome inactivated by UV irradiation did not form chromosomes, but became a dense chromatin body (DCB). At mitotic anaphase, DCB did not participate in the karyokinesis of the first cleavage as evidenced by chromosomal nondisjunction, demonstrating the effectiveness of using UV irradiation to induce gynogenetic scallop embryos.

  12. Enrichment of meiotic recombination hotspot sequences by avidin capture technology2

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Daniel Camara; Malkaram, Sridhar A.

    2013-01-01

    About 40% of the hotspots for meiotic recombination contain the degenerate consensus sequence 5’-CCNCCNTNNCCNC-3’. Here we present a novel protocol for enriching hotspot sequences from digested genomic DNA by using biotinylated oligonucleotides and streptavidin-coated magnetic beads. The captured hotspots can be released by simple digestion with restriction enzymes for subsequent characterization by second generation sequencing or PCR. The capture protocol specifically enriches hotspot sequences, judged by using fluorophore-conjugated synthetic oligonucleotides and synthetic double-stranded oligonucleotides in combination with PCR. The capture protocol enriches single stranded DNA, denatured double-stranded DNA, and large fragments (>3,000 bp) of digested plasmid DNA with good efficacy. No false positive and false negatives were detected when enriching digested DNA from human cell cultures and primary human cells. The protocol can probably be adapted to enriching sequences other than the hotspot sequence by altering the sequence in the capture oligonucleotide. We intend to apply this protocol in studies assessing effects of micronutrient status on meiotic recombination events in human sperm. PMID:23270922

  13. Meiotic pairing as an indicator of genome composition in polyploid prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata Link).

    PubMed

    Bishop, Jeffrey W; Kim, Sumin; Villamil, María B; Lee, D K; Rayburn, A Lane

    2017-04-01

    The existence of neopolyploidy in prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata Link) has been documented. The neohexaploid was discovered coexisting with tetraploids in central Illinois, and has been reported to exhibit competitiveness in the natural environment. It is hypothesized that the natural tetraploid cytotype produced the hexaploid cytotype via production of unreduced gametes. Meiosis I chromosome pairing was observed in tetraploid (2n = 4x = 40), hexaploid (2n = 6x = 60), and octoploid (2n = 8x = 80) accessions and the percentage of meiotic abnormality was determined. Significant differences in meiotic abnormality exist between tetraploid, hexaploid, and octoploid cytotypes. An elevated incidence of abnormal, predominantly trivalent pairing in the neohexaploid suggests that it may possess homologous chromosomes in sets of three, in contrast to the tetraploid and octoploid cytotypes, which likely possess homologous chromosomes in sets of two. Abnormal chromosome pairing in the hexaploid may result in unequal allocation of chromosomes to daughter cells during later stages of meiosis. Chromosome pairing patterns in tetraploid, hexaploid, and octoploid cytotypes indicate genome compositions of AABB, AAABBB, and AABBA'A'B'B', respectively.

  14. Using Photobleaching to Measure Spindle Microtubule Dynamics in Primary Cultures of Dividing Drosophila Meiotic Spermatocytes.

    PubMed

    Savoian, Matthew S

    2015-07-01

    In dividing animal cells, a microtubule (MT)-based bipolar spindle governs chromosome movement. Current models propose that the spindle facilitates and/or generates translocating forces by regionally depolymerizing the kinetochore fibers (k-fibers) that bind each chromosome. It is unclear how conserved these sites and the resultant chromosome-moving mechanisms are between different dividing cell types because of the technical challenges of quantitatively studying MTs in many specimens. In particular, our knowledge of MT kinetics during the sperm-producing male meiotic divisions remains in its infancy. In this study, I use an easy-to-implement photobleaching-based assay for measuring spindle MT dynamics in primary cultures of meiotic spermatocytes isolated from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. By use of standard scanning confocal microscopy features, fiducial marks were photobleached on fluorescent protein (FP)-tagged MTs. These were followed by time-lapse imaging during different division stages, and their displacement rates were calculated using public domain software. I find that k-fibers continually shorten at their poles during metaphase and anaphase A through the process of MT flux. Anaphase chromosome movement is complemented by Pac-Man, the shortening of the k-fiber at its chromosomal interface. Thus, Drosophila spermatocytes share the sites of spindle dynamism and mechanisms of chromosome movement with mitotic cells. The data reveal the applicability of the photobleaching assay for measuring MT dynamics in primary cultures. This approach can be readily applied to other systems.

  15. DNA methylation epigenetically silences crossover hot spots and controls chromosomal domains of meiotic recombination in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yelina, Nataliya E; Lambing, Christophe; Hardcastle, Thomas J; Zhao, Xiaohui; Santos, Bruno; Henderson, Ian R

    2015-10-15

    During meiosis, homologous chromosomes undergo crossover recombination, which is typically concentrated in narrow hot spots that are controlled by genetic and epigenetic information. Arabidopsis chromosomes are highly DNA methylated in the repetitive centromeres, which are also crossover-suppressed. Here we demonstrate that RNA-directed DNA methylation is sufficient to locally silence Arabidopsis euchromatic crossover hot spots and is associated with increased nucleosome density and H3K9me2. However, loss of CG DNA methylation maintenance in met1 triggers epigenetic crossover remodeling at the chromosome scale, with pericentromeric decreases and euchromatic increases in recombination. We used recombination mutants that alter interfering and noninterfering crossover repair pathways (fancm and zip4) to demonstrate that remodeling primarily involves redistribution of interfering crossovers. Using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing, we show that crossover remodeling is driven by loss of CG methylation within the centromeric regions. Using cytogenetics, we profiled meiotic DNA double-strand break (DSB) foci in met1 and found them unchanged relative to wild type. We propose that met1 chromosome structure is altered, causing centromere-proximal DSBs to be inhibited from maturation into interfering crossovers. These data demonstrate that DNA methylation is sufficient to silence crossover hot spots and plays a key role in establishing domains of meiotic recombination along chromosomes.

  16. Senataxin plays an essential role with DNA damage response proteins in meiotic recombination and gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Becherel, Olivier J; Yeo, Abrey J; Stellati, Alissa; Heng, Evelyn Y H; Luff, John; Suraweera, Amila M; Woods, Rick; Fleming, Jean; Carrie, Dianne; McKinney, Kristine; Xu, Xiaoling; Deng, Chuxia; Lavin, Martin F

    2013-04-01

    Senataxin, mutated in the human genetic disorder ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 (AOA2), plays an important role in maintaining genome integrity by coordination of transcription, DNA replication, and the DNA damage response. We demonstrate that senataxin is essential for spermatogenesis and that it functions at two stages in meiosis during crossing-over in homologous recombination and in meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI). Disruption of the Setx gene caused persistence of DNA double-strand breaks, a defect in disassembly of Rad51 filaments, accumulation of DNA:RNA hybrids (R-loops), and ultimately a failure of crossing-over. Senataxin localised to the XY body in a Brca1-dependent manner, and in its absence there was incomplete localisation of DNA damage response proteins to the XY chromosomes and ATR was retained on the axial elements of these chromosomes, failing to diffuse out into chromatin. Furthermore persistence of RNA polymerase II activity, altered ubH2A distribution, and abnormal XY-linked gene expression in Setx⁻/⁻ revealed an essential role for senataxin in MSCI. These data support key roles for senataxin in coordinating meiotic crossing-over with transcription and in gene silencing to protect the integrity of the genome.

  17. Evidence that meiotic sex chromosome inactivation is essential for male fertility.

    PubMed

    Royo, Hélène; Polikiewicz, Grzegorz; Mahadevaiah, Shantha K; Prosser, Haydn; Mitchell, Mike; Bradley, Allan; de Rooij, Dirk G; Burgoyne, Paul S; Turner, James M A

    2010-12-07

    The mammalian X and Y chromosomes share little homology and are largely unsynapsed during normal meiosis. This asynapsis triggers inactivation of X- and Y-linked genes, or meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI). Whether MSCI is essential for male meiosis is unclear. Pachytene arrest and apoptosis is observed in mouse mutants in which MSCI fails, e.g., Brca1(-/-), H2afx(-/-), Sycp1(-/-), and Msh5(-/-). However, these also harbor defects in synapsis and/or recombination and as such may activate a putative pachytene checkpoint. Here we present evidence that MSCI failure is sufficient to cause pachytene arrest. XYY males exhibit Y-Y synapsis and Y chromosomal escape from MSCI without accompanying synapsis/recombination defects. We find that XYY males, like synapsis/recombination mutants, display pachytene arrest and that this can be circumvented by preventing Y-Y synapsis and associated Y gene expression. Pachytene expression of individual Y genes inserted as transgenes on autosomes shows that expression of the Zfy 1/2 paralogs in XY males is sufficient to phenocopy the pachytene arrest phenotype; insertion of Zfy 1/2 on the X chromosome where they are subject to MSCI prevents this response. Our findings show that MSCI is essential for male meiosis and, as such, provide insight into the differential severity of meiotic mutations' effects on male and female meiosis.

  18. BRCA1, histone H2AX phosphorylation, and male meiotic sex chromosome inactivation.

    PubMed

    Turner, James M A; Aprelikova, Olga; Xu, Xiaoling; Wang, Ruihong; Kim, Sangsoo; Chandramouli, Gadisetti V R; Barrett, J Carl; Burgoyne, Paul S; Deng, Chu-Xia

    2004-12-14

    In mammalian spermatogenesis, the X and Y chromosomes are transcriptionally silenced during the pachytene stage of meiotic prophase (meiotic sex chromosome inactivation, MSCI), forming a condensed chromatin domain termed the sex or XY body. The nucleosomal core histone H2AX is phosphorylated within the XY chromatin domain just prior to MSCI, and it has been hypothesized that this triggers the chromatin condensation and transcriptional repression. Here, we show that the kinase ATR localizes to XY chromatin at the onset of MSCI and that this localization is disrupted in mice with a mutant form of the tumor suppressor protein BRCA1. In the mutant pachytene cells, ATR is usually present at nonsex chromosomal sites, where it colocalizes with aberrant sites of H2AX phosphorylation; in these cells, there is MSCI failure. In rare pachytene cells, ATR does locate to XY chromatin, H2AX is then phosphorylated, a sex body forms, and MSCI ensues. These observations highlight an important role for BRCA1 in recruiting the kinase ATR to XY chromatin at the onset of MSCI and provide compelling evidence that it is ATR that phosphorylates H2AX and triggers MSCI.

  19. Zscan4 is expressed specifically during late meiotic prophase in both spermatogenesis and oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Kei-Ichiro; Monti, Manuela; Akiyama, Tomohiko; Kimura, Hiromi; Chikazawa-Nohtomi, Nana; Sakota, Miki; Sato, Saeko; Redi, Carlo Alberto; Ko, Shigeru B H; Ko, Minoru S H

    2017-02-01

    Mouse zinc finger and SCAN domain containing 4 (Zscan4) proteins, which are encoded by multiple copies of Zscan4 genes, are expressed specifically in preimplantation embryos in vivo and embryonic stem (ES) cells in vitro. However, the expression patterns of mouse Zscan4 in vivo have been largely elusive. Here, we show that Zscan4 proteins are expressed in adult ovaries and testes. In ovaries, Zscan4 proteins were detected in germinal vesicle (GV) stage oocytes in antral follicles, indicating that Zscan4 genes are activated during the diplotene/dictyate stage in meiotic prophase I. Remarkably, Zscan4 showed different spatial localization patterns between two distinct GV oocytes, which can be distinguished by global chromatin organization-surrounded nucleolus (SN) and non-surrounded nucleolus (NSN). These spatiotemporal differences in Zscan4 localizations correlated with the transition of RNA polymerase II-mediated transcriptional status during GV oocyte maturation. In testes, Zscan4 proteins were detected in spermatocytes at late pachytene/diplotene stages and in Sertoli cells. These results suggest that Zscan4 may play critical roles during late meiotic prophase in both males and females.

  20. New paradigms for conserved, multifactorial, cis-acting regulation of meiotic recombination

    PubMed Central

    Wahls, Wayne P.; Davidson, Mari K.

    2012-01-01

    How do cells position the Spo11 (Rec12)-dependent initiation of meiotic recombination at hotspots? The mechanisms are poorly understood and a prevailing view is that they differ substantially between phylogenetic groups. However, recent work discovered that individual species have multiple different DNA sequence-specific, protein–DNA complexes that regulate (and are essential for the activation of) recombination hotspots. The cis-acting elements function combinatorially with documented examples of synergism, antagonism and redundancy. Furthermore, we provide evidence that all currently well-defined modules of this multifactorial, cis-acting regulation are conserved functionally between taxa whose latest common ancestor occurred more than 1 billion years ago. Functionally conserved components include the ATF/CREB-family heterodimer Atf1-Pcr1 and its CRE-like DNA site M26, the CCAAT-box-binding complex Php2-Php3-Php5 and the CCAAT-box, and the zinc-finger protein Rst2 and its Oligo-C motif. The newfound multiplicity, functional redundancy and conservation of cis-acting controls constitute a paradigm shift with broad implications. They provide compelling evidence that most meiotic recombination is, like transcription, regulated by sequence-specific protein–DNA complexes. And the new findings provide important mechanistic insight, such as a solution to the conundrum that Prdm9 is a ‘master regulator’ of—yet is dispensable for—hotspot activity in mammals. PMID:22904082

  1. Quadrivalent asymmetry in reciprocal translocation carriers predicts meiotic segregation patterns in cleavage stage embryos.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yueping; Zhu, Saijuan; Wu, Jialong; Liu, Suying; Sun, Xiaoxi

    2014-10-01

    The effect of quadrivalent geometry on meiotic behaviour was evaluated. Segregation patterns of 404 cleavage stage embryos from 40 reciprocal translocation carriers undergoing 75 PGD cycles were analysed according to the asymmetric degree of quadrivalent. The percentage of alternate products with severe asymmetric quadrivalents was significantly lower than patients with mild asymmetric quadrivalents (22.5% versus 38.7%, P = 0.001). The incidence of 3:1 products was significantly higher in patients with severe compared with mild asymmetric quadrivalents (23.1% versus 12.2%, P = 0.004). The incidence of adjacent 1 (25.8% versus 24.3%), 2 (11.5% versus 12.6%) and 4:0/other segregation products (17.0% versus 12.2%) were not statistically significantly different between embryos from patients with severe or mild asymmetric quadrivalents. After adjusting for the confounder of sex using a logistic regression model, the odds of alternate embryos is about one-half for carriers classified as severe (OR 0.456, 95% CI 0.291 to 0.705), and the odds of 3:1 embryos is 2.2 times higher for carriers with severe asymmetric quadrivalents (OR 2.235, 95% CI 1.318 to 3.846). Our results suggest that the meiotic segregation pattern is related to the degree of asymmetry of specific quadrivalents. Severe asymmetric quadrivalents increases the risk of abnormal embryos.

  2. Confined trisomy 8 mosaicism of meiotic origin: a rare cause of aneuploidy in childhood cancer.

    PubMed

    Valind, Anders; Pal, Niklas; Asmundsson, Jurate; Gisselsson, David; Holmquist Mengelbier, Linda

    2014-07-01

    Whether chromosome abnormalities observed in tumor cells may in some cases reflect low-grade somatic mosaicism for anomalies present already at zygote formation, rather than acquired somatic mutations, has for long remained a speculation. We here report a patient with Wilms tumor, where constitutional somatic mosaicism of trisomy 8 was detected in a previously healthy 2 ½-year-old boy. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) array analysis of tumor tissue revealed a complex distribution of allele frequencies for chromosome 8 that could not be explained solely by mitotic events. Combined analysis of allele frequencies, chromosome banding, and fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that the majority of tumor cells contained four copies of chromosome 8, with three distinct haplotypes at a 2:1:1 ratio. Because the patient had not been subject to organ transplantation, these findings indicated that the tumor karyotype evolved from a cell with trisomy 8 of meiotic origin, with subsequent somatic gain of one additional chromosome copy. Haplotype analysis was consistent with trisomy 8 through nondisjunction at meiosis I. Matched normal renal tissue or peripheral blood did not contain detectable amounts of cells with trisomy 8, consistent with the complete lack of mosaic trisomy 8 syndrome features in the patient. This case provides proof of principle for the hypothesis that tumor genotypes may in rare cases reflect meiotic rather than mitotic events, also in patients lacking syndromic features. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Meiotic drive impacts expression and evolution of x-linked genes in stalk-eyed flies.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Josephine A; Brand, Cara L; Paczolt, Kimberly A; Johns, Philip M; Baker, Richard H; Wilkinson, Gerald S

    2014-01-01

    Although sex chromosome meiotic drive has been observed in a variety of species for over 50 years, the genes causing drive are only known in a few cases, and none of these cases cause distorted sex-ratios in nature. In stalk-eyed flies (Teleopsis dalmanni), driving X chromosomes are commonly found at frequencies approaching 30% in the wild, but the genetic basis of drive has remained elusive due to reduced recombination between driving and non-driving X chromosomes. Here, we used RNAseq to identify transcripts that are differentially expressed between males carrying either a driving X (XSR) or a standard X chromosome (XST), and found hundreds of these, the majority of which are X-linked. Drive-associated transcripts show increased levels of sequence divergence (dN/dS) compared to a control set, and are predominantly expressed either in testes or in the gonads of both sexes. Finally, we confirmed that XSR and XST are highly divergent by estimating sequence differentiation between the RNAseq pools. We found that X-linked transcripts were often strongly differentiated (whereas most autosomal transcripts were not), supporting the presence of a relatively large region of recombination suppression on XSR presumably caused by one or more inversions. We have identified a group of genes that are good candidates for further study into the causes and consequences of sex-chromosome drive, and demonstrated that meiotic drive has had a profound effect on sequence evolution and gene expression of X-linked genes in this species.

  4. Kdm5/Lid Regulates Chromosome Architecture in Meiotic Prophase I Independently of Its Histone Demethylase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhaunova, Liudmila; Ohkura, Hiroyuki; Breuer, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    During prophase of the first meiotic division (prophase I), chromatin dynamically reorganises to recombine and prepare for chromosome segregation. Histone modifying enzymes are major regulators of chromatin structure, but our knowledge of their roles in prophase I is still limited. Here we report on crucial roles of Kdm5/Lid, one of two histone demethylases in Drosophila that remove one of the trimethyl groups at Lys4 of Histone 3 (H3K4me3). In the absence of Kdm5/Lid, the synaptonemal complex was only partially formed and failed to be maintained along chromosome arms, while localisation of its components at centromeres was unaffected. Kdm5/Lid was also required for karyosome formation and homologous centromere pairing in prophase I. Although loss of Kdm5/Lid dramatically increased the level of H3K4me3 in oocytes, catalytically inactive Kdm5/Lid can rescue the above cytological defects. Therefore Kdm5/Lid controls chromatin architecture in meiotic prophase I oocytes independently of its demethylase activity. PMID:27494704

  5. Transmission distortion affecting human noncrossover but not crossover recombination: a hidden source of meiotic drive.

    PubMed

    Odenthal-Hesse, Linda; Berg, Ingrid L; Veselis, Amelia; Jeffreys, Alec J; May, Celia A

    2014-02-01

    Meiotic recombination ensures the correct segregation of homologous chromosomes during gamete formation and contributes to DNA diversity through both large-scale reciprocal crossovers and very localised gene conversion events, also known as noncrossovers. Considerable progress has been made in understanding factors such as PRDM9 and SNP variants that influence the initiation of recombination at human hotspots but very little is known about factors acting downstream. To address this, we simultaneously analysed both types of recombinant molecule in sperm DNA at six highly active hotspots, and looked for disparity in the transmission of allelic variants indicative of any cis-acting influences. At two of the hotspots we identified a novel form of biased transmission that was exclusive to the noncrossover class of recombinant, and which presumably arises through differences between crossovers and noncrossovers in heteroduplex formation and biased mismatch repair. This form of biased gene conversion is not predicted to influence hotspot activity as previously noted for SNPs that affect recombination initiation, but does constitute a powerful and previously undetected source of recombination-driven meiotic drive that by extrapolation may affect thousands of recombination hotspots throughout the human genome. Intriguingly, at both of the hotspots described here, this drive favours strong (G/C) over weak (A/T) base pairs as might be predicted from the well-established correlations between high GC content and recombination activity in mammalian genomes.

  6. The Landscape of Mouse Meiotic Double-Strand Break Formation, Processing, and Repair.

    PubMed

    Lange, Julian; Yamada, Shintaro; Tischfield, Sam E; Pan, Jing; Kim, Seoyoung; Zhu, Xuan; Socci, Nicholas D; Jasin, Maria; Keeney, Scott

    2016-10-20

    Heritability and genome stability are shaped by meiotic recombination, which is initiated via hundreds of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The distribution of DSBs throughout the genome is not random, but mechanisms molding this landscape remain poorly understood. Here, we exploit genome-wide maps of mouse DSBs at unprecedented nucleotide resolution to uncover previously invisible spatial features of recombination. At fine scale, we reveal a stereotyped hotspot structure-DSBs occur within narrow zones between methylated nucleosomes-and identify relationships between SPO11, chromatin, and the histone methyltransferase PRDM9. At large scale, DSB formation is suppressed on non-homologous portions of the sex chromosomes via the DSB-responsive kinase ATM, which also shapes the autosomal DSB landscape at multiple size scales. We also provide a genome-wide analysis of exonucleolytic DSB resection lengths and elucidate spatial relationships between DSBs and recombination products. Our results paint a comprehensive picture of features governing successive steps in mammalian meiotic recombination.

  7. Location of 45S Ribosomal Genes in Mitotic and Meiotic Chromosomes of Buthid Scorpions.

    PubMed

    Mattos, Viviane Fagundes; Carvalho, Leonardo Sousa; Cella, Doralice Maria; Schneider, Marielle Cristina

    2014-09-01

    Buthid scorpions exhibit a high variability in diploid number within genera and even within species. Cytogenetically, Buthidae differs from other families of Scorpiones based on its low diploid numbers, holocentric chromosomes, and complex chromosomal chains, which form during meiosis. In this study, we analyzed the distribution of the 45S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) genes in the mitotic and meiotic chromosomes of seven buthid species belonging to the genera Rhopalurus and Tityus with the ultimate goal of elucidating the chromosome organization in these scorpions. The chromosome number ranged from 2n=6 to 2n=28. Despite the high variance in diploid number, all species examined carried their 45S rDNA sites in the terminal region of exactly two chromosomes. Analyses of meiotic cells revealed 45S rDNA clusters in the chromosomal chains of Rhopalurus agamemnon, Tityus bahiensis, Tityus confluens, and Tityus martinpaechi, or in bivalent-like configuration in Rhopalurus rochai, Tityus bahiensis, Tityus confluens, Tityus fasciolatus, and Tityus paraguayensis. In the species examined, the 45S rDNA sites colocalized with constitutive heterochromatin regions. In light of the high chromosome variability and maintenance of number and terminal position of 45S rDNA sites in buthids, the heterochromatin may act to conserve the integrity of the ribosomal genes.

  8. Kdm5/Lid Regulates Chromosome Architecture in Meiotic Prophase I Independently of Its Histone Demethylase Activity.

    PubMed

    Zhaunova, Liudmila; Ohkura, Hiroyuki; Breuer, Manuel

    2016-08-01

    During prophase of the first meiotic division (prophase I), chromatin dynamically reorganises to recombine and prepare for chromosome segregation. Histone modifying enzymes are major regulators of chromatin structure, but our knowledge of their roles in prophase I is still limited. Here we report on crucial roles of Kdm5/Lid, one of two histone demethylases in Drosophila that remove one of the trimethyl groups at Lys4 of Histone 3 (H3K4me3). In the absence of Kdm5/Lid, the synaptonemal complex was only partially formed and failed to be maintained along chromosome arms, while localisation of its components at centromeres was unaffected. Kdm5/Lid was also required for karyosome formation and homologous centromere pairing in prophase I. Although loss of Kdm5/Lid dramatically increased the level of H3K4me3 in oocytes, catalytically inactive Kdm5/Lid can rescue the above cytological defects. Therefore Kdm5/Lid controls chromatin architecture in meiotic prophase I oocytes independently of its demethylase activity.

  9. Depletion of the LINC complex disrupts cytoskeleton dynamics and meiotic resumption in mouse oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yibo; Lee, In-Won; Jo, Yu-Jin; Namgoong, Suk; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    The SUN (Sad-1/UNC-84) and KASH (Klarsicht/ANC-1/Syne/homology) proteins constitute the linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex on the nuclear envelope. To date, the SUN1/KASH5 complex is known to function as meiotic-specific factors. In this study, gene-silencing methods were used to explore the roles of SUN1 and KASH5 in mouse oocytes after prophase. SUN1 was detected throughout the nucleus; however, KASH5 was dispersed through the cell. After germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), SUN1 and KASH5 migrated during spindle formation and localized to the spindle poles at the MII stage. Most oocytes were arrested at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage after depletion of either SUN1 or KASH5. The DNA damage response was triggered in SUN1-depleted oocytes and thus gave rise to the G2/M checkpoint protein, p-CHK1. Oocytes that underwent GVBD had relatively small and abnormal spindles and lower levels of cytoplasm F-actin mesh. Immunofluorescence results also indicated the dislocation of pericentrin and P150Glued after SUN1 or KASH5 depletion. Furthermore, KASH5 localized exclusively near the oocyte cortex after SUN1 depletion, but SUN1 localization was unaffected in KASH5-depleted oocytes. Taken together, the results suggest that SUN1 and KASH5 are essential factors in the regulation of meiotic resumption and spindle formation. PMID:26842404

  10. Histone H2AFX Links Meiotic Chromosome Asynapsis to Prophase I Oocyte Loss in Mammals.

    PubMed

    Cloutier, Jeffrey M; Mahadevaiah, Shantha K; ElInati, Elias; Nussenzweig, André; Tóth, Attila; Turner, James M A

    2015-10-01

    Chromosome abnormalities are common in the human population, causing germ cell loss at meiotic prophase I and infertility. The mechanisms driving this loss are unknown, but persistent meiotic DNA damage and asynapsis may be triggers. Here we investigate the contribution of these lesions to oocyte elimination in mice with chromosome abnormalities, e.g. Turner syndrome (XO) and translocations. We show that asynapsed chromosomes trigger oocyte elimination at diplonema, which is linked to the presence of phosphorylated H2AFX (γH2AFX). We find that DNA double-strand break (DSB) foci disappear on asynapsed chromosomes during pachynema, excluding persistent DNA damage as a likely cause, and demonstrating the existence in mammalian oocytes of a repair pathway for asynapsis-associated DNA DSBs. Importantly, deletion or point mutation of H2afx restores oocyte numbers in XO females to wild type (XX) levels. Unexpectedly, we find that asynapsed supernumerary chromosomes do not elicit prophase I loss, despite being enriched for γH2AFX and other checkpoint proteins. These results suggest that oocyte loss cannot be explained simply by asynapsis checkpoint models, but is related to the gene content of asynapsed chromosomes. A similar mechanistic basis for oocyte loss may operate in humans with chromosome abnormalities.

  11. Sequencing Spo11 Oligonucleotides for Mapping Meiotic DNA Double-Strand Breaks in Yeast.

    PubMed

    Lam, Isabel; Mohibullah, Neeman; Keeney, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Meiosis is a specialized form of cell division resulting in reproductive cells with a reduced, usually haploid, genome complement. A key step after premeiotic DNA replication is the occurrence of homologous recombination at multiple places throughout the genome, initiated with the formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) catalyzed by the topoisomerase-like protein Spo11. DSBs are distributed non-randomly in genomes, and understanding the mechanisms that shape this distribution is important for understanding how meiotic recombination influences heredity and genome evolution. Several methods exist for mapping where Spo11 acts. Of these, sequencing of Spo11-associated oligonucleotides (Spo11 oligos) is the most precise, specifying the locations of DNA breaks to the base pair. In this chapter we detail the steps involved in Spo11-oligo mapping in the SK1 strain of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, from harvesting cells of highly synchronous meiotic cultures, through preparation of sequencing libraries, to the mapping pipeline used for processing the data.

  12. Modeling meiotic chromosome pairing: nuclear envelope attachment, telomere-led active random motion, and anomalous diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Wallace F.; Fung, Jennifer C.

    2016-01-01

    The recognition and pairing of homologous chromosomes during meiosis is a complex physical and molecular process involving a combination of polymer dynamics and molecular recognition events. Two highly conserved features of meiotic chromosome behavior are the attachment of telomeres to the nuclear envelope and the active random motion of telomeres driven by their interaction with cytoskeletal motor proteins. Both of these features have been proposed to facilitate the process of homolog pairing, but exactly what role these features play in meiosis remains poorly understood. Here we investigate the roles of active motion and nuclear envelope tethering using a Brownian dynamics simulation in which meiotic chromosomes are represented by a Rouse polymer model subjected to tethering and active forces at the telomeres. We find that tethering telomeres to the nuclear envelope slows down pairing relative to the rates achieved by un-attached chromosomes, but that randomly-directed active forces applied to the telomeres speeds up pairing dramatically in a manner that depends on the statistical properties of the telomere force fluctuations. The increased rate of initial pairing cannot be explained by stretching out of the chromosome conformation but instead seems to correlate with anomalous diffusion of sub-telomeric regions. PMID:27046097

  13. How did the platypus get its sex chromosome chain? A comparison of meiotic multiples and sex chromosomes in plants and animals.

    PubMed

    Gruetzner, Frank; Ashley, Terry; Rowell, David M; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A

    2006-04-01

    The duck-billed platypus is an extraordinary mammal. Its chromosome complement is no less extraordinary, for it includes a system in which ten sex chromosomes form an extensive meiotic chain in males. Such meiotic multiples are unprecedented in vertebrates but occur sporadically in plant and invertebrate species. In this paper, we review the evolution and formation of meiotic multiples in plants and invertebrates to try to gain insights into the origin of the platypus meiotic multiple. We describe the meiotic hurdles that translocated mammalian chromosomes face, which make longer chains disadvantageous in mammals, and we discuss how sex chromosomes and dosage compensation might have affected the evolution of sex-linked meiotic multiples. We conclude that the evolutionary conservation of the chain in monotremes, the structural properties of the translocated chromosomes and the highly accurate segregation at meiosis make the platypus system remarkably different from meiotic multiples in other species. We discuss alternative evolutionary models, which fall broadly into two categories: either the chain is the result of a sequence of translocation events from an ancestral pair of sex chromosomes (Model I) or the entire chain came into being at once by hybridization of two populations with different chromosomal rearrangements sharing monobrachial homology (Model II).

  14. Coordination of Recombination with Meiotic Progression in the Caenorhabditis elegans Germline by KIN-18, a TAO Kinase That Regulates the Timing of MPK-1 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yizhi; Donlevy, Sean; Smolikove, Sarit

    2016-01-01

    Meiosis is a tightly regulated process requiring coordination of diverse events. A conserved ERK/MAPK-signaling cascade plays an essential role in the regulation of meiotic progression. The Thousand And One kinase (TAO) kinase is a MAPK kinase kinase, the meiotic role of which is unknown. We have analyzed the meiotic functions of KIN-18, the homolog of mammalian TAO kinases, in Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that KIN-18 is essential for normal meiotic progression; mutants exhibit accelerated meiotic recombination as detected both by analysis of recombination intermediates and by crossover outcome. In addition, ectopic germ-cell differentiation and enhanced levels of apoptosis were observed in kin-18 mutants. These defects correlate with ectopic activation of MPK-1 that includes premature, missing, and reoccurring MPK-1 activation. Late progression defects in kin-18 mutants are suppressed by inhibiting an upstream activator of MPK-1 signaling, KSR-2. However, the acceleration of recombination events observed in kin-18 mutants is largely MPK-1-independent. Our data suggest that KIN-18 coordinates meiotic progression by modulating the timing of MPK-1 activation and the progression of recombination events. The regulation of the timing of MPK-1 activation ensures the proper timing of apoptosis and is required for the formation of functional oocytes. Meiosis is a conserved process; thus, revealing that KIN-18 is a novel regulator of meiotic progression in C. elegans would help to elucidate TAO kinase's role in germline development in higher eukaryotes.

  15. Bivalent Formation 1, a plant-conserved gene, encodes an OmpH/coiled-coil motif-containing protein required for meiotic recombination in rice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lian; Han, Jingluan; Chen, Yuanling; Wang, Yingxiang; Liu, Yao-Guang

    2017-03-24

    Meiosis is essential for eukaryotic sexual reproduction and plant fertility. In comparison with over 80 meiotic genes identified in Arabidopsis, there are only ~30 meiotic genes characterized in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Many genes involved in the regulation of meiotic progression remain to be determined. In this study, we identified a sterile rice mutant and cloned a new meiotic gene, OsBVF1 (Bivalent Formation 1) by map-based cloning. Molecular genetics and cytological approaches were carried out to address the function of OsBVF1 in meiosis. Phylogenetic analyses were used to study the evolution of OsBVF1 and its homologs in plant species. Here we showed that the bvf1 male meiocytes were defective in formation of meiotic double strand break, thereby resulting in a failure of bivalent formation in diakinesis and unequal chromosome segregation in anaphase I. The causal gene, OsBVF1, encodes a unique OmpH/coiled-coil motif-containing protein and its homologs are highly conserved in the plant kingdom and seem to be a single-copy gene in the majority of plant species. Our study demonstrates that OsBVF1 is a novel plant-conserved factor involved in meiotic recombination in rice, providing a new insight into understanding of meiotic progression regulation.

  16. Increased frequency of asynapsis and associated meiotic silencing of heterologous chromatin in the presence of irradiation-induced extra DNA double strand breaks.

    PubMed

    Schoenmakers, Sam; Wassenaar, Evelyne; van Cappellen, Wiggert A; Derijck, Alwin A; de Boer, Peter; Laven, Joop S E; Grootegoed, J Anton; Baarends, Willy M

    2008-05-01

    In meiotic prophase of male placental mammals, the heterologous X and Y chromosomes remain largely unsynapsed, which activates meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI), leading to formation of the transcriptionally silenced XY body. MSCI is most likely related to meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin (MSUC), a mechanism that can silence autosomal unsynapsed chromatin. However, heterologous synapsis and escape from silencing also occur. In mammalian species, formation of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) during leptotene precedes meiotic chromosome pairing. These DSBs are essential to achieve full synapsis of homologous chromosomes. We generated 25% extra meiotic DSBs by whole body irradiation of mice. This leads to a significant increase in meiotic recombination frequency. In mice carrying translocation chromosomes with synaptic problems, we observed an approximately 35% increase in asynapsis and MSUC of the nonhomologous region in the smallest chromosome pair following irradiation. However, the same nonhomologous region in the largest chromosome pair, shows complete synapsis and escape from MSUC in almost 100% of the nuclei, irrespective of exposure to irradiation. We propose that prevention of synapsis and associated activation of MSUC is linked to the presence of unrepaired meiotic DSBs in the nonhomologous region. Also, spreading of synaptonemal complex formation from regions of homology may act as an opposing force, and drive heterologous synapsis.

  17. Meiotic studies of infertile men in case of non-obstructive azoospermia with normal karyotype and no microdeleted Y-chromosome precise the clinical couple management.

    PubMed

    North, Marie-Odile; Lellei, Ilona; Erdei, Edit; Barbet, Jacques Patrick; Tritto, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    To identify meiotic criteria for infertility management in non-obstructive azoospermic men, a prospective and multicentric study was organized in Andrological Departments of Paris (France), Roma (Italy) and Budapest (Hungary). In 117 non-obstructive azoospermic men with normal karyotype and no Y-chromosome microdeletion, histology and meiotic studies on bilateral bipolar testicular biopsies were done. Histologically, 40 patients (34%) presented spermatocyte or spermatid arrest, 39 (33%) hypospermatogenesis whereas no meiotic cell could be observed in the remaining patients (33%). Cytogenetically, meiotic figures could only be obtained from the two first histological groups. Meiotic abnormalities were observed in a total of 44 patients (37.6%) including nine patients (7.7%) with severe class I and class IIB anomalies and 19 patients (16.2%) with class IIC environmentally linked meiotic abnormalities. These results provided essential clues for an accurate clinical management. For patients with no meiotic figures and patients with class I and class IIB anomalies, an hormonal stimulation is illusory and a sperm gift should be directly proposed. An hormonal stimulation should be proposed to all the other patients, either directly or following the treatment of the testicular microenvironment for the patients presenting class IIC anomalies. The genetic risk and possibility of prenatal chromosomal analysis in case of pregnancy should be clearly exposed to all the couples in all the cases where type IIA, III or IV anomalies are present. This therapeutical strategy has been applied to all the patients in our series.

  18. Evidence that sex chromosome asynapsis, rather than excess Y gene dosage, is responsible for the meiotic impairment of XYY mice.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, T A; Burgoyne, P S

    2000-01-01

    There is extensive evidence for the existence of a meiotic checkpoint that acts to eliminate spermatocytes that fail to achieve full sex chromosome synapsis at the pachytene stage of the first meiotic prophase. XYY mice are nearly always sterile, with clear signs of meiotic impairment, and sex chromosome asynapsis has been proposed to underlie this impairment. However, a study of XYY*(X) mice (mice having three sex chromosomes but only a single dose of Y genes) revealed that these mice are fertile, and thus implicated Y gene dosage as a major factor in the sterility of XYY mice. To address this question further, sex chromosome synapsis and spermatogenic proficiency were compared between XYY*(X) and XYY mice generated in the same litters. This established that differences in spermatogenic proficiency within and between the two genotypes correlated with the frequency of radial trivalent formation (full sex chromosome synapsis); XYY*(X) males, as a group, had double the radial trivalent frequency of XYY males. This observation provides strong support for the view that sex chromosome asynapsis (or some consequence thereof), rather than Y gene dosage, is the major factor leading to the meiotic impairment of XYY mice.

  19. Spata22, a novel vertebrate-specific gene, is required for meiotic progress in mouse germ cells.

    PubMed

    La Salle, Sophie; Palmer, Kristina; O'Brien, Marilyn; Schimenti, John C; Eppig, John; Handel, Mary Ann

    2012-02-01

    The N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced repro42 mutation, identified by a forward genetics strategy, causes both male and female infertility, with no other apparent phenotypes. Positional cloning led to the discovery of a nonsense mutation in Spata22, a hitherto uncharacterized gene conserved among bony vertebrates. Expression of both transcript and protein is restricted predominantly to germ cells of both sexes. Germ cells of repro42 mutant mice express Spata22 transcript, but not SPATA22 protein. Gametogenesis is profoundly affected by the mutation, and germ cells in repro42 mutant mice do not progress beyond early meiotic prophase, with subsequent germ cell loss in both males and females. The Spata22 gene is essential for one or more key events of early meiotic prophase, as homologous chromosomes of mutant germ cells do not achieve normal synapsis or repair meiotic DNA double-strand breaks. The repro42 mutation thus identifies a novel mammalian germ cell-specific gene required for meiotic progression.

  20. A positive but complex association between meiotic double-strand break hotspots and open chromatin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Berchowitz, Luke E.; Hanlon, Sean E.; Lieb, Jason D.; Copenhaver, Gregory P.

    2009-01-01

    During meiosis, chromatin undergoes extensive changes to facilitate recombination, homolog pairing, and chromosome segregation. To investigate the relationship between chromatin organization and meiotic processes, we used formaldehyde-assisted isolation of regulatory elements (FAIRE) to map open chromatin during the transition from mitosis to meiosis in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that meiosis-induced opening of chromatin is associated with meiotic DSB hotpots. The positive association between open chromatin and DSB hotspots is most prominent 3 h into meiosis, when the early meiotic genes DMC1 and HOP1 exhibit maximum transcription and the early recombination genes SPO11 and RAD51 are strongly up-regulated. While the degree of chromatin openness is positively associated with the occurrence of recombination hotspots, many hotspots occur outside of open chromatin. Of particular interest, many DSB hotspots that fell outside of meiotic open chromatin nonetheless occurred in chromatin that had recently been open during mitotic growth. Finally, we find evidence for meiosis-specific opening of chromatin at the regions adjacent to boundaries of subtelomeric sequences, which exhibit specific crossover control patterns hypothesized to be regulated by chromatin. PMID:19801530

  1. Correlative light and electron microscopy of intermediate stages of meiotic spindle assembly in the early Caenorhabditis elegans embryo.

    PubMed

    Woog, Ina; White, Silke; Büchner, Mandy; Srayko, Martin; Müller-Reichert, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This chapter is an update of the previously published book chapter "Correlative Light and Electron Microscopy of Early C. elegans Embryos in Mitosis" (Müller-Reichert, Srayko, Hyman, O'Toole, & McDonald, 2007). Here, we have adapted and improved the protocol for the isolated meiotic embryos, which was necessary to meet the specific challenges a researcher faces while investigating the development of very early Caenorhabditis elegans embryos ex-utero. Due to the incompleteness of the eggshell assembly, the meiotic embryo is very fragile and much more susceptible to changes in the environmental conditions than the mitotic ones. To avoid phototoxicity associated with wide-field UV illumination, we stage the meiotic embryos primarily using transmitted visible light. Throughout the staging and high-pressure freezing, we incubate samples in an isotonic embryo buffer. The ex-utero approach allows precise tracking of the developmental events in isolated meiotic embryos, thus facilitating the comparison of structural features between wild-type and mutant or RNAi-treated samples.

  2. A positive but complex association between meiotic double-strand break hotspots and open chromatin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Berchowitz, Luke E; Hanlon, Sean E; Lieb, Jason D; Copenhaver, Gregory P

    2009-12-01

    During meiosis, chromatin undergoes extensive changes to facilitate recombination, homolog pairing, and chromosome segregation. To investigate the relationship between chromatin organization and meiotic processes, we used formaldehyde-assisted isolation of regulatory elements (FAIRE) to map open chromatin during the transition from mitosis to meiosis in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that meiosis-induced opening of chromatin is associated with meiotic DSB hotpots. The positive association between open chromatin and DSB hotspots is most prominent 3 h into meiosis, when the early meiotic genes DMC1 and HOP1 exhibit maximum transcription and the early recombination genes SPO11 and RAD51 are strongly up-regulated. While the degree of chromatin openness is positively associated with the occurrence of recombination hotspots, many hotspots occur outside of open chromatin. Of particular interest, many DSB hotspots that fell outside of meiotic open chromatin nonetheless occurred in chromatin that had recently been open during mitotic growth. Finally, we find evidence for meiosis-specific opening of chromatin at the regions adjacent to boundaries of subtelomeric sequences, which exhibit specific crossover control patterns hypothesized to be regulated by chromatin.

  3. DNA double-strand breaks, but not crossovers, are required for the reorganization of meiotic nuclei in Tetrahymena

    PubMed Central

    Mochizuki, Kazufumi; Novatchkova, Maria; Loidl, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Summary During meiosis, the micronuclei of the ciliated protist Tetrahymena thermophila elongate dramatically. Within these elongated nuclei, chromosomes are arranged in a bouquet-like fashion and homologous pairing and recombination takes place. We studied meiotic chromosome behavior in Tetrahymena in the absence of two genes, SPO11 and a homolog of HOP2 (HOP2A), which have conserved roles in the formation of meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and their repair, respectively. Single-knockout mutants for each gene display only a moderate reduction in chromosome pairing, but show a complete failure to form chiasmata and exhibit chromosome missegregation. The lack of SPO11 prevents the elongation of meiotic nuclei, but it is restored by the artificial induction of DSBs. In the hop2AΔ mutant, the transient appearance of γ-H2A.X and Rad51p signals indicates the formation and efficient repair of DSBs; but this repair does not occur by interhomolog crossing over. In the absence of HOP2A, the nuclei are elongated, meaning that DSBs but not their conversion to crossovers are required for the development of this meiosis-specific morphology. In addition, by in silico homology searches, we compiled a list of likely Tetrahymena meiotic proteins as the basis for further studies of the unusual synaptonemal complex-less meiosis in this phylogenetically remote model organism. PMID:18522989

  4. Hormone-induced cortical maturation ensures the slow block to polyspermy and does not couple with meiotic maturation in starfish.

    PubMed

    Hirohashi, Noritaka; Harada, Kaori; Chiba, Kazuyoshi

    2008-06-01

    Meiotic progression in starfish oocytes is reinitiated by a maturation-inducing hormone called 1-methyladenine (1-MeAde). In addition to meiotic maturation, 1-MeAde induces cortical maturation in which cortical granules become competent to discharge in response to fusion of a single sperm, which results in the formation of the fertilization envelope. We found that subthreshold concentrations of 1-MeAde induce cortical maturation without germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD). During cortical maturation, the IP3 sensitivity of calcium stores was increased as well as during meiotic maturation. When oocytes were exposed with 1-MeAde only on a hemisphere of oocytes, the IP3 sensitivity of the cortical region was increased only in the exposed hemisphere, suggesting that signals and components involved in cortical maturation do not readily spread in the cytoplasm. Although a specific inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, LY294002 blocked both GVBD and cortical maturation, a Cdc2 kinase inhibitor, roscovitine did not block cortical maturation. Inhibition of Akt activation by injecting the competitors for Akt phosphorylation and membrane recruitment also blocked cortical maturation. These results suggest that the signaling pathway leading to Akt activation is common in cortical maturation and meiotic maturation, and Cdc2 activation was not required for cortical maturation.

  5. Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1 Mediates Progesterone-Induced Suppression of Oocyte Meiotic Prophase I and Primordial Folliculogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Meng; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Yan; Feng, Lizhao; Wang, Zhengpin; Niu, Wanbo; Du, Xiaoyan; Tang, Wang; Li, Yuna; Wang, Chao; Chen, Zhenwen

    2016-01-01

    Well-timed progression of primordial folliculogenesis is essential for mammalian female fertility. Progesterone (P4) inhibits primordial follicle formation under physiological conditions; however, P4 receptor that mediates this effect and its underlying mechanisms are unclear. In this study, we used an in vitro organ culture system to show that progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) mediated P4-induced inhibition of oocyte meiotic prophase I and primordial follicle formation. We found that membrane-impermeable BSA-conjugated P4 inhibited primordial follicle formation similar to that by P4. Interestingly, PGRMC1 and its partner serpine1 mRNA-binding protein 1 were highly expressed in oocytes in perinatal ovaries. Inhibition or RNA interference of PGRMC1 abolished the suppressive effect of P4 on follicle formation. Furthermore, P4-PGRMC1 interaction blocked oocyte meiotic progression and decreased intra-oocyte cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels in perinatal ovaries. cAMP analog dibutyryl cAMP reversed P4–PGRMC1 interaction-induced inhibition of meiotic progression and follicle formation. Thus, our results indicated that PGRMC1 mediated P4-induced suppression of oocyte meiotic progression and primordial folliculogenesis by decreasing intra-oocyte cAMP levels. PMID:27848973

  6. The Chromatin Protein DUET/MMD1 Controls Expression of the Meiotic Gene TDM1 during Male Meiosis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Andreuzza, Sébastien; Nishal, Bindu; Singh, Aparna; Siddiqi, Imran

    2015-09-01

    Meiosis produces haploid cells essential for sexual reproduction. In yeast, entry into meiosis activates transcription factors which trigger a transcriptional cascade that results in sequential co-expression of early, middle and late meiotic genes. However, these factors are not conserved, and the factors and regulatory mechanisms that ensure proper meiotic gene expression in multicellular eukaryotes are poorly understood. Here, we report that DUET/MMD1, a PHD finger protein essential for Arabidopsis male meiosis, functions as a transcriptional regulator in plant meiosis. We find that DUET-PHD binds H3K4me2 in vitro, and show that this interaction is critical for function during meiosis. We also show that DUET is required for proper microtubule organization during meiosis II, independently of its function in meiosis I. Remarkably, DUET protein shows stage-specific expression, confined to diplotene. We identify two genes TDM1 and JAS with critical functions in cell cycle transitions and spindle organization in male meiosis, as DUET targets, with TDM1 being a direct target. Thus, DUET is required to regulate microtubule organization and cell cycle transitions during male meiosis, and functions as a direct transcription activator of the meiotic gene TDM1. Expression profiling showed reduced expression of a subset comprising about 12% of a known set of meiosis preferred genes in the duet mutant. Our results reveal the action of DUET as a transcriptional regulator during male meiosis in plants, and suggest that transcription of meiotic genes is under stagewise control in plants as in yeast.

  7. Meiotic behaviour and sperm aneuploidy in an infertile man with a mosaic 45,X/46,XY karyotype.

    PubMed

    Ren, He; Chow, Victor; Ma, Sai

    2015-12-01

    The meiotic behaviour of the germ cells in 45,X/46,XY men has not been extensively studied. This study investigated the meiotic events and sperm aneuploidy in an azoospermic man with a 45,X/46,XY (50/50) mosaic karyotype to better understand the fate of the 45,X cells and the production of chromosomally abnormal spermatozoa. Combining immunofluorescence techniques and fluorescence in-situ hybridization, meiotic recombination, synapsis, meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) and configuration were analysed, as well as sperm aneuploidy in the patient and 10 normal, fertile men. Despite the 50:50 somatic mosaicism in the patient, 25% of pachytene cells analysed were 45,X. Furthermore, 63% of pachytene cells were 46,XY with paired sex chromosomes, and 12% were 46,XY with unpaired sex chromosomes, which displayed abnormal MCSI patterns. Although the patient's testicular spermatozoa showed increased aneuploidy, the majority were of normal constitution. The X:Y sperm ratio was significantly increased compared with the controls (P < 0.001), which may indicate that some 45,X cells gave rise to X-bearing spermatozoa. The findings provide insight into the fate of 45,X/46,XY cells in meiosis, supporting the hypothesis that stringent checkpoints ensure the favourable production of spermatozoa with normal chromosomal constitution despite an individual's abnormal karyotype.

  8. Diversity in meiotic spindle origin and determination of cytokinetic planes in sporogenesis of complex thalloid liverworts (Marchantiopsida).

    PubMed

    Brown, Roy C; Lemmon, Betty E; Shimamura, Masaki

    2010-07-01

    As the earliest divergent land plants, bryophytes (mosses, hornworts, and liverworts) provide insight into the evolution of the unique plant process of sporogenesis by which meiosis results in heavy walled spores. New immunohistochemical data on microtubules and gamma-tubulin in four genera of complex thalloid liverworts combined with previously published data on another four genera demonstrate grades in the evolution of spindle organization in meiosis. We have discovered that all recognized forms of microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs) in plant cells (plastid MTOCs, spheroid cytoplasmic MTOCs, polar organizers, and nuclear envelope MTOCs) occur in organization of the meiotic spindle of complex thalloid liverworts. In addition, all aspects of pre-meiotic preparation for quadripartitioning of the sporocyte into a tetrad of spores occur, with the exception of pre-meiotic wall precursors found in certain simple thalloids. The preparation includes morphogenetic plastid migration, cortical bands of microtubules that mark future cytokinetic planes in pre-meiosis, quadrilobing of the cytoplasm during meiotic prophase, and quadripolar microtubule systems that are transformed into functionally bipolar metaphase I spindles. Quadripolar spindle origin is typical of bryophyte sporogenesis even though the MTOCs involved may differ. However, in certain crown taxa of complex thalloids the spindle develops with no traces of quadripolarity and placement of intersporal walls is determined after meiosis, as is typical of higher plants.

  9. Depletion of Key Meiotic Genes and Transcriptome-Wide Abiotic Stress Reprogramming Mark Early Preparatory Events Ahead of Apomeiotic Transition

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Jubin N.; Kirioukhova, Olga; Pawar, Pallavi; Tayyab, Muhammad; Mateo, Juan L.; Johnston, Amal J.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular dissection of apomixis – an asexual reproductive mode – is anticipated to solve the enigma of loss of meiotic sex, and to help fixing elite agronomic traits. The Brassicaceae genus Boechera comprises of both sexual and apomictic species, permitting comparative analyses of meiotic circumvention (apomeiosis) and parthenogenesis. Whereas previous studies reported local transcriptome changes during these events, it remained unclear whether global changes associated with hybridization, polyploidy and environmental adaptation that arose during evolution of Boechera might serve as (epi)genetic regulators of early development prior apomictic initiation. To identify these signatures during vegetative stages, we compared seedling RNA-seq transcriptomes of an obligate triploid apomict and a diploid sexual, both isolated from a drought-prone habitat. Uncovered were several genes differentially expressed between sexual and apomictic seedlings, including homologs of meiotic genes ASYNAPTIC 1 (ASY1) and MULTIPOLAR SPINDLE 1 (MPS1) that were down-regulated in apomicts. An intriguing class of apomict-specific deregulated genes included several NAC transcription factors, homologs of which are known to be transcriptionally reprogrammed during abiotic stress in other plants. Deregulation of both meiotic and stress-response genes during seedling stages might possibly be important in preparation for meiotic circumvention, as similar transcriptional alteration was discernible in apomeiotic floral buds too. Furthermore, we noted that the apomict showed better tolerance to osmotic stress in vitro than the sexual, in conjunction with significant upregulation of a subset of NAC genes. In support of the current model that DNA methylation epigenetically regulates stress, ploidy, hybridization and apomixis, we noted that ASY1, MPS1 and NAC019 homologs were deregulated in Boechera seedlings upon DNA demethylation, and ASY1 in particular seems to be repressed by global DNA

  10. Exposure to bisphenol A disrupts meiotic progression during spermatogenesis in adult rats through estrogen-like activity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, C; Duan, W; Li, R; Xu, S; Zhang, L; Chen, C; He, M; Lu, Y; Wu, H; Pi, H; Luo, X; Zhang, Y; Zhong, M; Yu, Z; Zhou, Z

    2013-01-01

    The effect of bisphenol A (BPA) on the reproductive system is highly debated but has been associated with meiotic abnormalities. However, evidence is lacking with regard to the mechanisms involved. In order to explore the underlying mechanisms of BPA-induced meiotic abnormalities in adult male rats, we exposed 9-week-old male Wistar rats to BPA by gavage at 0, 2, 20 or 200 μg/kg body weight (bw)/day for 60 consecutive days. 17β-Estradiol (E2) was administered at 10 μg/kg bw/day as the estrogenic positive control. Treatments with 200 μg/kg bw/day of BPA and E2 significantly decreased sperm counts and inhibited spermiation, characterized by an increase in stage VII and decrease in stage VIII in the seminiferous epithelium. This was concomitant with a disruption in the progression of meiosis I and the persistence of meiotic DNA strand breaks in pachytene spermatocytes,and the ataxia–telangiectasia-mutated and checkpoint kinase 2 signal pathway was also activated; Eventually, germ cell apoptosis was triggered as evaluated by terminal dUTP nick-end labeling assay and western blot for caspase 3. Using the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist ICI 182780, we determined that ER signaling mediated BPA-induced meiotic disruption and reproductive impairment. Our results suggest that ER signaling-mediated meiotic disruption may be a major contributor to the molecular events leading to BPA-related male reproductive disorders. These rodent data support the growing association between BPA exposure and the rapid increase in the incidence of male reproductive disorders. PMID:23788033

  11. Oocyte heterogeneity with respect to the meiotic silencing of unsynapsed X chromosomes in the XY female mouse.

    PubMed

    Taketo, Teruko; Naumova, Anna K

    2013-10-01

    In the XY pachytene spermatocyte, the sex chromosomes do not synapse except for the pseudoautosomal region and become transcriptionally silenced. It has been suggested that the meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin (MSUC) also occurs in oocytes. In the XY sex-reversed female mouse, the sex chromosomes fail to pair in the majority of oocytes and a greater number of oocytes are eliminated during the meiotic prophase compared to the XX female. Yet, many XY oocytes survive to reach the second meiotic metaphase. The goal of our current study was to determine whether the single X chromosome shows the characteristics of asynapsis and meiotic silencing in a proportion of XY oocytes, which can explain the survival of the remaining oocytes. We first examined the accumulation of markers associated with asynapsis or transcriptional silencing, i.e., BRCA1, γH2AX, H3K9me3, and H3K27me3, at the single X chromosome in the XY oocyte. We found that γH2AX and BRCA1 were enriched on the single X chromosome whereas H3K9me3 was not, and H3K27me3 was enriched at all chromosomes in the majority of XY oocytes. We next examined the meiotic silencing of the single X chromosome using enrichment of the X-encoded ATRX protein. On average, ATRX enrichment was lower in XY oocytes than in XX oocytes as expected from its half gene dosage. However, the intensity of ATRX staining in XY oocytes harboring γH2AX domains showed a remarkable heterogeneity. We conclude that MSUC occurs with varying consequences, resulting in a heterogeneous population of oocytes with respect to protein enrichment in the XY female mouse.

  12. Effects of the anti-androgen cyproterone acetate (CPA) on oocyte meiotic maturation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Rime, Hélène; Nguyen, Thaovi; Ombredane, Kevin; Fostier, Alexis; Bobe, Julien

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, we aimed at characterizing the effect of cyproterone acetate (CPA), an anti-androgenic compound, on oocyte meiotic maturation in a freshwater teleost fish species, the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fully-grown post-vitellogenic ovarian follicles were incubated in vitro with CPA, luteinizing hormone (Lh) or a combination of CPA and Lh. Incubations were also performed using a combination of Lh and testosterone (T). The occurrence of oocyte maturation (i.e., resumption of the meiotic process) was assessed by monitoring germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) after a 72h in vitro incubation. The effect of CPA on the production of 17,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20βP), the natural maturation-inducing steroid (MIS), was quantified by radioimmunoassay. Our results show that CPA dramatically inhibits Lh-induced oocyte maturation and MIS synthesis. We also observed a synergistic effect of Lh and T on oocyte maturation in highly competent oocytes (i.e., able to resume meiosis after stimulation by low doses of Lh). Our results also show that a combination of CPA and Lh inhibits phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk), kinases that are associated with oocyte maturation in many species. As a whole, our results indicate that CPA has a potential to alter meiotic maturation in rainbow trout. Further analyses are, however, needed to determine the mechanisms by which this anti-androgen interferes with the meiotic process. Furthermore, the present study provides a framework for better understanding of the ecological consequences of exposure to anti-androgens and resulting meiotic maturation abnormalities observed in trout.

  13. Exposure to bisphenol A disrupts meiotic progression during spermatogenesis in adult rats through estrogen-like activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, C; Duan, W; Li, R; Xu, S; Zhang, L; Chen, C; He, M; Lu, Y; Wu, H; Pi, H; Luo, X; Zhang, Y; Zhong, M; Yu, Z; Zhou, Z

    2013-06-20

    The effect of bisphenol A (BPA) on the reproductive system is highly debated but has been associated with meiotic abnormalities. However, evidence is lacking with regard to the mechanisms involved. In order to explore the underlying mechanisms of BPA-induced meiotic abnormalities in adult male rats, we exposed 9-week-old male Wistar rats to BPA by gavage at 0, 2, 20 or 200 μg/kg body weight (bw)/day for 60 consecutive days. 17β-Estradiol (E2) was administered at 10 μg/kg bw/day as the estrogenic positive control. Treatments with 200 μg/kg bw/day of BPA and E2 significantly decreased sperm counts and inhibited spermiation, characterized by an increase in stage VII and decrease in stage VIII in the seminiferous epithelium. This was concomitant with a disruption in the progression of meiosis I and the persistence of meiotic DNA strand breaks in pachytene spermatocytes,and the ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated and checkpoint kinase 2 signal pathway was also activated; Eventually, germ cell apoptosis was triggered as evaluated by terminal dUTP nick-end labeling assay and western blot for caspase 3. Using the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist ICI 182780, we determined that ER signaling mediated BPA-induced meiotic disruption and reproductive impairment. Our results suggest that ER signaling-mediated meiotic disruption may be a major contributor to the molecular events leading to BPA-related male reproductive disorders. These rodent data support the growing association between BPA exposure and the rapid increase in the incidence of male reproductive disorders.

  14. PHS1 regulates meiotic recombination and homologous chromosome pairing by controlling the transport of RAD50 to the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Ronceret, Arnaud; Doutriaux, Marie-Pascale; Golubovskaya, Inna N; Pawlowski, Wojciech P

    2009-11-24

    Recombination and pairing of homologous chromosomes are critical for bivalent formation in meiotic prophase. In many organisms, including yeast, mammals, and plants, pairing and recombination are intimately interconnected. The POOR HOMOLOGOUS SYNAPSIS1 (PHS1) gene acts in coordination of chromosome pairing and early recombination steps in plants, ensuring pairing fidelity and proper repair of meiotic DNA double-strand-breaks. In phs1 mutants, chromosomes exhibit early recombination defects and frequently associate with non-homologous partners, instead of pairing with their proper homologs. Here, we show that the product of the PHS1 gene is a cytoplasmic protein that functions by controlling transport of RAD50 from cytoplasm to the nucleus. RAD50 is a component of the MRN protein complex that processes meiotic double-strand-breaks to produce single-stranded DNA ends, which act in the homology search and recombination. We demonstrate that PHS1 plays the same role in homologous pairing in both Arabidopsis and maize, whose genomes differ dramatically in size and repetitive element content. This suggests that PHS1 affects pairing of the gene-rich fraction of the genome rather than preventing pairing between repetitive DNA elements. We propose that PHS1 is part of a system that regulates the progression of meiotic prophase by controlling entry of meiotic proteins into the nucleus. We also document that in phs1 mutants in Arabidopsis, centromeres interact before pairing commences along chromosome arms. Centromere coupling was previously observed in yeast and polyploid wheat while our data suggest that it may be a more common feature of meiosis.

  15. Single-molecule observation of DNA compaction by meiotic protein SYCP3

    PubMed Central

    Syrjänen, Johanna L; Heller, Iddo; Candelli, Andrea; Davies, Owen R; Peterman, Erwin J G; Wuite, Gijs J L; Pellegrini, Luca

    2017-01-01

    In a previous paper (Syrjänen et al., 2014), we reported the first structural characterisation of a synaptonemal complex (SC) protein, SYCP3, which led us to propose a model for its role in chromosome compaction during meiosis. As a component of the SC lateral element, SYCP3 has a critical role in defining the specific chromosome architecture required for correct meiotic progression. In the model, the reported compaction of chromosomal DNA caused by SYCP3 would result from its ability to bridge distant sites on a DNA molecule with the DNA-binding domains located at each end of its strut-like structure. Here, we describe a single-molecule assay based on optical tweezers, fluorescence microscopy and microfluidics that, in combination with bulk biochemical data, provides direct visual evidence for our proposed mechanism of SYCP3-mediated chromosome organisation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22582.001 PMID:28287952

  16. Probing Meiotic Recombination and Aneuploidy of Single Sperm Cells by Whole Genome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Sijia; Zong, Chenghang; Fan, Wei; Yang, Mingyu; Li, Jinsen; Chapman, Alec R.; Zhu, Ping; Hu, Xuesong; Xu, Liya; Yan, Liying; Bai, Fan; Qiao, Jie; Tang, Fuchou; Li, Ruiqiang; Xie, X. Sunney

    2013-01-01

    Meiotic recombination creates genetic diversity and ensures segregation of homologous chromosomes. Previous population analyses yielded results averaged among individuals and impacted by evolutionary pressures. Here we sequenced 99 sperm from an Asian male using the newly developed amplification method—Multiple Annealing and Looping-Based Amplification Cycles (MALBAC)—to phase the personal genome and map at high resolution recombination events, which are non-uniformly distributed across the genome in the absence of selection pressure. The paucity of recombination near transcription start sites observed in individual sperm indicates such a phenomenon is intrinsic to the molecular mechanism of meiosis. Interestingly, a decreased crossover frequency in companion with an increase of autosomal aneuploidy is observable on a global per-sperm basis. PMID:23258895

  17. Pachytene asynapsis drives meiotic sex chromosome inactivation and leads to substantial postmeiotic repression in spermatids.

    PubMed

    Turner, James M A; Mahadevaiah, Shantha K; Ellis, Peter J I; Mitchell, Michael J; Burgoyne, Paul S

    2006-04-01

    Transcriptional silencing of the sex chromosomes during male meiosis (MSCI) is conserved among organisms with limited sex chromosome synapsis, including mammals. Since the 1990s the prevailing view has been that MSCI in mammals is transient, with sex chromosome reactivation occurring as cells exit meiosis. Recently, we found that any chromosome region unsynapsed during pachytene of male and female mouse meiosis is subject to transcriptional silencing (MSUC), and we hypothesized that MSCI is an inevitable consequence of this more general meiotic silencing mechanism. Here, we provide direct evidence that asynapsis does indeed drive MSCI. We also show that a substantial degree of transcriptional repression of the sex chromosomes is retained postmeiotically, and we provide evidence that this postmeiotic repression is a downstream consequence of MSCI/MSUC. While this postmeiotic repression occurs after the loss of MSUC-related proteins at the end of prophase, other histone modifications associated with transcriptional repression have by then become established.

  18. Drive against hotspot motifs in primates implicates the PRDM9 gene in meiotic recombination.

    PubMed

    Myers, Simon; Bowden, Rory; Tumian, Afidalina; Bontrop, Ronald E; Freeman, Colin; MacFie, Tammie S; McVean, Gil; Donnelly, Peter

    2010-02-12

    Although present in both humans and chimpanzees, recombination hotspots, at which meiotic crossover events cluster, differ markedly in their genomic location between the species. We report that a 13-base pair sequence motif previously associated with the activity of 40% of human hotspots does not function in chimpanzees and is being removed by self-destructive drive in the human lineage. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the rapidly evolving zinc-finger protein PRDM9 binds to this motif and that sequence changes in the protein may be responsible for hotspot differences between species. The involvement of PRDM9, which causes histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation, implies that there is a common mechanism for recombination hotspots in eukaryotes but raises questions about what forces have driven such rapid change.

  19. Control of Meiotic Crossovers: From Double-Strand Break Formation to Designation

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Meiosis, the mechanism of creating haploid gametes, is a complex cellular process observed across sexually reproducing organisms. Fundamental to meiosis is the process of homologous recombination, whereby DNA double-strand breaks are introduced into the genome and are subsequently repaired to generate either noncrossovers or crossovers. Although homologous recombination is essential for chromosome pairing during prophase I, the resulting crossovers are critical for maintaining homolog interactions and enabling accurate segregation at the first meiotic division. Thus, the placement, timing, and frequency of crossover formation must be exquisitely controlled. In this review, we discuss the proteins involved in crossover formation, the process of their formation and designation, and the rules governing crossovers, all within the context of the important landmarks of prophase I. We draw together crossover designation data across organisms, analyze their evolutionary divergence, and propose a universal model for crossover regulation. PMID:27648641

  20. Genetic manipulation of Aspergillus nidulans: meiotic progeny for genetic analysis and strain construction.

    PubMed

    Todd, Richard B; Davis, Meryl A; Hynes, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    The multicellular microbial eukaryote Aspergillus nidulans is an excellent model for the study of a wide array of biological processes. Studies in this system contribute significantly to understanding fundamental biological principles and are relevant for biotechnology and industrial applications, as well as human, animal and plant fungal pathogenesis. A. nidulans is easily manipulated using classical and molecular genetics. Here, we describe the storage and handling of A. nidulans and procedures for genetic crossing, progeny analysis and growth testing. These procedures are used for Mendelian analysis of segregation of alleles to show whether a mutant phenotype segregates as a single gene and independent assortment of genes to determine the linkage relationship between genes. Meiotic crossing is used for construction of multiple mutant strains for genetic analysis. Genetic crossing and analysis of progeny can be undertaken in 2-3 weeks and growth testing takes 2-3 days.

  1. The Maize Divergent spindle-1 (dv1) Gene Encodes a Kinesin-14A Motor Protein Required for Meiotic Spindle Pole Organization

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, David M.; Nannas, Natalie J.; Dawe, R. Kelly

    2016-01-01

    The classic maize mutant divergent spindle-1 (dv1) causes failures in meiotic spindle assembly and a decrease in pollen viability. By analyzing two independent dv1 alleles we demonstrate that this phenotype is caused by mutations in a member of the kinesin-14A subfamily, a class of C-terminal, minus-end directed microtubule motors. Further analysis demonstrates that defects in early spindle assembly are rare, but that later stages of spindle organization promoting the formation of finely focused spindle poles are strongly dependent on Dv1. Anaphase is error-prone in dv1 lines but not severely so, and the majority of cells show normal chromosome segregation. Live-cell imaging of wild type and mutant plants carrying CFP-tagged β-tubulin confirm that meiosis in dv1 lines fails primarily at the pole-sharpening phase of spindle assembly. These data indicate that plant kinesin-14A proteins help to enforce bipolarity by focusing spindle poles and that this stage of spindle assembly is not required for transition through the spindle checkpoint but improves the accuracy of chromosome segregation. PMID:27610117

  2. The Rho-GTPase effector ROCK regulates meiotic maturation of the bovine oocyte via myosin light chain phosphorylation and cofilin phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Lee, So-Rim; Xu, Yong-Nan; Jo, Yu-Jin; Namgoong, Suk; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2015-11-01

    Oocyte meiosis involves a unique asymmetric division involving spindle movement from the central cytoplasm to the cortex, followed by polar body extrusion. ROCK is a Rho-GTPase effector involved in various cellular functions in somatic cells as well as oocyte meiosis. ROCK was previously shown to promote actin organization by phosphorylating several downstream targets, including LIM domain kinase (LIMK), phosphorylated cofilin (p-cofilin), and myosin light chain (MLC). In this study, we investigated the roles of ROCK and MLC during bovine oocyte meiosis. We found that ROCK was localized around the nucleus at the oocyte's germinal-vesicle (GV) stage, but spreads to the rest of the cytoplasm in later developmental stages. On the other hand, phosphorylated MLC (p-MLC) localized at the cortex, and its abundance decreased by the metaphase-II stage. Disrupting ROCK activity, via RNAi or the chemical inhibitor Y-27632, blocked both cell cycle progression and polar body extrusion. ROCK inhibition also resulted in decreased cortical actin, p-cofilin, and p-MLC levels. Similar to the phenotype associated with inhibition of ROCK activity, inhibition of MLC kinase by the chemical inhibitor ML-7 caused defects in polar body extrusion. Collectively, our results suggest that the ROCK/MLC/actomyosin as well as ROCK/LIMK/cofilin pathways regulate meiotic spindle migration and cytokinesis during bovine oocyte maturation.

  3. Mouse PRDM9 DNA-binding specificity determines sites of histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation for initiation of meiotic recombination.

    PubMed

    Grey, Corinne; Barthès, Pauline; Chauveau-Le Friec, Gaëlle; Langa, Francina; Baudat, Frédéric; de Massy, Bernard

    2011-10-01

    Meiotic recombination generates reciprocal exchanges between homologous chromosomes (also called crossovers, COs) that are essential for proper chromosome segregation during meiosis and are a major source of genome diversity by generating new allele combinations. COs have two striking properties: they occur at specific sites, called hotspots, and these sites evolve rapidly. In mammals, the Prdm9 gene, which encodes a meiosis-specific histone H3 methyltransferase, has recently been identified as a determinant of CO hotspots. Here, using transgenic mice, we show that the sole modification of PRDM9 zinc fingers leads to changes in hotspot activity, histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) levels, and chromosome-wide distribution of COs. We further demonstrate by an in vitro assay that the PRDM9 variant associated with hotspot activity binds specifically to DNA sequences located at the center of the three hotspots tested. Remarkably, we show that mutations in cis located at hotspot centers and associated with a decrease of hotspot activity affect PRDM9 binding. Taken together, these results provide the direct demonstration that Prdm9 is a master regulator of hotspot localization through the DNA binding specificity of its zinc finger array and that binding of PRDM9 at hotspots promotes local H3K4me3 enrichment.

  4. Meiotic transmission of an in vitro-assembled autonomous maize minichromosome.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Shawn R; Rudgers, Gary W; Zieler, Helge; Mach, Jennifer M; Luo, Song; Grunden, Eric; Krol, Cheryl; Copenhaver, Gregory P; Preuss, Daphne

    2007-10-01

    Autonomous chromosomes are generated in yeast (yeast artificial chromosomes) and human fibrosarcoma cells (human artificial chromosomes) by introducing purified DNA fragments that nucleate a kinetochore, replicate, and segregate to daughter cells. These autonomous minichromosomes are convenient for manipulating and delivering DNA segments containing multiple genes. In contrast, commercial production of transgenic crops relies on methods that integrate one or a few genes into host chromosomes; extensive screening to identify insertions with the desired expression level, copy number, structure, and genomic location; and long breeding programs to produce varieties that carry multiple transgenes. As a step toward improving transgenic crop production, we report the development of autonomous maize minichromosomes (MMCs). We constructed circular MMCs by combining DsRed and nptII marker genes with 7-190 kb of genomic maize DNA fragments containing satellites, retroelements, and/or other repeats commonly found in centromeres and using particle bombardment to deliver these constructs into embryogenic maize tissue. We selected transformed cells, regenerated plants, and propagated their progeny for multiple generations in the absence of selection. Fluorescent in situ hybridization and segregation analysis demonstrated that autonomous MMCs can be mitotically and meiotically maintained. The MMC described here showed meiotic segregation ratios approaching Mendelian inheritance: 93% transmission as a disome (100% expected), 39% transmission as a monosome crossed to wild type (50% expected), and 59% transmission in self crosses (75% expected). The fluorescent DsRed reporter gene on the MMC was expressed through four generations, and Southern blot analysis indicated the encoded genes were intact. This novel approach for plant transformation can facilitate crop biotechnology by (i) combining several trait genes on a single DNA fragment, (ii) arranging genes in a defined sequence

  5. Meiotic Transmission of an In Vitro–Assembled Autonomous Maize Minichromosome

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Shawn R; Rudgers, Gary W; Zieler, Helge; Mach, Jennifer M; Luo, Song; Grunden, Eric; Krol, Cheryl; Copenhaver, Gregory P; Preuss, Daphne

    2007-01-01

    Autonomous chromosomes are generated in yeast (yeast artificial chromosomes) and human fibrosarcoma cells (human artificial chromosomes) by introducing purified DNA fragments that nucleate a kinetochore, replicate, and segregate to daughter cells. These autonomous minichromosomes are convenient for manipulating and delivering DNA segments containing multiple genes. In contrast, commercial production of transgenic crops relies on methods that integrate one or a few genes into host chromosomes; extensive screening to identify insertions with the desired expression level, copy number, structure, and genomic location; and long breeding programs to produce varieties that carry multiple transgenes. As a step toward improving transgenic crop production, we report the development of autonomous maize minichromosomes (MMCs). We constructed circular MMCs by combining DsRed and nptII marker genes with 7–190 kb of genomic maize DNA fragments containing satellites, retroelements, and/or other repeats commonly found in centromeres and using particle bombardment to deliver these constructs into embryogenic maize tissue. We selected transformed cells, regenerated plants, and propagated their progeny for multiple generations in the absence of selection. Fluorescent in situ hybridization and segregation analysis demonstrated that autonomous MMCs can be mitotically and meiotically maintained. The MMC described here showed meiotic segregation ratios approaching Mendelian inheritance: 93% transmission as a disome (100% expected), 39% transmission as a monosome crossed to wild type (50% expected), and 59% transmission in self crosses (75% expected). The fluorescent DsRed reporter gene on the MMC was expressed through four generations, and Southern blot analysis indicated the encoded genes were intact. This novel approach for plant transformation can facilitate crop biotechnology by (i) combining several trait genes on a single DNA fragment, (ii) arranging genes in a defined sequence

  6. Variation and Evolution of the Meiotic Requirement for Crossing Over in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The segregation of homologous chromosomes at the first meiotic division is dependent on the presence of at least one well-positioned crossover per chromosome. In some mammalian species, however, the genomic distribution of crossovers is consistent with a more stringent baseline requirement of one crossover per chromosome arm. Given that the meiotic requirement for crossing over defines the minimum frequency of recombination necessary for the production of viable gametes, determining the chromosomal scale of this constraint is essential for defining crossover profiles predisposed to aneuploidy and understanding the parameters that shape patterns of recombination rate evolution across species. Here, I use cytogenetic methods for in situ imaging of crossovers in karyotypically diverse house mice (Mus musculus domesticus) and voles (genus Microtus) to test how chromosome number and configuration constrain the distribution of crossovers in a genome. I show that the global distribution of crossovers in house mice is thresholded by a minimum of one crossover per chromosome arm, whereas the crossover landscape in voles is defined by a more relaxed requirement of one crossover per chromosome. I extend these findings in an evolutionary metaanalysis of published recombination and karyotype data for 112 mammalian species and demonstrate that the physical scale of the genomic crossover distribution has undergone multiple independent shifts from one crossover per chromosome arm to one per chromosome during mammalian evolution. Together, these results indicate that the chromosomal scale constraint on crossover rates is itself a trait that evolves among species, a finding that casts light on an important source of crossover rate variation in mammals. PMID:27838628

  7. ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS ON THE SUBMICROSCOPIC MORPHOLOGY OF THE MEIOTIC NUCLEUS AND CHROMOSOMES

    PubMed Central

    De Robertis, E.

    1956-01-01

    Thin sections of the testicular follicles of the grasshopper Laplatacris dispar were studied under the electron microscope. In the primary spermatocytes, during meiotic prophase, three main regions can be recognized within the nucleus: (1) the nucleolus and associated nucleolar material; (2) the interchromosomal regions with the dense particles; and (3) the chromosomes. The nucleolus is generally compact and is surrounded by nucleolar bodies that comprise aggregations of dense round particles 100 to 250 A in diameter. A continuous transition can be observed between these particles and those found isolated or in short chains in the interchromosomal spaces. Particles of similar size (mean diameter of 160 A) can be found associated with the nuclear membrane and in the cytoplasm. The chromosomes show different degrees of condensation in different stages of meiotic prophase. The bulk of the chromosome appears to be made of very fine and irregularly coiled filaments of macromolecular dimensions. Their length cannot be determined because of the thinness of the section but some of them can be followed without interruption for about 1000 to 2000 A. The thickness of the chromosome filaments seems to vary with different stages of prophase and in metaphase. In early prophase, filaments vary between 28 ± 7 A and 84 ± 7 A with a mean of 47 A, in late prophase the mean is about 70 A. In metaphase the filaments vary between 60 and 170 A with a mean of about 100 A. Neither the prophase nor the metaphase chromosomes have a membrane or other inhomogeneities. The finding of a macromolecular filamentous component of chromosomes is discussed in relation to the physicochemical literature on nucleoproteins and nucleic acids and as a result it is suggested that the thinnest chromosome filaments (28 ± 7 A) probably represent single deoxyribonucleoprotein molecules. PMID:13398445

  8. Assessment of meiotic spindle configuration and post-warming bovine oocyte viability using polarized light microscopy.

    PubMed

    Caamaño, J N; Díez, C; Trigal, B; Muñoz, M; Morató, R; Martín, D; Carrocera, S; Mogas, T; Gómez, E

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the efficiency of polarized light microscopy (PLM) in detecting microtubule-polymerized protein in in vitro-matured bovine oocytes; to examine its effects on oocyte developmental competence; and to assess the meiotic spindle of in vitro-matured oocytes after vitrification/warming and further assessment of oocyte developmental competence. In the first experiment, the presence of microtubule-polymerized protein (MPP) was confirmed as a positive PLM signal detected in 99.1% of analysed oocytes (n = 115), which strongly correlated (r = 1; p < 0.0001) with the presence of MPP as confirmed by immunostaining. In the second experiment, oocytes (n = 651) were exposed or not (controls) to PLM for 10 min and then fertilized and cultured in vitro. Oocytes exposed to PLM did not significantly differ from controls with regard to cleavage, total blastocyst and expanded blastocyst rates and cell numbers. In the third experiment, meiotic spindles were detected in 145 of 182 oocytes (79.6%) following vitrification and warming. Interestingly, after parthenogenetic activation and in vitro culture, oocytes that displayed a positive PLM signal PLM(+) differed significantly from PLM(-) in cleavage and Day 8 blastocyst rates. These results suggest that polarized light microscopy is an efficient system to detect microtubule-polymerized protein in in vitro-matured bovine oocytes and does not exert detrimental effects on bovine oocyte developmental competence. Moreover, PLM could be used as a tool to assess post-warming viability in vitrified bovine oocytes.

  9. Meiotic wave adds extra asymmetry to the development of female chicken gonads

    PubMed Central

    de Melo Bernardo, Ana; Heeren, A. Marijne; van Iperen, Liesbeth; Fernandes, Maria Gomes; He, Nannan; Anjie, Stafford; Noce, Toshiaki; Ramos, Ester Silveira

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Development of female gonads in the chicken is asymmetric. This asymmetry affects gene expression, morphology, and germ cell development; consequently only the left ovary develops into a functional organ, whereas the right ovary remains vestigial. In males, on the other hand, both gonads develop into functional testes. Here, we revisited the development of asymmetric traits in female (and male) chicken gonads between Hamburger Hamilton stage 16 (HH16) and hatching. At HH16, primordial germ cells migrated preferentially to the left gonad, accumula